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Sample records for zirconium phosphate based

  1. Fabrication of a Biomass-Based Hydrous Zirconium Oxide Nanocomposite for Preferable Phosphate Removal and Recovery.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Hui; Liang, Chen; Zhang, Xiaolin; Chen, Mindong; Zhao, Yunxia; Tao, Tao; Xu, Zhengwen; Liu, Gang

    2015-09-23

    Advanced removal of phosphate by low-cost adsorbents from municipal wastewater or industrial effluents is an effective and economic way to prevent the occurrence of eutrophication. Here, we proposed a novel method to immobilize hydrous zirconium oxide nanoparticle within quaternary-aminated wheat straw, and obtained an inexpensive, eco-friendly nanocomposite Ws-N-Zr. The biomass-based Ws-N-Zr exhibited higher preference toward phosphate than commercial anion exchanger IRA-900 when competing sulfate ions coexisted at relatively high levels. Such excellent performance of Ws-N-Zr resulted from its specific hybrid structure, the quaternary ammonium groups bonded on the host favor the preconcentration of phosphate ions inside the wheat straw based on Donnan effect, and the encapsulated HZO nanoparticle exhibits preferable sequestration of phosphate ions through specific interaction, as further demonstrated by FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Cycle adsorption and regeneration experiments demonstrated that Ws-N-Zr could be employed for repeated use without significant capacity loss, when the binary NaOH-NaCl solution was employed as the regenerant. The influence of solution pH and contact time was also examined. The results suggested that Ws-N-Zr has a great potential in efficient removal of phosphate in contaminated waters.

  2. Preferable removal of phosphate from water using hydrous zirconium oxide-based nanocomposite of high stability.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Zhao, Xin; Pan, Bingcai; Zhang, Weixian; Hua, Ming; Lv, Lu; Zhang, Weiming

    2015-03-02

    In this study, we employed a new nanocomposite adsorbent HZO-201, which featured high stability under varying solution chemistry, for preferable removal of phosphate from synthetic solution and a real effluent. An anion exchange resin (D-201) was employed as the host of HZO-201, where nano-hydrous zirconium oxide (HZO) was encapsulated as the active species. D-201 binds phosphate through nonspecific electrostatic affinity, whereas the loaded HZO nanoparticles capture phosphate through formation of the inner-sphere complexes. Quantitative contribution of both species to phosphate adsorption was predicted based on the double-Langmuir model. Preferable removal of phosphate by HZO-201 was observed in the presence of the competing anions at higher levels (Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-), HCO3(-)). Fixed-bed adsorption indicated that the effective volume capacity of a synthetic water (2.0 mg P-PO4(3-)/L) by using HZO-201 was ∼1600 BV in the first run (<0.5mg P-PO4(3-)/L), comparable to Fe(III)-based nanocomposite HFO-201 (∼1500 BV) and much larger than D-201 (<250 BV). The exhausted HZO-201 can be in situ regenerated by using a binary NaOH-NaCl solution for cyclic runs, whether fed with the synthetic solution or real effluent. In general, HZO-201 is a promising alternative to Fe(III)-based adsorbents for trace phosphate removal from effluent particularly at acidic pH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. ZIRCONIUM PHOSPHATE ADSORPTION METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Russell, E.R.; Adamson, A.S.; Schubert, J.; Boyd, G.E.

    1958-11-01

    A method is presented for separating plutonium values from fission product values in aqueous acidic solution. This is accomplished by flowing the solutlon containing such values through a bed of zirconium orthophosphate. Any fission products adsorbed can subsequently be eluted by washing the column with a solution of 2N HNO/sub 3/ and O.lN H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/. Plutonium values may subsequently be desorbed by contacting the column with a solution of 7N HNO/sub 3/ .

  4. Zirconium Phosphate Supported MOF Nanoplatelets.

    PubMed

    Kan, Yuwei; Clearfield, Abraham

    2016-06-06

    We report a rare example of the preparation of HKUST-1 metal-organic framework nanoplatelets through a step-by-step seeding procedure. Sodium ion exchanged zirconium phosphate, NaZrP, nanoplatelets were judiciously selected as support for layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of Cu(II) and benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (H3BTC) linkers. The first layer of Cu(II) is attached to the surface of zirconium phosphate through covalent interaction. The successive LBL growth of HKUST-1 film is then realized by soaking the NaZrP nanoplatelets in ethanolic solutions of cupric acetate and H3BTC, respectively. The amount of assembled HKUST-1 can be readily controlled by varying the number of growth cycles, which was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and gas adsorption analyses. The successful construction of HKUST-1 on NaZrP was also supported by its catalytic performance for the oxidation of cyclohexene.

  5. A mediator-free glucose biosensor based on glucose oxidase/chitosan/α-zirconium phosphate ternary biocomposite.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Min; Wen, Jiwu; Liu, Lijun; He, Deyong; Kuang, Ren-yun; Shi, Taqing

    2014-01-15

    A novel glucose oxidase/chitosan/α-zirconium phosphate (GOD/chitosan/α-ZrP) ternary biocomposite was prepared by co-intercalating glucose oxidase (GOD) and chitosan into the interlayers of α-zirconium phosphate (α-ZrP) via a delamination-reassembly procedure. The results of X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, circular dichroism, and ultraviolet spectrum characterizations indicated not only the layered and hybrid structure of the GOD/chitosan/α-ZrP ternary biocomposite but also the recovered activity of the intercalated GOD improved by the co-intercalated chitosan. By depositing the GOD/chitosan/α-ZrP biocomposite film onto a glassy carbon electrode, the direct electrochemistry of the intercalated GOD was achieved with a fast electron transfer rate constant, k(s), of 7.48±3.52 s(-1). Moreover, this GOD/chitosan/α-ZrP biocomposite modified electrode exhibited a sensitive response to glucose in the linear range of 0.25-8.0 mM (R=0.9994, n=14), with a determination limit of 0.076 mM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. pH-responsive drug delivery system based on AIE luminogen functionalized layered zirconium phosphate nano-platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dongdong, E-mail: lidongdong@jlu.edu.cn; Zhang, Yuping; Zhou, Bingbing

    2015-05-15

    Aggregation-induced emission (AIE) luminogen, quaternary tetraphenylethene cation (TPEN), was successfully incorporated into layered α-zirconium phosphate (α-ZrP) by using co-precipitation method to form inorganic–organic hybrid materials. The obtained materials show the characteristic hexagonal platelet shape with the interlayer distance did not reveal significant difference compared with pure α-ZrP. In addition, the obtained hybrid materials emit strong blue emission centered at 476 nm in aqueous media due to the electrostatic interactions of TPEN with the anionic framework of α-ZrP, which largely restrict their intramolecular rotation. More importantly, the materials provide a pH dependent release of doxorubicin (DOX), suggesting that AIE luminogen functionalizedmore » α-ZrP may be used as an imaging guided and pH-responsive delivery system for targeting therapy. - Graphical abstract: AIE luminogen was successfully incorporated into layered α-zirconium phosphate by a co-precipitation method to form inorganic–organic hybrid materials, showing a pH dependent release of DOX. - Highlights: • AIE luminogen cation was incorporated into layered α-ZrP by co-precipitation method. • The obtained material emits strong blue emission upon UV irradiation. • The material exhibits pH dependent release of DOX. • The AIE functionalized α-ZrP has potential applications in imaging guided therapy.« less

  7. Highly effective removal of heavy metals by polymer-based zirconium phosphate: a case study of lead ion.

    PubMed

    Pan, B C; Zhang, Q R; Zhang, W M; Pan, B J; Du, W; Lv, L; Zhang, Q J; Xu, Z W; Zhang, Q X

    2007-06-01

    Zirconium phosphate (ZrP) has recently been demonstrated as an excellent sorbent for heavy metals due to its high selectivity, high thermal stability, and absolute insolubility in water. However, it cannot be readily adopted in fixed beds or any other flowthrough system due to the excessive pressure drop and poor mechanical strength resulting from its fine submicrometer particle sizes. In the present study a hybrid sorbent, i.e., polymer-supported ZrP, was prepared by dispersing ZrP within a strongly acidic cation exchanger D-001 and used for enhanced lead removal from contaminated waters. D-001 was selected as a host material for sorbent preparation mainly because of the Donnan membrane effect resulting from the nondiffusible negatively charged sulfonic acid group on the exchanger surface, which would enhance permeation of the targeted metal ions. The hybrid sorbent (hereafter denoted ZrP-001) was characterized using a nitrogen adsorption technique, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Lead sorption onto ZrP-001 was found to be pH dependent due to the ion-exchange mechanism, and its sorption kinetics onto ZrP-001 followed the pseudo-first-order model. Compared to D-001, ZrP-001 exhibited more favorable lead sorption particularly in terms of high selectivity, as indicated by its substantially larger distribution coefficients when other competing cations Na(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+) coexisted at a high level in solution. Fixed-bed column runs showed that lead sorption on ZrP-001 resulted in a conspicuous decrease of this toxic metal from 40 mg/L to below 0.05 mg/L. By comparison with D-001 and ZrP-CP (ZrP dispersion within a neutrally charged polymer CP), enhanced removal efficiency of ZrP-001 resulted from the Donnan membrane effect of the host material D-001. Moreover, its feasible regeneration by diluted acid solution and negligible ZrP loss during operation also helps ZrP-001 to be a potential candidate for lead removal from water. Thus

  8. PROCESS OF RECOVERING ZIRCONIUM VALUES FROM HAFNIUM VALUES BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION WITH AN ALKYL PHOSPHATE

    DOEpatents

    Peppard, D.F.

    1960-02-01

    A process of separating hafnium nitrate from zirconium nitrate contained in a nitric acid solution by selectively. extracting the zirconium nitrate with a water-immiscible alkyl phosphate is reported.

  9. Anticorrosive Behavior and Porosity of Tricationic Phosphate and Zirconium Conversion Coating on Galvanized Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasquez, Camilo S.; Pimenta, Egnalda P. S.; Lins, Vanessa F. C.

    2018-05-01

    This work evaluates the corrosion resistance of galvanized steel treated with tricationic phosphate and zirconium conversion coating after painting, by using electrochemical techniques, accelerated and field corrosion tests. A non-uniform and heterogeneous distribution of zirconium on the steel surface was observed due to preferential nucleation of the zirconium on the aluminum-rich sites on the surface of galvanized steel. The long-term anti-corrosion performance in a saline solution was better for the phosphate coating up to 120 days. The coating capacitance registered a higher increase for the zirconium coatings than the phosphate coatings up to 120 days of immersion. This result agrees with the higher porosity of zirconium coating in relation to the phosphate coating. After 3840 h of accelerated corrosion test, and after 1 year of accelerated field test, zirconium-treated samples showed an average scribe delamination length higher than the phosphate-treated samples.

  10. Anticorrosive Behavior and Porosity of Tricationic Phosphate and Zirconium Conversion Coating on Galvanized Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasquez, Camilo S.; Pimenta, Egnalda P. S.; Lins, Vanessa F. C.

    2018-04-01

    This work evaluates the corrosion resistance of galvanized steel treated with tricationic phosphate and zirconium conversion coating after painting, by using electrochemical techniques, accelerated and field corrosion tests. A non-uniform and heterogeneous distribution of zirconium on the steel surface was observed due to preferential nucleation of the zirconium on the aluminum-rich sites on the surface of galvanized steel. The long-term anti-corrosion performance in a saline solution was better for the phosphate coating up to 120 days. The coating capacitance registered a higher increase for the zirconium coatings than the phosphate coatings up to 120 days of immersion. This result agrees with the higher porosity of zirconium coating in relation to the phosphate coating. After 3840 h of accelerated corrosion test, and after 1 year of accelerated field test, zirconium-treated samples showed an average scribe delamination length higher than the phosphate-treated samples.

  11. Lamellar zirconium phosphates to host metals for catalytic purposes.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros-Plata, Daniel; Infantes-Molina, Antonia; Rodríguez-Aguado, Elena; Braos-García, Pilar; Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique

    2018-02-27

    In the present study a porous lamellar zirconium phosphate heterostructure (PPH) formed from zirconium(iv) phosphate expanded with silica galleries (P/Zr molar ratio equal to 2 and (Si + Zr)/P equal to 3) was prepared to host noble metals. Textural and structural characterization of PPH-noble metal materials was carried out in order to elucidate the location and dispersion of the metallic particles and the properties of the resulting material to be used in catalytic processes. In the present paper, their activity in the catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) reaction of dibenzofuran (DBF) was evaluated. X-ray diffraction (XRD), solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) evidenced that the structure of the pillared zirconium phosphate material was not modified by the incorporation of Pt and Pd. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed a different dispersion of the noble metal. The acidity of the resulting PPH-noble metal materials also changed, although in all cases the acidity was of weak nature, and the incorporation of noble metals affected Brønsted acid sites as observed from 31 P NMR spectra. In general, the textural, structural and acidic properties of the resulting materials suggest that PPH can be considered a good candidate to be used as a catalytic support. Thus, the catalytic results of the PPH-noble metal samples indicated that the Pd sample showed a stable behavior probably ascribed to a high dispersion of the active phase. However, the Pt sample suffered from fast deactivation. The selectivity to the reaction products was strongly dependent on the noble metal employed.

  12. Nanoencapsulation of Insulin into Zirconium Phosphate for Oral Delivery Applications

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Agustín; David, Amanda; Pérez, Riviam; González, Millie L.; Báez, Adriana; Wark, Stacey E.; Zhang, Paul; Clearfield, Abraham; Colón, Jorge L.

    2010-01-01

    The encapsulation of insulin into different kinds of materials for non-invasive delivery is an important field of study because of the many drawbacks of painful needle and syringe delivery such as physiological stress, infection, and local hypertrophy, among others.1 A stable, robust, non-toxic, and viable non-invasive carrier for insulin delivery is needed. We present a new approach for protein nanoencapsulation using layered zirconium phosphate (ZrP) nanoparticles produced without any preintercalator present. The use of ZrP without preintercalators produces a highly pure material, without any kinds of contaminants, such as the preintercalator, which can be noxious. Cytotoxicity cell viability in vitro experiments for the ZrP nanoparticles show that ZrP is not toxic, or harmful, in a biological environment, as previously reported for rats.2 Contrary to previous preintercalator-based methods, we show that insulin can be nanoencapsulated in ZrP if a highly hydrate phase of ZrP with an interlayer distance of 10.3 Å (10.3 Å-ZrP or θ-ZrP) is used as precursor. The intercalation of insulin into ZrP produced a new insulin-intercalated ZrP phase with a ca. 27 Å interlayer distance, as determined by X-ray powder diffraction, demonstrating a successful nanoencapsulation of the hormone. The in vitro release profile of the hormone after the intercalation was determined and circular dichroism was used to study the hormone stability upon intercalation and release. The insulin remains stable in the layered material, at room temperature, for a considerable amount of time, improving the shell life of the peptidic hormone. This type of materials represents a strong candidate to develop a non-invasive insulin carrier for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:20707305

  13. Minimalistic Liquid-Assisted Route to Highly Crystalline α-Zirconium Phosphate.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu; Wang, Xiaodong Tony; Jaenicke, Stephan; Chuah, Gaik-Khuan

    2017-08-24

    Zirconium phosphates have potential applications in areas of ion exchange, catalysis, photochemistry, and biotechnology. However, synthesis methodologies to form crystalline α-zirconium phosphate (Zr(HPO 4 ) 2 ⋅H 2 O) typically involve the use of excess phosphoric acid, addition of HF or oxalic acid and long reflux times or hydrothermal conditions. A minimalistic sustainable route to its synthesis has been developed by using only zirconium oxychloride and concentrated phosphoric acid to form highly crystalline α-zirconium phosphate within hours. The morphology can be changed from platelets to rod-shaped particles by fluoride addition. By varying the temperature and time, α-zirconium phosphate with particle sizes from nanometers to microns can be obtained. Key features of this minimal solvent synthesis are the excellent yields obtained with high atom economy under mild conditions and ease of scalability. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Gadolinium-hydrogen ion exchange of zirconium phosphate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, D. C.; Power, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    The Gd(+3)/H(+) ion exchange on a commercial zirconium phosphate ion exchanger was investigated in chloride, sulfate, and phosphate solutions of Gd(+3) at gadolinium concentrations of 0.001 to 1 millimole per cc and in the pH range of 0 to 3.5. Relatively low Gd(+3) capacities, in the range of 0.01 to 0.1 millimole per g of ion exchanger were found at room temperature. A significant difference in Gd(+3) sorption was observed, depending on whether the ion exchanger was converted from initial conditions of greater or lesser Gd(+3) sorption than the specific final conditions. Correlations were found between decrease in Gd(+3) capacity and loss of exchanger phosphate groups due to hydrolysis during washing and between increase in capacity and treatment with H3PO4. Fitting of the experimental data to ideal ion exchange equilibrium expressions indicated that each Gd(+3) ion is sorbed on only one site of the ion exchanger. The selectivity quotient was determined to be 2.5 + or - 0.4 at room temperature on gadolinium desorption in chloride solutions.

  15. Zirconium Phosphate Nanoplatelet Potential for Anticancer Drug Delivery Applications.

    PubMed

    González, Millie L; Ortiz, Mayra; Hernández, Carmen; Cabán, Jennifer; Rodríguez, Axel; Colón, Jorge L; Báez, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Zirconium phosphate (ZrP) nanoplatelets can intercalate anticancer agents via an ion exchange reaction creating an inorganic delivery system with potential for cancer treatment. ZrP delivery of anticancer agents inside tumor cells was explored in vitro. Internalization and cytotoxicity of ZrP nanoplatelets were studied in MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells. DOX-loaded ZrP nanoplatelets (DOX@ZrP) uptake was assessed by confocal (CLSM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cytotoxicity to MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells was determined by the MTT assay. Reactive Oxy- gen Species (ROS) production was analyzed by fluorometric assay, and cell cycle alterations and induction of apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. ZrP nanoplatelets were localized in the endosomes of MCF-7 cells. DOX and ZrP nanoplatelets were co-internalized into MCF-7 cells as detected by CLSM. While ZrP showed limited toxicity to MCF-7 cells, DOX@ZrP was cytotoxic at an IC₅₀ similar to that of free DOX. Meanwhile, DOX lC₅₀ was significantly lower than the equivalent concentration of DOX@ZrP in MCF-10A cells. ZrP did not induce apoptosis in both cell lines. DOX and DOX@ZrP induced significant oxidative stress in both cell models. Results suggest that ZrP nanoplatelets are promising as carriers of anticancer agents into cancer cells.

  16. Adsorption of phosphate in water using one-step synthesized zirconium-loaded reduced graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xin; Wang, Xiurong; Bao, Shaopan; Liu, Xiawei; Zhang, Weicheng; Fang, Tao

    2016-12-01

    In this account, a one-step green hydrothermal method for zirconium-loaded reduced graphene oxide (RGO-Zr) adsorbent was developed in pure water. It is based on the formation of initially strong-coupling RGO-Zr nanocomposites followed by in situ reduction of GO to RGO during the hydrothermal treatment. The phosphate adsorption performance of the as-prepared nanocomposites was investigated in aqueous environment under various conditions. The characterization results of RGO-Zr nanocomposites showed that ZrO2 was successfully integrated onto the RGO sheets in amorphous. The data from equilibrium phosphate adsorption on RGO-Zr revealed that the adsorption kinetics followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model, where the adsorption isotherm fitted the Langmuir isotherm model with a maximum adsorption capacity of 27.71 mg P/g at pH 5 and 298 K. The improved phosphate adsorption on RGO-Zr was caused by the dispersion of ZrO2 on the RGO surface. Furthermore, the phosphate adsorption was found insensitive to the increase in pH while it was sensitive to the increase in temperature. The coexisting anions of SO42-, F-, Cl-, NO3- and CO32- affected the phosphate adsorption in a different way. Results suggest that the present RGO-Zr adsorbent has the potential for controlling phosphorus pollution in water.

  17. Reactivity of zirconium basic sulfate in the reactions with carbonate, oxalate, and phosphate reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Nekhamkin, L.G.; Kondrashova, I.A.; Kerina, V.R.

    1987-08-20

    The reactivity of zirconium basic sulfate is determined by the possibility of replacement of oxo- and hydroxo-ligands and decreases with increasing temperature of its precipitation. The interaction of the less reactive zirconium basic sulfate with carbonate and oxalate reagents occurs at 25/sup 0/C without any change in basicity and that with phosphate reagents occurs with a decrease in it, up to the formation of a monophosphate with basicity about 20%. In the interaction of the more reactive zirconium basic sulfate, obtained without heating, oxo- and hydroxo groups can be entirely replaced by acido-ligands with the formation of unhydrolyzed compounds.

  18. Modification and intercalation of layered zirconium phosphates: a solid-state NMR monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bakhmutov, Vladimir I; Kan, Yuwei; Sheikh, Javeed Ahmad; González-Villegas, Julissa; Colón, Jorge L; Clearfield, Abraham

    2017-07-01

    Several layered zirconium phosphates treated with Zr(IV) ions, modified by monomethoxy-polyethyleneglycol-monophosphate and intercalated with doxorubicin hydrochloride have been studied by solid-state MAS NMR techniques. The organic components of the phosphates have been characterized by the 13 C{ 1 H} CP MAS NMR spectra compared with those of initial compounds. The multinuclear NMR monitoring has provided to establish structure and covalent attachment of organic/inorganic moieties to the surface and interlayer spaces of the phosphates. The MAS NMR experiments including kinetics of proton-phosphorus cross polarization have resulted in an unusual structure of zirconium phosphate 6 combining decoration of the phosphate surface by polymer units and their partial intercalation into the interlayer space. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Comparison of Zirconium Phosphonate-Modified Surfaces for Immobilizing Phosphopeptides and Phosphate-Tagged Proteins.

    PubMed

    Forato, Florian; Liu, Hao; Benoit, Roland; Fayon, Franck; Charlier, Cathy; Fateh, Amina; Defontaine, Alain; Tellier, Charles; Talham, Daniel R; Queffélec, Clémence; Bujoli, Bruno

    2016-06-07

    Different routes for preparing zirconium phosphonate-modified surfaces for immobilizing biomolecular probes are compared. Two chemical-modification approaches were explored to form self-assembled monolayers on commercially available primary amine-functionalized slides, and the resulting surfaces were compared to well-characterized zirconium phosphonate monolayer-modified supports prepared using Langmuir-Blodgett methods. When using POCl3 as the amine phosphorylating agent followed by treatment with zirconyl chloride, the result was not a zirconium-phosphonate monolayer, as commonly assumed in the literature, but rather the process gives adsorbed zirconium oxide/hydroxide species and to a lower extent adsorbed zirconium phosphate and/or phosphonate. Reactions giving rise to these products were modeled in homogeneous-phase studies. Nevertheless, each of the three modified surfaces effectively immobilized phosphopeptides and phosphopeptide tags fused to an affinity protein. Unexpectedly, the zirconium oxide/hydroxide modified surface, formed by treating the amine-coated slides with POCl3/Zr(4+), afforded better immobilization of the peptides and proteins and efficient capture of their targets.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of zirconium titanium phosphate and its application in separation of metal ions.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Rakesh; Chudasama, Uma

    2009-12-15

    An advanced inorganic ion exchanger, zirconium titanium phosphate (ZTP) of the class of tetravalent bimetallic acid (TBMA) salt has been synthesized by sol-gel route. ZTP has been characterized for ICP-AES, TGA, FTIR and XRD. Chemical stability of the material in various media-acids, bases and organic solvents has been assessed. Cation exchange capacity (CEC) and effect of calcination (100-500 degrees C) on CEC has also been studied. Distribution behaviour of metal ions Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+ (d-block), Cd2+, Hg2+, Pb2+, Bi3+ (heavy) and La3+, Ce3+, Th4+, UO(2)2+ (f-block) towards ZTP has been studied and distribution coefficient (K(d)) determined in aqueous as well as various electrolyte media/concentrations. Based on the differential selectivity, breakthrough capacity (BTC) and elution behaviour of various metal ions towards ZTP, a few binary and ternary metal ion separations have been carried out.

  1. Direct intercalation of cisplatin into zirconium phosphate nanoplatelets for potential cancer nanotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Agustín; González, Millie L.; Pérez, Riviam J.; David, Amanda; Mukherjee, Atashi; Báez, Adriana; Clearfield, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    We report the use of zirconium phosphate nanoplatelets (ZrP) for the encapsulation of the anticancer drug cisplatin and its delivery to tumor cells. Cisplatin was intercalated into ZrP by direct-ion exchange and was tested in-vitro for cytotoxicity in the human breast cancer (MCF-7) cell line. The structural characterization of the intercalated cisplatin in ZrP suggests that during the intercalation process, the chloride ligands of the cisplatin complex were substituted by phosphate groups within the layers. Consequently, a new phosphate phase with the platinum complex directly bound to ZrP (cisPt@ZrP) is produced with an interlayer distance of 9.3 Å. The in-vitro release profile of the intercalated drug by pH stimulus shows that at low pH under lysosomal conditions the platinum complex is released with simultaneous hydrolysis of the zirconium phosphate material, while at higher pH the complex is not released. Experiments with the MCF-7 cell line show that cisPt@ZrP reduced the cell viability up to 40%. The cisPt@ZrP intercalation product is envisioned as a future nanotherapy agent for cancer. Taking advantage of the shape and sizes of the ZrP particles and controlled release of the drug at low pH, it is intended to exploit the enhanced permeability and retention effect of tumors, as well as their intrinsic acidity, for the destruction of malignant cells. PMID:24072038

  2. Surface functionalization of mesoporous silica SBA-15 by liquid-phase grafting of zirconium phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Sheng; Hagaman, Edward; Ma, Zhen

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of mesoporous silicas in the 1990s has offered new opportunities for the engineering of ordered catalytic nanoreactors, but the acid properties of mesoporous silicas are rather poor. Herein, mesoporous silica (SBA-15) surfaces were functionalized by zirconium phosphate via two methods recently developed in our group. Zr(OPr){sub 4} and POCl{sub 3} were used as appropriate precursors in both methods. The main difference between these methods lies in whether Zr(OPr){sub 4} is grafted onto SBA-15 first and POCl{sub 3} second (method 1) or the grafting process takes place in one pot, with SBA-15, Zr(OPr){sub 4}, and POCl{sub 3} altogether (methodmore » 2). More zirconium phosphate could be grafted by repeating the above procedures. The materials were characterized by ICP-OES, XRD, N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, TEM, {sup 31}P and {sup 29}Si MAS NMR, and NH{sub 3}-TPD, and their applications in catalytic isopropanol dehydration, cumene cracking, and metal-ion adsorption were demonstrated. Aluminum phosphate-modified SBA-15 samples could be obtained via these two methods as well. This work enriches the family of metal phosphate-functionalized mesoporous silicas as new solid acid catalysts.« less

  3. Effect of humic acid preloading on phosphate adsorption onto zirconium-modified zeolite.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jianwei; Zhang, Zhe; Zhan, Yanhui

    2017-05-01

    A zirconium-modified zeolite (ZrMZ) was prepared, and then, humic acid (HA) was immobilized on the ZrMZ surface to prepare HA-loaded ZrMZ (HA-ZrMZ). The obtained ZrMZ and HA-ZrMZ were characterized by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, elemental analyzer, N 2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, pH at the point of zero charge, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The adsorption characteristics of phosphate on ZrMZ and HA-ZrMZ were comparatively investigated in batch mode. The adsorption mechanism of phosphate on ZrMZ and HA-ZrMZ was investigated by ionic strength effect and 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance. The mechanism for phosphate adsorption onto ZrMZ was the formation of inner-sphere phosphate complexes at the solid/solution interface. The preloading of HA on ZrMZ reduced the phosphate adsorption capacity, and the more the HA loading amount, the lower the phosphate adsorption capacity. However, the preloading of HA on ZrMZ did not change the phosphate adsorption mechanism; i.e., the formation of inner-sphere phosphate surface complexes was still responsible for the adsorption of phosphate on HA-ZrMZ. The decreased phosphate adsorption capacity for ZrMZ after HA coating could be attributed to the fact that the coating of HA on ZrMZ reduced the amount of binding active sites available for phosphate adsorption, changed the adsorbent surface charges, and reduced the specific surface areas and pore volumes of ZrMZ.

  4. Fine-grained zirconium-base material

    DOEpatents

    Van Houten, G.R.

    1974-01-01

    A method is described for making zirconium with inhibited grain growth characteristics, by the process of vacuum melting the zirconium, adding 0.3 to 0.5% carbon, stirring, homogenizing, and cooling. (Official Gazette)

  5. Zirconium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedinger, G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Zirconium is the 20th most abundant element in the Earth’s crust. It occurs in a variety of rock types and geologic environments but most often in igneous rocks in the form of zircon (ZrSiO4). Zircon is recovered as a coproduct of the mining and processing of heavy mineral sands for the titanium minerals ilmenite and rutile. The sands are formed by the weathering and erosion of rock containing zircon and titanium heavy minerals and their subsequent concentration in sedimentary systems, particularly in coastal environments. A small quantity of zirconium, less than 10 kt/a (11,000 stpy), compared with total world production of 1.4 Mt (1.5 million st) in 2012, was derived from the mineral baddeleyite (ZrO2), produced from a single source in Kovdor, Russia.

  6. Performance of magnetic zirconium-iron oxide nanoparticle in the removal of phosphate from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chang; Li, Yongqiu; Wang, Fenghua; Yu, Zhigang; Wei, Jingjing; Yang, Zhongzhu; Ma, Chi; Li, Zihao; Xu, ZiYi; Zeng, Guangming

    2017-02-01

    In this study, magnetic zirconium-iron oxide nanoparticles (MZION) of different Fe/Zr molar ratios were successfully prepared using the co-precipitation method, and their performance for phosphate removal was systematically evaluated. The as-obtained adsorbents were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Zeta potential analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) specific surface area analysis. The effects of pH, ionic strength, and co-existing ions (including Cl-, SO42-, NO3- and HCO3-) were measured to evaluate the adsorption performance in batch experiments. The results showed that decreasing the Fe/Zr molar ratios increased the specific surface area that was propitious to adsorption process, but the adsorption capacity enhanced with the decrease of Fe/Zr molar ratios. Phosphate adsorption on MZION could be well described by the Freundlich equilibrium model and pseudo-second-order kinetics. The adsorption of phosphate was highly pH dependent and decreased with increasing pH from 1.5 to 10.0. The adsorption was slightly affected by ionic strength. With the exception of HCO3-, co-existing anions showed minimum or no effect on their adsorption performance. After adsorption, phosphate on these MZION could be easily desorbed by 0.1 M NaOH solution. The phosphate adsorption mechanism of MZION followed the inner-sphere complexing mechanism, and the surface sbnd OH groups played a significant role in the phosphate adsorption. Additionally, the main advantages of MZION consisted in its separation convenience and highly adsorption capacity compared to other adsorbents.

  7. Synthesis and Exfoliation of Discotic Zirconium Phosphates to Obtain Colloidal Liquid Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yi-Hsien; Wang, Xuezhen; Shinde, Abhijeet; Cheng, Zhengdong

    2016-01-01

    Due to their abundance in natural clay and potential applications in advanced materials, discotic nanoparticles are of interest to scientists and engineers. Growth of such anisotropic nanocrystals through a simple chemical method is a challenging task. In this study, we fabricate discotic nanodisks of zirconium phosphate [Zr(HPO4)2·H2O] as a model material using hydrothermal, reflux and microwave-assisted methods. Growth of crystals is controlled by duration time, temperature, and concentration of reacting species. The novelty of the adopted methods is that discotic crystals of size ranging from hundred nanometers to few micrometers can be obtained while keeping the polydispersity well within control. The layered discotic crystals are converted to monolayers by exfoliation with tetra-(n)-butyl ammonium hydroxide [(C4H9)4NOH, TBAOH]. Exfoliated disks show isotropic and nematic liquid crystal phases. Size and polydispersity of disk suspensions is highly important in deciding their phase behavior. PMID:27284765

  8. Hyaluronic acid-modified zirconium phosphate nanoparticles for potential lung cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Ranwei; Liu, Tiecheng; Wang, Ke

    2017-02-01

    Novel tumor-targeting zirconium phosphate (ZP) nanoparticles modified with hyaluronic acid (HA) were developed (HA-ZP), with the aim of combining the drug-loading property of ZP and the tumor-targeting ability of HA to construct a tumor-targeting paclitaxel (PTX) delivery system for potential lung cancer therapy. The experimental results indicated that PTX loading into the HA-ZP nanoparticles was as high as 20.36%±4.37%, which is favorable for cancer therapy. PTX-loaded HA-ZP nanoparticles increased the accumulation of PTX in A549 lung cancer cells via HA-mediated endocytosis and exhibited superior anticancer activity in vitro. In vivo anticancer efficacy assay revealed that HA-ZP nanoparticles possessed preferable anticancer abilities, which exhibited minimized toxic side effects of PTX and strong tumor-suppression potential in clinical application.

  9. Nanostructured zirconium phosphate as ion exchanger: Synthesis, size dependent property and analytical application in radiochemical separation.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Rajesh; Bhattacharaya, Koustava; Chattopadhyay, Pabitra

    2014-02-01

    Nanostructured zirconium phosphates (ZPs) of different sizes were synthesized using Tritron X-100 (polyethylene glycol-p-isooctylphenyl ether) surfactant. The materials were characterized by FTIR and powdered X-ray diffraction (XRD). The structural and morphological details of the material were established by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The SEM study was followed by energy dispersive spectroscopic analysis (EDS) for elemental analysis of the sample. The particle sizes were determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) method. Ion exchange capacity of these nanomaterials towards different metal ions was measured and size-dependent ion exchange property of the materials was investigated thoroughly. The nanomaterial of the smallest size (ca. 21.04nm) was employed to separate carrier-free (137m)Ba from (137)Cs in column chromatographic technique using 1.0M HNO3 as eluting agent at pH=5. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. In situ DRIFTS investigation of NH3-SCR reaction over CeO2/zirconium phosphate catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiulin; Fan, Jie; Ning, Ping; Song, Zhongxian; Liu, Xin; Wang, Lanying; Wang, Jing; Wang, Huimin; Long, Kaixian

    2018-03-01

    A series of ceria modified zirconium phosphate catalysts were synthesized for selective catalytic reduction of NO with ammonia (NH3-SCR). Over 98% NOx conversion and 98% N2 selectivity were obtained by the CeO2/ZrP catalyst with 20 wt.% CeO2 loading at 250-425 °C. The interaction between CeO2 and zirconium phosphate enhanced the redox abilities and surface acidities of the catalysts, resulting in the improvement of NH3-SCR activity. The in situ DRIFTS results indicated that the NH3-SCR reaction over the catalysts followed both Eley-Rideal and Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanisms. The amide (sbnd NH2) groups and the NH4+ bonded to Brønsted acid sites were the important intermediates of Eley-Rideal mechanism.

  11. Phosphate base laser glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Izumitani, T.; Tsuru, M.

    1980-12-16

    A phosphate base laser glass comprising 55-70% P2O5, 1-15% Al2O3, 0-25% Li2O, 0-25% Na2O, 0-8% K2O, the total proportion of Li2O, Na2O, and K2O being 10-25%, 0-15% BaO, 0-15% ZnO, 0-15% CaO , 0-15%, sro, 0-15% MgO, the total proportion of BaO, ZnO, CaO, SrO, and MgO being 5-15%, 0-5% Y2O3, 0-5% La2O3, 0-5% GeO2, 0-5% CeO2, 0-3% Nb2O5, 0-3% MnO2, 0-2% Ta2O5, 0-1% Sb2O3, and 0.01-5% Nd2O3, all % being mole %. The phosphate base laser glass of this invention has a high induced emission cross section, a low non-linear refractive index coefficient, and excellent acid resistance and divitrificationmore » resistance. By replacing partially or wholely one or more of LiO2, Na2O, K2O, BaO, ZnO, CaO, SrO, MgO or Al2O3 by LiF, NaF, KF , BaF2ZnF2, CaF2, SrF2, MgF2 or AlF3, respectively, the above properties of the laser glass are further improved.« less

  12. Thermally Induced Lateral Motion of α-Zirconium Phosphate Layers Intercalated with Hexadecylamines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Char, Kookheon

    2005-03-01

    Well-defined intercalated structure, either interdigitated layers or bilayers, of hexadecylamines (HDAs) in a confined space of a highly-functionalized layered material, α- zirconium phosphate (α-ZrP), was prepared and these two distinct intercalated structures can serve as model systems to investigate the interaction of the two monolayers whose amphiphilic tails are adjacent to each other. Acidic functional groups (-POH) on the α-ZrP are in well-ordered array and the number of functional group is quite high (i.e., cationic exchange capacity (CEC) = 664 mmole/100 g, area per one charge site = 0.24 nm^2) enough to realize the bilayers (i.e., discrete two monolayers) of HDAs within the α-ZrP interlayer. We employed the two-step intercalation mechanism for the preparation of well- ordered interdigitated layers as well as the bilayers of alkyl chains attached to both sides of the α-ZrP intergallery. An intriguing lateral motion of the α-ZrP sheets was observed with in-situ SAXS measurements for the interdigitated layer during heating and cooling cycle and verified with TEM. This lateral motion is believed to be due to the transition from the tilted to the untilted conformation of the interdigitated HDA chains and this transition is found to be thermally reversible.

  13. Sonochemically synthesized biocompatible zirconium phosphate nanoparticles for pH sensitive drug delivery application.

    PubMed

    Kalita, Himani; Prashanth Kumar, B N; Konar, Suraj; Tantubay, Sangeeta; Kr Mahto, Madhusudan; Mandal, Mahitosh; Pathak, Amita

    2016-03-01

    The present work reports the synthesis of biocompatible zirconium phosphate (ZP) nanoparticles as nanocarrier for drug delivery application. The ZP nanoparticles were synthesized via a simple sonochemical method in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and their efficacy for the delivery of drugs has been tested through various in-vitro experiments. The particle size and BET surface area of the nanoparticles were found to be ~48 nm and 206.51 m(2)/g respectively. The conventional MTT assay and cellular localization studies of the particles, performed on MDA-MB-231 cell lines, demonstrate their excellent biocompatibility and cellular internalization behavior. The loading of curcumin, an antitumor drug, onto the ZP nanoparticles shows the rapid drug uptake ability of the particles, while the drug release study, performed at two different pH values (at 7.4 and 5) depicts pH sensitive release-profile. The MTT assay and cellular localization studies revealed higher cellular inhibition and better bioavailability of the nanoformulated curcumin compared to free curcumin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. In-situ high-pressure powder X-ray diffraction study of α-zirconium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Readman, Jennifer E; Lennie, Alistair; Hriljac, Joseph A

    2014-06-01

    The high-pressure structural chemistry of α-zirconium phosphate, α-Zr(HPO4)2·H2O, was studied using in-situ high-pressure diffraction and synchrotron radiation. The layered phosphate was studied under both hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic conditions and Rietveld refinement carried out on the resulting diffraction patterns. It was found that under hydrostatic conditions no uptake of additional water molecules from the pressure-transmitting medium occurred, contrary to what had previously been observed with some zeolite materials and a layered titanium phosphate. Under hydrostatic conditions the sample remained crystalline up to 10 GPa, but under non-hydrostatic conditions the sample amorphized between 7.3 and 9.5 GPa. The calculated bulk modulus, K0 = 15.2 GPa, showed the material to be very compressible with the weak linkages in the structure of the type Zr-O-P.

  15. Accumulation of zirconium phosphate by a Serratia sp.: a benign system for the removal of radionuclides from aqueous flows.

    PubMed

    Mennan, Claire; Paterson-Beedle, Marion; Macaskie, Lynne E

    2010-10-01

    Metal phosphate deposited enzymatically on Serratia sp. has been used successfully for the removal of radionuclides from aqueous flows. Previous studies using biogenic hydrogen uranyl phosphate (HUP) on Serratia sp. biofilm showed removal of 100% of (90)Sr, (137)Cs, and (60)Co via their intercalation into biogenic HUP crystals. Zirconium phosphates (ZrP) offer a potential non-toxic and non-radioactive alternative to HUP for water decontamination. A method was developed for biomanufacturing ZrP. Biogenic ZrP removed ca. 100% of Sr(2+) and Co(2+) (0.5 mM) from solutions to a molar ratio at saturation of ca. 1:0.6 for both Zr:Sr and Zr:Co. The potential for drinking water decontamination via bio-ZrP is discussed with respect to bio-HUP and also other commercially available materials.

  16. Zirconium phosphate nanoplatelets: a biocompatible nanomaterial for drug delivery to cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Vipin; Diaz, Agustin; Clearfield, Abraham; Batteas, James D.; Hussain, Muhammad Delwar

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of zirconium phosphate (ZrP) nanoplatelets (NPs), and their use in drug delivery. ZrP and doxorubicin-intercalated ZrP (DOX:ZrP) NPs were characterized by using X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Transmission Electron Micrography (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Biocompatibility of ZrP NPs was evaluated in human embryonic kidney (HEK-293), breast cancer (MCF-7), metastatic breast cancer (MDA-MB-231), ovarian cancer (OVCAR-3), resistant cancer (NCI-RES/ADR) cells and mouse macrophage (RAW 264.7) cell lines. Hemocompatibility of ZrP NPs was evaluated with human red blood cells. Simulated body fluid (SBF) of pH 7.4 was used to determine the in vitro release of doxorubicin from DOX:ZrP NPs. Cellular uptake and in vitro cytotoxicity studies of DOX:ZrP NPs were determined in MDA-MB-231. The ZrP nanomaterial can be prepared in the 100-200 nm size range with a platelet-like shape. The ZrP NPs themselves are biocompatible, hemocompatible and showed no toxicity to the macrophage cells. ZrP NPs can intercalate high loads (35% w/w) of doxorubicin between their layers. The release of DOX was sustained for about 2 weeks. DOX:ZrP NPs showed higher cellular uptake and increased cytotoxicity than free DOX in MDA-MB-231 cells. ZrP NPs are highly biocompatible, can intercalate large amounts of drugs and sustain the release of drugs. ZrP NPs improved the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of DOX to MDA-MB-231 cells. ZrP NPs are promising nanocarriers for drug delivery in cancer therapy.The objective of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of zirconium phosphate (ZrP) nanoplatelets (NPs), and their use in drug delivery. ZrP and doxorubicin-intercalated ZrP (DOX:ZrP) NPs were characterized by using X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Transmission Electron Micrography (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM

  17. Phosphate adsorption from wastewater using zirconium (IV) hydroxide: Kinetics, thermodynamics and membrane filtration adsorption hybrid system studies.

    PubMed

    Johir, M A H; Pradhan, M; Loganathan, P; Kandasamy, J; Vigneswaran, S

    2016-02-01

    Excessive phosphate in wastewater should be removed to control eutrophication of water bodies. The potential of employing amorphous zirconium (Zr) hydroxide to remove phosphate from synthetic wastewater was studied in batch adsorption experiments and in a submerged membrane filtration adsorption hybrid (MFAH) reactor. The adsorption data satisfactorily fitted to Langmuir, pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models. Langmuir adsorption maxima at 22 °C and pHs of 4.0, 7.1, and 10.0 were 30.40, 18.50, and 19.60 mg P/g, respectively. At pH 7.1 and temperatures of 40 °C and 60 °C, they were 43.80 and 54.60 mg P/g, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters, ΔG° and ΔS° were negative and ΔH° was positive. FTIR, zeta potential and competitive phosphate, sulphate and nitrate adsorption data showed that the mechanism of phosphate adsorption was inner-sphere complexation. In the submerged MFAH reactor experiment, when Zr hydroxide was added at doses of 1-5 g/L once only at the start of the experiment, the removal of phosphate from 3 L of wastewater containing 10 mg P/L declined after 5 h of operation. However, when Zr hydroxide was repeatedly added at 5 g/L dose every 24 h, satisfactory removal of phosphate was maintained for 3 days. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Platinum and palladium incorporation into phosphate/viologen-phosphonates of zirconium and hafnium: synthesis and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokoutchaev, Alexandre; Krishnan, Venkatesan V.; Thompson, Mark E.; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam

    1998-10-01

    We have continued previous efforts to synthesize and characterize a microporous metal phosphate/viologen-phosphonate compound, [(ZrF) 2(PO 4)(O 3PCH 2CH 2-4,4'-bipyridinium-CH 2CH 2PO 3)] ṡF·2H 2O, ZrPO PV. A derivative of this material has been shown to be an efficient catalyst for the production of hydrogen peroxide from hydrogen and oxygen. This paper has two objectives—one is to optimize the synthetic routes leading to the preparation of MPO PV (M=zirconium or hafnium) and the second is to characterize MPO PV and the derivatives formed by Pt or Pd incorporation by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and X-ray absorption fine structure analysis (XAFS). Powder XRD data have shown much higher crystallinity in MPO PV samples prepared by hydrothermal methods than those prepared by reflux methods. In the hydrothermal synthesis, the amount of mineralizer (HF) present controlled the crystallite size (as determined from TEM micrographs). The larger the quantity of HF in the bomb, the larger the size of the crystals but the lower the yield of the MPO PV material. Crystal sizes of about 2.5 μm in length and 0.15 μm in diameter have been made with very large quantities of HF as mineralizer (10 times the required stoichiometric amount). Ion exchange of the material by PdCl 42- has resulted in the incorporation of the PdCl 42- ions in place of X - in the material. This has been confirmed by XAFS studies that demonstrate the oxidation state of Pd is 2+ and show four Cl atoms bound to Pd. Upon reduction it has been confirmed (by XAFS) that the palladium exists as metal with oxidation state of zero. Ion exchange by PdCl 42- and PtCl 42- and subsequent reduction of the material suspension by hydrogen result in the formation of separate Pt and Pd colloids in the close vicinity of the crystallites. TEM micrographs show clearly that the Pt metal

  19. Large-scale self-assembled zirconium phosphate smectic layers via a simple spray-coating process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Minhao; Ishige, Ryohei; White, Kevin L.; Li, Peng; Kim, Daehak; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan; Gunther, Robert; Higuchi, Takeshi; Jinnai, Hiroshi; Takahara, Atsushi; Nishimura, Riichi; Sue, Hung-Jue

    2014-04-01

    The large-scale assembly of asymmetric colloidal particles is used in creating high-performance fibres. A similar concept is extended to the manufacturing of thin films of self-assembled two-dimensional crystal-type materials with enhanced and tunable properties. Here we present a spray-coating method to manufacture thin, flexible and transparent epoxy films containing zirconium phosphate nanoplatelets self-assembled into a lamellar arrangement aligned parallel to the substrate. The self-assembled mesophase of zirconium phosphate nanoplatelets is stabilized by epoxy pre-polymer and exhibits rheology favourable towards large-scale manufacturing. The thermally cured film forms a mechanically robust coating and shows excellent gas barrier properties at both low- and high humidity levels as a result of the highly aligned and overlapping arrangement of nanoplatelets. This work shows that the large-scale ordering of high aspect ratio nanoplatelets is easier to achieve than previously thought and may have implications in the technological applications for similar materials.

  20. Mahlmoodite, FeZr(PO4).4H2O, a new iron zirconium phosphate mineral from Wilson Springs, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milton, C.; McGee, J.J.; Evans, H.T.

    1993-01-01

    Small (<0.5 mm) cream white spheres observed in V ore have been identified as ferrous zirconium phosphate tetrahedrate, FeZr(PO4)2.4H2O. This new mineral, named mahlmoodite, occurs as spherules of radiating fibers usually perched on crystals of pyroxene in vugs. The optical and crystallographic properties of mahlmoodite are described. -after Authors

  1. Synthesis and Tribological Performance of Different Particle-Sized Nickel-Ion-Exchanged α-Zirconium Phosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaosheng; Xu, Hong; Dong, Jinxiang

    2018-03-01

    Nickel-ion-exchanged α-zirconium phosphate (Ni-α-ZrP) was synthesized by a mild hydrothermal synthesis method. Different raw material ratios (NaF/H3PO4/Ni(CH3COO)2·4H2O) influence the particle size of the Ni-α-ZrP samples. The grain size could be controlled and distributed from 20 to 600 nm. Ni-α-ZrP was evaluated as an additive in lithium grease in a four-ball test. A 3.0 wt.% addition of Ni-α-ZrP to lithium grease yielded maximum non-seizure load values of 1235 N, and the wear scar diameter on the lower balls is 0.42 mm at 294 N. Compared with smaller particles, the addition of Ni-α-ZrP with a larger particle size to grease yields a better load-carrying capacity.

  2. Treatment of lead contaminated water by a PVDF membrane that is modified by zirconium, phosphate and PVA.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dandan; Yu, Yang; Chen, J Paul

    2016-09-15

    Lead contamination is one of the most serious problems in drinking water facing humans. In this study, a novel zirconium phosphate modified polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-PVDF membrane was developed for lead removal. The zirconium ions and PVA were firstly coated onto a PVDF membrane through crosslinking reactions with glutaraldehyde, which was then modified by phosphate. The adsorption kinetics study showed that most of ultimate uptake occurred in 5 h. The adsorption increased with an increase in pH; the optimal adsorption was achieved at pH 5.5. The experimental data were better described by Langmuir equation than Freundlich equation; the maximum adsorption capacity was 121.2 mg-Pb/g at pH 5.5, much higher than other reported adsorptive membranes. The membrane exhibited a higher selectivity for lead over zinc with a relative selectivity coefficient (Pb(2+)/Zn(2+)) of 9.92. The filtration study showed that the membrane with an area of 12.56 cm(2) could treat 13.9 L (equivalent to 73,000 bed volumes) of lead containing wastewater with an influent concentration of 224.5 μ g/L to meet the maximum contaminant level of 15 μ g/L. It was demonstrated that the membrane did well in the removal of lead in both simulated wastewater and lead-spiked reservoir water and had a good reusability in its applications. The XPS studies revealed that the lead uptake was mainly due to cation exchange between hydrogen ions and lead ions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of alpha-zirconium phosphate on thermal degradation and flame retardancy of transparent intumescent fire protective coating

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Weiyi; Zhang, Ping; Song, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A transparent intumescent fire protective coating was obtained by UV-cured technology. • OZrP could enhance the thermal stability and anti-oxidation of the coating. • OZrP could reduce the combustion properties of the coatings. - Abstract: Organophilic alpha-zirconium phosphate (OZrP) was used to improve the thermal and fire retardant behaviors of the phenyl di(acryloyloxyethyl)phosphate (PDHA)-triglycidyl isocyanurate acrylate (TGICA)-2-phenoxyethyl acrylate (PHEA) (PDHA-TGICA-PHEA) coating. The morphology of nanocomposite coating was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of OZrP on the flame retardancy, thermal stability, fireproofing time and char formation of the coatingsmore » was investigated by microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) and scanning electric microscope (SEM). The results showed that by adding OZrP, the peak heat release rate and total heat of combustion were significantly reduced. The highest improvement was achieved with 0.5 wt% OZrP. XPS analysis indicated that the performance of anti-oxidation of the coating was improved with the addition of OZrP, and SEM images showed that a good synergistic effect was obtained through a ceramic-like layer produced by OZrP covered on the surface of char.« less

  4. METHOD FOR ANNEALING AND ROLLING ZIRCONIUM-BASE ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Picklesimer, M.L.

    1959-07-14

    A fabrication procedure is presented for alpha-stabilized zirconium-base alloys, and in particular Zircaloy-2. The alloy is initially worked at a temperature outside the alpha-plus-beta range (810 to 970 deg ), held at a temperature above 970 deg C for 30 minutes and cooled rapidly. The alloy is then cold-worked to reduce the size at least 20% and annealed at a temperature from 700 to 810 deg C. This procedure serves both to prevent the formation of stringers and to provide a randomly oriented crystal structure.

  5. PROCESS FOR DISSOLVING BINARY URANIUM-ZIRCONIUM OR ZIRCONIUM-BASE ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Jonke, A.A.; Barghusen, J.J.; Levitz, N.M.

    1962-08-14

    A process of dissolving uranium-- zirconium and zircaloy alloys, e.g. jackets of fuel elements, with an anhydrous hydrogen fluoride containing from 10 to 32% by weight of hydrogen chloride at between 400 and 450 deg C., preferably while in contact with a fluidized inert powder, such as calcium fluoride is described. (AEC)

  6. A simple spectrophotometric method for determination of zirconium or hafnium in selected molybdenum-base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupraw, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    A simple analytical procedure is described for accurately and precisely determining the zirconium or hafnium content of molybdenum-base alloys. The procedure is based on the reaction of the reagent Arsenazo III with zirconium or hafnium in strong hydrochloric acid solution. The colored complexes of zirconium or hafnium are formed in the presence of molybdenum. Titanium or rhenium in the alloy have no adverse effect on the zirconium or hafnium complex at the following levels in the selected aliquot: Mo, 10 mg; Re, 10 mg; Ti, 1 mg. The spectrophotometric measurement of the zirconium or hafnium complex is accomplished without prior separation with a relative standard deviation of 1.3 to 2.7 percent.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of insulin/zirconium phosphate@TiO2 hybrid composites for enhanced oral insulin delivery applications.

    PubMed

    Safari, Mostafa; Kamari, Younes; Ghiaci, Mehran; Sadeghi-Aliabadi, Hojjat; Mirian, Mina

    2017-05-01

    In this work, a series of composites of insulin (Ins)/zirconium phosphate (ZrP) were synthesized by intercalation method, then, these composites were coated with TiO 2 by sol-gel method to prepare Ins/ZrP@TiO 2 hybrid composites and the drug release of the composites was investigated by using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Ins/ZrP (10, 30, 60 wt%) composites were prepared by intercalation of insulin into the ZrP layers in water. Then Ins/ZrP composites were coated with different amounts of TiO 2 (30, 50, 100 wt %) by using titanium tetra n-butoxide, as precursor. Formation of intercalated Ins/ZrP and Ins/ZrP@TiO 2 hybrid composites was characterized by FT-IR, FE-SEM, BET and XRD analysis. Zeta potential of the optimized Ins/ZrP@TiO 2 hybrid composite was determined -27.2 mV. Cytotoxic effects of the optimized Ins/ZrP@TiO 2 hybrid composite against HeLa and Hek293T cell lines were evaluated using MTT assay and the results showed that designed drug delivery system was not toxic in biological environment. Compared to the Ins/ZrP composites, incorporation of TiO 2 coating enhanced the drug entrapment considerably, and reduced the drug release. The Ins/ZrP composites without TiO 2 coating released the whole drug after 30 min in pH 7.4 (phosphate buffer solution) while the TiO 2 -coated composites released the entrapped drug after 20 h. In addition to increasing the shelf life of hormone, this nanoencapsulation and nanocoating method can convert the insulin utilization from injection to oral and present a painless and more comfortable treatment for diabetics.

  8. Facile Separation of 5-O-Galloylquinic Acid from Chinese Green Tea Extract using Mesoporous Zirconium Phosphate.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yilong; Shang, Yafang; Zhu, Danye; Wang, Caihong; Zhong, Zhifeng; Xu, Ziyang

    2016-05-01

    5-O-Galloylquinic acid from green tea and other plants is attracting increasing attention for its antioxidant and antileishmanial bioactivities. It is always isolated using a silica column, a Sephadex column and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods, which are either laborious or instrument dependent. To develop a new method to easily separate 5-O-galloylquinic acid. Mesoporous zirconium phosphate (m-ZrP) was prepared to conveniently separate 5-O-galloylquinic acid from Chinese green tea extract, and the target compound was easily obtained by simple steps of adsorption, washing and desorption. The effects of the green tea extraction conditions, extract concentrations, and m-ZrP adsorption/desorption dynamics on the 5-O-galloylquinic acid separation were evaluated. 5-O-Galloylquinic acid that was separated from a 70% ethanol extract of green tea was of moderate HPLC purity (92%) and recovery (88%), and an increased non-specific binding of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on m-ZrP was observed in the diluted tea extract. The times for maximal adsorption of 5-O-galloylquinic acid in 70% ethanol extract and maximal desorption of 5-O-galloylquinic acid in 0.4% phosphoric acid solution were confirmed as 7 h and 5 h, respectively. A facile method to separate 5-O-galloylquinic acid from Chinese green tea extract using m-ZrP was established. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Adsorption of phosphate from aqueous solution using iron-zirconium modified activated carbon nanofiber: Performance and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Weiping; Tong, Jing; Yang, Zhaohui; Zeng, Guangming; Zhou, Yaoyu; Wang, Dongbo; Song, Peipei; Xu, Rui; Zhang, Chen; Cheng, Min

    2017-05-01

    Phosphate (P) removal is significant for the prevention of eutrophication in natural waters. In this paper, a novel adsorbent for the removal of P from aqueous solution was synthesized by loading zirconium oxide and iron oxide onto activated carbon nanofiber (ACF-ZrFe) simultaneously. The adsorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that P adsorption was highly pH dependent and the optimum pH was found to be 4.0. The isotherm of adsorption could be well described by the Langmuir model and the maximum P adsorption capacity was estimated to be 26.3mgP/g at 25°C. The kinetic data were well fitted to the pseudo-second-order equation, indicating that chemical sorption was the rate-limiting step. Moreover, co-existing ions including sulfate (SO 4 2- ), chloride (Cl - ), nitrate (NO 3 - ) and fluoride (F - ) exhibited a distinct effect on P adsorption with the order of F - >NO 3 - >Cl - >SO 4 2- . Further investigations by FT-IR spectroscopy and pH variations associated with the adsorption process revealed that ligands exchange and electrostatic interactions were the dominant mechanisms for P adsorption. The findings reported in this work highlight the potential of using ACF-ZrFe as an effective adsorbent for the removal of P in natural waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Structure and short time degradation studies of sodium zirconium phosphate ceramics loaded with simulated fast breeder (FBR) waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananthanarayanan, A.; Ambashta, R. D.; Sudarsan, V.; Ajithkumar, T.; Sen, D.; Mazumder, S.; Wattal, P. K.

    2017-04-01

    Sodium zirconium phosphate (NZP) ceramics have been prepared using conventional sintering and hot isostatic pressing (HIP) routes. The structure of NZP ceramics, prepared using the HIP route, has been compared with conventionally sintered NZP using a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and (31P and 23Na) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy techniques. It is observed that NZP with no waste loading is aggressive toward the steel HIP-can during hot isostatic compaction and significant fraction of cations from the steel enter the ceramic material. Waste loaded NZP samples (10 wt% simulated FBR waste) show significantly low can-interaction and primary NZP phase is evident in this material. Upon exposure of can-interacted and waste loaded NZP to boiling water and steam, 31P NMR does not detect any major modifications in the network structure. However, the 23Na NMR spectra indicate migration of Na+ ions from the surface and possible re-crystallization. This is corroborated by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) data and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) measurements carried out on these samples.

  11. NEUTRON REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT UTILIZING ZIRCONIUM-BASE ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Saller, H.A.; Keeler, J.R.; Szumachowski, E.R.

    1957-11-12

    This patent relates to clad fuel elements for use in neutronic reactors and is drawn to such a fuel element which consists of a core of fissionable material, comprised of an alloy of zirconium and U/sup 235/ enriched uranium, encased in a jacket of a binary zirconium-tin alloy in which the tin content ranges between 1 and 15% by weight.

  12. Zirconium phosphate reinforced short side chain perflurosulfonic acid membranes for medium temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casciola, Mario; Cojocaru, Paula; Donnadio, Anna; Giancola, Stefano; Merlo, Luca; Nedellec, Yannig; Pica, Monica; Subianto, Surya

    2014-09-01

    Composite membranes, made of an 830 equivalent weight short-side-chain perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer and containing up to 10 wt% zirconium phosphate (ZrP), are prepared by casting dispersions of ZrP nanoparticles in the ionomer solution. 30 μm thick composite membranes are characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, stress-strain tests, conductivity measurements, water uptake and ion-exchange capacity determinations, as well as fuel cell tests in H2/air. In comparison with the neat ionomer, the tensile modulus (E) and the yield stress (Y) of the composite membranes increase with the ZrP content, both at room temperature (ΔE/E up to +75%, ΔY/Y up to +47%) and at 80 °C/70% relative humidity (ΔE/E up to +64%, ΔY/Y up to +103%). Despite their lower hydration, the composite membranes are as conductive as the neat ionomer and the in-plane conductivity at 110 °C ranges from ∼0.005 S cm-1 at 25% RH to 0.14 S cm-1 at 90% RH. The fuel cell performance of a catalyst coated membrane loaded with 10 wt% ZrP is weakly affected by temperature in the range 80-110 °C. The peak power density decreases from 0.36 W cm-2, at 80 °C, to 0.28 W cm-2 at 110 °C, where the composite membrane performs better than the neat ionomer.

  13. Properties of calcium silicate-monobasic calcium phosphate materials for endodontics containing tantalum pentoxide and zirconium oxide.

    PubMed

    Zamparini, Fausto; Siboni, Francesco; Prati, Carlo; Taddei, Paola; Gandolfi, Maria Giovanna

    2018-05-08

    The aim of the study was to evaluate chemical-physical properties and apatite-forming ability of three premixed calcium silicate materials containing monobasic calcium phosphate (CaH 4 P 2 O 8 ) bioceramic, tantalum pentoxide and zirconium oxide, recently marketed for endodontics (TotalFill BC-Sealer, BC-RRM-Paste, BC-RRM-Putty). Microchemical and micromorphological analyses, radiopacity, initial and final setting times, calcium release and alkalising activity were tested. The nucleation of calcium phosphates (CaPs) and/or apatite after 28 days ageing was evaluated by ESEM-EDX and micro-Raman spectroscopy. BC-Sealer and BC-RRM-Paste showed similar initial (23 h), prolonged final (52 h) setting times and good radiopacity (> 7 mm Al); BC-RRM-Putty showed fast initial (2 h) and final setting times (27 h) and excellent radiopacity (> 9 mm Al). All materials induced a marked alkalisation (pH 11-12) up to 28 days and showed the release of calcium ions throughout the entire test period (cumulative calcium release 641-806 ppm). After 28 days ageing, a well-distributed mineral layer was present on all samples surface; EDX demonstrated relevant calcium and phosphorous peaks. B-type carbonated apatite and calcite deposits were identified by micro-Raman spectroscopy on all the 28-day-aged samples; the deposit thickness was higher on BC-RRM-Paste and BC-RRM-Putty, in agreement with calcium release data. These materials met the required chemical and physical standards and released biologically relevant ions. The CaSi-CaH 4 P 2 O 8 system present in the materials provided Ca and OH ions release with marked abilities to nucleate a layer of B-type carbonated apatite favoured/accelerated by the bioceramic presence. The ability to nucleate apatite may lead many clinical advantages: In orthograde endodontics, it may improve the sealing ability by the deposition of CaPs at the material-root dentine interface, and in endodontic surgery, it could promote bone and

  14. About structural phase state of coating based on zirconium oxide formed by microplasma oxidation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubaidulina, Tatiana A.; Sergeev, Viktor P.; Kuzmin, Oleg S.; Fedorischeva, Marina V.; Kalashnikov, Mark P.

    2017-12-01

    The oxide-ceramic coating based of zirconium oxide is formed by the method of microplasma oxidation. The producing modes of the oxide layers on E110 zirconium alloy are under testing. It was found that using microplasma treatment of E110 zirconium in aluminosilicate electrolyte makes possible the formation of porous oxide-ceramic coatings based on zirconium alloyed by aluminum and niobium. The study is focused on the modes how to form heat-shielding coatings with controlled porosity and minimal amount of microcracks. The structural-phase state of the coating is studied by X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the ratio of the monoclinic and tetragonal phases changes with the change occurring in the coating formation modes.

  15. Bioactivity and biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite-based bioceramic coatings on zirconium by plasma electrolytic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Aktuğ, Salim Levent; Durdu, Salih; Yalçın, Emine; Çavuşoğlu, Kültigin; Usta, Metin

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, hydroxyapatite (HAP)-based plasma electrolytic oxide (PEO) coatings were produced on zirconium at different current densities in a solution containing calcium acetate and β-calcium glycerophosphate by a single step. The phase structure, surface morphology, functional groups, thickness and roughness of the coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), eddy current method and surface profilometer, respectively. The phases of cubic-zirconia, calcium zirconate and HAP were detected by XRD. The amount of HAP and calcium zirconate increased with increasing current density. The surface of the coatings was very porous and rough. Moreover, bioactivity and biocompatibility of the coatings were analyzed in vitro immersion simulated body fluid (SBF) and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay, hemolysis assay and bacterial formation. The apatite-forming ability of the coatings was evaluated after immersion in SBF up to 28days. After immersion, the bioactivity of HAP-based coatings on zirconium was greater than the ones of uncoated zirconium and zirconium oxide-based surface. The bioactivity of PEO surface on zirconium was significantly improved under SBF conditions. The bacterial adhesion of the coatings decreased with increasing current density. The bacterial adhesion of the coating produced at 0.370A/cm 2 was minimum compared to uncoated zirconium coated at 0.260 and 0.292A/cm 2 . The hemocompatibility of HAP-based surfaces was improved by PEO. The cell attachment and proliferation of the PEO coatings were better than the one of uncoated zirconium according to MTT assay results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Zirconium-based alloys, nuclear fuel rods and nuclear reactors including such alloys, and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Mariani, Robert Dominick

    2014-09-09

    Zirconium-based metal alloy compositions comprise zirconium, a first additive in which the permeability of hydrogen decreases with increasing temperatures at least over a temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C., and a second additive having a solubility in zirconium over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. At least one of a solubility of the first additive in the second additive over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. and a solubility of the second additive in the first additive over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. is higher than the solubility of the second additive in zirconium over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. Nuclear fuel rods include a cladding material comprising such metal alloy compositions, and nuclear reactors include such fuel rods. Methods are used to fabricate such zirconium-based metal alloy compositions.

  17. Scaling effects in sodium zirconium silicate phosphate (Na 1+ xZr 2Si xP 3- xO 12) ion-conducting thin films

    DOE PAGES

    Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Gurniak, Emily; Jones, Brad H.; ...

    2016-05-04

    Preparation of sodium zirconium silicate phosphate (NaSICon), Na 1+xZr 2Si xP 3–xO 12 (0.25 ≤ x ≤ 1.0), thin films has been investigated via a chemical solution approach on platinized silicon substrates. Increasing the silicon content resulted in a reduction in the crystallite size and a reduction in the measured ionic conductivity. Processing temperature was also found to affect microstructure and ionic conductivity with higher processing temperatures resulting in larger crystallite sizes and higher ionic conductivities. The highest room temperature sodium ion conductivity was measured for an x = 0.25 composition at 2.3 × 10 –5 S/cm. In conclusion, themore » decreasing ionic conductivity trends with increasing silicon content and decreasing processing temperature are consistent with grain boundary and defect scattering of conducting ions.« less

  18. Plate-shaped transformation products in zirconium-base alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, S.; Dey, G. K.; Srivastava, D.; Ranganathan, S.

    1997-11-01

    Plate-shaped products resulting from martensitic, diffusional, and mixed mode transformations in zirconium-base alloys are compared in the present study. These alloys are particularly suitable for the comparison in view of the fact that the lattice correspondence between the parent β (bcc) and the product α (hcp) or γ-hydride (fct) phases are remarkably similar for different types of transformations. Crystallographic features such as orientation relations, habit planes, and interface structures associated with these transformations have been compared, with a view toward examining whether the transformation mechanisms have characteristic imprints on these experimental observables. Martensites exhibiting dislocated lath, internally twinned plate, and self-accommodating three-plate cluster morphologies have been encountered in Zr-2.5Nb alloy. Habit planes corresponding to all these morphologies have been found to be consistent with the predictions based on the invariant plane strain (IPS) criterion. Different morphologies have been found to reflect the manner in which the neighboring martensite variants are assembled. Lattice-invariant shears (LISs) for all these cases have been identified to be either {10 bar 11} α < bar 1123> α slip or twinning on {10 bar 11} α planes. Widmanstätten α precipitates, forming in a step-quenching treatment, have been shown to have a lath morphology, the α/β interface being decorated with a periodic array of < c + a> dislocations at a spacing of 8 to 10 nm. The line vectors of these dislocations are nearly parallel to the invariant lines. The α precipitates, forming in the retained β phase on aging, exhibit an internally twinned structure with a zigzag habit plane. Average habit planes for the morphologies have been found to lie near the {103} β — {113} β poles, which are close to the specific variant of the {112} β plane, which transforms into a prismatic plane of the type {1 bar 100} α . The crystallography of the

  19. Method for preparing hydrous zirconium oxide gels and spherules

    DOEpatents

    Collins, Jack L.

    2003-08-05

    Methods for preparing hydrous zirconium oxide spherules, hydrous zirconium oxide gels such as gel slabs, films, capillary and electrophoresis gels, zirconium monohydrogen phosphate spherules, hydrous zirconium oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent, zirconium monohydrogen phosphate spherules having suspendable particles of at least one different sorbent homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent having a desired crystallinity, zirconium oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, hydrous zirconium oxide fiber materials, zirconium oxide fiber materials, hydrous zirconium oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, zirconium oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite and spherules of barium zirconate. The hydrous zirconium oxide spherules and gel forms prepared by the gel-sphere, internal gelation process are useful as inorganic ion exchangers, catalysts, getters and ceramics.

  20. The effect of zirconium-based surface treatment on the cathodic disbonding resistance of epoxy coated mild steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, A.; Attar, M. M.

    2014-10-01

    The effect of zirconium-based surface treatment on the cathodic disbonding resistance and adhesion performance of an epoxy coated mild steel substrate was investigated. The obtained data from pull-off, cathodic disbonding test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) indicated that the zirconium conversion layer significantly improved the adhesion strength and cathodic disbonding resistance of the epoxy coating. This may be attributed to formation of some polar zirconium compounds on the surface and increment of surface roughness, that were evident in the results of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively.

  1. Geologic structure of Gofitsky deposit of titanium and zirconium and perspectives of the reserve base of titanium and zirconium in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukhmazov, Iskander

    2016-04-01

    With the fall of the Soviet Union, all the mining deposits of titanium and zirconium appeared outside of Russian Federation. Therefore the studying of deposits of titanium and zirconium in Russia is very important nowadays. There is a paradoxical situation in the country: in spite of possible existence of national mineral resource base of Ti-Zr material, which can cover needs of the country, Russia is the one of the largest buyers of imported Ti-Zr material in the world. Many deposits are not mined, and those which are in the process of mining have poor reserves. Demand for this raw material is very great not only for Russia, but also for the world in general. Today there is a scarcity of zircon around the world and it will only increase through time. Therefore prices of products of titanium and zirconium also increase. Consequently Russian deposits of titanium and zirconium with higher content than foreign may become competitive. Russia is forced to buy raw materials (zirconium and titanium production) from former Soviet Union countries at prices higher than the world's and thus incur huge losses, including customs charges. Russia should create its own mineral resource base of Ti-Zr. Studied titanium-zirconium deposits of Stavropol region may become the basis for the south part of Russia. At first, Beshpagirsky deposit should be pointed out. It has large reserves of ore sands with high content of Ti-Zr. A combination of favorable geographical position of the area with developed industrial infrastructure makes it very beneficial as an object for high priority development. Gofitsky deposit should be pointed out as well. Its sands have a wide areal distribution and a high content of titanium and zirconium. Chokrak, Karagan-Konksk and Sarmatian sediments of the Miocene of Gofitsky deposit are productive for titanium and zirconium placers within Stavropol region of Russia. Gofitsky deposit was evaluated from financial and economic point of view and the following data

  2. CO-PRECIPITATION IN QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS. COMMUNICATION V. THE INFLUENCE EXERCISED BY COMPLEXION UPON THE PRECIPITATION OF ZIRCONIUM PHOSPHATE

    SciTech Connect

    Babko, A.K.; Shtokalo, M.I.

    The influence exercised by ethylenediamino-tetraacetic acid upon some processes of precipitation was investigated. A sharp mopdification of the form of precipitate as well as a decrease of coprecipitation was ium and titanium by means of the phosphate ;method are given. (TCO-W.D.M.)

  3. Modification in band gap of zirconium complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Mayank, E-mail: mayank30134@gmail.com; Singh, J.; Chouhan, S.

    2016-05-06

    The optical properties of zirconium complexes with amino acid based Schiff bases are reported here. The zirconium complexes show interesting stereo chemical features, which are applicable in organometallic and organic synthesis as well as in catalysis. The band gaps of both Schiff bases and zirconium complexes were obtained by UV-Visible spectroscopy. It was found that the band gap of zirconium complexes has been modified after adding zirconium compound to the Schiff bases.

  4. Fabrication and characterization of polyvinyl alcohol/metal (Ca, Mg, Ti) doped zirconium phosphate nanocomposite films for scaffold-guided tissue engineering application.

