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Sample records for zirconium isotopes employing

  1. Zirconium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedinger, G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Zirconium is the 20th most abundant element in the Earth’s crust. It occurs in a variety of rock types and geologic environments but most often in igneous rocks in the form of zircon (ZrSiO4). Zircon is recovered as a coproduct of the mining and processing of heavy mineral sands for the titanium minerals ilmenite and rutile. The sands are formed by the weathering and erosion of rock containing zircon and titanium heavy minerals and their subsequent concentration in sedimentary systems, particularly in coastal environments. A small quantity of zirconium, less than 10 kt/a (11,000 stpy), compared with total world production of 1.4 Mt (1.5 million st) in 2012, was derived from the mineral baddeleyite (ZrO2), produced from a single source in Kovdor, Russia.

  2. Decay properties and reaction dynamics of zirconium isotopes in the relativistic mean-field model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panigrahi, M.; Panda, R. N.; Kumar, Bharat; Patra, S. K.

    In the framework of relativistic mean-field theory, the ground state properties like binding energy, charge radius and quadrupole deformation parameter for various isotopes of zirconium from the valley of stability to drip-line region have been studied. The results are compared with the experimental data and we found reasonable agreement. The calculations are carried out for β-decay energy and β-decay half-life up to the drip-line. Total reaction and elastic differential cross-sections are also studied for few zirconium isotopes as projectiles with 12C as target, using different parameter sets namely NL3*, DD-ME2 and DD-PC1 in conjunction with Glauber model.

  3. Human biokinetic data and a new compartmental model of zirconium--a tracer study with enriched stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Greiter, Matthias B; Giussani, Augusto; Höllriegl, Vera; Li, Wei Bo; Oeh, Uwe

    2011-09-01

    Biokinetic models describing the uptake, distribution and excretion of trace elements are an essential tool in nutrition, toxicology, or internal dosimetry of radionuclides. Zirconium, especially its radioisotope (95)Zr, is relevant to radiation protection due to its production in uranium fission and neutron activation of nuclear fuel cladding material. We present a comprehensive set of human data from a tracer study with stable isotopes of zirconium. The data are used to refine a biokinetic model of zirconium. Six female and seven male healthy adult volunteers participated in the study. It includes 16 complete double tracer investigations with oral ingestion and intravenous injection, and seven supplemental investigations. Tracer concentrations were measured in blood plasma and urine collected up to 100 d after tracer administration. The four data sets (two chemical tracer forms in plasma and urine) each encompass 105-240 measured concentration values above detection limits. Total fractional absorption of ingested zirconium was found to be 0.001 for zirconium in citrate-buffered drinking solution and 0.007 for zirconium oxalate solution. Biokinetic models were developed based on the linear first-order kinetic compartmental model approach used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The main differences of the optimized systemic model of zirconium to the current ICRP model are (1) recycling into the transfer compartment made necessary by the observed tracer clearance from plasma, (2) different parameters related to fractional absorption for each form of the ingested tracer, and (3) a physiologically based excretion pathway to urine. The study considerably expands the knowledge on the biokinetics of zirconium, which was until now dominated by data from animal studies. The proposed systemic model improves the existing ICRP model, yet is based on the same principles and fits well into the ICRP radiation protection approach. Copyright © 2011

  4. The 13C-Pocket Structure In AGB Models: Constraints From Zirconium Isotope Abundances In Single Mainstream SiC Grains

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Nan; Gallino, Roberto; Bisterzo, Sara; ...

    2014-06-04

    In this paper, we present postprocess asymptotic giant branch (AGB) nucleosynthesis models with different 13C-pocket internal structures to better explain zirconium isotope measurements in mainstream presolar SiC grains by Nicolussi et al. and Barzyk et al. We show that higher-than-solar 92Zr/ 94Zr ratios can be predicted by adopting a 13C-pocket with a flat 13C profile, instead of the previous decreasing-with-depth 13C profile. Finally, the improved agreement between grain data for zirconium isotopes and AGB models provides additional support for a recent proposal of a flat 13C profile based on barium isotopes in mainstream SiC grains by Liu et al.

  5. Zirconium isotope constraints on the composition of Theia and current Moon-forming theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akram, W.; Schönbächler, M.

    2016-09-01

    The giant impact theory is the most widely recognized formation scenario of the Earth's Moon. Giant impact models based on dynamical simulations predict that the Moon acquired a significant amount of impactor (Theia) material, which is challenging to reconcile with geochemical data for O, Si, Cr, Ti and W isotopes in the Earth and Moon. Three new giant impact scenarios have been proposed to account for this discrepancy - hit-and-run impact, impact with a fast-spinning protoEarth and massive impactors - each one reducing the proportion of the impactor in the Moon compared to the original canonical giant impact model. The validity of each theory and their different dynamical varieties are evaluated here using an integrated approach that considers new high-precision Zr isotope measurements of lunar rocks, and quantitative geochemical modelling of the isotopic composition of the impactor Theia. All analysed lunar samples (whole-rock, ilmenite and pyroxene separates) display identical Zr isotope compositions to that of the Earth within the uncertainty of 13 ppm for 96Zr/90Zr (2σ weighted average). This 13 ppm upper limit is used to infer the most extreme isotopic composition that Theia could have possessed, relative to the Earth, for each of the proposed giant impact theories. The calculated Theian composition is compared with the Zr isotope compositions of different solar system materials in order to constrain the source region of the impactor. As a first order approximation, we show that all considered models (including the canonical) are plausible, alleviating the initial requirement for the new giant impact models. Albeit, the canonical and hit-and-run models are the most restrictive, suggesting that the impactor originated from a region close to the Earth. The fast-spinning protoEarth and massive impactor models are more relaxed and increase the allowed impactor distance from the Earth. Similar calculations carried out for O, Cr, Ti and Si isotope data support

  6. An investigation of the oxidation behaviour of zirconium alloys using isotopic tracers and high resolution SIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yardley, Sean S.; Moore, Katie L.; Ni, Na; Wei, Jang Fei; Lyon, Stuart; Preuss, Michael; Lozano-Perez, Sergio; Grovenor, Chris R. M.

    2013-11-01

    High resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis has been used to study the oxidation mechanisms when commercial low tin ZIRLO™Low tin ZIRLO™ is a trademark of Westinghouse Electric Company LLC in the United States and may be registered in other countries throughout the world. Unauthorized use is strictly prohibited.1 and Zircaloy 4 materials are exposed to corroding environments containing both 18O and 2H isotopes. Clear evidence has been shown for different characteristic distributions of 18O before and after the kinetic transitions, and this behaviour has been correlated with the development of porosity in the oxide which allows the corroding medium to penetrate locally to the metal/oxide interface.

  7. High-power CO laser with RF discharge for isotope separation employing condensation repression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, I. Ya.; Koptev, A. V.

    2008-10-01

    High-power CO laser can be the effective tool in such applications as isotope separation using the free-jet CRISLA method. The way of transfer from CO small-scale experimental installation to industrial high-power CO lasers is proposed through the use of a low-current radio-frequency (RF) electric discharge in a supersonic stream without an electron gun. The calculation model of scaling CO laser with RF discharge in supersonic stream was developed. The developed model allows to calculate parameters of laser installation and optimize them with the purpose of reception of high efficiency and low cost of installation as a whole. The technical decision of industrial CO laser for isotope separation employing condensation repression is considered. The estimated cost of laser is some hundred thousand dollars USA and small sizes of laser head give possibility to install it in any place.

  8. Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social and Labour Bulletin, 1983

    1983-01-01

    A series of articles discusses employment issues in various countries: youth employment, reduced working hours and wage cuts, dislocated workers, government employment policies, and job creation. (SK)

  9. PLUTONIUM-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Schonfeld, F.W.; Waber, J.T.

    1960-08-30

    A series of nuclear reactor fuel alloys consisting of from about 5 to about 50 at.% zirconium (or higher zirconium alloys such as Zircaloy), balance plutonium, and having the structural composition of a plutonium are described. Zirconium is a satisfactory diluent because it alloys readily with plutonium and has desirable nuclear properties. Additional advantages are corrosion resistance, excellent fabrication propenties, an isotropie structure, and initial softness.

  10. Genuineness assessment of mandarin essential oils employing gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio MS (GC-C-IRMS).

    PubMed

    Schipilliti, Luisa; Tranchida, Peter Quinto; Sciarrone, Danilo; Russo, Marina; Dugo, Paola; Dugo, Giovanni; Mondello, Luigi

    2010-03-01

    Cold-pressed mandarin essential oils are products of great economic importance in many parts of the world and are used in perfumery, as well as in food products. Reconstituted mandarin oils are easy to find on the market; useful information on essential oil authenticity, quality, extraction technique, geographic origin and biogenesis can be attained through high-resolution GC of the volatile fraction, or enantioselective GC, using different chiral stationary phases. Stable isotope ratio analysis has gained considerable interest for the unveiling of citrus oil adulteration, detecting small differences in the isotopic carbon composition and providing plenty of information concerning the discrimination among products of different geographical origin and the adulteration of natural essential oils with synthetic or natural compounds. In the present research, the authenticity of several mandarin essential oils was assessed through the employment of GC hyphenated to isotope ratio MS, conventional GC flame ionization detector, enantioselective GC and HPLC. Commercial mandarin oils and industrial natural (declared as such) mandarin essential oils, characterized by different harvest periods and geographic origins, were subjected to analysis. The results attained were compared with those of genuine cold-pressed Italian mandarin oils, obtained during the 2008-2009 harvest season.

  11. Relevance of single-particle and collective excitations in zirconium isotopes populated by neutron transfer reactions in the {sup 90}Zr+{sup 208}Pb system

    SciTech Connect

    Pajtler, M. Varga, E-mail: maja.varga@fizika.unios.hr; Szilner, S.; Malenica, D. Jelavić

    2015-10-15

    Multineutron transfer reaction {sup 90}Zr+{sup 208}Pb has been studied at the energy close to the Coulomb barrier energy by using the PRISMA + CLARA set-up. In this fragment-γ coincidence measurement, the selective properties of the reaction mechanism in the population of the specific states have been discussed. Based on the observed γ transitions of neutron transfer channels, namely {sup 89–94}Zr isotopes, their level schemes have been constructed and updated.

  12. SEPARATING HAFNIUM FROM ZIRCONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Lister, B.A.J.; Duncan, J.F.

    1956-08-21

    A dilute aqueous solution of zirconyl chloride which is 1N to 2N in HCl is passed through a column of a cation exchange resin in acid form thereby absorbing both zirconium and associated hafnium impurity in the mesin. The cation exchange material with the absorbate is then eluted with aqueous sulfuric acid of a O.8N to 1.2N strength. The first portion of the eluate contains the zirconium substantially free of hafnium.

  13. ZIRCONIUM-CLADDING OF THORIUM

    DOEpatents

    Beaver, R.J.

    1961-11-21

    A method of cladding thorium with zirconium is described. The quality of the bond achieved between thorium and zirconium by hot-rolling is improved by inserting and melting a thorium-zirconium alloy foil between the two materials prior to rolling. (AEC)

  14. Zirconium and hafnium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, James V.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Bedinger, George M.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Zirconium and hafnium are corrosion-resistant metals that are widely used in the chemical and nuclear industries. Most zirconium is consumed in the form of the main ore mineral zircon (ZrSiO4, or as zirconium oxide or other zirconium chemicals. Zirconium and hafnium are both refractory lithophile elements that have nearly identical charge, ionic radii, and ionic potentials. As a result, their geochemical behavior is generally similar. Both elements are classified as incompatible because they have physical and crystallochemical properties that exclude them from the crystal lattices of most rock-forming minerals. Zircon and another, less common, ore mineral, baddeleyite (ZrO2), form primarily as accessory minerals in igneous rocks. The presence and abundance of these ore minerals in igneous rocks are largely controlled by the element concentrations in the magma source and by the processes of melt generation and evolution. The world’s largest primary deposits of zirconium and hafnium are associated with alkaline igneous rocks, and, in one locality on the Kola Peninsula of Murmanskaya Oblast, Russia, baddeleyite is recovered as a byproduct of apatite and magnetite mining. Otherwise, there are few primary igneous deposits of zirconium- and hafnium-bearing minerals with economic value at present. The main ore deposits worldwide are heavy-mineral sands produced by the weathering and erosion of preexisting rocks and the concentration of zircon and other economically important heavy minerals, such as ilmenite and rutile (for titanium), chromite (for chromium), and monazite (for rare-earth elements) in sedimentary systems, particularly in coastal environments. In coastal deposits, heavy-mineral enrichment occurs where sediment is repeatedly reworked by wind, waves, currents, and tidal processes. The resulting heavy-mineral-sand deposits, called placers or paleoplacers, preferentially form at relatively low latitudes on passive continental margins and supply 100 percent of

  15. Hydrogen isotope separation utilizing bulk getters

    DOEpatents

    Knize, Randall J.; Cecchi, Joseph L.

    1991-01-01

    Tritium and deuterium are separated from a gaseous mixture thereof, derived from a nuclear fusion reactor or some other source, by providing a casing with a bulk getter therein for absorbing the gaseous mixture to produce an initial loading of the getter, partially desorbing the getter to produce a desorbed mixture which is tritium-enriched, pumping the desorbed mixture into a separate container, the remaining gaseous loading in the getter being deuterium-enriched, desorbing the getter to a substantially greater extent to produce a deuterium-enriched gaseous mixture, and removing the deuterium-enriched mixture into another container. The bulk getter may comprise a zirconium-aluminum alloy, or a zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy. The partial desorption may reduce the loading by approximately fifty percent. The basic procedure may be extended to produce a multistage isotope separator, including at least one additional bulk getter into which the tritium-enriched mixture is absorbed. The second getter is then partially desorbed to produce a desorbed mixture which is further tritium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed from the container for the second getter, which is then desorbed to a substantially greater extent to produce a desorbed mixture which is deuterium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed so that the cycle can be continued and repeated. The method of isotope separation is also applicable to other hydrogen isotopes, in that the method can be employed for separating either deuterium or tritium from normal hydrogen.

  16. Hydrogen isotope separation utilizing bulk getters

    DOEpatents

    Knize, Randall J.; Cecchi, Joseph L.

    1990-01-01

    Tritium and deuterium are separated from a gaseous mixture thereof, derived from a nuclear fusion reactor or some other source, by providing a casing with a bulk getter therein for absorbing the gaseous mixture to produce an initial loading of the getter, partially desorbing the getter to produce a desorbed mixture which is tritium-enriched, pumping the desorbed mixture into a separate container, the remaining gaseous loading in the getter being deuterium-enriched, desorbing the getter to a substantially greater extent to produce a deuterium-enriched gaseous mixture, and removing the deuterium-enriched mixture into another container. The bulk getter may comprise a zirconium-aluminum alloy, or a zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy. The partial desorption may reduce the loading by approximately fifty percent. The basic procedure may be extended to produce a multistage isotope separator, including at least one additional bulk getter into which the tritium-enriched mixture is absorbed. The second getter is then partially desorbed to produce a desorbed mixture which is further tritium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed from the container for the second getter, which is then desorbed to a substantially greater extent to produce a desorbed mixture which is deuterium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed so that the cycle can be continued and repeated. The method of isotope separation is also applicable to other hydrogen isotopes, in that the method can be employed for separating either deuterium or tritium from normal hydrogen.

  17. Hydrogen isotope separation utilizing bulk getters

    DOEpatents

    Knize, R.J.; Cecchi, J.L.

    1991-08-20

    Tritium and deuterium are separated from a gaseous mixture thereof, derived from a nuclear fusion reactor or some other source, by providing a casing with a bulk getter therein for absorbing the gaseous mixture to produce an initial loading of the getter, partially desorbing the getter to produce a desorbed mixture which is tritium-enriched, pumping the desorbed mixture into a separate container, the remaining gaseous loading in the getter being deuterium-enriched, desorbing the getter to a substantially greater extent to produce a deuterium-enriched gaseous mixture, and removing the deuterium-enriched mixture into another container. The bulk getter may comprise a zirconium-aluminum alloy, or a zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy. The partial desorption may reduce the loading by approximately fifty percent. The basic procedure may be extended to produce a multistage isotope separator, including at least one additional bulk getter into which the tritium-enriched mixture is absorbed. The second getter is then partially desorbed to produce a desorbed mixture which is further tritium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed from the container for the second getter, which is then desorbed to a substantially greater extent to produce a desorbed mixture which is deuterium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed so that the cycle can be continued and repeated. The method of isotope separation is also applicable to other hydrogen isotopes, in that the method can be employed for separating either deuterium or tritium from normal hydrogen. 4 figures.

  18. Zirconium behaviour during electrorefining of actinide-zirconium alloy in molten LiCl-KCl on aluminium cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, R.; Souček, P.; Malmbeck, R.; Krachler, M.; Rodrigues, A.; Claux, B.; Glatz, J.-P.; Fanghänel, Th.

    2016-04-01

    A pyrochemical electrorefining process for the recovery of actinides from metallic nuclear fuel based on actinide-zirconium alloys (An-Zr) in a molten salt is being investigated. In this process actinides are group-selectively recovered on solid aluminium cathodes as An-Al alloys using a LiCl-KCl eutectic melt at a temperature of 450 °C. In the present study the electrochemical behaviour of zirconium during electrorefining was investigated. The maximum amount of actinides that can be oxidised without anodic co-dissolution of zirconium was determined at a selected constant cathodic current density. The experiment consisted of three steps to assess the different stages of the electrorefining process, each of which employing a fresh aluminium cathode. The results indicate that almost a complete dissolution of the actinides without co-dissolution of zirconium is possible under the applied experimental conditions.

  19. Electroless deposition process for zirconium and zirconium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Donaghy, R. E.; Sherman, A. H.

    1981-08-18

    A method is disclosed for preventing stress corrosion cracking or metal embrittlement of a zirconium or zirconium alloy container that is to be coated on the inside surface with a layer of a metal such as copper, a copper alloy, nickel, or iron and used for holding nuclear fuel material as a nuclear fuel element. The zirconium material is etched in an etchant solution, desmutted mechanically or ultrasonically, oxidized to form an oxide coating on the zirconium, cleaned in an aqueous alkaline cleaning solution, activated for electroless deposition of a metal layer and contacted with an electroless metal plating solution. This method provides a boundary layer of zirconium oxide between the zirconium container and the metal layer. 1 fig.

  20. Electroless deposition process for zirconium and zirconium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Donaghy, Robert E.; Sherman, Anna H.

    1981-01-01

    A method is disclosed for preventing stress corrosion cracking or metal embrittlement of a zirconium or zirconium alloy container that is to be coated on the inside surface with a layer of a metal such as copper, a copper alloy, nickel, or iron and used for holding nuclear fuel material as a nuclear fuel element. The zirconium material is etched in an etchant solution, desmutted mechanically or ultrasonically, oxidized to form an oxide coating on the zirconium, cleaned in an aqueous alkaline cleaning solution, activated for electroless deposition of a metal layer and contacted with an electroless metal plating solution. This method provides a boundary layer of zirconium oxide between the zirconium container and the metal layer.

  1. Intercalation chemistry of zirconium 4-sulfophenylphosphonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoboda, Jan; Zima, Vítězslav; Melánová, Klára; Beneš, Ludvík; Trchová, Miroslava

    2013-12-01

    Zirconium 4-sulfophenylphosphonate is a layered material which can be employed as a host for the intercalation reactions with basic molecules. A wide range of organic compounds were chosen to represent intercalation ability of zirconium 4-sulfophenylphosphonate. These were a series of alkylamines from methylamine to dodecylamine, 1,4-phenylenediamine, p-toluidine, 1,8-diaminonaphthalene, 1-aminopyrene, imidazole, pyridine, 4,4‧-bipyridine, poly(ethylene imine), and a series of amino acids from glycine to 6-aminocaproic acid. The prepared compounds were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry analysis and IR spectroscopy and probable arrangement of the guest molecules in the interlayer space of the host is proposed based on the interlayer distance of the prepared intercalates and amount of the intercalated guest molecules.

  2. SEPARATING HAFNIUM FROM ZIRCONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Lister, B.A.J.; Duncan, J.F.; Hutcheon, J.M.

    1956-08-21

    Substantially complete separation of zirconium from hafnium may be obtained by elution of ion exchange material, on which compounds of the elements are adsorbed, with an approximately normal solution of sulfuric acid. Preferably the acid concentration is between 0.8 N amd 1.2 N, amd should not exceed 1.5 N;. Increasing the concentration of sulfate ion in the eluting solution by addition of a soluble sulfate, such as sodium sulfate, has been found to be advantageous. The preferred ion exchange materials are sulfonated polystyrene resins such as Dowex 50,'' and are preferably arranged in a column through which the solutions are passed.

  3. ZIRCONIUM PHOSPHATE ADSORPTION METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Russell, E.R.; Adamson, A.S.; Schubert, J.; Boyd, G.E.

    1958-11-01

    A method is presented for separating plutonium values from fission product values in aqueous acidic solution. This is accomplished by flowing the solutlon containing such values through a bed of zirconium orthophosphate. Any fission products adsorbed can subsequently be eluted by washing the column with a solution of 2N HNO/sub 3/ and O.lN H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/. Plutonium values may subsequently be desorbed by contacting the column with a solution of 7N HNO/sub 3/ .

  4. Modification in band gap of zirconium complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Mayank, E-mail: mayank30134@gmail.com; Singh, J.; Chouhan, S.

    2016-05-06

    The optical properties of zirconium complexes with amino acid based Schiff bases are reported here. The zirconium complexes show interesting stereo chemical features, which are applicable in organometallic and organic synthesis as well as in catalysis. The band gaps of both Schiff bases and zirconium complexes were obtained by UV-Visible spectroscopy. It was found that the band gap of zirconium complexes has been modified after adding zirconium compound to the Schiff bases.

  5. The chemistry of PET imaging with zirconium-89.

    PubMed

    Dilworth, Jonathan R; Pascu, Sofia I

    2018-04-23

    This Tutorial Review aims to provide an overview of the use of zirconium-89 complexes in biomedical imaging. Over the past decade there have been many new papers in this field, ranging from chemistry through to preclinical and clinical applications. Here we attempt to summarise the main developments that have occurred in this period. The primary focus is on coordination chemistry but other aspects such as isotope production, isotope properties, handling and radiochemical techniques and characterisation of cold and labelled complexes are included. Selected results from animal and human clinical studies are presented in the context of the stabilities and properties of the labelled bioconjugates.

  6. Extractive separation of uranium and zirconium sulfates by amines

    SciTech Connect

    Schroetterova, D.; Nekovar, P.; Mrnka, M.

    1992-04-01

    This paper describes an amine extraction process for zirconium and uranium separation. The behaviour of an extraction system containing uranium (VI) sulfate, zirconium (IV) sulfate, 0.2 and 0.5 M sulfuric acid (as the original aqueous phase), tertiary amine tri-n-lauryl- amine or primary amine Primene JMT in benzene (as the original organic phase) is discussed on the basis of equilibrium data. The measured dependences show that the degree of extraction of zirconium at the sulfuric acid concentration of 0.5 M and above is only slightly affected by a presence of uranium in solution. From this surprising behaviour it follows that zirconiummore » may be employed for the displacement of uranium from the organic phase. This effect is more pronounced with the primary amine Primene JMT than with TLA. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.« less

  7. SEPARATION OF HAFNIUM FROM ZIRCONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Overholser, L.B.; Barton, C.J. Sr.; Ramsey, J.W.

    1960-05-31

    The separation of hafnium impurities from zirconium can be accomplished by means of organic solvent extraction. The hafnium-containing zirconium feed material is dissolved in an aqueous chloride solution and the resulting solution is contacted with an organic hexone phase, with at least one of the phases containing thiocyanate. The hafnium is extracted into the organic phase while zirconium remains in the aqueous phase. Further recovery of zirconium is effected by stripping the onganic phase with a hydrochloric acid solution and commingling the resulting strip solution with the aqueous feed solution. Hexone is recovered and recycled by means of scrubbing the onganic phase with a sulfuric acid solution to remove the hafnium, and thiocyanate is recovered and recycled by means of neutralizing the effluent streams to obtain ammonium thiocyanate.

  8. Employing extant stable carbon isotope data in Gulf of Mexico sedimentary organic matter for oil spill studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenheim, Brad E.; Pendergraft, Matthew A.; Flowers, George C.; Carney, Robert; Sericano, José L.; Amer, Reda M.; Chanton, Jeff; Dincer, Zeynep; Wade, Terry L.

    2016-07-01

    We have compiled and mapped available carbon isotope data from sedimentary organic material sampled from the Gulf of Mexico prior to 2010. These data provide a baseline to which any changes in the Gulf of Mexico after the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill can be compared. The mean (±1σ) δ13C values, relative to PDB, are -21.4±1.9‰ (entire Gulf of Mexico), -21.7±1.2‰ (shelf sediments), -20.4±1.6‰ (deepwater sediments), and -25.2±4.1‰ (seep-affected sediments). We compare pre-spill mean δ13C values to carbon isotope measurements of sedimentary organic material from coretop samples collected after the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The differences between the mean compiled δ13C values and the post-spill δ13C values are corroborated by qualitative relationships with the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a proxy for oil contamination, in the sediment. The relationships between δ13C of the sedimentary organic material and PAH concentrations allow estimation of background levels of PAHs on the shelf and in the deep Gulf of Mexico. Higher background levels of PAH on the shelf likely relate to Mississippi River outflow and its deposition of petrogenic PAH in riverine sediments.

  9. Fine-grained zirconium-base material

    DOEpatents

    Van Houten, G.R.

    1974-01-01

    A method is described for making zirconium with inhibited grain growth characteristics, by the process of vacuum melting the zirconium, adding 0.3 to 0.5% carbon, stirring, homogenizing, and cooling. (Official Gazette)

  10. Ablation Resistant Zirconium and Hafnium Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Jeffrey (Inventor); White, Michael J. (Inventor); Kaufman, Larry (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    High temperature ablation resistant ceramic composites have been made. These ceramics are composites of zirconium diboride and zirconium carbide with silicon carbide, hafnium diboride and hafnium carbide with silicon carbide and ceramic composites which contain mixed diborides and/or carbides of zirconium and hafnium. along with silicon carbide.

  11. PROCESS OF DISSOLVING ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Shor, R.S.; Vogler, S.

    1958-01-21

    A process is described for dissolving binary zirconium-uranium alloys where the uranium content is about 2%. In prior dissolution procedures for these alloys, an oxidizing agent was added to prevent the precipitation of uranium tetrafluoride. In the present method complete dissolution is accomplished without the use of the oxidizing agent by using only the stoichiometric amount or slight excess of HF required by the zirconium. The concentration of the acid may range from 2M to 10M and the dissolution is advatageously carried out at a temperature of 80 deg C.

  12. Zirconium tetrachloride revisited

    DOE PAGES

    Borjas Nevarez, Rosendo; Balasekaran, Samundeeswari Mariappan; Kim, Eunja; ...

    2018-02-19

    We present that zirconium tetrachloride, ZrCl 4, is a strategic material with wide-ranging applications. Until now, only one crystallographic study on ZrCl 4has been reported [Krebs (1970).Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem.378, 263–272] and that was more than 40 years ago. The compound used for the previous determination was prepared from ZrO 2 and Cl 2–CCl 4, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD) studies on ZrCl 4 obtained from Zr metal have not yet been reported. In this context, we prepared ZrCl 4 from the reaction of Zr metal and Cl 2 gas in a sealed tube and investigated its structure at 100,more » 150, 200, 250, and 300 K. At 300 K, the SCXRD analysis indicates that ZrCl 4 crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pca2 1 [a= 6.262 (9),b= 7.402 (11),c= 12.039 (17) Å, andV= 558.0 (14) Å 3] and consists of infinite zigzag chains of edge-sharing ZrCl 6 octahedra. This chain motif is similar to that observed previously in ZrCl 4, but the structural parameters and space group differ. Finally, in the temperature range 100–300 K, no phase transformation was identified, while elongation of intra-chain Zr...Zr [3.950 (1) Å at 100 K and 3.968 (5) Å at 300 K] and inter-chain Cl...Cl [3.630 (3) Å at 100 K and 3.687 (9) Å at 300 K] distances occurred.« less

  13. SEPARATION PROCESS FOR ZIRCONIUM AND COMPOUNDS THEREOF

    DOEpatents

    Crandall, H.W.; Thomas, J.R.

    1959-06-30

    The separation of zirconium from columbium, rare earths, yttrium and the alkaline earth metals, such mixtures of elements occurring in zirconium ores or neutron irradiated uranium is described. According to the invention a suitable separation of zirconium from a one normal acidic aqueous solution containing salts, nitrates for example, of tetravalent zirconium, pentavalent columbium, yttrium, rare earths in the trivalent state and alkaline earths can be obtained by contacting the aqueous solution with a fluorinated beta diketonc alone or in an organic solvent solution, such as benzene, to form a zirconium chelate compound. When the organic solvent is present the zirconium chelate compound is directly extracted; otherwise it is separated by filtration. The zirconium may be recovered from contacting the organic solvent solution containing the chelated compound by back extraction with either an aqueous hydrofluoric acid or an oxalic acid solution.

  14. PROCESS OF PREPARING ZIRCONIUM OXYCHLORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, H.A.; Andrews, M.L.

    1960-06-28

    A process is given for preparing zirconyl chloride by mixing solid zirconyl chloride octahydrate and solid zirconium tetrachloride at room temperature whereby both chlorides are converted to zirconyl chloride trinydrate and hydrogen chloride is formed and volatilized by the reaction heat.

  15. Calcification of MC3T3-E1 cells on titanium and zirconium.

    PubMed

    Umezawa, Takayuki; Chen, Peng; Tsutsumi, Yusuke; Doi, Hisashi; Ashida, Maki; Suzuki, Shoichi; Moriyama, Keiji; Hanawa, Takao

    2015-01-01

    To confirm similarity of hard tissue compatibility between titanium and zirconium, calcification of MC3T3-E1 cells on titanium and zirconium was evaluated in this study. Mirror-polished titanium (Ti) and zirconium (Zr) disks and zirconium-sputter deposited titanium (Zr/Ti) were employed in this study. The surface of specimens were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Then, the cellular proliferation, differentiation and calcification of MC3T3-E1 cells on specimens were investigated. The surface of Zr/Ti was much smoother and cleaner than those of Ti and Zr. The proliferation of the cell was the same among three specimens, while the differentiation and calcification on Zr/Ti were faster than those on Ti and Zr. Therefore, Ti and Zr showed the identical hard tissue compatibility according to the evaluation with MC3T3-E1 cells. Sputter deposition may improve cytocompatibility.

  16. Zirconium Phosphate Supported MOF Nanoplatelets.

    PubMed

    Kan, Yuwei; Clearfield, Abraham

    2016-06-06

    We report a rare example of the preparation of HKUST-1 metal-organic framework nanoplatelets through a step-by-step seeding procedure. Sodium ion exchanged zirconium phosphate, NaZrP, nanoplatelets were judiciously selected as support for layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of Cu(II) and benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (H3BTC) linkers. The first layer of Cu(II) is attached to the surface of zirconium phosphate through covalent interaction. The successive LBL growth of HKUST-1 film is then realized by soaking the NaZrP nanoplatelets in ethanolic solutions of cupric acetate and H3BTC, respectively. The amount of assembled HKUST-1 can be readily controlled by varying the number of growth cycles, which was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and gas adsorption analyses. The successful construction of HKUST-1 on NaZrP was also supported by its catalytic performance for the oxidation of cyclohexene.

  17. Method for preparing hydrous zirconium oxide gels and spherules

    DOEpatents

    Collins, Jack L.

    2003-08-05

    Methods for preparing hydrous zirconium oxide spherules, hydrous zirconium oxide gels such as gel slabs, films, capillary and electrophoresis gels, zirconium monohydrogen phosphate spherules, hydrous zirconium oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent, zirconium monohydrogen phosphate spherules having suspendable particles of at least one different sorbent homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent having a desired crystallinity, zirconium oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, hydrous zirconium oxide fiber materials, zirconium oxide fiber materials, hydrous zirconium oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, zirconium oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite and spherules of barium zirconate. The hydrous zirconium oxide spherules and gel forms prepared by the gel-sphere, internal gelation process are useful as inorganic ion exchangers, catalysts, getters and ceramics.

  18. DISSOLUTION OF ZIRCONIUM-CONTAINING FUEL ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Horn, F.L.

    1961-12-12

    Uranium is recovered from spent uranium fuel elements containing or clad with zirconium. These fuel elements are placed in an anhydrous solution of hydrogen fluoride and nitrogen dioxide. Within this system uranium forms a soluble complex and zirconium forms an insoluble complex. The uranium can then be separated, treated, and removed from solution as uranium hexafluoride. (AEC)

  19. Method of making crack-free zirconium hydride

    DOEpatents

    Sullivan, Richard W.

    1980-01-01

    Crack-free hydrides of zirconium and zirconium-uranium alloys are produced by alloying the zirconium or zirconium-uranium alloy with beryllium, or nickel, or beryllium and scandium, or nickel and scandium, or beryllium and nickel, or beryllium, nickel and scandium and thereafter hydriding.

  20. Separation of Zirconium and Hafnium: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, L.; Xiao, Y.; van Sandwijk, A.; Xu, Q.; Yang, Y.

    Zirconium is an ideal material for nuclear reactors due to its low absorption cross-section for thermal neutrons, whereas the typically contained hafnium with strong neutron-absorption is very harmful for zirconium. This paper provides an overview of the processes for separating hafnium from zirconium. The separation processes are roughly classified into hydro- and pyrometallurgical routes. The current dominant zirconium production route involves pyrometallurgical ore cracking, multi-step hydrometallurgical liquid-liquid extraction for hafnium removal and the reduction of zirconium tetrachloride to the pure metal by the Kroll process. The lengthy hydrometallurgical Zr-Hf separation operations leads to high production cost, intensive labour and heavy environmental burden. Using a compact pyrometallurgical separation method can simplify the whole production flowsheet with a higher process efficiency. The known separation methods are discussed based on the following reaction features: redox characteristics, volatility, electrochemical properties and molten salt extraction. The commercially operating extractive distillation process is a significant advance in Zr-Hf separation technology but it suffers from high process maintenance cost. The recently developed new process based on molten salt-metal equilibrium for Zr-Hf separation shows a great potential for industrial application, which is compact for nuclear grade zirconium production starting from crude ore. In the present paper, the available separation technologies are compared. The advantages and disadvantages as well as future directions of research and development for nuclear grade zirconium production are discussed.

  1. URANIUM DECONTAMINATION WITH RESPECT TO ZIRCONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Vogler, S.; Beederman, M.

    1961-05-01

    A process is given for separating uranium values from a nitric acid aqueous solution containing uranyl values, zirconium values and tetravalent plutonium values. The process comprises contacting said solution with a substantially water-immiscible liquid organic solvent containing alkyl phosphate, separating an organic extract phase containing the uranium, zirconium, and tetravalent plutonium values from an aqueous raffinate, contacting said organic extract phase with an aqueous solution 2M to 7M in nitric acid and also containing an oxalate ion-containing substance, and separating a uranium- containing organic raffinate from aqueous zirconium- and plutonium-containing extract phase.

  2. Production of nuclear grade zirconium: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, L.; Xiao, Y.; van Sandwijk, A.; Xu, Q.; Yang, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Zirconium is an ideal material for nuclear reactors due to its low absorption cross-section for thermal neutrons, whereas the typically contained hafnium with strong neutron-absorption is very harmful for zirconium as a fuel cladding material. This paper provides an overview of the processes for nuclear grade zirconium production with emphasis on the methods of Zr-Hf separation. The separation processes are roughly classified into hydro- and pyrometallurgical routes. The known pyrometallurgical Zr-Hf separation methods are discussed based on the following reaction features: redox characteristics, volatility, electrochemical properties and molten salt-metal equilibrium. In the present paper, the available Zr-Hf separation technologies are compared. The advantages and disadvantages as well as future directions of research and development for nuclear grade zirconium production are discussed.

  3. Oxidized zirconium on ceramic; Catastrophic coupling.

    PubMed

    Ozden, V E; Saglam, N; Dikmen, G; Tozun, I R

    2017-02-01

    Oxidized zirconium (Oxinium™; Smith & Nephew, Memphis, TN, USA) articulated with polyethylene in total hip arthroplasty (THA) appeared to have the potential to reduce wear dramatically. The thermally oxidized metal zirconium surface is transformed into ceramic-like hard surface that is resistant to abrasion. The exposure of soft zirconium metal under hard coverage surface after the damage of oxidized zirconium femoral head has been described. It occurred following joint dislocation or in situ succeeding disengagement of polyethylene liner. We reported three cases of misuse of Oxinium™ (Smith & Nephew, Memphis, TN, USA) heads. These three cases resulted in catastrophic in situ wear and inevitable failure although there was no advice, indication or recommendation for this use from the manufacturer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. METHOD OF IMPROVING CORROSION RESISTANCE OF ZIRCONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Shannon, D.W.

    1961-03-28

    An improved intermediate rinse for zirconium counteracts an anomalous deposit that often results in crevices and outof-the-way places when ordinary water is used to rinse away a strong fluoride etching solution designed to promote passivation of the metal. The intermediate rinse, which is used after the etching solution and before the water, is characterized by a complexing agent for fluoride ions such as aluminum or zirconium nitrates or chlorides.

  5. DISSOLUTION OF ZIRCONIUM AND ALLOYS THEREFOR

    DOEpatents

    Swanson, J.L.

    1961-07-11

    The dissolution of zirconium cladding in a water solution of ammonium fluoride and ammonium nitrate is described. The method finds particular utility in processing spent fuel elements for nuclear reactors. The zirconium cladding is first dissolved in a water solution of ammonium fluoride and ammonium nitrate; insoluble uranium and plutonium fiuorides formed by attack of the solvent on the fuel materiai of the fuel element are then separated from the solution, and the fuel materiai is dissolved in another solution.

  6. THE ANALYSIS OF URANIUM-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

    SciTech Connect

    Milner, G.W.C.; Skewies, A.F.

    1953-03-01

    A satisfactory procedure is described for the analysis of uranium-zirconium alloys containing up to 25% zirconium. It is based on the separation of the zirconium from the uranium by dissolving the cupferron complex of the former element into chloroform. After the evaporation of the solvent from the combined organic extracts, the residue is ignited to zirconium oxide. The latter is then re-dissolved and zirconium is separated from other elements co-extracted in the solvent extraction procedure by precipitation with mandelic acid. The zirconium mandelate is finally ignited to oxide at 960 deg C. The uranium is separated from the aqueous solutionmore » remaining from the cupferron extraction by precipitating with tannin at a pH of 8; the precipitate being removed by filtration and then ignited a t 800 deg C. The residue is dissolved in nitric acid and the uranium is finally determined by precipitating as ammonium diuranate and then igniting to U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. (auth)« less

  7. IMPROVEMENT OF THE EXTRACTION SEPARATION OF URANIUM AND ZIRCONIUM USING ZIRCONIUM-MASKING REAGENTS (in German)

    SciTech Connect

    Kyrs, M.; Caletka, R.; Selucky, P.

    1963-12-01

    The masking capacities of a series of reagents were studied in the zirconium extraction with tributyl phosphate solution in the presence of nitric acid. It was established that with many reagents an improvement of the separation of uranium from zirconium could be obtained. The efficiency of the reagents increases in the series tannin, oxalic acid, tiron, pyrogallol, and Arsenazo I. (tr-auth)

  8. Artefacts in multimodal imaging of titanium, zirconium and binary titanium–zirconium alloy dental implants: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Schöllchen, Maximilian; Aarabi, Ghazal; Assaf, Alexandre T; Rendenbach, Carsten; Beck-Broichsitter, Benedicta; Semmusch, Jan; Sedlacik, Jan; Heiland, Max; Fiehler, Jens; Siemonsen, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze and evaluate imaging artefacts induced by zirconium, titanium and titanium–zirconium alloy dental implants. Methods: Zirconium, titanium and titanium–zirconium alloy implants were embedded in gelatin and MRI, CT and CBCT were performed. Standard protocols were used for each modality. For MRI, line–distance profiles were plotted to quantify the accuracy of size determination. For CT and CBCT, six shells surrounding the implant were defined every 0.5 cm from the implant surface and histogram parameters were determined for each shell. Results: While titanium and titanium–zirconium alloy induced extensive signal voids in MRI owing to strong susceptibility, zirconium implants were clearly definable with only minor distortion artefacts. For titanium and titanium–zirconium alloy, the MR signal was attenuated up to 14.1 mm from the implant. In CT, titanium and titanium–zirconium alloy resulted in less streak artefacts in comparison with zirconium. In CBCT, titanium–zirconium alloy induced more severe artefacts than zirconium and titanium. Conclusions: MRI allows for an excellent image contrast and limited artefacts in patients with zirconium implants. CT and CBCT examinations are less affected by artefacts from titanium and titanium–zirconium alloy implants compared with MRI. The knowledge about differences of artefacts through different implant materials and image modalities might help support clinical decisions for the choice of implant material or imaging device in the clinical setting. PMID:27910719

  9. Artefacts in multimodal imaging of titanium, zirconium and binary titanium-zirconium alloy dental implants: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Ralf; Schöllchen, Maximilian; Gauer, Tobias; Aarabi, Ghazal; Assaf, Alexandre T; Rendenbach, Carsten; Beck-Broichsitter, Benedicta; Semmusch, Jan; Sedlacik, Jan; Heiland, Max; Fiehler, Jens; Siemonsen, Susanne

    2017-02-01

    To analyze and evaluate imaging artefacts induced by zirconium, titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy dental implants. Zirconium, titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy implants were embedded in gelatin and MRI, CT and CBCT were performed. Standard protocols were used for each modality. For MRI, line-distance profiles were plotted to quantify the accuracy of size determination. For CT and CBCT, six shells surrounding the implant were defined every 0.5 cm from the implant surface and histogram parameters were determined for each shell. While titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy induced extensive signal voids in MRI owing to strong susceptibility, zirconium implants were clearly definable with only minor distortion artefacts. For titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy, the MR signal was attenuated up to 14.1 mm from the implant. In CT, titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy resulted in less streak artefacts in comparison with zirconium. In CBCT, titanium-zirconium alloy induced more severe artefacts than zirconium and titanium. MRI allows for an excellent image contrast and limited artefacts in patients with zirconium implants. CT and CBCT examinations are less affected by artefacts from titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy implants compared with MRI. The knowledge about differences of artefacts through different implant materials and image modalities might help support clinical decisions for the choice of implant material or imaging device in the clinical setting.

  10. Lamellar zirconium phosphates to host metals for catalytic purposes.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros-Plata, Daniel; Infantes-Molina, Antonia; Rodríguez-Aguado, Elena; Braos-García, Pilar; Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique

    2018-02-27

    In the present study a porous lamellar zirconium phosphate heterostructure (PPH) formed from zirconium(iv) phosphate expanded with silica galleries (P/Zr molar ratio equal to 2 and (Si + Zr)/P equal to 3) was prepared to host noble metals. Textural and structural characterization of PPH-noble metal materials was carried out in order to elucidate the location and dispersion of the metallic particles and the properties of the resulting material to be used in catalytic processes. In the present paper, their activity in the catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) reaction of dibenzofuran (DBF) was evaluated. X-ray diffraction (XRD), solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) evidenced that the structure of the pillared zirconium phosphate material was not modified by the incorporation of Pt and Pd. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed a different dispersion of the noble metal. The acidity of the resulting PPH-noble metal materials also changed, although in all cases the acidity was of weak nature, and the incorporation of noble metals affected Brønsted acid sites as observed from 31 P NMR spectra. In general, the textural, structural and acidic properties of the resulting materials suggest that PPH can be considered a good candidate to be used as a catalytic support. Thus, the catalytic results of the PPH-noble metal samples indicated that the Pd sample showed a stable behavior probably ascribed to a high dispersion of the active phase. However, the Pt sample suffered from fast deactivation. The selectivity to the reaction products was strongly dependent on the noble metal employed.

  11. Zirconium: biomedical and nephrological applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, David B N; Roberts, Martin; Bluchel, Christian G; Odell, Ross A

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a rapid increase in the use of zirconium (Zr)-containing compounds in artificial internal organs. Examples include dental implants and other restorative practices, total knee and hip replacement, and middle-ear ossicular chain reconstruction. In nephrological practice, Zr-containing sorbents have been used in hemofiltration, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and in the design and construction of wearable artificial kidneys. Zr compounds continue to be widely and extensively used in deodorant and antiperspirant preparations. In the public health arena, Zr compounds have been studied or used in controlling phosphorus pollution and in the reclamation of poison and bacteria-contaminated water. Experimental and clinical studies support the general consensus that Zr compounds are biocompatible and exhibit low toxicity. Reports on possible Zr-associated adverse reactions are rare and, in general, have not rigorously established a cause-and-effect relationship. Although publications on the use of Zr compounds have continued to increase in recent years, reports on Zr toxicity have virtually disappeared from the medical literature. Nevertheless, familiarity with, and continued vigilant monitoring of, the use of these compounds are warranted. This article provides an updated review on the biomedical use of Zr compounds.

  12. 40 CFR 721.9973 - Zirconium dichlorides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Zirconium dichlorides (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9973 Zirconium dichlorides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as zirconium dichlorides (PMNs P...

  13. Processing fissile material mixtures containing zirconium and/or carbon

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Michael Ernest; Maloney, Martin David

    2013-07-02

    A method of processing spent TRIZO-coated nuclear fuel may include adding fluoride to complex zirconium present in a dissolved TRIZO-coated fuel. Complexing the zirconium with fluoride may reduce or eliminate the potential for zirconium to interfere with the extraction of uranium and/or transuranics from fission materials in the spent nuclear fuel.

  14. Project Employability: Employability Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Lewis P.; Talarico, Robert L.

    The fourth of six products from Project Employability (Ohio) outlines instructional goals and objectives designed to improve employment skills of high functioning trainable and low functioning educable mentally retarded high school students. The employability philosophy incorporates statements regarding career exploration, practice as a means to…

  15. Regio- and Stereospecific Formation of Protected Allylic Alcohols via Zirconium-Mediated SN2' Substitution of Allylic Chlorides

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Richard J.; Lalic, Gojko; Bergman, Robert G.

    2008-01-01

    A new, highly regio- and stereospecific SN2' substitution reaction between a zirconium oxo complex and allylic chloride has been achieved. The resulting allylic alcohol or TBS-protected allylic ether products were isolated in good to excellent yields with a wide range of E-allylic chlorides. A mechanism for the SN2' allylic substitution consistent with kinetic, stereochemical and secondary isotope effect studies was proposed. PMID:17973391

  16. Zirconium diselenite microstructures, formation and mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Chandan C.; Salker, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, a series of microstructures of zirconium diselenite (Zr(SeO3)2) has been prepared via a simple precipitation method at room temperature without adding any organic surfactants. Phase purity of the sample has been checked by X-ray Diffraction. From the SEM, FESEM, and TEM images spheroid nanoparticles to the starfish-like structure of zirconium diselenite are detected. The morphological evolution processes were investigated carefully following time-dependent experiments and a growth mechanism has been proposed. Two different crystal growth processes, the oriented attachment process accompanying the Ostwald ripening process were held responsible for the formation of a structure resembling starfish having four arms.

  17. METHOD AND ALLOY FOR BONDING TO ZIRCONIUM

    DOEpatents

    McCuaig, F.D.; Misch, R.D.

    1960-04-19

    A brazing alloy can be used for bonding zirconium and its alloys to other metals, ceramics, and cermets, and consists of 6 to 9 wt.% Ni, 6 to 9 wn~.% Cr, Mo, or W, 0 to 7.5 wt.% Fe, and the balance Zr.

  18. Superconductivity in zirconium-rhodium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zegler, S. T.

    1969-01-01

    Metallographic studies and transition temperature measurements were made with isothermally annealed and water-quenched zirconium-rhodium alloys. The results clarify both the solid-state phase relations at the Zr-rich end of the Zr-Rh alloy system and the influence upon the superconducting transition temperature of structure and composition.

  19. DEEP WATER ISOTOPIC CURRENT ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Johnston, W.H.

    1964-04-21

    A deepwater isotopic current analyzer, which employs radioactive isotopes for measurement of ocean currents at various levels beneath the sea, is described. The apparatus, which can determine the direction and velocity of liquid currents, comprises a shaft having a plurality of radiation detectors extending equidistant radially therefrom, means for releasing radioactive isotopes from the shaft, and means for determining the time required for the isotope to reach a particular detector. (AEC)

  20. International strategic minerals inventory summary report; zirconium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Towner, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    Zircon, a zirconium silicate, is currently the most important commercial zirconium-bearing mineral. Baddeleyite, a natural form of zirconia, is less important but has some specific end uses. Both zircon and baddeleyite occur in hard-rock and placer deposits, but at present all zircon production is from placer deposits. Most baddeleyite production is from hard-rock deposits, principally as a byproduct of copper and phosphate-rock mining. World zirconium resources in identified, economically exploitable deposits are about 46 times current production rates. Of these resources, some 71 percent are in South Africa, Australia, and the United States. The principal end uses of zirconium minerals are in ceramic applications and as refractories, abrasives, and mold linings in foundries. A minor amount, mainly of zircon, is used for the production of hafnium-free zirconium metal, which is used principally for sheathing fuel elements in nuclear reactors and in the chemical-processing industry, aerospace engineering, and electronics. Australia and South Africa are the largest zircon producers and account for more than 70 percent of world output; the United States and the Soviet Union account for another 20 percent. South Africa accounts for almost all the world's production of baddeleyite, which is about 2 percent of world production of contained zirconia. Australia and South Africa are the largest exporters of zircon. Unless major new deposits are developed in countries that have not traditionally produced zircon, the pattern of world production is unlikely to change by 2020. The proportions, however, of production that come from existing producing countries may change somewhat.

  1. Container for hydrogen isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Solomon, David E.

    1977-01-01

    A container for the storage, shipping and dispensing of hydrogen isotopes such as hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, or mixtures of the same which has compactness, which is safe against fracture or accident, and which is reusable. The container consists of an outer housing with suitable inlet and outlet openings and electrical feed elements, the housing containing an activated sorber material in the form, for example, of titanium sponge or an activated zirconium aluminate cartridge. The gas to be stored is introduced into the chamber under conditions of heat and vacuum and will be retained in the sorber material. Subsequently, it may be released by heating the unit to drive off the stored gas at desired rates.

  2. Gas chromatographic, mass spectrometric and stable carbon isotopic investigations of organic residues of plant oils and animal fats employed as illuminants in archaeological lamps from Egypt.

    PubMed

    Copley, M S; Bland, H A; Rose, P; Horton, M; Evershed, R P

    2005-06-01

    Man's use of illuminants in lamps or as torches to extend the working day and range of environments accessible to him would have been a major technological advance in human civilisation. The most obvious evidence for this in the archaeological record comes from pottery and stone vessels showing sooting due to the use of a wick in conjunction with a lipid-based fuel or illuminant. A wide range of potential fuels would have been exploited depending upon availability and burning requirements. Reported herein are the results of chemical investigations of a number of lamps recovered from excavations of the site of Qasr Ibrim, Egypt. Gas chromatographic, mass spectrometric and stable carbon isotopic analyses of both free (solvent extractable) and 'bound'(released from solvent extracted pottery by base treatment) lipids have revealed a wide range of saturated fatty acids, hydroxy fatty acids and alpha, omega-dicarboxylic acids. Examination of the distributions of compounds and comparisons with the fatty acid compositions of modern plant oils have allowed a range of fats and oils to be recognised. Specific illuminants identified include Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) seed oil (most likely radish oil, Raphanus sativus), castor oil (from Ricinus communis), animal fat, with less diagnostic distributions and delta(13)C values being consistent with low stearic acid plant oils, such as linseed (Linum usitatissimum) or sesame (Sesamum indicum) oils. The identifications of the various oils and fats are supported by parallel investigations of illuminant residues produced by burning various oils in replica pottery lamps. The findings are entirely consistent with the classical writers including Strabo, Pliny and Theophrastrus.

  3. METHOD OF MAKING DELTA ZIRCONIUM HYDRIDE MONOLITHIC MODERATOR PIECES

    DOEpatents

    Vetrano, J.B.

    1962-01-23

    A method is given for preparing large, sound bodies of delta zirconium hydride. The method includes the steps of heating a zirconium body to a temperature of not less than l000 deg C, providing a hydrogen atmosphere for the zirconium body at a pressure not greater than one atmosphere, reducing the temperature slowly to 800 deg C at such a rate that cracks do not form while maintaining the hydrogen pressure substantially constant, and cooling in an atmosphere of hydrogen. (AEC)

  4. Manufacturing process to reduce large grain growth in zirconium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Rosecrans, P.M.

    1984-08-01

    It is an object of the present invention to provide a procedure for desensitizing zirconium-based alloys to large grain growth (LGG) during thermal treatment above the recrystallization temperature of the alloy. It is a further object of the present invention to provide a method for treating zirconium-based alloys which have been cold-worked in the range of 2 to 8% strain to reduce large grain growth. It is another object of the present invention to provide a method for fabricating a zirconium alloy clad nuclear fuel element wherein the zirconium clad is resistant to large grain growth.

  5. Oxygen Migration and Local Structural Changes with Schottky Defects in Pure Zirconium Oxide Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, Yayoi; Mohri, Tetsuo

    2018-05-01

    By employing the Buckingham potential, we performed classical molecular-dynamics computer simulations at constant pressure and temperature for a pure ZrO2 crystal without any vacancies and for a pure ZrO2 crystal containing zirconium vacancies and oxygen vacancies. We examined the positions of atoms and vacancies in the steady state, and we investigated the migration behavior of atoms and the local structure of vacancies of the pure ZrO2 crystal. We found that Schottky defects (aggregates consisting of one zirconium vacancy with an effective charge of -4 and two oxygen vacancies each with an effective charge of +2 to maintain charge neutrality) are the main defects formed in the steady state in cubic ZrO2, and that oxygen migration occurs through a mechanism involving vacancies on the oxygen sublattice near such defects. We also found that several oxygen atoms near each defect are displaced far from the sublattice site and induce oxygen migration.

  6. Fabrication of oxide layer on zirconium by micro-arc oxidation: Structural and antimicrobial characteristics.

    PubMed

    Fidan, S; Muhaffel, F; Riool, M; Cempura, G; de Boer, L; Zaat, S A J; Filemonowicz, A Czyrska-; Cimenoglu, H

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to cover the surfaces of zirconium (Zr) with an antimicrobial layer for biomedical applications. For this purpose, the micro-arc oxidation (MAO) process was employed in a sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide containing base electrolyte with and without addition of silver acetate (AgC 2 H 3 O 2 ). In general, synthesized MAO layers were composed of zirconium oxide (ZrO 2 ) and zircon (ZrSiO 4 ). Addition of AgC 2 H 3 O 2 into the base electrolyte caused homogenous precipitation of silver-containing particles in the MAO layer, which exhibited excellent antibacterial efficiency against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as compared to the untreated and MAO-treated Zr. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of a Zirconium Recycle Scrubber System

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, Barry B.; Bruffey, Stephanie H.

    2017-04-01

    A hot-cell demonstration of the zirconium recycle process is planned as part of the Materials Recovery and Waste Forms Development (MRWFD) campaign. The process treats Zircaloy® cladding recovered from used nuclear fuel with chlorine gas to recover the zirconium as volatile ZrCl4. This releases radioactive tritium trapped in the alloy, converting it to volatile tritium chloride (TCl). To meet regulatory requirements governing radioactive emissions from nuclear fuel treatment operations, the capture and retention of a portion of this TCl may be required prior to discharge of the off-gas stream to the environment. In addition to demonstrating tritium removal from amore » synthetic zirconium recycle off-gas stream, the recovery and quantification of tritium may refine estimates of the amount of tritium present in the Zircaloy cladding of used nuclear fuel. To support these objectives, a bubbler-type scrubber was fabricated to remove the TCl from the zirconium recycle off-gas stream. The scrubber was fabricated from glass and polymer components that are resistant to chlorine and hydrochloric acid solutions. Because of concerns that the scrubber efficiency is not quantitative, tests were performed using DCl as a stand-in to experimentally measure the scrubbing efficiency of this unit. Scrubbing efficiency was ~108% ± 3% with water as the scrubber solution. Variations were noted when 1 M NaOH scrub solution was used, values ranged from 64% to 130%. The reason for the variations is not known. It is recommended that the equipment be operated with water as the scrubbing solution. Scrubbing efficiency is estimated at 100%.« less

  8. ELECTROLYTIC CLADDING OF ZIRCONIUM ON URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Wick, J.J.

    1959-09-22

    A method is presented for coating uranium with zircoalum by rendering the uranium surface smooth and oxidefree, immersing it in a molten electrolytic bath in NaCI, K/sub 2/ZrF/sub 6/, KF, and ZrO/sub 2/, and before the article reaches temperature equilibrium with the bath, applying an electrolyzing current of 60 amperes per square dectmeter at approximately 3 volts to form a layer of zirconium metal on the uranium.

