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Sample records for zirkon dengan proses

  1. Good and Bad Public Prose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockburn, Stewart

    1969-01-01

    The basic requirements of all good prose are clarity, accuracy, brevity, and simplicity. Especially in public prose--in which the meaning is the crux of the article or speech--concise, vigorous English demands a minimum of adjectives, a maximum use of the active voice, nouns carefully chosen, a logical argument with no labored or obscure points,…

  2. Decision Difficulty and Recall of Prose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Stephen L.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Seven experiments were performed to address three issues: prose decisions of different levels of difficulty, directed attention effect, and the effects of decisions on memorability of prose among relatively good and relatively poor readers. (Author/PN)

  3. Prose Style and Critical Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cluett, Robert

    This book is based on the York Computer Inventory of Prose Style, which seeks to provide a quantitative description of the syntactic characteristics of the literary language of specific authors over the last 400 years. After a brief theoretical introduction and a description of texts and sampling procedures, the discussion turns to specific…

  4. Interpreting Indian English Expository Prose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachru, Yamuna

    1988-01-01

    A study was undertaken to demonstrate that expository prose written in Indian English exhibits certain characteristics determined by the sociocultural conventions of writing in the Indian tradition. These features of Indian English texts are often judged to be inappropriate by native speakers of North American and British English, and mistakenly…

  5. Prose Representation: A Multidimensional Scaling Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPorte, Ronald E.; Voss, James F.

    1979-01-01

    Multidimensional scaling was used to study the comprehension of prose. Undergraduates rated the similarity of twenty nouns before and after reading passages containing those nouns. Results indicated that the scaling analysis provided an effective valid indicator of prose representation. (Author/JKS)

  6. Modern Arabic Prose Literature: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Gassick, Trevor

    This is the preliminary draft of a planned "Introduction to Modern Arabic Prose Literature," the completed text of which "would offer basic biographical and bibliographical impressions, rather than extensive treatments, of the major figures in Arabic prose in the 19th and 20th centuries, along with concise assessments of their ranges of interests…

  7. Loss of Retrieval Information in Prose Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sehulster, Jerome R.; And Others

    The purpose of this research was to experimentally manipulate input and output orders of information and separate storage and retrieval components of prose free recall. The cued partial recall method, used in word list recall, was adapted to a prose learning task. Four short biographical stories of about 55 words each were systematically combined…

  8. Language, Metaphor, and Creativity in Discursive Prose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, William T.

    1978-01-01

    Traces the denigration of discursive prose back through the "New Criticism" to Romanticism and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, who saw poetry as special and separate from other rhetoric. Notes that discursive prose can be just as creative and interesting as poetry. Urges composition teachers to shift their point of view accordingly. (RL)

  9. Pictures as Prose-Learning Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Joel R.

    Most popular strategies, including illustrations, for improving prose processing consist of procedures that force attention either to the text's macrostructure or to the organization and interconnections of its propositions. These strategies are assumed to enhance students' comprehension of the text as encoded, as well as to afford students an…

  10. A COMPUTER ANALYSIS OF FICTIONAL PROSE STYLE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KROEBER, KARL

    FUNDAMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FICTIONAL PROSE STYLE WERE STUDIED THROUGH SYSTEMATIC AND OBJECTIVE ANALYSES OF NOVELISTIC SYNTAX AND VOCABULARY. SAMPLE PASSAGES FROM THE MAJOR NOVELS OF JANE AUSTEN, THE BRONTE SISTERS, AND GEORGE ELIOT AS WELL AS NOVELS BY 13 OTHER AUTHORS WERE ANALYZED. INFORMATION ON PASSAGE SENTENCES, CLAUSES, AND WORDS WAS…

  11. American Indian Prose and Poetry. An Anthology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astrov, Margot, Ed.

    In this anthology of translations of American Indian prose and poetry, it is pointed out that differences in styles and mental attitudes of various tribes are reflected through self-expression. In keeping with this, the compilation is organized according to geographical regions in North and South America, including Mexico and Central America.…

  12. A Word Count of Modern Arabic Prose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landau, Jacob M.

    This book presents a word count of Arabic prose based on 60 twentieth-century Egyptian books. The text is divided into an alphabetical list and a word frequency list. This word count is intended as an aid in the: (1) writing of primers and the compilation of graded readers, (2) examination of the vocabulary selection of primers and readers…

  13. Writing intelligible English prose for biomedical journals.

    PubMed

    Ludbrook, John

    2007-01-01

    1. I present a combination of semi-objective and subjective evidence that the quality of English prose in biomedical scientific writing is deteriorating. 2. I consider seven possible strategies for reversing this apparent trend. These refer to a greater emphasis on good writing by students in schools and by university students, consulting books on science writing, one-on-one mentoring, using 'scientific' measures to reveal lexical poverty, making use of freelance science editors and encouraging the editors of biomedical journals to pay more attention to the problem. 3. I conclude that a fruitful, long-term, strategy would be to encourage more biomedical scientists to embark on a career in science editing. This strategy requires a complementary initiative on the part of biomedical research institutions and universities to employ qualified science editors. 4. An immediately realisable strategy is to encourage postgraduate students in the biomedical sciences to undertake the service courses provided by many universities on writing English prose in general and scientific prose in particular. This strategy would require that heads of departments and supervisors urge their postgraduate students to attend such courses. 5. Two major publishers of biomedical journals, Blackwell Publications and Elsevier Science, now provide lists of commercial editing services on their web sites. I strongly recommend that authors intending to submit manuscripts to their journals (including Blackwell's Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology) make use of these services. This recommendation applies especially to those for whom English is a second language.

  14. Readability and Recall of Short Prose Passages: A Theoretical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, James R.; Kintsch, Walter

    1980-01-01

    To support the view of readability as an interaction between a text and the reader's prose-processing capabilities, this article applies an extended and formalized version of the Kintch and van Dijk prose-processing model to 20 texts of varying readability. (Author/GSK)

  15. Text Cohesion and Comprehension: A Comparison of Prose Analysis Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varnhagen, Connie K.; Goldman, Susan R.

    To test three specific hypotheses about recall as a function of four categories of logical relations, a study was done to determine whether logical relations systems of prose analysis can be used to predict recall. Two descriptive passages of naturally occurring expository prose were used. Each text was parsed into 45 statements, consisting of…

  16. Prose memory deficits associated with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tatia M C; Chan, Michelle W C; Chan, Chetwyn C H; Gao, Junling; Wang, Kai; Chen, Eric Y H

    2006-01-31

    Memory of contextual information is essential to one's quality of living. This study investigated if the different components of prose memory, across three recall conditions: first learning trial immediate recall, fifth learning trial immediate recall, and 30-min delayed recall, are differentially impaired in people with schizophrenia, relative to healthy controls. A total of 39 patients with schizophrenia and 39 matched healthy controls were recruited. Their prose memory, in terms of recall accuracy, temporal sequence, recognition accuracy and false positives, commission of distortions, and rates of learning, forgetting, and retention were tested and compared. After controlling for the level of intelligence and depression, the patients with schizophrenia were found to commit more distortions. Furthermore, they performed poorer on recall accuracy and temporal sequence accuracy only during the first initial immediate recall. On the other hand, the rates of forgetting/retention and recognition accuracy were comparable between the two groups. These findings suggest that people with schizophrenia could be benefited by repeated exposure to the materials to be remembered. These results may have important implications for rehabilitation of verbal declarative memory deficits in schizophrenia.

  17. Prose Recall: Effects of Aging, Verbal Ability and Reading Behavior. Prose Learning Series Research Report No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, G. Elizabeth; Meyer, Bonnie J. F.

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of age, verbal ability, education, reading habits, and recall strategies on prose recall among adults. Subjects were 422 adults in three age groups--young (18-28 years), middle (40-54), and older (62-80). They were asked to read and recall in writing two 388-word prose passages and to answer questions…

  18. Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System experiment (ProSEDS) will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether, basically a long, thin wire, for propulsion. An electrodynamic tether uses the same principles as electric motors in toys, appliances and computer disk drives, and generators in automobiles and power plants. When electrical current is flowing through the tether, a magnetic field is produced that pushes against the magnetic field of the Earth. For ProSEDS, the current in the tether results by virtue of the voltage generated when the tether moves through the Earth's magnetic field at more than 17,000 mph. This approach can produce drag thrust generating useable power. Since electrodynamic tethers require no propellant, they could substantially reduce the weight of the spacecraft and provide a cost-effective method of reboosting spacecraft. The initial flight of ProSEDS is scheduled to fly aboard an Air Force Delta II rocket in the summer of 2002. In orbit, ProSEDS will deploy from a Delta II second stage. It will be a 3.1-mile (5 kilometer) long, ultrathin base-wire cornected with a 6.2-mile (10 kilometer) long nonconducting tether. This photograph shows Less Johnson, a scientist at MSFC inspecting the nonconducting part of a tether as it exits a deployer similar to the one to be used in the ProSEDS experiment. The ProSEDS experiment is managed by the Space Transportation Directorate at MSFC.

  19. Auditory Memory Distortion for Spoken Prose

    PubMed Central

    Hutchison, Joanna L.; Hubbard, Timothy L.; Ferrandino, Blaise; Brigante, Ryan; Wright, Jamie M.; Rypma, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Observers often remember a scene as containing information that was not presented but that would have likely been located just beyond the observed boundaries of the scene. This effect is called boundary extension (BE; e.g., Intraub & Richardson, 1989). Previous studies have observed BE in memory for visual and haptic stimuli, and the present experiments examined whether BE occurred in memory for auditory stimuli (prose, music). Experiments 1 and 2 varied the amount of auditory content to be remembered. BE was not observed, but when auditory targets contained more content, boundary restriction (BR) occurred. Experiment 3 presented auditory stimuli with less content and BR also occurred. In Experiment 4, white noise was added to stimuli with less content to equalize the durations of auditory stimuli, and BR still occurred. Experiments 5 and 6 presented trained stories and popular music, and BR still occurred. This latter finding ruled out the hypothesis that the lack of BE in Experiments 1–4 reflected a lack of familiarity with the stimuli. Overall, memory for auditory content exhibited BR rather than BE, and this pattern was stronger if auditory stimuli contained more content. Implications for the understanding of general perceptual processing and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:22612172

  20. Development of the Flight Tether for ProSEDS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Leslie; Vaughn, Jason; Welzyn, Ken; Carroll, Joe; Brown, Norman S. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) space experiment will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system to generate thrust in space by decreasing the orbital altitude of a Delta 11 Expendable Launch Vehicle second stage. ProSEDS will use the flight-proven Small Expendable Deployer System to deploy a newly designed and developed tether which will provide tether generated drag thrust of approx. 0.4 N. The development and production of very long tethers with specific properties for performance and survivability will be required to enable future tether missions. The ProSEDS tether design and the development process may provide some lessons learned for these future missions. The ProSEDS system requirements drove the design of the tether to have three different sections of tether each serving a specialized purpose. The tether is a total of 15 kilometers long: 10 kilometers of a non-conductive Dyneema lead tether; 5 km of CCOR conductive coated wire; and 220 meters of insulated wire with a protective Kevlar overbraid. Production and joining of long tether lengths involved many development efforts. Extensive testing of tether materials including ground deployment of the full-length ProSEDS tether was conducted to validate the tether design and performance before flight.

  1. Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballance, Judy; Johnson, Les; Rogacki, John R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) space experiment will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system to generate thrust in space by decreasing the orbital altitude of a Delta II Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) second stage. ProSEDS, which is planned to fly in 2001, will use the flight proven Small Expendable Deployer System (SEDS) to deploy a tether (5km bare wire plus 10 km spectra or dyneema) from a Delta II second stage to achieve approximately 0.4N drag thrust. ProSEDS will utilize the tether-generated current to provide limited spacecraft power. The ProSEDs instrumentation includes a Langmuir probe and Differential Ion Flux Probe, which will determine the characteristics of the ambient ionospheric plasma. Two Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers will be used (one on the Delta and one on the endmass) to help determine tether dynamics and to limit transmitter operations to occasions when the spacecraft is over selected ground stations, The flight experiment is a precursor to the more ambitious electrodynamic tether upper stage demonstration mission, which will be capable of orbit raising, lowering and inclination changes-all using electrodynamic thrust. An immediate application of ProSEDS technology is for the deorbit of spent satellites for orbital debris mitigation. In addition to the use of this technology to provide orbit transfer and debris mitigation it may also be an attractive option for future missions to Jupiter and any other planetary body with a magnetosphere.

  2. The neuroaesthetics of prose fiction: pitfalls, parameters and prospects.

    PubMed

    Burke, Michael

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of neuroaesthetic studies on prose fiction. This is in contrast to the very many impressive studies that have been conducted in recent times on the neuroaesthetics of sister arts such as painting, music and dance. Why might this be the case, what are its causes and, of greatest importance, how can it best be resolved? In this article, the pitfalls, parameters and prospects of a neuroaesthetics of prose fiction will be explored. The article itself is part critical review, part methodological proposal and part opinion paper. Its aim is simple: to stimulate, excite and energize thinking in the discipline as to how prose fiction might be fully integrated in the canon of neuroaesthetics and to point to opportunities where neuroimaging studies on literary discourse processing might be conducted in collaborative work bringing humanists and scientists together.

  3. The neuroaesthetics of prose fiction: pitfalls, parameters and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Michael

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of neuroaesthetic studies on prose fiction. This is in contrast to the very many impressive studies that have been conducted in recent times on the neuroaesthetics of sister arts such as painting, music and dance. Why might this be the case, what are its causes and, of greatest importance, how can it best be resolved? In this article, the pitfalls, parameters and prospects of a neuroaesthetics of prose fiction will be explored. The article itself is part critical review, part methodological proposal and part opinion paper. Its aim is simple: to stimulate, excite and energize thinking in the discipline as to how prose fiction might be fully integrated in the canon of neuroaesthetics and to point to opportunities where neuroimaging studies on literary discourse processing might be conducted in collaborative work bringing humanists and scientists together. PMID:26283953

  4. Effects of Mismatched Pictures on Retention of Illustrated Prose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peeck, Joan

    A study was conducted to test the findings of two earlier studies (Peeck l974 and Pressley l983) on the effects of occasional mismatches between verbal and pictorial content in children's retention of illustrated prose. While the Peeck study indicated a considerable impact of mismatched pictures, the Pressley study indicated that with some…

  5. Toward a Chicano/Raza Bibliography: Drama, Prose, Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Octavio I. V. Ed.; Rios, Herminio C. Ed.

    1973-01-01

    Separated into 3 sections, this bibliography covers literature, drama, prose, and poetry (from 1965 to 1972) pertaining to Chicanos and La Raza. To obtain this material, all Chicano journals, newspapers, bulletins, and newsletters published in the Southwest were reviewed. Topics range from police brutality to the Vietnam War. The appendix gives…

  6. Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This Quick Time movie is of NASA's Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System experiment (ProSEDS). ProSEDS will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether, basically a long, thin wire, for propulsion. An electrodynamic tether uses the same principles as electric motors in toys, appliances and computer disk drives, and generators in automobiles and power plants. When electrical current is flowing through the tether, a magnetic field is produced that pushes against the magnetic field of the Earth. For ProSEDS, the current in the tether results by virtue of the voltage generated when the tether moves through the Earth's magnetic field at more than 17,000 mph. This approach can produce drag thrust generating useable power. Since electrodynamic tethers require no propellant, they could substantially reduce the weight of the spacecraft and provide a cost-effective method of reboosting spacecraft. The tether would be a 3.1-mile (5 kilometer) long, ultrathin base-wire tether connected with a 6.2-mile (10 kilometer) long nonconducting tether. The ProSEDS experiment is managed by the Space Transportation Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  7. Episodic and Semantic Aspects of Memory for Prose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooling, D. James

    This report describes research on Bartlett's theory of constructive memory. In experiment one, schematic retention is related to Tulving's distinction between episodic and semantic memory. With the passage of time, memory for prose reflects decreasing output from episodic memory and increasing output from semantic memory. In experiment two,…

  8. Children's Ability to Comprehend Main Ideas After Reading Expository Prose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F.

    A study was conducted to evaluate children's ability to comprehend main ideas after reading connected discourse and to develop and validate a straightforward and intuitively simple system for identifying main ideas in prose. Three experimental passages were randomly selected from third and sixth grade social studies textbooks, and education…

  9. Control of Prose Processing via Instructional and Typographical Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glynn, Shawn M.; Di Vesta, Francis J.

    1979-01-01

    College students studied text about an imaginary solar system. Two cuing systems were manipulated to induce a single or double set of cues consistent with one or two sets of text propositions, or no target propositions were specified. Cuing systems guided construction and implementation of prose-processing decision criteria. (Author/RD)

  10. Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Leslie; Johnson, Les; Brown, Norman S. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) space experiment will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system to generate thrust in space by decreasing the orbital altitude of a Delta 11 Expendable Launch Vehicle second stage. ProSEDS, which is planned on an Air Force GPS Satellite replacement mission in June 2002, will use the flight proven Small Expendable Deployer System (SEDS) to deploy a tether (5 km bare wire plus 10 km non-conducting Dyneema) from a Delta 11 second stage to achieve approx. 0.4N drag thrust. ProSEDS will utilize the tether-generated current to provide limited spacecraft power. The ProSEDS instrumentation includes Langmuir probes and Differential Ion Flux Probes, which will determine the characteristics of the ambient ionospheric plasma. Two Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers will be used (one on the Delta and one on the endmass) to help determine tether dynamics and to limit transmitter operations to occasions when the spacecraft is over selected ground stations. The flight experiment is a precursor to the more ambitious electrodynamic tether upper stage demonstration mission, which will be capable of orbit raising, lowering and inclination changes-all using electrodynamic thrust. An immediate application of ProSEDS technology is for the removal of spent satellites for orbital debris mitigation. In addition to the use of this technology to provide orbit transfer and debris mitigation it may also be an attractive option for future missions to Jupiter and any other planetary body with a magnetosphere.

  11. MachineProse: an Ontological Framework for Scientific Assertions

    PubMed Central

    Dinakarpandian, Deendayal; Lee, Yugyung; Vishwanath, Kartik; Lingambhotla, Rohini

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The idea of testing a hypothesis is central to the practice of biomedical research. However, the results of testing a hypothesis are published mainly in the form of prose articles. Encoding the results as scientific assertions that are both human and machine readable would greatly enhance the synergistic growth and dissemination of knowledge. Design: We have developed MachineProse (MP), an ontological framework for the concise specification of scientific assertions. MP is based on the idea of an assertion constituting a fundamental unit of knowledge. This is in contrast to current approaches that use discrete concept terms from domain ontologies for annotation and assertions are only inferred heuristically. Measurements: We use illustrative examples to highlight the advantages of MP over the use of the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) system and keywords in indexing scientific articles. Results: We show how MP makes it possible to carry out semantic annotation of publications that is machine readable and allows for precise search capabilities. In addition, when used by itself, MP serves as a knowledge repository for emerging discoveries. A prototype for proof of concept has been developed that demonstrates the feasibility and novel benefits of MP. As part of the MP framework, we have created an ontology of relationship types with about 100 terms optimized for the representation of scientific assertions. Conclusion: MachineProse is a novel semantic framework that we believe may be used to summarize research findings, annotate biomedical publications, and support sophisticated searches. PMID:16357355

  12. The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, Enrico C.; Estes, Robert D.; Cosmo, Mario L.

    2001-01-01

    This is the Annual Report #2 entitled "The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)" prepared by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. This report covers the period of activity from 1 August 2000 through 30 July 2001. The topics include: 1) Updated System Performance; 2) Mission Analysis; 3) Updated Dynamics Reference Mission; 4) Updated Deployment Control Profiles and Simulations; 5) Comparison of ED tethers and electrical thrusters; 6) Kalman filters for mission estimation; and 7) Delivery of interactive software for ED tethers.

  13. Differential Forgetting of Superordinate and Subordinate Information Acquired from Prose Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Raymond B.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The superior retention of superordinate ideas over time was replicated in this study which demonstrated the construct validity of a recognition test based upon the structure of a prose passage. A link was made between existing data on memory for prose and past theory: Ausubel's subsumption theory and Craik and Lockhart's levels-of-processing…

  14. A Search For Prose Features That Influence the Perception of Topical Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coke, Esther U.; Koether, Mary E.

    This study sought to develop a method for describing readers' perceptions of the topical organization of prose and to specify text features that determine perception of organization. A hierarchical clustering analysis was applied to high-school and college readers' judgments of the topical relatedness of sentences in two prose passages. This…

  15. Effects of Visual and Verbal Stimuli on Children's Learning of Concrete and Abstract Prose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannafin, Michael J.; Carey, James O.

    A total of 152 fourth grade students participated in a study examining the effects of visual-only, verbal-only, and combined audiovisual prose presentations and different elaboration strategy conditions on student learning of abstract and concrete prose. The students saw and/or heard a short animated story, during which they were instructed to…

  16. Relation of Everyday Activities of Adults to Their Prose Recall Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, G. Elizabeth; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored connection between everyday activities of different aged adults (N=54) and their performance on prose recall task. Regression analyses showed that demographic variables of age, education, and verbal ability were best predictors of prose recall. Total time spent reading and other reading variables were also significantly correlated with…

  17. Comparison of Two Mnemonic Encoding Strategies on Children's Recognition and Recall of Abstract Prose Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, Linda K.

    As an extension of an earlier investigation that examined the effects of mnemonic strategy application on children's memory for abstract prose passages, a study compared the benefits accrued by students taught two different variations of the mnemonic keyword method for learning abstract prose information, via tasks of associative recognition and…

  18. A computational language approach to modeling prose recall in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Rosenstein, Mark; Diaz-Asper, Catherine; Foltz, Peter W.; Elvevåg, Brita

    2014-01-01

    Many cortical disorders are associated with memory problems. In schizophrenia, verbal memory deficits are a hallmark feature. However, the exact nature of this deficit remains elusive. Modeling aspects of language features used in memory recall have the potential to provide means for measuring these verbal processes. We employ computational language approaches to assess time-varying semantic and sequential properties of prose recall at various retrieval intervals (immediate, 30 min and 24 h later) in patients with schizophrenia, unaffected siblings and healthy unrelated control participants. First, we model the recall data to quantify the degradation of performance with increasing retrieval interval and the effect of diagnosis (i.e., group membership) on performance. Next we model the human scoring of recall performance using an n-gram language sequence technique, and then with a semantic feature based on Latent Semantic Analysis. These models show that automated analyses of the recalls can produce scores that accurately mimic human scoring. The final analysis addresses the validity of this approach by ascertaining the ability to predict group membership from models built on the two classes of language features. Taken individually, the semantic feature is most predictive, while a model combining the features improves accuracy of group membership prediction slightly above the semantic feature alone as well as over the human rating approach. We discuss the implications for cognitive neuroscience of such a computational approach in exploring the mechanisms of prose recall. PMID:24709122

  19. The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, Enrico C.

    2002-01-01

    This Annual Report covers the following main topics: 1) Updated Reference Mission. The reference ProSEDS (Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System) mission is evaluated for an updated launch date in the Summer of 2002 and for the new 80-s current operating cycle. Simulations are run for nominal solar activity condition at the time of launch and for extreme conditions of dynamic forcing. Simulations include the dynamics of the system, the electrodynamics of the bare tether, the neutral atmosphere and the thermal response of the tether. 2) Evaluation of power delivered by the tether system. The power delivered by the tethered system during the battery charging mode is computed under the assumption of minimum solar activity for the new launch date. 3) Updated Deployment Control Profiles and Simulations. A number of new deployment profiles were derived based on the latest results of the deployment ground tests. The flight profile is then derived based on the friction characteristics obtained from the deployment tests of the F-1 tether. 4) Analysis/estimation of deployment flight data. A process was developed to estimate the deployment trajectory of the endmass with respect to the Delta and the final libration amplitude from the data of the deployer turn counters. This software was tested successfully during the ProSEDS mission simulation at MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) EDAC (Environments Data Analysis Center).

  20. The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, Enrico C.; Cosmo, Mario L.; Estes, Robert D.; Sanmartin, Juan; Pelaez, Jesus; Ruiz, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    This Final Report covers the following main topics: 1) Brief Description of ProSEDS; 2) Mission Analysis; 3) Dynamics Reference Mission; 4) Dynamics Stability; 5) Deployment Control; 6) Updated System Performance; 7) Updated Mission Analysis; 8) Updated Dynamics Reference Mission; 9) Updated Deployment Control Profiles and Simulations; 10) Updated Reference Mission; 11) Evaluation of Power Delivered by the Tether; 12) Deployment Control Profile Ref. #78 and Simulations; 13) Kalman Filters for Mission Estimation; 14) Analysis/Estimation of Deployment Flight Data; 15) Comparison of ED Tethers and Electrical Thrusters; 16) Dynamics Analysis for Mission Starting at a Lower Altitude; 17) Deployment Performance at a Lower Altitude; 18) Satellite Orbit after a Tether Cut; 19) Deployment with Shorter Dyneema Tether Length; 20) Interactive Software for ED Tethers.

  1. ProSEDS Telemetry System Utilization of GPS Position Data for Transmitter Cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Paul; Sims, Herb

    2000-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center will launch the Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) space experiment in late 2000. ProSEDS will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system and will utilize a conducting wire tether to generate limited spacecraft power. This paper will provide an overview of the ProSEDS mission and will discuss the design, development and test of the spacecraft telemetry system which utilizes a custom designed GPS subsystem to determine spacecraft position relative to ground station location and to control transmitter on/off cycling based on spacecraft state vector and ground station visibility.

  2. Quality of life and handling experience with the PROSE device: an Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Pradipta; Mahadevan, Rajeswari

    2017-11-01

    PROSE (prosthetic replacement of ocular surface ecosystem) device is a custom-designed, corneal vaulting scleral contact lens, which is used in the treatment of irregular corneal conditions to improve vision and comfort. The present study aimed at assessing the success of the PROSE device in an Indian scenario in terms of change in quality of life and to understand the handling issues related to the device use. Thirty-two subjects with various irregular corneal conditions meeting the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Subjects were followed for three months after dispensing the PROSE device. Subjects' demographic details, high and low contrast visual acuity with habitual correction and PROSE device, Visual Function Questionnaire scores (NEI VFQ-25) and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) scores pre- and post-PROSE treatment were collected and compared. An indigenously developed questionnaire was also administered during the follow-up visit for assessing the handling-related issues faced by the subjects while using the device. Forty eyes of 32 subjects were included in the study, of whom 30 reported for follow-up. The median NEI VFQ-25 score improved from 47.33 points to 77.27 points over a period of three months, which was statistically significant (p < 0.05). There was a statistically significant decrease in median OSDI score from 51.14 points to 13.63 points post-PROSE treatment (p < 0.05). Subjects reported no or very minimal handling-related difficulties associated with the use of the PROSE device. The PROSE treatment can be an effective mode of managing patients with irregular corneal conditions and significantly improved the vision-related quality of life of patients suffering from these conditions. The handling of the device is easy and can be mastered with adequate training. © 2017 Optometry Australia.

  3. Visual performance with changes in eccentricity in PROSE device: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jagadeesh, Divya; Mahadevan, Rajeswari

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes the variations in visual performance of a subject with moderate keratoconus with changes in front surface eccentricities (FSEs) of PROSE (Prosthetic Replacement of Ocular Surface Ecosystem). PROSE device of 0.6 FSE provided maximum visual improvement and reduction in Higher Order Aberrations (HOAs) compared to 0, 0.3 and 0.8 FSEs in this clinical condition. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Artist's Concept of Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Pictured is an artist's concept of NASA's Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System experiment (ProSEDS). ProSEDS will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether, basically a long, thin wire, for propulsion. An electrodynamic tether uses the same principles as electric motors in toys, appliances and computer disk drives, and generators in automobiles and power plants. When electrical current is flowing through the tether, a magnetic field is produced that pushes against the magnetic field of the Earth. For ProSEDS, the current in the tether results by virtue of the voltage generated when the tether moves through the Earth's magnetic field at more than 17,000 mph. This approach can produce drag thrust generating useable power. Since electrodynamic tethers require no propellant, they could substantially reduce the weight of the spacecraft and provide a cost-effective method of reboosting spacecraft. The initial flight of ProSEDS is scheduled to fly aboard an Air Force Delta II rocket in summer of 2002. In orbit, ProSEDS will deploy from a Delta II second stage. It will be a 3.1-mile (5 kilometer) long, ultrathin base-wire tether cornected with a 6.2-mile (10 kilometer) long nonconducting tether. The ProSEDS experiment is managed by the Space Transportation Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  5. The lone inventor: low success rates and common errors associated with pro-se patent applications.

    PubMed

    Gaudry, Kate S

    2012-01-01

    A pro-se patent applicant is an inventor who chooses to represent himself while pursuing ("prosecuting") a patent application. To the author's knowledge, this paper is the first empirical study addressing how applications filed by pro-se inventors fare compared to applications in which inventors were represented by patent attorneys or agents. The prosecution history of 500 patent applications filed at the United States Patent and Trademark Office were analyzed: inventors were represented by a patent professional for 250 of the applications ("represented applications") but not in the other 250 ("pro-se applications"). 76% of the pro-se applications became abandoned (not issuing as a patent), as compared to 35% of the represented applications. Further, among applications that issued as patents, pro-se patents' claims appear to be narrower and therefore of less value than claims in the represented patent set. Case-specific data suggests that a substantial portion of pro-se applicants unintentionally abandon their applications, terminate the examination process relatively early, and/or fail to take advantage of interview opportunities that may resolve issues stalling allowance of the application.

  6. Five-Year PROSE Treatment for Aniridic Keratopathy.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Takashi; Hasegawa, Asato; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Isogai, Naoki; Kataoka, Takahiro; Ichikawa, Kazuo

    2016-10-01

    Aniridic keratopathy is vision-threatening condition in patients with aniridia. The keratopathy occurs due to limbal stem cell deficiency. When conventional treatments fail, surgical treatments such as corneal limbal transplantation or cultivated oral mucosal epithelium transplantation are the alternatives. Here, we report our experience with the management and monitoring of the progress of a case with aniridic keratopathy treated with a scleral lens. We describe the case of a 30-year-old woman with aniridic keratopathy in both eyes. She visited our outpatient clinic for treatment of visual disturbances in her left eye, which showed a 360° invasion of the conjunctiva. Despite conventional treatment with artificial tears and autologous serum eye drops, the left eye started to suffer from recurrent corneal erosions at 19 months after the initial visit. At 50 months after the initial visit, it presented with persistent epithelial defects and decrease in vision because of the invasion of the vascularized conjunctiva with subepithelial fibrosis. Upon concluding that conventional treatment was ineffective, we tried using a scleral lens (Prosthetic Replacement of the Ocular Surface Ecosystem; PROSE). After the scleral lens treatment, the epithelial defect quickly healed, and visual acuity improved. Six years after the initial visit, the patient's right eye also started to show epithelial irregularities, which were also treated with a scleral lens. The visual acuity in the right eye too recovered, and corneal transparency was maintained until 3 years after the scleral lens treatment. The current case showed that long-term scleral lens treatment is a promising option to maintain a healthy ocular surface and visual function in eyes with aniridia caused by limbal stem cell deficiency. Early treatment with a scleral lens may be beneficial in preventing stromal scar formation in the cornea affected by aniridic keratopathy.

  7. The Lone Inventor: Low Success Rates and Common Errors Associated with Pro-Se Patent Applications

    PubMed Central

    Gaudry, Kate S.

    2012-01-01

    A pro-se patent applicant is an inventor who chooses to represent himself while pursuing (“prosecuting”) a patent application. To the author's knowledge, this paper is the first empirical study addressing how applications filed by pro-se inventors fare compared to applications in which inventors were represented by patent attorneys or agents. The prosecution history of 500 patent applications filed at the United States Patent and Trademark Office were analyzed: inventors were represented by a patent professional for 250 of the applications (“represented applications”) but not in the other 250 (“pro-se applications”). 76% of the pro-se applications became abandoned (not issuing as a patent), as compared to 35% of the represented applications. Further, among applications that issued as patents, pro-se patents' claims appear to be narrower and therefore of less value than claims in the represented patent set. Case-specific data suggests that a substantial portion of pro-se applicants unintentionally abandon their applications, terminate the examination process relatively early, and/or fail to take advantage of interview opportunities that may resolve issues stalling allowance of the application. PMID:22470439

  8. A randomized trial of pictorial versus prose-based medication information pamphlets.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Andrew E; Goldszmidt, Mark A; Schwartz, Alan J; Bashook, Philip G

    2010-03-01

    The goal of this study was to compare prose and pictorial-based information pamphlets about the medication methotrexate in the domains of free recall, cued recall, comprehension and utility. A single blind, randomized trial of picture versus prose-based information pamphlets including 100 participants aged 18-65 years of age, who had not completed high school, could read English, and had no prior knowledge about methotrexate. Superiority of pamphlet type was assessed using immediate free recall, cued recall and comprehension. There were no differences between picture and prose pamphlets in free recall, cued recall, and comprehension either immediately or after a 1-week interval. Immediate free recall of important information was 17-26%; free recall fell even lower to 7-16% after 1 week. The pictorial pamphlet was preferred over the prose-based pamphlet. This study found no benefit in free recall, cued recall, or comprehension through the addition of pictograms to a simple prose-based medication pamphlet. In order for them to be effective in clinical practice, even simple medication information pamphlets that have been assessed for patients' ability to comprehend them cannot be used as the sole means for conveying important medication-related information to patients. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effects of Presentation Modality, Task Demand, and Content Structure on Age-Related Memory Differences for Prose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corgiat, Mark D.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Evaluated contributions of age, presentation modality, task demand, and content structure to prose recall variation among adults. Tested 60 young and 60 older adults for recall of ideas in 641-word prose passage. Found recall for total number of idea units was significantly lower for older participants and for auditory presentation across both age…

  10. Perceived Effectiveness of Identified Methods and Techniques Teachers Adopt in Prose Literature Lessons in Some Secondary Schools in Owerri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezeokoli, F. O.

    2016-01-01

    The study determined the methods adopted by teachers in prose literature-in-English classrooms, activities of teachers and students, teachers' perceived effectiveness of techniques used. It also examined the objectives of teaching prose literature that teachers should address and the extent teachers believe in student-identified difficulties of…

  11. Strengthening Scientific Verbal Behavior: An Experimental Comparison of Progressively Prompted and Unprompted Programmed Instruction and Prose Tutorials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Darrel R.; Bostow, Darrel E.; Heimisson, Gudmundur T.

    2007-01-01

    Web-based software was used to deliver and record the effects of programmed instruction that progressively added formal prompts until attempts were successful, programmed instruction with one attempt, and prose tutorials. Error-contingent progressive prompting took significantly longer than programmed instruction and prose. Both forms of…

  12. Poetry and Prose as Pedagogical Tools for Addressing Difficult Knowledges: Translocational Positionality and Issues of Collective Political Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the focus is on the possibilities that poetry and prose offer as pedagogical tools that can both accommodate and address difficult and painful knowledges. The paper presents and analyses poems and prose written by students at a non-traditional secondary school for disadvantaged girls (many of whom identify as Indigenous Australian).…

  13. Prose Checklist: Strategies for Improving School-to-Home Written Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagro, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    Effective communication enhances school-family partnerships. Written communication is a common, efficient way of communicating with families, but potential barriers to effective communication include readability level, clarity of presentation, complexity of format, and structural components. The PROSE Checklist presented in this article can…

  14. Organization Theory and Memory for Prose: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimmerlik, Susan M.

    1978-01-01

    Organization theory emphasizes groupings of items on the basis of a variety of characteristics, and the role of the learner as an active processor or encoder of information. Research on organization theory as it is applied to memory and recall of prose is reviewed here. (BW)

  15. Readers' Use of Analogic and Visual Aids for Understanding and Remembering Complex Prose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, David A.

    A study researched the differential uses readers make of analogic and visual prompts for understanding and remembering complex prose. Fifty-two eleventh grade students with average and above average reading ability enrolled in a comprehensive high school in central Georgia participated in the study. They were ranked according to their ability to…

  16. The Effect of Altering the Context Clues in Prose on Reading Rate in a Search Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coke, Esther U.

    1977-01-01

    To determine whether the connectedness of prose passages had any effect on the behavior of readers who searched for information in the passages, the behavior of readers who saw the normal arrangement of a passage was contrasted with the behavior of readers who saw the random arrangement of the passage. (HOD)

  17. The Effects of Imaginal and Verbal Strategies on Prose Comprehension in Adults. Technical Report No. 110.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirre, William C.; And Others

    A study involving 80 undergraduate students was undertaken to test the use of imaginal and verbal strategies to remember and comprehend concrete and abstract prose passages. Sets of three to five words were selected from each passage. After reading a passage, the subjects were instructed to process the words either verbally or imaginally by…

  18. Disrupting Postsecondary Prose: Toward a Critical Race Theory of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Lori D.

    2016-01-01

    Ladson-Billings and Tate ushered critical race theory (CRT) into education and challenged racial inequities in schooling contexts. In this article, I consider the role CRT can play in disrupting postsecondary prose, or the ordinary, predictable, and taken for granted ways in which the academy has functioned for centuries as a bastion of racism and…

  19. The Use of Organizational Strategies to Improve Memory for Prose Passages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Mark

    1986-01-01

    Examined effects of enforced organizational strategies on the memory of older adults for textual material. Young and old adults sorted scrambled sentences of a prose passage into the correct order. When older adults were required to make an in-depth analysis to sort material, their incidental memory for textual information was approximately equal…

  20. Response Requirement and Nature of Interpolated Stories in Retroactive Inhibition in Prose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Mondfrans, Adrian P.; And Others

    Retroactive inhibition, a loss of memory due to learning other materials between recall and exposure to the original materials, was investigated in relation to prose. Two variables were manipulated in the study: similarity of interpolated stories (dissimilar or similar), and the response requirements (completion-recall or multiple-choice). The 190…

  1. Learning Objectives and the Organization of Prose. Research Bulletin No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchastel, Philippe C.

    To establish the joint effects of the orienting factors of structure, learning objectives, and time on the recall of the content of a prose passage, an experiment involving 108 college students was conducted. The study combined two levels of structure (ideationally high and ideationally low) with three conditions of objectives (ideationally high,…

  2. Renaissance Voices Echoed: The Emergence of the Narrator in English Prose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothschild, Jeffrey M.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses how narrators (distinct from authors) emerged in English prose works during the last decade of the sixteenth century. Reports that instances of the use of narrators can be found throughout the seventeenth century, but that it was another hundred years before the technique developed fully enough to constitute a recognizable narrative…

  3. The Role of Elaboration in the Comprehension and Retention of Prose: A Critical Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reder, Lynne M.

    1980-01-01

    Recent research in the area of prose comprehension is reviewed, including factors that affect amount of recall, representations of text structures, and use of world knowledge to aid comprehension. The need for more information processing models of comprehension is emphasized. Elaboration is considered important for comprehension and retention.…

  4. CLARIFY (Trademark): An On-Line Guide for Revising Technical Prose,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    it appears that writers nominalize in an unconscious attempt to make their prose sound significant. Sociolinguistic studies consistently show that...technical information more effectively than a varied mix of long and short sentences. And there are no empirical studies to suggest that varied sentence...earlier studies , especially those that contrast memory and comprehension - 18 - topic" and "agent." New instance,;--that is, elements of new sentences

  5. Analysis of ProSEDS Test of Bare-Tether Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanmartin, J. R.; Lorenzini, E. C.; Estes, R. D.; Charro, M.; Cosmo, M. L.

    2003-01-01

    NASA's tether experiment ProSEDS will be placed in orbit on board a Delta-II rocket to test bare-tether electron collection, deorbiting of the rocket second stage, and the system dynamic stability. ProSEDS performance will vary because ambient conditions change along the orbit and tether-circuit bulk elements at the cathodic end follow the step-by-step sequence for the current cycles of operating modes (open-circuit, shunt and resistor modes for primary cycles; shunt and battery modes for secondary cycles). In this work we discuss expected ProSEDS values of the ratio L,/L*, which jointly with cathodic bulk elements determines bias and current tether profiles; L, is tether length, and L* (changing with tether temperature and ionospheric plasma density and magnetic field) is a characteristic length gauging ohmic versus baretether collection impedances. We discuss how to test bare-tether electron collection during primary cycles, using probe measurements of plasma density, measurements of cathodic current in resistor and shunt modes, and an estimate of tether temperature based on ProSEDS orbital position at the particular cycle concerned. We discuss how a temperature misestimate might occasionally affect the test of bare-tether collection, and how introducing the battery mode in some primary cycles, for an additional current measurement, could obviate the need of a temperature estimate. We also show how to test bare-tether collection by estimating orbit-decay rate from measurements of cathodic current for the shunt and battery modes of secondary cycles.

  6. Flow diagram or prose: does the format of practice guidelines matter?

    PubMed

    Hardern, R D; Hodgson, L C; Hamer, D W

    1998-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of two formats (prose and flow diagram) of the guidelines for management of paracetamol poisoning, and to assess the likely performance without access to the guidelines. A prospective questionnaire study of the management of seven hypothetical cases of paracetamol ingestion was carried out by accident and emergency senior house officers at a regional induction course. No differences were found between the two formats. The proportion of correct answers was 37% in the flow diagram and 31% in the prose group (95% confidence interval for the difference -8% to 20%). In the group with neither format of the guideline the proportion of correct answers was lower: 19% (95% confidence interval for the difference between this group and the group with flow charts 6.9% to 30.6%, for the difference between this group and the group with the prose format 0.4% to 24.8%). The time taken to answer the questions did not vary between the groups. These data do not support the exclusive use of either format. They suggest that management of paracetamol poisoning is less likely to be correct if staff do not have access to the guidelines.

  7. Improvement of chronic corneal opacity in ocular surface disease with prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem (PROSE) treatment.

    PubMed

    Cressey, Anna; Jacobs, Deborah S; Remington, Crystal; Carrasquillo, Karen G

    2018-06-01

    To demonstrate clearing of chronic corneal opacities and improvement of visual acuity with the use of BostonSight prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem (PROSE) treatment in ocular surface disease. We undertook retrospective analysis of the medical records of a series of patients who underwent PROSE treatment from August 2006 to December 2014. Patients were referred for ocular surface disease of various etiologies. Primary inclusion criterion was corneal opacity that improved with PROSE treatment. Patients were excluded if topical steroids or adjuvant therapy used once PROSE treatment was initiated. Underlying disease, prior treatment, clinical presentation, and clinical course were extracted from the medical record. Four patients are included in this series. There were three females and one male; median age at time of treatment initiation was 30 years (range = 0.5-58 years). Median duration of PROSE treatment at time of retrospective analysis was 3.5 years (range = 1-8 years). Two cases had corneal opacification in the context of neurotrophic keratopathy: a unilateral case due to presumed herpes simplex keratitis and a bilateral case due to congenital corneal anesthesia associated with familial dysautonomia. One case had corneal opacity from exposure related to seventh nerve palsy, and one had corneal opacification associated with recurrent surface breakdown, neurotrophic keratopathy, and limbal stem deficiency of uncertain etiology. After consistent wear of prosthetic devices used in PROSE treatment for support of the ocular surface, visual acuity improved and clearing of the opacities was observed, without use of topical steroids or adjuvant therapy. These cases demonstrate clearing of chronic corneal opacity with PROSE treatment for ocular surface disease. This clearing can occur with no adjuvant therapy, suggesting that restoration of ocular surface function and integrity allows for corneal remodeling.

  8. Sensitivity Analysis of ProSEDS (Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System) Data Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Nohpill; Reagan, Shawn; Franks, Greg; Jones, William G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses analytical approaches to evaluating performance of Spacecraft On-Board Computing systems, thereby ultimately achieving a reliable spacecraft data communications systems. The sensitivity analysis approach of memory system on the ProSEDS (Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System) as a part of its data communication system will be investigated. Also, general issues and possible approaches to reliable Spacecraft On-Board Interconnection Network and Processor Array will be shown. The performance issues of a spacecraft on-board computing systems such as sensitivity, throughput, delay and reliability will be introduced and discussed.

  9. A Comparison of Prose and Algorithms for Presenting Complex Instructions. Document Design Project, Technical Report No. 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, V. Melissa; Rose, Andrew

    Complex conditional instructions ("if X, then do Y") are prevalent in public documents, where they typically appear in prose form. Results of two previous studies have shown that conditional instructions become very difficult to process as the structure becomes more complex. A study was designed to investigate whether this difficulty can…

  10. Delayed Release from Proactive Interference with Meaningful Material: How Much Do We Remember After Reading Brief Prose Passages?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenthal, Gary B.; Robbins, Donald

    1977-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted, investigating the buildup of and the release from proactive interference, in which the stimulus materials were brief prose passages about specific topics. Each passage was followed by a multiple-choice test, and then a final test on all the passages read was given. Implications of the data for standardized tests…

  11. Prose Learning in Children and Adults with Down Syndrome: The Use of Visual and Mental Image Strategies to Improve Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Iglesia, Carmen J. F.; Buceta, M. Jose; Campos, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Background: Research indicates that the use of mental imagery is a rich source of possibilities for improving learning in participants with learning disabilities and intellectual disability. Method: We undertook two experiments designed to assess the effectiveness of using imagery in prose learning for participants with Down syndrome (DS). The…

  12. Probe Oscillation Shear Elastography (PROSE): A High Frame-Rate Method for Two-Dimensional Ultrasound Shear Wave Elastography.

