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Sample records for zirovski vrh slovenia

  1. Language Policy in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak-Lukanovic, Sonja; Limon, David

    2012-01-01

    The historical background, political changes, migration processes, EU membership and the current socio-linguistic situation have all influenced language policy and language planning in Slovenia. This article presents the most important aspects of language policy in Slovenia with a focus on the concept of linguistic diversity. The ethnic make-up of…

  2. Pediatric oncology in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Jereb, B; Anzic, J

    1996-01-01

    Slovenia, a new country and formerly a part of Yugoslavia, has had its Childrens Hospital in Ljubljana since 1865. This became a part of the University Hospital in 1945, and in the early 1960s the Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology was established. The Oncological Institute of Slovenia was established in 1938 and has developed into a modern facility for comprehensive cancer care, research, and teaching. In close cooperation, established in the 1960s, a team from these two institutions takes care of the approximately 60 children per year who develop cancer in Slovenia. Consisting of pediatricians, radiation oncologists, pathologists, cytologists, surgeons, and other ad hoc specialists, the team meets at least twice weekly to plan treatment, follow the patients, discuss the results, and teach. All patients are subject to regular follow-up indefinitely. A separate team has been formed to study the late effects of cancer treatment on survivors, who by now are mostly adults.

  3. Education Policy Outlook: Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterka, Judith; Field, Simon; Figueroa, Diana Toledo; Golden, Gillian; Jankova, Bojana; Fraccola, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    This policy profile on education in Slovenia is part of the "Education Policy Outlook" series, which presents comparative analysis of education policies and reforms across OECD countries. Building on the OECD's substantial comparative and sectoral knowledge base, the series offers a comparative outlook on education policy by providing…

  4. Health inequality in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Artnik, B; Premik, M

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate some socio-economic factors (gender, income, education, social position) with some health indicators (life expectancy, death rate by selected causes of death, self-evaluation of one's own health, absence from work due to illness or injuries) with a purpose to define the ineqaulity in health across Slovenian municipalities. In our study two sources of data for the population of Slovenia in 1996 were used: from the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia (aggregated data across Slovenian municipalities) and Public Opinion Research (individual data). Statistical analysis was performed by correlation and factor analysis. The correlation coefficient between education and life expectancy is 0.712. The correlation between income base and life expectancy is also significant (0.707). In the eastern part of the country (mostly rural population) women in average live 2 years and men 3 years less than their counterparts in the western part of the country. Five causes of death across Slovenian municipalities are significantly related to the population's education and incomes, of which only death due to neoplasm is positively correlated to income while all other causes are negatively correlated not only with income but also with education. Health (self-evaluation) is closely related to an individual's education and social position. The factor analysis of pressures at work showed groups of two factors as being the most significant: pressures related to leadership positions (positive correlation with health), and physical labour or work in inferior positions (negative correlation with health). We can conclude that the results of our study showed the crucial effect of investigated socio-economic factors on people's health across Slovenian municipalities. During the present socio-economic transition period we are trying to establish new sources of data and looking for possibilities to connect and refine them for further investigation.

  5. Curricular Framework Documents from Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vendramin, Valerija

    2004-01-01

    Slovenia is currently undergoing a process of school reform in order to extend compulsory education from eight to nine years and to lower the school entering age from 7 to 6. According to the Ministry of Education, Science and Sport, the new elementary schools will focus less on the content and more on developing cognitive and social skills. At…

  6. Earthquakes in Tuhinj Valley (Slovenia) In 1840

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecić, Ina

    2015-04-01

    A less known damaging earthquake in southern part of Kamnik-Savinja Alps, Slovenia, in 1840 is described. The main shock was on 27 August 1840 with the epicentre in Tuhinj Valley. The maximum intensity was VII EMS-98 in Ljubljana, Slovenia, and in Eisenkappel, Austria. It was felt as far as Venice, Italy, 200 km away. The macroseismic magnitude of the main shock, estimated from the area of intensity VI EMS-98, was 5.0. The effects of the main shock and its aftershocks are described, and an earthquake catalogue for Slovenia in 1840 is provided. Available primary sources (newspaper articles) are presented.

  7. Growth curves for twins in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Bricelj, Katja; Blickstein, Isaac; Bržan-Šimenc, Gabrijela; Janša, Vid; Lučovnik, Miha; Verdenik, Ivan; Trojner-Bregar, Andreja; Tul, Nataša

    2017-02-01

    Abnormalities of fetal growth are more common in twins. We introduce the growth curves for monitoring fetal growth in twin pregnancies in Slovenia. Slovenian National Perinatal Information System for the period between 2002 and 2010 was used to calculate birth weight percentiles for all live born twins for each week from 22nd to 40th week. The calculated percentiles of birth weight for all live-born twins in Slovenia served as the basis for drawing 'growth' curves. The calculated growth curves for twins will help accurately diagnose small or large twin fetuses for their gestational age in the native central European population.

  8. Abortion in Croatia and Slovenia.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    In Slovenia abortion will continue to be available during the first 10 weeks of pregnancy as it has been since 1978. The Slovenian Constitutional Court passed this decision in December, 1991 calling the right to abortion a basic human right. T he ruling was a setback both for the government's conservative parties and the Catholic church. In Croatia, where the Catholic church is campaigning against abortion, the situation is quite different. Zagreb is full of stickers and posters with anti-abortion messages branding abortion murder and spreading inaccurate information in announcements. In 1990, there were 56,000 abortions. For every child that was born, one was aborted. The largest Croatian newspaper publicizes the Catholic view. They want pro-choice women of the volunteer group Tresnjevka to stop their struggle. The church and conservative women's groups press for inclusion of abortion in the Constitution. They are very powerful, and the fear is that might soon succeed in restricting or outlawing abortion. Tresnjevka is making efforts to organize a coordination and information center for women in Zagreb where there are 350,000 women and children refugees. Informative brochures are printed on natural healing methods in gynecology, as drugs are very scarce, and addresses for gynecological emergency care are also provided. Abortion has been legally available on demand during the 1st 10 weeks of pregnancy since 1978. Fore year Tresnjevka has worked for women, trying to raise funds from personal donations and from the government for their activities. Funds from foreign countries have never been received. At present many of the group's activities are on hold because of lack of funds, nevertheless the determination to continue fighting is alive.

  9. The Organizational Values of "Gimnazija" in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Nicholas Sun-Keung

    2006-01-01

    This article assesses the organizational values of "gimnazija" in Slovenia and examines the factors that contribute to the building of quality management. The theoretical framework is built on Schein's model of levels of culture, Sathe's interpretation of organizational culture and Getzels and Guba's model of organizational behaviour.…

  10. Attitudes to Bilingual Education in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak Lukanovic, Sonja; Limon, David

    2014-01-01

    The two different models of bilingual/multilingual education that have been developed in Slovenia since the 1950s in the regions of Prekmurje (minority language Hungarian) and Slovene Istria (Italian) are the result of international agreements, education and language policies, social and demographic factors. The basic aim in both cases is to help…

  11. Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist

    PubMed Central

    Kostanjšek, Rok; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The research of the spider fauna of Slovenia dates back to the very beginning of binomial nomenclature, and has gone through more and less prolific phases with authors concentrating on taxonomy, faunistics, ecology and zoogeographic reviews. Although the body of published works is remarkable for a small nation, the faunistic data has remained too scattered for a thorough understanding of regional biotic diversity, for comparative and ecological research, and for informed conservation purposes. A national checklist is long overdue. Here, a critical review of all published records in any language is provided. The species list currently comprises 738 species, is published online at http://www.bioportal.si/katalog/araneae.php under the title Araneae Sloveniae, and will be updated in due course. This tool will fill the void in cataloguing regional spider faunas and will facilitate further araneological research in central and southern Europe. PMID:25632258

  12. Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist.