    PubMed

    Kalita, Himani; Pal, Pallabi; Dhara, Santanu; Pathak, Amita

    2017-02-01

    Nanocomposite films of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and zirconium phosphate (ZrP)/doped ZrP (doped with Ca, Mg, Ti) nanoparticles have been developed by solvent casting method to assess their potential as matrix material in scaffold-guided tissue engineering application. The prepared ZrP and doped ZrP nanoparticles as well as the nanocomposite films were characterized by various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. Nanoindentation studies revealed improved nanomechanical properties in the PVA/doped ZrP nanocomposite films (highest for PVA/Ti doped ZrP: hardness=262.4MPa; elastic modulus=5800MPa) as compared to the PVA/ZrP and neat PVA films. In-vitro cell culture experiments carried out to access the cellular viability, attachment, proliferation, and migration on the substrates, using mouse fibroblast (3T3) cell lines, inferred enhanced bioactivity in the PVA/doped ZrP nanocomposite films (highest for PVA/Ca doped ZrP) in contrast to PVA/ZrP and neat PVA films. Controlled biodegradability as well as swelling behavior, superior bioactivity and improved mechanical properties of the PVA/doped ZrP nanocomposite films make them promising matrix materials for scaffold-guided tissue engineering application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Study on the antibacterial mechanism of copper ion- and neodymium ion-modified α-zirconium phosphate with better antibacterial activity and lower cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiang; Zhang, Bin; Liang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jinglin; Yan, Yinghui; Chen, Xiaoyin; Wu, Zhimin; Liu, Hongxi; Wen, Shuiping; Tan, Shaozao; Wu, Ting

    2015-08-01

    To improve the antibacterial activity of Cu(2+), a series of Cu(2+) and/or Nd(3+)-modified layered α-zirconium phosphate (ZrP) was prepared and characterized, and the antibacterial activities of the prepared Cu(2+) and/or Nd(3+)-modified ZrP on Gram-negative Escherichia coli were investigated. The results showed that the basal spacing of ZrP was not obviously affected by the incorporation of Cu(2+), but the basal spacing of the modified ZrP changed into an amorphous state with increasing additions of Nd(3+). An antibacterial mechanism showed that Cu(2+) and Nd(3+) could enter into E. coli cells, leading to changes in ion concentrations and leakage of DNA, RNA and protein. The Cu(2+)- and Nd(3+)-modified ZrP, combining the advantages of Cu(2+) and Nd(3+), displayed excellent additive antibacterial activity and lower cytotoxicity, suggesting the great potential application as an antibacterial powder for microbial control. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. NADH Electrooxidation Using Bis(1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione) (2,2′-bipyridine)ruthenium(II)-Exchanged Zirconium Phosphate Modified Carbon Paste Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Mitk’El B.; Vélez, Meredith M.; Borrero, Solmarie; Díaz, Agustín; Casillas, Craig A.; Hofmann, Cristina; Guadalupe, Ana R.; Colón, Jorge L.

    2007-01-01

    We present a carbon paste electrode (CPE) modified using the electron mediator bis(1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione) (2,2′-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) ([Ru(phend)2bpy]2+) exchanged into the inorganic layered material zirconium phosphate (ZrP). X-Ray powder diffraction showed that the interlayer distance of ZrP increases upon [Ru(phend)2bpy]2+ intercalation from 10.3 Å to 14.2 Å. The UV-vis and IR spectroscopies results showed the characteristic peaks expected for [Ru(phend)2bpy]2+. The UV-vis spectrophotometric results indicate that the [Ru(phend)2bpy]2+ concentration inside the ZrP layers increased as a function of the loading level. The exchanged [Ru(phend)2bpy]2+ exhibited luminescence even at low concentration. Modified CPEs were constructed and analyzed using cyclic voltammetry. The intercalated mediator remained electroactive within the layers (E°′ = −38.5 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, 3.5 M NaCl) and electrocatalysis of NADH oxidation was observed. The kinetics of the modified CPE shows a Michaelis –Menten behavior. This CPE was used for the oxidation of NADH in the presence of Bakers’ yeast alcohol dehydrogenase. A calibration plot for ethanol is presented. PMID:18516242

  7. Experimental Calcium Silicate-Based Cement with and without Zirconium Oxide Modulates Fibroblasts Viability.

    PubMed

    Slompo, Camila; Peres-Buzalaf, Camila; Gasque, Kellen Cristina da Silva; Damante, Carla Andreotti; Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify whether the use of zirconium oxide as a radiopacifier of an experimental calcium silicate-based cement (WPCZO) leads to cytotoxicity. Fibroblasts were treated with different concentrations (10 mg/mL, 1 mg/mL, and 0.1 mg/mL) of the cements diluted in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) for periods of 12, 24, and 48 h. Groups tested were white Portland cement (WPC), white Portland cement with zirconium oxide (WPCZO), and white mineral trioxide aggregate Angelus (MTA). Control group cells were not treated. The cytotoxicity was evaluated through mitochondrial-activity (MTT) and cell-density (crystal violet) assays. All cements showed low cytotoxicity. In general, at the concentration of 10 mg/mL there was an increase in viability of those groups treated with WPC and WPCZO when compared to the control group (p<0.05). A similar profile for the absorbance values was noted among the groups: 10 mg/mL presented an increase in viability compared to the control group. On the other hand, smaller concentrations presented a similar or lower viability compared to the control group, in general. A new dental material composed of calcium silicate-based cement with 20% zirconium oxide as the radiopacifier showed low cytotoxicity as a promising material to be exploited for root-end filling.

  8. Hydrothermal synthesis of copper zirconium phosphate hydrate [Cu(OH)2Zr(HPO4)2·2H2O] and an investigation of its lubrication properties in grease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaosheng; Xu, Hong; Zuo, Zhijun; Lin, Zhi; Ferdov, Stanislav; Dong, Jinxiang

    2013-08-28

    Copper zirconium phosphate hydrate (Cu(OH)2Zr(HPO4)2·2H2O, hereafter referred to as Cu-α-ZrP) with high crystallinity was directly synthesized in a NaF-CuO-ZrO-P2O5-H2O system under hydrothermal conditions. The copper ion was confirmed to be an exchangeable cation in the Cu-α-ZrP through elemental analysis and a proton ion exchange process. The crystal structure of the Cu-α-ZrP was determined ab initio by using X-ray powder diffraction data. In the structure, the CuO6 octahedron would be located in an exchangeable atom position. Moreover, Cu-α-ZrP was evaluated as an additive in grease in a four ball test. The maximum nonseizure load (PB, representing the load-carrying capacity) of the base grease containing Cu-α-ZrP was increased from 353 to 1235 N. The excellent load-carrying capacity may be explained by the easier adherence of the material to the worn surface forming a tight protective film.

  9. A preliminary study of silver sodium zirconium phosphate polyurethane foam wound dressing on wounds of the distal aspect of the forelimb in horses.

    PubMed

    Kelleher, Maureen E; Kilcoyne, Isabelle; Dechant, Julie E; Hummer, Emma; Kass, Philip H; Snyder, Jack R

    2015-04-01

    To determine if application of silver sodium zirconium phosphate polyurethane semi-occlusive foam (SPF) dressing would improve measures of wound healing and decrease bacterial contamination compared with a non-adherent, absorbent dressing applied to wounds created on the distal aspect of the equine limb. Controlled randomized experimental study. Adult Quarter Horse and Thoroughbred horses (n = 5). One 6.25 cm(2) wound was created on the dorsomedial aspect of the proximal metacarpus on each forelimb. A SPF dressing was applied to 1 randomly assigned limb as a treatment and a non-adherent, absorbent dressing was applied to the opposite limb as control. Bandages were changed every 3 days for 60 days. Granulation tissue was scored every 3 days, wound area measured every 6 days, and wound bed was cultured every 12 days. SPF-treatment wounds had significantly decreased wound area and decreased granulation tissue scores when evaluated <30 days and over the 60 day study, although complete wound healing times were not significantly different. Bacteria were cultured from all wounds at varying times throughout the study. The SPF wound dressing improved some measures of wound healing compared with the control dressing, most significantly during the first 30 days. This suggests that the SPF wound dressing may be useful in the early management of wounds on the equine lower limb. Further studies using the SPF dressing are needed to characterize the temporal and cellular effects on wound healing and evaluate this dressing in a clinical environment. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  10. The Effect of Luting Cement and Titanium Base on the Final Color of Zirconium Oxide Core Material.

    PubMed

    Capa, Nuray; Tuncel, Ilkin; Tak, Onjen; Usumez, Aslihan

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of different types of luting cements and different colors of zirconium cores on the final color of the restoration that simulates implant-supported fixed partial dentures (FPDs) by using a titanium base on the bottom. One hundred and twenty zirconium oxide core plates (Zr-Zahn; 10 mm in width, 5 mm in length, 0.5 mm in height) were prepared in different shades (n = 20; noncolored, A2, A3, B1, C2, D2). The specimens were subdivided into two subgroups for the two types of luting cements (n = 10). The initial color measurements were made on zirconium oxide core plates using a spectrometer. To create the cement thicknesses, stretch strips with holes in the middle (5 mm in diameter, 70 μm in height) were used. The second measurement was done on the zirconium oxide core plates after the application of the resin cement (U-200, A2 Shade) or polycarboxylate cement (Lumicon). The final measurement was done after placing the titanium discs (5 mm in diameter, 3 mm in height) in the bottom. The data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's honestly significant differences (HSD) tests (α = 0.05). The ∆E* ab value was higher in the resin cement-applied group than in the polycarboxylate cement-applied group (p < 0.001). The highest ∆E* ab value was recorded for the zirconium oxide core-resin cement-titanium base, and the lowest was recorded for the polycarboxylate cement-zirconium oxide core (p < 0.001). The luting cement, the presence of titanium, and the color of zirconium are all important factors that determine the final shade of zirconia cores in implant-supported FPDs. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  11. Inorganic resist materials based on zirconium phosphonate for atomic force microscope lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Mankyu; Kim, Seonae; Jung, JinHyuck; Kim, Heebom; Shin, Inkyun; Jeon, Chanuk; Lee, Haiwon

    2014-03-01

    New inorganic resist materials based on metal complexes were investigated for atomic force microscope (AFM) lithography. Phosphoric acids are good for self-assembly because of their strong binding energy. In this work, zirconium phosphonate system are newly synthesized for spin-coatable materials in aqueous solutions and leads to negative tone pattern for improving line edge roughness. Low electron exposure by AFM lithography could generate a pattern by electrochemical reaction and cross-linking of metal-oxo complexes. It has been reported that the minimum pattern results are affected by lithographic speed, and the applied voltage between a tip and a substrate.

  12. Zirconium-based conversion film formation on zinc, aluminium and magnesium oxides and their interactions with functionalized molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fockaert, L. I.; Taheri, P.; Abrahami, S. T.; Boelen, B.; Terryn, H.; Mol, J. M. C.

    2017-11-01

    Zirconium-based conversion treatment of zinc, aluminium and magnesium oxides have been studied in-situ using ATR-FTIR in a Kretschmann geometry. This set-up was coupled to an electrochemical cell, which allowed to obtain chemical and electrochemical information simultaneously as a function of conversion time. This elucidated the strong relation between physico-chemical surface properties and zirconium-based conversion kinetics. Whereas the surface hydroxyl density of zinc and aluminium increased during conversion, magnesium (hydr)oxide was shown to dissolve in the acid solution. Due to this dissolution, strong surface alkalization can be expected, explaining the rapid conversion kinetics. AES depth profiling was used to determine the final oxide thickness and elemental composition. This confirmed that magnesium is most active and forms a zirconium oxide layer approximately 10 times thicker than zinc. On the other hand, the presence of zirconium oxide on aluminium is very low and can be considered as not fully covering the metal oxide. Additionally, the converted oxide chemistry was related to the bonding mechanisms of amide functionalized molecules using ATR-FTIR and XPS. It was shown that inclusion of zirconium altered the acid-base properties, increasing the substrate proton donating capabilities in case of magnesium oxide and increasing hydrogen bonding and Bronsted interactions due to increased surface hydroxide fractions on zinc and aluminium substrates.

  13. Densification and Thermal Properties of Zirconium Diboride Based Ceramics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    pulse on the front face and the radiant energy going to an infrared detector on the back face of the specimen...changes going across a row of the periodic table (e.g., Zr, Nb, Mo…) because of the filling of bonding and anti-bonding states in the hybrid orbitals...the relatively small amounts of ZrC (i.e., ə wt%) likely to go into solid solution with the ZrB2, based on the Zr-B-C phase diagram.6 (2

  14. Fabrication of Microhotplates Based on Laser Micromachining of Zirconium Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oblov, Konstantin; Ivanova, Anastasia; Soloviev, Sergey; Samotaev, Nikolay; Lipilin, Alexandr; Vasiliev, Alexey; Sokolov, Andrey

    We present a novel approach to the fabrication of MEMS devices, which can be used for gas sensors operating in harsh environment in wireless and autonomous information systems. MEMS platforms based on ZrO2/Y2O3 (YSZ) are applied in these devices. The methods of ceramic MEMS devices fabrication with laser micromachining are considered. It is shown that the application of YSZ membranes permits a decrease in MEMS power consumption at 4500C down to ∼75 mW at continuous heating and down to ∼ 1 mW at pulse heating mode. The application of the platforms is not restricted by gas sensors: they can be used for fast thermometers, bolometric matrices, flowmeteres and other MEMS devices working under harsh environmental conditions.

  15. Nanometer scale atomic structure of zirconium based bulk metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jinwoo

    We have studied the nanometer scale structure of bulk metallic glass (BMG) using fluctuation electron microscopy (FEM). The nanometer scale medium range order (MRO) in BMG is of significant interest because of its possible relationship to the properties, but the experimental study of the MRO is difficult because conventional diffraction techniques are not sensitive to the MRO scale. FEM is a quantitative transmission electron microscopy technique which measures the nanoscale structural fluctuation associated with MRO in amorphous materials, and provides information about the size, distribution, and internal structure of MRO. In this work, we developed an improved method for FEM using energy-filtered STEM nanodiffraction with highly coherent probes with size up to 11nm in a state-of-the-art Cs- corrected STEM. We also developed an effective way to eliminate the effect of sample thickness variation to the FEM data by using Z-contrast images as references. To study the detailed structure of MRO, we developed a hybrid reverse Monte Carlo (H-RMC) simulation which combines an empirical atomic potential and the FEM data. H-RMC generated model structures that match the experimental data at short and medium range. In addition, the subtle rotational symmetries in the FEM nanodiffraction patterns were analyzed by angular correlation function to reveal more details of the internal structure of MRO. Our experiments and simulations show that Zr-based BMG contains pseudo-planar, crystal-like MRO as well as icosahedral clusters in its nanoscale structure. We found that some icosahedral clusters may be connected, and that structural relaxation by annealing increases the population of icosahedral clusters.

  16. Bioavailable dietary phosphate, a mediator of cardiovascular disease, may be decreased with plant-based diets, phosphate binders, niacin, and avoidance of phosphate additives.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F; DiNicolantonio, James J

    2014-01-01

    Increased fasting serum phosphate within the normal physiological range has been linked to increased cardiovascular risk in prospective epidemiology; increased production of fibroblast growth factor 23, and direct vascular effects of phosphate, may mediate this risk. Although dietary phosphate intake does not clearly influence fasting serum phosphate in individuals with normal renal function, increased phosphate intake can provoke a rise in fibroblast growth factor 23, and in diurnal phosphate levels, and hence may adversely influence vascular health. Dietary phosphate absorption can be moderated by emphasizing plant-based dietary choices (which provide phosphate in less bioavailable forms); avoidance of processed foods containing inorganic phosphate food additives; and by ingestion of phosphate-binder drugs, magnesium supplements, or niacin, which precipitate phosphate or suppress its gastrointestinal absorption. The propensity of dietary phosphate to promote vascular calcification may be opposed by optimal intakes of magnesium, vitamin K, and vitamin D; the latter should also counter the tendency of phosphate to elevate parathyroid hormone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Biocompatibility Study of Zirconium-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses for Orthopedic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wei; Chuang, Andrew; Cao, Zheng; Liaw, Peter K.

    2010-07-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) represent an emerging class of materials that offer an attractive combination of properties, such as high strength, low modulus, good fatigue limit, and near-net-shape formability. The BMGs have been explored in mechanical, chemical, and magnetic applications. However, little research has been attracted in the biomedical field. In this work, we study the potential of BMGs for the orthopedic repair and replacement. We report the biocompatibility study of zirconium (Zr)-based solid BMGs using mouse osteoblast cells. Cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation are compared to Ti-6Al-4V, a well-studied alloy biomaterial. Our in-vitro study has demonstrated that cells cultured on the Zr-based BMG substrate showed higher attachment, alkaline phosphatase activity, and bone matrix deposition compared to those grown on the control Ti alloy substrate. Cytotoxicity staining also revealed the remarkable viability of cells growing on the BMG substrates.

  18. Fabrication and Evaluation of Titanium and Zirconium based Wires for use during Extended, Deep Space, Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.

    2006-01-01

    Novel materials and designs are necessary for transport vessels and propulsion systems to fulfill NASA's vision of easier access to space and the expansion of human exploration beyond low-earth orbit. Spacecraft components must necessarily be lighter and stronger than their predecessors and will likely be required to serve new purposes. Furthermore, they must be resilient to the thermal, vacuum, and radiation environment of space for extended periods of time and may need to perform in the near proximity of a nuclear fuel source. To this end research has been initiated to fabricate novel, composite, wires based on titanium and zirconium pearlitic alloys. It is expected that the fabricated wire will well endure in the space environment with application as tethers, sail components, fasteners, and a myriad of other (including earth-based) uses. A background on pearlitic wire, novel alloy development, microstructural characterization, and initial mechanical testing results will be presented and discussed.

  19. IMPROVEMENT OF THE EXTRACTION SEPARATION OF URANIUM AND ZIRCONIUM USING ZIRCONIUM-MASKING REAGENTS (in German)

    SciTech Connect

    Kyrs, M.; Caletka, R.; Selucky, P.

    1963-12-01

    The masking capacities of a series of reagents were studied in the zirconium extraction with tributyl phosphate solution in the presence of nitric acid. It was established that with many reagents an improvement of the separation of uranium from zirconium could be obtained. The efficiency of the reagents increases in the series tannin, oxalic acid, tiron, pyrogallol, and Arsenazo I. (tr-auth)

  20. Remanufacture of Zirconium-Based Conversion Coatings on the Surface of Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhe; Jin, Guo; Song, Jiahui; Cui, Xiufang; Cai, Zhaobing

    2017-04-01

    Brush plating provides an effective method for creating a coating on substrates of various shapes. A corroded zirconium-based conversion coating was removed from the surface of a magnesium alloy and then replaced with new coatings prepared via brush plating. The structure and composition of the remanufactured coating were determined via x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results revealed that the coatings consist of oxide, fluoride, and tannin-related organics. The composition of the coatings varied with the voltage. Furthermore, as revealed via potentiodynamic polarization spectroscopy, these coatings yielded a significant increase in the corrosion resistance of the magnesium alloy. The friction coefficient remained constant for almost 300s during wear resistance measurements performed under a 1-N load and dry sliding conditions, indicating that the remanufactured coatings provide effective inhibition to corrosion.

  1. The international phosphate resource data base; development and maintenance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridges, Nancy J.

    1983-01-01

    The IPRDB (International Phosphate Resource Data Base) was developed to provide a single computerized source of geologic information about phosphate deposits worldwide. It is expected that this data base will encourage more thorough scientific analyses of phosphate deposits and assessments of undiscovered phosphate resources, and that methods of data collection and storage will be streamlined. Because the database was intended to serve as a repository for diverse and detailed data, a large amount of the early research effort was devoted to the design and development of the system. To date (1982), the file remains incomplete. All development work and file maintenance work on IPRDB was suspended as of October 1, 1982; this paper is intended to document the steps taken up to that date. The computer programs listed in the appendices were written specifically for the IPRDB phosbib file and are of limited future use.

  2. Synthesis, Structure, and Selective Gas Adsorption of a Single-Crystalline Zirconium Based Microporous Metal–Organic Framework

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Qining; Teat, Simon J.; ...

    2017-02-15

    Porous metal-organic framework (MOF) materials with high thermal and water stability are desirable for various adsorption based applications. Early transition metal based MOFs such as those built on zirconium metal have been well recognized for their excellent stability toward heat and/or moisture. However, the difficulty growing large single crystals makes their structural characterization challenging. Herein we report a porous Zr-MOF, [Zr 6O 4(OH) 4(cca) 6] (Zr-cca), which is assembled from zirconium and 4-carboxycinnamic acid (H 2cca) under solvothermal conditions. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the structure of Zr-cca is isoreticular to the prototype zirconium based MOF, UiO-66. Zr-ccamore » shows permanent porosity upon removal of solvent molecules initially residing inside the pores, with a BET surface area of 1178 m 2/g. As expected, it exhibits good thermal stability (stable up to 400 °C) and high resistance to acidity over a wide pH range. Evaluation of its gas adsorption performance on various hydrocarbons and fluorocarbons indicates that it preferentially adsorbs C 3 and C 4 hydrocarbons over C 2 analogues. At 30°C Zr-cca takes up more than 50 wt % of perfluorohexane and the adsorption-desorption process is fully recyclable. We have compared this material with UiO-66 and studied the underlying reasons for the difference in their adsorption performance toward perfluorohexane.« less

  3. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM IONS FROM SOLUTION BY ADSORPTION ON ZIRCONIUM PYROPHOSPHATE

    DOEpatents

    Stoughton, R.W.

    1961-01-31

    A method is given for separating plutonium in its reduced, phosphate- insoluble state from other substances. It involves contacting a solution containing the plutonium with granular zirconium pyrophosphate.

  4. URANIUM DECONTAMINATION WITH RESPECT TO ZIRCONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Vogler, S.; Beederman, M.

    1961-05-01

    A process is given for separating uranium values from a nitric acid aqueous solution containing uranyl values, zirconium values and tetravalent plutonium values. The process comprises contacting said solution with a substantially water-immiscible liquid organic solvent containing alkyl phosphate, separating an organic extract phase containing the uranium, zirconium, and tetravalent plutonium values from an aqueous raffinate, contacting said organic extract phase with an aqueous solution 2M to 7M in nitric acid and also containing an oxalate ion-containing substance, and separating a uranium- containing organic raffinate from aqueous zirconium- and plutonium-containing extract phase.

  5. All fiber passively mode locked zirconium-based erbium-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, H.; Awang, N. A.; Paul, M. C.; Pal, M.; Latif, A. A.; Harun, S. W.

    2012-04-01

    All passively mode locked erbium-doped fiber laser with a zirconium host is demonstrated. The fiber laser utilizes the Non-Linear Polarization Rotation (NPR) technique with an inexpensive fiber-based Polarization Beam Splitter (PBS) as the mode-locking element. A 2 m crystalline Zirconia-Yttria-Alumino-silicate fiber doped with erbium ions (Zr-Y-Al-EDF) acts as the gain medium and generates an Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) spectrum from 1500 nm to 1650 nm. The generated mode-locked pulses have a spectrum ranging from 1548 nm to more than 1605 nm, as well as a 3-dB bandwidth of 12 nm. The mode-locked pulse train has an average output power level of 17 mW with a calculated peak power of 1.24 kW and energy per pulse of approximately 730 pJ. The spectrum also exhibits a Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of 50 dB as well as a repetition rate of 23.2 MHz. The system is very stable and shows little power fluctuation, in addition to being repeatable.

  6. Biocompatibility evaluation of sputtered zirconium-based thin film metallic glass-coated steels

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Balasubramanian; Maruthamuthu, Sundaram; Rajan, Senthilperumal Thanka

    2015-01-01

    Thin film metallic glasses comprised of Zr48Cu36Al8Ag8 (at.%) of approximately 1.5 μm and 3 μm in thickness were prepared using magnetron sputtering onto medical grade 316L stainless steel. Their structural and mechanical properties, in vitro corrosion, and antimicrobial activity were analyzed. The amorphous thin film metallic glasses consisted of a single glassy phase, with an absence of any detectable peaks corresponding to crystalline phases. Elemental composition close to the target alloy was noted from EDAX analysis of the thin film. The surface morphology of the film showed a smooth surface on scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. In vitro electrochemical corrosion studies indicated that the zirconium-based metallic glass could withstand body fluid, showing superior resistance to corrosion and electrochemical stability. Interactions between the coated surface and bacteria were investigated by agar diffusion, solution suspension, and wet interfacial contact methods. The results indicated a clear zone of inhibition against the growth of microorganisms such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, confirming the antimicrobial activity of the thin film metallic glasses. Cytotoxicity studies using L929 fibroblast cells showed these coatings to be noncytotoxic in nature. PMID:26491304

  7. Biocompatibility evaluation of sputtered zirconium-based thin film metallic glass-coated steels.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Balasubramanian; Maruthamuthu, Sundaram; Rajan, Senthilperumal Thanka

    2015-01-01

    Thin film metallic glasses comprised of Zr48Cu36Al8Ag8 (at.%) of approximately 1.5 μm and 3 μm in thickness were prepared using magnetron sputtering onto medical grade 316L stainless steel. Their structural and mechanical properties, in vitro corrosion, and antimicrobial activity were analyzed. The amorphous thin film metallic glasses consisted of a single glassy phase, with an absence of any detectable peaks corresponding to crystalline phases. Elemental composition close to the target alloy was noted from EDAX analysis of the thin film. The surface morphology of the film showed a smooth surface on scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. In vitro electrochemical corrosion studies indicated that the zirconium-based metallic glass could withstand body fluid, showing superior resistance to corrosion and electrochemical stability. Interactions between the coated surface and bacteria were investigated by agar diffusion, solution suspension, and wet interfacial contact methods. The results indicated a clear zone of inhibition against the growth of microorganisms such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, confirming the antimicrobial activity of the thin film metallic glasses. Cytotoxicity studies using L929 fibroblast cells showed these coatings to be noncytotoxic in nature.

  8. Zirconium-Based Metal–Organic Framework for Removal of Perrhenate from Water

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Debasis; Xu, Wenqian; Nie, Zimin

    2016-09-06

    Efficient removal of pertechnetate (TcO4-) anions from liquid waste or melter off-gas solution for alternative treatment is one of the promising options to manage 99Tc in legacy nuclear waste. Safe immobilization of 99Tc is of major importance due to its long half-life (t1/2= 2.13 × 105 yrs) and environmental mobility. Different types of inorganic and solid state ion-exchange materials such as layered double hydroxides have been shown to absorb TcO4- anions from water. However, both high capacity and selectivity have yet to be achieved in a single material. Herein, we show that a protonated version of an ultra-stable zirconium basedmore » metal-organic framework can adsorb perrhenate (ReO4-) anions, a non-radioactive sur-rogate for TcO4-, from water even in the presence of other common anions. Synchrotron based powder X-ray diffraction and molecular simulations were used to identify the position of the adsorbed ReO4- (surrogate for TcO4-) molecule within the framework.« less

  9. Shock wave response of a zirconium-based bulk metallic glass and its composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Shiming; Lu, Jun; Ravichandran, Guruswami

    2002-06-01

    A zirconium-based bulk metallic glass, Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 (Vit 1), and its composite, Zr56.3Ti13.8Cu6.9Ni5.6Nb5.0Be12.5 (beta-Vit), were subjected to planar impact loading. A surprisingly low amplitude elastic precursor and bulk wave, corresponding to the elastic response of the "frozen structure" of the intact metallic glasses, were observed to precede the rate-dependent large deformation shock wave. A concave downward curvature after the initial increase of the Us-Up shock Hugoniots suggests that a phase-change-like transition occurred during shock compression. Further, compression damage occurred due to the shear localization. The spalling in Vit 1 was induced by shear localization, while in beta-Vit, it was due to debonding of the beta-phase boundary from the matrix. The spall strengths at strain rate of 2 x106 s-1 were determined to be 2.35 and 2.11 GPa for Vit 1 and beta-Vit, respectively.

  10. Joining of Zirconium Diboride-Based Ceramic Composites to Metallic Systems for High-Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asthana, R.; Singh, M.

    2008-01-01

    Three types of hot-pressed zirconium diboride (ZrB2)-based ultra-high-temperature ceramic composites (UHTCC), ZrB2-SiC (ZS), ZrB2-SiC-C (ZSC), and ZrB2-SCS9-SiC (ZSS), were joined to Cu-clad-Mo using two Ag-Cu brazes (Cusil-ABA and Ticusil, T(sub L) approx.1073-1173 K) and two Pd-base brazes (Palco and Palni, T(sub L) approx.1493-1513 K). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) revealed greater chemical interaction in joints made using Pd-base brazes than in joints made using Ag-Cu based active brazes. The degree of densification achieved in hot pressed composites influenced the Knoop hardness of the UHTCC and the hardness distribution across the braze interlayer. The braze region in Pd-base system displayed higher hardness in joints made using fully-dense ZS composites than in joints made using partially-dense ZSS composites and the carbon-containing ZSC composites. Calculations indicate a small negative elastic strain energy and an increase in the UHTCC's fracture stress up to a critical clad layer thickness . Above this critical thickness, strain energy in the UHTCC is positive, and it increases with increasing clad layer thickness. Empirical projections show a reduction in the effective thermal resistance of the joints and highlight the potential benefits of joining the UHTCC to Cu-clad-Mo.

  11. Amperometric Biosensor Based on Zirconium Oxide/Polyethylene Glycol/Tyrosinase Composite Film for the Detection of Phenolic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Nor Monica; Abdullah, Jaafar; Yusof, Nor Azah; Ab Rashid, Ahmad Hazri; Abd Rahman, Samsulida; Hasan, Md. Rakibul

    2016-01-01

    A phenolic biosensor based on a zirconium oxide/polyethylene glycol/tyrosinase composite film for the detection of phenolic compounds has been explored. The formation of the composite film was expected via electrostatic interaction between hexacetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and zirconium oxide nanoparticles casted on screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE). Herein, the electrode was treated by casting hexacetyltrimethylammonium bromide on SPCE to promote a positively charged surface. Later, zirconium oxide was mixed with polyethylene glycol and the mixture was dropped cast onto the positively charged SPCE/CTAB. Tyrosinase was further immobilized onto the modified SPCE. Characterization of the prepared nanocomposite film and the modified SPCE surface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), and Cyclic voltamogram (CV). The developed biosensor exhibits rapid response for less than 10 s. Two linear calibration curves towards phenol in the concentrations ranges of 0.075–10 µM and 10–55 µM with the detection limit of 0.034 µM were obtained. The biosensor shows high sensitivity and good storage stability for at least 30 days. PMID:27367738

  12. Amperometric Biosensor Based on Zirconium Oxide/Polyethylene Glycol/Tyrosinase Composite Film for the Detection of Phenolic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nor Monica; Abdullah, Jaafar; Yusof, Nor Azah; Ab Rashid, Ahmad Hazri; Abd Rahman, Samsulida; Hasan, Md Rakibul

    2016-06-29

    A phenolic biosensor based on a zirconium oxide/polyethylene glycol/tyrosinase composite film for the detection of phenolic compounds has been explored. The formation of the composite film was expected via electrostatic interaction between hexacetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and zirconium oxide nanoparticles casted on screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE). Herein, the electrode was treated by casting hexacetyltrimethylammonium bromide on SPCE to promote a positively charged surface. Later, zirconium oxide was mixed with polyethylene glycol and the mixture was dropped cast onto the positively charged SPCE/CTAB. Tyrosinase was further immobilized onto the modified SPCE. Characterization of the prepared nanocomposite film and the modified SPCE surface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), and Cyclic voltamogram (CV). The developed biosensor exhibits rapid response for less than 10 s. Two linear calibration curves towards phenol in the concentrations ranges of 0.075-10 µM and 10-55 µM with the detection limit of 0.034 µM were obtained. The biosensor shows high sensitivity and good storage stability for at least 30 days.

  13. The Effect of Boron and Zirconium on the Structure and Tensile Properties of the Cast Nickel-Based Superalloy ATI 718Plus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Abbasi, Seyed Mehdi; Madar, Karim Zangeneh

    2018-04-01

    The effects of boron and zirconium on cast structure, hardness, and tensile properties of the nickel-based superalloy 718Plus were investigated. For this purpose, five alloys with different contents of boron and zirconium were cast via vacuum induction melting and then purified via vacuum arc remelting. Microstructural analysis by light-optical microscope and scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and phase studies by x-ray diffraction analysis were performed. The results showed that boron and zirconium tend to significantly reduce dendritic arm spacing and increase the amount of Laves, Laves/gamma eutectic, and carbide phases. It was also found that boron led to the formation of B4C and (Cr, Fe, Mo, Ni, Ti)3B2 phases and zirconium led to the formation of intermetallic phases and ZrC carbide. In the presence of boron and zirconium, the hardness and its difference between dendritic branches and inter-dendritic spaces increased by concentrating such phases as Laves in the inter-dendritic spaces. These elements had a negative effect on tensile properties of the alloy, including ductility and strength, mainly because of the increase in the Laves phase. It should be noted that the largest degradation of the tensile properties occurred in the alloys containing the maximum amount of zirconium.

  14. Influence of oxide microstructure on corrosion behavior of zirconium-based model alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Marcelo Jose Gomes Da

    The extensive utilization of zirconium-based alloys in fuel cladding and other reactor internal components in the nuclear power industry has led to the continuous improvement of these alloys. At the present moment, demands for better performing nuclear fuel cladding materials are increasing. Also, new reactor designs have been proposed that would require the materials to withstand even more rigorous conditions. One of the factors that limit s fuel cladding utilization in nuclear reactors is uniform corrosion and the consequent hydriding of the fuel. In an attempt to develop mechanistic understanding of the role of alloying elements in the growth of a stable protective oxide, a series of model zirconium-based alloys was prepared (Zr-xFe-yCr, Zr-xCu-yMo, Zr-xNb-ySn, for various x and y, pure Zr and Zircaloy-4) and examined with advanced characterization techniques. The alloys were corrosion tested in autoclaves under three different conditions: 360°C water, 500°C steam and 500°C supercritical water in excess of 400 days. These autoclave testing conditions simulate nuclear reactor environment for both current designs (360°C water) and the new supercritical water reactor (500°C steam and 500°C supercritical water) proposed by the generation-IV initiative. The oxide films formed were systematically examined at the Advanced Photon Source using microbeam synchrotron radiation diffraction and fluorescence of cross-sectional samples to determine the oxide phases present and their crystallographic texture as a function of distance from the metal/oxide interface. Also, the overall texture of the oxide layers was investigated using synchrotron radiation diffraction in frontal geometry. The corrosion kinetics is a function of the alloy system and showed a wide range of behaviors, from immediately unstable oxide growth to stable behavior. The corrosion weight gains from testing at high temperature are a factor of five higher than those measured at 360°C but the

  15. Polymeric dental composites based on remineralizing amorphous calcium phosphate fillers

    PubMed Central

    Skrtic, Drago; Antonucci, Joseph M.

    2017-01-01

    For over two decades we have systematically explored structure-composition-property relationships of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)-based polymeric dental composites. The appeal of these bioactive materials stems from their intrinsic ability to prevent demineralization and/or restore defective tooth structures via sustained release of remineralizing calcium and phosphate ions. Due to the compositional similarity of the ACP to biological tooth mineral, ACP-based composites should exhibit excellent biocompatibility. Research described in this article has already yielded remineralizing sealants and orthodontic adhesives as well as a prototype root canal sealer. Our work has also contributed to a better understanding on how polymer matrix structure and filler/matrix interactions affect the critical properties of these polymeric composites and their overall performance. The addition of antimicrobial compounds to the formulation of ACP composites could increase their medical and dental regenerative treatment applications, thereby benefiting an even greater number of patients. PMID:29599572

  16. Multifunctional phosphate-based inorganic-organic hybrid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Heck, Joachim G; Napp, Joanna; Simonato, Sara; Möllmer, Jens; Lange, Marcus; Reichardt, Holger M; Staudt, Reiner; Alves, Frauke; Feldmann, Claus

    2015-06-17

    Phosphate-based inorganic-organic hybrid nanoparticles (IOH-NPs) with the general composition [M](2+)[Rfunction(O)PO3](2-) (M = ZrO, Mg2O; R = functional organic group) show multipurpose and multifunctional properties. If [Rfunction(O)PO3](2-) is a fluorescent dye anion ([RdyeOPO3](2-)), the IOH-NPs show blue, green, red, and near-infrared fluorescence. This is shown for [ZrO](2+)[PUP](2-), [ZrO](2+)[MFP](2-), [ZrO](2+)[RRP](2-), and [ZrO](2+)[DUT](2-) (PUP = phenylumbelliferon phosphate, MFP = methylfluorescein phosphate, RRP = resorufin phosphate, DUT = Dyomics-647 uridine triphosphate). With pharmaceutical agents as functional anions ([RdrugOPO3](2-)), drug transport and release of anti-inflammatory ([ZrO](2+)[BMP](2-)) and antitumor agents ([ZrO](2+)[FdUMP](2-)) with an up to 80% load of active drug is possible (BMP = betamethason phosphate, FdUMP = 5'-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine 5'-monophosphate). A combination of fluorescent dye and drug anions is possible as well and shown for [ZrO](2+)[BMP](2-)0.996[DUT](2-)0.004. Merging of functional anions, in general, results in [ZrO](2+)([RdrugOPO3]1-x[RdyeOPO3]x)(2-) nanoparticles and is highly relevant for theranostics. Amine-based functional anions in [MgO](2+)[RaminePO3](2-) IOH-NPs, finally, show CO2 sorption (up to 180 mg g(-1)) and can be used for CO2/N2 separation (selectivity up to α = 23). This includes aminomethyl phosphonate [AMP](2-), 1-aminoethyl phosphonate [1AEP](2-), 2-aminoethyl phosphonate [2AEP](2-), aminopropyl phosphonate [APP](2-), and aminobutyl phosphonate [ABP](2-). All [M](2+)[Rfunction(O)PO3](2-) IOH-NPs are prepared via noncomplex synthesis in water, which facilitates practical handling and which is optimal for biomedical application. In sum, all IOH-NPs have very similar chemical compositions but can address a variety of different functions, including fluorescence, drug delivery, and CO2 sorption.

  17. Dual Role of Water in Heterogeneous Catalytic Hydrolysis of Sarin by Zirconium-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Mohammad R; Cramer, Christopher J

    2018-05-22

    Recent experimental studies on Zr IV -based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have shown the extraordinary effectiveness of these porous materials for the detoxification of phosphorus-based chemical warfare agents (CWAs). However, pressing challenges remain with respect to characterizing these catalytic processes both at the molecular and crystalline levels. We here use theory to compare the reactivity of different zirconium-based MOFs for the catalytic hydrolysis of the CWA sarin, using both periodic and cluster modeling. We consider both hydrated and dehydrated secondary building units, as well as linker functionalized MOFs, to more fully understand and rationalize available experimental findings as well as to enable concrete predictions for achieving higher activities for the decomposition of CWAs.

  18. Visual and surface plasmon resonance sensor for zirconium based on zirconium-induced aggregation of adenosine triphosphate-stabilized gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Qi, Wenjing; Zhao, Jianming; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Zhongyuan; Xu, Min; Anjum, Saima; Majeed, Saadat; Xu, Guobao

    2013-07-17

    Owing to its high affinity with phosphate, Zr(IV) can induce the aggregation of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-stabilized AuNPs, leading to the change of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption spectra and color of ATP-stabilized AuNP solutions. Based on these phenomena, visual and SPR sensors for Zr(IV) have been developed for the first time. The A(660 nm)/A(518 nm) values of ATP-stabilized AuNPs in SPR absorption spectra increase linearly with the concentrations of Zr(IV) from 0.5 μM to 100 μM (r=0.9971) with a detection limit of 95 nM. A visual Zr(IV) detection is achieved with a detection limit of 30 μM. The sensor shows excellent selectivity against other metal ions, such as Cu(2+), Fe(3+), Cd(2+), and Pb(2+). The recoveries for the detection of 5 μM, 10 μM, 25 μM and 75 μM Zr(IV) in lake water samples are 96.0%, 97.0%, 95.6% and 102.4%, respectively. The recoveries of the proposed SPR method are comparable with those of ICP-OES method. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical efficacy of veneered zirconium dioxide-based posterior partial fixed dental prostheses: five-year results.

    PubMed

    Raigrodski, Ariel J; Yu, Alika; Chiche, Gerard J; Hochstedler, J L; Mancl, Lloyd A; Mohamed, Shawky E

    2012-10-01

    In recent years, zirconium dioxide-based partial fixed dental prostheses (FDP) have been suggested as an alternative treatment to traditional metal ceramic FDPs. However, clinical studies evaluating their longevity and related complications are limited. The purpose of this cohort clinical study was to assess the efficacy of zirconium dioxide-based posterior 3-unit FDPs. Twenty 3-unit posterior FDPs (Lava) were placed in 16 participants missing a second premolar or a first molar. All participants met specific inclusion and exclusion criteria and provided informed consent. All teeth were prepared in a standardized manner: occlusal reduction of 1.5 to 2 mm; axial reduction of 1 to 1.5 mm; a 1.0 mm 360-degree rounded shoulder placed 0.5 mm subgingivally on the facial aspect and supragingivally on the lingual aspect on sound tooth structure; and rounded internal line angles. Definitive impressions were made with vinyl polysiloxane impression material. Frameworks were fabricated by using computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology with a uniform retainer thickness of 0.6 mm and a minimal connector surface area of 9 mm(2). Restorations were luted with resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Rely-X Luting). Participants were recalled at 2 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months, and thereafter, annually for up to 60 months. Clinical fracture measurements, marginal discoloration, marginal adaptation, radiographic proximal recurrent caries, and periapical pathoses were assessed over time by using modified Ryge criteria. The probability distributions of these variables were calculated for the baseline data and for the recall data. An analysis of survival was made by using the Kaplan-Meier method. Eighteen FDPs were clinically evaluated at 5 years and 1 at 48 months. Fifteen were rated Alpha for fracture measurements, and 2 were rated Bravo (minor chipping of veneering porcelain and not requiring restoration replacement). Two were rated Charlie (major

  20. Preparation, mechanical property and cytocompatibility of freeze-cast porous calcium phosphate ceramics reinforced by phosphate-based glass.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanqiu; He, Fupo; Ye, Jiandong

    2016-12-01

    In this study, phosphate-based glass (PG) was used as a sintering aid for freeze-cast porous biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramic, which was sintered under a lower temperature (1000°C). The phase composition, pore structure, compressive strength, and cytocompatibility of calcium phosphate composite ceramics (PG-BCP) were evaluated. The results indicated that PG additive reacted with calcium phosphate during the sintering process, forming β-Ca2P2O7; the ions of sodium and magnesium from PG partially substituted the calcium sites of β-calcium phosphate in BCP. The PG-BCP showed good cytocompatibility. The pore width of the porous PG-BCP ceramics was around 50μm, regardless of the amount of PG sintering aid. As the content of PG increased from 0wt.% to 15wt.%, the compressive strength of PG-BCP increased from 0.02 MP to 0.28MPa. When the PG additive was 17.5wt.%, the compressive strength of PG-BCP dramatically increased to 5.66MPa. Addition of 15wt.% PG was the critical point for the properties of PG-BCP. PG is considered as an effective sintering aid for freeze-cast porous bioceramics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Phosphate adsorption using modified iron oxide-based sorbents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Phosphate RemovalThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Lalley , J., C. Han , G. RamMohan , T. Speth , J. Garland , M. Nadagouda , and D. Dionysiou. Phosphate Removal using Modified Bayoxide®E33 Adsorption Media. WATER RESEARCH. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, USA, issue}: 96-107, (2015).

  2. SEPARATION OF URANIUM FROM ZIRCONIUM AND NIOBIUM BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Voiland, E.E.

    1958-05-01

    A process for separation of the uranium from zirconium and/or niobium values contained in 3 to 7M aqueous nitric acid solutions is described. This is accomplished by adding phosphoric acid anions to the nitric acid solution containing the uranium, zirconium, and/or niobium in an amount sufficient to make the solution 0.05 to 0.2M in phosphate ion and contacting the solution with an organic water-immiscible solvent such as MEK, whereby the uranyl values are taken up by the extract phase while the zirconium and niobium preferentially remain in the aqueous raffinate.

  3. Efficient UV-emitting X-ray phosphors: octahedral Zr(PO 4) 6 luminescence centers in potassium hafnium-zirconium phosphates K 2Hf 1- xZr x(PO 4) 2 and KHf 2(1- x) Zr 2 x(PO 4) 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torardi, C. C.; Miao, C. R.; Li, J.

    2003-02-01

    Potassium hafnium-zirconium phosphates, K 2Hf 1- xZr x(PO 4) 2 and KHf 2(1- x) Zr 2 x(PO 4) 3, are broad-band UV-emitting phosphors. At room temperature, they have emission peak maxima at approximately 322 and 305 nm, respectively, under 30 kV peak molybdenum X-ray excitation. Both phosphors demonstrate luminescence efficiencies that make them up to ˜60% as bright as commercially available CaWO 4 Hi-Plus. The solid-state and flux synthesis conditions, and X-ray excited UV luminescence of these two phosphors are discussed. Even though the two compounds have different atomic structures, they contain zirconium in the same active luminescence environment as that found in highly efficient UV-emitting BaHf 1- xZr x(PO 4) 2. All the three materials have hafnium and zirconium in octahedral coordination via oxygen-atom corner sharing with six separate PO 4 tetrahedra. This octahedral Zr(PO 4) 6 moiety appears to be an important structural element for efficient X-ray excited luminescence, as are the edge-sharing octahedral TaO 6 chains for tantalate emission.

  4. Separation of Zirconium and Hafnium: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, L.; Xiao, Y.; van Sandwijk, A.; Xu, Q.; Yang, Y.

    Zirconium is an ideal material for nuclear reactors due to its low absorption cross-section for thermal neutrons, whereas the typically contained hafnium with strong neutron-absorption is very harmful for zirconium. This paper provides an overview of the processes for separating hafnium from zirconium. The separation processes are roughly classified into hydro- and pyrometallurgical routes. The current dominant zirconium production route involves pyrometallurgical ore cracking, multi-step hydrometallurgical liquid-liquid extraction for hafnium removal and the reduction of zirconium tetrachloride to the pure metal by the Kroll process. The lengthy hydrometallurgical Zr-Hf separation operations leads to high production cost, intensive labour and heavy environmental burden. Using a compact pyrometallurgical separation method can simplify the whole production flowsheet with a higher process efficiency. The known separation methods are discussed based on the following reaction features: redox characteristics, volatility, electrochemical properties and molten salt extraction. The commercially operating extractive distillation process is a significant advance in Zr-Hf separation technology but it suffers from high process maintenance cost. The recently developed new process based on molten salt-metal equilibrium for Zr-Hf separation shows a great potential for industrial application, which is compact for nuclear grade zirconium production starting from crude ore. In the present paper, the available separation technologies are compared. The advantages and disadvantages as well as future directions of research and development for nuclear grade zirconium production are discussed.

  5. Development of bone-like zirconium oxide nanoceramic modified chitosan based porous nanocomposites for biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Bhowmick, Arundhati; Pramanik, Nilkamal; Jana, Piyali; Mitra, Tapas; Gnanamani, Arumugam; Das, Manas; Kundu, Patit Paban

    2017-02-01

    Here, zirconium oxide nanoparticles (ZrO 2 NPs) were incorporated for the first time in organic-inorganic hybrid composites containing chitosan, poly(ethylene glycol) and nano-hydroxypatite (CS-PEG-HA) to develop bone-like nanocomposites for bone tissue engineering application. These nanocomposites were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, TEM combined with SAED. SEM images and porosity measurements revealed highly porous structure having pore size of less than 1μm to 10μm. Enhanced water absorption capacity and mechanical strengths were obtained compared to previously reported CS-PEG-HA composite after addition of 0.1-0.3wt% of ZrO 2 NPs into these nanocomposites. The mechanical strengths and porosities were similar to that of human spongy bone. Strong antimicrobial effects against gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial strains were also observed. Along with getting low alkalinity pH (7.4) values, similar to the pH of human plasma, hemocompatibility and cytocompatibility with osteoblastic MG-63 cells were also established for these nanocomposites. Addition of 15wt% HA-ZrO 2 (having 0.3wt% ZrO 2 NPs) into CS-PEG (55:30wt%) composite resulted in greatest mechanical strength, porosity, antimicrobial property and cytocompatibility along with suitable water absorption capacity and compatibility with human pH and blood. Thus, this nanocomposite could serve as a potential candidate to be used for bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Multifunctional zirconium oxide doped chitosan based hybrid nanocomposites as bone tissue engineering materials.

    PubMed

    Bhowmick, Arundhati; Jana, Piyali; Pramanik, Nilkamal; Mitra, Tapas; Banerjee, Sovan Lal; Gnanamani, Arumugam; Das, Manas; Kundu, Patit Paban

    2016-10-20

    This paper reports the development of multifunctional zirconium oxide (ZrO2) doped nancomposites having chitosan (CTS), organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) and nano-hydroxyapatite (HAP). Formation of these nanocomposites was confirmed by various characterization techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed uniform distribution of OMMT and nano-HAP-ZrO2 into CTS matrix. Powder XRD study and TEM study revealed that OMMT has partially exfoliated into the polymer matrix. Enhanced mechanical properties in comparison to the reported literature were obtained after the addition of ZrO2 nanoparticle into the nanocomposites. In rheological measurements, CMZH I-III exhibited greater storage modulus (G') than loss modulus (G″). TGA results showed that these nanocomposites are thermally more stable compare to pure CTS film. Strong antibacterial zone of inhibition and the lowest minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) value of these nanocomposites against bacterial strains proved that these materials have the ability to prevent bacterial infection in orthopedic implants. Compatibility of these nanocomposites with pH and blood of human body was established. It was observed from the swelling study that the swelling percentage was increased with decreasing the hydrophobic OMMT content. Human osteoblastic MG-63 cell proliferations were observed on the nanocomposites and cytocompatibility of these nanocomposites was also established. Moreover, addition of 5wt% OMMT and 5wt% nano-HAP-ZrO2 into 90wt% CTS matrix provides maximum tensile strength, storage modulus, aqueous swelling and cytocompatibility along with strong antibacterial effect, pH and erythrocyte compatibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Gas sorption and transition-metal cation separation with a thienothiophene based zirconium metal–organic framework

    SciTech Connect

    SK, Mostakim; Grzywa, Maciej; Volkmer, Dirk

    2015-12-15

    The modulated synthesis of the thienothiophene based zirconium metal–organic framework (MOF) material having formula [Zr{sub 6}O{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}(DMTDC){sub 6}]·4.8DMF·10H{sub 2}O (1) (H{sub 2}DMTDC=3,4-dimethylthieno[2,3-b]thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid; DMF=N,N'-dimethylformamide) was carried out by heating a mixture of ZrCl{sub 4}, H{sub 2}DMTDC linker and benzoic acid (used as a modulator) with a molar ratio of 1:1:30 in DMF at 150 °C for 24 h. Systematic investigations have been performed in order to realize the effect of ZrCl{sub 4}/benzoic acid molar ratio on the crystallinity of the material. The activation (i.e., the removal of the guest solvent molecules from the pores) of as-synthesized compound was achievedmore » by stirring it with methanol and subsequently heating under vacuum. A combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), thermogravimetric (TG) and elemental analysis was used to examine the phase purity of the as-synthesized and thermally activated 1. The material displays high thermal stability up to 310 °C in an air atmosphere. As revealed from the XRD measurements, the compound retains its crystallinity when treated with water, acetic acid and 1 M HCl solutions. The N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} sorption analyses suggest that the material possesses remarkably high microporosity (S{sub BET}=1236 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}; CO{sub 2} uptake=3.5 mmol g{sup −1} at 1 bar and 0 °C). The compound also shows selective adsorption behavior for Cu{sup 2+} over Co{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} ions. - Graphical abstract: Selective transition-metal cation adsorption by a thienothiophene based zirconium metal–organic framework material. - Highlights: • The modulated synthesis of a thienothiophene based Zr(IV) MOF has been described. • Effect of metal salt/modulator ratio on the crystallinity was thoroughly studied. • The compound showed high thermal and physiochemical stability. • N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} sorption experiments

  8. Metal Phosphides and Phosphates-based Electrodes for Electrochemical Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Elshahawy, Abdelnaby M; Guan, Cao; Wang, John

    2017-10-01

    Phosphorus compounds, such as metal phosphides and phosphates have shown excellent performances and great potential in electrochemical energy storage, which are demonstrated by research works published in recent years. Some of these metal phosphides and phosphates and their hybrids compare favorably with transition metal oxides/hydroxides, which have been studied extensively as a class of electrode materials for supercapacitor applications, where they have limitations in terms of electrical and ion conductivity and device stability. To be specific, metal phosphides have both metalloid characteristics and good electric conductivity. For metal phosphates, the open-framework structures with large channels and cavities endow them with good ion conductivity and charge storage capacity. In this review, we present the recent progress on metal phosphides and phosphates, by focusing on their advantages/disadvantages and potential applications as a new class of electrode materials in supercapacitors. The synthesis methods to prepare these metal phosphides/phosphates are looked into, together with the scientific insights involved, as they strongly affect the electrochemical energy storage performance. Particular attentions are paid to those hybrid-type materials, where strong synergistic effects exist. In the summary, the future perspectives and challenges for the metal phosphides, phosphates and hybrid-types are proposed and discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. An In Vivo Evaluation of the Fit of Zirconium-Oxide Based, Ceramic Single Crowns with Vertical and Horizontal Finish Line Preparations.

    PubMed

    Vigolo, Paolo; Mutinelli, Sabrina; Biscaro, Leonello; Stellini, Edoardo

    2015-12-01

    Different types of tooth preparations influence the marginal precision of zirconium-oxide based ceramic single crowns. In this in vivo study, the marginal fits of zirconium-oxide based ceramic single crowns with vertical and horizontal finish lines were compared. Forty-six teeth were chosen in eight patients indicated for extraction for implant placement. CAD/CAM technology was used for the production of 46 zirconium-oxide-based ceramic single crowns: 23 teeth were prepared with vertical finishing lines, 23 with horizontal finishing lines. One operator accomplished all clinical procedures. The zirconia crowns were cemented with glass ionomer cement. The teeth were extracted 1 month later. Marginal gaps along vertical planes were measured for each crown, using a total of four landmarks for each tooth by means of a microscope at 50× magnification. On conclusion of microscopic assessment, ESEM evaluation was completed on all specimens. The comparison of the gap between the two types of preparation was performed with a nonparametric test (two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum test) with a level of significance fixed at p < 0.05. All data were analyzed with STATA12. In the group with horizontal finish line preparations, the median value of the gap was 35.45 μm (Iqr, 0.33); for the vertical finish line group, the median value of the gap was 35.44 μm (Iqr, 0.40). The difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum test, p = 0.0872). Within the limitations of this study, the gaps of the zirconium-oxide-based ceramic CAD/CAM crowns with vertical and horizontal finish line preparations were not different. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  10. PLUTONIUM-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Schonfeld, F.W.; Waber, J.T.

    1960-08-30

    A series of nuclear reactor fuel alloys consisting of from about 5 to about 50 at.% zirconium (or higher zirconium alloys such as Zircaloy), balance plutonium, and having the structural composition of a plutonium are described. Zirconium is a satisfactory diluent because it alloys readily with plutonium and has desirable nuclear properties. Additional advantages are corrosion resistance, excellent fabrication propenties, an isotropie structure, and initial softness.

  11. Three-dimensional ordered titanium dioxide-zirconium dioxide film-based microfluidic device for efficient on-chip phosphopeptide enrichment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, De; He, Zhongyuan; Wang, Gang; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang

    2016-09-15

    Microfluidic technology plays a significant role in separating biomolecules, because of its miniaturization, integration, and automation. Introducing micro/nanostructured functional materials can improve the properties of microfluidic devices, and extend their application. Inverse opal has a three-dimensional ordered net-like structure. It possesses a large surface area and exhibits good mass transport, making it a good candidate for bio-separation. This study exploits inverse opal titanium dioxide-zirconium dioxide films for on-chip phosphopeptide enrichment. Titanium dioxide-zirconium dioxide inverse opal film-based microfluidic devices were constructed from templates of 270-, 340-, and 370-nm-diameter poly(methylmethacrylate) spheres. The phosphopeptide enrichments of these devices were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. The device constructed from the 270-nm-diameter sphere template exhibited good comprehensive phosphopeptide enrichment, and was the best among these three devices. Because the size of opal template used in construction was the smallest, the inverse opal film therefore had the smallest pore sizes and the largest surface area. Enrichment by this device was also better than those of similar devices based on nanoparticle films and single component films. The titanium dioxide-zirconium dioxide inverse opal film-based device provides a promising approach for the efficient separation of various biomolecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A New Class of Metal-Cyclam-Based Zirconium Metal–Organic Frameworks for CO 2 Adsorption and Chemical Fixation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Jie; Usov, Pavel M.; Xu, Wenqian

    Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) have shown great promise in catalysis, mainly due to their high content of active centers, large internal surface areas, tunable pore size, and versatile chemical functionalities. However, it is a challenge to rationally design and construct MOFs that can serve as highly stable and reusable heterogeneous catalysts. Here two new robust 3D porous metal-cyclam-based zirconium MOFs, denoted VPI-100 (Cu) and VPI-100 (Ni), have been prepared by a modulated synthetic strategy. The frameworks are assembled by eight-connected Zr 6 clusters and metallocyclams as organic linkers. Importantly, the cyclam core has accessible axial coordination sites for guest interactions andmore » maintains the electronic properties exhibited by the parent cyclam ring. The VPI-100 MOFs exhibit excellent chemical stability in various organic and aqueous solvents over a wide pH range and show high CO 2 uptake capacity (up to ~9.83 wt% adsorption at 273 K under 1 atm). Moreover, VPI-100 MOFs demonstrate some of the highest reported catalytic activity values (turnover frequency and conversion efficiency) among Zr-based MOFs for the chemical fixation of CO 2 with epoxides, including sterically hindered epoxides. Thus, the MOFs, which bear dual catalytic sites (Zr and Cu/Ni), enable chemistry not possible with the cyclam ligand under the same conditions and can be used as recoverable stable heterogeneous catalysts without losing performance.« less

  13. A New Class of Metal-Cyclam-Based Zirconium Metal–Organic Frameworks for CO 2 Adsorption and Chemical Fixation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Jie; Usov, Pavel M.; Xu, Wenqian

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have shown great promise in catalysis, mainly due to their high content of active centers, large internal surface areas, tunable pore size, and versatile chemical functionalities. However, it is a challenge to rationally design and construct MOFs that can serve as highly stable and reusable heterogeneous catalysts. Here two new robust 3D porous metal-cyclam-based zirconium MOFs, denoted VPI-100 (Cu) and VPI-100 (Ni), have been prepared by a modulated synthetic strategy. The frameworks are assembled by eight-connected Zr-6 clusters and metallocyclams as organic linkers. Importantly, the cyclam core has accessible axial coordination sites for guest interactions and maintainsmore » the electronic properties exhibited by the parent cyclam ring. The VPI-100 MOFs exhibit excellent chemical stability in various organic and aqueous solvents over a wide pH range and show high CO2 uptake capacity (up to similar to 9.83 wt% adsorption at 273 K under 1 atm). Moreover, VPI-100 MOFs demonstrate some of the highest reported catalytic activity values (turnover frequency and conversion efficiency) among Zr-based MOFs for the chemical fixation of CO2 with epoxides, including sterically hindered epoxides. The MOFs, which bear dual catalytic sites (Zr and Cu/Ni), enable chemistry not possible with the cyclam ligand under the same conditions and can be used as recoverable stable heterogeneous catalysts without losing performance.« less

  14. Silicon doped hafnium oxide (HSO) and hafnium zirconium oxide (HZO) based FeFET: A material relation to device physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, T.; Polakowski, P.; Riedel, S.; Büttner, T.; Kämpfe, T.; Rudolph, M.; Pätzold, B.; Seidel, K.; Löhr, D.; Hoffmann, R.; Czernohorsky, M.; Kühnel, K.; Thrun, X.; Hanisch, N.; Steinke, P.; Calvo, J.; Müller, J.

    2018-05-01

    The recent discovery of ferroelectricity in thin film HfO2 materials renewed the interest in ferroelectric FET (FeFET) as an emerging nonvolatile memory providing a potential high speed and low power Flash alternative. Here, we report more insight into FeFET performance by integrating two types of ferroelectric (FE) materials and varying their properties. By varying the material type [HfO2 (HSO) versus hafnium zirconium oxide (HZO)], optimum content (Si doping/mixture ratio), and film thickness, a material relation to FeFET device physics is concluded. As for the material type, an improved FeFET performance is observed for HZO integration with memory window (MW) comparable to theoretical values. For different Si contents, the HSO based FeFET exhibited a MW trend with different stabilized phases. Similarly, the HZO FeFET shows MW dependence on the Hf:Zr mixture ratio. A maximized MW is obtained with cycle ratios of 16:1 (HfO2:Si) and 1:1 (Hf:Zr) as measured on HSO and HZO based FeFETs, respectively. The thickness variation shows a trend of increasing MW with the increased FE layer thickness confirming early theoretical predictions. The FeFET material aspects and stack physics are discussed with insight into the interplay factors, while optimum FE material parameters are outlined in relation to performance.

  15. A New Class of Metal-Cyclam-Based Zirconium Metal-Organic Frameworks for CO2 Adsorption and Chemical Fixation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jie; Usov, Pavel M; Xu, Wenqian; Celis-Salazar, Paula J; Lin, Shaoyang; Kessinger, Matthew C; Landaverde-Alvarado, Carlos; Cai, Meng; May, Ann M; Slebodnick, Carla; Zhu, Dunru; Senanayake, Sanjaya D; Morris, Amanda J

    2018-01-24

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have shown great promise in catalysis, mainly due to their high content of active centers, large internal surface areas, tunable pore size, and versatile chemical functionalities. However, it is a challenge to rationally design and construct MOFs that can serve as highly stable and reusable heterogeneous catalysts. Here two new robust 3D porous metal-cyclam-based zirconium MOFs, denoted VPI-100 (Cu) and VPI-100 (Ni), have been prepared by a modulated synthetic strategy. The frameworks are assembled by eight-connected Zr 6 clusters and metallocyclams as organic linkers. Importantly, the cyclam core has accessible axial coordination sites for guest interactions and maintains the electronic properties exhibited by the parent cyclam ring. The VPI-100 MOFs exhibit excellent chemical stability in various organic and aqueous solvents over a wide pH range and show high CO 2 uptake capacity (up to ∼9.83 wt% adsorption at 273 K under 1 atm). Moreover, VPI-100 MOFs demonstrate some of the highest reported catalytic activity values (turnover frequency and conversion efficiency) among Zr-based MOFs for the chemical fixation of CO 2 with epoxides, including sterically hindered epoxides. The MOFs, which bear dual catalytic sites (Zr and Cu/Ni), enable chemistry not possible with the cyclam ligand under the same conditions and can be used as recoverable stable heterogeneous catalysts without losing performance.

  16. A New Class of Metal-Cyclam-Based Zirconium Metal–Organic Frameworks for CO 2 Adsorption and Chemical Fixation

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Jie; Usov, Pavel M.; Xu, Wenqian; ...

    2017-12-22

    Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) have shown great promise in catalysis, mainly due to their high content of active centers, large internal surface areas, tunable pore size, and versatile chemical functionalities. However, it is a challenge to rationally design and construct MOFs that can serve as highly stable and reusable heterogeneous catalysts. Here two new robust 3D porous metal-cyclam-based zirconium MOFs, denoted VPI-100 (Cu) and VPI-100 (Ni), have been prepared by a modulated synthetic strategy. The frameworks are assembled by eight-connected Zr 6 clusters and metallocyclams as organic linkers. Importantly, the cyclam core has accessible axial coordination sites for guest interactions andmore » maintains the electronic properties exhibited by the parent cyclam ring. The VPI-100 MOFs exhibit excellent chemical stability in various organic and aqueous solvents over a wide pH range and show high CO 2 uptake capacity (up to ~9.83 wt% adsorption at 273 K under 1 atm). Moreover, VPI-100 MOFs demonstrate some of the highest reported catalytic activity values (turnover frequency and conversion efficiency) among Zr-based MOFs for the chemical fixation of CO 2 with epoxides, including sterically hindered epoxides. Thus, the MOFs, which bear dual catalytic sites (Zr and Cu/Ni), enable chemistry not possible with the cyclam ligand under the same conditions and can be used as recoverable stable heterogeneous catalysts without losing performance.« less

  17. Model of early self-replication based on covalent complementarity for a copolymer of glycerate-3-phosphate and glycerol-3-phosphate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    1989-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate acts as the substrate in a model of early self-replication of a phosphodiester copolymer of glycerate-3-phosphate and glycerol-3-phosphate. This model of self-replication is based on covalent complementarity in which information transfer is mediated by a single covalent bond, in contrast to multiple weak interactions that establish complementarity in nucleic acid replication. This replication model is connected to contemporary biochemistry through its use of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, a central metabolite of glycolysis and photosynthesis.

  18. First-principles design of nanostructured hybrid photovoltaics based on layered transition metal phosphates

    DOE PAGES

    Lentz, Levi C.; Kolpak, Alexie M.

    2017-04-28

    The performance of bulk organic and hybrid organic-inorganic heterojunction photovoltaics is often limited by high carrier recombination arising from strongly bound excitons and low carrier mobility. Structuring materials to minimize the length scales required for exciton separation and carrier collection is therefore a promising approach for improving efficiency. In this work, first-principles computations are employed to design and characterize a new class of photovoltaic materials composed of layered transition metal phosphates (TMPs) covalently bound to organic absorber molecules to form nanostructured superlattices. Using a combination of transition metal substitution and organic functionalization, the electronic structure of these materials is systematicallymore » tuned to design a new hybrid photovoltaic material predicted to exhibit very low recombination due to the presence of a local electric field and spatially isolated, high mobility, two-dimensional electron and hole conducting channels. Furthermore, this material is predicted to have a large open-circuit voltage of 1.7 V. Here, this work suggests that hybrid TMPs constitute an interesting class of materials for further investigation in the search for achieving high efficiency, high power, and low cost photo Zirconium phosphate was chosen, in part, due to previous experiment voltaics.« less

  19. First-principles design of nanostructured hybrid photovoltaics based on layered transition metal phosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Lentz, Levi C.; Kolpak, Alexie M.

    The performance of bulk organic and hybrid organic-inorganic heterojunction photovoltaics is often limited by high carrier recombination arising from strongly bound excitons and low carrier mobility. Structuring materials to minimize the length scales required for exciton separation and carrier collection is therefore a promising approach for improving efficiency. In this work, first-principles computations are employed to design and characterize a new class of photovoltaic materials composed of layered transition metal phosphates (TMPs) covalently bound to organic absorber molecules to form nanostructured superlattices. Using a combination of transition metal substitution and organic functionalization, the electronic structure of these materials is systematicallymore » tuned to design a new hybrid photovoltaic material predicted to exhibit very low recombination due to the presence of a local electric field and spatially isolated, high mobility, two-dimensional electron and hole conducting channels. Furthermore, this material is predicted to have a large open-circuit voltage of 1.7 V. Here, this work suggests that hybrid TMPs constitute an interesting class of materials for further investigation in the search for achieving high efficiency, high power, and low cost photo Zirconium phosphate was chosen, in part, due to previous experiment voltaics.« less

  20. Phosphate-based glasses: Prediction of acoustical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Moneim, Amin Abd

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a comprehensive study has been carried out to predict the composition dependence of bulk modulus and ultrasonic attenuation coefficient in the phosphate-based glass systems PbO-P2O5, Li2O-TeO2-B2O3-P2O5, TiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5 and Cr2O3-doped Na2O-ZnO-P2O5 at room temperature. The prediction is based on (i) Makishima-Mackenzie theory, which correlates the bulk modulus with packing density and dissociation energy per unit volume, and (ii) Our recently presented semi-empirical formulas, which correlate the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient with the oxygen density, mean atomic ring size, first-order stretching force constant and experimental bulk modulus. Results revealed that our recently presented semi-empirical formulas can be applied successfully to predict changes of ultrasonic attenuation coefficient in binary PbO-P2O5 glasses at 10 MHz frequency and in quaternary Li2O-TeO2-B2O3-P2O5, TiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5 and Cr2O3-Na2O-ZnO-P2O5 glasses at 5 MHz frequency. Also, Makishima-Mackenzie theory appears to be valid for the studied glasses if the effect of the basic structural units that present in the glass network is taken into account.

  1. Calcium phosphate-based coatings on titanium and its alloys.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, R; Seshadri, S K; Kwon, T Y; Kim, K H

    2008-04-01

    Use of titanium as biomaterial is possible because of its very favorable biocompatibility with living tissue. Titanium implants having calcium phosphate coatings on their surface show good fixation to the bone. This review covers briefly the requirements of typical biomaterials and narrowly focuses on the works on titanium. Calcium phosphate ceramics for use in implants are introduced and various methods of producing calcium phosphate coating on titanium substrates are elaborated. Advantages and disadvantages of each type of coating from the view point of process simplicity, cost-effectiveness, stability of the coatings, coating integration with the bone, cell behavior, and so forth are highlighted. Taking into account all these factors, the efficient method(s) of producing these coatings are indicated finally.

  2. Zirconium, calcium, and strontium contents in magnesium based biodegradable alloys modulate the efficiency of implant-induced osseointegration

    PubMed Central

    Mushahary, Dolly; Sravanthi, Ragamouni; Li, Yuncang; Kumar, Mahesh J; Harishankar, Nemani; Hodgson, Peter D; Wen, Cuie; Pande, Gopal

    2013-01-01

    Development of new biodegradable implants and devices is necessary to meet the increasing needs of regenerative orthopedic procedures. An important consideration while formulating new implant materials is that they should physicochemically and biologically mimic bone-like properties. In earlier studies, we have developed and characterized magnesium based biodegradable alloys, in particular magnesium-zirconium (Mg-Zr) alloys. Here we have reported the biological properties of four Mg-Zr alloys containing different quantities of strontium or calcium. The alloys were implanted in small cavities made in femur bones of New Zealand White rabbits, and the quantitative and qualitative assessments of newly induced bone tissue were carried out. A total of 30 experimental animals, three for each implant type, were studied, and bone induction was assessed by histological, immunohistochemical and radiological methods; cavities in the femurs with no implants and observed for the same period of time were kept as controls. Our results showed that Mg-Zr alloys containing appropriate quantities of strontium were more efficient in inducing good quality mineralized bone than other alloys. Our results have been discussed in the context of physicochemical and biological properties of the alloys, and they could be very useful in determining the nature of future generations of biodegradable orthopedic implants. PMID:23976848

  3. Electrostatic Assembly Preparation of High-Toughness Zirconium Diboride-Based Ceramic Composites with Enhanced Thermal Shock Resistance Performance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Baoxi; Zhang, Xinghong; Hong, Changqing; Qiu, Yunfeng; Zhang, Jia; Han, Jiecai; Hu, PingAn

    2016-05-11

    The central problem of using ceramic as a structural material is its brittleness, which associated with rigid covalent or ionic bonds. Whiskers or fibers of strong ceramics such as silicon carbide (SiC) or silicon nitride (Si3N4) are widely embedded in a ceramic matrix to improve the strength and toughness. The incorporation of these insulating fillers can impede the thermal flow in ceramic matrix, thus decrease its thermal shock resistance that is required in some practical applications. Here we demonstrate that the toughness and thermal shock resistance of zirconium diboride (ZrB2)/SiC composites can be improved simultaneously by introducing graphene into composites via electrostatic assembly and subsequent sintering treatment. The incorporated graphene creates weak interfaces of grain boundaries (GBs) and optimal thermal conductance paths inside composites. In comparison to pristine ZrB2-SiC composites, the toughness of (2.0%) ZrB2-SiC/graphene composites exhibited a 61% increasing (from 4.3 to 6.93 MPa·m(1/2)) after spark plasma sintering (SPS); the retained strength after thermal shock increased as high as 74.8% at 400 °C and 304.4% at 500 °C. Present work presents an important guideline for producing high-toughness ceramic-based composites with enhanced thermal shock properties.

  4. Concentration and immobilization of 137Cs from liquid radioactive waste using sorbents based on hydrated titanium and zirconium oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronina, A. V.; Noskova, A. Y.; Gritskevich, E. Y.; Mashkovtsev, M. A.; Semenishchev, V. S.

    2017-09-01

    The possibility of use of sorbents based on hydrated titanium and zirconium oxides (T-3A, T-35, NPF-HTD) for concentration and immobilization of 137Cs from liquid radioactive waste of various chemical composition (fresh water, seawater, solutions containing NaNO3, ammonium acetate, EDTA) was evaluated. It was shown that the NPF-HTD and T-35 sorbents separate 137Cs from fresh water and seawater with distribution coefficients as high as 6.2.104 and 6.1.104, 4.0.105 and 1.6.105 L kg-1 respectively; in 1 M ammonium acetate these values were 2.0.103 and 1.0.103 L kg-1. The NPF-HTD sorbent showed the highest selectivity for cesium in NaNO3 solution: cesium distribution coefficients in 1M NaNO3 was 1.4.106 L kg-1. All studied sorbents are suitable for deactivation of solutions containing EDTA. Cesium distribution coefficients were around 102-103 L kg-1 depending on EDTA concentration. Chemical stability of the sorbents was also studied. It was shown that 137Cs leaching rate from all sorbents meet the requirements for matrix materials.