  9. Fluorometric determination of zirconium in minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alford, W.C.; Shapiro, L.; White, C.E.

    1951-01-01

    The increasing use of zirconium in alloys and in the ceramics industry has created renewed interest in methods for its determination. It is a common constituent of many minerals, but is usually present in very small amounts. Published methods tend to be tedious, time-consuming, and uncertain as to accuracy. A new fluorometric procedure, which overcomes these objections to a large extent, is based on the blue fluorescence given by zirconium and flavonol in sulfuric acid solution. Hafnium is the only element that interferes. The sample is fused with borax glass and sodium carbonate and extracted with water. The residue is dissolved in sulfuric acid, made alkaline with sodium hydroxide to separate aluminum, and filtered. The precipitate is dissolved in sulfuric acid and electrolysed in a Melaven cell to remove iron. Flavonol is then added and the fluorescence intensity is measured with a photo-fluorometer. Analysis of seven standard mineral samples shows excellent results. The method is especially useful for minerals containing less than 0.25% zirconium oxide.

  10. From Zirconium Nanograins to Zirconia Nanoneedles

    PubMed Central

    Zalnezhad, E.; Hamouda, A. M. S.; Jaworski, J.; Do Kim, Young

    2016-01-01

    Combinations of three simple techniques were utilized to gradually form zirconia nanoneedles from zirconium nanograins. First, a physical vapor deposition magnetron sputtering technique was used to deposit pure zirconium nanograins on top of a substrate. Second, an anodic oxidation was applied to fabricate zirconia nanotubular arrays. Finally, heat treatment was used at different annealing temperatures in order to change the structure and morphology from nanotubes to nanowires and subsequently to nanoneedles in the presence of argon gas. The size of the pure zirconium nanograins was estimated to be approximately 200–300 nm. ZrO2 nanotubular arrays with diameters of 70–120 nm were obtained. Both tetragonal and monoclinic ZrO2 were observed after annealing at 450 °C and 650 °C. Only a few tetragonal peaks appeared at 850 °C, while monoclinic ZrO2 was obtained at 900 °C and 950 °C. In assessing the biocompatibility of the ZrO2 surface, the human cell line MDA-MB-231 was found to attach and proliferate well on surfaces annealed at 850 °C and 450 °C; however, the amorphous ZrO2 surface, which was not heat treated, did not permit extensive cell growth, presumably due to remaining fluoride. PMID:27623486

  11. Isotopic Biogeochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    An overview is provided of the biogeochemical research. The funding, productivity, personnel and facilities are reviewed. Some of the technical areas covered are: carbon isotopic records; isotopic studies of banded iron formations; isotope effects in microbial systems; studies of organic compounds in ancient sediments; and development in isotopic geochemistry and analysis.

  12. Development of Self-Healing Zirconium-Silicide Coatings for Improved Performance Zirconium-Alloy Fuel Cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Sridharan, Kumar; Mariani, Robert; Bai, Xianming

    Zirconium-alloy fuel claddings have been used successfully in Light Water Reactors (LWR) for over four decades. However, under high temperature accident conditions, zirconium-alloys fuel claddings exhibit profuse exothermic oxidation accompanied by release of hydrogen gas due to the reaction with water/steam. Additionally, the ZrO 2 layer can undergo monoclinic to tetragonal to cubic phase transformations at high temperatures which can induce stresses and cracking. These events were unfortunately borne out in the Fukushima-Daiichi accident in in Japan in 2011. In reaction to such accident, protective oxidation-resistant coatings for zirconium-alloy fuel claddings has been extensively investigated to enhance safety margins inmore » accidents as well as fuel performance under normal operation conditions. Such surface modification could also beneficially affect fuel rod heat transfer characteristics. Zirconium-silicide, a candidate coating material, is particularly attractive because zirconium-silicide coating is expected to bond strongly to zirconium-alloy substrate. Intermetallic compound phases of zirconium-silicide have high melting points and oxidation of zirconium silicide produces highly corrosion resistant glassy zircon (ZrSiO 4) and silica (SiO 2) which possessing self-healing qualities. Given the long-term goal of developing such coatings for use with nuclear reactor fuel cladding, this work describes results of oxidation and corrosion behavior of bulk zirconium-silicide and fabrication of zirconium-silicide coatings on zirconium-alloy test flats, tube configurations, and SiC test flats. In addition, boiling heat transfer of these modified surfaces (including ZrSi 2 coating) during clad quenching experiments is discussed in detail.« less

  13. NEUTRON REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT UTILIZING ZIRCONIUM-BASE ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Saller, H.A.; Keeler, J.R.; Szumachowski, E.R.

    1957-11-12

    This patent relates to clad fuel elements for use in neutronic reactors and is drawn to such a fuel element which consists of a core of fissionable material, comprised of an alloy of zirconium and U/sup 235/ enriched uranium, encased in a jacket of a binary zirconium-tin alloy in which the tin content ranges between 1 and 15% by weight.

  14. [The clinical application of zirconium-dioxide-ceramics. Case report].

    PubMed

    Somfai, Dóra; Zsigmond, Ágnes; Károlyházy, Katalin; Kispély, Barbara; Hermann, Péter

    2015-12-01

    Due to its outstanding physical, mechanical and esthetic properties, zirconium-dioxide is one of the most popular non-metal denture, capable of surpassing PFM in most cases. The recent advances of CAD/CAM technology makes it a good alternitve. Here we show the usefulness of zirconium-dioxide in everyday dental practice through three case reports.

  15. 40 CFR 721.10602 - Lead niobium titanium zirconium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... as specified in § 721.90 (a)(4), (b)(4), and (c)(4) (Where N=8, and 8 is an aggregate of releases for the following substances: Lead strontium titanium zirconium oxide (PMN P-11-270; CAS No. 61461-40-3... strontium titanium tungsten oxide (PMN P-11-272; CAS No. 1262279-30-0); Lanthanum lead titanium zirconium...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10602 - Lead niobium titanium zirconium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... as specified in § 721.90 (a)(4), (b)(4), and (c)(4) (Where N=8, and 8 is an aggregate of releases for the following substances: Lead strontium titanium zirconium oxide (PMN P-11-270; CAS No. 61461-40-3... strontium titanium tungsten oxide (PMN P-11-272; CAS No. 1262279-30-0); Lanthanum lead titanium zirconium...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10598 - Lead strontium titanium zirconium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lead strontium titanium zirconium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10598 Lead strontium titanium zirconium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as lead strontium...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10598 - Lead strontium titanium zirconium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lead strontium titanium zirconium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10598 Lead strontium titanium zirconium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as lead strontium...

  19. PROCESS FOR DISSOLVING BINARY URANIUM-ZIRCONIUM OR ZIRCONIUM-BASE ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Jonke, A.A.; Barghusen, J.J.; Levitz, N.M.

    1962-08-14

    A process of dissolving uranium-- zirconium and zircaloy alloys, e.g. jackets of fuel elements, with an anhydrous hydrogen fluoride containing from 10 to 32% by weight of hydrogen chloride at between 400 and 450 deg C., preferably while in contact with a fluidized inert powder, such as calcium fluoride is described. (AEC)

  20. Zirconium fluoride glass - Surface crystals formed by reaction with water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doremus, R. H.; Bansal, N. P.; Bradner, T.; Murphy, D.

    1984-01-01

    The hydrated surfaces of a zirconium barium fluoride glass, which has potential for application in optical fibers and other optical elements, were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Crystalline zirconium fluoride was identified by analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns of the surface crystals and found to be the main constituent of the surface material. It was also found that hydrated zirconium fluorides form only in highly acidic fluoride solutions. It is possible that the zirconium fluoride crystals form directly on the glass surface as a result of its depletion of other ions. The solubility of zirconium fluoride is suggested to be probably much lower than that of barium fluoride (0.16 g/100 cu cm at 18 C). Dissolution was determined to be the predominant process in the initial stages of the reaction of the glass with water. Penetration of water into the glass has little effect.

  1. Preparation of lead-zirconium-titanium film and powder by electrodeposition

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N.; Ginley, David S.

    1995-01-01

    A process for the preparation of lead-zirconium-titanium (PZT) film and powder compositions. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath, providing soluble salts of lead, zirconium and titanium metals to this bath, electrically energizing the bath to thereby direct ions of each respective metal to a substrate electrode and cause formation of metallic particles as a recoverable film of PZT powder on the electrode, and also recovering the resultant film as a powder. Recovery of the PZT powder can be accomplished by continually energizing the bath to thereby cause powder initially deposited on the substrate-electrode to drop therefrom into the bath from which it is subsequently removed. A second recovery alternative comprises energizing the bath for a period of time sufficient to cause PZT powder deposition on the substrate-electrode only, from which it is subsequently recovered. PZT film and powder so produced can be employed directly in electronic applications, or the film and powder can be subsequently oxidized as by an annealing process to thereby produce lead-zirconium-titanium oxide for use in electronic applications.

  2. Preparation of lead-zirconium-titanium film and powder by electrodeposition

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, R.N.; Ginley, D.S.

    1995-10-31

    A process is disclosed for the preparation of lead-zirconium-titanium (PZT) film and powder compositions. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath, providing soluble salts of lead, zirconium and titanium metals to this bath, electrically energizing the bath to thereby direct ions of each respective metal to a substrate electrode and cause formation of metallic particles as a recoverable film of PZT powder on the electrode, and also recovering the resultant film as a powder. Recovery of the PZT powder can be accomplished by continually energizing the bath to thereby cause powder initially deposited on the substrate-electrode to drop therefrom into the bath from which it is subsequently removed. A second recovery alternative comprises energizing the bath for a period of time sufficient to cause PZT powder deposition on the substrate-electrode only, from which it is subsequently recovered. PZT film and powder so produced can be employed directly in electronic applications, or the film and powder can be subsequently oxidized as by an annealing process to thereby produce lead-zirconium-titanium oxide for use in electronic applications. 4 figs.

  3. Multiphysics phase field modeling of hydrogen diffusion and delta-hydride precipitation in alpha-zirconium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokisaari, Andrea M.

    Hydride precipitation in zirconium is a significant factor limiting the lifetime of nuclear fuel cladding, because hydride microstructures play a key role in the degradation of fuel cladding. However, the behavior of hydrogen in zirconium has typically been modeled using mean field approaches, which do not consider microstructural evolution. This thesis describes a quantitative microstructural evolution model for the alpha-zirconium/delta-hydride system and the associated numerical methods and algorithms that were developed. The multiphysics, phase field-based model incorporates CALPHAD free energy descriptions, linear elastic solid mechanics, and classical nucleation theory. A flexible simulation software implementing the model, Hyrax, is built on the Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) finite element framework. Hyrax is open-source and freely available; moreover, the numerical methods and algorithms that have been developed are generalizable to other systems. The algorithms are described in detail, and verification studies for each are discussed. In addition, analyses of the sensitivity of the simulation results to the choice of numerical parameters are presented. For example, threshold values for the CALPHAD free energy algorithm and the use of mesh and time adaptivity when employing the nucleation algorithm are studied. Furthermore, preliminary insights into the nucleation behavior of delta-hydrides are described. These include a) the sensitivities of the nucleation rate to temperature, interfacial energy, composition and elastic energy, b) the spatial variation of the nucleation rate around a single precipitate, and c) the effect of interfacial energy and nucleation rate on the precipitate microstructure. Finally, several avenues for future work are discussed. Topics encompass the terminal solid solubility hysteresis of hydrogen in zirconium and the effects of the alpha/delta interfacial energy, as well as thermodiffusion, plasticity

  4. ZIRCONIUM-TITANIUM-BERYLLIUM BRAZING ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Gilliland, R.G.; Patriarca, P.; Slaughter, G.M.; Williams, L.C.

    1962-06-12

    A new and improved ternary alloy is described which is of particular utility in braze-bonding parts made of a refractory metal selected from Group IV, V, and VI of the periodic table and alloys containing said metal as a predominating alloying ingredient. The brazing alloy contains, by weight, 40 to 50 per cent zirconium, 40 to 50 per cent titanium, and the balance beryllium in amounts ranging from 1 to 20 per cent, said alloy having a melting point in the range 950 to 1400 deg C. (AEC)

  5. Cherenkov and Scintillation Properties of Cubic Zirconium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, M.J.; Adams, J.H.; Parnell, T.A.; Kuznetsov, E.N.

    2008-01-01

    Cubic zirconium (CZ) is a high index of refraction (n =2.17) material that we have investigated for Cherenkov counter applications. Laboratory and proton accelerator tests of an 18cc sample of CZ show that the expected fast Cherenkov response is accompanied by a longer scintillation component that can be separated by pulse shaping. This presents the possibility of novel particle spectrometers which exploits both properties of CZ. Other high index materials being examined for Cherenkov applications will be discussed. Results from laboratory tests and an accelerator exposure will be presented and a potential application in solar energetic particle instruments will be discussed

  6. METHOD FOR DISSOLVING ZIRCONIUM-URANIUM COMPOSITIONS

    DOEpatents

    Gens, T.A.

    1961-07-18

    A method is descrioed for treating a zirconium-- uranium composition to form a stable solution from which uranium and other values may be extracted by contacting the composition with at least a 4 molar aqueous solution of ammonium fluoride at a temperature of about 100 deg C, adding a peroxide, in incremental amounts, to the heated solution throughout the period of dissolution until all of the uranium is converted to soluble uranyl salt, adding nitric acid to the resultant solution to form a solvent extraction feed solution to convert the uranyl salt to a solvent extractable state, and thereafter recovering the uranium and other desired values from the feed solution by solvent extraction.

  7. METHOD OF PREPARING SINTERED ZIRCONIUM METAL FROM ITS HYDRIDES

    DOEpatents

    Angier, R.P.

    1958-02-11

    The invention relates to the preparation of metal shapes from zirconium hydride by powder metallurgical techniques. The zirconium hydride powder which is to be used for this purpose can be prepared by rendering massive pieces of crystal bar zirconium friable by heat treatment in purified hydrogen. This any then be ground into powder and powder can be handled in the air without danger of it igniting. It may then be compacted in the normal manner by being piaced in a die. The compact is sintered under vacuum conditions preferably at a temperature ranging from 1200 to 1300 deg C and for periods of one to three hours.

  8. SEPARATION OF URANIUM FROM ZIRCONIUM AND NIOBIUM BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Voiland, E.E.

    1958-05-01

    A process for separation of the uranium from zirconium and/or niobium values contained in 3 to 7M aqueous nitric acid solutions is described. This is accomplished by adding phosphoric acid anions to the nitric acid solution containing the uranium, zirconium, and/or niobium in an amount sufficient to make the solution 0.05 to 0.2M in phosphate ion and contacting the solution with an organic water-immiscible solvent such as MEK, whereby the uranyl values are taken up by the extract phase while the zirconium and niobium preferentially remain in the aqueous raffinate.

  9. RECOVERY OF URANIUM FROM ZIRCONIUM-URANIUM NUCLEAR FUELS

    DOEpatents

    Gens, T.A.

    1962-07-10

    An improvement was made in a process of recovering uranium from a uranium-zirconium composition which was hydrochlorinated with gsseous hydrogen chloride at a temperature of from 350 to 800 deg C resulting in volatilization of the zirconium, as zirconium tetrachloride, and the formation of a uranium containing nitric acid insoluble residue. The improvement consists of reacting the nitric acid insoluble hydrochlorination residue with gaseous carbon tetrachloride at a temperature in the range 550 to 600 deg C, and thereafter recovering the resulting uranium chloride vapors. (AEC)

  10. Rapid fusion method for the determination of refractory thorium and uranium isotopes in soil samples

    DOE PAGES

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Hutchison, Jay B.; McAlister, Daniel R.

    2015-02-14

    Recently, approximately 80% of participating laboratories failed to accurately determine uranium isotopes in soil samples in the U.S Department of Energy Mixed Analyte Performance Evaluation Program (MAPEP) Session 30, due to incomplete dissolution of refractory particles in the samples. Failing laboratories employed acid dissolution methods, including hydrofluoric acid, to recover uranium from the soil matrix. The failures illustrate the importance of rugged soil dissolution methods for the accurate measurement of analytes in the sample matrix. A new rapid fusion method has been developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to prepare 1-2 g soil sample aliquots very quickly, withmore » total dissolution of refractory particles. Soil samples are fused with sodium hydroxide at 600 ºC in zirconium crucibles to enable complete dissolution of the sample. Uranium and thorium are separated on stacked TEVA and TRU extraction chromatographic resin cartridges, prior to isotopic measurements by alpha spectrometry on cerium fluoride microprecipitation sources. Plutonium can also be separated and measured using this method. Batches of 12 samples can be prepared for measurement in <5 hours.« less

  11. PRECIPITATION OF ZIRCONIUM AND FLUORIDE IONS FROM SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Newby, B.J.

    1963-06-11

    A process is given for removing zirconium and fluorine ions from aqueous solutions also containing uranium(VI). The precipitation is carried out with sodium formate, and the uranium remains in solution. (AEC)

  12. Process for massively hydriding zirconium--uranium fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Katz, N.H.

    1973-12-01

    A method is described of hydriding uranium-zirconium alloy by heating the alloy in a vacuum, introducing hydrogen and maintaining an elevated temperature until occurrence of the beta--delta phase transformation and isobarically cooling the composition. (Official Gazette)

  13. Zirconium Hydride Space Power Reactor design.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asquith, J. G.; Mason, D. G.; Stamp, S.

    1972-01-01

    The Zirconium Hydride Space Power Reactor being designed and fabricated at Atomics International is intended for a wide range of potential applications. Throughout the program a series of reactor designs have been evaluated to establish the unique requirements imposed by coupling with various power conversion systems and for specific applications. Current design and development emphasis is upon a 100 kilowatt thermal reactor for application in a 5 kwe thermoelectric space power generating system, which is scheduled to be fabricated and ground tested in the mid 70s. The reactor design considerations reviewed in this paper will be discussed in the context of this 100 kwt reactor and a 300 kwt reactor previously designed for larger power demand applications.

  14. U.S. Department of Energy Isotope Program

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2018-01-16

    The National Isotope Development Center (NIDC) interfaces with the User Community and manages the coordination of isotope production across the facilities and business operations involved in the production, sale, and distribution of isotopes. A virtual center, the NIDC is funded by the Isotope Development and Production for Research and Applications (IDPRA) subprogram of the Office of Nuclear Physics in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science. PNNL’s Isotope Program operates in a multi-program category-2 nuclear facility, the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL), that contains 16 hot cells and 20 gloveboxes. As part of the DOE Isotope Program, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory dispenses strontium-90, neptunium-237, radium-223, and thorium-227. PNNL’s Isotope Program uses a dedicated hot-cell for strontium-90 dispensing and a dedicated glovebox for radium-223 and thorium-227 dispensing. PNNL’s Isotope Program has access to state of the art analytical equipment in the RPL to support their research and production activities. DOE Isotope Program funded research at PNNL has advanced the application of automated radiochemistry for isotope such as zirconium-89 and astatine-211 in partnership with the University of Washington.

  15. U.S. Department of Energy Isotope Program

    SciTech Connect

    None

    The National Isotope Development Center (NIDC) interfaces with the User Community and manages the coordination of isotope production across the facilities and business operations involved in the production, sale, and distribution of isotopes. A virtual center, the NIDC is funded by the Isotope Development and Production for Research and Applications (IDPRA) subprogram of the Office of Nuclear Physics in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science. PNNL’s Isotope Program operates in a multi-program category-2 nuclear facility, the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL), that contains 16 hot cells and 20 gloveboxes. As part of the DOE Isotope Program, the Pacific Northwestmore » National Laboratory dispenses strontium-90, neptunium-237, radium-223, and thorium-227. PNNL’s Isotope Program uses a dedicated hot-cell for strontium-90 dispensing and a dedicated glovebox for radium-223 and thorium-227 dispensing. PNNL’s Isotope Program has access to state of the art analytical equipment in the RPL to support their research and production activities. DOE Isotope Program funded research at PNNL has advanced the application of automated radiochemistry for isotope such as zirconium-89 and astatine-211 in partnership with the University of Washington.« less

  16. CHARACTERISTICS OF ANODIC AND CORROSION FILMS ON ZIRCONIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Misch, R.D.

    1960-05-01

    Zirconium anodizes similarly to tungsten in respect to the change of interference colors with applied voltage. However, the oxide layer on tungsten cannot reach as great a thickness. Hafnium does not anodize in the same way as zirconium but is similar to tantalum. By measuring the interference color and capacitative thicknesses on zirconium (Grades I and III) and a 2.5 wt.% tin ailoy, the film was found to grow less rapidly in terms of capacitance than in terms of iaterference colors. This was interpreted to mean that cracks develop in the oxide as it thickens. The effect was most pronouncedmore » on Grade III zirconium and least pronounced on the tin alloy. The reduction in capacitative thickness was especially noticeable when white oxide appeared. Comparative measurements on Grade I zirconium and 2.5 wt.% tin alloy indicated that the thickness of the oxide film on the tin alloy (after 16 hours in water) increased more rapidly with temperature than the film on zirconium. Tin is believed to act in ways to counteract the tendency of the oxide to form cracks, and to produce vacancies which promote ionic diffusion. (auth)« less

  17. Nanoindentation study of bulk zirconium hydrides at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Cinbiz, Mahmut Nedim; Balooch, Mehdi; Hu, Xunxiang

    Here, the mechanical properties of zirconium hydrides was studied using nano-indentation technique at a temperature range of 25 – 400 °C. Temperature dependency of reduced elastic modulus and hardness of δ- and ε-zirconium hydrides were obtained by conducting nanoindentation experiments on the bulk hydride samples with independently heating capability of indenter and heating stage. The reduced elastic modulus of δ-zirconium hydride (H/Zr ratio =1.61) decreased from ~113 GPa to ~109 GPa while temperature increased from room temperature to 400°C. For ε-zirconium hydrides (H/Zr ratio=1.79), the reduced elastic modulus decreased from 61 GPa to 54 GPa as temperature increased from roommore » temperature to 300 °C. Whereas, hardness of δ-zirconium hydride significantly decreased from 4.1 GPa to 2.41 GPa when temperature increased from room temperature to 400 °C. Similarly, hardness of ε-zirconium hydride decreased from 3.06 GPa to 2.19 GPa with temperature increase from room temperature to 300°C.« less

  18. Nanoindentation study of bulk zirconium hydrides at elevated temperatures

    DOE PAGES

    Cinbiz, Mahmut Nedim; Balooch, Mehdi; Hu, Xunxiang; ...

    2017-08-02

    Here, the mechanical properties of zirconium hydrides was studied using nano-indentation technique at a temperature range of 25 – 400 °C. Temperature dependency of reduced elastic modulus and hardness of δ- and ε-zirconium hydrides were obtained by conducting nanoindentation experiments on the bulk hydride samples with independently heating capability of indenter and heating stage. The reduced elastic modulus of δ-zirconium hydride (H/Zr ratio =1.61) decreased from ~113 GPa to ~109 GPa while temperature increased from room temperature to 400°C. For ε-zirconium hydrides (H/Zr ratio=1.79), the reduced elastic modulus decreased from 61 GPa to 54 GPa as temperature increased from roommore » temperature to 300 °C. Whereas, hardness of δ-zirconium hydride significantly decreased from 4.1 GPa to 2.41 GPa when temperature increased from room temperature to 400 °C. Similarly, hardness of ε-zirconium hydride decreased from 3.06 GPa to 2.19 GPa with temperature increase from room temperature to 300°C.« less

  19. Quercetin as colorimetric reagent for determination of zirconium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimaldi, F.S.; White, C.E.

    1953-01-01

    Methods described in the literature for the determination of zirconium are generally designed for relatively large amounts of this element. A good procedure using colorimetric reagent for the determination of trace amounts is desirable. Quercetin has been found to yield a sensitive color reaction with zirconium suitable for the determination of from 0.1 to 50?? of zirconium dioxide. The procedure developed involves the separation of zirconium from interfering elements by precipitation with p-dimethylaminoazophenylarsonic acid prior to its estimation with quercetin. The quercetin reaction is carried out in 0.5N hydrochloric acid solution. Under the operating conditions it is indicated that quercetin forms a 2 to 1 complex with zirconium; however, a 2 to 1 and a 1 to 1 complex can coexist under special conditions. Approximate values for the equilibrium constants of the complexes are K1 = 0.33 ?? 10-5 and K2 = 1.3 ?? 10-9. Seven Bureau of Standards samples of glass sands and refractories were analyzed with excellent results. The method described should find considerable application in the analysis of minerals and other materials for macro as well as micro amounts of zirconium.

  20. Layer Protecting the Surface of Zirconium Used in Nuclear Reactors.

    PubMed

    Ashcheulov, Petr; Skoda, Radek; Skarohlíd, Jan; Taylor, Andrew; Fendrych, Frantisek; Kratochvílová, Irena

    2016-01-01

    Zirconium alloys have very useful properties for nuclear facilities applications having low absorption cross-section of thermal electrons, high ductility, hardness and corrosion resistance. However, there is also a significant disadvantage: it reacts with water steam and during this (oxidative) reaction it releases hydrogen gas, which partly diffuses into the alloy forming zirconium hydrides. A new strategy for surface protection of zirconium alloys against undesirable oxidation in nuclear reactors by polycrystalline diamond film has been patented- Czech patent 305059: Layer protecting the surface of zirconium alloys used in nuclear reactors and PCT patent: Layer for protecting surface of zirconium alloys (Patent Number: WO2015039636-A1). The zirconium alloy surface was covered by polycrystalline diamond layer grown in plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition apparatus with linear antenna delivery system. Substantial progress in the description and understanding of the polycrystalline diamond/ zirconium alloys interface and material properties under standard and nuclear reactors conditions (irradiation, hot steam oxidation experiments and heating-quenching cycles) was made. In addition, process technology for the deposition of protective polycrystalline diamond films onto the surface of zirconium alloys was optimized. Zircaloy2 nuclear fuel pins were covered by 300 nm thick protective polycrystalline diamond layer (PCD) using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition apparatus with linear antenna delivery system. The polycrystalline diamond layer protects the zirconium alloy surface against undesirable oxidation and consolidates its chemical stability while preserving its functionality. PCD covered Zircaloy2 and standard Zircaloy2 pins were for 30 min. oxidized in 1100°C hot steam. Under these conditions α phase of zirconium changes to β phase (more opened for oxygen/hydrogen diffusion). PCD anticorrosion protection of Zircaloy nuclear fuel assemblies can

  1. Understanding the Irradiation Behavior of Zirconium Carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Motta, Arthur; Sridharan, Kumar; Morgan, Dane

    2013-10-11

    Zirconium carbide (ZrC) is being considered for utilization in high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuels in deep-burn TRISO fuel. Zirconium carbide possesses a cubic B1-type crystal structure with a high melting point, exceptional hardness, and good thermal and electrical conductivities. The use of ZrC as part of the TRISO fuel requires a thorough understanding of its irradiation response. However, the radiation effects on ZrC are still poorly understood. The majority of the existing research is focused on the radiation damage phenomena at higher temperatures (>450{degree}C) where many fundamental aspects of defect production and kinetics cannot be easily distinguished. Little is known aboutmore » basic defect formation, clustering, and evolution of ZrC under irradiation, although some atomistic simulation and phenomenological studies have been performed. Such detailed information is needed to construct a model describing the microstructural evolution in fast-neutron irradiated materials that will be of great technological importance for the development of ZrC-based fuel. The goal of the proposed project is to gain fundamental understanding of the radiation-induced defect formation in zirconium carbide and irradiation response by using a combination of state-of-the-art experimental methods and atomistic modeling. This project will combine (1) in situ ion irradiation at a specialized facility at a national laboratory, (2) controlled temperature proton irradiation on bulk samples, and (3) atomistic modeling to gain a fundamental understanding of defect formation in ZrC. The proposed project will cover the irradiation temperatures from cryogenic temperature to as high as 800{degree}C, and dose ranges from 0.1 to 100 dpa. The examination of this wide range of temperatures and doses allows us to obtain an experimental data set that can be effectively used to exercise and benchmark the computer calculations of defect properties. Combining the examination of radiation

  2. PROCESS OF RECOVERING ZIRCONIUM VALUES FROM HAFNIUM VALUES BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION WITH AN ALKYL PHOSPHATE

    DOEpatents

    Peppard, D.F.

    1960-02-01

    A process of separating hafnium nitrate from zirconium nitrate contained in a nitric acid solution by selectively. extracting the zirconium nitrate with a water-immiscible alkyl phosphate is reported.

  3. Improved Yttrium and Zirconium Abundances in Metal-Poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Violante, Renata; Biemont, E.; Cowan, J. J.; Sneden, C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We present new abundances of the lighter n-capture elements, Yttrium (Z=39) and Zirconium (Z=40) in the very metal poor, r-process rich stars BD+17 3248 and HD 221170. Very accurate abundances were obtained by use of the new transition probabilities for Y II published by Biémont et al. 2011, and Zr II by Malcheva et al. 2006, and by expanding the number of transitions employed for each element. For example, in BD+17 3248, we find log ɛπσιλον=-0.03 +/- 0.03 (σιγμα=0.15, from 23 lines) for Y II. As for Zr II, log ɛπσιλον = 0.65 +/- 0.03 (σɛγμα = 0.1, from 13 lines). The resulting abundance ratio is log ɛπσιλον [Y/Zr] = -0.68 +/- 0.05. The results for HD 221170 are in accord with those of BD+17 3248. The quantity of lines used to form the abundance means has increased significantly since the original studies of these stars, resulting in more trustworthy abundances. These observed abundance ratios are in agreement with an r-process-only value predicted from stellar models, but is under-abundant compared to an empirical model derived from direct analyses of meteoritic material. This ambiguity should stimulate further nucleosynthetic analysis to explain this abundance ratio. We would like to extend our gratitude to NSF grant AST-0908978 and the University of Texas Astronomy Department Rex G. Baker, Jr. Endowment for their financial support in this project.

  4. Zirconium oxide surface passivation of crystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Yimao; Bullock, James; Hettick, Mark; Xu, Zhaoran; Yan, Di; Peng, Jun; Javey, Ali; Cuevas, Andres

    2018-05-01

    This letter reports effective passivation of crystalline silicon (c-Si) surfaces by thermal atomic layer deposited zirconium oxide (ZrOx). The optimum layer thickness and activation annealing conditions are determined to be 20 nm and 300 °C for 20 min. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy imaging shows an approximately 1.6 nm thick SiOx interfacial layer underneath an 18 nm ZrOx layer, consistent with ellipsometry measurements (˜20 nm). Capacitance-voltage measurements show that the annealed ZrOx film features a low interface defect density of 1.0 × 1011 cm-2 eV-1 and a low negative film charge density of -6 × 1010 cm-2. Effective lifetimes of 673 μs and 1.1 ms are achieved on p-type and n-type 1 Ω cm undiffused c-Si wafers, respectively, corresponding to an implied open circuit voltage above 720 mV in both cases. The results demonstrate that surface passivation quality provided by ALD ZrOx is consistent with the requirements of high efficiency silicon solar cells.

  5. Atomic layer deposition of zirconium silicate films using zirconium tetrachloride and tetra-n-butyl orthosilicate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Won-Kyu; Kang, Sang-Woo; Rhee, Shi-Woo; Lee, Nae-In; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kang, Ho-Kyu

    2002-11-01

    Atomic layer chemical vapor deposition of zirconium silicate films with a precursor combination of ZrCl4 and tetra-n-butyl orthosilicate (TBOS) was studied for high dielectric gate insulators. The effect of deposition conditions, such as deposition temperature, pulse time for purge and precursor injection on the deposition rate per cycle, and composition of the film were studied. At 400 °C, the growth rate saturated to 1.35 Å/cycle above 500 sccm of the argon purge flow rate. The growth rate, composition ratio ((Zr/Zr+Si)), and impurity contents (carbon and chlorine) saturated with the increase of the injection time of ZrCl4 and TBOS and decreased with the increased deposition temperature from 300 to 500 °C. The growth rate, composition ratio, carbon, and chlorine contents of the Zr silicate thin films deposited at 500 °C were 1.05 Å/cycle, 0.23, 1.1 at. %, and 2.1 at. %, respectively. It appeared that by using only zirconium chloride and silicon alkoxide sources, the content of carbon and chlorine impurities could not be lowered below 1%. It was also found that the incorporation rate of metal from halide source was lower than alkoxide source.

  6. Atomic layer deposition of zirconium silicate films using zirconium tetra-tert-butoxide and silicon tetrachloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Won-Kyu; Kang, Sang-Woo; Rhee, Shi-Woo

    2003-09-01

    A new precursor combination (SiCl4 and Zr(OtC4H9)4) was used to deposit Zr silicate with Zr(OtC4H9)4 as a zirconium source and oxygen source at the same time. SiCl4 and Zr(OtC4H9)4 have higher vapor pressures than their counterpart, ZrCl4 and tetra-n-butyl orthosilicate (TBOS), and it was expected that the cycle time would be shorter. The deposition temperature of the new combination was about 150 °C lower than that of ZrCl4 and TBOS. The film was zirconium rich while it was silicon rich with ZrCl4 and TBOS. Growth rate (nm/cycle), composition ratio [Zr/(Zr+Si)], and chlorine impurity were decreased with increasing deposition temperature from 125 to 225 °C. The composition ratio of the film deposited at 225 °C was 0.53 and the chlorine content was about 0.4 at. %. No carbon was detected by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  7. Mechanical properties of zirconium alloys and zirconium hydrides predicted from density functional perturbation theory

    DOE PAGES

    Weck, Philippe F.; Kim, Eunja; Tikare, Veena; ...

    2015-10-13

    Here, the elastic properties and mechanical stability of zirconium alloys and zirconium hydrides have been investigated within the framework of density functional perturbation theory. Results show that the lowest-energy cubic Pn-3m with combining macron]m polymorph of δ-ZrH 1.5 does not satisfy all the Born requirements for mechanical stability, unlike its nearly degenerate tetragonal P4 2/ mcm polymorph. Elastic moduli predicted with the Voigt–Reuss–Hill approximations suggest that mechanical stability of α-Zr, Zr-alloy and Zr-hydride polycrystalline aggregates is limited by the shear modulus. According to both Pugh's and Poisson's ratios, α-Zr, Zr-alloy and Zr-hydride polycrystalline aggregates can be considered ductile. The Debyemore » temperatures predicted for γ-ZrH, δ-ZrH 1.5 and ε-ZrH 2 are θ D = 299.7, 415.6 and 356.9 K, respectively, while θ D = 273.6, 284.2, 264.1 and 257.1 K for the α-Zr, Zry-4, ZIRLO and M5 matrices, i.e. suggesting that Zry-4 possesses the highest micro-hardness among Zr matrices.« less

  8. Inhibition of Ice Growth and Recrystallization by Zirconium Acetate and Zirconium Acetate Hydroxide

    PubMed Central

    Mizrahy, Ortal; Bar-Dolev, Maya; Guy, Shlomit; Braslavsky, Ido

    2013-01-01

    The control over ice crystal growth, melting, and shaping is important in a variety of fields, including cell and food preservation and ice templating for the production of composite materials. Control over ice growth remains a challenge in industry, and the demand for new cryoprotectants is high. Naturally occurring cryoprotectants, such as antifreeze proteins (AFPs), present one solution for modulating ice crystal growth; however, the production of AFPs is expensive and inefficient. These obstacles can be overcome by identifying synthetic substitutes with similar AFP properties. Zirconium acetate (ZRA) was recently found to induce the formation of hexagonal cavities in materials prepared by ice templating. Here, we continue this line of study and examine the effects of ZRA and a related compound, zirconium acetate hydroxide (ZRAH), on ice growth, shaping, and recrystallization. We found that the growth rate of ice crystals was significantly reduced in the presence of ZRA and ZRAH, and that solutions containing these compounds display a small degree of thermal hysteresis, depending on the solution pH. The compounds were found to inhibit recrystallization in a manner similar to that observed in the presence of AFPs. The favorable properties of ZRA and ZRAH suggest tremendous potential utility in industrial applications. PMID:23555701

  9. 40 CFR 721.10089 - Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified salicylic acid, zirconium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10089 Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (PMN P-00-552) is subject to reporting under this...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10089 - Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified salicylic acid, zirconium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10089 Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (PMN P-00-552) is subject to reporting under this...

  11. 40 CFR 471.90 - Applicability; description of the zirconium-hafnium forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... zirconium-hafnium forming subcategory. 471.90 Section 471.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zirconium-Hafnium Forming Subcategory § 471.90 Applicability; description of the zirconium-hafnium forming subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of pollutants to waters of the...

  12. 40 CFR 421.330 - Applicability: Description of the primary zirconium and hafnium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... primary zirconium and hafnium subcategory. 421.330 Section 421.330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Primary Zirconium and Hafnium Subcategory § 421.330 Applicability: Description of the primary zirconium and hafnium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting...

  13. Employer Toolkit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thuli, Kelli J.; Hong, Esther

    This document consists of two guides intended for either employers or service providers involved in school to work partnerships for students with disabilities. "Tools for Service Providers" is intended to be used for training local-level providers who are developing school to work linkages with employers. Following an introduction, this…

  14. Engaging Employers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillier, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    A key factor in the successful development of workplace learning is employer engagement (Leitch, 2006; DfES, 2007). However, despite numerous approaches by government in the United Kingdom to bring together employers, providers and learners so that economic success is generated by a skilled and flexible workforce, there continue to be challenges…

  15. Industry Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates projected employment change by industry and industry sector over 2010-20 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment for which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  16. Quantitative Determination of Isotope Ratios from Experimental Isotopic Distributions

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Parminder; O’Connor, Peter B.

    2008-01-01

    Isotope variability due to natural processes provides important information for studying a variety of complex natural phenomena from the origins of a particular sample to the traces of biochemical reaction mechanisms. These measurements require high-precision determination of isotope ratios of a particular element involved. Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometers (IRMS) are widely employed tools for such a high-precision analysis, which have some limitations. This work aims at overcoming the limitations inherent to IRMS by estimating the elemental isotopic abundance from the experimental isotopic distribution. In particular, a computational method has been derived which allows the calculation of 13C/12C ratios from the whole isotopic distributions, given certain caveats, and these calculations are applied to several cases to demonstrate their utility. The limitations of the method in terms of the required number of ions and S/N ratio are discussed. For high-precision estimates of the isotope ratios, this method requires very precise measurement of the experimental isotopic distribution abundances, free from any artifacts introduced by noise, sample heterogeneity, or other experimental sources. PMID:17263354

  17. Process for electroless deposition of metals on zirconium materials

    DOEpatents

    Donaghy, Robert E.

    1978-01-01

    A process for the electroless deposition of a metal layer on an article comprised of zirconium or a zirconium alloy is disclosed. The article is activated in an aged aqueous solution comprising from about 10 to about 20 grams per liter ammonium bifluoride and from about 0.75 to about 2 grams per liter of sulfuric acid. The solution is aged by immersion of pickled zirconium in the solution for at least about 10 minutes. The loosely adhering film formed on the article in the activating step is removed and the article is contacted with an electroless plating solution containing the metal to be deposited on the article upon sufficient contact with the article.

  18. Process for electrolytic deposition of metals on zirconium materials

    DOEpatents

    Donaghy, Robert E.

    1979-01-30

    A process for the electrolytic deposition of a metal layer on an article comprised of zirconium or a zirconium alloy is disclosed. The article is activated in an aged aqueous solution comprising from about 10 to about 20 grams per liter ammonium bifluoride and from about 0.75 to about 2 grams per liter of sulfuric acid. The solution is aged by immersion of pickled zirconium in the solution for at least about 10 minutes. The loosely adhering film formed on the article in the activating step is removed and the article is contacted with an electrolytic plating solution containing the metal to be deposited on the article in the presence of an electrode receiving current.

  19. METHOD OF FABRICATING A URANIUM-ZIRCONIUM HYDRIDE REACTOR CORE

    DOEpatents

    Weeks, I.F.; Goeddel, W.V.

    1960-03-22

    A method is described of evenly dispersing uranlum metal in a zirconium hydride moderator to produce a fuel element for nuclear reactors. According to the invention enriched uranium hydride and zirconium hydride powders of 200 mesh particle size are thoroughly admixed to form a mixture containing 0.1 to 3% by weight of U/sup 235/ hydride. The mixed powders are placed in a die and pressed at 100 tons per square inch at room temperature. The resultant compacts are heated in a vacuum to 300 deg C, whereby the uranium hydride deoomposes into uranium metal and hydrogen gas. The escaping hydrogen gas forms a porous matrix of zirconium hydride, with uramum metal evenly dispersed therethrough. The advantage of the invention is that the porosity and uranium distribution of the final fuel element can be more closely determined and controlled than was possible using prior methods of producing such fuel ele- ments.

  20. Thermochemistry of amorphous and crystalline zirconium and hafnium silicates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushakov, S.; Brown, C. E.; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Boatner, L. A.; Demkov, A. A.; Wang, C.; Nguyen, B.-Y.

    2003-03-01

    Calorimetric investigation of amorphous and crystalline zirconium and hafnium silicates was performed as part of a research program on thermochemistry of alternative gate dielectrics. Amorphous hafnium and zirconium silicates with varying SiO2 content were synthesized by a sol-gel process. Crystalline zirconium and hafnium silicates (zircon and hafnon) were synthesized by solid state reaction at 1450 °C from amorphous gels and grown as single crystals from flux. High temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry in lead borate (2PbO.B2O3) solvent at 800 oC was used to measure drop solution enthalpies for amorphous and crystalline zirconium and hafnium silicates and corresponding oxides. Applying appropriate thermochemical cycles, formation enthalpy of crystalline ZrSiO4 (zircon) from binary oxides (baddeleite and quartz) at 298 K was calculated as -23 +/-2 kJ/mol and enthalpy difference between amorphous and crystalline zirconium silicate (vitrification enthalpy) was found to be 61 +/-3 kJ/mol. Crystallization onset temperatures of amorphous zirconium and hafnium silicates, as measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), increased with silica content. The resulting crystalline phases, as characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), were tetragonal HfO2 and ZrO2. Critical crystallite size for tetragonal to monoclinic transformation of HfO2 in the gel was estimated as 6 +/-2 nm from XRD data Crystallization enthalpies per mole of hafnia and zirconia in gels decrease slightly together with crystallite size with increasing silica content, for example from -22 to -15 +/-1 kJ per mol of HfO2 crystallized at 740 and 1006 °C from silicates with 10 and 70 mol Applications of thermal analyses and solution calorimetry techniques together with first-principles density functional calculations to estimate interface and surface energies are discussed.

  1. In-situ stabilization of radioactive zirconium swarf

    DOEpatents

    Hess, Clay C.

    1999-01-01

    The method for treating ignitable cutting swarf in accordance with the present invention involves collecting cutting swarf in a casting mold underwater and injecting a binder mixture comprising vinyl ester styrene into the vessel to fill void volume; and form a mixture comprising swarf and vinyl ester styrene; and curing the mixture. The method is especially useful for stabilizing the ignitable characteristics of radioactive zirconium cutting swarf, and can be used to solidify zirconium swarf, or other ignitable finely divided material, underwater. The process could also be performed out of water with other particulate wastes.

  2. In-situ stabilization of radioactive zirconium swarf

    DOEpatents

    Hess, C.C.

    1999-08-31

    The method for treating ignitable cutting swarf in accordance with the present invention involves collecting cutting swarf in a casting mold underwater and injecting a binder mixture comprising vinyl ester styrene into the vessel to fill void volume; and form a mixture comprising swarf and vinyl ester styrene; and curing the mixture. The method is especially useful for stabilizing the ignitable characteristics of radioactive zirconium cutting swarf, and can be used to solidify zirconium swarf, or other ignitable finely divided material, underwater. The process could also be performed out of water with other particulate wastes. 6 figs.

  3. Synthesis and nonstoichiometry of the zirconium trihalides

    SciTech Connect

    Daake, R.L.; Corbett, J.D.

    1978-05-01

    The synthesis of ZrX/sub 3/ (X = Cl, Br, I) by reaction of the corresponding tetrahalides with ZrCl, ZrBr, or ZrI/sub 1.8/ in sealed tantalum tubing gives high-purity, single-phase products, thereby avoiding problems of the relatively low reactivity of and contamination by zirconium powder reductant used previously. Phase limits for the three trihalides established by isopiestic equilibration with the adjoining phases are 2.94 (2) less than or equal to Cl:Zr less than or equal to 3.03 (2) (440/sup 0/C), 2.87 (2) less than or equal to Br:Zr less than or equal to 3.23 (2) (435/sup 0/C), and 2.83 (5) (775/supmore » 0/C) less than or equal to I:Zr less than or equal to 3.43 (5) (475/sup 0/C). The hexagonal lattice constants for the bromide phase (Guinier techniques) decrease linearly with increasing bromide content across the entire range without the development of any additional lines. The variation of the c dimension for ZrI/sub 3/ (and HfI/sub 3/) on oxidation is in the opposite direction, and in this case extra lines from a presumed superlattice structure developed toward the upper limit. The structural implications of these results are considered. The reported structure for ..cap alpha..-ZrCl/sub 3/, an unusual BiI/sub 3/-type variant, was based on a misassigned ZrCl powder pattern and therefore appears to be in error. 25 references.« less

  4. Safety of stable isotope use.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, B; Sauerwald, T; Demmelmair, H

    1997-08-01

    The increased employment of stable isotope tracers for diagnostic and research purposes frequently raises questions on potential risks associated with their use, which is of particular importance in the paediatric age group. Biological effects and the potential of adverse events has been evaluated in a large number of animal and, in part, also human studies. Possible differences in physical, chemical and biochemical behaviour resulting in kinetic and thermodynamic isotope effects between stable isotopes of the same element are related to the relative differences in atomic weight. Deuterium (2H), which differs markedly in mass from the predominant hydrogen isotope 1H, may induce serious side-effects at high concentrations in body fluids. The threshold dose for the occurrence of side-effects lies well above the usual tracer dosages for clinical use. In contrast to deuterium, heavier stable isotopes such as 13C, 15N or 18O that differ relatively little in mass from the predominant isotopes such as 12C, does not show any adverse biological effects even at highest enrichments. The doses of stable isotope tracer substances that are used for clinical diagnostic and research purposes appear safe and without any adverse effects. Stable isotope tracers should only be used in children if the trace is safe at the doses applied, and tracer is chemically pure and stable. In the case of intravenous application, the tracer preparation must also be sterile and pyrogen free.

  5. Hydrogen pickup mechanism of zirconium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couet, Adrien

    Although the optimization of zirconium based alloys has led to significant improvements in hydrogen pickup and corrosion resistance, the mechanisms by which such alloy improvements occur are still not well understood. In an effort to understand such mechanisms, a systematic study of the alloy effect on hydrogen pickup is conducted, using advanced characterization techniques to rationalize precise measurements of hydrogen pickup. The hydrogen pick-up fraction is accurately measured for a specially designed set of commercial and model alloys to investigate the effects of alloying elements, microstructure and corrosion kinetics on hydrogen uptake. Two different techniques to measure hydrogen concentrations were used: a destructive technique, Vacuum Hot Extraction, and a non-destructive one, Cold Neutron Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis. The results indicate that hydrogen pickup varies not only from alloy to alloy but also during the corrosion process for a given alloy. For instance Zircaloy type alloys show high hydrogen pickup fraction and sub-parabolic oxidation kinetics whereas ZrNb alloys show lower hydrogen pickup fraction and close to parabolic oxidation kinetics. Hypothesis is made that hydrogen pickup result from the need to balance charge during the corrosion reaction, such that the pickup of hydrogen is directly related to (and indivisible of) the corrosion mechanism and decreases when the rate of electron transport or oxide electronic conductivity sigmao xe through the protective oxide increases. According to this hypothesis, alloying elements (either in solid solution or in precipitates) embedded in the oxide as well as space charge variations in the oxide would impact the hydrogen pick-up fraction by modifying sigmaox e, which drives oxidation and hydriding kinetics. Dedicated experiments and modelling were performed to assess and validate these hypotheses. In-situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) experiments were performed on Zircaloy-4 tubes

  6. Isotope Identification

    SciTech Connect

    Karpius, Peter Joseph

    2017-09-18

    The objective of this training modules is to examine the process of using gamma spectroscopy for radionuclide identification; apply pattern recognition to gamma spectra; identify methods of verifying energy calibration; and discuss potential causes of isotope misidentification.

  7. Zirconium determination by cooling curve analysis during the pyroprocessing of used nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, B. R.; Price, J. C.; Bateman, K. J.; Marsden, K. C.

    2015-02-01

    An alternative method to sampling and chemical analyses has been developed to monitor the concentration of zirconium in real-time during the casting of uranium products from the pyroprocessing of used nuclear fuel. The method utilizes the solidification characteristics of the uranium products to determine zirconium levels based on standard cooling curve analyses and established binary phase diagram data. Numerous uranium products have been analyzed for their zirconium content and compared against measured zirconium data. From this data, the following equation was derived for the zirconium content of uranium products:

  8. Surface characterization of anodized zirconium for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, A. Gomez; Schreiner, W.; Duffó, G.; Ceré, S.

    2011-05-01

    Mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of zirconium make this material suitable for biomedical implants. Its good in vivo performance is mainly due to the presence of a protective oxide layer that minimizes corrosion rate, diminishes the amount of metallic ions released to the biological media and facilitates the osseointegration process. Since the implant surface is the region in contact with living tissues, the characteristics of the surface film are of great interest. Surface modification is a route to enhance both biocompatibility and corrosion resistance of permanent implant materials. Anodizing is presented as an interesting process to modify metal surfaces with good reproducibility and independence of the geometry. In this work the surface of zirconium before and after anodizing in 1 mol/L phosphoric acid solution at a fixed potential between 3 and 30 V, was characterized by means of several surface techniques. It was found that during anodization the surface oxide grows with an inhomogeneous coverage on zirconium surface, modifying the topography. The incorporation of P from the electrolyte to the surface oxide during the anodizing process changes the surface chemistry. After 30 days of immersion in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) solution, Ca-P rich compounds were present on anodized zirconium.

  9. Direct synthesis of zirconium powder by magnesium reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Won; Yun, Jung-Yeul; Yoon, Sung-Won; Wang, Jei-Pil

    2013-05-01

    The direct synthesis of zirconium powder has been conducted through an analysis of the chemical reaction between evaporated ZrCl4 and molten magnesium over a range of reduction temperatures, concentration of hydrochloric acid, and stirring time. The observed results indicated that the purity of zirconium powder increased with increased stirring time, and Mg and MgCl2 were removed by 10 wt% of hydrochloric acid solution. The pure zirconium powder was obtained by stirring again for 5 h using 5 wt% of hydrochloric acid solution. It was noted that the mean particle size increased when the reaction temperature was increased, and the size of the powder at 1,123 K and 1,173 K was found to be 10 μm and 15 μm, respectively. In addition, the purity of the powder was also improved with temperature, and its purity finally reached up to 99.5% at 1,250 K. Overall, pure zirconium powder was obtained after a stirring stage for 5 hours using 5 wt% of hydrochloric acid solution.

  10. Method for calcining nuclear waste solutions containing zirconium and halides

    DOEpatents

    Newby, Billie J.

    1979-01-01

    A reduction in the quantity of gelatinous solids which are formed in aqueous zirconium-fluoride nuclear reprocessing waste solutions by calcium nitrate added to suppress halide volatility during calcination of the solution while further suppressing chloride volatility is achieved by increasing the aluminum to fluoride mole ratio in the waste solution prior to adding the calcium nitrate.

  11. Mineral resource of the month: zirconium and hafnium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gambogi, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Zirconium and hafnium are corrosion-resistant metals that are grouped in the same family as titanium on the periodic table. The two elements commonly occur in oxide and silicate minerals and have significant economic importance in everything from ink, ceramics and golf shoes to nuclear fuel rods.

  12. Nanophase Nickel-Zirconium Alloys for Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Whitacre, jay; Valdez, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Nanophase nickel-zirconium alloys have been investigated for use as electrically conductive coatings and catalyst supports in fuel cells. Heretofore, noble metals have been used because they resist corrosion in the harsh, acidic fuel cell interior environments. However, the high cost of noble metals has prompted a search for less-costly substitutes. Nickel-zirconium alloys belong to a class of base metal alloys formed from transition elements of widely different d-electron configurations. These alloys generally exhibit unique physical, chemical, and metallurgical properties that can include corrosion resistance. Inasmuch as corrosion is accelerated by free-energy differences between bulk material and grain boundaries, it was conjectured that amorphous (glassy) and nanophase forms of these alloys could offer the desired corrosion resistance. For experiments to test the conjecture, thin alloy films containing various proportions of nickel and zirconium were deposited by magnetron and radiofrequency co-sputtering of nickel and zirconium. The results of x-ray diffraction studies of the deposited films suggested that the films had a nanophase and nearly amorphous character.

  13. Manufacturing process to reduce large grain growth in zirconium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Rosecrans, Peter M.

    1987-01-01

    A method of treating cold-worked zirconium alloys to reduce large grain gth during thermal treatment at temperatures above the recrystallization temperature of the alloy comprising heating the cold-worked alloy between about 1300.degree.-1350.degree. F. for 1 to 3 hours prior to treatment above its recrystallization temperature.

  14. Nanostructured zirconium phosphate as ion exchanger: Synthesis, size dependent property and analytical application in radiochemical separation.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Rajesh; Bhattacharaya, Koustava; Chattopadhyay, Pabitra

    2014-02-01

    Nanostructured zirconium phosphates (ZPs) of different sizes were synthesized using Tritron X-100 (polyethylene glycol-p-isooctylphenyl ether) surfactant. The materials were characterized by FTIR and powdered X-ray diffraction (XRD). The structural and morphological details of the material were established by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The SEM study was followed by energy dispersive spectroscopic analysis (EDS) for elemental analysis of the sample. The particle sizes were determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) method. Ion exchange capacity of these nanomaterials towards different metal ions was measured and size-dependent ion exchange property of the materials was investigated thoroughly. The nanomaterial of the smallest size (ca. 21.04nm) was employed to separate carrier-free (137m)Ba from (137)Cs in column chromatographic technique using 1.0M HNO3 as eluting agent at pH=5. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Electrical characteristics of paraelectric lead lanthanum zirconium titanate thin films for dynamic random access memory applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. E., Jr.; Maniar, P. D.; Olowolafe, J. O.; Campbell, A. C.; Mogab, C. J.

    1992-02-01

    Paraelectric lead lanthanum zirconium titanate (PLZT) films, 150 nm thick, were deposited using a spin-coat, sol-gel process followed by a 650 °C oxygen anneal. X-ray diffraction indicated complete conversion to the perovskite phase. Sputter-deposited platinum electrodes were employed with the PLZT films to form thin-film capacitors with the best combination of high charge storage density (26.1 μC/cm2 at 3 V and 36.4 μC/cm2 at 5 V) and leakage current density (0.2 μA/cm2 at 3 V and 0.5 μA/cm2 at 5 V ) reported to date. The electrical characteristics of these thin-film capacitors meet the requirements for a planar bit cell capacitor for 64-Mbit dynamic random access memories.

  16. Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets Bonded to Zirconium Crowns

    PubMed Central

    Mehmeti, Blerim; Azizi, Bleron; Kelmendi, Jeta; Iljazi-Shahiqi, Donika; Alar, Željko

    2017-01-01

    Background An increasing demand for esthetic restorations has resulted in an increased use of all-ceramic restorations, such as zirconium. However, one of the challenges the orthodontist must be willing to face is how to increase bond strength between the brackets and various ceramic restorations.Bond strength can beaffected bybracket type, by the material that bracketsaremade of, and their base surface design or retention mode. ​ Aim: of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of the shear bond strength (SBS) of metallic and ceramic orthodontic brackets bonded to all-zirconium ceramic surfaces used for prosthetic restorations, and also to evaluate the fracture mode of these two types of orthodontic brackets. Material and methods Twenty samples/semi-crowns of all-zirconium ceramic, on which orthodontic brackets were bonded, 10 metallic and 10 ceramic polycrystalline brackets, were prepared for this research. SBS has been testedby Universal Testing Machine, with a load applied using a knife edged rod moving at a fixed rate of 1 mm/min, until failure occurred. The force required to debond the brackets was recorded in Newton, then SBS was calculated to MPa. In addition, the samples were analyzed using a digital camera magnifier to determine Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). Statistical data were processed using t-test, and the level of significance was set at α = 0.05. Results Higher shear bond strength values were observed in metallic brackets bonded to zirconium crowns compared tothoseof ceramic brackets, with a significant difference. During the test, two of the ceramic brackets were partially or totally damaged. Conclusion Metallic brackets, compared to ceramic polycrystalline brackets, seemed tocreate stronger adhesion with all-zirconium surfaces due to their better retention mode. Also, ceramic brackets showed higher fragility during debonding. PMID:28827846

  17. Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets Bonded to Zirconium Crowns.