    PubMed

    Kostanjšek, Rok; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2015-01-01

    The research of the spider fauna of Slovenia dates back to the very beginning of binomial nomenclature, and has gone through more and less prolific phases with authors concentrating on taxonomy, faunistics, ecology and zoogeographic reviews. Although the body of published works is remarkable for a small nation, the faunistic data has remained too scattered for a thorough understanding of regional biotic diversity, for comparative and ecological research, and for informed conservation purposes. A national checklist is long overdue. Here, a critical review of all published records in any language is provided. The species list currently comprises 738 species, is published online at http://www.bioportal.si/katalog/araneae.php under the title Araneae Sloveniae, and will be updated in due course. This tool will fill the void in cataloguing regional spider faunas and will facilitate further araneological research in central and southern Europe.

  13. Art Museum Education in Transition: Moderna Galerija in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeleznik, Adela

    2012-01-01

    This essay examines the educational practices at the Moderna galerija, a national museum of modern and contemporary art in Ljubljana, Slovenia, in the last twenty years. Its aim is to reflect on the museum education in relation to broader historical context, of the former Yugoslavia (the country Slovenia was a part of until 1991) and discuss how…

  14. Information system of mineral deposits in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hribernik, K.; Rokavec, D.; Šinigioj, J.; Šolar, S.

    2010-03-01

    At the Geologic Survey of Slovenia the need for complex overview and control of the deposits of available non-metallic mineral raw materials and of their exploitations became urgent. In the framework of the Geologic Information System we established the Database of non-metallic mineral deposits comprising all important data of deposits and concessionars. Relational database is built with program package MS Access, but in year 2008 we plan to transfer it on SQL server. In the evidence there is 272 deposits and 200 concessionars. The mineral resources information system of Slovenia, which was started back in 2002, consists of two integrated parts, mentioned relational database of mineral deposits, which relates information in tabular way so that rules of relational algebra can be applied, and geographic information system (GIS), which relates spatial information of deposits. . The complex relationships between objects and the concepts of normalized data structures, lead to the practical informative and useful data model, transparent to the user and to better decision-making by allowing future scenarios to be developed and inspected. Computerized storage, and display system is as already said, developed and managed under the support of Geological Survey of Slovenia, which conducts research on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources in order to help the Nation make informed decisions using earth-science information. Information about deposit is stored in records in approximately hundred data fields. A numeric record number uniquely identifies each site. The data fields are grouped under principal categories. Each record comprise elementary data of deposit (name, type, location, prospect, rock), administrative data (concessionar, number of decree in official paper, object of decree, number of contract and its duration) and data of mineral resource produced amount and size of exploration area). The data can also be searched, sorted and

  15. Community social alarm network in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Premik, M; Rudel, D

    1996-12-01

    The article deals with a case report on the technology transfer of the Lifeline community social alarm system to Slovenia. The main reason the project was initiated is the ageing of the Slovenian population (11% of the population is 65 or over). With this system we intend to support the public's wish to allow the elderly to remain in their own homes for as long as possible instead of placing them in institutional care. Between 1992 and 1995 the following results were achieved: the acceptability of the system in the social environment was increased; a pilot control centre in Ljubljana was established and has been operational for two-and-a-half years; a national dissemination plan was prepared; the integration of the programme into other information systems has been started. One of the main conclusions is that for the successful transfer of a technology which also affects social values in society, a social innovation must support the process.

  16. Macrodebris and microplastics from beaches in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Laglbauer, Betty J L; Franco-Santos, Rita Melo; Andreu-Cazenave, Miguel; Brunelli, Lisa; Papadatou, Maria; Palatinus, Andreja; Grego, Mateja; Deprez, Tim

    2014-12-15

    The amount of marine debris in the environment is increasing worldwide, which results in an array of negative effects to biota. This study provides the first account of macrodebris on the beach and microplastics in the sediment (shoreline and infralittoral) in relation to tourism activities in Slovenia. The study assessed the quality and quantity of macrodebris and the quality, size and quantity of microplastics at six beaches, contrasting those under the influences of tourism and those that were not. Beach cleanliness was estimated using the Clean Coast Index. Tourism did not seem to have an effect on macrodebris or microplastic quantity at beaches. Over 64% of macrodebris was plastic, and microplastics were ubiquitous, which calls for classification of plastics as hazardous materials. Standard measures for marine debris assessment are needed, especially in the form of an all-encompassing debris index. Recommendations for future assessments are provided for the Adriatic region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hypertension control and management in Slovenia, Yugoslavia.

    PubMed

    Jezersek, P; Dolenc, P; Kralj, Z

    1990-08-01

    Data were collected from 413 questionnaires sent to general practitioners throughout Slovenia, accounting for half the physicians in this discipline. BP was measured most commonly in the sitting position (72%), mostly on the left arm. Most respondents (93%) used only one cuff size. Correction of BP readings according to the patient's arm circumference was used by 63% of the respondents. Seventy-eight percent of the general practitioners recorded phase V of the Korotkoff sounds for diastolic BP. BP was measured more than once at each examination by 55%. BP measurements were performed by nurses in 27% of cases. Mercury sphygmomanometers were used by 87%. Manometers were calibrated once a year by 73%. Complete diagnostic procedures for the definition of hypertension were conducted in approximately 50% of patients, predominantly in severe cases. Drug treatment was commenced in the range of 'mild hypertension' usually by 93% of the general practitioners. It was started at BP values of 165/99 mmHg and higher. In patients with other risk factors, it was instituted even earlier. General measures (non-drug therapy) were advised by only 30%. Beta-blockers were usually prescribed to younger patients as drug of choice (74%), and diuretic agents to the elderly (48%). General practitioners' sources of new information about hypertension were mainly medical literature, pharmaceutical industry information, and professional meetings. Prevalence of hypertensive BP values in the responding general practitioners themselves was 8%.

  18. Modernisation of Vocational Education and Training in Slovenia. National Observatory Country Report, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerzina, Suzana; Vranjes, Petra; Cek, Mojca

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, Slovenia has been catching up with other developed market economies. The economic situation has improved; the unemployment rate has declined. Slovenia's criticism of the 1980s educational reform carried out in Yugoslavia (which included Slovenia until 1991) and continued discussion have led to design of a new…

  19. Landslide prediction system in Slovenia (Masprem)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šinigoj, Jasna; Jemec Auflič, Mateja; Krivic, Matija

    2017-04-01

    significantly influence the landslide occurrences, characteristic of lithological units according to water contents. Despite the limitations currently affecting the landslide prediction system, results show that the system demonstrates capability in predicting rainfall induced landslides. When the validation phase will be finished and the certainty of system will be high enough, the system will be able to inform infrastructure owners, civil agencies, and operators of potential landslide hazards. Komac, M., Šinigoj, J., Jemec Auflič, M. 2014: A national warning system for rainfall-induced landslides in Slovenia. V: SASSA, Kyoji (ur.), CANUTI, Paolo (ur.), YIN, Yueping (ur.). Landslide science for a safer geoenvironment. Vol. 2, Methods of landslide studies. Cham ... [etc.]: Springer, cop. 2014, str. 577-582, doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-05050-8_89. Jemec Auflič, M, Šinigoj, J, Krivic, M, Podboj, M, Peternel,T, Komac, M. Landslide prediction system for rainfall induced landslides in Slovenia (Masprem) Geologija, 2016, 59/2, 259-271, doi: 10.5474/geologija.2016.016. Šinigoj, J., Jemec Auflič, M., Kumelj, Š., Krivic, M., Požar, M., Podboj, M., Tukić, M., Peternel, T., Ponjavič, G., Zakrajšek, M. & Prkić, N. 2016: Nadgradnja sistema za obveščanje in opozarjanje v primeru proženja zemeljskih plazov - Masprem2: končno poročilo. Geolo\\vski zavod Slovenije, Ljubljana: 114 p

  20. Hierarchization and segmentation of informal care markets in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Hrženjak, Majda

    2012-01-01

    The article is the result of qualitative research of informal care markets in Slovenia in the field of childcare, elder care, and cleaning. The author assesses Slovenia's position in the “global care chain” and finds that “local care chains” prevail in the field of childcare and elder care, while a co-occurrence of female gender, “other” ethnicity, and poverty is typical in the field of household cleaning. The main emphasis of the article is on the analysis of hierarchization of the informal market of care work according to following two criteria: social reputation of individual type of care work and citizenship status of care workers.