  5. Recovery of phosphate from aqueous solution by magnesium oxide decorated magnetic biochar and its potential as phosphate-based fertilizer substitute.

    PubMed

    Li, Ronghua; Wang, Jim J; Zhou, Baoyue; Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Ali, Amjad; Zhang, Zengqiang; Lahori, Altaf Hussain; Mahar, Amanullah

    2016-09-01

    The present study deals with the preparation of a novel MgO-impregnated magnetic biochar (MMSB) for phosphate recovery from aqueous solution. The MMSB was evaluated against sugarcane harvest residue biochar (SB) and magnetic biochar without Mg (MSB). The results showed that increasing Mg content in MMSB greatly improved the phosphate adsorption compared to SB and MSB, with 20% Mg-impregnated MMSB (20MMSB) recovering more than 99.5% phosphate from aqueous solution. Phosphate adsorption capacity of 20MMSB was 121.25mgP/g at pH 4 and only 37.53% of recovered phosphate was desorbed by 0.01mol/L HCl solutions. XRD and FTIR analysis showed that phosphate sorption mechanisms involved predominately with surface electrostatic attraction and precipitation with impregnated MgO and surface inner-sphere complexation with Fe oxide. The 20MMSB exhibited both maximum phosphate sorption and strong magnetic separation ability. Overall, phosphate-loaded 20MMSB significantly enhanced plant growth and could be used as a potential substitute for phosphate-based fertilizer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bioactive calcium phosphate-based glasses and ceramics and their biomedical applications: A review.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Towhidul; Felfel, Reda M; Abou Neel, Ensanya A; Grant, David M; Ahmed, Ifty; Hossain, Kazi M Zakir

    2017-01-01

    An overview of the formation of calcium phosphate under in vitro environment on the surface of a range of bioactive materials (e.g. from silicate, borate, and phosphate glasses, glass-ceramics, bioceramics to metals) based on recent literature is presented in this review. The mechanism of bone-like calcium phosphate (i.e. hydroxyapatite) formation and the test protocols that are either already in use or currently being investigated for the evaluation of the bioactivity of biomaterials are discussed. This review also highlights the effect of chemical composition and surface charge of materials, types of medium (e.g. simulated body fluid, phosphate-buffered saline and cell culture medium) and test parameters on their bioactivity performance. Finally, a brief summary of the biomedical applications of these newly formed calcium phosphate (either in the form of amorphous or apatite) is presented.

  7. Phosphate Remediation and Recovery using Iron Oxide-based Adsorbents

    EPA Science Inventory

    E33-modified sorbents for the removal of phosphate from lake water was investigated in this study. E33-modified sorbents were synthesized by coating with manganese and nanoparticles. Characterization was done by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-...

  8. Silane surface modification effects on the electromagnetic properties of phosphatized iron-based SMCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Liang-Fang; Hsiang, Hsing-I.; Hung, Jia-Jing

    2018-03-01

    It is difficult to achieve homogeneous phosphatized iron powder dispersion in organic resins during the preparation of soft magnetic composites (SMCs). Inhomogeneous iron powder mixing in organic resins generally leads to the formation of micro-structural defects in SMCs and hence causes the magnetic properties to become worse. Phosphatized iron powder dispersion in organic resins can be improved by coating the phosphatized iron powder surfaces with a coupling agent. This study investigated the (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) surface modification effects on the electromagnetic properties of phosphatized iron-based soft magnetic composites (SMCs). The results showed that the phosphatized iron powder surface can be modified using APTES to improve the phosphatized iron powder and epoxy resin compatibility and hence enhance phosphate iron powder epoxy mixing. The tensile strength, initial permeability, rated current under DC-bias superposition and magnetic loss in SMCs prepared using phosphatized iron powders can be effectively improved using APTES surface modification, which provides a promising candidate for power chip inductor applications.

  9. Production of nuclear grade zirconium: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, L.; Xiao, Y.; van Sandwijk, A.; Xu, Q.; Yang, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Zirconium is an ideal material for nuclear reactors due to its low absorption cross-section for thermal neutrons, whereas the typically contained hafnium with strong neutron-absorption is very harmful for zirconium as a fuel cladding material. This paper provides an overview of the processes for nuclear grade zirconium production with emphasis on the methods of Zr-Hf separation. The separation processes are roughly classified into hydro- and pyrometallurgical routes. The known pyrometallurgical Zr-Hf separation methods are discussed based on the following reaction features: redox characteristics, volatility, electrochemical properties and molten salt-metal equilibrium. In the present paper, the available Zr-Hf separation technologies are compared. The advantages and disadvantages as well as future directions of research and development for nuclear grade zirconium production are discussed.

  10. Physicochemical and mechanical properties of zirconium oxide and niobium oxide modified Portland cement-based experimental endodontic sealers.

    PubMed

    Viapiana, R; Flumignan, D L; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, J M; Camilleri, J; Tanomaru-Filho, M

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the physicochemical and mechanical properties of Portland cement-based experimental sealers (ES) with different radiopacifying agents (zirconium oxide and niobium oxide micro- and nanoparticles) in comparison with the following conventional sealers: AH Plus, MTA Fillapex and Sealapex. The materials were tested for setting time, compressive strength, flow, film thickness, radiopacity, solubility, dimensional stability and formaldehyde release. Data were subjected to anova and Tukey tests (P < 0.05). MTA Fillapex had the shortest setting time and lowest compressive strength values (P < 0.05) compared with the other materials. The ES had flow values similar to the conventional materials, but higher film thickness (P < 0.05) and lower radiopacity (P < 0.05). Similarly to AH Plus, the ES were associated with dimensional expansion (P > 0.05) and lower solubility when compared with MTA Fillapex and Sealapex (P < 0.05). None of the endodontic sealers evaluated released formaldehyde after mixing. With the exception of radiopacity, the Portland cement-based experimental endodontic sealers presented physicochemical properties according to the specifications no 57 ANSI/ADA (ADA Professional Product Review, 2008) and ISO 6876 (Dentistry - Root Canal Sealing Materials, 2012, British Standards Institution, London, UK). The sealers had setting times and flow ability that was adequate for clinical use, satisfactory compressive strength and low solubility. Additional studies should be carried out with the purpose of decreasing the film thickness and to determine the ideal ratio of radiopacifying agents in Portland cement-based root canal sealers. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Manufacturing process to reduce large grain growth in zirconium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Rosecrans, P.M.

    1984-08-01

    It is an object of the present invention to provide a procedure for desensitizing zirconium-based alloys to large grain growth (LGG) during thermal treatment above the recrystallization temperature of the alloy. It is a further object of the present invention to provide a method for treating zirconium-based alloys which have been cold-worked in the range of 2 to 8% strain to reduce large grain growth. It is another object of the present invention to provide a method for fabricating a zirconium alloy clad nuclear fuel element wherein the zirconium clad is resistant to large grain growth.

  12. Zirconium-based metal organic frameworks loaded on polyurethane foam membrane for simultaneous removal of dyes with different charges.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Gong, Ji-Lai; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Zhang, Peng; Song, Biao; Cao, Wei-Cheng; Liu, Hong-Yu; Huan, Shuang-Yan

    2018-10-01

    Treating dye wastewater by membrane filtration technology has received much attention from researchers all over the world, however, current studies mainly focused on the removal of singly charged dyes but actual wastewater usually contains dyes with different charges. In this study, the removal of neutral, cationic and anionic dyes in binary or ternary systems was conducted by using zirconium-based metal organic frameworks loaded on polyurethane foam (Zr-MOFs-PUF) membrane. The Zr-MOFs-PUF membrane was fabricated by an in-situ hydrothermal synthesis approach and a hot-pressing process. Neutrally charged Rhodamine B (RB), positively charged Methylene blue (MB), and negatively charged Congo red (CR) were chosen as model pollutants for investigating filtration performance of the membrane. The results of filtration experiments showed that the Zr-MOFs-PUF membrane could simultaneously remove RB, MB, and CR not only from their binary system including RB/MB, RB/CR, and MB/CR mixtures, but also from RB/MB/CR ternary system. The removal of dyes by Zr-MOFs-PUF membrane was mainly attributed to the electrostatic interactions, hydrogen bond interaction, and Lewis acid-base interactions between the membrane and dye molecules. The maximum removal efficiencies by Zr-MOFs-PUF membrane were 98.80% for RB at pH ≈ 7, 97.57% for MB at pH ≈ 9, and 87.39% for CR at pH ≈ 3. Additionally, when the NaCl concentration reached 0.5 mol/L in single dye solutions, the removal efficiencies of RB, MB, and CR by Zr-MOFs-PUF membrane were 93.08%, 79.52%, and 97.82%, respectively. All the results suggested that the as-prepared Zr-MOFs-PUF membrane has great potential in practical treatment of dye wastewater. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gas sorption and transition-metal cation separation with a thienothiophene based zirconium metal-organic framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SK, Mostakim; Grzywa, Maciej; Volkmer, Dirk; Biswas, Shyam

    2015-12-01

    The modulated synthesis of the thienothiophene based zirconium metal-organic framework (MOF) material having formula [Zr6O4(OH)4(DMTDC)6]·4.8DMF·10H2O (1) (H2DMTDC=3,4-dimethylthieno[2,3-b]thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid; DMF=N,N'-dimethylformamide) was carried out by heating a mixture of ZrCl4, H2DMTDC linker and benzoic acid (used as a modulator) with a molar ratio of 1:1:30 in DMF at 150 °C for 24 h. Systematic investigations have been performed in order to realize the effect of ZrCl4/benzoic acid molar ratio on the crystallinity of the material. The activation (i.e., the removal of the guest solvent molecules from the pores) of as-synthesized compound was achieved by stirring it with methanol and subsequently heating under vacuum. A combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), thermogravimetric (TG) and elemental analysis was used to examine the phase purity of the as-synthesized and thermally activated 1. The material displays high thermal stability up to 310 °C in an air atmosphere. As revealed from the XRD measurements, the compound retains its crystallinity when treated with water, acetic acid and 1 M HCl solutions. The N2 and CO2 sorption analyses suggest that the material possesses remarkably high microporosity (SBET=1236 m2 g-1; CO2 uptake=3.5 mmol g-1 at 1 bar and 0 °C). The compound also shows selective adsorption behavior for Cu2+ over Co2+ and Ni2+ ions.

  14. A sensitive determination of terbutaline in pharmaceuticals and urine samples using a composite electrode based on zirconium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Baytak, Aysegul Kutluay; Teker, Tugce; Duzmen, Sehriban; Aslanoglu, Mehmet

    2016-10-01

    An accurate and precise determination of terbutaline has been carried out using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with a composite of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and nanoparticles of zirconium oxide (ZrO2NPs). Energy dispersive X-ray and scanning electron microscopic techniques were utilized for the characterization of the composite layer. Terbutaline exhibited a broad oxidation peak at 770mV on a GCE. However, MWCNTs/GCE presented an electrocatalytic effect toward the oxidation of terbutaline with a better anodic peak at 660mV. Furthermore, the electrochemical behavior of terbutaline has greatly been improved at a GCE modified with a composite of MWCNTs and nanoparticles of ZrO2. The ZrO2NPs/MWCNTs/GCE exhibited a sharp anodic wave at 645mV with a large enhancement of the current response for terbutaline. Square wave voltammetry (SWV) was performed for the determination of terbutaline at ZrO2NPs/MWCNTs/GCE. A linear plot was obtained for the current responses of terbutaline against concentrations in the range of 10-160nM yielding a detection limit of 2.25nM (based on 3Sb/m). Improved voltammetric behavior, long-time stability and good reproducibility were obtained for terbutaline at the proposed electrode. A mean recovery of 101.2% with an RSD% of 1.9 was obtained for the analysis of the drug formulation. The accurate and precise quantification of terbutaline makes the ZrO2NPs/MWCNTs/GCE system of great interest for monitoring its therapeutic use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. THE ANALYSIS OF URANIUM-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

    SciTech Connect

    Milner, G.W.C.; Skewies, A.F.

    1953-03-01

    A satisfactory procedure is described for the analysis of uranium-zirconium alloys containing up to 25% zirconium. It is based on the separation of the zirconium from the uranium by dissolving the cupferron complex of the former element into chloroform. After the evaporation of the solvent from the combined organic extracts, the residue is ignited to zirconium oxide. The latter is then re-dissolved and zirconium is separated from other elements co-extracted in the solvent extraction procedure by precipitation with mandelic acid. The zirconium mandelate is finally ignited to oxide at 960 deg C. The uranium is separated from the aqueous solutionmore » remaining from the cupferron extraction by precipitating with tannin at a pH of 8; the precipitate being removed by filtration and then ignited a t 800 deg C. The residue is dissolved in nitric acid and the uranium is finally determined by precipitating as ammonium diuranate and then igniting to U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. (auth)« less

  16. SEPARATING HAFNIUM FROM ZIRCONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Lister, B.A.J.; Duncan, J.F.

    1956-08-21

    A dilute aqueous solution of zirconyl chloride which is 1N to 2N in HCl is passed through a column of a cation exchange resin in acid form thereby absorbing both zirconium and associated hafnium impurity in the mesin. The cation exchange material with the absorbate is then eluted with aqueous sulfuric acid of a O.8N to 1.2N strength. The first portion of the eluate contains the zirconium substantially free of hafnium.

  17. Effect of zirconium oxide nanoparticles addition on the optical and tensile properties of polymethyl methacrylate denture base material

    PubMed Central

    Gad, Mohammed M; Abualsaud, Reem; Rahoma, Ahmed; Al-Thobity, Ahmad M; Al-Abidi, Khalid S; Akhtar, Sultan

    2018-01-01

    Background Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is widely used for the fabrication of removable prostheses. Recently, zirconium oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZrO2) have been added to improve some properties of PMMA, but their effect on the optical properties and tensile strength are neglected. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nano-ZrO2 addition on the translucency and tensile strength of the PMMA denture base material. Materials and methods Eighty specimens (40 dumbbell-shaped and 40 discs) were prepared out of heat-polymerized acrylic resin and divided into four groups per test (n=10). The control group for each test included unreinforced acrylic, while the test groups were reinforced with 2.5, 5, and 7.5 wt% nano-ZrO2. Acrylic resin was mixed according to manufacturer’s instructions, packed, and processed by conventional method. After polymerization, all specimens were finished, polished, and stored in distilled water at 37°C for 48±2 hours. Tensile strength (MPa) was evaluated using the universal testing machine while the specimens’ translucency was examined using a spectrophotometer. Statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS using the paired sample t-test (p≤0.05). A scanning electron microscope was used to analyze the morphological changes and topography of the fractured surfaces. Results This study showed that the mean tensile strength of the PMMA in the test groups of 2.5%NZ, 5%NZ, and 7.5%NZ was significantly higher than the control group. The tensile strength increased significantly after nano-ZrO2 addition, and the maximum increase seen was in the 7.5%NZ group. The translucency values of the experimental groups were significantly lower than those of the control group. Within the reinforced groups, the 2.5%NZ group had significantly higher translucency values when compared to the 5%NZ and 7.5%NZ groups. Conclusion The addition of nano-ZrO2 increased the tensile strength of the denture base acrylic. The increase was directly

  18. Effect of zirconium oxide nanoparticles addition on the optical and tensile properties of polymethyl methacrylate denture base material.

    PubMed

    Gad, Mohammed M; Abualsaud, Reem; Rahoma, Ahmed; Al-Thobity, Ahmad M; Al-Abidi, Khalid S; Akhtar, Sultan

    2018-01-01

    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is widely used for the fabrication of removable prostheses. Recently, zirconium oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZrO 2 ) have been added to improve some properties of PMMA, but their effect on the optical properties and tensile strength are neglected. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nano-ZrO 2 addition on the translucency and tensile strength of the PMMA denture base material. Eighty specimens (40 dumbbell-shaped and 40 discs) were prepared out of heat-polymerized acrylic resin and divided into four groups per test (n=10). The control group for each test included unreinforced acrylic, while the test groups were reinforced with 2.5, 5, and 7.5 wt% nano-ZrO 2 . Acrylic resin was mixed according to manufacturer's instructions, packed, and processed by conventional method. After polymerization, all specimens were finished, polished, and stored in distilled water at 37°C for 48±2 hours. Tensile strength (MPa) was evaluated using the universal testing machine while the specimens' translucency was examined using a spectrophotometer. Statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS using the paired sample t -test ( p ≤0.05). A scanning electron microscope was used to analyze the morphological changes and topography of the fractured surfaces. This study showed that the mean tensile strength of the PMMA in the test groups of 2.5%NZ, 5%NZ, and 7.5%NZ was significantly higher than the control group. The tensile strength increased significantly after nano-ZrO 2 addition, and the maximum increase seen was in the 7.5%NZ group. The translucency values of the experimental groups were significantly lower than those of the control group. Within the reinforced groups, the 2.5%NZ group had significantly higher translucency values when compared to the 5%NZ and 7.5%NZ groups. The addition of nano-ZrO 2 increased the tensile strength of the denture base acrylic. The increase was directly proportional to the nano-ZrO 2 concentration. The

  19. International strategic minerals inventory summary report; zirconium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Towner, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    Zircon, a zirconium silicate, is currently the most important commercial zirconium-bearing mineral. Baddeleyite, a natural form of zirconia, is less important but has some specific end uses. Both zircon and baddeleyite occur in hard-rock and placer deposits, but at present all zircon production is from placer deposits. Most baddeleyite production is from hard-rock deposits, principally as a byproduct of copper and phosphate-rock mining. World zirconium resources in identified, economically exploitable deposits are about 46 times current production rates. Of these resources, some 71 percent are in South Africa, Australia, and the United States. The principal end uses of zirconium minerals are in ceramic applications and as refractories, abrasives, and mold linings in foundries. A minor amount, mainly of zircon, is used for the production of hafnium-free zirconium metal, which is used principally for sheathing fuel elements in nuclear reactors and in the chemical-processing industry, aerospace engineering, and electronics. Australia and South Africa are the largest zircon producers and account for more than 70 percent of world output; the United States and the Soviet Union account for another 20 percent. South Africa accounts for almost all the world's production of baddeleyite, which is about 2 percent of world production of contained zirconia. Australia and South Africa are the largest exporters of zircon. Unless major new deposits are developed in countries that have not traditionally produced zircon, the pattern of world production is unlikely to change by 2020. The proportions, however, of production that come from existing producing countries may change somewhat.

  20. Development of biocomposed material based on zirconium oxide for regeneration of bone tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lytkin, Ivan; Buyakov, Ales; Kurzina, Irina

    2017-11-01

    Porous ceramic materials based on magnesium oxide stabilized zirconia were studied. The pore structure and thin crystalline structure were studied. The porosity of some of the materials studied was obtained by conducting a pore-forming additive, UHMWPE. It is shown that after impregnation with polylactide, the residual porosity varies from 22.5 to 5.9%. The average pore size was 2 µm. X-Ray diffraction analysis showed that the fine crystal structure of the ceramic is mainly represented by baddeleyite.

  1. Shear band evolution in zirconium/hafnium-based bulk metallic glasses under static and dynamic indentations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongwen

    In this thesis, a detailed investigation of thermal stability and mechanical deformation behavior of Zr/Hf-based Bulk Metallic Glasses is conducted. First, systematic studies had been implemented to understand the influence of relative compositions of Zr and Hf on thermal stability and mechanical property evolution. Second, shear band evolution under indentations were investigated experimentally and theoretically. It was found in the present work that gradually replacing Zr by Hf remarkably increases the density and improves the mechanical properties. However, a slight decrease in glass forming ability with increasing Hf content has also been identified through thermodynamic analysis although all the materials in the current study were still found to be amorphous. Many indentation studies have revealed only a few shear bands surrounding the indent on the top surface of the specimen. This small number of shear bands cannot account for the large plastic deformation beneath the indentations. Therefore, a bonded interface technique has been used to observe the slip-steps due to shear band evolution. Vickers indentations were performed along the interface of the bonded split specimen at increasing loads. At small indentation loads, the plastic deformation was primarily accommodated by semi-circular primary shear bands surrounding the indentation. At higher loads, secondary and tertiary shear bands were formed inside this plastic zone. A modified expanding cavity model was then used to predict the plastic zone size characterized by the shear bands and to identify the stress components responsible for the evolution of the various types of shear bands. The applicability of various hardness - yield-strength (H-sigma y) relationships currently available in the literature for bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) is also investigated. Experimental data generated on ZrHf-based BMGs in the current study and those available elsewhere on other BMG compositions were used to validate the

  2. Gel-based morphological design of zirconium metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Bueken, Bart; Van Velthoven, Niels; Willhammar, Tom; Stassin, Timothée; Stassen, Ivo; Keen, David A; Baron, Gino V; Denayer, Joeri F M; Ameloot, Rob; Bals, Sara; De Vos, Dirk; Bennett, Thomas D

    2017-05-01

    The ability of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to gelate under specific synthetic conditions opens up new opportunities in the preparation and shaping of hierarchically porous MOF monoliths, which could be directly implemented for catalytic and adsorptive applications. In this work, we present the first examples of xero- or aerogel monoliths consisting solely of nanoparticles of several prototypical Zr 4+ -based MOFs: UiO-66-X (X = H, NH 2 , NO 2 , (OH) 2 ), UiO-67, MOF-801, MOF-808 and NU-1000. High reactant and water concentrations during synthesis were observed to induce the formation of gels, which were converted to monolithic materials by drying in air or supercritical CO 2 . Electron microscopy, combined with N 2 physisorption experiments, was used to show that irregular nanoparticle packing leads to pure MOF monoliths with hierarchical pore systems, featuring both intraparticle micropores and interparticle mesopores. Finally, UiO-66 gels were shaped into monolithic spheres of 600 μm diameter using an oil-drop method, creating promising candidates for packed-bed catalytic or adsorptive applications, where hierarchical pore systems can greatly mitigate mass transfer limitations.

  3. Biomedical and sensing applications of a multi-mode biodegradable phosphate-based optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podrazky, Ondřej; Peterka, Pavel; Vytykáčová, SoÅa.; Proboštová, Jana; Kuneš, Martin; Lyutakov, Oleksiy; Ceci-Ginistrelli, Edoardo; Pugliese, Diego; Boetti, Nadia G.; Janner, Davide; Milanese, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    We report on the employment of a biodegradable phosphate-based optical fiber as a pH sensing probe in physiological environment. The phosphate-based optical fiber preform was fabricated by the rod-in-tube technique. The fiber biodegradability was first tested in-vitro and then its biodegradability and toxicity were tested in-vivo. Optical probes for pH sensing were prepared by the immobilization of a fluorescent dye on the fiber tip by a sol-gel method. The fluorescence response of the pH-sensor was measured as a ratio of the emission intensities at the excitation wavelengths of 405 and 450 nm.

  4. ZIRCONIUM-CLADDING OF THORIUM

    DOEpatents

    Beaver, R.J.

    1961-11-21

    A method of cladding thorium with zirconium is described. The quality of the bond achieved between thorium and zirconium by hot-rolling is improved by inserting and melting a thorium-zirconium alloy foil between the two materials prior to rolling. (AEC)

  5. Short-term implantation effects of a DCPD-based calcium phosphate cement.

    PubMed

    Frayssinet, P; Gineste, L; Conte, P; Fages, J; Rouquet, N

    1998-06-01

    Calcium phosphate cements can be handled in paste form and set in a wet medium after precipitation of calcium phosphate crystals in the implantation site. Depending on the products entering into the chemical reaction leading to the precipitation of calcium phosphates, different phases can be obtained with different mechanical properties, setting times and injectability. We tested a cement composed of a powder, containing beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) and sodium pyrophosphate mixed with a solution of phosphoric and sulphuric acids. The cement set under a dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD)-based matrix containing beta-TCP particles. This was injected with a syringe into a defect drilled in rabbit condyles, the control being an identical defect left empty in the opposite condyle. The condyles were analysed histologically 2, 6 and 18 weeks after implantation. After injection into the bone defect the cement set and formed a porous calcium phosphate structure. Two different calcium phosphate phases with different solubility rates could be identified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. The less-soluble fragments could be degraded by cell phagocytosis in cell compartments of low pH or integrated in the newly formed bone matrix. The degradation rate of the material was relatively high but compatible with the ingrowth of bone trabeculae within the resorbing material. The ossification process was different from the creeping substitution occurring at the ceramic contact. Bone did not form directly at the cement surface following the differentiation of osteoblasts at the material surface. The trabeculae came to the material surface from the edges of the implantation site. Bone formation in the implantation site was significantly higher than in the control region during the first week of implantation. In conclusion, this material set in situ was well tolerated, inducing a mild foreign-body reaction, which did not impair its replacement by newly formed

  6. Zirconium and hafnium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, James V.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Bedinger, George M.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Zirconium and hafnium are corrosion-resistant metals that are widely used in the chemical and nuclear industries. Most zirconium is consumed in the form of the main ore mineral zircon (ZrSiO4, or as zirconium oxide or other zirconium chemicals. Zirconium and hafnium are both refractory lithophile elements that have nearly identical charge, ionic radii, and ionic potentials. As a result, their geochemical behavior is generally similar. Both elements are classified as incompatible because they have physical and crystallochemical properties that exclude them from the crystal lattices of most rock-forming minerals. Zircon and another, less common, ore mineral, baddeleyite (ZrO2), form primarily as accessory minerals in igneous rocks. The presence and abundance of these ore minerals in igneous rocks are largely controlled by the element concentrations in the magma source and by the processes of melt generation and evolution. The world’s largest primary deposits of zirconium and hafnium are associated with alkaline igneous rocks, and, in one locality on the Kola Peninsula of Murmanskaya Oblast, Russia, baddeleyite is recovered as a byproduct of apatite and magnetite mining. Otherwise, there are few primary igneous deposits of zirconium- and hafnium-bearing minerals with economic value at present. The main ore deposits worldwide are heavy-mineral sands produced by the weathering and erosion of preexisting rocks and the concentration of zircon and other economically important heavy minerals, such as ilmenite and rutile (for titanium), chromite (for chromium), and monazite (for rare-earth elements) in sedimentary systems, particularly in coastal environments. In coastal deposits, heavy-mineral enrichment occurs where sediment is repeatedly reworked by wind, waves, currents, and tidal processes. The resulting heavy-mineral-sand deposits, called placers or paleoplacers, preferentially form at relatively low latitudes on passive continental margins and supply 100 percent of

  7. Determination of phosphate phases in sewage sludge ash-based fertilizers by Raman microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Christian; Adam, Christian; McNaughton, Don

    2013-09-01

    The chemical form of phosphate phases in sewage sludge ash (SSA)-based fertilizers was determined by Raman microspectroscopy. Raman mapping with a lateral resolution of 5 × 5 μm(2) easily detected different compounds present in the fertilizers with the help of recorded reference spectra of pure substances. Quartz and aluminosilicates showed Raman bands in the range of 450-520 cm(-1). Phosphates with apatite structure and magnesium triphosphate were determined at around 960 and 980 cm(-1), respectively. Furthermore, calcium/magnesium pyrophosphates were detected in some samples.

  8. Zirconium determination by cooling curve analysis during the pyroprocessing of used nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, B. R.; Price, J. C.; Bateman, K. J.; Marsden, K. C.

    2015-02-01

    An alternative method to sampling and chemical analyses has been developed to monitor the concentration of zirconium in real-time during the casting of uranium products from the pyroprocessing of used nuclear fuel. The method utilizes the solidification characteristics of the uranium products to determine zirconium levels based on standard cooling curve analyses and established binary phase diagram data. Numerous uranium products have been analyzed for their zirconium content and compared against measured zirconium data. From this data, the following equation was derived for the zirconium content of uranium products:

  9. Numerical comparison of hydrogen desorption behaviors of metal hydride beds based on uranium and on zirconium-cobalt

    SciTech Connect

    Kyoung, S.; Yoo, H.; Ju, H.

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, the hydrogen delivery capabilities of uranium (U) and zirconium-cobalt (ZrCo) are compared quantitatively in order to find the optimum getter materials for tritium storage. A three-dimensional hydrogen desorption model is applied to two identically designed cylindrical beds with the different materials, and hydrogen desorption simulations are then conducted. The simulation results show superior hydrogen delivery performance and easier thermal management capability for the U bed. This detailed analysis of the hydrogen desorption behaviors of beds with U and ZrCo will help to identify the optimal bed material, bed design, and operating conditions for the storage and deliverymore » system in ITER. (authors)« less

  10. Structural characterization of anion-calcium-humate complexes in phosphate-based fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Baigorri, Roberto; Urrutia, Oscar; Erro, Javier; Mandado, Marcos; Pérez-Juste, Ignacio; Garcia-Mina, José María

    2013-07-01

    Fertilizers based on phosphate-metal-humate complexes are a new family of compounds that represents a more sustainable and bioavailable phosphorus source. The characterization of this type of complex by using solid (31)P NMR in several fertilizers, based on single superphosphate (SSP) and triple superphosphate (TSP) matrices, yielded surprising and unexpected trends in the intensity and fine structure of the (31)P NMR peaks. Computational chemistry methods allowed the characterization of phosphate-calcium-humate complexes in both SSP and TSP matrices, but also predicted the formation of a stable sulfate-calcium-humate complex in the SSP fertilizers, which has not been described previously. The stability of this complex has been confirmed by using ultrafiltration techniques. Preference towards the humic substance for the sulfate-metal phase in SSP allowed the explanation of the opposing trends that were observed in the experimental (31)P NMR spectra of SSP and TSP samples. Additionally, computational chemistry has provided an assignment of the (31)P NMR signals to different phosphate ligands as well as valuable information about the relative strength of the phosphate-calcium interactions within the crystals. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Electroless deposition process for zirconium and zirconium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Donaghy, R. E.; Sherman, A. H.

    1981-08-18

    A method is disclosed for preventing stress corrosion cracking or metal embrittlement of a zirconium or zirconium alloy container that is to be coated on the inside surface with a layer of a metal such as copper, a copper alloy, nickel, or iron and used for holding nuclear fuel material as a nuclear fuel element. The zirconium material is etched in an etchant solution, desmutted mechanically or ultrasonically, oxidized to form an oxide coating on the zirconium, cleaned in an aqueous alkaline cleaning solution, activated for electroless deposition of a metal layer and contacted with an electroless metal plating solution. This method provides a boundary layer of zirconium oxide between the zirconium container and the metal layer. 1 fig.

  12. Electroless deposition process for zirconium and zirconium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Donaghy, Robert E.; Sherman, Anna H.

    1981-01-01

    A method is disclosed for preventing stress corrosion cracking or metal embrittlement of a zirconium or zirconium alloy container that is to be coated on the inside surface with a layer of a metal such as copper, a copper alloy, nickel, or iron and used for holding nuclear fuel material as a nuclear fuel element. The zirconium material is etched in an etchant solution, desmutted mechanically or ultrasonically, oxidized to form an oxide coating on the zirconium, cleaned in an aqueous alkaline cleaning solution, activated for electroless deposition of a metal layer and contacted with an electroless metal plating solution. This method provides a boundary layer of zirconium oxide between the zirconium container and the metal layer.

  13. Study of a hydraulic dicalcium phosphate dihydrate/calcium oxide-based cement for dental applications.

    PubMed

    el-Briak, Hasna; Durand, Denis; Nurit, Josiane; Munier, Sylvie; Pauvert, Bernard; Boudeville, Phillipe

    2002-01-01

    By mixing CaHPO(4) x 2H(2)O (DCPD) and CaO with water or sodium phosphate buffers as liquid phase, a calcium phosphate cement was obtained. Its physical and mechanical properties, such as compressive strength, initial and final setting times, cohesion time, dough time, swelling time, dimensional and thermal behavior, and injectability were investigated by varying different parameters such as liquid to powder (L/P) ratio (0.35-0.7 ml g(-1)), molar calcium to phosphate (Ca/P) ratio (1.67-2.5) and the pH (4, 7, and 9) and the concentration (0-1 M) of the sodium phosphate buffer. The best results were obtained with the pH 7 sodium phosphate buffer at the concentration of 0.75 M. With this liquid phase, physical and mechanical properties depended on the Ca/P and L/P ratios, varying from 3 to 11 MPa (compressive strength), 6 to 10 min (initial setting time), 11 to 15 min (final setting time), 15 to 30 min (swelling time), 7 to 20 min (time of 100% injectability). The dough or working time was over 16 min. This cement expanded during its setting (1.2-5 % according to Ca/P and L/P ratios); this would allow a tight filling. Given the mechanical and rheological properties of this new DCPD/CaO-based cement, its use as root canal sealing material can be considered as classical calcium hydroxide or ZnO/eugenol-based pastes, without or with a gutta-percha point. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res (Appl Biomater) 63: 447-453, 2002

  14. Extrusion-based, three-dimensional printing of calcium-phosphate scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witek, Lukasz

    Small or large bone defects, can occur due to a variety of reasons: congenital disorders, infections, tumors, or traumas which can lead to significant disabilities. There is an assortment of bone grafting procedures, each having their own respective advantages and disadvantages and exhibiting certain essential characteristics. Among the available grafts, autogenous (autograft), allograft, xenograft, and alloplasts, all exhibit a minimum of two-thirds of the essential characteristics and have been proven useful in fully or partially repairing skeletal defects. However, different host-to-grafting material responses have been reported and should be taken into consideration when determining treatment options. A large range of physical and chemical properties can be achieved with calcium phosphate based materials, which possess two of the ideal characteristics for grafting procedures: osteoconduction and osseointegration. Calcium phosphate based scaffolds composed of hydroxyapatite (HA), beta-tri-calcium phosphate (beta-TCP), or a combination of both (HA/beta-TCP) were investigated as materials for three-dimensional printing process to create layer-by-layer structures for use as bone regeneration scaffolds. Different calcium-phosphate phases will result in different degrees of in vivo dissolution and/or cell-mediated resorption. There has been a growing interest in BCP because it has been shown that this material improves the formation of new bone inside the implanted scaffold. The literature indicates that the faster dissolution rate of ?-TCP would be greatly responsible of this enhancement. However, in vitro tests indicate that fast dissolution can decrease the mechanical strength of BCP scaffolds. Furthermore, studies reported that HA has higher mechanical strength and lower degradation rate than beta-TCP. Therefore, the HA/beta-TCP ratio is a key parameter controlling the performance of the scaffold for bone repair applications, since it determines degradation rate

  15. Potential use of gallium-doped phosphate-based glass material for periodontitis treatment.

    PubMed

    Sahdev, Rohan; Ansari, Tahera I; Higham, Susan M; Valappil, Sabeel P

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the potential effect of gallium-incorporated phosphate-based glasses towards periodontitis-associated bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and matrix metalloproteinase-13. Periodontitis describes a group of inflammatory diseases of the gingiva and supporting structures of the periodontium. They are initiated by the accumulation of plaque bacteria, such as the putative periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis, but the host immune response such as elevated matrix metalloproteinases are the major contributing factor for destruction of periodontal tissues. Antibacterial assays of gallium-incorporated phosphate-based glasses were conducted on Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 using disc diffusion assay on fastidious anaerobe agar and liquid broth assay in a modified tryptic soy broth. In vitro study investigated the effect of gallium on purified recombinant human matrix metalloproteinase-13 activity using matrix metalloproteinase assay kit. In vivo biocompatibility of gallium-incorporated phosphate-based glass was evaluated in rats as subcutaneous implants. Antibacterial assay of gallium displayed activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis (inhibition zone of 22 ± 0.5 mm compared with 0 mm for control glass, c-PBG). Gallium in the glass contributed to growth inhibitory effect on Porphyromonas gingivalis (up to 1.30 reductions in log 10 values of the viable counts compared with control) in a modified tryptic soy broth. In vitro study showed gallium-incorporated phosphate-based glasses inhibited matrix metalloproteinase activity significantly (p ≤ 0.01) compared with c-PBG. Evaluation of in vivo biocompatibility of gallium-incorporated phosphate-based glasses in rats showed a non-toxic and foreign body response after 2 weeks of implantation. The results indicate that gallium ions might act on multiple targets of biological mechanisms underlying periodontal disease. Moreover, gallium-incorporated phosphate-based glasses

  16. Corrosion Behavior of Zirconium Treated Mild Steel with and Without Organic Coating: a Comparative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, Alireza; Attar, Mohammadreza Mohammadzade

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the anti-corrosion performance of phosphated and zirconium treated mild steel (ZTMS) with and without organic coating was evaluated using AC and DC electrochemical techniques. The topography and morphology of the zirconium treated samples were studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) respectively. The results revealed that the anti-corrosion performance of the phosphate layer was superior to the zirconium conversion layer without an organic coating due to very low thickness and porous nature of the ZTMS. Additionally, the corrosion behavior of the organic coated substrates was substantially different. It was found that the corrosion protection performance of the phosphate steel and ZTMS with an organic coating is in the same order.

  17. Effect of Halide Flux on Physicochemical Properties of MgCl2-Based Molten Salts for Accelerating Zirconium Production: Thermodynamic Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jae Hong; Park, Joo Hyun

    2016-09-01

    The effective halide flux additive for increasing the density of MgCl2 mixture and for decreasing the activity of MgCl2 was investigated in order to improve the reaction efficiency between gaseous ZrCl4 and fresh Mg melt to produce zirconium sponge. Thermochemical computation using FactSageTM software was primarily carried out, followed by the experimental confirmation. The addition of CaCl2, BaCl2, MgF2, and CaF2 to the molten MgCl2 increases the density of the melts, indicating that these halide additives can be a candidate to increase the density of the MgCl2-based molten salts. Among them, BaCl2, MgF2, and CaF2 are the useful additives. The activity of MgCl2 can be reduced by the addition of BaCl2, KCl, NaCl, MgF2, and CaF2, among which the CaF2 is the most effective additive to reduce the activity of MgCl2 with the strongest negative deviation from an ideality. Thus, the addition of CaF2 to the MgCl2, forming the MgCl2-CaF2 binary melt, is the most effective way not only to increase the density of the melt but also to decrease the activity of MgCl2, which was experimentally confirmed. Consequently, the production rate of zirconium sponge by magnesiothermic reduction process can be accelerated by the addition of CaF2.

  18. A turn-on coordination nanoparticle-based fluorescent probe for phosphate in human serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Na; Li, Jian; Lu, Zhixiang; Bian, Longchun; Zheng, Liyan; Cao, Qiue; Ding, Zhongtao

    2015-03-01

    Coordination nanoparticles (CNPs) are becoming attractive platforms for chemical sensing applications because their unique adjustable properties offer the opportunity to design various luminescent nanoprobes. Here, we present a CNP-based fluorescent nanoprobe, in which fluorophores (rhodamine B, RB) and quenchers (methylene blue, MB) were spontaneously enfolded by coordination networks self-assembled of adenine, biphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid (BDA) and zinc ions. The aggregation of fluorophores and quenchers in CNPs resulted in a quenched state fluorescence of RB. RB and MB could be released from CNPs in the presence of phosphate, which triggered the fluorescence of RB. On the basis of recognition-driven disassembly principle, a novel turn-on fluorescent probe for the determination of PO43- with a wide response range (0.5-50 μM) has been successfully applied in the detection of phosphate in human serum samples. This work not only develops a probe for phosphate but also provides a general strategy for designing nanoprobes or nanocarriers towards various targets by altering organic linkers or metal ions.Coordination nanoparticles (CNPs) are becoming attractive platforms for chemical sensing applications because their unique adjustable properties offer the opportunity to design various luminescent nanoprobes. Here, we present a CNP-based fluorescent nanoprobe, in which fluorophores (rhodamine B, RB) and quenchers (methylene blue, MB) were spontaneously enfolded by coordination networks self-assembled of adenine, biphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid (BDA) and zinc ions. The aggregation of fluorophores and quenchers in CNPs resulted in a quenched state fluorescence of RB. RB and MB could be released from CNPs in the presence of phosphate, which triggered the fluorescence of RB. On the basis of recognition-driven disassembly principle, a novel turn-on fluorescent probe for the determination of PO43- with a wide response range (0.5-50 μM) has been successfully applied in

  19. Efficacy of tooth whitening with different calcium phosphate-based formulations.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jian; Xu, Xiaohui; Lai, Guangyun; Kunzelmann, Karl-Heinz

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the efficacy of tooth whitening using different calcium phosphate-based formulations. Teeth were treated with three different hydroxyapatite preparations at different concentrations and with two control preparations; each tooth was treated a total of three times. After application of the last material, hydrodynamic shear force was applied to mimic mechanical loading. After each treatment, tooth color was measured using a dental spectrophotometer, and the mean changes in L*a*b* values between different measurements were expressed as ∆E. The results indicated significant differences between the materials, but neither dose- nor time-dependent associations were found. The suspension containing tricalcium phosphate (10 wt%) showed the most obvious color change (∆E = 2.20 ± 0.90), while the suspension containing zinc-carbonate-apatite (20 wt%) showed the least obvious color change (∆E = 0.91 ± 0.50). Calcium phosphate-based formulations that can adhere to the enamel surface and contribute to tooth whitening have promising tooth-whitening potential. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  20. A construction of novel iron-foam-based calcium phosphate/chitosan coating biodegradable scaffold material.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhaohui; Zhang, Liming; Chen, Chao; Liu, Yibo; Wu, Changjun; Dai, Changsong

    2013-04-01

    Slow corrosion rate and poor bioactivity restrict iron-based implants in biomedical application. In this study, we design a new iron-foam-based calcium phosphate/chitosan coating biodegradable composites offering a priority mechanical and bioactive property for bone tissue engineering through electrophoretic deposition (EPD) followed by a conversion process into a phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Tensile test results showed that the mechanical property of iron foam could be regulated through altering the construction of polyurethane foam. The priority coatings were deposited from 40% nano hydroxyapatite (nHA)/ethanol suspension mixed with 60% nHA/chitosan-acetic acid aqueous solution. In vitro immersion test showed that oxidation-iron foam as the matrix decreased the amount of iron implanted and had not influence on the bioactivity of this implant, obviously. So, this method could also be a promising method for the preparation of a new calcium phosphate/chitosan coating on foam construction. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Piezoelectric sensor for sensitive determination of metal ions based on the phosphate-modified dendrimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. H.; Shen, C. Y.; Lin, Y. M.; Du, J. C.

    2016-08-01

    Heavy metal ions arising from human activities are retained strongly in water; therefore public water supplies must be monitored regularly to ensure the timely detection of potential problems. A phosphate-modified dendrimer film was investigated on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) for sensing metal ions in water at room temperature in this study. The chemical structures and sensing properties were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and QCM measurement, respectively. This phosphate-modified dendrimer sensor can directly detect metal ions in aqueous solutions. This novel sensor was evaluated for its capacity to sense various metal ions. The sensor exhibited a higher sensitivity level and shorter response time to copper(II) ions than other sensors. The linear detection range of the prepared QCM based on the phosphate-modified dendrimer was 0.0001 ∼ 1 μM Cu(II) ions (R2 = 0.98). The detection properties, including sensitivity, response time, selectivity, reusability, maximum adsorption capacity, and adsorption equilibrium constants, were also investigated.

  2. Power capability evaluation for lithium iron phosphate batteries based on multi-parameter constraints estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yujie; Pan, Rui; Liu, Chang; Chen, Zonghai; Ling, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    The battery power capability is intimately correlated with the climbing, braking and accelerating performance of the electric vehicles. Accurate power capability prediction can not only guarantee the safety but also regulate driving behavior and optimize battery energy usage. However, the nonlinearity of the battery model is very complex especially for the lithium iron phosphate batteries. Besides, the hysteresis loop in the open-circuit voltage curve is easy to cause large error in model prediction. In this work, a multi-parameter constraints dynamic estimation method is proposed to predict the battery continuous period power capability. A high-fidelity battery model which considers the battery polarization and hysteresis phenomenon is presented to approximate the high nonlinearity of the lithium iron phosphate battery. Explicit analyses of power capability with multiple constraints are elaborated, specifically the state-of-energy is considered in power capability assessment. Furthermore, to solve the problem of nonlinear system state estimation, and suppress noise interference, the UKF based state observer is employed for power capability prediction. The performance of the proposed methodology is demonstrated by experiments under different dynamic characterization schedules. The charge and discharge power capabilities of the lithium iron phosphate batteries are quantitatively assessed under different time scales and temperatures.

  3. SEPARATING HAFNIUM FROM ZIRCONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Lister, B.A.J.; Duncan, J.F.; Hutcheon, J.M.

    1956-08-21

    Substantially complete separation of zirconium from hafnium may be obtained by elution of ion exchange material, on which compounds of the elements are adsorbed, with an approximately normal solution of sulfuric acid. Preferably the acid concentration is between 0.8 N amd 1.2 N, amd should not exceed 1.5 N;. Increasing the concentration of sulfate ion in the eluting solution by addition of a soluble sulfate, such as sodium sulfate, has been found to be advantageous. The preferred ion exchange materials are sulfonated polystyrene resins such as Dowex 50,'' and are preferably arranged in a column through which the solutions are passed.

  4. Environmentally Friendly Zirconium Oxide Pretreatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    during the conversion of the highly soluble hexavalent chromate ions to an inert and relatively insoluble trivalent chromium oxide layer. Depletion of...are being used commercially in automotive and other industrial operations as replacements to hexavalent chromium -based and zinc phosphate...Society for Testing and Materials AVCRAD Aviation Classification Repair Activity Depot Chrome (VI) Hexavalent Chromium CRS Cold Rolled Steel

  5. Highly selective manganese-doped zinc sulfide quantum dots based label free phosphorescent sensor for phosphopeptides in presence of zirconium (IV).

    PubMed

    Gong, Yan; Fan, Zhefeng

    2015-04-15

    We report a room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) sensor for phosphopeptides based on zirconium (IV)-modulated mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)-capped Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs). This sensor incorporates the advantages of the well-known Zr(4+)-phosphopeptide affinity pair and the RTP properties of doped QDs. The RTP of Mn-doped ZnS QDs capped with MPA can be effectively quenched by Zr(4+). The high affinity of phosphopeptides to Zr(4+) enables the dissociation of the ion from the surface of MPA-capped ZnS QDs, thereby forming a stable complex with phosphopeptides in the solution, and recovering the RTP of the QDs. The Zr(4+)-induced RTP quenching and subsequent phosphopeptide-induced RTP recovery for MPA-capped ZnS QDs provide a solid basis for the present RTP sensor based on QDs for the detection of phosphopeptides. The detection limit for phosphopeptides is 0.9ngmL(-1), the relative standard deviations is 2.5%, and the recovery of urine and serum samples with phosphopeptides addition rangs from 96% to 105% at optimal conditions. The proposed method was successfully applied to biological fluids and obtained satisfactory results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Zirconium behaviour during electrorefining of actinide-zirconium alloy in molten LiCl-KCl on aluminium cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, R.; Souček, P.; Malmbeck, R.; Krachler, M.; Rodrigues, A.; Claux, B.; Glatz, J.-P.; Fanghänel, Th.

    2016-04-01

    A pyrochemical electrorefining process for the recovery of actinides from metallic nuclear fuel based on actinide-zirconium alloys (An-Zr) in a molten salt is being investigated. In this process actinides are group-selectively recovered on solid aluminium cathodes as An-Al alloys using a LiCl-KCl eutectic melt at a temperature of 450 °C. In the present study the electrochemical behaviour of zirconium during electrorefining was investigated. The maximum amount of actinides that can be oxidised without anodic co-dissolution of zirconium was determined at a selected constant cathodic current density. The experiment consisted of three steps to assess the different stages of the electrorefining process, each of which employing a fresh aluminium cathode. The results indicate that almost a complete dissolution of the actinides without co-dissolution of zirconium is possible under the applied experimental conditions.

  7. Structure-solubility relationships in fluoride-containing phosphate based bioactive glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaharyar, Yaqoot

    The dissolution of fluoride-containing bioactive glasses critically affects their biomedical applications. Most commercial fluoride-releasing bioactive glasses have been designed in the soda-lime-silica system. However, their relatively slow chemical dissolution and the adverse effect of fluoride on their bioactivity are stimulating the study of novel biodegradable materials with higher bioactivity, such as biodegradable phosphate-based bioactive glasses, which can be a viable alternative for applications where a fast release of active ions is sought. In order to design new biomaterials with controlled degradability and high bioactivity, it is essential to understand the connection between chemical composition, molecular structure, and solubility in physiological fluids.Accordingly, in this work we have combined the strengths of various experimental techniques with Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations, to elucidate the impact of fluoride ions on the structure and chemical dissolution of bioactive phosphate glasses in the system: 10Na2O - (45-x) CaO - 45P2O5 - xCaF2, where x varies between 0 -- 10 mol.%. NMR and MD data reveal that the medium-range atomic-scale structure of thse glasses is dominated by Q2 phosphate units followed by Q1 units, and the MD simulations further show that fluoride tends to associate with network modifier cations to form alkali/alkaline-earth rich ionic aggregates. On a macroscopic scale, we find that incorporating fluoride in phosphate glasses does not affect the rate of apatite formation on the glass surface in simulated body fluid (SBF). However, fluoride has a marked favorable impact on the glass dissolution in deionized water. Similarly, fluoride incorporation in the glasses results in significant weight gain due to adsorption of water (in the form of OH ions). These macroscopic trends are discussed on the basis of the F effect on the atomistic structure of the glasses, such as the F-induced phosphate network re-polymerization, in a

  8. Overcoming the crystallization and designability issues in the ultrastable zirconium phosphonate framework system

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Tao; Yang, Zaixing; Gui, Daxiang; Liu, Zhiyong; Wang, Xiangxiang; Dai, Xing; Liu, Shengtang; Zhang, Linjuan; Gao, Yang; Chen, Lanhua; Sheng, Daopeng; Wang, Yanlong; Diwu, Juan; Wang, Jianqiang; Zhou, Ruhong; Chai, Zhifang; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.; Wang, Shuao

    2017-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) based on zirconium phosphonates exhibit superior chemical stability suitable for applications under harsh conditions. These compounds mostly exist as poorly crystallized precipitates, and precise structural information has therefore remained elusive. Furthermore, a zero-dimensional zirconium phosphonate cluster acting as secondary building unit has been lacking, leading to poor designability in this system. Herein, we overcome these challenges and obtain single crystals of three zirconium phosphonates that are suitable for structural analysis. These compounds are built by previously unknown isolated zirconium phosphonate clusters and exhibit combined high porosity and ultrastability even in fuming acids. SZ-2 possesses the largest void volume recorded in zirconium phosphonates and SZ-3 represents the most porous crystalline zirconium phosphonate and the only porous MOF material reported to survive in aqua regia. SZ-2 and SZ-3 can effectively remove uranyl ions from aqueous solutions over a wide pH range, and we have elucidated the removal mechanism. PMID:28555656

  9. Hydrogels based on polysaccharide-calcium phosphate with antibacterial / antitumor activity for 3D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teterina, A. Yu; Fedotov, A. Yu; Zobkov, Yu V.; Sergeeva, N. S.; Sviridova, I. K.; Kirsanova, V. A.; Karalkin, P. A.; Komlev, V. S.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop hydrogels for 3D printing of sodium alginate/gelatin/octacalcium phosphate-based constructs with antibacterial and antitumor activity intended for bone defects replacement in patients with malignant diseases. In this work, we evaluated the drug release kinetic and physico-chemical characteristics of constructs, as well as their specific activity, biocompatibility and osteoplastic properties by means of in vitro and in vivo tests. The principal possibility of creating the biocompatible bone substitutes with antibacterial/antitumor activity and osteoconductive-retaining properties of 3D printing method was demonstrated.

  10. Evaluation of transport parameters for PVC based polyvinyl alcohol Ce(IV) phosphate composite membrane.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Mujahid Ali; Rafiuddin; Inamuddin

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the preparation of novel membrane and the characterization of their properties. A new class of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) based polyvinyl alcohol Ce(IV) phosphate composite membrane was successfully prepared by solution casting method. The structural formation was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and morphological studies. The thermal property was investigated by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) method. The order of surface charge density for various electrolytes was found to be LiCl

  11. Phosphates based pigments for new anti-corrosion application: Synthesis and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tbib, B.; Eddya, M.; El-Hami, K.

    2018-02-01

    Our study focused on pyrophosphates SrZn1-xMxP2O7 using four series by substituting M with manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), and copper (Cu). They were prepared by reaction in the solid state at 1000 °C for 24 hours and then characterized by X-ray diffraction, which showed that the obtained products are pure. The characterization by UV-visible spectroscopy was used to explain the color of the obtained materials and the optical properties showing the optical energy gap and disorder of these materials. Potential application could be done using the new anti-corrosion pigments based on phosphates.

  12. An Optimal Image-Based Method for Identification of Acoustic Emission (AE) Sources in Plate-Like Structures Using a Lead Zirconium Titanate (PZT) Sensor Array.

    PubMed

    Yan, Gang; Zhou, Li

    2018-02-21

    This paper proposes an innovative method for identifying the locations of multiple simultaneous acoustic emission (AE) events in plate-like structures from the view of image processing. By using a linear lead zirconium titanate (PZT) sensor array to record the AE wave signals, a reverse-time frequency-wavenumber (f-k) migration is employed to produce images displaying the locations of AE sources by back-propagating the AE waves. Lamb wave theory is included in the f-k migration to consider the dispersive property of the AE waves. Since the exact occurrence time of the AE events is usually unknown when recording the AE wave signals, a heuristic artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm combined with an optimal criterion using minimum Shannon entropy is used to find the image with the identified AE source locations and occurrence time that mostly approximate the actual ones. Experimental studies on an aluminum plate with AE events simulated by PZT actuators are performed to validate the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed optimal image-based AE source identification method.

  13. An Optimal Image-Based Method for Identification of Acoustic Emission (AE) Sources in Plate-Like Structures Using a Lead Zirconium Titanate (PZT) Sensor Array

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Li

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes an innovative method for identifying the locations of multiple simultaneous acoustic emission (AE) events in plate-like structures from the view of image processing. By using a linear lead zirconium titanate (PZT) sensor array to record the AE wave signals, a reverse-time frequency-wavenumber (f-k) migration is employed to produce images displaying the locations of AE sources by back-propagating the AE waves. Lamb wave theory is included in the f-k migration to consider the dispersive property of the AE waves. Since the exact occurrence time of the AE events is usually unknown when recording the AE wave signals, a heuristic artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm combined with an optimal criterion using minimum Shannon entropy is used to find the image with the identified AE source locations and occurrence time that mostly approximate the actual ones. Experimental studies on an aluminum plate with AE events simulated by PZT actuators are performed to validate the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed optimal image-based AE source identification method. PMID:29466310

  14. Effective ligand functionalization of zirconium-based metal-organic frameworks for the adsorption and separation of benzene and toluene: a multiscale computational study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying; Chen, Huiyong; Liu, Defei; Xiao, Jing; Qian, Yu; Xi, Hongxia

    2015-03-18

    The adsorption and separation properties of benzene and toluene on the zirconium-based frameworks UiO-66, -67, -68, and their functional analogues UiO-Phe and UiO-Me2 were studied using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations, density functional theory, and ideal adsorbed solution theory. Remarkable higher adsorption uptakes of benzene and toluene at low pressures on UiO-Phe and -Me2 were found compared to their parent framework UiO-67. It can be ascribed to the presence of functional groups (aromatic rings and methyl groups) that significantly intensified the adsorption, majorly by reducing the effective pore size and increasing the interaction strength with the adsorbates. At high pressures, the pore volumes and accessible surfaces of the frameworks turned out to be the dominant factors governing the adsorption. In the case of toluene/benzene separation, toluene selectivities of UiOs showed a two-stage separation behavior at the measured pressure range, resulting from the greater interaction affinities of toluene at low pressures and steric hindrance effects at high pressures. Additionally, the counterbalancing factors of enhanced π delocalization and suitable pore size of UiO-Phe gave rise to the highest toluene selectivity, suggesting the ligand functionalization strategy could reach both high adsorption capacity and separation selectivity from aromatic mixtures at low concentrations.

  15. High temperature, low-cycle fatigue of copper-base alloys in argon. Part 2: Zirconium-copper at 482, 538 and 593 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, J. B.; Stentz, R. H.; Berling, J. T.

    1973-01-01

    Zirconium-copper (1/2 hard) was tested in argon over the temperature range from 482 to 593 C in an evaluation of short-term tensile and low-cycle fatigue behavior. The effect of strain rate on the tensile properties was evaluated at 538 C and in general it was found that the yield and ultimate strengths increased as the strain rate was increased from 0.0004 to 0.01/sec. Ductility was essentially insensitive to strain rate in the case of the zirconium-copper alloy. Strain-rate and hold-time effects on the low cycle fatigue behavior of zirconium-copper were evaluated in argon at 538 C. These effects were as expected in that decreased fatigue life was noted as the strain rate decreased and when hold times were introduced into the tension portion of the strain-cycle. Hold times in compression were much less detrimental than hold times in tension.

  16. Intercalation chemistry of zirconium 4-sulfophenylphosphonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoboda, Jan; Zima, Vítězslav; Melánová, Klára; Beneš, Ludvík; Trchová, Miroslava

    2013-12-01

    Zirconium 4-sulfophenylphosphonate is a layered material which can be employed as a host for the intercalation reactions with basic molecules. A wide range of organic compounds were chosen to represent intercalation ability of zirconium 4-sulfophenylphosphonate. These were a series of alkylamines from methylamine to dodecylamine, 1,4-phenylenediamine, p-toluidine, 1,8-diaminonaphthalene, 1-aminopyrene, imidazole, pyridine, 4,4‧-bipyridine, poly(ethylene imine), and a series of amino acids from glycine to 6-aminocaproic acid. The prepared compounds were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry analysis and IR spectroscopy and probable arrangement of the guest molecules in the interlayer space of the host is proposed based on the interlayer distance of the prepared intercalates and amount of the intercalated guest molecules.

  17. Properties of injectable ready-to-use calcium phosphate cement based on water-immiscible liquid.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, S; Rössler, S; Lemm, M; Ruhnow, M; Nies, B

    2013-04-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are highly valuable materials for filling bone defects and bone augmentation by minimal invasive application via percutaneous injection. In the present study some key features were significantly improved by developing a novel injectable ready-to-use calcium phosphate cement based on water-immiscible carrier liquids. A combination of two surfactants was identified to facilitate the targeted discontinuous exchange of the liquid for water after contact with aqueous solutions, enabling the setting reaction to take place at distinct ratios of cement components to water. This prolonged the shelf life of the pre-mixed paste and enhanced reproducibility during application and setting reactions. The developed paste technology is applicable for different CPC formulations. Evaluations were performed for the formulation of an α-TCP-based CPC as a representative example for the preparation of injectable pastes with a powder-to-carrier liquid ratio of up to 85:15. We demonstrate that the resulting material retains the desirable properties of conventional CPC counterparts for fast setting, mechanical strength and biocompatibility, shows improved cohesion and will most probably show a similar degree of resorbability due to identical mineral structure of the set products. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fluorescent Biosensor for Phosphate Determination Based on Immobilized Polyfluorene-Liposomal Nanoparticles Coupled with Alkaline Phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Kahveci, Zehra; Martínez-Tomé, Maria José; Mallavia, Ricardo; Mateo, C Reyes

    2017-01-11

    This work describes the development of a novel fluorescent biosensor based on the inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The biosensor is composed of the enzyme ALP and the conjugated cationic polyfluorene HTMA-PFP. The working principle of the biosensor is based on the fluorescence quenching of this polyelectrolyte by p-nitrophenol (PNP), a product of the hydrolysis reaction of p-nitrophenyl phosphate (PNPP) catalyzed by ALP. Because HTMA-PFP forms unstable aggregates in buffer, with low fluorescence efficiency, previous stabilization of the polyelectrolyte was required before the development of the biosensor. HTMA-PFP was stabilized through its interaction with lipid vesicles to obtain stable blue-emitting nanoparticles (NPs). Fluorescent NPs were characterized, and the ability to be quenched by PNP was evaluated. These nanoparticles were coupled to ALP and entrapped in a sol-gel matrix to produce a biosensor that can serve as a screening platform to identify ALP inhibitors. The components of the biosensor were examined before and after sol-gel entrapment, and the biosensor was optimized to allow the determination of phosphate ion in aqueous medium.

  19. SEPARATION OF HAFNIUM FROM ZIRCONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Overholser, L.B.; Barton, C.J. Sr.; Ramsey, J.W.

    1960-05-31

    The separation of hafnium impurities from zirconium can be accomplished by means of organic solvent extraction. The hafnium-containing zirconium feed material is dissolved in an aqueous chloride solution and the resulting solution is contacted with an organic hexone phase, with at least one of the phases containing thiocyanate. The hafnium is extracted into the organic phase while zirconium remains in the aqueous phase. Further recovery of zirconium is effected by stripping the onganic phase with a hydrochloric acid solution and commingling the resulting strip solution with the aqueous feed solution. Hexone is recovered and recycled by means of scrubbing the onganic phase with a sulfuric acid solution to remove the hafnium, and thiocyanate is recovered and recycled by means of neutralizing the effluent streams to obtain ammonium thiocyanate.

  20. A regenerable potassium and phosphate sorbent system to enhance dialysis efficacy and device portability: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Wester, Maarten; Simonis, Frank; Gerritsen, Karin G; Boer, Walther H; Wodzig, Will K; Kooman, Jeroen P; Joles, Jaap A

    2013-09-01

    Continuous dialysis could provide benefit by constant removal of potassium and phosphate. This study investigates the suitability of specific potassium and phosphate sorbents for incorporation in an extracorporeal device by capacity and regenerability testing. Capacity testing was performed in uraemic plasma. Regenerability was tested for potassium sorbents, with adsorption based on cationic exchange for sodium, with 0.1 M and 1.0 M NaCl. To regenerate phosphate sorbents, with adsorption based on anionic exchange, 0.1 M and 1.0 M NaHCO3 and NaOH were used. Subsequently, sodium polystyrene divinylbenzene sulphonate (RES-A) and iron oxide hydroxide (FeOOH) beads were incorporated in a cartridge for testing in bovine blood using a recirculating blood circuit and a dialysis circuit separated by a high-flux dialyzer (dynamic setup). Preloading was tested to assess whether this could limit calcium and magnesium adsorption. In the batch-binding assays, zirconium phosphate most potently adsorbed potassium (0.44 ± 0.05 mmol/g) and RES-A was the best regenerable potassium sorbent (92.9 ± 5.7% with 0.1 M NaCl). Zirconium oxide hydroxide (ZIR-hydr) most potently adsorbed phosphate (0.23 ± 0.05 mmol/g) and the polymeric amine sevelamer carbonate was the best regenerable sorbent (85.7 ± 5.2% with 0.1 M NaHCO3). In the dynamic setup, a potassium adsorption of 10.72 ± 2.06 mmol in 3 h was achieved using 111 g of RES-A and a phosphate adsorption of 4.73 ± 0.53 mmol in 3 h using 55 g of FeOOH. Calcium and magnesium preloading was shown to reduce the net adsorption in 3 h from 3.57 ± 0.91 to -0.29 ± 1.85 and 1.02 ± 0.05 to -0.31 ± 0.18 mmol, respectively. RES-A and FeOOH are suitable, regenerizable sorbents for potassium and phosphate removal in dialysate regeneration. Use of zirconium carbonate and ZIR-hydr may further increase phosphate adsorption, but may compromise sorbent regenerability. Use of polymeric amines for phosphate adsorption may enhance sorbent

  1. Layer Protecting the Surface of Zirconium Used in Nuclear Reactors.

    PubMed

    Ashcheulov, Petr; Skoda, Radek; Skarohlíd, Jan; Taylor, Andrew; Fendrych, Frantisek; Kratochvílová, Irena

    2016-01-01

    significantly prolong lifetime of Zirconium alloy in nuclear reactors even above Zirconium phase transition temperatures. Even after ion beam irradiation (10 dpa, 3 MeV Fe(2+)) the diamond film still shows satisfactory structural integrity with both sp(3) and sp(2) carbon phases. Zircaloy2 under the carbon-based protective layer after hot steam oxidation test differed from the original Zircaloy2 material composition only very slightly, proving that the diamond coating increases the material resistance to high temperature oxidation. Zirconium alloys nuclear fuel pins' surfaces were covered by compact and homogeneous polycrystalline diamond layers consisting of sp(3) and sp(2) carbon phases with a high crystalline diamond content and low roughness. Diamond withstands very high temperatures, has excellent thermal conductivity and low chemical reactivity, it does not degrade over time and (important for the nuclear fuel cladding) being pure carbon, it has perfect neutron cross-section properties. Moreover, polycrystalline diamond layers consisting of crystalline (sp(3)) and amorphous (sp(2)) carbon phases could have suitable thermal expansion. Zirconium alloys coated with polycrystalline diamond film are protected against undesirable changes and processes. Further, the polycrystalline diamond layer prevents the reaction between the alloy surface and water vapor. During such reaction, water molecules dissociate and initiate formation of zirconium dioxide and hydrogen, accompanied by the release of large amount of heat. Thus the protective layer prevents the formation of hydrogen and the release of reaction heat. Few relevant patents to the topic have been reviewed and cited.

  2. Fluorometric determination of zirconium in minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alford, W.C.; Shapiro, L.; White, C.E.

    1951-01-01

    The increasing use of zirconium in alloys and in the ceramics industry has created renewed interest in methods for its determination. It is a common constituent of many minerals, but is usually present in very small amounts. Published methods tend to be tedious, time-consuming, and uncertain as to accuracy. A new fluorometric procedure, which overcomes these objections to a large extent, is based on the blue fluorescence given by zirconium and flavonol in sulfuric acid solution. Hafnium is the only element that interferes. The sample is fused with borax glass and sodium carbonate and extracted with water. The residue is dissolved in sulfuric acid, made alkaline with sodium hydroxide to separate aluminum, and filtered. The precipitate is dissolved in sulfuric acid and electrolysed in a Melaven cell to remove iron. Flavonol is then added and the fluorescence intensity is measured with a photo-fluorometer. Analysis of seven standard mineral samples shows excellent results. The method is especially useful for minerals containing less than 0.25% zirconium oxide.

  3. Analysis of protein phosphorylation by monolithic extraction columns based on poly(divinylbenzene) containing embedded titanium dioxide and zirconium dioxide nano-powders.

    PubMed

    Rainer, Matthias; Sonderegger, Harald; Bakry, Rania; Huck, Christian W; Morandell, Sandra; Huber, Lukas A; Gjerde, Douglas T; Bonn, Günther K

    2008-11-01

    The potential of an organic monolith with incorporated titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) and zirconium dioxide (ZrO(2)) nanoparticles was evaluated for the selective enrichment of phosphorylated peptides from tryptic digests. A pipette tip was fitted with a monolith based on divinylbenzene (DVB) of highly porous structure, which allows sample to pass through the monolithic bed. The enrichment of phosphopeptides was enhanced by increasing the pipetting cycles during the sample preparation and a higher recovery could be achieved with adequate buffer systems. A complete automated process was developed for enrichment of phosphopeptides leading to high reproducibility and resulting in a robust method designed to minimize analytical variance while providing high sensitivity at high sample throughput. The effect of particle size on the selectivity of phosphopeptides was investigated by comparative studies with nano- and microscale TiO(2) and ZrO(2) powders. Eleven phosphopeptides from alpha-casein digest could be recovered by an optimized mixture of microscale TiO(2)/ZrO(2) particles, whereas nine additional phosphopeptides could be retained by the same mixture of nano-structured material. When compared to conventional immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography and commercial phosphorylation-enrichment kits, higher selectivity was observed in case of self fabricated tips. About 20 phosphopeptides could be retained from alpha-casein and five from beta-casein digests by using TiO(2) and ZrO(2) based extraction tips. Further selectivity for phosphopeptides was demonstrated by enriching a digest of in vitro phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase 1 (ERK1). Two phosphorylated peptides of ERK1 could be identified by MALDI-MS/MS measurements and a following MASCOT database search.

  4. 2D zirconium-based metal-organic framework nanosheets for highly sensitive detection of mucin 1: consistency between electrochemical and surface plasmon resonance methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Linghao; Duan, Fenghe; Song, Yingpan; Guo, Chuanpan; Zhao, Hui; Tian, Jia-Yue; Zhang, Zhihong; Liu, Chun-Sen; Zhang, Xiaojing; Wang, Peiyuan; Du, Miao; Fang, Shao-Ming

    2017-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) zirconium-based metal-organic framework (denoted as 521-MOF) nanosheets with the thickness of 6.0-7.5 nm were prepared with the aid of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) under the mild conditions and low temperature (50 °C). Since 521-MOF nanosheets displayed good electrochemical activity, high surface area, and strong affinity interaction between the MOF and the oligonucleotides sequences, they can impel the immobilization of large amounts of aptamer strands when applied as a platform of biosensor. As a result, the developed aptasensor exhibited sensitive bio-recognition for the cancer determination marker protein, mucin 1 (MUC1). The combination of electrochemical techniques and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPR) was performed to probe the kinetic processes of the aptamer immobilization and the MUC1 detection. The consistency between different determination approaches was observed, in which the developed aptasensor based on 521-MOF nanosheets exhibits pretty high sensitivity for detecting MUC1 with a low detect limit of 0.12 and 0.65 pg·ml-1 deduced from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and SPR, respectively, within the broad concentration range of MUC1 from 0.001 to 0.5 ng·ml-1. Simultaneously, a comparable affinity constant, K a, was derived from EIS and SPR, which also demonstrates that this new biosensing strategy has high selectivity, stability, reproducibility, and good applicability for the MUC1 detection in the human serum. The present finding indicates that the synthesized 521-MOF nanosheets can be employed in the fields of the biosensing or biomedical diagnosis and explored for different kinds of biosensors.

  5. Clinical utility of patiromer, sodium zirconium cyclosilicate, and sodium polystyrene sulfonate for the treatment of hyperkalemia: an evidence-based review

    PubMed Central

    Beccari, Mario V; Meaney, Calvin J

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Hyperkalemia is a serious medical condition that often manifests in patients with chronic kidney disease and heart failure. Renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system inhibitors are known to improve outcomes in these disease states but can also cause drug-induced hyperkalemia. New therapeutic options exist for managing hyperkalemia in these patients which warrant evidence-based evaluation. Aim The objective of this article was to review the efficacy and safety evidence for patiromer, sodium zirconium cyclosilicate (ZS9), and sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS) for the treatment of hyperkalemia. Evidence review Current treatment options to enhance potassium excretion are SPS and loop diuretics, which are complicated by ambiguous efficacy and known toxicities. Patiromer and ZS9 are new agents designed to address this treatment gap. Both unabsorbable compounds bind potassium in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to facilitate fecal excretion. The capacity to bind other medications in the GI tract infers high drug–drug interaction potential, which has been demonstrated with patiromer but not yet investigated with ZS9 or SPS. Phase II and III clinical trials of patiromer and ZS9 demonstrated clear evidence of a dose-dependent potassium-lowering effect and the ability to initiate, maintain, or titrate renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system inhibitors. There is limited evidence base for SPS: two small clinical trials indicated potassium reduction in chronic hyperkalemia. All agents may cause adverse GI effects, although they are less frequent with ZS9. Concerns remain for SPS to cause rare GI damage. Electrolyte abnormalities occurred with patiromer and SPS, whereas urinary tract infections, edema, and corrected QT-interval prolongations were reported with ZS9. Conclusion Patiromer and ZS9 have improved upon the age-old standard SPS for the treatment of hyperkalemia. Additional research should focus on drug–drug interactions in patients on multiple

  6. Extraction and characterisation of apatite- and tricalcium phosphate-based materials from cod fish bones.

    PubMed

    Piccirillo, C; Silva, M F; Pullar, R C; Braga da Cruz, I; Jorge, R; Pintado, M M E; Castro, P M L

    2013-01-01

    Apatite- and tricalcium phosphate-based materials were produced from codfish bones, thus converting a waste by-product from the food industry into high added-valued compounds. The bones were annealed at temperatures between 900 and 1200 °C, giving a biphasic material of hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 and β-Ca(PO4)3) with a molar proportion of 75:25, a material widely used in biomedical implants. The treatment of the bones in solution prior to their annealing changed the composition of the material. Single phase hydroxyapatite, chlorapatite (Ca10(PO4)6Cl2) and fluorapatite (Ca10(PO4)6F2) were obtained using CaCl2 and NaF solutions, respectively. The samples were analysed by several techniques (X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and differential thermal/thermogravimetric analysis) and by elemental analyses, to have a more complete understanding of the conversion process. Such compositional modifications have never been performed before for these materials of natural origin to tailor the relative concentrations of elements. This paper shows the great potential for the conversion of this by-product into highly valuable compounds for biomedical applications, using a simple and effective valorisation process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Visualising phase change in a brushite-based calcium phosphate ceramic

    PubMed Central

    Bannerman, A.; Williams, R. L.; Cox, S. C.; Grover, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    The resorption of brushite-based bone cements has been shown to be highly unpredictable, with strong dependence on a number of conditions. One of the major factors is phase transformation, with change to more stable phases such as hydroxyapatite affecting the rate of resorption. Despite its importance, the analysis of phase transformation has been largely undertaken using methods that only detect crystalline composition and give no information on the spatial distribution of the phases. In this study confocal Raman microscopy was used to map cross-sections of brushite cylinders aged in Phosphate Buffered Saline, Foetal Bovine Serum, Dulbecco’s – Minimum Essential Medium (with and without serum). Image maps showed the importance of ageing medium on the phase composition throughout the ceramic structure. When aged without serum, there was dissolution of the brushite phase concomitant to the deposition of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) around the periphery of the sample. The deposition of OCP was detectable within five days and reduced the rate of brushite dissolution from the material. The use of serum, even at a concentration of 10vol% prevented phase transformation. This paper demonstrates the value of confocal Raman microscopy in monitoring phase change in biocements; it also demonstrates the problems with assessing material degradation in non-serum containing media. PMID:27604149

  8. Visualising phase change in a brushite-based calcium phosphate ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannerman, A.; Williams, R. L.; Cox, S. C.; Grover, L. M.