    PubMed

    Mellema, Daniel C; Song, Pengfei; Kinnick, Randall R; Urban, Matthew W; Greenleaf, James F; Manduca, Armando; Chen, Shigao

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE) utilizes the propagation of induced shear waves to characterize the shear modulus of soft tissue. Many methods rely on an acoustic radiation force (ARF) "push beam" to generate shear waves. However, specialized hardware is required to generate the push beams, and the thermal stress that is placed upon the ultrasound system, transducer, and tissue by the push beams currently limits the frame-rate to about 1 Hz. These constraints have limited the implementation of ARF to high-end clinical systems. This paper presents Probe Oscillation Shear Elastography (PROSE) as an alternative method to measure tissue elasticity. PROSE generates shear waves using a harmonic mechanical vibration of an ultrasound transducer, while simultaneously detecting motion with the same transducer under pulse-echo mode. Motion of the transducer during detection produces a "strain-like" compression artifact that is coupled with the observed shear waves. A novel symmetric sampling scheme is proposed such that pulse-echo detection events are acquired when the ultrasound transducer returns to the same physical position, allowing the shear waves to be decoupled from the compression artifact. Full field-of-view (FOV) two-dimensional (2D) shear wave speed images were obtained by applying a local frequency estimation (LFE) technique, capable of generating a 2D map from a single frame of shear wave motion. The shear wave imaging frame rate of PROSE is comparable to the vibration frequency, which can be an order of magnitude higher than ARF based techniques. PROSE was able to produce smooth and accurate shear wave images from three homogeneous phantoms with different moduli, with an effective frame rate of 300 Hz. An inclusion phantom study showed that increased vibration frequencies improved the accuracy of inclusion imaging, and allowed targets as small as 6.5 mm to be resolved with good contrast (contrast-to-noise ratio ≥ 19 dB) between the target and

  13. Probe Oscillation Shear Elastography (PROSE): A High Frame-Rate Method for Two-Dimensional Ultrasound Shear Wave Elastography

    PubMed Central

    Mellema, Daniel C.; Song, Pengfei; Kinnick, Randall R.; Urban, Matthew W.; Greenleaf, James F.; Manduca, Armando; Chen, Shigao

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE) utilizes the propagation of induced shear waves to characterize the shear modulus of soft tissue. Many methods rely on an acoustic radiation force (ARF) “push beam” to generate shear waves. However, specialized hardware is required to generate the push beams, and the thermal stress that is placed upon the ultrasound system, transducer, and tissue by the push beams currently limits the frame-rate to about 1 Hz. These constraints have limited the implementation of ARF to high-end clinical systems. This paper presents Probe Oscillation Shear Elastography (PROSE) as an alternative method to measure tissue elasticity. PROSE generates shear waves using a harmonic mechanical vibration of an ultrasound transducer, while simultaneously detecting motion with the same transducer under pulse-echo mode. Motion of the transducer during detection produces a “strain-like” compression artifact that is coupled with the observed shear waves. A novel symmetric sampling scheme is proposed such that pulse-echo detection events are acquired when the ultrasound transducer returns to the same physical position, allowing the shear waves to be decoupled from the compression artifact. Full field-of-view (FOV) two-dimensional (2D) shear wave speed images were obtained by applying a local frequency estimation (LFE) technique, capable of generating a 2D map from a single frame of shear wave motion. The shear wave imaging frame rate of PROSE is comparable to the vibration frequency, which can be an order of magnitude higher than ARF based techniques. PROSE was able to produce smooth and accurate shear wave images from three homogeneous phantoms with different moduli, with an effective frame rate of 300Hz. An inclusion phantom study showed that increased vibration frequencies improved the accuracy of inclusion imaging, and allowed targets as small as 6.5 mm to be resolved with good contrast (contrast-to-noise ratio ≥19 dB) between the target and

  14. Constrained prose recall and the assessment of long-term forgetting: the case of ageing and the Crimes Test.

    PubMed

    Baddeley, Alan; Rawlings, Bruce; Hayes, Amie

    2014-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear that some patients with apparently normal memory may subsequently show accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF), with dramatic loss when retested. We describe a constrained prose recall task that attempts to lay the foundations for a test suitable for detecting ALF sensitively and economically. Instead of the usual narrative structure of prose recall tests, it employs a matrix structure involving four episodes, each describing a minor crime, with each crime involving the binding into a coherent episode of a specified range of features, involving the victim, the crime, the criminal and the location, allowing a total of 80 different probed recall questions to be generated. These are used to create four equivalent 20-item tests, three of which are used in the study. After a single verbal presentation, young and elderly participants were tested on three occasions, immediately, and by telephone after a delay of 6 weeks, and at one of a varied range of intermediate points. The groups were approximately matched on immediate test; both showed systematic forgetting which was particularly marked in the elderly. We suggest that constrained prose recall has considerable potential for the study of long-term forgetting.

  15. Prose Fiction as a Narrative Companion for a Vegetable Parenting Videogame.

    PubMed

    Brand, Leah; Beltran, Alicia; Buday, Richard; O'Connor, Teresia; Hughes, Sheryl; Baranowski, Janice; Diep, Cassandra; Lu, Amy Shirong; Baranowski, Tom

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the capacity of story to connect to a health-related videogame, as well as the qualities that may increase efficacy by making the story compelling. Parents of 3-5-year-old children often report difficulty getting their children to eat vegetables, which are protective against chronic illnesses. Videogames may be vehicles for training parenting practices for successful vegetable consumption outcomes but often rely on stories to provide context and details. Unfortunately, storytelling may interrupt immersion and player agency. Delivering stories outside of gameplay may provide an understanding of game situations while maintaining immersion. Two companion storylines (one a romantic adventure and the other a suspenseful fantasy) were generated for a vegetable parenting game, "Mommio," targeting mothers of preschool children. Mothers of 3-5-year-old children (n=18) read both storylines and completed semistructured interviews. Mothers preferred the romantic adventure, which featured strong characters, relatable issues, and an engaging plot. Most mothers were interested in playing the "Mommio" videogame after reading the stories. Results suggest that it is possible for prose literature to both motivate gameplay and be an immersive narrative companion to, but separate from, games for health. This literature should include engaging, realistic stories and relatable strong characters.

  16. Prose Fiction as a Narrative Companion for a Vegetable Parenting Videogame

    PubMed Central

    Beltran, Alicia; Buday, Richard; O'Connor, Teresia; Hughes, Sheryl; Baranowski, Janice; Diep, Cassandra; Lu, Amy Shirong; Baranowski, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this research is to explore the capacity of story to connect to a health-related videogame, as well as the qualities that may increase efficacy by making the story compelling. Parents of 3–5-year-old children often report difficulty getting their children to eat vegetables, which are protective against chronic illnesses. Videogames may be vehicles for training parenting practices for successful vegetable consumption outcomes but often rely on stories to provide context and details. Unfortunately, storytelling may interrupt immersion and player agency. Delivering stories outside of gameplay may provide an understanding of game situations while maintaining immersion. Materials and Methods: Two companion storylines (one a romantic adventure and the other a suspenseful fantasy) were generated for a vegetable parenting game, “Mommio,” targeting mothers of preschool children. Mothers of 3–5-year-old children (n=18) read both storylines and completed semistructured interviews. Results: Mothers preferred the romantic adventure, which featured strong characters, relatable issues, and an engaging plot. Most mothers were interested in playing the “Mommio” videogame after reading the stories. Conclusions: Results suggest that it is possible for prose literature to both motivate gameplay and be an immersive narrative companion to, but separate from, games for health. This literature should include engaging, realistic stories and relatable strong characters. PMID:26182218

  17. [Narrative Prose and Verse, Literature Curriculum, Grades Five and Six; Teacher's Guide[ (and) Siward Digri--The Earl of Northumberland; A Tale of Old England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Oregon Elementary English Project.

    This curriculum guide is intended to introduce fifth and sixth grade children to narrative prose and verse. The guide includes analyses of, suggested activities for, and questions about Rudyard Kipling's "The Cat That Walked by Himself," Jack London's "The Story of Keesh," Ernest Thompson Seton's "The Springfield Fox"…

  18. A sub-process view of working memory capacity: evidence from effects of speech on prose memory.

    PubMed

    Sörqvist, Patrik; Ljungberg, Jessica K; Ljung, Robert

    2010-04-01

    In this article we outline a "sub-process view" of working memory capacity (WMC). This view suggests that any relationship between WMC and another construct (e.g., reading comprehension) is actually a relationship with a specific part of the WMC construct. The parts, called sub-processes, are functionally distinct and can be measured by intrusion errors in WMC tasks. Since the sub-processes are functionally distinct, some sub-process may be related to a certain phenomenon, whereas another sub-process is related to other phenomena. In two experiments we show that a sub-process (measured by immediate/current-list intrusions) is related to the effects of speech on prose memory (semantic auditory distraction), whereas another sub-process (measured by delayed/prior-list intrusions), known for its contribution to reading comprehension, is not. In Experiment 2 we developed a new WMC task called "size-comparison span" and found that the relationship between WMC and semantic auditory distraction is actually a relationship with a sub-process measured by current-list intrusions in our new task.

  19. Individual prediction of change in delayed recall of prose passages after left-sided anterior temporal lobectomy.

    PubMed

    Jokeit, H; Ebner, A; Holthausen, H; Markowitsch, H J; Moch, A; Pannek, H; Schulz, R; Tuxhorn, I

    1997-08-01

    Prognostic variables for individual memory outcome after left anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) were studied in 27 patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy. The difference between pre- and postoperative performance in the delayed recall of two prose passages (Story A and B) from the Wechsler Memory Scale served as measure of postoperative memory change. Fifteen independent clinical, neuropsychological, and electrophysiological variables were submitted to a multiple linear regression analysis. Preoperative immediate and delayed recall of story content and right hemisphere Wada memory performance for pictorial and verbal items explained very well postoperative memory changes in recall of Story B. Delayed recall of Story B, but not of Story A, had high concurrent validity to other measures of memory. Patients who became seizure-free did not differ in memory change from patients who continued to have seizures after ATL. The variables age at epilepsy onset and probable age at temporal lobe damage provided complementary information for individual prediction but with less effectiveness than Wada test data. Our model confirmed that good preoperative memory functioning and impaired right hemispheric Wada memory performance for pictorial items predict a high risk of memory loss after left ATL. The analyses demonstrate that the combination of independent measures delivers more information than Wada test performance or any other variable alone. The suggested function can be used routinely to estimate the individual severity of verbal episodic memory impairment that might occur after left-sided ATL and offers a rational basis for the counseling of patients.

  20. Thermal Orbital Environmental Parameter Study on the Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) Using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, John R.; McConnaughey, Paul K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The natural thermal environmental parameters used on the Space Station Program (SSP 30425) were generated by the Space Environmental Effects Branch at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) utilizing extensive data from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), a series of satellites which measured low earth orbit (LEO) albedo and outgoing long-wave radiation. Later, this temporal data was presented as a function of averaging times and orbital inclination for use by thermal engineers in NASA Technical Memorandum TM 4527. The data was not presented in a fashion readily usable by thermal engineering modeling tools and required knowledge of the thermal time constants and infrared versus solar spectrum sensitivity of the hardware being analyzed to be used properly. Another TM was recently issued as a guideline for utilizing these environments (NASA/TM-2001-211221) with more insight into the utilization by thermal analysts. This paper gives a top-level overview of the environmental parameters presented in the TM and a study of the effects of implementing these environments on an ongoing MSFC project, the Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS), compared to conventional orbital parameters that had been historically used.

  1. Protein biomarkers identify patients unlikely to benefit from primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillators: findings from the Prospective Observational Study of Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators (PROSE-ICD).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Alan; Zhang, Yiyi; Blasco-Colmenares, Elena; Dalal, Darshan; Butcher, Barbara; Norgard, Sanaz; Eldadah, Zayd; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A; Dickfeld, Timm; Spragg, David D; Marine, Joseph E; Guallar, Eliseo; Tomaselli, Gordon F

    2014-12-01

    Primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) reduce all-cause mortality, but the benefits are heterogeneous. Current risk stratification based on left ventricular ejection fraction has limited discrimination power. We hypothesize that biomarkers for inflammation, neurohumoral activation, and cardiac injury can predict appropriate shocks and all-cause mortality in patients with primary prevention ICDs. The Prospective Observational Study of Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators (PROSe-ICD) enrolled 1189 patients with systolic heart failure who underwent ICD implantation for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death. The primary end point was an ICD shock for adjudicated ventricular tachyarrhythmia. The secondary end point was all-cause mortality. After a median follow-up of 4.0 years, 137 subjects experienced an appropriate ICD shock and 343 participants died (incidence rates of 3.2 and 5.8 per 100 person-years, respectively). In multivariable-adjusted models, higher interleukin-6 levels increased the risk of appropriate ICD shocks. In contrast, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α receptor II, pro-brain natriuretic peptide (pro-BNP), and cardiac troponin T showed significant linear trends for increased risk of all-cause mortality across quartiles. A score combining these 5 biomarkers identified patients who were much more likely to die than to receive an appropriate shock from the ICD. An increase in serum biomarkers of inflammation, neurohumoral activation, and myocardial injury increased the risk for death but poorly predicted the likelihood of an ICD shock. These findings highlight the potential importance of serum-based biomarkers in identifying patients who are unlikely to benefit from primary prevention ICDs. clinicaltrials.gov; Unique Identifier: NCT00733590. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Minfong Ho: Politics in Prose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Joy L.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author interviews Minfong Ho, an award-winning Thai writer of children's and young adult novels. Ho was born in Burma to Chinese parents in 1951, raised in Singapore and Thailand, educated in Bangkok, Taiwan, and at Cornell University in New York. Ho's first novel, "Sing to the Dawn," won first prize from the Council of…

  3. Text Structure and Retention of Prose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, John W.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of text structure were studied using two kinds of reading materials: a standard text with headings and illustrations, as well as a nonstructured manuscript. The manuscript readers scored higher on delayed tests, generated more relevant ideas, and wrote better essays both immediately and after a delay. (Author/GDC)

  4. Auditory Memory Distortion for Spoken Prose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Joanna L.; Hubbard, Timothy L.; Ferrandino, Blaise; Brigante, Ryan; Wright, Jamie M.; Rypma, Bart

    2012-01-01

    Observers often remember a scene as containing information that was not presented but that would have likely been located just beyond the observed boundaries of the scene. This effect is called "boundary extension" (BE; e.g., Intraub & Richardson, 1989). Previous studies have observed BE in memory for visual and haptic stimuli, and…

  5. Role of Performance Goals in Prose Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPorte, Ronald E.; Nath, Raghu

    1976-01-01

    Investigates a subject's internalized goals and the relationship of the goals to test performance as a function of different learning instructions. Stating specific goals was found to produce the most significant results among subjects. (Author/DEP)

  6. The Managed Text: Prose and Qualms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadushin, Charles

    1979-01-01

    Managed texts are written and designed by a team of writers and researchers under the direction and control of a publishing house. How these books got started, what needs they meet, their advantages and disadvantages, and the consequences they are having on college text publishing are addressed. (JMD)

  7. Copywriting and the Prose of Hemingway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feasley, Florence G.

    1985-01-01

    Argues that advertising copywriting did not suddenly appear in its entirety, that it came from literature, and that it has a great deal in common with literature and with the writing of Hemingway in particular. (FL)

  8. Victorian Poets and Prose Writers. Goldentree Bibliographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Jerome H., Comp.

    Intended as a guide to scholarship on Victorian writers, this selective bibliography covers all of the major figures and a substantial representation of the lesser ones. It excludes writers and works of fiction, except as such writers are essayists or poets. Omitted are unpublished theses and dissertations, most non-English articles and…

  9. Open Introductory Psychology Textbooks: Prose and Qualms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Richard A.; Jackson, Sherri L.

    2017-01-01

    Given their high cost, many students no longer buy textbooks for all of their courses, impacting their learning and performance in these courses. This is especially prevalent at community colleges. Open (digitally free) textbooks constitute one solution to this problem, but the latest national survey of college faculty found that 66% were not…

  10. A Heuristic Model for Research on Prose Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frase, Lawrence T.

    Learning activities that are associated with programed materials can be applied to learning from ordinary text; in fact, there is no essential difference between programed and ordinary text. Active response so important to programed learning can be controlled in textual materials by carefully defined adjunct aids such as word lists, underlining,…

  11. Thematic Processes in the Comprehension of Technical Prose.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-20

    theoretical framework for this process is that the important content of a passage is constructed by the reader based on the semantic content of the...against actual reader behavior. These models represent the general theoretical framework in a highly specific way, and thus summarize the major results of the project. (Author)

  12. The Stylist: A Pascal Program for Analyzing Prose Style

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    words from various periods of English literature, using a primitive tabulating device that spit out reels of paper. His results, however, proved little ...LITERATURE REVIEW When I first conceived of The Stylist, I believed that a "style checker" was a completely original idea. Little did I know that major...sonic coillec. P1C.Style, however, had little to recoinwimid itself besi~des.-this 1Ituro, It relics upon a readability rormula. It also attempts somle

  13. Effects of Semantic and Orthographic Interference on Prose Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, John K.; And Others

    "Levels of processing" is an explanatory framework postulating that differences in memory processing quality or effort affect the duration of the memory trace. Using recall (immediate, one week, or two week) for connected discourse processed under three semantic and three orthographic interference conditions, as well as a noninterference…

  14. Consuming Prose: The Delectable Rhetoric of Food Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Lynn Z.

    2008-01-01

    Food writing, like cooking, offers control over at least a small slice of an otherwise refractory world. As practiced by writers so good that whether they can cook or not is beside the point, food writing is most often upbeat and nurturing, providing successes and triumphs--modest and major--for readers to feast on, with occasional glimpses of…

  15. The Writer's Workout Book: 113 Stretches toward Better Prose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Art

    This book presents 113 writing "workouts" (exercises) to help students, and especially teachers, think about the small steps writers take as they learn their craft. The workouts in Part I, Writers Speak Up, are intended to help novice writers develop confidence in the value of their experience. Part II, Writers Pay Attention, presents challenges…

  16. Structuralism: Its Implications for the Performance of Prose Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Mary Francis

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the implications of structuralism by examining "Introduction to The Structural Analysis of Narrative", a contemporary writing by Roland Barthes. Explains Barthes' terms and concepts by using Virginia Woolf's Mrs. Dalloway character for an example. (MH)

  17. Once More to the Essay: Prose Models, Textbooks, and Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Root, Robert L., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the ways in which composition essay anthologies shape and reflect the beliefs and teaching approaches of composition teachers. Focuses on how anthologies treat a widely reproduced essay, E.B. White's "Once More to the Lake." (TB)

  18. Retention of Prose Following Testing with Different Types of Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchastel, Philippe C.

    1981-01-01

    Taking a test on a passage one has just studied is known to enhance later retention. This effect was influenced by the type of initial test used. It was evident in the case of the initial short-answer test, but not in the case of multiple choice and free recall tests. (Author/RD)

  19. Once More to the Essay: Prose Models, Textbooks, and Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Root, Robert L., Jr.

    A study of 24 composition anthologies that reprinted E. B. White's "Once More to the Lake" reveals a number of disturbing assumptions among the editors of these anthologies. Four areas of examinations were concentrated on: (1) classifications of White's essay; (2) thematic categories; (3) suggestions for writing; (4) study apparatuses;…

  20. The Effects of Adjunct Questions on Prose Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamaker, Christiaan

    1986-01-01

    The research literature on the effects of factual and higher order adjunct questions is reviewed. The influence of 13 design variables on the direction and size of adjunct-questions effects is investigated. It is indicated that higher order adjunct questions may have a more general facilitative effect. (Author/JAZ)

  1. Battling Machismo in the Poetry and Prose of Sandra Cisneros.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breshears, Russell D.

    Sandra Cisneros is giving a voice to farm workers, migrant workers, and Latinos living in the inner cities across the United States in poems and short stories that call attention to gender, class, and race issues that many would prefer to ignore. While her women protagonists challenge destructive "machismo," which takes the form of…

  2. Illustrations as Adjuncts to Prose: A Text-Appropriate Processing Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddill, Paula J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The effects of pictorial illustrations on memory for text were studied in 144 college students. Two experiments indicated that illustrations serve a supplementary function; adjunct pictures alone, without special processing instructions, do not help learners encode information that is not normally encoded in the first place. (SLD)

  3. On the general solution to RC circuits: Green's function in prose form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, T. J.

    2018-03-01

    The general solution to the first-order resistor-capacitor (RC) circuit is often overlooked in many introductory and advanced electronics courses. In this article, I argue that one reason for this is a misalignment between the mathematical and conceptual representations. I then suggest a possible conceptual picture that serves as an introduction to Green’s functions and convolutions.

  4. The (In)Visibility of Academic Prose Writers: A Story of Scholarship Turning Human

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marjanovic, Tatjana

    2011-01-01

    The main idea behind this essay is to reflect on different styles of academic writing by giving an account of a single article published in an established international journal. A threefold analysis was performed measuring the distribution of personal pronouns with animate v. inanimate reference, descriptive v. classifying adjectives, and active…

  5. From Poetry to Prose: Sophistic Rhetoric and the Epistemic Music of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Steven B.

    Much revisionist scholarship has focused on sophistic epistemology and its relationship to the current revival of epistemic rhetoric in the academy. However, few scholars have recognized the sensuous substance of words as sounds, and the role it played in sophistic philosophy and rhetoric. Before the invention of the Greek alphabet, poetry was…

  6. Identification and Recall of Structurally Important Units in Prose by Mentally Retarded Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luftig, Richard L.; Johnson, Ronald E.

    The study investigated the ability of 80 mildly mentally retarded students (19 to 17 years old) to make accurate judgments of textual idea importance and to differentially and spontaneously remember important rather than unimportant ideas. Ss were assigned to one of six conditions which differed as a function of whether importance judgments were…

  7. Conjoint Influence of Maps and Auded Prose on Children's Retrieval of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, James M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Ninety-six fifth-grade students studied a map of a fictitious island while twice listening to a related narrative with target feature and nonfeature items, cued by varying iconic and verbal stimuli in four map cue conditions. Memory for feature information and pictorial retrieval cues appeared to activate memory for nonfeature information. (SLD)

  8. Perception vs. Evidence: An Analysis of "This" and "These" in Academic Prose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Bethany; Cortes, Viviana

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the use of "this" and "these" as pronouns versus determiners in a corpus of research articles in Applied Linguistics and Materials and Civil Engineering. The study reveals that authors in the two disciplines use both structures in a similar manner, with pronominal uses constituting one-fifth of all occurrences. Five types…

  9. Effects of training students to identify the semantic base of prose materials

    PubMed Central

    Glover, John A.; Zimmer, John W.; Filbeck, Robert W.; Plake, Barbara S.

    1980-01-01

    Feedback and feedback plus points toward a course grade were applied to the attentional behaviors (defined as the ability to identify the semantic base of text passages) of 30 undergraduate students participating in a reading comprehension development program. Correct underlining was increased, extraneous underlining was decreased, and postreading comprehension test scores improved as a result of the procedures. Scores on a standardized test of reading comprehension also increased significantly. PMID:16795637

  10. Reba and Her Insurgent Prose: Sex Work, HIV/AIDS, and Subaltern Narratives.

    PubMed

    Basu, Ambar

    2017-08-01

    Narratives of cultural stakeholders in marginalized sex worker spaces often do not find the traction to influence mainstream health discourse. Furthermore, such narratives are framed against the grain of the dominant cultural narrative; they are resistive texts, and they depict enactments of resistance to the normal order. This article, based on 12 weeks of field study in a sex worker community in India, foregrounds how sex workers communicatively frame and enact resistance, and hence formulate insurgent texts, along a continuum-from overt violence to covert negotiation on issues such as condom and alcohol use. Making note of these insurgent texts is crucial to understanding how meanings of health are locally made in a sex worker community as it is often that members of such marginalized communities take recourse to covert and ritualistic forms of resistance to work, to survive, and to stay free of HIV infection.

  11. Rules for Comprehensible Technical Prose: A Survey of the Psycholinguistic Literature.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-24

    Psychophysics, 12, 73-76. Carpenter, P. A., & Just, M. A. (1977). Integrative processes in comprehension. In D. LaBerge & S. J. Samuels (Eds.), Perception...Naval Air Station Washnrgton, DC 20375 Pensacola, FL 32508 L ’ Steven D. Harris, MSC, USN I Dr. Kneale Marshall PFD ,, Box 2U43 Chairman, Operations...MEPCOM ADP Systems Branch ATTN: MEPCT-P C3 Develop:ment Center (D104) 2500 Green Bay Road MCDEC North Chicago, IL 6C064 guantico , VA 22:34 Dr. Steven

  12. PROSE FICTION--SHORT STORY, NOVEL. LITERATURE CURRICULUM V, TEACHER AND STUDENT VERSIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KITZHABER, ALBERT R.

    THE BASIC CONVENTIONS THAT SHAPE THE CREATION OF THE SHORT STORY AND THE NOVEL ARE EXAMINED IN THIS 11TH-GRADE LITERATURE UNIT. THE SECTION ON THE SHORT STORY ILLUSTRATES NARRATIVE FICTION FORM THROUGH THE SHORT STORIES OF FORSTER, JACKSON, STEINBECK, THURBER, POE, MCCULLERS, HAWTHORNE, MANSFIELD, SALINGER, STEELE, AND COLLIER. EMPHASIZED IN EACH…

  13. Unconsciously Induced Recall of Prose and Poetry: Analysis of Manifest and Latent Contents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz de Chumaceiro, Cora L.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that it is important for therapists to pay attention to the literature that surfaces in their own consciousness during treatment of a patient. Examines a published example of this process in Theodore Reik's (1953) "The Secret Self: Psychoanalytic Experiences in Life and Literature," in which thoughts of Shakespeare's "Hamlet" are evoked.…

  14. The Effects of Question Generation, Question Answering and Reading on Prose Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Anthony Mathew

    Eighty-seven students took part in a study (using three experimental conditions) of the effect of question generation, question answering, and rereading on an immediate posttest and on a delayed test of knowledge of a text passage. In condition G, subjects generated multiple-choice questions that would test knowledge of each of the six content…

  15. Prose fiction as a narrative companion for a vegetable parenting videogame

    The purpose of this research is to explore the capacity of story to connect to a health-related videogame, as well as the qualities that may increase efficacy by making the story compelling. Parents of 3–5 year-old children often report difficulty getting their children to eat vegetables, which are ...

  16. Prose and Cons: Theatrical Encounters with Students and Prisoners in Ma'asiyahu, Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuftinec, Sonja; Alon, Chen

    2007-01-01

    This article details how a unique educational project conducted through Tel Aviv University's Community Theatre program tackled the complex dynamics of the prison-political system over nine months in 2005-2006. The program focused on theatrical facilitations between mainly female students and male prisoners - two more or less homogeneous groups…

  17. Forgetting of Prose as a Function of Interpolated Passage Content and Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andre, Thomas; And Others

    In three studies subjects read two successive passages and then were tested for retention of the first. Each passage described the characteristics of a series of entities (diseases or countries) along a series of dimensions (symptoms, cause, etc., or climate, soil type, etc.). The first passage described five diseases and was organized by name;…

  18. War and Peace in Literature. Prose, Drama and Poetry Which Illuminate the Problem of War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougall, Lucy, Comp.

    Literary works that will help teachers of humanities and conflict resolution courses lead their students to a better understanding of the problems of war and peace are summarized. The document is based on two premises: (1) literature that captures the experience and the meaning of war leads to an understanding of that phenomenon, and (2) the…

  19. Writing from Personal Experience: How To Turn Your Life into Salable Prose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelton, Nancy Davidoff

    Through the guide's 39 chapters, a person can learn how to write his or her life, and how to prepare, submit, and sell the story. The guide offers advice on: ideas--how to spot them, enjoy them, and jot them down; first drafts and the value in simply telling the story and revising later; establishing a writing routine and keeping it; the hows and…

  20. Telling Tales out of School: Connecting the Prose and the Passion in the Learning and Teaching of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goode, Jackie

    2007-01-01

    As U.K. school exam results continue to rise, perennial accusations appear in the media of the "dumbing down" of the curriculum and of employers' complaints about school leavers' lack of basic literacy skills. In this context, Andrew Motion, the poet laureate, has raised questions about how to provide an inspiring English curriculum, the…

  1. A Development System for Augmented Transition Network Grammars and a Large Grammar for Technical Prose. Technical Report No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, John; Kieras, David E.

    Using a system based on standard augmented transition network (ATN) parsing approach, this report describes a technique for the rapid development of natural language parsing, called High-Level Grammar Specification Language (HGSL). The first part of the report describes the syntax and semantics of HGSL and the network implementation of each of its…

  2. The Voices of English Women Technical Writers, 1641-1700: Imprints in the Evolution of Modern English Prose Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tebeaux, Elizabeth

    1998-01-01

    Examines the style of early women technical writers to show that plain English existed before Sir Francis Bacon and received its impetus from the utilitarian attitude that pervaded the 1475-1700 period. Finds that technical communication studied from this historical perspective deepens students' awareness of technical communication's roots in the…

  3. "I Speak Prose and I Now Know It." Personal Development Trajectories among Teacher Educators in a Professional Development Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, David; Hadar, Linor

    2011-01-01

    This study explores trajectories of professional growth by teacher educators participating in a professional development community on teaching thinking. Qualitative measures revealed a four stage model of personal professional trajectories: anticipation/curiosity, withdrawal, awareness and change. The model delineates passages traversed by teacher…

  4. Layered Manufacturing of Dental Ceramics: Fracture Mechanics, Microstructure, and Elemental Composition of Lithography-Sintered Ceramic.

    PubMed

    Uçar, Yurdanur; Aysan Meriç, İpek; Ekren, Orhun

    2018-02-11

    To compare the fracture mechanics, microstructure, and elemental composition of lithography-based ceramic manufacturing with pressing and CAD/CAM. Disc-shaped specimens (16 mm diameter, 1.2 mm thick) were used for mechanical testing (n = 10/group). Biaxial flexural strength of three groups (In-Ceram alumina [ICA], lithography-based alumina, ZirkonZahn) were determined using the "piston on 3-ball" technique as suggested in test Standard ISO-6872. Vickers hardness test was performed. Fracture toughness was calculated using fractography. Results were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunnett T3 (α = 0.05). Weibull analysis was conducted. Polished and fracture surface characterization was made using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was used for elemental analysis. Biaxial flexural strength of ICA, LCM alumina (LCMA), and ZirkonZahn were 147 ± 43 MPa, 490 ± 44 MPa, and 709 ± 94 MPa, respectively, and were statistically different (P ≤ 0.05). The Vickers hardness number of ICA was 850 ± 41, whereas hardness values for LCMA and ZirkonZahn were 1581 ± 144 and 1249 ± 57, respectively, and were statistically different (P ≤ 0.05). A statistically significant difference was found between fracture toughness of ICA (2 ± 0.4 MPa⋅m 1/2 ), LCMA (6.5 ± 1.5 MPa⋅m 1/2 ), and ZirkonZahn (7.7 ± 1 MPa⋅m 1/2 ) (P ≤ 0.05). Weibull modulus was highest for LCMA (m = 11.43) followed by ZirkonZahn (m = 8.16) and ICA (m = 5.21). Unlike LCMA and ZirkonZahn groups, a homogeneous microstructure was not observed for ICA. EDS results supported the SEM images. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it can be concluded that LCM seems to be a promising technique for final ceramic object manufacturing in dental applications. Both the manufacturing method and the material used should be improved. © 2018 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  5. Text Possession and Teachers' Pedagogical Practices in the Teaching of Prose Literature-in-English in Some Schools in Ibadan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezeokoli, F. O.; Igubor, P.

    2014-01-01

    Performance in school examinations has remained one of the reliable indices of the quality of education in many countries. For over two decades in Nigeria, students' performance in most subjects on the school curriculum including Literature-in-English has been persistently declining. A number of explanations are offered for this unsatisfactory…

  6. Land and Hold Short Operations : A Primer

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-04-20

    Michigan Department of Transportation (M-DOT) started its Systems Re-engineering process with a clear road map the PROSE initiative. PROSE, standing for PROject Support Environment, is an ambitious venture to develop strategic information systems aut...

  7. Outcomes in African Americans undergoing cardioverter-defibrillator implantation for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death: findings from the Prospective Observational Study of Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators (PROSE-ICD).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiyi; Kennedy, Robert; Blasco-Colmenares, Elena; Butcher, Barbara; Norgard, Sanaz; Eldadah, Zayd; Dickfeld, Timm; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A; Marine, Joseph E; Guallar, Eliseo; Tomaselli, Gordon F; Cheng, Alan

    2014-08-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) reduce the risk of death in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. Little is known regarding the benefit of this therapy in African Americans (AAs). The purpose of this study was to determine the association between AA race and outcomes in a cohort of primary prevention ICD patients. We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients with systolic heart failure who underwent ICD implantation for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death. The primary end-point was appropriate ICD shock defined as a shock for rapid ventricular tachyarrhythmias. The secondary end-point was all-cause mortality. There were 1189 patients (447 AAs and 712 non-AAs) enrolled. Over a median follow-up of 5.1 years, a total of 137 patients experienced an appropriate ICD shock, and 343 died (294 of whom died without receiving an appropriate ICD shock). The multivariate adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) comparing AAs vs non-AAs were 1.24 (0.96-1.59) for all-cause mortality, 1.33 (1.02, 1.74) for all-cause mortality without receiving appropriate ICD shock, and 0.78 (0.51, 1.19) for appropriate ICD shock. Ejection fraction, diabetes, and hypertension appeared to explain 24.1% (10.1%-69.5%), 18.7% (5.3%-58.0%), and 13.6% (3.8%-53.6%) of the excess risk of mortality in AAs, with a large proportion of the mortality difference remaining unexplained. In patients with primary prevention ICDs, AAs had an increased risk of dying without receiving an appropriate ICD shock compared to non-AAs. Copyright © 2014 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effects of Differing Presentations of Mathematical Word Problems Upon the Achievement of Tenth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrill, James M.

    Described is a study concerned with the mode of presentation of printed mathematical word problems. Tenth grade students were given twenty word problems to solve, presented in one of three ways: (1) prose only, (2) prose with an accurate picture included, or (3) prose with a distorted picture. Experimental results showed that the group with an…

  9. Does the Drug Facts Label for nonprescription drugs meet its design objectives? A new procedure for assessing label effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Michael P; Costello-White, Reagan N

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate an expanded procedure for assessing drug-label comprehension. Innovations include a pretest of drug preconceptions, verbal ability and label attentiveness measures, a label-scanning task, a free-recall test, category-clustering measures, and preconception-change scores. In total, 55 female and 39 male undergraduates read a facsimile Drug Facts Label for aspirin, a Cohesive-Prose Label, or a Scrambled-Prose Label. The Drug Facts Label outperformed the Scrambled-Prose Label, but not the Cohesive-Prose Label, in scanning effectiveness. The Drug Facts Label was no better than the Cohesive-Prose Label or the Scrambled-Prose Label in promoting attentiveness, recall and organization of drug facts, or misconception refutation. Discussion focuses on the need for refutational labels based on a sequence-of-events text schema. PMID:29379613

  10. Four Single-Page Learning Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hlynka, Denis

    1979-01-01

    Identifies four models of single-page learning systems that can streamline lengthy, complex prose: Information Mapping, Focal Press Model, Behavioral Objectives Model, and School Mathematics Model. (CMV)

  11. Graham Greene: The Films of His Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Gene D.

    This book makes a comparative study of the prose fiction of Graham Greene and the films made from that fiction. Special attention is focused upon the "cinematic" style of Greene's prose, the effect of Greene's screenwriting on his novels, and the characteristics of Greene's filmscripts. The book is divided into considerations of Greene…

  12. A Qualitative Case Study Comparing a Computer-Mediated Delivery System to a Face-to-Face Mediated Delivery System for Teaching Creative Writing Fiction Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Mindy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to compare the pedagogical and affective efficiency and efficacy of creative prose fiction writing workshops taught via asynchronous computer-mediated online distance education with creative prose fiction writing workshops taught face-to-face in order to better understand their operational pedagogy and…

  13. The Effects of Handwriting and Other Incidental Variables on GCE 'A' Level Marks in English Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Alf

    1983-01-01

    The effects of penmanship, complexity and accuracy of prose, length of answers, and use of quotations on marks awarded by English literature examiners were studied. The sex of students and examiners, untidiness, and prose complexity and accuracy were unrelated to grades. The results suggested that examiners avoid crediting students for…

  14. A Year's Turning: Young People Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, I. V., Ed.

    This book is an anthology of unedited verse and prose written by 14- and 15-year-old students. The book is intended for teachers in training, for their tutors, and for all teachers of English. The verses are classified as undirected and directed poems about nature, places, war, the Egyptian Tomb, up and back again, and people. The prose is…

  15. Comparison of Effects of Different Forms of Presentation on the Recall and Retrieval of Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H.; Pace, Ann Jaffe

    A study compared the relative effects of typographically cued or mapped text, intact text with signaling, and intact text without signaling on the recall and retrieval of information from prose passages. (Signaling, a noncontent aspect of prose, emphasizes certain aspects of the semantic content or points out aspects of the structure of content.)…

  16. Literacy of Teachers. Indicator of the Month.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

    An important issue in the education reform debate is the effect of comparatively low salaries on teacher quality. Prose literacy scores are one of the best available measures of verbal ability, a factor identified by research as being associated with teacher quality. If teachers have lower prose literacy scores relative to college graduates in…

  17. Lighting the Flame: Teaching High School Students To Love, Not Loathe, Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how Francine Prose accuses English teachers of assigning simplistic, badly written books that breed incompetent writers and readers who loathe literature. Notes that Prose focuses her contempt upon "To Kill a Mockingbird" and Maya Angelou's "I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings." Suggests that students show teachers how to help them love…

  18. The Battle for Hill 3234: Last Ditch Defense in the Mountains of Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    tridtsati devyati’ [The Oath of the 39], Krasnay zvezda [Red star], 29 October 1988; Schofield, 121; and time line from http://www.rsva.ru/ biblio /prose_af...Time line from http://www.rsva.ru/ biblio /prose_af/afghan-soldiers/4.shtml (accessed 20 September 2010). 29 Time line from http://www.rsva.ru/ biblio

  19. A Corpus-Based Study on the Use of Three-Word Lexical Bundles in the Academic Writing by Native English and Turkish Non-Native Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ucar, Serpil

    2017-01-01

    The utilization of English recurrent word combinations--lexical bundles--play a fundamental role in academic prose (Karabacak & Qin, 2013). There has been highly limited research about comparing Turkish non-native and native English writers' use of lexical bundles in academic prose in terms of frequency, structure and functions of lexical…

  20. Innovative Features of Comparative-Historical Research of European and Azerbaijani Cultural Heritage (Based on the Materials of British and Azerbaijani Literature of the XX Century)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eugster, Nicolas; Hasanov, Elnur L.

    2016-01-01

    The beginning of the twentieth century is characterized as a period of formation of literary prose in Azerbaijan literature, which reminds already formed a new type of British prose. These new development trends appeared in plot, content, style, the world of characters, artistic-philosophical thought as well as in narrative features. The genre of…

  1. Dwell in Possibility: PLAR and e-Portfolios in the Age of Information and Communication Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Judith O.

    2011-01-01

    Emily Dickinson wrote, "I dwell in Possibility--A fairer House than Prose--More Numerous of Windows--Superior--for Doors" (p. 657). Dickinson's simple yet profound reference to the expansive nature of poetry over prose may be taken as a metaphor for the possibilities of information and communication technologies (ICTs) over written modes…

  2. Inducing comprehension in the bilateral poor reader.

    PubMed

    Rattan, G; Dean, R S; Lowrie, R E

    1987-09-01

    The comprehension effects of changes in the spatial configuration of prose were examined with reading disabled children who differed in laterality preference. Specifically, 24 learning disabled boys were presented with prose materials in a standard, phrased, and backward (right to left) fashion. Measures of comprehension showed that text in the phrased and backward conditions differentially facilitated comprehension for the more bilateral subjects but had little effect on more right lateralized subjects. The results were discussed in terms of the instructional implications of alterations in the visual-spatial arrangement of prose materials for bilateral readers.

  3. You Can't Expect Kids to Love Writing if They Never Get the Opportunity to Write.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deckert, Andrew J.

    1988-01-01

    Seniors in two basic English classes learn to write vivid prose by recording conversations before concentrating on the conventions of writing. After the writers express themselves, they begin to see the value of the rules of writing. (MLF)

  4. Oral and Written Language and the Cognitive Processes of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, David R.

    1977-01-01

    Looks at the structures of childrens' oral language or "mother tongue" and the structures of adult literate prose and emphasizes the alternate conceptions of reality that those languages sustain. (MH)

  5. 78 FR 34241 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... from every walk of life have set out to capture the American experience not just in poetry or prose... hope, and struggle for a better day. Those feelings speak to something common in all of us. With...

  6. Computer Recreations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewdney, A. K.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews the performance of computer programs for writing poetry and prose, including MARK V. SHANEY, MELL, POETRY GENERATOR, THUNDER THOUGHT, and ORPHEUS. Discusses the writing principles of the programs. Provides additional information on computer magnification techniques. (YP)

  7. Combating the drug-impaired driver : a prescription for safer highways.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1985-01-01

    In recent years, the Commonwealth of Virginia has increased its efforts to improve highway safety by combating the problems created by drunken drivers. However, law enforcement officials still face major obstacles in their efforts to detect and prose...

  8. Advance Organizers: Concret Versus Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkill, Alice J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Two experiments examined the relative effects of concrete and abstract advance organizers on students' memory for subsequent prose. Results of the experiments are discussed in terms of the memorability, familiarity, and visualizability of concrete and abstract verbal materials. (JD)

  9. Of Tales and Tempests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Janet

    1996-01-01

    Examines the prose versions of Shakespeare plays written for children by Charles and Mary Lamb, Bernard Miles, and Leon Garfield. Suggests that the content ranges far from Shakespeare's originals and promotes values that should be questioned critically. (TB)

  10. Sull' Applicazione di Paradigmi della Linguistica alla Theoria dei Testi Letterari (On the Application of Linguistic Paradigms to Literary Text Theory).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasoli, Paolo

    1992-01-01

    Summarizes trends over the last century of analyzing literature (poetry and prose) through the aid of linguistic theory. The contributions and shortcomings of various schools (Structuralist, Danish, Formalist, Transformationalist, Generativist) to the evaluation of literature are briefly outlined. (LET)

  11. Map showing areas of visible land disturbances caused by two military training operations in the Mojave Desert, California

    Prose, D.V.

    1986-01-01

    Land disturbances caused by these training exercises are still evident today throughout the designated training areas (Lathrop, 1983; Prose, 1985; Prose and Metzger, 1985). The World War II base-camp locations are easily identified because the networks of dirt roads are still used by campers, hunters, artifact seekers, and other visitors. Vehicle trails and single tracks remain on many relatively stable surfaces and are most conspicuous on surfaces composed of a veneer of stones (desert pavement).

  12. Preparing for an influx of foreign students in technical writing courses: Understanding their background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipson, C. S.

    1981-01-01

    The cultural and historical influences that students from foreign countries bring with them to technical and report writing classes, in particular those influences that would affect their receipt of instruction in American principles for written prose are examined. The grouping of sentences into idea units and into paragraphs, and the grouping of the paragraphs into whole structures are considered. The different cultures, different habits and norms for handling prose, and the dictates for style and structure and sufficiency and approach are also considered.

  13. Pathfinder

    1999-03-25

    Pictured is an artist's concept of NASA's Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System experiment (ProSEDS). ProSEDS will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether, basically a long, thin wire, for propulsion. An electrodynamic tether uses the same principles as electric motors in toys, appliances and computer disk drives, and generators in automobiles and power plants. When electrical current is flowing through the tether, a magnetic field is produced that pushes against the magnetic field of the Earth. For ProSEDS, the current in the tether results by virtue of the voltage generated when the tether moves through the Earth's magnetic field at more than 17,000 mph. This approach can produce drag thrust generating useable power. Since electrodynamic tethers require no propellant, they could substantially reduce the weight of the spacecraft and provide a cost-effective method of reboosting spacecraft. The initial flight of ProSEDS is scheduled to fly aboard an Air Force Delta II rocket in summer of 2002. In orbit, ProSEDS will deploy from a Delta II second stage. It will be a 3.1-mile (5 kilometer) long, ultrathin base-wire tether cornected with a 6.2-mile (10 kilometer) long nonconducting tether. The ProSEDS experiment is managed by the Space Transportation Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  14. Pathfinder

    1999-03-01

    NASA's Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System experiment (ProSEDS) will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether, basically a long, thin wire, for propulsion. An electrodynamic tether uses the same principles as electric motors in toys, appliances and computer disk drives, and generators in automobiles and power plants. When electrical current is flowing through the tether, a magnetic field is produced that pushes against the magnetic field of the Earth. For ProSEDS, the current in the tether results by virtue of the voltage generated when the tether moves through the Earth's magnetic field at more than 17,000 mph. This approach can produce drag thrust generating useable power. Since electrodynamic tethers require no propellant, they could substantially reduce the weight of the spacecraft and provide a cost-effective method of reboosting spacecraft. The initial flight of ProSEDS is scheduled to fly aboard an Air Force Delta II rocket in the summer of 2002. In orbit, ProSEDS will deploy from a Delta II second stage. It will be a 3.1-mile (5 kilometer) long, ultrathin base-wire cornected with a 6.2-mile (10 kilometer) long nonconducting tether. This photograph shows Less Johnson, a scientist at MSFC inspecting the nonconducting part of a tether as it exits a deployer similar to the one to be used in the ProSEDS experiment. The ProSEDS experiment is managed by the Space Transportation Directorate at MSFC.

  15. Pathfinder

    2001-07-01

    This photograph shows two Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) engineers, Mark Vaccaro (left) and Ken Welzyn, testing electrodynamic tethers in the MSFC Tether Winding and Spark Testing Facility. For 4 years, MSFC and industry partners have been developing the Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System experiment, called ProSEDS. ProSEDS will test electrodynamic tether propulsion technology. Electrodynamic tethers are long, thin wires that collect electrical current when passing through a magnetic field. The tether works as a thruster as a magnetic field exerts a force on a current-carrying wire. Since electrodynamic tethers require no propellant, they could substantially reduce the weight of the spacecraft and provide a cost-effective method of reboosting spacecraft. The initial flight of ProSEDS is scheduled to fly aboard an Air Force Delta II rocket in the summer of 2002. In orbit, ProSEDS will deploy from a Delta II second stage. It will be a 3.1-mile (5 kilometer) long, ultrathin base-wire tether cornected with a 6.2-mile (10 kilometer) long non-conducting tether. This photograph shows Less Johnson, a scientist at MSFC, inspecting the nonconducting part of a tether as it exits a deployer similar to the one to be used in the ProSEDS experiment. The ProSEDS experiment is managed by the Space Transportation Directorate at MSFC.

  16. Y-TZP zirconia regeneration firing: Microstructural and crystallographic changes after grinding.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Daniel Patrick Obelenis; Fais, Laiza Maria Grassi; Antonio, Selma Gutierrez; Hatanaka, Gabriel Rodrigues; Candido, Lucas Miguel; Pinelli, Ligia Antunes Pereira

    2017-07-26

    This study evaluated microstructural and crystallographic phase changes after grinding (G) and regeneration firing/anneling (R) of Y-TZP ceramics. Thirty five bars (Lava TM and Ice Zirkon) were divided: Y-TZP pre-sintered, control (C), regeneration firing (R), dry grinding (DG), dry grinding+regeneration firing (DGR), wet grinding (WG) and wet grinding+regeneration firing (WGR). Grinding was conducted using a diamond bur and annealing at 1,000°C. The microstructure was analyzed by SEM and the crystalline phases by X-ray diffraction (XRD). XRD showed that pre-sintered specimens contained tetragonal and monoclinic phases, while groups C and R showed tetragonal, cubic and monoclinic phases. After grinding, the cubic phase was eliminated in all groups. Annealing (DGR and WGR) resulted in only tetragonal phase. SEM showed semi-circular cracks after grinding and homogenization of particles after annealing. After grinding, surfaces show tetragonal and monoclinic phases and R can be assumed to be necessary prior to porcelain layering when grinding is performed.

  17. Evaluation of marginal and internal fit of ceramic and metallic crown copings using x-ray microtomography (micro-CT) technology.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Manuel Antonio; Frasca, Luis Carlos; Lopes, Ricardo; Rivaldo, Elken

    2015-08-01

    Prosthetic crown fit to the walls of the tooth preparation may vary depending on the material used for crown fabrication. The purpose of this study was to compare the marginal and internal fit of crown copings fabricated from 3 different materials. The selected materials were zirconia (ZirkonZahn system, group Y-TZP), lithium disilicate (IPS e.max Press system, group LSZ), and nickel-chromium alloy (lost-wax casting, group NiCr). Five specimens of each material were seated on standard dies. An x-ray microtomography (micro-CT) device was used to obtain volumetric reconstructions of each specimen. Points for fit measurement were located in Adobe Photoshop, and measurements were obtained in the CTAn SkyScan software environment. Marginal fit was measured at 4 points and internal fit at 9 points in each coping. Mean measurements from the 3 groups were compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA) at the 5% significance level, and between-group differences were assessed with the Tukey range test. The nickel-chromium alloy exhibited the best marginal fit overall, comparable with zirconia and significantly different from lithium disilicate. Lithium disilicate exhibited the lowest mean values for internal fit, similar to zirconia and significantly different from the nickel-chrome alloy. The marginal and internal fit parameters of the 3 tested materials were within clinically acceptable range. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effective communication between ENT and primary care - a survey of outpatient correspondence.