  1. Early medieval coinage in the territory of Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šmit, Ž.; Šemrov, A.

    2006-11-01

    Silver coins minted in the territory of present Slovenia and neighboring countries Italy and Austria between the 12th and 14th century were analyzed by PIXE. Gold and bismuth were found as predominant impurities, which allowed distribution of coins into two groups. Coins with the predominant Bi impurity were minted from silver that was very likely mined in Carinthia and diffusion of this type of silver towards the mints in eastern Slovenia was observed. This finding confirms the historical hypothesis that silver currency in this period was largely produced for the trade with the east.

  2. Prevalence of problematic internet use in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Király, Orsolya; Maraz, Aniko; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Internet use is an integral part of our everyday activities; however, Internet use may become problematic and harmful in a minority of cases. The majority of reported prevalence rates of problematic Internet use refer to adolescent samples, whereas epidemiological studies on representative adult populations are lacking. This study aimed to reveal the prevalence and characteristics of problematic Internet use in Slovenia. Methods Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ) was included in European Health Interview Study (EHIS) on representative Slovenian sample. The frequency of Internet use and problematic Internet use were both assessed. Results 59.9% of Slovenian adult population uses the Internet daily, and 3.1% are at risk of becoming problematic Internet users, 11% in the age group from 20 to 24 years. Those being at risk for becoming problematic Internet users are younger (mean age 31.3 vs. 48.3 for non-problematic users), more likely to be males (3.6% of males, whereas 2.6% of females are affected), students (12.0%), unemployed (6.3%) or unable to work (8.7%), single (6.5%), with high education (4.5%). Regression analysis revealed that the strongest predictor of being at risk for problematic Internet use is age (ß=-0.338, p<0.001); followed by high educational level (ß=0.145; p<0.001) and student status (ß=0.136; p<0.001). Conclusion 3.1% of Slovenian adult population are at risk of becoming problematic Internet users, whereas 3 out of 20 Slovenian adolescents aged from 18 to 19 years are at risk (14.6%). Prevention programs and treatment for those affected are paramount, especially for the young generation. PMID:27703540

  3. Prevalence of problematic internet use in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Macur, Mirna; Király, Orsolya; Maraz, Aniko; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2016-09-01

    Internet use is an integral part of our everyday activities; however, Internet use may become problematic and harmful in a minority of cases. The majority of reported prevalence rates of problematic Internet use refer to adolescent samples, whereas epidemiological studies on representative adult populations are lacking. This study aimed to reveal the prevalence and characteristics of problematic Internet use in Slovenia. Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ) was included in European Health Interview Study (EHIS) on representative Slovenian sample. The frequency of Internet use and problematic Internet use were both assessed. 59.9% of Slovenian adult population uses the Internet daily, and 3.1% are at risk of becoming problematic Internet users, 11% in the age group from 20 to 24 years. Those being at risk for becoming problematic Internet users are younger (mean age 31.3 vs. 48.3 for non-problematic users), more likely to be males (3.6% of males, whereas 2.6% of females are affected), students (12.0%), unemployed (6.3%) or unable to work (8.7%), single (6.5%), with high education (4.5%). Regression analysis revealed that the strongest predictor of being at risk for problematic Internet use is age (ß=-0.338, p<0.001); followed by high educational level (ß=0.145; p<0.001) and student status (ß=0.136; p<0.001). 3.1% of Slovenian adult population are at risk of becoming problematic Internet users, whereas 3 out of 20 Slovenian adolescents aged from 18 to 19 years are at risk (14.6%). Prevention programs and treatment for those affected are paramount, especially for the young generation.

  4. Constitutional aspects of the right to health care in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Kristan, I

    1995-01-01

    Certain aspects of the right to health care and the provision of health insurance and health services in Slovenia since its independence and adoption of a constitution in December 1991 are discussed. The dilemmas raised by conscientious objections by health care workers and the right to legal abortions are pertinently dealt with.

  5. Integration versus Segregation--The Case of Slovenia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecek, Mojca

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes the discourse used when dealing with educational integration via legislation, highlighting philosophical and political solutions used as the basis for new legislation regarding education for children with special needs in Slovenia. Emphasizes the importance of considering parent, teacher, and student attitudes toward inclusive education…

  6. Slovenia: A Study of the Educational System of the Republic of Slovenia. Working Paper. PIER World Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickey, Karlene N.

    This volume offers a full country study of the structure and content of the educational system of Slovenia, together with a formal set of placement recommendations for admissions officers placing Slovenian students in U.S. higher education institutions. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Overview" (of the Slovenian…

  7. Vulnerability Assessment, Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Measures in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cegnar, T.

    2010-09-01

    In relation to the priority tasks of the climate change measures, the Republic of Slovenia estimates that special attention needs to be devoted to the following sectors in general: - sectors that currently indicate a strong vulnerability for the current climate variability (for instance, agriculture), - sectors where the vulnerability for climate change is increased by current trends (for instance, urban development, use of space), - sectors where the adaptation time is the longest and the subsequent development changes are connected with the highest costs (for instance, use of space, infrastructural objects, forestry, urban development, building stock). Considering the views of Slovenia to the climate change problem in Europe and Slovenia, priority measures and emphasis on future adaptation to climate change, the Republic of Slovenia has especially exposed the following action areas: - sustainable and integrated management of water sources for water power production, prevention of floods, provision of water for the enrichment of low flow rates, and preservation of environmental function as well as provision of water for other needs; - sustainable management of forest ecosystems, adjusted to changes, for the provision of their environmental function as well as being a source of biomass, wood for products for the conservation of carbon, and carbon sinks; - spatial planning as one of the important preventive instruments for the adaptation to climate change through the processes of integral planning of spatial and urban development; - sustainable use and preservation of natural wealth and the preservation of biodiversity as well as ecosystem services with measures and policies that enable an enhanced resistance of ecosystems to climate change, and the role of biological diversity in integral adaptation measures; - informing and awareness on the consequences of climate change and adaptation possibilities. For years, the most endangered sectors have been agriculture and

  8. Factors related to consultation time: Experience in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Petek Šter, Marija; Švab, Igor; Živčec Kalan, Gordana