    2016-09-01

    The resorption of brushite-based bone cements has been shown to be highly unpredictable, with strong dependence on a number of conditions. One of the major factors is phase transformation, with change to more stable phases such as hydroxyapatite affecting the rate of resorption. Despite its importance, the analysis of phase transformation has been largely undertaken using methods that only detect crystalline composition and give no information on the spatial distribution of the phases. In this study confocal Raman microscopy was used to map cross-sections of brushite cylinders aged in Phosphate Buffered Saline, Foetal Bovine Serum, Dulbecco’s - Minimum Essential Medium (with and without serum). Image maps showed the importance of ageing medium on the phase composition throughout the ceramic structure. When aged without serum, there was dissolution of the brushite phase concomitant to the deposition of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) around the periphery of the sample. The deposition of OCP was detectable within five days and reduced the rate of brushite dissolution from the material. The use of serum, even at a concentration of 10vol% prevented phase transformation. This paper demonstrates the value of confocal Raman microscopy in monitoring phase change in biocements; it also demonstrates the problems with assessing material degradation in non-serum containing media.

  9. Evaluation of amorphous magnesium phosphate (AMP) based non-exothermic orthopedic cements.

    PubMed

    Babaie, Elham; Lin, Boren; Goel, Vijay K; Bhaduri, Sarit B

    2016-10-07

    This paper reports for the first time the development of a biodegradable, non-exothermic, self-setting orthopedic cement composition based on amorphous magnesium phosphate (AMP). The occurrence of undesirable exothermic reactions was avoided through using AMP as the solid precursor. The phenomenon of self-setting with optimum rheology is achieved by incorporating a water soluble biocompatible/biodegradable polymer, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Additionally, PVA enables a controlled growth of the final phase via a biomimetic process. The AMP powder was synthesized using a precipitation method. The powder, when in contact with the aqueous PVA solution, forms a putty resulting in a nanocrystalline magnesium phosphate phase of cattiite. The as-prepared cement compositions were evaluated for setting times, exothermicity, compressive strength, biodegradation, and microstructural features before and after soaking in SBF, and in vitro cytocompatibility. Since cattiite is relatively unexplored in the literature, a first time evaluation reveals that it is cytocompatible, just like the other phases in the MgO-P 2 O 5 (Mg-P) system. The cement composition prepared with 15% PVA in an aqueous medium achieved clinically relevant setting times, mechanical properties, and biodegradation. Simulated body fluid (SBF) soaking resulted in coating of bobierrite onto the cement particle surfaces.

  10. Chlorhexidine-calcium phosphate nanoparticles - Polymer mixer based wound healing cream and their applications.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Kaliyaperumal; Monisha, P; Srinivasan, M; Swathi, D; Raman, M; Dhinakar Raj, G

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we developed a wound healing cream composed of two different polymers, namely chitosan and gelatin with chlorhexidine along with calcium phosphate nanoparticles. The physicochemical properties of the prepared cream were investigated based on SEM, EDX, Raman, FTIR and the results indicated that the cream contained gelatin, chitosan, calcium phosphate nanoparticles and chlorhexidine. The maximum swelling ratio studies indicated that the ratio was around of 52±2.2 at pH7.4 and the value was increased in acidic and alkaline pH. The antimicrobial activity was tested against bacteria and the results indicated that, both chlorhexidine and the hybrid cream devoid of chlorhexidine exhibited antimicrobial activity but the chlorhexidine impregnated cream showed three fold higher antimicrobial activity than without chlorhexidine. In vivo wound healing promoting activities of hybrid cream containing 0.4mg/L chlorhexidine were evaluated on surgically induced dermal wounds in mice. The results indicated that the cream with incorporated chlorhexidine significantly enhanced healing compared with the control samples. For the field validations, the veterinary clinical animals were treated with the cream and showed enhanced healing capacity. In conclusion, a simple and efficient method for design of a novel wound healing cream has been developed for veterinary applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A simple and rapid in situ preconcentration method for the determination of phosphate in environmental waters by use of solid-phase extraction, and its applications to brackish lake waters.

    PubMed

    Okumura, M; Tong, L; Fujinaga, K; Seike, Y

    2001-05-01

    A simple and rapid in situ preconcentration method for the determination of phosphate in environmental waters has been developed for field analysis. This method is based on solid-phase extraction on a zirconium-loaded Sep-Pack Accell CM cartridge (Zr-SP) and is applicable to studies in which sampling is performed by use of a graduated syringe to prevent contamination and to ensure easy operation at sampling sites. The Zr-SP cartridge was prepared by passing 0.1 mol L(-1) zirconium solution through a Sep-Pak Accell CM cartridge, packed with cation exchange sorbent based on a silica matrix. The adsorption of phosphate and its desorption depend only on the pH of the solution. A water sample containing phosphate was adjusted to pH 2 and passed through the Zr-SP cartridge to collect it. The retained phosphate was quantitatively eluted with 0.5 mol L(-1) sodium hydroxide solution. The phosphate retained in the Zr-SP cartridge was stable for at least one month. The established preconcentration method was successfully applied to brackish lake waters to investigate seasonal changes in the distribution and behavior of phosphate in a brackish lake.

  12. Photophysical properties of [Ru(2,2‧-bipyridine)3]2+ encapsulated within the Uio-66 zirconium based metal organic framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Randy W.; Wojtas, Lukasz

    2017-03-01

    The ability to encapsulate photo-active guest molecules within the pores of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) affords the opportunity to develop robust photocatalysts as well as solar energy conversion systems. An important criteria for such systems is stability of the new materials towards moisture, high temperatures, etc which preclude the use of many MOF frameworks. Here, the ability to encapsulate [Ru(II)(2,2‧-bipyridine)3]2+([Ru(bpy)3]2+) into the cavities of the zirconium based MOF Uio-66 as well as the photophysical properties of the complex are reported. The X-ray powder diffraction data of the orange Uio-66 powder are consistent with the formation of Uio-66 in the presence of [Ru(bpy)3]2+. The steady state emission exhibits a significant bathochromic shift from 603 nm in ethanol to 610 nm in Uio-66. The corresponding emission decay of the encapsulated [Ru(bpy)3]2+ complex is biexponential with a fast component of 128 ns and a slower component of 1176 ns (20 deg C). The slow component is consistent with encapsulation of [Ru(bpy)3]2+ into cavities with restricted volume that prevents the population of a triplet ligand field transition that is anti-bonding with respect to the Ru-N bonds. The origin of the fast component is unclear but may involve interactions of the [Ru(bpy)3]2+ encapsulated within large cavities formed through missing ligand defect sites within the Uio-66 materials. Co-encapsulated quenchers contained within these larger cavities gives rise to the reduced lifetimes of the [Ru(bpy)3]2+ complexes.

  13. Characterization of aqueous interactions of copper-doped phosphate-based glasses by vapour sorption.

    PubMed

    Stähli, Christoph; Shah Mohammadi, Maziar; Waters, Kristian E; Nazhat, Showan N

    2014-07-01

    Owing to their adjustable dissolution properties, phosphate-based glasses (PGs) are promising materials for the controlled release of bioinorganics, such as copper ions. This study describes a vapour sorption method that allowed for the investigation of the kinetics and mechanisms of aqueous interactions of PGs of the formulation 50P2O5-30CaO-(20-x)Na2O-xCuO (x=0, 1, 5 and 10mol.%). Initial characterization was performed using (31)P magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Increasing CuO content resulted in chemical shifts of the predominant Q(2) NMR peak and of the (POP)as and (PO(-)) Fourier transform infrared absorptions, owing to the higher strength of the POCu bond compared to PONa. Vapour sorption and desorption were gravimetrically measured in PG powders exposed to variable relative humidity (RH). Sorption was negligible below 70% RH and increased exponentially with RH from 70 to 90%, where it exhibited a negative correlation with CuO content. Vapour sorption in 0% and 1% CuO glasses resulted in phosphate chain hydration and hydrolysis, as evidenced by protonated Q(0)(1H) and Q(1)(1H) species. Dissolution rates in deionized water showed a linear correlation (R(2)>0.99) with vapour sorption. Furthermore, cation release rates could be predicted based on dissolution rates and PG composition. The release of orthophosphate and short polyphosphate species corroborates the action of hydrolysis and was correlated with pH changes. In conclusion, the agreement between vapour sorption and routine characterization techniques in water demonstrates the potential of this method for the study of PG aqueous reactions. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Structure-Composition-Property Relationships in Polymeric Amorphous Calcium Phosphate-Based Dental Composites †

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, Justin N.R.; Schumacher, Gary E.; Antonucci, Joseph M.; Skrtic, Drago

    2009-01-01

    Our studies of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)-based materials over the last decade have yielded bioactive polymeric composites capable of protecting teeth from demineralization or even regenerating lost tooth mineral. The anti-cariogenic/re-mineralizing potential of these ACP composites originates from their propensity, when exposed to the oral environment, to release in a sustained manner sufficient levels of mineral-forming calcium and phosphate ions to promote formation of stable apatitic tooth mineral. However, the less than optimal ACP filler/resin matrix cohesion, excessive polymerization shrinkage and water sorption of these experimental materials can adversely affect their physicochemical and mechanical properties, and, ultimately, limit their lifespan. This study demonstrates the effects of chemical structure and composition of the methacrylate monomers used to form the matrix phase of composites on degree of vinyl conversion (DVC) and water sorption of both copolymers and composites and the release of mineral ions from the composites. Modification of ACP surface via introducing cations and/or polymers ab initio during filler synthesis failed to yield mechanically improved composites. However, moderate improvement in composite’s mechanical stability without compromising its remineralization potential was achieved by silanization and/or milling of ACP filler. Using ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate or urethane dimethacrylate as base monomers and adding moderate amounts of hydrophilic 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate or its isomer ethyl-α-hydroxymethacrylate appears to be a promising route to maximize the remineralizing ability of the filler while maintaining high DVC. Exploration of the structure/composition/property relationships of ACP fillers and polymer matrices is complex but essential for achieving a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms that govern dissolution/re-precipitation of bioactive ACP fillers, and, ultimately, the

  15. Ablation Resistant Zirconium and Hafnium Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Jeffrey (Inventor); White, Michael J. (Inventor); Kaufman, Larry (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    High temperature ablation resistant ceramic composites have been made. These ceramics are composites of zirconium diboride and zirconium carbide with silicon carbide, hafnium diboride and hafnium carbide with silicon carbide and ceramic composites which contain mixed diborides and/or carbides of zirconium and hafnium. along with silicon carbide.

  16. Efficient methods for enol phosphate synthesis using carbon-centred magnesium bases.

    PubMed

    Kerr, William J; Lindsay, David M; Patel, Vipulkumar K; Rajamanickam, Muralikrishnan

    2015-10-28

    Efficient conversion of ketones into kinetic enol phosphates under mild and accessible conditions has been realised using the developed methods with di-tert-butylmagnesium and bismesitylmagnesium. Optimisation of the quench protocol resulted in high yields of enol phosphates from a range of cyclohexanones and aryl methyl ketones, with tolerance of a range of additional functional units.

  17. Comparable stability of Hoogsteen and Watson-Crick base pairs in ionic liquid choline dihydrogen phosphate.

    PubMed

    Tateishi-Karimata, Hisae; Nakano, Miki; Sugimoto, Naoki

    2014-01-08

    The instability of Hoogsteen base pairs relative to Watson-Crick base pairs has limited biological applications of triplex-forming oligonucleotides. Hydrated ionic liquids (ILs) provide favourable environments for a wide range of chemical reactions and are known to impact the stabilities of Watson-Crick base pairs. We found that DNA triplex formation was significantly stabilized in hydrated choline dihydrogen phosphate as compared with an aqueous buffer at neutral pH. Interestingly, the stability of Hoogsteen base pairs was found to be comparable with that of Watson-Crick base pairs in the hydrated IL. Molecular dynamics simulations of a DNA triplex in the presence of choline ions revealed that the DNA triplex was stabilized because of the binding of choline ion around the third strand in the grooves. Our finding will facilitate the development of new DNA materials. Our data also indicate that triplex formation may be stabilized inside cells where choline ions and their derivatives are abundant in vivo.

  18. Comparable Stability of Hoogsteen and Watson–Crick Base Pairs in Ionic Liquid Choline Dihydrogen Phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Tateishi-Karimata, Hisae; Nakano, Miki; Sugimoto, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    The instability of Hoogsteen base pairs relative to Watson–Crick base pairs has limited biological applications of triplex-forming oligonucleotides. Hydrated ionic liquids (ILs) provide favourable environments for a wide range of chemical reactions and are known to impact the stabilities of Watson–Crick base pairs. We found that DNA triplex formation was significantly stabilized in hydrated choline dihydrogen phosphate as compared with an aqueous buffer at neutral pH. Interestingly, the stability of Hoogsteen base pairs was found to be comparable with that of Watson–Crick base pairs in the hydrated IL. Molecular dynamics simulations of a DNA triplex in the presence of choline ions revealed that the DNA triplex was stabilized because of the binding of choline ion around the third strand in the grooves. Our finding will facilitate the development of new DNA materials. Our data also indicate that triplex formation may be stabilized inside cells where choline ions and their derivatives are abundant in vivo. PMID:24399194

  19. Structure-based prediction and identification of 4-epimerization activity of phosphate sugars in class II aldolases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seon-Hwa; Hong, Seung-Hye; An, Jung-Ung; Kim, Kyoung-Rok; Kim, Dong-Eun; Kang, Lin-Woo; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2017-05-16

    Sugar 4-epimerization reactions are important for the production of rare sugars and their derivatives, which have various potential industrial applications. For example, the production of tagatose, a functional sweetener, from fructose by sugar 4-epimerization is currently constrained because a fructose 4-epimerase does not exist in nature. We found that class II D-fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FbaA) catalyzed the 4-epimerization of D-fructose-6-phosphate (F6P) to D-tagatose-6-phosphate (T6P) based on the prediction via structural comparisons with epimerase and molecular docking and the identification of the condensed products of C3 sugars. In vivo, the 4-epimerization activity of FbaA is normally repressed. This can be explained by our results showing the catalytic efficiency of D-fructose-6-phosphate kinase for F6P phosphorylation was significantly higher than that of FbaA for F6P epimerization. Here, we identified the epimerization reactions and the responsible catalytic residues through observation of the reactions of FbaA and L-rhamnulose-1-phosphate aldolases (RhaD) variants with substituted catalytic residues using different substrates. Moreover, we obtained detailed potential epimerization reaction mechanism of FbaA and a general epimerization mechanism of the class II aldolases L-fuculose-1-phosphate aldolase, RhaD, and FbaA. Thus, class II aldolases can be used as 4-epimerases for the stereo-selective synthesis of valuable carbohydrates.

  20. Nanoparticle-based immunosensor with apoferritin templated metallic phosphate label for quantification of phosphorylated acetylcholinesterase

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Dan; Chen, Aiqiong; Xie, Yunying

    2011-05-15

    A new sandwich-like electrochemical immunosensor has been developed for quantification of organophosphorylated acetylcholinesterase (OP-AChE), an exposure biomarker of organophosphate pesticides and nerve agents. Zirconia nanoparticles (ZrO2 NPs) were anchored on a screen printed electrode (SPE) to preferably capture OP-AChE adducts by metal chelation with phospho-moieties, which was selectively recognized by lead phosphate-apoferritin labeled anti-AChE antibody (LPA-anti-AChE). The sandwich-like immunoreactions were performed among ZrO2 NPs, OP-AChE and LPA-anti-AChE to form ZrO2/OP-AChE/LPA-anti-AChE complex and the released lead ions were detected on a disposable SPE. The binding affinity was investigated by both square wave voltammetry (SWV) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements. Themore » proposed immunosensor yielded a linear response current over a broad OP-AChE concentrations range from 0.05 nM to 10 nM, with detection limit of 0.02 nM, which has enough sensitivity for monitoring of low-dose exposure to OPs. This method avoids the drawback of unavailability of commercial OP-specific antibody as well as amplifies detection signal by using apoferritin encoded metallic phosphate nanoparticle tags. This nanoparticle-based immunosensor offers a new method for rapid, sensitive, selective and inexpensive quantification of phosphorylated adducts for monitoring of OP pesticides and nerve agents exposures.« less

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis for new multifunctional materials: A few examples of phosphates and phosphonate-based hybrid materials

    SciTech Connect

    Rueff, Jean-Michel, E-mail: jean-michel.rueff@ensicaen.fr; Poienar, Maria; Guesdon, Anne

    Novel physical or chemical properties are expected in a great variety of materials, in connection with the dimensionality of their structures and/or with their nanostructures, hierarchical superstructures etc. In the search of new advanced materials, the hydrothermal technique plays a crucial role, mimicking the nature able to produce fractal, hyperbranched, urchin-like or snow flake structures. In this short review including new results, this will be illustrated by examples selected in two types of materials, phosphates and phosphonates, prepared by this method. The importance of the synthesis parameters will be highlighted for a magnetic iron based phosphates and for hybrids containingmore » phosphonates organic building units crystallizing in different structural types. - Graphical abstract: Phosphate dendrite like and phosphonate platelet crystals.« less

  2. Methacrylate-based root canal sealer containing chlorexidine and α-tricalcium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Collares, Fabrício Mezzomo; Leitune, Vicente Castelo Branco; Portella, Fernando Freitas; Santos, Paula Dapper; Balbinot, Gabriela de Souza; Dos Santos, Luís Alberto; Parolo, Clarissa Cavalcanti Fatturi; Samuel, Susana Maria Werner

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and to characterize a methacrylate-based root canal sealer containing chlorhexidine (CHX) and α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP). Experimental dual cure methacrylate-based sealer was produced containing 0, 2.5, or 5 wt% of CHX and 0, 25, or 50 wt% of α-TCP. Experimental sealers were evaluated based on flow, film thickness, radiopacity, degree of conversion (DC), degradation in water, pH and antibacterial activity. Flow ranged from 15.09 ± 0.11 to 17.47 ± 0.42 mm. All groups presented mean film thickness lower than 50 µm and had radiopacity equivalent to 3 mmAl. DC was higher than 60% for all compositions. The weight loss (WL) ranged 0.12-3.47%. The groups containing 5% of CHX presented the highest WL and the lower pH values after 28 days of water immersion. All chlorexidine-compositions exhibited antibacterial efficacy against Enterococcus faecalis on direct contact and agar diffusion tests. CHX and α-TCP addition at an experimental methacrylate-based root canal sealer influenced the physicochemical properties and provided antibacterial properties. The incorporation of CHX and α-TCP could be an alternative to antibacterial sealers with potential to improve periapical healing in endodontic treatments. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomater Res Part B: 106B: 1439-1443, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. PROCESS OF DISSOLVING ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Shor, R.S.; Vogler, S.

    1958-01-21

    A process is described for dissolving binary zirconium-uranium alloys where the uranium content is about 2%. In prior dissolution procedures for these alloys, an oxidizing agent was added to prevent the precipitation of uranium tetrafluoride. In the present method complete dissolution is accomplished without the use of the oxidizing agent by using only the stoichiometric amount or slight excess of HF required by the zirconium. The concentration of the acid may range from 2M to 10M and the dissolution is advatageously carried out at a temperature of 80 deg C.

  4. Zirconium tetrachloride revisited

    DOE PAGES

    Borjas Nevarez, Rosendo; Balasekaran, Samundeeswari Mariappan; Kim, Eunja; ...

    2018-02-19

    We present that zirconium tetrachloride, ZrCl 4, is a strategic material with wide-ranging applications. Until now, only one crystallographic study on ZrCl 4has been reported [Krebs (1970).Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem.378, 263–272] and that was more than 40 years ago. The compound used for the previous determination was prepared from ZrO 2 and Cl 2–CCl 4, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD) studies on ZrCl 4 obtained from Zr metal have not yet been reported. In this context, we prepared ZrCl 4 from the reaction of Zr metal and Cl 2 gas in a sealed tube and investigated its structure at 100,more » 150, 200, 250, and 300 K. At 300 K, the SCXRD analysis indicates that ZrCl 4 crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pca2 1 [a= 6.262 (9),b= 7.402 (11),c= 12.039 (17) Å, andV= 558.0 (14) Å 3] and consists of infinite zigzag chains of edge-sharing ZrCl 6 octahedra. This chain motif is similar to that observed previously in ZrCl 4, but the structural parameters and space group differ. Finally, in the temperature range 100–300 K, no phase transformation was identified, while elongation of intra-chain Zr...Zr [3.950 (1) Å at 100 K and 3.968 (5) Å at 300 K] and inter-chain Cl...Cl [3.630 (3) Å at 100 K and 3.687 (9) Å at 300 K] distances occurred.« less

  5. Development of Zirconium-based Conversion Coatings for the Pretreatment of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy Prior to Electrocoating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reck, James; Wang, Yar-Ming; Kuo, Hong-Hsiang Harry

    This work examines the use of hexafluorozirconic acid based solutions at concentrations from 0.025 M to 0.100 M and pH values of 2.0 to 4.0 for the creation of a zirconia-based conversion coating less than 1 micron thick to protect magnesium alloy AZ91D. Similar coatings have been found to give excellent protection for steel and aluminum alloys, but little research has been conducted on its application to magnesium. Work was performed to gain an understanding of the film formation mechanisms and related kinetics using x-ray photo-electron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and open circuit potential monitoring techniques. A design of experiments approach was taken to determine the effects of acid concentration, pH, and soak time on the corrosion properties both as-deposited and with an application of electrocoat. It was found that the application of the zirconia-based coating significantly increased corrosion resistance, and allowed for an acceptable e-coat application with excellent adherence.

  6. Aging behavior of lithium iron phosphate based 18650-type cells studied by in situ neutron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Neelima; Wandt, Johannes; Seidlmayer, Stefan; Schebesta, Sebastian; Mühlbauer, Martin J.; Dolotko, Oleksandr; Gasteiger, Hubert A.; Gilles, Ralph

    2017-03-01

    The aging behavior of commercially produced 18650-type Li-ion cells consisting of a lithium iron phosphate (LFP) based cathode and a graphite anode based on either mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) or needle coke (NC) is studied by in situ neutron diffraction and standard electrochemical techniques. While the MCMB cells showed an excellent cycle life with only 8% relative capacity loss (i.e., referenced to the capacity after formation) after 4750 cycles and showed no capacity loss on storage for two years, the needle coke cells suffered a 23% relative capacity loss after cycling and a 11% loss after storage. Based on a combination of neutron diffraction and electrochemical characterization, it is shown that the entire capacity loss for both cell types is dominated by the loss of active lithium; no other aging mechanisms like structural degradation of anode or cathode active materials or deactivation of active material could be found, highlighting the high structural stability of the active material and the excellent quality of the investigated cells.

  7. Preparation, glass forming ability, crystallization and deformation of (zirconium, hafnium)-copper-nickel-aluminum-titanium-based bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xiaofeng

    Multicomponent Zr-based bulk metallic glasses are the most promising metallic glass forming systems. They exhibit great glass forming ability and fascinating mechanical properties, and thus are considered as potential structural materials. One potential application is that they could be replacements of the depleted uranium for making kinetic energy armor-piercing projectiles, but the density of existing Zr-based alloys is too low for this application. Based on the chemical and crystallographic similarities between Zr and Hf, we have developed two series of bulk metallic glasses with compositions of (HfxZr1-x) 52.5Cu17.9Ni14.6Al10Ti5 and (HfxZr1-x) 57Cu20Ni8Al10Ti5 ( x = 0--1) by gradually replacing Zr by Hf. Remarkably increased density and improved mechanical properties have been achieved in these alloys. In these glasses, Hf and Zr play an interchangeable role in determining the short range order. Although the glass forming ability decreases continuously with Hf addition, most of these alloys remain bulk glass-forming. Recently, nanocomposites produced from bulk metallic glasses have attracted wide attention due to improved mechanical properties. However, their crystalline microstructure (the grain size and the crystalline volume fraction) has to be optimized. We have investigated crystallization of (Zr, Hf)-based bulk metallic glasses, including the composition dependence of crystallization paths and crystallization mechanisms. Our results indicate that the formation of high number density nanocomposites from bulk metallic glasses can be attributed to easy nucleation and slowing-down growth processes, while the multistage crystallization behavior makes it more convenient to control the microstructure evolution. Metallic glasses are known to exhibit unique plastic deformation behavior. At low temperature and high stress, plastic flow is localized in narrow shear bands. Macroscopic investigations of shear bands (e.g., chemical etching) suggest that the internal

  8. Photophysical properties of [Ru(2,2′-bipyridine){sub 3}]{sup 2+} encapsulated within the Uio-66 zirconium based metal organic framework

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Randy W., E-mail: rwlarsen@usf.edu; Wojtas, Lukasz

    2017-03-15

    The ability to encapsulate photo-active guest molecules within the pores of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) affords the opportunity to develop robust photocatalysts as well as solar energy conversion systems. An important criteria for such systems is stability of the new materials towards moisture, high temperatures, etc which preclude the use of many MOF frameworks. Here, the ability to encapsulate [Ru(II)(2,2′-bipyridine){sub 3}]{sup 2+}([Ru(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+}) into the cavities of the zirconium based MOF Uio-66 as well as the photophysical properties of the complex are reported. The X-ray powder diffraction data of the orange Uio-66 powder are consistent with the formation ofmore » Uio-66 in the presence of [Ru(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+}. The steady state emission exhibits a significant bathochromic shift from 603 nm in ethanol to 610 nm in Uio-66. The corresponding emission decay of the encapsulated [Ru(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+} complex is biexponential with a fast component of 128 ns and a slower component of 1176 ns (20 deg C). The slow component is consistent with encapsulation of [Ru(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+} into cavities with restricted volume that prevents the population of a triplet ligand field transition that is anti-bonding with respect to the Ru-N bonds. The origin of the fast component is unclear but may involve interactions of the [Ru(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+} encapsulated within large cavities formed through missing ligand defect sites within the Uio-66 materials. Co-encapsulated quenchers contained within these larger cavities gives rise to the reduced lifetimes of the [Ru(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+} complexes. - Graphical abstract: One-pot synthesis of Ru(II)tris(2,2-bipyridine)@Uio-66 (left) and the effects of encapsulation on the excited state energy levels and decay pathways of the Ru(II)tris(2,2-bipyridine) complex (right).« less

  9. SEPARATION PROCESS FOR ZIRCONIUM AND COMPOUNDS THEREOF

    DOEpatents

    Crandall, H.W.; Thomas, J.R.

    1959-06-30

    The separation of zirconium from columbium, rare earths, yttrium and the alkaline earth metals, such mixtures of elements occurring in zirconium ores or neutron irradiated uranium is described. According to the invention a suitable separation of zirconium from a one normal acidic aqueous solution containing salts, nitrates for example, of tetravalent zirconium, pentavalent columbium, yttrium, rare earths in the trivalent state and alkaline earths can be obtained by contacting the aqueous solution with a fluorinated beta diketonc alone or in an organic solvent solution, such as benzene, to form a zirconium chelate compound. When the organic solvent is present the zirconium chelate compound is directly extracted; otherwise it is separated by filtration. The zirconium may be recovered from contacting the organic solvent solution containing the chelated compound by back extraction with either an aqueous hydrofluoric acid or an oxalic acid solution.

  10. Detecting Molecular Rotational Dynamics Complementing the Low-Frequency Terahertz Vibrations in a Zirconium-Based Metal-Organic Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryder, Matthew R.; Van de Voorde, Ben; Civalleri, Bartolomeo; Bennett, Thomas D.; Mukhopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Cinque, Gianfelice; Fernandez-Alonso, Felix; De Vos, Dirk; Rudić, Svemir; Tan, Jin-Chong

    2017-06-01

    We show clear experimental evidence of cooperative terahertz (THz) dynamics observed below 3 THz (˜100 cm-1 ), for a low-symmetry Zr-based metal-organic framework structure, termed MIL-140A [ZrO (O2C-C 6H4-CO2) ]. Utilizing a combination of high-resolution inelastic neutron scattering and synchrotron radiation far-infrared spectroscopy, we measured low-energy vibrations originating from the hindered rotations of organic linkers, whose energy barriers and detailed dynamics have been elucidated via ab initio density functional theory calculations. The complex pore architecture caused by the THz rotations has been characterized. We discovered an array of soft modes with trampolinelike motions, which could potentially be the source of anomalous mechanical phenomena such as negative thermal expansion. Our results demonstrate coordinated shear dynamics (2.47 THz), a mechanism which we have shown to destabilize the framework structure, in the exact crystallographic direction of the minimum shear modulus (Gmin ).

  11. Conversion of borate-based glass scaffold to hydroxyapatite in a dilute phosphate solution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Pan, Haobo; Fu, Hailuo; Fu, Qiang; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Huang, Wenhai

    2010-02-01

    Porous scaffolds of a borate-based glass (composition in mol%: 6Na2O, 8K2O, 8MgO, 22CaO, 36B2O3, 18SiO2, 2P2O5), with interconnected porosity of approximately 70% and pores of size 200-500 microm, were prepared by a polymer foam replication technique. The degradation of the scaffolds and conversion to a hydroxyapatite-type material in a 0.02 M K2HPO4 solution (starting pH = 7.0) at 37 degrees C were studied by measuring the weight loss of the scaffolds, as well as the pH and the boron concentration of the solution. X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis showed that a hydroxyapatite-type material was formed on the glass surface within 7 days of immersion in the phosphate solution. Cellular response to the scaffolds was assessed using murine MLO-A5 cells, an osteogenic cell line. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the scaffolds supported cell attachment and proliferation during the 6 day incubation. The results indicate that this borate-based glass could provide a promising degradable scaffold material for bone tissue engineering applications.

  12. Phosphate Remediation and Recovery from Lake Water using Modified Iron Oxide-based Adsorbents - abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a limiting nutrient in most aquatic ecosystems, increased phosphate (PO43-) concentrations can accelerate eutrophication resulting in the proliferation of potentially toxic harmful algal blooms. In addition to environmental impacts of PO43- pollution, overall reserves of this ...

  13. Physicochemical and osteoplastic characteristics of 3D printed bone grafts based on synthetic calcium phosphates and natural polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nezhurina, E. K.; Karalkin, P. A.; Komlev, V. S.; Sviridova, I. K.; Kirsanova, V. A.; Akhmedova, S. A.; Shanskiy, Ya D.; Fedotov, A. Yu; Barinov, S. M.; Sergeeva, N. S.

    2018-04-01

    A creation of personalized implants for regeneration of bone tissue seems to be a very promising biomedical technological approach. We have studied the physicochemical characteristics, cyto- and biocompatibility of three-dimensional constructs based on sodium alginate and gelatin in combination with 2 types of calcium phosphate (tricalcium phosphate or octacalcium phosphate) obtained by inkjet 3D printing. In our experiments, we have studied the physical and chemical properties of the constructs – their porosity, chemical composition, microarchitecture of the surface and mechanical elasticity. The cytocompatibility of 3D constructs and matrix-for-cell properties were investigated in vitro on a model of human osteosarcoma MG-63 cell line by means of MTT assay. The biocompatibility of 3D constructs was studied on the model of subcutaneous implantation in mice up to 12 weeks. All types of 3D constructs were cytocompatible in vitro, demonstrated good matrix-for-cells properties, and had supported cell proliferation for 2 weeks. In results of subcutaneous in vivo test all constructs demonstrated biocompatibility with slow bioresorption of organic and inorganic components. Osteogenesis proceeded more actively in rat tibia model defects (marginal excision), substituted by 3D printed 3-component implants based on alginate, gelatin and octacalcium phosphate.

  14. PROCESS OF PREPARING ZIRCONIUM OXYCHLORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, H.A.; Andrews, M.L.

    1960-06-28

    A process is given for preparing zirconyl chloride by mixing solid zirconyl chloride octahydrate and solid zirconium tetrachloride at room temperature whereby both chlorides are converted to zirconyl chloride trinydrate and hydrogen chloride is formed and volatilized by the reaction heat.

  15. Overview of Phosphate-Based Remediation Technologies At The Hanford Site, Richland Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, K. M.; Fruchter, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    Phosphate-based technologies have been tested to sequester strontium-90 and uranium at the Hanford Site, part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE)nuclear weapons complex that encompasses approximately 586 square miles in southeast Washington State. The Columbia River flows through the site (Hanford Reach) where localized groundwater plumes upwell into the river. Efforts to reduce the flux of Sr-90 to the Columbia River from Hanford Site 100-N Area past practice liquid waste disposal sites have been underway since the early 1990s. Termination of all liquid discharges to the ground in 1993 was a major step toward meeting this goal. However, Sr 90 adsorbed onto sediment beneath liquid waste disposal sites, and onto sediment that extends beneath the near-shore riverbed, remains a continuing contaminant source for impacting groundwater and the Columbia River. Initial remediation efforts using a pump-and treat system proved to be ineffective as a long-term solution because of the geochemical characteristics of Sr-90. Following an evaluation of potential Sr-90 treatment technologies and their applicability under 100-N Area hydrogeologic conditions, the U.S. Department of Energy and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed to evaluate apatite sequestration as the primary remedial technology, combined with a secondary polishing step utilizing phytoextraction if necessary. DOE is also evaluating the efficacy of using polyphosphate to reduce uranium concentrations in the groundwater with the goal of meeting drinking water standards (30 μg/L). This technology works by forming phosphate minerals (autunite and apatite) in the aquifer that directly sequester the existing aqueous uranium in autunite minerals and precipitates apatite minerals for sorption and long-term treatment of uranium migrating into the treatment zone, thus reducing current and future aqueous uranium concentrations. These remedial technologies are being developed by Pacific Northwest National

  16. Long-term effects of the iron-based phosphate binder, sucroferric oxyhydroxide, in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Floege, Jürgen; Covic, Adrian C; Ketteler, Markus; Mann, Johannes F E; Rastogi, Anjay; Spinowitz, Bruce; Chong, Edward M F; Gaillard, Sylvain; Lisk, Laura J; Sprague, Stuart M

    2015-06-01

    Hyperphosphatemia necessitates the use of phosphate binders in most dialysis patients. Long-term efficacy and tolerability of the iron-based phosphate binder, sucroferric oxyhydroxide (previously known as PA21), was compared with that of sevelamer carbonate (sevelamer) in an open-label Phase III extension study. In the initial Phase III study, hemo- or peritoneal dialysis patients with hyperphosphatemia were randomized 2:1 to receive sucroferric oxyhydroxide 1.0-3.0 g/day (2-6 tablets/day; n = 710) or sevelamer 2.4-14.4 g/day (3-18 tablets/day; n = 349) for 24 weeks. Eligible patients could enter the 28-week extension study, continuing the same treatment and dose they were receiving at the end of the initial study. Overall, 644 patients were available for efficacy analysis (n = 384 sucroferric oxyhydroxide; n = 260 sevelamer). Serum phosphorus concentrations were maintained during the extension study. Mean ± standard deviation (SD) change in serum phosphorus concentrations from extension study baseline to Week 52 end point was 0.02 ± 0.52 mmol/L with sucroferric oxyhydroxide and 0.09 ± 0.58 mmol/L with sevelamer. Mean serum phosphorus concentrations remained within Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative target range (1.13-1.78 mmol/L) for both treatment groups. Mean (SD) daily tablet number over the 28-week extension study was lower for sucroferric oxyhydroxide (4.0 ± 1.5) versus sevelamer (10.1 ± 6.6). Patient adherence was 86.2% with sucroferric oxyhydroxide versus 76.9% with sevelamer. Mean serum ferritin concentrations increased over the extension study in both treatment groups, but transferrin saturation (TSAT), iron and hemoglobin concentrations were generally stable. Gastrointestinal-related adverse events were similar and occurred early with both treatments, but decreased over time. The serum phosphorus-lowering effect of sucroferric oxyhydroxide was maintained over 1 year and associated with a lower pill burden, compared with sevelamer

  17. Microsphere-Based Scaffolds Encapsulating Tricalcium Phosphate And Hydroxyapatite For Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vineet; Lyne, Dina V.; Barragan, Marilyn; Berkland, Cory J.; Detamore, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Bioceramic mixtures of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) are widely used for bone regeneration because of their excellent cytocompatibility, osteoconduction, and osteoinduction. Therefore, we hypothesized that incorporation of a mixture of TCP and HAp in microsphere-based scaffolds would enhance osteogenesis of rat bone marrow stromal cells (rBMSCs) compared to a positive control of scaffolds with encapsulated bone-morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2). Poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microsphere-based scaffolds encapsulating TCP and HAp mixtures in two different ratios (7:3 and 1:1) were fabricated with the same net ceramic content (30 wt%) to evaluate how incorporation of these ceramic mixtures would affect the osteogenesis in rBMSCs. Encapsulation of TCP/HAp mixtures impacted microsphere morphologies and the compressive moduli of the scaffolds. Additionally, TCP/HAp mixtures enhanced the end-point secretion of extracellular matrix (ECM) components relevant to bone tissue compared to the “blank” (PLGA-only) microsphere-based scaffolds as evidenced by the biochemical, gene expression, histology, and immunohistochemical characterization. Moreover, the TCP/HAp mixture groups even surpassed the BMP-2 positive control group in some instances in terms of matrix synthesis and gene expression. Lastly, gene expression data suggested that the rBMSCs responded differently to different TCP/HAp ratios presented to them. Altogether, it can be concluded that TCP/HAp mixtures stimulated the differentiation of rBMSCs toward an osteoblastic phenotype, and therefore may be beneficial in gradient microsphere-based scaffolds for osteochondral regeneration. PMID:27272903

  18. Research on the material removal in the polishing of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals based on deliquescent action.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shaolong; Zhang, Feihu; Zhang, Yong; Luan, Dianrong

    2014-01-01

    Through the polishing experiments of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals based on deliquescent action, the effect of several major factors, including crystal's initial surface state, polishing time, and revolution of polishing plate, on material removal was researched. Under certain experimental conditions, the rules of material removal were reached, and experimental results are discussed, which lays the foundation for popularization and application of polishing technology for KDP crystals based on deliquescent action.

  19. Innovations in bonding to zirconia based ceramics: Part III. Phosphate monomer resin cements.

    PubMed

    Mirmohammadi, Hesam; Aboushelib, Moustafa N M; Salameh, Ziad; Feilzer, Albert J; Kleverlaan, Cornelis J

    2010-08-01

    To compare the bond strength values and the ranking order of three phosphate monomer containing resin cements using microtensile (microTBS) and microshear (microSBS) bond strength tests. Zirconia discs (Procera Zirconia) were bonded to resin composite discs (Filtek Z250) using three different cements (Panavia F 2.0, RelyX UniCem, and Multilink). Two bond strength tests were used to determine zirconia resin bond strength; microtensile bond strength test (microTBS) and microshear bond strength test (microSBS). Ten specimens were tested for each group (n=10). Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the data (alpha=0.05). There were statistical significant differences in bond strength values and in the ranking order obtained using the two test methods. microTBS reported significant differences in bond strength values, whereas microSBS failed to detect such effect. Both Multilink and Panavia demonstrated basically cohesive failure in the resin cement while RelyX UniCem demonstrated interfacial failure. Based on the findings of this study, the data obtained using either microTBS or microSBS could not be directly compared. microTBS was more sensitive to material differences compared to microSBS which failed to detect such differences. Copyright 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterisation of β-tricalcium phosphate-based bone substitute materials by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matković, Ivo; Maltar-Strmečki, Nadica; Babić-Ivančić, Vesna; Dutour Sikirić, Maja; Noethig-Laslo, Vesna

    2012-10-01

    β-TCP based materials are frequently used as dental implants. Due to their resorption in the body and direct contact with tissues, in order to inactivate bacteria, fungal spores and viruses, they are usually sterilized by γ-irradiation. However, the current literature provides little information about effects of the γ-irradiation on the formation and stability of the free radicals in the bone graft materials during and after sterilization procedure. In this work five different bone graft substitution materials, composed of synthetic beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HAP) present in the market were characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Paramagnetic species Mn2+, Fe3+, trapped H-atoms and CO2- radicals were detected in the biphasic material (60% HAP, 40% β-TCP), while in β-TCP materials only Mn2+ andor trapped hydrogen atoms were detected. EPR analysis revealed the details of the structure of these materials at the atomic level. The results have shown that EPR spectroscopy is a method which can be used to improve the quality control of bone graft materials after syntering, processing and sterilization procedure.

  1. Mechanical, structural and dissolution properties of heat treated thin-film phosphate based glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, Bryan W.; Gimeno-Fabra, Miquel; Segal, Joel; Ahmed, Ifty; Grant, David M.

    2017-09-01

    Here we show the deposition of 2.7 μm thick phosphate based glass films produced by magnetron sputtering, followed by post heat treatments at 500 °C. Variations in degradation properties pre and post heat treatment were attributed to the formation of Hematite crystals within a glass matrix, iron oxidation and the depletion of hydrophilic P-O-P bonds within the surface layer. As deposited and heat treated coatings showed interfacial tensile adhesion in excess of 73.6 MPa; which surpassed ISO and FDA requirements for HA coatings. Scratch testing of coatings on polished substrates revealed brittle failure mechanisms, amplified due to heat treatment and interfacial failure occurring from 2.3 to 5.0 N. Coatings that were deposited onto sandblasted substrates to mimic commercial implant surfaces, did not suffer from tensile cracking or trackside delamination showing substantial interfacial improvements to between 8.6 and 11.3 N. An exponential dissolution rate was observed from 0 to 2 h for as deposited coatings, which was eliminated via heat treatment. From 2 to 24 h ion release rates ordered P > Na > Mg > Ca > Fe whilst all coatings exhibited linear degradation rates, which reduced by factors of 2.4-3.0 following heat treatments.

  2. Zirconium Ions Up-Regulate the BMP/SMAD Signaling Pathway and Promote the Proliferation and Differentiation of Human Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yongjuan; Roohani-Esfahani, Seyed-Iman; Lu, ZuFu; Zreiqat, Hala; Dunstan, Colin R.

    2015-01-01

    Zirconium (Zr) is an element commonly used in dental and orthopedic implants either as zirconia (ZrO2) or in metal alloys. It can also be incorporated into calcium silicate-based ceramics. However, the effects of in vitro culture of human osteoblasts (HOBs) with soluble ionic forms of Zr have not been determined. In this study, primary culture of human osteoblasts was conducted in the presence of medium containing either ZrCl4 or Zirconium (IV) oxynitrate (ZrO(NO3)2) at concentrations of 0, 5, 50 and 500 µM, and osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and calcium deposition were assessed. Incubation of human osteoblast cultures with Zr ions increased the proliferation of human osteoblasts and also gene expression of genetic markers of osteoblast differentiation. In 21 and 28 day cultures, Zr ions at concentrations of 50 and 500 µM increased the deposition of calcium phosphate. In addition, the gene expression of BMP2 and BMP receptors was increased in response to culture with Zr ions and this was associated with increased phosphorylation of SMAD1/5. Moreover, Noggin suppressed osteogenic gene expression in HOBs co-treated with Zr ions. In conclusion, Zr ions appear able to induce both the proliferation and the differentiation of primary human osteoblasts. This is associated with up-regulation of BMP2 expression and activation of BMP signaling suggesting this action is, at least in part, mediated by BMP signaling. PMID:25602473

  3. Porogen-based solid freeform fabrication of polycaprolactone-calcium phosphate scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Mondrinos, Mark J; Dembzynski, Robert; Lu, Lin; Byrapogu, Venkata K C; Wootton, David M; Lelkes, Peter I; Zhou, Jack

    2006-09-01

    Drop on demand printing (DDP) is a solid freeform fabrication (SFF) technique capable of generating microscale physical features required for tissue engineering scaffolds. Here, we report results toward the development of a reproducible manufacturing process for tissue engineering scaffolds based on injectable porogens fabricated by DDP. Thermoplastic porogens were designed using Pro/Engineer and fabricated with a commercially available DDP machine. Scaffolds composed of either pure polycaprolactone (PCL) or homogeneous composites of PCL and calcium phosphate (CaP, 10% or 20% w/w) were subsequently fabricated by injection molding of molten polymer-ceramic composites, followed by porogen dissolution with ethanol. Scaffold pore sizes, as small as 200 microm, were attainable using the indirect (porogen-based) method. Scaffold structure and porosity were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microcomputed tomography, respectively. We characterized the compressive strength of 90:10 and 80:20 PCL-CaP composite materials (19.5+/-1.4 and 24.8+/-1.3 Mpa, respectively) according to ASTM standards, as well as pure PCL scaffolds (2.77+/-0.26 MPa) fabricated using our process. Human embryonic palatal mesenchymal (HEPM) cells attached and proliferated on all scaffolds, as evidenced by fluorescent nuclear staining with Hoechst 33258 and the Alamar Blue assay, with increased proliferation observed on 80:20 PCL-CaP scaffolds. SEM revealed multilayer assembly of HEPM cells on 80:20 PCL-CaP composite, but not pure PCL, scaffolds. In summary, we have developed an SFF-based injection molding process for the fabrication of PCL and PCL-CaP scaffolds that display in vitro cytocompatibility and suitable mechanical properties for hard tissue repair.

  4. A new paper-based analytical device for detection of Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kaewarsa, Phuritat; Laiwattanapaisal, Wanida; Palasuwan, Attakorn; Palasuwan, Duangdao

    2017-03-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a genetic haemolytic disorder. Most persons with G6PD deficiency are asymptomatic, but exposure to oxidant drugs, such as the anti-malarial drug primaquine, may induce haemolysis, which is commonly found in Asian countries. A reliable test is necessary for diagnosing the deficiency to prevent an acute haemolytic crisis. This study proposes a novel quantitative method to detect G6PD deficiency using paper-based analytical devices (G6PDD-PAD). Wax printing was utilized for fabricating circular reaction zone patterns in paper. The colorimetric assay is based on the formation of formazan via a reduction of tetra-nitro blue tetrazolium (TNBT) by the G6PD enzyme on G6PDD-PAD. Detection was achieved by capturing the colour using a desktop scanner and the colour intensity was analysed with Adobe Photoshop C56. The results showed that the G6PD activity analysed by G6PDD-PAD was highly correlated with the standard biochemical assay (SBA) (r 2 =0.87, p<0.01). Moreover, good agreement by Bland-Altman bias plot was demonstrated between G6PDD-PAD and the SBA (mean bias 1.4 IU/gHb). The detection limit was 0 IU/gHb of G6PD activity. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using G6PDD-PAD. This simple, low-cost test ($0.1/test) should be useful for diagnosing G6PD deficiency in resource-limited settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Direct observation of the oxidation of DNA bases by phosphate radicals formed under radiation: a model of the backbone-to-base hole transfer.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun; Marignier, Jean-Louis; Pernot, Pascal; Houée-Levin, Chantal; Kumar, Anil; Sevilla, Michael D; Adhikary, Amitava; Mostafavi, Mehran

    2018-05-30

    In irradiated DNA, by the base-to-base and backbone-to-base hole transfer processes, the hole (i.e., the unpaired spin) localizes on the most electropositive base, guanine. Phosphate radicals formed via ionization events in the DNA-backbone must play an important role in the backbone-to-base hole transfer process. However, earlier studies on irradiated hydrated DNA, on irradiated DNA-models in frozen aqueous solution and in neat dimethyl phosphate showed the formation of carbon-centered radicals and not phosphate radicals. Therefore, to model the backbone-to-base hole transfer process, we report picosecond pulse radiolysis studies of the reactions between H2PO4˙ with the DNA bases - G, A, T, and C in 6 M H3PO4 at 22 °C. The time-resolved observations show that in 6 M H3PO4, H2PO4˙ causes the one-electron oxidation of adenine, guanine and thymine, by forming the cation radicals via a single electron transfer (SET) process; however, the rate constant of the reaction of H2PO4˙ with cytosine is too low (<107 L mol-1 s-1) to be measured. The rates of these reactions are influenced by the protonation states and the reorganization energies of the base radicals and of the phosphate radical in 6 M H3PO4.

  6. Effect of phase composition of calcium silicate phosphate component on properties of brushite based composite cements

    SciTech Connect

    Sopcak, T., E-mail: tsopcak@imr.saske.sk; Medvecky, L.; Giretova, M.

    The composite cement mixtures were prepared by mixing brushite (B) with, the amorphous hydrated calcium silicate phosphate (CSPH) or annealed calcium silicate phosphate (CSP composed of Si-saturated hydroxyapatite, wollastonite and silica) phases and water as liquid component. The contents of the silicate-phosphate phase in composites were 10.30 and 50 wt%. The significant effect of both the Ca/P ratio and different solubility of calcium silicate phosphate component in starting cement systems on setting time and phase composition of the final composite cements was demonstrated. The compressive strength of the set cements increased with the filler addition and the highest value (~more » 48 MPa) exhibited the 50CSP/B cement composite. The final setting times of the composite cements decreased with the CSPH addition from about 25 to 17 min in 50CSHP/B and setting time of CSP/B composites was around 30 min. The higher content of silica in cements caused the precipitation of fine hydroxyapatite particles in the form of nanoneedles or thin plates perpendicularly oriented to sample surface. The analysis of in vitro cement cytotoxicity demonstrated the strong reduction in cytotoxicity of 10CSPH/B composite with time of cultivation (a low cytotoxicity after 9 days of culture) contrary to cements with higher calcium silicate-phosphate content. These results were attributed to the different surface topography of composite substrates and possible stimulation of cell proliferation by the slow continuously release of ions from 10CSPH/B cement. - Highlights: • Ca/P ratio and solubility of calcium silicate-phosphate components affect the self-setting properties of cements. • Strong relationship between the composite in vitro cytotoxicity and surface microtopography was demonstrated. • Plate-like morphology of coarser particles allowed cells to better adhere and proliferate as compared with nanoneedles.« less

  7. Structure and properties of strontium-doped phosphate-based glasses

    PubMed Central

    Abou Neel, Ensanya A.; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Pickup, David M.; O'Dell, Luke A.; Mordan, Nicola J.; Newport, Robert J.; Smith, Mark E.; Knowles, Jonathan C.

    2008-01-01

    Owing to similarity in both ionic size and polarity, strontium (Sr2+) is known to behave in a comparable way to calcium (Ca2+), and its role in bone metabolism has been well documented as both anti-resorptive and bone forming. In this study, novel quaternary strontium-doped phosphate-based glasses, containing 1, 3 and 5 mol% SrO, were synthesized and characterized. 31P magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance results showed that, as the Sr2+ content is increased in the glasses, there is a slight increase in disproportionation of Q2 phosphorus environments into Q1 and Q3 environments. Moreover, shortening and strengthening of the phosphorus to bridging oxygen distance occurred as obtained from FTIR. The general broadening of the spectral features with Sr2+ content is most probably due to the increased variation of the phosphate–cation bonding interactions caused by the introduction of the third cation. This increased disorder may be the cause of the increased degradation of the Sr-containing glasses relative to the Sr-free glass. As confirmed from elemental analysis, all Sr-containing glasses showed higher Na2O than expected and this also could be accounted for by the higher degradation of these glasses compared with Sr-free glasses. Measurements of surface free energy (SFE) showed that incorporation of strontium had no effect on SFE, and samples had relatively higher fractional polarity, which is not expected to promote high cell activity. From viability studies, however, the incorporation of Sr2+ showed better cellular response than Sr2+-free glasses, but still lower than the positive control. This unfavourable cellular response could be due to the high degradation nature of these glasses and not due to the presence of Sr2+. PMID:18826914

  8. Effect of Boron Addition on the Thermal, Degradation, and Cytocompatibility Properties of Phosphate-Based Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Muhammad S.; Parsons, Andrew J.; Furniss, David; Scotchford, Colin A.; Ahmed, Ifty; Rudd, Chris D.

    2013-01-01

    In this study eight different phosphate-based glass compositions were prepared by melt-quenching: four in the (P2O5)45-(CaO)16-(Na2O)15-x -(MgO)24-(B2O3)x system and four in the system (P2O5)50-(CaO)16-(Na2O)10-x-(MgO)24-(B2O3)x, where x = 0,1, 5 and 10 mol%. The effect of B2O3 addition on the thermal properties, density, molar volume, dissolution rates, and cytocompatibility were studied for both glass systems. Addition of B2O3 increased the glass transition (T g), crystallisation (T c), melting (T m), Liquidus (T L) and dilatometric softening (T d) temperature and molar volume (V m). The thermal expansion coefficient (α) and density (ρ) were seen to decrease. An assessment of the thermal stability of the glasses was made in terms of their processing window (crystallisation onset, T c,ons minus glass transition temperature, T g), and an increase in the processing window was observed with increasing B2O3 content. Degradation studies of the glasses revealed that the rates decreased with increasing B2O3 content and a decrease in degradation rates was also observed as the P2O5 content reduced from 50 to 45 mol%. MG63 osteoblast-like cells cultured in direct contact with the glass samples for 14 days revealed comparative data to the positive control for the cell metabolic activity, proliferation, ALP activity, and morphology for glasses containing up to 5 mol% of B2O3. PMID:23991425

  9. Controlled delivery of antimicrobial gallium ions from phosphate-based glasses.

    PubMed

    Valappil, S P; Ready, D; Abou Neel, E A; Pickup, D M; O'Dell, L A; Chrzanowski, W; Pratten, J; Newport, R J; Smith, M E; Wilson, M; Knowles, J C

    2009-05-01

    Gallium-doped phosphate-based glasses (PBGs) have been recently shown to have antibacterial activity. However, the delivery of gallium ions from these glasses can be improved by altering the calcium ion concentration to control the degradation rate of the glasses. In the present study, the effect of increasing calcium content in novel gallium (Ga2O3)-doped PBGs on the susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is examined. The lack of new antibiotics in development makes gallium-doped PBG potentially a highly promising new therapeutic agent. The results show that an increase in calcium content (14, 15 and 16 mol.% CaO) cause a decrease in degradation rate (17.6, 13.5 and 7.3 microg mm(-2) h(-1)), gallium ion release and antimicrobial activity against planktonic P. aeruginosa. The most potent glass composition (containing 14 mol.% CaO) was then evaluated for its ability to prevent the growth of biofilms of P. aeruginosa. Gallium release was found to reduce biofilm growth of P. aeruginosa with a maximum effect (0.86 log(10) CFU reduction compared to Ga2O3-free glasses) after 48 h. Analysis of the biofilms by confocal microscopy confirmed the anti-biofilm effect of these glasses as it showed both viable and non-viable bacteria on the glass surface. Results of the solubility and ion release studies show that this glass system is suitable for controlled delivery of Ga3+. 71Ga NMR and Ga K-edge XANES measurements indicate that the gallium is octahedrally coordinated by oxygen atoms in all samples. The results presented here suggest that PBGs may be useful in controlled drug delivery applications, to deliver gallium ions in order to prevent infections due to P. aeruginosa biofilms.

  10. Development of electro-conductive silver phosphate-based glass optrodes for in vivo optogenetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Mathieu; Roudjane, Mourad; Ledemi, Yannick; Gagnon-Turcotte, Gabriel; Maghsoudloo, Esmaeel; Filion, Guillaume; Gosselin, Benoit; Messaddeq, Younès.

    2018-02-01

    Multifunctional fibers are developed worldwide for enabling many new advanced applications. Among the multiple new functionalities that such fibers can offer according to their design, chemical composition and materials combination, the co-transmission of light and electrical signals is of first interest for sensing applications, in particular for optogenetics and electrophysiology. Multifunctional fibers offer an all-solid approach relying on new ionic conducting glasses for the design and manufacturing of next generation optrodes, which represents a tremendous upgrade compared to conventional techniques that requires the utilization of liquid electrolytes to carry the electrical signal generated by genetically encoded neuronal gated ion channels after optical excitation. After a systematic study conducted on different ion-conductive glass systems, silver phosphate-based glasses belonging to the AgI-AgPO3-WO3 and AgI-AgPO3-Ag2WO4 systems were found to be very promising materials for the target application. Several types of fibers, including single-core step-index fibers, multimaterial fibers made of inorganic and optical polymeric glasses have been then fabricated and characterized. Light transmission ranging from 400 to 1000 nm and electrical conductivity ranging from 10-3 and 10-1 S·cm-1 at room temperature (AC frequencies from 1 Hz to 1 MHz) were demonstrated with these fibers. Very sharp fiber tapers were then produced with high repeatability by using a CO2 laser optical setup, allowing a significant shrinking from the fiber (300 μm diameter) to the taper tip (25-30 μm diameter).

  11. Capture of Tritium Released from Cladding in the Zirconium Recycle Process

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, Barry B.; Walker, T. B.; Bruffey, S. H.

    2016-08-31

    Zirconium may be recovered from the Zircaloy® cladding of used nuclear fuel (UNF) for recycle or to reduce the quantities of high-level waste destined for a geologic repository. Recovery of zirconium using a chlorination process is currently under development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The approach is to treat the cladding with chlorine gas to convert the zirconium in the alloy (~98 wt % of the alloy mass) to zirconium tetrachloride. A significant fraction of the tritium (0–96%) produced in nuclear fuel during irradiation may be found in zirconium-based cladding and could be released from the cladding when themore » solid matrix is destroyed by the chlorination reaction. To prevent uncontrolled release of radioactive tritium to other parts of the plant or to the environment, a method to recover the tritium may be required. The focus of this effort was to (1) identify potential methods for the recovery of tritium from the off-gas of the zirconium recycle process, (2) perform scoping tests on selected recovery methods using nonradioactive gas simulants, and (3) select a process design appropriate for testing on radioactive gas streams generated by the engineering-scale zirconium recycle demonstrations on radioactive used cladding.« less

  12. Phosphate Remediation and Recovery from Lake Water using Modified Iron Oxide-based Adsorbents

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adsorption behavior of Bayoxide ® E33 (E33) and three E33-modified sorbents for the removal of phosphate from lake water was investigated in this study. E33-modified sorbents were synthesized by coating with manganese and nanoparticles. Characterization was done by X-ray diffract...

  13. ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHATE ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS. II. ACID AND GENERAL BASE CATALYZED HYDROLYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to calculate acid and neutral hydrolysis rate constants of phosphate esters in water. The rate is calculated from the energy difference between the initial and transition states of a ...

  14. Nanophase Nickel-Zirconium Alloys for Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Whitacre, jay; Valdez, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Nanophase nickel-zirconium alloys have been investigated for use as electrically conductive coatings and catalyst supports in fuel cells. Heretofore, noble metals have been used because they resist corrosion in the harsh, acidic fuel cell interior environments. However, the high cost of noble metals has prompted a search for less-costly substitutes. Nickel-zirconium alloys belong to a class of base metal alloys formed from transition elements of widely different d-electron configurations. These alloys generally exhibit unique physical, chemical, and metallurgical properties that can include corrosion resistance. Inasmuch as corrosion is accelerated by free-energy differences between bulk material and grain boundaries, it was conjectured that amorphous (glassy) and nanophase forms of these alloys could offer the desired corrosion resistance. For experiments to test the conjecture, thin alloy films containing various proportions of nickel and zirconium were deposited by magnetron and radiofrequency co-sputtering of nickel and zirconium. The results of x-ray diffraction studies of the deposited films suggested that the films had a nanophase and nearly amorphous character.

  15. An optimized regulating method for composting phosphorus fractions transformation based on biochar addition and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria inoculation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuquan; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Huan; Lu, Qian; Cao, Zhenyu; Cui, Hongyang; Zhu, Longji; Wei, Zimin

    2016-12-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the influence of biochar and/or phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) inoculants on microbial biomass, bacterial community composition and phosphorus (P) fractions during kitchen waste composting amended with rock phosphate (RP). There were distinct differences in the physic-chemical parameters, the proportion of P fractions and bacterial diversity in different treatments. The contribution of available P fractions increased during composting especially in the treatment with the addition of PSB and biochar. Redundancy analysis showed that bacterial compositions were significantly influenced by P content, inoculation and biochar. Variance partitioning further showed that synergy of inoculated PSB and indigenous bacterial communities and the joint effect between biochar and bacteria explained the largest two proportion of the variation in P fractions. Therefore, the combined application of PSB and biochar to improve the inoculation effect and an optimized regulating method were suggested based on the distribution of P fractions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Polarizable Multipole-Based Force Field for Dimethyl and Trimethyl Phosphate

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate groups are commonly observed in biomolecules such as nucleic acids and lipids. Due to their highly charged and polarizable nature, modeling these compounds with classical force fields is challenging. Using quantum mechanical studies and liquid-phase simulations, the AMOEBA force field for dimethyl phosphate (DMP) ion and trimethyl phosphate (TMP) has been developed. On the basis of ab initio calculations, it was found that ion binding and the solution environment significantly impact both the molecular geometry and the energy differences between conformations. Atomic multipole moments are derived from MP2/cc-pVQZ calculations of methyl phosphates at several conformations with their chemical environments taken into account. Many-body polarization is handled via a Thole-style induction model using distributed atomic polarizabilities. van der Waals parameters of phosphate and oxygen atoms are determined by fitting to the quantum mechanical interaction energy curves for water with DMP or TMP. Additional stretch-torsion and angle-torsion coupling terms were introduced in order to capture asymmetry in P–O bond lengths and angles due to the generalized anomeric effect. The resulting force field for DMP and TMP is able to accurately describe both the molecular structure and conformational energy surface, including bond and angle variations with conformation, as well as interaction of both species with water and metal ions. The force field was further validated for TMP in the condensed phase by computing hydration free energy, liquid density, and heat of vaporization. The polarization behavior between liquid TMP and TMP in water is drastically different. PMID:26574325

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF PHOSPHATE-BASED REMEDIAL TECHNOLOGY IN METAL CONTAMINATED URBAN AND MINING AREAS IN A SELECTED MISSOURI SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project provided important data on fundamental processes responsible for health and environmental risk reductions and environmental safety of the phosphate-based treatments in metal, specifically Pb, contaminated soils. By an integrated approach of environmental risk asse...

  18. Environmental benefits of using magnesium carbonate minerals as new wildfire retardants instead of commercially available, phosphate-based compounds.

    PubMed

    Liodakis, S; Tsoukala, M

    2010-10-01

    A serial batch leaching experiment has been carried out to evaluate the release of elements from the ash of Pinus halepensis needles burned under two test conditions-with and without treatment of the forest species with the carbonate minerals (huntite and hydromagnesite) in aqueous solution (pH 6). The ash (before and after leaching) and leachates were analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Compared with data from samples treated with the commercially available, phosphate-based fire retardant diammonium phosphate (DAP), we found that use of huntite or hydromagnesite was much more successful in obstructing the release of the toxic elements present in the ash, probably because of the alkaline conditions resulting from decomposition of the minerals during burning. In contrast, DAP tended to be more able to facilitate the extraction of some toxic metals (e.g., Zn, Cu, Mn), probably because of the acidic conditions resulting from its decomposition to phosphoric acid. Data from this study thus lend strong support to the use of magnesium carbonate minerals as new wildfire retardants, because they were shown to be more friendly to the environment (e.g., soil, ground, and underground water streams) than those currently in use (e.g., phosphate or sulfate salt type).

  19. Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets Bonded to Zirconium Crowns

    PubMed Central

    Mehmeti, Blerim; Azizi, Bleron; Kelmendi, Jeta; Iljazi-Shahiqi, Donika; Alar, Željko

    2017-01-01

    Background An increasing demand for esthetic restorations has resulted in an increased use of all-ceramic restorations, such as zirconium. However, one of the challenges the orthodontist must be willing to face is how to increase bond strength between the brackets and various ceramic restorations.Bond strength can beaffected bybracket type, by the material that bracketsaremade of, and their base surface design or retention mode. ​ Aim: of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of the shear bond strength (SBS) of metallic and ceramic orthodontic brackets bonded to all-zirconium ceramic surfaces used for prosthetic restorations, and also to evaluate the fracture mode of these two types of orthodontic brackets. Material and methods Twenty samples/semi-crowns of all-zirconium ceramic, on which orthodontic brackets were bonded, 10 metallic and 10 ceramic polycrystalline brackets, were prepared for this research. SBS has been testedby Universal Testing Machine, with a load applied using a knife edged rod moving at a fixed rate of 1 mm/min, until failure occurred. The force required to debond the brackets was recorded in Newton, then SBS was calculated to MPa. In addition, the samples were analyzed using a digital camera magnifier to determine Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). Statistical data were processed using t-test, and the level of significance was set at α = 0.05. Results Higher shear bond strength values were observed in metallic brackets bonded to zirconium crowns compared tothoseof ceramic brackets, with a significant difference. During the test, two of the ceramic brackets were partially or totally damaged. Conclusion Metallic brackets, compared to ceramic polycrystalline brackets, seemed tocreate stronger adhesion with all-zirconium surfaces due to their better retention mode. Also, ceramic brackets showed higher fragility during debonding. PMID:28827846

  20. Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets Bonded to Zirconium Crowns.

    PubMed

    Mehmeti, Blerim; Azizi, Bleron; Kelmendi, Jeta; Iljazi-Shahiqi, Donika; Alar, Željko; Anić-Milošević, Sandra

    2017-06-01

    An increasing demand for esthetic restorations has resulted in an increased use of all-ceramic restorations, such as zirconium. However, one of the challenges the orthodontist must be willing to face is how to increase bond strength between the brackets and various ceramic restorations.Bond strength can beaffected bybracket type, by the material that bracketsaremade of, and their base surface design or retention mode. ​: A im: of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of the shear bond strength (SBS) of metallic and ceramic orthodontic brackets bonded to all-zirconium ceramic surfaces used for prosthetic restorations, and also to evaluate the fracture mode of these two types of orthodontic brackets. Twenty samples/semi-crowns of all-zirconium ceramic, on which orthodontic brackets were bonded, 10 metallic and 10 ceramic polycrystalline brackets, were prepared for this research. SBS has been testedby Universal Testing Machine, with a load applied using a knife edged rod moving at a fixed rate of 1 mm/min, until failure occurred. The force required to debond the brackets was recorded in Newton, then SBS was calculated to MPa. In addition, the samples were analyzed using a digital camera magnifier to determine Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). Statistical data were processed using t-test, and the level of significance was set at α = 0.05. Higher shear bond strength values were observed in metallic brackets bonded to zirconium crowns compared tothoseof ceramic brackets, with a significant difference. During the test, two of the ceramic brackets were partially or totally damaged. Metallic brackets, compared to ceramic polycrystalline brackets, seemed tocreate stronger adhesion with all-zirconium surfaces due to their better retention mode. Also, ceramic brackets showed higher fragility during debonding.

  1. Ph-activated nano-amorphous calcium phosphate-based cement to reduce dental enamel demineralization.

    PubMed

    Melo, Mary A S; Weir, Michael D; Passos, Vanara F; Powers, Michael; Xu, Hockin H K

    2017-12-01

    Enamel demineralization is destructive, esthetically compromised, and costly complications for orthodontic patients. Nano-sized amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) has been explored to address this challenge. The 20% NACP-loaded ortho-cement notably exhibited favorable behavior on reducing demineralization of enamel around brackets in a caries model designed to simulate the carious attack. The 20% NACP-loaded ortho-cement markedly promotes higher calcium and phosphate release at a low pH, and the mineral loss was almost two fold lower and carious lesion depth decreased the by 1/3. This novel approach is promising co-adjuvant route for prevention of dental caries dissemination in millions of patients under orthodontic treatment.

  2. Effect of phosphate group addition on the properties of denture base resins

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Gaurav; Berzins, David W.; Dhuru, Virendra B.; Raj, Periathamby A.; Rambhia, Sameer K.; Dhir, Gunjan; Dentino, Andrew R.

    2009-01-01

    Statement of problem Acrylic resins are prone to microbial adherence, especially by Candida albicans. Surface-charged resins alter the ionic interaction between the denture resin and Candida hyphae, and these resins are being developed as a means to reduce microbial colonization on the denture surface. Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the physical and mechanical properties of phosphate-containing polymethyl methacrylate resins for their suitability as a denture material. Material and methods Using PMMA with cross-linker (Lucitone 199) as a control, 4 experimental groups containing various levels of phosphate with and without cross-linker were generated. The properties examined were impact strength, fracture toughness, wettability (contact angle), and resin bonding ability to denture teeth. Impact strength was tested in the Izod configuration (n=16), and fracture toughness (n=13) was measured using the single-edge notched bend test. Wettability was determined by calculating the contact angle of water on the material surface (n=12), while ISO 1567 was used for bonding ability (n=12). The data were analyzed by 1- and 2-way ANOVA (α=.05). Results A trend of increased hydrophilicity, as indicated by lower contact angle, was observed with increased concentrations of phosphate. With regard to the other properties, no significant differences were found when compared with the control acrylic resin. Conclusions No adverse physical effect due to the addition of a phosphate-containing monomer was found in the acrylic denture resins. Additional mechanical and physical properties, biocompatibility, and clinical efficacy studies are needed to confirm the in vivo anti-Candida activity of these novel resins. PMID:18922259

  3. The Use Of Phosphates To Reduce Slag Penetration In Cr203-Based Refractories

    DOEpatents

    Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Dogan, Cynthia P.; Bennett, James P.; Chinn, Richard E.; Petty, Arthur V.

    2004-11-09

    A high-chromium refractory material that provides improved resistance to coal slag penetration is presented. The refractory mixture comprises a blend of chromium oxide, aluminum oxide and phosphates. The refractory mixture may be blended with an aggregate and cured. In addition a phosphorous oxide may be blended with chromium oxide and aluminum oxide and additionally an aggregate. The refractory mixture reduces the rate of coal slag penetration into the surface of the cured refractory.

  4. A magnesium based phosphate binder reduces vascular calcification without affecting bone in chronic renal failure rats.

    PubMed

    Neven, Ellen; De Schutter, Tineke M; Dams, Geert; Gundlach, Kristina; Steppan, Sonja; Büchel, Janine; Passlick-Deetjen, Jutta; D'Haese, Patrick C; Behets, Geert J

    2014-01-01

    The alternative phosphate binder calcium acetate/magnesium carbonate (CaMg) effectively reduces hyperphosphatemia, the most important inducer of vascular calcification, in chronic renal failure (CRF). In this study, the effect of low dose CaMg on vascular calcification and possible effects of CaMg on bone turnover, a persistent clinical controversy, were evaluated in chronic renal failure rats. Adenine-induced CRF rats were treated daily with 185 mg/kg CaMg or vehicle for 5 weeks. The aortic calcium content and area% calcification were measured to evaluate the effect of CaMg. To study the effect of CaMg on bone remodeling, rats underwent 5/6th nephrectomy combined with either a normal phosphorus diet or a high phosphorus diet to differentiate between possible bone effects resulting from either CaMg-induced phosphate deficiency or a direct effect of Mg. Vehicle or CaMg was administered at doses of 185 and 375 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks. Bone histomorphometry was performed. Aortic calcium content was significantly reduced by 185 mg/kg/day CaMg. CaMg ameliorated features of hyperparathyroid bone disease. In CRF rats on a normal phosphorus diet, the highest CaMg dose caused an increase in osteoid area due to phosphate depletion. The high phosphorus diet combined with the highest CaMg dose prevented the phosphate depletion and thus the rise in osteoid area. CaMg had no effect on osteoblast/osteoclast or dynamic bone parameters, and did not alter bone Mg levels. CaMg at doses that reduce vascular calcification did not show any harmful effect on bone turnover.

  5. Efficacy of a Calcium Sucrose Phosphate Based Toothpaste in Elevating the Level of Calcium, Phosphate Ions in Saliva and Reducing Plaque: A Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Leena Unnikrishnan; Varma, R. Balagopal; Kumaran, Parvathy; Xavier, Arun Mamachan; Govinda, Bhat Sangeetha; Kumar, J. Suresh

    2018-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of “calcium sucrose phosphate” (CaSP) toothpaste (Enafix 5%) with ordinarily used calcium, phosphate-containing toothpaste in elevating the level of calcium, phosphate ions in saliva. Secondary aims were to evaluate substantivity and plaque-reducing ability of CaSP toothpaste. Materials and Methods: Thirty study participants of age group 6–13 years were divided into two groups: Group X (Control group) was made to continue brushing with their regularly used calcium, phosphate-containing toothpaste and Group Y (Test group) was allotted CaSP toothpaste. 1 ml of unstimulated saliva was periodically collected from both groups to determine any alteration in the salivary calcium, phosphate level. Parameters such as substantivity and plaque-reducing ability of CaSP toothpaste were also evaluated. Salivary mineral's intergroup comparison was evaluated by Student's t-test while its intragroup comparison along with the plaque amount variation in Group Y was evaluated by ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test. Results: Group Y showed an increase in the salivary calcium level though not statistically significant. The increase was pronounced in samples collected on day 1. Group Y showed a consistent level of calcium, phosphate in samples collected immediately and 6 h postbrushing, indicating its substantivity. In addition, Group Y had an impact in reducing the plaque level when the 1st-month plaque score was compared with the 12th-month score. Conclusion: CaSP leads to an increase in the salivary calcium level though it was not statistically significant. Supervised brushing and dietary habits showed a positive effect on both the groups. CaSP toothpaste also showed substantivity and plaque-reducing ability.