    PubMed

    Addison, A B; Watts, S; Fleming, J

    2015-06-01

    To improve the quality of outpatient clinic communication between Otolaryngology and primary care doctors. Three example outpatient letters with identical content were created using different structure styles - full prose, headline subheadings with full prose and full subheadings throughout. Electronic questionnaires were sent out to 30 randomly selected General Practitioners in the area served by Western Sussex NHS Trust. The electronic mail study invite contained the initial GP referral, the three different letter formats and a link to the Sheffield Assessment for Letters (SAIL) questionnaire, which contained a 18-point checklist, 6 rating subheadings with a 10-point rating scale and a free text comment section. Study participants were asked to read the letters in the time usually afforded to outpatient letters in their routine practice, answer questions and then rate the letters. With a response rate of 66.7%, overall comparison of GP preferences demonstrated a significant variation between the three letter formats (Freidman P value = 0.0001). Post hoc multiple comparisons showed statistically significant preference for the headline subheading and prose letter compared to the full subheaded letter (P < 0.05). In assessing the letters for readability, comprehension, usefulness, informativeness and helpfulness, analysis showed significant preference for both fully subheaded and headline subheaded with full prose structures compared to the full prose letter. Although the headline subheadings and prose letter had the highest word count, it scored the highest in almost all the rating categories analysed. This study is the first published work to study primary care physician's preference for the structure of letters from secondary care. Prominent headline subheadings of diagnosis and management improve interpretation of content and comprehension and are helpful to GPs for co-ordinating patient management. Lack of subheadings or conversely an excess of subheadings may

  19. Word list and story recall elicit different patterns of memory deficit in patients with Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, subcortical ischemic vascular disease, and Lewy body dementia.

    PubMed

    Perri, Roberta; Fadda, Lucia; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Different roles have been attributed to mesio-temporal areas and frontal lobes in declarative memory functioning, and qualitative differences have been observed in the amnesic symptoms due to pathological damage of these two portions of the central nervous system. The aim of the present study was to look for memory profiles related to pathological involvement in the temporal and frontal structures in patients with different dementia syndromes on word-list and prose memory tasks. 20 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 20 with frontal variant of FTD (fvFTD), 20 with subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD), and 20 with Lewy body dementia (LBD) and 34 healthy subjects (NCs) were submitted to word-list and prose memory tasks. All groups performed similarly on both the immediate and delayed recall of the word-list. Conversely, AD patients performed worse than all the other dementia groups on the immediate prose recall. On delayed prose recall, AD patients performed worse than fvFTD and SIVD patients but similar to LBD patients. Differential scores between word-list and prose tests were minimal in the AD group and very pronounced in fvFTD and SIVD groups. The combined use of the prose and word-list tasks evidenced a "mesio-temporal" memory profile in AD patients as opposed to a "frontal" one in fvFTD and SIVD patients and a mixed profile in the LBD patients. In particular, a differential score between the two tests can be useful in differentiating AD patients from patients with other forms of dementia.

  20. Two-body wear comparison of zirconia crown, gold crown, and enamel against zirconia.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Min-Seok; Oh, Sang-Yeob; Cho, Sung-Am

    2015-07-01

    Full zirconia crowns have recently been used for dental restorations because of their mechanical properties. However, there is little information about their wear characteristics against enamel, gold, and full zirconia crowns. The purpose of this study was to compare the wear rate of enamel, gold crowns, and zirconia crowns against zirconia blocks using an in vitro wear test. Upper specimens were divided into three groups: 10 enamels (group 1), 10 gold crowns (group 2, Type III gold), and 10 zirconia crowns (group 3, Prettau(®)Zirkon 9H, Zirkonzahn, Italy). Each of these specimens was wear tested against a zirconia block (40×30×3mm(3)) as a lower specimen (30 total zirconia blocks). Each specimen of the groups was abraded against the zirconia block for 600 cycles at 1Hz with 15mm front-to-back movement on an abrading machine. Moreover, the load applied during the abrading test was 50N, and the test was performed in a normal saline emulsion for 10min. Three-dimensional images were taken before and after the test, and the statistical analysis was performed using the Krushal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test (p=0.05). The mean volume loss of group 1 was 0.47mm(3), while that of group 2 and group 3 was 0.01mm(3). The wear volume loss of enamels against zirconia was higher than that of gold and zirconia crowns. Moreover, according to this result, zirconia crowns are not recommended for heavy bruxers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Marginal gap, cement thickness, and microleakage of 2 zirconia crown systems luted with glass ionomer and MDP-based cements.

    PubMed

    Sener, Isil; Turker, Begum; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the marginal gap, cement thickness, and microleakage of glass-ionomer cement (GIC) and phosphate monomer-containing resin cement (MDP-RC) under 2 zirconia crown systems (Cercon and DC-Zirkon). Forty human premolars were prepared for all-ceramic zirconia crowns with a 1 mm circumferential finish line and a 1.5 mm occlusal reduction. The crowns (n = 10 per group) from each zirconia system were randomly divided into 2 groups and cemented either with GIC (Vivaglass CEM) or MDP-RC (Panavia F 2.0) cement. The cemented crowns were thermocycled 5000 times (5°-55°C). The crowns were immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsine dye solution for 24 hours and sectioned buccolingually and mesiodistally. Specimens were examined under optical microscope (100X). Data were analyzed using Student t-test and chi-square tests (α = 0.05). Mean marginal gap values for Cercon (85 ± 11.4 μm) were significantly higher than for DC-Zircon (75.3 ± 13.2 μm) (P = 0.018). The mean cement thickness values of GIC (81.7 ± 13.9 μm) and MDP-RC (78.5 ± 12.5 μm) were not significantly different (P = 0.447). Microleakage scores did not demonstrate significant difference between GIC (P = 0.385) and MDP-RC (P = 0.631) under Cercon or DC-Zircon. Considering the cement thickness values and microleakage scores obtained, both zirconia crown systems could be cemented in combination with either GIC or MDP-RC.

  2. Effect of sandblasting, silica coating, and laser treatment on the microtensile bond strength of a dental zirconia ceramic to resin cements.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi, Nasrin; Hooshmand, Tabassom; Heidari, Solmaz; Khoshro, Kimia

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of laser irradiation as well as other surface treatment methods on the microtensile bond strength of a dental zirconia ceramic to the two types of resin cements. Zirconia ceramic blocks (ICE Zirkon) were sintered according to the manufacturer's instructions and duplicated in resin composites. The ceramic specimens were divided into four groups according to the following surface treatments: no surface treatment (control), sandblasting with alumina, silica coating plus silanization, and Nd:YAG laser irradiation. The specimens were divided equally and then bonded with Panavia F2.0 (self-etching resin cement) and Clearfil SA Luting (self-adhesive resin cement) to the composite blocks. The bonded ceramic-composite blocks were stored in distilled water at 37 °C for 72 h, cut to prepare bar-shaped specimens with a bonding area of approximately 1 mm(2), and thermocycled for 3000 cycles between 5 and 55 °C, and the microtensile bond strengths were measured using a universal testing machine. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test. The results showed that the self-adhesive resin cement used in this study did not improve the microtensile bond strength when the zirconia surface was sandblasted by alumina. The use of the Nd:YAG laser did not enhance the bond strength between the zirconia and both types of resin cements. In addition, silica coating of the zirconia surfaces plus silane application significantly improved the bond strength regardless of the type of resin cement utilized.

  3. In-Space Transportation with Tethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, Enrico; Estes, Robert D.; Cosmo, Mario L.

    1998-01-01

    The annual report covers the research conducted on the following topics related to the use of spaceborne tethers for in-space transportation: ProSEDS tether modeling (current collection analyses, influence of a varying tether temperature); proSEDS mission analysis and system dynamics (tether thermal model, thermo-electro-dynamics integrated simulations); proSEDS-tether development and testing (tether requirements, deployment test plan, tether properties testing, deployment tests); and tethers for reboosting the space-based laser (mission analysis, tether system preliminary design, evaluation of attitude constraints).

  4. Effects of Text Illustrations: A Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levie, W. Howard; Lentz, Richard

    1982-01-01

    Reviews results of 55 experiments comparing learning from illustrated text and learning from text alone. Research in closely related fields--nonrepresentational pictures (maps, diagrams, graphic organizers), learner-produced drawings, mental imagery, and oral prose--is also examined, and guidelines for practice are offered. A 160-item reference…

  5. Incorporating the Arts and Humanities in Palliative Medicine Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchand, Lucille R.

    2006-01-01

    The arts and humanities allow the teaching of palliative medicine to come alive by exploring what is often regarded as the most frightening outcome of the illness experience--death and dying. Palliative medicine focuses on the relief of suffering, but how can suffering be understood if the story of the patient is not told through prose, poetry,…

  6. KOREAN LITERATURE, TOPICS AND THEMES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEE, PETER H.

    THIS TEXT WAS DEVELOPED PURSUANT TO A CONTRACT BETWEEN THE U.S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION AND THE AMERICAN COUNCIL OF LEARNED SOCIETIES (ACLS) AS PROJECT NUMBER 35 OF RESEARCH AND STUDIES IN URALIC AND ALTAIC LANGUAGES OF ACLS. THE PURPOSE OF THE BOOK IS TO STUDY THE VERNACULAR GENRES OF VERSE AND PROSE IN KOREA, BEGINNING WITH THE EARLIEST GENRES IN…

  7. Different Worlds: Same Secret.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springfield City Library, MA.

    The "Brightwood New Authors Project" brought together a group of ten adults from many different ethnic and educational backgrounds to share in the experience of writing and publishing a book. The prose and poetry that resulted from weekly writing workshops featured guest humanities scholars and teachers. Titles include "I Remember When I Met...";…

  8. Studies in Interpretation. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Esther M., Ed.; Floyd, Virginia Hastings, Ed.

    The purpose of this second book of 21 self-contained essays is the same as that of the first volume published in 1972: to bring together the scholarly theory and current research regarding oral interpretation. One third of the essays are centered on literature itself: prose fiction, poetry, and the drama. These essays discuss topics such as point…

  9. How Will We Write? A Report from the National College Media Convention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeske, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    It is the avalanche precipitated by the Internet, streaming media, and new generations of readers/writers whose consciousness is being progressively reshaped by the digital revolution and its promise of infinite speed and multimodal discourse. One can see the results in the current splintering, diminishing, and reshaping of journalistic prose. In…

  10. Big Brains, Small Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacoby, Russell

    2008-01-01

    Earlier 20th-century thinkers like Lewis Mumford and Edmund Wilson kept the university and its apparatus at arm's length. Indeed, they often disdained it. They oriented themselves toward an educated public, and, as a result, they developed a straightforward prose and gained a nonprofessional audience. As his reputation grew, Wilson printed up a…

  11. Observation, Inference, and Imagination: Elements of Edgar Allan Poe's Philosophy of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelfert, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Edgar Allan Poe's standing as a literary figure, who drew on (and sometimes dabbled in) the scientific debates of his time, makes him an intriguing character for any exploration of the historical interrelationship between science, literature and philosophy. His sprawling "prose-poem" "Eureka" (1848), in particular, has…

  12. Algorithms in Learning, Teaching, and Instructional Design. Studies in Systematic Instruction and Training Technical Report 51201.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlach, Vernon S.; And Others

    An algorithm is defined here as an unambiguous procedure which will always produce the correct result when applied to any problem of a given class of problems. This paper gives an extended discussion of the definition of an algorithm. It also explores in detail the elements of an algorithm, the representation of algorithms in standard prose, flow…

  13. A Comparison of Methods for Transforming Sentences into Test Questions for Instructional Materials. Technical Report #1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roid, Gale; And Others

    Several measurement theorists have convincingly argued that methods of writing test questions, particularly for criterion-referenced tests, should be based on operationally defined rules. This study was designed to examine and further refine a method for objectively generating multiple-choice questions for prose instructional materials. Important…

  14. Teaching World History with "Things Fall Apart."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldmann, Martha J.

    1995-01-01

    Recommends using Chinua Achebe's novel of the 19th-century conflict between African tribal culture and English colonists in a world history class. Achebe's rich narrative, written in a graceful prose, is easily accessible to high school students. The novel replaces simplistic and abstract concepts with those more complex and concrete. (MJP)

  15. Shakespeare for Children: The Story of "Romeo and Juliet."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Cass

    Written for adults who wish to read to children and children able to read on their own, this book presents an edited version of William Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet." The book includes selections of the original text of the play, prose passages explaining what occurs between selections of the play, numerous full-page illustrations,…

  16. Using a Chart-table Medium to Focus Students' Attention on Science Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, William G.; Benson, Garth D.

    A study is presented which utilizes a selective attention model to investigate the learning effects of different questioning strategies under four experimental conditions using a non-prose medium (science textbook chart) containing information of varying established difficulty. A 14-row, 4-column chart describing 14 vitamins was used to present…

  17. Using Parody To Teach Some Writing Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, John

    This paper discusses parody as an effective pedagogical device and as a way of teaching recognition of, and appreciation for, form. If the subject parodied is in poetic form, then rhyme and rhythm become factors for the parodist to consider. If the subject parodied is in prose, then the parodist must address the techniques of narrative,…

  18. Carnivals, the Carnivalesque, "The Magic Puddin'," and David Almond's "Wild Girl, Wild Boy": Toward a Theorizing of Children's Plays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Rosemary Ross

    2003-01-01

    Seeks to extend current children's literature criticism into children's plays and children's theatre. Uses Norman Lindsay's "The Magic Pudding" as a prose introduction to an idea of a theatrical carnivalesque. Develops a theory of plays-as-the-performance-of-texts, relating this to the current debate on performance and performativity.…

  19. The Irony and the Ecstasy: How Holden Caulfield Helped My Advanced Composition Students Find Their Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, Linda

    An instructor of an advanced composition course (adapted from one taught by James Seitz at the University of Pittsburgh) at the University of California Riverside took her students through a series of reading and writing assignments that asked them to "engage in a wide variety of prose styles and...consider what style suggests about language,…

  20. Processing Social Information in Messages: Social Group Familiarity, Fiction/Non-fiction Labels, and Subsequent Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Michael D.

    A study examined how the relative familiarity of a social group described in a message may affect the impact of ostensibly fiction and nonfiction messages on subsequent beliefs about social groups. The 24 paid subjects each received one of four sets of prose excerpts. Each set consisted of four excerpts that were labelled as fiction or nonfiction…

  1. Adult Language, Literacy, Numeracy and Problem-Solving Skills in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanasou, James A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the performance of the eight major occupational categories across the four skill areas of the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey. The results indicated that some 38-64% of employed Australians were below minimal competence (at Level 1 or Level 2) in one of the four skill areas of prose literacy, document literacy, numeracy…

  2. Mining the Text: 34 Text Features that Can Ease or Obstruct Text Comprehension and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sheida

    2012-01-01

    This article presents 34 characteristics of texts and tasks ("text features") that can make continuous (prose), noncontinuous (document), and quantitative texts easier or more difficult for adolescents and adults to comprehend and use. The text features were identified by examining the assessment tasks and associated texts in the national…

  3. Great Writers of Spain I (Nineteenth Century): 7506.26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The main goal of this course of study is for the student to understand, recognize, and interpret the many changes which occurred in the poetry and prose of Spain at the advent of Romanticism. The student also studies the movements that followed Romanticism: Realism, Regionalism, and Naturalism. Performance objectives, suggested materials, learning…

  4. Gorgias's "Helen" Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiappa, Edward

    1995-01-01

    Argues that identifying Gorgias's "Helen" as an epideictic speech is misleading; the speech is not veiled defense of the "Art of Rhetoric"; Gorgias may have inaugurated the prose genre of encomia; and "Helen"'s most significant theoretical contribution is to offer a secular account of the workings of the logos that…

  5. The Remarkable Journey of Lloyd Alexander

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnel, Michael O.; Jacobs, James S.

    2007-01-01

    This article features Lloyd Alexander, an author who has produced some of the most elegant and powerful prose in the history of modern children's literature. Lloyd began writing seriously in high school, and though he wrote and submitted many poems and short stories, his only success was being named a finalist in the "Writer's Digest" Short Story…

  6. The Usefulness of a Suggested Paradigm for Improving Paragraph Coherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siu, Fiona Kwai-peng

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effectiveness of a paradigm to teach native Cantonese-speaking university students the hierarchical structure of expository prose to improve paragraph coherence. Most of the diagnostic argumentative essays the participants in this study wrote in the course were incoherent, failing to meet readers' expectation of…

  7. How High- and Low-Challenge Tasks Affect Motivation and Learning: Implications for Struggling Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Samuel D.

    2003-01-01

    Describes how most reading and writing assignments do not require the demonstration of sophisticated cognitive, social, or self-regulation skills. Describes an intervention study addressing this issue, in which students read and wrote complex prose, offered feedback to classmates, and monitored their learning progress. Focuses on how these new…

  8. More How Stories From Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Minnie

    Taken from Alaskan oral tradition, the five "how" stories are written in simple English prose. "The Four Qayaqs" explains why the porcupine has no fat on his stomach and the beaver has none on his back. "Ptarmigan and the Sandhill Crane" tells how the two very different birds come to look alike. In "Why the Dall…

  9. Shakespeare as Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, John

    When readers encounter Shakespeare's "Sonnet 73," they often fail to realize that it is an excellent model of what a good composition ought to be. The closing couplet functions the same way a thesis would in a prose work. The repetition of wording within the analogies in the three quatrains helps to make the work coherent. In addition,…

  10. Reading in Perspective: What Real Cops and Pretend Burglars Look for in a Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Ernest T.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Two hypotheses (selective attention and slot filling) of how schemata enhance the learning and recall of the initial comprehension of prose material were tested. Consistent with the attention-focusing hypothesis, readers spent more time on sentences containing information important to their assigned perspective. (Author/PN)

  11. Fry, Smox, Lix and Rix: Insinuations about Corporate Business Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtis, John K.

    1987-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of the prose communication in contemporary corporate annual reports. Indicates that a sample of 65 Canadian annual reports for 1984 were classified as "difficult" to "very difficult" and beyond the fluent comprehension ease of 92 percent of the adult population and 56 percent of the investor…

  12. Learning in the Learner's Perspective. III. Level of Difficulty Seen as a Relationship Between the Reader and the Text. No. 78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marton, Ference; Saljo, Roger

    Structural reading difficulty of argumentative prose (text with an underlying message or superordinate principle), is related to the reader's approach to reading and learning. Ninety Swedish teenagers and adults with varying levels of formal education, were divided into three groups, based on their own descriptions of reading and learning: deep…

  13. "In the Hands of the Receivers": The Politics of Literacy in "The Savage" by David Almond and Dave McKean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hateley, Erica

    2012-01-01

    David Almond and Dave McKean's "The Savage" is a hybrid prose and graphic novel which tells the story of one young man's maturation through literacy. The protagonist learns to deal with the death of his father and his own "savage" self by writing a graphic novel. This article reads "The Savage" in the context of earlier, "Northern" literacy…

  14. Readability and Its Effects on Reading Rate, Subjective Judgments of Comprehensibility and Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coke, Esther U.

    Prose passages read aloud or silently were rated for pronounceability and comprehensibility. The relationships of text-derived readability indices to reading rate, comprehensibility ratings and comprehension test scores were explored. Reading rate in syllables per minute was unrelated to readability. The high correlation between rate in words per…

  15. Toward a Rhetorical Theory of Metaphor: A Transactive Analysis of Metaphor in the Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannister, Linda; And Others

    Three professors at Loyola Marymount University, Los Angeles, reflected about a course they taught together on the use of metaphor in language, art and literature. In examining a wide range of art works with their students, including prose by E. A. Poe, Nancy Mairs, Henry James, and Woody Allen and movies such as "Dr.…

  16. The Teachers & Writers Guide to Walt Whitman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ron, Ed.

    Fifteen poets have created this guide to teaching the work of Walt Whitman from kindergarten to college level. In essays based on the personal experience of these imaginative writers, the guide presents practical ideas for fresh ways to read Whitman and to write poetry and prose inspired by him. The guide also includes three pieces on education by…

  17. The Effects of Computer Visual Appeal on Learners' Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultan, Adel; Jones, Marshall

    Over the years, situated and observational learning has given way to mass teaching and theoretical learning based on prose information. Even though schools have produced many successful professionals, they often fail to address individual differences in learners and encourage competition rather than cooperation between learners. As a result, many…

  18. Distinctiveness of Encoding and Memory for Learning Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, John A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A distinctiveness of encoding hypothesis, as applied to the facilitative effects that higher order objectives have on readers' prose recall, was evaluated in three experiments. Results suggest that distinctiveness of encoding may offer a theoretical basis for the effects of adjunct aids as well as a guide to their construction. (Author/GK)

  19. Making Our Institutional Discourse Sticky: Suggestions for Effective Rhetoric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Muriel

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author offers cautionary advice to help avoid some tempting morasses to unwittingly fall into as well as some more solid ground to stroll along when composing institutional prose. Ultimately, drawing on concepts from the fields of business, linguistics, social psychology, and professional writing, the author wishes to…

  20. Teaching Composition: Twelve Bibliographical Essays. Revised and Enlarged Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Gary, Ed.

    Intended for teachers of composition courses, this book provides twelve bibliographic essays covering various aspects of composition studies. The list of essays are as follows: (1) "Recent Developments in Rhetorical Invention" (Richard Young); (2) "Structure and Form in Non-Narrative Prose" (Richard L. Larson); (3)…

  1. Fattori di organizzazione del discorso nella memoria linguistica (Factors in Organizing Speech in Linguistic Memory)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroni, Maria Rosa; And Others

    1977-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to study the processes of linguistic memory. Subjects were asked to read aloud brief prose passages and repeat what they had read. The "deviations" from the original passages were analyzed to determine the time of the deviation, during decoding or recall. (Text is in Italian.) (CFM)

  2. A New Parallel Corpus Approach to Japanese Learners' English, Using Their Corrected Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miki, Nozomi

    2010-01-01

    This research introduces unique parallel corpora to uncover linguistic behaviors in L2 argumentative writing in the exact correspondence to their appropriate forms provided by English native speakers (NSs). The current paper targets at the mysterious behavior of I think in argumentative prose. I think is regarded as arguably problematic and…

  3. The Joe Joe Series: A Culturally Responsive Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Nichelle C.; Hill-Clarke, Kantaylieniere

    2004-01-01

    In the elementary classroom, teachers often introduce new units through the use of trade books. Children's literature, the best of which brings social studies content to life, is usually more engaging than textbook prose. Children's literature that shares the experiences, contributions, and perspectives of various cultural groups achieves several…

  4. Guide to English Language Arts/Literacy Released Items: Understanding Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers (PARCC) is a group of states working together to develop a set of assessments that measure whether students are on track to be successful in college and careers. Administrations of the PARCC assessment included three Prose Constructed Responses (PCR), one per task for English…

  5. Richard Wagner: Twilight of the Nazi Spell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindemann, Dirk

    1985-01-01

    Richard Wagner was probably the most influential musician of the 19th century. However, his image as an alleged intellectual-spiritual forerunner of national socialism through his music and prose works fosters aversion among critics. Whether Wagner's complicacy of art and ideology has had any lasting consequence on his reputation is discussed. (RM)

  6. "The Spirit of Research Has Changed": Reverberations from Researcher Identities in Managerial Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elizabeth, Vivienne; Grant, Barbara M.

    2013-01-01

    Five poetic transcriptions lie at the heart of this article. We intend that they will convey something of what it means and feels like to be an academic researcher in neoliberal universities such that we begin to notice this condition and its effects more acutely. Our poetic texts began their existence as fast-written prose responses to the…

  7. Writing in the Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Pupils should participate in numerous forms and kinds of writing activities involving poetry and should hear, read, and write different forms and kinds of prose. Types of poetry that pupils can write include couplets, triplets, quatrains, limericks, free verse, haiku, and diamante. The ingredients that all types of poetry might have include…

  8. Cultivating Writers: Figurative Language in the Developmental Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    Some teaching strategies grow out of the curricula educators inherit or develop through professional reading; others originate in the aromatic humus of their autobiographies. This article presents a proposal that has its origins in the latter. The author recognized that what delights her in prose or poetry is the figurative language a writer uses…

  9. Cloze Procedure. An Historical Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardell, David

    Cloze procedure, a testing method which systematically deletes words in written prose and then measures the accuracy of the information is reviewed from a historical viewpoint. Redundancy is placed in a verbal context and can be noted on three separate levels of language: (1) surface syntactic structure; (2) deep syntactic structure; and (3)…

  10. People's Instinctive Travels and the Paths to Rhythms: Hip-Hop's Continuation of the Enduring Tradition of African and African American Rhetorical Forms and Tropes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welbeck, Timothy N.

    2017-01-01

    Hip-hop is an African folk art birthed in America. Whether one simply observes the tonal language that puffs the breath of life into the lyric prose of rap music, the poly-rhythms of the "boom-bap" rhythmic phrasings that became a fixture of New York rap music in the late 1980s, the winding syncopation from the pounding "808"…

  11. Spread the Word: In New York City, Encouraging Successful Schools to Share and Grow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubin, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    In New York City, which has the largest school district in the country, there are 1,700 public schools--and one contract for all of them. Often, schools want to make changes to the contract on a limited set of topics, a practice the district has long allowed. The Progressive Redesign Opportunity Schools for Excellence (PROSE) provides a structure…

  12. Juggling with Indianness in the Gestation of Translation with Special Reference to the English Translation of a Hindi Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priya, K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to look closely at the process of translating dramas with special reference to the Hindi story Aadmi ka Baccha ("The Child of a Man") by Yashpal in India and the role and significance of prose transcreations in today's changing global scenario.

  13. A Phenomenological Exploration of the Experiences of Master's Level Counselor Trainees in Expressive Arts Group Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Martha Howe

    2010-01-01

    Expressive arts group supervision is the use of music, stories, movement, poetry or prose, role-play or psychodrama, art, guided imagery, or play to help trainees develop reflective skills (Wilkins, 1995), express thoughts and feelings (Knill, Levine & Levine, 2005; Lahad, 2000), develop new perspectives (Gladding, 2005), increase communication…

  14. Reading Guided by Automated Graphical Representations: How Model-Based Text Visualizations Facilitate Learning in Reading Comprehension Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirnay-Dummer, Pablo; Ifenthaler, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Our study integrates automated natural language-oriented assessment and analysis methodologies into feasible reading comprehension tasks. With the newly developed T-MITOCAR toolset, prose text can be automatically converted into an association net which has similarities to a concept map. The "text to graph" feature of the software is based on…

  15. Graphic Novels Rule! The Latest and Greatest for Young Kids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Michele

    2008-01-01

    After years of fighting for shelf space in libraries and classrooms, graphic novels have finally become an acceptable alternative to their prose-packed counterparts--and kids can't seem to get enough of them. For that matter, neither can grown-ups. In 2006, U.S. consumers dropped an estimated $330 million on graphic novels and comics, with…

  16. Listening versus Reading in Monitoring Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yussen, Steven R.; And Others

    Noting the differences in processing information by reading and by listening, two studies examined subjects' ability to detect errors in written and oral prose. In both experiments, college students were presented with four expository passages drawn from different written sources. All passages were approximately 300 words and 5 paragraphs long,…

  17. Bartleby the Example and Eros the Idea of the Work: Some Considerations on Giorgio Agamben's "The Idea of Study"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanhoutte, Kristof K. P.

    2014-01-01

    The present article investigates the rhythm of study as described by Giorgio Agamben in "The idea of study", present in Idea of prose. In this short treatise, Agamben presents Melville's scrivener Bartleby as the exemplary embodiment of study. Bartleby's paradigmatic status, according to Agamben's interpretation, does,…

  18. LiT"gloss"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeLoup, Jean; Ponterio, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Reading in a second language (L2) is important for a variety of reasons. Reading authentic materials, in particular, allows L2 learners to engage with native speaker content, and ultimately the target culture. One body of authentic materials is that of literary texts, including those of more traditional prose fiction, poetry, and drama, but also…

  19. AYACUCHO READER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PARKER, GARY J.

    INTENDED FOR USE AFTER COMPLETION OF THE SPOKEN AYACUCHO COURSE, THIS VOLUME CONTAINS 19 PROSE SELECTIONS AND 11 PAGES OF VERSE AND LYRICS. THE STORIES WERE SELECTED TO ILLUSTRATE THE COMPLETE RANGE OF QUECHUA ORAL TRADITION IN THE AYACUCHO SPEECH AREA. INCLUDED ARE STORIES OF SUPERNATURAL BEINGS, TALES OF HUMAN FOLLY, ANIMAL STORIES, HUMOROUS…

  20. Measuring the Readability of Elementary Algebra Using the Cloze Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulm, Gerald

    The relationship to readability of ten variables characterizing structural properties of mathematical prose was investigated in elementary algebra textbooks. Readability was measured by algebra student's responses to two forms of cloze tests. Linear and currilinear correlations were calculated between each structural variable and the cloze test.…

  1. Reflections on Grammar's Demise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulroy, David

    2004-01-01

    Of the seven liberal arts, on which Western education was based, grammar has always been preeminent. Yet English teachers in recent years have belittled it to the point of an irrelevance. Not only has this higher illiteracy rendered Americans unable to extract ideas from sophisticated prose, David Mulroy worries, but also it leaves us with the…

  2. Visualizing a Procedure with Nassi-Schneiderman Charts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Edmond H.

    1990-01-01

    Argues that Nassi-Schneiderman (NS) charts, when used to diagram human procedures, can eliminate prose ambiguities. Asserts that these devices provide most of the advantages of decision tables and trees. Suggests using NS charts in testing the logic and completeness of traditional procedures, or even in place of many traditional publications. (SG)

  3. Teaching Culture in a North American Context: Halloween Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mollica, Anthony; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Notes that information presented in dialog form in a foreign language lends itself more easily to conversation than does intricate narrative prose. Using background information on Halloween, the article adapts the text to present information about the target culture as well as to humorously present facts about the North American festivity.…

  4. The Effects of Textual Support and Reading Goal on the Loci of Children's Inferential Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casteel, Mark A.

    A study examined how both children and adults process inferences when reading prose. Subjects, 24 third-, fifth-, and eighth-graders, and adults, read stories where a consequence was implied, and then answered questions. The stories differed in the degree to which the inference was necessary for comprehension, and the readers engaged in either…

  5. Developmental Changes in Constructive Memory Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paris, Scott G.

    This paper describes three studies designed to determine whether there are age-related differences in children's memory for implicit and explicit information in prose. In the first study, six experimental paragraphs were read individually to a total of 60 children in grades K-5. Each child was then asked four verbatim recall questions (specific…

  6. Teaching about Haiti.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunshine, Catherine A.; Menkart, Deborah

    Developed for secondary students to place political situations in context, this document uses essays, interviews, songs, literature, and prose to present the culture of Haiti and the history of colonialism, neo-colonialism, and struggles for independence. After a historical overview, a chronology provides key dates in Haitian history. Maps of…

  7. Reading, Comprehension, and Memory Processes: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," April through June 1978 (Vol. 38, Nos. 10 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 17 titles deal with the following topics: the effects of preinstructional activities on the learning and retention of prose; the interaction of picture and print in reading instruction; the perception of structure in scrambled…

  8. Is There a Separate Visual Iconic Memory System? Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levie, W. Howard; Levie, Diane D.

    The purpose of these studies was to provide evidence to support either the dual-coding hypothesis or the single-system hypothesis of human memory. In one experiment, college subjects were shown a mixed series of words and pictures either while simultaneously engaged in shadowing (repeating aloud) a prose passage presented via earphones or while…

  9. Individual Differences in Children's Ability to Profit from Picture Adjunct Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jan N.; Hall, Donald M.

    Individual differences in fourth grade students' abilities to profit from experimenter-provided picture adjunct aids on prose recall tasks were examined. It was hypothesized that poor paired associate learners would benefit from picture adjunct aids to a greater extent than good paired associate learners. A secondary aim was to assess the effects…

  10. American Indians and the Urban Experience. Contemporary Native American Communities 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobo, Susan, Ed.; Peters, Kurt, Ed.

    Over half of all American Indian people living in the United States now live in urban areas, but few books and little research have addressed urban Indian themes. This book compiles research, scholarly writing, poetry, prose, and artwork concerned with the Native urban experience. Of specific educational interest are chapters on the role of…

  11. The Reading Glitch: How the Culture Wars Have Hijacked Reading Instruction--And What We Can Do about It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Lee; Ramsey, Betsy

    2006-01-01

    Reading disability and illiteracy are among the most pressing educational issues facing the United States today. At least 40 percent of America's fourth-graders are unable to read at grade level and a similar proportion of adults read at the lowest two levels of prose literacy. Here, the authors present an unflinching examination of the science…

  12. Merging Mathematics and English: One Approach to Bridging the Disciplines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansbarger, J. Clark; Stewart, Eric Lane

    1996-01-01

    Discusses two six-week projects for high school students involving qualitative and quantitative research methods to integrate mathematics and English. Students use descriptive statistics and prose to present findings about (1) their school space and (2) daily life for American troops in the Gulf War. (KMC)

  13. Making Inferences in Adulthood: Falling Leaves Mean It's Fall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zandi, Taher; Gregory, Monica E.

    1988-01-01

    Assessed age differences in making inferences from prose. Older adults correctly answered mean of 10 questions related to implicit information and 8 related to explicit information. Young adults answered mean of 7 implicit and 12 explicit information questions. In spite of poorer recall of factual details, older subjects made inferences to greater…

  14. Technical Documentation and Legal Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caher, John M.

    1995-01-01

    States that litigation over the interpretation and sufficiency of technical documentation is increasingly common as a number of suits have been filed in state and federal courts. Describes the case of "Martin versus Hacker," a recent case in which New York's highest court analyzed a technical writer's prose in the context of a lawsuit…

  15. Does Inequality in Skills Explain Inequality of Earnings across Advanced Countries? NBER Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devroye, Dan; Freeman, Richard

    The question of whether inequality in skills explains inequality of earnings across advanced countries was examined through a review of data from the International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS), which examined the prose, document, and quantitative literacy skills of adults in 12 member countries of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and…

  16. Practical Life from the Second Plane to Third Plane: Orientation to History and Social Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, James

    2015-01-01

    In lyrical prose, Jim Webster lays out his view on the universal human use of tools and how "humans meet the practical demands of life." Webster lauds physical work and the work of the hand as they both support engagement, social cooperation, a deepening of relationships, and sustainability. Practical work is valuable and is plentiful as…

  17. Computer-Assisted Text-Analysis for ESL Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Joy; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Reports an investigation into possibilities of using word processors and text analysis software with English as second language (ESL) students to determine (1) if foreign students can learn to use computer equipment, (2) if students feel time invested is worthwhile, and (3) if ESL students' problems with writing American academic prose can be…

  18. Style and Usage Software: Mentor, not Judge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smye, Randy

    Computer software style and usage checkers can encourage students' recursive revision strategies. For example, HOMER is based on the revision pedagogy presented in Richard Lanham's "Revising Prose," while Grammatik II focuses on readability, passive voice, and possibly misused words or phrases. Writer's Workbench "Style" (a UNIX program) provides…

  19. Different Approaches to Teaching the Mechanics of American Psychological Association Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Timothy M.; Spitzer, Tam M.

    2006-01-01

    Students have to learn two distinctly different tasks when writing research papers: a) creating and organizing prose, and b) formatting a manuscript according to the nuances and mechanics of a pre-determined format, such as Modern Language Association (MLA) or American Psychological Association (APA) guidelines. Two studies examined different…

  20. Reading for the Masses: Popular Soviet Fiction, 1976-80. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedberg, Maurice

    Noting that Soviet prose, drama, and poetry reveal the nuances of the moods and policies fostered by the Soviet government while reflecting the Soviet reading public's interests and aspirations, this report describes a study of the values and attitudes by which the Soviets live as reflected in the literature published in Soviet literary magazines…

  1. The Ram's Horn, Volume Three, 1-4 (Double Issue), Summer-Spring 1982-1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ram's Horn, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The combined Summer 1982-Spring 1983 issue of this journal dedicated to the Rassias Language Method includes the following articles: "Languages, Learning, and Change" (Ronald C. Rosbottom); "Role-Playing: Perception and Analysis of Sex-Role Stereotypes in Literature" (Judith G. Miller); "Prose as Drama: The Use of Fairy…

  2. Hemingway's Language Style and Writing Techniques in "The Old Man and the Sea"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Yaochen

    2008-01-01

    Among many great American writers, Hemingway is famous for his objective and terse prose style. As all the novels Hemingway published in his life, "The Old Man and the Sea" typically reflects his unique writing style. The language is simple and natural on the surface, but actually deliberate and artificial. Hemingway's style is related…

  3. Health Literacy Skills in Rural and Urban Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahnd, Whitney E.; Scaife, Steven L.; Francis, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether health literacy is lower in rural populations. Method: We analyzed health, prose, document, and quantitative literacy from the National Assessment of Adult Literacy study. Metropolitan Statistical Area designated participants as rural or urban. Results: Rural populations had lower literacy levels for all literacy…

  4. Children's Retrieval of Classroom Materials: A Test of Conjoint Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stader, Ellen D.; And Others

    A total of 90 fifth- and sixth-grade students studied a map of the fictitious island while twice listening to a 1,100-word prose passage describing it. The description included 16 nouns that had been chosen as map features. Map features were identified by labels and icons. Afterwards, students were given a cued recall test with 16 feature-related…

  5. The Effects of Literacy and Education on the Income of America's Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Yan Fung

    1996-01-01

    Effects of prose, document, and quantitative literacy and education on the wages of 1,456 young adults who worked full time were analyzed. Literacy and education did not have the same effects on income for all groups; not all groups depended on literacy and education to increase income. Different types of literacy had different effects on gender…

  6. The More Things Change ...: Money, Power and the Professoriate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowen, Rebecca S.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author first read "The Emergence of the American University" by Lawrence R. Veysey, nearly twenty years ago as a graduate student. She has consulted it innumerable times since, and remains impressed by its ambitious scope, careful research and elegant prose. She has always wondered if Veysey's interest in the history…

  7. Indian Astronomy: History of

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, R.; Murdin, P.

    2002-01-01

    From the time of A macronryabhat under dota (ca AD 500) there appeared in India a series of Sanskrit treatises on astronomy. Written always in verse, and normally accompanied by prose commentaries, these served to create an Indian tradition of mathematical astronomy which continued into the 18th century. There are as well texts from earlier centuries, grouped under the name Jyotishaveda macronn d...

  8. Chant of the Red Man. A Fable for Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliland, Hap

    An anthology of 30 short poetry and prose selections by and about American Indians tries to show what it is like to be an Indian in today's world. In addition to material by Hap Gilliland, Arthur Chapman, Mayme E. Finley, Jack Fiddler, and excerpts from Christopher Columbus' account to Ferdinand and Isabella, items are included by: Duke Redbird…

  9. A Corpus-Based Study on the Use of the Logical Connector "Thus" in the Academic Writing of Turkish EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uçar, Serpil; Yükselir, Ceyhun

    2017-01-01

    This research was conducted to investigate how frequently Turkish advanced learners of English use the logical connector "thus" in their academic prose and to investigate whether it was overused, underused or misused semantically in comparison to English native speakers. The data were collected from three corpora; Corpus of Contemporary…

  10. Assessing the Readability of Geoscience Textbooks, Laboratory Manuals, and Supplemental Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hippensteel, Scott P.

    2015-01-01

    Reading materials used in undergraduate science classes have not received the same attention in the literature as those used in secondary schools. Additionally, reports critical of college textbooks and their prose are common. To assess both problems and determine the readability of assignments and texts used by geoscience faculty at the…

  11. Perpetual Motion: Creative Movement Exercises for Dance and Dramatic Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomer, Janice

    This book explores the moving world, introducing more than 100 movement experiences organized around the themes of rules, recipes, props, poetry and prose, objects and images, and integrated arts. It is intended to help the teacher develop an eye as choreographer. The book includes six chapters. Each chapter identifies a theme, specific learning…

  12. Reading, Comprehension, and Memory Processes: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1982 (Vol. 43 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 39 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) oral reading behaviors of early readers; (2) the effects of pictures and mode of presentation on the prose comprehension of third and fifth grade children of…

  13. Strategies in Reading Comprehension: III. Visual Imagery as a Psychological Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Joel R.; Divine-Hawkins, Patricia

    The viability of visual imagery as a prose-learning process was evaluated in two experiments with elementary school children in this study. In experiment one, two concrete ten-sentence passages were constructed. The attributes of two subclasses were contrasted in each passage (two kinds of monkeys in one passage, and two kinds of cars in the…

  14. A Positive Approach to Good Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehner, Alison V.

    2016-01-01

    Correct grammar is important for precise, accurate, academic prose, but the traditional skills-based approach to teaching grammar is not effective if the goal is good writing. The sentence-combining approach shows promise. However, sentence modeling is more likely to produce strong writing and enhance reading comprehension. Through sentence…

  15. War Literature. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderquist, Alisa

    Based on Stephen Crane's poems about war and his novel "The Red Badge of Courage," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Crane examined war-related themes in prose and poetry; that close study of a poem for oral presentation helps readers see meaning or techniques not noted earlier; and that not all readers…

  16. STEPHEN CRANE'S "THE O'RUDDY"--A PROBLEM IN AUTHORSHIP DISCRIMINATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'DONNELL, BERNARD

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS ANALYSIS WAS TO DISCOVER CERTAIN ASPECTS OF STYLE (BOTH LEXICAL AND GRAMMATICAL) WHICH COULD BE COUNTED AND WHICH WOULD, WHEN COMPARED, DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN THE WRITTEN PROSE OF TWO AUTHORS. THE SUBJECT SELECTED FOR ANALYSIS WAS "THE O'RUDDY," BEGUN BY STEPHEN CRANE AND COMPLETED BY ROBERT BARR. SINCE THERE WAS NO…

  17. Master of Disaster: Paolo Bacigalupi's Dystopian Tales Are Infuriating, Disturbing, and Impossible to Put down

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Betty

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Paolo Bacigalupi, a rising sci-fi star who has walked away with the Hugo Award, the Nebula Award, and, most recently, the Michael L. Printz Award for Excellence in Young Adult Literature--the Young Adult Library Services Association's top prize for prose. That's pretty impressive for a guy who's published…

  18. What Jobs Require: Literacy, Education, and Training, 1940-2006. Policy Information Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Paul E.

    This report assembles the best information available on past and future trends in employment and the education requirements of jobs in the post-World War II period, focusing on data for 1986 and 1996 and projections to 2006. The report's first section explains what is known from the 1992 National Adult Literacy Study, which measured prose,…

  19. Man and His Environment: To Perceive and to React: Language Arts. 5111.13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bermudez, Lynne L.

    A course which is an investigation and appraisal of prose, poetry, fine arts, and music which reflects the environment's effect on man or man's effect on his environment is presented. Performance objectives include the following: (1) Students will formulate a definition of what constitutes man's environment; (2) Students will examine the reactions…

  20. Why I Teach "Black Boy."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahle, Benjamin

    1983-01-01

    Argues that Richard Wright's "Black Boy" is appropriate for ninth-grade students because it combines an exciting story of survival with effective prose, forces readers to try to understand their own experiences in the light of the protagonist's, and intimately involves students in such universal concerns as suffering, violence, and…

  1. Uses of Popular Culture in the Composition Classroom: No Apologies--No Regrets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemrow, Lynne; Lemrow, Joseph H.

    Magazines and comic strips are two readily available cultural artifacts that can be used by expository writing teachers. Magazines are a particularly rich source of referential material for the composition classroom, offering examples of various prose styles and formal structures. One possibility for using magazines in writing classes is a…

  2. Embodied Wisdom: Meditations on Memoir and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryer, Alison

    2010-01-01

    "Embodied Wisdom: Meditations on Memoir and Education" by Alison Pryer, Ph.D. explores the interconnectedness of body, mind and spirit within diverse educational contexts. Evocative, sensual prose carries the reader on a journey through the personal and the remembered in a layered series of autobiographical essays, each one affording deeper…

  3. Project F. A. S. T.: Facilitating Academic Study Techniques for Handicapped Children. Volume 2. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Clessen J.

    Volume 2, the appendix to the final report of Project FAST, consists of prose selections used to study the effects of text reduction techniques on the comprehension and recall of written materials among visually handicapped and hearing impaired subjects. Each selection is presented in various versions such as 10 percent subjective deleted, 20…

  4. An Exploratory Study of the Relationships between Reported Imagery and the Comprehension and Recall of a Story in Fifth Graders. Instructional Research Laboratory Technical Paper # R82007.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadoski, Mark C.

    A study investigated the role of visual imagery in the comprehension and retention of prose. Subjects were 48 fifth grade students who orally read a story and then completed three comprehension tasks directly related to the story: a retelling, an oral reading cloze test, and a multiple choice question test comprised of items demonstrated to be…

  5. "Imitatio" Revived: A Curriculum Based upon Mimesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Maurice

    1988-01-01

    Argues that reintroducing the classical principle of imitation based upon single, model sentences can be highly beneficial by allowing the student to practice handling the sentence, directing attention to grammatical constructions, enlarging vocabulary, improving spelling, and filling the mind with mature standards of prose. (RS)

  6. Nurturing Relationships and Honouring Responsibilities: A Pacific Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaman, Konai Helu

    2008-01-01

    This essay contributes a Pacific Islands perspective to the global discussion of "Living Together: Education and Intercultural Dialogue". Through poetry and prose, this essay traces the impact of the Tongan concept of "vaa" (values/valued relationships) on learning and language. By invoking UNESCO's mandate to build peace…

  7. An Attempt to Influence Selected Portions of Student Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Edwin R.

    In an attempt to selectively improve student performance, one-half of a set of difficult test items from a FORTRAN programming class had handouts explaining the concepts underlying the items distributed to the students. Each handout contained a written learning objective, a short prose passage explaining the objective, and one or more practice…

  8. An Overview of Automated Scoring of Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikli, Semire

    2006-01-01

    Automated Essay Scoring (AES) is defined as the computer technology that evaluates and scores the written prose (Shermis & Barrera, 2002; Shermis & Burstein, 2003; Shermis, Raymat, & Barrera, 2003). AES systems are mainly used to overcome time, cost, reliability, and generalizability issues in writing assessment (Bereiter, 2003; Burstein,…

  9. Some Analogies between Computer Programming and the Composing Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skulicz, Matthew

    Since there are similarities between the process of writing computer programs and the process of writing successful expository prose, a student's knowledge of computer programing can contribute to the understanding of some principles of composition. The establishment of a clear objective is the first priority of both the writer and the programer,…

  10. The Relationship of Training in Self-Generated Questioning with Passage Difficulty and Immediate and Delayed Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balajthy, Ernest

    A study was conducted to determine if covert reader-generation of interspersed prequestions would affect recall of science-oriented prose. Sixty college freshmen in a basic skills reading course were divided into three groups: Group I received 5 hours of training and practive in the construction of self-generated questions, including recognition…

  11. Fictional Narrative as Speech Event.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Miles A.

    The issue addressed in this paper is the relationship between form in fictional prose and form in other uses of language, particularly those uses important in composition theory. Form in composition theory has traditionally had two ways of identifying units of analysis: (1) the sentence and semantic units, and (2) pragmatic and rhetorical units.…

  12. Syllepsis: An Unfought Battle in the Language Wars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Syllepsis (in one meaning of the term) is most commonly thought of as an ungrammatical construction which can in certain contexts function as a figure of speech. Yet the common view is at odds with syllepsis occurring in well-written prose that we experience neither as ungrammatical nor as figurative; and with its being largely ignored by literary…

  13. Linguistic Determinants of the Difficulty of True-False Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.; Peterson, James L.