    PubMed

    Mehmeti, Blerim; Azizi, Bleron; Kelmendi, Jeta; Iljazi-Shahiqi, Donika; Alar, Željko; Anić-Milošević, Sandra

    2017-06-01

    An increasing demand for esthetic restorations has resulted in an increased use of all-ceramic restorations, such as zirconium. However, one of the challenges the orthodontist must be willing to face is how to increase bond strength between the brackets and various ceramic restorations.Bond strength can beaffected bybracket type, by the material that bracketsaremade of, and their base surface design or retention mode. ​: A im: of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of the shear bond strength (SBS) of metallic and ceramic orthodontic brackets bonded to all-zirconium ceramic surfaces used for prosthetic restorations, and also to evaluate the fracture mode of these two types of orthodontic brackets. Twenty samples/semi-crowns of all-zirconium ceramic, on which orthodontic brackets were bonded, 10 metallic and 10 ceramic polycrystalline brackets, were prepared for this research. SBS has been testedby Universal Testing Machine, with a load applied using a knife edged rod moving at a fixed rate of 1 mm/min, until failure occurred. The force required to debond the brackets was recorded in Newton, then SBS was calculated to MPa. In addition, the samples were analyzed using a digital camera magnifier to determine Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). Statistical data were processed using t-test, and the level of significance was set at α = 0.05. Higher shear bond strength values were observed in metallic brackets bonded to zirconium crowns compared tothoseof ceramic brackets, with a significant difference. During the test, two of the ceramic brackets were partially or totally damaged. Metallic brackets, compared to ceramic polycrystalline brackets, seemed tocreate stronger adhesion with all-zirconium surfaces due to their better retention mode. Also, ceramic brackets showed higher fragility during debonding.

  18. ISOTOPE SEPARATORS

    DOEpatents

    Bacon, C.G.

    1958-08-26

    An improvement is presented in the structure of an isotope separation apparatus and, in particular, is concerned with a magnetically operated shutter associated with a window which is provided for the purpose of enabling the operator to view the processes going on within the interior of the apparatus. The shutier is mounted to close under the force of gravity in the absence of any other force. By closing an electrical circuit to a coil mouated on the shutter the magnetic field of the isotope separating apparatus coacts with the magnetic field of the coil to force the shutter to the open position.

  19. Nuclear-grade zirconium prepared by combining combustion synthesis with molten-salt electrorefining technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Nersisyan, Hayk H.; Park, Kyung-Tae; Park, Sung-Bin; Kim, Jeong-Guk; Lee, Jeong-Min; Lee, Jong-Hyeon

    2011-06-01

    Zirconium has a low absorption cross-section for neutrons, which makes it an ideal material for use in nuclear reactor applications. However, hafnium typically contained in zirconium causes it to be far less useful for nuclear reactor materials because of its high neutron-absorbing properties. In the present study, a novel effective method has been developed for the production of hafnium-free zirconium. The process includes two main stages: magnesio-thermic reduction of ZrSiO 4 under a combustion mode, to produce zirconium silicide (ZrSi), and recovery of hafnium-free zirconium by molten-salt electrorefining. It was found that, depending on the electrorefining procedure, it is possible to produce zirconium powder with a low hafnium content: 70 ppm, determined by ICP-AES analysis.

  20. Anticorrosive Behavior and Porosity of Tricationic Phosphate and Zirconium Conversion Coating on Galvanized Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasquez, Camilo S.; Pimenta, Egnalda P. S.; Lins, Vanessa F. C.

    2018-05-01

    This work evaluates the corrosion resistance of galvanized steel treated with tricationic phosphate and zirconium conversion coating after painting, by using electrochemical techniques, accelerated and field corrosion tests. A non-uniform and heterogeneous distribution of zirconium on the steel surface was observed due to preferential nucleation of the zirconium on the aluminum-rich sites on the surface of galvanized steel. The long-term anti-corrosion performance in a saline solution was better for the phosphate coating up to 120 days. The coating capacitance registered a higher increase for the zirconium coatings than the phosphate coatings up to 120 days of immersion. This result agrees with the higher porosity of zirconium coating in relation to the phosphate coating. After 3840 h of accelerated corrosion test, and after 1 year of accelerated field test, zirconium-treated samples showed an average scribe delamination length higher than the phosphate-treated samples.

  1. Anticorrosive Behavior and Porosity of Tricationic Phosphate and Zirconium Conversion Coating on Galvanized Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasquez, Camilo S.; Pimenta, Egnalda P. S.; Lins, Vanessa F. C.

    2018-04-01

    This work evaluates the corrosion resistance of galvanized steel treated with tricationic phosphate and zirconium conversion coating after painting, by using electrochemical techniques, accelerated and field corrosion tests. A non-uniform and heterogeneous distribution of zirconium on the steel surface was observed due to preferential nucleation of the zirconium on the aluminum-rich sites on the surface of galvanized steel. The long-term anti-corrosion performance in a saline solution was better for the phosphate coating up to 120 days. The coating capacitance registered a higher increase for the zirconium coatings than the phosphate coatings up to 120 days of immersion. This result agrees with the higher porosity of zirconium coating in relation to the phosphate coating. After 3840 h of accelerated corrosion test, and after 1 year of accelerated field test, zirconium-treated samples showed an average scribe delamination length higher than the phosphate-treated samples.

  2. Overcoming the crystallization and designability issues in the ultrastable zirconium phosphonate framework system

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Tao; Yang, Zaixing; Gui, Daxiang; Liu, Zhiyong; Wang, Xiangxiang; Dai, Xing; Liu, Shengtang; Zhang, Linjuan; Gao, Yang; Chen, Lanhua; Sheng, Daopeng; Wang, Yanlong; Diwu, Juan; Wang, Jianqiang; Zhou, Ruhong; Chai, Zhifang; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.; Wang, Shuao

    2017-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) based on zirconium phosphonates exhibit superior chemical stability suitable for applications under harsh conditions. These compounds mostly exist as poorly crystallized precipitates, and precise structural information has therefore remained elusive. Furthermore, a zero-dimensional zirconium phosphonate cluster acting as secondary building unit has been lacking, leading to poor designability in this system. Herein, we overcome these challenges and obtain single crystals of three zirconium phosphonates that are suitable for structural analysis. These compounds are built by previously unknown isolated zirconium phosphonate clusters and exhibit combined high porosity and ultrastability even in fuming acids. SZ-2 possesses the largest void volume recorded in zirconium phosphonates and SZ-3 represents the most porous crystalline zirconium phosphonate and the only porous MOF material reported to survive in aqua regia. SZ-2 and SZ-3 can effectively remove uranyl ions from aqueous solutions over a wide pH range, and we have elucidated the removal mechanism. PMID:28555656

  3. Surface modification techniques for increased corrosion tolerance of zirconium fuel cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, James Patrick, IV

    Corrosion is a major issue in applications involving materials in normal and severe environments, especially when it involves corrosive fluids, high temperatures, and radiation. Left unaddressed, corrosion can lead to catastrophic failures, resulting in economic and environmental liabilities. In nuclear applications, where metals and alloys, such as steel and zirconium, are extensively employed inside and outside of the nuclear reactor, corrosion accelerated by high temperatures, neutron radiation, and corrosive atmospheres, corrosion becomes even more concerning. The objectives of this research are to study and develop surface modification techniques to protect zirconium cladding by the incorporation of a specific barrier coating, and to understand the issues related to the compatibility of the coatings examined in this work. The final goal of this study is to recommend a coating and process that can be scaled-up for the consideration of manufacturing and economic limits. This dissertation study builds on previous accident tolerant fuel cladding research, but is unique in that advanced corrosion methods are tested and considerations for implementation by industry are practiced and discussed. This work will introduce unique studies involving the materials and methods for accident tolerant fuel cladding research by developing, demonstrating, and considering materials and processes for modifying the surface of zircaloy fuel cladding. This innovative research suggests that improvements in the technique to modify the surface of zirconium fuel cladding are likely. Three elements selected for the investigation of their compatibility on zircaloy fuel cladding are aluminum, silicon, and chromium. These materials are also currently being investigated at other labs as alternate alloys and coatings for accident tolerant fuel cladding. This dissertation also investigates the compatibility of these three elements as surface modifiers, by comparing their microstructural and

  4. Evaluation of macrocyclic hydroxyisophthalamide ligands as chelators for zirconium-89

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatt, Nikunj B.; Pandya, Darpan N.; Xu, Jide

    The development of bifunctional chelators (BFCs) for zirconium-89 immuno-PET applications is an area of active research. We report the synthesis and evaluation of octadentate hydroxyisophthalamide ligands (1 and 2) as zirconium-89 chelators. And while both radiometal complexes could be prepared quantitatively and with excellent specific activity, preparation of 89Zr-1 required elevated temperature and an increased reaction time. 89Zr-1 was more stable than 89Zr-2 when challenged in vitro by excess DTPA or serum proteins and in vivo during acute biodistribution studies. The differences in radiometal complex stability arise from structural changes between the two ligand systems, and suggest further ligand optimizationmore » is necessary to enhance 89Zr chelation.« less

  5. Evaluation of macrocyclic hydroxyisophthalamide ligands as chelators for zirconium-89

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jide; Tatum, David; Magda, Darren

    2017-01-01

    The development of bifunctional chelators (BFCs) for zirconium-89 immuno-PET applications is an area of active research. Herein we report the synthesis and evaluation of octadentate hydroxyisophthalamide ligands (1 and 2) as zirconium-89 chelators. While both radiometal complexes could be prepared quantitatively and with excellent specific activity, preparation of 89Zr-1 required elevated temperature and an increased reaction time. 89Zr-1 was more stable than 89Zr-2 when challenged in vitro by excess DTPA or serum proteins and in vivo during acute biodistribution studies. Differences in radiometal complex stability arise from structural changes between the two ligand systems, and suggest further ligand optimization is necessary to enhance 89Zr chelation. PMID:28575044

  6. Evaluation of macrocyclic hydroxyisophthalamide ligands as chelators for zirconium-89.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Nikunj B; Pandya, Darpan N; Xu, Jide; Tatum, David; Magda, Darren; Wadas, Thaddeus J

    2017-01-01

    The development of bifunctional chelators (BFCs) for zirconium-89 immuno-PET applications is an area of active research. Herein we report the synthesis and evaluation of octadentate hydroxyisophthalamide ligands (1 and 2) as zirconium-89 chelators. While both radiometal complexes could be prepared quantitatively and with excellent specific activity, preparation of 89Zr-1 required elevated temperature and an increased reaction time. 89Zr-1 was more stable than 89Zr-2 when challenged in vitro by excess DTPA or serum proteins and in vivo during acute biodistribution studies. Differences in radiometal complex stability arise from structural changes between the two ligand systems, and suggest further ligand optimization is necessary to enhance 89Zr chelation.

  7. Evaluation of macrocyclic hydroxyisophthalamide ligands as chelators for zirconium-89

    DOE PAGES

    Bhatt, Nikunj B.; Pandya, Darpan N.; Xu, Jide; ...

    2017-06-02

    The development of bifunctional chelators (BFCs) for zirconium-89 immuno-PET applications is an area of active research. We report the synthesis and evaluation of octadentate hydroxyisophthalamide ligands (1 and 2) as zirconium-89 chelators. And while both radiometal complexes could be prepared quantitatively and with excellent specific activity, preparation of 89Zr-1 required elevated temperature and an increased reaction time. 89Zr-1 was more stable than 89Zr-2 when challenged in vitro by excess DTPA or serum proteins and in vivo during acute biodistribution studies. The differences in radiometal complex stability arise from structural changes between the two ligand systems, and suggest further ligand optimizationmore » is necessary to enhance 89Zr chelation.« less

  8. Utility of γH2AX as a molecular marker of DNA double-strand breaks in nuclear medicine: applications to radionuclide therapy employing auger electron-emitting isotopes.

    PubMed

    Mah, Li-Jeen; Orlowski, Christian; Ververis, Katherine; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2011-01-01

    There is an intense interest in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for cancer therapy. In particular, radiopharmaceuticals which involve targeting radionuclides specifically to cancer cells with the use of monoclonal antibodies (radioimmunotherapy) or peptides (targeted radiotherapy) are being widely investigated. For example, the ultra-short range Auger electron-emitting isotopes, which are discussed in this review, are being considered in the context of DNAtargeted radiotherapy. The efficient quantitative evaluation of the levels of damage caused by such potential radiopharmaceuticals is required for assessment of therapeutic efficacy and determination of relevant doses for successful treatment. The DNA double-strand break surrogate marker, γH2AX, has emerged as a useful biomonitor of damage and thus effectiveness of treatment, offering a highly specific and sensitive means of assessment. This review will cover the potential applications of γH2AX in nuclear medicine, in particular radionuclide therapy.

  9. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM IONS FROM SOLUTION BY ADSORPTION ON ZIRCONIUM PYROPHOSPHATE

    DOEpatents

    Stoughton, R.W.

    1961-01-31

    A method is given for separating plutonium in its reduced, phosphate- insoluble state from other substances. It involves contacting a solution containing the plutonium with granular zirconium pyrophosphate.

  10. A zirconium dioxide ammonia microsensor integrated with a readout circuit manufactured using the 0.18 μm CMOS process.

    PubMed

    Lin, Guan-Ming; Dai, Ching-Liang; Yang, Ming-Zhi

    2013-03-15

    The study presents an ammonia microsensor integrated with a readout circuit on-a-chip fabricated using the commercial 0.18 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The integrated sensor chip consists of a heater, an ammonia sensor and a readout circuit. The ammonia sensor is constructed by a sensitive film and the interdigitated electrodes. The sensitive film is zirconium dioxide that is coated on the interdigitated electrodes. The heater is used to provide a working temperature to the sensitive film. A post-process is employed to remove the sacrificial layer and to coat zirconium dioxide on the sensor. When the sensitive film adsorbs or desorbs ammonia gas, the sensor produces a change in resistance. The readout circuit converts the resistance variation of the sensor into the output voltage. The experiments show that the integrated ammonia sensor has a sensitivity of 4.1 mV/ppm.

  11. 5A Zirconium Dioxide Ammonia Microsensor Integrated with a Readout Circuit Manufactured Using the 0.18 μm CMOS Process

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Guan-Ming; Dai, Ching-Liang; Yang, Ming-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    The study presents an ammonia microsensor integrated with a readout circuit on-a-chip fabricated using the commercial 0.18 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The integrated sensor chip consists of a heater, an ammonia sensor and a readout circuit. The ammonia sensor is constructed by a sensitive film and the interdigitated electrodes. The sensitive film is zirconium dioxide that is coated on the interdigitated electrodes. The heater is used to provide a working temperature to the sensitive film. A post-process is employed to remove the sacrificial layer and to coat zirconium dioxide on the sensor. When the sensitive film adsorbs or desorbs ammonia gas, the sensor produces a change in resistance. The readout circuit converts the resistance variation of the sensor into the output voltage. The experiments show that the integrated ammonia sensor has a sensitivity of 4.1 mV/ppm. PMID:23503294

  12. Distribution coefficients of rare earth ions in cubic zirconium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romer, H.; Luther, K.-D.; Assmus, W.

    1994-08-01

    Cubic zirconium dioxide crystals are grown with the skull melting technique. The effective distribution coefficients for Nd(exp 3+), Sm(exp 3+) and Er(sup 3+) as dopants are determined experimentally as a function of the crystal growth velocity. With the Burton-Prim-Slichter theory, the equilibrium distribution coefficients can be calculated. The distribution coefficients of all other trivalent rare earth ions can be estimated by applying the correlation towards the ionic radii.

  13. Translucency and Strength of High Translucency Monolithic Zirconium Oxide Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-17

    Zirconium-Oxide Materials presented at/published to the Journal of General Dentistry with MDWI 41-108, and has been assigned local file #16208. 2...PUBLISHED/PRESENTED. D 11a. PUBLICATION/JOURNAL (list intended publication/journal.) General Dentistry D 11b. PUBLISHED ABSTRACT (List intended...the most esthetic full veneer restorative material in dentistry for many years. In the mid-1900’s, dental materials researchers began marketing and

  14. Zirconium as a Structural Material for Naval Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-29

    case with the technologically critical chemical elements chromium and cobalt, for example, from a military perspective. The case, therefore, for...By adding small amounts of tin, iron, nickel, and chromium , the impurities were effectively bound or coalesced within the metal and the corrosion...and nitrogen from the atmosphere, embrittling the weld. The techniques used for zirconium welding are gas tungsten arc welding ( GTAW ), tungsten inert

  15. Electrochemical Study of Corrosion Phenomena in Zirconium Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    required reaction rates [1.1]. Based predominantly on this fact, zirconium alloys were chosen to sheath, or clad, the fuel. With the increasing demand...cathode or anode. As the oxidation and reduction reactions occur, a galvanic cell is developed. The electrons on the anode are released from the metallic...matrix as the ions are released into the aqueous solution in the initial half-cell reaction . The second half-cell reaction , taking place on the

  16. In Vivo Integrity and Biological Fate of Chelator-Free Zirconium-89-Labeled Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Traditional chelator-based radio-labeled nanoparticles and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging are playing vital roles in the field of nano-oncology. However, their long-term in vivo integrity and potential mismatch of the biodistribution patterns between nanoparticles and radio-isotopes are two major concerns for this approach. Here, we present a chelator-free zirconium-89 (89Zr, t1/2 = 78.4 h) labeling of mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) with significantly enhanced in vivo long-term (>20 days) stability. Successful radio-labeling and in vivo stability are demonstrated to be highly dependent on both the concentration and location of deprotonated silanol groups (−Si–O–) from two types of silica nanoparticles investigated. This work reports 89Zr-labeled MSN with a detailed labeling mechanism investigation and long-term stability study. With its attractive radio-stability and the simplicity of chelator-free radio-labeling, 89Zr-MSN offers a novel, simple, and accurate way for studying the in vivo long-term fate and PET image-guided drug delivery of MSN in the near future. PMID:26213260

  17. In Vivo Integrity and Biological Fate of Chelator-Free Zirconium-89-Labeled Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Goel, Shreya; Valdovinos, Hector F; Luo, Haiming; Hernandez, Reinier; Barnhart, Todd E; Cai, Weibo

    2015-08-25

    Traditional chelator-based radio-labeled nanoparticles and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging are playing vital roles in the field of nano-oncology. However, their long-term in vivo integrity and potential mismatch of the biodistribution patterns between nanoparticles and radio-isotopes are two major concerns for this approach. Here, we present a chelator-free zirconium-89 ((89)Zr, t1/2 = 78.4 h) labeling of mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) with significantly enhanced in vivo long-term (>20 days) stability. Successful radio-labeling and in vivo stability are demonstrated to be highly dependent on both the concentration and location of deprotonated silanol groups (-Si-O(-)) from two types of silica nanoparticles investigated. This work reports (89)Zr-labeled MSN with a detailed labeling mechanism investigation and long-term stability study. With its attractive radio-stability and the simplicity of chelator-free radio-labeling, (89)Zr-MSN offers a novel, simple, and accurate way for studying the in vivo long-term fate and PET image-guided drug delivery of MSN in the near future.

  18. Synthesis of zirconium oxynitride in air under DC electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Morisaki, Nobuhiro; Tokunaga, Tomoharu; Sasaki, Katsuhiro

    We synthesized zirconium oxynitride from yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) in air by applying DC electric fields that produced a controlled electric current in the specimen. When YSZ was heated under an applied DC electric field, the electric current of the specimen steeply increased at a critical temperature, called a flash event, during flash sintering. By keeping the electric current of the specimen constant during the flash event and then holding the specimen at the critical temperature, YSZ was transformed into zirconium oxynitride under the optimal conditions of 50 V/cm, 500 mA, and 1000 °C. We confirmed that zirconium oxynitride formed using high-resolution transmission electronmore » microscopy, electron energy-loss spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive spectrometry. To convert oxides to nitrides, reducing conditions are necessary to form excess oxygen vacancies. Our technique produced the strong reducing conditions necessary to form nitrides from the oxides by delivering a controlled electric current to the specimen.« less

  19. Ferrier rearrangement promoted by an electrochemically generated zirconium catalyst.

    PubMed

    Stevanović, Dragana; Pejović, Anka; Damljanović, Ivan; Minić, Aleksandra; Bogdanović, Goran A; Vukićević, Mirjana; Radulović, Niko S; Vukićević, Rastko D

    2015-04-30

    In situ generated zirconium catalyst from a sacrificial zirconium anode was successfully applied to promote Ferrier rearrangement of 3,4,5-tri-O-acetyl-D-glucal and 6-deoxy-3,4-di-O-acetyl-L-glucal (3,4-di-O-acetyl-L-rhamnal) in the presence of three thiols and eleven thiophenols as nucleophiles. A simple constant current electrolysis (20 mA, 0.4 F mol(-1)) of an acetonitrile solution of lithium perchlorate (0.1 M) containing the corresponding glycal and S-nucleophiles, using a zirconium anode and a platinum cathode resulted in the successful synthesis of the corresponding 2,3-unsaturated peracetylated thioglycosides (with an average anomer ratio α/β=4.129 in the case of peracetylated D-glucal and 8.740 in the case of L-rhamnal). The same procedure proved to be appropriate in synthesizing dihydropyran derivatives ('C-glycosides') using allyltrimethylsilane as the nucleophile (only 'α-anomers' were obtained). All new compounds were fully characterized by spectral data, whereas single-crystal X-ray analysis was performed for two thioglycosides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Growth and characterization of zirconium oxynitride films prepared by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkataraj, S.; Kappertz, O.; Jayavel, R.; Wuttig, M.

    2002-09-01

    Thin films of zirconium oxynitrides have been deposited onto Si(100) substrates at room temperature by reactive dc magnetron sputtering of a metallic Zr target in an argon-oxygen-nitrogen atmosphere. To prepare oxynitride films the sum of the O2 and N2 flow was kept at 3.5 sccm, while the relative nitrogen content of this mixture was changed stepwise from 0% to 100%. The film structure was determined by x-ray diffraction, while x-ray reflectometry was employed to determine the thickness, density, and surface roughness of the films. The optical properties have been studied by spectroscopic reflectance measurements. X-ray diffraction (XRD) determines that the as-deposited films are crystalline and do not change their monoclinic ZrO2 crystal structure even for nitrogen flows up to 80%. For pure argon-nitrogen sputtering, on the contrary, cubic zirconium nitride (ZrN) has been formed. Nevertheless, even though the crystal structure does not change with increasing nitrogen flow up to 80%, there is clear evidence from nitrogen incorporation from Rutherford backscattering experiments, optical spectroscopy, XRD, and x-ray reflectometry. The latter technique determines that the film density increases from 5.2 to 5.8 g/cm3 with increasing nitrogen flow from 0% to 80%. Simultaneously, the rate of sputtering increases from 0.17 to 0.6 m/s, while the film roughness decreases upon increasing N2 flow. Optical spectroscopy measurements of the film reflectance confirm that fully transparent films can be prepared up to a nitrogen flow of 80%. For these films, the band gap decreases from 4.52 to 3.59 eV with increasing N2 flow, while the refractive index at 650 nm simultaneously increases from 2.11 to 2.26. For 100% N2 flow, i.e., without any oxygen, films with a metallic reflectance are obtained.

  1. Monitoring bisphosphonate surface functionalization and acid stability of hierarchically porous titanium zirconium oxides.

    PubMed

    Ide, Andreas; Drisko, Glenna L; Scales, Nicholas; Luca, Vittorio; Schiesser, Carl H; Caruso, Rachel A

    2011-11-01

    To take advantage of the full potential of functionalized transition metal oxides, a well-understood nonsilane based grafting technique is required. The functionalization of mixed titanium zirconium oxides was studied in detail using a bisphosphonic acid, featuring two phosphonic acid groups with high surface affinity. The bisphosphonic acid employed was coupled to a UV active benzamide moiety in order to track the progress of the surface functionalization in situ. Using different material compositions, altering the pH environment, and looking at various annealing conditions, key features of the functionalization process were identified that consequently will allow for intelligent material design. Loading with bisphosphonic acid was highest on supports calcined at 650 °C compared to lower calcination temperatures: A maximum capacity of 0.13 mmol g(-1) was obtained and the adsorption process could be modeled with a pseudo-second-order rate relationship. Heating at 650 °C resulted in a phase transition of the mixed binary oxide to a ternary oxide, titanium zirconium oxide in the srilankite phase. This phase transition was crucial in order to achieve high loading of the bisphosphonic acid and enhanced chemical stability in highly acidic solutions. Due to the inert nature of phosphorus-oxygen-metal bonds, materials functionalized by bisphosphonic acids showed increased chemical stability compared to their nonfunctionalized counterparts in harshly acidic solutions. Leaching studies showed that the acid stability of the functionalized material was improved with a partially crystalline srilankite phase. The materials were characterized using nitrogen sorption, X-ray powder diffraction, and UV-vis spectroscopy; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to study surface coverage with the bisphosphonic acid molecules.

  2. 40 CFR 721.10152 - Oxirane, substituted silylmethyl-, hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-, hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica, acetates (generic). 721.10152 Section 721... Oxirane, substituted silylmethyl-, hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica... zirconium(4+) salt and silica, acetates (PMN P-07-674) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  3. Zirconium carbide as an electrocatalyst for the chromous-chromic redox couple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gahn, R. F.; Reid, M. A.; Yang, C. Y. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Zirconium carbide is used as a catalyst in a REDOX cell for the oxidation of chromous ions to chromic ions and for the reduction of chromic ions to chromous ions. The zirconium carbide is coated on an inert electronically conductive electrode which is present in the anode fluid of the cell.

  4. 21 CFR 700.16 - Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium. 700.16 Section 700.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... and other organs of experimental animals. When used in aerosol form, some zirconium will reach the...

  5. Lithium aluminate/zirconium material useful in the production of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Cawley, W.E.; Trapp, T.J.

    1984-10-09

    A composition is described useful in the production of tritium in a nuclear reactor. Lithium aluminate particles are dispersed in a matrix of zirconium. Tritium produced by the reactor of neutrons with the lithium are absorbed by the zirconium, thereby decreasing gas pressure within capsules carrying the material.

  6. Lithium aluminate/zirconium material useful in the production of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Cawley, William E.; Trapp, Turner J.

    1984-10-09

    A composition is described useful in the production of tritium in a nuclear eactor. Lithium aluminate particles are dispersed in a matrix of zirconium. Tritium produced by the reactor of neutrons with the lithium are absorbed by the zirconium, thereby decreasing gas pressure within capsules carrying the material.

  7. Lithium aluminate/zirconium material useful in the production of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Cawley, W.E.; Trapp, T.J.

    A composition is described useful in the production of tritium in a nuclear reactor. Lithium aluminate particles are dispersed in a matrix of zirconium. Tritium produced by the reactor of neutrons with the lithium are absorbed by the zirconium, thereby decreasing gas pressure within capsules carrying the material.

  8. 21 CFR 700.16 - Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing... SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.16 Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium. (a) Zirconium-containing complexes have been used as an ingredient...

  9. 21 CFR 700.16 - Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing... SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.16 Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium. (a) Zirconium-containing complexes have been used as an ingredient...

  10. 21 CFR 700.16 - Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing... SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.16 Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium. (a) Zirconium-containing complexes have been used as an ingredient...

  11. Fabrication of a Biomass-Based Hydrous Zirconium Oxide Nanocomposite for Preferable Phosphate Removal and Recovery.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Hui; Liang, Chen; Zhang, Xiaolin; Chen, Mindong; Zhao, Yunxia; Tao, Tao; Xu, Zhengwen; Liu, Gang

    2015-09-23

    Advanced removal of phosphate by low-cost adsorbents from municipal wastewater or industrial effluents is an effective and economic way to prevent the occurrence of eutrophication. Here, we proposed a novel method to immobilize hydrous zirconium oxide nanoparticle within quaternary-aminated wheat straw, and obtained an inexpensive, eco-friendly nanocomposite Ws-N-Zr. The biomass-based Ws-N-Zr exhibited higher preference toward phosphate than commercial anion exchanger IRA-900 when competing sulfate ions coexisted at relatively high levels. Such excellent performance of Ws-N-Zr resulted from its specific hybrid structure, the quaternary ammonium groups bonded on the host favor the preconcentration of phosphate ions inside the wheat straw based on Donnan effect, and the encapsulated HZO nanoparticle exhibits preferable sequestration of phosphate ions through specific interaction, as further demonstrated by FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Cycle adsorption and regeneration experiments demonstrated that Ws-N-Zr could be employed for repeated use without significant capacity loss, when the binary NaOH-NaCl solution was employed as the regenerant. The influence of solution pH and contact time was also examined. The results suggested that Ws-N-Zr has a great potential in efficient removal of phosphate in contaminated waters.

  12. A simple spectrophotometric method for determination of zirconium or hafnium in selected molybdenum-base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupraw, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    A simple analytical procedure is described for accurately and precisely determining the zirconium or hafnium content of molybdenum-base alloys. The procedure is based on the reaction of the reagent Arsenazo III with zirconium or hafnium in strong hydrochloric acid solution. The colored complexes of zirconium or hafnium are formed in the presence of molybdenum. Titanium or rhenium in the alloy have no adverse effect on the zirconium or hafnium complex at the following levels in the selected aliquot: Mo, 10 mg; Re, 10 mg; Ti, 1 mg. The spectrophotometric measurement of the zirconium or hafnium complex is accomplished without prior separation with a relative standard deviation of 1.3 to 2.7 percent.

  13. Efficient One-Pot Synthesis of Colloidal Zirconium Oxide Nanoparticles for High-Refractive-Index Nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Hajagos, Tibor Jacob; Chen, Dustin; Chen, Yi; Kishpaugh, David; Pei, Qibing

    2016-02-01

    Zirconium oxide nanoparticles are promising candidates for optical engineering, photocatalysis, and high-κ dielectrics. However, reported synthetic methods for the colloidal zirconium oxide nanoparticles use unstable alkoxide precursors and have various other drawbacks, limiting their wide application. Here, we report a facile one-pot method for the synthesis of colloidally stable zirconium oxide nanoparticles. Using a simple solution of zirconium trifluoroacetate in oleylamine, highly stable zirconium oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized with high yield, following a proposed amidization-assisted sol-gel mechanism. The nanoparticles can be readily dispersed in nonpolar solvents, forming a long-term stable transparent solution, which can be further used to fabricate high-refractive-index nanocomposites in both monolith and thin-film forms. In addition, the same method has also been extended to the synthesis of titanium oxide nanoparticles, demonstrating its general applicability to all group IVB metal oxide nanoparticles.

  14. Minimalistic Liquid-Assisted Route to Highly Crystalline α-Zirconium Phosphate.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu; Wang, Xiaodong Tony; Jaenicke, Stephan; Chuah, Gaik-Khuan

    2017-08-24

    Zirconium phosphates have potential applications in areas of ion exchange, catalysis, photochemistry, and biotechnology. However, synthesis methodologies to form crystalline α-zirconium phosphate (Zr(HPO 4 ) 2 ⋅H 2 O) typically involve the use of excess phosphoric acid, addition of HF or oxalic acid and long reflux times or hydrothermal conditions. A minimalistic sustainable route to its synthesis has been developed by using only zirconium oxychloride and concentrated phosphoric acid to form highly crystalline α-zirconium phosphate within hours. The morphology can be changed from platelets to rod-shaped particles by fluoride addition. By varying the temperature and time, α-zirconium phosphate with particle sizes from nanometers to microns can be obtained. Key features of this minimal solvent synthesis are the excellent yields obtained with high atom economy under mild conditions and ease of scalability. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. The Deformation Mechanism of Fatigue Behaviour in a N36 Zirconium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yingzhu

    2018-05-01

    Zirconium alloys are widely used as claddings in nuclear reactor. A N36 zirconium alloy has been deformed into a sheet with highly texture according to the result of electron back scatter diffraction test. Then this N36 zirconium alloy sheet has been cut into small beam samples with 12 x 3 x 3 mm3 in size. In this experiment, a three-point bending test was carried out to investigate the fatigue behaviour of N36 zirconium alloy. Cyclic loadings were applied on the top middle of the beam samples. The region of interest (ROI) is located at the middle bottom of the front face of the beam sample where slip band was observed in deformed beam sample due to strain concentration by using scanning electron microscopy. Twinning also plays an important role to accommodate the plastic deformation of N36 zirconium alloy in fatigue, which displays competition with slip.

  16. Developing the Molybdenum Isotopic Proxy in Marine Barite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erhardt, A. M.; Paytan, A.; Aggarwal, J.

    2006-12-01

    Molybdenum isotope ratios in seawater fluctuate in response to changing redox conditions and can provide clues into the degree of global ocean anoxia. The isotopic ratio of molybdenum has been shown to be sensitive to the relative proportion of oxic, suboxic, and euxinic environments. Deposition in oxic environments is isotopically light (~ -1.6‰ for δ^{97/95}Mo) relative to an average crustal source (0‰). Conversely, euxinic environments have been shown to be consistently heavier (~1.3‰) than the oxic sink through time, with suboxic sediments falling between these two signals. Shifts in the relative proportion of each sink, relative to a constant source, would alter the isotopic ratio of seawater over long time scales. Previously, this seawater value, and hence the degree of global anoxia, could only be inferred through mass balance calculations. We seek to quantify the isotopic signature of seawater though time using a phase that directly records this ratio. Marine barite precipitates inorganically in the water column directly from seawater, potentially providing a direct record of seawater characteristics. Molybdenum is a trace constituent of barite, with the molybdate ion substituting for sulfate at concentrations of about 1 ppm. To accurately determine the molybdenum isotopic ratio at these low concentrations (<15 ng per sample), modifications to existing measurement techniques are required. We will present the variations made to existing separation and mass-spectrometry techniques and the calibration of these new methods. The modifications were undertaken to reduce molybdenum blank to below 1 ng per analysis, to quantitatively remove interfering zirconium and to measure precise and reproducible isotope values. Preliminary data will be presented to illustrate potential applications for this new paleoredox proxy. This technique will allow for the measurement of molybdenum isotopic ratios at low concentrations, expanding the breath of compounds and

  17. A novel methodology to investigate isotopic biosignatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horner, T. J.; Lee, R. B. Y.; Henderson, G. M.; Rickaby, R. E. M.

    2012-04-01

    An enduring goal of trace metal isotopic studies of Earth History is to find isotopic 'fingerprints' of life or of life's individual physiochemical processes. Generally, such signatures are sought by relating an isotopic effect observed in controlled laboratory conditions or a well-characterized environment to a more complex system or the geological record. However, such an approach is ultimately limited because life exerts numerous isotopic fractionations on any one element so it is hard to dissect the resultant net fractionation into its individual components. Further, different organisms, often with the same apparent cellular function, can express different isotopic fractionation factors. We have used a novel method to investigate the isotopic fractionation associated with a single physiological process-enzyme specific isotopic fractionation. We selected Cd isotopes since only one biological use of Cd is known, CdCA (a Cd/Zn carbonic anhydrase from the coastal diatom T. Weissflogii). Thus, our investigation can also inform the long standing mystery as to why this generally toxic element appears to have a nutrient-like dissolved isotopic and concentration profile in the oceans. We used the pET-15b plasmid to insert the CdCA gene into the E. coli genome. There is no known biochemical function for Cd in E. coli, making it an ideal vector for studying distinct physiological processes within a single organism. The uptake of Cd and associated isotopic fractionation was determined for both normal cells and those expressing CdCA. It was found that whole cells always exhibited a preference for the light isotopes of Cd, regardless of the expression of CdCA; adsorption of Cd to cell surfaces was not seen to cause isotopic fractionation. However, the cleaning procedure employed exerted a strong control on the observed isotopic composition of cells. Using existing protein purification techniques, we measured the Cd isotopic composition of different subcellular fractions of E

  18. Strontium and barium isotopes in presolar silicon carbide grains measured with CHILI-two types of X grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, Thomas; Trappitsch, Reto; Davis, Andrew M.; Pellin, Michael J.; Rost, Detlef; Savina, Michael R.; Jadhav, Manavi; Kelly, Christopher H.; Gyngard, Frank; Hoppe, Peter; Dauphas, Nicolas

    2018-01-01

    We used CHILI, the Chicago Instrument for Laser Ionization, a new resonance ionization mass spectrometer developed for isotopic analysis of small samples, to analyze strontium, zirconium, and barium isotopes in 22 presolar silicon carbide grains. Twenty of the grains showed detectable strontium and barium, but none of the grains had enough zirconium to be detected with CHILI. Nine grains were excluded from further consideration since they showed very little signals (<1000 counts) for strontium as well as for barium. Among the 11 remaining grains, we found three X grains. The discovery of three supernova grains among only 22 grains was fortuitous, because only ∼1% of presolar silicon carbide grains are type X, but was confirmed by silicon isotopic measurements of grain residues with NanoSIMS. While one of the X grains showed strontium and barium isotope patterns expected for supernova grains, the two other supernova grains have 87Sr/86Sr < 0.5, values never observed in any natural sample before. From their silicon isotope ratios, the latter two grains can be classified as X2 grains, while the former grain belongs to the more common X1 group. The differences of these grains in strontium and barium isotopic composition constrain their individual formation conditions in Type II supernovae.

  19. Strontium and barium isotopes in presolar silicon carbide grains measured with CHILI—two types of X grains

    DOE PAGES

    Stephan, Thomas; Trappitsch, Reto; Davis, Andrew M.; ...

    2017-05-10

    Here, we used CHILI, the Chicago Instrument for Laser Ionization, a new resonance ionization mass spectrometer developed for isotopic analysis of small samples, to analyze strontium, zirconium, and barium isotopes in 22 presolar silicon carbide grains. Twenty of the grains showed detectable strontium and barium, but none of the grains had enough zirconium to be detected with CHILI. Nine grains were excluded from further consideration since they showed very little signals (<1000 counts) for strontium as well as for barium. Among the 11 remaining grains, we found three X grains. The discovery of three supernova grains among only 22 grainsmore » was fortuitous, because only ~1% of presolar silicon carbide grains are type X, but was confirmed by silicon isotopic measurements of grain residues with NanoSIMS. And while one of the X grains showed strontium and barium isotope patterns expected for supernova grains, the two other supernova grains have 87Sr/86Sr < 0.5, values never observed in any natural sample before. From their silicon isotope ratios, the latter two grains can be classified as X2 grains, while the former grain belongs to the more common X1 group. The differences of these grains in strontium and barium isotopic composition constrain their individual formation conditions in Type II supernovae.« less

  20. Strontium and barium isotopes in presolar silicon carbide grains measured with CHILI—two types of X grains

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, Thomas; Trappitsch, Reto; Davis, Andrew M.

    Here, we used CHILI, the Chicago Instrument for Laser Ionization, a new resonance ionization mass spectrometer developed for isotopic analysis of small samples, to analyze strontium, zirconium, and barium isotopes in 22 presolar silicon carbide grains. Twenty of the grains showed detectable strontium and barium, but none of the grains had enough zirconium to be detected with CHILI. Nine grains were excluded from further consideration since they showed very little signals (<1000 counts) for strontium as well as for barium. Among the 11 remaining grains, we found three X grains. The discovery of three supernova grains among only 22 grainsmore » was fortuitous, because only ~1% of presolar silicon carbide grains are type X, but was confirmed by silicon isotopic measurements of grain residues with NanoSIMS. And while one of the X grains showed strontium and barium isotope patterns expected for supernova grains, the two other supernova grains have 87Sr/86Sr < 0.5, values never observed in any natural sample before. From their silicon isotope ratios, the latter two grains can be classified as X2 grains, while the former grain belongs to the more common X1 group. The differences of these grains in strontium and barium isotopic composition constrain their individual formation conditions in Type II supernovae.« less

  1. Ternary cobalt-molybdenum-zirconium coatings for alternative energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yar-Mukhamedova, Gulmira; Ved', Maryna; Sakhnenko, Nikolay; Koziar, Maryna

    2017-11-01

    Consistent patterns for electrodeposition of Co-Mo-Zr coatings from polyligand citrate-pyrophosphate bath were investigated. The effect of both current density amplitude and pulse on/off time on the quality, composition and surface morphology of the galvanic alloys were determined. It was established the coating Co-Mo-Zr enrichment by molybdenum with current density increasing up to 8 A dm-2 as well as the rising of pulse time and pause duration promotes the content of molybdenum because of subsequent chemical reduction of its intermediate oxides by hydrogen ad-atoms. It was found that the content of the alloying metals in the coating Co-Mo-Zr depends on the current density and on/off times extremely and maximum Mo and Zr content corresponds to the current density interval 4-6 A dm-2, on-/off-time 2-10 ms. Chemical resistance of binary and ternary coatings based on cobalt is caused by the increased tendency to passivity and high resistance to pitting corrosion in the presence of molybdenum and zirconium, as well as the acid nature of their oxides. Binary coating with molybdenum content not less than 20 at.% and ternary ones with zirconium content in terms of corrosion deep index are in a group ;very proof;. It was shown that Co-Mo-Zr alloys exhibits the greatest level of catalytic properties as cathode material for hydrogen electrolytic production from acidic media which is not inferior a platinum electrode. The deposits Co-Mo-Zr with zirconium content 2-4 at.% demonstrate high catalytic properties in the carbon(II) oxide conversion. This confirms the efficiency of materials as catalysts for the gaseous wastes purification and gives the reason to recommend them as catalysts for red-ox processes activating by oxygen as well as electrode materials for red-ox batteries.

  2. METHOD FOR ANNEALING AND ROLLING ZIRCONIUM-BASE ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Picklesimer, M.L.

    1959-07-14

    A fabrication procedure is presented for alpha-stabilized zirconium-base alloys, and in particular Zircaloy-2. The alloy is initially worked at a temperature outside the alpha-plus-beta range (810 to 970 deg ), held at a temperature above 970 deg C for 30 minutes and cooled rapidly. The alloy is then cold-worked to reduce the size at least 20% and annealed at a temperature from 700 to 810 deg C. This procedure serves both to prevent the formation of stringers and to provide a randomly oriented crystal structure.

  3. Impedance spectroscopy of water soluble resin modified by zirconium sulphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Anandraj; Joshi, Girish M.

    2018-04-01

    We successfully modified water soluble resin polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) by loading zirconium sulphate (ZrSO4). We demonstrated the measurement of electrical properties by using impedance analyser across frequency range (10 Hz-1 MHz) and the temperature range of (30°C to 150°C). The impedance spectroscopy demonstrates decrease in bulk resistance as a function of temperature loading of zirconia 2.5 wt. %. Increase in AC (10-5 S/cm and DC conductivity (10- 2 S/m) observed due to ionic contribution of zirconia. However, the electrical properties of PVA/ZrSO4 composite useful to develop battery electrolyte applications.

  4. Method for separating isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Jepson, B.E.

    1975-10-21

    Isotopes are separated by contacting a feed solution containing the isotopes with a cyclic polyether wherein a complex of one isotope is formed with the cyclic polyether, the cyclic polyether complex is extracted from the feed solution, and the isotope is thereafter separated from the cyclic polyether.

  5. Zirconium: The material of the future in modern implantology.

    PubMed

    Kubasiewicz-Ross, Paweł; Dominiak, Marzena; Gedrange, Tomasz; Botzenhart, Ute U

    2017-01-01

    The authors present the contemporary state of knowledge concerning alternative materials for dental implantology. First of all, factors influencing osseointegration are stated. The most important factors seem to be the type of implant surface. Among the numerous parameters describing them, the most important are: average roughness and porous density. Some studies proved that materials with comparable surface roughness provide similar osseointegration. In modern implantology titanium is the material still considered as a "gold standard". However, aesthetic features of titanium still bear several disadvantages, especially in the case of periodontium with a thin biotype in the anterior, aesthetic sensitive area of the jaw. If a titanium implant is used in such a case, the mucosa at the implant's neck may become grayish and, consequently limits the success of the overall treatment. That was the reason for seeking alternative materials to manufacture dental implants. Initiated by general medicine, mainly orthopedics, the search led to the discovery of zirconium dioxide used in dental implantology. A small number of complications, good chemical parameters, anticorrosion, mechanical strength, elasticity module close to the one of steel, and especially biocompatibility made zirconium a perfect material for this purpose, although this material presents several problems in achieving optimal roughness. In this overview one of the probable methods, a process of partial synterization, is presented.

  6. Extensive Bone Reaction From Catastrophic Oxidized Zirconium Wear.

    PubMed

    Cassar-Gheiti, Adrian J; Collins, Dennis; McCarthy, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The use of alternative bearing surfaces for total hip arthroplasty has become popular to minimize wear and increase longevity, especially in young patients. Oxidized zirconium (Oxinium; Smith & Nephew, Memphis, Tennessee) femoral heads were introduced in the past decade for use in total hip arthroplasty. The advantages of oxidized zirconium include less risk of fracture compared with traditional ceramic heads. This case report describes a patient with a history of bilateral avascular necrosis of the femoral head after chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Nonoperative management of avascular necrosis failed, and the patient was treated with bilateral total hip arthroplasty. The patient was followed at regular intervals and had slow eccentric polyethylene wear during a 10-year period. After 10 years, the patient had accelerated wear, with femoral and acetabular bone changes as a result of Oxinium and ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene wear during a 6-month period. This article highlights the unusual accelerated bone changes that occurred as a result of Oxinium wear particles. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Wear Analysis in THA Utilizing Oxidized Zirconium and Crosslinked Polyethylene

    PubMed Central

    Garvin, Kevin L.; Mangla, Jimmi; Murdoch, Nathan; Martell, John M.

    2008-01-01

    Oxidized zirconium, a material with a ceramic surface on a metal substrate, and highly cross-linked polyethylene are two materials developed to reduce wear. We measured in vivo femoral head penetration in patients with these advanced bearings. We hypothesized the linear wear rates would be lower than those published for cobalt-chrome and standard polyethylene. We retrospectively reviewed a select series of 56 THAs in a relatively young, active patient population utilizing oxidized zirconium femoral heads and highly cross-linked polyethylene acetabular liners. Femoral head penetration was determined using the Martell computerized edge-detection method. All patients were available for 2-year clinical and radiographic followup. True linear wear was 4 μm/year (95% confidence intervals, ± 59 μm/year). The early wear rates in this cohort of relatively young, active patients were low and we believe justify the continued study of these alternative bearing surfaces. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18946711

  8. Reaction of Titanium and Zirconium Particles in Cylindrical Explosive Charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, David; Cairns, Malcolm; Goroshin, Samuel; Zhang, Fan

    2007-06-01

    The critical conditions for the reaction of high melting-point metallic particles (Ti, Zr) dispersed during the detonation of long cylindrical explosive charges have been investigated experimentally. The charges consisted of packed beds of either spherical titanium particles (with diameters of 35, 90, or 215 μm; AP&C, Inc.) or nonspherical zirconium particles (250 -- 500 μm or 500 -- 600 μm, Atlantic Equipment Eng., NJ) saturated with sensitized liquid nitromethane. For the titanium particles, a threshold particle diameter exists, above which self-sustained particle reaction is not observed, although some particle reaction occurs immediately behind the detonation front then rapidly quenches. For the smallest particles, the proportion of the conical particle cloud that reacts increases with charge diameter, suggesting that the reaction initiation is a competition between particle heating and expansion cooling of the products. For zirconium particles, no critical conditions exist; particle ignition was observed for all particle and charge diameters tested. In this case, interaction of the high pressure detonation wave with the particles is sufficient to initiate reaction at the particle surface after a delay time (˜ 10's μs), which is much less than the time required for thermal equilibration of the particles.

  9. Aqueous sodium borohydride induced thermally stable porous zirconium oxide for quick removal of lead ions

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Nadiya B.; Nayak, Bibhuti B.

    2016-01-01

    Aqueous sodium borohydride (NaBH4) is well known for its reducing property and well-established for the development of metal nanoparticles through reduction method. In contrary, this research paper discloses the importance of aqueous NaBH4 as a precipitating agent towards development of porous zirconium oxide. The boron species present in aqueous NaBH4 play an active role during gelation as well as phase separated out in the form of boron complex during precipitation, which helps to form boron free zirconium hydroxide [Zr(OH)4] in the as-synthesized condition. Evolved in-situ hydrogen (H2) gas-bubbles also play an important role to develop as-synthesized loose zirconium hydroxide and the presence of intra-particle voids in the loose zirconium hydroxide help to develop porous zirconium oxide during calcination process. Without any surface modification, this porous zirconium oxide quickly adsorbs almost hundred percentages of toxic lead ions from water solution within 15 minutes at normal pH condition. Adsorption kinetic models suggest that the adsorption process was surface reaction controlled chemisorption. Quick adsorption was governed by surface diffusion process and the adsorption kinetic was limited by pore diffusion. Five cycles of adsorption-desorption result suggests that the porous zirconium oxide can be reused efficiently for removal of Pb (II) ions from aqueous solution. PMID:26980545

  10. Capture of Tritium Released from Cladding in the Zirconium Recycle Process

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, Barry B.; Walker, T. B.; Bruffey, S. H.

    2016-08-31

    Zirconium may be recovered from the Zircaloy® cladding of used nuclear fuel (UNF) for recycle or to reduce the quantities of high-level waste destined for a geologic repository. Recovery of zirconium using a chlorination process is currently under development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The approach is to treat the cladding with chlorine gas to convert the zirconium in the alloy (~98 wt % of the alloy mass) to zirconium tetrachloride. A significant fraction of the tritium (0–96%) produced in nuclear fuel during irradiation may be found in zirconium-based cladding and could be released from the cladding when themore » solid matrix is destroyed by the chlorination reaction. To prevent uncontrolled release of radioactive tritium to other parts of the plant or to the environment, a method to recover the tritium may be required. The focus of this effort was to (1) identify potential methods for the recovery of tritium from the off-gas of the zirconium recycle process, (2) perform scoping tests on selected recovery methods using nonradioactive gas simulants, and (3) select a process design appropriate for testing on radioactive gas streams generated by the engineering-scale zirconium recycle demonstrations on radioactive used cladding.« less

  11. Capture of Tritium Released from Cladding in the Zirconium Recycle Process

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, Barry B.; Walker, T. B.; Bruffey, Stephanie H.

    2016-08-31

    This report is issued as the first revision to FCRD-MRWFD-2016-000297. Zirconium may be recovered from the Zircaloy® cladding of used nuclear fuel (UNF) for recycle or to reduce the quantities of high-level waste destined for a geologic repository. Recovery of zirconium using a chlorination process is currently under development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The approach is to treat the cladding with chlorine gas to convert the zirconium in the alloy (~98 wt % of the alloy mass) to zirconium tetrachloride. A significant fraction of the tritium (0–96%) produced in nuclear fuel during irradiation may be found in zirconium-basedmore » cladding and could be released from the cladding when the solid matrix is destroyed by the chlorination reaction. To prevent uncontrolled release of radioactive tritium to other parts of the plant or to the environment, a method to recover the tritium may be required. The focus of this effort was to (1) identify potential methods for the recovery of tritium from the off-gas of the zirconium recycle process, (2) perform scoping tests on selected recovery methods using non-radioactive gas simulants, and (3) select a process design appropriate for testing on radioactive gas streams generated by the engineering-scale zirconium recycle demonstrations on radioactive used cladding.« less

  12. Effect of hydrogenation conditions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of zirconium hydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muta, Hiroaki; Nishikane, Ryoji; Ando, Yusuke; Matsunaga, Junji; Sakamoto, Kan; Harjo, Stefanus; Kawasaki, Takuro; Ohishi, Yuji; Kurosaki, Ken; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2018-03-01

    Precipitation of brittle zirconium hydrides deteriorate the fracture toughness of the fuel cladding tubes of light water reactor. Although the hydride embrittlement has been studied extensively, little is known about physical properties of the hydride due to the experimental difficulties. In the present study, to elucidate relationship between mechanical properties and microstructure, two δ-phase zirconium hydrides and one ε-phase zirconium hydride were carefully fabricated considering volume changes at the metal-to-hydride transformation. The δ-hydride that was fabricated from α-zirconium exhibits numerous inner cracks due to the large volume change. Analyses of the neutron diffraction pattern and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) data show that the sample displays significant stacking faults in the {111} plane and in the pseudo-layered microstructure. On the other hand, the δ-hydride sample fabricated from β-zirconium at a higher temperature displays equiaxed grains and no cracks. The strong crystal orientation dependence of mechanical properties were confirmed by indentation test and EBSD observation. The δ-hydride hydrogenated from α-zirconium displays a lower Young's modulus than that prepared from β-zirconium. The difference is attributed to stacking faults within the {111} plane, for which the Young's modulus exhibits the highest value in the perpendicular direction. The strong influence of the crystal orientation and dislocation density on the mechanical properties should be considered when evaluating hydride precipitates in nuclear fuel cladding.

  13. Isotope separation by photochromatography

    DOEpatents

    Suslick, K.S.

    1975-10-03

    A photochromatographic method for isotope separation is described. An isotopically mixed molecular species is adsorbed on an adsorptive surface, and the adsorbed molecules are irradiated with radiation of a predetermined wavelength which will selectively excite desired isotopic species. Sufficient energy is transferred to the excited molecules to desorb them from the surface and thus separate them from the undesired isotopic species. The method is particularly applicable to the separation of hydrogen isotopes. (BLM)

  14. Isotope separation by photochromatography

    DOEpatents

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    1977-01-01

    An isotope separation method which comprises physically adsorbing an isotopically mixed molecular species on an adsorptive surface and irradiating the adsorbed molecules with radiation of a predetermined wavelength which will selectively excite a desired isotopic species. Sufficient energy is transferred to the excited molecules to desorb them from the surface and thereby separate them from the unexcited undesired isotopic species. The method is particularly applicable to the separation of hydrogen isotopes.

  15. Evaluating Employability Skills: Employer and Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Venetia; Zuzel, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Graduate employability is a key issue for Higher Education. In this two-part study student employability skills have been evaluated from the perspective of sandwich students and graduates in biomolecular science, and their employers. A strong correlation was found between employer and sandwich student/graduate perceptions of the relative…

  16. Effective dose to immuno-PET patients due to metastable impurities in cyclotron produced zirconium-89

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfuraih, Abdulrahman; Alzimami, Khalid; Ma, Andy K.; Alghamdi, Ali; Al Jammaz, Ibrahim

    2014-11-01

    Immuno-PET is a nuclear medicine technique that combines positron emission tommography (PET) with radio-labeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for tumor characterization and therapy. Zirconium-89 (89Zr) is an emerging radionuclide for immuno-PET imaging. Its long half-life (78.4 h) gives ample time for the production, the administering and the patient uptake of the tagged radiopharmaceutical. Furthermore, the nuclides will remain in the tumor cells after the mAbs are catabolized so that time series studies are possible without incurring further administration of radiopharmarceuticals. 89Zr can be produced in medical cyclotrons by bombarding an yttrium-89 (89Y) target with a proton beam through the 89Y(p,n)89Zr reaction. In this study, we estimated the effective dose to the head and neck cancer patients undergoing 89Zr-based immune-PET procedures. The production of 89Zr and the impurities from proton irradiation of the 89Y target in a cyclotron was calculated with the Monte Carlo code MCNPX and the nuclear reaction code TALYS. The cumulated activities of the Zr isotopes were derived from real patient data in literature and the effective doses were estimated using the MIRD specific absorbed fraction formalism. The estimated effective dose from 89Zr is 0.5±0.2 mSv/MBq. The highest organ dose is 1.8±0.2 mSv/MBq in the liver. These values are in agreement with those reported in literature. The effective dose from 89mZr is about 0.2-0.3% of the 89Zr dose in the worst case. Since the ratio of 89mZr to 89Zr depends on the cooling time as well as the irradiation details, contaminant dose estimation is an important aspect in optimizing the cyclotron irradiation geometry, energy and time.

  17. Thermodynamic Analysis and Growth of Zirconium Carbide by Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Sun; Hua, Hao Zheng; Xiang, Xiong

    Equilibrium calculations were used to optimize conditions for the chemical vapor deposition of zirconium carbide from zirconium halide + CxHy+H2+Ar system. The results show the CVD-ZrC phase diagram is divided into ZrC+C, ZrC and ZrC+Zr zones by C, Zr generating lines. For the same mole of ZrCl4 reactant, it needs higher concentration of CH4 to generate single ZrC phase than that of C3H6. Using these calculations as a guide, single-phase cubic zirconium carbide coatings were deposited onto graphite substrate.