  6. DISSOLUTION OF ZIRCONIUM-CONTAINING FUEL ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Horn, F.L.

    1961-12-12

    Uranium is recovered from spent uranium fuel elements containing or clad with zirconium. These fuel elements are placed in an anhydrous solution of hydrogen fluoride and nitrogen dioxide. Within this system uranium forms a soluble complex and zirconium forms an insoluble complex. The uranium can then be separated, treated, and removed from solution as uranium hexafluoride. (AEC)

  7. Mechanical optimization of the composite biomaterial based on the tricalcium phosphate, titania and magnesium fluoride.

    PubMed

    Ayadi, Ibticem; Ayed, Foued Ben

    2016-07-01

    The microstructure, the densification and the mechanical properties of the tricalcium phosphate - titania - MgF2 composites were investigated. The effect of MgF2 addition on the performances of the tricalcium phosphate - 40wt% titania composites is discussed. The mechanical properties were investigated by Brazilian test, Vickers indentation and the ultrasound techniques. The mechanical properties of the tricalcium phosphate - 40wt% titania composites reached optimum performances after the sintering process at 1200°C for one hour with 4wt% MgF2. Thus, the highest values of the rupture strength, Vickers hardness, Young׳s and the shear modulus reached 27MPa, 360Hv, 51GPa and 20GPa, respectively. The increase of the mechanical properties of the composites is due to the presence of the liquid phase and the formation of a new compound. Thus, the microstructure of the composites reveals the presence of a new lamella form relative to the Mg2(PO4)F. Beyond 4wt% MgF2, the performances of the composites are hindered by the exaggerated grain growth and the formation of the bubbles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Method of making crack-free zirconium hydride

    DOEpatents

    Sullivan, Richard W.

    1980-01-01

    Crack-free hydrides of zirconium and zirconium-uranium alloys are produced by alloying the zirconium or zirconium-uranium alloy with beryllium, or nickel, or beryllium and scandium, or nickel and scandium, or beryllium and nickel, or beryllium, nickel and scandium and thereafter hydriding.

  9. In vivo evaluation of neutron capture therapy effectivity using calcium phosphate-based nanoparticles as Gd-DTPA delivery agent.

    PubMed

    Dewi, Novriana; Mi, Peng; Yanagie, Hironobu; Sakurai, Yuriko; Morishita, Yasuyuki; Yanagawa, Masashi; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Shinohara, Atsuko; Matsukawa, Takehisa; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Cabral, Horacio; Suzuki, Minoru; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Ono, Koji; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori; Takahashi, Hiroyuki

    2016-04-01

    A more immediate impact for therapeutic approaches of current clinical research efforts is of major interest, which might be obtained by developing a noninvasive radiation dose-escalation strategy, and neutron capture therapy represents one such novel approach. Furthermore, some recent researches on neutron capture therapy have focused on using gadolinium as an alternative or complementary for currently used boron, taking into account several advantages that gadolinium offers. Therefore, in this study, we carried out feasibility evaluation for both single and multiple injections of gadolinium-based MRI contrast agent incorporated in calcium phosphate nanoparticles as neutron capture therapy agent. In vivo evaluation was performed on colon carcinoma Col-26 tumor-bearing mice irradiated at nuclear reactor facility of Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute with average neutron fluence of 1.8 × 10(12) n/cm(2). Antitumor effectivity was evaluated based on tumor growth suppression assessed until 27 days after neutron irradiation, followed by histopathological analysis on tumor slice. The experimental results showed that the tumor growth of irradiated mice injected beforehand with Gd-DTPA-incorporating calcium phosphate-based nanoparticles was suppressed up to four times higher compared to the non-treated group, supported by the results of histopathological analysis. The results of antitumor effectivity observed on tumor-bearing mice after neutron irradiation indicated possible effectivity of gadolinium-based neutron capture therapy treatment.

  10. Do aluminium-based phosphate binders continue to have a role in contemporary nephrology practice?

    PubMed

    Mudge, David W; Johnson, David W; Hawley, Carmel M; Campbell, Scott B; Isbel, Nicole M; van Eps, Carolyn L; Petrie, James J B

    2011-05-13

    Aluminium-containing phosphate binders have long been used for treatment of hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients. Their safety became controversial in the early 1980's after reports of aluminium related neurological and bone disease began to appear. Available historical evidence however, suggests that neurological toxicity may have primarily been caused by excessive exposure to aluminium in dialysis fluid, rather than aluminium-containing oral phosphate binders. Limited evidence suggests that aluminium bone disease may also be on the decline in the era of aluminium removal from dialysis fluid, even with continued use of aluminium binders. The K/DOQI and KDIGO guidelines both suggest avoiding aluminium-containing binders. These guidelines will tend to promote the use of the newer, more expensive binders (lanthanum, sevelamer), which have limited evidence for benefit and, like aluminium, limited long-term safety data. Treating hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients continues to represent a major challenge, and there is a large body of evidence linking serum phosphate concentrations with mortality. Most nephrologists agree that phosphate binders have the potential to meaningfully reduce mortality in dialysis patients. Aluminium is one of the cheapest, most effective and well tolerated of the class, however there are no prospective or randomised trials examining the efficacy and safety of aluminium as a binder. Aluminium continues to be used as a binder in Australia as well as some other countries, despite concern about the potential for toxicity. There are some data from selected case series that aluminium bone disease may be declining in the era of reduced aluminium content in dialysis fluid, due to rigorous water testing. This paper seeks to revisit the contemporary evidence for the safety record of aluminium-containing binders in dialysis patients. It puts their use into the context of the newer, more expensive binders and increasing concerns about the risks of

  11. Novel bone wax based on poly(ethylene glycol)-calcium phosphate cement mixtures.

    PubMed

    Brückner, Theresa; Schamel, Martha; Kübler, Alexander C; Groll, Jürgen; Gbureck, Uwe

    2016-03-01

    Classic bone wax is associated with drawbacks such as the risk of infection, inflammation and hindered osteogenesis. Here, we developed a novel self-setting bone wax on the basis of hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and hydroxyapatite (HA) forming calcium phosphate cement (CPC), to overcome the problems that are linked to the use of conventional beeswax systems. Amounts of up to 10 wt.% of pregelatinized starch were additionally supplemented as hemostatic agent. After exposure to a humid environment, the PEG phase dissolved and was exchanged by penetrating water that interacted with the HA precursor (tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP)/monetite) to form highly porous, nanocrystalline HA via a dissolution/precipitation reaction. Simultaneously, pregelatinized starch could gel and supply the bone wax with liquid sealing features. The novel bone wax formulation was found to be cohesive, malleable and after hardening under aqueous conditions, it had a mechanical performance (∼2.5 MPa compressive strength) that is comparable to that of cancellous bone. It withstood systolic blood pressure conditions for several days and showed antibacterial properties for almost one week, even though 60% of the incorporated drug vancomycin hydrochloride was already released after 8h of deposition by diffusion controlled processes. The study investigated the development of alternative bone waxes on the basis of a hydroxyapatite (HA) forming calcium phosphate cement (CPC) system. Conventional bone waxes are composed of non-biodegradable beeswax/vaseline mixtures that are often linked to infection, inflammation and hindered osteogenesis. We combined the usage of bioresorbable polymers, the supplementation with hemostatic agents and the incorporation of a mineral component to overcome those drawbacks. Self-setting CPC precursors (tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP), monetite) were embedded in a resorbable matrix of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and supplemented with pregelatinized starch. This

  12. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase a novel hope on a blood-based diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Evlice, Ahmet; Ulusu, Nuriye Nuray

    2017-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multi-factorial neurodegenerative disorder that numerous factors have key properties in the development of this proteopathy. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is the most common form of enzymopathy. We have examined G6PD enzyme activity levels in the serum of newly diagnosed AD patients compared with control subjects without dementia from the both sexes. Serum G6PD levels were found to be significantly higher (approximately two times) in AD patients compared to control geriatric subjects in both sexes. We have concluded that G6PD seems to play an integral role in the progress and/or prevention of AD.

  13. Do aluminium-based phosphate binders continue to have a role in contemporary nephrology practice?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Aluminium-containing phosphate binders have long been used for treatment of hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients. Their safety became controversial in the early 1980's after reports of aluminium related neurological and bone disease began to appear. Available historical evidence however, suggests that neurological toxicity may have primarily been caused by excessive exposure to aluminium in dialysis fluid, rather than aluminium-containing oral phosphate binders. Limited evidence suggests that aluminium bone disease may also be on the decline in the era of aluminium removal from dialysis fluid, even with continued use of aluminium binders. Discussion The K/DOQI and KDIGO guidelines both suggest avoiding aluminium-containing binders. These guidelines will tend to promote the use of the newer, more expensive binders (lanthanum, sevelamer), which have limited evidence for benefit and, like aluminium, limited long-term safety data. Treating hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients continues to represent a major challenge, and there is a large body of evidence linking serum phosphate concentrations with mortality. Most nephrologists agree that phosphate binders have the potential to meaningfully reduce mortality in dialysis patients. Aluminium is one of the cheapest, most effective and well tolerated of the class, however there are no prospective or randomised trials examining the efficacy and safety of aluminium as a binder. Aluminium continues to be used as a binder in Australia as well as some other countries, despite concern about the potential for toxicity. There are some data from selected case series that aluminium bone disease may be declining in the era of reduced aluminium content in dialysis fluid, due to rigorous water testing. Summary This paper seeks to revisit the contemporary evidence for the safety record of aluminium-containing binders in dialysis patients. It puts their use into the context of the newer, more expensive binders and increasing

  14. Effect of Zirconium Oxide and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Physicochemical Properties and Antibiofilm Activity of a Calcium Silicate-Based Material

    PubMed Central

    Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; Trindade-Junior, Adinael; Cesar Costa, Bernardo; da Silva, Guilherme Ferreira; Drullis Cifali, Leonardo; Basso Bernardi, Maria Inês

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibiofilm activity against Enterococcus faecalis, compressive strength. and radiopacity of Portland cement (PC) added to zirconium oxide (ZrO2), as radiopacifier, with or without nanoparticulated zinc oxide (ZnO). The following experimental materials were evaluated: PC, PC + ZrO2, PC + ZrO2 + ZnO (5%), and PC + ZrO2 + ZnO (10%). Antibiofilm activity was analyzed by using direct contact test (DCT) on Enterococcus faecalis biofilm, for 5 h or 15 h. The analysis was conducted by using the number of colony-forming units (CFU/mL). The compressive strength was performed in a mechanical testing machine. For the radiopacity tests, the specimens were radiographed together with an aluminium stepwedge. The results were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey tests, with level of significance at 5%. The results showed that all materials presented similar antibiofilm activity (P > 0.05). The addition of nanoparticulated ZnO decreased the compressive strength of PC. All materials presented higher radiopacity than pure PC. It can be concluded that the addition of ZrO2 and ZnO does not interfere with the antibiofilm activity and provides radiopacity to Portland cement. However, the presence of ZnO (5% or 10%) significantly decreased the compressive strength of the materials. PMID:25431798

  15. Zirconium phosphatidylcholine-based nanocapsules as an in vivo degradable drug delivery system of MAP30, a momordica anti-HIV protein.

    PubMed

    Caizhen, Guo; Yan, Gao; Ronron, Chang; Lirong, Yang; Panpan, Chu; Xuemei, Hu; Yuanbiao, Qiao; Qingshan, Li

    2015-04-10

    An essential in vivo drug delivery system of a momordica anti-HIV protein, MAP30, was developed through encapsulating in chemically synthesized matrices of zirconium egg- and soy-phosphatidylcholines, abbreviated to Zr/EPC and Zr/SPC, respectively. Matrices were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffractometry studies. Zr/EPC granule at an approximate diameter of 69.43±7.78 nm was a less efficient encapsulator than the granule of Zr/SPC. Interlayer spacing of the matrices encapsulating MAP30 increased from 8.8 and 9.7 Å to 7.4 and 7.9 nm, respectively. In vivo kinetics on degradation and protein release was performed by analyzing the serum sampling of intravenously injected SPF chickens. The first order and biphasic variations were obtained for in vivo kinetics using equilibrium dialysis. Antimicrobial and anti-HIV assays yielded greatly decreased MIC50 and EC50 values of nanoformulated MAP30. An acute toxicity of MAP30 encapsulated in Zr/EPC occurred at a single intravenous dose above 14.24 mg/kg bw in NIH/KM/ICR mice. The folding of MAP30 from Zr/EPC sustained in vivo chickens for more than 8 days in high performance liquid chromatography assays. These matrices could protect MAP30 efficiently with strong structure retention, lowered toxicity and prolonged in vivo life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydrophobic and Metallophobic Surfaces: Highly Stable Non-wetting Inorganic Surfaces Based on Lanthanum Phosphate Nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankar, Sasidharan; Nair, Balagopal N.; Suzuki, Takehiro; Anilkumar, Gopinathan M.; Padmanabhan, Moothetty; Hareesh, Unnikrishnan Nair S.; Warrier, Krishna G.

    2016-03-01

    Metal oxides, in general, are known to exhibit significant wettability towards water molecules because of the high feasibility of synergetic hydrogen-bonding interactions possible at the solid-water interface. Here we show that the nano sized phosphates of rare earth materials (Rare Earth Phosphates, REPs), LaPO4 in particular, exhibit without any chemical modification, unique combination of intrinsic properties including remarkable hydrophobicity that could be retained even after exposure to extreme temperatures and harsh hydrothermal conditions. Transparent nanocoatings of LaPO4 as well as mixture of other REPs on glass surfaces are shown to display notable hydrophobicity with water contact angle (WCA) value of 120° while sintered and polished monoliths manifested WCA greater than 105°. Significantly, these materials in the form of coatings and monoliths also exhibit complete non-wettability and inertness towards molten metals like Ag, Zn, and Al well above their melting points. These properties, coupled with their excellent chemical and thermal stability, ease of processing, machinability and their versatile photo-physical and emission properties, render LaPO4 and other REP ceramics utility in diverse applications.

  17. Hydrophobic and Metallophobic Surfaces: Highly Stable Non-wetting Inorganic Surfaces Based on Lanthanum Phosphate Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Sasidharan; Nair, Balagopal N; Suzuki, Takehiro; Anilkumar, Gopinathan M; Padmanabhan, Moothetty; Hareesh, Unnikrishnan Nair S; Warrier, Krishna G

    2016-03-09

    Metal oxides, in general, are known to exhibit significant wettability towards water molecules because of the high feasibility of synergetic hydrogen-bonding interactions possible at the solid-water interface. Here we show that the nano sized phosphates of rare earth materials (Rare Earth Phosphates, REPs), LaPO4 in particular, exhibit without any chemical modification, unique combination of intrinsic properties including remarkable hydrophobicity that could be retained even after exposure to extreme temperatures and harsh hydrothermal conditions. Transparent nanocoatings of LaPO4 as well as mixture of other REPs on glass surfaces are shown to display notable hydrophobicity with water contact angle (WCA) value of 120° while sintered and polished monoliths manifested WCA greater than 105°. Significantly, these materials in the form of coatings and monoliths also exhibit complete non-wettability and inertness towards molten metals like Ag, Zn, and Al well above their melting points. These properties, coupled with their excellent chemical and thermal stability, ease of processing, machinability and their versatile photo-physical and emission properties, render LaPO4 and other REP ceramics utility in diverse applications.

  18. Hydrophobic and Metallophobic Surfaces: Highly Stable Non-wetting Inorganic Surfaces Based on Lanthanum Phosphate Nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, Sasidharan; Nair, Balagopal N.; Suzuki, Takehiro; Anilkumar, Gopinathan M.; Padmanabhan, Moothetty; Hareesh, Unnikrishnan Nair S.; Warrier, Krishna G.

    2016-01-01

    Metal oxides, in general, are known to exhibit significant wettability towards water molecules because of the high feasibility of synergetic hydrogen-bonding interactions possible at the solid-water interface. Here we show that the nano sized phosphates of rare earth materials (Rare Earth Phosphates, REPs), LaPO4 in particular, exhibit without any chemical modification, unique combination of intrinsic properties including remarkable hydrophobicity that could be retained even after exposure to extreme temperatures and harsh hydrothermal conditions. Transparent nanocoatings of LaPO4 as well as mixture of other REPs on glass surfaces are shown to display notable hydrophobicity with water contact angle (WCA) value of 120° while sintered and polished monoliths manifested WCA greater than 105°. Significantly, these materials in the form of coatings and monoliths also exhibit complete non-wettability and inertness towards molten metals like Ag, Zn, and Al well above their melting points. These properties, coupled with their excellent chemical and thermal stability, ease of processing, machinability and their versatile photo-physical and emission properties, render LaPO4 and other REP ceramics utility in diverse applications. PMID:26955962

  19. Sugarcane bagasse derivative-based superabsorbent containing phosphate rock with water-fertilizer integration.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Kang; Zheng, Xi-Liang; Mao, Xiao-Yun; Lin, Zuan-Tao; Jiang, Gang-Biao

    2012-10-01

    To improve the water-fertilizer utilization ratio and mitigate the environmental contamination, an eco-friendly superabsorbent polymer (SPA), modified sugarcane bagasse/poly (acrylic acid) embedding phosphate rock (MSB/PAA/PHR), was prepared. Ammonia, phosphate rock (PHR) and KOH were admixed in the presence of acrylic acid to provide nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) nutrients, respectively. Impacts on water absorption capacity of the superabsorbent polymer (SAP) were investigated. The maximum swelling capacity in distilled water and 0.9 wt.% (weight percent) NaCl solution reached 414 gg(-1) and 55 gg(-1) (water/prepared SAP), respectively. The available NPK contents of the combination system were 15.13 mgg(-1), 6.93 mgg(-1) and 52.05 mgg(-1), respectively. Moreover, the release behaviors of NPK in the MSB/PAA/PHR were also studied. The results showed that the MSB/PAA/PHR has outstanding sustained-release plant nutrients property. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cr(3+) Binding to DNA Backbone Phosphate and Bases: Slow Ligand Exchange Rates and Metal Hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenhu; Yu, Tianmeng; Vazin, Mahsa; Ding, Jinsong; Liu, Juewen

    2016-08-15

    The interaction between chromium ions and DNA is of great interest in inorganic chemistry, toxicology, and analytical chemistry. Most previous studies focused on in situ reduction of Cr(VI), producing Cr(3+) for DNA binding. Recently, Cr(3+) was reported to activate the Ce13d DNAzyme for RNA cleavage. Herein, the Ce13d is used to study two types of Cr(3+) and DNA interactions. First, Cr(3+) binds to the DNA phosphate backbone weakly through reversible electrostatic interactions, which is weakened by adding competing inorganic phosphate. However, Cr(3+) coordinates with DNA nucleobases forming stable cross-links that can survive denaturing gel electrophoresis condition. The binding of Cr(3+) to different nucleobases was further studied in terms of binding kinetics and affinity by exploiting carboxyfluorescein-labeled DNA homopolymers. Once binding takes place, the stable Cr(3+)/DNA complex cannot be dissociated by EDTA, attributable to the ultraslow ligand exchange rate of Cr(3+). The binding rate follows the order of G > C > T ≈ A. Finally, Cr(3+) gradually loses its DNA binding ability after being stored at neutral or high pH, attributable to hydrolysis. This hydrolysis can be reversed by lowering the pH. This work provides a deeper insight into the bioinorganic chemistry of Cr(3+) coordination with DNA, clarifies some inconsistency in the previous literature, and offers practically useful information for generating reproducible results.

  1. Rheological and Mechanical Properties of Thermoresponsive Methylcellulose/Calcium Phosphate-Based Injectable Bone Substitutes

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a novel injectable bone substitute (IBS) was prepared by incorporating a bioceramic powder in a polymeric solution comprising of methylcellulose (MC), gelatin and citric acid. Methylcellulose was utilized as the polymeric matrix due to its thermoresponsive properties and biocompatibility. 2.5 wt % gelatin and 3 wt % citric acid were added to the MC to adjust the rheological properties of the prepared IBS. Then, 0, 20, 30 and 50 wt % of the bioceramic component comprising tetracalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (TTCP/HA), dicalcium phosphate dehydrate (DCPD) and calcium sulfate dehydrate (CSD) were added into the prepared polymeric component. The prepared IBS samples had a chewing gum-like consistency. IBS samples were investigated in terms of their chemical structure, rheological characteristics, and mechanical properties. After that, in vitro degradation studies were carried out by measurement of pH and % remaining weight. Viscoelastic characteristics of the samples indicated that all of the prepared IBS were injectable and they hardened at approximately 37 °C. Moreover, with increasing wt % of the bioceramic component, the degradation rate of the samples significantly reduced and the mechanical properties were improved. Therefore, the experimental results indicated that the P50 mix may be a promising candidates to fill bone defects and assist bone recovery for non-load bearing applications. PMID:29662018

  2. Rheological and Mechanical Properties of Thermoresponsive Methylcellulose/Calcium Phosphate-Based Injectable Bone Substitutes.

    PubMed

    Demir Oğuz, Öznur; Ege, Duygu

    2018-04-14

    In this study, a novel injectable bone substitute (IBS) was prepared by incorporating a bioceramic powder in a polymeric solution comprising of methylcellulose (MC), gelatin and citric acid. Methylcellulose was utilized as the polymeric matrix due to its thermoresponsive properties and biocompatibility. 2.5 wt % gelatin and 3 wt % citric acid were added to the MC to adjust the rheological properties of the prepared IBS. Then, 0, 20, 30 and 50 wt % of the bioceramic component comprising tetracalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (TTCP/HA), dicalcium phosphate dehydrate (DCPD) and calcium sulfate dehydrate (CSD) were added into the prepared polymeric component. The prepared IBS samples had a chewing gum-like consistency. IBS samples were investigated in terms of their chemical structure, rheological characteristics, and mechanical properties. After that, in vitro degradation studies were carried out by measurement of pH and % remaining weight. Viscoelastic characteristics of the samples indicated that all of the prepared IBS were injectable and they hardened at approximately 37 °C. Moreover, with increasing wt % of the bioceramic component, the degradation rate of the samples significantly reduced and the mechanical properties were improved. Therefore, the experimental results indicated that the P50 mix may be a promising candidates to fill bone defects and assist bone recovery for non-load bearing applications.

  3. Thermodynamic study of dihydrogen phosphate dimerisation and complexation with novel urea- and thiourea-based receptors.

    PubMed

    Bregović, Nikola; Cindro, Nikola; Frkanec, Leo; Užarević, Krunoslav; Tomišić, Vladislav

    2014-11-24

    Complexation of dihydrogen phosphate by novel thiourea and urea receptors in acetonitrile and dimethyl sulfoxide was studied in detail by an integrated approach by using several methods (isothermal titration calorimetry, ESI-MS, and (1)H NMR and UV spectroscopy). Thermodynamic investigations into H2PO4(-) dimerisation, which is a process that has been frequently recognised, but rarely quantitatively described, were carried out as well. The corresponding equilibrium was taken into account in the anion-binding studies, which enabled reliable determination of the complexation thermodynamic quantities. In both solvents the thiourea derivatives exhibited considerably higher binding affinities with respect to those containing the urea moiety. In acetonitrile, 1:1 and 2:1 (anion/receptor) complexes formed, whereas in dimethyl sulfoxide only the significantly less stable complexes of 1:1 stoichiometry were detected. The solvent effects on the thermodynamic parameters of dihydrogen phosphate dimerisation and complexation reactions are discussed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Electrochemical Study of Corrosion Phenomena in Zirconium Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    required reaction rates [1.1]. Based predominantly on this fact, zirconium alloys were chosen to sheath, or clad, the fuel. With the increasing demand...cathode or anode. As the oxidation and reduction reactions occur, a galvanic cell is developed. The electrons on the anode are released from the metallic...matrix as the ions are released into the aqueous solution in the initial half-cell reaction . The second half-cell reaction , taking place on the

  5. Overcoming the crystallization and designability issues in the ultrastable zirconium phosphonate framework system

    DOE PAGES

    Zheng, Tao; Yang, Zaixing; Gui, Daxiang; ...

    2017-05-30

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) based on zirconium phosphonates exhibit superior chemical stability suitable for applications under harsh conditions. These compounds mostly exist as poorly crystallized precipitates, and precise structural information has therefore remained elusive. Furthermore, a zero-dimensional zirconium phosphonate cluster acting as secondary building unit has been lacking, leading to poor designability in this system. We overcome these challenges and obtain single crystals of three zirconium phosphonates that are suitable for structural analysis. Furthermore, these compounds are built by previously unknown isolated zirconium phosphonate clusters and exhibit combined high porosity and ultrastability even in fuming acids. SZ-2 possesses the largest voidmore » volume recorded in zirconium phosphonates and SZ-3 represents the most porous crystalline zirconium phosphonate and the only porous MOF material reported to survive in aqua regia. SZ-2 and SZ-3 can effectively remove uranyl ions from aqueous solutions over a wide pH range, and we have elucidated the removal mechanism.« less

  6. Overcoming the crystallization and designability issues in the ultrastable zirconium phosphonate framework system

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Tao; Yang, Zaixing; Gui, Daxiang

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) based on zirconium phosphonates exhibit superior chemical stability suitable for applications under harsh conditions. These compounds mostly exist as poorly crystallized precipitates, and precise structural information has therefore remained elusive. Furthermore, a zero-dimensional zirconium phosphonate cluster acting as secondary building unit has been lacking, leading to poor designability in this system. We overcome these challenges and obtain single crystals of three zirconium phosphonates that are suitable for structural analysis. Furthermore, these compounds are built by previously unknown isolated zirconium phosphonate clusters and exhibit combined high porosity and ultrastability even in fuming acids. SZ-2 possesses the largest voidmore » volume recorded in zirconium phosphonates and SZ-3 represents the most porous crystalline zirconium phosphonate and the only porous MOF material reported to survive in aqua regia. SZ-2 and SZ-3 can effectively remove uranyl ions from aqueous solutions over a wide pH range, and we have elucidated the removal mechanism.« less

  7. Effect of a magnesium-based phosphate binder on medial calcification in a rat model of uremia.

    PubMed

    De Schutter, Tineke M; Behets, Geert J; Geryl, Hilde; Peter, Mirjam E; Steppan, Sonja; Gundlach, Kristina; Passlick-Deetjen, Jutta; D'Haese, Patrick C; Neven, Ellen

    2013-06-01

    Calcium-based phosphate binders are used to control hyperphosphatemia; however, they promote hypercalcemia and may accelerate aortic calcification. Here we compared the effect of a phosphate binder containing calcium acetate and magnesium carbonate (CaMg) to that of sevelamer carbonate on the development of medial calcification in rats with chronic renal failure induced by an adenine diet for 4 weeks. After 1 week, rats with chronic renal failure were treated with vehicle, 375 or 750 mg/kg CaMg, or 750 mg/kg sevelamer by daily gavage for 5 weeks. Renal function was significantly impaired in all groups. Vehicle-treated rats with chronic renal failure developed severe hyperphosphatemia, but this was controlled in treated groups, particularly by CaMg. Neither CaMg nor sevelamer increased serum calcium ion levels. Induction of chronic renal failure significantly increased serum PTH, dose-dependently prevented by CaMg but not sevelamer. The aortic calcium content was significantly reduced by CaMg but not by sevelamer. The percent calcified area of the aorta was significantly lower than vehicle-treated animals for all three groups. The presence of aortic calcification was associated with increased sox9, bmp-2, and matrix gla protein expression, but this did not differ in the treatment groups. Calcium content in the carotid artery was lower with sevelamer than with CaMg but that in the femoral artery did not differ between groups. Thus, treatment with either CaMg or sevelamer effectively controlled serum phosphate levels in CRF rats and reduced aortic calcification.

  8. Effect of a magnesium-based phosphate binder on medial calcification in a rat model of uremia

    PubMed Central

    De Schutter, Tineke M; Behets, Geert J; Geryl, Hilde; Peter, Mirjam E; Steppan, Sonja; Gundlach, Kristina; Passlick-Deetjen, Jutta; D'Haese, Patrick C; Neven, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Calcium-based phosphate binders are used to control hyperphosphatemia; however, they promote hypercalcemia and may accelerate aortic calcification. Here we compared the effect of a phosphate binder containing calcium acetate and magnesium carbonate (CaMg) to that of sevelamer carbonate on the development of medial calcification in rats with chronic renal failure induced by an adenine diet for 4 weeks. After 1 week, rats with chronic renal failure were treated with vehicle, 375 or 750 mg/kg CaMg, or 750 mg/kg sevelamer by daily gavage for 5 weeks. Renal function was significantly impaired in all groups. Vehicle-treated rats with chronic renal failure developed severe hyperphosphatemia, but this was controlled in treated groups, particularly by CaMg. Neither CaMg nor sevelamer increased serum calcium ion levels. Induction of chronic renal failure significantly increased serum PTH, dose-dependently prevented by CaMg but not sevelamer. The aortic calcium content was significantly reduced by CaMg but not by sevelamer. The percent calcified area of the aorta was significantly lower than vehicle-treated animals for all three groups. The presence of aortic calcification was associated with increased sox9, bmp-2, and matrix gla protein expression, but this did not differ in the treatment groups. Calcium content in the carotid artery was lower with sevelamer than with CaMg but that in the femoral artery did not differ between groups. Thus, treatment with either CaMg or sevelamer effectively controlled serum phosphate levels in CRF rats and reduced aortic calcification. PMID:23486515

  9. Antibacterial effect of gallium and silver on Pseudomonas aeruginosa treated with gallium-silver-phosphate-based glasses.

    PubMed

    Valappil, Sabeel P; Higham, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    Gallium and silver incorporated phosphate-based glasses were evaluated for antibacterial effect on the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is a leading cause of opportunistic infections. The glasses were produced by conventional melt quenching methods at 1100°C for 1 h. Glass degradation studies were conducted by weight loss method. Disc diffusion assay and cell viability assay displayed statistically significant (p ≤ 0.0005) effect on P. aeruginosa growth which increased with decreasing calcium content in the glasses. The gallium ion release rates (1.83, 0.69 and 0.48 ppm·h(-1)) and silver ion release rates (2.97, 2.84 and 2.47 ppm·h(-1)) were found to account for this variation. Constant depth film fermentor was used to evaluate the anti-biofilm properties of the glasses. Both gallium and silver in the glass contributed to biofilm growth inhibitory effect on P. aeruginosa (up to 2.68 reduction in log 10 values of the viable counts compared with controls). The glasses were found to deliver gallium and silver in a controlled way and exerted cumulative antibacterial action on planktonic and biofilm growth of P. aeruginosa. The antibacterial, especially anti-biofilm, properties of the gallium and silver incorporated phosphate-based glasses make them a potential candidate to combat infections caused by P. aeruginosa.

  10. Enhanced CO2 adsorptive performance of PEI/SBA-15 adsorbent using phosphate ester based surfactants as additives.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dandan; Liu, Yue; Wang, Haiqiang; Weng, Xiaole; Wu, Zhongbiao

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a series of polyetherimide/SBA-15: 2-D hexagonal P6mm, Santa Barbara USA (PEI/SBA-15) adsorbents modified by phosphoric ester based surfactants (including tri(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (BEP) and trimethyl phosphonoacetate (TMPA)) were prepared for CO2 adsorption. Experimental results indicated that the addition of TEP and BEP had positive effects on CO2 adsorption capacity over PEI/SBA-15. In particular, the CO2 adsorption amount could be improved by around 20% for 45PEI-5TEP/SBA-15 compared to the additive-free adsorbent. This could be attributed to the decrease of CO2 diffusion resistance in the PEI bulk network due to the interactions between TEP and loaded PEI molecules, which was further confirmed by adsorption kinetics results. In addition, it was also found that the cyclic performance of the TEP-modified adsorbent was better than the surfactant-free one. This could be due to two main reasons, based on the results of in situ DRIFT and TG-DSC tests. First and more importantly, adsorbed CO2 species could be desorbed more rapidly over TEP-modified adsorbent during the thermal desorption process. Furthermore, the enhanced thermal stability after TEP addition ensured lower degradation of amine groups during adsorption/desorption cycles. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Ground based experiments on the growth and characterization of L-Arginine Phosphate (LAP) crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, S. M.; Cao, C.; Batra, A. K.; Lal, R. B.; Mookherji, T. K.

    1991-01-01

    L-Arginine Phosphate (LAP) is a new nonlinear optical material with higher efficiency for harmonic generation compared to KDP. Crystals of LAP were grown in the laboratory from supersaturated solutions by temperature lowering technique. Investigations revealed the presence of large dislocation densities inside the crystals which are observed to produce refractive index changes causing damage at high laser powers. This is a result of the convection during crystal growth from supersaturated solutions. It is proposed to grow these crystals in a diffusion controlled growth condition under microgravity environment and compare the crystals grown in space with those grown on ground. Physical properties of the solutions needed for modelling of crystal growth are also presented.

  12. Transmission performance analysis of WDM systems based on bismuth-doped phosphate glass fiber amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jianhua; Huang, Qian; Wang, Ke; Xu, Ming; Jiang, Chun

    2018-01-01

    In this paper transmission performance of Allwave fiber WDM systems cascaded by bismuth-doped phosphate glass fiber amplifiers pumped by 808 nm lasers is analyzed for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The rate and power propagation equations of a three-level system are used to model the signal amplification and noise figure in the doped fibers. The simulation results show that the channels in the 1460-1470 nm wavelength region in 32 × 40 Gbit/s WDM system with 10 nm channel space can reach a BER less than 1 × 10-9 with the transmission distance more than 600 km, but when the channel space is reduced to 1 nm, the performance of the system is degraded greatly.

  13. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of vanadyl phosphate based cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Youngmin

    Transition metal phosphate materials have been researched as candidates for lithium-ion battery cathodes for about two decades. Among them, vanadium phosphate compounds are attractive due to their higher free energy of reaction than the corresponding iron compounds, and the greater possible change of oxidation state from V5+ to V3+. This thesis work firstly focuses on the chemical and electrochemical lithiation of epsilon--VOPO4 investigating the possibility of multi-electron intercalation. The second focus is on hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of epsilon--LiVOPO4. The hydrothermal synthesis method developed in this work produces pure epsilon-LiVOPO 4 at high temperature hydrothermal reaction and pure LiVOPO4˙2H 2O at low temperature. The first charge capacity of hydrothermal epsilon-LiVOPO 4 is around 308 mAh/g, which is almost 97% of the theoretical capacity. It also shows good reversibility in the first five cycles after which capacity fading occurs. For more detailed structural analysis of hydrothermal epsilon-LiVOPO 4, we used in-situ synchrotron XRD and EXAFS upon heating combined with TGA-MS. These techniques have revealed intercalated protons that are removed at about 350 °C, and a reversible symmetry change from triclinic to monoclinic at high temperature. Furthermore, we have used chemical lithiation with BuLi to produce and characterize epsilon-Li2VOPO 4 phase. Finally, we have modified the hydrothermal method to produce Cr-substituted epsilon--LiVOPO4 by changing the amount LiOH and adding Cr precursor. Cr substitution is found to modify the stoichiometry of the compound and to improve its cyclability at both high and low current densities.

  14. A novel injectable calcium phosphate-based nanocomposite for the augmentation of cannulated pedicle-screw fixation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Haolin; Liu, Chun; Liu, Huiling; Bai, Yanjie; Zhang, Zheng; Li, Xuwen; Li, Chunde; Yang, Huilin; Yang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-augmented cannulated pedicle-screw fixation has been routinely performed for the surgical treatment of lumbar degenerative diseases. Despite its satisfactory clinical outcomes and prevalence, problems and complications associated with high-strength, stiff, and nondegradable PMMA have largely hindered the long-term efficacy and safety of pedicle-screw fixation in osteoporotic patients. To meet the unmet need for better bone cement for cannulated pedicle-screw fixation, a new injectable and biodegradable nanocomposite that was the first of its kind was designed and developed in the present study. The calcium phosphate-based nanocomposite (CPN) exhibited better anti-pullout ability and similar fluidity and dispersing ability compared to clinically used PMMA, and outperformed conventional calcium phosphate cement (CPC) in all types of mechanical properties, injectability, and biodegradability. In term of axial pullout strength, the CPN-augmented cannulated screw reached the highest force of ~120 N, which was higher than that of PMMA (~100 N) and CPC (~95 N). The compressive strength of the CPN (50 MPa) was three times that of CPC, and the injectability of the CPN reached 95%. In vivo tests on rat femur revealed explicit biodegradation of the CPN and subsequent bone ingrowth after 8 weeks. The promising results for the CPN clearly suggest its potential for replacing PMMA in the application of cannulated pedicle-screw fixation and its worth of further study and development for clinical uses. PMID:28490878

  15. Electrochemical Sensing of Casein Based on the Interaction between Its Phosphate Groups and a Ruthenium(III) Complex.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Iku; Kuramitz, Hideki; Sugawara, Kazuharu

    2016-01-01

    A reaction to casein, along with β-lactoglobulin, is a main cause of milk allergies, and also is a useful indicator of protein in allergic analyses. In the present study, a simple casein sensor was developed based on the interaction between a phosphate group of casein and electroactive [Ru(NH3)6](3+). We evaluated the voltammetric behavior of a casein-[Ru(NH3)6](3+) complex using a glassy carbon electrode. When the ruthenium(III) complex was combined with the phosphate groups of casein, the structure of the casein was changed. Since the hydrophobicity of casein was increased due to the binding, the casein was adsorbed onto the electrode. Furthermore, we modified an electrode with a ruthenium(III) ions/collagen film. When the sensor was applied to the detection of the casein contained in milk, the values coincided with those indicated by the manufacturer. Accordingly, this electrode could be a powerful sensor for the determination of casein in several foods.

  16. Oxidized zirconium on ceramic; Catastrophic coupling.

    PubMed

    Ozden, V E; Saglam, N; Dikmen, G; Tozun, I R

    2017-02-01

    Oxidized zirconium (Oxinium™; Smith & Nephew, Memphis, TN, USA) articulated with polyethylene in total hip arthroplasty (THA) appeared to have the potential to reduce wear dramatically. The thermally oxidized metal zirconium surface is transformed into ceramic-like hard surface that is resistant to abrasion. The exposure of soft zirconium metal under hard coverage surface after the damage of oxidized zirconium femoral head has been described. It occurred following joint dislocation or in situ succeeding disengagement of polyethylene liner. We reported three cases of misuse of Oxinium™ (Smith & Nephew, Memphis, TN, USA) heads. These three cases resulted in catastrophic in situ wear and inevitable failure although there was no advice, indication or recommendation for this use from the manufacturer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of surface treatment and type of cement on push-out bond strength of zirconium oxide posts.

    PubMed

    Almufleh, Balqees S; Aleisa, Khalil I; Morgano, Steven M

    2014-10-01

    The effect of the surface treatment of zirconium oxide posts on their push-out bond strength is controversial. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 2 surface treatments on the bond strength of zirconium oxide posts cemented with different cements and to assess the failure mode. Seventy extracted human teeth were divided into 7 groups (n=10). Custom zirconium oxide posts (Cercon; Degudent) were fabricated for 6 groups. Posts in 3 groups were airborne-particle abraded (A). Posts in the other 3 groups were tribochemical silica coated (T). Three cements were used. Zinc phosphate cement was used to cement the zirconium oxide posts in groups AZ and TZ, RelyX ARC cement was used in groups ARA and TRA, and RelyX Unicem cement was used in groups ARU and TRU. Group C contained custom metal posts cemented with zinc phosphate cement. Specimens were horizontally sectioned into 3 sections and subjected to a push-out test. A mixed model analysis of variance, 1-way ANOVA, and the Tukey multiple comparison tests were used for statistical analysis. The highest push-out bond strength was recorded for Group ARU (21.03 MPa), and the lowest was recorded for Group ARA (7.57 MPa). No significant difference in push-out bond strength was found among the different surface treatments and root regions (P>.05). The type of cement had a significant effect on the push-out bond strength of zirconium oxide posts (P=.049). RelyX Unicem cement recorded (19.57 ±8.83 MPa) significantly higher push-out bond strength compared with zinc phosphate (9.95 ±6.31 MPa) and RelyX ARC cements (9.39 ±5.45 MPa). Adhesive failure at the post-cement interface was recorded for 75% of the posts cemented with zinc phosphate and RelyX ARC cements, while mixed failure was recorded for 75% of the posts cemented with RelyX Unicem cement. The type of cement used resulted in a statistically significant difference in the push-out bond strength of zirconium oxide posts, while both the surface treatment

  18. {sup 99m}Tc generators for clinical use based on zirconium molybdate gel and (n, gamma) produced {sup 99}Mo: Indian experience in the development and deployment of indigenous technology and processing facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Saraswathy, P.; Dey, A.C.; Sarkar, S.K.

    The Indian pursuit of gel generator technology for {sup 99m}Tc was driven mainly by three considerations, namely, (i) well-established and ease of reliable production of (n, gamma)-based {sup 99}Mo in several tens of GBq quantities in the research reactors in Trombay/Mumbai, India, (ii) need for relatively low-cost alternate technology to replace the solvent (MEK) extraction generator system in use in India since 1970s and (iii) minimize dependency on weekly import of fission-produced {sup 99}Mo raw material required for alumina column generator. Extensive investigations on process standardisation for zirconium molybdate gel (ZMG) led to a steady progress, achieved both in termsmore » of process technology and final performance of {sup 99m}Tc gel generators. The {sup 99m}Tc final product purity from the Indian gel system was comparable to that obtained from the gold-standard alumina column generators. Based on the feasibility established for reliable small-scale production, as well as satisfactory clinical experience with a number of gel generators used in collaborating hospital radiopharmacies, full-fledged mechanised processing facilities for handling up to 150 g of ZMG were set up. The indigenous design and development included setting up of shielded plant facilities with pneumatic-driven as well as manual controls and special gadgets such as, microwave heating of the zirconium molybdate cake, dispenser for gel granules, loading of gel columns into pre-assembled generator housing etc. Formal review of the safety features was carried out by the regulatory body and stage-wise clearance for processing low and medium level {sup 99}Mo activity was granted. Starting from around 70 GBq {sup 99}Mo handling, the processing facilities have since been successfully operated at a level of 740 GBq {sup 99}Mo, twice a month. In all 18 batches of gel have been processed and 156 generators produced. The individual generator capacity was 15 to 30 GBq with an elution yield of

  19. Corrosion Behavior of PEO Coatings Formed on AZ31 Alloy in Phosphate-Based Electrolytes with Calcium Acetate Additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziyaei, E.; Atapour, M.; Edris, H.; Hakimizad, A.

    2017-07-01

    The PEO coating started on magnesium AZ31 using a unipolar DC power source. The coating was generated in the electrolyte based on Na3PO4·12H2O and KOH with calcium acetate as additive. The x-ray diffraction method showed some phases containing calcium and phosphate, which was created in the presence of additive. Also, the EDS tests of the sample's surfaces proved the existence of calcium on the surface. Based on the electrochemical tests results, the most corrosion resistance belongs to the sample with calcium acetate additive. In fact, the results of the EIS tests showed the coating with calcium acetate has the highest resistance but the lowest capacitance. However, this state belongs to the surface morphology, the lower porosity, and surface chemical composition.

  20. An advanced lithium-ion battery based on a graphene anode and a lithium iron phosphate cathode.

    PubMed

    Hassoun, Jusef; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Agostini, Marco; Angelucci, Marco; Betti, Maria Grazia; Cingolani, Roberto; Gemmi, Mauro; Mariani, Carlo; Panero, Stefania; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Scrosati, Bruno

    2014-08-13

    We report an advanced lithium-ion battery based on a graphene ink anode and a lithium iron phosphate cathode. By carefully balancing the cell composition and suppressing the initial irreversible capacity of the anode in the round of few cycles, we demonstrate an optimal battery performance in terms of specific capacity, that is, 165 mAhg(-1), of an estimated energy density of about 190 Wh kg(-1) and a stable operation for over 80 charge-discharge cycles. The components of the battery are low cost and potentially scalable. To the best of our knowledge, complete, graphene-based, lithium ion batteries having performances comparable with those offered by the present technology are rarely reported; hence, we believe that the results disclosed in this work may open up new opportunities for exploiting graphene in the lithium-ion battery science and development.

  1. METHOD OF IMPROVING CORROSION RESISTANCE OF ZIRCONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Shannon, D.W.

    1961-03-28

    An improved intermediate rinse for zirconium counteracts an anomalous deposit that often results in crevices and outof-the-way places when ordinary water is used to rinse away a strong fluoride etching solution designed to promote passivation of the metal. The intermediate rinse, which is used after the etching solution and before the water, is characterized by a complexing agent for fluoride ions such as aluminum or zirconium nitrates or chlorides.

  2. DISSOLUTION OF ZIRCONIUM AND ALLOYS THEREFOR

    DOEpatents

    Swanson, J.L.

    1961-07-11

    The dissolution of zirconium cladding in a water solution of ammonium fluoride and ammonium nitrate is described. The method finds particular utility in processing spent fuel elements for nuclear reactors. The zirconium cladding is first dissolved in a water solution of ammonium fluoride and ammonium nitrate; insoluble uranium and plutonium fiuorides formed by attack of the solvent on the fuel materiai of the fuel element are then separated from the solution, and the fuel materiai is dissolved in another solution.

  3. Fabrication of β-tricalcium phosphate composite ceramic sphere-based scaffolds with hierarchical pore structure for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    He, Fupo; Qian, Guowen; Ren, Weiwei; Li, Jiyan; Fan, Peirong; Shi, Haishan; Shi, Xuetao; Deng, Xin; Wu, Shanghua; Ye, Jiandong

    2017-04-24

    Polymer sphere-based scaffolds, which are prepared by bonding the adjacent spheres via sintering the randomly packed spheres, feature uniform pore structure, full three-dimensional (3D) interconnection, and considerable mechanical strength. However, bioceramic sphere-based scaffolds fabricated by this method have never been reported. Due to high melting temperature of bioceramic, only limited diffusion rate can be achieved when sintering the bioceramic spheres, which is far from enough to form robust bonding between spheres. In the present study, for the first time we fabricated 3D interconnected β-tricalcium phosphate ceramic sphere-based (PG/TCP) scaffolds by introducing phosphate-based glass (PG) as sintering additive and placing uniaxial pressure during the sintering process. The sintering mechanism of PG/TCP scaffolds was unveiled. The PG/TCP scaffolds had hierarchical pore structure, which was composed by interconnected macropores (>200 μm) among spheres, pores (20–120 μm) in the interior of spheres, and micropores (1–3 μm) among the grains. During the sintering process, partial PG reacted with β-TCP, forming β-Ca2P2O7; metal ions from PG substituted to Ca2+ sites of β-TCP. The mechanical properties (compressive strength 2.8–10.6 MPa; compressive modulus 190–620 MPa) and porosity (30%–50%) of scaffolds could be tailored by manipulating the sintering temperatures. The introduction of PG accelerated in vitro degradation of scaffolds, and the PG/TCP scaffolds showed good cytocompatibility. This work may offer a new strategy to prepare bioceramic scaffolds with satisfactory physicochemical properties for application in bone regeneration.

  4. Microstereolithography-Based Fabrication of Anatomically Shaped Beta-Tricalcium Phosphate Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Du, Dajiang; Asaoka, Teruo; Shinohara, Makoto; Kageyama, Tomonori; Ushida, Takashi; Furukawa, Katsuko Sakai

    2015-01-01

    Porous ceramic scaffolds with shapes matching the bone defects may result in more efficient grafting and healing than the ones with simple geometries. Using computer-assisted microstereolithography (MSTL), we have developed a novel gelcasting indirect MSTL technology and successfully fabricated two scaffolds according to CT images of rabbit femur. Negative resin molds with outer 3D dimensions conforming to the femur and an internal structure consisting of stacked meshes with uniform interconnecting struts, 0.5 mm in diameter, were fabricated by MSTL. The second mold type was designed for cortical bone formation. A ceramic slurry of beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) with room temperature vulcanization (RTV) silicone as binder was cast into the molds. After the RTV silicone was completely cured, the composite was sintered at 1500°C for 5 h. Both gross anatomical shape and the interpenetrating internal network were preserved after sintering. Even cortical structure could be introduced into the customized scaffolds, which resulted in enhanced strength. Biocompatibility was confirmed by vital staining of rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells cultured on the customized scaffolds for 5 days. This fabrication method could be useful for constructing bone substitutes specifically designed according to local anatomical defects. PMID:26504839

  5. Gallium incorporation into phosphate based glasses: Bulk and thin film properties.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Bryan W; Grant, Colin A; Stan, George E; Popa, Adrian C; Titman, Jeremy J; Grant, David M

    2018-06-01

    The osteogenic ions Ca 2+ , P 5+ , Mg 2+ , and antimicrobial ion Ga 3+ were homogenously dispersed into a 1.45 µm thick phosphate glass coating by plasma assisted sputtering onto commercially pure grade titanium. The objective was to deliver therapeutic ions in orthopaedic/dental implants such as cementeless endoprostheses or dental screws. The hardness 4.7 GPa and elastic modulus 69.7 GPa, of the coating were comparable to plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite/dental enamel, whilst superseding femoral cortical bone. To investigate the manufacturing challenge of translation from a target to vapour condensed coating, structural/compositional properties of the target (P51MQ) were compared to the coating (P40PVD) and a melt-quenched equivalent (P40MQ). Following condensation from P51MQ to P40PVD, P 2 O 5 content reduced from 48.9 to 40.5 mol%. This depolymerisation and reduction in the P-O-P bridging oxygen content as determined by 31 P NMR, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy techniques was attributed to a decrease in the P 2 O 5 network former and increases in alkali/alkali-earth cations. P40PVD appeared denser (3.47 vs. 2.70 g cm -3 ) and more polymerised than it's compositionally equivalent P40MQ, showing that structure/ mechanical properties were affected by manufacturing route. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Voltammetric Determination of the Herbicide Linuron Using a Tricresyl Phosphate-Based Carbon Paste Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Đorđević, Jelena; Papp, Zsigmond; Guzsvány, Valéria; Švancara, Ivan; Trtić-Petrović, Tatjana; Purenović, Milovan; Vytřas, Karel

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarises the results of voltammetric studies on the herbicide 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1-methoxy-1-methylurea (Linuron), using a carbon paste electrode containing tricresyl phosphate (TCP-CPE) as liquid binder. The principal experimental conditions, such as the pH effect, investigated in Britton-Robinson buffer solutions (pH 2.0–7.0), the peak characteristics for the analyte of interest, or instrumental parameters for the differential pulse voltammetric mode were optimized for the method. As found out, the best electroanalytical performance of the TCP-CPE was achieved at pH 2.0, whereby the oxidation peak of Linuron appeared at ca. +1.3 V vs. SCE. The analytical procedure developed offers good linearity in the concentration range of 1.25–44.20 μg mL−1 (1.77 × 10−4–5.05 × 10−6 mol L−1), showing—for the first time—the applicability of the TCP-CPE for anodic oxidations in direct voltammetry (without accumulation). The method was then verified by determining Linuron in a spiked river water sample and a commercial formulation and the results obtained agreed well with those obtained by the reference HPLC/UV determination. PMID:22368461

  7. Design and development of novel MRI compatible zirconium- ruthenium alloys with ultralow magnetic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Li, H F; Zhou, F Y; Li, L; Zheng, Y F

    2016-04-19

    In the present study, novel MRI compatible zirconium-ruthenium alloys with ultralow magnetic susceptibility were developed for biomedical and therapeutic devices under MRI diagnostics environments. The results demonstrated that alloying with ruthenium into pure zirconium would significantly increase the strength and hardness properties. The corrosion resistance of zirconium-ruthenium alloys increased significantly. High cell viability could be found and healthy cell morphology observed when culturing MG 63 osteoblast-like cells and L-929 fibroblast cells with zirconium-ruthenium alloys, whereas the hemolysis rates of zirconium-ruthenium alloys are <1%, much lower than 5%, the safe value for biomaterials according to ISO 10993-4 standard. Compared with conventional biomedical 316L stainless steel, Co-Cr alloys and Ti-based alloys, the magnetic susceptibilities of the zirconium-ruthenium alloys (1.25 × 10(-6) cm(3)·g(-1)-1.29 × 10(-6) cm(3)·g(-1) for zirconium-ruthenium alloys) are ultralow, about one-third that of Ti-based alloys (Ti-6Al-4V, ~3.5 × 10(-6) cm(3)·g(-1), CP Ti and Ti-6Al-7Nb, ~3.0 × 10(-6) cm(3)·g(-1)), and one-sixth that of Co-Cr alloys (Co-Cr-Mo, ~7.7 × 10(-6) cm(3)·g(-1)). Among the Zr-Ru alloy series, Zr-1Ru demonstrates enhanced mechanical properties, excellent corrosion resistance and cell viability with lowest magnetic susceptibility, and thus is the optimal Zr-Ru alloy system as therapeutic devices under MRI diagnostics environments.

  8. Design and development of novel MRI compatible zirconium- ruthenium alloys with ultralow magnetic susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Li, H.F.; Zhou, F.Y.; Li, L.; Zheng, Y.F.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, novel MRI compatible zirconium-ruthenium alloys with ultralow magnetic susceptibility were developed for biomedical and therapeutic devices under MRI diagnostics environments. The results demonstrated that alloying with ruthenium into pure zirconium would significantly increase the strength and hardness properties. The corrosion resistance of zirconium-ruthenium alloys increased significantly. High cell viability could be found and healthy cell morphology observed when culturing MG 63 osteoblast-like cells and L-929 fibroblast cells with zirconium-ruthenium alloys, whereas the hemolysis rates of zirconium-ruthenium alloys are <1%, much lower than 5%, the safe value for biomaterials according to ISO 10993-4 standard. Compared with conventional biomedical 316L stainless steel, Co–Cr alloys and Ti-based alloys, the magnetic susceptibilities of the zirconium-ruthenium alloys (1.25 × 10−6 cm3·g−1–1.29 × 10−6 cm3·g−1 for zirconium-ruthenium alloys) are ultralow, about one-third that of Ti-based alloys (Ti–6Al–4V, ~3.5 × 10−6 cm3·g−1, CP Ti and Ti–6Al–7Nb, ~3.0 × 10−6 cm3·g−1), and one-sixth that of Co–Cr alloys (Co–Cr–Mo, ~7.7 × 10−6 cm3·g−1). Among the Zr–Ru alloy series, Zr–1Ru demonstrates enhanced mechanical properties, excellent corrosion resistance and cell viability with lowest magnetic susceptibility, and thus is the optimal Zr–Ru alloy system as therapeutic devices under MRI diagnostics environments. PMID:27090955

  9. Flexible, Low-Cost Sensor Based on Electrolyte Gated Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistor for Organo-Phosphate Detection

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Vijay Deep; Joshi, Saumya; Becherer, Markus; Lugli, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    A flexible enzymatic acetylcholinesterase biosensor based on an electrolyte-gated carbon nanotube field effect transistor is demonstrated. The enzyme immobilization is done on a planar gold gate electrode using 3-mercapto propionic acid as the linker molecule. The sensor showed good sensing capability as a sensor for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, with a sensitivity of 5.7 μA/decade, and demonstrated excellent specificity when tested against interfering analytes present in the body. As the flexible sensor is supposed to suffer mechanical deformations, the endurance of the sensor was measured by putting it under extensive mechanical stress. The enzymatic activity was inhibited by more than 70% when the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) buffer was spiked with 5 mg/mL malathion (an organophosphate) solution. The biosensor was successfully challenged with tap water and strawberry juice, demonstrating its usefulness as an analytical tool for organophosphate detection. PMID:28524071

  10. Development of Amidine-Based Sphingosine Kinase 1 Nanomolar Inhibitors and Reduction of Sphingosine 1-Phosphate in Human Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Andrew J.; Mathews, Thomas P.; Kharel, Yugesh; Field, Saundra D.; Moyer, Morgan L.; East, James E.; Houck, Joseph D.; Lynch, Kevin R.; Macdonald, Timothy L.

    2011-01-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid that has been identified as an accelerant of cancer progression. The sphingosine kinases (SphKs) are the sole producers of S1P and thus SphK inhibitors may prove effective in cancer mitigation and chemosensitization. Of the two SphKs, SphK1 overexpression has been observed in a myriad of cancer cell lines and tissues, and has been recognized as the presumptive target over that of the poorly characterized SphK2. Herein, we present the design and synthesis of amidine-based nanomolar SphK1 subtype-selective inhibitors. A homology model of SphK1, trained with this library of amidine inhibitors, was then used to predict the activity of additional, more potent, inhibitors. Lastly, select amidine inhibitors were validated in human leukemia U937 cells, where they significantly reduced endogenous S1P levels at nanomolar concentrations. PMID:21495716

  11. Optical spectroscopy, 1.06μm emission properties of Nd3+-doped phosphate based glasses.

    PubMed

    Sk Nayab, Rasool; T, Sasikala; A, Mohan Babu; L, Rama Moorthy; C K, Jayasankar

    2017-06-05

    Neodymium doped phosphate based glasses with composition of (P 2 O 5 +K 2 O+Al 2 O 3 +CaF 2 ) were prepared. The samples were analysed through differential thermal analysis (DTA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), absorption, emission and decay measurements. Judd-Ofelt parameters (Ω λ ) have been determined from the spectral intensities of absorption bands in order to calculate the radiative parameters like radiative transition probabilities (A R ), radiative lifetime (τ R ) and branching ratios (β R ) for the 4 F 3/2 → 4 I 11/2 laser transition of Nd 3+ ion. The effective emission bandwidths (Δλ eff ), experimental branching ratios (β exp ) and stimulated emission cross-sections (σ e ) have been determined from the emission spectrum. The decay curves of the 4 F 3/2 level exhibited almost single exponential nature for all the Nd 3+ ion concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Optical spectroscopy, 1.06 μm emission properties of Nd3 +-doped phosphate based glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sk. Nayab, Rasool; Sasikala, T.; Mohan Babu, A.; Rama Moorthy, L.; C. K., Jayasankar

    2017-06-01

    Neodymium doped phosphate based glasses with composition of (P2O5 + K2O + Al2O3 + CaF2) were prepared. The samples were analysed through differential thermal analysis (DTA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), absorption, emission and decay measurements. Judd-Ofelt parameters (Ωλ) have been determined from the spectral intensities of absorption bands in order to calculate the radiative parameters like radiative transition probabilities (AR), radiative lifetime (τR) and branching ratios (βR) for the 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 laser transition of Nd3 + ion. The effective emission bandwidths (Δλeff), experimental branching ratios (βexp) and stimulated emission cross-sections (σe) have been determined from the emission spectrum. The decay curves of the 4F3/2 level exhibited almost single exponential nature for all the Nd3 + ion concentrations.

  13. Structural and dynamical studies of acid-mediated conversion in amorphous-calcium-phosphate based dental composites

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fan; Allen, Andrew J.; Levine, Lyle E.

    Our objective was to investigate the complex structural and dynamical conversion process of the amorphous-calcium-phosphate (ACP)-to-apatite transition in ACP based dental composite materials. Composite disks were prepared using zirconia hybridized ACP fillers (0.4 mass fraction) and photo-activated Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin (0.6 mass fraction). We performed an investigation of the solution-mediated ACP-to-apatite conversion mechanism in controlled acidic aqueous environment with in situ ultra-small angle X-ray scattering based coherent X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and ex situ X-ray diffraction, as well as other complementary techniques. We established that the ACP-to-apatite conversion in ACP composites is a two-step process, owing to the sensitivity to localmore » structural changes provided by coherent X-rays. Initially, ACP undergoes a local microstructural rearrangement without losing its amorphous character. We established the catalytic role of the acid and found the time scale of this rearrangement strongly depends on the pH of the solution, which agrees with previous findings about ACP without the polymer matrix being present. In the second step, ACP is converted to an apatitic form with the crystallinity of the formed crystallites being poor. Separately, we also confirmed that in the regular Zr-modified ACP the rate of ACP conversion to hydroxyapatite is slowed significantly compared to unmodified ACP, which is beneficial for targeted slow release of functional calcium and phosphate ions from dental composite materials. Significantly, for the first time, we were able to follow the complete solution-mediated transition process from ACP to apatite in this class of dental composites in a controlled aqueous environment. A two-step process, suggested previously, was conclusively identified.« less

  14. Structural and dynamical studies of acid-mediated conversion in amorphous-calcium-phosphate based dental composites

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Fan; Allen, Andrew J.; Levine, Lyle E.; ...

    2014-07-28

    Our objective was to investigate the complex structural and dynamical conversion process of the amorphous-calcium-phosphate (ACP)-to-apatite transition in ACP based dental composite materials. Composite disks were prepared using zirconia hybridized ACP fillers (0.4 mass fraction) and photo-activated Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin (0.6 mass fraction). We performed an investigation of the solution-mediated ACP-to-apatite conversion mechanism in controlled acidic aqueous environment with in situ ultra-small angle X-ray scattering based coherent X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and ex situ X-ray diffraction, as well as other complementary techniques. We established that the ACP-to-apatite conversion in ACP composites is a two-step process, owing to the sensitivity to localmore » structural changes provided by coherent X-rays. Initially, ACP undergoes a local microstructural rearrangement without losing its amorphous character. We established the catalytic role of the acid and found the time scale of this rearrangement strongly depends on the pH of the solution, which agrees with previous findings about ACP without the polymer matrix being present. In the second step, ACP is converted to an apatitic form with the crystallinity of the formed crystallites being poor. Separately, we also confirmed that in the regular Zr-modified ACP the rate of ACP conversion to hydroxyapatite is slowed significantly compared to unmodified ACP, which is beneficial for targeted slow release of functional calcium and phosphate ions from dental composite materials. Significantly, for the first time, we were able to follow the complete solution-mediated transition process from ACP to apatite in this class of dental composites in a controlled aqueous environment. A two-step process, suggested previously, was conclusively identified.« less

  15. The comparison of phosphate-titanate-silicate layers on the titanium and Ti6Al4V alloy base.

    PubMed

    Rokita, M

    2011-08-15

    The studied layers were composed of two parts: titanate-silicate underlayer for better adhesion and titanate-phosphate-silicate layers for potential bioparameters. The layers with different amounts of hydroxyapatite were deposited on titanium and Ti6Al4V alloy substrates using dipping sol-gel method and electrophoresis. The selection of sol/suspension composition, deposition time and heat treatment conditions have the decisive influence on the layers parameters. The obtained layers should be very thin and almost amorphous. The specific nature of ceramic layers on the metal substrates excludes the use of some measurements methods or makes it difficult to interpret the measurement results. All the obtained samples were compared using XRD analysis data (GID technique), SEM with EDX measurements and FTIR spectroscopy (transmission and reflection techniques) before and after soaking in simulated body fluid. FTIR spectroscopy with mathematical treatment of the spectra (BIO-RAD Win-IR program, Arithmetic-subtract function) was used to detect the increase or decrease of any phosphate phases during SBF soaking. Based on the FTIR results the processes of hydroxyapatite (HAp) growth or layer dissolution were estimated. The layers deposited on titanium substrate are more crystalline then the ones deposited on Ti6Al4V. During SBF soaking process the growth of small amount of microcrystalline carbonate hydroxyapatite was observed on titanium substrate. The layer on Ti6Al4V base contained amorphous carbonate apatite. During heating treatment above about 870-920 K this apatite transforms into carbonate hydroxyapatite. The Ti6Al4V substrate seems to be more advantageous in context of potentially bioactive materials obtaining. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The comparison of phosphate-titanate-silicate layers on the titanium and Ti6Al4V alloy base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokita, M.

    2011-08-01

    The studied layers were composed of two parts: titanate-silicate underlayer for better adhesion and titanate-phosphate-silicate layers for potential bioparameters. The layers with different amounts of hydroxyapatite were deposited on titanium and Ti6Al4V alloy substrates using dipping sol-gel method and electrophoresis. The selection of sol/suspension composition, deposition time and heat treatment conditions have the decisive influence on the layers parameters. The obtained layers should be very thin and almost amorphous. The specific nature of ceramic layers on the metal substrates excludes the use of some measurements methods or makes it difficult to interpret the measurement results. All the obtained samples were compared using XRD analysis data (GID technique), SEM with EDX measurements and FTIR spectroscopy (transmission and reflection techniques) before and after soaking in simulated body fluid. FTIR spectroscopy with mathematical treatment of the spectra (BIO-RAD Win-IR program, Arithmetic-subtract function) was used to detect the increase or decrease of any phosphate phases during SBF soaking. Based on the FTIR results the processes of hydroxyapatite (HAp) growth or layer dissolution were estimated. The layers deposited on titanium substrate are more crystalline then the ones deposited on Ti6Al4V. During SBF soaking process the growth of small amount of microcrystalline carbonate hydroxyapatite was observed on titanium substrate. The layer on Ti6Al4V base contained amorphous carbonate apatite. During heating treatment above about 870-920 K this apatite transforms into carbonate hydroxyapatite. The Ti6Al4V substrate seems to be more advantageous in context of potentially bioactive materials obtaining.

  17. Structural and dynamical studies of acid-mediated conversion in amorphous-calcium-phosphate based dental composites

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Allen, Andrew J.; Levine, Lyle E.; Vaudin, Mark D.; Skrtic, Drago; Antonucci, Joseph M.; Hoffman, Kathleen M.; Giuseppetti, Anthony A.; Ilavsky, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the complex structural and dynamical conversion process of the amorphous-calcium-phosphate (ACP) -to-apatite transition in ACP based dental composite materials. Methods Composite disks were prepared using zirconia hybridized ACP fillers (0.4 mass fraction) and photo-activated Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin (0.6 mass fraction). We performed an investigation of the solution-mediated ACP-to-apatite conversion mechanism in controlled acidic aqueous environment with in situ ultra-small angle X-ray scattering based coherent X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and ex situ X-ray diffraction, as well as other complementary techniques. Results We established that the ACP-to-apatite conversion in ACP composites is a two-step process, owing to the sensitivity to local structural changes provided by coherent X-rays. Initially, ACP undergoes a local microstructural rearrangement without losing its amorphous character. We established the catalytic role of the acid and found the time scale of this rearrangement strongly depends on the pH of the solution, which agrees with previous findings about ACP without the polymer matrix being present. In the second step, ACP is converted to an apatitic form with the crystallinity of the formed crystallites being poor. Separately, we also confirmed that in the regular Zr-modified ACP the rate of ACP conversion to hydroxyapatite is slowed significantly compared to unmodified ACP, which is beneficial for targeted slow release of functional calcium and phosphate ions from dental composite materials. Significance For the first time, we were able to follow the complete solution-mediated transition process from ACP to apatite in this class of dental composites in a controlled aqueous environment. A two-step process, suggested previously, was conclusively identified. PMID:25082155

  18. Zirconium-based highly porous metal-organic framework (MOF-545) as an efficient adsorbent for vortex assisted-solid phase extraction of lead from cereal, beverage and water samples.

    PubMed

    Tokalıoğlu, Şerife; Yavuz, Emre; Demir, Selçuk; Patat, Şaban

    2017-12-15

    In this study, zirconium-based highly porous metal-organic framework, MOF-545, was synthesized and characterized. The surface area of MOF-545 was found to be 2192m 2 /g. This adsorbent was used for the first time as an adsorbent for the vortex assisted-solid phase extraction of Pb(II) from cereal, beverage and water samples. Lead in solutions was determined by FAAS. The optimal experimental conditions were as follows: the amount of MOF-545, 10mg; pH of sample, 7; adsorption and elution time, 15min; and elution solvent, 2mL of 1molL -1 HCl. Under the optimal conditions of the method, the limit of detection, preconcentration factor and precision as RSD% were found to be 1.78μgL -1 , 125 and 2.6%, respectively. The adsorption capacity of the adsorbent for lead was found to be 73mgg -1 . The method was successfully verified by analyzing two certified reference materials (BCR-482 Lichen and SPS-WW1 Batch 114) and spiked chickpea, bean, wheat, lentil, cherry juice, mineral water, well water and wastewater samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Optical and luminescence properties of Dy3+ ions in phosphate based glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasool, Sk. Nayab; Rama Moorthy, L.; Jayasankar, C. K.

    2013-08-01

    Phosphate glasses with compositions of 44P2O5 + 17K2O + 9Al2O3 + (30 - x)CaF2 + xDy2O3 (x = 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 mol %) were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), optical absorption, emission and decay measurements. The observed absorption bands were analyzed by using the free-ion Hamiltonian (HFI) model. The Judd-Ofelt (JO) analysis has been performed and the intensity parameters (Ωλ, λ = 2, 4, 6) were evaluated in order to predict the radiative properties of the excited states. From the emission spectra, the effective band widths (Δλeff), stimulated emission cross-sections (σ(λp)), yellow to blue (Y/B) intensity ratios and chromaticity color coordinates (x, y) have been determined. The fluorescence decays from the 4F9/2 level of Dy3+ ions were measured by monitoring the intense 4F9/2 → 6H15/2 transition (486 nm). The experimental lifetimes (τexp) are found to decrease with the increase of Dy3+ ions concentration due to the quenching process. The decay curves are perfectly single exponential at lower concentrations and gradually changes to non-exponential for higher concentrations. The non-exponential decay curves are well fitted to the Inokuti-Hirayama (IH) model for S = 6, which indicates that the energy transfer between the donor and acceptor is of dipole-dipole type. The systematic analysis of revealed that the energy transfer mechanism strongly depends on Dy3+ ions concentration and the host glass composition.

  20. Synthesis, Characterization and Applications of Ethyl Cellulose-Based Polymeric Calcium(II) Hydrogen Phosphate Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Faruq; Arfin, Tanvir; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A.

    2018-03-01

    The present report deals with the synthesis, characterization and testing of an ethyl cellulose-calcium(II) hydrogen phosphate (EC-CaHPO4) composite, where a sol-gel synthesis method was applied for the preparation of the composite so as to test its efficacy towards the electrochemical, biological, and adsorption related applications. The physical properties of the composite were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet- visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, and fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. On testing, the mechanical properties indicated that the composite is highly stable due to the cross-linked rigid framework and the enhanced interactions offered by the EC polymer supported for its binding very effectively. In addition, the conductivity of EC-CaHPO4 is completely governed by the transport mechanism where the electrolyte concentration has preference towards the adsorption of ions and the variations in the conductivity significantly affected the material's performance. We observed an increasing order of KCl > NaCl for the conductivity when 1:1 electrolytes were applied. Further, the material was tested for its usefulness towards the purification of industrial waste waters by removing harmful metal ions from the samples collected near the Aligarh city, India where the data indicates that the material has highest affinity towards Pb2+, Cu2+, Ni2+ and Fe3+ metal ions. Finally, the biological efficiency of the material was confirmed by means of testing the antibacterial activity against two gram positive (staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus thuringiensis) and two gram negative bacteriums (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Patoea dispersa). Thus, from the cumulative study of outcomes, it indicates that the EC-CaHPO4 composite found to serve as a potential smart biomaterial due to its efficiency in many different applications that includes the electrical conductivity, adsorption capability, and antimicrobial activity.

  1. Nanoscale Zirconium-(oxyhydr)oxide in Contaminated Sediments From Hanford, WA - A New Host for Uranium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubbs, J. E.; Elbert, D. C.; Veblen, L. A.; Zachara, J. M.; Davis, J. A.; Veblen, D. R.

    2008-12-01

    Zirconium-, uranium-, and copper-bearing wastes have leached from former disposal ponds into vadose zone sediments in the 300 Area at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Zirconium is enriched in the shallow portion of the vadose zone, and we have discovered an amorphous Zr-(oxyhydr)oxide that contains 16% of the total uranium budget (84.24 ppm) in one of the shallow samples. We have characterized the oxide using electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), a focused ion beam (FIB) instrument, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It occurs in fine-grained coatings found on lithic and mineral fragments in these sediments. The oxide is intimately intergrown with the phyllosilicates and other minerals of the coatings, and in places can be seen coating individual, nano-sized phyllosilicate mineral grains. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) shows that the Zr-(oxyhydr)oxide has a P:Zr atomic ratio around 0.2, suggesting it is either intergrown with minor amounts of a Zr-phosphate or has adsorbed a significant amount of phosphate. This material has adsorbed or incorporated a substantial amount of uranium. Thus, understanding its nature is critical to predicting the long-term fate of U in the Hanford vadose zone. While the low-temperature uptake of U by Zr-(oxhydr)oxides and phosphates has been studied for several decades in laboratory settings, to our knowledge ours is the first report of such uptake in the field.

  2. New phosphate-based binder for stabilization of soils contaminated with heavy metals: leaching, strength and microstructure characterization.