    2008-01-01

    Objective Consultation time has a serious impact on physicians’ work and patient satisfaction. No systematic study of consultation time in general practice in Slovenia has yet been carried out. The aim of the present study was to measure consultation time, to identify the factors influencing it, and to study the influence of the workload of general practitioners on consultation time. Design A total of 42 general practitioners participated in this cross-sectional study. Each physician collected data from 300 consecutive consultations and measured the length of the visit. Setting Forty-two randomly selected general practices in Slovenia. Subjects Patients of 42 general practices. Main outcome measures Average consultation time in general practice in Slovenia; factors influencing consultation time in Slovenia. Results Data from 12 501 visits to the surgery were collected. A quarter of all visits (25.5%) were administrative. The mean consultation time was 6.9 minutes (median 6.0 minutes, 5%–95% interval: 1.0–16.0 minutes). Longer consultation time was predicted by: patient-related factors (female gender, higher age, higher level of education, higher number of health problems, change of physician within the last year), physician-related factors (higher age), physicians’ workload (absence of high workload), and the type of visit (consultation and/or clinical examination). Conclusion Consultation time in general practice is short, and depends on the characteristics of the patient and the physician, the physician's workload, and the type of visit. A reduction of high workload in general practice should be one of the priorities of the healthcare system. PMID:18297560

  9. Bark beetles (Scolytidae, Coleoptera) in Slovenia with special regard to species in burnt pine forests

    Maja Jurc

    2003-01-01

    Ecological conditions in Slovenia are very complex and heterogeneous due to the influence and interaction among the various climatic, tectonic, edaphic, orographic, lithologic - transitional (ecotonic) regions. Slovenia is a meeting-point of the Alps, the Mediterranean, the Dinaric Mountain Region and the Pannonian Lowland. This complexity of ecological factors has...

  10. Mapping Women's and Gender Studies in the Academic Field in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaber, Milica Antic

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to map the development of women's and gender studies (WGS) in the academic field in Slovenia. Slovenia is the first of the former Yugoslav state republics in which WGS have succeeded in entering the academic field and becoming part of institutionalised university study. In this paper we will ask the following…

  11. The Role of Comparative Pedagogy in the Training of Pedagogues in Serbia and Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spasenovic, Vera; Vujisic Zivkovic, Natasa; Ermenc, Klara Skubic

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers three issues arising from the study of the development and the current state of Comparative Pedagogy in Serbia and Slovenia. First, the development of Comparative Pedagogy as a distinctive discipline in Serbia and Slovenia is discussed. Second, the role and the content of Comparative Pedagogy courses in university programmes…

  12. Rail-lex Slovenia--A Modern Railway Dictionary (Joint Venture Case Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakopin, Primoz

    Rail-lex Slovenia is a project to develop a dictionary of railway terminology in the Slovenian language, part of a larger undertaking of the International Union of Railways to develop a modern, multilingual communication infrastructure. Participating organizations represent 22 European languages. Two partners in the Rail-lex Slovenia venture are…

  13. Serological evidence for human cystic echinococcosis in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Logar, Jernej; Soba, Barbara; Kotar, Tadeja

    2008-05-09

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is caused by the larva of tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. Dogs and other canids are the primary definitive hosts for this parasite. CE may develop after accidental ingestion of tapeworm eggs, excreted with the feces of these animals. In the intestine, the larvae released from the eggs are nested in the liver, lungs or other organs of livestock as intermediate hosts and humans as aberrant hosts. The aim of this study was to examine serologically whether some of the patients in Slovenia, suspected of CE by imaging findings in the liver or lungs had been infected with the larva of Echinococcus granulosus. Between January 1, 2002 and the end of December 2006, 1323 patients suspected of having echinococcosis were screened serologically by indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA). For confirmation and differentiation of Echinococcus spp. infection, the sera of IHA-positive patients were then retested by western blot (WB). Out of 127 IHA-positive sera, 34 sera were confirmed by WB and considered specific for CE. Of 34 sera of CE-positive patients sera, 32 corresponded to the characteristic imaging findings of a liver cysts and 2 to those of lung cysts. The mean age of CE-positive patients was 58.3 years. No significant differences were found between the CE-positive patients in regard to their sex. In the study, it was found out that CE was mostly spread in the same area of Slovenia as in the past, but its prevalence decreased from 4.8 per 105 inhabitants in the period 1956-1968 to 1.7 per 105 inhabitants in the period 2002-2006. In spite of the decreased prevalence of CE in the last years, it is suggested that clinicians and public health authorities, especially in the eastern parts of Slovenia where the most CE patients come from, should pay greater attention to this disease in the future.

  14. Helicopter Mountain Rescue in Slovenia from 2011 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Deeb, Janina Golob; Walter, Nicholas; Carrico, Caroline; Gašperin, Miha; Deeb, George R

    2018-03-01

    The popularity of adventure recreation in wilderness areas across the world continues to increase. Nevertheless, the risk of injury and illness remains significant. The purpose of this study is to analyze the mountain rescue operations performed in Slovenia between 2011 and 2015. This retrospective study reports mountain rescue operations documented by the Slovenian National Mountain Rescue Association. The annual number of ground-based and helicopter-based rescues were identified and compared. For 2015, the indication for rescue and the severity of injury were also analyzed, specifically for interventions requiring the use of a helicopter. From 2011 through 2015, the number of rescues remained consistent with an annual average of 413 (SD ±15; range, 393-434) rescues. However, the percentage of ground-based rescues varied significantly year by year (P=0.016), with highest rate in 2014 (68%) and the lowest in 2015 (56%). In 2015, 434 mountain rescue operations were reported in Slovenia. Injury accounted for 44%, illness for 10%, and fatality for 9% of the rescues. In 37%, no illness or injury was reported. Helicopter rescue was used in 190 (44%) of all interventions. Among the 190 helicopter rescues, 49% of patients had nonfatal injuries, 29% required no medical treatment, 15% had illness, and 7% had fatal injuries. A significant number of mountain rescue operations were conducted in Slovenia from 2011 through 2015. Most of these were needed for injured, ill, or deceased persons. A notable number of rescues in 2015 required a helicopter. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of garnets from the archaeological sites in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šmit, Ž.; Fajfar, H.; Jeršek, M.; Knific, T.; Lux, J.

    2014-06-01

    Garnets (62 individual stones) originating from the Migration Period cemeteries and hilltop settlements in Slovenia were analyzed by the combined PIXE/PIGE method for their chemical composition. Typologically, the analyzed stones may be classified as almandines originating from the sites in India, belonging to types I and II according to Calligaro. A smaller group of pyraldines intermediate between almandines and pyropes was also determined; identified as type III, their source is most likely in Sri Lanka. No garnets from Bohemia (Czech Republic) have been discovered, which may be related to important political changes in the 7th c. AD, induced by Slavic and Avaric migrations.

  16. Experiences from the implementation of a biosafety system in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Milavec, Mojca; Racman, Darja Stanic

    2007-09-01

    The development and implementation of an effective national biosafety system is important for several key reasons: to ensure safe access to products of modern biotechnology, to build public confidence, to encourage the growth of domestic modern biotechnology, and to comply with international standards and agreements. There is no single best approach in the development and implementation of a national biosafety system and each country is faced with unique challenges. Slovenia is a small country and a new EU Member State. However, it has developed and implemented an efficient national biosafety system. The key elements of this system are administrative procedure, risk assessment, enforcement, and public participation and information.

  17. The survey of ecologically acceptable flows in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolar-Žvanut, Nataša; Burja, Darko

    2008-11-01

    Excessive water abstractions from watercourses constitute a negative impact on the structure and functioning of aquatic and riparian ecosystems. In order to preserve and improve the aquatic ecosystems it is therefore necessary to maintain adequate quantity and quality of water in watercourses, which can be ensured by providing ecologically acceptable flow (EAF). In Slovenia, a large diversity of watercourses regarding their hydrologic, morphological and ecological characteristics dictates the determination of EAF separately for individual sections of watercourses. Since 1994, the determination of EAF in Slovenia has been carried out primarily for the existing water abstractions such as hydroelectric power plants, fish farms, and to a lesser extent for the abstractions for drinking water, process water, recreation facilities and at the outflows from reservoirs. The results of EAF value analyses showed that the EAF values for individual water abstractions differed widely both with respect to the values of the mean annual minimum flow and the values of the mean daily flow. The results of analyses support the basis for the determination of EAF used in most EU countries, namely that EAF must be determined through interdisciplinary approach where the hydrologic data represent the benchmark values for the determination of EAF.