  18. Isomerization of Cyclooctadiene to Cyclooctyne with a Zinc/Zirconium Heterobimetallic Complex.

    PubMed

    Butler, Michael J; White, Andrew J P; Crimmin, Mark R

    2016-06-06

    Reaction of a zinc/zirconium heterobimetallic complex with 1,5-cyclooctadiene (1,5-COD) results in slow isomerization to 1,3-cyclooctadiene (1,3-COD), along with the formation of a new complex that includes a cyclooctyne ligand bridging two metal centers. While analogous magnesium/zirconium and aluminum/zirconium heterobimetallic complexes are competent for the catalytic isomerization of 1,5-COD to 1,3-COD, only in the case of the zinc species is the cyclooctyne adduct observed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Isomerization of Cyclooctadiene to Cyclooctyne with a Zinc/Zirconium Heterobimetallic Complex

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Michael J.; White, Andrew J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Reaction of a zinc/zirconium heterobimetallic complex with 1,5‐cyclooctadiene (1,5‐COD) results in slow isomerization to 1,3‐cyclooctadiene (1,3‐COD), along with the formation of a new complex that includes a cyclooctyne ligand bridging two metal centers. While analogous magnesium/zirconium and aluminum/zirconium heterobimetallic complexes are competent for the catalytic isomerization of 1,5‐COD to 1,3‐COD, only in the case of the zinc species is the cyclooctyne adduct observed. PMID:27071992

  20. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ZIRCONIUM NITRIDE IN THE HOMOGENEITY REGION (in Ukrainian)

    SciTech Connect

    Samsonov, G.V.; Verkhoglyadova, T.S.

    1962-01-01

    The x-ray method was used to determine the homogeneity region of zirconium nitride as 40 to 50 at.% (9.5 to 13.3% by weight) of nitrogen. It is also shown that part of the ionic bond in the zirconium nitride lattice increases with a decrease in the nitrogen content in this region, this increase being higher than in the homogeneity region of titunium nitride due to the smaller degree of unfilling of the electron d-shell of the zirconium atom in comparison with that of the titanium atom. (auth)

  1. Reactivity of zirconium basic sulfate in the reactions with carbonate, oxalate, and phosphate reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Nekhamkin, L.G.; Kondrashova, I.A.; Kerina, V.R.

    1987-08-20

    The reactivity of zirconium basic sulfate is determined by the possibility of replacement of oxo- and hydroxo-ligands and decreases with increasing temperature of its precipitation. The interaction of the less reactive zirconium basic sulfate with carbonate and oxalate reagents occurs at 25/sup 0/C without any change in basicity and that with phosphate reagents occurs with a decrease in it, up to the formation of a monophosphate with basicity about 20%. In the interaction of the more reactive zirconium basic sulfate, obtained without heating, oxo- and hydroxo groups can be entirely replaced by acido-ligands with the formation of unhydrolyzed compounds.

  2. Divergent Pathways Involving 1,3-Dipolar Addition and N-N Bond Splitting of an Organic Azide across a Zirconium Methylidene.

    PubMed

    Kurogi, Takashi; Mane, Manoj V; Zheng, Shuai; Carroll, Patrick J; Baik, Mu-Hyun; Mindiola, Daniel J

    2018-02-12

    The zirconium methylidene (PNP)Zr=CH 2 (OAr) (1) reacts with N 3 Ad to give two products (PNP)Zr=NAd(OAr) (2) and (PNP)Zr(η 2 -N=NAd)(N=CH 2 )(OAr) (3), both resulting from a common cycloaddition intermediate (PNP)Zr(CH 2 N 3 Ad)(OAr) (A). Using a series of control experiments in combination with DFT calculations, it was found that 2 results from a nitrene by a carbene metathesis reaction in which N 2 acts as a delivery vehicle and forms N 2 CH 2 as a side product. In the case of 3, N-N bond splitting of the azide at the α-position allowed the isolation of a rare example of a parent ketimide complex of zirconium. Isotopic labeling studies and solid-state X-ray analysis are presented for 2 and 3, in addition to an independent synthesis for the former. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Spark Plasma Sintering of Commercial Zirconium Carbide Powders: Densification Behavior and Mechanical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xialu; Back, Christina; Izhvanov, Oleg; Khasanov, Oleg L.; Haines, Christopher D.; Olevsky, Eugene A.

    2015-01-01

    Commercial zirconium carbide (ZrC) powder is consolidated by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). Processing temperatures range from 1650 to 2100 °C. Specimens with various density levels are obtained when performing single-die SPS at different temperatures. Besides the single-die tooling setup, a double-die tooling setup is employed to largely increase the actual applied pressure to achieve higher densification in a shorter processing time. In order to describe the densification mechanism of ZrC powder under SPS conditions, a power-law creep constitutive equation is utilized, whose coefficients are determined by the inverse regression of the obtained experimental data. The densification of the selected ZrC powder is shown to be likely associated with grain boundary sliding and dislocation glide controlled creep. Transverse rupture strength and microhardness of sintered specimens are measured to be up to 380 MPa and 24 GPa, respectively. Mechanical properties are correlated with specimens’ average grain size and relative density to elucidate the co-factor dependencies. PMID:28793550

  4. Use of multiscale zirconium alloy deformation models in nuclear fuel behavior analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, Robert; Tomé, Carlos; Liu, Wenfeng

    Accurate prediction of cladding mechanical behavior is a key aspect of modeling nuclear fuel behavior, especially for conditions of pellet-cladding interaction (PCI), reactivity-initiated accidents (RIA), and loss of coolant accidents (LOCA). Current approaches to fuel performance modeling rely on empirical models for cladding creep, growth and plastic deformation, which are limited to the materials and conditions for which the models were developed. CASL has endeavored to improve upon this approach by incorporating a microstructurally-based, atomistically-informed, zirconium alloy mechanical deformation analysis capability into the BISON-CASL engineering scale fuel performance code. Specifically, the viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) polycrystal plasticity modeling approach, developed bymore » Lebensohn and Tome´ [2], has been coupled with BISON-CASL to represent the mechanistic material processes controlling the deformation behavior of the cladding. A critical component of VPSC is the representation of the crystallographic orientation of the grains within the matrix material and the ability to account for the role of texture on deformation. The multiscale modeling of cladding deformation mechanisms allowed by VPSC far exceed the functionality of typical semi-empirical constitutive models employed in nuclear fuel behavior codes to model irradiation growth and creep, thermal creep, or plasticity. This paper describes the implementation of an interface between VPSC and BISON-CASL and provides initial results utilizing the coupled functionality.« less

  5. Thermally Induced Lateral Motion of α-Zirconium Phosphate Layers Intercalated with Hexadecylamines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Char, Kookheon

    2005-03-01

    Well-defined intercalated structure, either interdigitated layers or bilayers, of hexadecylamines (HDAs) in a confined space of a highly-functionalized layered material, α- zirconium phosphate (α-ZrP), was prepared and these two distinct intercalated structures can serve as model systems to investigate the interaction of the two monolayers whose amphiphilic tails are adjacent to each other. Acidic functional groups (-POH) on the α-ZrP are in well-ordered array and the number of functional group is quite high (i.e., cationic exchange capacity (CEC) = 664 mmole/100 g, area per one charge site = 0.24 nm^2) enough to realize the bilayers (i.e., discrete two monolayers) of HDAs within the α-ZrP interlayer. We employed the two-step intercalation mechanism for the preparation of well- ordered interdigitated layers as well as the bilayers of alkyl chains attached to both sides of the α-ZrP intergallery. An intriguing lateral motion of the α-ZrP sheets was observed with in-situ SAXS measurements for the interdigitated layer during heating and cooling cycle and verified with TEM. This lateral motion is believed to be due to the transition from the tilted to the untilted conformation of the interdigitated HDA chains and this transition is found to be thermally reversible.

  6. Diamond-like carbon coatings with zirconium-containing interlayers for orthopedic implants.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Dipankar; Lackner, Juergen; Fleming, Robert A; Goss, Josh; Chen, Jingyi; Zou, Min

    2017-04-01

    Six types of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings with zirconium (Zr)-containing interlayers on titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) were investigated for improving the biotribological performance of orthopedic implants. The coatings consist of three layers: above the substrate a layer stack of 32 alternating Zr and ZrN sublayers (Zr:ZrN), followed by a layer comprised of Zr and DLC (Zr:DLC), and finally a N-doped DLC layer. The Zr:ZrN layer is designed for increasing load carrying capacity and corrosion resistance; the Zr:DLC layer is for gradual transition of stress, thus enhancing layer adhesion; and the N-doped DLC layer is for decreasing friction, squeaking noises and wear. Biotribological experiments were performed in simulated body fluid employing a ball-on-disc contact with a Si 3 N 4 ball and a rotational oscillating motion to mimic hip motion in terms of gait angle, dynamic contact pressures, speed and body temperature. The results showed that the Zr:DLC layer has a substantial influence on eliminating delamination of the DLC from the substrates. The DLC/Si 3 N 4 pairs significantly reduced friction coefficient, squeaking noise and wear of both the Si 3 N 4 balls and the discs compared to those of the Ti-6Al-4V/Si 3 N 4 pair after testing for a duration that is equivalent to one year of hip motion in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Edge-on dislocation loop in anisotropic hcp zirconium thin foil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wenwang; Xia, Re; Qian, Guian; Xu, Shucai; Zhang, Jinhuan

    2015-10-01

    Edge-on dislocation loops with 〈 a 〉 -type and 〈 c 〉 -type of Burgers vectors can be formed on prismatic or basel habit planes of hexagonal close-packed (hcp) zirconium alloys during in-situ ion irradiation and neutron irradiation experiments. In this work, an anisotropic image stress method was employed to analyze the free surface effects of dislocation loops within hcp Zr thin foils. Calculation results demonstrate that image stress has a remarkable effect on the distortion fields of dislocation loops within infinite medium, and the image energy becomes remarkable when dislocation loops are situated close to the free surfaces. Moreover, image forces of the 1 / 2 〈 0001 〉 (0001) dislocation loop within (0001) thin foil is much stronger than that of the 1 / 3 〈 11 2 bar 0 〉 (11 2 bar 0) dislocation loop within (11 2 bar 0) thin foil of identical geometrical configurations. Finally, image stress effect on the physical behaviors of loops during in-situ ion irradiation experiments is discussed.

  8. In situ Raman spectroscopic investigation of zirconium-niobium alloy corrosion under hydrothermal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslar, J. E.; Hurst, W. S.; Bowers, W. J.; Hendricks, J. H.

    2001-10-01

    In situ Raman spectroscopy was employed to investigate corrosion of a zirconium-niobium alloy in air-saturated water at a pressure of 15.5 MPa and temperatures ranging from 22 to 407 °C in an optically accessible flow cell. Monoclinic ZrO 2 (m-ZrO 2) was identified under all conditions after the coupon was heated to 255 °C for 19 h. Cubic ZrO 2 (c-ZrO 2) was tentatively identified in situ during heating at temperatures between 306 and 407 °C, but was not observed under any other conditions. Species tentatively identified as α-CrOOH and a Cr VI and/or Cr III/Cr VI compound were observed in situ during heating at temperatures between 255 and 407 °C, but were not observed under any other conditions. The chromium compounds were identified as corrosion products released from the optical cell and/or flow system.

  9. High performance polymer solar cells with as-prepared zirconium acetylacetonate film as cathode buffer layer

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Zhan'ao; Li, Shusheng; Wang, Fuzhi; Qian, Deping; Lin, Jun; Hou, Jianhui; Li, Yongfang

    2014-01-01

    Low-work-function active metals are commonly used as cathode in polymer solar cells (PSCs), but sensitivity of the active metals towards moisture and oxygen results in poor stability of the devices. Therefore, solution-proceessable and stable cathode buffer layer is of great importance for the application of PSCs. Here we demonstrate high performance PSCs by employing as-prepared zirconium acetylacetonate (a-ZrAcac) film spin-cast from its ethanol solution as cathode buffer layer. The PSCs based on a low bandgap polymer PBDTBDD as donor and PC60BM as acceptor with a-ZrAcac/Al cathode demonstrated an average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.75% which is significantly improved than that of the devices with traditional Ca/Al cathode. The improved photovoltaic performance is benefitted from the decreased series resistance and enhanced light harvest of the PSCs with the a-ZrAcac/Al cathode. The results indicate that a-ZrAcac is a promising high performance cathode buffer layer for fabricating large area flexible PSCs. PMID:24732976

  10. Electrophoretic fabrication of chitosan-zirconium-oxide nanobiocomposite platform for nucleic acid detection.

    PubMed

    Das, Maumita; Dhand, Chetna; Sumana, Gajjala; Srivastava, A K; Nagarajan, R; Nain, Lata; Iwamoto, M; Manaka, Takaaki; Malhotra, B D

    2011-03-14

    The present work describes electrophoretic fabrication of nanostructured chitosan-zirconium-oxide composite (CHIT-NanoZrO(2)) film (180 nm) onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-coated glass plate. This nanobiocomposite film has been explored as immobilization platform for probe DNA specific to M. Tuberculosis as model biomolecule to investigate its sensing characteristics. It is revealed that pH-responsive behavior of CHIT and its cationic skeleton is responsible for the movement of CHIT-NanoZrO(2) colloids toward cathode during electrophoretic deposition. The FT-IR, SEM, TEM, and EDX techniques have been employed for the structural, morphological, and composition analysis of the fabricated electrodes. The morphological studies clearly reveal uniform inter-linking and dispersion of hexagonal nanograins of ZrO(2) (30-50 nm) into the chitosan matrix, resulting in homogeneous nanobiocomposite formation. Electrochemical response measurements of DNA/CHIT-NanoZrO(2)/ITO bioelectrode, carried out using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry, reveal that this bioelectrode can specifically detect complementary target DNA up to 0.00078 μM with sensitivity of 6.38 × 10(-6) AμM(-1).

  11. Measurement of Enzyme Isotope Effects.

    PubMed

    Kholodar, Svetlana A; Ghosh, Ananda K; Kohen, Amnon

    2017-01-01

    Enzyme isotope effects, or the kinetic effects of "heavy" enzymes, refer to the effect of isotopically labeled protein residues on the enzyme's activity or physical properties. These effects are increasingly employed in the examination of the possible contributions of protein dynamics to enzyme catalysis. One hypothesis assumed that isotopic substitution of all 12 C, 14 N, and nonexchangeable 1 H by 13 C, 15 N, and 2 H, would slow down protein picosecond to femtosecond dynamics without any effect on the system's electrostatics following the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. It was suggested that reduced reaction rates reported for several "heavy" enzymes accords with that hypothesis. However, numerous deviations from the predictions of that hypothesis were also reported. Current studies also attempt to test the role of individual residues by site-specific labeling or by labeling a pattern of residues on activity. It appears that in several systems the protein's fast dynamics are indeed reduced in "heavy" enzymes in a way that reduces the probability of barrier crossing of its chemical step. Other observations, however, indicated that slower protein dynamics are electrostatically altered in isotopically labeled enzymes. Interestingly, these effects appear to be system dependent, thus it might be premature to suggest a general role of "heavy" enzymes' effect on catalysis. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Reporting of nitrogen-isotope abundances (Technical Report)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Krouse, H.R.; Böhlke, John Karl

    1992-01-01

    To eliminate possible confusion in the reporting of nitrogen-isotope analyses, the Commission on Atomic Weights and Isotopic Abundances recommends that the value 272 be employed for the 14N/15N value of N2 in air for calculating atom percent 15N from measured δ15N values.

  13. Shape Evolution in Neutron-Rich Krypton Isotopes Beyond N =60 : First Spectroscopy of Kr,10098

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flavigny, F.; Doornenbal, P.; Obertelli, A.; Delaroche, J.-P.; Girod, M.; Libert, J.; Rodriguez, T. R.; Authelet, G.; Baba, H.; Calvet, D.; Château, F.; Chen, S.; Corsi, A.; Delbart, A.; Gheller, J.-M.; Giganon, A.; Gillibert, A.; Lapoux, V.; Motobayashi, T.; Niikura, M.; Paul, N.; Roussé, J.-Y.; Sakurai, H.; Santamaria, C.; Steppenbeck, D.; Taniuchi, R.; Uesaka, T.; Ando, T.; Arici, T.; Blazhev, A.; Browne, F.; Bruce, A.; Carroll, R.; Chung, L. X.; Cortés, M. L.; Dewald, M.; Ding, B.; Franchoo, S.; Górska, M.; Gottardo, A.; Jungclaus, A.; Lee, J.; Lettmann, M.; Linh, B. D.; Liu, J.; Liu, Z.; Lizarazo, C.; Momiyama, S.; Moschner, K.; Nagamine, S.; Nakatsuka, N.; Nita, C.; Nobs, C. R.; Olivier, L.; Orlandi, R.; Patel, Z.; Podolyák, Zs.; Rudigier, M.; Saito, T.; Shand, C.; Söderström, P. A.; Stefan, I.; Vaquero, V.; Werner, V.; Wimmer, K.; Xu, Z.

    2017-06-01

    We report on the first γ -ray spectroscopy of low-lying states in neutron-rich Kr,10098 isotopes obtained from Rb,10199(p ,2 p ) reactions at ˜220 MeV /nucleon . A reduction of the 21+ state energies beyond N =60 demonstrates a significant increase of deformation, shifted in neutron number compared to the sharper transition observed in strontium and zirconium isotopes. State-of-the-art beyond-mean-field calculations using the Gogny D1S interaction predict level energies in good agreement with experimental results. The identification of a low-lying (02+, 22+) state in Kr 98 provides the first experimental evidence of a competing configuration at low energy in neutron-rich krypton isotopes consistent with the oblate-prolate shape coexistence picture suggested by theory.

  14. Fretting wear behavior of zirconium alloy in B-Li water at 300 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lefu; Lai, Ping; Liu, Qingdong; Zeng, Qifeng; Lu, Junqiang; Guo, Xianglong

    2018-02-01

    The tangential fretting wear of three kinds of zirconium alloys tube mated with 304 stainless steel (SS) plate was investigated. The tests were conducted in an autoclave containing 300 °C pressurized B-Li water for tube-on-plate contact configuration. The worn surfaces were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and 3D microscopy. The cross-section of wear scar was examined with transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results indicated that the dominant wear mechanism of zirconium alloys in this test condition was delamination and oxidation. The oxide layer on the fretted area consists of outer oxide layer composed of iron oxide and zirconium oxide and inner oxide layer composed of zirconium oxide.

  15. About structural phase state of coating based on zirconium oxide formed by microplasma oxidation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubaidulina, Tatiana A.; Sergeev, Viktor P.; Kuzmin, Oleg S.; Fedorischeva, Marina V.; Kalashnikov, Mark P.

    2017-12-01

    The oxide-ceramic coating based of zirconium oxide is formed by the method of microplasma oxidation. The producing modes of the oxide layers on E110 zirconium alloy are under testing. It was found that using microplasma treatment of E110 zirconium in aluminosilicate electrolyte makes possible the formation of porous oxide-ceramic coatings based on zirconium alloyed by aluminum and niobium. The study is focused on the modes how to form heat-shielding coatings with controlled porosity and minimal amount of microcracks. The structural-phase state of the coating is studied by X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the ratio of the monoclinic and tetragonal phases changes with the change occurring in the coating formation modes.

  16. Synthesis, microstructure and dielectric properties of zirconium doped barium titanate

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Rohtash; School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi; Asokan, K.

    2016-05-23

    We report on synthesis, microstructural and relaxor ferroelectric properties of Zirconium(Zr) doped Barium Titanate (BT) samples with general formula Ba(Ti{sub 1-x}Zr{sub x})O{sub 3} (x=0.20, 0.35). These lead-free ceramics were prepared by solid state reaction route. The phase transition behavior and temperature dependent dielectric properties and composition dependent ferroelectric properties were investigated. XRD analysis at room temperature confirms phase purity of the samples. SEM observations revealed retarded grain growth with increasing Zr mole fraction. Dielectric properties of BZT ceramics is influenced significantly by small addition of Zr mole fraction. With increasing Zr mole fraction, dielectric constant decreases while FWHM and frequencymore » dispersion increases. Polarization vs electric field hysteresis measurements reveal ferroelectric relaxor phase at room temperature. The advantages of such substitution maneuvering towards optimizing ferroelectric properties of BaTiO{sub 3} are discussed.« less

  17. Titanium-Zirconium-Nickel Alloy Inside Marshall's Electrostatic Levitator (ESL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This Photo, which appeared on the July cover of `Physics Today', is of the Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 3-4 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber allowing scientists to record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contracting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. Once inside the chamber, a laser heats the sample until it melts. The laser is then turned off and the sample cools, changing from a liquid drop to a solid sphere. In this particular shot, the ESL contains a solid metal sample of titanium-zirconium-nickel alloy. Since 1977, the ESL has been used at MSFC to study the characteristics of new metals, ceramics, and glass compounds. Materials created as a result of these tests include new optical materials, special metallic glasses, and spacecraft components.

  18. Titanium-Zirconium-Nickel Alloy Inside Marshall's Electrostatic Levitator (ESL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This is a close-up of a sample of titanium-zirconium-nickel alloy inside the Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) vacuum chamber at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 3-4 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber allowing scientists to record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contracting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. Once inside the chamber, a laser heats the sample until it melts. The laser is then turned off and the sample cools, changing from a liquid drop to a solid sphere. Since 1977, the ESL has been used at MSFC to study the characteristics of new metals, ceramics, and glass compounds. Materials created as a result of these tests include new optical materials, special metallic glasses, and spacecraft components.

  19. Defect kinetics and resistance to amorphization in zirconium carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Ming-Jie; Szlufarska, Izabela; Morgan, Dane

    2015-02-01

    To better understand the radiation response of zirconium carbide (ZrC), and in particular its excellent resistance to amorphization, we have used density functional theory methods to study the kinetics of point defects in ZrC. The migration barriers and recombination barriers of the simple point defects are calculated using the ab initio molecular dynamics simulation and the nudged elastic band method. These barriers are used to estimate C and Zr interstitial and vacancy diffusion and Frenkel pair recombination rates. A significant barrier for C Frenkel pair recombination is found but it is shown that a large concentration of C vacancies reduces this barrier dramatically, allowing facile healing of radiation damage. The mechanisms underlying high resistance to amorphization of ZrC were analyzed from the perspectives of structural, thermodynamic, chemical and kinetic properties. This study provides insights into the amorphization resistance of ZrC as well as a foundation for understanding general radiation damage in this material.

  20. Translucency and Strength of High-Translucency Monolithic Zirconium-Oxide Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-12

    APPROV~, Col Drew W. Fallis Dean, Air Force Postgraduate Dental School r UNIFORMED SERVICES UNIVERSITY OF THE HEALTH SCIENCES AIR FORCE...POSTGRADUATE DENTAL SCHOOL 2450 Pepperrell Street Lackland AFB Texas, 78236-5345 http://www.usuhs.mil "The author hereby certifies that the use of any...Translucency Monolithic Zirconium-Oxide Materials Abstract Dental materials manufacturers have developed more translucent monolithic zirconium oxide

  1. Preferable removal of phosphate from water using hydrous zirconium oxide-based nanocomposite of high stability.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Zhao, Xin; Pan, Bingcai; Zhang, Weixian; Hua, Ming; Lv, Lu; Zhang, Weiming

    2015-03-02

    In this study, we employed a new nanocomposite adsorbent HZO-201, which featured high stability under varying solution chemistry, for preferable removal of phosphate from synthetic solution and a real effluent. An anion exchange resin (D-201) was employed as the host of HZO-201, where nano-hydrous zirconium oxide (HZO) was encapsulated as the active species. D-201 binds phosphate through nonspecific electrostatic affinity, whereas the loaded HZO nanoparticles capture phosphate through formation of the inner-sphere complexes. Quantitative contribution of both species to phosphate adsorption was predicted based on the double-Langmuir model. Preferable removal of phosphate by HZO-201 was observed in the presence of the competing anions at higher levels (Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-), HCO3(-)). Fixed-bed adsorption indicated that the effective volume capacity of a synthetic water (2.0 mg P-PO4(3-)/L) by using HZO-201 was ∼1600 BV in the first run (<0.5mg P-PO4(3-)/L), comparable to Fe(III)-based nanocomposite HFO-201 (∼1500 BV) and much larger than D-201 (<250 BV). The exhausted HZO-201 can be in situ regenerated by using a binary NaOH-NaCl solution for cyclic runs, whether fed with the synthetic solution or real effluent. In general, HZO-201 is a promising alternative to Fe(III)-based adsorbents for trace phosphate removal from effluent particularly at acidic pH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanical resistance of zirconium implant abutments: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Vaquero-Aguilar, Cristina; Torres-Lagares, Daniel; Jiménez-Melendo, Manuel; Gutiérrez-Pérez, José L.

    2012-01-01

    The increase of aesthetic demands, together with the successful outcome of current implants, has renewed interest in the search for new materials with enough mechanical properties and better aesthetic qualities than the materials customarily used in implanto-prosthetic rehabilitation. Among these materials, zirconium has been used in different types of implants, including prosthetic abutments. The aim of the present review is to analyse current scientific evidence supporting the use of this material for the above mentioned purposes. We carried out the review of the literature published in the last ten years (2000 through 2010) of in vitro trials of dynamic and static loading of zirconium abutments found in the databases of Medline and Cochrane using the key words zirconium abutment, fracture resistance, fracture strength, cyclic loading. Although we have found a wide variability of values among the different studies, abutments show favourable clinical behaviour for the rehabilitation of single implants in the anterior area. Such variability may be explained by the difficulty to simulate daily mastication under in vitro conditions. The clinical evidence, as found in our study, does not recommend the use of implanto-prosthetic zirconium abutments in the molar area. Key words: Zirconium abutment, zirconium implant abutment, zirconia abutment, fracture resistance, fracture strength, cyclic loading. PMID:22143702

  3. Overcoming the crystallization and designability issues in the ultrastable zirconium phosphonate framework system

    DOE PAGES

    Zheng, Tao; Yang, Zaixing; Gui, Daxiang; ...

    2017-05-30

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) based on zirconium phosphonates exhibit superior chemical stability suitable for applications under harsh conditions. These compounds mostly exist as poorly crystallized precipitates, and precise structural information has therefore remained elusive. Furthermore, a zero-dimensional zirconium phosphonate cluster acting as secondary building unit has been lacking, leading to poor designability in this system. We overcome these challenges and obtain single crystals of three zirconium phosphonates that are suitable for structural analysis. Furthermore, these compounds are built by previously unknown isolated zirconium phosphonate clusters and exhibit combined high porosity and ultrastability even in fuming acids. SZ-2 possesses the largest voidmore » volume recorded in zirconium phosphonates and SZ-3 represents the most porous crystalline zirconium phosphonate and the only porous MOF material reported to survive in aqua regia. SZ-2 and SZ-3 can effectively remove uranyl ions from aqueous solutions over a wide pH range, and we have elucidated the removal mechanism.« less

  4. Comparison of Zirconium Phosphonate-Modified Surfaces for Immobilizing Phosphopeptides and Phosphate-Tagged Proteins.

    PubMed

    Forato, Florian; Liu, Hao; Benoit, Roland; Fayon, Franck; Charlier, Cathy; Fateh, Amina; Defontaine, Alain; Tellier, Charles; Talham, Daniel R; Queffélec, Clémence; Bujoli, Bruno

    2016-06-07

    Different routes for preparing zirconium phosphonate-modified surfaces for immobilizing biomolecular probes are compared. Two chemical-modification approaches were explored to form self-assembled monolayers on commercially available primary amine-functionalized slides, and the resulting surfaces were compared to well-characterized zirconium phosphonate monolayer-modified supports prepared using Langmuir-Blodgett methods. When using POCl3 as the amine phosphorylating agent followed by treatment with zirconyl chloride, the result was not a zirconium-phosphonate monolayer, as commonly assumed in the literature, but rather the process gives adsorbed zirconium oxide/hydroxide species and to a lower extent adsorbed zirconium phosphate and/or phosphonate. Reactions giving rise to these products were modeled in homogeneous-phase studies. Nevertheless, each of the three modified surfaces effectively immobilized phosphopeptides and phosphopeptide tags fused to an affinity protein. Unexpectedly, the zirconium oxide/hydroxide modified surface, formed by treating the amine-coated slides with POCl3/Zr(4+), afforded better immobilization of the peptides and proteins and efficient capture of their targets.

  5. Overcoming the crystallization and designability issues in the ultrastable zirconium phosphonate framework system

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Tao; Yang, Zaixing; Gui, Daxiang

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) based on zirconium phosphonates exhibit superior chemical stability suitable for applications under harsh conditions. These compounds mostly exist as poorly crystallized precipitates, and precise structural information has therefore remained elusive. Furthermore, a zero-dimensional zirconium phosphonate cluster acting as secondary building unit has been lacking, leading to poor designability in this system. We overcome these challenges and obtain single crystals of three zirconium phosphonates that are suitable for structural analysis. Furthermore, these compounds are built by previously unknown isolated zirconium phosphonate clusters and exhibit combined high porosity and ultrastability even in fuming acids. SZ-2 possesses the largest voidmore » volume recorded in zirconium phosphonates and SZ-3 represents the most porous crystalline zirconium phosphonate and the only porous MOF material reported to survive in aqua regia. SZ-2 and SZ-3 can effectively remove uranyl ions from aqueous solutions over a wide pH range, and we have elucidated the removal mechanism.« less

  6. Radiogenic Isotopes in Weathering and Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, J. D.; Erel, Y.

    2003-12-01

    cycling of calcium. The decay of 235U to 207Pb, 238U to 206Pb, and 232Th to 208Pb have half-lives of 0.704 Gyr, 4.47 Gyr, and 14.0 Gyr, respectively, and result in variations in the 207Pb/204Pb, 206Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb ratios (e.g., Blum, 1995). Uranium-234 has a half-life of 0.25 Myr and the ratio 234U/238U approaches a constant secular equilibrium value in rocks and minerals if undisturbed for ˜1 Myr. Differences in this ratio are often observed in solutions following rock-water interaction and have been used in studies of weathering and hydrology. Uranium and thorium tend to be highly concentrated in the trace accessory minerals such as zircon, monazite, apatite, and sphene, which therefore develop high 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb ratios. Once released into the hydrosphere, lead retains its isotopic composition without significant geochemical or biological fractionation and tends to generally follow the chemistry of iron in soils and aqueous systems (Erel and Morgan, 1992). The use of the U-Th disequilibrium series as a dating tool falls outside the scope of this chapter and is reviewed in Chapters 6.14 and 6.17 as well as Chapter 3.15. The decay of 147Sm to 143Nd, 176Lu to 176Hf, and 187Re to 187Os have half-lives of 106 Gyr, 35.7 Gyr, and 42.3 Gyr, respectively, and result in natural variability in the 144Nd/143Nd, 176Hf/177Hf, and 187Os/188Os ratios (e.g., Blum, 1995). Neodymium is a rare earth element (REE), hafnium is a transition metal with chemical similarities to zirconium, and osmium is a platinum group element. The geochemical behaviors of these elements in the hydrosphere are largely determined by these chemical affinities.

  7. Analysis of the influence of the macro- and microstructure of dental zirconium implants on osseointegration: a minipig study.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Cornelia Katharina; Solcher, Philipp; Peisker, Andrè; Mtsariashvilli, Maia; Schlegel, Karl Andreas; Hildebrand, Gerhard; Rost, Juergen; Liefeith, Klaus; Chen, Jiang; Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    It was the aim of this study to analyze the influence of implant design and surface topography on the osseointegration of dental zirconium implants. Six different implant designs were tested in the study. Nine or 10 test implants were inserted in the frontal skull in each of 10 miniature pigs. Biopsies were harvested after 2 and 4 months and subjected to microradiography. No significant differences between titanium and zirconium were found regarding the microradiographically detected bone-implant contact (BIC). Cylindric zirconium implants showed a higher BIC at the 2-month follow-up than conic zirconium implants. Among zirconium implants, those with an intermediate Ra value showed a significantly higher BIC compared with low and high Ra implants 4 months after surgery. Regarding osseointegration, titanium and zirconium showed equal properties. Cylindric implant design and intermediate surface roughness seemed to enhance osseointegration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Statistical clumped isotope signatures

    PubMed Central

    Röckmann, T.; Popa, M. E.; Krol, M. C.; Hofmann, M. E. G.

    2016-01-01

    High precision measurements of molecules containing more than one heavy isotope may provide novel constraints on element cycles in nature. These so-called clumped isotope signatures are reported relative to the random (stochastic) distribution of heavy isotopes over all available isotopocules of a molecule, which is the conventional reference. When multiple indistinguishable atoms of the same element are present in a molecule, this reference is calculated from the bulk (≈average) isotopic composition of the involved atoms. We show here that this referencing convention leads to apparent negative clumped isotope anomalies (anti-clumping) when the indistinguishable atoms originate from isotopically different populations. Such statistical clumped isotope anomalies must occur in any system where two or more indistinguishable atoms of the same element, but with different isotopic composition, combine in a molecule. The size of the anti-clumping signal is closely related to the difference of the initial isotope ratios of the indistinguishable atoms that have combined. Therefore, a measured statistical clumped isotope anomaly, relative to an expected (e.g. thermodynamical) clumped isotope composition, may allow assessment of the heterogeneity of the isotopic pools of atoms that are the substrate for formation of molecules. PMID:27535168

  9. Isotope reference materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, Tyler B.

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of the same isotopically homogeneous sample by any laboratory worldwide should yield the same isotopic composition within analytical uncertainty. International distribution of light element isotopic reference materials by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology enable laboratories to achieve this goal.

  10. Paleogene Seawater Osmium Isotope Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolewicz, Z.; Thomas, D. J.; Marcantonio, F.

    2012-12-01

    Paleoceanographic reconstructions of the Late Cretaceous and early Cenozoic require enhanced geographic coverage, particularly in the Pacific, in order to better constrain meridional variations in environmental conditions. The challenge with the existing inventory of Pacific deep-sea cores is that they consist almost exclusively of pelagic clay with little existing age control. Pelagic clay sequences are useful for reconstructions of dust accumulation and water mass composition, but accurate correlation of these records to other sites requires improved age control. Recent work indicates that seawater Os isotope analyses provide useful age control for red clay sequences. The residence time of Os in seawater is relatively long compared to oceanic mixing, therefore the global seawater 187Os/188Os composition is practically homogeneous. A growing body of Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic data has constrained the evolution of the seawater Os isotopic composition and this curve is now a viable stratigraphic tool, employed in dating layers of Fe-Mn crusts (e.g., Klemm et al., 2005). Ravizza (2007) also demonstrated that the seawater Os isotopic composition can be extracted reliably from pelagic red clay sediments by analyzing the leached oxide minerals. The drawback to using seawater Os isotope stratigraphy to date Paleogene age sediments is that the compilation of existing data has some significant temporal gaps, notably between ~38 and 55 Ma. To improve the temporal resolution of the seawater Os isotope curve, we present new data from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 865 in the equatorial Pacific. Site 865 has excellent biostratigraphic age control over the interval ~38-55Ma. Preliminary data indicate an increase in the seawater composition from 0.427 at 53.4 Ma to 0.499 by 43 Ma, consistent with the apparent trend in the few existing data points. We also analyzed the Os isotopic composition recorded by oxide minerals at Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1370

  11. Concept Feasibility Report for Electroplating Zirconium onto Uranium Foil - Year 2

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, Greg W.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Joshi, Vineet V.

    2015-03-01

    The Fuel Fabrication Capability within the U.S. High Performance Research Reactor Conversion Program is funded through the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) NA-26 (Office of Material Management and Minimization). An investigation was commissioned to determine the feasibility of using electroplating techniques to apply a coating of zirconium onto depleted uranium/molybdenum alloy (U-10Mo). Electroplating would provide an alternative method to the existing process of hot roll-bonding zirconium foil onto the U-10Mo fuel foil during the fabrication of fuel elements for high-performance research reactors. The objective of this research was to develop a reproducible and scalable plating process that will produce amore » uniform, 25 μm thick zirconium metal coating on U-10Mo foil. In previous work, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established a molten salt electroplating apparatus and protocol to plate zirconium metal onto molybdenum foil (Coffey 2015). During this second year of the research, PNNL furthered this work by moving to the U-10Mo alloy system (90 percent uranium:10 percent molybdenum). The original plating apparatus was disassembled and re-assembled in a laboratory capable of handling low-level radioactive materials. Initially, the work followed the previous year’s approach, and the salt bath composition was targeted at the eutectic composition (LiF:NaF:ZrF4 = 26:37:37 mol%). Early results indicated that the formation of uranium fluoride compounds would be problematic. Other salt bath compositions were investigated in order to eliminate the uranium fluoride production (LiF:NaF = 61:39 mol% and LiF:NaF:KF = 46.5:11.5:42 mol% ). Zirconium metal was used as the crucible for the molten salt. Three plating methods were used—isopotential, galvano static, and pulsed plating. The molten salt method for zirconium metal application provided high-quality plating on molybdenum in PNNL’s previous work. A key advantage of this approach is

  12. ISOTOPE CONVERSION DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Young, G.J.; Ohlinger, L.A.

    1957-12-01

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of tbe type utilizing a liquid fuel and designed to convert a non-thermally fissionable isotope to a thermally fissionable isotope by neutron absorption. A tank containing a reactive composition of a thermally fissionable isotope dispersed in a liquid moderator is disposed within an outer tank containing a slurry of a non-thermally fissionable isotope convertible to a thermally fissionable isotope by neutron absorption. A control rod is used to control the chain reaction in the reactive composition and means are provided for circulating and cooling the reactive composition and slurry in separate circuits.

  13. Design and development of novel MRI compatible zirconium- ruthenium alloys with ultralow magnetic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Li, H F; Zhou, F Y; Li, L; Zheng, Y F

    2016-04-19

    In the present study, novel MRI compatible zirconium-ruthenium alloys with ultralow magnetic susceptibility were developed for biomedical and therapeutic devices under MRI diagnostics environments. The results demonstrated that alloying with ruthenium into pure zirconium would significantly increase the strength and hardness properties. The corrosion resistance of zirconium-ruthenium alloys increased significantly. High cell viability could be found and healthy cell morphology observed when culturing MG 63 osteoblast-like cells and L-929 fibroblast cells with zirconium-ruthenium alloys, whereas the hemolysis rates of zirconium-ruthenium alloys are <1%, much lower than 5%, the safe value for biomaterials according to ISO 10993-4 standard. Compared with conventional biomedical 316L stainless steel, Co-Cr alloys and Ti-based alloys, the magnetic susceptibilities of the zirconium-ruthenium alloys (1.25 × 10(-6) cm(3)·g(-1)-1.29 × 10(-6) cm(3)·g(-1) for zirconium-ruthenium alloys) are ultralow, about one-third that of Ti-based alloys (Ti-6Al-4V, ~3.5 × 10(-6) cm(3)·g(-1), CP Ti and Ti-6Al-7Nb, ~3.0 × 10(-6) cm(3)·g(-1)), and one-sixth that of Co-Cr alloys (Co-Cr-Mo, ~7.7 × 10(-6) cm(3)·g(-1)). Among the Zr-Ru alloy series, Zr-1Ru demonstrates enhanced mechanical properties, excellent corrosion resistance and cell viability with lowest magnetic susceptibility, and thus is the optimal Zr-Ru alloy system as therapeutic devices under MRI diagnostics environments.

  14. Bioactivity and biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite-based bioceramic coatings on zirconium by plasma electrolytic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Aktuğ, Salim Levent; Durdu, Salih; Yalçın, Emine; Çavuşoğlu, Kültigin; Usta, Metin

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, hydroxyapatite (HAP)-based plasma electrolytic oxide (PEO) coatings were produced on zirconium at different current densities in a solution containing calcium acetate and β-calcium glycerophosphate by a single step. The phase structure, surface morphology, functional groups, thickness and roughness of the coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), eddy current method and surface profilometer, respectively. The phases of cubic-zirconia, calcium zirconate and HAP were detected by XRD. The amount of HAP and calcium zirconate increased with increasing current density. The surface of the coatings was very porous and rough. Moreover, bioactivity and biocompatibility of the coatings were analyzed in vitro immersion simulated body fluid (SBF) and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay, hemolysis assay and bacterial formation. The apatite-forming ability of the coatings was evaluated after immersion in SBF up to 28days. After immersion, the bioactivity of HAP-based coatings on zirconium was greater than the ones of uncoated zirconium and zirconium oxide-based surface. The bioactivity of PEO surface on zirconium was significantly improved under SBF conditions. The bacterial adhesion of the coatings decreased with increasing current density. The bacterial adhesion of the coating produced at 0.370A/cm 2 was minimum compared to uncoated zirconium coated at 0.260 and 0.292A/cm 2 . The hemocompatibility of HAP-based surfaces was improved by PEO. The cell attachment and proliferation of the PEO coatings were better than the one of uncoated zirconium according to MTT assay results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Design and development of novel MRI compatible zirconium- ruthenium alloys with ultralow magnetic susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Li, H.F.; Zhou, F.Y.; Li, L.; Zheng, Y.F.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, novel MRI compatible zirconium-ruthenium alloys with ultralow magnetic susceptibility were developed for biomedical and therapeutic devices under MRI diagnostics environments. The results demonstrated that alloying with ruthenium into pure zirconium would significantly increase the strength and hardness properties. The corrosion resistance of zirconium-ruthenium alloys increased significantly. High cell viability could be found and healthy cell morphology observed when culturing MG 63 osteoblast-like cells and L-929 fibroblast cells with zirconium-ruthenium alloys, whereas the hemolysis rates of zirconium-ruthenium alloys are <1%, much lower than 5%, the safe value for biomaterials according to ISO 10993-4 standard. Compared with conventional biomedical 316L stainless steel, Co–Cr alloys and Ti-based alloys, the magnetic susceptibilities of the zirconium-ruthenium alloys (1.25 × 10−6 cm3·g−1–1.29 × 10−6 cm3·g−1 for zirconium-ruthenium alloys) are ultralow, about one-third that of Ti-based alloys (Ti–6Al–4V, ~3.5 × 10−6 cm3·g−1, CP Ti and Ti–6Al–7Nb, ~3.0 × 10−6 cm3·g−1), and one-sixth that of Co–Cr alloys (Co–Cr–Mo, ~7.7 × 10−6 cm3·g−1). Among the Zr–Ru alloy series, Zr–1Ru demonstrates enhanced mechanical properties, excellent corrosion resistance and cell viability with lowest magnetic susceptibility, and thus is the optimal Zr–Ru alloy system as therapeutic devices under MRI diagnostics environments. PMID:27090955

  16. Employing Discourse: Universities and Graduate "Employability"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boden, Rebecca; Nedeva, Maria

    2010-01-01

    What constitutes graduate employability is discursively framed. In this paper we argue that whilst universities in the UK have long had an involvement in producing useful and productive citizens, the ongoing neoliberalisation of higher education has engendered a discursive shift in definitions of employability. Traditionally, universities regarded…

  17. Employer's Manual on Affirmative Action in Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Commission on Human Rights, Frankfort.

    The express purpose of this manual is for its use by business and industry in Kentucky as an aid to eliminate discrimination. Affirmative action is defined here as a comprehensive effort by an employer designed to: employ women and minority persons where they are under-utilized; include minority persons and women in all facets of the company's…

  18. In vitro assessment of artifacts induced by titanium, titanium-zirconium and zirconium dioxide implants in cone-beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Sancho-Puchades, Manuel; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Benic, Goran I

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether or not the intensity of artifacts around implants in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) differs between titanium, titanium-zirconium and zirconium dioxide implants. Twenty models of a human mandible, each containing one implant in the single-tooth gap position 45, were cast in dental stone. Five test models were produced for each of the following implant types: titanium 4.1 mm diameter (Ti4.1 ), titanium 3.3 mm diameter (Ti3.3 ), titanium-zirconium 3.3 mm diameter (TiZr3.3 ) and zirconium dioxide 3.5-4.5 mm diameter (ZrO3.5-4.5 ) implants. For control purposes, three models without implants were produced. Each model was scanned using a CBCT device. Gray values (GV) were recorded at eight circumferential positions around the implants at 0.5 mm, 1 mm and 2 mm from the implant surface (GVT est ). GV were assessed in the corresponding volumes of interest (VOI) in the control models without implants (GVC ontrol ). Differences of gray values (ΔGV) between GVT est and GVC ontrol were calculated as percentages. One-way ANOVA and post hoc tests were applied to detect differences between implant types. Mean ΔGV for ZrO3.5-4.5 presented the highest absolute values, generally followed by TiZr3.3 , Ti4.1 and Ti3.3 implants. The differences of ΔGV between ZrO3.5-4.5 and the remaining groups were statistically significant in the majority of the VOI (P ≤ 0.0167). ΔGV for TiZr3.3 , Ti4.1 and Ti3.3 implants did not differ significantly in the most VOI. For all implant types, ΔGV showed positive values buccally, mesio-buccally, lingually and disto-lingually, whereas negative values were detected mesially and distally. Zirconium dioxide implants generate significantly more artifacts as compared to titanium and titanium-zirconium implants. The intensity of artifacts around zirconium dioxide implants exhibited in average the threefold in comparison with titanium implants. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley

  19. In-situ surface science studies of the interaction between sulfur dioxide and two-dimensional palladium loaded-cerium/zirconium mixed metal oxide model catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Esteban Javier

    2005-07-01

    Cerium and zirconium oxides are important materials in industrial catalysis. Particularly, the great advances attained in the past 30 years in controlling levels of gaseous pollutants released from internal combustion engines can be attributed to the development of catalysts employing these materials. Unfortunately, oxides of sulfur are known threats to the longevity of many catalytic systems by irreversibly interacting with catalytic materials. In this work, polycrystalline cerium-zirconium mixed-metal-oxide (MMO) solid solutions were synthesized. High resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectral data was collected and examined for revelation of the surface species that form on these metal oxides after in-situ exposures to sulfur dioxide. The model catalysts were exposed to sulfur dioxide using a custom modified in-situ reaction cell and platen heater. The results of this study demonstrate the formation of sulfate and sulfite surface sulfur species. Temperature and compositional dependencies were displayed, with higher temperatures and ceria molar ratios displaying a larger propensity for forming surface sulfur species. In addition to analysis of sulfur photoemission, the photoemission regions of oxygen, zirconium, and cerium were examined for the materials used in this study before and after the aforementioned treatments with sulfur dioxide. The presence of surface hydroxyl groups was observed and metal oxidation state changes were probed to further enhance the understanding of sulfur dioxide adsorption on the synthesized materials. Palladium loaded mixed-metal oxides were synthesized using a unique solid-state methodology to probe the effect of palladium addition on sulfur dioxide adsorption. The addition of palladium to this model system is shown to have a strong effect on the magnitude of adsorption for sulfur dioxide on some material/exposure condition combinations. Ceria/zirconia sulfite and sulfate species are identified on the palladium

  20. Gluconeogenesis from labeled carbon: estimating isotope dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Kelleher, J.K.

    1986-03-01

    To estimate the rate of gluconeogenesis from steady-state incorporation of labeled 3-carbon precursors into glucose, isotope dilution must be considered so that the rate of labeling of glucose can be quantitatively converted to the rate of gluconeogenesis. An expression for the value of this isotope dilution can be derived using mathematical techniques and a model of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The present investigation employs a more complex model than that used in previous studies. This model includes the following pathways that may affect the correction for isotope dilution: 1) flux of 3-carbon precursor to the oxaloacetate pool via acetyl-CoAmore » and the TCA cycle; 2) flux of 4- or 5-carbon compounds into the TCA cycle; 3) reversible flux between oxaloacetate (OAA) and pyruvate and between OAA and fumarate; 4) incomplete equilibrium between OAA pools; and 5) isotope dilution of 3-carbon tracers between the experimentally measured pool and the precursor for the TCA-cycle OAA pool. Experimental tests are outlined which investigators can use to determine whether these pathways are significant in a specific steady-state system. The study indicated that flux through these five pathways can significantly affect the correction for isotope dilution. To correct for the effects of these pathways an alternative method for calculating isotope dilution is proposed using citrate to relate the specific activities of acetyl-CoA and OAA.« less

  1. Becoming Self-Employed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Grant; Cochran, Larry

    1997-01-01

    Explored how persons become self-employed. In critical incident interviews with five self-employed persons the critical events that assisted or hindered progress toward self-employment were listed in chronological order. In general, becoming self-employed involved establishing conditions of action that enhanced a sense of agency, thus enabling…

  2. Employment Security Tax

    Science.gov Websites

    Alaska > DOLWD > Employment Security Tax EMAIL SCAM ALERT (December 2012) On-line Employer Services Online Filing Demonstrations FAQs for TaxWeb Employer Report Notice Alaska Unemployment Insurance Tax Handbook The Employment Security Tax Section is responsible for providing assistance and information to

  3. Spatial confinement effects on spectroscopic and morphological studies of nanosecond laser-ablated Zirconium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayat, Asma; Bashir, Shazia; Rafique, Muhammad Shahid; Ahmad, Riaz; Akram, Mahreen; Mahmood, Khaliq; Zaheer, Ali

    2017-12-01

    Spatial confinement effects on plasma parameters and surface morphology of laser ablated Zr (Zirconium) are studied by introducing a metallic blocker. Nd:YAG laser at various fluencies ranging from 8 J cm-2 to 32 J cm-2 was employed as an irradiation source. All measurements were performed in the presence of Ar under different pressures. Confinement effects offered by metallic blocker are investigated by placing the blocker at different distances of 6 mm, 8 mm and 10 mm from the target surface. It is revealed from LIBS analysis that both plasma parameters i.e. excitation temperature and electron number density increase with increasing laser fluence due to enhancement in energy deposition. It is also observed that spatial confinement offered by metallic blocker is responsible for the enhancement of both electron temperature and electron number density of Zr plasma. This is true for all laser fluences and pressures of Ar. Maximum values of electron temperature and electron number density without blocker are 12,600 K and 14 × 1017 cm-3 respectively whereas, these values are enhanced to 15,000 K and 21 × 1017 cm-3 in the presence of blocker. The physical mechanisms responsible for the enhancement of Zr plasma parameters are plasma compression, confinement and pronounced collisional excitations due to reflection of shock waves. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis was performed to explore the surface morphology of laser ablated Zr. It reveals the formation of cones, cavities and ripples. These features become more distinct and well defined in the presence of blocker due to plasma confinement. The optimum combination of blocker distance, fluence and Ar pressure can identify the suitable conditions for defining the role of plasma parameters for surface structuring.

  4. Use of multiscale zirconium alloy deformation models in nuclear fuel behavior analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, Robert, E-mail: robert.montgomery@pnnl.gov; Tomé, Carlos, E-mail: tome@lanl.gov; Liu, Wenfeng, E-mail: wenfeng.liu@anatech.com

    Accurate prediction of cladding mechanical behavior is a key aspect of modeling nuclear fuel behavior, especially for conditions of pellet-cladding interaction (PCI), reactivity-initiated accidents (RIA), and loss of coolant accidents (LOCA). Current approaches to fuel performance modeling rely on empirical constitutive models for cladding creep, growth and plastic deformation, which are limited to the materials and conditions for which the models were developed. To improve upon this approach, a microstructurally-based zirconium alloy mechanical deformation analysis capability is being developed within the United States Department of Energy Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). Specifically, the viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC)more » polycrystal plasticity modeling approach, developed by Lebensohn and Tomé [1], has been coupled with the BISON engineering scale fuel performance code to represent the mechanistic material processes controlling the deformation behavior of light water reactor (LWR) cladding. A critical component of VPSC is the representation of the crystallographic nature (defect and dislocation movement) and orientation of the grains within the matrix material and the ability to account for the role of texture on deformation. A future goal is for VPSC to obtain information on reaction rate kinetics from atomistic calculations to inform the defect and dislocation behavior models described in VPSC. The multiscale modeling of cladding deformation mechanisms allowed by VPSC far exceed the functionality of typical semi-empirical constitutive models employed in nuclear fuel behavior codes to model irradiation growth and creep, thermal creep, or plasticity. This paper describes the implementation of an interface between VPSC and BISON and provides initial results utilizing the coupled functionality.« less

  5. Use of multiscale zirconium alloy deformation models in nuclear fuel behavior analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Robert; Tomé, Carlos; Liu, Wenfeng; Alankar, Alankar; Subramanian, Gopinath; Stanek, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Accurate prediction of cladding mechanical behavior is a key aspect of modeling nuclear fuel behavior, especially for conditions of pellet-cladding interaction (PCI), reactivity-initiated accidents (RIA), and loss of coolant accidents (LOCA). Current approaches to fuel performance modeling rely on empirical constitutive models for cladding creep, growth and plastic deformation, which are limited to the materials and conditions for which the models were developed. To improve upon this approach, a microstructurally-based zirconium alloy mechanical deformation analysis capability is being developed within the United States Department of Energy Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). Specifically, the viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) polycrystal plasticity modeling approach, developed by Lebensohn and Tomé [1], has been coupled with the BISON engineering scale fuel performance code to represent the mechanistic material processes controlling the deformation behavior of light water reactor (LWR) cladding. A critical component of VPSC is the representation of the crystallographic nature (defect and dislocation movement) and orientation of the grains within the matrix material and the ability to account for the role of texture on deformation. A future goal is for VPSC to obtain information on reaction rate kinetics from atomistic calculations to inform the defect and dislocation behavior models described in VPSC. The multiscale modeling of cladding deformation mechanisms allowed by VPSC far exceed the functionality of typical semi-empirical constitutive models employed in nuclear fuel behavior codes to model irradiation growth and creep, thermal creep, or plasticity. This paper describes the implementation of an interface between VPSC and BISON and provides initial results utilizing the coupled functionality.

  6. Atomistic modeling of high temperature uranium-zirconium alloy structure and thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, A. P.; Beeler, B.; Deo, C.; Baskes, M. I.; Okuniewski, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    A semi-empirical Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM) potential is developed for application to the high temperature body-centered-cubic uranium-zirconium alloy (γ-U-Zr) phase and employed with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the high temperature thermo-physical properties of U-Zr alloys. Uranium-rich U-Zr alloys (e.g. U-10Zr) have been tested and qualified for use as metallic nuclear fuel in U.S. fast reactors such as the Integral Fast Reactor and the Experimental Breeder Reactors, and are a common sub-system of ternary metallic alloys like U-Pu-Zr and U-Zr-Nb. The potential was constructed to ensure that basic properties (e.g., elastic constants, bulk modulus, and formation energies) were in agreement with first principles calculations and experimental results. After which, slight adjustments were made to the potential to fit the known thermal properties and thermodynamics of the system. The potentials successfully reproduce the experimental melting point, enthalpy of fusion, volume change upon melting, thermal expansion, and the heat capacity of pure U and Zr. Simulations of the U-Zr system are found to be in good agreement with experimental thermal expansion values, Vegard's law for the lattice constants, and the experimental enthalpy of mixing. This is the first simulation to reproduce the experimental thermodynamics of the high temperature γ-U-Zr metallic alloy system. The MEAM potential is then used to explore thermodynamics properties of the high temperature U-Zr system including the constant volume heat capacity, isothermal compressibility, adiabatic index, and the Grüneisen parameters.

  7. Gadolinium-hydrogen ion exchange of zirconium phosphate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, D. C.; Power, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    The Gd(+3)/H(+) ion exchange on a commercial zirconium phosphate ion exchanger was investigated in chloride, sulfate, and phosphate solutions of Gd(+3) at gadolinium concentrations of 0.001 to 1 millimole per cc and in the pH range of 0 to 3.5. Relatively low Gd(+3) capacities, in the range of 0.01 to 0.1 millimole per g of ion exchanger were found at room temperature. A significant difference in Gd(+3) sorption was observed, depending on whether the ion exchanger was converted from initial conditions of greater or lesser Gd(+3) sorption than the specific final conditions. Correlations were found between decrease in Gd(+3) capacity and loss of exchanger phosphate groups due to hydrolysis during washing and between increase in capacity and treatment with H3PO4. Fitting of the experimental data to ideal ion exchange equilibrium expressions indicated that each Gd(+3) ion is sorbed on only one site of the ion exchanger. The selectivity quotient was determined to be 2.5 + or - 0.4 at room temperature on gadolinium desorption in chloride solutions.

  8. Revisiting Zirconium: New Abundance Determinations with Improved Oscillator Strengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burris, Debra L.; Jones, M.; Nichols, R.

    2006-12-01

    The element Zirconium is produced via neutron capture (n-capture). It resides in the mass range where there is uncertainty about the production mechanism at early time. The rapid n-capture process (r-process) was believed to be responsible for the production, but no study (Burris et al 2000, Gilroy et al 1988 and others) has been able to successfully use the r-process to reproduce the abundance signature for elements in this mass range for metal-poor halo stars. It has been suggested (Sneden and Cowan 2003) that there may be an undiscovered component to the r-process. New transition probabilities for Zr II have been reported by Malcheva et al (2006). We utilize these values to make new abundance determinations for Zr in the Sun and the metal-poor halo star BD +17 3248. This work is supported in part by the AAS Small Grant Program, the Arkansas Space Grant Consortium and the UCA Undergraduate Research Council.

  9. Iron state in iron nanoparticles with and without zirconium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, V. P.; Khasanov, A. M.; Lauer, Yu. A.