    1976-01-01

    Adults read a prose passage and responded to passages based on it which were either true or false and were phrased either affirmatively or negatively. True negatives yielded most errors, followed in order by false negatives, true affirmatives, and false affirmatives. (Author/RC)

  14. Reading and Understanding Literature. Report Series 4.5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Gunnar

    Finding meaning in an ordinary prose text and following a description or argument is generally considered less difficult than finding the essential message in a literary text. Sometimes, however, the emotional impact makes it easier for some readers with some texts to see and understand the meaning of some literary texts. Research from the…

  15. Reprint 2007: Why Academics Have a Hard Time Writing Good Grants Proposals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the contrasting perspectives of academic prose versus grant writing, and lists strategies grant specialists can use to help researchers break old habits and replace them with techniques better suited to the world of competitive grant proposals. [This article is a reprint of "Why Academics Have a Hard Time Writing Good…

  16. Pluridicta, Numbers 1-27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluridicta, 1993

    1993-01-01

    The following titles are included: (1) "Computer in Foreign Language Instruction"; (2) "Two Sides of the Same Coin: Prose and Poetry in Translation"; (3) "Notions of Culture in Foreign Language Departments in Different Countries"; (4) "Developing Materials for Teaching Danish to Adult Immigrants"; (5) "Conversational Strategies in Expressive,…

  17. Foreign Accents Revisited: The English Pronunciation of Russian Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Irene

    1991-01-01

    This study investigated factors associated with the acquisition of second-language pronunciation and methodological problems associated with the study of foreign accents. Thirty-six native speakers of Russian fluent in English read specifically constructed English sentences and a prose passage, and talked spontaneously about their daily routine.…

  18. Children's Struggles with the Writing Process: Exploring Storytelling, Visual Arts, and Keyboarding to Promote Narrative Story Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Michael W.; Finley, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Composing text is an essential skill for students. Assignments, tests, and emailing are a few examples of the many tasks which require students to generate thoughts and put them into prose. For many students, choosing a topic, creating an outline, generating an initial draft, and making edits to produce a final copy is a fluid process which poses…

  19. Reading Minds: Using Literary Resources in Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Liz

    A qualitative enquiry explored, with a range of family therapists and systemic practitioners, the influence they perceive to have been made on their personal and professional lives by the literary texts they have read. Noting that "literary" is broadly interpreted to include poetry, prose, drama/film, song lyrics, etc., the study's aims…

  20. Differences in the Language and Design of Four PPIs for Valium. Technical Assistance Report No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redish, Janice C.

    As part of the evaluation of four different versions of a patient package insert (PPI) for diazepam (Valium) created by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the content, organization, language, and design of the PPIs were compared. One PPI was a short prose piece with clear organization that did not particularly highlight warnings or, indeed,…

  1. Found Poetry: Creating Space for Imaginative Arts-Based Literacy Research Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Lisa D.

    2016-01-01

    This theoretical position article inquires into poetic methodologies in literacy research and argues for the inclusion of poetry in social science research writing. The unconventional use of poetry in research writing challenges the traditionally accepted role prose plays in academic writing. Research poetry is written from and about research…

  2. The Relationship between Self-Efficacy and Perceptions of Different Literacy Types among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui, Ngoc H.

    2017-01-01

    Studies on reading literacy have yet to connect how students perceive the importance of different literacy areas to their ability perception in those areas. This article analyzes students' importance ranking of four different areas of literacy: prose (comprehending written information), document (interpreting information in forms, schedules,…

  3. Reading Comprehension of Sixth Grade, Good and Poor Readers: A Developmental and Methodological Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Myrtie L.; And Others

    To understand better how readers learn and recall text information, a study examined one prose learning approach--the selective attention strategy (SAS)--in which text elements are processed, given various degrees of attention, and learned according to their perceived importance. Fifty sixth grade students from an inner city school in a large…

  4. 12 CFR 1215.8 - Timing and form of demands and requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... section. (g) Every demand or request must include the legal proceeding's caption and docket number, the forum; the name, address, phone number, State Bar number, and, if available, electronic mail address of..., address, phone number, and electronic mail address of the pro-se party); and a statement of the demanding...

  5. Ornamental Gentlemen: Literary Curiosities and Queer Romanticisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Michael Edward

    2010-01-01

    The figure of the "bibliomaniacal" book collector with his "curious" malady--a "passion for collecting...that infects weak minds," according to Isaac D'Israeli (1766-1848)--serves as the focus of this dissertation about nineteenth-century British poetry and prose. More than a psychological condition or cultural practice, the bibliomaniac's…

  6. Premise and Inference Memory as a Function of Age and Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Michael; Rohwer, William D., Jr.

    A sentence completion task was used to investigate age differences in childrens' ability or inclination to invoke premises and inferences during prose processing, tasks which (according to the constructive hypothesis) adults typically perform. A pilot study confirmed that the sentence completion task was preferable to the recognition paradigm,…

  7. Embodied Narratives in Becoming a Counselling Trainer: An Autoethnographic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meekums, Bonnie

    2008-01-01

    This autoethnographic study addresses the newly appointed counselling trainer's question "How did I get here?" The procedure is described, and findings are presented as partial narratives of the Wounded Dancer, poems and prose written from different voices. Themes are revealed of love, healing, risk taking, unconventionality, physicality and…

  8. From Manga to Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brozo, William G.

    2013-01-01

    Considering the nature of the complex prose that K-12 students today must learn from, in light of the Common Core State Standards, students need to read informational texts on a meaningful level-and with enthusiasm. Teachers, Brozo says, need to achieve three goals: motivate students to read informational texts, expand students' background…

  9. Litterature: Retour au texte (Literature: Return to the Text).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noe, Alfred

    1993-01-01

    Choice of texts for use in French language instruction is discussed. It is argued that the text's format (e.g., advertising, figurative poetry, journal article, play, prose, etc.) is instrumental in bringing attention to the language in it, and this has implications for the best uses of different text types. (MSE)

  10. Civilian Contractors under Military Law

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    MEJAhave Autumn 2007 87 dogged the USA Patriot Act, as well; there has only been one successful prose- cution of an Afghanistan- or Iraq-based...Baghdad Central Confinement Facility in Abu Ghraib. See “Abu Ghraib Contractor Sen- tenced for Child Porn ,” Associated Press, 25 May 2007, http

  11. Acquiring Foreign Language Vocabulary through Meaningful Linguistic Context: Where Is the Limit to Vocabulary Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Garza, Bernardo; Harris, Richard Jackson

    2017-01-01

    The present studies examined the effects of varying degrees of unfamiliar vocabulary within written discourse on individuals' abilities to use linguistic context for the purposes of translation and comprehension (i.e., lexical inferencing). Prose varied in the number of foreign words introduced into each sentence (e.g., 0 through 7 content words…

  12. Slavoj Zizek's Dialectics of Ideology and the Discourses of Irish Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seery, Aidan

    2008-01-01

    A number of different languages or discourses are evident in contemporary Irish educational policy, debate and theory: the grammar of commodity and marketisation, the poetry of "Bildung" and culture, the prose of Christian formation and revelation together with the ubiquitous rhetoric of personal developmental psychology. These are among…

  13. Writing Our Wrongs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothschild, Jeffrey

    In writing, as with tools, form must always follow function. From this perspective there can be no "good" writing, only effective writing. Unfortunately, in most instructional situations the function of communicating to an audience is often neglected. Most so-called poor writing falls into the category of writer-based prose. Once student writing…

  14. El Escritor y las Normas del Canon Literario (The Writer and the Norms of the Literary Canon).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Policarpo, Alcibiades

    This paper speculates about whether a literary canon exists in contemporary Latin American literature, particularly in the prose genre. The paper points to Carlos Fuentes, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, and Mario Vargas Llosa as the three authors who might form this traditional and liberal canon with their works "La Muerte de Artemio Cruz"…

  15. Source Code Stylometry Improvements in Python

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-12-14

    person can be identified via their handwriting or an author identified by their style or prose, programmers can be identified by their code...to say , picking 1 author out of a known complete set. However, expanded open-world classification and multiauthor classification have also been

  16. Radicalizing Learning: Adult Education for a Just World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen D.; Holst, John D.

    2010-01-01

    This book offers new readings of the theory, politics, policy, and practice of radical adult education and learning where people's lives are understood as complex and interrelated matters. Brookfield and Holst's poetics and deeply human prose sound rebellious; the authors confront some of the main radical trends in the field of adult education…

  17. Rescuing Red Riding Hood: Carmen Martín Gaite's "Caperucita en Manhattan"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Joan L.

    2017-01-01

    Carmen Martín Gaite's "Caperucita en Manhattan" is a Young Adult novel ahead of its time. If this category had existed in Spain when it was published, it is likely that it would have earned the critical recognition it deserves. The novel's exciting plot, captivating prose, wise cultural commentary, factual content, sense of humor, and…

  18. A Poetry Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Mary

    Intended to impart the basic ways a poem is constructed, this concise handbook is a prose guide to writing poetry. The handbook talks about meter and rhyme, form and diction, sound and sense, iambs and trochees, couplets and sonnets, and how and why this should matter to any person writing or reading poetry. Interspersing history and analysis with…

  19. The Influence of ?afi? on Mu?ammad Taqi Bahar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solati, Bahman

    2016-01-01

    Looking through the eyes of Persian culture, we see that man is not all noetic; he is not driven by intellect or consistent in his use of reason. On the contrary, he is most moved by emotion. A perfect example: Persian philosophy is most commonly uttered in both poetry and prose. This is, I believe, where the brilliance of Persians rests, in the…

  20. An Exploration of Gender Bias in Computer Clip Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrud, Marilyn A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines over 14,000 clip art images for gender bias. Finds that only 4% of images depicted women and that those images present women in stereotypical roles, such as secretaries, nurses, teachers. Notes the irony that communication instructors expend much effort persuading students that gender-free prose is the new model--while visually still…

  1. Journal of the Assembly of Rural Teachers of English (ARTE), 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the Assembly of Rural Teachers of English (ARTE), 1993

    1993-01-01

    The 1993 issue of this annual journal contains five articles about rural education by rural English teachers. "Rural: The Only Place To Be" (Craig Akey) speaks of a personal commitment to rural education, presents examples of prose and poetry by junior and senior high school students in an innovative "outdoor literature"…

  2. Written for Children: An Outline of English Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, John Rowe

    Children's prose literature in Britain is surveyed from the 17th century to the present. The main stream of this development is exemplified by an examination of the lives and works of such authors as (1) John Newbery, whose books for children include "Goody Two-Shoes" (1766), (2) Mrs. Sherwood, whose didactic books contain a moral lesson in every…

  3. Teaching Writing/Teaching Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Charles

    Believing that a course in the novel ought to include the making of prose as well as its analysis, a college English instructor altered his teaching strategy by treating both the novel author and his students as writers. Prior to studying a particular novel, the instructor gave students an assignment that would involve a particular literary…

  4. Schemes for Integrating Text and Image in the Science Textbook: Effects on Comprehension and Situational Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Matthew O.

    2016-01-01

    Science education researchers have turned their attention to the use of images in textbooks, both because pages are heavily illustrated and because visual literacy is an important aptitude for science students. Text-image integration in the textbook is described here as composition schemes in increasing degrees of integration: prose primary (PP),…

  5. Robert Frost: Teacher "Earner, Learner, Yearner."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Nancy Sue

    An account of Robert Frost's teaching, along with an assessment of it, are presented. Material consulted includes Frost's published letters, prose, and poetry; Lawrance Thompson's authorized biography; Lesley Frost's "New Hampshire's Child: The Derry Journals of Lesley Frost;" and additional sources such as films and periodicals,…

  6. Frederick Douglass and I: Writing to Read and Relate History with Life among African American Adolescents at a High-Poverty Urban School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morphy, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Black history as represented in social studies textbooks often lacks depth demanded by historians and authenticity required for cultural relevance to African American students. However, important Black historical narratives sometimes contain difficult prose and refer to times or circumstances that are far removed from students' life…

  7. How Clearly Written are Children's Textbooks? or, of Bladderworts and Alfa. Reading Education Report No. 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Thomas H.; And Others

    Two representative samples of expository prose from sixth grade textbooks (one in science and one in social studies) were analyzed for clarity of explanation. Four text criteria were applied to the analyses: structure, unity, coherence, and audience appropriateness. The results of the analysis suggested that many children's textbooks are not…

  8. Using Readers' Theatre in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annarella, Lorie A.

    Reader's Theatre can be used to combine basic literature and writing instruction with creative arts. Improvisational playmaking by students, using literature in the form of plays, prose, and poetry, forms the basis of Reader's Theatre. Use of Reader's Theatre in the classroom can: (1) foster deeper understanding of character, setting, and plot…

  9. In Touch with Kids: A Conversation with Jean Marzollo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spodek, Bernard; Barrera, Rosalinda B.; Harris, Violet J.

    2002-01-01

    Interviews Jean Marzollo about her past, present, and future work in children's literature. Notes that her body of writing (more than 100 books of prose and poetry for young readers) transcends the boundaries of genre and disciplines, and is infused with a strong emphasis on rhyme and rhythm intended to capture the ears and minds of emergent and…

  10. Whose "Crisis in Language"? Translating and the Futurity of Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gramling, David J.; Warner, Chantelle

    2016-01-01

    This contribution questions to whom and to whose learning experience has the idiom of crisis that so pervades the domain of U.S. foreign language teaching been addressed. The authors report on an advanced foreign language classroom-based study from 2013, in which undergraduate German learners translated a 14-page prose poem about translingual…

  11. Plasma Interactions With a Negative Biased Electrodynamic Tether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Jason A.; Curtis, Leslie; Welzyn, Ken J.

    2004-01-01

    The ProSEDS conductive tether design incorporates two distinct types of tethers from a plasma interaction viewpoint. The 200 m closest to the Delta II spacecraft is insulated from the plasma, and the remaining 4800 m is semi-bare. This latter portion is considered semi-bare because a conductive coating, which is designed to collect electrons from the plasma, was applied to the wires to regulate the overall tether temperature. Because the tether has both insulating and conductive tether sections, a transition point exists between the two that forms a triple point with the space plasma. Also, insulated tethers can arc to the space plasma if the insulation is weakened or breached by pinholes caused by either improper handling or small meteoroid and orbital debris strikes. Because electrodynamic tethers are typically long, they have a high probability of these impacts. The particles, which strike the tether, may not have sufficient size to severe the tether, but they can easily penetrate the tether insulation producing a plasma discharge to the ambient plasma. Samples of both the ProSEDS tether transition region and the insulated tether section with various size of pinholes were placed into the MSFC plasma chamber and biased to typical ProSEDS open circuit tether potentials (-500 V to -1600 V). The results of the testing showed that the transition region of the tether (i.e. the triple point) arced to the ambient plasma at -900 V, and the tethers damaged by a pinhole or simulated debris strike arced to the plasma between -700 V and -900 V. Specific design steps were taken to eliminate the triple point issue in the ProSEDS tether design and make it ready for flight. To reduce the pinhole arcing risk, ProSEDS mission operations were changed to eliminate the high negative potential on the insulated tether. The results of the testing campaign and the design changes implemented to ensure a successful flight are described.

  12. Monoclinic phase transformation and mechanical durability of zirconia ceramic after fatigue and autoclave aging.

    PubMed

    Mota, Yasmine A; Cotes, Caroline; Carvalho, Rodrigo F; Machado, João P B; Leite, Fabíola P P; Souza, Rodrigo O A; Özcan, Mutlu

    2017-10-01

    This study evaluated the influence of two aging procedures on the biaxial flexural strength of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia ceramics. Disc-shaped zirconia specimens and (ZE: E.max ZirCAD, Ivoclar; ZT: Zirkon Translucent, Zirkonzahn) (N = 80) (∅:12 mm; thickness:1.2 mm, ISO 6872) were prepared and randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 per group) according to the aging procedures: C: Control, no aging; M: mechanical cycling (2 × 10 6 cycles/3.8 Hz/200 N); AUT: Aging in autoclave at 134°C, 2 bar for 24 h; AUT + M: Autoclave aging followed by mechanical cycling. After aging, the transformed monoclinic zirconia (%) were evaluated using X-ray diffraction and surface roughness was measured using atomic force microscopy. The average grain size was measured by scanning electron microscopy and the specimens were submitted to biaxial flexural strength testing (1 mm/min, 1000 kgf in water). Data (MPa) were statistically analyzed using 2-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). Aging procedures significantly affected (p = 0.000) the flexural strength data but the effect of zirconia type was not significant (p = 0.657). AUT ZT (936.4 ± 120.9 b ) and AUT + M ZE (867.2 ± 49.3 b ) groups presented significantly higher values (p < 0.05) of flexural strength than those of the control groups (C ZT : 716.5 ± 185.7 a ; C ZE : 779.9 ± 114 a ) (Tukey's test). The monoclinic phase percentage (%) was higher for AUT ZE (71), AUT ZT (66), AUT + M ZE (71), and AUT + M ZM (66) compared to the C groups (ZE:0; ZT:0). Surface roughness (µm) was higher for AUT ZE (0.09), AUT ZT (0.08), AUT + M ZE (0.09 µm), and AUT + M ZT (0.09 µm) than those of other groups. Regardless of the zirconia type, autoclave aging alone or with mechanical aging increased the flexure strength but also induced higher transformation from tetragonal to monoclinic phase in both zirconia materials tested. © 2016 Wiley

  13. Durability of resin cement bond to aluminium oxide and zirconia ceramics after air abrasion and laser treatment.

    PubMed

    Foxton, Richard M; Cavalcanti, Andrea N; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Pilecki, Peter; Sherriff, Martyn; Melo, Luciana; Watson, Timothy F

    2011-02-01

    cement/ceramic bond; however, a durable bond between a conventional dual-cured resin cement and Procera All Ceram and Procera All Zirkon was formed using a ceramic primer containing the phosphate monomer, MDP, without any additional surface treatment. © 2011 by The American College of Prosthodontists.

  14. Retention of zirconium oxide ceramic crowns with three types of cement.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Rosario P; Johnson, Glen H; Phillips, Keith M; Raigrodski, Ariel J

    2006-08-01

    Information about the retentive strength of luting agents for zirconium oxide-based crowns is limited. It is unknown if this type of high-strength ceramic restoration requires adhesive cementation to enhance retention. The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the ability of selected luting agents to retain a representative zirconium oxide ceramic crown under clinically simulated conditions. Recently extracted human molars were prepared with a flat occlusal surface, 20-degree taper, and approximately 4-mm axial length. The axial and occlusal surface areas were determined, and specimens were distributed equally by total surface area into 3 cementation groups (n=12). Zirconium oxide ceramic copings (Procera AllZirkon) with an occlusal bar to facilitate removal were fabricated using computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. All copings were airborne-particle abraded with 50-mum Al(2)O(3) and then cleaned in an ultrasonic bath with isopropyl alcohol. Provisional cement was removed from the prepared teeth, followed by a pumice prophy. After trial insertion, the copings were cleaned with phosphoric acid, rinsed, dried, and dehydrated with isopropyl alcohol. They were then cemented with a seating force of 10 kg per tooth, using either a composite resin cement with adhesive agent (Panavia F 2.0 and ED Primer A & B [PAN]), a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Rely X Luting [RXL]), or a self-adhesive modified composite resin (Rely X Unicem [RXU]). The cemented copings were thermal cycled at 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C for 5000 cycles with a 15 second dwell time, and then removed along the path of insertion using a universal testing machine at 0.5 mm/min. The removal force was recorded, and the stress of dislodgement was calculated using the surface area of each preparation. A 1-way analysis of variance was used to analyze the data (alpha=.05). The nature of failure was also recorded. Mean dislodgement stresses were 5.1, 6.1, and

  15. Context-dependent memory: colour versus odour.

    PubMed

    Pointer, S C; Bond, N W

    1998-06-01

    An olfactory stimulus and a visual stimulus were employed in a context-dependent memory study using a prose passage as the to-be-remembered item. Ninety-five university students (aged 17-35 years) learned the passage of prose in the presence of one of the stimuli and were then asked to recall the passage with the original context either reinstated or not reinstated. The results revealed a significant context-dependent memory effect for the olfactory cue but not for the visual cue. They demonstrate support for the effectiveness of odours as context cues and it is suggested that context-dependent memory processes may underlie the formation and retrieval of odour-evoked autobiographical memories.

  16. Inconsistent-handed advantage in episodic memory extends to paragraph-level materials.

    PubMed

    Prichard, Eric C; Christman, Stephen D

    2017-09-01

    Past research using handedness as a proxy for functional access to the right hemisphere demonstrates that individuals who are mixed/inconsistently handed outperform strong/consistently handed individuals when performing episodic recall tasks. However, research has generally been restricted to stimuli presented in a list format. In the present paper, we present two studies in which participants were presented with paragraph-level material and then asked to recall material from the passages. The first study was based on a classic study looking at retroactive interference with prose materials. The second was modelled on a classic experiment looking at perspective taking and the content of memory. In both studies, the classic effects were replicated and the general finding that mixed/inconsistent-handers outperform strong/consistent-handers was replicated. This suggests that considering degree of handedness may be an empirically useful means of reducing error variance in paradigms looking at memory for prose level material.

  17. The Influence of Cognitive Training on Older Adults’ Recall for Short Stories

    PubMed Central

    Sisco, S. M.; Marsiske, M; Gross, A. L.; Rebok, G. W.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This paper investigated how a multi-component memory intervention affected memory for prose. We compared verbatim and paraphrased recall for short stories immediately and 1-, 2-, 3- and 5-years post-intervention in the ACTIVE (Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly) sample. Methods We studied 1,912 ACTIVE participants aged 65–91. Participants were randomized into one of three training arms (Memory, Reasoning, Speed of Processing) or a no-contact Control group; about half of the trained participants received additional booster training 1 and 3 years post-intervention. Results Memory-trained participants showed higher verbatim recall than non-memory-trained participants. Booster memory training led to higher verbatim recall. Memory training effects were evident immediately following training and not after one year following training. Discussion Results suggest that multi-factorial memory training can improve verbatim recall for prose, but the effect does not last without continued intervention. PMID:24385636

  18. The influence of cognitive training on older adults' recall for short stories.

    PubMed

    Sisco, Shannon M; Marsiske, Michael; Gross, Alden L; Rebok, George W

    2013-12-01

    This article investigated how a multicomponent memory intervention affected memory for prose. We compared verbatim and paraphrased recall for short stories immediately and 1, 2, 3, and 5 years post-intervention in the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) sample. We studied 1,912 ACTIVE participants aged 65 to 91. Participants were randomized into one of three training arms (Memory, Reasoning, Speed of Processing) or a no-contact Control group; about half of the trained participants received additional booster training 1 and 3 years post-intervention. Memory-trained participants showed higher verbatim recall than non-memory-trained participants. Booster-memory training led to higher verbatim recall. Memory training effects were evident immediately following training and not after 1 year following training. Results suggest that multifactorial memory training can improve verbatim recall for prose, but the effect does not last without continued intervention.

  19. A risk-based coverage model for video surveillance camera control optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongzhou; Du, Zhiguo; Zhao, Xingtao; Li, Peiyue; Li, Dehua

    2015-12-01

    Visual surveillance system for law enforcement or police case investigation is different from traditional application, for it is designed to monitor pedestrians, vehicles or potential accidents. Visual surveillance risk is defined as uncertainty of visual information of targets and events monitored in present work and risk entropy is introduced to modeling the requirement of police surveillance task on quality and quantity of vide information. the prosed coverage model is applied to calculate the preset FoV position of PTZ camera.

  20. Why Wargaming Works

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Clinton read The Cobra Event. What makes telling a good story more powerful than other forms of communication ? The Power of Prose To explore this...reaction as any story. But high-engagement games are more than simple narratives; they employ ranges of physical cues, as do movies or stage plays. The...relationships can reflect and help organize hierarchical or communications rela- tionships. The venue also organizes players and their interactions into group

  1. A Question of Ethics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    tation by multinational corporations, public justice policies, and th e environment .” Several months later, that colleague came to Sommers and...standards that every culture can appeal to, then how can we say that some - thing is amiss in Brazil, where men are not prose ­ cuted for mutilating...universal maxim—would be best for all people. That is, if everyone did it, it would be best for everyone. The categorical imperative is a fine, rational

  2. Spaceborne computer executive routine functional design specification. Volume 1: Functional design of a flight computer executive program for the reusable shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, R. T.

    1971-01-01

    A flight computer functional executive design for the reusable shuttle is presented. The design is given in the form of functional flowcharts and prose description. Techniques utilized in the regulation of process flow to accomplish activation, resource allocation, suspension, termination, and error masking based on process primitives are considered. Preliminary estimates of main storage utilization by the Executive are furnished. Conclusions and recommendations for timely, effective software-hardware integration in the reusable shuttle avionics system are proposed.

  3. Contributions to Automated Realtime Underwater Navigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    help by scrubbing circuits–Scotty McCue was always there to help, and demonstrate proper circuit scrubbing technique. Carl Kaiser has been great at... Jung Lee, and of course, my committee again. My friends and fellow JP students have provided advice on code or prose, sounding boards for crazy ideas...order): Chris Murphy, Clay Kunz, Jeff Kaeli, Mark van Middlesworth, Peter Kimball, Wu- Jung Lee, Heather Beem, Derya Akkaynak Yellin, Kalina

  4. OCT-based profiler for automating ocular surface prosthetic fitting (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mujat, Mircea; Patel, Ankit H.; Maguluri, Gopi N.; Iftimia, Nicusor V.; Patel, Chirag; Agranat, Josh; Tomashevskaya, Olga; Bonte, Eugene; Ferguson, R. Daniel

    2016-03-01

    The use of a Prosthetic Replacement of the Ocular Surface Environment (PROSE) device is a revolutionary treatment for military patients that have lost their eyelids due to 3rd degree facial burns and for civilians who suffer from a host of corneal diseases. However, custom manual fitting is often a protracted painful, inexact process that requires multiple fitting sessions. Training for new practitioners is a long process. Automated methods to measure the complete corneal and scleral topology would provide a valuable tool for both clinicians and PROSE device manufacturers and would help streamline the fitting process. PSI has developed an ocular anterior-segment profiler based on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), which provides a 3D measure of the surface of the sclera and cornea. This device will provide topography data that will be used to expedite and improve the fabrication process for PROSE devices. OCT has been used to image portions of the cornea and sclera and to measure surface topology for smaller contact lenses [1-3]. However, current state-of-the-art anterior eye OCT systems can only scan about 16 mm of the eye's anterior surface, which is not sufficient for covering the sclera around the cornea. In addition, there is no systematic method for scanning and aligning/stitching the full scleral/corneal surface and commercial segmentation software is not optimized for the PROSE application. Although preliminary, our results demonstrate the capability of PSI's approach to generate accurate surface plots over relatively large areas of the eye, which is not currently possible with any other existing platform. Testing the technology on human volunteers is currently underway at Boston Foundation for Sight.

  5. Getting it Right: The Art of Strategy and Operational Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    level strategic guidance. This latest revision reduces doctrinal clutter, and its crisp prose is a welcome stylistic improvement over previous...elements of power as “instruments,” joint doc- trine fails to make the cognitive discrimination necessary to deal with the challenges we face and...military, and economic elemental categories. This confusion creates a cognitive disso- nance within joint doctrine that remains unre- solved, seeing

  6. Current Methods for Evaluation of Physical Security System Effectiveness.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    It also helps the user modify a data set before further processing. (c) Safeguards Engineering and Analysis Data Base (SEAD)--To complete SAFE’s...graphic display software in addition to a Fortran compiler, and up to about (3 35,000 words of storage. For a fairly complex problem, a single run through...operational software . 94 BIBLIOGRAPHY Lenz, J.E., "The PROSE (Protection System Evaluator) Model," Proc. 1979 Winter Simulation Conference, IEEE, 1979

  7. Cloze, Discourse, and Approximations to English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oller, John W., Jr.

    Five orders of approximation to normal English prose were constructed; 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, and 100th plus. Five cloze tests were then constructed by inserting blanks for deleted words in 5 word segments (5th order), 10 word segments (10th), 25 word segments (25th), 50 word segments (50th), and 100 word segments of five different passages of…

  8. Cross-age comparisons reveal multiple strategies for lexical ambiguity resolution during natural reading.

    PubMed

    Stites, Mallory C; Federmeier, Kara D; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A L

    2013-11-01

    Eye tracking was used to investigate how younger and older (60 or more years) adults use syntactic and semantic information to disambiguate noun/verb (NV) homographs (e.g., park). In event-related potential (ERP) work using the same materials, Lee and Federmeier (2009, 2011) found that young adults elicited a sustained frontal negativity to NV homographs when only syntactic cues were available (i.e., in syntactic prose); this effect was eliminated by semantic constraints. The negativity was only present in older adults with high verbal fluency. The current study shows parallel findings: Young adults exhibit inflated first fixation durations to NV homographs in syntactic prose, but not semantically congruent sentences. This effect is absent in older adults as a group. Verbal fluency modulates the effect in both age groups: High fluency is associated with larger first fixation effects in syntactic prose. Older, but not younger, adults also show significantly increased rereading of the NV homographs in syntactic prose. Verbal fluency modulates this effect as well: High fluency is associated with a reduced tendency to reread, regardless of age. This relationship suggests a trade-off between initial and downstream processing costs for ambiguity during natural reading. Together the eye-tracking and ERP data suggest that effortful meaning selection recruits mechanisms important for suppressing contextually inappropriate meanings, which also slow eye movements. Efficacy of frontotemporal circuitry, as captured by verbal fluency, predicts the success of engaging these mechanisms in both young and older adults. Failure to recruit these processes requires compensatory rereading or leads to comprehension failures (Lee & Federmeier, 2012). PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Radiology reporting-from Hemingway to HAL?

    PubMed

    Brady, Adrian P

    2018-04-01

    The job of the diagnostic radiologist is two-fold: identifying and interpreting the information available from diagnostic imaging studies and communicating that interpretation meaningfully to the referring clinician. However skilled our interpretive abilities, our patients are not well served if we fail to convey our conclusions effectively. Despite the central importance of communication skills to the work of radiologists, trainees rarely receive significant formal training in reporting skills, and much of the training given simply reflects the trainer's personal preferences. Studies have shown a preference among referrers for reports in a structured form, with findings given in a standard manner, followed by a conclusion. The technical competence to incorporate structured report templates into PACS/RIS systems is growing, "...and radiology societies (including the European Society of Radiology (ESR)) are active in producing and validating templates for a wide range of modalities and clinical circumstances. While some radiologists may prefer prose format reports, and much literature has been produced addressing "dos and don'ts" for such prose reports, it seems likely that structured reporting will become the norm in the near future. Benefits will include homogenisation and standardisation of reports, certainty that significant information has not been omitted, and capacity for data-mining of structured reports for research and teaching purposes. • The radiologist's job includes interpretation of imaging studies AND communication. • Traditionally, communication has taken the form of a prose report. • Referrers have been shown to prefer reports in a structured format. • Structured reports have many advantages over traditional prose reports. • It is likely that structured reports represent the future standard.

  10. JPRS Report Proliferation Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-29

    IAEA agency were still studying the model version we were Conference going to use," Santana explained. Brazil and Argentina, 92WPOO05A Sao Paulo GAZETA...entering into part- 92WPOO05B Sao Paulo GAZETA MERCANTIL nership with private companies. Thirty percent of the in Portuguese 26 Sep 91 p 23 investment...to Luiz Fernando Teixeira de Macedo, direc- with environmentalists and the Sao Paulo public prose- tor-superintendent of Nuclemon, the technology to

  11. Reliability of Slope Scores for Individuals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    RD-Ai3I 252 RELIABILITY OF SLOPE SCORES FOR XNDIVIDUALS( U ) NAVAL i/ BIODYNAMICS LAB*NE&I ORLEANS LA R C CARTER ET AL. APR 83 NBDL-93RS UNCLASSIFIED F... Neisser , 1963), search for typographical errors in prose (Schindler, 1978), and choice reaction time (Teichner, 1978) were studied with respect to the...17 Experiment 4: Letter Search Method A letter-search task was administered to 23 subjects in the manner of Neisser (1963). Subjects were presented

  12. The Cosmology of Edgar Allan Poe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappi, Alberto

    2011-06-01

    Eureka is a ``prose poem'' published in 1848, where Edgar Allan Poe presents his original cosmology. While starting from metaphysical assumptions, Poe develops an evolving Newtonian model of the Universe which has many and non casual analogies with modern cosmology. Poe was well informed about astronomical and physical discoveries, and he was influenced by both contemporary science and ancient ideas. For these reasons, Eureka is a unique synthesis of metaphysics, art and science.

  13. The Iranian Revolution and Modernization. Way Stations to Anarchy,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    pervasive influence of what he identifies as the Irani- an national character. His purpose is to examine social sci- ence theorizing with a case study of...Kamshad. H. Modern Persian Prose Literature. Cambridge: At the University Press, 1966. Katouzianm. M. A. "Land Reform in Iran: A Case Study in the...1 1. The Conceptual Framework ...................... 3 2. The Case of Iran ................................. 15 3. The Iranian

  14. USSR Report Political and Sociological Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-15

    on USSR Council of Ministers resolutions. Under the first subhead "On the Development of Collective Horticulture " the report deals with the resolu...tion "on measures to further develop collective horticulture and market gar- dening," stipulating the provision of "enterprises, organizations, and... children are brought by the stork and men never cheat on their wives... By avoiding or keeping silent in our prose about what in journalism is

  15. [Alcoholism and the aesthetics of existence: Jack London and the white logic of John Barleycorn].

    PubMed

    Arantes, Marco Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Employing this theme as a guideline, this article examines how his prose amounts to self-practice in the construction of subjectivity and the organization of existence. It investigates how this work is related to the theme of self-care, analyzed by Michel Foucault in volumes 2 and 3 of the History of sexuality, as regards the aesthetics of existence and the art of living which existed in the Greco-Roman and Hellenistic worlds.

  16. Cross-age comparisons reveal multiple strategies for lexical ambiguity resolution during natural reading

    PubMed Central

    Stites, Mallory C.; Federmeier, Kara D.; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A. L.

    2013-01-01

    Eye-tracking was used to investigate how younger and older (60+) adults use syntactic and semantic information to disambiguate noun/verb (NV) homographs (e.g. park). In event-related potential work using the same materials, Lee and Federmeier (2009, 2011) found that young adults elicited a sustained frontal negativity to NV-homographs when only syntactic cues were available (i.e., in syntactic prose); this effect was eliminated by semantic constraints. The negativity was only present in older adults with high verbal fluency. The current study shows parallel findings: young adults exhibit inflated first fixation durations to NV-homographs in syntactic prose, but not semantically congruent sentences. This effect is absent in older adults as a group. Verbal fluency modulates the effect in both age groups: high fluency is associated with larger first fixation effects in syntactic prose. Older, but not younger, adults also show significantly increased rereading of the NV-homographs in syntactic prose. Verbal fluency modulates this effect as well: high fluency is associated with a reduced tendency to reread, regardless of age. This relationship suggests a tradeoff between initial and downstream processing costs for ambiguity during natural reading. Together, the eye-tracking and ERP data suggest that effortful meaning selection recruits mechanisms important for suppressing contextually inappropriate meanings, which also slow eye movements. Efficacy of fronto-temporal circuitry, as captured by verbal fluency, predicts the success of engaging these mechanisms in both young and older adults. Failure to recruit these processes requires compensatory rereading or leads to comprehension failures (Lee & Federmeier, 2012). PMID:23687920

  17. Effects of lorazepam on visual perceptual abilities.

    PubMed

    Pompéia, S; Pradella-Hallinan, M; Manzano, G M; Bueno, O F A

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of an acute dose of the benzodiazepine (BZ) lorazepam in young healthy volunteers on five distinguishable visual perception abilities determined by previous factor-analytic studies. This was a double-blind, cross-over design study of acute oral doses of lorazepam (2 mg) and placebo in young healthy volunteers. We focused on a set of paper-and-pencil tests of visual perceptual abilities that load on five correlated but distinguishable factors (Spatial Visualization, Spatial Relations, Perceptual Speed, Closure Speed, and Closure Flexibility). Some other tests (DSST, immediate and delayed recall of prose; measures of subjective mood alterations) were used to control for the classic BZ-induced effects. Lorazepam impaired performance in the DSST and delayed recall of prose, increased subjective sedation and impaired tasks of all abilities except Spatial Visualization and Closure Speed. Only impairment in Perceptual Speed (Identical Pictures task) and delayed recall of prose were not explained by sedation. Acute administration of lorazepam, in a dose that impaired episodic memory, selectively affected different visual perceptual abilities before and after controlling for sedation. Central executive demands and sedation did not account for results, so impairment in the Identical Pictures task may be attributed to lorazepam's visual processing alterations. 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Contributions of volumetrics of the hippocampus and thalamus to verbal memory in temporal lobe epilepsy patients.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Christopher C; Griffith, H Randall; Okonkwo, Ozioma C; Martin, Roy C; Knowlton, Robert K; Richardson, Elizabeth J; Hermann, Bruce P; Seidenberg, Michael

    2009-02-01

    Recent theories have posited that the hippocampus and thalamus serve distinct, yet related, roles in episodic memory. Whereas the hippocampus has been implicated in long-term memory encoding and storage, the thalamus, as a whole, has been implicated in the selection of items for subsequent encoding and the use of retrieval strategies. However, dissociating the memory impairment that occurs following thalamic injury as distinguished from that following hippocampal injury has proven difficult. This study examined relationships between MRI volumetric measures of the hippocampus and thalamus and their contributions to prose and rote verbal memory functioning in 18 patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Results revealed that bilateral hippocampal and thalamic volume independently predicted delayed prose verbal memory functioning. However, bilateral hippocampal, but not thalamic, volume predicted delayed rote verbal memory functioning. Follow-up analyses indicated that bilateral thalamic volume independently predicted immediate prose, but not immediate rote, verbal recall, whereas bilateral hippocampal volume was not associated with any of these immediate memory measures. These findings underscore the cognitive significance of thalamic atrophy in chronic TLE, demonstrating that hippocampal and thalamic volume make quantitatively, and perhaps qualitatively, distinct contributions to episodic memory functioning in TLE patients. They are also consistent with theories proposing that the hippocampus supports long-term memory encoding and storage, whereas the thalamus is implicated in the executive aspects of episodic memory.

  19. Effect of feldspathic porcelain layering on the marginal fit of zirconia and titanium complete-arch fixed implant-supported frameworks.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Burak; Alshahrani, Faris A; Kale, Ediz; Johnston, William M

    2018-02-06

    Veneering with porcelain may adversely affect the marginal fit of long-span computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) implant-supported fixed prostheses. Moreover, data regarding the precision of fit of CAD-CAM-fabricated implant-supported complete zirconia fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) before and after porcelain layering are limited. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of porcelain layering on the marginal fit of CAD-CAM-fabricated complete-arch implant-supported, screw-retained FDPs with presintered zirconia frameworks compared with titanium. An autopolymerizing acrylic resin-fixed complete denture framework prototype was fabricated on an edentulous typodont master model (all-on-4 concept; Nobel Biocare) with 2 straight in the anterior and 2 distally tilted internal-hexagon dental implants in the posterior with multiunit abutments bilaterally in canine and first molar locations. A 3-dimensional (3D) laser scanner (S600 ARTI; Zirkonzahn) was used to digitize the prototype and the master model by using scan bodies to generate a virtual 3D CAD framework. Five presintered zirconia (ICE Zirkon Translucent - 95H16; Zirkonzahn) and 5 titanium (Titan 5 - 95H14; Zirkonzahn) frameworks were fabricated using the CAM milling unit (M1 Wet Heavy Metal Milling Unit; Zirkonzahn).The 1-screw test was applied by fixing the frameworks at the location of the maxillary left first molar abutment, and an industrial computed tomography (CT) scanner (XT H 225 - Basic Configuration; Nikon) was used to scan the framework-model complex to evaluate the passive fit of the frameworks on the master model. The scanned data were transported in standard tessellation language (STL) from Volume Graphics analysis software to PolyWorks analysis software by using the maximum-fit algorithm to fit scanned planes in order to mimic the mating surfaces in the best way. 3D virtual assessment of the marginal fit was performed at the abutment

  20. An audit comparing the reporting of staging MRI scans for rectal cancer with the London Cancer Alliance (LCA) guidelines.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, M R S; Shanmuganandan, A P; Rasheed, S; Tekkis, P; Brown, G; Abulafi, A M

    2017-11-01

    This article focuses on the audit and assessment of clinical practice before and after introduction of MRI reporting guidelines. Standardised proforma based reporting may improve quality of MRI reports. Uptake of the use may be facilitated by endorsement from regional and national cancer organisations. This audit was divided into 2 phases. MRI reports issued between April 2014 and June 2014 were included in the first part of our audit. Phase II included MRI reports issued between April 2015 and June 2015. 14 out of 15 hospitals that report MRI scans in the LCA responded to our audit proposal. The completion rate of key MRI metrics/metrics was better in proforma compared to prose reports both before (98% vs 73%; p < 0.05) and after introduction of the guidelines (98% vs 71%; p < 0.05). There was an approximate doubling of proforma reporting after the introduction of guidelines and workshop interventions (39% vs 65%; p < 0.05). Evaluation of locally advanced cancers (tumours extending to or beyond the circumferential resection margin) for beyond TME surgery was reported in 3% of prose reports vs. 42% in proformas. Incorporation of standardised reporting in official guidelines improved the uptake of proforma based reporting. Proforma based reporting captured more MRI reportable items compared to prose summaries, before and after the implementation of guidelines. MRI reporting of advanced cancers for beyond TME surgery falls short of acceptable standards but is more detailed in proforma based reports. Further work to improve completion especially in beyond TME reporting is required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  1. Individual memory change after anterior temporal lobectomy: a base rate analysis using regression-based outcome methodology.

    PubMed

    Martin, R C; Sawrie, S M; Roth, D L; Gilliam, F G; Faught, E; Morawetz, R B; Kuzniecky, R

    1998-10-01

    To characterize patterns of base rate change on measures of verbal and visual memory after anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) using a newly developed regression-based outcome methodology that accounts for effects of practice and regression towards the mean, and to comment on the predictive utility of baseline memory measures on postoperative memory outcome. Memory change was operationalized using regression-based change norms in a group of left (n = 53) and right (n = 48) ATL patients. All patients were administered tests of episodic verbal (prose recall, list learning) and visual (figure reproduction) memory, and semantic memory before and after ATL. ATL patients displayed a wide range of memory outcome across verbal and visual memory domains. Significant performance declines were noted for 25-50% of left ATL patients on verbal semantic and episodic memory tasks, while one-third of right ATL patients displayed significant declines in immediate and delayed episodic prose recall. Significant performance improvement was noted in an additional one-third of right ATL patients on delayed prose recall. Base rate change was similar between the two ATL groups across immediate and delayed visual memory. Approximately one-fourth of all patients displayed clinically meaningful losses on the visual memory task following surgery. Robust relationships between preoperative memory measures and nonstandardized change scores were attenuated or reversed using standardized memory outcome techniques. Our results demonstrated substantial group variability in memory outcome for ATL patients. These results extend previous research by incorporating known effects of practice and regression to the mean when addressing meaningful neuropsychological change following epilepsy surgery. Our findings also suggest that future neuropsychological outcome studies should take steps towards controlling for regression-to-the-mean before drawing predictive conclusions.

  2. [Fournier syndrome: the perception of the patient].

    PubMed

    Cavalini, Fernanda; Moriya, Tokico Murakawa; Pelá, Nilza Teresa Rotter

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to identify the perception of the Fournier syndrome's patients about their disease and caregivers. Data was collected by means of interviews with a structured routine and the analysis was based on the André's analysis of prose. According to the patients, the syndrome causes intense pain, edema, fever and wounds, demanding surgical treatment, dressings and bringing physical, economical and familiar problems. The caregivers' attitudes and behaviors were described as having more negative aspects than good ones. The necessity of a better training of the caregivers in the cognitive, psychomotor and affective sense is evident.

  3. Autoethnography: Exploring Gender Diversity.

    PubMed

    Merryfeather, Lyn; Bruce, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Academic discourse proscribes a particular way of writing that may leave the reader informed but uninspired. There are three intentions for this paper: to create a counter-discourse for academic writing, to illustrate autoethnograpy as a compelling approach to nursing inquiry, and to demonstrate how autoethnography is well suited to research the experience of people who identify as transgender or transsexual. The setting is a doctoral nursing seminar where the student is introducing autoethnography to fellow students. All characters are fictionalized compositions. The writing is in the style of creative non-fiction and illustrates the use of evocative prose and poetry. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Langmuir Probe Spacecraft Potential End Item Specification Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilchrist, Brian; Curtis, Leslie (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This document describes the Langmuir Probe Spacecraft Potential (LPSP) investigation of the plasma environment in the vicinity of the ProSEDS Delta II spacecraft. This investigation will employ a group of three (3) Langmuir Probe Assemblies, LPAs, mounted on the Delta II second stage to measure the electron density and temperature (n(sub e) and T(sub e)), the ion density (n(sub i)), and the spacecraft potential (V(sub s)) relative to the surrounding ionospheric plasma. This document is also intended to define the technical requirements and flight-vehicle installation interfaces for the design, development, assembly, testing, qualification, and operation of the LPSP subsystem for the Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) and its associated Ground Support Equipment (GSE). This document also defines the interfaces between the LPSP instrument and the ProSEDS Delta II spacecraft, as well as the design, fabrication, operation, and other requirements established to meet the mission objectives. The LPSP is the primary measurement instrument designed to characterize the background plasma environment and is a supporting instrument for measuring spacecraft potential of the Delta II vehicle used for the ProSEDS mission. Specifically, the LPSP will use the three LPAs equally spaced around the Delta II body to make measurements of the ambient ionospheric plasma during passive operations to aid in validating existing models of electrodynamic-tether propulsion. These same probes will also be used to measure Delta II spacecraft potential when active operations occur. When the electron emitting plasma contractor is on, dense neutral plasma is emitted. Effective operation of the plasma contactor (PC) will mean a low potential difference between the Delta II second stage and the surrounding plasma and represents one of the voltage parameters needed to fully characterize the electrodynamic-tether closed circuit. Given that the LP already needs to be well away from any

  5. Overview of the Aerothermal Environment of Air-Launched Missiles.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    function of tinic of day. This tchnique has been verified by experiment .2 I Briefly. the method in- volves an energy balance between the solar...particularly di1- ficult to assign an accurate value to this parameter. The energy balance may be represented by the following equation: q m + aq + h(T - T...assuuicId frIlli hut til, ,implec ouc has prose ci adcquatc. 1𔃻C iiurul variation of solair radiation1. 11iffICIlt air temlperatuire. and xxinl spICcd

  6. Shifting the Perspective: Artists in the Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dover, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    The deep ocean is to most of us a place unknown. Few of us experience the sea far from shore, fewer still dive to the seafloor at great depths. When scientists report on the outcome of deep-ocean exploration, their technical prose captures facts and insights, but fails to capture the emotional power of place and process. Through batik, watercolor illustrations, music, digital art, cartoon, and experimental video, six artists have created a portfolio of work that communicates the human experience of the deep ocean.