    PubMed

    Du, Yan-Jun; Wei, Ming-Li; Reddy, Krishna R; Jin, Fei; Wu, Hao-Liang; Liu, Zhi-Bin

    2014-12-15

    ), scholzite (CaZn2(PO4)2·2H2O), zinc hydroxide (Zn(OH)2), and fluoropyromorphite (Pb5(PO4)3F) in the soils are the main mechanisms for immobilization of Zn and Pb with the KMP binder. The change in the relative quantities of the formed phosphate-based products, with respect to the Zn concentration and presence of mixed Zn and Pb contaminants, can well explain the measured impact of the Zn concentration levels and presence of both Zn and Pb contaminants on the unconfined compressive strength of the KMP stabilized soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Phosphate-based glass fiber vs. bulk glass: Change in fiber optical response to probe in vitro glass reactivity.

    PubMed

    Massera, J; Ahmed, I; Petit, L; Aallos, V; Hupa, L

    2014-04-01

    This paper investigates the effect of fiber drawing on the thermal and structural properties as well as on the glass reactivity of a phosphate glass in tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane-buffered (TRIS) solution and simulated body fluid (SBF). The changes induced in the thermal properties suggest that the fiber drawing process leads to a weakening and probable re-orientation of the POP bonds. Whereas the fiber drawing did not significantly impact the release of P and Ca, an increase in the release of Na into the solution was noticed. This was probably due to small structural reorientations occurring during the fiber drawing process and to a slight diffusion of Na to the fiber surface. Both the powders from the bulk and the glass fibers formed a Ca-P surface layer when immersed in SBF and TRIS. The layer thickness was higher in the calcium and phosphate supersaturated SBF than in TRIS. This paper for the first time presents the in vitro reactivity and optical response of a phosphate-based bioactive glass (PBG) fiber when immersed in SBF. The light intensity remained constant for the first 48h after which a decrease with three distinct slopes was observed: the first decrease between 48 and 200h of immersion could be correlated to the formation of the Ca-P layer at the fiber surface. After this a faster decrease in light transmission was observed from 200 to ~425h in SBF. SEM analysis suggested that after 200h, the surface of the fiber was fully covered by a thin Ca-P layer which is likely to scatter light. For immersion times longer than ~425h, the thickness of the Ca-P layer increased and thus acted as a barrier to the dissolution process limiting further reduction in light transmission. The tracking of light transmission through the PBG fiber allowed monitoring of the fiber dissolution in vitro. These results are essential in developing new bioactive fiber sensors that can be used to monitor bioresponse in situ. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Understanding the Irradiation Behavior of Zirconium Carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Motta, Arthur; Sridharan, Kumar; Morgan, Dane

    2013-10-11

    Zirconium carbide (ZrC) is being considered for utilization in high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuels in deep-burn TRISO fuel. Zirconium carbide possesses a cubic B1-type crystal structure with a high melting point, exceptional hardness, and good thermal and electrical conductivities. The use of ZrC as part of the TRISO fuel requires a thorough understanding of its irradiation response. However, the radiation effects on ZrC are still poorly understood. The majority of the existing research is focused on the radiation damage phenomena at higher temperatures (>450{degree}C) where many fundamental aspects of defect production and kinetics cannot be easily distinguished. Little is known aboutmore » basic defect formation, clustering, and evolution of ZrC under irradiation, although some atomistic simulation and phenomenological studies have been performed. Such detailed information is needed to construct a model describing the microstructural evolution in fast-neutron irradiated materials that will be of great technological importance for the development of ZrC-based fuel. The goal of the proposed project is to gain fundamental understanding of the radiation-induced defect formation in zirconium carbide and irradiation response by using a combination of state-of-the-art experimental methods and atomistic modeling. This project will combine (1) in situ ion irradiation at a specialized facility at a national laboratory, (2) controlled temperature proton irradiation on bulk samples, and (3) atomistic modeling to gain a fundamental understanding of defect formation in ZrC. The proposed project will cover the irradiation temperatures from cryogenic temperature to as high as 800{degree}C, and dose ranges from 0.1 to 100 dpa. The examination of this wide range of temperatures and doses allows us to obtain an experimental data set that can be effectively used to exercise and benchmark the computer calculations of defect properties. Combining the examination of radiation

  5. Artefacts in multimodal imaging of titanium, zirconium and binary titanium–zirconium alloy dental implants: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Schöllchen, Maximilian; Aarabi, Ghazal; Assaf, Alexandre T; Rendenbach, Carsten; Beck-Broichsitter, Benedicta; Semmusch, Jan; Sedlacik, Jan; Heiland, Max; Fiehler, Jens; Siemonsen, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze and evaluate imaging artefacts induced by zirconium, titanium and titanium–zirconium alloy dental implants. Methods: Zirconium, titanium and titanium–zirconium alloy implants were embedded in gelatin and MRI, CT and CBCT were performed. Standard protocols were used for each modality. For MRI, line–distance profiles were plotted to quantify the accuracy of size determination. For CT and CBCT, six shells surrounding the implant were defined every 0.5 cm from the implant surface and histogram parameters were determined for each shell. Results: While titanium and titanium–zirconium alloy induced extensive signal voids in MRI owing to strong susceptibility, zirconium implants were clearly definable with only minor distortion artefacts. For titanium and titanium–zirconium alloy, the MR signal was attenuated up to 14.1 mm from the implant. In CT, titanium and titanium–zirconium alloy resulted in less streak artefacts in comparison with zirconium. In CBCT, titanium–zirconium alloy induced more severe artefacts than zirconium and titanium. Conclusions: MRI allows for an excellent image contrast and limited artefacts in patients with zirconium implants. CT and CBCT examinations are less affected by artefacts from titanium and titanium–zirconium alloy implants compared with MRI. The knowledge about differences of artefacts through different implant materials and image modalities might help support clinical decisions for the choice of implant material or imaging device in the clinical setting. PMID:27910719

  6. Artefacts in multimodal imaging of titanium, zirconium and binary titanium-zirconium alloy dental implants: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Ralf; Schöllchen, Maximilian; Gauer, Tobias; Aarabi, Ghazal; Assaf, Alexandre T; Rendenbach, Carsten; Beck-Broichsitter, Benedicta; Semmusch, Jan; Sedlacik, Jan; Heiland, Max; Fiehler, Jens; Siemonsen, Susanne

    2017-02-01

    To analyze and evaluate imaging artefacts induced by zirconium, titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy dental implants. Zirconium, titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy implants were embedded in gelatin and MRI, CT and CBCT were performed. Standard protocols were used for each modality. For MRI, line-distance profiles were plotted to quantify the accuracy of size determination. For CT and CBCT, six shells surrounding the implant were defined every 0.5 cm from the implant surface and histogram parameters were determined for each shell. While titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy induced extensive signal voids in MRI owing to strong susceptibility, zirconium implants were clearly definable with only minor distortion artefacts. For titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy, the MR signal was attenuated up to 14.1 mm from the implant. In CT, titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy resulted in less streak artefacts in comparison with zirconium. In CBCT, titanium-zirconium alloy induced more severe artefacts than zirconium and titanium. MRI allows for an excellent image contrast and limited artefacts in patients with zirconium implants. CT and CBCT examinations are less affected by artefacts from titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy implants compared with MRI. The knowledge about differences of artefacts through different implant materials and image modalities might help support clinical decisions for the choice of implant material or imaging device in the clinical setting.

  7. Effect of boron oxide addition on the viscosity-temperature behaviour and structure of phosphate-based glasses.

    PubMed

    Sharmin, Nusrat; Hasan, Muhammad S; Rudd, Chris D; Boyd, Daniel; Werner-Zwanziger, Ulrike; Ahmed, Ifty; Parsons, Andrew J

    2017-05-01

    In this study, nine phosphate-based glass formulations from the system P 2 O 5 -CaO-Na 2 O-MgO-B 2 O 3 were prepared with P 2 O 5 content fixed as 40, 45 and 50 mol%, where Na 2 O was replaced by 5 and 10 mol% B 2 O 3 and MgO and CaO were fixed to 24 and 16 mol%, respectively. The effect of B 2 O 3 addition on the viscosity-temperature behaviour, fragility index and structure of the glasses was investigated. The composition of the glasses was confirmed by ICP-AES. The viscosity-temperature behaviour of the glasses were measured using beam-bending and parallel -plate viscometers. The viscosity of the glasses investigated was found to shift to higher temperature with increasing B 2 O 3 content. The kinetic fragility parameter, m and F 1/2 , estimated from the viscosity curve were found to decease with increasing B 2 O 3 content. The structural analysis was achieved by a combination of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance. 31 P solid-state magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) showed that the local structure of the glasses changes with increasing B 2 O 3 content. As B 2 O 3 was added to the glass systems, the phosphate connectivity increases as the as the Q 1 units transforms into Q 2 units. The 11 B NMR results confirmed the presence of tetrahedral boron (BO 4 ) units for all the compositions investigated. Structural analysis indicates an increasing level of cross-linking with increasing B 2 O 3 content. Evidence of the presence of P-O-B bonds was also observed from the FTIR and 31 P NMR analysis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 764-777, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Visual and Plasmon Resonance Absorption Sensor for Adenosine Triphosphate Based on the High Affinity between Phosphate and Zr(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Wenjing; Liu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Wei; Halawa, Mohamed Ibrahim; Xu, Guobao

    2016-01-01

    Zr(IV) can form phosphate and Zr(IV) (–PO32−–Zr4+–) complex owing to the high affinity between Zr(IV) with phosphate. Zr(IV) can induce the aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), while adenosine triphosphate(ATP) can prevent Zr(IV)-induced aggregation of AuNPs. Herein, a visual and plasmon resonance absorption (PRA)sensor for ATP have been developed using AuNPs based on the high affinity between Zr(IV)with ATP. AuNPs get aggregated in the presence of certain concentrations of Zr(IV). After the addition of ATP, ATP reacts with Zr(IV) and prevents AuNPs from aggregation, enabling the detection of ATP. Because of the fast interaction of ATP with Zr(IV), ATP can be detected with a detection limit of 0.5 μM within 2 min by the naked eye. Moreover, ATP can be detected by the PRA technique with higher sensitivity. The A520nm/A650nm values in PRA spectra increase linearly with the concentrations of ATP from 0.1 μM to 15 μM (r = 0.9945) with a detection limit of 28 nM. The proposed visual and PRA sensor exhibit good selectivity against adenosine, adenosine monophosphate, guanosine triphosphate, cytidine triphosphate and uridine triphosphate. The recoveries for the analysis of ATP in synthetic samples range from 95.3% to 102.0%. Therefore, the proposed novel sensor for ATP is promising for real-time or on-site detection of ATP. PMID:27754349

  9. Visual and Plasmon Resonance Absorption Sensor for Adenosine Triphosphate Based on the High Affinity between Phosphate and Zr(IV).

    PubMed

    Qi, Wenjing; Liu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Wei; Halawa, Mohamed Ibrahim; Xu, Guobao

    2016-10-12

    Zr(IV) can form phosphate and Zr(IV) (-PO₃ 2- -Zr 4+ -) complex owing to the high affinity between Zr(IV) with phosphate. Zr(IV) can induce the aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), while adenosine triphosphate(ATP) can prevent Zr(IV)-induced aggregation of AuNPs. Herein, a visual and plasmon resonance absorption (PRA)sensor for ATP have been developed using AuNPs based on the high affinity between Zr(IV)with ATP. AuNPs get aggregated in the presence of certain concentrations of Zr(IV). After the addition of ATP, ATP reacts with Zr(IV) and prevents AuNPs from aggregation, enabling the detection of ATP. Because of the fast interaction of ATP with Zr(IV), ATP can be detected with a detection limit of 0.5 μM within 2 min by the naked eye. Moreover, ATP can be detected by the PRA technique with higher sensitivity. The A 520nm / A 650nm values in PRA spectra increase linearly with the concentrations of ATP from 0.1 μM to 15 μM (r = 0.9945) with a detection limit of 28 nM. The proposed visual and PRA sensor exhibit good selectivity against adenosine, adenosine monophosphate, guanosine triphosphate, cytidine triphosphate and uridine triphosphate. The recoveries for the analysis of ATP in synthetic samples range from 95.3% to 102.0%. Therefore, the proposed novel sensor for ATP is promising for real-time or on-site detection of ATP.

  10. Effect of a bonding agent on in vitro biochemical activities of remineralizing resin-based calcium phosphate cements.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Sabine H; Flaim, Glenn M

    2008-09-01

    To test whether fluoride in a resin-based Ca-PO4 ion releasing cement or coating with an acidic bonding agent for improved adhesion compromised the cement remineralization potential. Cements were formulated without fluoride (Cement A) or with fluoride (Cement B). The treatment groups were A=Cement A; A2=Cement A+bonding agent; B=Cement B; B2=Cement B+bonding agent. The calcium, phosphate, and fluoride ion release in saliva-like solution (SLS) was determined from hardened cement disks without or with a coating of bonding agent. For the remineralization, two cavities were prepared in dentin of extracted human molars and demineralized. One cavity received composite resin (control); the other received treatment A, A2, B or B2. After 6 week incubation in SLS, 180 microm cross-sections were cut. The percentage remineralization was determined by transverse microradiography comparing the dentin mineral density under the cement to that under the control. The percentage of remineralization (mean+/-S.D.) was A (39+/-14)=B (37+/-18), A2 (23+/-13), B2 (14+/-7). Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Holm-Sidak test showed a significant effect from the presence of bonding agent (p<0.05), but not from fluoride (p>0.05). The ion solution concentrations of all groups showed undersaturation with respect to dicalcium phosphate dihydrate and calcium fluoride and supersaturation for fluorapatite and hydroxyapatite suggesting a positive remineralization potential. Compared to the control all treatments resulted in mineral increase. The remineralization was negatively affected by the presence of the bonding agent.

  11. Evaluation and application of a paper-based device for the determination of reactive phosphate in soil solution.

    PubMed

    Jayawardane, B Manori; Wongwilai, W; Grudpan, K; Kolev, S D; Heaven, M W; Nash, D M; McKelvie, I D

    2014-05-01

    The evaluation and validation of a new low-cost microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) for the determination of reactive phosphate in soil solution is described. This device allows up to 15 replicate measurements of reactive phosphate on one credit card-sized device and requires only a desktop or hand scanner for signal detection and quantification. The proposed method showed a linear response between 0.1 and 1.0 mg L and between 1.0 and 10.0 mg L P with a limit of detection of 0.05 mg L P. When applied to the analysis of soil solution, there was excellent agreement between results obtained using the μPAD and those obtained by a reference spectrophotometric method, as indicated by the following regression equation: [P] = (0.997 ± 0.005)[P] - (0.020 ± 0.008) ( = 0.997; = 110). It was found that the ambient temperature storage stability of the μPAD could be extended to 15 d by incorporating a removable polymeric interleaving sheet between the adjacent paper layers of the device. The observed sensitivity of the μPADs to sunlight, which was manifested by photoreduction of the chromogenic molybdate reagent used in the assay, was overcome by preparing the μPADs with an ultraviolet-filtering laminating material. The proposed method is rapid, with a reaction time of only 10 min, is easy to perform, and is suitable for application in the field. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  12. Comparative evaluation of different calcium phosphate-based bone graft granules - an in vitro study with osteoblast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Anne; Lode, Anja; Peters, Fabian; Gelinsky, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Granule-shaped calcium phosphate-based bone graft materials are often required for bone regeneration especially in implant dentistry. Two newly developed bone graft materials are Ceracell(®) , an open-celled highly porous bioceramic from β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) under addition of bioglass and Osseolive(®) , an open porous glass ceramic with the general formula Ca2 KNa(PO4 )2 . The goal of this study was to characterize different modifications of the two bone graft materials in vitro in comparison to already established ceramic bone grafts Cerasorb M(®) , NanoBone(®) and BONIT Matrix(®) . Adhesion and proliferation of SaOS-2 osteoblast-like cells were evaluated quantitatively by determining DNA content and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and qualitatively by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, MTT cell-vitality staining was applied to confirm the attachment of viable cells to the different materials. Osteogenic differentiation was evaluated by measurement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as well as gene expression analysis of osteogenic markers using reverse transcriptase PCR. DNA content and LDH activity revealed good cell attachment and proliferation for Ceracell and Cerasorb M. When pre-incubated with cell-culture medium, also Osseolive showed good cell attachment and proliferation. Attachment and proliferation of osteoblast-like cells on NanoBone and BONIT Matrix was very low, even after pre-incubation with cell-culture medium. Specific ALP activity on Ceracell(®) , Osseolive (®) and Cerasorb M(®) increased with time and expression of bone-related genes ALP, osteonectin, osteopontin and bone sialoprotein II was demonstrated. Ceracell as well as Osseolive granules support proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in vitro and may be promising candidates for in vivo applications. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Zirconium: biomedical and nephrological applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, David B N; Roberts, Martin; Bluchel, Christian G; Odell, Ross A

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a rapid increase in the use of zirconium (Zr)-containing compounds in artificial internal organs. Examples include dental implants and other restorative practices, total knee and hip replacement, and middle-ear ossicular chain reconstruction. In nephrological practice, Zr-containing sorbents have been used in hemofiltration, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and in the design and construction of wearable artificial kidneys. Zr compounds continue to be widely and extensively used in deodorant and antiperspirant preparations. In the public health arena, Zr compounds have been studied or used in controlling phosphorus pollution and in the reclamation of poison and bacteria-contaminated water. Experimental and clinical studies support the general consensus that Zr compounds are biocompatible and exhibit low toxicity. Reports on possible Zr-associated adverse reactions are rare and, in general, have not rigorously established a cause-and-effect relationship. Although publications on the use of Zr compounds have continued to increase in recent years, reports on Zr toxicity have virtually disappeared from the medical literature. Nevertheless, familiarity with, and continued vigilant monitoring of, the use of these compounds are warranted. This article provides an updated review on the biomedical use of Zr compounds.

  14. 40 CFR 721.9973 - Zirconium dichlorides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Zirconium dichlorides (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9973 Zirconium dichlorides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as zirconium dichlorides (PMNs P...

  15. Processing fissile material mixtures containing zirconium and/or carbon

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Michael Ernest; Maloney, Martin David

    2013-07-02

    A method of processing spent TRIZO-coated nuclear fuel may include adding fluoride to complex zirconium present in a dissolved TRIZO-coated fuel. Complexing the zirconium with fluoride may reduce or eliminate the potential for zirconium to interfere with the extraction of uranium and/or transuranics from fission materials in the spent nuclear fuel.

  16. Human biokinetic data and a new compartmental model of zirconium--a tracer study with enriched stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Greiter, Matthias B; Giussani, Augusto; Höllriegl, Vera; Li, Wei Bo; Oeh, Uwe

    2011-09-01

    Biokinetic models describing the uptake, distribution and excretion of trace elements are an essential tool in nutrition, toxicology, or internal dosimetry of radionuclides. Zirconium, especially its radioisotope (95)Zr, is relevant to radiation protection due to its production in uranium fission and neutron activation of nuclear fuel cladding material. We present a comprehensive set of human data from a tracer study with stable isotopes of zirconium. The data are used to refine a biokinetic model of zirconium. Six female and seven male healthy adult volunteers participated in the study. It includes 16 complete double tracer investigations with oral ingestion and intravenous injection, and seven supplemental investigations. Tracer concentrations were measured in blood plasma and urine collected up to 100 d after tracer administration. The four data sets (two chemical tracer forms in plasma and urine) each encompass 105-240 measured concentration values above detection limits. Total fractional absorption of ingested zirconium was found to be 0.001 for zirconium in citrate-buffered drinking solution and 0.007 for zirconium oxalate solution. Biokinetic models were developed based on the linear first-order kinetic compartmental model approach used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The main differences of the optimized systemic model of zirconium to the current ICRP model are (1) recycling into the transfer compartment made necessary by the observed tracer clearance from plasma, (2) different parameters related to fractional absorption for each form of the ingested tracer, and (3) a physiologically based excretion pathway to urine. The study considerably expands the knowledge on the biokinetics of zirconium, which was until now dominated by data from animal studies. The proposed systemic model improves the existing ICRP model, yet is based on the same principles and fits well into the ICRP radiation protection approach. Copyright © 2011

  17. Water/ice phase transition: The role of zirconium acetate, a compound with ice-shaping properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcellini, Moreno; Fernandes, Francisco M.; Dedovets, Dmytro; Deville, Sylvain

    2017-04-01

    Few compounds feature ice-shaping properties. Zirconium acetate is one of the very few inorganic compounds reported so far to have ice-shaping properties similar to that of ice-shaping proteins, encountered in many organisms living at low temperature. When a zirconium acetate solution is frozen, oriented and perfectly hexagonal ice crystals can be formed and their growth follows the temperature gradient. To shed light on the water/ice phase transition while freezing zirconium acetate solution, we carried out differential scanning calorimetry measurements. From our results, we estimate how many water molecules do not freeze because of their interaction with Zr cations. We estimate the colligative properties of the Zr acetate on the apparent critical temperature. We further show that the phase transition is unaffected by the nature of the base which is used to adjust the pH. Our results provide thus new hints on the ice-shaping mechanism of zirconium acetate.

  18. Water/ice phase transition: The role of zirconium acetate, a compound with ice-shaping properties.

    PubMed

    Marcellini, Moreno; Fernandes, Francisco M; Dedovets, Dmytro; Deville, Sylvain

    2017-04-14

    Few compounds feature ice-shaping properties. Zirconium acetate is one of the very few inorganic compounds reported so far to have ice-shaping properties similar to that of ice-shaping proteins, encountered in many organisms living at low temperature. When a zirconium acetate solution is frozen, oriented and perfectly hexagonal ice crystals can be formed and their growth follows the temperature gradient. To shed light on the water/ice phase transition while freezing zirconium acetate solution, we carried out differential scanning calorimetry measurements. From our results, we estimate how many water molecules do not freeze because of their interaction with Zr cations. We estimate the colligative properties of the Zr acetate on the apparent critical temperature. We further show that the phase transition is unaffected by the nature of the base which is used to adjust the pH. Our results provide thus new hints on the ice-shaping mechanism of zirconium acetate.

  19. Zirconium diselenite microstructures, formation and mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Chandan C.; Salker, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, a series of microstructures of zirconium diselenite (Zr(SeO3)2) has been prepared via a simple precipitation method at room temperature without adding any organic surfactants. Phase purity of the sample has been checked by X-ray Diffraction. From the SEM, FESEM, and TEM images spheroid nanoparticles to the starfish-like structure of zirconium diselenite are detected. The morphological evolution processes were investigated carefully following time-dependent experiments and a growth mechanism has been proposed. Two different crystal growth processes, the oriented attachment process accompanying the Ostwald ripening process were held responsible for the formation of a structure resembling starfish having four arms.

  20. Long-term behaviors of phosphate-based rapid repairing material for concrete shafts in coal mines.

    PubMed

    Lei, Feng; Zhen-Ya, Zhang; Xiao-Dong, Wen; Chao, Xin; Dong-Yuan, Hu

    2018-04-01

    Concrete structures in shaft linings are apt to deteriorate prematurely and therefore prompt restoration is required. In considering this, desulphurization fly ash and machine-made tuff sand are employed to fabricate a phosphate-based rapid repairing material. The long-term efficiency of the material is evaluated based on combined factors, so drying shrinkage, interfacial bonding strength, corrosion resistance, and combustibility of the specimens are tested and researched in this paper. Experimental results showed that, under a dry circumstance, the material goes through a minor expansion at an early stage. It goes into a stage of rapid contraction after one day and a stable contraction after seven days. After 28 days, the total deformation is 67 micro-strains. On the other hand, the fabricated material manifests an excellent mechanical property. The one hour bending strength and compressive strength were 9.2 MPa and 32.6 MPa, respectively. A long-term mine water flushing simulation demonstrates that only 10% bending strength is lost and the corrosion resistance coefficient stays above 0.8, so a very good corrosion resistance is thus achieved. What is more, this repairing material retains its stability even at a high temperature of 1000°C, revealing its good thermo-stability. All these prominent properties make it a good prospective material for real restoration applications.

  1. The Performance of a Zirconium-based Root Filling Material with Artifact Reduction Properties in the Detection of Artificially Induced Root Fractures Using Cone-beam Computed Tomographic Imaging.

    PubMed

    Fox, Aaron; Basrani, Bettina; Lam, Ernest W N

    2018-05-01

    Limited field of view cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) imaging has been used to augment clinical testing of vertical root fractures (VRFs); however, the presence of gutta-percha (GP) in the canal space generates substantial imaging artifacts that make fracture detection difficult. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of a zirconium (Zr)-based root filling material with radiologic properties that reduce beam hardening (BH) artifacts using CBCT imaging in the in vitro diagnosis of VRFs. One hundred seventy-six single-rooted mandibular premolar teeth were obtained, and half of these teeth were filled with GP or Zr (CPoint; EndoTechnologies, LLC, Shrewsbury, MA). VRFs were induced in 44 decoronated teeth in each group using an Instron (Norwood, MA) Universal Testing Machine. Each root was then placed in a dry human mandible and imaged with the Carestream 9000 3D CBCT system (Carestream Dental, Atlanta, GA). The images were evaluated by 6 oral maxillofacial radiologists (OMRs) and residents. The sensitivity was greater for detecting VRFs in the Zr group than the GP group (P = .035). However, the specificity was greater for the GP group than the Zr group (P = .028). Receiver operating characteristic area under the curve values were greater for the Zr group than the GP group, but these differences were not statistically significant. The OMRs outperformed the residents in the detection of VRFs in the Zr group with respect to specificity (P = .006) and positive predictive value (P = .012). The reduced BH of the Zr group improved the sensitivity of the detection of artificially induced VRFs. The ability to detect VRFs in the Zr group was further enhanced by clinical experience. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Bayesian model selection validates a biokinetic model for zirconium processing in humans

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In radiation protection, biokinetic models for zirconium processing are of crucial importance in dose estimation and further risk analysis for humans exposed to this radioactive substance. They provide limiting values of detrimental effects and build the basis for applications in internal dosimetry, the prediction for radioactive zirconium retention in various organs as well as retrospective dosimetry. Multi-compartmental models are the tool of choice for simulating the processing of zirconium. Although easily interpretable, determining the exact compartment structure and interaction mechanisms is generally daunting. In the context of observing the dynamics of multiple compartments, Bayesian methods provide efficient tools for model inference and selection. Results We are the first to apply a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach to compute Bayes factors for the evaluation of two competing models for zirconium processing in the human body after ingestion. Based on in vivo measurements of human plasma and urine levels we were able to show that a recently published model is superior to the standard model of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The Bayes factors were estimated by means of the numerically stable thermodynamic integration in combination with a recently developed copula-based Metropolis-Hastings sampler. Conclusions In contrast to the standard model the novel model predicts lower accretion of zirconium in bones. This results in lower levels of noxious doses for exposed individuals. Moreover, the Bayesian approach allows for retrospective dose assessment, including credible intervals for the initially ingested zirconium, in a significantly more reliable fashion than previously possible. All methods presented here are readily applicable to many modeling tasks in systems biology. PMID:22863152

  3. Effect of phosphate-based glass fibre surface properties on thermally produced poly(lactic acid) matrix composites.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Maziar Shah; Ahmed, Ifty; Muja, Naser; Rudd, Christopher D; Bureau, Martin N; Nazhat, Showan N

    2011-12-01

    Incorporation of soluble bioactive glass fibres into biodegradable polymers is an interesting approach for bone repair and regeneration. However, the glass composition and its surface properties significantly affect the nature of the fibre-matrix interface and composite properties. Herein, the effect of Si and Fe on the surface properties of calcium containing phosphate based glasses (PGs) in the system (50P(2)O(5)-40CaO-(10-x)SiO(2)-xFe(2)O(3), where x = 0, 5 and 10 mol.%) were investigated. Contact angle measurements revealed a higher surface energy, and surface polarity as well as increased hydrophilicity for Si doped PG which may account for the presence of surface hydroxyl groups. Two PG formulations, 50P(2)O(5)-40CaO-10Fe(2)O(3) (Fe10) and 50P(2)O(5)-40CaO-5Fe(2)O(3)-5SiO(2) (Fe5Si5), were melt drawn into fibres and randomly incorporated into poly(lactic acid) (PLA) produced by melt processing. The ageing in deionised water (DW), mechanical property changes in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and cytocompatibility properties of these composites were investigated. In contrast to Fe10 and as a consequence of the higher surface energy and polarity of Fe5Si5, its incorporation into PLA led to increased inorganic/organic interaction indicated by a reduction in the carbonyl group of the matrix. PLA chain scission was confirmed by a greater reduction in its molecular weight in PLA-Fe5Si5 composites. In DW, the dissolution rate of PLA-Fe5Si5 was significantly higher than that of PLA-Fe10. Dissolution of the glass fibres resulted in the formation of channels within the matrix. Initial flexural strength was significantly increased through PGF incorporation. After PBS ageing, the reduction in mechanical properties was greater for PLA-Fe5Si5 compared to PLA-Fe10. MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts seeded onto PG discs, PLA and PLA-PGF composites were evaluated for up to 7 days indicating that the materials were generally cytocompatible. In addition, cell alignment along the PGF

  4. One-year efficacy and safety of the iron-based phosphate binder sucroferric oxyhydroxide in patients on peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Floege, Jürgen; Covic, Adrian C; Ketteler, Markus; Mann, Johannes; Rastogi, Anjay; Spinowitz, Bruce; Rakov, Viatcheslav; Lisk, Laura J; Sprague, Stuart M

    2017-11-01

    Sucroferric oxyhydroxide is a noncalcium, iron-based phosphate binder that demonstrated sustained serum phosphorus control, good tolerability and lower pill burden compared with sevelamer carbonate (sevelamer) in a Phase 3 study conducted in dialysis patients. This subanalysis examines the efficacy and tolerability of sucroferric oxyhydroxide and sevelamer in the peritoneal dialysis (PD) patient population. The initial study (NCT01324128) and its extension (NCT01464190) were multicenter, Phase 3, open-label, randomized (2:1), active-controlled trials comparing sucroferric oxyhydroxide (1.0-3.0 g/day) with sevelamer (2.4-14.4 g/day) in dialysis patients over 52 weeks in total. In the overall study, 84/1055 (8.1%) patients received PD and were eligible for efficacy analysis (sucroferric oxyhydroxide, n = 56; sevelamer, n = 28). The two groups were broadly comparable to each other and to the overall study population. Serum phosphorus concentrations decreased comparably with both phosphate binders by week 12 (mean change from baseline - 0.6 mmol/L). Over 52 weeks, sucroferric oxyhydroxide effectively reduced serum phosphorus concentrations to a similar extent as sevelamer; 62.5% and 64.3% of patients, respectively, were below the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative target range (≤1.78 mmol/L). This was achieved with a lower pill burden (3.4 ± 1.3 versus 8.1 ± 3.7 tablets/day) with sucroferric oxyhydroxide compared with sevelamer. Treatment adherence rates were 91.2% with sucroferric oxyhydroxide and 79.3% with sevelamer. The proportion of patients reporting at least one treatment-emergent adverse event was 86.0% with sucroferric oxyhydroxide and 93.1% with sevelamer. The most common adverse events with both treatments were gastrointestinal: diarrhea and discolored feces with sucroferric oxyhydroxide and nausea, vomiting and constipation with sevelamer. Sucroferric oxyhydroxide is noninferior to sevelamer for controlling serum

  5. Production of porous Calcium Phosphate (CaP) ceramics with aligned pores using ceramic/camphene-based co-extrusion.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Young; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Moon, Young-Wook; Shin, Kwan-Ha; Koh, Young-Hag

    2015-01-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics are one of the most valuable biomaterials for uses as the bone scaffold owing to their outstanding biocompatability, bioactivity, and biodegradation nature. In particular, these materials with an open porous structure can stimulate bone ingrowth into their 3-dimensionally interconnected pores. However, the creation of pores in bulk materials would inevitably cause a severe reduction in mechanical properties. Thus, it is a challenge to explore new ways of improving the mechanical properties of porous CaP scaffolds without scarifying their high porosity. Porous CaP ceramic scaffolds with aligned pores were successfully produced using ceramic/camphene-based co-extrusion. This aligned porous structure allowed for the achievement of high compressive strength when tested parallel to the direction of aligned pores. In addition, the overall porosity and mechanical properties of the aligned porous CaP ceramic scaffolds could be tailored simply by adjusting the initial CaP content in the CaP/camphene slurry. The porous CaP scaffolds showed excellent in vitro biocompatibility, suggesting their potential as the bone scaffold. Aligned porous CaP ceramic scaffolds with considerably enhanced mechanical properties and tailorable porosity would find very useful applications as the bone scaffold.

  6. Determination of the inhibitory effect of green tea extract on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase based on multilayer capillary enzyme microreactor.

    PubMed

    Camara, Mohamed Amara; Tian, Miaomiao; Liu, Xiaoxia; Liu, Xin; Wang, Yujia; Yang, Jiqing; Yang, Li

    2016-08-01

    Natural herbal medicines are an important source of enzyme inhibitors for the discovery of new drugs. A number of natural extracts such as green tea have been used in prevention and treatment of diseases due to their low-cost, low toxicity and good performance. The present study reports an online assay of the activity and inhibition of the green tea extract of the Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) enzyme using multilayer capillary electrophoresis based immobilized enzyme microreactors (CE-IMERs). The multilayer CE-IMERs were produced with layer-by-layer electrostatic assembly, which can easily enhance the enzyme loading capacity of the microreactor. The activity of the G6PDH enzyme was determined and the enzyme inhibition by the inhibitors from green tea extract was investigated using online assay of the multilayer CE-IMERs. The Michaelis constant (Km ) of the enzyme, the IC50 and Ki values of the inhibitors were achieved and found to agree with those obtained using offline assays. The results show a competitive inhibition of green tea extract on the G6PDH enzyme. The present study provides an efficient and easy-to-operate approach for determining G6PDH enzyme reaction and the inhibition of green tea extract, which may be beneficial in research and the development of natural herbal medicines. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Electron interaction with phosphate cytidine oligomer dCpdC: base-centered radical anions and their electronic spectra.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jiande; Wang, Jing; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2014-01-30

    Computational chemistry approach was applied to explore the nature of electron attachment to cytosine-rich DNA single strands. An oligomer dinucleoside phosphate deoxycytidylyl-3',5'-deoxycytidine (dCpdC) was selected as a model system for investigations by density functional theory. Electron distribution patterns for the radical anions of dCpdC in aqueous solution were explored. The excess electron may reside on the nucleobase at the 5' position (dC(•-)pdC) or at the 3' position (dCpdC(•-)). From comparison with electron attachment to the cytosine related DNA fragments, the electron affinity for the formation of the cytosine-centered radical anion in DNA is estimated to be around 2.2 eV. Electron attachment to cytosine sites in DNA single strands might cause perturbations of local structural characteristics. Visible absorption spectroscopy may be applied to validate computational results and determine experimentally the existence of the base-centered radical anion. The time-dependent DFT study shows the absorption around 550-600 nm for the cytosine-centered radical anions of DNA oligomers. This indicates that if such species are detected experimentally they would be characterized by a distinctive color.

  8. Fabrication of carbonate apatite blocks from set gypsum based on dissolution-precipitation reaction in phosphate-carbonate mixed solution.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Shunsuke; Tsuru, Kanji; Maruta, Michito; Matsuya, Shigeki; Takahashi, Ichiro; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2014-01-01

    Carbonate apatite (CO3Ap), fabricated by dissolution-precipitation reaction based on an appropriate precursor, is expected to be replaced by bone according to bone remodeling cycle. One of the precursor candidates is gypsum because it shows self-setting ability, which then enables it to be shaped and molded. The aim of this study, therefore, was to fabricate CO3Ap blocks from set gypsum. Set gypsum was immersed in a mixed solution of 0.4 mol/L disodium hydrogen phosphate (Na2HPO4) and 0.4 mol/L sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3) at 80-200°C for 6-48 h. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns and Fourier transform infrared spectra showed that CO3Ap block was fabricated by dissolution-precipitation reaction in Na2HPO4-NaHCO3 solution using set gypsum in 48 h when the temperature was 100°C or higher. Conversion rate to CO3Ap increased with treatment temperature. CO3Ap block containing a larger amount of carbonate was obtained when treated at lower temperature.

  9. METHOD AND ALLOY FOR BONDING TO ZIRCONIUM

    DOEpatents

    McCuaig, F.D.; Misch, R.D.

    1960-04-19

    A brazing alloy can be used for bonding zirconium and its alloys to other metals, ceramics, and cermets, and consists of 6 to 9 wt.% Ni, 6 to 9 wn~.% Cr, Mo, or W, 0 to 7.5 wt.% Fe, and the balance Zr.

  10. Superconductivity in zirconium-rhodium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zegler, S. T.

    1969-01-01

    Metallographic studies and transition temperature measurements were made with isothermally annealed and water-quenched zirconium-rhodium alloys. The results clarify both the solid-state phase relations at the Zr-rich end of the Zr-Rh alloy system and the influence upon the superconducting transition temperature of structure and composition.

  11. Hydration characteristics of zirconium oxide replaced Portland cement for use as a root-end filling material.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, J; Cutajar, A; Mallia, B

    2011-08-01

    cement. A prototype dental material composed of Portland cement replaced with 30% zirconium oxide as radiopacifier leached calcium ions on hydration which reacted with phosphates present in simulated tissue fluids. This resulted in bioactive cement that could prospectively be used as a root-end filling material. The zirconium oxide acted as inert filler and did not participate in the hydration reaction of the Portland cement. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Amine Modification on the Properties of Zirconium-Carboxylic Acid Based Materials and Their Applications as NO2 Adsorbents at Ambient Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-06

    as a source of –SH [23]. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an acidic , corrosive , and toxic gas present in the atmosphere. The main sources of NO2 pollution is...occurring are the Lewis acid –base reactions. These reactions are facilitated by the formation of nitric Schematic reaction between the urea incorporated in...of zirconium– carboxylic acid based materials and their applications as NO2 adsorbents at ambient conditions Zirconium–carboxylic ligand-based porous

  13. Ternary cobalt-molybdenum-zirconium coatings for alternative energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yar-Mukhamedova, Gulmira; Ved', Maryna; Sakhnenko, Nikolay; Koziar, Maryna

    2017-11-01

    Consistent patterns for electrodeposition of Co-Mo-Zr coatings from polyligand citrate-pyrophosphate bath were investigated. The effect of both current density amplitude and pulse on/off time on the quality, composition and surface morphology of the galvanic alloys were determined. It was established the coating Co-Mo-Zr enrichment by molybdenum with current density increasing up to 8 A dm-2 as well as the rising of pulse time and pause duration promotes the content of molybdenum because of subsequent chemical reduction of its intermediate oxides by hydrogen ad-atoms. It was found that the content of the alloying metals in the coating Co-Mo-Zr depends on the current density and on/off times extremely and maximum Mo and Zr content corresponds to the current density interval 4-6 A dm-2, on-/off-time 2-10 ms. Chemical resistance of binary and ternary coatings based on cobalt is caused by the increased tendency to passivity and high resistance to pitting corrosion in the presence of molybdenum and zirconium, as well as the acid nature of their oxides. Binary coating with molybdenum content not less than 20 at.% and ternary ones with zirconium content in terms of corrosion deep index are in a group ;very proof;. It was shown that Co-Mo-Zr alloys exhibits the greatest level of catalytic properties as cathode material for hydrogen electrolytic production from acidic media which is not inferior a platinum electrode. The deposits Co-Mo-Zr with zirconium content 2-4 at.% demonstrate high catalytic properties in the carbon(II) oxide conversion. This confirms the efficiency of materials as catalysts for the gaseous wastes purification and gives the reason to recommend them as catalysts for red-ox processes activating by oxygen as well as electrode materials for red-ox batteries.

  14. Calcium phosphate composite cements based on simple mixture of brushite and apatite phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorov, A. A.; Fedotov, A. Yu; Pereloma, I. S.; Teterina, A. Yu; Sergeeva, N. S.; Sviridova, I. K.; Kirsanova, V. A.; Akhmedova, S. A.; Nesterova, A. V.; Reshetov, I. V.; Barinov, S. M.; Komlev, V. S.

    2018-04-01

    The composite cements based on simple mixtures brishite and apatite with ratio 70/30, 50/50, 30/70 were developed. The processes of phase formation, microstructure and mechanical properties were studied. The kinetics of degradation in simulated body fluid depending on the microstructure and the materials phase composition was carried out. The biological test in vitro were performed using the MTT-test on the human fibroblast immortalized (hFB) cell line and the human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63. The materials didn’t have acute cytoxicity and possessed surface matrix properties. It was determined that the both line of cells actively proliferated, with viable cells values higher 20-60 % then control at all observation periods.

  15. Assembly of three organic-inorganic hybrid supramolecular materials based on reduced molybdenum(V) phosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, He; Yu, Kai; Lv, Jing-Hua; Wang, Chun-Mei; Wang, Chun-Xiao; Zhou, Bai-Bin

    2014-09-01

    Three supramolecular materials based on {P4Mo6} polyoxoanions, (Hbbi)2(H2bbi)[Cu3Mo12VO24(OH)6(H2O)6(HPO4)4(H2PO4)2(PO4)2]·3H2O (1), (Hbbi)2(H2bbi)[Ni3Mo12VO24(OH)6(H2O)2(HPO4)4(H2PO4)2(PO4)2]·9H2O (2), (Hbpy)(bpy)3[Ni2(H2O)10Na(PCA)2][NiMo12VO24(OH)6(H2PO4)6(PO4)2]·6H2O (3) (bbi=1,1‧-(1,4-butanediyl)bis(imidazole), bpy=4,4‧-bipyridine, PCA=pyridine-4-carboxylic acid), have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by the elemental analysis, TG, IR, UV-vis, PXRD and the single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibit covalent 1-D chains constructed from M[P4Mo6]2 dimeric cluster and {M(H2O)n} (M=Cu, n=3 for 1 and M=Ni, n=1 for 2) linker. Compound 3 possesses an unusual POMMOF supramolecular layers based on [Ni(P4Mo6)]2 dimeric units and 1-D metal-organic strings [Ni(H2O)5Na(PCA)]n, in which an in situ ligand of PCA from 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane (bpp) precursor was observed. Furthermore, the electrochemical behavior of 1-3-CPE and magnetic properties of 1-3 have been investigated in detail.

  16. Structure-based functional annotation: yeast ymr099c codes for a D-hexose-6-phosphate mutarotase.

    PubMed

    Graille, Marc; Baltaze, Jean-Pierre; Leulliot, Nicolas; Liger, Dominique; Quevillon-Cheruel, Sophie; van Tilbeurgh, Herman

    2006-10-06

    Despite the generation of a large amount of sequence information over the last decade, more than 40% of well characterized enzymatic functions still lack associated protein sequences. Assigning protein sequences to documented biochemical functions is an interesting challenge. We illustrate here that structural genomics may be a reasonable approach in addressing these questions. We present the crystal structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae YMR099cp, a protein of unknown function. YMR099cp adopts the same fold as galactose mutarotase and shares the same catalytic machinery necessary for the interconversion of the alpha and beta anomers of galactose. The structure revealed the presence in the active site of a sulfate ion attached by an arginine clamp made by the side chain from two strictly conserved arginine residues. This sulfate is ideally positioned to mimic the phosphate group of hexose 6-phosphate. We have subsequently successfully demonstrated that YMR099cp is a hexose-6-phosphate mutarotase with broad substrate specificity. We solved high resolution structures of some substrate enzyme complexes, further confirming our functional hypothesis. The metabolic role of a hexose-6-phosphate mutarotase is discussed. This work illustrates that structural information has been crucial to assign YMR099cp to the orphan EC activity: hexose-phosphate mutarotase.

  17. Synthesis and nonstoichiometry of the zirconium trihalides

    SciTech Connect

    Daake, R.L.; Corbett, J.D.

    1978-05-01

    The synthesis of ZrX/sub 3/ (X = Cl, Br, I) by reaction of the corresponding tetrahalides with ZrCl, ZrBr, or ZrI/sub 1.8/ in sealed tantalum tubing gives high-purity, single-phase products, thereby avoiding problems of the relatively low reactivity of and contamination by zirconium powder reductant used previously. Phase limits for the three trihalides established by isopiestic equilibration with the adjoining phases are 2.94 (2) less than or equal to Cl:Zr less than or equal to 3.03 (2) (440/sup 0/C), 2.87 (2) less than or equal to Br:Zr less than or equal to 3.23 (2) (435/sup 0/C), and 2.83 (5) (775/supmore » 0/C) less than or equal to I:Zr less than or equal to 3.43 (5) (475/sup 0/C). The hexagonal lattice constants for the bromide phase (Guinier techniques) decrease linearly with increasing bromide content across the entire range without the development of any additional lines. The variation of the c dimension for ZrI/sub 3/ (and HfI/sub 3/) on oxidation is in the opposite direction, and in this case extra lines from a presumed superlattice structure developed toward the upper limit. The structural implications of these results are considered. The reported structure for ..cap alpha..-ZrCl/sub 3/, an unusual BiI/sub 3/-type variant, was based on a misassigned ZrCl powder pattern and therefore appears to be in error. 25 references.« less

  18. The electrochemical Evaluation of a Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass in a Phosphate-Buffered Saline Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, M. L.; Buchanan, R. A.; Leon, R. V.

    2005-01-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) represent an emerging class of materials with an amorphous structure and a unique combination of properties. The objectives of this investigation were to define the electrochemical behavior of a specific Zr-based BMG alloy in a physiologically relevant environment and to compare these properties to standard, crystalline biomaterials as well as other Zr-based BMG compositions. Cyclic-anodic-polarization studies were conducted with a Zr{sub 52.5}Cu{sub 17.9}Ni{sub 14.6}Al{sub 10.0}Ti{sub 5.0} (at %) BMG in a phosphate-buffered saline electrolyte with a physiologically relevant oxygen content at 37 C. The results were compared to three common, crystalline biomaterials: CoCrMo, 316L stainless steel,more » and Ti-6Al-4V. The BMG alloy was found to have a lower corrosion penetration rate (CPR), as compared to the 316L stainless steel, and an equivalent CPR, as compared to the CoCrMo and Ti-6Al-4V alloys. Furthermore, the BMG alloy demonstrated better localized corrosion resistance than the 316L stainless steel. However, the localized corrosion resistance of the BMG alloy was not as high as those of the CoCrMo and Ti-6Al-4V alloys in the tested environment. The excellent electrochemical properties demonstrated by the BMG alloy are combined with a low modulus and unparalleled strength. This unique combination of properties dramatically demonstrates the potential for amorphous alloys as a new generation of biomaterials.« less

  19. Zirconium(IV) functionalized magnetic nanocomposites for extraction of organophosphorus pesticides from environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li; Huang, Tengjun; Feng, Shun; Wang, Jide

    2016-07-22

    The widespread use of organophosphate pesticides (OPPs) in agriculture leads to residue accumulation in the environment which is dangerous to human health and disrupts the ecological balance. In this work, one nanocomposite immobilized zirconium (Zr, IV) was prepared and used as the affinity probes to quickly and selectively extract organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) from water samples. The Fe3O4-ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)@Zr(IV) nanocomposites (NPs) were prepared by simply mixing Zr(IV) ions with Fe3O4-EDTA NPs synthesized by one-pot chemical co-precipitation method. The immobilized Zr(IV) ions were further utilized to capture OPPs based on their high affinity for the phosphate moiety in OPPs. Coupled with GC-MS, four OPPs were used as models to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. Under the optimum conditions, the limits of detection for target OPPs were in the range of 0.10-10.30ngmL(-1) with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.61-4.40% (n=3), respectively. The linear ranges were over three orders of magnitudes (correlation coefficients, R(2)>0.9995). The Fe3O4-EDTA@Zr(IV) NPs were successfully applied to extract OPPs samples with recoveries of 86.95-112.60% and RSDs of 1.20-10.42% (n=3) from two spiked real water. By the proposed method, the matrix interference could be effectively eliminated. We hope our finding can provide a promising alternative for the fast extraction of OPPs from complex real samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. In Vivo Predictive Dissolution: Comparing the Effect of Bicarbonate and Phosphate Buffer on the Dissolution of Weak Acids and Weak Bases.

    PubMed

    Krieg, Brian J; Taghavi, Seyed Mohammad; Amidon, Gordon L; Amidon, Gregory E

    2015-09-01

    Bicarbonate is the main buffer in the small intestine and it is well known that buffer properties such as pKa can affect the dissolution rate of ionizable drugs. However, bicarbonate buffer is complicated to work with experimentally. Finding a suitable substitute for bicarbonate buffer may provide a way to perform more physiologically relevant dissolution tests. The dissolution of weak acid and weak base drugs was conducted in bicarbonate and phosphate buffer using rotating disk dissolution methodology. Experimental results were compared with the predicted results using the film model approach of (Mooney K, Mintun M, Himmelstein K, Stella V. 1981. J Pharm Sci 70(1):22-32) based on equilibrium assumptions as well as a model accounting for the slow hydration reaction, CO2 + H2 O → H2 CO3 . Assuming carbonic acid is irreversible in the dehydration direction: CO2 + H2 O ← H2 CO3 , the transport analysis can accurately predict rotating disk dissolution of weak acid and weak base drugs in bicarbonate buffer. The predictions show that matching the dissolution of weak acid and weak base drugs in phosphate and bicarbonate buffer is possible. The phosphate buffer concentration necessary to match physiologically relevant bicarbonate buffer [e.g., 10.5 mM (HCO3 (-) ), pH = 6.5] is typically in the range of 1-25 mM and is very dependent upon drug solubility and pKa . © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  1. The role of molecular structure of sugar-phosphate backbone and nucleic acid bases in the formation of single-stranded and double-stranded DNA structures.

    PubMed

    Poltev, Valeri; Anisimov, Victor M; Danilov, Victor I; Garcia, Dolores; Sanchez, Carolina; Deriabina, Alexandra; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Rivas, Francisco; Polteva, Nina

    2014-06-01

    Our previous DFT computations of deoxydinucleoside monophosphate complexes with Na(+)-ions (dDMPs) have demonstrated that the main characteristics of Watson-Crick (WC) right-handed duplex families are predefined in the local energy minima of dDMPs. In this work, we study the mechanisms of contribution of chemically monotonous sugar-phosphate backbone and the bases into the double helix irregularity. Geometry optimization of sugar-phosphate backbone produces energy minima matching the WC DNA conformations. Studying the conformational variability of dDMPs in response to sequence permutation, we found that simple replacement of bases in the previously fully optimized dDMPs, e.g. by constructing Pyr-Pur from Pur-Pyr, and Pur-Pyr from Pyr-Pur sequences, while retaining the backbone geometry, automatically produces the mutual base position characteristic of the target sequence. Based on that, we infer that the directionality and the preferable regions of the sugar-phosphate torsions, combined with the difference of purines from pyrimidines in ring shape, determines the sequence dependence of the structure of WC DNA. No such sequence dependence exists in dDMPs corresponding to other DNA conformations (e.g., Z-family and Hoogsteen duplexes). Unlike other duplexes, WC helix is unique by its ability to match the local energy minima of the free single strand to the preferable conformations of the duplex. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Nature-Inspired Design of Artificial Solar-to-Fuel Conversion Systems based on Copper Phosphate Microflowers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Zhu, Ting; Ho, Ghim Wei

    2016-07-07

    Phosphates play significant roles in plant photosynthesis by mediating electron transportation and furnishing energy for CO2 reduction. Motivated by this, we demonstrate herein an artificial solar-to-fuel conversion system, involving versatile copper phosphate microflowers as template and titanium dioxide nanoparticles as host photocatalyst. The elaborate flowerlike architectures, coupled with a unique proton-reduction cycle from interchangeability of different species of orthophosphate ions, not only offer a 2D nanosheet platform for an optimal heterostructure interface but also effectively augment charge-carrier transfer, thereby contributing to enhanced photoactivity and hydrogen generation. These nature-inspired, phosphate-derived nanocomposites advance the synthesis of a large variety of functional materials, which holds great potential for photochemical, photoelectric and catalytic applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Silicon, iron and titanium doped calcium phosphate-based glass reinforced biodegradable polyester composites as bone analogous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah Mohammadi, Maziar

    Bone defects resulting from disease or traumatic injury is a major health care problem worldwide. Tissue engineering offers an alternative approach to repair and regenerate bone through the use of a cell-scaffold construct. The scaffold should be biodegradable, biocompatible, porous with an open pore structure, and should be able to withstand the applied forces. Phosphate-based glasses (PGs) may be used as reinforcing agents in degradable composites since their degradation can be predicted and controlled through their chemistry. This doctoral dissertation describes the development and evaluation of PGs reinforced biodegradable polyesters for intended applications in bone augmentation and regeneration. This research was divided into three main objectives: 1) Investigating the composition dependent properties of novel PG formulations by doping a sodium-free calcium phosphate-based glass with SiO2, Fe2O3, and TiO2. Accordingly, (50P2 O5-40CaO- xSiO2-(10-x)Fe2O3, where x = 10, 5 and 0 mol.%) and (50P2O5-40CaO-xSiO 2-(10-x)TiO2 where x = 10, 7, 5, 3 and 0 mol.%) formulations were developed and characterised. SiO2 incorporation led to increased solubility, ion release, pH reduction, as well as hydrophilicity, surface energy, and surface polarity. In contrast, doping with Fe2O 3 or TiO2 resulted in more durable glasses, and improved cell attachment and viability. It was hypothesised that the presence of SiO 2 in the TiO2-doped formulations could up-regulate the ionic release from the PG leading to higher alkaline phosphatase activity of MC3T3-E1 cells. 2) Incorporating Si, Fe, and Ti doped PGs as fillers, either as particulates (PGPs) or fibres (PGFs), into biodegradable polyesters (polycaprolactone (PCL) and semi-crystalline and amorphous poly(lactic acid) (PLA and PDLLA)) with the aim of developing degradable bone analogous composites. It was found that PG composition and geometry dictated the weight loss, ionic release, and mechanical properties of the composites. It

  4. Thermal expansion of phosphates with the NaZr2(PO4)3 structure containing lanthanides and zirconium: R 0.33Zr2(PO4)3 ( R = Nd, Eu, Er) and Er0.33(1- x) Zr0.25 x Zr2(PO4)3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volgutov, V. Yu.; Orlova, A. I.

    2015-09-01

    Phosphates R 0.33Zr2(PO4)3 ( R = Nd, Eu, or Er) and Er0.33(1- х)Zr0.25Zr2(PO4)3 ( х = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0) of the NaZr2(PO4)3 family have been synthesized and investigated by high-temperature X-ray diffraction. The crystallochemical approach is used to obtain compounds with expected small and controllable thermal-expansion parameters. Phosphates with close-to-zero thermal-expansion parameters, including those with low thermal-expansion anisotropy, have been obtained: Nd0.33Zr2(PO4)3 with α a =-2.21 × 10-6 °С-1, α c = 0.81 × 10-6 °С-1, and Δα = 3.02 × 10-6 °С-1 and Er0.08Zr0.19Zr2(PO4)3 with α a =-1.86 × 10-6 °С-1, α c = 1.73 × 10-6 °С-1, and Δα = 3.58 × 10-6 °С-1.

  5. Molecular Data for a Biochemical Model of DNA Radiation Damage: Electron Impact Ionization and Dissociative Ionization of DNA Bases and Sugar-Phosphate Backbone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dateo, Christopher E.; Fletcher, Graham D.

    2004-01-01

    As part of the database for building up a biochemical model of DNA radiation damage, electron impact ionization cross sections of sugar-phosphate backbone and DNA bases have been calculated using the improved binary-encounter dipole (iBED) model. It is found that the total ionization cross sections of C3'- and C5'-deoxyribose-phospate, two conformers of the sugar-phosphate backbone, are close to each other. Furthermore, the sum of the ionization cross sections of the separate deoxyribose and phosphate fragments is in close agreement with the C3'- and C5'-deoxyribose-phospate cross sections, differing by less than 10%. Of the four DNA bases, the ionization cross section of guanine is the largest, then in decreasing order, adenine, thymine, and cytosine. The order is in accordance with the known propensity of oxidation of the bases by ionizing radiation. Dissociative ionization (DI), a process that both ionizes and dissociates a molecule, is investigated for cytosine. The DI cross section for the formation of H and (cytosine-Hl)(+), with the cytosine ion losing H at the 1 position, is also reported. The threshold of this process is calculated to be 17.1 eV. Detailed analysis of ionization products such as in DI is important to trace the sequential steps in the biochemical process of DNA damage.

  6. Coextrusion-Based 3D Plotting of Ceramic Pastes for Porous Calcium Phosphate Scaffolds Comprised of Hollow Filaments.

    PubMed

    Jo, In-Hwan; Koh, Young-Hag; Kim, Hyoun-Ee

    2018-05-29

    This paper demonstrates the utility of coextrusion-based 3D plotting of ceramic pastes (CoEx-3DP) as a new type of additive manufacturing (AM) technique, which can produce porous calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramic scaffolds comprised of hollow CaP filaments. In this technique, green filaments with a controlled core/shell structure can be produced by coextruding an initial feedrod, comprised of the carbon black (CB) core and CaP shell, through a fine nozzle in an acetone bath and then deposited in a controlled manner according to predetermined paths. In addition, channels in CaP filaments can be created through the removal of the CB cores during heat-treatment. Produced CaP scaffolds had two different types of pores with well-defined geometries: three-dimensionally interconnected pores (~360 × 230 μm² in sizes) and channels (>100 μm in diameter) in hollow CaP filaments. The porous scaffolds showed high compressive strengths of ~12.3 ± 2.2 MPa at a high porosity of ~73 vol % when compressed parallel to the direction of the hollow CaP filaments. In addition, the mechanical properties of porous CaP scaffolds could be tailored by adjusting their porosity, for example, compressive strengths of 4.8 ± 1.1 MPa at a porosity of ~82 vol %. The porous CaP scaffold showed good biocompatibility, which was assessed by in vitro cell tests, where several the cells adhered to and spread actively with the outer and inner surfaces of the hollow CaP filaments.

  7. Hydrogen pickup mechanism of zirconium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couet, Adrien

    Although the optimization of zirconium based alloys has led to significant improvements in hydrogen pickup and corrosion resistance, the mechanisms by which such alloy improvements occur are still not well understood. In an effort to understand such mechanisms, a systematic study of the alloy effect on hydrogen pickup is conducted, using advanced characterization techniques to rationalize precise measurements of hydrogen pickup. The hydrogen pick-up fraction is accurately measured for a specially designed set of commercial and model alloys to investigate the effects of alloying elements, microstructure and corrosion kinetics on hydrogen uptake. Two different techniques to measure hydrogen concentrations were used: a destructive technique, Vacuum Hot Extraction, and a non-destructive one, Cold Neutron Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis. The results indicate that hydrogen pickup varies not only from alloy to alloy but also during the corrosion process for a given alloy. For instance Zircaloy type alloys show high hydrogen pickup fraction and sub-parabolic oxidation kinetics whereas ZrNb alloys show lower hydrogen pickup fraction and close to parabolic oxidation kinetics. Hypothesis is made that hydrogen pickup result from the need to balance charge during the corrosion reaction, such that the pickup of hydrogen is directly related to (and indivisible of) the corrosion mechanism and decreases when the rate of electron transport or oxide electronic conductivity sigmao xe through the protective oxide increases. According to this hypothesis, alloying elements (either in solid solution or in precipitates) embedded in the oxide as well as space charge variations in the oxide would impact the hydrogen pick-up fraction by modifying sigmaox e, which drives oxidation and hydriding kinetics. Dedicated experiments and modelling were performed to assess and validate these hypotheses. In-situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) experiments were performed on Zircaloy-4 tubes

  8. Antiresorption implant coatings based on calcium alendronate and octacalcium phosphate deposited by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation.

    PubMed

    Boanini, Elisa; Torricelli, Paola; Forte, Lucia; Pagani, Stefania; Mihailescu, Natalia; Ristoscu, Carmen; Mihailescu, Ion N; Bigi, Adriana

    2015-12-01

    The integration of an implant material with bone tissue depends on the chemistry and physics of the implant surface. In this study we applied matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) in order to synthesize calcium alendronate monohydrate (a bisphosphonate obtained by calcium sequestration from octacalcium phosphate by alendronate) and calcium alendronate monohydrate/octacalcium phosphate composite thin films on titanium substrates. Octacalcium phosphate coatings were prepared as reference material. The powders, which were synthesized in aqueous medium, were suspended in deionised water, frozen at liquid nitrogen temperature and used as targets for MAPLE experiments. The transfer was conducted with a KrF* excimer laser source (λ = 248 nm, τFWHM ≤ 25 ns) in mild conditions of temperature and pressure. XRD, FTIR and SEM analyses confirmed that the coatings contain the same crystalline phases as the as-prepared powder samples. Osteoblast derived from stem cells and osteoclast derived from monocytes of osteoporotic subjects were co-cultured on the coatings up to 14 days. Osteoclast displayed significantly reduced proliferation and differentiation in the presence of calcium alendronate monohydrate, pointing to a clear role of the coatings containing this bisphosphonate on inhibiting excessive bone resorption. At variance, osteoblast production of alkaline phosphatase and type I pro-collagen were promoted by the presence of bisphosphonate, which also decreased the production of interleukin 6. The positive influence towards osteoblast differentiation was even more enhanced in the composite coatings, thanks to the presence of octacalcium phosphate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Phosphate Adsorption using Modified Iron Oxide-based Sorbents in Lake Water: Kinetics, Equilibrium, and Column Tests

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adsorption behavior of Bayoxide ® E33 (E33) and three E33-modified sorbents for the removal of phosphate from lake water was investigated in this study. E33-modified sorbents were synthesized by coating with manganese (E33/Mn) and silver (E33/AgI and E33/AgII) nanoparticles. Adso...

  10. "Fabrication of arbitrarily shaped carbonate apatite foam based on the interlocking process of dicalcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate".

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Yuki; Tsuru, Kanji; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2017-08-01

    Carbonate apatite (CO 3 Ap) foam with an interconnected porous structure is highly attractive as a scaffold for bone replacement. In this study, arbitrarily shaped CO 3 Ap foam was formed from α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) foam granules via a two-step process involving treatment with acidic calcium phosphate solution followed by hydrothermal treatment with NaHCO 3 . The treatment with acidic calcium phosphate solution, which is key to fabricating arbitrarily shaped CO 3 Ap foam, enables dicalcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) crystals to form on the α-TCP foam granules. The generated DCPD crystals cause the α-TCP granules to interlock with each other, inducing an α-TCP/DCPD foam. The interlocking structure containing DCPD crystals can survive hydrothermal treatment with NaHCO 3 . The arbitrarily shaped CO 3 Ap foam was fabricated from the α-TCP/DCPD foam via hydrothermal treatment at 200 °C for 24 h in the presence of a large amount of NaHCO 3 .

  11. Biocomposite coatings based on Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate)/calcium phosphates obtained by MAPLE for bone tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raşoga, O.; Sima, L.; Chiriţoiu, M.; Popescu-Pelin, G.; Fufǎ, O.; Grumezescu, V.; Socol, M.; Stǎnculescu, A.; Zgurǎ, I.; Socol, G.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of our research was to synthesize and investigate the physico-chemical and biological features of composite coatings based on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and commercial calcium phosphates (CaPs), hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate, obtained by means of matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique. In this respect, laser fluence and dropcast studies were performed for pristine polymer and PHBV-CaPs composites. The microstructure of the synthesized coatings was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, while for the chemical structure and functional integrity we performed Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy comparative analysis. By using the X-ray diffraction measurements we experimentally evaluated the crystalline nature of the obtained composite materials, while relevant data regarding the hydrophilic/hydrophobic behavior of the synthesized coatings were obtained by performing static CA measurements. The biocompatibility of PHBV/CaPs coatings was evaluated by performing cellular adhesion and differentiation in vitro assays on mesenchymal stem cells.

  12. Inhibitory effect of zirconium oxide nanoparticles on Candida albicans adhesion to repaired polymethyl methacrylate denture bases and interim removable prostheses: a new approach for denture stomatitis prevention

    PubMed Central

    Gad, Mohammed M; Al-Thobity, Ahmad M; Shahin, Suliman Y; Alsaqer, Badar T; Ali, Aiman A

    2017-01-01

    later demonstrated a lower Candida count. Conclusion The addition of zirconia nanoparticles to cold-cured acrylic resin is an effective method for reducing Candida adhesion to repaired polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) denture bases and cold-cured removable prosthesis. Clinical significance Based on the results of the current study, zirconia nanoparticles have an antifungal effect, which could be incorporated in the repair material for repairing denture bases and in PMMA removable prostheses as a possible approach for denture stomatitis prevention. PMID:28814859

  13. Inhibitory effect of zirconium oxide nanoparticles on Candida albicans adhesion to repaired polymethyl methacrylate denture bases and interim removable prostheses: a new approach for denture stomatitis prevention.

    PubMed

    Gad, Mohammed M; Al-Thobity, Ahmad M; Shahin, Suliman Y; Alsaqer, Badar T; Ali, Aiman A

    2017-01-01

    addition of zirconia nanoparticles to cold-cured acrylic resin is an effective method for reducing Candida adhesion to repaired polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) denture bases and cold-cured removable prosthesis. Based on the results of the current study, zirconia nanoparticles have an antifungal effect, which could be incorporated in the repair material for repairing denture bases and in PMMA removable prostheses as a possible approach for denture stomatitis prevention.

  14. METHOD OF MAKING DELTA ZIRCONIUM HYDRIDE MONOLITHIC MODERATOR PIECES

    DOEpatents

    Vetrano, J.B.

    1962-01-23

    A method is given for preparing large, sound bodies of delta zirconium hydride. The method includes the steps of heating a zirconium body to a temperature of not less than l000 deg C, providing a hydrogen atmosphere for the zirconium body at a pressure not greater than one atmosphere, reducing the temperature slowly to 800 deg C at such a rate that cracks do not form while maintaining the hydrogen pressure substantially constant, and cooling in an atmosphere of hydrogen. (AEC)

  15. The effect of coating patterns with spinel-based investment on the castability and porosity of titanium cast into three phosphate-bonded investments.

    PubMed

    Pieralini, Anelise R F; Benjamin, Camila M; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria; Scaf, Gulnara; Adabo, Gelson Luis

    2010-10-01

    This study evaluated the effect of pattern coating with spinel-based investment Rematitan Ultra (RU) on the castability and internal porosity of commercially pure (CP) titanium invested into phosphate-bonded investments. The apparent porosity of the investment was also measured. Square patterns (15 × 15 × 0.3 mm(3)) were either coated with RU, or not and invested into the phosphate-bonded investments: Rematitan Plus (RP), Rema Exakt (RE), Castorit Super C (CA), and RU (control group). The castings were made in an Ar-arc vacuum-pressure machine. The castability area (mm(2) ) was measured by an image-analysis system (n = 10). For internal porosity, the casting (12 × 12 × 2 mm(3) ) was studied by the X-ray method, and the projected porous area percentage was measured by an image-analysis system (n = 10). The apparent porosity of the investment (n = 10) was measured in accordance with the ASTM C373-88 standard. Analysis of variance (One-way ANOVA) of castability was significant, and the Tukey test indicated that RU had the highest mean but the investing technique with coating increased the castability for all phosphate-bonded investments. The analysis of the internal porosity of the cast by the nonparametric test demonstrated that the RP, RE, and CA with coating and RP without coating did not differ from the control group (RU), while the CA and RE casts without coating were more porous. The one-way ANOVA of apparent porosity of the investment was significant, and the Tukey test showed that the means of RU (36.10%) and CA (37.22%) were higher than those of RP (25.91%) and RE (26.02%). Pattern coating with spinel-based material prior to phosphate-bonded investments can influence the castability and the internal porosity of CP Ti. © 2010 by The American College of Prosthodontists.

  16. Evaluation of a Zirconium Recycle Scrubber System

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, Barry B.; Bruffey, Stephanie H.

    2017-04-01

    A hot-cell demonstration of the zirconium recycle process is planned as part of the Materials Recovery and Waste Forms Development (MRWFD) campaign. The process treats Zircaloy® cladding recovered from used nuclear fuel with chlorine gas to recover the zirconium as volatile ZrCl4. This releases radioactive tritium trapped in the alloy, converting it to volatile tritium chloride (TCl). To meet regulatory requirements governing radioactive emissions from nuclear fuel treatment operations, the capture and retention of a portion of this TCl may be required prior to discharge of the off-gas stream to the environment. In addition to demonstrating tritium removal from amore » synthetic zirconium recycle off-gas stream, the recovery and quantification of tritium may refine estimates of the amount of tritium present in the Zircaloy cladding of used nuclear fuel. To support these objectives, a bubbler-type scrubber was fabricated to remove the TCl from the zirconium recycle off-gas stream. The scrubber was fabricated from glass and polymer components that are resistant to chlorine and hydrochloric acid solutions. Because of concerns that the scrubber efficiency is not quantitative, tests were performed using DCl as a stand-in to experimentally measure the scrubbing efficiency of this unit. Scrubbing efficiency was ~108% ± 3% with water as the scrubber solution. Variations were noted when 1 M NaOH scrub solution was used, values ranged from 64% to 130%. The reason for the variations is not known. It is recommended that the equipment be operated with water as the scrubbing solution. Scrubbing efficiency is estimated at 100%.« less

  17. ELECTROLYTIC CLADDING OF ZIRCONIUM ON URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Wick, J.J.

    1959-09-22

    A method is presented for coating uranium with zircoalum by rendering the uranium surface smooth and oxidefree, immersing it in a molten electrolytic bath in NaCI, K/sub 2/ZrF/sub 6/, KF, and ZrO/sub 2/, and before the article reaches temperature equilibrium with the bath, applying an electrolyzing current of 60 amperes per square dectmeter at approximately 3 volts to form a layer of zirconium metal on the uranium.

  18. From Zirconium Nanograins to Zirconia Nanoneedles

    PubMed Central

    Zalnezhad, E.; Hamouda, A. M. S.; Jaworski, J.; Do Kim, Young

    2016-01-01

    Combinations of three simple techniques were utilized to gradually form zirconia nanoneedles from zirconium nanograins. First, a physical vapor deposition magnetron sputtering technique was used to deposit pure zirconium nanograins on top of a substrate. Second, an anodic oxidation was applied to fabricate zirconia nanotubular arrays. Finally, heat treatment was used at different annealing temperatures in order to change the structure and morphology from nanotubes to nanowires and subsequently to nanoneedles in the presence of argon gas. The size of the pure zirconium nanograins was estimated to be approximately 200–300 nm. ZrO2 nanotubular arrays with diameters of 70–120 nm were obtained. Both tetragonal and monoclinic ZrO2 were observed after annealing at 450 °C and 650 °C. Only a few tetragonal peaks appeared at 850 °C, while monoclinic ZrO2 was obtained at 900 °C and 950 °C. In assessing the biocompatibility of the ZrO2 surface, the human cell line MDA-MB-231 was found to attach and proliferate well on surfaces annealed at 850 °C and 450 °C; however, the amorphous ZrO2 surface, which was not heat treated, did not permit extensive cell growth, presumably due to remaining fluoride. PMID:27623486

  19. Microbial solubilization of phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, R.D.; Wolfram, J.H.

    1993-10-26

    A process is provided for solubilizing phosphate from phosphate containing ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of phosphate ore, microorganisms operable for solubilizing phosphate from the phosphate ore and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the microbial solubilization process. An aqueous solution containing soluble phosphorus can be separated from the reacted mixture by precipitation, solvent extraction, selective membrane, exchange resin or gravity methods to recover phosphate from the aqueous solution. 6 figures.

  20. Microbial solubilization of phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Robert D.; Wolfram, James H.

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for solubilizing phosphate from phosphate containing ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of phosphate ore, microorganisms operable for solubilizing phosphate from the phosphate ore and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the microbial solubilization process. An aqueous solution containing soluble phosphorous can be separated from the reacted mixture by precipitation, solvent extraction, selective membrane, exchange resin or gravity methods to recover phosphate from the aqueous solution.

  1. The effect of Sinabung volcanic ash and rock phosphate nanoparticle on CEC (cation exchange capacity) base saturation exchange (K, Na, Ca, Mg) and base saturation at Andisol soils Ciater, West Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuniarti, Anni; Arifin, Mahfud; Sofyan, Emma Trinurasi; Natalie, Betty; Sudirja, Rija; Dahliani, Dewi

    2018-02-01

    Andisol, soil orders which covers an upland area dominantly. The aim of this research is to know the effect between the ameliorant of Sinabung volcanic ashes with the ameliorant of rock phosphatenanoparticle towards CEC and base saturation exchange (K, Na, Ca, Mg) and the base saturation on Ciater's Andisols, West Java. A randomized complete block design (RCBD) factorial with two factors was used in this research. The first factor is the volcanic ash and the second factor is rock phosphate which consists of four levels each amount of 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% with three replications. The result showed that there was no interaction between volcanic ash and rock phosphate nanoparticle formed in first month and fourth month towards the improvement of CEC and saturation base exchange rate unless magnesium cation exchange increased in fourth month. There was independent effect of volcanic ash formed nanoparticles towards base saturation exchange increased for 5% dose. There was independent effect of rock phosphate formed nanoparticles towards base saturation exchange and increased for 5% dose. The dose combination of volcanic ashes 7.5% with phosphate rock, 5% increased the base saturation in the first month incubation.