    2017-11-01

    Mössbauer and X-ray methods are used for investigations of structure, stability and characteristics of pure-iron grain and two iron-zirconium alloys such as Fe + 5 wt.% Zr and Fe + 10 wt.% Zr. The used powder was ground for 24 h in a SPEX Model 8000 mill shaker. Complex nanoparticles are found, which change their properties under milling. Mössbauer spectral parameters are obtained for investigated materials. Milling results in formation of nanosized particles with two states of iron atoms: one main part is pure α-Fe and another part of iron atoms displaced in grain boundaries or defective zones in which hyperfine magnetic splitting decrease to ˜ 30.0 T. In alloys with Zr three iron states are formed in each alloy, main part of iron is in the form of α-Fe and another two states depend on the concentration of Zr and represent iron in grain boundaries with Zr atoms in nearest neighbor. The changing of iron states is discussed.

  10. Structural evolution of zirconium carbide under ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosset, D.; Dollé, M.; Simeone, D.; Baldinozzi, G.; Thomé, L.

    2008-02-01

    Zirconium carbide is one of the candidate materials to be used for some fuel components of the high temperature nuclear reactors planned in the frame of the Gen-IV project. Few data exist regarding its behaviour under irradiation. We have irradiated ZrC samples at room temperature with slow heavy ions (4 MeV Au, fluence from 10 11 to 5 × 10 15 cm -2) in order to simulate neutron irradiations. Grazing incidence X-Ray diffraction (GIXRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis have been performed in order to study the microstructural evolution of the material versus ion fluence. A high sensitivity to oxidation is observed with the formation of zirconia precipitates during the ion irradiations. Three damage stages are observed. At low fluence (<10 12 cm -2), low modifications are observed. At intermediate fluence, high micro-strains appear together with small faulted dislocation loops. At the highest fluence (>10 14 cm -2), the micro-strains saturate and the loops coalesce to form a dense dislocation network. No other structural modification is observed. The material shows a moderate cell parameter increase, corresponding to a 0.6 vol.% swelling, which saturates around 10 14 ions/cm 2, i.e., a few Zr dpa. As a result, in spite of a strong covalent bonding component, ZrC seems to have a behaviour under irradiation close to cubic metals.

  11. Bioconjugation of zirconium uridine monophosphate: application to myoglobin direct electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yuanbiao; Jian, Fangfang; Bai, Qian

    2008-03-14

    Porous nano-granule of zirconium uridine monophosphate, Zr(UMP)2.H2O is, for the first time, synthesized under mild experimental conditions and applied to the bioconjugation of myoglobin (Mb) to realize its direct electron transfer. UV-vis and resonance Raman spectroscopies prove that Mb in the Zr(UMP)2.H2O film maintains its secondary structure similar to the native state. The conjugation film of the Mb-Zr(UMP)2.H2O on the glassy carbon (GC) electrode gives a well-defined and quasi-reversible cyclic voltammogram, which reflects the direct electron transfer of the heme Fe III/Fe II couple of Mb. On the basis of the satisfying bioelectrocatalysis of the nano-conjugation of Mb and genetic substrate, a kind of mediator-free biosensor for H2O2 is developed. The linear range for H2O2 detection is estimated to be 3.92-180.14 microM. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) and the detection limit based on the signal-to-noise ratio of 3 are found to be 196.1 microM and 1.52 microM, respectively. Both the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant and the detection limit herein are much lower than currently reported values from other Mb films. This kind of sensor possesses excellent stability, long-term life (more than 20 days) and good reproducibility.

  12. Zirconium Phosphate Nanoplatelet Potential for Anticancer Drug Delivery Applications.

    PubMed

    González, Millie L; Ortiz, Mayra; Hernández, Carmen; Cabán, Jennifer; Rodríguez, Axel; Colón, Jorge L; Báez, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Zirconium phosphate (ZrP) nanoplatelets can intercalate anticancer agents via an ion exchange reaction creating an inorganic delivery system with potential for cancer treatment. ZrP delivery of anticancer agents inside tumor cells was explored in vitro. Internalization and cytotoxicity of ZrP nanoplatelets were studied in MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells. DOX-loaded ZrP nanoplatelets (DOX@ZrP) uptake was assessed by confocal (CLSM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cytotoxicity to MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells was determined by the MTT assay. Reactive Oxy- gen Species (ROS) production was analyzed by fluorometric assay, and cell cycle alterations and induction of apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. ZrP nanoplatelets were localized in the endosomes of MCF-7 cells. DOX and ZrP nanoplatelets were co-internalized into MCF-7 cells as detected by CLSM. While ZrP showed limited toxicity to MCF-7 cells, DOX@ZrP was cytotoxic at an IC₅₀ similar to that of free DOX. Meanwhile, DOX lC₅₀ was significantly lower than the equivalent concentration of DOX@ZrP in MCF-10A cells. ZrP did not induce apoptosis in both cell lines. DOX and DOX@ZrP induced significant oxidative stress in both cell models. Results suggest that ZrP nanoplatelets are promising as carriers of anticancer agents into cancer cells.

  13. Reaction of Titanium and Zirconium Particles in Cylindrical Explosive Charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, David L.; Cairns, Malcolm; Goroshin, Samuel; Zhang, Fan

    2007-12-01

    The critical conditions for the reaction of particles of the transition metals titanium (Ti) and zirconium (Zr) dispersed during the detonation of long cylindrical explosive charges have been investigated experimentally. The charges consisted of packed beds of either spherical Ti particles or irregularly shaped Zr particles saturated with sensitized liquid nitromethane. For the Ti particles, a threshold particle diameter exists of 65±25 μm, above which self-sustained particle reaction is not observed for charge diameters up to 49 mm, although some particle reaction occurs immediately behind the detonation front then rapidly quenches. For the smallest particles (40 μm), the proportion of the conical particle cloud that reacts increases with charge diameter, suggesting that the reaction is a competition between particle heating and expansion cooling of the products. For 375 and 550 μm Zr particles, particle ignition was observed for 19 and 41 mm dia charges. In this case, interaction of the detonation wave with the particles is sufficient to initiate reaction at the particle surface after a delay time (˜5 μs), which is much less than the time required for thermal equilibration of the particles.

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Zirconium Substituted Cobalt Ferrite Nanopowders

    DOE PAGES

    Rus, S. F.; Vlazan, P.; Herklotz, A.

    2016-01-01

    Nanocrystalline ferrites; CoFe 2O 4 (CFO) and CoFe 1.9Zr 0.1O 4 (CFZO) have been synthesized through chemical coprecipitation method. Moreover, the role played by the zirconium ions in improving the magnetic and structural properties is analyzed. X-ray diffraction revealed a single-phase cubic spinel structure for both materials, where the crystallite size increases and the lattice parameter decreases with substitution of Zr. The average sizes of the nanoparticles are estimated to be 16-19 nm. These sizes are small enough to achieve the suitable signal to noise ratio in the high density recording media. An increase in the saturation magnetization with themore » substitution of Zr suggests the preferential occupation of Zr 4+ ions in the tetrahedral sites. A decrease in the coercivity values indicates the reduction of magneto-crystalline anisotropy. We investigated spinel ferrites can be used also in recoding media due to the large value of coercivity 1000 Oe which is comparable to those of hard magnetic materials.« less

  15. Transport property correlations for the niobium-1% zirconium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senor, David J.; Thomas, J. Kelly; Peddicord, K. L.

    1990-10-01

    Correlations were developed for the electrical resistivity (ρ), thermal conductivity ( k), and hemispherical total emittance (ɛ) of niobium-1% zirconium as functions of temperature. All three correlations were developed as empirical fits to experimental data. ρ = 5.571 + 4.160 × 10 -2(T) - 4.192 × 10 -6(T) 2 μΩcm , k = 13.16( T) 0.2149W/ mK, ɛ = 6.39 × 10 -2 + 4.98 × 10 -5( T) + 3.62 × 10 -8( T) 2 - 7.28 × 10 -12( T) 3. The relative standard deviation of the electrical resistivity correlation is 1.72% and it is valid over the temperature range 273 to 2700 K. The thermal conductivity correlation has a relative standard deviation of 3.24% and is valid over the temperature range 379 to 1421 K. The hemispherical total emittance correlation was developed for smooth surface materials only and represents a conservative estimate of the emittance of the alloy for space reactor fuel element modeling applications. It has a relative standard deviation of 9.50% and is valid over the temperature range 755 to 2670 K.

  16. A comparative study of zirconium and titanium implants in rat: osseointegration and bone material quality.

    PubMed

    Hoerth, Rebecca M; Katunar, María R; Gomez Sanchez, Andrea; Orellano, Juan C; Ceré, Silvia M; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Ballarre, Josefina

    2014-02-01

    Permanent metal implants are widely used in human medical treatments and orthopedics, for example as hip joint replacements. They are commonly made of titanium alloys and beyond the optimization of this established material, it is also essential to explore alternative implant materials in view of improved osseointegration. The aim of our study was to characterize the implant performance of zirconium in comparison to titanium implants. Zirconium implants have been characterized in a previous study concerning material properties and surface characteristics in vitro, such as oxide layer thickness and surface roughness. In the present study, we compare bone material quality around zirconium and titanium implants in terms of osseointegration and therefore characterized bone material properties in a rat model using a multi-method approach. We used light and electron microscopy, micro Raman spectroscopy, micro X-ray fluorescence and X-ray scattering techniques to investigate the osseointegration in terms of compositional and structural properties of the newly formed bone. Regarding the mineralization level, the mineral composition, and the alignment and order of the mineral particles, our results show that the maturity of the newly formed bone after 8 weeks of implantation is already very high. In conclusion, the bone material quality obtained for zirconium implants is at least as good as for titanium. It seems that the zirconium implants can be a good candidate for using as permanent metal prosthesis for orthopedic treatments.

  17. Hopping conduction in zirconium oxynitrides thin film deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jie; Zhan, Guanghui; Liu, Jingquan; Yang, Bin; Xu, Bin; Feng, Jie; Chen, Xiang; Yang, Chunsheng

    2015-10-01

    Zirconium oxynitrides thin film thermometers were demonstrated to be useful temperature sensors. However, the basic conduction mechanism of zirconium oxynitrides films has been a long-standing issue, which hinders the prediction and optimization of their ultimate performance. In this letter, zirconium oxynitrides films were grown on sapphire substrates by magnetron sputtering and their electric transport mechanism has been systemically investigated. It was found that in high temperatures region (>150 K) the electrical conductivity was dominated by thermal activation for all samples. In the low temperatures range, while Mott variable hopping conduction (VRH) was dominated the transport for films with relatively low resistance, a crossover from Mott VRH conduction to Efros-Shklovskii (ES) VRH was observed for films with relatively high resistance. This low temperature crossover from Mott to ES VRH indicates the presence of a Coulomb gap (~7 meV). These results demonstrate the competing and tunable conduction mechanism in zirconium oxynitrides thin films, which would be helpful for optimizing the performance of zirconium oxynitrides thermometer.

  18. Zirconium-based alloys, nuclear fuel rods and nuclear reactors including such alloys, and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Mariani, Robert Dominick

    2014-09-09

    Zirconium-based metal alloy compositions comprise zirconium, a first additive in which the permeability of hydrogen decreases with increasing temperatures at least over a temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C., and a second additive having a solubility in zirconium over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. At least one of a solubility of the first additive in the second additive over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. and a solubility of the second additive in the first additive over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. is higher than the solubility of the second additive in zirconium over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. Nuclear fuel rods include a cladding material comprising such metal alloy compositions, and nuclear reactors include such fuel rods. Methods are used to fabricate such zirconium-based metal alloy compositions.

  19. HYDROGEN ISOTOPE TARGETS

    DOEpatents

    Ashley, R.W.

    1958-08-12

    The design of targets for use in the investigation of nuclear reactions of hydrogen isotopes by bombardment with accelerated particles is described. The target con struction eomprises a backing disc of a metal selected from the group consisting of molybdenunn and tungsten, a eoating of condensed titaniunn on the dise, and a hydrogen isotope selected from the group consisting of deuterium and tritium absorbed in the coatiag. The proeess for preparing these hydrogen isotope targets is described.

  20. Hybrid isotope separation scheme

    DOEpatents

    Maya, J.

    1991-06-18

    A method is described for yielding selectively a desired enrichment in a specific isotope including the steps of inputting into a spinning chamber a gas from which a scavenger, radiating the gas with a wave length or frequency characteristic of the absorption of a particular isotope of the atomic or molecular gas, thereby inducing a photochemical reaction between the scavenger, and collecting the specific isotope-containing chemical by using a recombination surface or by a scooping apparatus. 2 figures.

  1. Hybrid isotope separation scheme

    DOEpatents

    Maya, Jakob

    1991-01-01

    A method of yielding selectively a desired enrichment in a specific isotope including the steps of inputting into a spinning chamber a gas from which a scavenger, radiating the gas with a wave length or frequency characteristic of the absorption of a particular isotope of the atomic or molecular gas, thereby inducing a photochemical reaction between the scavenger, and collecting the specific isotope-containing chemical by using a recombination surface or by a scooping apparatus.

  2. Geologic structure of Gofitsky deposit of titanium and zirconium and perspectives of the reserve base of titanium and zirconium in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukhmazov, Iskander

    2016-04-01

    With the fall of the Soviet Union, all the mining deposits of titanium and zirconium appeared outside of Russian Federation. Therefore the studying of deposits of titanium and zirconium in Russia is very important nowadays. There is a paradoxical situation in the country: in spite of possible existence of national mineral resource base of Ti-Zr material, which can cover needs of the country, Russia is the one of the largest buyers of imported Ti-Zr material in the world. Many deposits are not mined, and those which are in the process of mining have poor reserves. Demand for this raw material is very great not only for Russia, but also for the world in general. Today there is a scarcity of zircon around the world and it will only increase through time. Therefore prices of products of titanium and zirconium also increase. Consequently Russian deposits of titanium and zirconium with higher content than foreign may become competitive. Russia is forced to buy raw materials (zirconium and titanium production) from former Soviet Union countries at prices higher than the world's and thus incur huge losses, including customs charges. Russia should create its own mineral resource base of Ti-Zr. Studied titanium-zirconium deposits of Stavropol region may become the basis for the south part of Russia. At first, Beshpagirsky deposit should be pointed out. It has large reserves of ore sands with high content of Ti-Zr. A combination of favorable geographical position of the area with developed industrial infrastructure makes it very beneficial as an object for high priority development. Gofitsky deposit should be pointed out as well. Its sands have a wide areal distribution and a high content of titanium and zirconium. Chokrak, Karagan-Konksk and Sarmatian sediments of the Miocene of Gofitsky deposit are productive for titanium and zirconium placers within Stavropol region of Russia. Gofitsky deposit was evaluated from financial and economic point of view and the following data

  3. Structural studies of degradation process of zirconium dioxide tetragonal phase induced by grinding with dental bur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piosik, A.; Żurowski, K.; Pietralik, Z.; Hędzelek, W.; Kozak, M.

    2017-11-01

    Zirconium dioxide has been widely used in dental prosthetics. However, the improper mechanical treatment can induce changes in the microstructure of zirconium dioxide. From the viewpoint of mechanical properties and performance, the phase transitions of ZrO2 from the tetragonal to the monoclinic phase induced by mechanical processing, are particularly undesirable. In this study, the phase transitions of yttrium stabilized zirconium dioxide (Y-TZP) induced by mechanical treatment are investigated by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and powder diffraction (XRD). Mechanical stress was induced by different types of drills used presently in dentistry. At the same time the surface temperature was monitored during milling using a thermal imaging camera. Diffraction analysis allowed determination of the effect of temperature and mechanical processing on the scale of induced changes. The observed phase transition to the monoclinic phase was correlated with the methods of mechanical processing.

  4. A novel ultrasonication method in the preparation of zirconium impregnated cellulose for effective fluoride adsorption.

    PubMed

    Barathi, M; Kumar, A Santhana Krishna; Rajesh, N

    2014-05-01

    In the present work, we propose for the first time a novel ultrasound assisted methodology involving the impregnation of zirconium in a cellulose matrix. Fluoride from aqueous solution interacts with the cellulose hydroxyl groups and the cationic zirconium hydroxide. Ultrasonication ensures a green and quick alternative to the conventional time intensive method of preparation. The effectiveness of this process was confirmed by comprehensive characterization of zirconium impregnated cellulose (ZrIC) adsorbent using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The study of various adsorption isotherm models, kinetics and thermodynamics of the interaction validated the method. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Theoretical stusy of the reaction between 2,2',4' - trihydroxyazobenzene-5-sulfonic acid and zirconium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, Mary H.

    1960-01-01

    Zirconium reacts with 2,2',4'-trihydroxyazobenzene-5-sulfonic acid in acid solutions to Form two complexes in which the ratios of dye to zirconium are 1 to 1 and 2 to 1. Both complexes are true chelates, with zirconium acting as a bridge between the two orthohydroxy dye groups. Apparent equilibrium constants for the reactions to form each of the complexes are determined. The reactions are used as a basis for the determination of the active component in the dye and a graphical method for the determination of reagent purity is described. Four absorption spectra covering the wave length region from 350 to 750 mu are given, which completely define the color system associated with the reactions in solutions where the hydrochloric acid concentration ranges from 0.0064N to about 7N.

  6. Determination of fluoride in water - A modified zirconium-alizarin method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamar, W.L.

    1945-01-01

    A convenient, rapid colorimetric procedure using the zirconium-alizarin indicator acidified with sulfuric acid for the determination of fluoride in water is described. Since this acid indicator is stable indefinitely, it is more useful than other zirconium-alizarin reagents previously reported. The use of sulfuric acid alone in acidifying the zirconium-alizarin reagent makes possible the maximum suppression of the interference of sulfate. Control of the pH of the samples eliminates errors due to the alkalinity of the samples. The fluoride content of waters containing less than 500 parts per million of sulfate and less than 1000 p.p.m. of chloride may be determined within a limit of 0.1 p.p.m. when a 100-ml. sample is used.

  7. Corrosion Behavior of Zirconium Treated Mild Steel with and Without Organic Coating: a Comparative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, Alireza; Attar, Mohammadreza Mohammadzade

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the anti-corrosion performance of phosphated and zirconium treated mild steel (ZTMS) with and without organic coating was evaluated using AC and DC electrochemical techniques. The topography and morphology of the zirconium treated samples were studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) respectively. The results revealed that the anti-corrosion performance of the phosphate layer was superior to the zirconium conversion layer without an organic coating due to very low thickness and porous nature of the ZTMS. Additionally, the corrosion behavior of the organic coated substrates was substantially different. It was found that the corrosion protection performance of the phosphate steel and ZTMS with an organic coating is in the same order.

  8. Bayesian model selection validates a biokinetic model for zirconium processing in humans

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In radiation protection, biokinetic models for zirconium processing are of crucial importance in dose estimation and further risk analysis for humans exposed to this radioactive substance. They provide limiting values of detrimental effects and build the basis for applications in internal dosimetry, the prediction for radioactive zirconium retention in various organs as well as retrospective dosimetry. Multi-compartmental models are the tool of choice for simulating the processing of zirconium. Although easily interpretable, determining the exact compartment structure and interaction mechanisms is generally daunting. In the context of observing the dynamics of multiple compartments, Bayesian methods provide efficient tools for model inference and selection. Results We are the first to apply a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach to compute Bayes factors for the evaluation of two competing models for zirconium processing in the human body after ingestion. Based on in vivo measurements of human plasma and urine levels we were able to show that a recently published model is superior to the standard model of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The Bayes factors were estimated by means of the numerically stable thermodynamic integration in combination with a recently developed copula-based Metropolis-Hastings sampler. Conclusions In contrast to the standard model the novel model predicts lower accretion of zirconium in bones. This results in lower levels of noxious doses for exposed individuals. Moreover, the Bayesian approach allows for retrospective dose assessment, including credible intervals for the initially ingested zirconium, in a significantly more reliable fashion than previously possible. All methods presented here are readily applicable to many modeling tasks in systems biology. PMID:22863152

  9. Solid-phase zirconium and fluoride species in alkaline zircaloy cladding waste at Hanford.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Jacob G; Huber, Heinz J; Cooke, Gary A; Pestovich, John A

    2014-08-15

    The United States Department of Energy Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington, USA, processed plutonium between 1944 and 1987. Fifty-six million gallons of waste of various origins remain, including waste from removing zircaloy fuel cladding using the so-called Zirflex process. The speciation of zirconium and fluoride in this waste is important because of the corrosivity and reactivity of fluoride as well as the (potentially) high density of Zr-phases. This study evaluates the solid-phase speciation of zirconium and fluoride using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). Two waste samples were analyzed: one waste sample that is relatively pure zirconium cladding waste from tank 241-AW-105 and another that is a blend of zirconium cladding wastes and other high-level wastes from tank 241-C-104. Villiaumite (NaF) was found to be the dominant fluoride species in the cladding waste and natrophosphate (Na7F[PO4]2 · 19H2O) was the dominant species in the blended waste. Most zirconium was present as a sub-micron amorphous Na-Zr-O phase in the cladding waste and a Na-Al-Zr-O phase in the blended waste. Some zirconium was present in both tanks as either rounded or elongated crystalline needles of Na-bearing ZrO2 that are up to 200 μm in length. These results provide waste process planners the speciation data needed to develop disposal processes for this waste. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Intracellular Cadmium Isotope Fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horner, T. J.; Lee, R. B.; Henderson, G. M.; Rickaby, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    Recent stable isotope studies into the biological utilization of transition metals (e.g. Cu, Fe, Zn, Cd) suggest several stepwise cellular processes can fractionate isotopes in both culture and nature. However, the determination of fractionation factors is often unsatisfactory, as significant variability can exist - even between different organisms with the same cellular functions. Thus, it has not been possible to adequately understand the source and mechanisms of metal isotopic fractionation. In order to address this problem, we investigated the biological fractionation of Cd isotopes within genetically-modified bacteria (E. coli). There is currently only one known biological use or requirement of Cd, a Cd/Zn carbonic anhydrase (CdCA, from the marine diatom T. weissfloggii), which we introduce into the E. coli genome. We have also developed a cleaning procedure that allows for the treating of bacteria so as to study the isotopic composition of different cellular components. We find that whole cells always exhibit a preference for uptake of the lighter isotopes of Cd. Notably, whole cells appear to have a similar Cd isotopic composition regardless of the expression of CdCA within the E. coli. However, isotopic fractionation can occur within the genetically modified E. coli during Cd use, such that Cd bound in CdCA can display a distinct isotopic composition compared to the cell as a whole. Thus, the externally observed fractionation is independent of the internal uses of Cd, with the largest Cd isotope fractionation occurring during cross-membrane transport. A general implication of these experiments is that trace metal isotopic fractionation most likely reflects metal transport into biological cells (either actively or passively), rather than relating to expression of specific physiological function and genetic expression of different metalloenzymes.

  11. Zirconium and hafnium in the southeastern Atlantic States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mertie, J.B.

    1958-01-01

    The principal source of zirconium and hafnium is zircon, though a minor source is baddeleyite, mined only in Brazil. Zircon is an accessory mineral in igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks, but rarely occurs in hardrock in minable quantities. The principal sources of zircon are therefore alluvial deposits, which are mined in many countries of five continents. The principal commercial deposits in the United States are in Florida, though others exist elsewhere in the southeastern Coastal Plain. The evidence indicates that conditions for the accumulation of workable deposits of heavy minerals were more favorable during the interglacial stages of the Pleistocene epoch than during Recent time. Therefore detrital ores of large volume and high tenor are more likely to be found in the terrace deposits than along the present beaches. Other concentrations of heavy minerals, however, are possible at favored sites close to the Fall Line where the Tuscaloosa formation rests upon the crystalline rocks of the Piedmont province. A score of heavy and semiheavy minerals occur in the detrital deposits of Florida, but the principal salable minerals are ilmenite, leucoxene, rutile, and zircon, though monazite and staurolite are saved at some mining plants. Commercial deposits of heavy minerals are generally required to have a tenor of 4 percent, though ores with a lower tenor can be mined at a profit if the content of monazite is notably high. The percentages of zircon in the concentrates ranges from 10 to 16 percent, and in eastern Florida from 13 to 15 percent. Thus the tenor in zircon of the ore-bearing sands ranges from 0.4 to 0.6 percent. The content of hafnium in zircon is immaterial for many uses, but for some purposes very high or very low tenors in hafnium are required. Alluvial zircon cannot be separated into such varieties, which, if needed, must be obtained from sources in bedrock. It thus becomes necessary to determine the Hf : Zr ratios in zircon from many kinds of

  12. Solid-phase extraction of galloyl- and caffeoylquinic acids from natural sources (Galphimia glauca and Arnicae flos) using pure zirconium silicate and bismuth citrate powders as sorbents inside micro spin columns.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Shah; Schönbichler, Stefan A; Güzel, Yüksel; Sonderegger, Harald; Abel, Gudrun; Rainer, Matthias; Huck, Christian W; Bonn, Günther K

    2013-10-01

    Galloyl- and caffeoylquinic acids are among the most important pharmacological active groups of natural compounds. This study describes a pre-step in isolation of some selected representatives of these groups from biological samples. A selective solid-phase extraction (SPE) method for these compounds may help assign classes and isomer designations within complex mixtures. Pure zirconium silicate and bismuth citrate powders (325 mesh) were employed as two new sorbents for optimized SPE of phenolic acids. These sorbents possess electrostatic interaction sites which accounts for additional interactions for carbon acid moieties as compared to hydrophilic and hydrophobic sorbents alone. Based on this principle, a selective SPE method for 1,3,4,5-tetragalloylquinic acid (an anti-HIV and anti-asthamatic agent) as a starting compound was developed and then deployed upon other phenolic acids with success. The recoveries and selectivities of both sorbents were compared to most commonly applied and commercially available sorbents by using high performance liquid chromatography. The nature of interaction between the carrier sorbent and the acidic target molecules was investigated by studying hydrophilic (silica), hydrophobic (C18), mixed-mode (ionic and hydrophobic: Oasis(®) MAX) and predominantly electrostatic (zirconium silicate) materials. The newly developed zirconium silicate and bismuth citrate stationary phases revealed promising results for the selective extraction of galloyl- and caffeoylquinic acids from natural sources. It was observed that zirconium silicate exhibited maximum recovery and selectivity for tetragalloylquinic acid (84%), chlorogenic acid (82%) and dicaffeoylquinic acid (94%) among all the tested sorbents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Bonding of sapphire to sapphire by eutectic mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deluca, J. J. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    Bonding of an element comprising sapphire, ruby or blue sapphire to another element of such material with a eutectic mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide is discussed. The bonding mixture may be applied in the form of a distilled water slurry or by electron beam vapor deposition. In one embodiment the eutectic is formed in situ by applying a layer of zirconium oxide and then heating the assembly to a temperature above the eutectic temperature and below the melting point of the material from which the elements are formed. The formation of a sapphire rubidium maser cell utilizing eutectic bonding is shown.

  14. Zirconium-modified materials for selective adsorption and removal of aqueous arsenic

    DOEpatents

    Zhao, Hongting; Moore, Robert C.

    2004-11-30

    A method, composition, and apparatus for removing contaminant species from an aqueous medium comprising: providing a material to which zirconium has been added, the material selected from one or more of zeolites, cation-exchangeable clay minerals, fly ash, mesostructured materials, activated carbons, cellulose acetate, and like porous and/or fibrous materials; and contacting the aqueous medium with the material to which zirconium has been added. The invention operates on all arsenic species in the form of arsenate, arsenite and organometallic arsenic, with no pretreatment necessary (e.g., oxidative conversion of arsenite to arsenate).

  15. The role of hydrogen in zirconium alloy corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ensor, B.; Lucente, A. M.; Frederick, M. J.; Sutliff, J.; Motta, A. T.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrogen enters zirconium metal as a result of the corrosion process and forms hydrides when present in quantities above the solubility limit at a given temperature. Zircaloy-4 coupons of different thicknesses (0.4 mm-2.3 mm) but identical chemistry and processing were corroded in autoclave at 360 °C for various times up to 2800 days. Coupons were periodically removed and weighed to determine weight gain, which allows follow of the corrosion kinetics. Coupon thickness differences resulted in different volumetric concentrations of hydrogen, as quantified using hot vacuum extraction. The thinnest coupons, having the highest concentration of hydrogen, demonstrated acceleration in their corrosion kinetics and shorter transition times when compared to thicker coupons. Furthermore, it was seen that the post-transition corrosion rate was increased with increasing hydrogen concentration. Corrosion rates increased only after the terminal solid solubility (TSS) was exceeded for hydrogen in Zircaloy-4 at 360 °C. Therefore, it is hypothesized that the corrosion acceleration is caused by the formation of hydrides. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) examinations of fractured oxide layers demonstrate the oxide morphology changed with hydrogen content, with more equiaxed oxide grains in the high hydrogen samples than in those with lower hydrogen content. Additionally, locations of advanced oxide growth were correlated with locations of hydrides in the metal. A hypothesis is proposed to explain the accelerated corrosion due to the presence of the hydrides, namely that the metal, locally, is less able to accommodate oxide growth stresses and this leads to earlier loss of oxide protectiveness in the form of more frequent oxide kinetic transitions.

  16. Nanoencapsulation of Insulin into Zirconium Phosphate for Oral Delivery Applications

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Agustín; David, Amanda; Pérez, Riviam; González, Millie L.; Báez, Adriana; Wark, Stacey E.; Zhang, Paul; Clearfield, Abraham; Colón, Jorge L.

    2010-01-01

    The encapsulation of insulin into different kinds of materials for non-invasive delivery is an important field of study because of the many drawbacks of painful needle and syringe delivery such as physiological stress, infection, and local hypertrophy, among others.1 A stable, robust, non-toxic, and viable non-invasive carrier for insulin delivery is needed. We present a new approach for protein nanoencapsulation using layered zirconium phosphate (ZrP) nanoparticles produced without any preintercalator present. The use of ZrP without preintercalators produces a highly pure material, without any kinds of contaminants, such as the preintercalator, which can be noxious. Cytotoxicity cell viability in vitro experiments for the ZrP nanoparticles show that ZrP is not toxic, or harmful, in a biological environment, as previously reported for rats.2 Contrary to previous preintercalator-based methods, we show that insulin can be nanoencapsulated in ZrP if a highly hydrate phase of ZrP with an interlayer distance of 10.3 Å (10.3 Å-ZrP or θ-ZrP) is used as precursor. The intercalation of insulin into ZrP produced a new insulin-intercalated ZrP phase with a ca. 27 Å interlayer distance, as determined by X-ray powder diffraction, demonstrating a successful nanoencapsulation of the hormone. The in vitro release profile of the hormone after the intercalation was determined and circular dichroism was used to study the hormone stability upon intercalation and release. The insulin remains stable in the layered material, at room temperature, for a considerable amount of time, improving the shell life of the peptidic hormone. This type of materials represents a strong candidate to develop a non-invasive insulin carrier for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:20707305

  17. Rubidium and Zirconium Production in Massive AGB Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Raai, M. A. van; Lugaro, M.; Karakas, A. I.

    2008-04-06

    A recent survey of a large sample of massive Galactic asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars shows that significant overabundances of rubidium (up to 100 times solar), but merely solar zirconium, are present in these stars. These observations can set constraints on our theoretical notion of the slow neutron capture process (the s process) in AGB stars, as well as on the rates of the neutron capture reactions involved in the production of Rb and Zr. We use the Monash nucleosynthesis code with a recently extended network to try to reproduce these observations. We present results for AGB stars of massesmore » 5, 6, and 6.5 M{center_dot} and solar metallicity. We also show results for different available choices of the neutron capture rates, as well as for the possible inclusion of a partial mixing zone (PMZ), leading to the activation of the {sup 13}C neutron source. We find increasing Rb overabundances with increasing stellar mass, as observed, but we are far from matching the highest observed Rb enhancements. Inclusion of a PMZ increases the Rb abundance, but also produces an overabundance of Zr, contrary to what is observed. Only if the third dredge up efficiency remains as high as before the onset of the superwind phase during the final few pulses of a massive AGB star, can we match the highest [Rb/Fe] ratios observed by Garcia-Hernandez et al. [l]. A better understanding of the third dredge up efficiency with decreasing envelope mass for massive AGB stars is essential for further investigation of this issue.« less

  18. Thermal properties of zirconium diboride -- transition metal boride solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClane, Devon Lee

    This research focuses on the thermal properties of zirconium diboride (ZrB2) based ceramics. The overall goal was to improve the understanding of how different transition metal (TM) additives influence thermal transport in ZrB2. To achieve this, ZrB2 with 0.5 wt% carbon, and 3 mol% of individual transition metal borides, was densified by hot-press sintering. The transition metals that were investigated were: Y, Ti, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, and Re. The room temperature thermal diffusivities of the compositions ranged from 0.331 cm2/s for nominally pure ZrB2 to 0.105 cm2/s for (Zr,Cr)B2 and converged around 0.155cm2/s at higher temperatures for all compositions. Thermal conductivities were calculated from the diffusivities, using temperature-dependent values for density and heat capacity. The electron contribution to thermal conductivity was calculated from measured electrical resistivity according to the Wiedemann-Franz law. The phonon contribution to thermal conductivity was calculated by subtracting the electron contribution from the total thermal conductivity. Rietveld refinement of x-ray diffraction data was used to determine the lattice parameters of the compositions. The decrease in thermal conductivity for individual additives correlated directly to the metallic radius of the additive. Additional strain appeared to exist for additives when the stable TM boride for that metal had different crystal symmetries than ZrB2. This research provided insight into how additives and impurities affect thermal transport in ZrB2. The research potentially offers a basis for future modeling of thermal conductivity in ultra-high temperature ceramics based on the correlation between metallic radius and the decrease in thermal conductivity.

  19. The visible spectrum of zirconium dioxide, ZrO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Anh; Steimle, Timothy C.; Gupta, Varun; Rice, Corey A.; Maier, John P.; Lin, Sheng H.; Lin, Chih-Kai

    2011-09-01

    The electronic spectrum of a cold molecular beam of zirconium dioxide, ZrO2, has been investigated using laser induced fluorescence (LIF) in the region from 17 000 cm-1 to 18 800 cm-1 and by mass-resolved resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) spectroscopy from 17 000 cm-1-21 000 cm-1. The LIF and REMPI spectra are assigned to progressions in the tilde A{^1}B_2(ν1, ν2, ν3) ← tilde X{^1}A_1(0, 0, 0) transitions. Dispersed fluorescence from 13 bands was recorded and analyzed to produce harmonic vibrational parameters for the tilde X{^1}A_1 state of ω1 = 898(1) cm-1, ω2 = 287(2) cm-1, and ω3 = 808(3) cm-1. The observed transition frequencies of 45 bands in the LIF and REMPI spectra produce origin and harmonic vibrational parameters for the tilde A{^1}B_2 state of Te = 16 307(8) cm-1, ω1 = 819(3) cm-1, ω2 = 149(3) cm-1, and ω3 = 518(4) cm-1. The spectra were modeled using a normal coordinate analysis and Franck-Condon factor predictions. The structures, harmonic vibrational frequencies, and the potential energies as a function of bending angle for the tilde A{^1}B_2 and tilde X{^1}A_1 states are predicted using time-dependent density functional theory, complete active space self-consistent field, and related first-principle calculations. A comparison with isovalent TiO2 is made.

  20. Employment in Agribusiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenberg, Gene; Huston, Jane

    This curriculum guide is intended to assist persons teaching a course in employment in agribusiness. Addressed in the individual units of instruction are the following topics: employment information (training plans/agreements and wages, taxes, and fringe benefits); human relations (employer/employee/customer relations and communication skills);…

  1. AIDS: An Employer's Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letchinger, Robert S.

    1986-01-01

    How should employers respond to applicants and employees with AIDS-related conditions, and how do they resolve employment problems arising from those situations? This article provides some guidance for employers who are currently facing these questions. Discusses legal ramifications, employee attitudes, cost-related considerations, and health…

  2. The Employer Participation Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Employer Leadership Council, Washington, DC.

    This employer participation model is designed to help employers of all sizes customize their participation in school-to-work activities. Using it as a foundation, companies can evaluate resources and target them to areas of opportunity. The first section focuses on employers working with students and teachers. A chart describes activities in which…

  3. 1987 Employment Outlook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Traces the decline in employment opportunities for chemists and chemical engineers. Discusses the employment outlook for 1987. Includes information on continuing education opportunities for chemical professionals already employed, the drop in demand for chemistry professionals, the decline in salaries of bachelor's degree chemists, and several…

  4. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayne, C. K.; Smith, D. H.

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers.

  5. ICT: isotope correction toolbox.

    PubMed

    Jungreuthmayer, Christian; Neubauer, Stefan; Mairinger, Teresa; Zanghellini, Jürgen; Hann, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Isotope tracer experiments are an invaluable technique to analyze and study the metabolism of biological systems. However, isotope labeling experiments are often affected by naturally abundant isotopes especially in cases where mass spectrometric methods make use of derivatization. The correction of these additive interferences--in particular for complex isotopic systems--is numerically challenging and still an emerging field of research. When positional information is generated via collision-induced dissociation, even more complex calculations for isotopic interference correction are necessary. So far, no freely available tools can handle tandem mass spectrometry data. We present isotope correction toolbox, a program that corrects tandem mass isotopomer data from tandem mass spectrometry experiments. Isotope correction toolbox is written in the multi-platform programming language Perl and, therefore, can be used on all commonly available computer platforms. Source code and documentation can be freely obtained under the Artistic License or the GNU General Public License from: https://github.com/jungreuc/isotope_correction_toolbox/ {christian.jungreuthmayer@boku.ac.at,juergen.zanghellini@boku.ac.at} Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Photochemical isotope separation

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, C. Paul; Jensen, Reed J.; Cotter, Theodore P.; Greiner, Norman R.; Boyer, Keith

    1987-01-01

    A process for separating isotopes by selective excitation of isotopic species of a volatile compound by tuned laser light. A highly cooled gas of the volatile compound is produced in which the isotopic shift is sharpened and defined. Before substantial condensation occurs, the cooled gas is irradiated with laser light precisely tuned to a desired wavelength to selectively excite a particular isotopic species in the cooled gas. The laser light may impart sufficient energy to the excited species to cause it to undergo photochemical reaction or even to photoionize. Alternatively, a two-photon irradiation may be applied to the cooled gas to induce photochemical reaction or photoionization. The process is particularly applicable to the separation of isotopes of uranium and plutonium.

  7. Laser isotope separation

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, C.P.; Reed, J.J.; Cotter, T.P.; Boyer, K.; Greiner, N.R.

    1975-11-26

    A process and apparatus for separating isotopes by selective excitation of isotopic species of a volatile compound by tuned laser light is described. A highly cooled gas of the volatile compound is produced in which the isotopic shift is sharpened and defined. Before substantial condensation occurs, the cooled gas is irradiated with laser light precisely tuned to a desired wavelength to selectively excite a particular isotopic species in the cooled gas. The laser light may impart sufficient energy to the excited species to cause it to undergo photolysis, photochemical reaction or even to photoionize. Alternatively, a two-photon irradiation may be applied to the cooled gas to induce photolysis, photochemical reaction or photoionization. The process is particularly applicable to the separation of isotopes of uranium.

  8. Laser isotope separation

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, C. Paul; Jensen, Reed J.; Cotter, Theodore P.; Boyer, Keith; Greiner, Norman R.

    1988-01-01

    A process and apparatus for separating isotopes by selective excitation of isotopic species of a volatile compound by tuned laser light. A highly cooled gas of the volatile compound is produced in which the isotopic shift is sharpened and defined. Before substantial condensation occurs, the cooled gas is irradiated with laser light precisely tuned to a desired wavelength to selectively excite a particular isotopic species in the cooled gas. The laser light may impart sufficient energy to the excited species to cause it to undergo photolysis, photochemical reaction or even to photoionize. Alternatively, a two-photon irradiation may be applied to the cooled gas to induce photolysis, photochemical reaction or photoionization. The process is particularly applicable to the separation of isotopes of uranium.

  9. Photochemical isotope separation

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, C.P.; Jensen, R.J.; Cotter, T.P.; Greiner, N.R.; Boyer, K.

    1987-04-28

    A process is described for separating isotopes by selective excitation of isotopic species of a volatile compound by tuned laser light. A highly cooled gas of the volatile compound is produced in which the isotopic shift is sharpened and defined. Before substantial condensation occurs, the cooled gas is irradiated with laser light precisely tuned to a desired wavelength to selectively excite a particular isotopic species in the cooled gas. The laser light may impart sufficient energy to the excited species to cause it to undergo photochemical reaction or even to photoionize. Alternatively, a two-photon irradiation may be applied to the cooled gas to induce photochemical reaction or photoionization. The process is particularly applicable to the separation of isotopes of uranium and plutonium. 8 figs.

  10. Employers Roundtable: Employer Supported Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Valley Child Care Council, Philadelphia, PA.

    This booklet outlines a number of options available to employers to enable them to better cope with child care issues that they and their employees face. Major options include: (1) flexible work policies, such as flexible scheduling, alternate work places, shorter work weeks, and the consolidating of sick leave, holidays, and vacation time into…

  11. Employer-employee relations.

    PubMed

    Copeland, J D

    1993-09-01

    As an employer, a veterinarian must be vigilant to protect the rights of both job applicants and employees. Federal and state statutes guarantee that applicants and employees will not be subjected to discrimination in any aspect of employment, including recruitment, hiring, promotion, compensation, and termination of employment. An employer may not discriminate on the basis of sex, race, color, national origin, religion, age, or physical disability. In addition, common law tort actions give employees powerful causes of action be against those employers who injure employees. More than ever, employers must be diligent in obeying the law. Employers must also take measures to protect themselves from employee claims by instituting risk management plans and purchasing adequate insurance coverage.

  12. Highly tritiated water processing by isotopic exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, W.M.; Willms, R.S.; Glugla, M.

    2015-03-15

    Highly tritiated water (HTW) is produced in fusion machines and one of the promising technologies to process it is isotopic exchange. 3 kinds of Pt-catalyzed zeolite (13X-APG, CBV-100-CY and HiSiv-1000) were tested as candidates for isotopic exchange of highly tritiated water (HTW), and CBV-100-CY (Na-Y type with a SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratio of ∼ 5.0) shows the best performance. Small-scale tritium testing indicates that this method is efficient for reaching an exchange factor (EF) of 100. Full-scale non-tritium testing implies that an EF of 300 can be achieved in 24 hours of operation if a temperature gradient is appliedmore » along the column. For the isotopic exchange, deuterium recycled from the Isotope Separation System (deuterium with 1% T and/or 200 ppm T) should be employed, and the tritiated water regenerated from the Pt-catalyzed zeolite bed after isotopic exchange should be transferred to Water Detritiation System (WDS) for further processing.« less

  13. Conformational effect of dicyclo-hexano-18-crown-6 on isotopic fractionation of zinc: DFT approach

    SciTech Connect

    Boda, A.; Singha Deb, A. K.; Ali, Sk. M.

    2014-04-24

    Generalized gradient approximated BP86 density functional employing triple zeta valence plus polarization (TZVP) basis set has been used to compute the reduced partition function ratio and isotopic separation factor for zinc isotopes. The isotopic separation factor was found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The isotopic separation factor was found to depend on the conformation of the crown ether ligand. The trans-trans conformation shows the highest fractionation compared to cis-cis conformer. The present theoretical results can thus be used to plan the isotope separation experiments.

  14. Effect of zirconium nitride physical vapor deposition coating on preosteoblast cell adhesion and proliferation onto titanium screws.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, Manuela; Gatti, Giorgio; Migliario, Mario; Marchese, Leonardo; Rocchetti, Vincenzo; Renò, Filippo

    2014-11-01

    Titanium has long been used to produce dental implants. Problems related to its manufacturing, casting, welding, and ceramic application for dental prostheses still limit its use, which highlights the need for technologic improvements. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the biologic performance of titanium dental implants coated with zirconium nitride in a murine preosteoblast cellular model. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the chemical and morphologic characteristics of titanium implants coated with zirconium nitride by means of physical vapor deposition. Chemical and morphologic characterizations were performed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and the bioactivity of the implants was evaluated by cell-counting experiments. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis found that physical vapor deposition was effective in covering titanium surfaces with zirconium nitride. Murine MC-3T3 preosteoblasts were seeded onto titanium-coated and zirconium nitride-coated screws to evaluate their adhesion and proliferation. These experiments found a significantly higher number of cells adhering and spreading onto zirconium nitride-coated surfaces (P<.05) after 24 hours; after 7 days, both titanium and zirconium nitride surfaces were completely covered with MC-3T3 cells. Analysis of these data indicates that the proposed zirconium nitride coating of titanium implants could make the surface of the titanium more bioactive than uncoated titanium surfaces. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Method for making fine and ultrafine spherical particles of zirconium titanate and other mixed metal oxide systems

    DOEpatents

    Hu, Michael Z.

    2006-05-23

    Disclosed is a method for making amorphous spherical particles of zirconium titanate and crystalline spherical particles of zirconium titanate comprising the steps of mixing an aqueous solution of zirconium salt and an aqueous solution of titanium salt into a mixed solution having equal moles of zirconium and titanium and having a total salt concentration in the range from 0.01 M to about 0.5 M. A stearic dispersant and an organic solvent is added to the mixed salt solution, subjecting the zirconium salt and the titanium salt in the mixed solution to a coprecipitation reaction forming a solution containing amorphous spherical particles of zirconium titanate wherein the volume ratio of the organic solvent to aqueous part is in the range from 1 to 5. The solution of amorphous spherical particles is incubated in an oven at a temperature .ltoreq.100.degree. C. for a period of time .ltoreq.24 hours converting the amorphous particles to fine or ultrafine crystalline spherical particles of zirconium titanate.

  16. Meteoritic Sulfur Isotopic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiemens, Mark H.

    1996-01-01

    Funds were requested to continue our program in meteoritic sulfur isotopic analysis. We have recently detected a potential nucleosynthetic sulfur isotopic anomaly. We will search for potential carriers. The documentation of bulk systematics and the possible relation to nebular chemistry and oxygen isotopes will be explored. Analytical techniques for delta(sup 33), delta(sup 34)S, delta(sup 36)S isotopic analysis were improved. Analysis of sub milligram samples is now possible. A possible relation between sulfur isotopes and oxygen was detected, with similar group systematics noted, particularly in the case of aubrites, ureilites and entstatite chondrites. A possible nucleosynthetic excess S-33 has been noted in bulk ureilites and an oldhamite separate from Norton County. High energy proton (approximately 1 GeV) bombardments of iron foils were done to experimentally determine S-33, S-36 spallogenic yields for quantitation of isotopic measurements in iron meteorites. Techniques for measurement of mineral separates were perfected and an analysis program initiated. The systematic behavior of bulk sulfur isotopes will continue to be explored.

  17. Determination of copper by isotopic dilution.

    PubMed

    Faquim, E S; Munita, C S

    1994-01-01

    A rapid and selective method was used for the determination of copper by isotopic dilution employing substoichiometric extraction with dithizone in carbon tetrachloride. The appropriate pH range for the substoichiometric extraction was 2-7. In the analysis, even a large excess of elements forming extractable complexes with dithizone does not interfere. The accuracy and precision of the method were evaluated. The method has been applied to analysis of reference materials, wheat flour, wine, and beer.

  18. Squishy nanotraps: hybrid cellulose nanocrystal-zirconium metallogels for controlled trapping of biomacromolecules.

    PubMed

    Sheikhi, A; van de Ven, T G M

    2017-08-11

    A brick-and-mortar-like ultrasoft nanocomposite metallogel is formed by crosslinking cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) with ammonium zirconium carbonate (AZC) to trap and reconfigure dextran, a model biomacromolecule. The bricks (CNC) reinforce the metallogel, compete with dextran in reacting with AZC, and decouple long-time dextran dynamics from network formation, while the mortar (AZC) imparts bimodality to the dextran diffusion.

  19. Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to zirconium in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruas, Alexandre; Matsumoto, Ayumu; Ohba, Hironori; Akaoka, Katsuaki; Wakaida, Ikuo

    2017-05-01

    In the context of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1-NPP) decommissioning process, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has many advantages. The purpose of the present work is to demonstrate the on-line monitoring capability of the LIBS coupled with the ultra-thin liquid jet sampling method. The study focuses on zirconium in aqueous solution, considering that it is a major element in the F1-NPP fuel debris that has been subject to only a few LIBS studies in the past. The methodology of data acquisition and processing are described. In particular, two regions of interest with many high intensity zirconium lines have been observed around 350 nm in the case of the ionic lines and 478 nm in the case of atomic lines. The best analytical conditions for zirconium are different depending on the analysis of ionic lines or atomic lines. A low LOD of about 4 mg L- 1 could be obtained, showing that LIBS coupled with the ultra-thin liquid jet sampling technique is a promising alternative for more complex solutions found in the F1-NPP, namely mixtures containing zirconium.

  20. Possibilities of surface coating for thermal insulation. [zirconium dioxide, titanium dioxide, and zircon coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poeschel, E.; Weisser, G.

    1979-01-01

    Calculations performed for pulsating heat sources indicate a relatively thin (200-1000 micron) coating can lower temperature both inside and on the surface of a construction material. Various coating materials (including zirconium dioxide) are discussed, together with possible thermic stresses and ways to deal with the latter.

  1. Precision of a CAD/CAM technique for the production of zirconium dioxide copings.

    PubMed

    Coli, Pierluigi; Karlsson, Stig

    2004-01-01

    The precision of a computer-aided design/manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system to manufacture zirconium dioxide copings with a predetermined internal space was investigated. Two master models were produced in acrylic resin. One was directly scanned by the Decim Reader. The Decim Producer then manufactured 10 copings from prefabricated zirconium dioxide blocks. Five copings were prepared, aiming for an internal space to the master of 45 microm. The other five copings were prepared for an internal space of 90 microm. The second test model was used to try in the copings produced. The obtained internal space of the ceramic copings was evaluated by separate measurements of the master models and inner surfaces of the copings. The master models were measured at predetermined points with an optical instrument. The zirconium dioxide copings were measured with a contact instrument at the corresponding sites measured in the masters. The first group of copings had a mean internal space to the scanned master of 41 microm and of 53 microm to the try-in master. In general, the internal space along the axial walls of the masters was smaller than that along the occlusal walls. The second group had a mean internal space of 82 microm to the scanned master and of 90 microm to the try-in master. The aimed-for internal space of the copings was achieved by the manufacturer. The CAD/CAM technique tested provided high precision in the manufacture of zirconium dioxide copings.

  2. High pressure low temperature hot pressing method for producing a zirconium carbide ceramic

    DOEpatents

    Cockeram, Brian V.

    2017-01-10

    A method for producing monolithic Zirconium Carbide (ZrC) is described. The method includes raising a pressure applied to a ZrC powder until a final pressure of greater than 40 MPa is reached; and raising a temperature of the ZrC powder until a final temperature of less than 2200.degree. C. is reached.

  3. Clinical Outcomes of Zirconium-Oxide Posts: Up-to-Date Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Al-Thobity, Ahmad M

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the clinical outcomes of the use of zirconium-oxide posts in the past 20 years. The addressed question was: Do zirconium-oxide posts maintain the long-term survival rate of endodontically treated teeth? A database search was made of articles from January 1995 to December 2014; it included combinations of the following keywords: "zirconia," "zirconium oxide," "dowel/dowels," "post/posts," and "post and core." Exclusion criteria included review articles, experimental studies, case reports, commentaries, and articles published in a language other than English. Articles were reviewed by the titles, followed by the abstracts, and, finally, the full text of the selected studies. Four studies were included after filtering the selected studies according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. In one study, the prefabricated zirconia posts with indirect glass-ceramic cores had significantly higher failure rates than other posts with direct composite cores. In two studies, no failure of the cemented posts was observed throughout the follow-up period. Due to the limited number of clinical studies, it can be concluded that the long-term success rate of prefabricated zirconium-oxide posts is unclear.

  4. Evaluation of artifacts generated by zirconium implants in cone-beam computed tomography images.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Taruska Ventorini; Bechara, Boulos B; McMahan, Clyde Alex; Freitas, Deborah Queiroz; Noujeim, Marcel

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate zirconium implant artifact production in cone beam computed tomography images obtained with different protocols. One zirconium implant was inserted in an edentulous mandible. Twenty scans were acquired with a ProMax 3D unit (Planmeca Oy, Helsinki, Finland), with acquisition settings ranging from 70 to 90 peak kilovoltage (kVp) and voxel sizes of 0.32 and 0.16 mm. A metal artifact reduction (MAR) tool was activated in half of the scans. An axial slice through the middle region of the implant was selected for each dataset. Gray values (mean ± standard deviation) were measured in two regions of interest, one close to and the other distant from the implant (control area). The contrast-to-noise ratio was also calculated. Standard deviation decreased with greater kVp and when the MAR tool was used. The contrast-to-noise ratio was significantly higher when the MAR tool was turned off, except for low resolution with kVp values above 80. Selection of the MAR tool and greater kVp resulted in an overall reduction of artifacts in images acquired with low resolution. Although zirconium implants do produce image artifacts in cone-bean computed tomography scans, the setting that best controlled artifact generation by zirconium implants was 90 kVp at low resolution and with the MAR tool turned on. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Five year survival analysis of an oxidised zirconium total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Holland, Philip; Santini, Alasdair J A; Davidson, John S; Pope, Jill A

    2013-12-01

    Zirconium total knee arthroplasties theoretically have a low incidence of failure as they are low friction, hard wearing and hypoallergenic. We report the five year survival of 213 Profix zirconium total knee arthroplasties with a conforming all polyethylene tibial component. Data was collected prospectively and multiple strict end points were used. SF12 and WOMAC scores were recorded pre-operatively, at three months, at twelve months, at 3 years and at 5 years. Eight patients died and six were "lost to follow-up". The remaining 199 knees were followed up for five years. The mean WOMAC score improved from 56 to 35 and the mean SF12 physical component score improved from 28 to 34. The five year survival for failure due to implant related reasons was 99.5% (95% CI 97.4-100). This was due to one tibial component becoming loose aseptically in year zero. Our results demonstrate that the Profix zirconium total knee arthroplasty has a low medium term failure rate comparable to the best implants. Further research is needed to establish if the beneficial properties of zirconium improve long term implant survival. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The 5-year Results of an Oxidized Zirconium Femoral Component for TKA

    PubMed Central

    Innocenti, Massimo; Carulli, Christian; Matassi, Fabrizio; Villano, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Osteolysis secondary to polyethylene wear is one of the major factors limiting long-term performance of TKA. Oxidized zirconium is a new material that combines the strength of a metal with the wear properties of a ceramic. It remains unknown whether implants with a zirconium femoral component can be used safely in TKA. To answer that question, we reviewed, at a minimum of 5 years, the clinical outcome and survivorship of a ceramic-surfaced oxidized zirconium femoral component implanted during 98 primary TKAs between April 2001 and December 2003. Survivorship was 98.7% at 7 years postoperatively. No revision was necessary and only one component failed because of aseptic loosening. Mean Knee Society score improved from 36 to 89. No adverse events were observed clinically or radiologically. These results justify pursuing the use of oxidized zirconium as an alternative bearing surface for a femoral component in TKA. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:19798541

  7. 21 CFR 700.16 - Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... indicates that certain zirconium compounds have caused human skin granulomas and toxic effects in the lungs... deep portions of the lungs of users. The lung is an organ, like skin, subject to the development of granulomas. Unlike the skin, the lung will not reveal the presence of granulomatous changes until they have...

  8. Reduced-Gravity Measurements of the Effect of Oxygen on Properties of Zirconium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, J.; Lee, J.; Wunderlich, R.; Fecht, H.-J.; Schneider, S.; SanSoucie, M.; Rogers, J.; Hyers, R.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of oxygen on the thermophysical properties of zirconium is being investigated using MSL-EML (Material Science Laboratory - Electromagnetic Levitator) on ISS (International Space Station) in collaboration with NASA, ESA (European Space Agency), and DLR (German Aerospace Center). Zirconium samples with different oxygen concentrations will be put into multiple melt cycles, during which the density, viscosity, surface tension, heat capacity, and electric conductivity will be measured at various undercooled temperatures. The facility check-up of MSL-EML and the first set of melting experiments have been successfully performed in 2015. The first zirconium sample will be tested near the end of 2015. As part of ground support activities, the thermophysical properties of zirconium and ZrO were measured using a ground-based electrostatic levitator located at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The influence of oxygen on the measured surface tension was evaluated. The results of this research will serve as reference data for those measured in ISS.

  9. Veterans Employment Assistance Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-28

    Department of-Defense ’)IRECTIVE AD-A270 588 March 28, 1985 NUMBER 1341.6 ASD(MI sUBJECT: Veterans Employment Assistance Program Reference: (a) DoD...Instruction 1404.9, "Vietnam Era Veterans Employment Assistance Program ," August 28, 1974 (hereby canceled) (b) Title 38, United States Code, Section...assessment of local needs. b. As considered necessary, each DoD Component shall assess the status of the Veterans Employment Assistance Program and determine

  10. ISOTOPE SEPARATING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Kudravetz, M.K.; Greene, H.B.

    1958-09-16

    This patent relates to control systems for a calutron and, in particular, describes an electro-mechanical system for interrupting the collection of charged particles when the ratio between the two isotopes being receivcd deviates from a predetermined value. One embodiment of the invention includes means responsive to the ratio between two isotopes being received for opening a normally closed shutter over the receiver entrance when the isotope ratio is the desired value. In another form of the invention the collection operation is interrupted by changing the beam accelerating voltage to deflect the ion beam away from the receiver.