  7. [The influence of madness in the literary production of Gerard de Nerval].

    PubMed

    Miranda C, Marcelo; Bustamante C, M Leonor

    2010-01-01

    Gerard de Nerval was a French writer, poet and essayist, precursor of surrealism that used for the first time this word in literature and influenced many modern writers. Since the age of 32, Nerval had recurrent psychotic episodes mixed with a severe depression, leading to many hospitalizations, and finally to his death. This mental disease clearly influenced his works and provided originality to his prose and poetry. However no clear explanation has ever been given to his mental disorder. We analyzed the clinical data available from his own works and the opinion of his close friends and postulate the hypothesis that Nerval had a mood disorder.

  8. Young children's preferences for listening rates.

    PubMed

    Leeper, H A; Thomas, C L

    1978-12-01

    A paired-comparison paradigm was utilized to determine the preferences of 20 young children for listening rate for prose speech. An electronic expansion/compression technique yielded nine rates of speech ranging from 100 wpm to 200 wpm, with intervals of 25 wpm. The results indicated that the children most preferred a listening rate of 200 wpm and least preferred a rate of 100 wpm. Comparisons of the present findings with preference rates of older, post-adolescent children and adults are discussed. Direction for further research with temporal alteration and linguistic constraints on the message are considered.

  9. Declarative long-term memory and the mesial temporal lobe: Insights from a 5-year postsurgery follow-up study on refractory temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Salvato, Gerardo; Scarpa, Pina; Francione, Stefano; Mai, Roberto; Tassi, Laura; Scarano, Elisa; Lo Russo, Giorgio; Bottini, Gabriella

    2016-11-01

    It is largely recognized that the mesial temporal lobe and its substructure support declarative long-term memory (LTM). So far, different theories have been suggested, and the organization of declarative verbal LTM in the brain is still a matter of debate. In the current study, we retrospectively selected 151 right-handed patients with temporal lobe epilepsy with and without hippocampal sclerosis, with a homogeneous (seizure-free) clinical outcome. We analyzed verbal memory performance within a normalized scores context, by means of prose recall and word paired-associate learning tasks. Patients were tested at presurgical baseline, 6months, 2 and 5years after anteromesial temporal lobe surgery, using parallel versions of the neuropsychological tests. Our main finding revealed a key involvement of the left temporal lobe and, in particular, of the left hippocampus in prose recall rather than word paired-associate task. We also confirmed that shorter duration of epilepsy, younger age, and withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs would predict a better memory outcome. When individual memory performance was taken into account, data showed that females affected by left temporal lobe epilepsy for longer duration were more at risk of presenting a clinically pathologic LTM at 5years after surgery. Taken together, these findings shed new light on verbal declarative memory in the mesial temporal lobe and on the behavioral signature of the functional reorganization after the surgical treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Twelve-Week Exercise Influences Memory Complaint but not Memory Performance in Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Iuliano, Enzo; Fiorilli, Giovanni; Aquino, Giovanna; Di Costanzo, Alfonso; Calcagno, Giuseppe; di Cagno, Alessandra

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different types of exercise on memory performance and memory complaint after a 12-week intervention. Eighty community-dwelling volunteers, aged 66.96 ± 11.73 years, were randomly divided into four groups: resistance, cardiovascular, postural, and control groups (20 participants for each group). All participants were tested for their cognitive functions before and after their respective 12-week intervention using Rey memory words test, Prose memory test, and Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q). Statistical analysis showed that the three experimental groups significantly improved MAC-Q scores in comparison with the control group (p < .05). The variation of MAC-Q scores and the variations of Rey and Prose memory tests scores were not correlated. These results indicate that the 12-week interventions exclusively influenced memory complaint but not memory performance. Further investigations are needed to understand the relation between memory complaint and memory performance, and the factors that can influence this relationship.

  11. Probe Oscillation Shear Wave Elastography: Initial In Vivo Results in Liver.

    PubMed

    Mellema, Daniel C; Song, Pengfei; Kinnick, Randall R; Trzasko, Joshua D; Urban, Matthew W; Greenleaf, James F; Manduca, Armando; Chen, Shigao

    2018-05-01

    Shear wave elastography methods are able to accurately measure tissue stiffness, allowing these techniques to monitor the progression of hepatic fibrosis. While many methods rely on acoustic radiation force to generate shear waves for 2-D imaging, probe oscillation shear wave elastography (PROSE) provides an alternative approach by generating shear waves through continuous vibration of the ultrasound probe while simultaneously detecting the resulting motion. The generated shear wave field in in vivo liver is complicated, and the amplitude and quality of these shear waves can be influenced by the placement of the vibrating probe. To address these challenges, a real-time shear wave visualization tool was implemented to provide instantaneous visual feedback to optimize probe placement. Even with the real-time display, it was not possible to fully suppress residual motion with established filtering methods. To solve this problem, the shear wave signal in each frame was decoupled from motion and other sources through the use of a parameter-free empirical mode decomposition before calculating shear wave speeds. This method was evaluated in a phantom as well as in in vivo livers from five volunteers. PROSE results in the phantom as well as in vivo liver correlated well with independent measurements using the commercial General Electric Logiq E9 scanner.

  12. Neuropsychological differences between men and women with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Joseph J; Glass Umfleet, Laura; Kreiner, David S; Fuller, Amanda M; Paolo, Anthony M

    2018-04-01

    It has been suggested that men and women with Alzheimer's disease (AD) at comparable levels of global cognitive impairment perform differently on neuropsychological measures. Such differences may have practical implications for designing cognitive interventions that address symptoms of dementia. We compared men (n = 86) and women (n = 96) with AD on tests of immediate and delayed prose memory, verbal fluency, semantic fluency, semantic memory and confrontation naming. Mean years for age, education and duration of illness were 70.81 (SD = 7.55), 13.37 (SD = 3.38) and 2.17 (SD = 1.72) for men and 73.11(SD = 8.53), 12.27 (SD = 2.86) and 2.42 (SD = 1.92) for women. The groups were comparable in global cognitive functioning as indicated by Dementia Rating Scale total scores for men of 89.27 (SD = 29.80) and women of 90.86 (SD = 30.20). Men earned significantly better scores in immediate prose memory, semantic verbal fluency, semantic memory and response naming. Men and women performed similarly on the remaining tests. When the variables of age, education and duration of disease were controlled, the significant effect of gender was maintained only on tests of semantic fluency, semantic memory and confrontation naming. The hypothesis of the study was partially confirmed in that women with AD evidenced greater impairment than men with AD on three of six neuropsychological measures even after potentially confounding variables were controlled.

  13. A comparative analysis of anorexia nervosa groups on Facebook.

    PubMed

    Teufel, Martin; Hofer, Eva; Junne, Florian; Sauer, Helene; Zipfel, Stephan; Giel, Katrin Elisabeth

    2013-12-01

    To analyze the content and culture of anorexia nervosa (AN)-related communication on the current major social network site (SNS) Facebook. We searched for groups and sites related to AN on Facebook by means of a faux profile of a young female. Identified groups/sites were analyzed with respect to (1) category (education, self-help, professional help, pro-ana, anti pro-ana), (2) activity, (3) motivational aspects (prose, pictures), and (4) social support. Numerous relevant groups were found in all categories except that professional help was almost nonexistent. Pro-ana groups were found to be the most active, best organized, and offered the highest levels of social support. Prose motivation was distinctly offered in all categories. Motivation with pictures was particularly evident in pro-ana groups. The most functional motivation was found in self-help groups. SNS appears to be a relevant way for young females suffering from AN to communicate and exchange disease and health-related ideas. Caregivers, researchers, and institutions in the field of eating disorders should be aware of the existence, possibilities, dysfunctions, and influence of SNS. Whether SNS can help persons with AN to get therapeutic assistance as well as whether it can be integrated into psychotherapeutic strategies should be examined in future studies.

  14. Quantitative criticism of literary relationships

    PubMed Central

    Dexter, Joseph P.; Katz, Theodore; Tripuraneni, Nilesh; Dasgupta, Tathagata; Kannan, Ajay; Brofos, James A.; Bonilla Lopez, Jorge A.; Schroeder, Lea A.; Casarez, Adriana; Rabinovich, Maxim; Haimson Lushkov, Ayelet; Chaudhuri, Pramit

    2017-01-01

    Authors often convey meaning by referring to or imitating prior works of literature, a process that creates complex networks of literary relationships (“intertextuality”) and contributes to cultural evolution. In this paper, we use techniques from stylometry and machine learning to address subjective literary critical questions about Latin literature, a corpus marked by an extraordinary concentration of intertextuality. Our work, which we term “quantitative criticism,” focuses on case studies involving two influential Roman authors, the playwright Seneca and the historian Livy. We find that four plays related to but distinct from Seneca’s main writings are differentiated from the rest of the corpus by subtle but important stylistic features. We offer literary interpretations of the significance of these anomalies, providing quantitative data in support of hypotheses about the use of unusual formal features and the interplay between sound and meaning. The second part of the paper describes a machine-learning approach to the identification and analysis of citational material that Livy loosely appropriated from earlier sources. We extend our approach to map the stylistic topography of Latin prose, identifying the writings of Caesar and his near-contemporary Livy as an inflection point in the development of Latin prose style. In total, our results reflect the integration of computational and humanistic methods to investigate a diverse range of literary questions. PMID:28373557

  15. Quantitative criticism of literary relationships.

    PubMed

    Dexter, Joseph P; Katz, Theodore; Tripuraneni, Nilesh; Dasgupta, Tathagata; Kannan, Ajay; Brofos, James A; Bonilla Lopez, Jorge A; Schroeder, Lea A; Casarez, Adriana; Rabinovich, Maxim; Haimson Lushkov, Ayelet; Chaudhuri, Pramit

    2017-04-18

    Authors often convey meaning by referring to or imitating prior works of literature, a process that creates complex networks of literary relationships ("intertextuality") and contributes to cultural evolution. In this paper, we use techniques from stylometry and machine learning to address subjective literary critical questions about Latin literature, a corpus marked by an extraordinary concentration of intertextuality. Our work, which we term "quantitative criticism," focuses on case studies involving two influential Roman authors, the playwright Seneca and the historian Livy. We find that four plays related to but distinct from Seneca's main writings are differentiated from the rest of the corpus by subtle but important stylistic features. We offer literary interpretations of the significance of these anomalies, providing quantitative data in support of hypotheses about the use of unusual formal features and the interplay between sound and meaning. The second part of the paper describes a machine-learning approach to the identification and analysis of citational material that Livy loosely appropriated from earlier sources. We extend our approach to map the stylistic topography of Latin prose, identifying the writings of Caesar and his near-contemporary Livy as an inflection point in the development of Latin prose style. In total, our results reflect the integration of computational and humanistic methods to investigate a diverse range of literary questions.

  16. The effects of cannabidiol on impulsivity and memory during abstinence in cigarette dependent smokers.

    PubMed

    Hindocha, C; Freeman, T P; Grabski, M; Crudgington, H; Davies, A C; Stroud, J B; Das, R K; Lawn, W; Morgan, C J A; Curran, H V

    2018-05-15

    Acute nicotine abstinence in cigarette smokers results in deficits in performance on specific cognitive processes, including working memory and impulsivity which are important in relapse. Cannabidiol (CBD), the non-intoxicating cannabinoid found in cannabis, has shown pro-cognitive effects and preliminary evidence has indicated it can reduce the number of cigarettes smoked in dependent smokers. However, the effects of CBD on cognition have never been tested during acute nicotine withdrawal. The present study therefore aimed to investigate if CBD can improve memory and reduce impulsivity during acute tobacco abstinence. Thirty, non-treatment seeking, dependent, cigarette smokers attended two laboratory-based sessions after overnight abstinence, in which they received either 800 mg oral CBD or placebo (PBO), in a randomised order. Abstinence was biologically verified. Participants were assessed on go/no-go, delay discounting, prose recall and N-back (0-back, 1-back, 2-back) tasks. The effects of CBD on delay discounting, prose recall and the N-back (correct responses, maintenance or manipulation) were null, confirmed by a Bayesian analysis, which found evidence for the null hypothesis. Contrary to our predictions, CBD increased commission errors on the go/no-go task. In conclusion, a single 800 mg dose of CBD does not improve verbal or spatial working memory, or impulsivity during tobacco abstinence.

  17. Struggling readers learning with graphic-rich digital science text: Effects of a Highlight & Animate Feature and Manipulable Graphics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defrance, Nancy L.

    Technology offers promise of 'leveling the playing field' for struggling readers. That is, instructional support features within digital texts may enable all readers to learn. This quasi-experimental study examined the effects on learning of two support features, which offered unique opportunities to interact with text. The Highlight & Animate Feature highlighted an important idea in prose, while simultaneously animating its representation in an adjacent graphic. It invited readers to integrate ideas depicted in graphics and prose, using each one to interpret the other. The Manipulable Graphics had parts that the reader could operate to discover relationships among phenomena. It invited readers to test or refine the ideas that they brought to, or gleaned from, the text. Use of these support features was compulsory. Twenty fifth grade struggling readers read a graphic-rich digital science text in a clinical interview setting, under one of two conditions: using either the Highlight & Animate Feature or the Manipulable Graphics. Participants in both conditions made statistically significant gains on a multiple choice measure of knowledge of the topic of the text. While there were no significant differences by condition in the amount of knowledge gained; there were significant differences in the quality of knowledge expressed. Transcripts revealed that understandings about light and vision, expressed by those who used the Highlight & Animate Feature, were more often conceptually and linguistically 'complete.' That is, their understandings included both a description of phenomena as well as an explanation of underlying scientific principles, which participants articulated using the vocabulary of the text. This finding may be attributed to the multiple opportunities to integrate graphics (depicting the behavior of phenomena) and prose (providing the scientific explanation of that phenomena), which characterized the Highlight & Animate Condition. Those who used the

  18. Analysis of the project synthesis goal cluster orientation and inquiry emphasis of elementary science textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staver, John R.; Bay, Mary

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine selected units of commonly used elementary science texts, using the Project Synthesis goal clusters as a framework for part of the examination. An inquiry classification scheme was used for the remaining segment. Four questions were answered: (1) To what extent do elementary science textbooks focus on each Project Synthesis goal cluster? (2) In which part of the text is such information found? (3) To what extent are the activities and experiments merely verifications of information already introduced in the text? (4) If inquiry is present in an activity, then what is the level of such inquiry?Eleven science textbook series, which comprise approximately 90 percent of the national market, were selected for analysis. Two units, one primary (K-3) and one intermediate (4-6), were selected for analysis by first identifying units common to most series, then randomly selecting one primary and one intermediate unit for analysis.Each randomly selected unit was carefully read, using the sentence as the unit of analysis. Each declarative and interrogative sentence in the body of the text was classified as: (1) academic; (2) personal; (3) career; or (4) societal in its focus. Each illustration, except those used in evaluation items, was similarly classified. Each activity/experiment and each miscellaneous sentence in end-of-chapter segments labelled review, summary, evaluation, etc., were similarly classified. Finally, each activity/experiment, as a whole, was categorized according to a four-category inquiry scheme (confirmation, structured inquiry, guided inquiry, open inquiry).In general, results of the analysis are: (1) most text prose focuses on academic science; (2) most remaining text prose focuses on the personal goal cluster; (3) the career and societal goal clusters receive only minor attention; (4) text illustrations exhibit a pattern similar to text prose; (5) text activities/experiments are academic in orientation

  19. [Try to discuss manipulation of the "Feijing Zouqi" needling technique].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dan; Gao, Ying; Wang, Fu-chun

    2008-03-01

    Based on description of "Feijing Zouqi" needling methods in Jin Zhen Fu (Rhyme Prose of Golden Needle) written by Xu Feng, and explain and analyze the descriptions of "Feijing Zouqi" needling method in Zhenjiu Juying (A Collection of Gems in Acu-Moxibustion) written by Gao Wu, Zhenjiu Wendui written by Wang Ji, Zhenjiu Dacheng (Great Compendium on Acu-Moxibustion) written by Yang Ji-zhou, Yixue Rumen (Elementary Medicine) written by LI Chan and many other works, summarize the technique characteristics of all the "Feijing Zouqi" needling methods. The characteristic of "Qinglong Baiwei" needling method is " first toward the left, then toward the right, slowly move or adjust with the hand"; and "Baihu Yaotou" needling method emphasizes "Tuifang Jinyuan" and "Yaozhen "; key point of "Canggui Tanxue" needling method is "Zuanti Sifang"; Chifeng Yingyuan" needling method emphasizes "Siwei Feixuan".

  20. Faithful interpreters? Translation theory and practice at the early Royal Society

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Felicity

    2013-01-01

    The early Fellows of the Royal Society received letters, papers and printed books written in several European vernaculars. In many cases a translation was needed to make these texts accessible. Translators, though, had to negotiate the Society's corporate views on language and prose style, and also prevailing contemporary theories of literary translation set out by popular poets such as John Dryden and Abraham Cowley. This article examines the translation practices of early Fellows of the Royal Society, showing that translations formed part of a set of knowledge-making processes at meetings. It also discusses the statements about translation theory found in the prefaces to printed volumes produced by or for Royal Society Fellows, arguing that although translators were aware of the requirement for a faithful translation, in fact they often modified their source texts to make them more useful for an English audience.

  1. ECO: A Framework for Entity Co-Occurrence Exploration with Faceted Navigation

    SciT

    Halliday, K. D.

    2010-08-20

    Even as highly structured databases and semantic knowledge bases become more prevalent, a substantial amount of human knowledge is reported as written prose. Typical textual reports, such as news articles, contain information about entities (people, organizations, and locations) and their relationships. Automatically extracting such relationships from large text corpora is a key component of corporate and government knowledge bases. The primary goal of the ECO project is to develop a scalable framework for extracting and presenting these relationships for exploration using an easily navigable faceted user interface. ECO uses entity co-occurrence relationships to identify related entities. The system aggregates andmore » indexes information on each entity pair, allowing the user to rapidly discover and mine relational information.« less

  2. A presocratic cosmological proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danezis, E.; Theodossiou, E.; Stathopoulou, M.; Grammenos, Th.

    Up to now, Alcman was known as one of the greatest lyric poets of the ancient world (650 B.C.). However, the publication of the Oxyrynchus papyrus No 2390 in 1957 caused a great amount of astonishment. This papyrus from the 2nd century A.D. contains parts of a comment written in prose, with implies that, in one of his poems, Alcman deals with a kind of a god-created cosmogony. Undoubtedly, that cosmogonical view formulated by Alcman in the midth of the 7th century B.C., describes much older considerations which resemble certain modern cosmological conjectures. According to the latter, the observable universe has emerged out of a point singularity interior to a white hole which, due to the time symmetry of Einstein' s field equations, can be considered as a time- reversed black hole.

  3. A presocratic cosmological proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danezis, E.; Theodossiou, E.; Stathopoulou, M.; Grammenos, Th.

    1999-12-01

    Alcman is known as one of the greatest lyric poets of the ancient world. However, the publication of the Oxyrhynchus papyrus No. 2390 in 1957 caused a great deal of excitement. This papyrus, from the second century AD, contains parts of a comment written in prose, which implies that in one of his poems Alcman deals with a kind of a god-created cosmogony. That cosmogonical view, formulated by Alcman in the middle of the seventh century BC, describes much older considerations that resemble certain modern cosmological conjectures. In terms of the latter, the observable universe emerged out of a point singularity interior to a white hole which, due to the time symmetry of Einstein's field equations, can be considered as a time-reversed black hole.

  4. A Comprehensive Study of the Tocks Island Lake Project and Alternatives. Part A. Chapters IV, V, VI. Analysis of Service Areas and Resource Needs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    3431 378 * 9 0S go9 391" I0*9 Is 3179 701 463 S09 831 736 *0" M1 Art 14M, *1 3us 1914 £00 St309 G17 494 so? AV ? A9l 1*7 64 13 * a£ oil 93 1969 100...AD-AO83 999 URS/MADIGAN-PRAEGER INC NEW YORK FIG 13 / 13 COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF THE TOCKS ISLAND LAKE PROJECT AND ALTE--ETC(U) JUN 75 DACWSI75-C-0026... REPORT NUMBER 2S A RC1 11m a TR C OReu 4f** NUMS.em : 319a~ab boc mb The PROseIN OfGNZTO thi E stuDisDES to help decision maesdtrieftrA rsource n ege

  5. Measuring Mindreading: A Review of Behavioral Approaches to Testing Cognitive and Affective Mental State Attribution in Neurologically Typical Adults

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Rose; Felisberti, Fatima M.

    2017-01-01

    Mindreading refers to the ability to attribute mental states, including thoughts, intentions and emotions, to oneself and others, and is essential for navigating the social world. Empirical mindreading research has predominantly featured children, groups with autism spectrum disorder and clinical samples, and many standard tasks suffer ceiling effects with neurologically typical (NT) adults. We first outline a case for studying mindreading in NT adults and proceed to review tests of emotion perception, cognitive and affective mentalizing, and multidimensional tasks combining these facets. We focus on selected examples of core experimental paradigms including emotion recognition tests, social vignettes, narrative fiction (prose and film) and participative interaction (in real and virtual worlds), highlighting challenges for studies with NT adult cohorts. We conclude that naturalistic, multidimensional approaches may be productively applied alongside traditional tasks to facilitate a more nuanced picture of mindreading in adulthood, and to ensure construct validity whilst remaining sensitive to variation at the upper echelons of the ability. PMID:28174552

  6. Scleral lens use in dry eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bavinger, J Clay; DeLoss, Karen; Mian, Shahzad I

    2015-07-01

    Dry eye syndrome can be difficult to manage in severe or refractory cases. In patients in whom traditional treatments have limited efficacy, alternative treatments may be considered for dry eye syndrome, including scleral lenses. The present review summarizes the evidence regarding scleral lens use in dry eye syndrome. Scleral lenses have become a viable option for severe dry eye syndrome, and have been shown to be efficacious and well tolerated, with most reports citing improved visual acuity and relief of symptoms. Currently, there are 18 manufacturers of scleral lenses, although published reports on scleral lenses primarily focus on the BostonSight PROSE and the Jupiter Lens. Scleral lenses are efficacious and well tolerated for use in severe dry eye syndrome. Further research is needed to compare different sizes and types of lenses, and to standardize outcome measures.

  7. A century of editors.

    PubMed

    Riley, R W

    1983-07-08

    They are unalike and far apart, these 13 past editors of The Journal. Between Nathan S. Davis's first issue and William R. Barclay's retirement, there was almost a century of change in medicine, society, the American Medical Association, prose style, and editorial needs. During these years, the editors ranged from the brilliant organizers John B. Hamilton and George H. Simmons to the diligent John H. Hollister and the devoted Johnson F. Hammond. There were editors with the hot determination of James C. Culbertson, John H. Talbott, and Robert H. Moser, and there were those with the cool precision of Austin Smith and Hugh H. Hussey. They varied from Morris Fishbein, who wrote and spoke "with the grade of an eagle in its unhindered soar," to Truman W. Miller, who wrote scarcely a word. Here, briefly, they are together.

  8. From golden hills to sycamore trees: pastoral homelands and ethnic identity in Irish immigrant fiction, 1860-75.

    PubMed

    Corporaal, Marguérite

    2010-01-01

    The prose fiction that remembers the trials of starvation and eviction of the Great Famine (1845-50) often juxtaposes representations of blasted, infertile land with images of a green, idyllic Erin. Through a discussion of Mary Anne Sadlier's Bessy Conway (1861), Elizabeth Hely Walshe's Golden Hills: A Tale of the Irish Famine (1865) and John McElgun's Annie Reilly (1873), this article reveals that immigrant writers of the Famine generation often negotiate depictions of Famine-stricken wasteland with evocations of a pastoral homeland. In the case of the two Catholic novels, Bessy Conway and Annie Reilly, the pastoral becomes a point of ethnic identification through which the immigrants can recollect and reconstruct a sense of Irishness in exile. By contrast, Golden Hills, which focuses on the Anglo-Irish ascendancy, does not lament the mass exodus of afflicted Irish: the novel rather envisions emigration as a way to regenerate Ireland as locus amoenus.

  9. Memory retrieval as a self-propagating process.

    PubMed

    Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T; Schlichting, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    Retrieval of a subset of studied items and the presentation of those items as retrieval cues typically impair retrieval of the other items. Previous research on this self-limiting property of memory retrieval has relied heavily on short retention intervals and similar context between encoding and test. Here, we examined retrieval dynamics also after a prolonged retention interval with different spatial and social context between encoding and test, conditions that mimic people's remembering in many situations of daily life. For both unrelated word lists and more integrated prose material, we found retrieval and cuing to impair recall of other studied items after a short retention interval, but to improve recall in the prolonged retention interval condition. The results demonstrate that retrieval dynamics depend critically on situation, indicating that quite often in daily life, retrieval may be a self-propagating, rather than a self-limiting process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Rogue Asteroids and Doomsday Comets: The Search for the Million Megaton Menace That Threatens Life on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steel, Duncan

    1997-09-01

    Could a giant asteroid or comet crash into Earth and destroy life as we know it? Many astronomers who once discredited the risks are now convinced. You will be too after reading Duncan Steel's critically acclaimed examination of the evidence of Earth's encounters with killer comets and asteroids. Acclaim for Rogue Asteroids and Doomsday Comets "A chilling and utterly convincing account of a cosmic menace that must not be ignored any longer. This book is a welcome challenge to the scientific prejudice against catastrophism." --Paul Davies, author of The Mind of God "Written in clear prose for the layperson, this gripping report advocates the creation of an international search program to detect, intercept, and divert Earth-menacing asteroids and comets." --Publishers Weekly. "Steel writes clearly and ominously, and he should be listened to." --The Daily Telegraph (London) A selection of the Astronomy Book Club A Library Journal "Best Science Book of the Year" selection

  11. The Dostoevsky Machine in Georgetown: scientific translation in the Cold War.

    PubMed

    Gordin, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    Machine Translation (MT) is now ubiquitous in discussions of translation. The roots of this phenomenon - first publicly unveiled in the so-called 'Georgetown-IBM Experiment' on 9 January 1954 - displayed not only the technological utopianism still associated with dreams of a universal computer translator, but was deeply enmeshed in the political pressures of the Cold War and a dominating conception of scientific writing as both the goal of machine translation as well as its method. Machine translation was created, in part, as a solution to a perceived crisis sparked by the massive expansion of Soviet science. Scientific prose was also perceived as linguistically simpler, and so served as the model for how to turn a language into a series of algorithms. This paper follows the rise of the Georgetown program - the largest single program in the world - from 1954 to the (as it turns out, temporary) collapse of MT in 1964.

  12. [Eugenics, an element of the literary plots of dystopia].

    PubMed

    Baum, Ewa; Musielak, Michał

    2007-01-01

    The work presents the ideas and assumptions of eugenics, a social philosophy established in 1883 by Francis Galton, which affected the social policies of numerous European countries in the first half of the 20th century. The work shows the effect of eugenics on the literary standards of European prose in the previous century. Two outstanding dystopian novels of the 20th century, The Brave New World by Aldous Huxley and 1984 by George Orwell, situate eugenics as a permanent element of the literary plot of dystopia. Apart from the typical features of this type of novel, for example: personal narration with a trace of irony, a totalitarian state and Newspeak, eugenics is an important element of the literary plot with is aim to exclude and marginalise certain social groups. Eugenics is also one of the main social ideas criticised by both the writers.

  13. Health literacy and ophthalmic patient education

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Kelly W.; Lee, Paul P.

    2010-01-01

    In 1997, Ebrahimzadeh, Davalos and Lee wrote in this journal that only 32% of the ophthalmic patient educational materials reviewed were written at or below the recommended eighth grade reading level. Since that time, the National Assessment of Adult Literacy found that more than one third of adult Americans possess only basic or below basic health literacy skills, defined as the ability to understand written information in a healthcare setting. Subsequently, investigators have shown that poor health literacy skills are associated with poor prescription medication adherence, increased hospital admissions and increased mortality. We review the readability of currently available ophthalmic educational materials, with particular attention to the health literacy status of the patient population for which the materials are intended. Examples of prose at various readability levels are provided. Optimizing patient education and improving clinical outcomes requires understanding the attributes that the patient brings to the patient–physician relationship, including health literacy. PMID:20650503

  14. Mental juggling: when does multitasking impair reading comprehension?

    PubMed

    Cho, Kit W; Altarriba, Jeanette; Popiel, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the conditions under which multitasking impairs reading comprehension. Participants read prose passages (the primary task), some of which required them to perform a secondary task. In Experiment 1, we compared two different types of secondary tasks (answering trivia questions and solving math problems). Reading comprehension was assessed using a multiple-choice test that measured both factual and conceptual knowledge. The results showed no observable detrimental effects associated with multitasking. In Experiment 2, the secondary task was a cognitive load task that required participants to remember a string of numbers while reading the passages. Performance on the reading comprehension test was lower in the cognitive load conditions relative to the no-load condition. The present study delineates the conditions under which multitasking can impair or have no effect on reading comprehension. These results further our understanding of our capacity to multitask and have practical implications in our technologically advanced society in which multitasking has become commonplace.

  15. Association of KIBRA and memory.

    PubMed

    Bates, Timothy C; Price, Jackie F; Harris, Sarah E; Marioni, Riccardo E; Fowkes, F Gerry R; Stewart, Marlene C; Murray, Gordon D; Whalley, Lawrence J; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2009-07-24

    We report on the association of KIBRA with memory in two samples of older individuals assessed on either memory for semantically unrelated word stimuli (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, n=2091), or a measure of semantically related material (the WAIS Logical Memory Test of prose-passage recall, n=542). SNP rs17070145 was associated with delayed recall of semantically unrelated items, but not with immediate recall for these stimuli, nor with either immediate or delayed recall for semantically related material. The pattern of results suggests a role for the T-->C substitution in intron 9 of KIBRA in a component of episodic memory involved in long-term storage but independent of processes shared with immediate recall such as rehearsal involved in acquisition and rehearsal or processes.

  16. Semantic Modelling of Digital Forensic Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahvedžić, Damir; Kechadi, Tahar

    The reporting of digital investigation results are traditionally carried out in prose and in a large investigation may require successive communication of findings between different parties. Popular forensic suites aid in the reporting process by storing provenance and positional data but do not automatically encode why the evidence is considered important. In this paper we introduce an evidence management methodology to encode the semantic information of evidence. A structured vocabulary of terms, ontology, is used to model the results in a logical and predefined manner. The descriptions are application independent and automatically organised. The encoded descriptions aim to help the investigation in the task of report writing and evidence communication and can be used in addition to existing evidence management techniques.

  17. Verbal Ability, Argument Order, and Attitude Formation

    PubMed Central

    Mozuraitis, Mindaugas; Chambers, Craig G.; Daneman, Meredyth

    2016-01-01

    The current study explored the interaction of verbal ability and presentation order on readers’ attitude formation when presented with two-sided arguments. Participants read arguments for and against compulsory voting and genetic engineering, and attitudes were assessed before and after reading the passages. Participants’ verbal ability was measured, combining vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension skill. Results suggested that low verbal-ability participants were more persuaded by the most recent set of arguments whereas high verbal-ability participants formed attitudes independent of presentation order. Contrary to previous literature, individual differences in the personality trait need for cognition did not interact with presentation order. The results suggest that verbal ability is an important moderator of the effect of presentation order when formulating opinions from complex prose. PMID:27703437

  18. Nurturing Relationships And Honouring Responsibilities: A Pacific Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaman, Konai Helu

    2008-07-01

    This essay contributes a Pacific Islands perspective to the global discussion of "Living Together: Education and Intercultural Dialogue". Through poetry and prose, this essay traces the impact of the Tongan concept of vaa (values/valued relationships) on learning and language. By invoking UNESCO's mandate to build peace through education, the concept of vaa is shown to be a key to promoting peace. The challenges and prospects of nurturing peace through international cooperation in education are discussed with examples drawn from the Pacific. Specifically, Tonga's social and linguistic histories provide avenues for interpreting Pacific educational ideals in relation to Western concepts of knowing and learning. Reflection on cultural literacy in the Pacific context raises deeper questions about the role of educators when working interculturally. Lessons to be learned include the oft-quoted maxim that educators must first learn about their own culture before learning about others', and before imposing their own pedagogies and curricula on others' education systems.

  19. Materials samples face rigors of space.

    PubMed

    Flinn, Edward D

    2002-07-01

    The Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is described. This project is designed to conduct long duration materials tests on samples attached to the ISS. A batch of 750 material samples were delivered on STS-105 and attached to the ISS airlock. They will be exposed to the space environment for 18 months and are slated to return on STS-114. A second batch of 750 samples is being prepared. The experiment containers were used originally for the Mir Environmental Effects Payload, which tested a variety of substances, including some slated for use on the ISS. Researchers are particularly interested in the effects of atomic oxygen on the samples. Some samples are being tested to determine their use in radiation protection. As part of the MISSE project, ultrathin tether materials are being tested for use on the Propulsive Small Expendable Depoloyer System (ProSEDS), which will use a tether system to change a satellite's orbital altitude.

  20. Measuring Mindreading: A Review of Behavioral Approaches to Testing Cognitive and Affective Mental State Attribution in Neurologically Typical Adults.

    PubMed

    Turner, Rose; Felisberti, Fatima M

    2017-01-01

    Mindreading refers to the ability to attribute mental states, including thoughts, intentions and emotions, to oneself and others, and is essential for navigating the social world. Empirical mindreading research has predominantly featured children, groups with autism spectrum disorder and clinical samples, and many standard tasks suffer ceiling effects with neurologically typical (NT) adults. We first outline a case for studying mindreading in NT adults and proceed to review tests of emotion perception, cognitive and affective mentalizing, and multidimensional tasks combining these facets. We focus on selected examples of core experimental paradigms including emotion recognition tests, social vignettes, narrative fiction (prose and film) and participative interaction (in real and virtual worlds), highlighting challenges for studies with NT adult cohorts. We conclude that naturalistic, multidimensional approaches may be productively applied alongside traditional tasks to facilitate a more nuanced picture of mindreading in adulthood, and to ensure construct validity whilst remaining sensitive to variation at the upper echelons of the ability.

  1. The Chimes of Freedom: Bob Dylan, Epigrammatic Validity, and Alternative Facts.

    PubMed

    Harris, John

    2018-01-01

    This essay brings together work I have done over the past 10 years: on the nature of ethics, on the purpose of ethics, and on its foundations in a way that, I hope, as E.M. Forster put it, connects "the prose and the passion." I deploy lessons learned in this process to identify and face what I believe to be crucial challenges to science and to freedom (as defended by, among others, Cicero, Pete Seeger, Bob Dylan, Thomas Hobbes, John Stuart Mill, and Bertrand Russell). Finally I consider threats to freedom of a different sort, posed by the creation and dissemination of "alternative facts" and by what is sometimes called "super" or "full" artificial intelligence (AI).

  2. Irritating and constricting/ elating and elastic-being "ex" as a lesbian.

    PubMed

    Day, Fe

    2004-01-01

    Abstract This article combines poetry and prose to discuss a range of ex-lovers: the ones where together a world is built and the ones who floated away.… Some are identified as troubling voices whose internalized critique is still experienced as significant and formative. The author explores in some depth an experience of co-parenting in which she was supported in her parenting of two sons by a lover who then gave birth to a daughter. These children in some ways identify themselves as a family, but there are also points of tension and discomfort. The dark and bright aspects of this particular ex-lover relationship are described. In addition, some characteristics of the world/home aimed for by this lesbian family are referred to, including such things as empowerment of all through group life, respect for physical labour, emotional intelligence, and sharing of resources.

  3. A specific cognitive deficit within semantic cognition across a multi-generational family

    PubMed Central

    Briscoe, Josie; Chilvers, Rebecca; Baldeweg, Torsten; Skuse, David

    2012-01-01

    We report a study of eight members of a single family (aged 8–72 years), who all show a specific deficit in linking semantic knowledge to language. All affected members of the family had high levels of overall intelligence; however, they had profound difficulties in prose and sentence recall, listening comprehension and naming. The behavioural deficit was remarkably consistent across affected family members. Structural neuroimaging data revealed grey matter abnormalities in the left infero-temporal cortex and fusiform gyri: brain areas that have been associated with integrative semantics. This family demonstrates, to our knowledge, the first example of a heritable, highly specific abnormality affecting the interface between language and cognition in humans and has important implications for our understanding of the genetic basis of cognition. PMID:22719041

  4. Cross-view gait recognition using joint Bayesian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Sun, Shouqian; Chen, Xiaoyu; Min, Xin

    2017-07-01

    Human gait, as a soft biometric, helps to recognize people by walking. To further improve the recognition performance under cross-view condition, we propose Joint Bayesian to model the view variance. We evaluated our prosed method with the largest population (OULP) dataset which makes our result reliable in a statically way. As a result, we confirmed our proposed method significantly outperformed state-of-the-art approaches for both identification and verification tasks. Finally, sensitivity analysis on the number of training subjects was conducted, we find Joint Bayesian could achieve competitive results even with a small subset of training subjects (100 subjects). For further comparison, experimental results, learning models, and test codes are available.

  5. Publishing Outside the Box: Popular Press Books.

    PubMed

    Vyse, Stuart

    2014-10-01

    Writing and publishing popular press books requires a set of skills, not natural to basic and applied researchers trained to publish in peer-referred behavior analytic journals or to practice behavior analysis in applied settings. This article provides suggestions and examples. These include finding a distinctive idea, securing a contract, hiring an agent (or not), deciding on a publisher, and writing engagingly for a broad audience. The last is the greatest challenge. Among my recommendations are to read good prose, good models, and good books about publishing; talk to experienced colleagues; read aloud to judge the appropriateness of your vocabulary and style; and interject humor, imagery, and drama. Book publishing is a long and difficult process, but it is possible. It has a great potential for bringing behavior analytic research, practice and theory to the attention of the general public.

  6. Measuring the representational space of music with fMRI: a case study with Sting.

    PubMed

    Levitin, Daniel J; Grafton, Scott T

    2016-12-01

    Functional brain imaging has revealed much about the neuroanatomical substrates of higher cognition, including music, language, learning, and memory. The technique lends itself to studying of groups of individuals. In contrast, the nature of expert performance is typically studied through the examination of exceptional individuals using behavioral case studies and retrospective biography. Here, we combined fMRI and the study of an individual who is a world-class expert musician and composer in order to better understand the neural underpinnings of his music perception and cognition, in particular, his mental representations for music. We used state of the art multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) and representational dissimilarity analysis (RDA) in a fixed set of brain regions to test three exploratory hypotheses with the musician Sting: (1) Composing would recruit neutral structures that are both unique and distinguishable from other creative acts, such as composing prose or visual art; (2) listening and imagining music would recruit similar neural regions, indicating that musical memory shares anatomical substrates with music listening; (3) the MVPA and RDA results would help us to map the representational space for music, revealing which musical pieces and genres are perceived to be similar in the musician's mental models for music. Our hypotheses were confirmed. The act of composing, and even of imagining elements of the composed piece separately, such as melody and rhythm, activated a similar cluster of brain regions, and were distinct from prose and visual art. Listened and imagined music showed high similarity, and in addition, notable similarity/dissimilarity patterns emerged among the various pieces used as stimuli: Muzak and Top 100/Pop songs were far from all other musical styles in Mahalanobis distance (Euclidean representational space), whereas jazz, R&B, tango and rock were comparatively close. Closer inspection revealed principaled explanations for the

  7. Are Scientific Abstracts Written in Poetic Verse an Effective Representation of the Underlying Research?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illingworth, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    The central purpose of science is to explain (Purtill, 1970). However, who is that explanation for, and how is this explanation communicated once it has been deduced? Scientific research is typically communicated via papers in journals, with an abstract presented as a summary of that explanation. However, in many instances they may be written in a manner which is non-communicatory to a lay reader (Halliday and Martin, 2003). Research concerning climate change in particular demands to be communicated, because of its global relevance and the potential societal consequences of its findings. This study begins to investigate if poetry could be used as an alternative form of communication, by first assessing if poetic verse is an effective form of communication to other scientists. In order to assess this suitability, a survey was conducted in which two different groups of participants were asked questions based on a scientific abstract. One group of participants was given the original scientific abstract, whilst the second group was instead given a poem written about the scientific study. Quantitative analysis found that whilst a scientific audience found a poetic interpretation of a scientific abstract to be no less interesting or inspiring than the original prose, they did find it to be less accessible. However, further qualitative analysis suggested that the poem did a good job in conveying a similar meaning to that presented in the original abstract. The results of this study indicate that whilst for a scientific audience poetry should not replace the prose abstract, it could be used alongside the original format to inspire the reader to find out more about the topic. Further research is needed to investigate the effectiveness of this approach for a general audience. References: HALLIDAY, M. A. K. & MARTIN, J. R. 2003. Writing science: Literacy and discursive power, Taylor & Francis. PURTILL, R. 1970. The purpose of science. Philosophy of Science, 301-306.

  8. Sub-chronic impact of cannabinoids in street cannabis on cognition, psychotic-like symptoms and psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Morgan, C J A; Gardener, C; Schafer, G; Swan, S; Demarchi, C; Freeman, T P; Warrington, P; Rupasinghe, I; Ramoutar, A; Tan, N; Wingham, G; Lewis, S; Curran, H V

    2012-02-01

    Cannabis varies considerably in levels of its two major constituent cannabinoids - (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Recently, we found evidence that those who smoked cannabis containing detectable levels of CBD had fewer psychotic-like symptoms than those whose cannabis had no CBD. The present study aimed, first, to replicate those findings and, second, to determine whether protective effects of CBD may extend to other harms of cannabis, such as memory impairment and reduced psychological well-being. A total of 120 current cannabis smokers, 66 daily users and 54 recreational users were classified into groups according to whether analysis of their hair revealed the presence or absence of CBD and high versus low levels of THC. All were assessed on measures of psychosis-like symptoms, memory (prose recall; source memory) and depression/anxiety. Lower psychosis-like symptoms were found in those whose hair had CBD compared with those without. However, this was seen only in recreational users, who had higher levels of THC in their hair. Higher THC levels in hair were associated with increased depression and anxiety. Prose recall and source memory were poorer in daily users with high THC levels in hair while recognition memory was better in individuals with CBD present in hair. CBD attenuates the psychotic-like effects of cannabis over time in recreational users. Higher THC negatively impacts on memory and psychological well-being. These findings raise concerns for the harms stemming from use of varieties such as 'skunk' (sensimillia), which lack any CBD but currently dominate the supply of cannabis in many countries.

  9. Overview of Advanced Space Propulsion Activities in the Space Environmental Effects Team at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David; Carruth, Ralph; Vaughn, Jason; Schneider, Todd; Kamenetzky, Rachel; Gray, Perry

    2000-01-01

    Exploration of our solar system, and beyond, requires spacecraft velocities beyond our current technological level. Technologies addressing this limitation are numerous. The Space Environmental Effects (SEE) Team at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is focused on three discipline areas of advanced propulsion; Tethers, Beamed Energy, and Plasma. This presentation will give an overview of advanced propulsion related activities in the Space Environmental Effects Team at MSFC. Advancements in the application of tethers for spacecraft propulsion were made while developing the Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS). New tether materials were developed to meet the specifications of the ProSEDS mission and new techniques had to be developed to test and characterize these tethers. Plasma contactors were developed, tested and modified to meet new requirements. Follow-on activities in tether propulsion include the Air-SEDS activity. Beamed energy activities initiated with an experimental investigation to quantify the momentum transfer subsequent to high power, 5J, ablative laser interaction with materials. The next step with this experimental investigation is to quantify non-ablative photon momentum transfer. This step was started last year and will be used to characterize the efficiency of solar sail materials before and after exposure to Space Environmental Effects (SEE). Our focus with plasma, for propulsion, concentrates on optimizing energy deposition into a magnetically confined plasma and integration of measurement techniques for determining plasma parameters. Plasma confinement is accomplished with the Marshall Magnetic Mirror (M3) device. Initial energy coupling experiments will consist of injecting a 50 amp electron beam into a target plasma. Measurements of plasma temperature and density will be used to determine the effect of changes in magnetic field structure, beam current, and gas species. Experimental observations will be compared to

  10. Turning Equations Into Stories: Using "Equation Dictionaries" in an Introductory Geophysics Class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplan-Auerbach, J.

    2008-12-01

    To students with math fear, equations can be intimidating and overwhelming. This discomfort is reflected in some of the frequent questions heard in introductory geophysics: "which equation should I use?" and "does T stand for travel time or period?" Questions such as these indicate that many students view equations as a series of variables and operators rather than as a representation of a physical process. To solve a problem they may simply look for an equation with the correct variables and assume that it meets their needs, rather than selecting an equation that represents the appropriate physical process. These issues can be addressed by encouraging students to think of equations as stories, and to describe them in prose. This is the goal of the Equation Dictionary project, used in Western Washington University's introductory geophysics course. Throughout the course, students create personal equation dictionaries, adding an entry each time an equation is introduced. Entries consist of (a) the equation itself, (b) a brief description of equation variables, (c) a prose description of the physical process described by the equation, and (d) any additional notes that help them understand the equation. Thus, rather than simply writing down the equations for the velocity of body waves, a student might write "The speed of a seismic body wave is controlled by the material properties of the medium through which it passes." In a study of gravity a student might note that the International Gravity Formula describes "the expected value of g at a given latitude, correcting for Earth's shape and rotation." In writing these definitions students learn that equations are simplified descriptions of physical processes, and that understanding the process is more useful than memorizing a sequence of variables. Dictionaries also serve as formula sheets for exams, which encourages students to write definitions that are meaningful to them, and to organize their thoughts clearly. Finally

  11. Sleep restriction can attenuate prioritization benefits on declarative memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Lo, June C; Bennion, Kelly A; Chee, Michael W L

    2016-12-01

    As chronic sleep restriction is a widespread problem among adolescents, the present study investigated the effects of a 1-week sleep restriction (SR) versus control period on the consolidation of long-term memory for prose passages. We also determined whether the benefit of prioritization on memory is modulated by adequate sleep occurring during consolidation. Fifty-six healthy adolescents (25 male, aged 15-19 years) were instructed to remember a prose passage in which half of the content was highlighted (prioritized), and were told that they would receive an additional bonus for remembering highlighted content. Following an initial free recall test, participants underwent a 7-night period in which they received either a 5-h (SR) or 9-h (control) nightly sleep opportunity, monitored by polysomnography on selected nights. Free recall of the passage was tested at the end of the sleep manipulation period (1 week after encoding), and again 6 weeks after encoding. Recall of highlighted content was superior to that of non-highlighted content at all three time-points (initial, 1 week, 6 weeks). This beneficial effect of prioritization on memory was stronger 1 week relative to a few minutes after encoding for the control, but not the SR group. N3 duration was similar in the control and SR groups. Overall, the present study shows that the benefits of prioritization on memory are enhanced over time, requiring time and sleep to unfold fully. Partial sleep deprivation (i.e. 5-h nocturnal sleep opportunity) may attenuate such benefits, but this may be offset by preservation of N3 sleep duration. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  12. Neuropsychological effects and attitudes in patients following electroconvulsive therapy.