  18. Slovenian Experience with the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management

    SciT

    Stritar, A.

    Slovenia is a relatively small European country with only one operating nuclear power plant, one operating research reactor and one Central Interim Storage for Radioactive Waste from small producers. There are also a uranium mine and mill at Zirovski vrh, both in the decommissioning stage. The Slovenian Government, its public and neighboring countries are most interested in the managing of radioactive waste in the safest possible way by carefully utilizing best practices and existing human and financial resources. In order to achieve this goal the tight connection with the international community in the area of radioactive waste management is essential.more » Slovenia was among those countries involved in the process of preparation of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (Joint Convention) from the very beginning and was also among first ratifiers. Slovenia had prepared the first report under the Convention and took part in the first Review Meeting in November 2003. The preparation of this report was not regarded only as a fulfillment of obligation toward Joint Convention, but was considered primarily as a kind of self appraisal of the national radioactive management program. Therefore the preparation of the report primarily contributed to the improvements in the field of radioactive waste management and consequently enhanced the safety of our public. For the preparation of the second report for the review meeting in 2006 it was decided to follow the structure of the first report. Only updates were introduced and eventual changes in the area of radioactive waste management were reflected. (authors)« less

  19. Epiphytic lichen mycota of the virgin forest reserve Rajhenavski Rog (Slovenia)

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Batič, Franc; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    A list of 128 taxa (127 species) of lichens, 6 species of lichenicolous fungi and 2 non-lichenized fungi traditionally included in lichenological literature from the virgin forest Rajhenavski Rog and its surroundings in the southeastern part of Slovenia is presented. The lichen Gyalecta derivata, the lichenicolous fungus Homostegia piggotii, and the non-lichenized fungus Mycomicrothelia pachnea are new to Slovenia. The lichenized fungi Chaenotheca trichialis, C. xyloxena, Lecanactis abietina, Lecanora thysanophora, Pertusaria ophthalmiza, the lichenicolous fungi Monodictys epilepraria, Tremella hypogymniae, Taeniolella friesii, and the non-lichenized fungus Chaenothecopsis pusilla are new to the Dinaric phytogeographical region of Slovenia. PMID:22942459

  20. Rainfall thresholds for the triggering of landslides in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peternel, Tina; Jemec Auflič, Mateja; Rosi, Ascanio; Segoni, Samuele; Komac, Marko; Casagli, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    Both at the worldwide level and in Slovenia, precipitation and related phenomena represent one of the most important triggering factors for the occurrence of slope mass movements. In the past decade, extreme rainfall events with a very high amount of precipitation occurs in a relatively short rainfall period have become increasingly important and more frequent, that causing numerous undesirable consequences. Intense rainstorms cause flash floods and mostly trigger shallow landslides and soil slips. On the other hand, the damage of long lasting rainstorms depends on the region's adaptation and its capacity to store or infiltrate excessive water from the rain. The amount and, consequently, the intensity of daily precipitation that can cause floods in the eastern part of Slovenia is a rather common event for the north-western part of the country. Likewise, the effect of rainfall is very dependent on the prior soil moisture, periods of full soil saturation and the creation of drifts in groundwater levels due to the slow melting of snow, growing period, etc. Landslides could be identified and to some extent also prevent with better knowledge of the relation between landslides and rainfall. In this paper the definition of rainfall thresholds for rainfall-induced landslides in Slovenia is presented. The thresholds have been calculated by collecting approximately 900 landslide data and the relative rainfall amounts, which have been collected from 41 rain gauges all over the country. The thresholds have been defined by the (1) use of an existing procedure, characterized by a high degree of objectiveness and (2) software that was developed for a test site with very different geological and climatic characteristics (Tuscany, central Italy). Firstly, a single national threshold has been defined, later the country was divided into four zones, on the basis of major the river basins and a single threshold has been calculated for each of them. Validation of the calculated

  1. Folk use of medicinal plants in Karst and Gorjanci, Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Lumpert, Mateja; Kreft, Samo

    2017-02-23

    Information on the use of medicinal plants in Karst and Gorjanci is not available in the literature, but collection of plants is still an important and widespread practice in these regions. Karst and Gorjanci are two remote regions in Slovenia that are only 120 km apart but have different climates; one region is close to the Italian border, and the other is near the Croatian border. Our aim was to report and compare the use of medicinal plants in both regions. From October 2013 to September 2014, 25 informants each in Karst and Gorjanci were interviewed during field research. The age of the informants ranged from 33 to 89 years, with an average age of 61 years in Karst and 69 years in Gorjanci. The main question was "Which plants do or did you collect from nature and use?" Plants of medicinal, nutritive, veterinary or cosmetic use were considered. A total of 78 and 82 taxa were reported in Karst and Gorjanci, respectively; 65 taxa were reported in both regions. Approximately 64% of the plants in each region were distinctive for only a few informants (fewer than 7). The remaining plants were considered important, and the majority were mutual to both regions. Few reported plants were typical for just one region. Differences in the use of some common medicinal plants were observed, e.g., Matricaria chamomilla was used mostly for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory infections and sore eyes in Gorjanci but as a calmative in Karst. Altogether, 15 different oral and 15 different topical medicinal preparations were reported. Folk knowledge was found to be influenced by the media, particularly popular books about medicinal plants that were published in the 20th century. The present research documents the folk use of medicinal plants in Karst and Gorjanci, Slovenia. This rapidly changing practice needs to be documented before it disappears or changes.

  2. Astronomy in Primary and Secondary Education in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomboc, Andreja

    2015-08-01

    I will present the status of astronomy in educational system in Slovenia. In primary schools astronomy is offered as an optional course in the last 3 grades (12-15 yrs old), while in secondary schools a few astronomical topics are present only as part of other subjects (e.g. physics, geography). I will describe a pilot project of an astronomy course in secondary schools, which was carried out in the school year 2013/14. The main focus of my presentation will be the experience gained with organisation of the Slovenian National Astronomy Competition. It is organised by the Slovenian Society of Mathematicians, Physicists and Astronomers since 2009, building on an extensive network of over 200 primary and secondary school teachers who participated in IYA2009 activities, and who now represent majority of mentors for the competition. In 2013, only 5 years after the start of competition, our pupils attended the International Olympiad on Astronomy and Astrophysics for the first time and with great success. Supporting activities include the Slovenian version of the Portal to the Universe (www.portalvvesolje.si) and translation of Space Scoop astronomy news for children.

  3. Intestinal parasites of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Vergles Rataj, Aleksandra; Posedi, Janez; Zele, Diana; Vengušt, Gorazd

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, 428 foxes were collected and examined for intestinal helminths using the washing-out method. Parasites were found in 93.2% of the examined animals. The most frequently identified nematodes were Uncinaria stenocephala (58.9%), Toxocara canis (38.3%) and Molineus patens (30.6%). Other nematodes found were Pterygodermatites affinis (4.2%), Capillaria sp. (2.8%), Crenosoma vulpis (2.8%), Toxascaris leonina (2.5%), Trichuris vulpis (0.7%) and Physaloptera sp. (0.2%). Mesocestoides sp. (27.6%) and Taenia crassiceps (22.2%) were the most prevalent cestodes, followed by T. polyacantha (6.5%), Hymenolepis nana (2.1%), T. pisiformis (2.1%) and Dipylidium caninum (1.4%). The study also revealed four trematode species: Rossicotrema donicum (1.6%), Heterophyes heterophyes (1.1%), Metagonimus yokogawai (1.1%), Prohemistomum appendiculatum (0.4%) and two protozoan species: oocysts of Sarcocystis (2.8%) and Isospora (0.4%). This is the first extensive study on the intestinal parasites of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Slovenia. The 2.6% prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in the same sample population as investigated herein has been reported previously (Vergles Rataj et al., 2010).