  2. Reduced-Gravity Measurements of the Effect of Oxygen on Properties of Zirconium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, J.; Lee, J.; Wunderlich, R.; Fecht, H.-J.; Schneider, S.; SanSoucie, M.; Rogers, J.; Hyers, R.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of oxygen on the thermophysical properties of zirconium is being investigated using MSL-EML (Material Science Laboratory - Electromagnetic Levitator) on ISS (International Space Station) in collaboration with NASA, ESA (European Space Agency), and DLR (German Aerospace Center). Zirconium samples with different oxygen concentrations will be put into multiple melt cycles, during which the density, viscosity, surface tension, heat capacity, and electric conductivity will be measured at various undercooled temperatures. The facility check-up of MSL-EML and the first set of melting experiments have been successfully performed in 2015. The first zirconium sample will be tested near the end of 2015. As part of ground support activities, the thermophysical properties of zirconium and ZrO were measured using a ground-based electrostatic levitator located at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The influence of oxygen on the measured surface tension was evaluated. The results of this research will serve as reference data for those measured in ISS.

  3. Plasmodium falciparum clearance with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Mali

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is currently the most effective medicine for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Artemisinin has previously been shown to increase the clearance of Plasmodium falciparum in malaria patients with haemoglobin E trait, but it did not increase parasite inhibition in an in vitro study using haemoglobin AS erythrocytes. The current study describes the efficacy of artemisinin derivatives on P. falciparum clearance in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD), a haemoglobin enzyme deficiency, not yet studied in the same context, but nonetheless is a common in malaria endemic areas, associated with host protection against uncomplicated and severe malaria. The impact of G6PD deficiency on parasite clearance with ACT treatment was compared between G6PD-deficient patients and G6PD-normal group. Methods Blood samples from children and adults participants (1 to 70 years old) with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria residing in Kambila, Mali were analysed. Study participants were randomly assigned to receive either artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem®) or artesunate plus mefloquine (Artequin™). A restriction-fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR-amplified DNA samples was used to identify the (A-) allele of the gene mutation responsible for G6PD deficiency (G6PD*A-). 470 blood samples were thus analysed and of these, DNA was extracted from 315 samples using the QIAamp kit for PCR to identify the G6PD*A- gene. Results The DNA amplified from 315 samples using PCR showed that G6PD*A- deficiency was present in 56 participants (17.8%). The distribution of the specific deficiency was 1%, 7% and, 9.8% respectively for homozygous, hemizygous, and heterozygous genotypes. Before treatment, the median parasitaemia and other baseline characteristics (mean haemoglobin, sex and age groups) between G6PD deficiency (hemizygous, heterozygous, and homozygous) and G6PD-normal participants were comparable (p > 0

  4. Heat treatment of pre-hydrolyzed silane increases adhesion of phosphate monomer-based resin cement to glass ceramic.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Rodrigo Furtado; Cotes, Caroline; Kimpara, Estevão Tomomitsu; Leite, Fabíola Pessoa Pereira; Özcan, Mutlu

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of different forms of heat treatment on a pre-hydrolyzed silane to improve the adhesion of phosphate monomer-based (MDP) resin cement to glass ceramic. Resin and feldspathic ceramic blocks (n=48, n=6 for bond test, n=2 for microscopy) were randomly divided into 6 groups and subject to surface treatments: G1: Hydrofluoric acid (HF) 9.6% for 20 s + Silane + MDP resin cement (Panavia F); G2: HF 9.6% for 20 s + Silane + Heat Treatment (oven) + Panavia F; G3: Silane + Heat Treatment (oven) + Panavia F; G4: HF 9.6% for 20 s + Silane + Heat Treatment (hot air) + Panavia F; G5: Silane + Heat Treatment (hot air) + Panavia F; G6: Silane + Panavia F. Microtensile bond strength (MTBS) test was performed using a universal testing machine (1 mm/min). After debonding, the substrate and adherent surfaces were analyzed using stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM) to categorize the failure types. Data were analyzed statistically using two-way test ANOVA and Tukey's test (=0.05). Heat treatment of the silane containing MDP, with prior etching with HF (G2: 13.15 ± 0.89a; G4: 12.58 ± 1.03a) presented significantly higher bond strength values than the control group (G1: 9.16 ± 0.64b). The groups without prior etching (G3: 10.47 ± 0.70b; G5: 9.47 ± 0.32b) showed statistically similar bond strength values between them and the control group (G1). The silane application without prior etching and heat treatment resulted in the lowest mean bond strength (G6: 8.05 ± 0.37c). SEM analysis showed predominantly adhesive failures and EDS analysis showed common elements of spectra (Si, Na, Al, K, O, C) characterizing the microstructure of the glass-ceramic studied. Heat treatment of the pre-hydrolyzed silane containing MDP in an oven at 100 °C for 2 min or with hot air application at 50 ± 5 ºC for 1 min, was effective in increasing the bond strength values between the ceramic and resin cement containing MDP.

  5. Plasmodium falciparum clearance with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Mali.

    PubMed

    Kone, Abdoulaye K; Sagara, Issaka; Thera, Mahamadou A; Dicko, Alassane; Guindo, Aldiouma; Diakite, Seidina; Kurantsin-Mills, Joseph; Djimde, Abdoulaye; Walcourt, Asikiya; Doumbo, Ogabara

    2010-11-21

    Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is currently the most effective medicine for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Artemisinin has previously been shown to increase the clearance of Plasmodium falciparum in malaria patients with haemoglobin E trait, but it did not increase parasite inhibition in an in vitro study using haemoglobin AS erythrocytes. The current study describes the efficacy of artemisinin derivatives on P. falciparum clearance in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD), a haemoglobin enzyme deficiency, not yet studied in the same context, but nonetheless is a common in malaria endemic areas, associated with host protection against uncomplicated and severe malaria. The impact of G6PD deficiency on parasite clearance with ACT treatment was compared between G6PD-deficient patients and G6PD-normal group. Blood samples from children and adults participants (1 to 70 years old) with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria residing in Kambila, Mali were analysed. Study participants were randomly assigned to receive either artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem®) or artesunate plus mefloquine (Artequin™). A restriction-fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR-amplified DNA samples was used to identify the (A-) allele of the gene mutation responsible for G6PD deficiency (G6PD*A-). 470 blood samples were thus analysed and of these, DNA was extracted from 315 samples using the QIAamp kit for PCR to identify the G6PD*A- gene. The DNA amplified from 315 samples using PCR showed that G6PD*A- deficiency was present in 56 participants (17.8%). The distribution of the specific deficiency was 1%, 7% and, 9.8% respectively for homozygous, hemizygous, and heterozygous genotypes. Before treatment, the median parasitaemia and other baseline characteristics (mean haemoglobin, sex and age groups) between G6PD deficiency (hemizygous, heterozygous, and homozygous) and G6PD-normal participants were comparable (p > 0.05). After treatment

  6. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003671.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a protein that helps ...

  7. An azine based sensor for selective detection of Cu2 + ions and its copper complex for sensing of phosphate ions in physiological conditions and in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Karishma; Kumar, Sumit; Kumar, Vipan; Kaur, Jeevanjot; Arora, Saroj; Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar

    2018-02-01

    A simple and cost effective unsymmetrical azine based Schiff base, 5-diethylamino-2-[(2-hydroxy-benzylidene)hydrazonomethyl]-phenol (1) was synthesized which selectively detect Cu2 + ions in the presence of other competitive ions through ;naked eye; in physiological conditions (EtOH-buffer (1:1, v/v, HEPES 10 mM, pH = 7.4)). The presence of Cu2 + induce color change from light yellow green to yellow with the appearance of a new band at 450 nm in UV-Vis spectra of Schiff base 1. The fluorescence of Schiff base 1 (10 μM) was quenched completely in the presence of 2.7 equiv. of Cu2 + ions. Sub-micromolar limit of detection (LOD = 3.4 × 10- 7 M), efficient Stern-Volmer quenching constant (KSV = 1.8 × 105 L mol- 1) and strong binding constant (log Kb = 5.92) has been determined with the help of fluorescence titration profile. Further, 1 - Cu2 + complex was employed for the detection of phosphate ions (PO43 -, HPO42 - and H2PO4-) at micromolar concentrations in EtOH-buffer of pH 7.4 based on fluorescence recovery due to the binding of Cu2 + with phosphate ions. Solubility at low concentration in aqueous medium, longer excitation (406 nm) and emission wavelength (537 nm), and biocompatibility of Schiff base 1 formulates its use in live cell imaging.

  8. The impact of phosphate-balanced crystalloid infusion on acid-base homeostasis (PALANCE study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pagel, Judith-Irina; Hulde, Nikolai; Kammerer, Tobias; Schwarz, Michaela; Chappell, Daniel; Burges, Alexander; Hofmann-Kiefer, Klaus; Rehm, Markus

    2017-07-10

    This study aims to investigate the effects of a modified, balanced crystalloid including phosphate in a perioperative setting in order to maintain a stable electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis in the patient. This is a single-centre, open-label, randomized controlled trial involving two parallel groups of female patients comparing a perioperative infusion regime with sodium glycerophosphate and Jonosteril® (treatment group) or Jonosteril® (comparator) alone. The primary endpoint is to maintain a stable concentration of weak acids [A - ] according to the Stewart approach of acid-base balance. Secondary endpoints are measurement of serum phosphate levels, other acid-base parameters such as the strong ion difference (SID), the onset and severity of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), electrolyte levels and their excretion in the urine, monitoring of renal function and glycocalyx components, haemodynamics, amounts of catecholamines and other vasopressors used and the safety of the infusion regime. Perioperative fluid replacement with the use of currently available crystalloid preparations still fail to maintain a stable acid-base balance and experts agree that common balanced solutions are still not ideal. This study aims to investigate the effectivity and safety of a new crystalloid solution by adding sodium glycerophosphate to a standardized crystalloid preparation in order to maintain a balanced perioperative acid-base homeostasis. EudraCT number 201002422520 . Registered on 30 November 2010.

  9. Development of Self-Healing Zirconium-Silicide Coatings for Improved Performance Zirconium-Alloy Fuel Cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Sridharan, Kumar; Mariani, Robert; Bai, Xianming

    Zirconium-alloy fuel claddings have been used successfully in Light Water Reactors (LWR) for over four decades. However, under high temperature accident conditions, zirconium-alloys fuel claddings exhibit profuse exothermic oxidation accompanied by release of hydrogen gas due to the reaction with water/steam. Additionally, the ZrO 2 layer can undergo monoclinic to tetragonal to cubic phase transformations at high temperatures which can induce stresses and cracking. These events were unfortunately borne out in the Fukushima-Daiichi accident in in Japan in 2011. In reaction to such accident, protective oxidation-resistant coatings for zirconium-alloy fuel claddings has been extensively investigated to enhance safety margins inmore » accidents as well as fuel performance under normal operation conditions. Such surface modification could also beneficially affect fuel rod heat transfer characteristics. Zirconium-silicide, a candidate coating material, is particularly attractive because zirconium-silicide coating is expected to bond strongly to zirconium-alloy substrate. Intermetallic compound phases of zirconium-silicide have high melting points and oxidation of zirconium silicide produces highly corrosion resistant glassy zircon (ZrSiO 4) and silica (SiO 2) which possessing self-healing qualities. Given the long-term goal of developing such coatings for use with nuclear reactor fuel cladding, this work describes results of oxidation and corrosion behavior of bulk zirconium-silicide and fabrication of zirconium-silicide coatings on zirconium-alloy test flats, tube configurations, and SiC test flats. In addition, boiling heat transfer of these modified surfaces (including ZrSi 2 coating) during clad quenching experiments is discussed in detail.« less

  10. [The clinical application of zirconium-dioxide-ceramics. Case report].

    PubMed

    Somfai, Dóra; Zsigmond, Ágnes; Károlyházy, Katalin; Kispély, Barbara; Hermann, Péter

    2015-12-01

    Due to its outstanding physical, mechanical and esthetic properties, zirconium-dioxide is one of the most popular non-metal denture, capable of surpassing PFM in most cases. The recent advances of CAD/CAM technology makes it a good alternitve. Here we show the usefulness of zirconium-dioxide in everyday dental practice through three case reports.

  11. 40 CFR 721.10602 - Lead niobium titanium zirconium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... as specified in § 721.90 (a)(4), (b)(4), and (c)(4) (Where N=8, and 8 is an aggregate of releases for the following substances: Lead strontium titanium zirconium oxide (PMN P-11-270; CAS No. 61461-40-3... strontium titanium tungsten oxide (PMN P-11-272; CAS No. 1262279-30-0); Lanthanum lead titanium zirconium...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10602 - Lead niobium titanium zirconium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... as specified in § 721.90 (a)(4), (b)(4), and (c)(4) (Where N=8, and 8 is an aggregate of releases for the following substances: Lead strontium titanium zirconium oxide (PMN P-11-270; CAS No. 61461-40-3... strontium titanium tungsten oxide (PMN P-11-272; CAS No. 1262279-30-0); Lanthanum lead titanium zirconium...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10598 - Lead strontium titanium zirconium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lead strontium titanium zirconium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10598 Lead strontium titanium zirconium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as lead strontium...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10598 - Lead strontium titanium zirconium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lead strontium titanium zirconium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10598 Lead strontium titanium zirconium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as lead strontium...

  15. Nanoporous sorbent material as an oral phosphate binder and for aqueous phosphate, chromate, and arsenate removal

    PubMed Central

    Sangvanich, Thanapon; Ngamcherdtrakul, Worapol; Lee, Richard; Morry, Jingga; Castro, David; Fryxell, Glen E.; Yantasee, Wassana

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate removal is both biologically and environmentally important. Biologically, hyperphosphatemia is a critical condition in end-stage chronic kidney disease patients. Patients with hyperphosphatemia are treated long-term with oral phosphate binders to prevent phosphate absorption to the body by capturing phosphate in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract followed by fecal excretion. Environmentally, phosphate levels in natural water resources must be regulated according to limits set forth by the US Environmental Protection Agency. By utilizing nanotechnology and ligand design, we developed a new material to overcome limitations of traditional sorbent materials such as low phosphate binding capacity, slow binding kinetics, and negative interference by other anions. A phosphate binder based on iron-ethylenediamine on nanoporous silica (Fe-EDA-SAMMS) has been optimized for substrates and Fe(III) deposition methods. The Fe-EDA-SAMMS material had a 4-fold increase in phosphate binding capacity and a broader operating pH window compared to other reports. The material had a faster phosphate binding rate and was significantly less affected by other anions than Sevelamer HCl, the gold standard oral phosphate binder, and AG® 1-X8, a commercially available anion exchanger. It had less cytotoxicity to Caco-2 cells than lanthanum carbonate, another prescribed oral phosphate binder. The Fe-EDA-SAMMS also had high capacity for arsenate and chromate, two of the most toxic anions in natural water. PMID:25554735

  16. Zirconium fluoride glass - Surface crystals formed by reaction with water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doremus, R. H.; Bansal, N. P.; Bradner, T.; Murphy, D.

    1984-01-01

    The hydrated surfaces of a zirconium barium fluoride glass, which has potential for application in optical fibers and other optical elements, were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Crystalline zirconium fluoride was identified by analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns of the surface crystals and found to be the main constituent of the surface material. It was also found that hydrated zirconium fluorides form only in highly acidic fluoride solutions. It is possible that the zirconium fluoride crystals form directly on the glass surface as a result of its depletion of other ions. The solubility of zirconium fluoride is suggested to be probably much lower than that of barium fluoride (0.16 g/100 cu cm at 18 C). Dissolution was determined to be the predominant process in the initial stages of the reaction of the glass with water. Penetration of water into the glass has little effect.

  17. Economic Evaluation of Sevelamer versus Calcium-Based Phosphate Binders in Hemodialysis Patients: A Secondary Analysis using Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Data

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Qiao; Weinhandl, Eric; Liu, Jiannong

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: A secondary analysis of the Dialysis Clinical Outcomes Revisited (DCOR) trial suggested that sevelamer reduced hospitalizations relative to calcium-based phosphate binders. However, whether changed medical costs associated with reduced hospitalizations or other medical services offset the higher cost of sevelamer is unclear. This DCOR secondary analysis aimed to (1) evaluate Medicare total, inpatient, outpatient, skilled nursing facility, and other costs in sevelamer-treated versus calcium-treated patients; (2) examine Medicare costs in specific categories to determine cost drivers; and (3) estimate and incorporate sevelamer and calcium binder costs. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: DCOR trial participants were linked to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services ESRD database. Medicare costs for 1895 dosed Medicare-primary-payer participants were evaluated. Phosphate binder costs were incorporated. Costs were indexed to 2001 (study base year). Sensitivity analyses were performed with randomized participants, two follow-up periods, and 2004 as index year. Results: Inflation-adjusted Medicare per member per month (PMPM) costs were lower for sevelamer-treated than for calcium-treated participants by a mean differential of $199 PMPM (mean, $5236 versus $5435; median, $4653 versus $4933), mainly because of lower inpatient costs for the sevelamer group (mean, $1461 versus $1644; median, $909 versus $1144). However, after phosphate binder costs were incorporated, costs trended lower for calcium-treated than for sevelamer-treated patients (differential −$81, 95% confidence interval −$321 to $157 PMPM, using average wholesale price; −$25, −$256 to $213 PMPM, using wholesale acquisition cost). Conclusions: Sevelamer reduced inpatient Medicare costs compared with calcium binders. However, when binder costs were added, overall PMPM costs favored calcium-treated over sevelamer-treated participants. PMID:19833904

  18. Study of the hydrolysis and ionization constants of Schiff base from pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and n-hexylamine in partially aqueous solvents. An application to phosphorylase b.

    PubMed Central

    Donoso, J; Muñoz, F; García Del Vado, A; Echevarría, G; García Blanco, F

    1986-01-01

    Formation and hydrolysis rate constants as well as equilibrium constants of the Schiff base derived from pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and n-hexylamine were determined between pH 3.5 and 7.5 in ethanol/water mixtures (3:17, v/v, and 49:1, v/v). The results indicate that solvent polarity scarcely alters the values of these constants but that they are dependent on the pH. Spectrophotometric titration of this Schiff base was also carried out. We found that a pKa value of 6.1, attributed in high-polarity media to protonation of the pyridine nitrogen atom, is independent of solvent polarity, whereas the pKa of the monoprotonated form of the imine falls from 12.5 in ethanol/water (3:17) to 11.3 in ethanol/water (49:1). Fitting of the experimental results for the hydrolysis to a theoretical model indicates the existence of a group with a pKa value of 6.1 that is crucial in the variation of kinetic constant of hydrolysis with pH. Studies of the reactivity of the coenzyme (pyridoxal 5'-phosphate) of glycogen phosphorylase b with hydroxylamine show that this reaction only occurs when the pH value of solution is below 6.5 and the hydrolysis of imine bond has started. We propose that the decrease in activity of phosphorylase b when the pH value is less than 6.2 must be caused by the cleavage of enzyme-coenzyme binding and that this may be related with protonation of the pyridine nitrogen atom of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. PMID:3099764

  19. ZIRCONIUM-TITANIUM-BERYLLIUM BRAZING ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Gilliland, R.G.; Patriarca, P.; Slaughter, G.M.; Williams, L.C.

    1962-06-12

    A new and improved ternary alloy is described which is of particular utility in braze-bonding parts made of a refractory metal selected from Group IV, V, and VI of the periodic table and alloys containing said metal as a predominating alloying ingredient. The brazing alloy contains, by weight, 40 to 50 per cent zirconium, 40 to 50 per cent titanium, and the balance beryllium in amounts ranging from 1 to 20 per cent, said alloy having a melting point in the range 950 to 1400 deg C. (AEC)

  20. Cherenkov and Scintillation Properties of Cubic Zirconium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, M.J.; Adams, J.H.; Parnell, T.A.; Kuznetsov, E.N.

    2008-01-01

    Cubic zirconium (CZ) is a high index of refraction (n =2.17) material that we have investigated for Cherenkov counter applications. Laboratory and proton accelerator tests of an 18cc sample of CZ show that the expected fast Cherenkov response is accompanied by a longer scintillation component that can be separated by pulse shaping. This presents the possibility of novel particle spectrometers which exploits both properties of CZ. Other high index materials being examined for Cherenkov applications will be discussed. Results from laboratory tests and an accelerator exposure will be presented and a potential application in solar energetic particle instruments will be discussed

  1. METHOD FOR DISSOLVING ZIRCONIUM-URANIUM COMPOSITIONS

    DOEpatents

    Gens, T.A.

    1961-07-18

    A method is descrioed for treating a zirconium-- uranium composition to form a stable solution from which uranium and other values may be extracted by contacting the composition with at least a 4 molar aqueous solution of ammonium fluoride at a temperature of about 100 deg C, adding a peroxide, in incremental amounts, to the heated solution throughout the period of dissolution until all of the uranium is converted to soluble uranyl salt, adding nitric acid to the resultant solution to form a solvent extraction feed solution to convert the uranyl salt to a solvent extractable state, and thereafter recovering the uranium and other desired values from the feed solution by solvent extraction.

  2. Determination of copper (II) in foodstuffs based on its quenching effect on the fluorescence of N,N'-bis(pyridoxal phosphate)-o-phenylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Xu, Canhui; Liao, Lifu; He, Yunfei; Wu, Rurong; Li, Shijun; Yang, Yanyan

    2015-01-01

    A Schiff base-type fluorescence probe was prepared for the detection of copper (II) in foodstuffs. The probe is N,N'-bis(pyridoxal phosphate)-o-phenylenediamine (BPPP). It was synthesized by utilizing the Schiff base condensation reaction of pyridoxal 5-phosphate with 1,2-phenylenediamine. BPPP has the properties of high fluorescence stability, good water solubility and low toxicity. Its maximum excitation wavelength and maximum fluorescence emission wavelength are at 389 and 448 nm, respectively. When BPPP coexists with copper (II), its fluorescence is dramatically quenched. Under a certain condition, the fluorescence intensity decreased proportionally to the concentration of copper (II) by the quenching effect. Based on this fact, we established a fluorescence quenching method for the determination of copper (II). Under optimal conditions a linear range was found to be 0.5-50 ng/mL with a detection limit of 0.2 ng/mL. The method has been applied to determine copper (II) in foodstuff samples and the analytical results show good agreement with that obtained from atomic absorption spectrometry method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Novel Polymer-Synthesized Ceramic Composite Based System for Bone Repair: Osteoblast Growth on Scaffolds with Varied Calcium Phosphate Content

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    demongtrated the synthesis of degradable scaffolds from PLAGA /calcium phosphate composite microspheres in which an amorphous calcium phosphate is...EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS Scaffold Preparation Scaffolds were prepared as described in detail previously [3]. Briefly, PLAGA /calcium phosphate composite...culture polystyrene (TCPS) 2- pure PLAGA microspheres 64 3- composite microsphere matrices with a low polymer/ceramic ratio 4- composite microsphere

  4. Emulsified systems based on glyceryl monostearate and potassium cetyl phosphate: scale-up and characterization of physical properties.

    PubMed

    Baby, André Rolim; Santoro, Diego Monegatto; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Dos Reis Serra, Cristina Helena

    2008-09-01

    Introducing a pharmaceutical product on the market involves several stages of research. The scale-up stage comprises the integration of previous phases of development and their integration. This phase is extremely important since many process limitations which do not appear on the small scale become significant on the transposition to a large one. Since scientific literature presents only a few reports about the characterization of emulsified systems involving their scaling-up, this research work aimed at evaluating physical properties of non-ionic and anionic emulsions during their manufacturing phases: laboratory stage and scale-up. Prototype non-ionic (glyceryl monostearate) and anionic (potassium cetyl phosphate) emulsified systems had the physical properties by the determination of the droplet size (D[4,3], mum) and rheology profile. Transposition occurred from a batch of 500-50,000g. Semi-industrial manufacturing involved distinct conditions: intensity of agitation and homogenization. Comparing the non-ionic and anionic systems, it was observed that anionic emulsifiers generated systems with smaller droplet size and higher viscosity in laboratory scale. Besides that, for the concentrations tested, augmentation of the glyceryl monostearate emulsifier content provided formulations with better physical characteristics. For systems with potassium cetyl phosphate, droplet size increased with the elevation of the emulsifier concentration, suggesting inadequate stability. The scale-up provoked more significant alterations on the rheological profile and droplet size on the anionic systems than the non-ionic.

  5. Highly Effective Polyphosphate Synthesis, Phosphate Removal, and Concentration Using Engineered Environmental Bacteria Based on a Simple Solo Medium-Copy Plasmid Strategy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Xiaomeng; Hui, Kaimin; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Wen; Miao, Aijun; Xiao, Lin; Yang, Liuyan

    2018-01-02

    Microbial polyphosphate (polyP) production is vital to the removal of phosphate from wastewater. However, to date, engineered polyP synthesis using genetically accessible environmental bacteria remains a challenge. This study develops a simple solo medium-copy plasmid-based polyphosphate kinase (PPK1) overexpression strategy for achieving maximum intracellular polyphosphate accumulation by environmental bacteria. The polyP content of the subsequently engineered Citrobacter freundii (CPP) could reach as high as 12.7% of its dry weight. The biomass yield of CPP was also guaranteed because of negligible metabolic burden effects resulting from the medium plasmid copy number. Consequently, substantial removal of phosphate (P i ) from the ambient environment was achieved simultaneously. Because of the need for exogenous P i for in vivo ATP regeneration, CPP could thoroughly remove P i from synthetic municipal wastewater when it was applied for the "one-step" removal of P i with a bench-scale sequence batch membrane reactor. Almost all the phosphorus except for that assimilated by CPP for cellular growth could be recovered in the form of more concentrated P i . Overall, engineering environmental bacteria to overexpress PPK1 via a solo medium-copy plasmid strategy may represent a valuable general option for not only biotechnological research based on sufficient intracellular polyP production but also removal of P i from wastewater and P i enrichment.

  6. Fabrication of oxide layer on zirconium by micro-arc oxidation: Structural and antimicrobial characteristics.

    PubMed

    Fidan, S; Muhaffel, F; Riool, M; Cempura, G; de Boer, L; Zaat, S A J; Filemonowicz, A Czyrska-; Cimenoglu, H

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to cover the surfaces of zirconium (Zr) with an antimicrobial layer for biomedical applications. For this purpose, the micro-arc oxidation (MAO) process was employed in a sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide containing base electrolyte with and without addition of silver acetate (AgC 2 H 3 O 2 ). In general, synthesized MAO layers were composed of zirconium oxide (ZrO 2 ) and zircon (ZrSiO 4 ). Addition of AgC 2 H 3 O 2 into the base electrolyte caused homogenous precipitation of silver-containing particles in the MAO layer, which exhibited excellent antibacterial efficiency against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as compared to the untreated and MAO-treated Zr. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. High temperature mechanical properties of a zirconium-modified, precipitation- strengthened nickel, 30 percent copper alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A precipitation-strengthened Monel-type alloy has been developed through minor alloying additions of zirconium to a base Ni-30Cu alloy. The results of this exploratory study indicate that thermomechanical processing of a solution-treated Ni-30Cu-0.2Zr alloy produced a dispersion of precipitates. The precipitates have been tentatively identified as a Ni5Zr compound. A comparison of the mechanical properties, as determined by testing in air, of the zirconium-modified alloy to those of a Ni-30Cu alloy reveals that the precipitation-strengthened alloy has improved tensile properties to 1200 K and improved stress-rupture properties to 1100 K. The oxidation characteristics of the modified alloy appeared to be equivalent to those of the base Ni-30Cu alloy.

  8. Method to predict relative hydriding within a group of zirconium alloys under nuclear irradiation

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Levy, I.S.; Trimble, D.J.; Lanning, D.D.; Gerber, F.S.

    1990-04-10

    An out-of-reactor method for screening to predict relative in-reactor hydriding behavior of zirconium-based materials is disclosed. Samples of zirconium-based materials having different compositions and/or fabrication methods are autoclaved in a relatively concentrated (0.3 to 1.0M) aqueous lithium hydroxide solution at constant temperatures within the water reactor coolant temperature range (280 to 316 C). Samples tested by this out-of-reactor procedure, when compared on the basis of the ratio of hydrogen weight gain to oxide weight gain, accurately predict the relative rate of hydriding for the same materials when subject to in-reactor (irradiated) corrosion. 1 figure.

  9. Ultra-Small-Angle X-ray Scattering – X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy Studies of Incipient Structural Changes in Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Based Dental Composites

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, F.; Allen, A.J.; Levine, L.E.; Espinal, L.; Antonucci, J.M.; Skrtic, D.; O’Donnell, J.N.R.; Ilavsky, J.

    2012-01-01

    The local structural changes in amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) based dental composites were studied under isothermal conditions using both static, bulk measurement techniques and a recently developed methodology based on combined ultra-small angle X-ray scattering – X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (USAXS-XPCS), which permits a dynamic approach. While results from conventional bulk measurements do not show clear signs of structural change, USAXS-XPCS results reveal unambiguous evidence for local structural variations on a similar time scale to that of water loss in the ACP fillers. A thermal-expansion based simulation indicates that thermal behavior alone does not account for the observed dynamics. Together, these results suggest that changes in the water content of ACP affect the composite morphology due to changes in ACP structure that occur without an amorphous-to-crystalline conversion. It is also noted that biomedical materials research could benefit greatly from USAXS-XPCS, a dynamic approach. PMID:22374649

  10. How do arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi handle phosphate? New insight into fine-tuning of phosphate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ezawa, Tatsuhiro; Saito, Katsuharu

    2018-04-27

    Contents Summary I. Introduction II. Foraging for phosphate III. Fine-tuning of phosphate homeostasis IV. The frontiers: phosphate translocation and export V. Conclusions and outlook Acknowledgements References SUMMARY: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi form symbiotic associations with most land plants and deliver mineral nutrients, in particular phosphate, to the host. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of phosphate acquisition and delivery in the fungi is critical for full appreciation of the mutualism in this association. Here, we provide updates on physical, chemical, and biological strategies of the fungi for phosphate acquisition, including interactions with phosphate-solubilizing bacteria, and those on the regulatory mechanisms of phosphate homeostasis based on resurveys of published genome sequences and a transcriptome with reference to the latest findings in a model fungus. For the mechanisms underlying phosphate translocation and export to the host, which are major research frontiers in this field, not only recent advances but also testable hypotheses are proposed. Lastly, we briefly discuss applicability of the latest tools to gene silencing in the fungi, which will be breakthrough techniques for comprehensive understanding of the molecular basis of fungal phosphate metabolism. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. An azine based sensor for selective detection of Cu2+ ions and its copper complex for sensing of phosphate ions in physiological conditions and in living cells.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Karishma; Kumar, Sumit; Kumar, Vipan; Kaur, Jeevanjot; Arora, Saroj; Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar

    2018-02-15

    A simple and cost effective unsymmetrical azine based Schiff base, 5-diethylamino-2-[(2-hydroxy-benzylidene)hydrazonomethyl]-phenol (1) was synthesized which selectively detect Cu 2+ ions in the presence of other competitive ions through "naked eye" in physiological conditions (EtOH-buffer (1:1, v/v, HEPES 10mM, pH=7.4)). The presence of Cu 2+ induce color change from light yellow green to yellow with the appearance of a new band at 450nm in UV-Vis spectra of Schiff base 1. The fluorescence of Schiff base 1 (10μM) was quenched completely in the presence of 2.7 equiv. of Cu 2+ ions. Sub-micromolar limit of detection (LOD=3.4×10 -7 M), efficient Stern-Volmer quenching constant (K SV =1.8×10 5 Lmol -1 ) and strong binding constant (log K b =5.92) has been determined with the help of fluorescence titration profile. Further, 1-Cu 2+ complex was employed for the detection of phosphate ions (PO 4 3- , HPO 4 2- and H 2 PO 4 - ) at micromolar concentrations in EtOH-buffer of pH7.4 based on fluorescence recovery due to the binding of Cu 2+ with phosphate ions. Solubility at low concentration in aqueous medium, longer excitation (406nm) and emission wavelength (537nm), and biocompatibility of Schiff base 1 formulates its use in live cell imaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Pentose phosphates in nucleoside interconversion and catabolism.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Maria G; Camici, Marcella; Mascia, Laura; Sgarrella, Francesco; Ipata, Piero L

    2006-03-01

    Ribose phosphates are either synthesized through the oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway, or are supplied by nucleoside phosphorylases. The two main pentose phosphates, ribose-5-phosphate and ribose-1-phosphate, are readily interconverted by the action of phosphopentomutase. Ribose-5-phosphate is the direct precursor of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, for both de novo and 'salvage' synthesis of nucleotides. Phosphorolysis of deoxyribonucleosides is the main source of deoxyribose phosphates, which are interconvertible, through the action of phosphopentomutase. The pentose moiety of all nucleosides can serve as a carbon and energy source. During the past decade, extensive advances have been made in elucidating the pathways by which the pentose phosphates, arising from nucleoside phosphorolysis, are either recycled, without opening of their furanosidic ring, or catabolized as a carbon and energy source. We review herein the experimental knowledge on the molecular mechanisms by which (a) ribose-1-phosphate, produced by purine nucleoside phosphorylase acting catabolically, is either anabolized for pyrimidine salvage and 5-fluorouracil activation, with uridine phosphorylase acting anabolically, or recycled for nucleoside and base interconversion; (b) the nucleosides can be regarded, both in bacteria and in eukaryotic cells, as carriers of sugars, that are made available though the action of nucleoside phosphorylases. In bacteria, catabolism of nucleosides, when suitable carbon and energy sources are not available, is accomplished by a battery of nucleoside transporters and of inducible catabolic enzymes for purine and pyrimidine nucleosides and for pentose phosphates. In eukaryotic cells, the modulation of pentose phosphate production by nucleoside catabolism seems to be affected by developmental and physiological factors on enzyme levels.

  13. METHOD OF PREPARING SINTERED ZIRCONIUM METAL FROM ITS HYDRIDES

    DOEpatents

    Angier, R.P.

    1958-02-11

    The invention relates to the preparation of metal shapes from zirconium hydride by powder metallurgical techniques. The zirconium hydride powder which is to be used for this purpose can be prepared by rendering massive pieces of crystal bar zirconium friable by heat treatment in purified hydrogen. This any then be ground into powder and powder can be handled in the air without danger of it igniting. It may then be compacted in the normal manner by being piaced in a die. The compact is sintered under vacuum conditions preferably at a temperature ranging from 1200 to 1300 deg C and for periods of one to three hours.

  14. RECOVERY OF URANIUM FROM ZIRCONIUM-URANIUM NUCLEAR FUELS

    DOEpatents

    Gens, T.A.

    1962-07-10

    An improvement was made in a process of recovering uranium from a uranium-zirconium composition which was hydrochlorinated with gsseous hydrogen chloride at a temperature of from 350 to 800 deg C resulting in volatilization of the zirconium, as zirconium tetrachloride, and the formation of a uranium containing nitric acid insoluble residue. The improvement consists of reacting the nitric acid insoluble hydrochlorination residue with gaseous carbon tetrachloride at a temperature in the range 550 to 600 deg C, and thereafter recovering the resulting uranium chloride vapors. (AEC)

  15. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  16. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  17. Comparative Efficacies of Collagen-Based 3D Printed PCL/PLGA/β-TCP Composite Block Bone Grafts and Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Bone Substitute for Bone Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kyoung-Sub; Choi, Jae-Won; Kim, Jae-Hun; Chung, Ho Yun; Jin, Songwan; Shim, Jin-Hyung; Yun, Won-Soo; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2017-04-17

    The purpose of this study was to compare bone regeneration and space maintaining ability of three-dimensional (3D) printed bone grafts with conventional biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP). After mixing polycaprolactone (PCL), poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) in a 4:4:2 ratio, PCL/PLGA/β-TCP particulate bone grafts were fabricated using 3D printing technology. Fabricated particulate bone grafts were mixed with atelocollagen to produce collagen-based PCL/PLGA/β-TCP composite block bone grafts. After formation of calvarial defects 8 mm in diameter, PCL/PLGA/β-TCP composite block bone grafts and BCP were implanted into bone defects of 32 rats. Although PCL/PLGA/β-TCP composite block bone grafts were not superior in bone regeneration ability compared to BCP, the results showed relatively similar performance. Furthermore, PCL/PLGA/β-TCP composite block bone grafts showed better ability to maintain bone defects and to support barrier membranes than BCP. Therefore, within the limitations of this study, PCL/PLGA/β-TCP composite block bone grafts could be considered as an alternative to synthetic bone grafts available for clinical use.

  18. Efficacy of reactive mineral-based sorbents for phosphate, bacteria, nitrogen and TOC removal--column experiment in recirculation batch mode.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Charlotte; Lakshmanan, Ramnath; Renman, Gunno; Rajarao, Gunaratna Kuttuva

    2013-09-15

    Two mineral-based materials (Polonite and Sorbulite) intended for filter wells in on-site wastewater treatment were compared in terms of removal of phosphate (PO4-P), total inorganic nitrogen (TIN), total organic carbon (TOC) and faecal indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and Enterococci). Using an innovative, recirculating system, septic tank effluent was pumped at a hydraulic loading rate of 3000 L m(2) d(-1) into triplicate bench-scale columns of each material over a 90-day period. The results showed that Polonite performed better with respect to removal of PO4-P, retaining on average 80% compared with 75% in Sorbulite. This difference was attributed to higher CaO content in Polonite and its faster dissolution. Polonite also performed better in terms of removal of bacteria because of its higher pH value. The total average reduction in E. coli was 60% in Polonite and 45% in Sorbulite, while for Enterococci the corresponding value was 56% in Polonite and 34% in Sorbulite. Sorbulite removed TIN more effectively, with a removal rate of 23%, while Polonite removed 11% of TIN, as well as TOC. Organic matter (measured as TOC) was accumulated in the filter materials but was also released periodically. The results showed that Sorbulite could meet the demand in removing phosphate and nitrogen with reduced microbial release from the wastewater treatment process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A case report of a 4-year-old child with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: An evidence based approach to nutritional management.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Alex; MacDonald, Anita; Cleto, Esmeralda; Almeida, Manuela Ferreira; Ramos, Paula Cristina; Rocha, Júlio César

    2017-01-01

    Pinto A, MacDonald A, Cleto E, Almeida MF, Ramos PC, Rocha JC. A case report of a 4-year-old child with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: An evidence based approach to nutritional management. Turk J Pediatr 2017; 59: 189-192. The objective was to describe the nutritional management of a 4-year-old child with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. A 4-year-old male child, African descent, born from non-consanguineous parents presented with a clinical history of frequent respiratory infections, usually treated with antibiotics. At 30 months of age, G6PD diagnosis was made after eating one portion (40 - 60 g) of fava beans, resulting in severe hemolytic anemia hospitalization for 5 days. Diagnosis was confirmed by G6PD activity measurement. Nutritional counseling was given to avoid dietary oxidative stressors particularly the exclusion of fava beans and accidental ingestion of other similar beans. Dietary intake of high vitamin C containing foods was discouraged and adequate hydration advised. Nutritional management is crucial in preventing acute stress events in patients with G6PD deficiency.

  20. Phase Transformation Temperatures and Solute Redistribution in a Quaternary Zirconium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochrane, C.; Daymond, M. R.

    2018-05-01

    This study investigates the phase stability and redistribution of solute during heating and cooling of a quaternary zirconium alloy, Excel (Zr-3.2Sn-0.8Mo-0.8Nb). Time-of-flight neutron diffraction data are analyzed using a novel Vegard's law-based approach to determine the phase fractions and location of substitutional solute atoms in situ during heating from room temperature up to 1050 °C. It is seen that this alloy exhibits direct nucleation of the β Zr phase from martensite during tempering, and stable retention of the β Zr phase to high temperatures, unlike other two-phase zirconium alloys. The transformation strains resulting from the α \\leftrightarrow β transformation are shown to have a direct impact on the development of microstructure and crystallographic texture.

  1. Method to predict relative hydriding within a group of zirconium alloys under nuclear irradiation

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Jr., A. Burtron; Levy, Ira S.; Trimble, Dennis J.; Lanning, Donald D.; Gerber, Franna S.

    1990-01-01

    An out-of-reactor method for screening to predict relative in-reactor hydriding behavior of zirconium-bsed materials is disclosed. Samples of zirconium-based materials having different composition and/or fabrication are autoclaved in a relatively concentrated (0.3 to 1.0M) aqueous lithium hydroxide solution at constant temperatures within the water reactor coolant temperature range (280.degree. to 316.degree. C.). Samples tested by this out-of-reactor procedure, when compared on the basis of the ratio of hydrogen weight gain to oxide weight gain, accurately predict the relative rate of hyriding for the same materials when subject to in-reactor (irradiated) corrision.

  2. Phosphate rock resources of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cathcart, James Bachelder; Sheldon, Richard Porter; Gulbrandsen, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    In 1980, the United States produced about 54 million tons of phosphate rock, or about 40 percent of the world's production, of which a substantial amount was exported, both as phosphate rock and as chemical fertilizer. During the last decade, predictions have been made that easily ruinable, low-cost reserves of phosphate rock would be exhausted, and that by the end of this century, instead of being a major exporter of phosphate rock, the United States might become a net importer. Most analysts today, however, think that exports will indeed decline in the next one or two decades, but that resources of phosphate are sufficient to supply domestic needs for a long time into the future. What will happen in the future depends on the actual availability of low-cost phosphate rock reserves in the United States and in the world. A realistic understanding of future phosphate rock reserves is dependent on an accurate assessment, now, of national phosphate rock resources. Many different estimates of resources exist; none of them alike. The detailed analysis of past resource estimates presented in this report indicates that the estimates differ more in what is being estimated than in how much is thought to exist. The phosphate rock resource classification used herein is based on the two fundamental aspects of a mineral resource(l) the degree of certainty of existence and (2) the feasibility of economic recovery. The comparison of past estimates (including all available company data), combined with the writers' personal knowledge, indicates that 17 billion metric tons of identified, recoverable phosphate rock exist in the United States, of which about 7 billion metric tons are thought to be economic or marginally economic. The remaining 10 billion metric tons, mostly in the Northwestern phosphate district of Idaho, are considered to be subeconomic, ruinable when some increase in the price of phosphate occurs. More than 16 billion metric tons probably exist in the southeastern

  3. Fracture Mechanisms of Zirconium Diboride Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics under Pulse Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skripnyak, Vladimir V.; Bragov, Anatolii M.; Skripnyak, Vladimir A.; Lomunov, Andrei K.; Skripnyak, Evgeniya G.; Vaganova, Irina K.

    2015-06-01

    Mechanisms of failure in ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTC) based on zirconium diboride under pulse loading were studied experimentally by the method of SHPB and theoretically using the multiscale simulation method. The obtained experimental and numerical data are evidence of the quasi-brittle fracture character of nanostructured zirconium diboride ceramics under compression and tension at high strain rates and the room temperatures. Damage of nanostructured porous zirconium diboride -based UHTC can be formed under stress pulse amplitude below the Hugoniot elastic limit. Fracture of nanostructured ultra-high temperature ceramics under pulse and shock-wave loadings is provided by fast processes of intercrystalline brittle fracture and relatively slow processes of quasi-brittle failure via growth and coalescence of microcracks. A decrease of the shear strength can be caused by nano-voids clusters in vicinity of triple junctions between ceramic matrix grains and ultrafine-grained ceramics. This research was supported by grants from ``The Tomsk State University Academic D.I. Mendeleev Fund Program'' and also N. I. Lobachevski State University of Nizhny Novgorod (Grant of post graduate mobility).

  4. PRECIPITATION OF ZIRCONIUM AND FLUORIDE IONS FROM SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Newby, B.J.

    1963-06-11

    A process is given for removing zirconium and fluorine ions from aqueous solutions also containing uranium(VI). The precipitation is carried out with sodium formate, and the uranium remains in solution. (AEC)

  5. Process for massively hydriding zirconium--uranium fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Katz, N.H.

    1973-12-01

    A method is described of hydriding uranium-zirconium alloy by heating the alloy in a vacuum, introducing hydrogen and maintaining an elevated temperature until occurrence of the beta--delta phase transformation and isobarically cooling the composition. (Official Gazette)

  6. Zirconium Hydride Space Power Reactor design.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asquith, J. G.; Mason, D. G.; Stamp, S.

    1972-01-01

    The Zirconium Hydride Space Power Reactor being designed and fabricated at Atomics International is intended for a wide range of potential applications. Throughout the program a series of reactor designs have been evaluated to establish the unique requirements imposed by coupling with various power conversion systems and for specific applications. Current design and development emphasis is upon a 100 kilowatt thermal reactor for application in a 5 kwe thermoelectric space power generating system, which is scheduled to be fabricated and ground tested in the mid 70s. The reactor design considerations reviewed in this paper will be discussed in the context of this 100 kwt reactor and a 300 kwt reactor previously designed for larger power demand applications.

  7. Surface characterization and corrosion behavior of calcium phosphate-base composite layer on titanium and its alloys via plasma electrolytic oxidation: A review paper.

    PubMed

    Rafieerad, A R; Ashra, M R; Mahmoodian, R; Bushroa, A R

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, calcium phosphate-base composites, such as hydroxyapatite (HA) and carbonate apatite (CA) have been considered desirable and biocompatible coating layers in clinical and biomedical applications such as implants because of the high resistance of the composites. This review focuses on the effects of voltage, time and electrolytes on a calcium phosphate-base composite layer in case of pure titanium and other biomedical grade titanium alloys via the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) method. Remarkably, these parameters changed the structure, morphology, pH, thickness and crystallinity of the obtained coating for various engineering and biomedical applications. Hence, the structured layer caused improvement of the biocompatibility, corrosion resistance and assignment of extra benefits for Osseo integration. The fabricated layer with a thickness range of 10 to 20 μm was evaluated for physical, chemical, mechanical and tribological characteristics via XRD, FESEM, EDS, EIS and corrosion analysis respectively, to determine the effects of the applied parameters and various electrolytes on morphology and phase transition. Moreover, it was observed that during PEO, the concentration of calcium, phosphor and titanium shifts upward, which leads to an enhanced bioactivity by altering the thickness. The results confirm that the crystallinity, thickness and contents of composite layer can be changed by applying thermal treatments. The corrosion behavior was investigated via the potentiodynamic polarization test in a body-simulated environment. Here, the optimum corrosion resistance was obtained for the coating process condition at 500 V for 15 min in Ringer solution. This review has been summarized, aiming at the further development of PEO by producing more adequate titanium-base implants along with desired mechanical and biomedical features. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. CADMIUM PHOSPHATE GLASS

    DOEpatents

    Carpenter, H.W.; Johnson, P.D.

    1963-04-01

    A method of preparing a cadmium phosphate glass that comprises providing a mixture of solid inorganic compounds of cadmuim and phosphate having vaporizable components and heating the resulting composition to a temperature of at least 850 un. Concent 85% C is presented. (AEC)

  9. Fabrication of porous beta-tricalcium phosphate with microchannel and customized geometry based on gel-casting and rapid prototyping.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Bian, W; Li, D; Lian, Q; Jin, Z

    2011-03-01

    The tissue engineering scaffolds with three-dimensional porous structure are regarded to be beneficial to facilitate a sufficient supply of nutrients and enable cell ingrowth in bone reconstruction. However, the pores in scaffolds tend to be blocked by the cell ingrowth and result in a restraint of nutrient supply in the further side of the scaffold. An indirect approach of combining the rapid prototyping and gel-casting technique is introduced in this study to fabricate beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) scaffolds which not only have interconnected porous structure, but also have a microchannel network inside. The scaffold was designed with customized geometry that matches the defect area, and a double-scale (micropores-microchannel) porous structure inside that is beneficial for cell ingrowth. The scaffolds fabricated have an open, uniform, and interconnected porous architecture with a pore size of 200-400 microm, and posses an internal channel network with a diameter of 600 microm. The porosity was controllable. The compressive yield strength was 4.5 MPa with a porosity of 70 per cent. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that these fabrication processes do not change the crystal structure and chemical composition of beta-TCP. With this technique, it was also possible to fabricate porous scaffolds with desired pore size, porosity, and microchannel, as well as customized geometries by other bioceramics.

  10. Homogeneous bioluminescence competitive binding assay for folate based on a coupled glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase--bacterial luciferase enzyme system.

    PubMed

    Huang, W; Feltus, A; Witkowski, A; Daunert, S

    1996-05-01

    A homogeneous bioluminescence competitive binding assay for folate was developed by using a coupled enzyme system of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and bacterial luciferase. A highly substituted G6PDH-folate conjugate was prepared by employing an N-hydroxysuccinimide/carbodiimide method. Folate binding protein inhibits the activity of the conjugate. In the presence of folate, there is a competition between folate and the G6PDH-folate conjugate for the binding site of the folate binding protein, and the activity of the conjugate is recovered. Thus, the concentration of folate can be related to the activity of the G6PDH-folate conjugate, which is directly related to the bioluminescence produced by the coupled enzyme reaction. Using this assay, dose-response curves with a detection limit of 2.5 x 10(-8) M folate were obtained, which is an improvement of an order of magnitude with respect to an assay that monitors G6PDH activity spectrophotometrically. The assay was validated using vitamin tablets and a cell culture medium.

  11. Fabrication of Calcium Phosphate-Based Nanocomposites Incorporating DNA Origami, Gold Nanorods, and Anticancer Drugs for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongbo; Qu, Xiangmeng; Chen, Hong; Kong, Haixin; Ding, Ruihua; Chen, Dong; Zhang, Xu; Pei, Hao; Santos, Hélder A; Hai, Mingtan; Weitz, David A

    2017-10-01

    DNA origami is designed by folding DNA strands at the nanoscale with arbitrary control. Due to its inherent biological nature, DNA origami is used in drug delivery for enhancement of synergism and multidrug resistance inhibition, cancer diagnosis, and many other biomedical applications, where it shows great potential. However, the inherent instability and low payload capacity of DNA origami restrict its biomedical applications. Here, this paper reports the fabrication of an advanced biocompatible nano-in-nanocomposite, which protects DNA origami from degradation and facilities drug loading. The DNA origami, gold nanorods, and molecular targeted drugs are co-incorporated into pH responsive calcium phosphate [Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 ] nanoparticles. Subsequently, a thin layer of phospholipid is coated onto the Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 nanoparticle to offer better biocompatibility. The fabricated nanocomposite shows high drug loading capacity, good biocompatibility, and a photothermal and pH-responsive payload release profile and it fully protects DNA origami from degradation. The codelivery of DNA origami with cancer drugs synergistically induces cancer cell apoptosis, reduces the multidrug resistance, and enhances the targeted killing efficiency toward human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive cells. This nanocomposite is foreseen to open new horizons for a variety of clinical and biomedical applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Fabrication of carbonate apatite block based on internal dissolution-precipitation reaction of dicalcium phosphate and calcium carbonate.

    PubMed

    Daitou, Fumikazu; Maruta, Michito; Kawachi, Giichiro; Tsuru, Kanji; Matsuya, Shigeki; Terada, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2010-05-01

    In this study, we investigated a novel method for fabrication of carbonate apatite block without ionic movement between precursor and solution by using precursor that includes all constituent ions of carbonate apatite. A powder mixture prepared from dicalcium phosphate anhydrous and calcite at appropriate Ca/P ratios (1.5, 1.67, and 1.8) was used as starting material. For preparation of specimens, the slurry made from the powder mixture and distilled water was packed in a split stainless steel mold and heat - treated, ranging from 60 degrees C to 100 degrees C up to 48 hours at 100% humidity. It appeared that carbonate apatite could be obtained above 70 degrees C and monophasic carbonate apatite could be obtained from the powder mixture at Ca/P ratio of 1.67. Carbonate content of the specimen was about 5-7%. Diametral tensile strength of the carbonate apatite blocks slightly decreased with increasing treatment temperature. The decrease in diametral tensile strength is thought to be related to the crystal size of the carbonate apatite formed.

  13. Comparison and preparation of multilayered polylactic acid fabric strengthen calcium phosphate-based bone substitutes for orthopedic applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Cheng; Ko, Chia-Ling; Yang, Jia-Kai; Wu, Hui-Yu; Lin, Jia-Horng

    2016-03-01

    An attempt to maintain the three-dimensional space into restorative sites through the conveniently pack porous fillers are general used strategy. Advancement in the manufacturing protective shells in the scaffolds, which would be filled with brittle ceramic grafts for the development of highly connective pores provides the approach to solve crack problem for generating the tissues. Therefore, multilayered braided and alkalized poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composites with calcium phosphate bone cement (CPC) were synthesized and compared. The PLA/CPC composites were divided into various groups according to a series of heat-treatment temperatures (100-190 °C) and periods (1-3 h) and then characterized. The effects of 24-h immersion on the strength decay resistance of the samples were compared. Results showed that the residual oil capped on the surfaces of alkalized PLA braid was removed, and the structure was unaltered. However, the reduced tensile stress of alkalized PLA braids was due to ester-group formation by hydrolysis. Mechanical test results of PLA/CPC composites showed that the strength significantly increased after heat treatment, except when the heating temperature was higher than the PLA melting point at approximately 160-170 °C. The degree of PLA after recrystallization became higher than that of unheated composites, thereby leading to reduced strength and toughness of the specimen. Braiding fibers of biodegradable PLA reinforced and toughened the structure particularly of the extra-brittle material of thin-sheet CPC after implantation.

  14. Crystal Structure-Based Selective Targeting of the Pyridoxal 5′-Phosphate Dependent Enzyme Kynurenine Aminotransferase II for Cognitive Enhancement†

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Franca; Valentina, Casazza; Garavaglia, Silvia; Sathyasaikumar, Korrapati V.; Schwarcz, Robert; Kojima, Shin-ichi; Okuwaki, Keisuke; Ono, Shin-ichiro; Kajii, Yasushi; Rizzi, Menico

    2014-01-01

    Fluctuations in the brain levels of the neuromodulator kynurenic acid may control cognitive processes and play a causative role in several catastrophic brain diseases. Elimination of the pyridoxal 5′-phosphate dependent enzyme kynurenine aminotransferase II reduces cerebral kynurenic acid synthesis and has procognitive effects. The present description of the crystal structure of human kynurenine aminotransferase II in complex with its potent and specific primary amine-bearing fluoroquinolone inhibitor (S)-(−)-9-(4-aminopiperazin-1-yl)-8-fluoro-3-methyl-6-oxo-2,3-dihydro-6H-1-oxa-3a-azaphenalene-5-carboxylic acid (BFF-122) should facilitate the structure-based development of cognition-enhancing drugs. From a medicinal chemistry perspective our results demonstrate that the issue of inhibitor specificity for highly conserved PLP-dependent enzymes could be successfully addressed. PMID:20684605

  15. CHARACTERISTICS OF ANODIC AND CORROSION FILMS ON ZIRCONIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Misch, R.D.

    1960-05-01

    Zirconium anodizes similarly to tungsten in respect to the change of interference colors with applied voltage. However, the oxide layer on tungsten cannot reach as great a thickness. Hafnium does not anodize in the same way as zirconium but is similar to tantalum. By measuring the interference color and capacitative thicknesses on zirconium (Grades I and III) and a 2.5 wt.% tin ailoy, the film was found to grow less rapidly in terms of capacitance than in terms of iaterference colors. This was interpreted to mean that cracks develop in the oxide as it thickens. The effect was most pronouncedmore » on Grade III zirconium and least pronounced on the tin alloy. The reduction in capacitative thickness was especially noticeable when white oxide appeared. Comparative measurements on Grade I zirconium and 2.5 wt.% tin alloy indicated that the thickness of the oxide film on the tin alloy (after 16 hours in water) increased more rapidly with temperature than the film on zirconium. Tin is believed to act in ways to counteract the tendency of the oxide to form cracks, and to produce vacancies which promote ionic diffusion. (auth)« less

  16. Nanoindentation study of bulk zirconium hydrides at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Cinbiz, Mahmut Nedim; Balooch, Mehdi; Hu, Xunxiang

    Here, the mechanical properties of zirconium hydrides was studied using nano-indentation technique at a temperature range of 25 – 400 °C. Temperature dependency of reduced elastic modulus and hardness of δ- and ε-zirconium hydrides were obtained by conducting nanoindentation experiments on the bulk hydride samples with independently heating capability of indenter and heating stage. The reduced elastic modulus of δ-zirconium hydride (H/Zr ratio =1.61) decreased from ~113 GPa to ~109 GPa while temperature increased from room temperature to 400°C. For ε-zirconium hydrides (H/Zr ratio=1.79), the reduced elastic modulus decreased from 61 GPa to 54 GPa as temperature increased from roommore » temperature to 300 °C. Whereas, hardness of δ-zirconium hydride significantly decreased from 4.1 GPa to 2.41 GPa when temperature increased from room temperature to 400 °C. Similarly, hardness of ε-zirconium hydride decreased from 3.06 GPa to 2.19 GPa with temperature increase from room temperature to 300°C.« less

  17. Nanoindentation study of bulk zirconium hydrides at elevated temperatures

    DOE PAGES

    Cinbiz, Mahmut Nedim; Balooch, Mehdi; Hu, Xunxiang; ...

    2017-08-02

    Here, the mechanical properties of zirconium hydrides was studied using nano-indentation technique at a temperature range of 25 – 400 °C. Temperature dependency of reduced elastic modulus and hardness of δ- and ε-zirconium hydrides were obtained by conducting nanoindentation experiments on the bulk hydride samples with independently heating capability of indenter and heating stage. The reduced elastic modulus of δ-zirconium hydride (H/Zr ratio =1.61) decreased from ~113 GPa to ~109 GPa while temperature increased from room temperature to 400°C. For ε-zirconium hydrides (H/Zr ratio=1.79), the reduced elastic modulus decreased from 61 GPa to 54 GPa as temperature increased from roommore » temperature to 300 °C. Whereas, hardness of δ-zirconium hydride significantly decreased from 4.1 GPa to 2.41 GPa when temperature increased from room temperature to 400 °C. Similarly, hardness of ε-zirconium hydride decreased from 3.06 GPa to 2.19 GPa with temperature increase from room temperature to 300°C.« less

  18. Quercetin as colorimetric reagent for determination of zirconium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimaldi, F.S.; White, C.E.

    1953-01-01

    Methods described in the literature for the determination of zirconium are generally designed for relatively large amounts of this element. A good procedure using colorimetric reagent for the determination of trace amounts is desirable. Quercetin has been found to yield a sensitive color reaction with zirconium suitable for the determination of from 0.1 to 50?? of zirconium dioxide. The procedure developed involves the separation of zirconium from interfering elements by precipitation with p-dimethylaminoazophenylarsonic acid prior to its estimation with quercetin. The quercetin reaction is carried out in 0.5N hydrochloric acid solution. Under the operating conditions it is indicated that quercetin forms a 2 to 1 complex with zirconium; however, a 2 to 1 and a 1 to 1 complex can coexist under special conditions. Approximate values for the equilibrium constants of the complexes are K1 = 0.33 ?? 10-5 and K2 = 1.3 ?? 10-9. Seven Bureau of Standards samples of glass sands and refractories were analyzed with excellent results. The method described should find considerable application in the analysis of minerals and other materials for macro as well as micro amounts of zirconium.

  19. Multiphysics phase field modeling of hydrogen diffusion and delta-hydride precipitation in alpha-zirconium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokisaari, Andrea M.

    Hydride precipitation in zirconium is a significant factor limiting the lifetime of nuclear fuel cladding, because hydride microstructures play a key role in the degradation of fuel cladding. However, the behavior of hydrogen in zirconium has typically been modeled using mean field approaches, which do not consider microstructural evolution. This thesis describes a quantitative microstructural evolution model for the alpha-zirconium/delta-hydride system and the associated numerical methods and algorithms that were developed. The multiphysics, phase field-based model incorporates CALPHAD free energy descriptions, linear elastic solid mechanics, and classical nucleation theory. A flexible simulation software implementing the model, Hyrax, is built on the Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) finite element framework. Hyrax is open-source and freely available; moreover, the numerical methods and algorithms that have been developed are generalizable to other systems. The algorithms are described in detail, and verification studies for each are discussed. In addition, analyses of the sensitivity of the simulation results to the choice of numerical parameters are presented. For example, threshold values for the CALPHAD free energy algorithm and the use of mesh and time adaptivity when employing the nucleation algorithm are studied. Furthermore, preliminary insights into the nucleation behavior of delta-hydrides are described. These include a) the sensitivities of the nucleation rate to temperature, interfacial energy, composition and elastic energy, b) the spatial variation of the nucleation rate around a single precipitate, and c) the effect of interfacial energy and nucleation rate on the precipitate microstructure. Finally, several avenues for future work are discussed. Topics encompass the terminal solid solubility hysteresis of hydrogen in zirconium and the effects of the alpha/delta interfacial energy, as well as thermodiffusion, plasticity

  20. Map-based cloning and characterization of Zea mays male sterility33 (ZmMs33) gene, encoding a glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ke; Wu, Suowei; Li, Ziwen; Zhou, Yan; Zhang, Danfeng; Dong, Zhenying; An, Xueli; Zhu, Taotao; Zhang, Simiao; Liu, Shuangshuang; Li, Jinping; Wan, Xiangyuan

    2018-06-01

    Map-based cloning of maize ms33 gene showed that ZmMs33 encodes a sn-2 glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, the ortholog of rice OsGPAT3, and it is essential for male fertility in maize. Genetic male sterility has been widely studied for its biological significance and commercial value in hybrid seed production. Although many male-sterile mutants have been identified in maize (Zea mays L.), it is likely that most genes that cause male sterility are unknown. Here, we report a recessive genetic male-sterile mutant, male sterility33 (ms33), which displays small, pale yellow anthers, and complete male sterility. Using a map-based cloning approach, maize GRMZM2G070304 was identified as the ms33 gene (ZmMs33). ZmMs33 encodes a novel sn-2 glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) in maize. A functional complementation experiment showed that GRMZM2G070304 can rescue the male-sterile phenotype of the ms33-6029 mutant. GRMZM2G070304 was further confirmed to be the ms33 gene via targeted knockouts induced by the clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system. ZmMs33 is preferentially expressed in the immature anther from the quartet to early-vacuolate microspore stages and in root tissues at the fifth leaf growth stage. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that ZmMs33 and OsGPAT3 are evolutionarily conserved for anther and pollen development in monocot species. This study reveals that the monocot-specific GPAT3 protein plays an important role in male fertility in maize, and ZmMs33 and mutants in this gene may have value in maize male-sterile line breeding and hybrid seed production.

  1. Remnants of an Ancient Metabolism without Phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Goldford, Joshua E.; Hartman, Hyman; Smith, Temple F.

    Phosphate is essential for all living systems, serving as a building block of genetic and metabolic machinery. However, it is unclear how phosphate could have assumed these central roles on primordial Earth, given its poor geochemical accessibility. We used systems biology approaches to explore the alternative hypothesis that a protometabolism could have emerged prior to the incorporation of phosphate. Surprisingly, we identified a cryptic phosphate-independent core metabolism producible from simple prebiotic compounds. This network is predicted to support the biosynthesis of a broad category of key biomolecules. Its enrichment for enzymes utilizing iron-sulfur clusters, and the fact that thermodynamic bottlenecksmore » are more readily overcome by thioester rather than phosphate couplings, suggest that this network may constitute a ‘‘metabolic fossil’’ of an early phosphate-free nonenzymatic biochemistry. Thus, our results corroborate and expand previous proposals that a putative thioester-based metabolism could have predated the incorporation of phosphate and an RNA-based genetic system.« less

  2. Remnants of an Ancient Metabolism without Phosphate

    DOE PAGES

    Goldford, Joshua E.; Hartman, Hyman; Smith, Temple F.; ...

    2017-03-09

    Phosphate is essential for all living systems, serving as a building block of genetic and metabolic machinery. However, it is unclear how phosphate could have assumed these central roles on primordial Earth, given its poor geochemical accessibility. We used systems biology approaches to explore the alternative hypothesis that a protometabolism could have emerged prior to the incorporation of phosphate. Surprisingly, we identified a cryptic phosphate-independent core metabolism producible from simple prebiotic compounds. This network is predicted to support the biosynthesis of a broad category of key biomolecules. Its enrichment for enzymes utilizing iron-sulfur clusters, and the fact that thermodynamic bottlenecksmore » are more readily overcome by thioester rather than phosphate couplings, suggest that this network may constitute a ‘‘metabolic fossil’’ of an early phosphate-free nonenzymatic biochemistry. Thus, our results corroborate and expand previous proposals that a putative thioester-based metabolism could have predated the incorporation of phosphate and an RNA-based genetic system.« less

  3. The effect of environmental factors on selected mechanical properties of zirconium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirwicki, W.; Andrzejewska, A.; Andryszczyk, M.; Siemianowski, P.

    2018-04-01

    In many centers around the world, research studies are carried out on the mechanical strength of dental materials and glued joints. A literature review shows the variety of testing techniques related to analyzing the strength and durability of the material itself and the glued joints. In dental ceramics, zirconium dioxide is most often used as a base material, and chemically it consists of 97% ZrO2 and 3% Y2O3. This study was to determine the mechanical properties of zirconium dioxide under different environmental conditions. The material is used for the production of dental crowns and tooth bridges in the CAD/CAM technology. This medium is currently one of the most advanced-generation materials used for prosthetic and implant restorations. They were then subjected to a three-point bending test on the Instron ElektroPlus E3000 durability machine. Storage conditions and time have a positive influence on reducing variation in zirconium resistance for active forces and destructive stresses.

  4. Simultaneous interaction with base and phosphate moieties modulates the phosphodiester cleavage of dinucleoside 3',5'-monophosphates by dinuclear Zn2+ complexes of di(azacrown) ligands.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Lönnberg, Harri

    2006-08-23

    Five dinucleating ligands (1-5) and one trinucleating ligand (6) incorporating 1,5,9-triazacyclododecan-3-yloxy groups attached to an aromatic scaffold have been synthesized. The ability of the Zn(2+) complexes of these ligands to promote the transesterification of dinucleoside 3',5'-monophosphates to a 2',3'-cyclic phosphate derived from the 3'-linked nucleoside by release of the 5'-linked nucleoside has been studied over a narrow pH range, from pH 5.8 to 7.2, at 90 degrees C. The dinuclear complexes show marked base moiety selectivity. Among the four dinucleotide 3',5'-phosphates studied, viz. adenylyl-3',5'-adenosine (ApA), adenylyl-3',5'-uridine (ApU), uridylyl-3',5'-adenosine (UpA), and uridylyl-3',5'-uridine (UpU), the dimers containing one uracil base (ApU and UpA) are cleaved up to 2 orders of magnitude more readily than those containing either two uracil bases (UpU) or two adenine bases (ApA). The trinuclear complex (6), however, cleaves UpU as readily as ApU and UpA, while the cleavage of ApA remains slow. UV spectrophotometric and (1)H NMR spectroscopic studies with one of the dinucleating ligands (3) verify binding to the bases of UpU and ApU at less than millimolar concentrations, while no interaction with the base moieties of ApA is observed. With ApU and UpA, one of the Zn(2+)-azacrown moieties in all likelihood anchors the cleaving agent to the uracil base of the substrate, while the other azacrown moiety serves as a catalyst for the phosphodiester transesterification. With UpU, two azacrown moieties are engaged in the base moiety binding. The catalytic activity is, hence, lost, but it can be restored by addition of a third azacrown group on the cleaving agent.

  5. Treatment of radioactive waste salt by using synthetic silica-based phosphate composite for de-chlorination and solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, In-Hak; Park, Hwan-Seo; Lee, Ki-Rak; Choi, Jung-Hun; Kim, In-Tae; Hur, Jin Mok; Lee, Young-Seak

    2017-09-01

    In the radioactive waste management, waste salts as metal chloride generated from a pyrochemical process to recover uranium and transuranic elements are one of problematic wastes due to their intrinsic properties such as high volatility and low compatibility with conventional glasses. This study reports a method to stabilize and solidify LiCl waste via de-chlorination using a synthetic composite, U-SAP (SiO2-Al2O3-B2O3-Fe2O3-P2O5) prepared by a sol-gel process. The composite was reacted with alkali metal elements to produce some metal aluminosilicates, aluminophosphates or orthophosphate as a crystalline or amorphous compound. Different from the original SAP (SiO2-Al2O3-P2O5), the reaction product of U-SAP could be successfully fabricated as a monolithic wasteform without a glassy binder at a proper reaction/consolidation condition. From the results of the FE-SEM, FT-IR and MAS-NMR analysis, it could be inferred that the Si-rich phase and P-rich phase as a glassy grains would be distributed in tens of nm scale, where alkali metal elements would be chemically interacted with Si-rich or P-rich region in the virgin U-SAP composite and its products was vitrified into a silicate or phosphate glass after a heat-treatment at 1150 °C. The PCT-A (Product Consistency Test, ASTM-1208) revealed that the mass loss of Cs and Sr in the U-SAP wasteform had a range of 10-3∼10-1 g/m2 and the leach-resistance of the U-SAP wasteform was comparable to other conventional wasteforms. From the U-SAP method, LiCl waste salt was effectively stabilized and solidified with high waste loading and good leach-resistance.

  6. A phase III study of the efficacy and safety of a novel iron-based phosphate binder in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Floege, Jürgen; Covic, Adrian C; Ketteler, Markus; Rastogi, Anjay; Chong, Edward M F; Gaillard, Sylvain; Lisk, Laura J; Sprague, Stuart M

    2014-09-01

    Efficacy of PA21 (sucroferric oxyhydroxide), a novel calcium-free polynuclear iron(III)-oxyhydroxide phosphate binder, was compared with that of sevelamer carbonate in an open-label, randomized, active-controlled phase III study. Seven hundred and seven hemo- and peritoneal dialysis patients with hyperphosphatemia received PA21 1.0-3.0 g per day and 348 received sevelamer 4.8-14.4 g per day for an 8-week dose titration, followed by 4 weeks without dose change, and then 12 weeks maintenance. Serum phosphorus reductions at week 12 were -0.71 mmol/l (PA21) and -0.79 mmol/l (sevelamer), demonstrating non-inferiority of, on average, three tablets of PA21 vs. eight of sevelamer. Efficacy was maintained to week 24. Non-adherence was 15.1% (PA21) vs. 21.3% (sevelamer). The percentage of patients that reported at least one treatment-emergent adverse event was 83.2% with PA21 and 76.1% with sevelamer. A higher proportion of patients withdrew owing to treatment-emergent adverse events with PA21 (15.7%) vs. sevelamer (6.6%). Mild, transient diarrhea, discolored feces, and hyperphosphatemia were more frequent with PA21; nausea and constipation were more frequent with sevelamer. After 24 weeks, 99 hemodialysis patients on PA21 were re-randomized into a 3-week superiority analysis of PA21 maintenance dose in 50 patients vs. low dose (250 mg per day (ineffective control)) in 49 patients. The PA21 maintenance dose was superior to the low dose in maintaining serum phosphorus control. Thus, PA21 was effective in lowering serum phosphorus in dialysis patients, with similar efficacy to sevelamer carbonate, a lower pill burden, and better adherence.

  7. High temperature, low cycle fatigue of copper-base alloys in argon. Part 3: Zirconium-copper; thermal-mechanical strain cycling, hold-time and notch fatigue results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, J. B.; Stentz, R. H.; Berling, J. T.

    1973-01-01

    The low-cycle fatigue characteristics of smooth bar and notched bar specimens (hourglass shape) of zirconium-copper, 1/2 Hard, material (R-2 Series) were evaluated at room temperature in axial strain control. Over the fatigue life range from about 300 to 3000 cycles the ratio of fatigue life for smooth bar to fatigue life for notched bar remained constant at a value of about 6.0. Some additional hold-time data for the R-2 alloy tested in argon at 538 C are reported. An analysis of the relaxation data obtained in these hold-time tests is also reported and it is shown that these data yield a fairly consistent correlation in terms of instantaneous stress rate divided by instantaneous stress. Two thermal-mechanical strain cycling tests were also performed using a cyclic frequency of 4.5 cycles per hour and a temperature cycling interval from 260 to 538 C. The fatigue life values in these tests were noticeably lower than that observed in isothermal tests at 538 C.