    PubMed

    Feliu, Miriam; Edwards, Christopher L; Sudhakar, Shiv; McDougald, Camela; Raynor, Renee; Johnson, Stephanie; Byrd, Goldie; Whitfield, Keith; Jonassaint, Charles; Romero, Heather; Edwards, Lekisha; Wellington, Chante'; Hill, LaBarron K; Sollers, James; Logue, Patrick E

    2008-06-01

    The current study examined the effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on neuropsychological test performance. Forty-six patients completed brief neuropsychological and psychological testing before and after receiving ECT for the treatment of recalcitrant and severe depression. Neuropsychological testing consisted of the Levin Selective Reminding Test (Levin) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised Edition (WMS-R). Self-report measures included the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Short-Term Memory Questionnaire (STMQ), and several other measures of emotional functioning and patient attitudes toward ECT. The mean number of days between pre-ECT and post-ECT testing was 24. T-test revealed a significant decrease in subjective ratings of depression as rated by the BDI, t(45) = 9.82, P < 0.0001 (Pre-BDI = 27.9 +/- 20.2; post-BDI = 13.5 +/- 9.7). Objective ratings of memory appeared impaired following treatment, and patients' self-report measures of memory confirmed this decline. More specifically, repeated measures MANOVA [Wilks Lambda F(11,30) = 4.3, p < 0.001] indicated significant decreases for measures of immediate recognition memory (p < 0.005), long-term storage (p < 0.05), delayed prose passage recall (p < 0.0001), percent retained of prose passages (p < 0.0001), and percent retained of visual designs (p < 0.0001). In addition, the number of double mentions on the Levin increased (p < 0.02). This study suggests that there may be a greater need to discuss the intermittent cognitive risks associated with ECT when obtaining informed consent prior to treatment. Further that self-reports of cognitive difficulties may persist even when depression has remitted. However, patients may not acknowledge or be aware of changes in their memory functioning, and post-ECT self-reports may not be reliable.

  13. Adults with self-reported learning disabilities in Slovenia: findings from the international adult literacy survey on the incidence and correlates of learning disabilities in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Magajna, Lidija; Kavkler, Marija; Ortar-Krizaj, Martina

    2003-11-01

    This study of adults with self-reported learning disabilities (SRLD) in Slovenia is part of a larger secondary analysis of the data from the International Literacy Survey project (IALS). The purpose of the study was to examine the characteristics of 79 (2.68%) individuals who reported experiencing learning disabilities and compare them to the general population on a variety of indicators of educational background, employment status, and reading and writing activities at work and at home. The proficiency scores of the SRLD individuals were lower in all three literacy domains (prose, document and quantitative literacy). In prose literacy 77.9% of SRLD adults performed at Level 1 and only 7.8% reached the level necessary for a modern technological society. Experiencing learning disabilities was not related to gender or age, however, results showed significant differences between the levels achieved by older and younger people with SRLD. In SRLD groups aged 40 years and above, no one achieved more than the second level of literacy in any domain. Learning disabilities were reported more frequently in rural areas. SRLD groups achieve significantly lower educational attainment, and lower employment status, with a preference for manual labour or craft. These findings are of critical importance. SRLD people report that poorer literacy skills are an obstacle to their progression in employment. In the Slovene sample, the SRLD group stands out for low scores in quantitative literacy. Results show that they are less active, pick up information only auditorily or in short written form. They need more frequent help from relatives in literacy activities. Interpretation of the IALS data on SRLD presents many problems. These include amongst others, problems in terminology, different background factors, and the validity of self-report measures. However, the study also raises many interesting challenges for future research and policy. Increasing the availability of support, assistance

  14. The Development of a Physics Knowledge Enrichment Book “Optical Instrument Equipped with Augmented Reality” to Improve Students’ Learning Outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astra, I. M.; Saputra, F.

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to develop a physics knowledge enrichment book which is provided with augmented reality focusing on the proper optical instruments as the subject to improve students’ learning outcomes. This physics knowledge enrichment book entitled “Alat Optikyang dilengkapi dengan Augmented Reality” discusses some optical instruments seeing from its history, physics concepts, and types. This study used method Research and Development which is developed as Model Pengembangan Instruksional. In the previous study has been done feasibility test to the material and media experts with the percentage by each experts are 88,50% and 88,90%. In this study, we did the trial run of product use was carried out to a physics teacher and 25 students of SMAN 33 Jakarta. This trial run got the average percentage of 88.10% from the physics teacher while the result of the students was 82.80% and the gain normalized test result of 0.71 which meant the students’ learning outcomes had increased in cognitive domain with high interpretation. Based on the result of this study, the physics knowledge enrichment book entitled “Alat Optik yang dilengkapi dengan Augmented Reality” is a proper book in order to improve students’ learning outcomes in cognitive domain with high interpretation.

  15. Re-learning how to write: student successes and challenges in a targeted geoscience communication course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elwood Madden, M.; Miller-Deboer, C.; Eodice, M.; Miller, J.; Johnson, J.; Rifenburg, M.

    2013-12-01

    Colloquium group at the end of the semester. Geowriting students reported in self-assessments that they had 're-learned' how to write as geoscientists in the class and had developed new writing tactics that they could apply to writing projects in other science courses. Based on these reports, we assessed abstract samples to determine if students were employing commonly taught prose style techniques (catchy intro, final summary statement, etc.), which are not usually appropriate in abstracts. Results show that Geowriting students used fewer prose style techniques at the end of the semester, resulting in more professional abstracts, while Colloquium students used more prose style techniques compared to the initial sample, resulting in less appropriate writing for the genre. In other words, Colloquium students may have lacked an explicit introduction to the genre conventions of abstracts and thus relied on a familiar genre and its stylistic devices. These results highlight the effectiveness of science-specific writing instruction within the major to guide students into the norms of the geoscience discourse community and help students learn how to 'write like a geoscientist.' However, as an elective course, only students already interested and skilled in writing were affected.

  16. Altered response to tryptophan supplementation after long-term abstention from MDMA (ecstasy) is highly correlated with human memory function.

    PubMed

    Curran, H Valerie; Verheyden, Suzanne L

    2003-08-01

    MDMA (ecstasy; +3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) damages brain serotonin (5-HT) neurons and, in non-human primates, a loss of various 5-HT axonal markers persists for several years. This raises the question of whether long lasting effects occur in human beings that persist even after they have stopped using MDMA. We therefore assessed the effects of an indirect 5-HT manipulation on functions thought to be affected by MDMA use in people who had stopped using MDMA (ex-users) compared with continuing users and non-users. Ninety-six participants were recruited: 32 ex-users who had stopped using MDMA for >1 year (mean, 2.4 years); 32 current users and 32 polydrug controls who had never used MDMA but were matched with ex-users and controls on cannabis use and pre-morbid IQ. Participants were given an amino acid mixture that contained either no tryptophan (T-) or augmented tryptophan (T+) and assessed before and 5 h after the drink on measures of cognitive function and mood. T+ and T- produced plasma tryptophan augmentation and depletion, respectively, in all three groups. Ex-users' plasma tryptophan levels in response to T+ were significantly higher than other groups. Ex-users' performance on a delayed prose recall task improved after T+ and lessened after T-. Changes in ex-users' free plasma tryptophan levels correlated highly (r=-0.9) with their baseline performance on immediate and delayed prose recall; change in total plasma tryptophan correlated (r=-0.81) with delayed recall. Further, total baseline plasma tryptophan correlated with number of years they had used MDMA before quitting. Baseline differences between groups were found on learning, working memory, aggression and impulsivity. T- did not produce differential effects in the three groups. Our results suggest that prolonged abstinence from MDMA might be associated with altered tryptophan metabolism. Ex-users showing the poorest memory function at baseline were also those who metabolised least tryptophan

  17. Psychosocial outcomes at three and nine months after good neurological recovery from aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: predictors and prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Powell, J; Kitchen, N; Heslin, J; Greenwood, R

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate (1) the prevalence of various aspects of cognitive and psychosocial dysfunction, including post-traumatic stress symptoms, over nine months after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH); (2) whether SAH is preceded by increased life stress; (3) to what extent adverse outcomes may be predicted from preillness life stress, early neurological impairment, age, and sex; and (4) relations between emotional and functional outcomes. Methods: 52 patients with good neurological recovery after surgery for SAH were each matched for age, sex, and occupation with a healthy control participant. SAH patients were assessed three and nine months postdischarge on measures of cognitive functioning, mood, and social functioning. Objective stressors and subjective life change during the preceding year were rated retrospectively. Controls completed measures of mood and social functioning once only. Results: Compared with controls, SAH patients showed increased mood disturbance, subtle cognitive impairment, and abnormally low independence and participation on measures of social functioning. 60% showed clinically significant post-traumatic stress symptomatology (intrusive thoughts or avoidance of reminders) at three months and 30% at nine months. Independence in activities of daily living was greatly reduced in half to a third of the sample at both three and nine months. Productive employment was below the 10th percentile of the control group for 75% of patients at three months and for 56% at nine months; this outcome could not be predicted from selected demographic, premorbid, or clinical variables but dependence on others for organisational activities was predicted by impaired prose recall. Mood at nine months was strongly predicted by prior mental health problems, poor physical health, dysphasia, and impaired prose recall at three months. There was no evidence of an abnormally high level of stressful life events in the year before SAH, although patients rated their

  18. Using comprehension strategies with authentic text in a college chemistry course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cain, Stephen Daniel

    College science students learn important topics by reading textbooks, which contain dense technical prose. Comprehension strategies are known to increase learning from reading. One class of comprehension strategies, called elaboration strategies, is intended to link new information with prior knowledge. Elaboration strategies have an appeal in science courses where new information frequently depends on previously learned information. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an elaboration strategy in an authentic college environment. General chemistry students read text about Lewis structures, figures drawn by chemists to depict molecules, while assigned to use either an elaboration strategy, namely elaborative interrogation, or another strategy, rereading, which served as a placebo control. Two texts of equal length were employed in this pretest-posttest experimental design. One was composed by the researcher. The other was an excerpt from a college textbook and contained a procedure for constructing Lewis structures. Students (N = 252) attending a large community college were randomly assigned to one of the two texts and assigned one of the two strategies. The elaborative interrogation strategy was implemented with instructions to answer why-questions posed throughout the reading. Answering why-questions has been hypothesized to activate prior knowledge of a topic, and thus to aid in cognitively connecting new material with prior knowledge. The rereading strategy was implemented with instructions to read text twice. The use of authentic text was one of only a few instances of applying elaborative interrogation with a textbook. In addition, previous studies have generally focused on the learning of facts contained in prose. The application of elaborative interrogation to procedural text has not been previously reported. Results indicated that the more effective strategy was undetermined when reading authentic text in this setting. However

  19. Pedagogic discourse in introductory classes: Multi-dimensional analysis of textbooks and lectures in biology and macroeconomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carkin, Susan

    The broad goal of this study is to represent the linguistic variation of textbooks and lectures, the primary input for student learning---and sometimes the sole input in the large introductory classes which characterize General Education at many state universities. Computer techniques are used to analyze a corpus of textbooks and lectures from first-year university classes in macroeconomics and biology. These spoken and written variants are compared to each other as well as to benchmark texts from other multi-dimensional studies in order to examine their patterns, relations, and functions. A corpus consisting of 147,000 words was created from macroeconomics and biology lectures at a medium-large state university and from a set of nationally "best-selling" textbooks used in these same introductory survey courses. The corpus was analyzed using multi-dimensional methodology (Biber, 1988). The analysis consists of both empirical and qualitative phases. Quantitative analyses are undertaken on the linguistic features, their patterns of co-occurrence, and on the contextual elements of classrooms and textbooks. The contextual analysis is used to functionally interpret the statistical patterns of co-occurrence along five dimensions of textual variation, demonstrating patterns of difference and similarity with reference to text excerpts. Results of the analysis suggest that academic discourse is far from monolithic. Pedagogic discourse in introductory classes varies by modality and discipline, but not always in the directions expected. In the present study the most abstract texts were biology lectures---more abstract than written genres of academic prose and more abstract than introductory textbooks. Academic lectures in both disciplines, monologues which carry a heavy informational load, were extremely interactive, more like conversation than academic prose. A third finding suggests that introductory survey textbooks differ from those used in upper division classes by being

  20. Pictorial enhancement of text memory: limitations imposed by picture type and comprehension skill.

    PubMed

    Waddill, P J; McDaniel, M A

    1992-09-01

    We examined the kinds of information in a prose passage that is better remembered when depictive illustrations are embedded in the passage than when the passage contains no illustrations. Experiment 1 showed that (1) pictures depicting details effectively increased recall of those details and (2) pictures depicting relationships effectively increased recall of that relational information (relative to a no-picture control condition). In Experiment 2, comprehension skill was found to modulate the general effects obtained in Experiment 1. Detail pictures enhanced the recall of targeted details for all skill levels. Relational pictures enhanced recall of pictured relational information for highly skilled and moderately skilled comprehenders, but not for less skilled comprehenders. Because there were no recall differences across the different skill levels in the no-picture control condition, it is suggested that pictures may serve to enable processing in which readers would not necessarily engage under ordinary circumstances. Pictures, however, did not appear to compensate for limitations reflected in lower scores on a standardized test of reading comprehension.

  1. Electrical Power Systems for NASA's Space Transportation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lollar, Louis F.; Maus, Louis C.

    1998-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) lead center for space transportation systems development. These systems include earth to orbit launch vehicles, as well as vehicles for orbital transfer and deep space missions. The tasks for these systems include research, technology maturation, design, development, and integration of space transportation and propulsion systems. One of the key elements in any transportation system is the electrical power system (EPS). Every transportation system has to have some form of electrical power and the EPS for each of these systems tends to be as varied and unique as the missions they are supporting. The Preliminary Design Office (PD) at MSFC is tasked to perform feasibility analyses and preliminary design studies for new projects, particularly in the space transportation systems area. All major subsystems, including electrical power, are included in each of these studies. Three example systems being evaluated in PD at this time are the Liquid Fly Back Booster (LFBB) system, the Human Mission to Mars (HMM) study, and a tether based flight experiment called the Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS). These three systems are in various stages of definition in the study phase.

  2. AVICENNA'S MEDICAL DIDACTIC POEM: URJUZEHTEBBI.

    PubMed

    Nimrouzi, Majid; Salehi, Alireza; Kiani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Historical research shows that many physicians experienced in medical sciences are also talented in art, literature and poetry. Avicenna was a sage who was skilled in poetry in addition to philosophy and medicine. He wrote two different types of poetry: those meant to be enjoyed for their literary qualities of novelty and imagination, and his didactic Urjuzeh. Didactic poems are different from poetry evoked by imagination and feeling. In didactic poetry, the poets want to learn science and philosophy, whether spiritual, ethical or practical to the readers. Rhyme and poetry were often used for scientific writing in Avicenna's era, and were considered a method for memorizing scientific information and raising students' interest in difficult scientific concepts. Verse was used to simplify the didactic content, ease memorization and make difficult scientific issues more attractive. In medieval Persia, students of medicine had learned the basics of philosophy before starting medical courses. Poetry could help the students memorize the poem itself in combination with its meaning, in a way that was better and easier than prose. Avicenna's masterpiece, UrjuzehTebbi, comprises a perfect course in traditional Persian medicine in rhyming text written in Arabic. This great work was translated into Persian at the research centre for traditional medicine and history of medicine. We hope that the Persian translation of Urjuzeh Tebbi will allow students and experts to better appreciate the role of didactic poems in compiling and transmitting the concepts of Iranian medicine.

  3. Diminished testing benefits in young adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Dudukovic, Nicole M; Gottshall, Jackie L; Cavanaugh, Patricia A; Moody, Christine T

    2015-01-01

    Memory retrieval has been shown to enhance the long-term retention of tested material; however, recent research suggests that limiting attention during retrieval can decrease the benefits of testing memory. The present study examined whether testing benefits are reduced in young adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). College students with and without ADHD read three short prose passages, each followed by a free recall test, a restudy period or a distractor task. Two days later participants recalled the passages. Although participants without ADHD did not show a significant benefit of testing over restudying, testing did produce recall benefits relative to not taking a test. These testing benefits were diminished in participants with ADHD, who did not show any advantage of testing over either restudying or no test. The absence of testing benefits in the ADHD group is likely due in part to decreased recall on the initial test. These findings have implications for improving educational practices among individuals with ADHD and also speak to the need to examine individual differences in the effectiveness of testing as a learning strategy.

  4. Progress: Its Glories and Pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    Steven Pinker, a cognitive psychologist and linguist at Harvard and a savant of big ideas, is one of the latest to take on the idea of progress. He does it under the aegis of "enlightenment," which comes down to a kind of holy trinity of reason, science, and humanism. His new book, Enlightenment Now: The Case for Reason, Science, Humanism, and Progress, is ambitious and cantankerous and heady with hope. On the whole, Pinker makes a good case for the benefits of progress, but with an overdose of feel-good prose. His greatest failure comes in exaggerating the threats to science and in avoiding some problems altogether. He ignores its complexity, its shadows, its creation of new problems raised by its solutions to old ones. Pinker has a particular animus against bioethics, and he misses what has been, I would argue, at the heart of bioethics from its beginning fifty or so years ago. Bioethics was prompted by a new class of medical dilemmas that require a difficult balancing of harms and benefits. Most of them are still with us, and most of them are the result of the progress of postwar medical research and fast-changing clinical practices. © 2018 The Hastings Center.

  5. An anatomy memorial tribute: fostering a humanistic practice of medicine.

    PubMed

    Vora, A

    1998-01-01

    Medical students' first "patients" are the individuals who donate their bodies for laboratory dissection, and these first lessons of medicine serve as a model for the doctor-patient relationship. An Anatomy Memorial Tribute was initiated by students at Mount Sinai School of Medicine to honor these donors. Students and faculty shared music, art, and readings of original poetry and prose. The event facilitated dialogue about attitudes and feelings with regards to death and dying. Controversial issues included anonymity versus identification of donors and the appropriateness of professionals showing emotion in public. The feedback from both students and faculty participants in the event was overwhelmingly positive. Students wrote that the tribute provided a sense of closure for their dissection experience and reinvolved them in shaping their education; faculty indicated that it was appropriate. Memorial tributes are a first step toward fostering the personal growth and emotional preparation required for competent and compassionate patient care. To encourage a humanistic approach to medical education, faculty have the opportunity to participate in such tributes, facilitate sensitive use of language in the anatomy laboratory, and expand the broader medical school curriculum in relation to death and dying. Medical students may expand the concept of memorial tributes and enhance their professional growth in this area by sharing information, ideas, and experiences through national organizations such as the Humanistic Medicine Group of the American Medical Students Association. The capacity of physicians to effectively serve patients facing the end of life is particularly relevant in the setting of palliative medicine.

  6. Retrieval enhances eyewitness suggestibility to misinformation in free and cued recall.

    PubMed

    Wilford, Miko M; Chan, Jason C K; Tuhn, Sam J

    2014-03-01

    Immediately recalling a witnessed event can increase people's susceptibility to later postevent misinformation. But this retrieval-enhanced suggestibility (RES) effect has been shown only when the initial recall test included specific questions that reappeared on the final test. Moreover, it is unclear whether this phenomenon is affected by the centrality of event details. These limitations make it difficult to generalize RES to criminal investigations, which often begin with free recall prior to more specific queries from legal officials and attorneys. In 3 experiments, we examined the influence of test formats (free recall vs. cued recall) and centrality of event details (central vs. peripheral) on RES. In Experiment 1, both the initial and final tests were cued recall. In Experiment 2, the initial test was free recall and the final test was cued recall. In Experiment 3, both the initial and final tests were free recall. Initial testing increased misinformation reporting on the final test for peripheral details in all experiments, but the effect was significant for central details only after aggregating the data from all 3 experiments. These results show that initial free recall can produce RES, and more broadly, that free recall can potentiate subsequent learning of complex prose materials. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  7. Optical fiber endface biosensor based on resonances in dielectric waveguide gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawro, Debra D.; Tibuleac, Sorin; Magnusson, Robert; Liu, Hanli

    2000-05-01

    A new fiber optic sensor integrating dielectric diffraction gratings and thin films on optical fiber endfaces is prosed for biomedical sensing applications. This device utilizes a resonant dielectric waveguide grating structure fabricated on an optical fiber endface to probe reactions occurring in a sensing layer deposited on its surface. The operation of this sensor is based upon a fundamental resonance effect that occurs in waveguide gratings. An incident broad- spectrum signal is guided within an optical fiber and is filtered to reflect or transmit a desired spectral band by the diffractive thin film structure on its endface. Slight changes in one or more parameters of the waveguide grating, such as refractive index or thickness, can result in a responsive shift of the reflected or transmitted spectral peak that can be detected with spectroscopic instruments. This new sensor concept combines improved sensitivity and accuracy with attractive features found separately in currently available fiber optic sensors, such as large dynamic range, small sensing proximity, real time operation, and remote sensing. Diffractive elements of this type consisting of a photoresist grating on a Si3N4 waveguide have been fabricated on multimode optical fiber endfaces with 100 micrometers cores. Preliminary experimental tests using a tunable Ti:sapphire laser indicate notches of 18 percent in the transmission spectrum of the fiber endface guided-mode resonance devices. A theoretical analysis of the device performance capabilities is presented and applied to evaluate the feasibility and potential advantages of this bioprobe.

  8. Does the Weather Really Matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burroughs, William James

    1997-09-01

    We talk about it endlessly, write about it copiously, and predict it badly. It influences what we do, what we wear, and how we live. Weather--how does it really impact our lives? In this compelling look at weather, author Burroughs combines historical perspective and economic and political analysis to give the impact of weather and climate change relevance and weight. He examines whether the frequency of extreme events is changing and the consequences of these changes. He looks at the chaotic nature of the climate and how this unpredictability can impose serious limits on how we plan for the future. Finally, he poses the important question: what types of serious, even less predictable changes are around the corner? In balanced and accessible prose, Burroughs works these issues into lucid analysis. This refreshing and insightful look at the impact of weather will appeal to anyone who has ever worried about forgetting an umbrella. William James Burroughs is the author of Watching the World's Weather (CUP, 1991) and Weather Cycles: Real or Imaginary? (CUP, 1994).

  9. White goddess--the unspeakable name. An inquiry into Robert Graves' King Jesus.

    PubMed

    Nakano, N

    1984-03-01

    Robert Graves is a poet-mythographer, well-known in the U. K. and the U. S. A., but not in Japan despite his huge amount of poetic, mythographical, prose and critical works. Furthermore, even in the U. S. A. and the U. K., some people have been shunning him politely as a versatile iconoclast possessed of the White Goddess. In fact, it is not difficult to imagine that when King Jesus, a life story of Christ, was published, people were shocked at his extraordinary mythographical Christology derived from his enthusiasm towards the White Goddess Cult. In Christ he discovered the fragments of maternal doctrine as a new concept in opposition to the Apollonian theory of Judaism, but they seemed to be quite incomplete in the author's eyes lacking in something most essential in life, recognition of love and hatred discipline. This paper is an inquiry into how the author developed his own hermaneutics of Christ through his wide and thorough scholarship on mythology, history, the Bible and Celtic poetry.

  10. [Textual research on Chen Ye and his Jia cang jing yan fang (Family-preserved Empirical Recipes) of the Song Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuedan; Zhang, Ruqing; Chen, Dexing

    2014-01-01

    Chen Ye, an official of the Southern Song Dynasty, also known as Chen Rihua as his styled name, was born in Changle, Fuzhou in the reign of Shaoxing, and died during the reign of Duanping. He had been consecutively in the positions of Jiang shi lang (Court Gentleman for Ceremonial Service), Zhi zhou (Prefect) of Lingding, the Ti xing (Judicial Commissioner) of Guangdong, the Zong ling (Overseer-general) of Sichuan, Shan ding (Reviser), Shu lin and other positions in Tongzhou, Yuanzhou. His works included 1 volume of Gu ling xian sheng nian pu (Mr. Guling's Chronological Biography), 1 volume of Tan xie (On Humor), 1 volume of Shi hua (Poetry), 8 volumes of Jin yuan li shu (Jin Yuan's Smart Technique), 3 volumes of Yi jian zhi lei bian (Classified Compilation of Yijian's Annals), (Zeng guang) Suo sui lu (Augmented Records of Trivial Matters), 5 volumes of Jia cang jing yan fang (Family-preserved Empirical Recipes). He also compiled the 8-volume Yin jiang zhi (Yinjiang's Annals), published the 2-volume Jia cang ji yao fang (Collected Essential Recipes from Family Preservation), and other proses and poetry. Jia cang jing yan fang was a formulary compiled by Chen Ye, which was lost. Altogether 74 of its recipes were cited in Fu ren da quan liang fang (Complete Effective Prescriptions for Women's Diseases), Shou qin yang lao shu (A Book for Pursuing Seniors' Longevity and Healthcare), Pu ji fang (Prescriptions for Universal Relief) and Yong le da dian (Yongle Encyclopedia).

  11. Reflections on the Resurgence of Interest in the Testing Effect.

    PubMed

    Roediger, Henry L; Karpicke, Jeffrey D

    2018-03-01

    We discuss the findings from our 2006 article in Psychological Science on the testing effect and describe how the project arose. The testing effect (or retrieval-practice effect) was first reported in the experimental literature about a century before our article was published, and the effect had been replicated (and sometimes discovered anew) many times over the years. Our experiments used prose materials (unlike most prior research) and produced a more powerful effect than prior research even though we used a conservative control condition for comparison. In our discussion, we drew out possible implications for educational practice. We also reported that students in the experiment could not predict the effect; this lack of metacognitive awareness represented a new finding in this context. In a companion article the same year, we provided an historical review of the testing effect. We believe the synergistic effect of the two articles accounts in part for the resurgence in interest in this phenomenon and its application in educational settings.

  12. Economic optimization of operations for hybrid energy systems under variable markets

    SciT

    Chen, Jen; Garcia, Humberto E.

    We prosed a hybrid energy systems (HES) which is an important element to enable increasing penetration of clean energy. Our paper investigates the operations flexibility of HES, and develops a methodology for operations optimization for maximizing economic value based on predicted renewable generation and market information. A multi-environment computational platform for performing such operations optimization is also developed. In order to compensate for prediction error, a control strategy is accordingly designed to operate a standby energy storage element (ESE) to avoid energy imbalance within HES. The proposed operations optimizer allows systematic control of energy conversion for maximal economic value. Simulationmore » results of two specific HES configurations are included to illustrate the proposed methodology and computational capability. These results demonstrate the economic viability of HES under proposed operations optimizer, suggesting the diversion of energy for alternative energy output while participating in the ancillary service market. Economic advantages of such operations optimizer and associated flexible operations are illustrated by comparing the economic performance of flexible operations against that of constant operations. Sensitivity analysis with respect to market variability and prediction error, are also performed.« less

  13. [History and poetry in women's biological twilight: menopause and old age].

    PubMed

    Cruz y Hermida, Julio

    2011-01-01

    This is a poetical and historical approach to the last biological stages of the evolutive development of women, namely menopause and old age. It starts with the passages found in Egyptian Papirii such as Ebers or Smith, dated 1500-2000 BC, which describe, among other symptoms, the sweating and hig body temperatures caused by the diminishing hormon secretion of the ovaries. Other important works on the subject, some of them written in the 20th century and some others composed before that date, are also quoted, such as the Edad Crítica (Critical Age) by Dr. Marañon. The final stage of a woman's life, old age, is presented through the famous sonet "Alfa y Omega" (Alpha and Omega) by poet Manuel Machado. Using poetical strokes, the author conveys an image of the many phisiopatological consequences of old age in women: osteoporosis, genital prolapse, urine incontinence and "wrinkles" ("old age is neither shown by white hair nor by wrinkles but by the heart"). The work finishes with the famous statement uttered by Napoleon Bona-parte: "God wanted to be a writer: Man is His prose; His poetry, Women". The same poetry that Dr. Cruz y Hermida has found through the complexities of the evolutive process of feminine biology.

  14. Neurology and Don Quixote.

    PubMed

    Palma, Jose-Alberto; Palma, Fermin

    2012-01-01

    Don Quixote de la Mancha, which is considered one of the most important and influential works of Western modern prose, contains many references of interest for almost all of the medical specialties. In this regard, numerous references to neurology can be found in Cervantes' immortal work. In this study, we aimed to read Don Quixote from a neurologist's point of view, describing the neurological phenomena scattered throughout the novel, including tremors, sleep disturbances, neuropsychiatric symptoms, dementia, epilepsy, paralysis, stroke, syncope, traumatic head injury, and headache; we relate these symptoms with depictions of those conditions in the medical literature of the time. We also review Cervantes' sources of neurological information, including the works by renowned Spanish authors such as Juan Huarte de San Juan, Dionisio Daza Chacón and Juan Valverde de Amusco, and we hypothesize that Don Quixote's disorder was actually a neurological condition. Although Cervantes wrote it four centuries ago, Don Quixote contains plenty of references to neurology, and many of the ideas and concepts reflected in it are still of interest. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. The Deflection Plate Analyzer: A Technique for Space Plasma Measurements Under Highly Disturbed Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Dutton, Ken; Martinez, Nelson; Smith, Dennis; Stone, Nobie H.

    2004-01-01

    A technique has been developed to measure the characteristics of space plasmas under highly disturbed conditions; e.g., non-Maxwellian plasmas with strong drifting populations and plasmas contaminated by spacecraft outgassing. The present method is an extension of the capabilities of the Differential Ion Flux Probe (DIFP) to include a mass measurement that does not include either high voltage or contamination sensitive devices such as channeltron electron multipliers or microchannel plates. This reduces the complexity and expense of instrument fabrication, testing, and integration of flight hardware as compared to classical mass analyzers. The new instrument design is called the Deflection Plate Analyzer (DPA) and can deconvolve multiple ion streams and analyze each stream for ion flux intensity (density), velocity (including direction of motion), mass, and temperature (or energy distribution). The basic functionality of the DPA is discussed. The performance characteristics of a flight instrument as built for an electrodynamic tether mission, the Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS), and the instrument s role in measuring key experimental conditions are also discussed.

  16. Narrative and natural history in the eighteenth century.

    PubMed

    Terrall, Mary

    2017-04-01

    In the eighteenth century, natural histories of animals incorporated narratives about animal behaviour and narratives of discovery and experimentation. Naturalists used first-person accounts to link the stories of their scientific investigations to the stories of the animal lives they were studying. Understanding nature depended on narratives that shifted back and forth in any given text between animal and human, and between individual cases and generalizations about species. This paper explores the uses of narrative through examples from the work of René-Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur and Abraham Trembley. In all cases, narrative took the genre of natural history well beyond straightforward description and classification. Prose accounts of insect actions and mechanisms worked in tandem with visual narratives embedded in the accompanying illustrations, where artists developed strategies for representing sequences of minute changes over time. By throwing into relief the narrative sections of natural histories, the examples considered here expose the role played by these tales of encounters with the insect world in the making of natural historical knowledge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Psychoanalysis is a precious thread, fragile but precious": Vittorio Benussi and the Inventory of psychoanalysis (1926-1927)].

    PubMed

    Trizzino, Antonino

    2008-01-01

    The lessons of psychoanalysis held by Vittorio Benussi in Padua between 1926 and 1927 reveal the other aspect of his interests: that which regards psychoanalysis and its method. These unpublished lessons, which we are printing here for the first time, are preserved in the historical Archives of Italian psychology of the Università di Milano-Bicocca. I have assigned to them the title of Inventario di psicanalisi (Inventory of Psychoanalysis) for their character, unprecedented in the Italy of the 1920s, of a first record of the lexical and theoretical world of psychoanalysis. Since they were not intended for publication, the lessons were written without the urgency of ordering facts and interpretations, and without resorting to the rhetoric of linguistic conventions. A reading of them makes evident how the Benussian attempt to integrate experimental psychology and analytic method is still unresolved. In these pages everything is shown in an incipient stage, in a contracted and intricate prose; while things are complicated by the hermetism of the style, the terminological oscillations, the theoretical density; and yet, these unpublished notes should be read like a palimpsest in which each word has been written, erased, and rewritten, in a work that remains unique in twentieth-century European psychology.

  18. Observation, Inference, and Imagination: Elements of Edgar Allan Poe's Philosophy of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfert, Axel

    2014-03-01

    Edgar Allan Poe's standing as a literary figure, who drew on (and sometimes dabbled in) the scientific debates of his time, makes him an intriguing character for any exploration of the historical interrelationship between science, literature and philosophy. His sprawling `prose-poem' Eureka (1848), in particular, has sometimes been scrutinized for anticipations of later scientific developments. By contrast, the present paper argues that it should be understood as a contribution to the raging debates about scientific methodology at the time. This methodological interest, which is echoed in Poe's `tales of ratiocination', gives rise to a proposed new mode of—broadly abductive—inference, which Poe attributes to the hybrid figure of the `poet-mathematician'. Without creative imagination and intuition, Science would necessarily remain incomplete, even by its own standards. This concern with imaginative (abductive) inference ties in nicely with his coherentism, which grants pride of place to the twin virtues of Simplicity and Consistency, which must constrain imagination lest it degenerate into mere fancy.

  19. Out of Our Heads! Four perspectives on the curation of an on-line exhibition of medically themed artwork by UK medical undergraduates

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Trevor; van de Klee, Danny; Lamont-Robinson, Catherine; Duffin, Will

    2010-01-01

    The Medical School at Bristol University is noted for offering, and in some instances requiring, its students to work creatively with medical themes. Students, artists, educationalists and a web designer have worked to create an on-line exhibition of the resulting creative output. This can be viewed at www.outofourheads.net. This site is a themed repository of poetry, prose, drawings, paintings, cartoons, films, music, dance and rap. Most works come with commentaries that can be as illuminating as the works they describe. The site invites comment and welcomes new postings from anyone connected to medicine. As an alternative to the conventional pedagogical report, and in keeping with the subject matter, in this paper we tell the story of this unique educational enterprise through the narratives of four of its principle architects. The ‘Teacher's Tale’, the ‘Designer's Tale’, the ‘Curator's Tale’ and the ‘Artist's Tale’ offer different, personal, tellings of how the site came to be. Each tale contains hypertext links to notable works on the site some of which have become teaching resources within the institution. This paper is of relevance to anyone who seeks to explore and champion the human insights of this privileged community. PMID:21321667

  20. GCN capabilities and status, and the incorporation of LIGO/Virgo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthelmy, Scott

    2016-03-01

    The Gamma-ray Coordinates Network / Transient Astronomy Network (GCN/TAN) is a single-point source for all transient astronomy notification. It collects the astrophysical transients from the missions (space-based and nearly all ground-based), puts them into a standard format, and distributes them to whomever wants to receive them. This is all done autonomously (completely autonomous within GCN/TAN, and almost always autonomously within the producer end of operations). This automation means minimal time delays (<0.1 sec within GCN for VOEvent and binary socket-based distribution methods, and typically a few sec for email-based which is dependent on the internet email protocol and the number of hops, both of which are out of the control of GCN/TAN). The LIGO-VIRGO Collaboration (LVC) Notices are now implemented in the GCN/TAN system. During the proprietary phase, the recipients must have an MoU with LVC and LVC must authorize GCN to distribute LVC Notices to each given MoU follow-up observer. In addition to Notices, there are the GCN Circulars, which are prose-style reports of follow-up observations made and results obtains. During the LVC Proprietary phase there are also the GCN LVC Circulars, which also require authorization from LVC to join the LVC Circulars.

  1. Appraisal the Potential of Central Iran, in the Context of Health Tourism

    PubMed Central

    ROKNI, Ladan; POURAHMAD, Ahmad; MOTEIEY LANGROUDI, Mohammad Hassan; REZAEIY MAHMOUDI, Mehdi; HEIDARZADEH, Najmeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to appraisal the prose and cone of Shiraz City in terms of its potential in the context of health tourism. Methods: The statistical sample included medical and health tourism sector in the city of Shiraz in the northwest of Fars Province, south of Iran. The efficient authorities on the topic were identified through the hospitals engaging in medical tourism. The research was based on theoretical sampling through which the experienced people of extensive knowledge on medical tourism were interviewed. Results: Active hospitals on attraction foreign patients averagely admit 15 and 50 foreign patients monthly and annually, respectively. Arab countries in the Persian Gulf were detected as the main marketing for Shiraz medical tourism. Oman encompassed the highest rate with 20% of admitted patients. Eye treatments with 30% and orthopedic with 6% were demonstrated as the highest and lowest rates in terms of foreign patients’ needs, respectively. Closeness of cultural and religious beliefs and familial relationships on one hand and trusting to Iranian physicians on the other hand were amongst the most reasons for selecting Iran as a destination for medical tourism by patients. Conclusion: Implementing 4 strategies on monitoring medical tourism would result into significant improvement of attracting more foreigner patients not only into Shiraz but all around Iran. These items have been discussed in the text. PMID:23641404

  2. Getting poetic with data: Using poetry to disseminate the first-person voices of parents of children with a disability.

    PubMed

    Carter, Bernie; Sanders, Caroline; Bray, Lucy

    2018-01-01

    This paper considers the limitations of traditional prose-based approaches to research dissemination and explores the potential merits and tensions in adopting a poetic approach to disseminate participants' experiences and perspectives. Drawing on our experience of using I-poetry to create first-person poems from our research data we discuss the attractiveness of the subjective, expressive and relational opportunities of poetry, and its ability to compress experience and create emotional connections and evoke emotion. We also reflect upon and discuss the limitations, challenges and criticisms of the use of research poetry, with a specific focus on the use of data poems and their value in disseminating research findings. Using poetry compelled us to think with our data differently and our poems have generated visceral responses from parents and professionals. Research poetry has value within academic and clinical worlds but its greatest potential perhaps lies in providing a means of disseminating research to the wider range of stakeholders. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Checking Flight Rules with TraceContract: Application of a Scala DSL for Trace Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barringer, Howard; Havelund, Klaus; Morris, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Typically during the design and development of a NASA space mission, rules and constraints are identified to help reduce reasons for failure during operations. These flight rules are usually captured in a set of indexed tables, containing rule descriptions, rationales for the rules, and other information. Flight rules can be part of manual operations procedures carried out by humans. However, they can also be automated, and either implemented as on-board monitors, or as ground based monitors that are part of a ground data system. In the case of automated flight rules, one considerable expense to be addressed for any mission is the extensive process by which system engineers express flight rules in prose, software developers translate these requirements into code, and then both experts verify that the resulting application is correct. This paper explores the potential benefits of using an internal Scala DSL for general trace analysis, named TRACECONTRACT, to write executable specifications of flight rules. TRACECONTRACT can generally be applied to analysis of for example log files or for monitoring executing systems online.

  4. Immediate story recall in elderly individuals with memory complaints: how much does it contribute to memory assessment?

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Gabriel; Drummond, Cláudia; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Moll, Jorge; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Mattos, Paulo

    2015-10-01

    Prose memory tests exhibit ecological validity, but the influence of non-memory functions on immediate recall in elderly subjects with memory complaints has not been fully investigated. This study examined (1) whether the ability to immediately recall a story can distinguish among clinical controls, amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and (2) which cognitive functions contribute to immediate recall performance. A total of 73 consecutive volunteers (50 women and 23 men) aged 47-88 (mean age = 71.85 ± 9.41) and with a mean schooling level of 12.51 (SD = 4.09) participated in the experiment. All individuals were seeking specialized evaluation because of memory complaints. Diagnoses were made by considering clinical, neuropsychological, and MRI assessments collected by a multidisciplinary team of neurologists, neuropsychologists, and speech-language therapists. A total of 26 individuals were classified as clinical controls; 27 as MCI patients; and 20 as having AD dementia. All individuals in the AD group had a Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) ≤ 1. Immediate recall was only able to distinguish AD subjects from MCI patients and clinical controls (p > 0.05). Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed that mental status (MMSE), semantic memory (WAIS-III vocabulary) and episodic memory (RAVLT primacy) explained approximately 62% of the variance in immediate recall. Understanding the value and limitations of immediate story recall in distinguishing between MCI and AD may help clinicians in better choosing cognitive tests to diagnose MCI.

  5. The Deflection Plate Analyzer: A Technique for Space Plasma Measurements Under Highly Disturbed Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Dutton, Ken; Martinez, Nelson; Smith, Dennis; Stone, Nobie H.

    2003-01-01

    A technique has been developed to measure the characteristics of space plasmas under highly disturbed conditions; e.g., non-Maxwellian plasmas with strong drifting populations and plasmas contaminated by spacecraft outgassing. The present method is an extension of the capabilities of the Differential Ion Flux Probe (DIFP) to include a mass measurement that does not include either high voltage or contamination sensitive devices such as channeltron electron multipliers or microchannel plates. This reduces the complexity and expense of instrument fabrication, testing, and integration of flight hardware as compared to classical mass analyzers. The new instrument design is called the Deflection Plate Analyzer (DPA) and can deconvolve multiple ion streams and analyze each stream for ion flux intensity (density), velocity (including direction of motion), mass, and temperature (or energy distribution). The basic functionality of the DPA is discussed. The performance characteristics of a flight instrument as built for an electrodynamic tether mission, the Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS), and the instrument s role in measuring key experimental conditions are also discussed.

  6. The relationship between two visual communication systems: reading and lipreading.

    PubMed

    Williams, A

    1982-12-01

    To explore the relationship between reading and lipreading and to determine whether readers and lipreaders use similar strategies to comprehend verbal messages, 60 female junior and sophomore high school students--30 good and 30 poor readers--were given a filmed lipreading test, a test to measure eye-voice span, a test of cloze ability, and a test of their ability to comprehend printed material presented one word at a time in the absence of an opportunity to regress or scan ahead. The results of this study indicated that (a) there is a significant relationship between reading and lipreading ability; (b) although good readers may be either good or poor lipreaders, poor readers are more likely to be poor than good lipreaders; (c) there are similarities in the strategies used by readers and lipreaders in their approach to comprehending spoken and written material; (d) word-by-word reading of continuous prose appears to be a salient characteristic of both poor reading and poor lipreading ability; and (c) good readers and lipreaders do not engage in word-by-word reading but rather use a combination of visual and linguistic cues to interpret written and spoken messages.

  7. Development and evaluation of the Korean Health Literacy Instrument.

    PubMed

    Kang, Soo Jin; Lee, Tae Wha; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Kim, Gwang Suk; Won, Hee Kwan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and validate the Korean Health Literacy Instrument, which measures the capacity to understand and use health-related information and make informed health decisions in Korean adults. In Phase 1, 33 initial items were generated to measure functional, interactive, and critical health literacy with prose, document, and numeracy tasks. These items included content from health promotion, disease management, and health navigation contexts. Content validity assessment was conducted by an expert panel, and 11 items were excluded. In Phase 2, the 22 remaining items were administered to a convenience sample of 292 adults from community and clinical settings. Exploratory factor and item difficulty and discrimination analyses were conducted and four items with low discrimination were deleted. In Phase 3, the remaining 18 items were administered to a convenience sample of 315 adults 40-64 years of age from community and clinical settings. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed to test the construct validity of the instrument. The Korean Health Literacy Instrument has a range of 0 to 18. The mean score in our validation study was 11.98. The instrument exhibited an internal consistency reliability coefficient of 0.82, and a test-retest reliability of 0.89. The instrument is suitable for screening individuals who have limited health literacy skills. Future studies are needed to further define the psychometric properties and predictive validity of the Korean Health Literacy Instrument.

  8. An international comparison of the association among literacy, education, and health across the United States, Canada, Switzerland, Italy, Norway, and Bermuda: implications for health disparities.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Takashi; Kunkel, Suzanne R

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between education and health is well-established, but theoretical pathways are not fully understood. Economic resources, stress, and health behaviors partially explain how education influences health, but further study is needed. Previous studies show that health literacy mediates the education-health relationship, as do general literacy skills. However, little is known whether such mediation effects are consistent across different societies. This study analyzed data from the International Assessment of Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey conducted in Canada, the United States, Italy, Norway, Switzerland, and Bermuda to investigate the mediation effects of literacy on the education-health relationship and the degree of such mediation in different cultural contexts. Results showed that literacy skills mediated the effect of education on health in all study locations, but the degree of mediation varied. This mediation effect was particularly strong in Bermuda. This study also found that different types of literacy skills are more or less important in each study location. For example, numeracy skills in the United States and prose (reading) literacy skills in Italy were stronger predictors of health than were other literacy skills. These findings suggest a new direction for addressing health disparities: focusing on relevant types of literacy skills.

  9. The life and work of Ksenija Atanasijević (1894-1981)--psychology and anthropology as the inevitability and necessity of philosophy.

    PubMed

    Damjanović, Aleksandar; Milovanović, Srdan; Jovanović, Aleksandar; Cvetić, Tijana; Jasović-Gasić, Miroslava

    2014-06-01

    Ksenja Atanasijević (1894-1981) was the first woman in Serbia to obtain a Ph.D. in philosophy. Going through numerous psychological metamorphoses in her lifetime and confronted with numerous challenges, Ksenija Atanasijević developed a specific philosophical-psychological system of consolation prominently featuring the concepts of happiness, bliss, moderation, courage and wisdom. Modifying the original teachings of Democritus and Epicurus, Ksenija Atanasijević developed a distinctive anthropology based on confrontation with but equally the overcoming of obstacles, both internal (spiritual) as well as external ones. The philosopheress developed a reflexive and indeed metaphysical defensive psychotherapeutical skill at the root of which was cleansing the soul, as well as dedication to the realm of fancy, fantasy and imagination. Ksenija Atanasijević also had precious literary talent which was best expressed in her analyses of the poetry and prose of great Serbian writers (Pandurović, Njegos, Nastasijević, etc.). It is quite certain that this, with Anica Savić-Rebac, definitely greatest Serbian philosopheress, through personal suffering, creative solitude and shrouded desperation built an utterly authentic and harmonious system of philosophical comfort.

  10. Bore pile foundation tall buildings closed in the heritage building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triastuti, Nusa Setiani

    2017-11-01

    Bore pile foundation for high building surroundings heritage building should be not damage. Construction proses must good, no necking, no mixed deep water, no sliding soil, nonporous concrete. Objective the execution of bore pile so that heritage buildings and neighboring buildings that are old do not experience cracks, damage and tilting. The survey methodology was observe the process of the implementation of the dominant silt, clay soil, in addition a limited space and to analyze the results of loading tests, investigations of soil and daily reports. Construction process determines the success of the structure bore pile in high building structure bearing, without damaging a heritage building. Attainment the hard soil depth, density concrete, observable clean reinforcement in the implementation. Monitoring the implementation of, among others, the face of the ground water little reduce in the area and outside the footprint of the building, no impact of vibration drilling equipment, watching the mud content on the water coming out at the time of drilling, concrete volume was monitored each 2 m bore depth of pile, The result researched heritage building was not damage. The test results bore pile axial, lateral analyzed the results have the appropriate force design required.