  11. Secretary Marshall's Employment Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Gloria

    1977-01-01

    A review of proposed employment strategies and priorities of Ray Marshall, Secretary of Labor, with regard to training programs, governmental subsidy programs, apprenticeships, private sector jobs, etc. (WL)

  12. The effect of zirconium-based surface treatment on the cathodic disbonding resistance of epoxy coated mild steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, A.; Attar, M. M.

    2014-10-01

    The effect of zirconium-based surface treatment on the cathodic disbonding resistance and adhesion performance of an epoxy coated mild steel substrate was investigated. The obtained data from pull-off, cathodic disbonding test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) indicated that the zirconium conversion layer significantly improved the adhesion strength and cathodic disbonding resistance of the epoxy coating. This may be attributed to formation of some polar zirconium compounds on the surface and increment of surface roughness, that were evident in the results of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively.

  13. Zirconium Carbide Produced by Spark Plasma Sintering and Hot Pressing: Densification Kinetics, Grain Growth, and Thermal Properties

    DOE PAGES

    Wei, Xialu; Back, Christina; Izhvanov, Oleg; ...

    2016-07-14

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) has been employed to consolidate a micron-sized zirconium carbide (ZrC) powder. ZrC pellets with a variety of relative densities are obtained under different processing parameters. The densification kinetics of ZrC powders subjected to conventional hot pressing and SPS are comparatively studied by applying similar heating and loading profiles. Due to the lack of electric current assistance, the conventional hot pressing appears to impose lower strain rate sensitivity and higher activation energy values than those which correspond to the SPS processing. A finite element simulation is used to analyze the temperature evolution within the volume of ZrCmore » specimens subjected to SPS. The control mechanism for grain growth during the final SPS stage is studied via a recently modified model, in which the grain growth rate dependence on porosity is incorporated. Finally, the constant pressure specific heat and thermal conductivity of the SPS-processed ZrC are determined to be higher than those reported for the hot-pressed ZrC and the benefits of applying SPS are indicated accordingly.« less

  14. Zirconium Carbide Produced by Spark Plasma Sintering and Hot Pressing: Densification Kinetics, Grain Growth, and Thermal Properties

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xialu; Back, Christina; Izhvanov, Oleg; Haines, Christopher D.; Olevsky, Eugene A.

    2016-01-01

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) has been employed to consolidate a micron-sized zirconium carbide (ZrC) powder. ZrC pellets with a variety of relative densities are obtained under different processing parameters. The densification kinetics of ZrC powders subjected to conventional hot pressing and SPS are comparatively studied by applying similar heating and loading profiles. Due to the lack of electric current assistance, the conventional hot pressing appears to impose lower strain rate sensitivity and higher activation energy values than those which correspond to the SPS processing. A finite element simulation is used to analyze the temperature evolution within the volume of ZrC specimens subjected to SPS. The control mechanism for grain growth during the final SPS stage is studied via a recently modified model, in which the grain growth rate dependence on porosity is incorporated. The constant pressure specific heat and thermal conductivity of the SPS-processed ZrC are determined to be higher than those reported for the hot-pressed ZrC and the benefits of applying SPS are indicated accordingly. PMID:28773697

  15. Phosphate adsorption from wastewater using zirconium (IV) hydroxide: Kinetics, thermodynamics and membrane filtration adsorption hybrid system studies.

    PubMed

    Johir, M A H; Pradhan, M; Loganathan, P; Kandasamy, J; Vigneswaran, S

    2016-02-01

    Excessive phosphate in wastewater should be removed to control eutrophication of water bodies. The potential of employing amorphous zirconium (Zr) hydroxide to remove phosphate from synthetic wastewater was studied in batch adsorption experiments and in a submerged membrane filtration adsorption hybrid (MFAH) reactor. The adsorption data satisfactorily fitted to Langmuir, pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models. Langmuir adsorption maxima at 22 °C and pHs of 4.0, 7.1, and 10.0 were 30.40, 18.50, and 19.60 mg P/g, respectively. At pH 7.1 and temperatures of 40 °C and 60 °C, they were 43.80 and 54.60 mg P/g, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters, ΔG° and ΔS° were negative and ΔH° was positive. FTIR, zeta potential and competitive phosphate, sulphate and nitrate adsorption data showed that the mechanism of phosphate adsorption was inner-sphere complexation. In the submerged MFAH reactor experiment, when Zr hydroxide was added at doses of 1-5 g/L once only at the start of the experiment, the removal of phosphate from 3 L of wastewater containing 10 mg P/L declined after 5 h of operation. However, when Zr hydroxide was repeatedly added at 5 g/L dose every 24 h, satisfactory removal of phosphate was maintained for 3 days. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydroxyaptite nanorods patterned ZrO2 bilayer coating on zirconium for the application of percutaneous implants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lan; Han, Yong; Tan, Guoxin

    2015-03-01

    Percutaneous implant requires a tight bond between the underlying dermis of skin and implant surface to prevent epithelial down-growth and infection, while fibroblasts play a key role in the skin-implant integration. In this work, nanorod-shaped hydroxyaptite (HA) with a mean diameter of 70 nm and length of 400 nm was hydrothermally grown on micro-arc oxidized (MAOed) Ca- and P-doped ZrO2 to form a bilayer coating. The hydrothermal formation mechanism of HA nanorods was explored, and the adsorption of total protein on the coating from α-MEM medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum was examined. Employing L-929 cells, the behaviors of fibroblasts on the bilayer coating, including adhesion and proliferation were evaluated together the polished Zr and as-MAOed ZrO2. The obtained results show that the HA nanorods nucleated on ZrO2 and grew at the expense of the doped Ca and P ions during the hydrothermal treatment (HT). The HA nanorods patterned coating enhanced protein absorption, and significantly improved the adhesion and proliferation of fibroblasts compared to the as-MAOed ZrO2 and polished Zr. It suggests that the HA nanorods/ZrO2 coated zirconium has a potential application for percutaneous implants to enhance the attachment of skin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Microbially Mediated Kinetic Sulfur Isotope Fractionation: Reactive Transport Modeling Benchmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanner, C.; Druhan, J. L.; Cheng, Y.; Amos, R. T.; Steefel, C. I.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Microbially mediated sulfate reduction is a ubiquitous process in many subsurface systems. Isotopic fractionation is characteristic of this anaerobic process, since sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) favor the reduction of the lighter sulfate isotopologue (S32O42-) over the heavier isotopologue (S34O42-). Detection of isotopic shifts have been utilized as a proxy for the onset of sulfate reduction in subsurface systems such as oil reservoirs and aquifers undergoing uranium bioremediation. Reactive transport modeling (RTM) of kinetic sulfur isotope fractionation has been applied to field and laboratory studies. These RTM approaches employ different mathematical formulations in the representation of kinetic sulfur isotope fractionation. In order to test the various formulations, we propose a benchmark problem set for the simulation of kinetic sulfur isotope fractionation during microbially mediated sulfate reduction. The benchmark problem set is comprised of four problem levels and is based on a recent laboratory column experimental study of sulfur isotope fractionation. Pertinent processes impacting sulfur isotopic composition such as microbial sulfate reduction and dispersion are included in the problem set. To date, participating RTM codes are: CRUNCHTOPE, TOUGHREACT, MIN3P and THE GEOCHEMIST'S WORKBENCH. Preliminary results from various codes show reasonable agreement for the problem levels simulating sulfur isotope fractionation in 1D.

  18. Perchlorate isotope forensics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Böhlke, J.K.; Sturchio, N.C.; Gu, B.; Horita, J.; Brown, G.M.; Jackson, W.A.; Batista, J.; Hatzinger, P.B.

    2005-01-01

    Perchlorate has been detected recently in a variety of soils, waters, plants, and food products at levels that may be detrimental to human health. These discoveries have generated considerable interest in perchlorate source identification. In this study, comprehensive stable isotope analyses ( 37Cl/35Cl and 18O/17O/ 16O) of perchlorate from known synthetic and natural sources reveal systematic differences in isotopic characteristics that are related to the formation mechanisms. In addition, isotopic analyses of perchlorate extracted from groundwater and surface water demonstrate the feasibility of identifying perchlorate sources in contaminated environments on the basis of this technique. Both natural and synthetic sources of perchlorate have been identified in water samples from some perchlorate occurrences in the United States by the isotopic method. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

  19. Stable isotopes in mineralogy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neil, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    Stable isotope fractionations between minerals are functions of the fundamental vibrational frequencies of the minerals and therefore bear on several topics of mineralogical interest. Isotopic compositions of the elements H, C, O, Si, and S can now be determined routinely in almost any mineral. A summary has been made of both published and new results of laboratory investigations, analyses of natural materials, and theoretical considerations which bear on the importance of temperature, pressure, chemical composition and crystal structure to the isotopic properties of minerals. It is shown that stable isotope studies can sometimes provide evidence for elucidating details of crystal structure and can be a powerful tool for use in tracing the reaction paths of mineralogical reactions. ?? 1977 Springer-Verlag.

  20. Cyclotron production for the radiometal Zirconium-89 with an IBA cyclone 18/9 and COSTIS solid target system (STS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabkowski, A. M.; Probst, K.; Marshall, C.

    2012-12-01

    The development of biological targeting agents such as proteins, peptides, antibodies and nanoparticles with a range of biological half-lives demands the production of new radionuclides with half-lives (physical) complementary to these biological properties. Zirconium-89 (89Zr) is a promising radionuclide for development of new immuno-PET agents due to its convenient half-life of 78.4 h, β+ emission rate of 23%, low maximum energy of 0.9 MeV resulting in good spatial resolution, stable daughter isotope of Yttrium-89 (89Y) and favorable imaging characteristics, with only one significant γ-line of 909 keV emitted during decay alongside the 511 keV positron photons. Our aim was to prove that isotopically pure 89Zr could be produced in an IBA Cyclone 18/9 cyclotron equipped with a COSTIS STS using the 89Y(p,n)89Zr reaction and optimise the yield by reducing the beam degrader thickness without producing either 88Zr or 88Y. The degradation of the beam energy with 400 and 500 μm thick Niobium foils were achieved without overheating problems with 2-3 hours long irradiation times. From repeated measurements of activity, it was clear that there is a bi-exponential decay of radioactivity due to the short lived 89mZr and 89Zr. The measured half-life of the longer lived radionulide was consistent with value for 89Zr. The energy spectrum from 89Zr had energy peaks at 511 keV and 909 keV and was consistent with 89Zr. Production of 89Zr with 500 μm thick Niobium beam degrader (Ep = 9.8MeV) was achieved, without producing either 88Zr or 88Y. It was necessary to wait at least 4 hours before measuring the activity and decay correct in order to calculate the 89gZr activity at the end of cyclotron production. Degrading the proton beam to 10 MeV produces radionuclidically pure 89Zr with yields from 8 to 9 MBq/μAh. Whilst this is enough for pre-clinical use, the yield is not enough for either clinical use or commercial supply. Using thinner beam degraders to increase the proton beam

  1. Employment Policy and Territories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthet, Thierry; Cuntigh, Philippe; Guitton, Christophe

    2002-01-01

    France's employment policy has historically been governed by a strategy of interventions aimed at specific categories of individuals, including victims of industrial restructuring, entry workers, the long-term unemployed, and the disabled. Since the 1980s, France has had the following main lines of employment policy: (1) assistance to victims of…

  2. Employment in Contemporary Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Ken; And Others

    This paper presents guidelines and suggestions for non-Japanese English-as-a-Second-Language teachers seeking employment in Japan. The first section outlines the educational qualifications needed to teach in language schools, secondary schools, and higher education institutions, and notes common employment patterns and the timing required to make…

  3. Maternal Employment: 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Lois Wladis

    1979-01-01

    Maternal employment is a part of modern family life, a response to changes such as smaller families and more efficient household management. Not only does maternal employment meet parents' needs, but it is a pattern better suited for socializing the child for the adult role s/he will occupy. (Author/GC)

  4. Addressing Employer Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perspective: Essays and Reviews of Issues in Employment Security and Employment and Training Programs, 1986

    1986-01-01

    This volume of an annual journal contains 21 articles focusing on the many services that state Employment Security (ES) agencies are providing to improve outreach to employers who pay for the programs through the dedicated revenues of the Federal Unemployment Tax Act and state benefit taxes and to improve their own staff ability to deliver…

  5. Maine's Employability Skills Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, John M.; Wolffe, Karen E.; Wolfe, Judy; Brooker, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    This Practice Report describes the development and implementation of the "Maine Employability Skills Program," a model employment program developed by the Maine Division for the Blind and Visually Impaired (DBVI). The program was designed to support the efforts of the chronically unemployed or underemployed. These consumers were either…

  6. Discrimination in Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Martha M.

    An overview is presented of litigation in which courts have interpreted educational employees' rights to nondiscriminatory treatment and employers' obligations to ensure equal employment opportunities. Because of the range, volume, and complexity of the litigation in this area, the intent is to identify applicable legal principles rather than to…

  7. Youth-Education-Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirtz, Willard; And Others

    The document presents the proceedings of an international symposium analyzing the relationship among youth, education, and employment, with emphasis on youth employment trends and the need to find solutions for unemployment problems. The objectives are to evaluate the existing relationship in the light of changing values and expectations of young…

  8. An Employer Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Aliza; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A Chicago vocational English language training program (VELT) conducted a needs assessment survey of employers of limited-English-proficient (LEP) workers in assembly, packing, shipping, janitorial and housekeeping, machine operation, and food preparation jobs. The purposes of the survey were to determine: (1) the employers' methods of obtaining…

  9. Does Supported Employment Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan McInnes, Melayne; Ozturk, Orgul Demet; McDermott, Suzanne; Mann, Joshua R.

    2010-01-01

    Providing employment-related services, including supported employment through job coaches, has been a priority in federal policy since the enactment of the Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act in 1984. We take advantage of a unique panel data set of all clients served by the South Carolina Department of Disabilities and…

  10. Physical and mechanical metallurgy of zirconium alloys for nuclear applications: a multi-scale computational study

    SciTech Connect

    Glazoff, Michael Vasily

    2014-10-01

    In the post-Fukushima world, the stability of materials under extreme conditions is an important issue for the safety of nuclear reactors. Because the nuclear industry is going to continue using advanced zirconium cladding materials in the foreseeable future, it become critical to gain fundamental understanding of the several interconnected problems. First, what are the thermodynamic and kinetic factors affecting the oxidation and hydrogen pick-up by these materials at normal, off-normal conditions, and in long-term storage? Secondly, what protective coatings (if any) could be used in order to gain extremely valuable time at off-normal conditions, e.g., when temperature exceeds the criticalmore » value of 2200°F? Thirdly, the kinetics of oxidation of such protective coating or braiding needs to be quantified. Lastly, even if some degree of success is achieved along this path, it is absolutely critical to have automated inspection algorithms allowing identifying defects of cladding as soon as possible. This work strives to explore these interconnected factors from the most advanced computational perspective, utilizing such modern techniques as first-principles atomistic simulations, computational thermodynamics of materials, diffusion modeling, and the morphological algorithms of image processing for defect identification. Consequently, it consists of the four parts dealing with these four problem areas preceded by the introduction and formulation of the studied problems. In the 1st part an effort was made to employ computational thermodynamics and ab initio calculations to shed light upon the different stages of oxidation of ziraloys (2 and 4), the role of microstructure optimization in increasing their thermal stability, and the process of hydrogen pick-up, both in normal working conditions and in long-term storage. The 2nd part deals with the need to understand the influence and respective roles of the two different plasticity mechanisms in Zr nuclear alloys

  11. Water/ice phase transition: The role of zirconium acetate, a compound with ice-shaping properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcellini, Moreno; Fernandes, Francisco M.; Dedovets, Dmytro; Deville, Sylvain

    2017-04-01

    Few compounds feature ice-shaping properties. Zirconium acetate is one of the very few inorganic compounds reported so far to have ice-shaping properties similar to that of ice-shaping proteins, encountered in many organisms living at low temperature. When a zirconium acetate solution is frozen, oriented and perfectly hexagonal ice crystals can be formed and their growth follows the temperature gradient. To shed light on the water/ice phase transition while freezing zirconium acetate solution, we carried out differential scanning calorimetry measurements. From our results, we estimate how many water molecules do not freeze because of their interaction with Zr cations. We estimate the colligative properties of the Zr acetate on the apparent critical temperature. We further show that the phase transition is unaffected by the nature of the base which is used to adjust the pH. Our results provide thus new hints on the ice-shaping mechanism of zirconium acetate.

  12. In Situ Enrichment of Phosphopeptides on MALDI Plates Functionalized by Reactive Landing of Zirconium(IV)–n-Propoxide Ions

    PubMed Central

    Blacken, Grady R.; Volný, Michael; Vaisar, Tomáš; Sadílek, Martin; Tureček, František

    2008-01-01

    We report substantial in situ enrichment of phosphopeptides in peptide mixtures using zirconium oxide coated plates for detection by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The novel feature of this approach rests on the specific preparation of zirconium oxide coatings using reactive landing on stainless steel support of gas-phase positive ions produced by electrospray of zirconium(IV)–n-propoxide solutions in 1-propanol. Reactive landing was found to produce durable functionalized surfaces for selective phosphopeptide capture and desorption–ionization by MALDI. Enrichment factors on the order of 20–90 were achieved for several monophosphorylated peptides relative to abundant nonphosphorylated peptides in tryptic digests. We demonstrate the ability of the zirconium oxide functionalized MALDI surfaces to facilitate detection of enriched phosphopeptides in mid-femtomole amounts of α-casein digests per MALDI spot. PMID:17569507

  13. Water/ice phase transition: The role of zirconium acetate, a compound with ice-shaping properties.

    PubMed

    Marcellini, Moreno; Fernandes, Francisco M; Dedovets, Dmytro; Deville, Sylvain

    2017-04-14

    Few compounds feature ice-shaping properties. Zirconium acetate is one of the very few inorganic compounds reported so far to have ice-shaping properties similar to that of ice-shaping proteins, encountered in many organisms living at low temperature. When a zirconium acetate solution is frozen, oriented and perfectly hexagonal ice crystals can be formed and their growth follows the temperature gradient. To shed light on the water/ice phase transition while freezing zirconium acetate solution, we carried out differential scanning calorimetry measurements. From our results, we estimate how many water molecules do not freeze because of their interaction with Zr cations. We estimate the colligative properties of the Zr acetate on the apparent critical temperature. We further show that the phase transition is unaffected by the nature of the base which is used to adjust the pH. Our results provide thus new hints on the ice-shaping mechanism of zirconium acetate.

  14. Plate-shaped transformation products in zirconium-base alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, S.; Dey, G. K.; Srivastava, D.; Ranganathan, S.

    1997-11-01

    Plate-shaped products resulting from martensitic, diffusional, and mixed mode transformations in zirconium-base alloys are compared in the present study. These alloys are particularly suitable for the comparison in view of the fact that the lattice correspondence between the parent β (bcc) and the product α (hcp) or γ-hydride (fct) phases are remarkably similar for different types of transformations. Crystallographic features such as orientation relations, habit planes, and interface structures associated with these transformations have been compared, with a view toward examining whether the transformation mechanisms have characteristic imprints on these experimental observables. Martensites exhibiting dislocated lath, internally twinned plate, and self-accommodating three-plate cluster morphologies have been encountered in Zr-2.5Nb alloy. Habit planes corresponding to all these morphologies have been found to be consistent with the predictions based on the invariant plane strain (IPS) criterion. Different morphologies have been found to reflect the manner in which the neighboring martensite variants are assembled. Lattice-invariant shears (LISs) for all these cases have been identified to be either {10 bar 11} α < bar 1123> α slip or twinning on {10 bar 11} α planes. Widmanstätten α precipitates, forming in a step-quenching treatment, have been shown to have a lath morphology, the α/β interface being decorated with a periodic array of < c + a> dislocations at a spacing of 8 to 10 nm. The line vectors of these dislocations are nearly parallel to the invariant lines. The α precipitates, forming in the retained β phase on aging, exhibit an internally twinned structure with a zigzag habit plane. Average habit planes for the morphologies have been found to lie near the {103} β — {113} β poles, which are close to the specific variant of the {112} β plane, which transforms into a prismatic plane of the type {1 bar 100} α . The crystallography of the

  15. SEPARATION OF POLONIUM, PROTACTINIUM OR MIXTURES THEREOF IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION FROM BISMUTH, LEAD, ZIRCONIUM AND/OR COLUMBIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Van Winkle, Q.; Kraus, K.A.

    1959-10-27

    A process is presented for separating polonium, protactinium, or mixtures thereof in aqueous solution from bismuth, zirconium, lead, and niobium values contained in the solution. The method comprises providing hydrochloric acid in the solution in a concentration of at least 5N. contacting the aqueous solution with a substantially waterimmiscible organic solvent such as diisopropyl ketone, and separating the aqueous phase containing the bismuth, zirconium, lead, and niobium from the organic extract phase containing the polonium, protactinium, or mixture thereof.

  16. Older Worker Employment Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doctors, Samuel I.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The records of a public employment agency for senior citizens are analyzed. Client characteristics reveal that older people want to work and retain jobs in which they are placed. The underutilization of older workers is discussed. (SK)

  17. Employment and Hawaii's Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Marcia D.

    A study was conducted in Hawaii to determine the status of elderly persons in regard to employment, as well as attitudes toward employment of the elderly, defined in this study as aged 55 and over. Elderly persons aged 65 and over are the fastest growing segment of Hawaii's population, projected to increase from 73,700 in 1980 to 141,000 in 2000.…

  18. Development of a Modified Embedded Atom Force Field for Zirconium Nitride Using Multi-Objective Evolutionary Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, Badri; Sasikumar, Kiran; Mei, Zhi-Gang

    2016-07-07

    Zirconium nitride (ZrN) exhibits exceptional mechanical, chemical, and electrical properties, which make it attractive for a wide range of technological applications, including wear-resistant coatings, protection from corrosion, cutting/shaping tools, and nuclear breeder reactors. Despite its broad usability, an atomic scale understanding of the superior performance of ZrN, and its response to external stimuli, for example, temperature, applied strain, and so on, is not well understood. This is mainly due to the lack of interatomic potential models that accurately describe the interactions between Zr and N atoms. To address this challenge, we develop a modified embedded atom method (MEAM) interatomic potentialmore » for the Zr–N binary system by training against formation enthalpies, lattice parameters, elastic properties, and surface energies of ZrN (and, in some cases, also Zr3N4) obtained from density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The best set of MEAM parameters are determined by employing a multiobjective global optimization scheme driven by genetic algorithms. Our newly developed MEAM potential accurately reproduces structure, thermodynamics, energetic ordering of polymorphs, as well as elastic and surface properties of Zr–N compounds, in excellent agreement with DFT calculations and experiments. As a representative application, we employed molecular dynamics simulations based on this MEAM potential to investigate the atomic scale mechanisms underlying fracture of bulk and nanopillar ZrN under applied uniaxial strains, as well as the impact of strain rate on their mechanical behavior. These simulations indicate that bulk ZrN undergoes brittle fracture irrespective of the strain rate, while ZrN nanopillars show quasi-plasticity owing to amorphization at the crack front. The MEAM potential for Zr–N developed in this work is an invaluable tool to investigate atomic-scale mechanisms underlying the response of ZrN to external stimuli (e

  19. Noncovalent Hydrogen Isotope Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchachenko, A. L.; Breslavskaya, N. N.

    2018-02-01

    Zero-point energies (ZPE) and isotope effects, induced by intermolecular, noncovalent vibrations, are computed and tested by experimental data. The ZPE differences of H- and D-complexes of water with hydrogen, methane, and water molecules are about 100-300 cal/mol; they result to isotope effects IE of 1.20-1.70. Semi-ionic bonds between metal ions and water ligands in M(H2O) 6 2+ complexes are much stronger; their ZPEs are about 12-14 kcal/mol per molecule and result to IE of 1.9-2.1 at 300 K. Protonated (deuterated) water and biwater exhibit the largest ZPE differences and isotope effects; the latter are 25-28 and 12-13 for water and biwater, respectively. Noncovalent IEs contribute markedly into the experimentally measured effects and explain many anomalous and even magic properties of the effects, such as the dependence of IE on the solvents and on the presence of the third substances, enormously large isotope effects at the mild conditions, the difference between IEs measured in the reactions of individual protiated and deuterated compounds and those measured in their mixture. Noncovalent IEs are not negligible and should be taken into account to make correct and substantiated conclusions on the reaction mechanisms. The kinetic equations are derived for the total isotope effects, which include noncovalent IEs as additive factors.

  20. Separation of sulfur isotopes

    DOEpatents

    DeWitt, Robert; Jepson, Bernhart E.; Schwind, Roger A.

    1976-06-22

    Sulfur isotopes are continuously separated and enriched using a closed loop reflux system wherein sulfur dioxide (SO.sub.2) is reacted with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or the like to form sodium hydrogen sulfite (NaHSO.sub.3). Heavier sulfur isotopes are preferentially attracted to the NaHSO.sub.3, and subsequently reacted with sulfuric acid (H.sub.2 SO.sub.4) forming sodium hydrogen sulfate (NaHSO.sub.4) and SO.sub.2 gas which contains increased concentrations of the heavier sulfur isotopes. This heavy isotope enriched SO.sub.2 gas is subsequently separated and the NaHSO.sub.4 is reacted with NaOH to form sodium sulfate (Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4) which is subsequently decomposed in an electrodialysis unit to form the NaOH and H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 components which are used in the aforesaid reactions thereby effecting sulfur isotope separation and enrichment without objectionable loss of feed materials.

  1. Isotope separation apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Arnush, Donald; MacKenzie, Kenneth R.; Wuerker, Ralph F.

    1980-01-01

    Isotope separation apparatus consisting of a plurality of cells disposed adjacent to each other in an evacuated container. A common magnetic field is established extending through all of the cells. A source of energetic electrons at one end of the container generates electrons which pass through the cells along the magnetic field lines. Each cell includes an array of collector plates arranged in parallel or in tandem within a common magnetic field. Sets of collector plates are disposed adjacent to each other in each cell. Means are provided for differentially energizing ions of a desired isotope by applying energy at the cyclotron resonant frequency of the desired isotope. As a result, the energized desired ions are preferentially collected by the collector plates.

  2. The origin of 2.7 eV blue luminescence band in zirconium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Perevalov, T. V., E-mail: timson@isp.nsc.ru; Zhuravlev, K. S.; Gritsenko, V. A.

    2014-12-28

    The luminescence spectra of non-stoichiometric zirconium oxide film series with different oxygen vacancies' concentrations show the blue photoluminescence band centered near a 2.7 eV peak. There is a broad band at 5.2 eV in the luminescence excitation spectrum for blue emission. The ab-initio quantum-chemical calculation gives a peak in the optical absorption at 5.1 eV for the oxygen vacancy in cubic ZrO{sub 2}. It was concluded that the 2.7 eV blue luminescence excited near 5.2 eV in a zirconium oxide film is associated with the oxygen vacancy.

  3. Pyroelectric response in crystalline hafnium zirconium oxide (Hf 1- x Zr x O 2 ) thin films

    DOE PAGES

    Smith, S. W.; Kitahara, A. R.; Rodriguez, M. A.; ...

    2017-02-13

    Pyroelectric coefficients were measured for 20 nm thick crystalline hafnium zirconium oxide (Hf 1-xZr xO 2) thin films across a composition range of 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. Pyroelectric currents were collected near room temperature under zero applied bias and a sinusoidal oscillating temperature profile to separate the influence of non-pyroelectric currents. The pyroelectric coefficient was observed to correlate with zirconium content, increased orthorhombic/tetragonal phase content, and maximum polarization response. The largest measured absolute value was 48 μCm -2K -1 for a composition with x = 0.64, while no pyroelectric response was measured for compositions which displayed no remanent polarizationmore » (x = 0, 0.91, 1).« less

  4. Enhancement of yield strength in zirconium metal through high-pressure induced structural phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yusheng; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2007-11-01

    We report here a high-pressure phase-transition induced strengthening in ultrapure zirconium metal. The determined yield strength shows more than sixfold abrupt increase at the transition pressure of Pc=6GPa, from σyα≈180MPa in the low-pressure phase of α-Zr to σyω≈1180MPa in the high-pressure phase of ω-Zr. The observed enhancement provides an alternate route for material strengthening and is the most significant among the known strengthening techniques for metals. Our findings support the theoretical simulations of the substantial covalent bonding and "rougher" corrugation of slip planes for dislocations in the ω-phase of zirconium.

  5. Phase Transformation Temperatures and Solute Redistribution in a Quaternary Zirconium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochrane, C.; Daymond, M. R.

    2018-05-01

    This study investigates the phase stability and redistribution of solute during heating and cooling of a quaternary zirconium alloy, Excel (Zr-3.2Sn-0.8Mo-0.8Nb). Time-of-flight neutron diffraction data are analyzed using a novel Vegard's law-based approach to determine the phase fractions and location of substitutional solute atoms in situ during heating from room temperature up to 1050 °C. It is seen that this alloy exhibits direct nucleation of the β Zr phase from martensite during tempering, and stable retention of the β Zr phase to high temperatures, unlike other two-phase zirconium alloys. The transformation strains resulting from the α \\leftrightarrow β transformation are shown to have a direct impact on the development of microstructure and crystallographic texture.

  6. Effect of anodization on the surface characteristics and electrochemical behaviour of zirconium in artificial saliva.

    PubMed

    Romonti, Daniela E; Gomez Sanchez, Andrea V; Milošev, Ingrid; Demetrescu, Ioana; Ceré, Silvia

    2016-05-01

    The paper is focused on elaboration of ZrO2 films on pure zirconium via anodizing in phosphoric acid with and without fluoride at constant potentials of 30 V and 60 V. The structure and composition of the films were investigated using scanning electronic microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The composition of the oxides formed at both potentials can be identified as monoclinic ZrO2. In addition to Zr and O, the layers formed in phosphoric acid contain phosphorus originating from the phosphoric acid. When the phosphoric acid solution contains NaF, fluorine is also incorporated into the oxide layer. The oxides formed at a higher voltage have greater roughness than those formed at 30 V. Anodized samples exhibit smaller current densities during anodic polarization compared to the as-received zirconium covered with native oxide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Do oxidized zirconium femoral heads reduce polyethylene wear in cemented THAs? A blinded randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Zaoui, Amine; Hage, Samer El; Langlois, Jean; Scemama, Caroline; Courpied, Jean Pierre; Hamadouche, Moussa

    2015-12-01

    Charnley low-friction torque total hip arthroplasty (THA) remains the gold standard in THA. The main cause for failure is wear of the socket. Highly crosslinked polyethylene (HXLPE) has been associated with reduced wear rates. Also, oxidized zirconium has shown in vitro reduced wear rates. However, to our knowledge, there are no data comparing oxidized zirconium femoral heads with metal heads against HXLPE or ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) when 22.25-mm bearings were used, which was the same size that performed so well in Charnley-type THAs. We hypothesized that after a minimal 4-year followup (1) use of HXLPE would result in lower radiographic wear than UHMWPE when articulating with a stainless steel head or with an oxidized zirconium head; (2) use of oxidized zirconium would result in lower radiographic wear than stainless steel when articulating with UHMWPE and HXLPE; and (3) there would be no difference in terms of Merle d'Aubigné scores between the bearing couple combinations. One hundred patients were randomized to receive cemented THA with either oxidized zirconium or a stainless steel femoral head. UHMWPE was used in the first 50 patients, whereas HXLPE was used in the next 50 patients. There were 25 patients in each of the four bearing couple combinations. All other parameters were identical in both groups. Complete followup was available in 86 of these patients. Femoral head penetration was measured using a validated computer-assisted method dedicated to all-polyethylene sockets. Clinical results were compared between the groups using the Merle d'Aubigné score. In the UHMWPE series, the median steady-state penetration rate from 1 year onward was 0.03 mm/year (range, 0.003-0.25 mm/year) in the oxidized zirconium group versus 0.11 mm/year (range, 0.03-0.29 mm/year) in the metal group (difference of medians 0.08, p < 0.001). In the HXLPE series, the median steady-state penetration rate from 1 year onward was 0.02 mm/year (range, -0.32 to

  8. Modification and intercalation of layered zirconium phosphates: a solid-state NMR monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bakhmutov, Vladimir I; Kan, Yuwei; Sheikh, Javeed Ahmad; González-Villegas, Julissa; Colón, Jorge L; Clearfield, Abraham

    2017-07-01

    Several layered zirconium phosphates treated with Zr(IV) ions, modified by monomethoxy-polyethyleneglycol-monophosphate and intercalated with doxorubicin hydrochloride have been studied by solid-state MAS NMR techniques. The organic components of the phosphates have been characterized by the 13 C{ 1 H} CP MAS NMR spectra compared with those of initial compounds. The multinuclear NMR monitoring has provided to establish structure and covalent attachment of organic/inorganic moieties to the surface and interlayer spaces of the phosphates. The MAS NMR experiments including kinetics of proton-phosphorus cross polarization have resulted in an unusual structure of zirconium phosphate 6 combining decoration of the phosphate surface by polymer units and their partial intercalation into the interlayer space. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. High temperature mechanical properties of a zirconium-modified, precipitation- strengthened nickel, 30 percent copper alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A precipitation-strengthened Monel-type alloy has been developed through minor alloying additions of zirconium to a base Ni-30Cu alloy. The results of this exploratory study indicate that thermomechanical processing of a solution-treated Ni-30Cu-0.2Zr alloy produced a dispersion of precipitates. The precipitates have been tentatively identified as a Ni5Zr compound. A comparison of the mechanical properties, as determined by testing in air, of the zirconium-modified alloy to those of a Ni-30Cu alloy reveals that the precipitation-strengthened alloy has improved tensile properties to 1200 K and improved stress-rupture properties to 1100 K. The oxidation characteristics of the modified alloy appeared to be equivalent to those of the base Ni-30Cu alloy.

  10. Numerical Simulations on the Laser Spot Welding of Zirconium Alloy Endplate for Nuclear Fuel Bundle Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satyanarayana, G.; Narayana, K. L.; Boggarapu, Nageswara Rao

    2018-03-01

    In the nuclear industry, a critical welding process is joining of an end plate to a fuel rod to form a fuel bundle. Literature on zirconium welding in such a critical operation is limited. A CFD model is developed and performed for the three-dimensional non-linear thermo-fluid analysis incorporating buoyancy and Marnangoni stress and specifying temperature dependent properties to predict weld geometry and temperature field in and around the melt pool of laser spot during welding of a zirconium alloy E110 endplate with a fuel rod. Using this method, it is possible to estimate the weld pool dimensions for the specified laser power and laser-on-time. The temperature profiles will estimate the HAZ and microstructure. The adequacy of generic nature of the model is validated with existing experimental data.

  11. Electrotransport and diffusivity of molybdenum, rhenium, tungsten, and zirconium in beta-thorium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, F. A.; Beck, M. S.; Rehbein, D. K.; Conzemius, R. J.; Carlson, O. N.

    1984-01-01

    The electric mobilities, diffusivities, and effective valences were determined for molybdenum, rhenium, tungsten, and zirconium in beta-thorium. All four solutes migrated in the same direction as the electron flow. Rhenium and molybdenum were found to be very mobile, with tungsten somewhat slower. Zirconium was found to move at a rate near that of the self-diffusion of beta-thorium, viz., about 10 to the -11th sq m/s at 1500 C. The electromigration velocities showed a similar trend. A comparison was made between experimental data obtained by scanning laser mass spectrometry and theoretical transport equations for two purification experiments. Good agreement was obtained with both the concentration profile predicted by DeGroot and the purification ratio predicted by Verhoeven.

  12. Method to predict relative hydriding within a group of zirconium alloys under nuclear irradiation

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Levy, I.S.; Trimble, D.J.; Lanning, D.D.; Gerber, F.S.

    1990-04-10

    An out-of-reactor method for screening to predict relative in-reactor hydriding behavior of zirconium-based materials is disclosed. Samples of zirconium-based materials having different compositions and/or fabrication methods are autoclaved in a relatively concentrated (0.3 to 1.0M) aqueous lithium hydroxide solution at constant temperatures within the water reactor coolant temperature range (280 to 316 C). Samples tested by this out-of-reactor procedure, when compared on the basis of the ratio of hydrogen weight gain to oxide weight gain, accurately predict the relative rate of hydriding for the same materials when subject to in-reactor (irradiated) corrosion. 1 figure.

  13. Method to predict relative hydriding within a group of zirconium alloys under nuclear irradiation

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Jr., A. Burtron; Levy, Ira S.; Trimble, Dennis J.; Lanning, Donald D.; Gerber, Franna S.

    1990-01-01

    An out-of-reactor method for screening to predict relative in-reactor hydriding behavior of zirconium-bsed materials is disclosed. Samples of zirconium-based materials having different composition and/or fabrication are autoclaved in a relatively concentrated (0.3 to 1.0M) aqueous lithium hydroxide solution at constant temperatures within the water reactor coolant temperature range (280.degree. to 316.degree. C.). Samples tested by this out-of-reactor procedure, when compared on the basis of the ratio of hydrogen weight gain to oxide weight gain, accurately predict the relative rate of hyriding for the same materials when subject to in-reactor (irradiated) corrision.

  14. Ergonomics of bridge employment.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mokdad

    2012-01-01

    In many countries of the world, retirement is mandatory at the age at which persons who hold certain jobs or offices are required by employment law to leave their employment, or retire (60 to 65 years). Typically, this is justified by the argument that certain occupations are either too dangerous or require high levels of physical skills and mental work. Every worker has to leave the workforce at that age. However, starting from the last two decades of the last century, it is observed that retirees live more years in retirement than ever before. This relatively long retirement as well as retirees' body fitness made many of them engage in new jobs which are either similar to their career jobs, or completely different from them. In this new type of employment which is called "bridge employment', the retired worker may spend more than ten years. But, to what extent these new jobs are fitted to the aged worker? Considering that experiencing any type of event increases the risk of worse health outcomes over time, bridge employment should be ergonomically designed if it is to fit the aged worker characteristics (physical, mental and affective).

  15. Corrosion-electrochemical behavior of zirconium in molten alkali metal carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitina, E. V.

    2016-08-01

    The corrosion and electrochemical characteristics of zirconium during its interaction with molten lithium, sodium, and potassium carbonates containing from 1 to 5 wt % additives to the salt phase are studied in a temperature range of 500-800°C using gravimetry, corrosion potential measurement, and anodic polarization. The substances decreasing the corrosion losses due to the strengthening and thickening of an oxide film (lithium, sodium, potassium hydroxides) are used as passivators. Sodium chloride, fluoride, and sulfate serve as corrosion stimulators (activators).

  16. Formation of heterobimetallic zirconium/cobalt diimido complexes via a four-electron transformation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bing; Hernández Sánchez, Raúl; Bezpalko, Mark W; Foxman, Bruce M; Thomas, Christine M

    2014-10-06

    The reactivity of the reduced heterobimetallic complex Zr((i)PrNP(i)Pr2)3CoN2 (1) toward aryl azides was examined, revealing a four-electron redox transformation to afford unusual heterobimetallic zirconium/cobalt diimido complexes. In the case of p-tolyl azide, the diamagnetic C3-symmetric bis(terminal imido) complex 3 is formed, but mesityl azide instead leads to asymmetric complex 4 featuring a bridging imido fragment.

  17. Process for separation of zirconium-88, rubidium-83 and yttrium-88

    DOEpatents

    Heaton, Richard C.; Jamriska, Sr., David J.; Taylor, Wayne A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for selective separation of strontium-82 and strontium-85 from proton irradiated molybdenum targets is provided and includes dissolving the molybdenum target in a hydrogen peroxide solution to form a first ion-containing solution, passing the first ion-containing solution through a first cationic resin whereby ions selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, niobium, technetium, selenium, vanadium, arsenic, germanium, zirconium and rubidium remain in the first ion-containing solution while ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, yttrium and zirconium are selectively adsorbed by the first resin, contacting the first resin with an acid solution capable of stripping adsorbed ions from the first cationic exchange resin whereby the adsorbed ions are removed from the first resin to form a second ion-containing solution, evaporating the second ion-containing solution for time sufficient to remove substantially all of the acid and water from the second ion-containing solution whereby a residue remains, dissolving the residue from the evaporated second-ion containing solution in a dilute acid to form a third ion-containing solution, said third ion-containing solution having an acid molarity adapted to permit said ions to be adsorbed by a cationic exchange resin, passing the third ion-containing solution through a second cationic resin whereby the ions are adsorbed by the second resin, contacting the second resin with a dilute sulfuric acid solution whereby the adsorbed ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, and zirconium are selectively removed from the second resin, and contacting the second resin with a dilute acid solution whereby the adsorbed strontium ions are selectively removed. Zirconium, rubidium, and yttrium radioisotopes can also be recovered with additional steps.

  18. The production of metallocarbohedrenes by the direct laser vaporization of the carbides of titanium and zirconium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartier, S. F.; May, B. D.; Toleno, B. J.; Purnell, J.; Wei, S.; Castleman, A. W., Jr.

    1994-03-01

    Metallocarbohedrenes (Met-Cars) of titanium and zirconium have been produced by the direct laser vaporization of their respective pure carbides. Time-of-flight mass spectra of both ionic and neutral metallocarbohedrenes formed in the laser-induced plasma are presented and compared to spectra of the same systems generated under laser vaporization/molecular beam conditions. Potential mechanisms of formation of these clusters are presented and discussed.

  19. Total knee arthroplasty with an oxidised zirconium femoral component: ten-year survivorship analysis.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, I; Salmon, L J; Waller, A; Watanabe, H; Roe, J P; Pinczewski, L A

    2016-01-01

    Oxidised zirconium was introduced as a material for femoral components in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) as an attempt to reduce polyethylene wear. However, the long-term survival of this component is not known. We performed a retrospective review of a prospectively collected database to assess the ten year survival and clinical and radiological outcomes of an oxidised zirconium total knee arthroplasty with the Genesis II prosthesis. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and a patient satisfaction scale were used to assess outcome. A total of 303 consecutive TKAs were performed in 278 patients with a mean age of 68 years (45 to 89). The rate of survival ten years post-operatively as assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis was 97% (95% confidence interval 94 to 99) with revision for any reason as the endpoint. There were no revisions for loosening, osteolysis or failure of the implant. There was a significant improvement in all components of the WOMAC score at final follow-up (p < 0.001). The mean individual components of the KOOS score for symptoms (82.4 points; 36 to 100), pain (87.5 points; 6 to 100), activities of daily life (84.9 points; 15 to 100) and quality of life (71.4 points; 6 to 100) were all at higher end of the scale. This study provides further supportive evidence that the oxidised zirconium TKA gives comparable rates of survival with other implants and excellent functional outcomes ten years post-operatively. Total knee arthroplasty with an oxidised zirconium femoral component gives comparable long-term rates of survival and functional outcomes with conventional implants. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  20. In vitro and in vivo characterization of anodised zirconium as a potential material for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Katunar, Maria R; Gomez Sanchez, Andrea; Santos Coquillat, Ana; Civantos, Ana; Martinez Campos, Enrique; Ballarre, Josefina; Vico, Tamara; Baca, Matias; Ramos, Viviana; Cere, Silvia

    2017-06-01

    In vitro studies offer the insights for the understanding of the mechanisms at the tissue-implant interface that will provide an effective functioning in vivo. The good biocompatibility of zirconium makes a good candidate for biomedical applications and the attractive in vivo performance is mainly due to the presence of a protective oxide layer. The aim of this study is to evaluate by in vitro and in vivo approach, the influence of surface modification achieved by anodisation at 30 and 60V on zirconium implants on the first steps of the osseointegration process. In this study cell attachment, proliferation and morphology of mouse myoblast C2C12-GFP and in mouse osteoprogenitor MC3T3-E1 cells was evaluated. Also, together with the immune system response, osteoclast differentiation and morphology with RAW 264.7 murine cell line were analysed. It was found that anodisation treatment at 60V enhanced cell spreading and the osteoblastic and osteoclastic cells morphology, showing a strong dependence on the surface characteristics. In vivo tests were performed in a rat femur osteotomy model. Dynamical and static histological and histomorphometric analyses were developed 15 and 30days after surgery. Newly formed bone around Zr60V implants showed a continuous newly compact and homogeneous bone just 15 after surgery, as judged by the enhanced thickness and mineralization rate. The results indicate that anodising treatment at 60V could be an effective improvement in the osseointegration of zirconium by stimulating adhesion, proliferation, morphology, new bone thickness and bone mineral apposition, making zirconium an emerging candidate material for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Histomorphometric and histologic evaluation of titanium-zirconium (aTiZr) implants with anodized surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ajay; McQuillan, A James; Shibata, Yo; Sharma, Lavanya A; Waddell, John Neil; Duncan, Warwick John

    2016-05-01

    The choice of implant surface has a significant influence on osseointegration. Modification of TiZr surface by anodization is reported to have the potential to modulate the osteoblast cell behaviour favouring more rapid bone formation. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of anodizing the surface of TiZr discs with respect to osseointegration after four weeks implantation in sheep femurs. Titanium (Ti) and TiZr discs were anodized in an electrolyte containing DL-α-glycerophosphate and calcium acetate at 300 V. The surface characteristics were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, electron dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and goniometry. Forty implant discs with thickness of 1.5 and 10 mm diameter (10 of each-titanium, titanium-zirconium, anodized titanium and anodized titanium-zirconium) were placed in the femoral condyles of 10 sheep. Histomorphometric and histologic analysis were performed 4 weeks after implantation. The anodized implants displayed hydrophilic, porous, nano-to-micrometer scale roughened surfaces. Energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis revealed calcium and phosphorous incorporation into the surface of both titanium and titanium-zirconium after anodization. Histologically there was new bone apposition on all implanted discs, slightly more pronounced on anodised discs. The percentage bone-to-implant contact measurements of anodized implants were higher than machined/unmodified implants but there was no significant difference between the two groups with anodized surfaces (P > 0.05, n = 10). The present histomorphometric and histological findings confirm that surface modification of titanium-zirconium by anodization is similar to anodised titanium enhances early osseointegration compared to machined implant surfaces.

  2. Di-macrocyclic terephthalamide ligands as chelators for the PET radionuclide zirconium-89

    DOE PAGES

    Pandya, Darpan N.; Pailloux, Sylvie; Tatum, David; ...

    2014-12-18

    The development of bifunctional chelators (BFCs) which can stably chelate zirconium-89 ((89)Zr) while being conjugated to targeting molecules is an area of active research. Herein we report the first octadentate terephthalamide ligands, which are easily radiolabeled with (89)Zr and are highly stable in vitro. Lastly, they represent a novel class of chelators, which are worthy of further development as BFCs for (89)Zr.

  3. Recycle of Zirconium from Used Nuclear Fuel Cladding: A Major Element of Waste Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Emory D; DelCul, Guillermo D; Terekhov, Dmitri

    2011-01-01

    Feasibility tests were initiated to determine if the zirconium in commercial used nuclear fuel (UNF) cladding can be recovered in sufficient purity to permit re-use, and if the recovery process can be operated economically. Initial tests are being performed with unirradiated, non-radioactive samples of various types of Zircaloy materials that are used in UNF cladding to develop the recovery process and determine the degree of purification that can be obtained. Early results indicate that quantitative recovery can be accomplished and product contamination with alloy constituents can be controlled sufficiently to meet purification requirements. Future tests with actual radioactive UNF claddingmore » are planned. The objective of current research is to determine the feasibility of recovery and recycle of zirconium from used fuel cladding wastes. Zircaloy cladding, which contains 98+% of hafnium-free zirconium, is the second largest mass, on average {approx}25 wt %, of the components in used U.S. light-water-reactor fuel assemblies. Therefore, recovery and recycle of the zirconium would enable a large reduction in geologic waste disposal for advanced fuel cycles. Current practice is to compact or grout the cladding waste and store it for subsequent disposal in a geologic repository. This paper describes results of initial tests being performed with unirradiated, non-radioactive samples of various types of Zircaloy materials that are used in UNF cladding to develop the recovery process and determine the degree of purification that can be obtained. Future tests with actual radioactive UNF cladding are planned.« less

  4. Effect of chloride incorporation on the crystallization of zirconium-barium-lanthanum-aluminum fluoride glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neilson, G. F.; Smith, G. L.; Weinberg, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    One aspect of the influence of preparation procedure on the crystallization behavior of a zirconium-barium-lanthanum-aluminum fluoride glass was studied. The crystallization pattern of this glass may be affected by the chlorine concentration within it. In particular, when such glasses are heated at low temperatures, the alpha-Ba-Zr-F6 crystalline phase forms only in those glasses which contain chloride.

  5. The oxygen isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alex Brown, B.

    The properties of the oxygen isotopes provide diverse examples of progress made in experiments and theory. This chain of isotopes has been studied from beyond the proton drip line in 12O to beyond the neutron drip line in 25,26O. This short survey starts with the microscopic G matrix approach for 18O of Kuo and Brown in the 1960's and shows how theory has evolved. The nuclear structure around the doubly-magic nucleus 24O is particularly simple in terms of the nuclear shell model. The nuclear structure around the doubly-magic nucleus 16O exhibits the coexistence of single-particle and collective structure.

  6. Iron Isotopes in Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehm, K.; Alexander, C. M.; Hauri, E. H.

    2001-12-01

    The recent identification of naturally occurring isotopic mass fractionation of the transition met-als on the Earth has prompted a search for similar variability in meteorites. Studies of Cu, Zn, and Fe, for example, have revealed per-mil level and larger mass fractionations between different bulk meteorites. Such variations can result from temperature-sensitive isotope exchange reactions and kinetic processes, and therefore may reflect conditions in the solar nebula and on meteorite parent bodies. Recent advances in ICP-MS have permitted isotope studies of transition metals and other elements with similarly small isotopic mass dispersions. Among the transition metals, Fe is perhaps the most difficult to analyze by ICP-MS because plasma sources are copious producers of argide molecules that interfere with the measurement of iron isotopes. However, the stable isotope behavior of Fe is of special interest because it is a non-refractory major element in meteorites, present in a variety of mineral associations and redox states. Considerable effort has gone into overcoming the inherent analytical difficulties of measuring Fe using ICP-MS. We recently reported on a technique that achieves argide reduction by operating the plasma source in so-called 'cold' mode. In this presentation, we report results from this ongoing work. To date, analyses of nine different meteorites, and eight individual Tieschitz (H3) chondrules have been completed, along with a number of measurements of the Hawaiian basalt sample Kil1919. All of the bulk meteorite compositions, which include both chondrites and irons, have identical 56Fe/54Fe to within ~ 0.14 per mil (2 sigma), and are indistinguishable from the composition of the terrestrial basalt. The Tieschitz chondrules, on the other hand, tend to have isotopically light compositions. This could reflect formation from fractionated starting material. Alternatively, Fe condensation, under non-equilibrium conditions can enrich light isotopes

  7. Optimized anion exchange column isolation of zirconium-89 (89Zr) from yttrium cyclotron target: Method development and implementation on an automated fluidic platform.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Matthew J; Murray, Nathaniel J; Carter, Jennifer C; Morrison, Samuel S

    2018-04-13

    Zirconium-89 ( 89 Zr), produced by the (p, n) reaction from naturally monoisotopic yttrium ( nat Y), is a promising positron emitting isotope for immunoPET imaging. Its long half-life of 78.4 h is sufficient for evaluating slow physiological processes. A prototype automated fluidic system, coupled to on-line and in-line detectors, has been constructed to facilitate development of new 89 Zr purification methodologies. The highly reproducible reagent delivery platform and near-real time monitoring of column effluents allows for efficient method optimization. The separation of Zr from dissolved Y metal targets was evaluated using several anion exchange resins. Each resin was evaluated against its ability to quantitatively capture Zr from a load solution high in dissolved Y. The most appropriate anion exchange resin for this application was identified, and the separation method was optimized. The method is capable of a high Y decontamination factor (>10 5 ) and has been shown to remove Fe, an abundant contaminant in Y foils, from the 89 Zr elution fraction. Finally, the method was evaluated using cyclotron bombarded Y foil targets; the method was shown to achieve >95% recovery of the 89 Zr present in the foils. The anion exchange column method described here is intended to be the first 89 Zr isolation stage in a dual-column purification process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimized anion exchange column isolation of zirconium-89 ( 89Zr) from yttrium cyclotron target: Method development and implementation on an automated fluidic platform

    SciTech Connect

    O’Hara, Matthew J.; Murray, Nathaniel J.; Carter, Jennifer C.

    Zirconium-89 ( 89Zr), produced by the (p, n) reaction from naturally monoisotopic yttrium ( natY), is a promising positron emitting isotope for immunoPET imaging. Its long half-life of 78.4 h is sufficient for evaluating slow physiological processes. A prototype automated fluidic system, coupled to on-line and in-line detectors, has been constructed to facilitate development of new 89Zr purification methodologies. The highly reproducible reagent delivery platform and near-real time monitoring of column effluents allows for efficient method optimization. The separation of Zr from dissolved Y metal targets was evaluated using several anion exchange resins. Each resin was evaluated against its abilitymore » to quantitatively capture Zr from a load solution high in dissolved Y. The most appropriate anion exchange resin for this application was identified, and the separation method was optimized. The method is capable of a high Y decontamination factor (>10 5) and has been shown to remove Fe, an abundant contaminant in Y foils, from the 89Zr elution fraction. Finally, the method was evaluated using cyclotron bombarded Y foil targets; the method was shown to achieve >95% recovery of the 89Zr present in the foils. The anion exchange column method described here is intended to be the first 89Zr isolation stage in a dual-column purification process.« less

  9. Optimized anion exchange column isolation of zirconium-89 ( 89Zr) from yttrium cyclotron target: Method development and implementation on an automated fluidic platform

    DOE PAGES

    O’Hara, Matthew J.; Murray, Nathaniel J.; Carter, Jennifer C.; ...

    2018-02-24

    Zirconium-89 ( 89Zr), produced by the (p, n) reaction from naturally monoisotopic yttrium ( natY), is a promising positron emitting isotope for immunoPET imaging. Its long half-life of 78.4 h is sufficient for evaluating slow physiological processes. A prototype automated fluidic system, coupled to on-line and in-line detectors, has been constructed to facilitate development of new 89Zr purification methodologies. The highly reproducible reagent delivery platform and near-real time monitoring of column effluents allows for efficient method optimization. The separation of Zr from dissolved Y metal targets was evaluated using several anion exchange resins. Each resin was evaluated against its abilitymore » to quantitatively capture Zr from a load solution high in dissolved Y. The most appropriate anion exchange resin for this application was identified, and the separation method was optimized. The method is capable of a high Y decontamination factor (>10 5) and has been shown to remove Fe, an abundant contaminant in Y foils, from the 89Zr elution fraction. Finally, the method was evaluated using cyclotron bombarded Y foil targets; the method was shown to achieve >95% recovery of the 89Zr present in the foils. The anion exchange column method described here is intended to be the first 89Zr isolation stage in a dual-column purification process.« less

  10. Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 144 Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions (Web, free access)   The atomic weights are available for elements 1 through 111, and isotopic compositions or abundances are given when appropriate.

  11. The effect of environmental factors on selected mechanical properties of zirconium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirwicki, W.; Andrzejewska, A.; Andryszczyk, M.; Siemianowski, P.

    2018-04-01

    In many centers around the world, research studies are carried out on the mechanical strength of dental materials and glued joints. A literature review shows the variety of testing techniques related to analyzing the strength and durability of the material itself and the glued joints. In dental ceramics, zirconium dioxide is most often used as a base material, and chemically it consists of 97% ZrO2 and 3% Y2O3. This study was to determine the mechanical properties of zirconium dioxide under different environmental conditions. The material is used for the production of dental crowns and tooth bridges in the CAD/CAM technology. This medium is currently one of the most advanced-generation materials used for prosthetic and implant restorations. They were then subjected to a three-point bending test on the Instron ElektroPlus E3000 durability machine. Storage conditions and time have a positive influence on reducing variation in zirconium resistance for active forces and destructive stresses.