  8. Biocalcite, a multifunctional inorganic polymer: Building block for calcareous sponge spicules and bioseed for the synthesis of calcium phosphate-based bone

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Heinz C; Müller, Werner E G

    2014-01-01

    Summary Calcium carbonate is the material that builds up the spicules of the calcareous sponges. Recent results revealed that the calcium carbonate/biocalcite-based spicular skeleton of these animals is formed through an enzymatic mechanism, such as the skeleton of the siliceous sponges, evolutionarily the oldest animals that consist of biosilica. The enzyme that mediates the calcium carbonate deposition has been identified as a carbonic anhydrase (CA) and has been cloned from the calcareous sponge species Sycon raphanus. Calcium carbonate deposits are also found in vertebrate bones besides the main constituent, calcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (HA). Evidence has been presented that during the initial phase of HA synthesis poorly crystalline carbonated apatite is deposited. Recent data summarized here indicate that during early bone formation calcium carbonate deposits enzymatically formed by CA, act as potential bioseeds for the precipitation of calcium phosphate mineral onto bone-forming osteoblasts. Two different calcium carbonate phases have been found during CA-driven enzymatic calcium carbonate deposition in in vitro assays: calcite crystals and round-shaped vaterite deposits. The CA provides a new target of potential anabolic agents for treatment of bone diseases; a first CA activator stimulating the CA-driven calcium carbonate deposition has been identified. In addition, the CA-driven calcium carbonate crystal formation can be frozen at the vaterite state in the presence of silintaphin-2, an aspartic acid/glutamic acid-rich sponge-specific protein. The discovery that calcium carbonate crystals act as bioseeds in human bone formation may allow the development of novel biomimetic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Na-alginate hydrogels, enriched with biosilica, have recently been demonstrated as a suitable matrix to embed bone forming cells for rapid prototyping bioprinting/3D cell printing applications. PMID:24991497

  9. Biocalcite, a multifunctional inorganic polymer: Building block for calcareous sponge spicules and bioseed for the synthesis of calcium phosphate-based bone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong; Schröder, Heinz C; Müller, Werner E G

    2014-01-01

    Calcium carbonate is the material that builds up the spicules of the calcareous sponges. Recent results revealed that the calcium carbonate/biocalcite-based spicular skeleton of these animals is formed through an enzymatic mechanism, such as the skeleton of the siliceous sponges, evolutionarily the oldest animals that consist of biosilica. The enzyme that mediates the calcium carbonate deposition has been identified as a carbonic anhydrase (CA) and has been cloned from the calcareous sponge species Sycon raphanus. Calcium carbonate deposits are also found in vertebrate bones besides the main constituent, calcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (HA). Evidence has been presented that during the initial phase of HA synthesis poorly crystalline carbonated apatite is deposited. Recent data summarized here indicate that during early bone formation calcium carbonate deposits enzymatically formed by CA, act as potential bioseeds for the precipitation of calcium phosphate mineral onto bone-forming osteoblasts. Two different calcium carbonate phases have been found during CA-driven enzymatic calcium carbonate deposition in in vitro assays: calcite crystals and round-shaped vaterite deposits. The CA provides a new target of potential anabolic agents for treatment of bone diseases; a first CA activator stimulating the CA-driven calcium carbonate deposition has been identified. In addition, the CA-driven calcium carbonate crystal formation can be frozen at the vaterite state in the presence of silintaphin-2, an aspartic acid/glutamic acid-rich sponge-specific protein. The discovery that calcium carbonate crystals act as bioseeds in human bone formation may allow the development of novel biomimetic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Na-alginate hydrogels, enriched with biosilica, have recently been demonstrated as a suitable matrix to embed bone forming cells for rapid prototyping bioprinting/3D cell printing applications.

  10. Elevated nuclear sphingoid base-1-phosphates and decreased histone deacetylase activity after fumonisin B1 treatment in mouse embryonic fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, Nicole M., E-mail: nicolegardner@creighton.edu; Riley, Ronald T.; Showker, Jency L.

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a mycotoxin produced by a common fungal contaminant of corn. Administration of FB1 to pregnant LM/Bc mice induces exencephaly in embryos, and ingestion of FB1-contaminated food during early pregnancy is associated with increased risk for neural tube defects (NTDs) in humans. FB1 inhibits ceramide synthase enzymes in sphingolipid biosynthesis, causing sphinganine (Sa) and bioactive sphinganine-1-phosphate (Sa1P) accumulation in blood, cells, and tissues. Sphingosine kinases (Sphk) phosphorylate Sa to form Sa1P. Upon activation, Sphk1 associates primarily with the plasma membrane, while Sphk2 is found predominantly in the nucleus. In cells over-expressing Sphk2, accumulation of Sa1P in themore » nuclear compartment inhibits histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity, causing increased acetylation of histone lysine residues. In this study, FB1 treatment in LM/Bc mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) resulted in significant accumulation of Sa1P in nuclear extracts relative to cytoplasmic extracts. Elevated nuclear Sa1P corresponded to decreased histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity and increased histone acetylation at H2BK12, H3K9, H3K18, and H3K23. Treatment of LM/Bc MEFs with a selective Sphk1 inhibitor, PF-543, or with ABC294640, a selective Sphk2 inhibitor, significantly reduced nuclear Sa1P accumulation after FB1, although Sa1P levels remained significantly increased relative to basal levels. Concurrent treatment with both PF-543 and ABC294640 prevented nuclear accumulation of Sa1P in response to FB1. Other HDAC inhibitors are known to cause NTDs, so these results suggest that FB1-induced disruption of sphingolipid metabolism leading to nuclear Sa1P accumulation, HDAC inhibition, and histone hyperacetylation is a potential mechanism for FB1-induced NTDs. - Highlights: • FB1 treatment results in accumulation of Sa1P primarily in the nucleus of MEFs. • FB1 treatment and elevated nuclear Sa1P are associated with HDAC inhibition. • Sphk2 inhibition

  11. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-04-21

    Jordan leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. This image was acquired by NASA Terra satellite on September 17, 2005.

  12. Metal-phosphate binders

    DOEpatents

    Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

    2009-05-12

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  13. Systematic investigation of the strontium zirconium phosphate ceramic form for nuclear waste immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pet'kov, Vladimir; Asabina, Elena; Loshkarev, Vladimir; Sukhanov, Maksim

    2016-04-01

    We have summarized our data and literature ones on the thermophysical properties and hydrolytic stability of Sr0.5Zr2(PO4)3 compound as a host NaZr2(PO4)3-type (NZP) structure for immobilization of 90Sr-containing radioactive waste. Absence of any polymorphic transformations on the temperature dependence of its heat capacity between 7 and 665 K is caused by the stability of crystalline Sr0.5Zr2(PO4)3. Calculated values of thermal conductivity coefficients at zero porosity in the range 298-673 K were 1.86-2.40 W·m-1 K-1. The compound may be classified as low thermal expanding material due to its average linear thermal expansion coefficient. Study of the hydrolytic stability in acid and alkaline media has shown that the relative mass fraction of Sr2+ ions, released into aggressive leaching media, didn't exceed 1% of the mass of sample. Soxhlet leaching studies have shown substantial resistance towards the release of Sr2+ ions into distilled water. Feeble sinterability constrains practical applications of NZP substances, that is why known in literature methods of Sr0.5Zr2(PO4)3 dense ceramics obtaining have been reviewed.

  14. Zirconium oxide surface passivation of crystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Yimao; Bullock, James; Hettick, Mark; Xu, Zhaoran; Yan, Di; Peng, Jun; Javey, Ali; Cuevas, Andres

    2018-05-01

    This letter reports effective passivation of crystalline silicon (c-Si) surfaces by thermal atomic layer deposited zirconium oxide (ZrOx). The optimum layer thickness and activation annealing conditions are determined to be 20 nm and 300 °C for 20 min. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy imaging shows an approximately 1.6 nm thick SiOx interfacial layer underneath an 18 nm ZrOx layer, consistent with ellipsometry measurements (˜20 nm). Capacitance-voltage measurements show that the annealed ZrOx film features a low interface defect density of 1.0 × 1011 cm-2 eV-1 and a low negative film charge density of -6 × 1010 cm-2. Effective lifetimes of 673 μs and 1.1 ms are achieved on p-type and n-type 1 Ω cm undiffused c-Si wafers, respectively, corresponding to an implied open circuit voltage above 720 mV in both cases. The results demonstrate that surface passivation quality provided by ALD ZrOx is consistent with the requirements of high efficiency silicon solar cells.

  15. Bond strength of selected composite resin-cements to zirconium-oxide ceramic

    PubMed Central

    Fons-Font, Antonio; Amigó-Borrás, Vicente; Granell-Ruiz, María; Busquets-Mataix, David; Panadero, Rubén A.; Solá-Ruiz, Maria F.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate bond strengths of zirconium-oxide (zirconia) ceramic and a selection of different composite resin cements. Study Design: 130 Lava TM cylinders were fabricated. The cylinders were sandblasted with 80 µm aluminium oxide or silica coated with CoJet Sand. Silane, and bonding agent and/or Clearfil Ceramic Primer were applied. One hundred thirty composite cement cylinders, comprising two dual-polymerizing (Variolink II and Panavia F) and two autopolymerizing (Rely X and Multilink) resins were bonded to the ceramic samples. A shear test was conducted, followed by an optical microscopy study to identify the location and type of failure, an electron microscopy study (SEM and TEM) and statistical analysis using the Kruskal-Wallis test for more than two independent samples and Mann-Whitney for two independent samples. Given the large number of combinations, Bonferroni correction was applied (α=0.001). Results: Dual-polymerizing cements provided better adhesion values (11.7 MPa) than the autopolymerizing (7.47 MPa) (p-value M-W<0.001). The worst techniques were Lava TM + sandblasting + Silane + Rely X; Lava TM + sandblasting + Silane + Multilink and Lava TM + CoJet + silane + Multilink. Adhesive failure (separation of cement and ceramic) was produced at a lesser force than cohesive failure (fracture of cement) (p-value M-W<0.001). Electron microscopy confirmed that the surface treatments modified the zirconium-oxide ceramic, creating a more rough and retentive surface, thus providing an improved micromechanical interlocking between the cement and the ceramic. Key words:Shear bond strength, silica coating, surface treatment, zirconia ceramics, phosphate monomer. PMID:22926485

  16. Atomic layer deposition of zirconium silicate films using zirconium tetrachloride and tetra-n-butyl orthosilicate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Won-Kyu; Kang, Sang-Woo; Rhee, Shi-Woo; Lee, Nae-In; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kang, Ho-Kyu

    2002-11-01

    Atomic layer chemical vapor deposition of zirconium silicate films with a precursor combination of ZrCl4 and tetra-n-butyl orthosilicate (TBOS) was studied for high dielectric gate insulators. The effect of deposition conditions, such as deposition temperature, pulse time for purge and precursor injection on the deposition rate per cycle, and composition of the film were studied. At 400 °C, the growth rate saturated to 1.35 Å/cycle above 500 sccm of the argon purge flow rate. The growth rate, composition ratio ((Zr/Zr+Si)), and impurity contents (carbon and chlorine) saturated with the increase of the injection time of ZrCl4 and TBOS and decreased with the increased deposition temperature from 300 to 500 °C. The growth rate, composition ratio, carbon, and chlorine contents of the Zr silicate thin films deposited at 500 °C were 1.05 Å/cycle, 0.23, 1.1 at. %, and 2.1 at. %, respectively. It appeared that by using only zirconium chloride and silicon alkoxide sources, the content of carbon and chlorine impurities could not be lowered below 1%. It was also found that the incorporation rate of metal from halide source was lower than alkoxide source.

  17. Atomic layer deposition of zirconium silicate films using zirconium tetra-tert-butoxide and silicon tetrachloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Won-Kyu; Kang, Sang-Woo; Rhee, Shi-Woo

    2003-09-01

    A new precursor combination (SiCl4 and Zr(OtC4H9)4) was used to deposit Zr silicate with Zr(OtC4H9)4 as a zirconium source and oxygen source at the same time. SiCl4 and Zr(OtC4H9)4 have higher vapor pressures than their counterpart, ZrCl4 and tetra-n-butyl orthosilicate (TBOS), and it was expected that the cycle time would be shorter. The deposition temperature of the new combination was about 150 °C lower than that of ZrCl4 and TBOS. The film was zirconium rich while it was silicon rich with ZrCl4 and TBOS. Growth rate (nm/cycle), composition ratio [Zr/(Zr+Si)], and chlorine impurity were decreased with increasing deposition temperature from 125 to 225 °C. The composition ratio of the film deposited at 225 °C was 0.53 and the chlorine content was about 0.4 at. %. No carbon was detected by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  18. Mechanical properties of zirconium alloys and zirconium hydrides predicted from density functional perturbation theory

    DOE PAGES

    Weck, Philippe F.; Kim, Eunja; Tikare, Veena; ...

    2015-10-13

    Here, the elastic properties and mechanical stability of zirconium alloys and zirconium hydrides have been investigated within the framework of density functional perturbation theory. Results show that the lowest-energy cubic Pn-3m with combining macron]m polymorph of δ-ZrH 1.5 does not satisfy all the Born requirements for mechanical stability, unlike its nearly degenerate tetragonal P4 2/ mcm polymorph. Elastic moduli predicted with the Voigt–Reuss–Hill approximations suggest that mechanical stability of α-Zr, Zr-alloy and Zr-hydride polycrystalline aggregates is limited by the shear modulus. According to both Pugh's and Poisson's ratios, α-Zr, Zr-alloy and Zr-hydride polycrystalline aggregates can be considered ductile. The Debyemore » temperatures predicted for γ-ZrH, δ-ZrH 1.5 and ε-ZrH 2 are θ D = 299.7, 415.6 and 356.9 K, respectively, while θ D = 273.6, 284.2, 264.1 and 257.1 K for the α-Zr, Zry-4, ZIRLO and M5 matrices, i.e. suggesting that Zry-4 possesses the highest micro-hardness among Zr matrices.« less

  19. Inhibition of Ice Growth and Recrystallization by Zirconium Acetate and Zirconium Acetate Hydroxide

    PubMed Central

    Mizrahy, Ortal; Bar-Dolev, Maya; Guy, Shlomit; Braslavsky, Ido

    2013-01-01

    The control over ice crystal growth, melting, and shaping is important in a variety of fields, including cell and food preservation and ice templating for the production of composite materials. Control over ice growth remains a challenge in industry, and the demand for new cryoprotectants is high. Naturally occurring cryoprotectants, such as antifreeze proteins (AFPs), present one solution for modulating ice crystal growth; however, the production of AFPs is expensive and inefficient. These obstacles can be overcome by identifying synthetic substitutes with similar AFP properties. Zirconium acetate (ZRA) was recently found to induce the formation of hexagonal cavities in materials prepared by ice templating. Here, we continue this line of study and examine the effects of ZRA and a related compound, zirconium acetate hydroxide (ZRAH), on ice growth, shaping, and recrystallization. We found that the growth rate of ice crystals was significantly reduced in the presence of ZRA and ZRAH, and that solutions containing these compounds display a small degree of thermal hysteresis, depending on the solution pH. The compounds were found to inhibit recrystallization in a manner similar to that observed in the presence of AFPs. The favorable properties of ZRA and ZRAH suggest tremendous potential utility in industrial applications. PMID:23555701

  20. 40 CFR 721.10089 - Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified salicylic acid, zirconium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10089 Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (PMN P-00-552) is subject to reporting under this...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10089 - Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified salicylic acid, zirconium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10089 Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (PMN P-00-552) is subject to reporting under this...

  2. 40 CFR 471.90 - Applicability; description of the zirconium-hafnium forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... zirconium-hafnium forming subcategory. 471.90 Section 471.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zirconium-Hafnium Forming Subcategory § 471.90 Applicability; description of the zirconium-hafnium forming subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of pollutants to waters of the...

  3. 40 CFR 421.330 - Applicability: Description of the primary zirconium and hafnium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... primary zirconium and hafnium subcategory. 421.330 Section 421.330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Primary Zirconium and Hafnium Subcategory § 421.330 Applicability: Description of the primary zirconium and hafnium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting...

  4. Bioconjugation of zirconium uridine monophosphate: application to myoglobin direct electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yuanbiao; Jian, Fangfang; Bai, Qian

    2008-03-14

    Porous nano-granule of zirconium uridine monophosphate, Zr(UMP)2.H2O is, for the first time, synthesized under mild experimental conditions and applied to the bioconjugation of myoglobin (Mb) to realize its direct electron transfer. UV-vis and resonance Raman spectroscopies prove that Mb in the Zr(UMP)2.H2O film maintains its secondary structure similar to the native state. The conjugation film of the Mb-Zr(UMP)2.H2O on the glassy carbon (GC) electrode gives a well-defined and quasi-reversible cyclic voltammogram, which reflects the direct electron transfer of the heme Fe III/Fe II couple of Mb. On the basis of the satisfying bioelectrocatalysis of the nano-conjugation of Mb and genetic substrate, a kind of mediator-free biosensor for H2O2 is developed. The linear range for H2O2 detection is estimated to be 3.92-180.14 microM. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) and the detection limit based on the signal-to-noise ratio of 3 are found to be 196.1 microM and 1.52 microM, respectively. Both the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant and the detection limit herein are much lower than currently reported values from other Mb films. This kind of sensor possesses excellent stability, long-term life (more than 20 days) and good reproducibility.

  5. Comparative evaluation of enamel remineralization potential of processed cheese, calcium phosphate-based synthetic agent, and a fluoride-containing toothpaste: An in situ study.

    PubMed

    Grewal, Navneet; Gumber, Samita; Kaur, Nirapjeet

    2017-01-01

    Enamel remineralization potential of variety of products has been established, but there is a lack of evidence of comparison of remineralization potential of natural versus synthetic products. The aim of this study was to compare the enamel remineralization potential of saliva, cheese, casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP)-based synthetic agent, and fluoride toothpaste. In situ study was carried out on sixty individuals who wore an intraoral appliance containing demineralized enamel slabs for each agent. One out of six slabs was kept as a control so as to record the baseline values (neither subjected to demineralization nor remineralization). Experimental agents were applied on the designated enamel slabs on day 1, 4, 7, and 10 with a crossover wash out period of 7 days. Quantitative values of mineral content of slab were measured using energy dispersive X-ray and qualitative changes in surface topography of slab were seen under scanning electron microscope at ×20K magnification. Highly significant changes from baseline values were seen in calcium and phosphorus content of slabs treated with cheese and CPP-ACP-based agent whereas levels of fluoride were significantly higher in enamel slabs treated with fluoride-containing toothpaste. Cheese is an organic, economical, and user-friendly option over prescribed synthetic agents. A synergistic effect of fluoride-containing toothpaste with intake of cheese could be a good enamel remineralization protocol.

  6. The coupling of glycolysis and the Rubisco-based pathway through the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway to achieve low carbon dioxide emission fermentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya-Han; Ou-Yang, Fan-Yu; Yang, Cheng-Han; Li, Si-Yu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Rubisco-based engineered Escherichia coli, containing two heterologous enzymes of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and phosphoribulokinase (PrkA), has been shown to be capable of the in situ recycling of carbon dioxide (CO2) during glycolysis. Two alternative approaches have been proposed to further enhance the carbon flow from glycolysis to a Rubisco-based pathway through the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (NOPPP). The first is achieved by elevating the expression of transketolase I (TktA) and the second by blocking the native oxidation-decarboxylation reaction of E. coli by deleting the zwf gene from the chromosome (designated as JB/pTA and MZB, respectively). Decreases in the CO2 yield and the CO2 evolution per unit mole of ethanol production by at least 81% and 40% are observed. It is demonstrated in this study that the production of one mole of ethanol using E. coli strain MZB, the upper limit of CO2 emission is 0.052mol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. New chemical approach to obtain dense layer phosphate-based ionic conductor coating on negative electrode material surface: Synthesis way, outgassing and improvement of C-rate capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleutot, Benoit; Davoisne, Carine; Gachot, Grégory; Cavalaglio, Sébastien; Grugeon, Sylvie; Viallet, Virginie

    2017-04-01

    Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) based batteries have severe gassing behavior during charge/discharge and storage process, due to interfacial reactions between active material and electrolyte solution. In the same time, the electronic and ionic conductivity of pristine LTO is very poor and induces the use of nanoparticles which increase the outgassing phenomena. The coating of LTO particles could be a solution. For this the LTO spinel particles are modified with ionic conductor Li3PO4 coating using a spray-drying method. For the first time a homogeneous thin dense layer phosphate based conductor is obtained without nanoparticles, as a thin film material. It is so possible to study the influence of ionic conductor deposited on the negative electrode material on performances by the controlled layer thickness. This coating was characterized by XRD, SEM, XPS and TEM. The electrochemical performance of Li3PO4 coated Li4Ti5O12 is improved at high C-rate by the surface modification (improvement of 30 mAh g-1 at 5 C-rate compared to pristine LTO for 5 nm of coating), inducing by a modification of surface energy. An optimum coating thickness was studied. This type of coating allows a significant decrease of outgassing phenomena due the conformal coating and opens the way to a great number of studies and new technologies.

  8. Process for electroless deposition of metals on zirconium materials

    DOEpatents

    Donaghy, Robert E.

    1978-01-01

    A process for the electroless deposition of a metal layer on an article comprised of zirconium or a zirconium alloy is disclosed. The article is activated in an aged aqueous solution comprising from about 10 to about 20 grams per liter ammonium bifluoride and from about 0.75 to about 2 grams per liter of sulfuric acid. The solution is aged by immersion of pickled zirconium in the solution for at least about 10 minutes. The loosely adhering film formed on the article in the activating step is removed and the article is contacted with an electroless plating solution containing the metal to be deposited on the article upon sufficient contact with the article.

  9. Process for electrolytic deposition of metals on zirconium materials

    DOEpatents

    Donaghy, Robert E.

    1979-01-30

    A process for the electrolytic deposition of a metal layer on an article comprised of zirconium or a zirconium alloy is disclosed. The article is activated in an aged aqueous solution comprising from about 10 to about 20 grams per liter ammonium bifluoride and from about 0.75 to about 2 grams per liter of sulfuric acid. The solution is aged by immersion of pickled zirconium in the solution for at least about 10 minutes. The loosely adhering film formed on the article in the activating step is removed and the article is contacted with an electrolytic plating solution containing the metal to be deposited on the article in the presence of an electrode receiving current.

  10. METHOD OF FABRICATING A URANIUM-ZIRCONIUM HYDRIDE REACTOR CORE

    DOEpatents

    Weeks, I.F.; Goeddel, W.V.

    1960-03-22

    A method is described of evenly dispersing uranlum metal in a zirconium hydride moderator to produce a fuel element for nuclear reactors. According to the invention enriched uranium hydride and zirconium hydride powders of 200 mesh particle size are thoroughly admixed to form a mixture containing 0.1 to 3% by weight of U/sup 235/ hydride. The mixed powders are placed in a die and pressed at 100 tons per square inch at room temperature. The resultant compacts are heated in a vacuum to 300 deg C, whereby the uranium hydride deoomposes into uranium metal and hydrogen gas. The escaping hydrogen gas forms a porous matrix of zirconium hydride, with uramum metal evenly dispersed therethrough. The advantage of the invention is that the porosity and uranium distribution of the final fuel element can be more closely determined and controlled than was possible using prior methods of producing such fuel ele- ments.

  11. Extractive separation of uranium and zirconium sulfates by amines

    SciTech Connect

    Schroetterova, D.; Nekovar, P.; Mrnka, M.

    1992-04-01

    This paper describes an amine extraction process for zirconium and uranium separation. The behaviour of an extraction system containing uranium (VI) sulfate, zirconium (IV) sulfate, 0.2 and 0.5 M sulfuric acid (as the original aqueous phase), tertiary amine tri-n-lauryl- amine or primary amine Primene JMT in benzene (as the original organic phase) is discussed on the basis of equilibrium data. The measured dependences show that the degree of extraction of zirconium at the sulfuric acid concentration of 0.5 M and above is only slightly affected by a presence of uranium in solution. From this surprising behaviour it follows that zirconiummore » may be employed for the displacement of uranium from the organic phase. This effect is more pronounced with the primary amine Primene JMT than with TLA. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.« less

  12. Thermochemistry of amorphous and crystalline zirconium and hafnium silicates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushakov, S.; Brown, C. E.; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Boatner, L. A.; Demkov, A. A.; Wang, C.; Nguyen, B.-Y.

    2003-03-01

    Calorimetric investigation of amorphous and crystalline zirconium and hafnium silicates was performed as part of a research program on thermochemistry of alternative gate dielectrics. Amorphous hafnium and zirconium silicates with varying SiO2 content were synthesized by a sol-gel process. Crystalline zirconium and hafnium silicates (zircon and hafnon) were synthesized by solid state reaction at 1450 °C from amorphous gels and grown as single crystals from flux. High temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry in lead borate (2PbO.B2O3) solvent at 800 oC was used to measure drop solution enthalpies for amorphous and crystalline zirconium and hafnium silicates and corresponding oxides. Applying appropriate thermochemical cycles, formation enthalpy of crystalline ZrSiO4 (zircon) from binary oxides (baddeleite and quartz) at 298 K was calculated as -23 +/-2 kJ/mol and enthalpy difference between amorphous and crystalline zirconium silicate (vitrification enthalpy) was found to be 61 +/-3 kJ/mol. Crystallization onset temperatures of amorphous zirconium and hafnium silicates, as measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), increased with silica content. The resulting crystalline phases, as characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), were tetragonal HfO2 and ZrO2. Critical crystallite size for tetragonal to monoclinic transformation of HfO2 in the gel was estimated as 6 +/-2 nm from XRD data Crystallization enthalpies per mole of hafnia and zirconia in gels decrease slightly together with crystallite size with increasing silica content, for example from -22 to -15 +/-1 kJ per mol of HfO2 crystallized at 740 and 1006 °C from silicates with 10 and 70 mol Applications of thermal analyses and solution calorimetry techniques together with first-principles density functional calculations to estimate interface and surface energies are discussed.

  13. Evaluation of zirconium-oxide-based ceramic single-unit posterior fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) generated with two CAD/CAM systems compared to porcelain-fused-to-metal single-unit posterior FDPs: a 5-year clinical prospective study.

    PubMed

    Vigolo, Paolo; Mutinelli, Sabrina

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this prospective clinical study was to determine the success rate of single-unit posterior fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) with zirconia copings generated with two CAD/CAM systems, compared to porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) single-unit posterior FDPs after 5 years of function. From 2005 to 2006, 60 patients who needed a single-unit FDP on a first molar in the mandibular jaw (left or right) in a private office setting were included in this study. The 60 first mandibular molars were randomly divided into three groups (n = 20): in the control group (group C), 20 PFM FDPs were included. In the other two groups CAD/CAM technology was used for the fabrication of the zirconium-oxide copings: 20 single-unit posterior FDPs with zirconia copings were generated with the Procera system (group P, Nobel Biocare); 20 single-unit posterior FDPs with zirconia copings were generated with the Lava system (group L, 3M ESPE). For the ANOVA follow-up data, the clinical life table method was applied. The statistical analysis was performed using two nonparametric tests, the log-rank test for k-groups and the Fisher exact test. No statistically significant difference in the clinical outcome of zirconia-ceramic FDPs of both groups (P and L) evaluated together and metal-ceramic posterior single FDPs was found at 5 years of function; however, clinical data showed that technical problems, such as extended fracture of the veneering ceramic, tended to occur more frequently in the zirconia-ceramic FDP groups. The difference in the frequency of failure was statistically significant only in the comparison of groups C and P. Even if no statistically significant difference in the clinical outcome of zirconia-ceramic FDPs of both groups (P and L) considered together and metal-ceramic posterior single FDPs was found at 5 years of function, clinical data showed that the two zirconia-ceramic FDP groups tended to have more frequent clinical problems: for this reason all the clinical and

  14. In-situ stabilization of radioactive zirconium swarf

    DOEpatents

    Hess, Clay C.

    1999-01-01

    The method for treating ignitable cutting swarf in accordance with the present invention involves collecting cutting swarf in a casting mold underwater and injecting a binder mixture comprising vinyl ester styrene into the vessel to fill void volume; and form a mixture comprising swarf and vinyl ester styrene; and curing the mixture. The method is especially useful for stabilizing the ignitable characteristics of radioactive zirconium cutting swarf, and can be used to solidify zirconium swarf, or other ignitable finely divided material, underwater. The process could also be performed out of water with other particulate wastes.

  15. In-situ stabilization of radioactive zirconium swarf

    DOEpatents

    Hess, C.C.

    1999-08-31

    The method for treating ignitable cutting swarf in accordance with the present invention involves collecting cutting swarf in a casting mold underwater and injecting a binder mixture comprising vinyl ester styrene into the vessel to fill void volume; and form a mixture comprising swarf and vinyl ester styrene; and curing the mixture. The method is especially useful for stabilizing the ignitable characteristics of radioactive zirconium cutting swarf, and can be used to solidify zirconium swarf, or other ignitable finely divided material, underwater. The process could also be performed out of water with other particulate wastes. 6 figs.

  16. Effect of particle size of calcium phosphate based bioceramic drug delivery carrier on the release kinetics of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride: an in vitro study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasikumar, Swamiappan

    2013-09-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is the constituent of calcium phosphate based bone cement and it is extensively used as a bone substitute and drug delivery vehicle in various biomedical applications. In the present study we investigated the release kinetics of ciprofloxacin loaded HAP and analyzed its ability to function as a targeted and sustained release drug carrier. Synthesis of HAP was carried out by combustion method using tartaric acid as a fuel and nitric acid as an oxidizer. Powder XRD and FTIR techniques were employed to characterize the phase purity of the drug carrier and to verify the chemical interaction between the drug and carrier. The synthesized powders were sieve separated to make two different drug carriers with different particle sizes and the surface topography of the pellets of the drug carrier was imaged by AFM. Surface area and porosity of the drug carrier was carried out using surface area analyzer. The in-vitro drug release kinetics was performed in simulated body fluid, at 37.3°C. The amount of ciprofloxacin released is measured using UV-visible spectroscopy following the characteristic λ max of 278 nm. The release saturates around 450 h which indicates that it can be used as a targeted and sustained release carrier for bone infections.

  17. Characteristics of optical parametric oscillator synchronously pumped by Yb:KGW laser and based on periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vengelis, Julius; Tumas, Adomas; Pipinytė, Ieva; Kuliešaitė, Miglė; Tamulienė, Viktorija; Jarutis, Vygandas; Grigonis, Rimantas; Sirutkaitis, Valdas

    2018-03-01

    We present experimental data and numerical simulation results obtained during investigation of synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (SPOPO) pumped by femtosecond Yb:KGW laser (central wavelength at 1033 nm). The nonlinear medium for parametric generation was periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate crystal (PPKTP). Maximum parametric light conversion efficiency from pump power to signal power was more than 37.5% at λs=1530 nm wavelength, whereas the achieved signal wave continuous tuning range was from 1470 nm to 1970 nm with signal pulse durations ranging from 91 fs to roughly 280 fs. We demonstrated wavelength tuning by changing cavity length and PPKTP crystal grating period and also discussed net cavity group delay dispersion (GDD) influence on SPOPO output radiation characteristics. The achieved high pump to signal conversion efficiency and easy wavelength tuning make this device a very promising alternative to Ti:sapphire based SPOPOs as a source of continuously tunable femtosecond laser radiation in the near and mid-IR range.

  18. A time-based potential step analysis of electrochemical impedance incorporating a constant phase element: a study of commercially pure titanium in phosphate buffered saline.

    PubMed

    Ehrensberger, Mark T; Gilbert, Jeremy L

    2010-05-01

    The measurement of electrochemical impedance is a valuable tool to assess the electrochemical environment that exists at the surface of metallic biomaterials. This article describes the development and validation of a new technique, potential step impedance analysis (PSIA), to assess the electrochemical impedance of materials whose interface with solution can be modeled as a simplified Randles circuit that is modified with a constant phase element. PSIA is based upon applying a step change in voltage to a working electrode and analyzing the subsequent current transient response in a combined time and frequency domain technique. The solution resistance, polarization resistance, and interfacial capacitance are found directly in the time domain. The experimental current transient is numerically transformed to the frequency domain to determine the constant phase exponent, alpha. This combined time and frequency approach was tested using current transients generated from computer simulations, from resistor-capacitor breadboard circuits, and from commercially pure titanium samples immersed in phosphate buffered saline and polarized at -800 mV or +1000 mV versus Ag/AgCl. It was shown that PSIA calculates equivalent admittance and impedance behavior over this range of potentials when compared to standard electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This current transient approach characterizes the frequency response of the system without the need for expensive frequency response analyzers or software. Copyright 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Luminescence in the fluoride-containing phosphate-based glasses: A possible origin of their high resistance to nanosecond pulse laser-induced damage

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengfei; Lu, Min; Gao, Fei; Guo, Haitao; Xu, Yantao; Hou, Chaoqi; Zhou, Zhiwei; Peng, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Fusion power offers the prospect of an almost inexhaustible source of energy for future generations. It was reported that fusion fuel gains exceeding unity on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) were achieved, but so far great deal of scientific and engineering challenges have to be overcome for realizing fusion power generation. There is a bottleneck for color-separation gratings in NIF and other similar inertial confinement fusion (ICF) lasers. Here we show a series of high performance phosphate-based glasses that can transmit the third harmonic frequency (3ω) laser light with high efficiency meanwhile filter the fundamental (1ω) and the second harmonic frequency (2ω) laser lights through direct absorption, and especially they exhibit excellent damage threshold induced by nanosecond pulse laser compared with that of the fused silica used in NIF. Yellowish-orange fluorescence emits during the laser-material interaction process, and it can be tailored through regulating the glass structure. Study on its structural origin suggests that the fluorescence emission is a key factor that conduces to the high laser-induced damage resistance of these glasses. The results also indicated the feasibility of utilizing these high performance glasses in novel color separation optics, allowing novel design for the final optics assembly in ICF lasers. PMID:25716328

  20. Luminescence in the fluoride-containing phosphate-based glasses: a possible origin of their high resistance to nanosecond pulse laser-induced damage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengfei; Lu, Min; Gao, Fei; Guo, Haitao; Xu, Yantao; Hou, Chaoqi; Zhou, Zhiwei; Peng, Bo

    2015-02-26

    Fusion power offers the prospect of an almost inexhaustible source of energy for future generations. It was reported that fusion fuel gains exceeding unity on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) were achieved, but so far great deal of scientific and engineering challenges have to be overcome for realizing fusion power generation. There is a bottleneck for color-separation gratings in NIF and other similar inertial confinement fusion (ICF) lasers. Here we show a series of high performance phosphate-based glasses that can transmit the third harmonic frequency (3ω) laser light with high efficiency meanwhile filter the fundamental (1ω) and the second harmonic frequency (2ω) laser lights through direct absorption, and especially they exhibit excellent damage threshold induced by nanosecond pulse laser compared with that of the fused silica used in NIF. Yellowish-orange fluorescence emits during the laser-material interaction process, and it can be tailored through regulating the glass structure. Study on its structural origin suggests that the fluorescence emission is a key factor that conduces to the high laser-induced damage resistance of these glasses. The results also indicated the feasibility of utilizing these high performance glasses in novel color separation optics, allowing novel design for the final optics assembly in ICF lasers.

  1. Early effects of combretastatin A4 phosphate assessed by anatomic and carbogen-based functional magnetic resonance imaging on rat bladder tumors implanted in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Carole D; Walczak, Christine; Kaffy, Julia; Pontikis, Renée; Jouanneau, Jacqueline; Volk, Andreas

    2006-07-01

    Combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) causes rapid disruption of the tumor vasculature and is currently being evaluated for antivascular therapy. We describe the initial results obtained with a noninvasive multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to assess the early effects of CA4P on rat bladder tumors implanted on nude mice. MRI (4.7 T) comprised a fast spin-echo sequence for growth curve assessment; a multislice multiecho sequence for T2 measurement before, 15 minutes after, and 24 hours after CA4P (100 mg/kg); and a fast T2w* gradient-echo sequence to assess MR signal modification under carbogen breathing before, 35 minutes after, and 24 hours after CA4P. The tumor fraction with increased T2w* signal intensity under carbogen (T+) was used to quantify CA4P effect on functional vasculature. CA4P slowed tumor growth over 24 hours and accelerated necrosis development. T+ decrease was observed already at 35 minutes post-CA4P. Early T2 increase was observed in regions becoming necrotic at 24 hours post-CA4P, as confirmed by high T2 and histology. These regions exhibited, under carbogen, a switch from T2w* signal increase before CA4P to a decrease postCA4P. The combination of carbogen-based functional MRI and T2 measurement may be useful for the early follow-up of antivascular therapy without the administration of contrast agents.

  2. Ion-solvation structure and battery electrode characteristics of nonflammable organic electrolytes based on tris(trifluoroethyl)phosphate dissolving lithium salts.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Yanko Marinov; Fujii, Kenta; Yoshimoto, Nobuko; Hirayama, Daisuke; Aoki, Masahiro; Mimura, Hideyuki; Morita, Masayuki

    2017-11-29

    The structure and properties of lithium salt solutions based on tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)phosphate (TFEP) solvent have been studied to design a safer electrolyte system for large-sized lithium-ion battery applications. Influences of the ionic structure on the polarization behavior of the LiCoO 2 (LCO) positive electrode were investigated. The ionic conductivity and viscosity of the solution consisting of lithium salts dissolved in TFEP, LiX/TFEP (X = PF 6 , BF 4 and TFSA) (TFSA = (CF 3 SO 2 ) 2 N), were measured. The results suggest that the ion-solvation structure greatly depends on the anionic species in the salt. Spectroscopic measurements also support the conclusion that the Li + -solvation structure varies with the lithium salts. The differences in the ionic structure of LiX/TFEP influence the electrochemical oxidation potential of the solution and the polarization behavior of the LCO electrode. The overvoltage for Li-desertion/insertion from/into LCO in LiX/TFEP, being much higher than that observed in conventional LIB electrolyte solutions, shows the order of BF 4 < PF 6 < TFSA. The addition of ethylene carbonate (EC) to LiX/TFEP increases the ionic conductivity, which is probably caused by changes in the Li + -solvation structure in TFEP. The overvoltage for the Li-desertion/insertion of LCO is much lowered by the addition of EC to LiX/TFEP.

  3. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium).

    The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  4. Crystal plasticity simulation of Zirconium tube rolling using multi-grain representative volume element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaenkova, Margarita; Perlovich, Yuriy; Zhuk, Dmitry; Krymskaya, Olga

    2017-10-01

    The rolling of Zirconium tube is studied by means of the crystal plasticity viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) constitutive modeling. This modeling performed by a dislocation-based constitutive model and a spectral solver using open-source simulation of DAMASK kit. The multi-grain representative volume elements with periodic boundary conditions are used to predict the texture evolution and distributions of strain and stresses. Two models for randomly textured and partially rolled material are deformed to 30% reduction in tube wall thickness and 7% reduction in tube diameter. The resulting shapes of the models are shown and distributions of strain are plotted. Also, evolution of grain's shape during deformation is shown.

  5. Phosphate removal and hemodialysis conditions.

    PubMed

    Pohlmeier, R; Vienken, J

    2001-02-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is frequently found in hemodialysis patients, and the association with an increased risk of mortality has been demonstrated. Other authors have linked hyperphosphatemia to increased cardiovascular mortality. The normalization of phosphate plasma levels is therefore an important goal in the treatment of end-stage renal disease patients. Absorption of phosphate from the food exceeds the elimination through a hemodialysis treatment, and this leads to a chronic phosphate load for the majority of hemodialysis patients. This imbalance should be improved by either a reduction of phosphate absorption or an increased removal of phosphate. A reduction of phosphate absorption can be achieved by reducing the amount of phosphate in the diet or by the administration of phosphate binders. Unfortunately, these measures imply practical difficulties, for example, a lack of patient compliance or other side effects. When considering modifications of the hemodialysis treatment, an essential understanding of the kinetics of dialytic phosphate removal is mandatory. Phosphate is unevenly distributed in different compartments of the body. Only a very small amount of phosphate is present in the easily accessible plasma compartment. The major part of phosphate removed during hemodialysis originates from the cytoplasm of cells. A transfer from intracellular space to the plasma and further from the plasma to the dialysate is necessary. However, if we consider improvement to phosphate removal by dialysis procedures, full dialyzer clearance is effective in only the initial phase of the dialysis treatment. After this initial phase, the transfer rate for phosphate from the intracellular space to the plasma becomes the rate-limiting step for phosphate transport. Attempts to improve this transfer rate have recently been investigated by acidosis correction, but turned out not to be consistently successful. Furthermore, modifications of the treatment schedule have been described in

  6. Modeling cell membrane transport: interaction of guanidinylated poly(propylene imine) dendrimers with a liposomal membrane consisting of phosphate-based lipids.

    PubMed

    Tsogas, Ioannis; Tsiourvas, Dimitris; Nounesis, George; Paleos, Constantinos M

    2006-12-19

    Mixed anionic liposomes consisting of dihexadecyl phosphate, phosphatidylcholine, and cholesterol were employed as model systems for assessing the ability of a series of functionalized dendrimers, bearing a varying number of guanidinium groups at their surface, to translocate across the liposomal bilayers. At low guanidinium/phosphate molar ratios or when weakly guanidinylated dendrimeric derivatives were employed, the dendrimeric derivative acted as a kind of "molecular glue" leading to a simple adhesion of the liposomes. Liposomal fusion occurred to a certain extent at high guanidinium/phosphate molar ratios or when highly guanidinylated dendrimeric derivatives were employed. Furthermore, translocation of these dendrimeric derivatives to the liposomal core was observed for low to medium guanidinylation and at low guanidinium/phosphate molar ratios which was, however, enhanced when the lipid bilayer was in its fluid liquid-crystalline phase. Thus, an optimum balance is required between the binding strength of guanidinium with the phosphate groups and the degree of hydrophilicity of the guanidinylated dendrimers for the transport of the latter to the liposomal core to occur.

  7. Domestic phosphate deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKelvey, V.E.; Cathcart, J.B.; Altschuler, Z.S.; Swanson, R.W.; Lutz, Katherine

    1953-01-01

    Most of the worlds phosphate deposits can be grouped into six types: 1) igneous apatite deposits; 2) marine phosphorites; 3) residual phosphorites; 4) river pebble deposits; 5) phosphatized rock; and 6) guano. The igneous apatites and marine phosphorites form deposits measurable in millions or billions of tons; the residual deposits are measurable in thousands or millions; and the other types generally only in thousands of tons. Igneous apatite deposits have been mined on a small scale in New York, New Jersey, and Virginia. Marine phosphorites have been mined in Montana, Idaho, Utah, Wyoming, Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. Residual phosphorites have been mined in Tennessee, Pennsylvania, and Florida. River pebble has been produced in South Carolina and Florida; phosphatized rock in Tennessee and Florida; and guano in New Mexico and Texas. Present production is limited almost entirely to Florida, Tennessee, Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming. Incomplete but recently partly revised estimates indicate the presence of about 5 billion tons of phosphate deposits in the United States that is minable under present economic conditions. Deposits too lean in quality or thickness to compete with those in the western and southeastern fields probably contain tens of billions of tons.

  8. Thermal properties of zirconium diboride -- transition metal boride solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClane, Devon Lee

    This research focuses on the thermal properties of zirconium diboride (ZrB2) based ceramics. The overall goal was to improve the understanding of how different transition metal (TM) additives influence thermal transport in ZrB2. To achieve this, ZrB2 with 0.5 wt% carbon, and 3 mol% of individual transition metal borides, was densified by hot-press sintering. The transition metals that were investigated were: Y, Ti, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, and Re. The room temperature thermal diffusivities of the compositions ranged from 0.331 cm2/s for nominally pure ZrB2 to 0.105 cm2/s for (Zr,Cr)B2 and converged around 0.155cm2/s at higher temperatures for all compositions. Thermal conductivities were calculated from the diffusivities, using temperature-dependent values for density and heat capacity. The electron contribution to thermal conductivity was calculated from measured electrical resistivity according to the Wiedemann-Franz law. The phonon contribution to thermal conductivity was calculated by subtracting the electron contribution from the total thermal conductivity. Rietveld refinement of x-ray diffraction data was used to determine the lattice parameters of the compositions. The decrease in thermal conductivity for individual additives correlated directly to the metallic radius of the additive. Additional strain appeared to exist for additives when the stable TM boride for that metal had different crystal symmetries than ZrB2. This research provided insight into how additives and impurities affect thermal transport in ZrB2. The research potentially offers a basis for future modeling of thermal conductivity in ultra-high temperature ceramics based on the correlation between metallic radius and the decrease in thermal conductivity.

  9. Surface characterization of anodized zirconium for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, A. Gomez; Schreiner, W.; Duffó, G.; Ceré, S.

    2011-05-01

    Mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of zirconium make this material suitable for biomedical implants. Its good in vivo performance is mainly due to the presence of a protective oxide layer that minimizes corrosion rate, diminishes the amount of metallic ions released to the biological media and facilitates the osseointegration process. Since the implant surface is the region in contact with living tissues, the characteristics of the surface film are of great interest. Surface modification is a route to enhance both biocompatibility and corrosion resistance of permanent implant materials. Anodizing is presented as an interesting process to modify metal surfaces with good reproducibility and independence of the geometry. In this work the surface of zirconium before and after anodizing in 1 mol/L phosphoric acid solution at a fixed potential between 3 and 30 V, was characterized by means of several surface techniques. It was found that during anodization the surface oxide grows with an inhomogeneous coverage on zirconium surface, modifying the topography. The incorporation of P from the electrolyte to the surface oxide during the anodizing process changes the surface chemistry. After 30 days of immersion in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) solution, Ca-P rich compounds were present on anodized zirconium.

  10. Direct synthesis of zirconium powder by magnesium reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Won; Yun, Jung-Yeul; Yoon, Sung-Won; Wang, Jei-Pil

    2013-05-01

    The direct synthesis of zirconium powder has been conducted through an analysis of the chemical reaction between evaporated ZrCl4 and molten magnesium over a range of reduction temperatures, concentration of hydrochloric acid, and stirring time. The observed results indicated that the purity of zirconium powder increased with increased stirring time, and Mg and MgCl2 were removed by 10 wt% of hydrochloric acid solution. The pure zirconium powder was obtained by stirring again for 5 h using 5 wt% of hydrochloric acid solution. It was noted that the mean particle size increased when the reaction temperature was increased, and the size of the powder at 1,123 K and 1,173 K was found to be 10 μm and 15 μm, respectively. In addition, the purity of the powder was also improved with temperature, and its purity finally reached up to 99.5% at 1,250 K. Overall, pure zirconium powder was obtained after a stirring stage for 5 hours using 5 wt% of hydrochloric acid solution.

  11. Method for calcining nuclear waste solutions containing zirconium and halides

    DOEpatents

    Newby, Billie J.

    1979-01-01

    A reduction in the quantity of gelatinous solids which are formed in aqueous zirconium-fluoride nuclear reprocessing waste solutions by calcium nitrate added to suppress halide volatility during calcination of the solution while further suppressing chloride volatility is achieved by increasing the aluminum to fluoride mole ratio in the waste solution prior to adding the calcium nitrate.

  12. Mineral resource of the month: zirconium and hafnium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gambogi, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Zirconium and hafnium are corrosion-resistant metals that are grouped in the same family as titanium on the periodic table. The two elements commonly occur in oxide and silicate minerals and have significant economic importance in everything from ink, ceramics and golf shoes to nuclear fuel rods.

  13. Manufacturing process to reduce large grain growth in zirconium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Rosecrans, Peter M.

    1987-01-01

    A method of treating cold-worked zirconium alloys to reduce large grain gth during thermal treatment at temperatures above the recrystallization temperature of the alloy comprising heating the cold-worked alloy between about 1300.degree.-1350.degree. F. for 1 to 3 hours prior to treatment above its recrystallization temperature.

  14. Pumpable/injectable phosphate-bonded ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Dileep; Wagh, Arun S.; Perry, Lamar; Jeong, Seung-Young

    2001-01-01

    A pumpable ceramic composition is provided comprising an inorganic oxide, potassium phosphate, and an oxide coating material. Also provided is a method for preparing pumpable ceramic-based waste forms comprising selecting inorganic oxides based on solubility, surface area and morphology criteria; mixing the selected oxides with phosphate solution and waste to form a first mixture; combining an additive to the first mixture to create a second mixture; adding water to the second mixture to create a reactive mixture; homogenizing the reactive mixture; and allowing the reactive mixture to cure.

  15. Thermal expansion of phosphates with the NaZr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} structure containing lanthanides and zirconium: R{sub 0.33}Zr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (R = Nd, Eu, Er) and Er{sub 0.33(1–x)} Zr{sub 0.25x}Zr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sup 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Volgutov, V. Yu., E-mail: Valeriy.Volgutov@inbox.ru; Orlova, A. I.

    Phosphates R{sub 0.33}Zr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (R = Nd, Eu, or Er) and Er{sub 0.33(1–x)}Zr{sub 0.25}Zr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0) of the NaZr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} family have been synthesized and investigated by high-temperature X-ray diffraction. The crystallochemical approach is used to obtain compounds with expected small and controllable thermal-expansion parameters. Phosphates with close-to-zero thermal-expansion parameters, including those with low thermal-expansion anisotropy, have been obtained: Nd{sub 0.33}Zr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} with α{sub a} =–2.21 × 10{sup −6} °C{sup −1}, α{sub c} = 0.81 × 10{sup −6} °C{sup −1}, and Δα = 3.02 × 10{supmore » −6} °C{sup –1} and Er{sub 0.08}Zr{sub 0.19}Zr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} with α{sub a} =–1.86 × 10{sup −6} °C{sup −1}, α{sub c} = 1.73 × 10{sup −6} °C{sup −1}, and Δα = 3.58 × 10{sup −6} °C{sup −1}.« less

  16. Base Mechanism to the Hydrolysis of Phosphate Triester Promoted by the Cd2+/Cd2+ Active site of Phosphotriesterase: A Computational Study.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Marcelo A; Pereira, Eufrásia S; Godinho, Marina P B; Da Silva, Júlio Cosme S; Rocha, Willian R

    2018-05-21

    In the present work, density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d) and including dispersion effects were used to investigate the hydrolysis of paraoxon, using a cluster model of the active site of Cd 2+ /Cd 2+ -phosphotriesterase (PTE) from Pseudomonas diminuta. The mechanism proposed here consist of (i) Exchange of the coordinated water molecule and coordination of the substrate to the more solvent exposed Cd β center in monodentate fashion, (ii) protonation of the μ-hydroxo bridge by the uncoordinated water molecule and in situ formation of the nucleophile, (iii) formation of a pentacoordinate intermediate with significant bond breaking to the leaving group and bond formation to the nucleophile, and (iv) protonation of the Asp301 residue and restoration of the active site through the coordination of another water molecule of the medium. The water molecules initially coordinated to the active site play a crucial role in stabilizing the transition states and the pentacoordinate intermediate. The reaction takes place in a two-step (A N + D N ) mechanism, with energy barriers of 12.9 and 1.9 kcal/mol for the first and second steps, respectively, computed at the B3LYP-D3/6-311++G(2d,2p) level of theory, in excellent agreement with the experimental findings. Dispersion effects alone contribute to diminish the energy barriers as much as 26%. The base mechanism for the Cd 2+ /Cd 2+ -PTE proposed here, in conjunction with the agreement found with the experimental energetic value for the energy barrier, makes it a consistent and kinetically viable mechanistic proposal for the hydrolysis of phosphate triesters promoted by the Cd 2+ substituted PTE enzyme.

  17. Early Effects of Combretastatin A4 Phosphate Assessed by Anatomic and Carbogen-Based Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging on Rat Bladder Tumors Implanted in Nude Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Carole D.; Walczak, Christine; Kaffy, Julia; Pontikis, Renée; Jouanneau, Jacqueline; Volk, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) causes rapid disruption of the tumor vasculature and is currently being evaluated for antivascular therapy. We describe the initial results obtained with a noninvasive multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to assess the early effects of CA4P on rat bladder tumors implanted on nude mice. MRI (4.7 T) comprised a fast spin-echo sequence for growth curve assessment; a multislice multiecho sequence for T2 measurement before, 15 minutes after, and 24 hours after CA4P (100 mg/kg); and a fast T2w* gradient-echo sequence to assess MR signal modification under carbogen breathing before, 35 minutes after, and 24 hours after CA4P. The tumor fraction with increased T2w* signal intensity under carbogen (T+) was used to quantify CA4P effect on functional vasculature. CA4P slowed tumor growth over 24 hours and accelerated necrosis development. T+ decrease was observed already at 35 minutes post-CA4P. Early T2 increase was observed in regions becoming necrotic at 24 hours post-CA4P, as confirmed by high T2 and histology. These regions exhibited, under carbogen, a switch from T2w* signal increase before CA4P to a decrease post-CA4P. The combination of carbogen-based functional MRI and T2 measurement may be useful for the early follow-up of antivascular therapy without the administration of contrast agents. PMID:16867221

  18. Role of gallium and silver from phosphate-based glasses on in vitro dual species oral biofilm models of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus gordonii.

    PubMed

    Valappil, Sabeel P; Coombes, Marc; Wright, Lucy; Owens, Gareth J; Lynch, Richard J M; Hope, Christopher K; Higham, Susan M

    2012-05-01

    Phosphate-based glasses (PBGs) are excellent controlled delivery agents for antibacterial ions such as silver and gallium. The aim of this study was to assess the potential utility of novel PBGs combining both gallium and silver for use in periodontal therapy. To this end, an in vitro biofilm model with the putative periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and an initial colonizer, Streptococcus gordonii, was established. The effect of increasing calcium content in gallium-silver-doped PBG on the susceptibility of P. gingivalis was examined. A decrease in degradation rates (30.34, 25.19, 21.40 μg mm(-2) h(-1)) with increasing PBG calciumcontent (10, 11, 12 mol.% respectively) was observed, correlating well with gallium and silver ion release and antimicrobial activity against planktonic P. gingivalis (approximately 5.4log(10) colony-forming units (CFU) reduction after 24h by the C10 glass compared with controls) and S. gordonii (total growth inhibition after 32h by C10, C11 and C12 glasses compared with controls). The most potent PBG (C10) was evaluated for its ability to inhibit the biofilm growth of P. gingivalis in a newly established constant-depth film fermentor model. The simultaneous release of silver and gallium from the glass reduced P. gingivalis biofilm growth with a maximum effect (1.92log(10) CFU reduction) after 168 h. Given the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and dearth of new antibiotics in development, the glasses, especially C10, would offer effective alternatives to antibiotics or may complement current therapies through controlled, localized delivery of gallium and silver ions at infected sites in the oral cavity. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Controlled copper ion release from phosphate-based glasses improves human umbilical vein endothelial cell survival in a reduced nutrient environment.

    PubMed

    Stähli, Christoph; Muja, Naser; Nazhat, Showan N

    2013-02-01

    The success of tissue engineering is dependent on rapid scaffold vascularization after engraftment. Copper ions are well known to be angiogenic but exhibit cytotoxicity at elevated doses. The high sensitivity to copper concentration underlines the need of a controlled release mechanism. This study investigated the effect of copper ions released from phosphate-based glasses (PGs) on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) under standard growth conditions (SGC), as well as in a reduced nutrient environment (RNE) with decreased bovine serum and growth factor concentrations to approximate conditions in the core of large volume scaffolds where nutrient diffusion is limited. Initially, HUVECs were exposed to a range of CuCl(2) concentrations in order to identify an optimal response in terms of their metabolism, viability, and apoptotic activity. Under SGC, HUVEC metabolic activity and viability were reduced in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of 0.44-12 ppm Cu(2+). In contrast, HUVEC death induced by the RNE was delayed by an optimal dose of 4 ppm Cu(2+), which was associated with a down-regulation of apoptosis as evidenced by caspase-3/7 activity. Copper ion release from soluble PGs of the formulation 50P(2)O(5)-30CaO-(20-x)Na(2)O-xCuO [mol%] (x=0, 1, 5 and 10) demonstrated a controllable increase with CuO content. The presence of 4 ppm copper ions released from the 10% CuO PG composition reproduced the delay in HUVEC death in the RNE, suggesting the potential of these materials to extend survival of transplanted endothelial cells in large volume scaffolds.

  20. High-intensity low energy titanium ion implantation into zirconium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabchikov, A. I.; Kashkarov, E. B.; Pushilina, N. S.; Syrtanov, M. S.; Shevelev, A. E.; Korneva, O. S.; Sutygina, A. N.; Lider, A. M.

    2018-05-01

    This research describes the possibility of ultra-high dose deep titanium ion implantation for surface modification of zirconium alloy Zr-1Nb. The developed method based on repetitively pulsed high intensity low energy titanium ion implantation was used to modify the surface layer. The DC vacuum arc source was used to produce metal plasma. Plasma immersion titanium ions extraction and their ballistic focusing in equipotential space of biased electrode were used to produce high intensity titanium ion beam with the amplitude of 0.5 A at the ion current density 120 and 170 mA/cm2. The solar eclipse effect was used to prevent vacuum arc titanium macroparticles from appearing in the implantation area of Zr sample. Titanium low energy (mean ion energy E = 3 keV) ions were implanted into zirconium alloy with the dose in the range of (5.4-9.56) × 1020 ion/cm2. The effect of ion current density, implantation dose on the phase composition, microstructure and distribution of elements was studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and glow-discharge optical emission spectroscopy, respectively. The results show the appearance of Zr-Ti intermetallic phases of different stoichiometry after Ti implantation. The intermetallic phases are transformed from both Zr0.7Ti0.3 and Zr0.5Ti0.5 to single Zr0.6Ti0.4 phase with the increase in the implantation dose. The changes in phase composition are attributed to Ti dissolution in zirconium lattice accompanied by the lattice distortions and appearance of macrostrains in intermetallic phases. The depth of Ti penetration into the bulk of Zr increases from 6 to 13 μm with the implantation dose. The hardness and wear resistance of the Ti-implanted zirconium alloy were increased by 1.5 and 1.4 times, respectively. The higher current density (170 mA/cm2) leads to the increase in the grain size and surface roughness negatively affecting the tribological properties of the alloy.

  1. Retention of zirconium oxide ceramic crowns with three types of cement.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Rosario P; Johnson, Glen H; Phillips, Keith M; Raigrodski, Ariel J

    2006-08-01

    Information about the retentive strength of luting agents for zirconium oxide-based crowns is limited. It is unknown if this type of high-strength ceramic restoration requires adhesive cementation to enhance retention. The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the ability of selected luting agents to retain a representative zirconium oxide ceramic crown under clinically simulated conditions. Recently extracted human molars were prepared with a flat occlusal surface, 20-degree taper, and approximately 4-mm axial length. The axial and occlusal surface areas were determined, and specimens were distributed equally by total surface area into 3 cementation groups (n=12). Zirconium oxide ceramic copings (Procera AllZirkon) with an occlusal bar to facilitate removal were fabricated using computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. All copings were airborne-particle abraded with 50-mum Al(2)O(3) and then cleaned in an ultrasonic bath with isopropyl alcohol. Provisional cement was removed from the prepared teeth, followed by a pumice prophy. After trial insertion, the copings were cleaned with phosphoric acid, rinsed, dried, and dehydrated with isopropyl alcohol. They were then cemented with a seating force of 10 kg per tooth, using either a composite resin cement with adhesive agent (Panavia F 2.0 and ED Primer A & B [PAN]), a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Rely X Luting [RXL]), or a self-adhesive modified composite resin (Rely X Unicem [RXU]). The cemented copings were thermal cycled at 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C for 5000 cycles with a 15 second dwell time, and then removed along the path of insertion using a universal testing machine at 0.5 mm/min. The removal force was recorded, and the stress of dislodgement was calculated using the surface area of each preparation. A 1-way analysis of variance was used to analyze the data (alpha=.05). The nature of failure was also recorded. Mean dislodgement stresses were 5.1, 6.1, and

  2. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic (MgHPO4·3H2O...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic (MgHPO4·3H2O, CAS Reg. No. 7782-0975...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic...

  7. Burst Ductility of Zirconium Clads: The Defining Role of Residual Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Gulshan; Kanjarla, A. K.; Lodh, Arijit; Singh, Jaiveer; Singh, Ramesh; Srivastava, D.; Dey, G. K.; Saibaba, N.; Doherty, R. D.; Samajdar, Indradev

    2016-08-01

    Closed end burst tests, using room temperature water as pressurizing medium, were performed on a number of industrially produced zirconium (Zr) clads. A total of 31 samples were selected based on observed differences in burst ductility. The latter was represented as total circumferential elongation or TCE. The selected samples, with a range of TCE values (5 to 35 pct), did not show any correlation with mechanical properties along axial direction, microstructural parameters, crystallographic textures, and outer tube-surface normal ( σ 11) and shear ( τ 13) components of the residual stress matrix. TCEs, however, had a clear correlation with hydrostatic residual stress ( P h), as estimated from tri-axial stress analysis on the outer tube surface. Estimated P h also scaled with measured normal stress ( σ 33) at the tube cross section. An elastic-plastic finite element model with ductile damage failure criterion was developed to understand the burst mechanism of zirconium clads. Experimentally measured P h gradients were imposed on a solid element continuum finite element (FE) simulation to mimic the residual stresses present prior to pressurization. Trends in experimental TCEs were also brought out with computationally efficient shell element-based FE simulations imposing the outer tube-surface P h values. Suitable components of the residual stress matrix thus determined the burst performance of the Zr clads.

  8. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    DOEpatents

    Goldstein, A.H.; Rogers, R.D.

    1999-06-15

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed. 13 figs.

  9. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    DOEpatents

    Goldstein, Alan H.; Rogers, Robert D.

    1999-01-01

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed.

  10. Kidney and Phosphate Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The serum phosphorus level is maintained through a complex interplay between intestinal absorption, exchange intracellular and bone storage pools, and renal tubular reabsorption. The kidney plays a major role in regulation of phosphorus homeostasis by renal tubular reabsorption. Type IIa and type IIc Na+/Pi transporters are important renal Na+-dependent inorganic phosphate (Pi) transporters, which are expressed in the brush border membrane of proximal tubular cells. Both are regulated by dietary Pi intake, vitamin D, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and parathyroid hormone. The expression of type IIa Na+/Pi transporter result from hypophosphatemia quickly. However, type IIc appears to act more slowly. Physiological and pathophysiological alteration in renal Pi reabsorption are related to altered brush border membrane expression/content of the type II Na+/Pi cotransporter. Many studies of genetic and acquired renal phosphate wasting disorders have led to the identification of novel genes. Two novel Pi regulating genes, PHEX and FGF23, play a role in the pathophysiology of genetic and acquired renal phosphate wasting disorders and studies are underway to define their mechanism on renal Pi regulation. In recent studies, sodium-hydrogen exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1) is reported as another new regulator for Pi reabsorption mechanism. PMID:24459526

  11. Dysregulation of phosphate metabolism and conditions associated with phosphate toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ronald B; Razzaque, Mohammed S

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate homeostasis is coordinated and regulated by complex cross-organ talk through delicate hormonal networks. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), secreted in response to low serum calcium, has an important role in maintaining phosphate homeostasis by influencing renal synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, thereby increasing intestinal phosphate absorption. Moreover, PTH can increase phosphate efflux from bone and contribute to renal phosphate homeostasis through phosphaturic effects. In addition, PTH can induce skeletal synthesis of another potent phosphaturic hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), which is able to inhibit renal tubular phosphate reabsorption, thereby increasing urinary phosphate excretion. FGF23 can also fine-tune vitamin D homeostasis by suppressing renal expression of 1-alpha hydroxylase (1α(OH)ase). This review briefly discusses how FGF23, by forming a bone–kidney axis, regulates phosphate homeostasis, and how its dysregulation can lead to phosphate toxicity that induces widespread tissue injury. We also provide evidence to explain how phosphate toxicity related to dietary phosphorus overload may facilitate incidence of noncommunicable diseases including kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, cancers and skeletal disorders. PMID:26131357

  12. Synthesis of β-tricalcium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Chaair, H; Labjar, H; Britel, O

    2017-09-01

    Ceramics play a key role in several biomedical applications. One of them is bone grafting, which is used for treating bone defects caused by injuries or osteoporosis. Calcium-phosphate based ceramic are preferred as bone graft biomaterials in hard tissue surgery because their chemical composition is close to the composition of human bone. They also have a marked bioresorbability and bioactivity. In this work, we have developed methods for synthesis of β-tricalcium phosphate apatite (β-TCP). These products were characterized by different techniques such as X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and chemical analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Method for producing chemically bonded phosphate ceramics and for stabilizing contaminants encapsulated therein utilizing reducing agents

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Dileep; Wagh, Arun S.; Jeong, Seung-Young

    2000-01-01

    Known phosphate ceramic formulations are improved and the ability to produce iron-based phosphate ceramic systems is enabled by the addition of an oxidizing or reducing step during the acid-base reactions that form the phosphate ceramic products. The additives allow control of the rate of the acid-base reactions and concomitant heat generation. In an alternate embodiment, waste containing metal anions are stabilized in phosphate ceramic products by the addition of a reducing agent to the phosphate ceramic mixture. The reduced metal ions are more stable and/or reactive with the phosphate ions, resulting in the formation of insoluble metal species within the phosphate ceramic matrix, such that the resulting chemically bonded phosphate ceramic product has greater leach resistance.

  14. Comparative study on in vitro biocompatibility of synthetic octacalcium phosphate and calcium phosphate ceramics used clinically.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Shinji; Anada, Takahisa; Honda, Yoshitomo; Suzuki, Osamu

    2012-08-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the extent to which calcium phosphate bone substitute materials, including osteoconductive octacalcium phosphate (OCP), display cytotoxic and inflammatory responses based on their dissolution in vitro. Hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ceramics, which are clinically used, as well as dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and synthesized OCP were compared. The materials were well characterized by chemical analysis, x-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Calcium and phosphate ion concentrations and the pH of culture media after immersion of the materials were determined. The colony forming rate of Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts was estimated with extraction of the materials. Proliferation of bone marrow stromal ST-2 cells and inflammatory cytokine TNF-α production by THP-1 cells grown on the material-coated plates were examined. The materials had characteristics that corresponded to those reported. DCPD was shown to dissolve the most in the culture media, with a marked increase in phosphate ion concentration and a reduction in pH. ST-2 cells proliferated well on the materials, with the exception of DCPD, which markedly inhibited cellular growth. The colony forming capacity was the lowest on DCPD, while that of the other calcium phosphates was not altered. In contrast, TNF-α was not detected even in cells grown on DCPD, suggesting that calcium phosphate materials are essentially non-inflammatory, while the solubility of the materials can affect osteoblastic and fibroblastic cellular attachment. These results indicate that OCP is biocompatible, which is similar to the materials used clinically, such as HA. Therefore, OCP could be clinically used as a biocompatible bone substitute material.

  15. Nuclear-grade zirconium prepared by combining combustion synthesis with molten-salt electrorefining technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Nersisyan, Hayk H.; Park, Kyung-Tae; Park, Sung-Bin; Kim, Jeong-Guk; Lee, Jeong-Min; Lee, Jong-Hyeon

    2011-06-01

    Zirconium has a low absorption cross-section for neutrons, which makes it an ideal material for use in nuclear reactor applications. However, hafnium typically contained in zirconium causes it to be far less useful for nuclear reactor materials because of its high neutron-absorbing properties. In the present study, a novel effective method has been developed for the production of hafnium-free zirconium. The process includes two main stages: magnesio-thermic reduction of ZrSiO 4 under a combustion mode, to produce zirconium silicide (ZrSi), and recovery of hafnium-free zirconium by molten-salt electrorefining. It was found that, depending on the electrorefining procedure, it is possible to produce zirconium powder with a low hafnium content: 70 ppm, determined by ICP-AES analysis.

  16. Microbial electrolysis cell accelerates phosphate remobilisation from iron phosphate contained in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Fabian; Zufferey, Géraldine; Sugnaux, Marc; Happe, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate was remobilised from iron phosphate contained in digested sewage sludge using a bio-electric cell. A significant acceleration above former results was caused by strongly basic catholytes. For these experiments a dual chambered microbial electrolysis cell with a small cathode (40 mL) and an 80 times larger anode (2.5 L) was equipped with a platinum sputtered reticulated vitreous carbon cathode. Various applied voltages (0.2-6.0 V) generated moderate to strongly basic catholytes using artificial waste water with pH close to neutral. Phosphate from iron phosphate contained in digested sewage sludge was remobilised most effectively at pH ∼13 with up to 95% yield. Beside minor electrochemical reduction, hydroxyl substitution was the dominating remobilisation mechanism. Particle-fluid kinetics using the "shrinking core" model allowed us to determine the reaction controlling step. Reaction rates changed with temperature (15-40 °C) and an activation energy of Ea = 55 kJ mol(-1) was found. These analyses indicated chemical and physical reaction control, which is of interest for future scale-up work. Phosphate remobilisation rates increased significantly, yields doubled and recovered PO4(3-) concentrations increased four times using a task specific bio-electric system. The result is a sustainable process for decentralized phosphate mining and a green chemical base generator useful also for many other sustainable processing needs.

  17. Effect of Copper and Zirconium Addition on Properties of Fe-Co-Si-B-Nb Bulk Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikram, Haris; Khalid, Fazal Ahmad; Akmal, Muhammad; Abbas, Zameer

    2017-07-01

    In this research work, iron-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have been fabricated, characterized and compared with Fe-Si alloy. BMG alloys of composition ((Fe0.6Co0.4)0.75B0.20Si0.05)96Nb4) were synthesized by suction casting technique using chilled copper die. Effect of copper and zirconium addition on magnetic, mechanical, thermal and electrochemical behavior of ((Fe0.6Co0.4)0.75B0.20Si0.05)96Nb4 BMGs was investigated. Furthermore, effect of annealing on nano-crystallization and subsequently on magnetic and mechanical behavior was also analyzed. Amorphousness of structure was evidenced by XRD analysis and microscopic visualization, whereas nano-crystallization behavior was identified by peak broadening of XRD patterns. Magnetic properties, measured by vibrating sample magnetometer, were found to be improved for as-cast BMG alloys by copper addition and further enhanced by nano-crystallization after annealing. Mechanical properties were observed to be increased by zirconium addition while slightly declined by copper addition. Potentiodynamic polarization analysis manifested the positive role of zirconium in enhancing corrosion resistance of BMGs in acidic, basic and brine mediums. Moreover, mechanical properties and corrosion analysis results affirmed the superiority of BMG alloys over Fe-Si alloy.

  18. Raman spectroscopy analysis of air grown oxide scale developed on pure zirconium substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurpaska, L.; Favergeon, J.; Lahoche, L.; El-Marssi, M.; Grosseau Poussard, J.-L.; Moulin, G.; Roelandt, J.-M.

    2015-11-01

    Using Raman spectroscopy technique, external and internal parts of zirconia oxide films developed at 500 °C and 600 °C on pure zirconium substrate under air at normal atmospheric pressure have been examined. Comparison of Raman peak positions of tetragonal and monoclinic zirconia phases, recorded during the oxide growth at elevated temperature, and after cooling at room temperature have been presented. Subsequently, Raman peak positions (or shifts) were interpreted in relation with the stress evolution in the growing zirconia scale, especially closed to the metal/oxide interface, where the influence of compressive stress in the oxide is the biggest. Reported results, for the first time show the presence of a continuous layer of tetragonal zirconia phase developed in the proximity of pure zirconium substrate. Based on the Raman peak positions we prove that this tetragonal layer is stabilized by the high compressive stress and sub-stoichiometry level. Presence of the tetragonal phase located in the outer part of the scale have been confirmed, yet its Raman characteristics suggest a stress-free tetragonal phase, therefore different type of stabilization mechanism. Presented study suggest that its stabilization could be related to the lattice defects introduced by highstoichiometry of zirconia or presence of heterovalent cations.

  19. Establishment of the roadmap for chlorination process development for zirconium recovery and recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.D.; Del Cul, G.D.; Spencer, B.B.

    Process development studies are being conducted to recover, purify, and reuse the zirconium (about 98.5% by mass) in used nuclear fuel (UNF) zirconium alloy cladding. Feasibility studies began in FY 2010 using empty cladding hulls that were left after fuel dissolution or after oxidation to a finely divided oxide powder (voloxidation). In FY 2012, two industrial teams (AREVA and Shaw-Westinghouse) were contracted by the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) to provide technical assistance to the project. In FY 2013, the NE Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program requested development of a technology development roadmap to guide futuremore » work. The first step in the roadmap development was to assess the starting point, that is, the current state of the technology and the end goal. Based on previous test results, future work is to be focused on first using chlorine as the chlorinating agent and secondly on the use of a process design that utilizes a chlorination reactor and dual ZrCl{sub 4} product salt condensers. The likely need for a secondary purification step was recognized. Completion of feasibility testing required an experiment on the chemical decladding flowsheet option. This was done during April 2013. The roadmap for process development will continue through process chemistry optimization studies, the chlorinated reactor design configuration, product salt condensers, and the off-gas trapping of tritium or other volatile fission products from the off-gas stream. (authors)« less

  20. Effect of zirconium addition on welding of aluminum grain refined by titanium plus boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaid, A. I. O.

    2014-06-01

    Aluminum oxidizes freely in ordinary atmosphere which makes its welding difficult and weak, particularly it solidifies in columnar structure with large grains. Therefore, it is anticipated that the effect of addition of some grain refiners to its melt before solidification is worth while investigating as it may enhance its weldabilty and improve its mechanical strength. In this paper, the effect of addition of zirconium at a weight of 0.1% (which corresponds to the peretictic limit on the aluminum-zirconium base phase diagram) to commercially pure aluminum, grain refined by Ti+B on its weldability, using gas tungsten arc welding, GTAW, method which was formerly known as TIG. A constant current level of 30 AC Ampere was used because it removes the oxides during the welding process. Metallographic examination of the weldments of the different combinations of Al with Al and Al with its microalloys: in the heat affected zone, HAZ, and away from it was carried out and examined for HAZ width, porosity, cracks and microhardness. It was found that grain refining by Ti+B or Zr resulted in enhancement of the weldment.