  11. Cognitive search model and a new query paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhonghui

    2001-06-01

    This paper proposes a cognitive model in which people begin to search pictures by using semantic content and find a right picture by judging whether its visual content is a proper visualization of the semantics desired. It is essential that human search is not just a process of matching computation on visual feature but rather a process of visualization of the semantic content known. For people to search electronic images in the way as they manually do in the model, we suggest that querying be a semantic-driven process like design. A query-by-design paradigm is prosed in the sense that what you design is what you find. Unlike query-by-example, query-by-design allows users to specify the semantic content through an iterative and incremental interaction process so that a retrieval can start with association and identification of the given semantic content and get refined while further visual cues are available. An experimental image retrieval system, Kuafu, has been under development using the query-by-design paradigm and an iconic language is adopted.

  12. The perceived quality of interprofessional teamwork in an intensive care unit: A single centre intervention study.

    PubMed

    Van den Bulcke, Bo; Vyt, Andre; Vanheule, Stijn; Hoste, Eric; Decruyenaere, Johan; Benoit, Dominique

    2016-05-01

    This article describes a study that evaluated the quality of teamwork in a surgical intensive care unit and assessed whether teamwork could be improved significantly through a tailor-made intervention. The quality of teamwork prior to and after the intervention was assessed using the Interprofessional Practice and Education Quality Scales (IPEQS) using the PROSE online diagnostics and documenting system, which assesses three domains of teamwork: organisational factors, care processes, and team members' attitudes and beliefs. Furthermore, team members evaluated strengths and weaknesses of the teamwork through open-ended questions. Information gathered by means of the open questions was used to design a tailor-made 12-week intervention consisting of (1) optimising the existing weekly interdisciplinary meetings with collaborative decision-making and clear communication of goal-oriented actions, including the psychosocial aspects of care; and (2) organising and supporting the effective exchange of information over time between all professions involved. It was found that the intervention had a significant impact on organisational factors and care processes related to interprofessional teamwork for the total group and within all subgroups, despite baseline differences between the subgroups in interprofessional teamwork. In conclusion, teamwork, and more particularly the organisational aspects of interprofessional collaboration and processes of care, can be improved by a tailor-made intervention that takes into account the professional needs of healthcare workers.

  13. E. Graeme Robertson--dynamics in fluid and light.

    PubMed

    Kempster, P A; Gerraty, R P; Bower, S P C

    2013-02-01

    An eponymous lecture at the Australian and New Zealand Association of Neurologists Annual Scientific Meeting commemorates E. Graeme Robertson (1903-75), and some neurologists will know that particular Australian practices in clinical neurology, so far as they exist, have origins in his career. This is a historical article on the literary record of a man who had his own sense of history--an affinity with the past as well as an awareness of future generations of readers. He wrote authoritative texts on pneumoencephalography before new technology made it obsolete, and he produced a series of books on decorative architectural cast iron in Australian cities. A talent for visual interpretation seems to have drawn him to both of these topics; a common theme is contrast between light and dark, which is expatiated in images and in clear, well-written prose in his publications. We review his medical writings, including some largely forgotten principles of cerebrospinal fluid physics that he discovered when researching pneumoencephalography. We also explore his obsession with cast iron--its architectural historical significance, his techniques for photographing it, and some of the ways that it related to his life's work as a clinical neurologist. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modeling Longitudinal Changes in Older Adults’ Memory for Spoken Discourse: Findings from the ACTIVE Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Brennan R.; Gross, Alden L.; Parisi, Jeanine M.; Sisco, Shannon M.; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A. L.; Marsiske, Michael; Rebok, George W.

    2014-01-01

    Episodic memory shows substantial declines with advancing age, but research on longitudinal trajectories of spoken discourse memory (SDM) in older adulthood is limited. Using parallel process latent growth curve models, we examined 10 years of longitudinal data from the no-contact control group (N = 698) of the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) randomized controlled trial in order to test (a) the degree to which SDM declines with advancing age, (b) predictors of these age-related declines, and (c) the within-person relationship between longitudinal changes in SDM and longitudinal changes in fluid reasoning and verbal ability over 10 years, independent of age. Individuals who were younger, White, had more years of formal education, were male, and had better global cognitive function and episodic memory performance at baseline demonstrated greater levels of SDM on average. However, only age at baseline uniquely predicted longitudinal changes in SDM, such that declines accelerated with greater age. Independent of age, within-person decline in reasoning ability over the 10-year study period was substantially correlated with decline in SDM (r = .87). An analogous association with SDM did not hold for verbal ability. The findings suggest that longitudinal declines in fluid cognition are associated with reduced spoken language comprehension. Unlike findings from memory for written prose, preserved verbal ability may not protect against developmental declines in memory for speech. PMID:24304364

  15. [Treatment of non-neurogenic masculine urinary incontinence due to overactive bladder: a review by the LUTS committee of the French Urological Association].

    PubMed

    Lebdai, S; Haillot, O; Azzouzi, A R; Benchikh, A; Campeggi, A; Cornu, J-N; Delongchamps, N B; Dumonceau, O; Faix, A; Fourmarier, M; Lukacs, B; Mathieu, R; Misrai, V; Robert, G; de La Taille, A; Descazeaud, A

    2014-07-01

    To perform an update on the treatment of masculine urinary incontinence due to idiopathic overactive bladder. A systematic review was conducted using PubMed/MEDLINE with the following keywords: "overactive bladder", "male urinary incontinence", "urgency", "antimuscarinic", "onabotulinumtoxinA", "neurostimulation", "cystoplasty". Antimuscarinic treatments were the first line option for overactive bladder incontinence (decreased incontinence under tolterodine versus placebo respectively -71% vs. -40%, P < 0.05). Their main side effects were dry mouth (16-29.6%) and constipation (4%), which might decrease the observance. In case of failure, neuromostimulation could be prosed with a 67% efficacy rate. Intra-detrusorian injections of onabotulinumtoxinA were an option, however there were still not validated for this indication and their efficacy decreases with time and after repeated injections. The ultimate option in case of refractory major over-activity was cystoplasty, which involves major morbidity for inconstant efficacy. The same treatments are available for non-neurologic urinary incontinence by bladder over-activity for men and women: antimuscarinic drugs, neurostimulation, onabotulinumtoxinA. However, only few data is available for masculine population exclusively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of synthesis time on graphene growth from palm oil as green carbon precursor

    SciT

    Salifairus, M. J., E-mail: salifairus-mj85@yahoo.co.uk; Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA; NANO-ElecTronic Centre - Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

    2016-07-06

    Graphene is the new material that arises after carbon nanotubes (CNTs) era and has extraordinary optical, electronic and mechanical properties compared to CNTs. The 2D graphene is the sp{sup 2} carbon allotropes compared to other dimensionality. It also can be in three forms that are zero-dimensional, one-dimensional or three-dimensional. The different dimensionality also called fullerenes, nanotubes and graphite. Therefore, the graphene is known as centre potential materials in expanding research area than others ever. The 2 cm × 2 cm silicon wafer was seeded with nickel (Ni) at different thickness by using sputter coater. The palm oil, carbon source, wasmore » placed in the precursor furnace and the silicon was placed in the second furnace (deposition furnace). The palm oil will mix with Nitrogen gas was used as carrier gas in the CVD under certain temperature and pressure to undergo pyrolysis proses. The deposition temperature was set at 1000 °C. The deposition time varied from 3 minutes, 5 minutes and 7 minutes. The graphene was growth at ambient pressure in the CVD system. Electron microscopy and Raman Spectrometer revealed the structural properties and surface morphology of the grapheme on the substrate. The D and G band appear approximately at 1350 cm{sup −1} and 1850 cm{sup −1}. It can be concluded that the growth of graphene varies at different deposition time.« less

  17. Assessment of nitrate pollution in the Grand Morin aquifers (France): combined use of geostatistics and physically based modeling.

    PubMed

    Flipo, Nicolas; Jeannée, Nicolas; Poulin, Michel; Even, Stéphanie; Ledoux, Emmanuel

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this work is to combine several approaches to better understand nitrate fate in the Grand Morin aquifers (2700 km(2)), part of the Seine basin. cawaqs results from the coupling of the hydrogeological model newsam with the hydrodynamic and biogeochemical model of river ProSe. cawaqs is coupled with the agronomic model Stics in order to simulate nitrate migration in basins. First, kriging provides a satisfactory representation of aquifer nitrate contamination from local observations, to set initial conditions for the physically based model. Then associated confidence intervals, derived from data using geostatistics, are used to validate cawaqs results. Results and evaluation obtained from the combination of these approaches are given (period 1977-1988). Then cawaqs is used to simulate nitrate fate for a 20-year period (1977-1996). The mean nitrate concentrations increase in aquifers is 0.09 mgN L(-1)yr(-1), resulting from an average infiltration flux of 3500 kgN.km(-2)yr(-1).

  18. [A linguistic analysis of Norwegian medical discourse].

    PubMed

    Fløttum, Kjersti

    2006-01-05

    Recent studies show that the traditional conception of academic writing practices as neutral and deprived of personal elements needs to be revised. The KIAP project investigates whether there is such a thing as cultural identity in academic prose and to what extent it may be related to discipline or language. The genre "research article" is analysed with respect to specific linguistic devises which may indicate similarities and differences between articles written in different languages (English, French, Norwegian) and within different disciplines (economics, linguistics, medicine). The material consists of an electronic corpus containing 450 refereed articles taken from recognised journals. The methods used are both quantitative and qualitative. The results confirm the main hypothesis that discipline is more important than language for the explanation of similarities and differences between the nine sub-corpora. Medical articles in all languages are characterised by relatively few occurrences of first person pronouns, indefinite pronouns, meta-textual elements, negations and concessive constructions; on the other hand, medical articles have the highest frequency as regards bibliographical references. These observations may to some extent be explained by different academic traditions, different objects of study and different methods. Norwegian medical articles contain relatively more occurrences of the studied linguistic phenomena than the English and French articles.

  19. Teaching strategies to facilitate breast cancer screening by African-American women.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Lynette M

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to report on the recent literature concerning coverage of breast cancer epidemiology, the barriers to breast cancer screening, and the strategies to facilitate screening by African-American women. Based on these findings, the author suggests culturally appropriate techniques to be used to promote breast cancer screening in African-American women. Barriers to breast cancer screening in African-American women include emotional reasons, spiritual/religious reasons, fatalism, logistic concerns, lack of knowledge, and lack of follow-up by health-care professionals. Numerous strategies that have been targeted toward African-American women are reported. These include storytelling, witnessing, and testimonies; providing social support and having social support networks; and conducting multifaceted programs that include culturally specific breast health information. Based on the literature reviewed, the author suggests some examples of creative and culturally appropriate techniques that have been implemented with African-American women and that have resulted in positive feedback. These examples include the use of testimonies, photographs, prose, narratives, poetry, and quotations.

  20. Accuracy and Intuition: The Mission of a Science Journalist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramling, Carolyn

    2004-07-01

    After years of experimenting with how to explain my thesis research to family and friends, I realized two things: (1) just because I was the presumed expert on a topic didn't mean I could easily break it down into absorbable nuggets of information; but (2) trying to do that was an absorbing challenge. It was more than a game; it was a sort of mission. How do I convince my audience that the underlying science isn't too esoteric-that science can be more fun than intimidating? The AAAS Mass Media Science and Engineering Fellowship program seemed like a perfect opportunity to undertake this mission. As a recent Ph.D. in marine geochemistry in the MIT/WHOI Joint Program for Oceanography, I had written and presented specialized papers geared toward scientists. However, as a science journalist, I imagined I would be a sort of interpreter, an intermediary between scientists and the general public, translating complicated scientific concepts into readable prose, while maintaining constant vigilance against jargon and assumptions. Something like that.

  1. Economic optimization of operations for hybrid energy systems under variable markets

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Jen; Garcia, Humberto E.

    2016-05-21

    We prosed a hybrid energy systems (HES) which is an important element to enable increasing penetration of clean energy. Our paper investigates the operations flexibility of HES, and develops a methodology for operations optimization for maximizing economic value based on predicted renewable generation and market information. A multi-environment computational platform for performing such operations optimization is also developed. In order to compensate for prediction error, a control strategy is accordingly designed to operate a standby energy storage element (ESE) to avoid energy imbalance within HES. The proposed operations optimizer allows systematic control of energy conversion for maximal economic value. Simulationmore » results of two specific HES configurations are included to illustrate the proposed methodology and computational capability. These results demonstrate the economic viability of HES under proposed operations optimizer, suggesting the diversion of energy for alternative energy output while participating in the ancillary service market. Economic advantages of such operations optimizer and associated flexible operations are illustrated by comparing the economic performance of flexible operations against that of constant operations. Sensitivity analysis with respect to market variability and prediction error, are also performed.« less

  2. e-Ana and e-Mia: A Content Analysis of Pro–Eating Disorder Web Sites

    PubMed Central

    Schenk, Summer; Wilson, Jenny L.; Peebles, Rebecka

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. The Internet offers Web sites that describe, endorse, and support eating disorders. We examined the features of pro–eating disorder Web sites and the messages to which users may be exposed. Methods. We conducted a systematic content analysis of 180 active Web sites, noting site logistics, site accessories, “thinspiration” material (images and prose intended to inspire weight loss), tips and tricks, recovery, themes, and perceived harm. Results. Practically all (91%) of the Web sites were open to the public, and most (79%) had interactive features. A large majority (84%) offered pro-anorexia content, and 64% provided pro-bulimia content. Few sites focused on eating disorders as a lifestyle choice. Thinspiration material appeared on 85% of the sites, and 83% provided overt suggestions on how to engage in eating-disordered behaviors. Thirty-eight percent of the sites included recovery-oriented information or links. Common themes were success, control, perfection, and solidarity. Conclusions. Pro–eating disorder Web sites present graphic material to encourage, support, and motivate site users to continue their efforts with anorexia and bulimia. Continued monitoring will offer a valuable foundation to build a better understanding of the effects of these sites on their users. PMID:20558807

  3. Non-Dependent and Dependent Daily Cannabis Users Differ in Mental Health but Not Prospective Memory Ability

    PubMed Central

    Braidwood, Ruth; Mansell, Samantha; Waldron, Jon; Rendell, Peter G.; Kamboj, Sunjeev K.; Curran, H. Valerie

    2018-01-01

    Research suggests that daily cannabis users have impaired memory for past events, but it is not clear whether they are also impaired in prospective memory (PM) for future events. The present study examined PM in daily cannabis users who were either dependent (n = 18) or non-dependent (n = 18), and compared them with non-using controls (n = 18). The effect of future event simulation (FES) on PM performance was also examined. Participants were matched across groups on age, gender, and highest level of education. The virtual week (VW) was used to objectively assess PM abilities, both at baseline and following FES. Other measures used were: cannabis use variables, immediate and delayed prose recall, phonemic and category fluency, spot-the-word test (premorbid intelligence), Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and a measure of schizotypy (Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences: unusual experiences subscale). No group differences were found in PM performance on the VW, and FES did not improve PM performance in any group. Dependent cannabis users scored higher on depression, anxiety, and schizotypy than both other groups with non-dependent cannabis users scoring at a similar level to controls. There were no group differences in alcohol use. Findings suggest that when carefully matched on baseline variables, and not differing in premorbid IQ or alcohol use, young, near-daily cannabis users do not differ from non-using controls in PM performance. PMID:29636705

  4. Intercalation of a Zn(II) complex containing ciprofloxacin drug between DNA base pairs.

    PubMed

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Asadian, Ali Ashraf; Mahdavi, Mryam

    2017-11-02

    In this study, an attempt has been made to study the interaction of a Zn(II) complex containing an antibiotic drug, ciprofloxacin, with calf thymus DNA using spectroscopic methods. It was found that Zn(II) complex could bind with DNA via intercalation mode as evidenced by: hyperchromism in UV-Vis spectrum; these spectral characteristics suggest that the Zn(II) complex interacts with DNA most likely through a mode that involves a stacking interaction between the aromatic chromophore and the base pairs of DNA. DNA binding constant (K b = 1.4 × 10 4 M -1 ) from spectrophotometric studies of the interaction of Zn(II) complex with DNA is comparable to those of some DNA intercalative polypyridyl Ru(II) complexes 1.0 -4.8 × 10 4 M -1 . CD study showed stabilization of the right-handed B form of DNA in the presence of Zn(II) complex as observed for the classical intercalator methylene blue. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔH < 0 and ΔS < 0) indicated that hydrogen bond and Van der Waals play main roles in this binding prose. Competitive fluorimetric studies with methylene blue (MB) dye have shown that Zn(II) complex exhibits the ability of this complex to displace with DNA-MB, indicating that it binds to DNA in strong competition with MB for the intercalation.

  5. Prolonged rote learning produces delayed memory facilitation and metabolic changes in the hippocampus of the ageing human brain.

    PubMed

    Roche, Richard Ap; Mullally, Sinéad L; McNulty, Jonathan P; Hayden, Judy; Brennan, Paul; Doherty, Colin P; Fitzsimons, Mary; McMackin, Deirdre; Prendergast, Julie; Sukumaran, Sunita; Mangaoang, Maeve A; Robertson, Ian H; O'Mara, Shane M

    2009-11-20

    Repeated rehearsal is one method by which verbal material may be transferred from short- to long-term memory. We hypothesised that extended engagement of memory structures through prolonged rehearsal would result in enhanced efficacy of recall and also of brain structures implicated in new learning. Twenty-four normal participants aged 55-70 (mean = 60.1) engaged in six weeks of rote learning, during which they learned 500 words per week every week (prose, poetry etc.). An extensive battery of memory tests was administered on three occasions, each six weeks apart. In addition, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was used to measure metabolite levels in seven voxels of interest (VOIs) (including hippocampus) before and after learning. Results indicate a facilitation of new learning that was evident six weeks after rote learning ceased. This facilitation occurred for verbal/episodic material only, and was mirrored by a metabolic change in left posterior hippocampus, specifically an increase in NAA/(Cr+Cho) ratio. Results suggest that repeated activation of memory structures facilitates anamnesis and may promote neuronal plasticity in the ageing brain, and that compliance is a key factor in such facilitation as the effect was confined to those who engaged fully with the training.

  6. George A. Miller (1920-2012).

    PubMed

    Pinker, Steven

    2013-09-01

    Presents an obituary for George A. Miller (1920-2012). Miller ranks among the most important psychologists of the 20th century. In addition to writing one of the best known papers in the history of psychology ("The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information," published in Psychological Review in 1956), Miller also fomented the cognitive revolution, invented psycholinguistics and cognitive psychology, imported powerful ideas from the theories of information, communication, grammar, semantics, and artificial intelligence, and left us a sparkling oeuvre that proves that a rigorous scientist needn't write in soggy prose. Honors rained down on Miller. APA gave him the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions (1963), the American Psychological Foundation Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychological Science (1990), the William James Book Award (1992, for The Science of Words), and the Award for Lifetime Contributions to Psychology (2003), and named a prize after him, as did the Cognitive Neuroscience Society. Miller was also honored by the Association for Psychological Science and the American Speech and Hearing Association. In 2000, he won the John P. McGovern Award in the Behavioral Sciences from the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and in 1991, the National Medal of Science, the country's highest scientific honor. © 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Appraisal the potential of central iran, in the context of health tourism.

    PubMed

    Rokni, Ladan; Pourahmad, Ahmad; Moteiey Langroudi, Mohammad Hassan; Rezaeiy Mahmoudi, Mehdi; Heidarzadeh, Najmeh

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to appraisal the prose and cone of Shiraz City in terms of its potential in the context of health tourism. The statistical sample included medical and health tourism sector in the city of Shiraz in the northwest of Fars Province, south of Iran. The efficient authorities on the topic were identified through the hospitals engaging in medical tourism. The research was based on theoretical sampling through which the experienced people of extensive knowledge on medical tourism were interviewed. Active hospitals on attraction foreign patients averagely admit 15 and 50 foreign patients monthly and annually, respectively. Arab countries in the Persian Gulf were detected as the main marketing for Shiraz medical tourism. Oman encompassed the highest rate with 20% of admitted patients. Eye treatments with 30% and orthopedic with 6% were demonstrated as the highest and lowest rates in terms of foreign patients' needs, respectively. Closeness of cultural and religious beliefs and familial relationships on one hand and trusting to Iranian physicians on the other hand were amongst the most reasons for selecting Iran as a destination for medical tourism by patients. Implementing 4 strategies on monitoring medical tourism would result into significant improvement of attracting more foreigner patients not only into Shiraz but all around Iran. These items have been discussed in the text.

  8. Inhibitory deficits for negative information in persons with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Lau, Mark A; Christensen, Bruce K; Hawley, Lance L; Gemar, Michael S; Segal, Zindel V

    2007-09-01

    Within Beck's cognitive model of depression, little is known about the mechanism(s) by which activated self-schemas result in the production of negative thoughts. Recent research has demonstrated that inhibitory dysfunction is present in depression, and this deficit is likely valence-specific. However, whether valence-specific inhibitory deficits are associated with increased negative cognition and whether such deficits are specific to depression per se remains unexamined. The authors posit the theory that inhibitory dysfunction may influence the degree to which activated self-schemas result in the production of depressive cognition. Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD, n=43) versus healthy (n=36) and non-depressed anxious (n=32) controls were assessed on the Prose Distraction Task (PDT), a measure of cognitive inhibition, and the Stop-Signal Task (SST), a measure of motor response inhibition. These two tasks were modified in order to present emotionally valenced semantic stimuli (i.e. negative, neutral, positive). Participants with MDD demonstrated performance impairments on the PDT, which were most pronounced for negatively valenced adjectives, relative to both control groups. Moreover, these impairments correlated with self-report measures of negative thinking and rumination. Conversely, the performance of the MDD participants did not differ from either control group on the SST. Implications of these findings for understanding the mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of depressive cognition are discussed.

  9. A Fluid Structure Algorithm with Lagrange Multipliers to Model Free Swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Mehmet; Dilek, Ezgi

    2017-11-01

    A new monolithic approach is prosed to solve the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problem with Lagrange multipliers in order to model free swimming/flying. In the present approach, the fluid domain is modeled by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and discretized using an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation based on the stable side-centered unstructured finite volume method. The solid domain is modeled by the constitutive laws for the nonlinear Saint Venant-Kirchhoff material and the classical Galerkin finite element method is used to discretize the governing equations in a Lagrangian frame. In order to impose the body motion/deformation, the distance between the constraint pair nodes is imposed using the Lagrange multipliers, which is independent from the frame of reference. The resulting algebraic linear equations are solved in a fully coupled manner using a dual approach (null space method). The present numerical algorithm is initially validated for the classical FSI benchmark problems and then applied to the free swimming of three linked ellipses. The authors are grateful for the use of the computing resources provided by the National Center for High Performance Computing (UYBHM) under Grant Number 10752009 and the computing facilities at TUBITAK-ULAKBIM, High Performance and Grid Computing Center.

  10. Crafting Flight: Aircraft Pioneers and the Contributions of the Men and Women of NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, James

    2003-01-01

    While this is a self-contained history of NASA Langley Research Center's contributions to flight, many other organizations around the country played a vital role in the work described in this book.When you pass through the front gates of NASA Langley Research Center you are entering an extraordinary place. You could easily miss that fact, however. A few years cross-state bicycle tour passed through the Center. As interesting as looping around Center was, the riders observed that nothing about the vaguely industrial site fit the conventional stereotypes of what high tech looks like. NASA Langley does not fit many stereotypes. It takes a close examination to discover the many ways it has contributed to development of flight. As part of the national celebrations commemorating the 100th anniversary of the Wright brothers first flight, James Schultz, an experienced journalist with a gift for translating the language of engineers and scientists into prose that nonspecialists can comprehend, has revised and expanded Winds of Change , his wonderful guide to the Center. This revised book, Crafting Flight , invites you inside. You will read about one of the Nation s oldest research and development facilities, a place of imagination and ingenuity.

  11. Walking the talk--speech activates the leg motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Liuzzi, Gianpiero; Ellger, Tanja; Flöel, Agnes; Breitenstein, Caterina; Jansen, Andreas; Knecht, Stefan

    2008-09-01

    Speech may have evolved from earlier modes of communication based on gestures. Consistent with such a motor theory of speech, cortical orofacial and hand motor areas are activated by both speech production and speech perception. However, the extent of speech-related activation of the motor cortex remains unclear. Therefore, we examined if reading and listening to continuous prose also activates non-brachiofacial motor representations like the leg motor cortex. We found corticospinal excitability of bilateral leg muscle representations to be enhanced by speech production and silent reading. Control experiments showed that speech production yielded stronger facilitation of the leg motor system than non-verbal tongue-mouth mobilization and silent reading more than a visuo-attentional task thus indicating speech-specificity of the effect. In the frame of the motor theory of speech this finding suggests that the system of gestural communication, from which speech may have evolved, is not confined to the hand but includes gestural movements of other body parts as well.

  12. Theory of Mind and Its Neuropsychological and Quality of Life Correlates in the Early Stages of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Trojsi, Francesca; Siciliano, Mattia; Russo, Antonio; Passaniti, Carla; Femiano, Cinzia; Ferrantino, Teresa; De Liguoro, Stefania; Lavorgna, Luigi; Monsurrò, Maria R; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Santangelo, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the potential impairment of Theory of Mind (ToM; i.e., the ability to represent cognitive and affective mental states to both self and others) and the clinical, neuropsychological and Quality of Life (QoL) correlates of these cognitive abnormalities in the early stages of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a multisystem neurodegenerative disease recently recognized as a part of the same clinical and pathological spectrum of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Twenty-two consecutive, cognitively intact ALS patients, and 15 healthy controls, underwent assessment of executive, verbal comprehension, visuospatial, behavioral, and QoL measures, as well as of the ToM abilities by Emotion Attribution Task (EAT), Advanced Test of ToM (ATT), and Eyes Task (ET). ALS patients obtained significantly lower scores than controls on EAT and ET. No significant difference was found between the two groups on ATT. As regard to type of ALS onset, patients with bulbar onset performed worse than those with spinal onset on ET. Correlation analysis revealed that EAT and ET were positively correlated with education, memory prose, visuo-spatial performances, and "Mental Health" scores among QoL items. Our results suggest that not only "cognitive" but also "affective" subcomponents of ToM may be impaired in the early stages of ALS, with significant linkage to disease onset and dysfunctions of less executively demanding conditions, causing potential impact on patients' "Mental Health."

  13. Storytelling as an age-dependent skill: oral recall of orally presented stories.

    PubMed

    Mergler, N L; Faust, M; Goldstein, M D

    During experiment 1, three taped prose passages read by college student, middle-aged, or old tellers were orally recalled by college students in an incidental memory paradigm. More story units were remembered as the age of the teller increased (r = +.642, p less than .05). Comparison of these results, with prior research using written, as opposed to oral, presentation and recall of these stories, showed no differences in specific story units remembered. Teller age predicted recall on the two "storied" passages. These passages elicited more favorable comments from listeners when read by older tellers. The third, descriptive passage was less favorably regarded by listeners hearing older tellers. During experiment 2, taped storied passages read by middle-aged tellers were falsely attributed to young, middle-aged, or old persons before the college students listened. Incidental recall did not show an age of teller effect in this case, but the listener's evaluation of the speaker exhibited age-dependent stereotypes. It was concluded that 1) physical qualities of older voices lead to more effective oral transmission; 2) that one expects to receive certain types of oral information from older persons; and 3) that a mismatch between physical vocal quality and age attribution effects evaluation of the speaker, not recall of the information.

  14. SciT

    Aziz, Mohd Khairul Bazli Mohd, E-mail: mkbazli@yahoo.com; Yusof, Fadhilah, E-mail: fadhilahy@utm.my; Daud, Zalina Mohd, E-mail: zalina@ic.utm.my

    Recently, many rainfall network design techniques have been developed, discussed and compared by many researchers. Present day hydrological studies require higher levels of accuracy from collected data. In numerous basins, the rain gauge stations are located without clear scientific understanding. In this study, an attempt is made to redesign rain gauge network for Johor, Malaysia in order to meet the required level of accuracy preset by rainfall data users. The existing network of 84 rain gauges in Johor is optimized and redesigned into a new locations by using rainfall, humidity, solar radiation, temperature and wind speed data collected during themore » monsoon season (November - February) of 1975 until 2008. This study used the combination of geostatistics method (variance-reduction method) and simulated annealing as the algorithm of optimization during the redesigned proses. The result shows that the new rain gauge location provides minimum value of estimated variance. This shows that the combination of geostatistics method (variance-reduction method) and simulated annealing is successful in the development of the new optimum rain gauge system.« less

  15. Comparative study on resistant starch, amilose content and glycaemic index after precooked process in white rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratiwi, V. N.

    2018-03-01

    Rice is a staple food and regarded as a useful carbohydrate source. In general rice is high in glycaemic index (GI) and low colonic fermentation. People are aware of the alterations in blood glucose levels or glycaemic index after consuming rice. Resistant starch (RS) and amylose content play an important role in controlling GI. GI and RS content have been established as important indicators of starch digestibility. The aim of this study was to determine the precooked process with hydrothermal (boiling at 80°C, 10 minutes) and cooling process with low temperature (4°C, 1 h) to increase potential content of RS and decrease of glycaemic index of white rice. There were two stages of this research, 1) preparation of white rice with precooked process; 2) analysis of precooked white rice characteristics (resistant starch, amylose content, and estimated glycaemic index). The result of analysis on precooked white rice showed an increased RS content (1.11%) and white rice (0.99%), but the difference was not statistically significant. The amylose content increased significantly after precooked process in white rice (24.70%) compared with white rice (20.89%). Estimated glycaemic index (EGI) decreased after precooked proses (65.63%) but not significant as compared to white rice (66.47%). From the present study it was concluded that precooked process had no significant impact on increasing RS and decreasing EGI of white rice. This may be due to the relatively short cooling time (1hour) in 4°C.

  16. Computerization of guidelines: a knowledge specification method to convert text to detailed decision tree for electronic implementation.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Junco, Angel-Ricardo; Colombet, Isabelle; Zunino, Sylvain; Jaulent, Marie-Christine; Leneveut, Laurence; Chatellier, Gilles

    2004-01-01

    The initial step for the computerization of guidelines is the knowledge specification from the prose text of guidelines. We describe a method of knowledge specification based on a structured and systematic analysis of text allowing detailed specification of a decision tree. We use decision tables to validate the decision algorithm and decision trees to specify and represent this algorithm, along with elementary messages of recommendation. Edition tools are also necessary to facilitate the process of validation and workflow between expert physicians who will validate the specified knowledge and computer scientist who will encode the specified knowledge in a guide-line model. Applied to eleven different guidelines issued by an official agency, the method allows a quick and valid computerization and integration in a larger decision support system called EsPeR (Personalized Estimate of Risks). The quality of the text guidelines is however still to be developed further. The method used for computerization could help to define a framework usable at the initial step of guideline development in order to produce guidelines ready for electronic implementation.

  17. The trajectory of Virgínia Schall: integration of Health, Education, Science and Literature.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Denise Nacif; Struchiner, Miriam; Monteiro, Simone

    2017-10-01

    This article presents Virgínia Schall's professional career, interrupted very early. It highlights her major role in the integration of the fields of Health, Education and Scientific Dissemination in Brazil. The contextualization of her academic and literary production as a researcher at the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, demonstrates Virgínia's contribution in strengthening the institution and in the teaching of dozens of researchers and students. With a strong inter- and multidisciplinary approach, she was a pioneer in the field of Health Education, Science Education, and Science Dissemination. Virgínia participated in the implementation of two post graduate courses and regularly worked as consultant for CNPq, CAPES, SVS/MS and the Ministry of Education, consolidating national policies in these areas. Besides being the author of several children's books and educational resources about health, environment and science, Virgínia conceived the Life Museum at Fiocruz-RJ, as a space for integrating science, culture, and society, with focus on science, health, and technology information and education. She was also a poet, member of the Women's Academy of Letters in Minas Gerais, and produced diverse and award-winning poetry and prose literary pieces.

  18. "Journey to the Stars": Presenting What Stars Are to Global Planetarium Audiences by Blending Astrophysical Visualizations Into a Single Immersive Production at the American Museum of Natural History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmart, Carter; Mac Low, M.; Oppenheimer, B. R.; Kinzler, R.; Paglione, T. A. D.; Abbott, B. P.

    2010-01-01

    "Journey to the Stars" is the latest and fourth space show based on storytelling from data visualization at the Rose Center for Earth and Space at the American Museum of Natural History. This twenty five minute, full dome movie production presents to planetarium audiences what the stars are, where they come from, how they vary in type and over time, and why they are important to life of Earth. Over forty scientists from around the world contributed their research to what is visualized into roughly fifteen major scenes. How this production is directed into a consolidated immersive informal science experience with learning goals is an integrative process with many inputs and concerns for scientific accuracy. The goal is a seamless merger of visualizations at varying spatial and temporal scales with acuity toward depth perception, revealing unseen phenomena, and the layering of concepts together to build an understanding of stars; to blend our common experience of them in the sky with the uncommon meaning we have come to know through science. Scripted by Louise Gikow who has worked for Children's Television Workshop, narrated by Whoopie Goldberg, and musically scored by Robert Miller, this production strives to guide audiences through challenging scientific concepts by complimenting the natural beauty the subject matter presents with understandable prose and musical grandeur. "Journey to the Stars" was produced in cooperation with NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Heliophysics Division and is in release at major planetariums, worldwide.

  19. Music is as distracting as noise: the differential distraction of background music and noise on the cognitive test performance of introverts and extraverts.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Adrian; Strbac, Lisa

    2002-02-20

    Previous research has found that introverts' performance on complex cognitive tasks is more negatively affected by distracters, e.g. music and background television, than extraverts' performance. This study extended previous research by examining whether background noise would be as distracting as music. In the presence of silence, background garage music and office noise, 38 introverts and 38 extraverts carried out a reading comprehension task, a prose recall task and a mental arithmetic task. It was predicted that there would be an interaction between personality and background sound on all three tasks: introverts would do less well on all of the tasks than extraverts in the presence of music and noise but in silence performance would be the same. A significant interaction was found on the reading comprehension task only, although a trend for this effect was clearly present on the other two tasks. It was also predicted that there would be a main effect for background sound: performance would be worse in the presence of music and noise than silence. Results confirmed this prediction. These findings support the Eysenckian hypothesis of the difference in optimum cortical arousal in introverts and extraverts.

  20. Bilingual health literacy assessment using the Talking Touchscreen/la Pantalla Parlanchina: Development and pilot testing.

    PubMed

    Yost, Kathleen J; Webster, Kimberly; Baker, David W; Choi, Seung W; Bode, Rita K; Hahn, Elizabeth A

    2009-06-01

    Current health literacy measures are too long, imprecise, or have questionable equivalence of English and Spanish versions. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and pilot testing of a new bilingual computer-based health literacy assessment tool. We analyzed literacy data from three large studies. Using a working definition of health literacy, we developed new prose, document and quantitative items in English and Spanish. Items were pilot tested on 97 English- and 134 Spanish-speaking participants to assess item difficulty. Items covered topics relevant to primary care patients and providers. English- and Spanish-speaking participants understood the tasks involved in answering each type of question. The English Talking Touchscreen was easy to use and the English and Spanish items provided good coverage of the difficulty continuum. Qualitative and quantitative results provided useful information on computer acceptability and initial item difficulty. After the items have been administered on the Talking Touchscreen (la Pantalla Parlanchina) to 600 English-speaking (and 600 Spanish-speaking) primary care patients, we will develop a computer adaptive test. This health literacy tool will enable clinicians and researchers to more precisely determine the level at which low health literacy adversely affects health and healthcare utilization.

  1. Physics Matters, 1st Edition, with Student Access Card eGrade Plus 1 Term Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trefil, James

    2004-04-01

    Written by authors who have vast experience in communicating science to general audiences, Physics Matters conveys the principles of physics in a manner that is understandable to non-majors. In a prose style that is clear, engaging, and contemporary, it pays particular attention to the relevance of physics in comprehending our modern technological society and the issues created by those technologies. It offers a broad, relatively non-mathematical, and highly readable survey of all the standard topics in physics. Before you buy, make sure you are getting the best value and all the learning tools you'll need to succeed in your course. If your professor requires eGrade Plus, you can purchase it now at no additional cost! With this special eGrade Plus package you get the new text--no highlighting, no missing pages, no food stains--an activity book with class activities, self study and homework assignments, as well as a registration code to eGrade Plus, a suite of effective learning tools to help you get a better grade. eGrade Plus gives you: A complete online version of the textbook Video experiments Student web projects Self assessment tests Homework questions with links to the relevant section of the online book eGrade Plus is a powerful online tool that provides students with an integrated suite of teaching and learning resources and an online version of the text in one easy-to-use website.

  2. Subclinical hypothyroidism and cognitive dysfunction in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Resta, F; Triggiani, V; Barile, G; Benigno, M; Suppressa, P; Giagulli, V A; Guastamacchia, E; Sabbà, C

    2012-09-01

    While overt hypothyroidism is associated with reversible dementia in the elderly, the relationship of subclinical hypothyroidism with cognition remains a controversial issue. Our aim was to investigate the correlation between subclinical hypothyroidism and cognition in the elderly, with particular reference to long term memory and selective attention. We selected 337 outpatients (177 men and 160 women), mean age 74.3 years, excluding the subjects with thyroid dysfunction and those treated with drugs influencing thyroid function. The score of Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) was significantly lower in the group of patients with subclinical hypothyroidism than in euthyroid subjects (p<0.03). It was observed that patients with subclinical hypothyroidism had a probability about 2 times greater (RR = 2.028, p<0.05) of developing cognitive impairment. Prose Memory Test (PMT) score resulted significantly lower in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism (p<0.04). Considering the Matrix Test (MT) score, the performance was slightly reduced in subclinical hypothyroidism (NS). Furthermore, TSH was negatively correlated with MMSE (p<0.04), PMT (p<0.05) and MT score (NS). No correlation was found between FT4 and FT3 and MMSE, PMT and MT score. In the elderly, subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with cognitive impairment, and its impact on specific aspects of cognition (long term memory and selective attention) is less evident.

  3. Modelling algae growth and dissolved oxygen in the Seine River downstream the Paris urban area: contribution of high frequency measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilmin, Lauriane; Escoffier, Nicolas; Groleau, Alexis; Poulin, Michel; Flipo, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    Dissolved oxygen is a key variable in the hydro-ecological functioning of river systems. The accurate representation of the different biogeochemical processes affecting algal blooms and dissolved oxygen in the water column in hydro-ecological models is crucial for the use of these models as reliable management tools. This study focuses on the water quality of the Seine River along a 225 km stretch, from Paris to the Seine estuary. The study area is highly urbanized and located downstream France's largest agricultural area, and therefore receives large amounts of nutrients. During the last decades, nutrient inputs have been significantly reduced, especially with the implementation of new sewage water treatment technologies. Even though the frequency and the intensity of observed algal blooms have decreased, blooms were observed in 2011 and 2012. These blooms are generally followed by a period of high organic matter accumulation, leading to high mineralization fluxes and potential oxygen depletion. The hydrodynamics and the water quality of the Seine River are simulated for the 2011-2012 period with the distributed process-based hydro-ecological model ProSe (Even et al., 1998). The simulated chlorophyll a and dissolved oxygen concentrations are compared to high frequency measurements at the Bougival monitoring station (50 km downstream from Paris), which is part of the CarboSeine monitoring network. The high frequency continuous dataset allows calibrating of primary producers' physiological parameters. New growth parameters are defined for the diatom community. The blooms occur at the end of the winter period (march 2011 and march 2012) and the optimal temperature for diatom growth is calibrated at 10°C, based on an analysis of the physiological response of the diatom community. One of the main outcomes of the modelling exercise is that the precise identification of the constituting communities of algal blooms must be achieved prior to the modelling itself. With the

  4. Are adolescents more vulnerable to the harmful effects of cannabis than adults? A placebo-controlled study in human males

    PubMed Central

    Mokrysz, C; Freeman, T P; Korkki, S; Griffiths, K; Curran, H V

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical research demonstrates that cannabinoids have differing effects in adolescent and adult animals. Whether these findings translate to humans has not yet been investigated. Here we believe we conducted the first study to compare the acute effects of cannabis in human adolescent (n=20; 16–17 years old) and adult (n=20; 24–28 years old) male cannabis users, in a placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over design. After inhaling vaporized active or placebo cannabis, participants completed tasks assessing spatial working memory, episodic memory and response inhibition, alongside measures of blood pressure and heart rate, psychotomimetic symptoms and subjective drug effects (for example, ‘stoned', ‘want to have cannabis'). Results showed that on active cannabis, adolescents felt less stoned and reported fewer psychotomimetic symptoms than adults. Further, adults but not adolescents were more anxious and less alert during the active cannabis session (both pre- and post-drug administration). Following cannabis, cognitive impairment (reaction time on spatial working memory and prose recall following a delay) was greater in adults than adolescents. By contrast, cannabis impaired response inhibition accuracy in adolescents but not in adults. Moreover, following drug administration, the adolescents did not show satiety; instead they wanted more cannabis regardless of whether they had taken active or placebo cannabis, while the opposite was seen for adults. These contrasting profiles of adolescent resilience (blunted subjective, memory, physiological and psychotomimetic effects) and vulnerability (lack of satiety, impaired inhibitory processes) show some degree of translation from preclinical findings, and may contribute to escalated cannabis use by human adolescents. PMID:27898071

  5. sushruta-samhitA: A critical review Part - 2: Few new additions

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Hari S.; Sharma, Hiroe I.; Sharma, Hemadri A.

    2012-01-01

    In this part importace and specialize of sushruta are specified. In Part – 1 all the translation works in all the available languages is narrated. After studying all those books and keeping in to mind about a comprehensive work of sushruta it is necessary to elaborate in this present text. This part is divided into 5 sections. (A) All available commentaries taken in to consideration for this part is written, (B) Specialities of sushruta are most important as he has narrated all eight sections of Ayurveda elabroted widely where as caraka has only narrated mainly selected part of kAya-cikitsA and left other sections for other authors e.g., “atra dhAnavantareyaNAM adhikArah” etc., Specifying a list of all sections and chapters with the numbers of prose + poetery, (C) None of the translator or commentator touched the importance of sushruta in the literature of samskRta, where as sushruta was a great poet. Giving similar resemblance of common use by mass, he tried to explain the tough subject in simpler mode of knowledge for proper understanding to all public. He has specifically selected the prosody for the specified subject. Examples are given in this section. (D) sushruta has written prosody in14 metres and long sentences too in samskRta that shows his ability and wast knowledge in the literature. All references of each and every metre is noted from all sections of sushruta with complete reference numbers. And no where this subject is published till now- (E) A challenging word regarding the work of sushruta “shArIre sushruto naSTah” is turned back while quoting various references of shArIra-sthAnam and placing its world wide importance by various writers. PMID:23723665

  6. ESR paper on structured reporting in radiology.

    PubMed

    2018-02-01

    Structured reporting is emerging as a key element of optimising radiology's contribution to patient outcomes and ensuring the value of radiologists' work. It is being developed and supported by many national and international radiology societies, based on the recognised need to use uniform language and structure to accurately describe radiology findings. Standardisation of report structures ensures that all relevant areas are addressed. Standardisation of terminology prevents ambiguity in reports and facilitates comparability of reports. The use of key data elements and quantified parameters in structured reports ("radiomics") permits automatic functions (e.g. TNM staging), potential integration with other clinical parameters (e.g. laboratory results), data sharing (e.g. registries, biobanks) and data mining for research, teaching and other purposes. This article outlines the requirements for a successful structured reporting strategy (definition of content and structure, standard terminologies, tools and protocols). A potential implementation strategy is outlined. Moving from conventional prose reports to structured reporting is endorsed as a positive development, and must be an international effort, with international design and adoption of structured reporting templates that can be translated and adapted in local environments as needed. Industry involvement is key to success, based on international data standards and guidelines. • Standardisation of radiology report structure ensures completeness and comparability of reports. • Use of standardised language in reports minimises ambiguity. • Structured reporting facilitates automatic functions, integration with other clinical parameters and data sharing. • International and inter-society cooperation is key to developing successful structured report templates. • Integration with industry providers of radiology-reporting software is also crucial.

  7. Combined mnemonic strategy training and high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation for memory deficits in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Hampstead, Benjamin M; Sathian, Krishnankutty; Bikson, Marom; Stringer, Anthony Y

    2017-09-01

    Memory deficits characterize Alzheimer's dementia and the clinical precursor stage known as mild cognitive impairment. Nonpharmacologic interventions hold promise for enhancing functioning in these patients, potentially delaying functional impairment that denotes transition to dementia. Previous findings revealed that mnemonic strategy training (MST) enhances long-term retention of trained stimuli and is accompanied by increased blood oxygen level-dependent signal in the lateral frontal and parietal cortices as well as in the hippocampus. The present study was designed to enhance MST generalization, and the range of patients who benefit, via concurrent delivery of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). This protocol describes a prospective, randomized controlled, four-arm, double-blind study targeting memory deficits in those with mild cognitive impairment. Once randomized, participants complete five consecutive daily sessions in which they receive either active or sham high definition tDCS over the left lateral prefrontal cortex, a region known to be important for successful memory encoding and that has been engaged by MST. High definition tDCS (active or sham) will be combined with either MST or autobiographical memory recall (comparable to reminiscence therapy). Participants undergo memory testing using ecologically relevant measures and functional magnetic resonance imaging before and after these treatment sessions as well as at a 3-month follow-up. Primary outcome measures include face-name and object-location association tasks. Secondary outcome measures include self-report of memory abilities as well as a spatial navigation task (near transfer) and prose memory (medication instructions; far transfer). Changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging will be evaluated during both task performance and the resting-state using activation and connectivity analyses. The results will provide important information about the efficacy of cognitive and

  8. National Survey of Patients’ Bill of Rights Statutes

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Dan M.; Hochhauser, Mark; Parker, Ruth M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite vigorous national debate between 1999–2001 the federal patients’ bill of rights (PBOR) was not enacted. However, states have enacted legislation and the Joint Commission defined an accreditation standard to present patients with their rights. Because such initiatives can be undermined by overly complex language, we surveyed the readability of hospital PBOR documents as well as texts mandated by state law. METHODS State Web sites and codes were searched to identify PBOR statutes for general patient populations. The rights addressed were compared with the 12 themes presented in the American Hospital Association’s (AHA) PBOR text of 2002. In addition, we obtained PBOR texts from a sample of hospitals in each state. Readability was evaluated using Prose, a software program which reports an average of eight readability formulas. RESULTS Of 23 states with a PBOR statute for the general public, all establish a grievance policy, four protect a private right of action, and one stipulates fines for violations. These laws address an average of 7.4 of the 12 AHA themes. Nine states’ statutes specify PBOR text for distribution to patients. These documents have an average readability of 15th grade (range, 11.6, New York, to 17.0, Minnesota). PBOR documents from 240 US hospitals have an average readability of 14th grade (range, 8.2 to 17.0). CONCLUSIONS While the average U.S. adult reads at an 8th grade reading level, an advanced college reading level is routinely required to read PBOR documents. Patients are not likely to learn about their rights from documents they cannot read. PMID:19189192

  9. Are adolescents more vulnerable to the harmful effects of cannabis than adults? A placebo-controlled study in human males.