  12. Zirconium amine tris(phenolate): A more effective initiator for biomedical lactide.

    PubMed

    Jones, Matthew D; Wu, Xujun; Chaudhuri, Julian; Davidson, Matthew G; Ellis, Marianne J

    2017-11-01

    Here a zirconium amine tris(phenolate) is used as the initiator for the production of polylactide for biomedical applications, as a replacement for a tin initiator (usually tin octanoate). The ring opening polymerization (ROP) was carried out in the melt at 130°C. The zirconium-catalyzed PLA (PLA-Zr) required 30min, resulting in a polydispersity index (PDI) of 1.17, compared to 1h and PDI=1.77 for tin-catalyzed PLA (PLA-Sn). PLA-Zr and PLA-Sn supported osteosarcoma cell (MG63) culture to the same extent (cell number, morphology, extracellular matrix production and osteogenic function) until day 14 when the PLA-Zr showed increased cell number, overall extracellular matrix production and osteogenic function. To conclude, the reduction in reaction time, controllable microstructure and biologically benign nature of the zirconium amine tris(phenolate) initiator shows that it is a more effective initiator for ROP of polylactide for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Oxidized zirconium versus cobalt-chromium against the native patella in total knee arthroplasty: Patellofemoral outcomes.

    PubMed

    Matassi, Fabrizio; Paoli, Tommaso; Civinini, Roberto; Carulli, Christian; Innocenti, Massimo

    2017-10-01

    Oxidized zirconium (OxZr) has demonstrated excellent mechanical properties in vitro when used against articular cartilage; less coefficient of friction and less chondral damage have been found when compared with cobalt-chromium (CoCr) implants. However, controversy exists as to whether implants with a zirconium femoral component articulate safely with a native patella in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). To answer this question, the clinical and radiographic results were analysed from a group of patients who underwent a TKA with patella retention; the OxZr versus CoCr femoral components were compared. The present study prospectively evaluated 83 knees of 74 patients from 2009 to 2010. Each patient was evaluated clinically (visual analogue scale, Knee Society score, patellar score) and radiographically (long leg standing radiograph, anterior-posterior and latero-lateral projections, axial view of the patella) pre-operatively and postoperatively with a mean follow-up of 4.47years. The patellar tilt and shift, and progression of patellofemoral osteoarthritis were calculated with the axial view. There were no patient reported adverse reactions and none of the evaluated prostheses failed. Both the clinical and radiographic evaluations showed no statistically significant between-group differences. No adverse events were observed clinically or radiologically. These results justify pursuing the use of oxidized zirconium as an alternative bearing surface for a femoral component associated with patellar retention in TKA. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Experimental Calcium Silicate-Based Cement with and without Zirconium Oxide Modulates Fibroblasts Viability.

    PubMed

    Slompo, Camila; Peres-Buzalaf, Camila; Gasque, Kellen Cristina da Silva; Damante, Carla Andreotti; Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify whether the use of zirconium oxide as a radiopacifier of an experimental calcium silicate-based cement (WPCZO) leads to cytotoxicity. Fibroblasts were treated with different concentrations (10 mg/mL, 1 mg/mL, and 0.1 mg/mL) of the cements diluted in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) for periods of 12, 24, and 48 h. Groups tested were white Portland cement (WPC), white Portland cement with zirconium oxide (WPCZO), and white mineral trioxide aggregate Angelus (MTA). Control group cells were not treated. The cytotoxicity was evaluated through mitochondrial-activity (MTT) and cell-density (crystal violet) assays. All cements showed low cytotoxicity. In general, at the concentration of 10 mg/mL there was an increase in viability of those groups treated with WPC and WPCZO when compared to the control group (p<0.05). A similar profile for the absorbance values was noted among the groups: 10 mg/mL presented an increase in viability compared to the control group. On the other hand, smaller concentrations presented a similar or lower viability compared to the control group, in general. A new dental material composed of calcium silicate-based cement with 20% zirconium oxide as the radiopacifier showed low cytotoxicity as a promising material to be exploited for root-end filling.

  15. Assessment of wear coefficients of nuclear zirconium claddings without and with pre-oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun; Cooley, Kevin M.; Shaw, Austin H.

    In the cores of pressurized water nuclear reactors, water-flow induced vibration is known to cause claddings on the fuel rods to rub against their supporting grids. Such grid-to-rod-fretting (GTRF) may lead to fretting wear-through and the leakage of radioactive species. The surfaces of actual zirconium alloy claddings in a reactor are inevitably oxidized in the high-temperature pressurized water, and some claddings are even pre-oxidized. As a result, the wear process of the surface oxide film is expected to be quite different from the zirconium alloy substrate. In this paper, we attempt to measure the wear coefficients of zirconium claddings withoutmore » and with pre-oxidation rubbing against grid samples using a bench-scale fretting tribometer. Results suggest that the volumetric wear coefficient of the pre-oxidized cladding is 50 to 200 times lower than that of the untreated cladding. In terms of the linear rate of wear depth, the pre-oxidized alloy wears about 15 times more slowly than the untreated cladding. Finally, fitted with the experimentally-determined wear rates, a stage-wise GTRF engineering wear model demonstrates good agreement with in-reactor experience in predicting the trend of cladding lives.« less

  16. Selective separation of zirconium from uranium in carbonate solutions by ion flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Jdid, E.A.; Blazy, P.; Mahamadou, A.

    1990-05-01

    Separation of zirconium from uranium in carbonate media was undertaken by ion flotation. The collector chosen was octylhydroxamic acid (HOHX). It gave a well-flocculated precipitate with zirconium which floated in less than 5 min. The stoichiometry of the reaction is HOHX/Zr = 3.9/1, and the selectivity in the presence of uranium is very high. In fact, for a ratio {Phi} = (HOHX),M/(Zr),M, which is just stoichiometric and is close to 4, the zirconium removal rate reaches 99%, even in industrial media. The loss of uranium is only 0.5% although its concentration is 37.4 g/L. Mechanisms of separation are not affectedmore » by a variation of pH between 6.7 and 9.8, of temperature up to 60{degree}C, and of carbonate concentration within the 15 to 60 g/L Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} range.« less

  17. Assessment of wear coefficients of nuclear zirconium claddings without and with pre-oxidation

    DOE PAGES

    Qu, Jun; Cooley, Kevin M.; Shaw, Austin H.; ...

    2016-03-16

    In the cores of pressurized water nuclear reactors, water-flow induced vibration is known to cause claddings on the fuel rods to rub against their supporting grids. Such grid-to-rod-fretting (GTRF) may lead to fretting wear-through and the leakage of radioactive species. The surfaces of actual zirconium alloy claddings in a reactor are inevitably oxidized in the high-temperature pressurized water, and some claddings are even pre-oxidized. As a result, the wear process of the surface oxide film is expected to be quite different from the zirconium alloy substrate. In this paper, we attempt to measure the wear coefficients of zirconium claddings withoutmore » and with pre-oxidation rubbing against grid samples using a bench-scale fretting tribometer. Results suggest that the volumetric wear coefficient of the pre-oxidized cladding is 50 to 200 times lower than that of the untreated cladding. In terms of the linear rate of wear depth, the pre-oxidized alloy wears about 15 times more slowly than the untreated cladding. Finally, fitted with the experimentally-determined wear rates, a stage-wise GTRF engineering wear model demonstrates good agreement with in-reactor experience in predicting the trend of cladding lives.« less

  18. Fracture Mechanisms of Zirconium Diboride Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics under Pulse Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skripnyak, Vladimir V.; Bragov, Anatolii M.; Skripnyak, Vladimir A.; Lomunov, Andrei K.; Skripnyak, Evgeniya G.; Vaganova, Irina K.

    2015-06-01

    Mechanisms of failure in ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTC) based on zirconium diboride under pulse loading were studied experimentally by the method of SHPB and theoretically using the multiscale simulation method. The obtained experimental and numerical data are evidence of the quasi-brittle fracture character of nanostructured zirconium diboride ceramics under compression and tension at high strain rates and the room temperatures. Damage of nanostructured porous zirconium diboride -based UHTC can be formed under stress pulse amplitude below the Hugoniot elastic limit. Fracture of nanostructured ultra-high temperature ceramics under pulse and shock-wave loadings is provided by fast processes of intercrystalline brittle fracture and relatively slow processes of quasi-brittle failure via growth and coalescence of microcracks. A decrease of the shear strength can be caused by nano-voids clusters in vicinity of triple junctions between ceramic matrix grains and ultrafine-grained ceramics. This research was supported by grants from ``The Tomsk State University Academic D.I. Mendeleev Fund Program'' and also N. I. Lobachevski State University of Nizhny Novgorod (Grant of post graduate mobility).

  19. AC-130 Employment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    1 AC -130 Employment Subject Area Aviation EWS 2006 Author Captain Robert Hornick, USMC Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE AC -130 Employment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER... AC -130 gunship is an aircraft that can provide all of these needs. Regrettably, there are too few AC -130’s in the inventory to cover all the needs

  20. Method for separating boron isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Rockwood, Stephen D.

    1978-01-01

    A method of separating boron isotopes .sup.10 B and .sup.11 B by laser-induced selective excitation and photodissociation of BCl.sub.3 molecules containing a particular boron isotope. The photodissociation products react with an appropriate chemical scavenger and the reaction products may readily be separated from undissociated BCl.sub.3, thus effecting the desired separation of the boron isotopes.

  1. Learning Disabilities and Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Paul J., Ed.; Brown, Dale S., Ed.

    This book provides information on preparing individuals with learning disabilities for the challenges of employment and outlines the rights of those with learning disabilities in the workplace. Introductory chapters in Part 1 include: "Life after School: Challenges in the Workplace" (Paul J. Gerber); "The New Economy in the 21st…

  2. Engaging Employers in Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gary; DesRosier, Theron; Peterson, Nils; Chida, Meriem; Lagier, Randy

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a pilot project in which formative feedback from industry professionals creates a genuine learning experience for students. Industry is giving feedback to higher education that many graduates are not employable or that they need substantial postcollegiate on-the-job training. Higher education is struggling to…

  3. Should Universities Promote Employability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCowan, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    Employability is becoming increasingly central to the mission and functioning of universities, spurred on by national and supranational agencies, and the demands of marketisation. This article provides a response to the normative dimensions of the question, progressing through four stages: first, there is a brief consideration of the meaning and…

  4. Employment of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    High, Robert V.

    A survey was conducted to determine the effect on academic performance, if any, of employment on undergraduate college students. A questionnaire was sent to professors at 3 four-year colleges on Long Island (New York); various day classes were randomly selected. The final sample of n=257 represented approximately a 30 percent response. The…

  5. The Employment Mismatch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Employers value a four-year college degree, many of them more than ever. Yet half of those surveyed recently by "The Chronicle" and American Public Media's "Marketplace" said they had trouble finding recent graduates qualified to fill positions at their company or organization. Nearly a third gave colleges just fair to poor marks for producing…

  6. Toward Equality Through Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekachman, Robert

    1974-01-01

    An indication of the rearrangements of power, privilege, income and wealth distribution that are necessary for the establishment of full employment with price stability; involving policies of guaranteed public service jobs, income maintenance, prices and wages controls, a redistributive taxation system, and the eventual "socialization of…

  7. Equal Employment Opportunity

    Science.gov Websites

    personnel decisions be made free of discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, national to take appropriate steps to ensure that all employment decisions are free from discrimination. It Rehabilitation Act programs, which include periodic agency self-assessments and the removal of barriers to free

  8. Survey of Employers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Social Fund, Dublin (Ireland).

    A study examined attitudes of Irish employers toward vocational training (VT) activities, state agencies responsible for administering VT, and the skills that employees would need in the future. Of a sample of 500 firms that were selected as being representative from the standpoints of size, sector, location, and form of ownership, 219 were…

  9. A Stochastic Employment Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Teng

    2013-01-01

    The Stochastic Employment Problem(SEP) is a variation of the Stochastic Assignment Problem which analyzes the scenario that one assigns balls into boxes. Balls arrive sequentially with each one having a binary vector X = (X[subscript 1], X[subscript 2],...,X[subscript n]) attached, with the interpretation being that if X[subscript i] = 1 the ball…

  10. Transitional Employment Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dulle, Paul J.; And Others

    The paper examines the need and implementation of transitional employment programs for handicapped youth. Effects on the handicapped of future automation are considered along with the need for school-business cooperation to prepare for the future. The importance of initial success in any innovation is noted. A Chicago transitional employment…

  11. Declining Black Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedder, Richard; Gallaway, Lowell

    1993-01-01

    Explores income inequality during declining African-American employment, examines current welfare systems, and suggests ways to improve the economic disadvantages of minority groups. Letting markets work can improve the economic status of African Americans. The present dual African-American economy, a market economy and an entitlement economy, is…

  12. Discrimination in Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abzug, Bella

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, expressly focuses on discrimination in employment, asserting that this has had the most direct effect on minorities and women in the country; while legal protections have grown stronger, they have not been used effectively. (Author/JM)

  13. Employers, Families and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for Family Involvement in Education (ED), Washington, DC.

    Family involvement in education is good for business, critical to children's school achievement, and important in creating strong and vibrant communities. This report discusses the role of businesses and employers in helping partners and family members be more involved in children's learning. Throughout the report, programs at specific companies…

  14. Vietnamese Students Employability Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuan, Nguyen Minh

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to investigate if the International University (IU) students' core competencies can meet the requirements set by employers, what are the differences in core competencies in final year students (or undergraduates), and how they view themselves compared with ex-students after one or two years in working environment, how…

  15. Literacy, Numeracy and Employability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynner, John

    The relationship between literacy, numeracy, and employability was examined by analyzing data on basic skills that were collected in two of Great Britain's birth cohort studies--the National Child Development Study and the 1970 British Cohort Study. The functional literacy and numeracy skills of samples of 10% of the participants in each study…

  16. Employability Skills Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweetwater Union High School District, Chula Vista, CA.

    The Employability Skills Center (ESC) of the Division of Adult and Continuing Education (DACE) of the Sweetwater Union High School District (California) was created out of a need to help adult students develop the basic skills that are required for success in their chosen vocational programs but not taught in regular adult basic education classes.…

  17. Individuals and Their Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuade, Eamonn; Maguire, Theresa

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe a research project that is addressing the employability of individuals in the higher-cost Irish economy. Design/methodology/approach: The Programme for University-Industry Interface (PUII) uses a community-of-practice methodology combined with academic research. Findings: A number of emerging enterprise models…

  18. 1983 Employment Outlook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Howard J., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Presents findings on employment situations for chemists and chemical engineers, focusing on: (1) comparison of chemists and chemical engineers; (2) salaries; (3) career planning; and (4) demand, indicated to be decidedly less than in previous years as a result of the deep business recession. (JN)

  19. Industrialisation, Exports and Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabolo, Yves

    1980-01-01

    After reviewing trends in industrial production, exports, and employment in the Third World since 1960, the author discusses industrialization strategies based on the local processing of raw materials for export. Such processing has proved to be a major factor in job creation. (Author/SK)

  20. Employer Engagement in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Anthony; Dawkins, James

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this paper is employer engagement in education as it supports the learning and progression of young people through activities including work experience, job shadowing, workplace visits, career talks, mock interviews, CV workshops, business mentoring, enterprise competitions and the provision of learning resources. Interest has grown…

  1. Employment. Feature Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Teri, Ed.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue addresses current trends and new developments in ensuring that individuals with disabilities have meaningful employment opportunities, especially in the context of recent federal legislation. Stressed throughout is the importance of collaboration among professionals, individuals with disabilities, and family members in achieving…

  2. Disability Employment 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Business is about productivity and maintaining a competitive advantage. To do this, business needs qualified workers. Hiring people with disabilities adds value to a business and will attract new customers. Disability is not inability. Employers can make sound business decisions and gain a competitive advantage by using this guide to increase the…

  3. Nontraditional Employment Policy Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wider Opportunities for Women, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This document contains the text and summaries of provisions, along with position papers on four pieces of federal legislation affecting nontraditional job opportunities for women: (1) Nontraditional Employment of Women Act; (2) Women in Apprenticeship Occupations and Nontraditional Occupations Act; (3) Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency…

  4. The Effect of Luting Cement and Titanium Base on the Final Color of Zirconium Oxide Core Material.

    PubMed

    Capa, Nuray; Tuncel, Ilkin; Tak, Onjen; Usumez, Aslihan

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of different types of luting cements and different colors of zirconium cores on the final color of the restoration that simulates implant-supported fixed partial dentures (FPDs) by using a titanium base on the bottom. One hundred and twenty zirconium oxide core plates (Zr-Zahn; 10 mm in width, 5 mm in length, 0.5 mm in height) were prepared in different shades (n = 20; noncolored, A2, A3, B1, C2, D2). The specimens were subdivided into two subgroups for the two types of luting cements (n = 10). The initial color measurements were made on zirconium oxide core plates using a spectrometer. To create the cement thicknesses, stretch strips with holes in the middle (5 mm in diameter, 70 μm in height) were used. The second measurement was done on the zirconium oxide core plates after the application of the resin cement (U-200, A2 Shade) or polycarboxylate cement (Lumicon). The final measurement was done after placing the titanium discs (5 mm in diameter, 3 mm in height) in the bottom. The data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's honestly significant differences (HSD) tests (α = 0.05). The ∆E* ab value was higher in the resin cement-applied group than in the polycarboxylate cement-applied group (p < 0.001). The highest ∆E* ab value was recorded for the zirconium oxide core-resin cement-titanium base, and the lowest was recorded for the polycarboxylate cement-zirconium oxide core (p < 0.001). The luting cement, the presence of titanium, and the color of zirconium are all important factors that determine the final shade of zirconia cores in implant-supported FPDs. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  5. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  6. An Exploration of Employer Perceptions of Graduate Student Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chhinzer, Nita; Russo, Anna Maria

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore employer perceptions of graduate student employability. This study is novel since existing research focused on employability is largely theoretic, remains focused on defining employability of undergraduates and largely fails to determine employer perceptions of factors that increase or decrease…

  7. Hydrology of Bishop Creek, California: An Isotopic Analysis

    Treesearch

    Michael L. Space; John W. Hess; Stanley D. Smith

    1989-01-01

    Five power generation plants along an eleven kilometer stretch divert Bishop Creek water for hydro-electric power. Stream diversion may be adversely affecting the riparian vegetation. Stable isotopic analysis is employed to determine surface water/ground-water interactions along the creek. surface water originates primarily from three headwater lakes. Discharge into...

  8. White Paper Summary of 2nd ASTM International Workshop on Hydrides in Zirconium Alloy Cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, R.; Louthan, M.; PNNL, B.

    2015-05-29

    This white paper recommends that ASTM International develop standards to address the potential impact of hydrides on the long term performance of irradiated zirconium alloys. The need for such standards was apparent during the 2nd ASTM International Workshop on Hydrides in Zirconium Alloy Cladding and Assembly Components, sponsored by ASTM International Committee C26.13 and held on June 10-12, 2014, in Jackson, Wyoming. The potentially adverse impacts of hydrogen and hydrides on the long term performance of irradiated zirconium-alloy cladding on used fuel were shown to depend on multiple factors such as alloy chemistry and processing, irradiation and post irradiation history,more » residual and applied stresses and stress states, and the service environment. These factors determine the hydrogen content and hydride morphology in the alloy, which, in turn, influence the response of the alloy to the thermo-mechanical conditions imposed (and anticipated) during storage, transport and disposal of used nuclear fuel. Workshop presentations and discussions showed that although hydrogen/hydride induced degradation of zirconium alloys may be of concern, the potential for occurrence and the extent of anticipated degradation vary throughout the nuclear industry because of the variations in hydrogen content, hydride morphology, alloy chemistry and irradiation conditions. The tools and techniques used to characterize hydrides and hydride morphologies and their impacts on material performance also vary. Such variations make site-to-site comparisons of test results and observations difficult. There is no consensus that a single material or system characteristic (e.g., reactor type, burnup, hydrogen content, end-of life stress, alloy type, drying temperature, etc.) is an effective predictor of material response during long term storage or of performance after long term storage. Multi-variable correlations made for one alloy may not represent the behavior of another alloy exposed

  9. MIR hollow waveguide (HWG) isotope ratio analyzer for environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhenyou; Zhuang, Yan; Deev, Andrei; Wu, Sheng

    2017-05-01

    An advanced commercial Mid-InfraRed Isotope Ratio (IR2) analyzer was developed in Arrow Grand Technologies based on hollow waveguide (HWG) as the sample tube. The stable carbon isotope ratio, i.e. δ13C, was obtained by measuring the selected CO2 absorption peaks in the MIR. Combined with a GC and a combustor, it has been successfully employed to measure compound specific δ13C isotope ratios in the field. By using both the 1- pass HWG and 5-path HWG, we are able to measure δ13C isotope ratio at a broad CO2 concentration of 300 ppm-37,500 ppm. Here, we demonstrate its applications in environmental studies. The δ13C isotope ratio and concentration of CO2 exhaled by soil samples was measured in real time with the isotope analyzer. The concentration was found to change with the time. We also convert the Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC) into CO2, and then measure the δ13C isotope ratio with an accuracy of better than 0.3 ‰ (1 σ) with a 6 min test time and 1 ml sample usage. Tap water, NaHCO3 solvent, coca, and even beer were tested. Lastly, the 13C isotope ratio of CO2 exhaled by human beings was obtained <10 seconds after simply blowing the exhaled CO2 into a tube with an accuracy of 0.5‰ (1 σ) without sample preconditioning. In summary, a commercial HWG isotope analyzer was demonstrated to be able to perform environmental and health studies with a high accuracy ( 0.3 ‰/Hz1/2 1 σ), fast sampling rate (up to 10 Hz), low sample consumption ( 1 ml), and broad CO2 concentration range (300 ppm-37,500 ppm).

  10. Effect of sodium zirconium cyclosilicate on potassium lowering for 28 days among outpatients with hyperkalemia: the HARMONIZE randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kosiborod, Mikhail; Rasmussen, Henrik S; Lavin, Philip; Qunibi, Wajeh Y; Spinowitz, Bruce; Packham, David; Roger, Simon D; Yang, Alex; Lerma, Edgar; Singh, Bhupinder

    2014-12-03

    Hyperkalemia is a common electrolyte abnormality that may be difficult to manage because of a lack of effective therapies. Sodium zirconium cyclosilicate is a nonabsorbed cation exchanger that selectively binds potassium in the intestine. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of zirconium cyclosilicate for 28 days in patients with hyperkalemia. HARMONIZE was a phase 3, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating zirconium cyclosilicate in outpatients with hyperkalemia (serum potassium ≥5.1 mEq/L) recruited from 44 sites in the United States, Australia, and South Africa (March-August 2014). Patients (n = 258) received 10 g of zirconium cyclosilicate 3 times daily in the initial 48-hour open-label phase. Patients (n = 237) achieving normokalemia (3.5-5.0 mEq/L) were then randomized to receive zirconium cyclosilicate, 5 g (n = 45 patients), 10 g (n = 51), or 15 g (n = 56), or placebo (n = 85) daily for 28 days. The primary end point was mean serum potassium level in each zirconium cyclosilicate group vs placebo during days 8-29 of the randomized phase. In the open-label phase, serum potassium levels declined from 5.6 mEq/L at baseline to 4.5 mEq/L at 48 hours. Median time to normalization was 2.2 hours, with 84% of patients (95% CI, 79%-88%) achieving normokalemia by 24 hours and 98% (95% CI, 96%-99%) by 48 hours. In the randomized phase, serum potassium was significantly lower during days 8-29 with all 3 zirconium cyclosilicate doses vs placebo (4.8 mEq/L [95% CI, 4.6-4.9], 4.5 mEq/L [95% CI, 4.4-4.6], and 4.4 mEq/L [95% CI, 4.3-4.5] for 5 g, 10 g, and 15 g; 5.1 mEq/L [95% CI, 5.0-5.2] for placebo; P < .001 for all comparisons). The proportion of patients with mean potassium <5.1 mEq/L during days 8-29 was significantly higher in all zirconium cyclosilicate groups vs placebo (36/45 [80%], 45/50 [90%], and 51/54 [94%] for the 5-g, 10-g, and 15-g groups, vs 38/82 [46%] with placebo; P < .001 for each dose

  11. Multiple Employer Welfare Arrangements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    Sponsors in the Private Nonfarm Sector in the United States, 1978-79," Volume IV, Description and Analysis of Plans and Plan Sponsors, NTIS # PB81-180366...Labor finds to be collectively bargained plans, and those organized by rural electrical cooperatives and rural telephone cooperatives. Thus, except for...their existence and generally higher cost than uninsured plans no doubt contributed to the development of other types of multiple employer

  12. Effect of Argon/Oxygen Flow Rate Ratios on DC Magnetron Sputtered Nano Crystalline Zirconium Titanate Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, D. Jhansi; Kumar, A. GuruSampath; Sarmash, T. Sofi; Chandra Babu Naidu, K.; Maddaiah, M.; Rao, T. Subba

    2016-06-01

    High transmitting, non absorbent, nano crystalline zirconium titanate (ZT) thin films suitable for anti reflection coatings (ARC) were deposited on to glass substrates by direct current (DC) magnetron reactive sputtering technique, under distinct Argon to Oxygen (Ar/O2) gas flow rate ratios of 31/1, 30/2, 29/3 and 28/4, with a net gas flow (Ar + O2) of 32sccm, at an optimum substrate temperature of 250°C. The influence of the gas mixture ratio on the film properties has been investigated by employing x-ray diffraction (XRD), ultra violet visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) and four point probe methods. The films showed a predominant peak at 30.85° with (111) orientation. The crystallite size reduced from 22.94 nm to 13.5 nm and the surface roughness increased from 11.53 nm to 50.58 nm with increase in oxygen content respectively. The films deposited at 31/1 and 30/2 showed almost similar chemical composition. Increased oxygen content results an increase in electrical resistivity from 3.59 × 103 to 2.1 × 106 Ωm. The film deposited at Ar/O2 of 28/4 exhibited higher average optical transmittance of 91%, but its refractive index is higher than that of what is required for ARC. The films deposited at 31/1 and 30/2 of Ar/O2 possess higher transmittance (low absorbance) apart from suitable refractive index. Thus, these films are preferable candidates for ARC.

  13. [Older workers and employment].

    PubMed

    Stössel, U

    2008-03-01

    Demographic change with its impact on the employment system and the length of work challenges most of the highly industrialized countries. From the point of health sciences the article will discuss findings about whether a prolongation of employment time seems to make sense and which limitations must be reflected. Therefore labour force participation of older workers will be demonstrated before employability as a construct of physical, psychological and social capacity is discussed. With these reflections in mind, the role of an integrated occupational health care approach will be stressed to discuss in which way this can contribute to healthier working conditions for older workers. The complex nature of the problem makes complex solutions necessary, which are not restricted to simple workplace health promotion campaigns. They have to be part of a sophisticated occupational health management system. The rising number of projects and initiatives in this field suggest that the challenges have been recognized and accepted; however we are not able to speak about the implementation of these models already throughout the country.

  14. Modification of Different Zirconium Propoxide Precursors by Diethanolamine. Is There a Shelf Stability Issue for Sol-Gel Applications?

    PubMed Central

    Spijksma, Gerald I.; Blank, Dave H. A.; Bouwmeester, Henny J. M.; Kessler, Vadim G.

    2009-01-01

    Modification of different zirconium propoxide precursors with H2dea was investigated by characterization of the isolated modified species. Upon modification of zirconium n-propoxide and [Zr(OnPr)(OiPr)3(iPrOH)]2 with ½ a mol equivalent of H2dea the complexes [Zr2(OnPr)6(OCH2CH2)2NH]2 (1) and [Zr2(OnPr)2(OiPr)4(OCH2CH2)2NH]2 (2) were obtained. However, 1H-NMR studies of these tetranuclear compounds showed that these are not time-stable either in solution or solid form. The effect of this time instability on material properties is demonstrated by light scattering and TEM experiments. Modification of zirconium isopropoxide with either ½ or 1 equivalent mol of H2dea results in formation of the trinuclear complex, Zr{η3μ2-NH(C2H4O)2}3[Zr(OiPr)3]2(iPrOH)2 (3) countering a unique nona-coordinated central zirconium atom. This complex 3 is one of the first modified zirconium propoxide precursors shown to be stable in solution for long periods of time. The particle size and morphology of the products of sol-gel synthesis are strongly dependent on the time factor and eventual heat treatment of the precursor solution. Reproducible sol-gel synthesis requires the use of solution stable precursors. PMID:20087472

  15. Comparison of surface modified zirconia implants with commercially available zirconium and titanium implants: a histological study in pigs.

    PubMed

    Gredes, Tomasz; Kubasiewicz-Ross, Pawel; Gedrange, Tomasz; Dominiak, Marzena; Kunert-Keil, Christiane

    2014-08-01

    New biomaterials and their various surface modifications should undergo in vitro and in vivo evaluation before clinical trials. The objective of our in vivo study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of newly created zirconium implant surfaces after implantation in the lower jaw of pigs and compare the osseointegration of these dental implants with commercially available zirconium and titanium implants. After a healing period of 12 weeks, a histological analysis of the soft and hard tissues and a histomorphometric analysis of the bone-implant contact (BIC) were performed. The implant surfaces showed an intimate connection to the adjacent bone for all tested implants. The 3 newly created zirconium implant surfaces achieved a BIC of 45% on average in comparison with a BIC of 56% from the reference zirconium implants and 35% from titanium implants. Furthermore, the new zirconium implants had a better attachment to gingival and bone tissues in the range of implant necks as compared with the reference implants. The results suggest that the new implants comparably osseointegrate within the healing period, and they have a good in vivo biocompatibility.

  16. Numerical assessment of bone remodeling around conventionally and early loaded titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy dental implants.

    PubMed

    Akça, Kıvanç; Eser, Atılım; Çavuşoğlu, Yeliz; Sağırkaya, Elçin; Çehreli, Murat Cavit

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate conventionally and early loaded titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy implants by three-dimensional finite element stress analysis. Three-dimensional model of a dental implant was created and a thread area was established as a region of interest in trabecular bone to study a localized part of the global model with a refined mesh. The peri-implant tissues around conventionally loaded (model 1) and early loaded (model 2) implants were implemented and were used to explore principal stresses, displacement values, and equivalent strains in the peri-implant region of titanium and titanium-zirconium implants under static load of 300 N with or without 30° inclination applied on top of the abutment surface. Under axial loading, principal stresses in both models were comparable for both implants and models. Under oblique loading, principal stresses around titanium-zirconium implants were slightly higher in both models. Comparable stress magnitudes were observed in both models. The displacement values and equivalent strain amplitudes around both implants and models were similar. Peri-implant bone around titanium and titanium-zirconium implants experiences similar stress magnitudes coupled with intraosseous implant displacement values under conventional loading and early loading simulations. Titanium-zirconium implants have biomechanical outcome comparable to conventional titanium implants under conventional loading and early loading.

  17. Zirconium-based conversion film formation on zinc, aluminium and magnesium oxides and their interactions with functionalized molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fockaert, L. I.; Taheri, P.; Abrahami, S. T.; Boelen, B.; Terryn, H.; Mol, J. M. C.

    2017-11-01

    Zirconium-based conversion treatment of zinc, aluminium and magnesium oxides have been studied in-situ using ATR-FTIR in a Kretschmann geometry. This set-up was coupled to an electrochemical cell, which allowed to obtain chemical and electrochemical information simultaneously as a function of conversion time. This elucidated the strong relation between physico-chemical surface properties and zirconium-based conversion kinetics. Whereas the surface hydroxyl density of zinc and aluminium increased during conversion, magnesium (hydr)oxide was shown to dissolve in the acid solution. Due to this dissolution, strong surface alkalization can be expected, explaining the rapid conversion kinetics. AES depth profiling was used to determine the final oxide thickness and elemental composition. This confirmed that magnesium is most active and forms a zirconium oxide layer approximately 10 times thicker than zinc. On the other hand, the presence of zirconium oxide on aluminium is very low and can be considered as not fully covering the metal oxide. Additionally, the converted oxide chemistry was related to the bonding mechanisms of amide functionalized molecules using ATR-FTIR and XPS. It was shown that inclusion of zirconium altered the acid-base properties, increasing the substrate proton donating capabilities in case of magnesium oxide and increasing hydrogen bonding and Bronsted interactions due to increased surface hydroxide fractions on zinc and aluminium substrates.

  18. Isotopic and trace element variability in altered and unaltered tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterman, Z.E.; Spengler, R.W.; Singer, F.R.; Dickerson, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    Reference stratigraphic sections near Yucca Mountain, Nevada were established and sampled in outcrop areas where the volcanic rocks have been minimally altered. Isotopic and trace element analyses obtained for these reference sections are baseline data for assessing the degree and extent of element mobility attendant with past zonal alteration of the rock mass. In agreement with earlier studies, zeolitization is shown to have occurred under wholesale open-system conditions. Calcium was increased by two three times the baseline values and strontium up to twenty times. In contrast, barium displays less variability, and the high-field strength elements zirconium and titanium were the least mobile during zeolitization. The data reported here establish the usefulness of reference sections of assessing past elements mobility. The information gained will be helpful in predicting possible future element mobility induced by thermally activated fluids in the near field of a potential repository.

  19. Full Employment in Industrialized Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Andrew

    1997-01-01

    Argues that full employment must be acceptable on both social and economic grounds. Examines profound changes in industrialized economies since the 1970s and the diversity of employment contracts. Suggests that difficult policy decisions surround full employment. (SK)

  20. The oxygen isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, B. Alex

    The properties of the oxygen isotopes provide diverse examples of progress made in experiments and theory. This chain of isotopes has been studied from beyond the proton drip line in 12O to beyond the neutron drip line in 25,26O. This short survey starts with the microscopic G matrix approach for 18O of Kuo and Brown in the 1960’s and shows how theory has evolved. The nuclear structure around the doubly-magic nucleus 24O is particularly simple in terms of the nuclear shell model. The nuclear structure around the doubly-magic nucleus 16O exhibits the coexistence of single-particle and collective structure.

  1. Advances in natural stable isotope ratio analysis of human hair to determine nutritional and metabolic status.

    PubMed

    Petzke, Klaus J; Fuller, Benjamin T; Metges, Cornelia C

    2010-09-01

    We review the literature on the use of stable isotope ratios at natural abundance to reveal information about dietary habits and specific nutrient intakes in human hair protein (keratin) and amino acids. In particular, we examine whether hair isotopic compositions can be used as unbiased biomarkers to provide information about nutritional status, metabolism, and diseases. Although the majority of research on the stable isotope ratio analysis of hair has focused on bulk protein, methods have been recently employed to examine amino acid-specific isotope ratios using gas chromatography or liquid chromatography coupled to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The isotopic measurement of amino acids has the potential to answer research questions on amino acid nutrition, metabolism, and disease processes and can contribute to a better understanding of the variations in bulk protein isotope ratio values. First results suggest that stable isotope ratios are promising as unbiased nutritional biomarkers in epidemiological research. However, variations in stable isotope ratios of human hair are also influenced by nutrition-dependent nitrogen balance, and more controlled clinical research is needed to examine these effects in human hair. Stable isotope ratio analysis at natural abundance in human hair protein offers a noninvasive method to reveal information about long-term nutritional exposure to specific nutrients, nutritional habits, and in the diagnostics of diseases leading to nutritional stress and impaired nitrogen balance.

  2. Electrochemically controlled iron isotope fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Jay R.; Young, Edward D.; Kavner, Abby

    2010-02-01

    Variations in the stable isotope abundances of transition metals have been observed in the geologic record and trying to understand and reconstruct the physical/environmental conditions that produced these signatures is an area of active research. It is clear that changes in oxidation state lead to large fractionations of the stable isotopes of many transition metals such as iron, suggesting that transition metal stable isotope signatures could be used as a paleo-redox proxy. However, the factors contributing to these observed stable isotope variations are poorly understood. Here we investigate how the kinetics of iron redox electrochemistry generates isotope fractionation. Through a combination of electrodeposition experiments and modeling of electrochemical processes including mass-transport, we show that electron transfer reactions are the cause of a large isotope separation, while mass transport-limited supply of reactant to the electrode attenuates the observed isotopic fractionation. Furthermore, the stable isotope composition of electroplated transition metals can be tuned in the laboratory by controlling parameters such as solution chemistry, reaction overpotential, and solution convection. These methods are potentially useful for generating isotopically-marked metal surfaces for tracking and forensic purposes. In addition, our studies will help interpret stable isotope data in terms of identifying underlying electron transfer processes in laboratory and natural samples.

  3. Graduate Employability: A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Employers' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Yuzhuo

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a conceptual framework for understanding what employers think about the value of graduates with similar educational credentials in the workplace (their employability), using insights from the new institutionalism. In this framework, the development of employers' beliefs about graduates' employability is broken into a number of…

  4. Comparison of palladium and zirconium treated graphite tubes for in-atomizer trapping of hydrogen selenide in hydride generation electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laborda, Francisco; Medrano, Jesús; Cortés, José I.; Mir, José M.; Castillo, Juan R.

    1999-02-01

    Zirconium treated graphite tubes were investigated and compared with non-treated and palladium coated ones for in situ trapping of selenium hydride generated in a flow injection system. Selenium was effectively trapped on zirconium treated tubes at trapping temperatures of 300-600°C, similar to those observed for palladium, whereas trapping temperatures higher than 600°C had to be used with non-treated tubes. Zirconium treated tubes used in this work showed good stability up to 300 trapping/atomization cycles, with precision better than 5%, characteristic masses of 42 (peak height) and 133 pg (peak area) of selenium were obtained. Sensitivity of zirconium and palladium treatments were similar, but zirconium offered the advantage of a single application per tube. Detection limits were 0.11 (peak height) and 0.23 ng (peak area) for a 1 ml sample volume.

  5. Laser isotope separation of erbium and other isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Haynam, Christopher A.; Worden, Earl F.

    1995-01-01

    Laser isotope separation is accomplished using at least two photoionization pathways of an isotope simultaneously, where each pathway comprises two or more transition steps. This separation method has been applied to the selective photoionization of erbium isotopes, particularly for the enrichment of .sup.167 Er. The hyperfine structure of .sup.167 Er was used to find two three-step photoionization pathways having a common upper energy level.

  6. Laser isotope separation of erbium and other isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Haynam, C.A.; Worden, E.F.

    1995-08-22

    Laser isotope separation is accomplished using at least two photoionization pathways of an isotope simultaneously, where each pathway comprises two or more transition steps. This separation method has been applied to the selective photoionization of erbium isotopes, particularly for the enrichment of {sup 167}Er. The hyperfine structure of {sup 167}Er was used to find two three-step photoionization pathways having a common upper energy level. 3 figs.

  7. High precision isotope ratio measurements of mercury isotopes in cinnabar ores using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hintelmann, Holger; Lu, ShengYong

    2003-06-01

    Variations in Hg isotope ratios in cinnabar ores obtained from different countries were detected by high precision isotope ratio measurements using multi-collector inductively coupled mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). Values of delta198/202Hg varied from 0.0-1.3 percent per thousand relative to a NIST SRM 1641d Hg solution. The typical external uncertainty of the delta values was 0.06 to 0.26 percent per thousand. Hg was introduced into the plasma as elemental Hg after reduction by sodium borohydride. A significant fractionation of lead isotopes was observed during the simultaneous generation of lead hydride, preventing normalization of the Hg isotope ratios using the measured 208/206Pb ratio. Hg ratios were instead corrected employing the simultaneously measured 205/203T1 ratio. Using a 10 ng ml(-1) Hg solution and 10 min of sampling, introducing 60 ng of Hg, the internal precision of the isotope ratio measurements was as low as 14 ppm. Absolute Hg ratios deviated from the representative IUPAC values by approximately 0.2% per u. This observation is explained by the inadequacy of the exponential law to correct for mass bias in MC-ICP-MS measurements. In the absence of a precisely characterized Hg isotope ratio standard, we were not able to determine unambiguously the absolute Hg ratios of the ore samples, highlighting the urgent need for certified standard materials.

  8. Solid-phase extraction method for the isolation of plant thionins from European mistletoe, wheat and barley using zirconium silicate embedded in poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) hollow-monoliths.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Shah; Güzel, Yüksel; Schönbichler, Stefan A; Rainer, Matthias; Huck, Christian W; Bonn, Günther K

    2013-09-01

    Thionins are cysteine-rich, biologically active small (∼5 kDa) and basic proteins occurring ubiquitously in the plant kingdom. This study describes an efficient solid-phase extraction (SPE) method for the selective isolation of these pharmacologically active proteins. Hollow-monolithic extraction tips based on poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) with embedded zirconium silicate nano-powder were designed, which showed an excellent selectivity for sulphur-rich proteins owing to strong co-ordination between zirconium and the sulphur atoms from the thiol-group of cysteine. The sorbent provides a combination of strong hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions which may help in targeted separation of certain classes of proteins in a complex mixture based upon the binding strength of different proteins. European mistletoe, wheat and barley samples were used for selective isolation of viscotoxins, purothionins and hordothionins, respectively. The enriched fractions were subjected to analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time-of-flight mass spectrometer to prove the selectivity of the SPE method towards thionins. For peptide mass-fingerprint analysis, tryptic digests of SPE eluates were examined. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to diode-array detection was employed for the purification of individual isoforms. The developed method was found to be highly specific for the isolation and purification of thionins.

  9. Reliability and failure modes of implant-supported zirconium-oxide fixed dental prostheses related to veneering techniques

    PubMed Central

    Baldassarri, Marta; Zhang, Yu; Thompson, Van P.; Rekow, Elizabeth D.; Stappert, Christian F. J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Objectives To compare fatigue failure modes and reliability of hand-veneered and over-pressed implant-supported three-unit zirconium-oxide fixed-dental-prostheses(FDPs). Methods Sixty-four custom-made zirconium-oxide abutments (n=32/group) and thirty-two zirconium-oxide FDP-frameworks were CAD/CAM manufactured. Frameworks were veneered with hand-built up or over-pressed porcelain (n=16/group). Step-stress-accelerated-life-testing (SSALT) was performed in water applying a distributed contact load at the buccal cusp-pontic-area. Post failure examinations were carried out using optical (polarized-reflected-light) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to visualize crack propagation and failure modes. Reliability was compared using cumulative-damage step-stress analysis (Alta-7-Pro, Reliasoft). Results Crack propagation was observed in the veneering porcelain during fatigue. The majority of zirconium-oxide FDPs demonstrated porcelain chipping as the dominant failure mode. Nevertheless, fracture of the zirconium-oxide frameworks was also observed. Over-pressed FDPs failed earlier at a mean failure load of 696 ± 149 N relative to hand-veneered at 882 ± 61 N (profile I). Weibull-stress-number of cycles-unreliability-curves were generated. The reliability (2-sided at 90% confidence bounds) for a 400N load at 100K cycles indicated values of 0.84 (0.98-0.24) for the hand-veneered FDPs and 0.50 (0.82-0.09) for their over-pressed counterparts. Conclusions Both zirconium-oxide FDP systems were resistant under accelerated-life-time-testing. Over-pressed specimens were more susceptible to fatigue loading with earlier veneer chipping. PMID:21557985

  10. Zirconium doped nano-dispersed oxides of Fe, Al and Zn for destruction of warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Stengl, Vaclav, E-mail: stengl@uach.cz; Houskova, Vendula; Bakardjieva, Snejana

    2010-11-15

    Zirconium doped nano dispersive oxides of Fe, Al and Zn were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of the respective sulfate salts with urea in aqueous solutions. Synthesized metal oxide hydroxides were characterized using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulfur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), soman (GD or (3,3'-Dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate) and VX agent (S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl]-O-ethyl-methylphosphonothionate). The presence of Zr{sup 4+} dopant can increase both the surface area and the surface hydroxylation of the resultingmore » doped oxides, decreases their crystallites' sizes thereby it may contribute in enabling the substrate adsorption at the oxide surface thus it can accelerate the rate of degradation of warfare agents. Addition of Zr{sup 4+} converts the product of the reaction of ferric sulphate with urea from ferrihydrite to goethite. We found out that doped oxo-hydroxides Zr-FeO(OH) - being prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of ferric and zirconium oxo-sulfates mixture in aqueous solutions - exhibit a comparatively higher degradation activity towards chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Degradation of soman or VX agent on Zr-doped FeO(OH) containing ca. 8.3 wt.% of zirconium proceeded to completion within 30 min.« less

  11. Comparative Analysis of the Mechanical Properties between the Fiber-Reinforced Composite and Zirconium Posts.

    PubMed

    Jurukovska-Shotarovska, Vesna; Kapusevska, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    To make a comparative analysis of the mechanical properties between FRC and zirconium posts Methods: The patients with FRC and zirconium posts were divided in two groups with three subgroups, each of them composed of 10 samples. Subgroup I with 1.2 mm; Subgroup II with 1.35 mm and Subgroup III with 1.5 mm post diameter. The fracture force, bending and tensile strength of each group were measured with Shimadzu Universal Testing Machine. The fracture force for the first group measured in the first, second and third subgroup was 34.80900N; 67.15390N; 46.53100N and for the second group, first, second and third subgroup was 34.80900N; 46.53100N; 67.15390N correspondingly. The bending strength for the first group measured in the first, second and third subgroup was 401.4420N; 444.6425N; 333.6828N and for the second group, first, second and third subgroup was 307.9352N; 289.1030N; 304.1649N correspondingly. The tensile strength for the first group measured in the first, second and third subgroup was 5.442267N; 4.350545N; 2.943465N and for the second group, first, second and third subgroup was 4.224141N; 3.751466N; 3.168756N correspondingly. The longest diameter of the posts significantly increases the resistance to fracture in relation to the two smaller diameters. The larger diameter, the higher values of the bending strength, as well as the lowest values of the tensile strength of the material contribute to improved mechanical properties of the fiber and zirconium posts.

  12. Effects of different titanium zirconium implant surfaces on initial supragingival plaque formation.

    PubMed

    John, Gordon; Becker, Jürgen; Schwarz, Frank

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the current study was the evaluation of biofilm development on different implant surfaces. Initial biofilm formation was investigated on five different implant surfaces, machined titanium (MTi), modified machined acid-etched titanium (modMATi), machined titanium zirconium (MTiZr), modified machined and acid-etched titanium zirconium (modMATiZr) and sandblasted large grid and acid-etched titanium zirconium surface (SLATiZr) for 24 and 48 h. Biocompatibility was tested after tooth brushing of the samples via cell viability testing with human gingival fibroblasts. After 24 h of biofilm collection, mean plaque surface was detected in the following descending order: After 24 h: MTiZr > MTi > SLATiZr > modMATiZr > modMATi. Both M surfaces showed significant higher biofilm formation than the other groups. After 48 h: MTiZr > MTi > SLATiZr > modMATiZr > modMATi. After tooth brushing: SLATiZr > modMATi > modMATiZr > MTi > MTiZr. All native samples depicted significant higher cell viability than their corresponding surfaces after biofilm removal procedure. The TiZr groups especially the modMATiZr group showed slower and less biofilm formation. In combination with the good biocompatibility, both modMA surfaces seem to be interesting candidates for surfaces in transgingival implant design. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. High-intensity low energy titanium ion implantation into zirconium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabchikov, A. I.; Kashkarov, E. B.; Pushilina, N. S.; Syrtanov, M. S.; Shevelev, A. E.; Korneva, O. S.; Sutygina, A. N.; Lider, A. M.

    2018-05-01

    This research describes the possibility of ultra-high dose deep titanium ion implantation for surface modification of zirconium alloy Zr-1Nb. The developed method based on repetitively pulsed high intensity low energy titanium ion implantation was used to modify the surface layer. The DC vacuum arc source was used to produce metal plasma. Plasma immersion titanium ions extraction and their ballistic focusing in equipotential space of biased electrode were used to produce high intensity titanium ion beam with the amplitude of 0.5 A at the ion current density 120 and 170 mA/cm2. The solar eclipse effect was used to prevent vacuum arc titanium macroparticles from appearing in the implantation area of Zr sample. Titanium low energy (mean ion energy E = 3 keV) ions were implanted into zirconium alloy with the dose in the range of (5.4-9.56) × 1020 ion/cm2. The effect of ion current density, implantation dose on the phase composition, microstructure and distribution of elements was studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and glow-discharge optical emission spectroscopy, respectively. The results show the appearance of Zr-Ti intermetallic phases of different stoichiometry after Ti implantation. The intermetallic phases are transformed from both Zr0.7Ti0.3 and Zr0.5Ti0.5 to single Zr0.6Ti0.4 phase with the increase in the implantation dose. The changes in phase composition are attributed to Ti dissolution in zirconium lattice accompanied by the lattice distortions and appearance of macrostrains in intermetallic phases. The depth of Ti penetration into the bulk of Zr increases from 6 to 13 μm with the implantation dose. The hardness and wear resistance of the Ti-implanted zirconium alloy were increased by 1.5 and 1.4 times, respectively. The higher current density (170 mA/cm2) leads to the increase in the grain size and surface roughness negatively affecting the tribological properties of the alloy.

  14. Characterization of deformation mechanisms in zirconium alloys: effect of temperature and irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Fei

    Zirconium alloys have been widely used in the CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) reactor as core structural materials. Alloy such as Zircaloy-2 has been used for calandria tubes; fuel cladding; the pressure tube is manufactured from alloy Zr-2.5Nb. During in-reactor service, these alloys are exposed to a high flux of fast neutron at elevated temperatures. It is important to understand the effect of temperature and irradiation on the deformation mechanism of zirconium alloys. Aiming to provide experimental guidance for future modeling predictions on the properties of zirconium alloys this thesis describes the result of an investigation of the change of slip and twinning modes in Zircaloy-2 and Zr-2.5Nb as a function of temperature and irradiation. The aim is to provide scientific fundamentals and experimental evidences for future industry modeling in processing technique design, and in-reactor property change prediction of zirconium components. In situ neutron diffraction mechanical tests carried out on alloy Zircaloy-2 at three temperatures: 100¢ªC, 300¢ªC, and 500¢ªC, and described in Chapter 3. The evolution of the lattice strain of individual grain families in the loading and Poisson's directions during deformation, which probes the operation of slip and twinning modes at different stress levels, are described. By using the same type of in situ neutron diffraction technique, tests on Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material samples, in either the fast-neutron irradiated or un-irradiated condition, are reported in Chapter 4. In Chapter 5, the measurement of dislocation density by means of line profile analysis of neutron diffraction patterns, as well as TEM observations of the dislocation microstructural evolution, is described. In Chapter 6 a hot-rolled Zr-2.5Nb with a larger grain size compared with the pressure tubing was used to study the development of dislocation microstructures with increasing plastic strain. In Chapter 7, in situ loading of heavy ion

  15. Suspensions on the basis of stabilised zirconium oxide for three-dimensional printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, P. S.; Komissarenko, D. A.; Shmeleva, I. A.; Slyusar, I. V.; Dosovitskiy, G. A.; Evdokimov, P. V.; Putlyaev, V. I.; Dosovitskiy, A. E.

    2018-04-01

    Present work considers the first results on rheological and photo-curing behaviour of suspension consisting of nanocrystalline stabilised zirconium dioxide powders (19 - 27 vol. %) and a liquid UV-photosensitive organic monomer. At ambient temperature compositions showed a viscosity of 2.5 and 0.8 Pa×s at 10 and 100 s-1 shear rates, respectively. Printability of these compositions was subsequently investigated by using an stereolithography machine Ember (Autodesk). 3D objects were later sintered in a separate furnace into dense translucent ZrO2 ceramics.

  16. Theoretical investigation of microstructure evolution and deformation of zirconium under neutron irradiation

    DOE PAGES

    Barashev, A. V.; Golubov, S. I.; Stoller, R. E.

    2015-06-01

    We studied the radiation growth of zirconium using a reaction–diffusion model which takes into account intra-cascade clustering of self-interstitial atoms and one-dimensional diffusion of interstitial clusters. The observed dose dependence of strain rates is accounted for by accumulation of sessile dislocation loops during irradiation. Moreover, the computational model developed and fitted to available experimental data is applied to study deformation of Zr single crystals under irradiation up to hundred dpa. Finally, the effect of cold work and the reasons for negative prismatic strains and co-existence of vacancy and interstitial loops are elucidated.

  17. EPR study of free radical in gamma-irradiated bis(cyclopentadienyl)zirconium dichloride single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caliskan, Betul; Caliskan, Ali Cengiz

    2017-06-01

    Bis(cyclopentadienyl)zirconium dichloride (BCZD; zirconocene dichloride) single crystals were exposed to 60Co-γ irradiation at room temperature. The irradiated single crystals were investigated between 125 and 470 K by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The spectra of the crystals were found to be temperature independent. The paramagnetic center was attributed to the cyclopentadienyl radical. The g values of the radiation damage center observed in BCZD single crystal and the hyperfine structure constants of the free electron with nearby protons were obtained.

  18. Crystal plasticity simulation of Zirconium tube rolling using multi-grain representative volume element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaenkova, Margarita; Perlovich, Yuriy; Zhuk, Dmitry; Krymskaya, Olga

    2017-10-01

    The rolling of Zirconium tube is studied by means of the crystal plasticity viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) constitutive modeling. This modeling performed by a dislocation-based constitutive model and a spectral solver using open-source simulation of DAMASK kit. The multi-grain representative volume elements with periodic boundary conditions are used to predict the texture evolution and distributions of strain and stresses. Two models for randomly textured and partially rolled material are deformed to 30% reduction in tube wall thickness and 7% reduction in tube diameter. The resulting shapes of the models are shown and distributions of strain are plotted. Also, evolution of grain's shape during deformation is shown.

  19. Boron and Zirconium from Crucible Refractories in a Complex Heat-Resistant Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, R F; Rowe, John P; Freeman, J W

    1958-01-01

    In a laboratory study of the factors involved in the influence of induction vacuum melting on 55ni-20cr-15co-4mo-3ti-3al heat resistant alloy, it was found that the major factor was the type of ceramic used as the crucible. The study concluded that trace amounts of boron or zirconium derived from reaction of the melt with the crucible refactories improved creep-rupture properties at 1,600 degrees F. Boron was most effective and, in addition, markedly improved hot-workability.

  20. Inorganic resist materials based on zirconium phosphonate for atomic force microscope lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Mankyu; Kim, Seonae; Jung, JinHyuck; Kim, Heebom; Shin, Inkyun; Jeon, Chanuk; Lee, Haiwon

    2014-03-01

    New inorganic resist materials based on metal complexes were investigated for atomic force microscope (AFM) lithography. Phosphoric acids are good for self-assembly because of their strong binding energy. In this work, zirconium phosphonate system are newly synthesized for spin-coatable materials in aqueous solutions and leads to negative tone pattern for improving line edge roughness. Low electron exposure by AFM lithography could generate a pattern by electrochemical reaction and cross-linking of metal-oxo complexes. It has been reported that the minimum pattern results are affected by lithographic speed, and the applied voltage between a tip and a substrate.

  1. Kinetics of the isothermal decomposition of zirconium hydride: terminal solid solubility for precipitation and dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, E. A.; Kompaniets, T. N.; Voyt, A. P.

    2018-05-01

    The hydrogen permeation technique in the surface-limited regime (SLR) was first used to study the isothermal decomposition of zirconium hydride. It is shown that under isothermal conditions, the hydrogen terminal solid solubility in the α-phase for hydride precipitation (TSSp) and dissolution (TSSd) differ only by 6%, in contrast to the 20-30% indicated in the available literature. It is demonstrated that even the minimum heating/cooling rate (1 C/min) used in the traditional methods of studying TSSp and TSSd is too high to exclude the effect of kinetics on the results obtained.

  2. Continuum model for hydrogen pickup in zirconium alloys of LWR fuel cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xing; Zheng, Ming-Jie; Szlufarska, Izabela; Morgan, Dane

    2017-04-01

    A continuum model for calculating the time-dependent hydrogen pickup fractions in various Zirconium alloys under steam and pressured water oxidation has been developed in this study. Using only one fitting parameter, the effective hydrogen gas partial pressure at the oxide surface, a qualitative agreement is obtained between the predicted and previously measured hydrogen pickup fractions. The calculation results therefore demonstrate that H diffusion through the dense oxide layer plays an important role in the hydrogen pickup process. The limitations and possible improvement of the model are also discussed.

  3. Heat capacity and transport measurements in sputtered niobium-zirconium multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broussard, P. R.; Mael, D.

    1989-08-01

    We have studied the electrical resistivity and heat capacity for multilayers of niobium and zirconium prepared by magnetron sputtering for values of the bilayer period Λ varying from 4 to 950 Å. We find a transition in the thermal part of the resistivity that correlates with the coherent-to-incoherent transition seen in earlier work. The heat capacity data for the normal state show anomalous behavior for both the electronic coefficient γ and the Debye temperature. We also study the variation in Tc and the jump in the specific heat.

  4. Self-ion irradiation effects on mechanical properties of nanocrystalline zirconium films

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Baoming; Haque, M. A.; Tomar, Vikas; ...

    2017-07-13

    Zirconium thin films were irradiated at room temperature with an 800 keV Zr + beam using a 6 MV HVE Tandem accelerator to 1.36 displacement per atom damage. Freestanding tensile specimens, 100 nm thick and 10 nm grain size, were tested in-situ inside a transmission electron microscope. Significant grain growth (>300%), texture evolution, and displacement damage defects were observed. Here, stress-strain profiles were mostly linear elastic below 20 nm grain size, but above this limit the samples demonstrated yielding and strain hardening. Experimental results support the hypothesis that grain boundaries in nanocrystalline metals act as very effective defect sinks.