  4. Patterns of NPS Use and Risk Reduction in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Sande, Matej; Paš, Mina; Nahtigal, Klara; Šabić, Simona

    2018-01-15

    The following study presents factors influencing the decision to use/not to use new psychoactive substances (NPS), various patterns of NPS use, the problems experienced by users, and the methods for reducing the risks associated with NPS use. The study seeks to provide an in-depth look into the characteristics of NPS use and support the planning of targeted interventions in the field of NPS. The study involved 19 in-depth interviews carried out with 25 individuals divided into three subsamples in order to gain insight into the various experiences of NPS users. The interviews were conducted in Slovenia between December 2013 and October 2014. The sample was obtained by using the convenience sampling and snowball sampling methods. The main pattern of NPS use determined by the study concerned synthetic cathinones, specifically 3-MMC, with binge use spanning several days being a prominent feature. The main risks involving NPS use were: mixing various drugs, inappropriate dosing, lack of information prior to use, and the use of unknown substances. Several users spoke about effective strategies for reducing risks, such as obtaining information beforehand, using one's own implements and using only small quantities of unknown substances. Conclusions/Importance: The study revealed various factors based on which users decide to use NPS. Furthermore, users reported a number of problems resulting from NPS use, while risk reduction strategies are employed to a much lesser extent. Based on the results obtained, specific intervention efforts concerning NPS use and targeting specific groups of younger users were designed.

  5. Analysis of Drug Policy in the Republic of Slovenia and in the EU Context: A Platform for Prevention in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvaternik, Ines; Rihter, Liljana

    2012-01-01

    Aims: This article presents an overview of the strategies and measures used in the context of school-based prevention in Slovenia, both on a declaratory and on a practical level. Methods: A review of the Resolution on the National Programme on Drugs in the Republic of Slovenia [ReNPPD (2004). Resolucija o nacionalnem programu na podrocju drog…

  6. Analyzing readability of medicines information material in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Kasesnik, Karin; Kline, Mihael

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Readability has been claimed to be an important factor for understanding texts describing health symptoms and medications. Such texts may be a factor which indirectly affects the health of the population. Despite the expertise of physicians, the readability of information sources may be important for acquiring essential treatment information. The aim of this study was to measure the readability level of medicines promotion material in Slovenia. Methods: The Flesch readability formula was modified to comply with Slovene texts. On the basis of determining the Slovene readability algorithm, the readability ease related to the readability grade level of different Slovene texts was established. In order to estimate an adjustment of the texts to the recommended readability grade level of the targeted population, readability values of English texts were set. One sample t-test and standard deviations from the arithmetic mean values were used as statistical tests. Results: The results of the research showed low readability scores of the Slovene texts. Difficult readability values were seen in different types of examined texts: in patient information leaflets, in the summaries of product characteristics, in promotional materials, while describing over-the-counter medications and in the materials for creating disease awareness. Especially low readability values were found within the texts belonging to promotional materials intended for the physicians. None of researched items, not even for the general public, were close to primary school grade readability levels and therefore could not be described as easily readable. Conclusion: This study provides an understanding of the level of readability of selected Slovene medicines information material. It was concluded that health-related texts were not compliant with general public or with healthcare professional needs. PMID:23093886

  7. Transboundary Groundwater Body Karavanke/Karawanken Between Austria and Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brencic, M.; Poltnig, W.

    2009-04-01

    Large part of the border region between Republic of Slovenia and Republic of Austria is represented by high east west extended mountainous ridge of Karavanke/Karawanken. It is a range extending along the Slovenian-Austrian border for almost 150 km. Its terrain consists of long and prominent ridges, whose slopes steeply fall to the northern and southern side. Ridges are interrupted by long, deep and narrow valleys. The highest peaks reach over 2000 m above sea level. In the entire range prominent ridges with mountain meadows and forests prevail. The area is scarcely populated, the main economic activities are grazing and forestry, in some places tourism is also developing, especially winter sports centres. Karavanke/Karawanken lies on the contact between two continental plates, the large European plate in the north and the smaller Adriatic plate in the south. When the Adriatic plate was thrusted over the European one towards the north, the collision resulted in the folding of sediments previously deposited in the space between the plates. The contact of both plates caused large lateral displacements, causing the rocks of both plates to fold and fault and then extend along the contact. This is the area of Periadriatic lineament, dividing Karavanke/Karawanken range into their north and south part. Periadriatic lineament is large stripe slip tectonic structure along which on the northern side rocks were extruded to the east and on the southern side to the west. Along the lineament metamorphic (e.g. biotitic and feldsparic para-gneis, amfibolites) and magmatic (e.g. diabaz, granite and tonalite) rocks of various ages are present. Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks cover large part of the mountain ridge. The oldest are Silurian and Ordovician limestone on the northern border followed by Devonian ridge limestones. They are covered by molasse sedimentation in Carbon and shallow marine and river predominantly clastic sedimentation in Perm. The most abundant and with numerous

  8. The Influence of Nutrition Education on the Food Consumption and Nutrition Attitude of Schoolchildren in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostanjevec, Stojan; Jerman, Janez; Koch, Verena

    2012-01-01

    In Slovenia, nutrition education is included in the compulsory education curriculum of the nine-year elementary school. The aim of nutrition education is for schoolchildren to acquire knowledge on nutrition to help them form healthy nutritional habits. This research aims at establishing whether the formal nutrition education carried out at schools…

  9. The New Evangelisation and Adult Religious Education in Slovenia: Challenges and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegu, Tadej

    2015-01-01

    The Catholic Church in Slovenia is facing the challenge of the new evangelisation in the area of religious education which, at present, is mainly confined to the parish catechesis. She recognises the urgent need to pass from the religious education of children to adult catechesis. The latter is already being implemented in various forms by a…

  10. Oral health needs of athletes with intellectual disability in Eastern Europe: Poland, Romania and Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Fernandez Rojas, Carla; Wichrowska-Rymarek, Kaja; Pavlic, Alenka; Vinereanu, Arina; Fabjanska, Katarzyna; Kaschke, Imke; Marks, Luc A M

    2016-04-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the oral condition and treatment needs of Special Olympics (SO) athletes from Poland, Romania and Slovenia. A cross-sectional study was performed with data collected through standardised oral screening of athletes who participated in the annual SO events held in Poland, Romania and Slovenia, between 2011 and 2012. The data were compiled and transferred to an SPSS data file for analysis using descriptive statistics. A total of 3,545 athletes participated in the study. Among the main findings, the prevalence of untreated decay was 41% in Poland and 61% in Slovenia, whilst 70% of the Romanian athletes had signs of gingival disease and only 3.8% presented molar fissure sealants. In addition, 47% of Polish athletes were in need of urgent treatment. Analysis of the results obtained following screening showed comparable oral health needs of athletes with intellectual disability among countries. Exploration of the oral health systems of the countries revealed similar significant co-payments and lack of incentive for dentists to treat patients with special needs. The results from Romania, Poland and Slovenia demonstrated the need for a structured system in which a special population is a target for oral-health-related education programmes and system-included preventive, restorative and maintenance interventions. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  11. University Teachers' Opinions about Higher Education Pedagogical Training Courses in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aškerc-Veniger, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    Pedagogical training courses (PTCs) for university teachers have often been discussed and have become a widespread trend in recent years in many countries. Many university teachers consider pedagogical training (PT) as a valuable tool in their teaching practice. In Slovenia, however, there is little evidence of teachers' opinions and beliefs…