    PubMed

    Mokrysz, C; Freeman, T P; Korkki, S; Griffiths, K; Curran, H V

    2016-11-29

    Preclinical research demonstrates that cannabinoids have differing effects in adolescent and adult animals. Whether these findings translate to humans has not yet been investigated. Here we believe we conducted the first study to compare the acute effects of cannabis in human adolescent (n=20; 16-17 years old) and adult (n=20; 24-28 years old) male cannabis users, in a placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over design. After inhaling vaporized active or placebo cannabis, participants completed tasks assessing spatial working memory, episodic memory and response inhibition, alongside measures of blood pressure and heart rate, psychotomimetic symptoms and subjective drug effects (for example, 'stoned', 'want to have cannabis'). Results showed that on active cannabis, adolescents felt less stoned and reported fewer psychotomimetic symptoms than adults. Further, adults but not adolescents were more anxious and less alert during the active cannabis session (both pre- and post-drug administration). Following cannabis, cognitive impairment (reaction time on spatial working memory and prose recall following a delay) was greater in adults than adolescents. By contrast, cannabis impaired response inhibition accuracy in adolescents but not in adults. Moreover, following drug administration, the adolescents did not show satiety; instead they wanted more cannabis regardless of whether they had taken active or placebo cannabis, while the opposite was seen for adults. These contrasting profiles of adolescent resilience (blunted subjective, memory, physiological and psychotomimetic effects) and vulnerability (lack of satiety, impaired inhibitory processes) show some degree of translation from preclinical findings, and may contribute to escalated cannabis use by human adolescents.

  10. Fiber optic systems in the UV region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebner, Michael; Meyer, H.; Klein, Karl-Friedrich; Hillrichs, G.; Ruetting, Martin; Veidemanis, M.; Spangenberg, Bernd; Clarkin, James P.; Nelson, Gary W.

    2000-05-01

    Mainly due to the unexpected progress in manufacturing of solarization-reduced all-silica fibers, new fiber-optic applications in the UV-region are feasible. However, the other components like the UV-sources and the detector- systems have to be improved, too. Especially, the miniaturization is very important fitting to the small-sized fiber-optic assemblies leading to compact and mobile UV- analytical systems. Based on independent improvements in the preform and fiber processing, UV-improved fibers with different properties have been developed. The best UV-fiber for the prosed applications is selectable by its short and long-term spectral behavior, especially in the region from 190 to 350 nm. The spectrum of the UV-source and the power density in the fiber have an influence on the nonlinear transmission and the damaging level; however, hydrogen can reduce the UV-defect concentration. After determining the diffusion processes in the fiber, the UV-lifetime in commercially available all-silica fibers can be predicted. Newest results with light from deuterium-lamps, excimer- lasers and 5th harmonics of Nd:YAG laser will be shown. Many activities are in the field of UV-sources. In addition to new UV-lasers like the Nd:YAG laser at 213 nm, a new low- power deuterium-lamp with smaller dimensions has been introduced last year. Properties of this lamp will be discussed, taking into account some of the application requirements. Finally, some new applications with UV-fiber optics will be shown; especially the TLC-method can be improved significantly, combining a 2-row fiber-array with a diode-array spectrometer optimized for fiber-optics.

  11. We are all angels: acting, reclaiming and moving beyond survivorship.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Ariane B

    2014-01-01

    This article aspires to an embodiment of dynamic living versus mere survival. The term cancer survivor, including a survivor who is in remission, has been legitimated (Berger and Luckmann, The social construction of reality, p. 94 1967) by language which creates knowledge of what a cancer survivor is and does. Because we act under descriptions (Hacking, The social construction of what?, p. 103 1999), those of us who have passed through illnesses such as cancer not only have been given the name and the idea of survivor, we have assumed and conform to some or most of the characteristics assigned to it; examples of some of those characteristics are discussed throughout this project. Whether or not we choose to enact all that falls under the grammar of the classification of survivor, we still live with, create, and experience ourselves and others as legitimated by such a classification. The term survivor operates through a number of institutions (medical, capitalism, and media) resulting in individuals' awareness of such classifications about themselves and others. Many, if not most, who are aware of being classified as survivors may wish to modify or resist the constraining aspects of those classifications and their descriptions. Through layered accounts of interviews and prose, I interact with this term as one who is both caught in and wants to go against the stream of classification and description. I want to transcend what I know, yet I am aware that whatever story I make and tell is a part of the whole-my story is part of two other survivor's stories which I include in the following telling of my own. All of our stories matter. Still, I want to look beyond what is in front of me, move beyond it, dream. I do so with a desire to tell my story as part of other survivors' stories.

  12. The aprosody of schizophrenia: Computationally derived acoustic phonetic underpinnings of monotone speech.

    PubMed

    Compton, Michael T; Lunden, Anya; Cleary, Sean D; Pauselli, Luca; Alolayan, Yazeed; Halpern, Brooke; Broussard, Beth; Crisafio, Anthony; Capulong, Leslie; Balducci, Pierfrancesco Maria; Bernardini, Francesco; Covington, Michael A

    2018-02-12

    Acoustic phonetic methods are useful in examining some symptoms of schizophrenia; we used such methods to understand the underpinnings of aprosody. We hypothesized that, compared to controls and patients without clinically rated aprosody, patients with aprosody would exhibit reduced variability in: pitch (F0), jaw/mouth opening and tongue height (formant F1), tongue front/back position and/or lip rounding (formant F2), and intensity/loudness. Audiorecorded speech was obtained from 98 patients (including 25 with clinically rated aprosody and 29 without) and 102 unaffected controls using five tasks: one describing a drawing, two based on spontaneous speech elicited through a question (Tasks 2 and 3), and two based on reading prose excerpts (Tasks 4 and 5). We compared groups on variation in pitch (F0), formant F1 and F2, and intensity/loudness. Regarding pitch variation, patients with aprosody differed significantly from controls in Task 5 in both unadjusted tests and those adjusted for sociodemographics. For the standard deviation (SD) of F1, no significant differences were found in adjusted tests. Regarding SD of F2, patients with aprosody had lower values than controls in Task 3, 4, and 5. For variation in intensity/loudness, patients with aprosody had lower values than patients without aprosody and controls across the five tasks. Findings could represent a step toward developing new methods for measuring and tracking the severity of this specific negative symptom using acoustic phonetic parameters; such work is relevant to other psychiatric and neurological disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Amnesiacs might get the gist: reduced false recognition in amnesia may be the result of impaired item-specific memory.

    PubMed

    Nissan, Jack; Abrahams, Sharon; Sala, Sergio Della

    2013-01-01

    It is a common finding in tests of false recognition that amnesic patients recognize fewer related lures than healthy controls, and this has led to assumptions that gist memory is damaged in these patients (Schacter, Verfaellie, & Anes, 1997, Neuropsychology, 11; Schacter, Verfaellie, Anes, & Racine, 1998, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 10; Schacter, Verfaellie, & Pradere, 1996, Journal of Memory and Language, 35). However, clinical observations find that amnesic patients typically hold meaningful conversations and make relevant remarks, and there is some experimental evidence highlighting preserved immediate recall of prose (Baddeley & Wilson, 2002, Neuropsychologia, 40; Gooding, Isaac, & Mayes, 2005, Neuropsychologia, 43; Rosenbaum, Gilboa, Levine, Winocur, & Moscovitch, 2009, Neuropsychologia, 47), which suggests that amnesiacs can get the gist. The present experiment used false recognition paradigms to assess whether the reduced rate of false recognition found in amnesic patients may be a consequence of their impaired item-specific memory. It examined the effect of increasing the item-specific memory of amnesic patient DA by bringing her to criterion on relevant study-lists and compared her performance on a false recognition paradigm with a group of 32 healthy young adults. Results indicated that when DA's item-specific memory was increased she was more able to gist and her performance was no different to the healthy young adults. Previous assumptions that gist memory is necessarily damaged in amnesia might therefore be revisited, since the reduced rate of false recognition could be caused by impaired item-specific memory. The experiment also highlights a positive relationship between item-specific and gist memory which has not previously been accounted for in false-recognition experiments.

  14. Biosorption of Cu(II) ions by cellulose of cabbage waste as biosorbent from agricultural waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heraldy, Eddy; Wireni, Lestari, Witri Wahyu

    2016-02-01

    Biosorption on lignocellulosic wastes has been identified as an appropriate alternative technology to remove heavy metal ions from wastewater. The purpose of this research was to study the ability of cabbage waste biosorbent prepared from agricultural waste on biosorption of Cu(II). Cabbage waste biosorbent was activated with sodium hydroxide at concentration 0.1 M. The biosorption optimum conditions were studied with initial pH (2-8), biosorbent dosage (0.2-1) g/L, contact time (15-90) minutes, and metal ion concentrations (10-100) mg/L by batch method. Experimental data were analyzed in terms of two kinetic models such as pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to describe the biosorption process. The results showed that cabbage biosorbent activated by 0.1 M sodium hydroxide enhanced the biosorption capacity from 9,801 mg/g to 12,26 mg/g. The FTIR spectra have shown a typical absorption of cellulose and typical absorption of lignin decrease after activation process. The kinetic biosorption was determined to be appropriate to the pseudo-second order model with constant rate of 0,091 g/mg.min, and the biosorption equilibrium was described well by the Langmuir isotherm model with maximum biosorption capacity of 37.04 mg/g for Cu(II) at pH 5, biosorption proses was spontaneous in nature with biosorption energy 25.86 kJ/mol at 302 K.

  15. Impaired left atrial function predicts inappropriate shocks in primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator candidates.

    PubMed

    Tao, Susumu; Ashikaga, Hiroshi; Ciuffo, Luisa A; Yoneyama, Kihei; Lima, Joao A C; Frank, Terry F; Weiss, Robert G; Tomaselli, Gordon F; Wu, Katherine C

    2017-07-01

    Inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) shocks, commonly caused by atrial fibrillation (AF), are associated with an increased mortality. Because impaired left atrial (LA) function predicts development of AF, we hypothesized that impaired LA function predicts inappropriate shocks beyond a history of AF. We prospectively analyzed the association between LA function and incident inappropriate shocks in primary prevention ICD candidates. In the Prospective Observational Study of ICD (PROSE-ICD), we assessed LA function using tissue-tracking cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) prior to ICD implantation. A total of 162 patients (113 males, age 56 ± 15 years) were included. During the mean follow-up of 4.0 ± 2.9 years, 26 patients (16%) experienced inappropriate shocks due to AF (n = 19; 73%), supraventricular tachycardia (n = 5; 19%), and abnormal sensing (n = 2; 8%). In univariable analyses, inappropriate shocks were associated with AF history prior to ICD implantation, age below 70 years, QRS duration less than 120 milliseconds, larger LA minimum volume, lower LA stroke volume, lower LA emptying fraction, impaired LA maximum and preatrial contraction strains (S max and S preA ), and impaired LA strain rate during left ventricular systole and atrial contraction (SR s and SR a ). In multivariable analysis, impaired S max (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.96, P = 0.044), S preA (HR: 0.94, P = 0.030), and SR a (HR: 0.25, P < 0.001) were independently associated with inappropriate shocks. The receiver-operating characteristics curve showed that SR a improved the predictive value beyond the patient demographics including AF history (P = 0.033). Impaired LA function assessed by tissue-tracking CMR is an independent predictor of inappropriate shocks in primary prevention ICD candidates beyond AF history. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A hermeneutic phenomenological analysis of midwives' ways of knowing during childbirth.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Lauren P

    2008-12-01

    to explore the ways of knowing used by the midwife while attending women during childbirth through textual analysis of poems written by American midwives. a hermeneutic phenomenology and human science research method inspired by van Manen was used. Midwifery ways of knowing during childbirth were thematically derived from 10 poems written by midwives about attending childbirth or the experience of being a midwife. Textual analysis included examination of the poems as a whole, via verse and metaphor, and via individual lines of prose. 10 American midwives wrote the poems used in this study. The poems were discovered through online searches of many databases using the key words 'poetry, poems, midwifery and childbirth' and through a national call for poetry by the researcher over a period of 4 years (1996-2000), undertaken in order to publish an anthology of poetry written by midwives. three authoritative ways of knowing that guided the care given by the midwife to women during childbirth were discovered. They were self-knowledge from the belief system of the individual midwife, grounded knowledge from the midwife's personal lived experience with childbirth, and informed knowledge from objective and scholarly sources. midwives must continue to develop their own body of knowledge in order to move the profession forward. Multiple ways of knowing including the use of experiential/contextual and intuitive knowledge is legitimate and humane, if provision of care is holistic. Care of women during childbirth can be enhanced with the use of multiple knowers and multiple ways of knowing. This study captured a unique and fresh interpretation of the lived experience of midwifery knowledge. Midwifery educational programmes should offer opportunities for students to explore the artistry as well as the science of midwifery practice.

  17. Simulating on water storage and pump capacity of "Kencing" river polder system in Kudus regency, Central Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahyudi, Slamet Imam; Adi, Henny Pratiwi; Santoso, Esti; Heikoop, Rick

    2017-03-01

    Settlement in the Jati District, Kudus Regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia, is growing rapidly. Previous paddy fields area turns into new residential, industrial and office buildings. The rain water collected in small Kencing river that flows into big Wulan River. But the current condition, during high rain intensity Wulan river water elevation higher than the Kencing river, so that water can not flow gravity and the area inundated. To reduce the flooding, required polder drainage system by providing a long channel as water storage and pumping water into Wulan river. How to get optimal value of water storage volume, drainage system channels and the pump capacity? The result used to be efficient in the operation and maintenance of the polder system. The purpose of this study is to develop some scenarios water storage volume, water gate operation and to get the optimal value of operational pumps removing water from the Kencing River to Wulan River. Research Method is conducted by some steps. The first step, it is done field orientation in detail, then collecting secondary data including maps and rainfall data. The map is processed into Watershed or catchment area, while the rainfall data is processed into runoff discharge. Furthermore, the team collects primary data by measuring topography to determine the surface and volume of water storage. The analysis conducted to determine of flood discharge, water channel hydraulics, water storage volume and pump capacity corresponding. Based on the simulating of long water storage volume and pump capacity with some scenario trying, it can be determined optimum values. The results used to be guideline in to construction proses, operation and maintenance of the drainage polder system.

  18. Characterization of resting state activity in MCI individuals

    PubMed Central

    Cieri, Filippo; Cera, Nicoletta

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Aging is the major risk factor for Alzheimer Disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). The aim of this study was to identify novel modifications of brain functional connectivity in MCI patients. MCI individuals were compared to healthy elderly subjects. Methods. We enrolled 37 subjects (age range 60–80 y.o.). Of these, 13 subjects were affected by MCI and 24 were age-matched healthy elderly control (HC). Subjects were evaluated with Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), and prose memory (Babcock story) tests. In addition, with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), we investigated resting state network (RSN) activities. Resting state (Rs) fMRI data were analyzed by means of Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Subjects were followed-up with neuropsychological evaluations for three years. Results. Rs-fMRI of MCI subjects showed increased intrinsic connectivity in the Default Mode Network (DMN) and in the Somatomotor Network (SMN). Analysis of the DMN showed statistically significant increased activation in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and left inferior parietal lobule (lIPL). During the three years follow-up, 4 MCI subjects converted to AD. The subset of MCI AD-converted patients showed increased connectivity in the right Inferior Parietal Lobule (rIPL). As for SMN activity, MCI and MCI-AD converted groups showed increased level of connectivity in correspondence of the right Supramarginal Gyrus (rSG). Conclusions. Our findings indicate alterations of DMN and SMN activity in MCI subjects, thereby providing potential imaging-based markers that can be helpful for the early diagnosis and monitoring of these patients. PMID:24010015

  19. "Uproar, bulk, rage, suffocation, effort unceasing, frenzied and vain": Beckett's Transports of Rage.

    PubMed

    Smith, Russell

    2016-06-01

    In a 1961 interview, Beckett warded off philosophical interpretations of his work: 'I'm no intellectual. All I am is feeling'. Despite the emotional intensity of Beckett's post-war writing, Beckett criticism has tended to ignore this claim, preferring the kinds of philosophical readings that Beckett here rejects. In particular, Beckett criticism underestimates the element of rage in his work. This paper argues that Beckett's post-war breakthrough is enabled by a radical reconsideration of the nature of feeling and of rage in particular. It involves the rejection of the idea of rage as pathological and the embrace of a positive conception of rage as drive or compulsion, a locus of energy and even pleasure.This paper reads the 'Moran' section of Molloy as a kind of 'rage fable', drawing on the ancient Greek concept of thymos, of anger as a virtue. It draws on Alfred Adler's theory of the 'masculine protest', with which Beckett was familiar from his extensive note-taking on Adler in 1934-5, and Sianne Ngai's discussion of the distinction between irritation and rage. According to this reading, Moran's report charts a narrative of thymotic liberation from the irritations of servitude, prefiguring the Unnamable's abandonment to impersonal affective intensities. It ends by suggesting that the prose of the Trilogy might be better understood, not as a 'syntax of weakness' but as a 'syntax of rage', a stylistic correlative of the imperious drive of thymos. We might then begin to understand the Trilogy as the epic of a heroic, impersonal, implacable and liberated rage.

  20. Jack Reeves and his science.

    PubMed

    Moore, Lorna G; Grover, Robert F

    2006-04-28

    John T. (Jack) Reeves' science is reviewed across the 37 years of his research career at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, a period which occupied approximately half his remarkable life. His contributions centered on understanding the inter-relatedness as well as the underlying mechanisms controlling the various components of the O(2) transport system. We review here his studies on exercise performance; these encompassed about half his scientific output with the other half being devoted to the study of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Early studies concerned cardiac output, showing how it was a balance between O(2) uptake and O(2) extraction, and that cardiac output during exercise at high altitude was reduced, most likely because of decreased plasma volume and left ventricular filling. Jack's many studies addressed virtually every aspect of the O(2) transport system -- adding significantly to our understanding of the syndromes of altitude illness, the mechanisms by which ventilatory sensitivity to hypoxia and hypercapnia influenced ventilatory acclimatization, and the contributions of the various limbs of the autonomic nervous system on systemic blood pressure, vascular resistance and substrate utilization. His scientific career ended abruptly in 2004 when struck by a car while biking to work, but his legacy remains in his more than 385+ research articles or chapters, the 40+ fellows he trained, and the countless number of younger (and older) scientists for whom he served as a role model for learning how to scrutinize their data and present their findings in clear and sometimes bold prose. An integral man, he is sorely missed.

  1. "I wanted to communicate my feelings freely": a descriptive study of creative responses to enhance reflection in palliative medicine education.

    PubMed

    McBain, Lynn; Donnelly, Sinéad; Hilder, Jo; O'Leary, Clare; McKinlay, Eileen

    2015-10-23

    The recent growth of arts and humanities in medical education shows recognition that these disciplines can facilitate a breadth of thinking and result in personal and professional growth. However creative work can be a challenge to incorporate into a busy curriculum. Offering the option of creative media as a way of reflecting is an example of how this can occur. This study aimed to examine the medical student response to being given this option to explore a visit to a patient in a hospice. This was a mainly qualitative study. In the 2012 academic programme, the class of 86 students were given the option of using a creative medium to explore their responses to both the visit and their developing communication skills. Students were required to write an accompanying commentary if submitting the creative work option. Sixty-four percent of the class chose a creative medium e.g. poetry, visual art, narrative prose, music. These students were asked to take part in research including completing a short on-line survey and consenting for their creative work and commentaries to be further examined. The creative works were categorised by genre and the commentaries analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Seventeen students completed the on-line survey and fifteen consented to their work being used for this research. Thematic analysis of the student commentaries revealed the following themes: effectiveness for expressing emotion or ideas that are difficult to articulate; engaging and energising quality of the task; time for reflection; flexibility for individual learning styles and therapeutic value. Teaching the art of communicating at end-of-life is challenging especially when it involves patients, and teachers want to ensure students gain as much as possible from the experience. Offering the option to use creative media means that students can choose a medium for reflection that best suits them as individuals and that can enable them to benefit as much as possible from

  2. Functional literacy of Young Guyanese Adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Zellyne

    2000-05-01

    Functional literacy is interpreted as the ability of the individual to apply skills in reading, writing, calculation and basic problem-solving in those activities in which literacy is required for effective functioning in his/her own group and community. The paper describes the rationale, development and administration of the test used for measuring levels (high, moderate, low) of achievement in functional literacy in three domains (document, prose and quantitative). An assumption of the study was that a high level of functional literacy was required for the individual to function effectively in his/her own group and community. The context of the study is Guyana the most underdeveloped and impoverished country in the English-speaking Caribbean. The subjects are out of school youth in Guyana aged 14-25. Amongst the main findings are: only approximately 11% of the young people show a high level of functional literacy; females tend to have a higher level of functional literacy than males: and most of those at the low level never went beyond primary and low status secondary schools and usually end up unemployed or in semi- or unskilled jobs. Attention is drawn to the difficulty of attracting funding for literacy programmes from international aid agencies, given the inflated adult literacy rate which is reported for Guyana in international statistics. While they credit Guyana with an adult literacy rate of 97.5%, the study suggests that a more realistic figure is in the 70s. The importance of adult and continuing education is underscored in view of the need to help those who are out of school to meet the ever-changing demands of society for improved skills in literacy and numeracy.

  3. US Consumers' Understanding of Nutrition Labels in 2013: The Importance of Health Literacy.

    PubMed

    Persoskie, Alexander; Hennessy, Erin; Nelson, Wendy L

    2017-09-28

    We examined US adults' understanding of a Nutrition Facts panel (NFP), which requires health literacy (ie, prose, document, and quantitative literacy skills), and the association between label understanding and dietary behavior. Data were from the Health Information National Trends Survey, a nationally representative survey of health information seeking among US adults (N = 3,185) conducted from September 6, 2013, through December 30, 2013. Participants viewed an ice cream nutrition label and answered 4 questions that tested their ability to apply basic arithmetic and understanding of percentages to interpret the label. Participants reported their intake of sugar-sweetened soda, fruits, and vegetables. Regression analyses tested associations among label understanding, demographic characteristics, and self-reported dietary behaviors. Approximately 24% of people could not determine the calorie content of the full ice-cream container, 21% could not estimate the number of servings equal to 60 g of carbohydrates, 42% could not estimate the effect on daily calorie intake of foregoing 1 serving, and 41% could not calculate the percentage daily value of calories in a single serving. Higher scores for label understanding were associated with consuming more vegetables and less sugar-sweetened soda, although only the association with soda consumption remained significant after adjusting for demographic factors. Many consumers have difficulty interpreting nutrition labels, and label understanding correlates with self-reported dietary behaviors. The 2016 revised NFP labels may address some deficits in consumer understanding by eliminating the need to perform certain calculations (eg, total calories per package). However, some tasks still require the ability to perform calculations (eg, percentage daily value of calories). Schools have a role in teaching skills, such as mathematics, needed for nutrition label understanding.

  4. Strategic competence of senior secondary school students in solving mathematics problem based on cognitive style

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syukriani, Andi; Juniati, Dwi; Siswono, Tatag Yuli Eko

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the strategic competence of senior secondary school students in solving mathematics problems. Terdapat dua subjek, satu bergaya kognitif field-independent dan satu bergaya kognitif field-dependent tetapi keduanya memiliki tingkat prestasi belajar matematika yang setara. There were two subjects, one field-independent cognitive style and one field-dependent cognitive style. They had an equivalent high level of mathematics achievement. Keduanya dipilih berdasarkan hasil tes kompetensi matematika dan GEFT (Group Embedded Figures Test). Subjects were selected based on the test results of mathematics competence and GEFT (Group Embedded Figures Test). Kompetensi strategis dapat merangsang perkembangan otonomi dan fleksibilitas dalam diri siswa karena merupakan keterampilan yang sangat dibutuhkan di sepanjang abad 21. Gaya kognitif merupakan kecenderungan siswa dalam mengolah informasi sangat mempengaruhi performance dalam menyelesaikan masalah matematika. Strategic competence can stimulate the development of autonomy and flexibility of students and they are skills which are needed in the 21st century. Cognitive style is the tendency of students in processing informations and it greatly affects the performance in solving mathematics problems. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa subjek FI cenderung analitis baik pada pembentukan bayangannya maupun pada gambar yang dibuatnya untuk memproses informasi berdasarkan dengan struktur pengetahuannya sendiri (Internally directed). The research result showed that subject FI tended to be analytical both in forming the mental imagination and the picture to process information in accordance with his own knowledge structure (internally directed). Subjek FD kurang analitis dan tidak dapat mengenal bentuk sederhana (konsep matematika) dari bentuk yang kompleks (Exeternally directed) sehingga menerima ide sebagaimana yang disajikan. Subject FD was less analytical and unable to recognize simple form

  5. Planning in the Digital Era: Films and Social Media as Information Sources for Tourism Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muslimah, N. F.; Keumala, S. R.

    2018-05-01

    Films deliver subliminal promotion to audience about the visual appeal of a certain place. If the place looks picturesque enough and gives a memorable impression to the audience, it has a possibility to become the next tourism magnet. Tourists tend to take pictures as keepsakes and upload them on social media. The number of social media posts of a place can be utilized as a tool to measure and map people’s interest. This process is a voluntary advertisement of the place done by community caused by the culture of content sharing in the digital era. This paper is going to elaborate the growth of Gereja Ayam (Chicken Church) in Magelang, Indonesia, as the place which were formerly insignificant and publicly unknown, but has been featured in an Indonesian film Ada Apa dengan Cinta 2. An analysis of the place’s popularity is conducted using Google search trends, looking for related keyword search about places mentioned before. The number of Instagram posts using related hashtags is used to examine how many people have visited the place. A literature review is also being carried out to find the correlation between the media exposure and the place branding, the analysis of place’s popularity through social media, and how this can contribute as tools for urban and tourism planning.

  6. The Cardiovascular Function Profile and Physical Fitness in Overweight Subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megawati, E. R.; Lubis, L. D.; Harahap, F. Y.

    2017-03-01

    Obesity in children and young adult is associated with cardiovascular risk in short term and long term. The aim of this study was to describe the profile of the cardiovascular functions parameters and physical fitness in overweight. This is an analytical observational study with cross sectional approach. The samples of this study were 85 randomly selected subjects aged 18 to 24 years with normoweight and body mass index <40. The parameters measures were body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), cardiovascular function parameters (resting pulse, blood pressure, and peak flow meter) and physical fitness parameters (VO2max dengan McArdle step test). The mean BMI was 24,53±4,929. The WC and WHR mean were 86,7±14,10 cms and 0,89±0,073 cm respectively. The mean of resting pulses were higher in normoweight subject (p=0,0209). The mean systole were lower in normoweight subject (p=0,0026). No differences VO2 max between groups (p=0,3888). The peak flow meter was higher in normoweight (p=0,0274). The result of this study indicate that heart rate, systole and peak flow meter are signifantly different between groups. The heart rate and the peak flow meter in the overweight subjects were lower meanwhile the systole blood pressure was higher compared to normoweight subjects.

  7. Superfluid He-explained to SecundoPiaTurins through Self-Organized Criticality/SOC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksoed, W. H.

    2015-11-01

    Through Mike Carrell: ``Arata & Zhang/AZ's coldFusion excess Heat & He Production'' normatively describe precedes by Arata & Chang: ``Establishment of the ``solid Fusion'':''..moreover at this time, nuclear fusion reaction was generated inside the solid with synchronous creation of both much 2H4 & thermal Energy''. Nuclear fuel used are ZrO2-Pd(nanoPd), ZrO2.Pd alloy (7[g]) + pure(100%) D2 & Pd-Zr-Ni alloy (18.4[g]) + ... After strange avalanche behavior of superfluid He3 offers a unique `testing ground' for rapid transition, to bioinspired computing, neurobiology & plasma physics quotes: ``SOC is a class of dynamical systems, whose macroscopic behaviour displays the spatial and/or temporal scale-invariance characteristics of a critical point of ``phase transition''-Wikipedia:SOC. Further are e.g to e-Marlin Early Science Meeting offers Secundo Pia Turins devoties, for avalanche dynamic in a pile of rice [V. Frette et al.] & slowly sprinkled to cause ``avalanches'' of Per Bak's sand-Pile experiment at least involving F Lavoise et al.: ``New Methods characterizing Avalanche behavior to determine powder Flow'' 2002 denotes MO Tjia, HL The, Suparno S, Sutrisno: ``Karakterisasi Struktur PP, PS & PVC dengan NMR'', DIP-ITB no. 4872181-1981 to fractions the expenditure in UI/NJOP of Elders-parentals of we Incredible devotes to Prof. Marsongko Hadi/PT.GIRILAYA- Bandung.

  8. Why Quark Rhymes with Pork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mermin, N. David

    2016-03-01

    Part I. Reference Frame Columns, Physics Today, 1988-2009: 1. What's wrong with this Lagrangean? April 1988; 2. What's wrong with this library? August 1988; 3. What's wrong with these prizes? January 1989; 4. What's wrong with this pillow? April 1989; 5. What's wrong with this prose? May 1989; 6. What's wrong with these equations? October 1989; 7. What's wrong with these elements of reality? June 1990; 8. What's wrong with these reviews? August 1990; 9. What's wrong with those epochs? November 1990; 10. Publishing in computopia, May 1991; 11. What's wrong with those grants, June 1991; 12. What's wrong in computopia, April 1992; 13. What's wrong with those talks? November 1992; 14. Two lectures on the wave-particle duality, January 1993; 15. A quarrel we can settle, December 1993; 16. What's wrong with this temptation, June 1994; 17. What's wrong with this sustaining myth, March 1996; 18. The golemization of relativity, April 1996; 19. Diary of a Nobel guest, March 1997; 20. What's wrong with this reading, October 1997; 21. How not to create tigers, August 1999; 22. What's wrong with this elegance? March 2000; 23. The contemplation of quantum computation, July 2000; 24. What's wrong with these questions? February 2001; 25. What's wrong with this quantum world? February 2004; 26. Could Feynman have said this? May 2004; 27. My life with Einstein, December 2005; 28. What has quantum mechanics to do with factoring? April 2007; 29. Some curious facts about quantum factoring, October 2007; 30. What's bad about this habit, May 2009; Part II. Shedding Bad Habits: 31. Fixing the shifty split, Physics Today, July 2012; 32. What I think about Now, Physics Today, March 2014; 33. Why QBism is not the Copenhagen interpretation, lecture, Vienna, June 2014; Part III. More from Professor Mozart: 34. What's wrong with this book? Unpublished, 1992; 35. What's wrong with these stanzas? Physics Today, July 2007; Part IV. More to be said: 36. The complete diary of a Nobel guest

  9. Meningitis, a whirlpool of death: literary reflections and Russian cultural beliefs.

    PubMed

    Zagvazdin, Yuri

    2013-01-01

    Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, the membranes that cover the central nervous system. The most frequent causes of the disease are viruses and bacteria. In the past, the disease was commonly referred to as "brain fever" or "brain inflammation," and extreme temperatures, sun, rain, mental distress, and other factors were believed to be its potent triggers. By the beginning of the twentieth century, these beliefs faded away in the United States and most western European countries. In contrast, some of these archaic notions persist in Russia, where cold air, draft, wet hair, and failure to cover one's head with a hat during winter are perceived as serious risks for contracting meningitis. These sentiments are reflected in the prose of Solzhenitsyn and other contemporary Russian authors. However, in the fictional literature of the nineteenth century, emotional or intellectual disturbances rather than the wrath of winter were portrayed worldwide as the most frequent cause of brain inflammation. Both physicians and laity blamed nervous breakdown or mental distress for the development of meningitis and the tragic deaths of the eminent Russian writer Gogol, talented poet Nadson, and heir to the Imperial throne Grand Duke Nicholas Romanov. Even in the twentieth century, esteemed Russian artists, including Pasternak, Paustovsky, and Roerich, highlighted this belief. Following the discovery of the infectious nature of meningitis, fictional depictions of the illness changed. While literary accounts of brain inflammation by the realists (e.g., Dostoevsky and Flaubert) were rather imprecise, the descriptions of the course and symptoms of meningitis by the modernists (e.g., Balmont, Hesse, and Huxley) became detailed and recognizable. Typically, the victim of the disease is a boy, and his imminent agony is preceded by immense suffering that devastates his parents. The dreadful experience of seeing children in the merciless clutches of meningitis had a profound

  10. The effects of question types in textual reading upon retention of biology concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, William H.; Lowery, Lawrence F.

    Do instructional questions to students enhance learning? If so, do certain types of questions cause greater learning outcomes than others? The area of instructional questions and questioning strategies has generated much research over the past two decades. A number of studies have found instructional questions to account for a large fraction of teaching time (Bellack et al., 1963; Schreiber, 1967; Moyer, 1967). Teacher use of oral questions in instruction, especially higher level cognitive questions, has consistently shown positive effects on student achievement (Redfield & Rousseau, 1981). Questions asked after oral prose presentations in psychology have been found to enhance recall of factual information (Sefkow & Meyers, 1980). Some large teacher training programs have specific instruction in questioning strategies (Lanier & Davis, 1972; Lowery, 1974). Questioning in textual reading has also been investigated, especially in the social sciences and languages, with respect to both the presence of questions in a text and the position and type of such questions. Although there are conflicting results, in general, questions placed within text materials have appeared to cause significantly higher performance than reading the materials without questions (Rothkopf & Bisbicos, 1967; Rothkopf & Bloom, 1970; Watts & Anderson, 1971; Quellmalz, 1972; Reynolds, Standiford, & Anderson, 1979; Corrozi, 1971). Questions placed after the reading have been found to be significantly more productive than prequestions, or questions placed immediately before the reading passages (Rothkopf & Bisbicos, 1967; Frase, Patrick, & Schumer, 1970; Watts & Anderson, 1971). In one study, placing questions before the associated information reduced paragraph reading time from the time required when questions followed the information passage (Morasky & Wilcox, 1970). Finally, higher level cognitive post- and prequestions (comprehensive and application) have consistently produced more learning than

  11. High resolution modelling of the biogeochemical processes in the eutrophic Loire River (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minaudo, Camille; Moatar, Florentina; Curie, Florence; Gassama, Nathalie; Billen, Gilles

    2016-04-01

    A biogeochemical model was developed, coupling a physically based water temperature model (T-NET) with a semi-mechanistic biogeochemical model (RIVE, used in ProSe and Riverstrahler models) in order to assess at a fine temporal and spatial resolution the biogeochemical processes in the eutrophic Middle Loire hydrosystem (≈10 000 km², 3361 river segments). The code itself allows parallelized computing, which decreased greatly the calculation time (5 hours for simulating 3 years hourly). We conducted a daily survey during the period 2012-2014 at 2 sampling stations located in the Middle Loire of nutrients, chlorophyll pigments, phytoplankton and physic-chemical variables. This database was used as both input data (upstream Loire boundary) and validation data of the model (basin outlet). Diffuse and non-point sources were assessed based on a land cover analysis and WWTP datasets. The results appeared very sensible to the coefficients governing the dynamic of suspended solids and of phosphorus (sorption/desorption processes) within the model and some parameters needed to be estimated numerically. Both the Lagrangian point of view and fluxes budgets at the seasonal and event-based scale evidenced the biogeochemical functioning of the Loire River. Low discharge levels set up favorable physical conditions for phytoplankton growth (long water travel time, limited water depth, suspended particles sedimentation). Conversely, higher discharge levels highly limited the phytoplankton biomass (dilution of the colony, washing-out, limited travel time, remobilization of suspended sediments increasing turbidity), and most biogeochemical species were basically transferred downstream. When hydrological conditions remained favorable for phytoplankton development, P-availability was the critical factor. However, the model evidenced that most of the P in summer was recycled within the water body: on one hand it was assimilated by the algae biomass, and on the other hand it was

  12. Do personal stories make patient decision aids more effective? A critical review of theory and evidence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient decision aids support people to make informed decisions between healthcare options. Personal stories provide illustrative examples of others’ experiences and are seen as a useful way to communicate information about health and illness. Evidence indicates that providing information within personal stories affects the judgments and values people have, and the choices they make, differentially from facts presented in non-narrative prose. It is unclear if including narrative communications within patient decision aids enhances their effectiveness to support people to make informed decisions. Methods A survey of primary empirical research employing a systematic review method investigated the effect of patient decision aids with or without a personal story on people’s healthcare judgements and decisions. Searches were carried out between 2005-2012 of electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO), and reference lists of identified articles, review articles, and key authors. A narrative analysis described and synthesised findings. Results Of 734 citations identified, 11 were included describing 13 studies. All studies found participants’ judgments and/or decisions differed depending on whether or not their decision aid included a patient story. Knowledge was equally facilitated when the decision aids with and without stories had similar information content. Story-enhanced aids may help people recall information over time and/or their motivation to engage with health information. Personal stories affected both “system 1” (e.g., less counterfactual reasoning, more emotional reactions and perceptions) and “system 2” (e.g., more perceived deliberative decision making, more stable evaluations over time) decision-making strategies. Findings exploring associations with narrative communications, decision quality measures, and different levels of literacy and numeracy were mixed. The pattern of findings was similar for both experimental and real

  13. A Model for Calculated Privacy and Trust in pHealth Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Ruotsalainen, Pekka; Blobel, Bernd

    2018-01-01

    A pHealth ecosystem is a community of service users and providers. It is also a dynamic socio-technical system. One of its main goals is to help users to maintain their personal health status. Another goal is to give economic benefit to stakeholders which use personal health information existing in the ecosystem. In pHealth ecosystems, a huge amount of health related data is collected and used by service providers such as data extracted from the regulated health record and information related to personal characteristics, genetics, lifestyle and environment. In pHealth ecosystems, there are different kinds of service providers such as regulated health care service providers, unregulated health service providers, ICT service providers, researchers and industrial organizations. This fact together with the multidimensional personal health data used raises serious privacy concerns. Privacy is a necessary enabler for successful pHealth, but it is also an elastic concept without any universally agreed definition. Regardless of what kind of privacy model is used in dynamic socio-technical systems, it is difficult for a service user to know the privacy level of services in real life situations. As privacy and trust are interrelated concepts, the authors have developed a hybrid solution where knowledge got from regulatory privacy requirements and publicly available privacy related documents is used for calculation of service providers' specific initial privacy value. This value is then used as an estimate for the initial trust score. In this solution, total trust score is a combination of recommended trust, proposed trust and initial trust. Initial privacy level is a weighted arithmetic mean of knowledge and user selected weights. The total trust score for any service provider in the ecosystem can be calculated deploying either a beta trust model or the Fuzzy trust calculation method. The prosed solution is easy to use and to understand, and it can be also automated. It is

  14. TRACER - TRACING AND CONTROL OF ENGINEERING REQUIREMENTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, P. R.

    1994-01-01

    TRACER (Tracing and Control of Engineering Requirements) is a database/word processing system created to document and maintain the order of both requirements and descriptive material associated with an engineering project. A set of hierarchical documents are normally generated for a project whereby the requirements of the higher level documents levy requirements on the same level or lower level documents. Traditionally, the requirements are handled almost entirely by manual paper methods. The problem with a typical paper system, however, is that requirements written and changed continuously in different areas lead to misunderstandings and noncompliance. The purpose of TRACER is to automate the capture, tracing, reviewing, and managing of requirements for an engineering project. The engineering project still requires communications, negotiations, interactions, and iterations among people and organizations, but TRACER promotes succinct and precise identification and treatment of real requirements separate from the descriptive prose in a document. TRACER permits the documentation of an engineering project's requirements and progress in a logical, controllable, traceable manner. TRACER's attributes include the presentation of current requirements and status from any linked computer terminal and the ability to differentiate headers and descriptive material from the requirements. Related requirements can be linked and traced. The program also enables portions of documents to be printed, individual approval and release of requirements, and the tracing of requirements down into the equipment specification. Requirement "links" can be made "pending" and invisible to others until the pending link is made "binding". Individuals affected by linked requirements can be notified of significant changes with acknowledgement of the changes required. An unlimited number of documents can be created for a project and an ASCII import feature permits existing documents to be incorporated

  15. The science of the stars in Danzig from Rheticus to Hevelius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Derek

    This dissertation asks how civic institutions (the city council and the academic gymnasium), socio-economic structures (civic and private patronage) and religion and civic ideals in the city of Danzig shaped creative thought about the science of the stars during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Reciprocally, it looks at how the use of scientific knowledge created distinctive representations of the city both as it appeared to its own citizens and as it was presented to others outside of the city walls. By employing a variety of sources, including Latin texts, printed prognostications, astrological and astronomical pamphlets, handwritten marginalia, German poetry, artwork (both printed illustrations and freestanding pieces), travelers' accounts, personal correspondence and funeral sermons, I explore how those who lived in Danzig represented their observations of the stars. While concentrating on Danzig, the dissertation compares and contrasts experiences in Danzig to other places. Examples of comparisons are those in chapters 1 and 4, which compare systems of courtly patronage found in other European cities with systems of civic and private patronage found in Danzig. Chapter 2 considers the books of Peter Crüger (1580-1639), professor of mathematics and poetry in the Danzig gymnasium, and his concern to remain within the bounds of correct Lutheran doctrine. He wrote at a time when Lutherans held powerful positions within city government and in the administration of the gymnasium. In chapter 3, I focus on the writings of Peter Crüger's pupil, Andreas Gryphius (1616-1664). Gryphius later became a celebrated German poet and statesman. Understanding his stay in Danzig and his studies under Crüger, I argue, are vital to understanding his poetry, plays and prose. Chapters 5 through 7 concentrate on another of Crüger's students, namely, Johannes Hevelius (1611-1687). Chapter 5 studies Hevelius's first major publication, Selenographia (1647) and argues that

  16. Nano Dreams and Nano Worlds: The Emergence and Disciplinary Formation of Nanoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    York, Emily

    capital manifests in the undergraduate major in the form of entrepreneurialism; how translational research as a paradigm of innovation becomes the right tool for the job of aligning nanoengineering's commitments to innovation and utility with the institutional imperative to produce intellectual capital; and how the higher-ed science classroom is an important site for considering the ethics and politics of knowledge production. I present my work in both prose and graphic novel style narrative illustration.

  17. Probabilistic clustering of rainfall condition for landslide triggering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Mauro; Luciani, Silvia; Cesare Mondini, Alessandro; Kirschbaum, Dalia; Valigi, Daniela; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2013-04-01

    Landslides are widespread natural and man made phenomena. They are triggered by earthquakes, rapid snow melting, human activities, but mostly by typhoons and intense or prolonged rainfall precipitations. In Italy mostly they are triggered by intense precipitation. The prediction of landslide triggered by rainfall precipitations over large areas is commonly based on the exploitation of empirical models. Empirical landslide rainfall thresholds are used to identify rainfall conditions for the possible landslide initiation. It's common practice to define rainfall thresholds by assuming a power law lower boundary in the rainfall intensity-duration or cumulative rainfall-duration space above which landslide can occur. The boundary is defined considering rainfall conditions associated to landslide phenomena using heuristic approaches, and doesn't consider rainfall events not causing landslides. Here we present a new fully automatic method to identify the probability of landslide occurrence associated to rainfall conditions characterized by measures of intensity or cumulative rainfall and rainfall duration. The method splits the rainfall events of the past in two groups: a group of events causing landslides and its complementary, then estimate their probabilistic distributions. Next, the probabilistic membership of the new event to one of the two clusters is estimated. The method doesn't assume a priori any threshold model, but simple exploits the real empirical distribution of rainfall events. The approach was applied in the Umbria region, Central Italy, where a catalogue of landslide timing, were obtained through the search of chronicles, blogs and other source of information in the period 2002-2012. The approach was tested using rain gauge measures and satellite rainfall estimates (NASA TRMM-v6), allowing in both cases the identification of the rainfall condition triggering landslides in the region. Compared to the other existing threshold definition methods, the prosed

  18. Using Geowall to Promote Undergraduate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scec EIT Intern Team; Perry, S.; Jordan, T.

    2003-12-01

    Gordon, Nitin Gupta, Vipin Gupta, Jeff Hoeft, Shalini Jhatakia, Leonard Jimenez, Gideon Juve, Douglas Lam, Jed Link, Gavin Locke, Deepak Mehtani, Bill Paetzke, Nick Palmer, Brandee Pierce, Ryan Prose, Nitin Sharma, Ghunghroo Sinha, Jeremie Smith, Brandon Teel, Robert Weekly, Channing Wong, Jeremy Zechar.

  19. The Sea Around Us

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Rachel L.

    1991-12-01

    Published in 1951, The Sea Around Us is one of the most remarkably successful books ever written about the natural world. Rachel Carson's rare ability to combine scientific insight with moving, poetic prose catapulted her book to first place on The New York Times best-seller list, where it enjoyed wide attention for thirty-one consecutive weeks. It remained on the list for more than a year and a half and ultimately sold well over a million copies, has been translated into 28 languages, inspired an Academy Award-winning documentary, and won both the 1952 National Book Award and the John Burroughs Medal. This classic work remains as fresh today as when it first appeared. Carson's writing teems with stunning, memorable images--the newly formed Earth cooling beneath an endlessly overcast sky; the centuries of nonstop rain that created the oceans; giant squids battling sperm whales hundreds of fathoms below the surface; and incredibly powerful tides moving 100 billion tons of water daily in the Bay of Fundy. Quite simply, she captures the mystery and allure of the ocean with a compelling blend of imagination and expertise. Reintroducing a classic work to a whole new generation of readers, this Special Edition features a new chapter written by Jeffrey Levinton, a leading expert in marine ecology, that brings the scientific side of The Sea Around Us completely up to date. Levinton incorporates the most recent thinking on continental drift, coral reefs, the spread of the ocean floor, the deterioration of the oceans, mass extinction of sea life, and many other topics. In addition, acclaimed nature writer Ann Zwinger has contributed a brief foreword. Today, with the oceans endangered by the dumping of medical waste and ecological disasters such as the Exxon oil spill in Alaska, this illuminating volume provides a timely reminder of both the fragility and the importance of the ocean and the life that abounds within it. Anyone who loves the sea, or who is concerned about our

  20. BOOK REVIEW: Quantum Field Theory in a Nutshell (2nd edn) Quantum Field Theory in a Nutshell (2nd edn)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peskin, Michael E.

    2011-04-01

    and topology, and applications to condensed matter systems including the Peierls instability and the quantum Hall fluid. It is a large amount of territory to cover in a single volume. Few derivations are more than one page long. Those that fit in that space are very smooth, but others are too abbreviated to be fully comprehensible. The prose that accompanies the derivations, though, is always enticing. Zee misses no opportunity to point out that an argument he gives opens the door to some deeper subject that he encourages the reader to explore. I do warn students that it is easy to learn from this book how to talk quantum field theory without understanding it. To avoid this pitfall, it is important (as Zee emphasizes) to fill in the steps of his arguments with hard calculation. One topic from which Zee does not restrain himself is the quantum theory of gravity. In the first hundred pages we find a `concise introduction to curved spacetime' that includes a very pretty derivation of the Christoffel symbol from the geodesic equation. Toward the end of the book, there is a set of chapters devoted to the quantization of the gravitational field. The structure of the graviton propagator is worked out carefully. The van Dam-Veltman discontinuity between massless and massive spin 2 exchange is explained clearly. But after this Zee runs out of steam in presenting fully worked arguments. Still, there is room for more prose on connections to the great mysteries of the subject: the ultraviolet behavior, the cosmological constant, and the unification of forces. A new chapter added to the second edition discusses `Is Einstein Gravity The Square Of Yang-Mills Theory?' and suggests an affirmative answer, based on brand-new developments in perturbative quantum field theory. Quantum field theory is a large subject that still has not reached its definitive form. As such, there is room for many textbooks of complementary character. Zee states frankly, `It is not the purpose of this book