  5. Retention of zirconium oxide ceramic crowns with three types of cement.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Rosario P; Johnson, Glen H; Phillips, Keith M; Raigrodski, Ariel J

    2006-08-01

    Information about the retentive strength of luting agents for zirconium oxide-based crowns is limited. It is unknown if this type of high-strength ceramic restoration requires adhesive cementation to enhance retention. The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the ability of selected luting agents to retain a representative zirconium oxide ceramic crown under clinically simulated conditions. Recently extracted human molars were prepared with a flat occlusal surface, 20-degree taper, and approximately 4-mm axial length. The axial and occlusal surface areas were determined, and specimens were distributed equally by total surface area into 3 cementation groups (n=12). Zirconium oxide ceramic copings (Procera AllZirkon) with an occlusal bar to facilitate removal were fabricated using computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. All copings were airborne-particle abraded with 50-mum Al(2)O(3) and then cleaned in an ultrasonic bath with isopropyl alcohol. Provisional cement was removed from the prepared teeth, followed by a pumice prophy. After trial insertion, the copings were cleaned with phosphoric acid, rinsed, dried, and dehydrated with isopropyl alcohol. They were then cemented with a seating force of 10 kg per tooth, using either a composite resin cement with adhesive agent (Panavia F 2.0 and ED Primer A & B [PAN]), a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Rely X Luting [RXL]), or a self-adhesive modified composite resin (Rely X Unicem [RXU]). The cemented copings were thermal cycled at 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C for 5000 cycles with a 15 second dwell time, and then removed along the path of insertion using a universal testing machine at 0.5 mm/min. The removal force was recorded, and the stress of dislodgement was calculated using the surface area of each preparation. A 1-way analysis of variance was used to analyze the data (alpha=.05). The nature of failure was also recorded. Mean dislodgement stresses were 5.1, 6.1, and

  6. The Crystal Structure of Thorium and Zirconium Dihydrides by X-ray and Neutron Diffraction

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Rundle, R.E.; Shull, C.G.; Wollan, E.O.

    1951-04-20

    Thorium forms a tetragonal lower hydride of composition ThH{sub 2}. The hydrides ThH{sub 2}, ThD{sub 2}, and ZrD{sub 2} have been studied by neutron diffraction in order that hydrogen positions could be determined. The hydrides are isomorphous, and have a deformed fluorite structure. Metal-hydrogen distances in thorium hydride are unusually large, as in UH{sub 3}. Thorium and zirconium scattering amplitudes and a revised scattering amplitude for deuterium are reported.

  7. Obtaining composite Zr-Al-O coating on the surface of zirconium by microplasma oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Gubaidulina, Tatiana A., E-mail: goub2002@mail.ru, E-mail: ostk@mail2000ru; Kuzmin, Oleg S., E-mail: goub2002@mail.ru, E-mail: ostk@mail2000ru; Fedorischva, Marina V., E-mail: fmw@ispms.tsc.ru, E-mail: kmp1980@mail.ru

    2014-11-14

    The paper describes the application of the microplasma oxidation for production of Zr-Al-O composition on the surface of zirconium. Certification of a new-type power supply for depositing oxide ceramic coatings by microplasma oxidation was also carried out. The growth rate of Zr-Al-O coating amounted around 0.2 nm/s, which around 10 times exceeds that for depositing similar coatings using the similar equipment. We have studied the change of surface morphology and the chemical composition of the formed ceramic coating by means of EVO 50 scanning electron microscope and X-ray spectral analysis.

  8. Using Yttra-Stabilized Zirconium Oxide Ceramics to Sense pH and Oxygen in Hydrothermal and Geothermal Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manna, M. F.; Grandstaff, D. E.; Ulmer, G. C.

    2002-05-01

    Zirconium-Oxide ceramics stabilized with ~8-wt% Yttrium-Oxide can be employed to sense pH in high temperature (>90oC) aqueous environments with an accuracy of 0.05 pH log units (Lvov et al., in press), and to sense the fugacity of oxygen (fO2) in low temperature (>230oC) gaseous environments with an accuracy of 0.2 (fO2) log units. The major components, in two commercially available yttria-stabilized ceramics are yttria ( ~8-wt%) and zirconia ( ~91-wt%) with minor amounts of Ti, Fe and U. The textural differences in the two ceramics produces significantly different emf vs. 10,000/T responses. Response error can be introduced by: the ionic contribution of the softening glass, the catalytic action of the Pt sensor components, and the presence of Ti and Fe in the ceramic, which has been shown to alter the oxygen diffusivity of the ceramic. (Merino et al., 1996) The first type of ceramic contains a 3-dimensionally-continuous Ca-Al-Si feldspathic glass that acts as a sintering aid during manufacturing. The glass, which has a higher ionic conductivity than the zirconia ceramic, reduces the bulk resistivity and induces an error over the temperature ranges representing the softening point of the glass. The glass also reduces durability of the ceramic. When the glass hydrates it produces zeolites, which grow primarily in the triple-grain-junctions of the ceramic. Thus mechanically weakening the ceramic generating electronic, ionic and mechanical stability problems. The second type of ceramic contains no grain boundary glass, but does contain discrete silicate phases (such as diopside, wollastonite, periclase, silica, etc.) in the triple-grain-junctions. Because there is no inter-granular glass, the type two ceramic does have a greater bulk resistivity compared with the type one ceramic. In a gas-sensing configuration, resistivity has been shown to affect the minimum temperature of sensor operation. A sensor with a higher bulk resistivity must reach a higher minimum

  9. Employability Skills Assessment Tool Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasul, Mohamad Sattar; Rauf, Rose Amnah Abd; Mansor, Azlin Norhaini; Puvanasvaran, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Research nationally and internationally found that technical graduates are lacking in employability skills. As employability skills are crucial in outcome-based education, the main goal of this research is to develop an Employability Skill Assessment Tool to help students and lecturers produce competent graduates in employability skills needed by…

  10. Hydration characteristics of zirconium oxide replaced Portland cement for use as a root-end filling material.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, J; Cutajar, A; Mallia, B

    2011-08-01

    Zirconium oxide can be added to dental materials rendering them sufficiently radiopaque. It can thus be used to replace the bismuth oxide in mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Replacement of Portland cement with 30% zirconium oxide mixed at a water/cement ratio of 0.3 resulted in a material with adequate physical properties. This study aimed at investigating the microstructure, pH and leaching in physiological solution of Portland cement replaced zirconium oxide at either water-powder or water-cement ratios of 0.3 for use as a root-end filling material. The hydration characteristics of the materials which exhibited optimal behavior were evaluated. Portland cement replaced by zirconium oxide in varying amounts ranging from 0 to 50% in increments of 10 was prepared and divided into two sets. One set was prepared at a constant water/cement ratio while the other set at a constant water/powder ratio of 0.3. Portland cement and MTA were used as controls. The materials were analyzed under the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the hydration products were determined. X-ray energy dispersive analysis (EDX) was used to analyze the elemental composition of the hydration products. The pH and the amount of leachate in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) were evaluated. A material that had optimal properties that satisfied set criteria and could replace MTA was selected. The microstructure of the prototype material and Portland cement used as a control was assessed after 30 days using SEM and atomic ratio diagrams of Al/Ca versus Si/Ca and S/Ca versus Al/Ca were plotted. The hydration products of Portland cement replaced with 30% zirconium oxide mixed at water/cement ratio of 0.3 were calcium silicate hydrate, calcium hydroxide and minimal amounts of ettringite and monosulphate. The calcium hydroxide leached in HBSS solution resulted in an increase in the pH value. The zirconium oxide acted as inert filler and exhibited no reaction with the hydration by-products of Portland

  11. CHILI – the Chicago Instrument for Laser Ionization – a new tool for isotope measurements in cosmochemistry

    DOE PAGES

    Stephan, Thomas; Trappitsch, Reto; Davis, Andrew M.; ...

    2016-06-17

    Here, we describe CHILI, the Chicago Instrument for Laser Ionization, a new resonance ionization mass spectrometer developed for isotopic analysis at high spatial resolution and high sensitivity of small samples like contemporary interstellar dust grains returned by the Stardust spacecraft. We explain how CHILI addresses the technical challenges associated with such analyses by pushing most technical specifications towards their physical limits. As an initial demonstration, after many years of designing and developing CHILI, we have analyzed presolar silicon carbide grains for their isotopic compositions of strontium, zirconium, and barium. Subsequently, after further technical improvements, we have used CHILI to analyze,more » for the first time without interference, all stable isotopes of iron and nickel simultaneously in presolar silicon carbide grains. With a special timing scheme for the ionization lasers, we separated iron and nickel isotopes in the time-of-flight spectrum such that the isobaric interference between 58Fe and 58Ni was resolved. In-depth discussion of the astrophysical implications of the presolar grain results is deferred to dedicated later publications. Here we focus on the technical aspects of CHILI, its status quo, and further developments necessary to achieve CHILI’s ultimate goals, 10 nm lateral resolution and 30–40% useful yield.« less

  12. CHILI – the Chicago Instrument for Laser Ionization – a new tool for isotope measurements in cosmochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, Thomas; Trappitsch, Reto; Davis, Andrew M.

    2016-08-01

    We describe CHILI, the Chicago Instrument for Laser Ionization, a new resonance ionization mass spectrometer developed for isotopic analysis at high spatial resolution and high sensitivity of small samples like contemporary interstellar dust grains returned by the Stardust spacecraft. We explain how CHILI addresses the technical challenges associated with such analyses by pushing most technical specifications towards their physical limits. As an initial demonstration, after many years of designing and developing CHILI, we have analyzed presolar silicon carbide grains for their isotopic compositions of strontium, zirconium, and barium. Subsequently, after further technical improvements, we have used CHILI to analyze, formore » the first time without interference, all stable isotopes of iron and nickel simultaneously in presolar silicon carbide grains. With a special timing scheme for the ionization lasers, we separated iron and nickel isotopes in the time-of-flight spectrum such that the isobaric interference between Fe-58 and Ni-58 was resolved. In-depth discussion of the astrophysical implications of the presolar grain results is deferred to dedicated later publications. Here we focus on the technical aspects of CHILI, its status quo, and further developments necessary to achieve CHILI's ultimate goals, similar to 10 nm lateral resolution and 30-40% useful yield.« less

  13. Employment Trajectories Beyond Retirement.

    PubMed

    Burkert, Carola; Hochfellner, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Within the political and academic debate on working longer, post-retirement employment is discussed as an alternative to maintain older workers in the labor market. Our article enhances this discussion by studying determinants of transitions into post-retirement jobs within differing work environments of birth cohorts 1940-1942. We estimate proportional subhazard models accounting for competing risks using unique German social security data linked to pension accounts. Our findings suggest that individuals' preferences to take up post-retirement jobs are not mutually exclusive. Our study provides evidence that taking up post-retirement jobs is related to seeking financial security, continuity, and work ability, suggesting that public policy has to develop target-oriented support through a public policy mix of different measures aligned to the different peer groups in the labor market.

  14. Photonuclear Production of Medical Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinandt, Nick

    2011-10-01

    Every year, more than 20 million people in the United States receive a nuclear medicine procedure. Many of the isotopes needed for these procedures are under-produced. Suppliers of the isotopes are usually located outside the United States, which presents a problem when the desired isotopes have short half-lives. Linear accelerators were investigated as a possible method of meeting isotope demand. Linear accelerators are cheaper, safer, and have lower decommissioning costs compared to nuclear reactors. By using (γ,p) reactions, the desired isotope can be separated from the target material due to the different chemical nature of each isotope. Isotopes investigated were Cu-67, In-111, and Lu-111. Using the results the photon flux Monte Carlo simulations, the expected activity of isotopes can be calculated. After samples were irradiated, a high purity germanium detector and signal processing apparatus were used to count the samples. The activity at the time of irradiation stop was then calculated. The uses of medical isotopes will also be presented. Thanks to Idaho State University, the Idaho Accelerator Center, and the National Science Foundation for supporting the research.

  15. A free-air system for long-term stable carbon isotope labeling of adult forest trees

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable carbon (C) isotopes, in particular employed in labeling experiments, are an ideal tool to broaden our understanding of C dynamics in trees and forest ecosystems. Here, we present a free-air exposure system, named isoFACE, designed for long-term stable C isotope labeling in...

  16. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation

    DOEpatents

    Aldridge, Frederick T.

    1981-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu.sub.5 type of crystal structure, particularly LaNiCo.sub.4 and CaNi.sub.5, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation colum. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale mutli-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen can produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors.

  17. ISOTOPE FRACTIONATION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Clewett, G.H.; Lee, DeW.A.

    1958-05-20

    A new method is described for isotopic enrichment of uranium. It has been found that when an aqueous acidic solution of ionic tetravalent uraniunn is contacted with chelate complexed tetravalent uranium, the U/sup 238/ preferentially concentrates in the complexed phase while U/sup 235/ concentrates in the ionic phase. The effect is enhanced when the chelate compound is water insoluble and is dissolved in a water-immiscible organic solvent. Cupferron is one of a number of sultable complexing agents, and chloroform is a suitable organic solvent.

  18. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation

    DOEpatents

    Aldridge, F.T.

    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu/sub 5/ type of crystal structure, particularly LaNiCo/sub 4/ and CaNi/sub 5/, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation column. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale multi-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen cn produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL ISOTOPES FOR RESOLUTION OF HYDROLOGY PROBLEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of environmental isotopes as tracers in the hydrosphere is increasing as analytical instrumentation improves and more applications are discovered. There exists still misconceptions on the role of isotopes in resolving hydrology problems. Naturally occurring isotopes in th...

  20. Tellurium Stable Isotope Fractionation in Chondritic Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fehr, M. A.; Hammond, S. J.; Parkinson, I. J.

    2014-09-01

    New Te double spike procedures were set up to obtain high-precision accurate Te stable isotope data. Tellurium stable isotope data for 16 chondrite falls are presented, providing evidence for significant Te stable isotope fractionation.

  1. Mono-isotope Prediction for Mass Spectra Using Bayes Network.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Liu, Chunmei; Rwebangira, Mugizi Robert; Burge, Legand

    2014-12-01

    Mass spectrometry is one of the widely utilized important methods to study protein functions and components. The challenge of mono-isotope pattern recognition from large scale protein mass spectral data needs computational algorithms and tools to speed up the analysis and improve the analytic results. We utilized naïve Bayes network as the classifier with the assumption that the selected features are independent to predict mono-isotope pattern from mass spectrometry. Mono-isotopes detected from validated theoretical spectra were used as prior information in the Bayes method. Three main features extracted from the dataset were employed as independent variables in our model. The application of the proposed algorithm to publicMo dataset demonstrates that our naïve Bayes classifier is advantageous over existing methods in both accuracy and sensitivity.

  2. Irradiation-induced effects of proton irradiation on zirconium carbides with different stoichiometries

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Huang; B.R. Maier; T.R. Allen

    2014-10-01

    Zirconium carbide (ZrC) is being considered for utilization in deep burn TRISO fuel particles for hightemperature, gas-cooled reactors. Zirconium carbide has a cubic B1 type crystal structure along with a very high melting point (3420 ?C), exceptional hardness and good thermal and electrical conductivities. Understanding the ZrC irradiation response is crucial for establishing ZrC as an alternative component in TRISO fuel. Until now, very few studies on irradiation effects on ZrC have been released and fundamental aspects of defect evolution and kinetics are not well understood although some atomistic simulations and phenomenological studies have been performed. This work was carriedmore » out to understand the damage evolution in float-zone refined ZrC with different stoichiometries. Proton irradiations at 800 ?C up to doses of 3 dpa were performed on ZrCx (where x ranges from 0.9 to 1.2) to investigate the damage evolution. The irradiation-induced defects, such as density of dislocation loops, at different stoichiometries and doses which were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is presented and discussed.« less

  3. Dislocation dynamics simulations of interactions between gliding dislocations and radiation induced prismatic loops in zirconium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouet, Julie; Dupuy, Laurent; Onimus, Fabien; Mompiou, Frédéric; Perusin, Simon; Ambard, Antoine

    2014-06-01

    The mechanical behavior of Pressurized Water Reactor fuel cladding tubes made of zirconium alloys is strongly affected by neutron irradiation due to the high density of radiation induced dislocation loops. In order to investigate the interaction mechanisms between gliding dislocations and loops in zirconium, a new nodal dislocation dynamics code, adapted to Hexagonal Close Packed metals, has been used. Various configurations have been systematically computed considering different glide planes, basal or prismatic, and different characters, edge or screw, for gliding dislocations with -type Burgers vectors. Simulations show various interaction mechanisms such as (i) absorption of a loop on an edge dislocation leading to the formation of a double super-jog, (ii) creation of a helical turn, on a screw dislocation, that acts as a strong pinning point or (iii) sweeping of a loop by a gliding dislocation. It is shown that the clearing of loops is more favorable when the dislocation glides in the basal plane than in the prismatic plane explaining the easy dislocation channeling in the basal plane observed after neutron irradiation by transmission electron microscopy.

  4. Mesoporous zirconium titanium oxides. Part 2: Synthesis, porosity, and adsorption properties of beads.

    PubMed

    Sizgek, G Devlet; Sizgek, Erden; Griffith, Christopher S; Luca, Vittorio

    2008-11-04

    Mesoporous zirconium titanium mixed-oxide beads having disordered wormhole textures and mole fractions of Zr (x) ranging from x=0.25 to 0.67 have been prepared. The bead preparation method combined the forced hydrolysis of mixtures of zirconium-titanium alkoxides in the presence of long-chain carboxylates with external gelation. Uniformly sized beads could be produced in the size range 0.5-1.1 mm by varying the droplet size and viscosity of the mixed-oxide sol, thus making them suitable for large-scale column chromatographic applications. The beads exhibited narrow pore size distributions with similar mean pore diameters of around 3.7 nm. The specific surface areas of the beads were linked to the Zr mole fraction in the precursor solution and were generally greater than 350 m2/g for x=0.5. A combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure analysis indicated that the pore walls of the beads were composed of atomically dispersed Zr and Ti to form a continuous network of Zr-O-Ti bonds. Mass transport in the beads was evaluated by monitoring the kinetics of vanadate and vanadyl adsorption at pH 10.5 and 0.87, respectively.

  5. Raman spectroscopy analysis of air grown oxide scale developed on pure zirconium substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurpaska, L.; Favergeon, J.; Lahoche, L.; El-Marssi, M.; Grosseau Poussard, J.-L.; Moulin, G.; Roelandt, J.-M.

    2015-11-01

    Using Raman spectroscopy technique, external and internal parts of zirconia oxide films developed at 500 °C and 600 °C on pure zirconium substrate under air at normal atmospheric pressure have been examined. Comparison of Raman peak positions of tetragonal and monoclinic zirconia phases, recorded during the oxide growth at elevated temperature, and after cooling at room temperature have been presented. Subsequently, Raman peak positions (or shifts) were interpreted in relation with the stress evolution in the growing zirconia scale, especially closed to the metal/oxide interface, where the influence of compressive stress in the oxide is the biggest. Reported results, for the first time show the presence of a continuous layer of tetragonal zirconia phase developed in the proximity of pure zirconium substrate. Based on the Raman peak positions we prove that this tetragonal layer is stabilized by the high compressive stress and sub-stoichiometry level. Presence of the tetragonal phase located in the outer part of the scale have been confirmed, yet its Raman characteristics suggest a stress-free tetragonal phase, therefore different type of stabilization mechanism. Presented study suggest that its stabilization could be related to the lattice defects introduced by highstoichiometry of zirconia or presence of heterovalent cations.

  6. Burst Ductility of Zirconium Clads: The Defining Role of Residual Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Gulshan; Kanjarla, A. K.; Lodh, Arijit; Singh, Jaiveer; Singh, Ramesh; Srivastava, D.; Dey, G. K.; Saibaba, N.; Doherty, R. D.; Samajdar, Indradev

    2016-08-01

    Closed end burst tests, using room temperature water as pressurizing medium, were performed on a number of industrially produced zirconium (Zr) clads. A total of 31 samples were selected based on observed differences in burst ductility. The latter was represented as total circumferential elongation or TCE. The selected samples, with a range of TCE values (5 to 35 pct), did not show any correlation with mechanical properties along axial direction, microstructural parameters, crystallographic textures, and outer tube-surface normal ( σ 11) and shear ( τ 13) components of the residual stress matrix. TCEs, however, had a clear correlation with hydrostatic residual stress ( P h), as estimated from tri-axial stress analysis on the outer tube surface. Estimated P h also scaled with measured normal stress ( σ 33) at the tube cross section. An elastic-plastic finite element model with ductile damage failure criterion was developed to understand the burst mechanism of zirconium clads. Experimentally measured P h gradients were imposed on a solid element continuum finite element (FE) simulation to mimic the residual stresses present prior to pressurization. Trends in experimental TCEs were also brought out with computationally efficient shell element-based FE simulations imposing the outer tube-surface P h values. Suitable components of the residual stress matrix thus determined the burst performance of the Zr clads.

  7. Establishment of the roadmap for chlorination process development for zirconium recovery and recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.D.; Del Cul, G.D.; Spencer, B.B.

    Process development studies are being conducted to recover, purify, and reuse the zirconium (about 98.5% by mass) in used nuclear fuel (UNF) zirconium alloy cladding. Feasibility studies began in FY 2010 using empty cladding hulls that were left after fuel dissolution or after oxidation to a finely divided oxide powder (voloxidation). In FY 2012, two industrial teams (AREVA and Shaw-Westinghouse) were contracted by the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) to provide technical assistance to the project. In FY 2013, the NE Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program requested development of a technology development roadmap to guide futuremore » work. The first step in the roadmap development was to assess the starting point, that is, the current state of the technology and the end goal. Based on previous test results, future work is to be focused on first using chlorine as the chlorinating agent and secondly on the use of a process design that utilizes a chlorination reactor and dual ZrCl{sub 4} product salt condensers. The likely need for a secondary purification step was recognized. Completion of feasibility testing required an experiment on the chemical decladding flowsheet option. This was done during April 2013. The roadmap for process development will continue through process chemistry optimization studies, the chlorinated reactor design configuration, product salt condensers, and the off-gas trapping of tritium or other volatile fission products from the off-gas stream. (authors)« less

  8. Efficient mass-selective three-photon ionization of zirconium atoms

    DOEpatents

    Page, Ralph H.

    1994-01-01

    In an AVLIS process, .sup.91 Zr is selectively removed from natural zirconium by a three-step photoionization wherein Zr atoms are irradiated by a laser beam having a wavelength .lambda..sub.1, selectively raising .sup.91 Zr atoms to an odd-parity E.sub.1 energy level in the range of 16000-19000 cm.sup.-1, are irradiated by a laser beam having a wavelength .lambda..sub.2 to raise the atoms from an E.sub.l level to an even-parity E.sub.2 energy level in the range of 35000-37000 cm.sup.-1 and are irradiated by a laser beam having a wavelength .lambda..sub.3 to cause a resonant transition of atoms from an E.sub.2 level to an autoionizing level above 53506 cm.sup.-1. .lambda..sub.3 wavelengths of 5607, 6511 or 5756 .ANG. will excite a zirconium atom from an E.sub.2 energy state of 36344 cm.sup.-1 to an autoionizing level; a .lambda..sub.3 wavelength of 5666 .ANG. will cause an autoionizing transition from an E.sub.2 level of 36068 cm.sup.-1 ; and a .lambda. .sub.3 wavelength of 5662 .ANG. will cause an ionizing resonance of an atom at an E.sub.2 level of 35904 cm.sup.-1.

  9. Efficient mass-selective three-photon ionization of zirconium atoms

    DOEpatents

    Page, R.H.

    1994-12-27

    In an AVLIS process, [sup 91]Zr is selectively removed from natural zirconium by a three-step photoionization wherein Zr atoms are irradiated by a laser beam having a wavelength [lambda][sub 1], selectively raising [sup 91]Zr atoms to an odd-parity E[sub 1] energy level in the range of 16000--19000 cm[sup [minus]1], are irradiated by a laser beam having a wavelength [lambda][sub 2] to raise the atoms from an E[sub l] level to an even-parity E[sub 2] energy level in the range of 35000--37000 cm[sup [minus]1] and are irradiated by a laser beam having a wavelength [lambda][sub 3] to cause a resonant transition of atoms from an E[sub 2] level to an autoionizing level above 53506 cm[sup [minus]1][lambda][sub 3] wavelengths of 5607, 6511 or 5756 [angstrom] will excite a zirconium atom from an E[sub 2] energy state of 36344 cm[sup [minus]1] to an autoionizing level; a [lambda][sub 3] wavelength of 5666 [angstrom] will cause an autoionizing transition from an E[sub 2] level of 36068 cm[sup [minus]1]; and a [lambda][sub 3] wavelength of 5662 [angstrom] will cause an ionizing resonance of an atom at an E[sub 2] level of 35904 cm[sup [minus]1]. 4 figures.

  10. Nanoscale Zirconium-(oxyhydr)oxide in Contaminated Sediments From Hanford, WA - A New Host for Uranium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubbs, J. E.; Elbert, D. C.; Veblen, L. A.; Zachara, J. M.; Davis, J. A.; Veblen, D. R.

    2008-12-01

    Zirconium-, uranium-, and copper-bearing wastes have leached from former disposal ponds into vadose zone sediments in the 300 Area at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Zirconium is enriched in the shallow portion of the vadose zone, and we have discovered an amorphous Zr-(oxyhydr)oxide that contains 16% of the total uranium budget (84.24 ppm) in one of the shallow samples. We have characterized the oxide using electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), a focused ion beam (FIB) instrument, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It occurs in fine-grained coatings found on lithic and mineral fragments in these sediments. The oxide is intimately intergrown with the phyllosilicates and other minerals of the coatings, and in places can be seen coating individual, nano-sized phyllosilicate mineral grains. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) shows that the Zr-(oxyhydr)oxide has a P:Zr atomic ratio around 0.2, suggesting it is either intergrown with minor amounts of a Zr-phosphate or has adsorbed a significant amount of phosphate. This material has adsorbed or incorporated a substantial amount of uranium. Thus, understanding its nature is critical to predicting the long-term fate of U in the Hanford vadose zone. While the low-temperature uptake of U by Zr-(oxhydr)oxides and phosphates has been studied for several decades in laboratory settings, to our knowledge ours is the first report of such uptake in the field.

  11. An investigation on the preparation of nanocrystalline hydrous zirconia from zirconium tungstate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, M.; Perottoni, C. A.; Gouvêa, D.; Machado, G.; Zorzi, J. E.

    2018-02-01

    Hydrous nanocrystalline zirconia was prepared from an unusual precursor—the bimetallic oxide zirconium tungstate (ZrW2O8)—in alkaline medium. Different experimental conditions (NaOH concentration, time and temperature) were used to investigate the effects on crystallographic, morphological, chemical and thermal characteristics of the products. The resulting materials are composed of particles with a crystal structure similar to that of cubic ZrO2 (or a mixture of tetragonal and cubic phases, depending on the synthesis conditions), with particle size around 5 nm and crystallites around 3 nm in diameter. These particles form high surface area agglomerates, exhibiting mesoporosity and capacity for adsorption of water and carbon dioxide. The synthesis mechanism appears to be constituted, first, by a chemical substitution reaction between the WO4 tetrahedra and hydroxyl ions, with subsequent solubilization of the structure. Indeed, excess hydroxyls in the medium form colloidal zirconium ions which polymerize/condense, generating crystalline nuclei in a process facilitated by heterogeneous nucleation and supersaturation. The presence of residual tungsten in all samples appears to be a key element for stabilizing the size and crystalline structure of the materials produced.

  12. Finite element analysis of the tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation during oxidation of zirconium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platt, P.; Frankel, P.; Gass, M.; Howells, R.; Preuss, M.

    2014-11-01

    Corrosion is a key limiting factor in the degradation of zirconium alloys in light water reactors. Developing a mechanistic understanding of the corrosion process offers a route towards improving safety and efficiency as demand increases for higher burn-up of fuel. Oxides formed on zirconium alloys are composed of both monoclinic and meta-stable tetragonal phases, and are subject to a number of potential mechanical degradation mechanisms. The work presented investigates the link between the tetragonal to monoclinic oxide phase transformation and degradation of the protective character of the oxide layer. To achieve this, Abaqus finite element analysis of the oxide phase transformation has been carried out. Study of the change in transformation strain energy shows how relaxation of oxidation induced stress and fast fracture at the metal-oxide interface could destabilise the tetragonal phase. Central to this is the identification of the transformation variant most likely to form, and understanding why twinning of the transformed grain is likely to occur. Development of transformation strain tensors and analysis of the strain components allows some separation of dilatation and shear effects. Maximum principal stress is used as an indication of fracture in the surrounding oxide layer. Study of the stress distributions shows the way oxide fracture is likely to occur and the differing effects of dilatation and shape change. Comparison with literature provides qualitative validation of the finite element simulations.

  13. Pressure-induced kinetics of the α to ω transition in zirconium

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, M. K.; Velisavljevic, N., E-mail: nenad@lanl.gov; Sinogeikin, S. V.

    Diamond anvil cells (DAC) coupled with x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements are one of the primary techniques for investigating structural stability of materials at high pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions. DAC-XRD has been predominantly used to resolve structural information at set P-T conditions and, consequently, provides P-T phase diagram information on a broad range of materials. With advances in large scale synchrotron x-ray facilities and corresponding x-ray diagnostic capabilities, it is now becoming possible to perform sub-second time resolved measurements on micron sized DAC samples. As a result, there is an opportunity to gain valuable information about the kinetics of structural phase transformationsmore » and extend our understanding of material behavior at high P-T conditions. Using DAC-XRD time resolved measurements, we have investigated the kinetics of the α to ω transformation in zirconium. We observe a clear time and pressure dependence in the martensitic α-ω transition as a function of pressure-jump, i.e., drive pressure. The resulting data are fit using available kinetics models, which can provide further insight into transformation mechanism that influence transformation kinetics. Our results help shed light on the discrepancies observed in previous measurements of the α-ω transition pressure in zirconium.« less

  14. Superior removal of arsenic from water with zirconium metal-organic framework UiO-66.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenghong; Liu, Xinlei; Chen, J Paul; Li, Kang

    2015-11-12

    In this study, water stable zirconium metal-organic framework (UiO-66) has been synthesized and for the first time applied as an adsorbent to remove aquatic arsenic contamination. The as-synthesized UiO-66 adsorbent functions excellently across a broad pH range of 1 to 10, and achieves a remarkable arsenate uptake capacity of 303 mg/g at the optimal pH, i.e., pH = 2. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest arsenate As(V) adsorption capacity ever reported, much higher than that of currently available adsorbents (5-280 mg/g, generally less than 100 mg/g). The superior arsenic uptake performance of UiO-66 adsorbent could be attributed to the highly porous crystalline structure containing zirconium oxide clusters, which provides a large contact area and plenty of active sites in unit space. Two binding sites within the adsorbent framework are proposed for arsenic species, i.e., hydroxyl group and benzenedicarboxylate ligand. At equilibrium, seven equivalent arsenic species can be captured by one Zr6 cluster through the formation of Zr-O-As coordination bonds.

  15. Superior removal of arsenic from water with zirconium metal-organic framework UiO-66

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenghong; Liu, Xinlei; Chen, J. Paul; Li, Kang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, water stable zirconium metal-organic framework (UiO-66) has been synthesized and for the first time applied as an adsorbent to remove aquatic arsenic contamination. The as-synthesized UiO-66 adsorbent functions excellently across a broad pH range of 1 to 10, and achieves a remarkable arsenate uptake capacity of 303 mg/g at the optimal pH, i.e., pH = 2. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest arsenate As(V) adsorption capacity ever reported, much higher than that of currently available adsorbents (5–280 mg/g, generally less than 100 mg/g). The superior arsenic uptake performance of UiO-66 adsorbent could be attributed to the highly porous crystalline structure containing zirconium oxide clusters, which provides a large contact area and plenty of active sites in unit space. Two binding sites within the adsorbent framework are proposed for arsenic species, i.e., hydroxyl group and benzenedicarboxylate ligand. At equilibrium, seven equivalent arsenic species can be captured by one Zr6 cluster through the formation of Zr-O-As coordination bonds. PMID:26559001

  16. Direct intercalation of cisplatin into zirconium phosphate nanoplatelets for potential cancer nanotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Agustín; González, Millie L.; Pérez, Riviam J.; David, Amanda; Mukherjee, Atashi; Báez, Adriana; Clearfield, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    We report the use of zirconium phosphate nanoplatelets (ZrP) for the encapsulation of the anticancer drug cisplatin and its delivery to tumor cells. Cisplatin was intercalated into ZrP by direct-ion exchange and was tested in-vitro for cytotoxicity in the human breast cancer (MCF-7) cell line. The structural characterization of the intercalated cisplatin in ZrP suggests that during the intercalation process, the chloride ligands of the cisplatin complex were substituted by phosphate groups within the layers. Consequently, a new phosphate phase with the platinum complex directly bound to ZrP (cisPt@ZrP) is produced with an interlayer distance of 9.3 Å. The in-vitro release profile of the intercalated drug by pH stimulus shows that at low pH under lysosomal conditions the platinum complex is released with simultaneous hydrolysis of the zirconium phosphate material, while at higher pH the complex is not released. Experiments with the MCF-7 cell line show that cisPt@ZrP reduced the cell viability up to 40%. The cisPt@ZrP intercalation product is envisioned as a future nanotherapy agent for cancer. Taking advantage of the shape and sizes of the ZrP particles and controlled release of the drug at low pH, it is intended to exploit the enhanced permeability and retention effect of tumors, as well as their intrinsic acidity, for the destruction of malignant cells. PMID:24072038

  17. Effect of zirconium addition on welding of aluminum grain refined by titanium plus boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaid, A. I. O.

    2014-06-01

    Aluminum oxidizes freely in ordinary atmosphere which makes its welding difficult and weak, particularly it solidifies in columnar structure with large grains. Therefore, it is anticipated that the effect of addition of some grain refiners to its melt before solidification is worth while investigating as it may enhance its weldabilty and improve its mechanical strength. In this paper, the effect of addition of zirconium at a weight of 0.1% (which corresponds to the peretictic limit on the aluminum-zirconium base phase diagram) to commercially pure aluminum, grain refined by Ti+B on its weldability, using gas tungsten arc welding, GTAW, method which was formerly known as TIG. A constant current level of 30 AC Ampere was used because it removes the oxides during the welding process. Metallographic examination of the weldments of the different combinations of Al with Al and Al with its microalloys: in the heat affected zone, HAZ, and away from it was carried out and examined for HAZ width, porosity, cracks and microhardness. It was found that grain refining by Ti+B or Zr resulted in enhancement of the weldment.

  18. On the evolution of morphology of zirconium sponge during reduction and distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Kapoor, K.; Padmaprabu, C.; Nandi, D.

    2008-03-15

    High purity zirconium metal is produced by magnesio-thermic reduction of zirconium tetrachloride followed by vacuum distillation. The reduction process is carried out in a batch giving metal sponge and magnesium chloride in the reduced mass. The sponge is purified to using by vacuum distillation. The morphology of the sponge formed during the reduction and its influence on further processing has significant importance. In the present study, a detailed investigation involving evolution of the morphology of sponge particles and its implication during the vacuum distillation was carried out. The study of the microstructure was done using scanning electron microscopy and X-raymore » diffraction. It is observed that the nascent sponge formed is highly unstable which transforms to a needle-like morphology almost immediately, which further transforms to rounded and finally to a bulk shape. Faceting of the surface and needle-shape formation were observed in these particles, this is probably due to anisotropy in the surface energy. The morphology of the sponge formed during the reduction influences the distillation process. The fine needle-like shape sponge morphology leads to particle ejection, which is explained to be due to curvature effect. This is responsible for the formation of unwanted mass during distillation. XRD line broadening analysis indicates that the individual sponge particles are free from structural defects (dislocation) and are nearly single crystalline in nature.« less

  19. Pressure-induced kinetics of the α to ω transition in zirconium

    DOE PAGES

    Jacobsen, M. K.; Velisavljevic, N.; Sinogeikin, S. V.

    2015-07-13

    Diamond anvil cells (DAC) coupled with x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements are one of the primary techniques for investigating structural stability of materials at high pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions. DAC-XRD has been predominantly used to resolve structural information at set P-T conditions and, consequently, provides P-T phase diagram information on a broad range of materials. With advances in large scale synchrotron x-ray facilities and corresponding x-ray diagnostic capabilities, it is now becoming possible to perform sub-second time resolved measurements on micron sized DAC samples. As a result, there is an opportunity to gain valuable information about the kinetics of structural phase transformationsmore » and extend our understanding of material behavior at high P-T conditions. Using DAC-XRD time resolved measurements, we have investigated the kinetics of the α to ω transformation in zirconium. We observe a clear time and pressure dependence in the martensitic α-ω transition as a function of pressure-jump, i.e., drive pressure. The resulting data are fit using available kinetics models, which can provide further insight into transformation mechanism that influence transformation kinetics. Our results help shed light on the discrepancies observed in previous measurements of the α-ω transition pressure in zirconium.« less

  20. Optimal aluminum/zirconium: Protein interactions for predicting antiperspirant efficacy using zeta potential measurements.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shaotang; Vaughn, John; Pappas, Iraklis; Fitzgerald, Michael; Masters, James G; Pan, Long

    2015-01-01

    The interactions between commercial antiperspirant (AP) salts [aluminum chlorohydrate (ACH), activated ACH, aluminum sesquichlorohydrate (ASCH), zirconium aluminum glycine (ZAG), activated ZAG), pure aluminum polyoxocations (Al13-mer, Al30-mer), and the zirconium(IV)-glycine complex Zr6 (O)4 (OH)4 (H2O)8 (Gly)8]12+(-) (CP-2 or ZG) with Bovine serum albumin (BSA) were studied using zeta potential and turbidity measurements. The maximal turbidity, which revealed the optimal interactions between protein and metal salts, for all protein-metal salt samples was observed at the isoelectric point (IEP), where the zeta potential of the solution was zero. Efficacy of AP salts was determined via three parameters: the amount of salt required to flocculate BSA to reach IEP, the turbidity of solution at the IEP, and the pH range over which the turbidity of the solution remains sufficiently high. By comparing active salt performance from this work to traditional prescreening methods, this methodology was able to provide a consistent efficacy assessment for metal actives in APs or in water treatment.

  1. Synthesis of zirconium carbide whiskers by a combination of microwave hydrothermal and carbothermal reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kezhi; Zhou, Xuan; Zhao, Zhigang; Chen, Chunyu; Wang, Changcong; Ren, Biyun; Zhang, Leilei

    2018-02-01

    Zirconium carbide (ZrC) whiskers were successfully synthesized by a combination of microwave hydrothermal (MH) and carbothermal reduction. The precursors of ZrC whiskers were produced by MH, subsequently carbothermally reduced to ZrC whiskers at 1100-1600 °C in an Ar atmosphere. Effects of the reduction temperature and precursors with various carbon/zirconium (C/Zr) molar ratios on the synthesis of ZrC whiskers were investigated. The results showed that the carbothermal reduction occurred at 1100 °C, and terminated at a relatively low temperature (1400 °C). When the reduction temperature was 1500 °C and the C/Zr molar ratio was 5:1, the ZrC whiskers with the largest aspect ratio and the most uniform distribution were produced. The whiskers exhibited the diameters of 0.1-2 μm and the lengths of 5-30 μm. The synthesized ZrC whiskers with a single crystalline phase displayed cylindrical and pagoda-like morphologies. The growth of ZrC whiskers was considered to be governed by the Ostwald ripening and S-L-S mechanism.

  2. Surface functionalization of mesoporous silica SBA-15 by liquid-phase grafting of zirconium phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Sheng; Hagaman, Edward; Ma, Zhen

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of mesoporous silicas in the 1990s has offered new opportunities for the engineering of ordered catalytic nanoreactors, but the acid properties of mesoporous silicas are rather poor. Herein, mesoporous silica (SBA-15) surfaces were functionalized by zirconium phosphate via two methods recently developed in our group. Zr(OPr){sub 4} and POCl{sub 3} were used as appropriate precursors in both methods. The main difference between these methods lies in whether Zr(OPr){sub 4} is grafted onto SBA-15 first and POCl{sub 3} second (method 1) or the grafting process takes place in one pot, with SBA-15, Zr(OPr){sub 4}, and POCl{sub 3} altogether (methodmore » 2). More zirconium phosphate could be grafted by repeating the above procedures. The materials were characterized by ICP-OES, XRD, N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, TEM, {sup 31}P and {sup 29}Si MAS NMR, and NH{sub 3}-TPD, and their applications in catalytic isopropanol dehydration, cumene cracking, and metal-ion adsorption were demonstrated. Aluminum phosphate-modified SBA-15 samples could be obtained via these two methods as well. This work enriches the family of metal phosphate-functionalized mesoporous silicas as new solid acid catalysts.« less

  3. Studies of anti-fibrillogenic activity of phthalocyanines of zirconium containing out-of-plane ligands.

    PubMed

    Kovalska, Vladyslava; Losytskyy, Mykhaylo; Chernii, Viktor; Volkova, Kateryna; Tretyakova, Iryna; Cherepanov, Vsevolod; Yarmoluk, Sergiy; Volkov, Sergiy

    2012-01-01

    Series of phthalocyanines of zirconium containing lysine, citric, nonanoic acid residues and dibenzolylmethane groups as out-of-plane ligands are firstly studied as inhibitors of fibrillogenesis using cyanine-based fluorescent inhibitory assay. It was shown that studied phthalocyanines at concentration of 20μM inhibited aggregation reaction on 38.5-57.6% and inhibitory activity of phthalocyanines depended on the chemical nature of out-of-plane ligand. For the most active compound PcZrLys(2) (zirconium phthalocyanine containing lysine fragment) the efficient inhibitor concentration was estimated to be 37μM. AFM studies have shown that in the presence of PcZrLys(2) the inhibition of fibrils formation and formation of spherical oligomeric aggregates took place. Due to the ability of phthalocyanines to decrease efficiently protein aggregation into the amyloid fibrils, modification of phthalocyanine molecules via out-of-plane substitutions was proposed as approach for design of anti-fibrillogenic agents with required properties. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Structure and Thermodynamical Properties of Zirconium Hydrides from First-Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomqvist, Jakob; Olofsson, Johan; Alvarez, Anna-Maria; Bjerkén, Christina

    Zirconium alloys are used as nuclear fuel cladding material due to their mechanical and corrosion resistant properties together with their favorable cross-section for neutron scattering. At running conditions, however, there will be an increase of hydrogen in the vicinity of the cladding surface at the water side of the fuel. The hydrogen will diffuse into the cladding material and at certain conditions, such as lower temperatures and external load, hydrides will precipitate out in the material and cause well known embrittlement, blistering and other unwanted effects. Using phase-field methods it is now possible to model precipitation buildup in metals, for example as a function of hydrogen concentration, temperature and external load, but the technique relies on input of parameters, such as the formation energy of the hydrides and matrix. To that end, we have computed, using the density functional theory (DFT) code GPAW, the latent heat of fusion as well as solved the crystal structure for three zirconium hydride polymorphs: δ-ZrH1.6, γ-ZrH, and Є-ZrH2.

  5. Zirconium doped TiO{sub 2} thin films: A promising dielectric layer

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Arvind; Mondal, Sandip, E-mail: sandipmondal@physics.iisc.ernet.in; Rao, K. S. R. Koteswara

    2016-05-06

    In the present work, we have fabricated the zirconium doped TiO{sub 2} thin (ZTO) films from a facile spin – coating method. The addition of Zirconium in TiO{sub 2} offers conduction band offset to Si and consequently decreased the leakage current density by approximately two orders as compared to pure TiO{sub 2} thin (TO) films. The ZTO thin film shows a high dielectric constant 27 with a very low leakage current density ∼10{sup −8} A/cm{sup 2}. The oxide capacitate, flat band voltage and change in flat band voltage are 172 pF, -1.19 V and 54 mV. The AFM analysis confirmed the compactmore » and pore free flat surface. The RMS surface roughness is found to be 1.5 Å. The ellipsometry analysis also verified the fact with a high refractive index 2.21.« less

  6. Self-repairing vanadium-zirconium composite conversion coating for aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Xin; Wu, Xiaosong; Jia, Yuyu; Liu, Yali

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, new self-repairing vanadium-zirconium composite conversion coating was prepared and investigated by Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS), Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. EIS results showed that V-Zr conversion coating with hydrogen peroxide modified (VZO) revealed an increasing corrosion resistance in corrosive media which meant a certain self-repairing effect. SEM comparison photos also disclosed that VZO treated with scratches was gradually ameliorated from the initial cracked configuration to fewer cracks and more fillers through an immersion of 3.5% NaCl solution. XPS results demonstrated that the content of vanadium on VZO increased and zirconium declined when immersed in the corrosive solution. This explained further that the self-repairing ability could be related to vanadium. From the above results, we inferred possible structures of VZO and proposed that self-repairing effect was achieved through a hydrolysis condensation polymerization process of vanadate in the localized corrosion area.

  7. Mass spectrometric measurement of hydrogen isotope fractionation for the reactions of chloromethane with OH and Cl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keppler, Frank; Bahlmann, Enno; Greule, Markus; Schöler, Heinz Friedrich; Wittmer, Julian; Zetzsch, Cornelius

    2018-05-01

    Chloromethane (CH3Cl) is an important provider of chlorine to the stratosphere but detailed knowledge of its budget is missing. Stable isotope analysis is a potentially powerful tool to constrain CH3Cl flux estimates. The largest degree of isotope fractionation is expected to occur for deuterium in CH3Cl in the hydrogen abstraction reactions with its main sink reactant tropospheric OH and its minor sink reactant Cl atoms. We determined the isotope fractionation by stable hydrogen isotope analysis of the fraction of CH3Cl remaining after reaction with hydroxyl and chlorine radicals in a 3.5 m3 Teflon smog chamber at 293 ± 1 K. We measured the stable hydrogen isotope values of the unreacted CH3Cl using compound-specific thermal conversion isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The isotope fractionations of CH3Cl for the reactions with hydroxyl and chlorine radicals were found to be -264±45 and -280±11 ‰, respectively. For comparison, we performed similar experiments using methane (CH4) as the target compound with OH and obtained a fractionation constant of -205±6 ‰ which is in good agreement with values previously reported. The observed large kinetic isotope effects are helpful when employing isotopic analyses of CH3Cl in the atmosphere to improve our knowledge of its atmospheric budget.

  8. Competitive Employment and Autism Spectrum Disorder: Employer Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuckey, Wanietta C.

    2016-01-01

    Competitive employment for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is important because this group is described as the most employable, yet least employed. Historically, females have been more likely to hire/work with individuals with disabilities than males but the gap between the sexes has been closing. A survey focusing on work…

  9. A Conceptual Understanding of Employability: The Employers' View in Rwanda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamwesiga, Penelope Mbabazi

    2013-01-01

    Many governments believe that investing in human capital should increase citizens' employability, which is why it is often presented as a solution to the problems of knowledge-based economies and societies, rising unemployment rates and economic competiveness. The aim of this study is to understand employers' views regarding the employability of…

  10. Temporary Employment and Perceived Employability: Mediation by Impression Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Cuyper, Nele; De Witte, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Perceived employability (PE) has been advanced as the upcoming resource for career development, particularly for temporary workers. The question is how temporary workers become employable. Our hypothesis is that temporary workers more than permanent workers use impression management to become employable, both on the internal and the external labor…

  11. Barriers to Employment: Personality and Cognitive Predictors of Employment Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTurk, Carolyn; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane

    2006-01-01

    Barriers to employment are linked to individual factors such as thinking styles and personality traits. Personality and cognitive differences between employed (n = 55) and unemployed (n = 57) cohorts were analysed to quantify the association between these variables and employment status. Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the…

  12. Disability and Supported Employment: Impact on Employment, Income, and Allowances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germundsson, Per; Gustafsson, Johanna; Lind, Martin; Danermark, Berth

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we examine supported employment and its impact on the level of employment, disposable income, and sum of allowances, targeting a group of individuals with disabilities. We have particularly focused on individuals with psychiatric disabilities. Supported employment is a vocational rehabilitation service with an empowerment approach…

  13. Consumer and Employer Strategies for Overcoming Employment Barriers. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crudden, Adele; Williams, Wendy; McBroom, Lynn W.; Moore, J. Elton

    This report on strategies for overcoming employment barriers for persons with visual impairments summarizes comments and suggestions of 7 focus groups comprised of either consumers (n=49) or employers (n=19). The report first reviews the literature concerning employment barriers and how consumers in previous studies suggested these barriers be…

  14. Si Isotopes of Brownleeite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Messenger, Scott R.; Ito, M.; Keller, L. P.; Clemett, S. J.; Jones, J. H.; Tatsuoka, H.; Zolensky, M. E.; Tatsuoka, H.

    2010-01-01

    Brownleeite is a manganese silicide, ideally stoichiometric MnSi, not previously observed in nature until its discovery within an interplanetary dust particle (IDP) that likely originated from a comet [1]. Three discrete brownleeite grains in the IDP L2055 I3 (4 microns in size, hereafter IDP I3) were identified with maximum dimensions of 100, 250 and 600 nm and fully analyzed using scanning-transmission electron microscopy (STEM) [1]. One of the grains (100 nm in size) was poikilitically enclosed by low-Fe, Mn-enriched (LIME) olivine. LIME olivine is epitaxial to the brownleeite with the brownleeite (200) parallel to the olivine c* [1]. LIME olivine is an enigmatic phase first reported from chondritic porous IDPs and some unequilibrated ordinary chondrites [ 2], that is commonly observed in chondritic-porous IDPs. Recently, LIME olivine has been also found in comet Wild-2 (Stardust) samples [3], indicating that LIME olivine is a common mineral component of comets. LIME olivine has been proposed to form as a high temperature condensate in the protosolar nebula [2]. Brownleeite grains also likely formed as high-temperature condensates either in the early Solar System or in the outflow of an evolved star or supernova explosion [1]. The isotopic composition of the brownleeite grains may strongly constrain their ultimate source. To test this hypothesis, we performed isotopic analyses of the brownleeite and the associated LIME olivine, using the NASA/JSC NanoSIMS 50L ion microprobe.

  15. Aleutian terranes from Nd isotopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kay, R. W.; Kay, S. M.; Rubenstone, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Nd isotope ratios substantiate the identification of oceanic crustal terranes within the continental crustal basement of the Aleutian island arc. The oceanic terranes are exposed in the westernmost Aleutians, but to the east, they are completely buried by isotopically distinct arc-volcanic rocks. Analogous oceanic terranes may be important components of the terrane collages that comprise the continents.

  16. Method of separating boron isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, Reed J.; Thorne, James M.; Cluff, Coran L.; Hayes, John K.

    1984-01-01

    A method of boron isotope enrichment involving the isotope preferential photolysis of (2-chloroethenyl)dichloroborane as the feed material. The photolysis can readily be achieved with CO.sub.2 laser radiation and using fluences significantly below those required to dissociate BCl.sub.3.

  17. Method of separating boron isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, R.J.; Thorne, J.M.; Cluff, C.L.

    1981-01-23

    A method of boron isotope enrichment involving the isotope preferential photolysis of (2-chloroethenyl)-dichloroborane as the feed material. The photolysis can readily by achieved with CO/sub 2/ laser radiation and using fluences significantly below those required to dissociate BCl/sub 3/.

  18. Exotic Structure of Carbon Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Toshio; Sagawa, Hiroyuki; Hagino, Kouichi

    2003-12-01

    Ground state properties of C isotopes, deformation and elecromagnetic moments, as well as electric dipole transition strength are investigated. We first study the ground state properties of C isotopes using a deformed Hartree-Fock (HF) + BCS model with Skyrme interactions. Isotope dependence of the deformation properties is investigated. Shallow deformation minima are found in several neutron-rich C isotopes. It is also shown that the deformation minima appear in both the oblate and the prolate sides in 17C and 19C having almost the same binding energies. Next, we carry out shell model calculations to study electromagnetic moments and electric dipole transitions of C isotopes. We point out the clear configuration dependence of the quadrupole and magnetic moments in the odd C isotopes, which will be useful to find out the deformation and spin-parities of the ground states of these nuclei. Electric dipole states of C isotopes are studied focusing on the interplay between low energy Pigmy strength and giant dipole resonances. Low peak energies, two-peak structure and large widths of the giant resonances show deformation effects. Calculated transition strength below dipole giant resonance in heavier C isotopes than 15C is found to exhaust 12 ~ 15% of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule value and 50 ~ 80% of the cluster sum rule value.

  19. Calcium isotopes in wine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmden, C. E.

    2011-12-01

    The δ 44/40Ca values of bottled wine vary between -0.76% to -1.55% on the seawater scale and correlate weakly with inverse Ca concentration and Mg/Ca ratio, such that the lowest δ 44/40Ca values have the highest Ca concentrations and lowest Mg/Ca ratios. The correlation is notable in the sense that the measured wines include both whites and reds sampled from different wine growing regions of the world, and cover a wide range of quality. Trends among the data yield clues regarding the cause of the observed isotopic fractionation. White wines, and wines generally perceived to be of lower quality, have lower δ 44/40Ca values compared to red wines and wines of generally perceived higher quality. Quality was assessed qualitatively through sensory evaluation, price, and scores assigned by critics. The relationship between δ 44/40Ca and wine quality was most apparent when comparing wines of one varietal from one producer from the same growing region. In the vineyard, wine quality is related to factors such as the tonnage of the crop and the ripeness of the grapes at the time of harvesting, the thickness of the skins for reds, the age of the vines, as well as the place where the grapes were grown (terroir). Quality is also influenced by winemaking practices such as fermentation temperature, duration of skin contact, and barrel ageing. Accordingly, the relationship between δ 44/40Ca and wine quality may originate during grape ripening in the vineyard or during winemaking in the cellar. We tested the grape ripening hypothesis using Merlot grapes sampled from a vineyard in the Okanagan, British Columbia, using sugar content (degrees Brix) as an indicator of ripeness. The grapes were separated into pulp, skin, and pip fractions and were analyzed separately. Thus far, there is no clear evidence for a systematic change in δ 44/40Ca values associated with progressive ripening of grapes in the vineyard. On the day of harvesting, the δ 44/40Ca value of juice squeezed from

  20. η(6) -Arene-Zirconium-PNP-Pincer Complexes: Mechanism of Their Hydrogenolytic Formation and Their Reactivity as Zirconium(II) Synthons.

    PubMed

    Plundrich, Gudrun T; Wadepohl, Hubert; Clot, Eric; Gade, Lutz H

    2016-06-27

    The cyclometalated monobenzyl complexes [(Cbzdiphos(R) -CH)ZrBnX] 1 (iPr) Cl and 1 (Ph) I reacted with dihydrogen (10 bar) to yield the η(6) -toluene complexes [(Cbzdiphos(R) )Zr(η(6) -tol)X] 2 (iPr) Cl and 2 (Ph) I (cbzdiphos=1,8-bis(phosphino)-3,6-di-tert-butyl-9H-carbazole). The arene complexes were also found to be directly accessible from the triiodide [(Cbzdiphos(Ph) )ZrI3 ] through an in situ reaction with a dibenzylmagnesium reagent and subsequent hydrogenolysis, as exemplified for the η(6) -mesitylene complex [(Cbzdiphos(Ph) )Zr(η(6) -mes)I] (3 (Ph) I). The tolyl-ring in 2 (iPr) Cl adopts a puckered arrangement (fold angle 23.3°) indicating significant arene-1,4-diido character. Deuterium labeling experiments were consistent with an intramolecular reaction sequence after the initial hydrogenolysis of a Zr-C bond by a σ-bond metathesis. A DFT study of the reaction sequence indicates that hydrogenolysis by σ-bond metathesis first occurs at the cyclometalated ancillary ligand giving a hydrido-benzyl intermediate, which subsequently reductively eliminates toluene that then coordinates to the Zr atom as the reduced arene ligand. Complex 2 (Ph) I was reacted with 2,6-diisopropylphenyl isocyanide giving the deep blue, diamagnetic Zr(II) -diisocyanide complex [(Cbzdiphos(Ph) )Zr(CNDipp)2 I] (4 (Ph) I). DFT modeling of 4 (Ph) I demonstrated that the HOMO of the complex is primarily located as a "lone pair on zirconium", with some degree of back-bonding into the C≡N π* bond, and the complex is thus most appropriately described as a zirconium(II) species. Reaction of 2 (Ph) I with trimethylsilylazide (N3 TMS) and 2 (iPr) Cl with 1-azidoadamantane (N3 Ad) resulted in the formation of the imido complexes [(Cbzdiphos(R) )Zr=NR'(X)] 5 (iPr) Cl-NAd and 5 (Ph) I-NTMS, respectively. Reaction of 2 (iPr) Cl with azobenzene led to N-N bond scission giving 6 (iPr) Cl, in which one of the NPh-fragments is coupled with the carbazole