  12. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Slovenia 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plevnik, Primoz; Podobnik, Ursula

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Slovenia's arts and cultural education. The Ministry of Education and Sport is responsible for laying down the aims for cultural and creative dimensions of education. Concerning the creation of the curriculum related to culture and creativity (both within education) and the arts curriculum, most curricular decisions are made…

  13. Early Childhood Education and Care in Europe: Tackling Social and Cultural Inequalities. Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnsek, Nada; Batistic, Marcela Zorec

    2008-01-01

    Slovenia has a single structure of preschool education system providing comprehensive education and care (educare) for children aged one to six (more precisely, from the end of maternity leave to the child's entering compulsory school). It is offered mostly by public preschool institutions (vrtci). Preschool education is a part of the whole system…

  14. Suicide index reduction in Slovenia: the impact of primary care provision.

    PubMed

    Beškovnik, Lucija; Juričič, Nuša Konec; Svab, Vesna

    2011-03-01

    Background Education of primary care providers about diagnosis and treatment of depression and anxiety is an evidence-based suicide prevention measure.Aim To analyse suicide index, mental health epidemiological data and primary care provision in Slovenian regions and to identify examples of good suicide prevention practices in different Slovenian regions.Methods Analysis of existent epidemiological data on mental health in Slovenia.Results Anxiety and depression are the most common complaints in a representative sample of the Slovene population. The number of suicides in Slovenia had been dropping in the period from 2002 to 2006 and was again slowly rising in 2008. The number of visits to family physicians' practices because of mental health problems is low in comparison to other European countries, which might be attributed also to the high workload of family physicians. Suicide prevention programmes follow the example of the Suicide Prevention Project in the central-east region of Slovenia. This programme is based on education of primary care providers and the general public about recognition and treatment of depression in line with international guidelines.Conclusions The differentiation of causes for suicide reduction needs further research, as well as urgent improvement in the accessibility of primary care teams in Slovenia.

  15. Suicide index reduction in Slovenia: the impact of primary care provision

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Education of primary care providers about diagnosis and treatment of depression and anxiety is an evidence-based suicide prevention measure. Aim To analyse suicide index, mental health epidemiological data and primary care provision in Slovenian regions and to identify examples of good suicide prevention practices in different Slovenian regions. Methods Analysis of existent epidemiological data on mental health in Slovenia. Results Anxiety and depression are the most common complaints in a representative sample of the Slovene population. The number of suicides in Slovenia had been dropping in the period from 2002 to 2006 and was again slowly rising in 2008. The number of visits to family physicians' practices because of mental health problems is low in comparison to other European countries, which might be attributed also to the high workload of family physicians. Suicide prevention programmes follow the example of the Suicide Prevention Project in the central-east region of Slovenia. This programme is based on education of primary care providers and the general public about recognition and treatment of depression in line with international guidelines. Conclusions The differentiation of causes for suicide reduction needs further research, as well as urgent improvement in the accessibility of primary care teams in Slovenia. PMID:22479292

  16. Development of Mobile Communications in Slovenia: Looking to the Future Global Information (Mobile/Internet) Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonic, Tomaz; Mlinar, Tomi

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the planning and provision of mobile communications in Slovenia and suggests areas that will be developed in the future. Topics include the global mobile market; digital mobile networks; evolution from voice to multimedia services; wireless application protocol; the Internet; general packet radio service; and universal mobile…

  17. Participation in Decision-Making in Class: Opportunities and Student Attitudes in Austria and Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mithans, Monika; Grmek, Milena Ivanuš; Cagran, Branka

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on the issue of student involvement in the education process. The study comprised pupils aged 10-11, 13-14 and 16-17; 322 students were attending school in Austria, and 458 students were in Slovenia. The data were collected through a questionnaire and processed on the level of descriptive and inferential statistics. The right…

  18. Direct-to-consumer genetic testing in Slovenia: availability, ethical dilemmas and legislation.

    PubMed

    Vrecar, Irena; Peterlin, Borut; Teran, Natasa; Lovrecic, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years, many private companies are advertising direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC GT), mostly with no or only minor clinical utility and validity of tests and without genetic counselling. International professional community does not approve provision of DTC GT and situation in some EU countries has been analysed already. The aim of our study was to analyse current situation in the field of DTC GT in Slovenia and related legal and ethical issues. Information was retrieved through internet search, performed independently by two authors, structured according to individual private company and the types of offered genetic testing. Five private companies and three Health Insurance Companies offer DTC GT and it is provided without genetic counselling. Available tests include testing for breast cancer, tests with other health-related information (complex diseases, drug responses) and other tests (nutrigenetic, ancestry, paternity). National legislation is currently being developed and Council of Experts in Medical Genetics has issued an opinion about Genetic Testing and Commercialization of Genetic Tests in Slovenia. Despite the fact that Slovenia has signed the Additional protocol to the convention on human rights and biomedicine, concerning genetic testing for health purposes, DTC GT in Slovenia is present and against all international recommendations. There is lack of or no medical supervision, clinical validity and utility of tests and inappropriate genetic testing of minors is available. There is urgent need for regulation of ethical, legal, and social aspects. National legislation on DTC GT is being prepared.

  19. Results From the Republic of Slovenia's 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth.

    PubMed

    Sember, Vedrana; Starc, Gregor; Jurak, Gregor; Golobič, Mojca; Kovač, Marjeta; Samardžija, Poljanka Pavletič; Morrison, Shawnda A

    2016-11-01

    This is the first assessment of the Republic of Slovenia's efforts to synthesize and report physical activity (PA) standards for children and youth following the Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance grading system model. The Republic of Slovenia Report Card relies on research findings published in peer-reviewed journals, data compiled from national databases, and government initiatives which have been monitoring physical fitness standards in schools for the past 34 years (SLOfit and ACDSi). The Report Card initiative has been jointly coordinated by the University of Primorska and the University of Ljubljana. A Research Work Group consisting of 12 representatives from various aspects of Slovenia's public, private, and government sectors convened to evaluate evidence and assign grades for each PA indicator. Grades (A, highest, to F, lowest; INC, incomplete) for Slovenia are as follows: Overall Physical Activity (A-), Organized Sport Participation (B-), Active Play (D), Active Transportation (C), Sedentary Behaviors (B+), Family and Peers (INC), Schools (A), Community and the Built Environment (INC), and Government (B+). This inclusive PA report indicates that overall physical activity minutes remain high in Slovenian children and youth; however, more research is needed to determine the effects of family life, peer influences, and the built environment on active play behaviors.

  20. Detecting changes in tree health and productivity in silver fir-beech forests of Slovenia

    N. Torelli; W.C. Shortle; K. Cufar; F. Ferlin; K.T. Smith

    1999-01-01

    Cambial electrical resistance (CER) was used as an objective measure of vitality of silver fir (Abies alba) in the forests of Slovenia. Trees were rated during the growing season by CER and a subjective crown status index (CSI). Both CER and CSI were inversely correlated to annual ring width increment. Using both CER and CSI, fir were assigned to...

  1. Does Bilingualism Have an Economic Value in the Ethnically Mixed Regions of Slovenia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limon, David; Novak Lukanovic, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    The paper considers whether bilingualism has an economic value in Slovenia's two ethnically mixed regions, or whether its value is more related to identity, and restricted primarily to the personal, educational and cultural spheres. Specifically, it asks whether bilingualism is rewarded on the labour market and what local people think about this…

  2. Tick-borne Encephalitis Associated with Consumption of Raw Goat Milk, Slovenia, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Hudopisk, Neda; Korva, Miša; Janet, Evgen; Simetinger, Marjana; Grgič-Vitek, Marta; Gubenšek, Jakob; Natek, Vladimir; Kraigher, Alenka; Strle, Franc

    2013-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) developed in 3 persons in Slovenia who drank raw milk; a fourth person, who had been vaccinated against TBE, remained healthy. TBE virus RNA was detected in serum and milk of the source goat. Persons in TBE-endemic areas should be encouraged to drink only boiled/pasteurized milk and to be vaccinated. PMID:23697658

  3. International Trends in Health Science Librarianship Part 20: The Balkan States (Serbia and Slovenia).

    PubMed

    Ivkovic, Ana; Rožić, Anamarija; Turk, Nana

    2016-12-01

    This is the 20th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. The focus of the present issue is the Balkan region (Serbia and Slovenia). The next regular feature will look at Russia and the Ukraine. JM. © 2016 Health Libraries Group.

  4. Roma Pupils' Identification with School in Slovenia and Serbia: Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macura-Milovanovic, Suncica; Munda, Milanka; Pecek, Mojca

    2013-01-01

    The research presented in this paper aims to challenge the belief held by some education professionals that Roma pupils do not value education. The research sample included groups of Roma pupils from two countries (Slovenia and Serbia) and from different socio-economic backgrounds. The results suggest that the majority of the pupils are aware of…

  5. Who Is Responsible for Vulnerable Pupils? The Attitudes of Teacher Candidates in Serbia and Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecek, Mojca; Macura-Milovanovic, Suncica

    2012-01-01

    In the ongoing trend towards inclusive education, initial teacher education programmes must ensure that prospective teachers are prepared to teach all pupils effectively. The study presented in this paper aimed to explore the attitudes of teacher candidates in Serbia and Slovenia towards responsibility for the teaching and learning of vulnerable…

  6. Glioblastoma patients in Slovenia from 1997 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Smrdel, Uros; Kovac, Viljem; Popovic, Mara; Zwitter, Matjaz

    2014-01-01

    Background Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain tumour. It has a poor prognosis despite some advances in treatment that have been achieved over the last ten years. In Slovenia, 50 to 60 glioblastoma patients are diagnosed each year. In order to establish whether the current treatment options have any influence on the survival of the Slovenian glioblastoma patients, their data in the period from the beginning of the year 1997 to the end of the year 2008 have been analysed. Patients and methods All patients treated at the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana from 1997 to 2008 were included in the retrospective study. Demographics, treatment details, and survival time after the diagnosis were collected and statistically analysed for the group as a whole and for subgroups. Results From 1997 to 2008, 527 adult patients were diagnosed with glioblastoma and referred to the Institute of Oncology for further treatment. Their median age was 59 years (from 20 to 85) and all but one had the diagnosis confirmed by a pathologist. Gross total resection was reported by surgeons in 261 (49.5%) patients; good functional status (WHO 0 or 1) after surgery was observed in 336 (63.7%) patients, radiotherapy was performed in 422 (80.1%) patients, in 317 (75.1%) of them with radical intent, and 198 (62.5 %) of those received some form of systemic treatment (usually temozolomide). The median survival of all patients amounted to 9.7 months. There was no difference in median survival of all patients or of all treated patients before or after the chemo-radiotherapy era. However, the overall survival of patients treated with radical intent was significantly better (11.4 months; p < 0.05). A better survival was also noticed in radically treated patients who received additional temozolomide therapy (11.4 vs. 13.1 months; p = 0.014). The longer survival was associated with a younger age and a good performance status as well as with a more extensive tumour resection. In patients treated with

  7. Determination of micro-organic contaminants in groundwater (Maribor, Slovenia).

    PubMed

    Koroša, A; Auersperger, P; Mali, N

    2016-11-15

    Micro-organic (MO) contaminants in groundwater can have adverse effects on both the environment and on human health. They enter the natural environment as a result of various processes, their presence in groundwater is the result of current anthropogenic activity and pollution loads from the past. A study on the occurrence and concentrations levels of selected contaminants in water was performed in the city of Maribor, Slovenia. A total of 56 groundwater and 4 surface water samples were collected in together four rounds in different hydrogeological periods (dry and wet seasons), and a total of 13 selected contaminants were analysed in this study. Carbamazepine, propyphenazone, caffeine, 2-methyl-2H-benzotriazole (2-MBT) and 2.4-dimethyl-2H-benzotriazole (2.4-DMBT) were determined as indicators of urban pollution, while pesticides and their metabolites (atrazine, desethylatrazine, deisopropylatrazine, terbuthylazine, desethylterbuthylazine, metolachlor, simazine, propazine) were mainly defined as indicators of crop production. All of the selected MO contaminants were detected both in the aquifer and Drava River. The most frequently detected MO compounds in groundwater were desethylatrazine (frequency of detection 98.2%; max. concentration 103.0ngL(-1)), atrazine (94.6%; 229ngL(-1)), 2.4-DMBT (92.9%; 273ngL(-1)), carbamazepine (80.4%; 88.00ngL(-1)), desethylterbuthylazine (76.8%; 7.0ngL(-1)) and simazine (76.8%; 29.6ngL(-1)), whereas propyphenazone (14.3%; 10.7ngL(-1)) was the least frequently detected. Detected MO concentrations in the study were compared with results published elsewhere around the world. Concentrations in groundwater indicate specific land use in their recharge areas. On the basis of correlations and the spatial distribution of selected MOs, groundwater origin for every sampling point was determined. Sampling sites were divided into three different groups for which indicative groundwater quality properties were defined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  8. The concept of hydropower certification in Italy and Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolar-Zvanut, Natasa; Goltara, Andrea; Conte, Gulio

    2010-05-01

    River regulation by building a hydropower plants (HPPs) is one of the most stressful factor influencing the aquatic and riparian ecosystem. In many countries a development of HPPs is often opposed by public bodies and NGOs, worried about the risk of adverse effects on the "good status" of water bodies, that, according to the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC, WFD), has to be reached by year 2015. The paper describes a technically and economically feasible certification procedure for existing hydro power generation facilities of higher environmental standard, being explicitly coherent with the requirements of the WFD, to be implemented in "green labelled" electricity products, and being integrated, as much as possible, with existing EU tools, such as Ecolabel, EMAS, EIA and SEA. The methodology was developed for Italy and Slovenia and it will be tested in different types of HPPs in both countries. In order to be certified, a given HPP has to commit to carry out appropriate measures in order to mitigate its impacts on specified environmental objectives, in such a way to fulfil predefined environmental targets and prescriptions. These measures have to be described through a specific management programme, based upon a dedicated environmental study, supported mainly by existing data, but complemented by ad-hoc assessment/monitoring when necessary. The realization of both the environmental study and the management programme must be supported by public consultation; both documents must be approved through an auditing process. For some types of HPPs, operating in totally artificial networks and not entailing direct or indirect impact on water related ecosystems, a simplified procedure is foreseen, where detailed environmental analysis, related management programme and stakeholders involvement are not requested, but just a description of the system and proof of fulfilment of the conditions and of specific prescriptions. HPPs impacting water bodies defined as Artificial

  9. The Impact Of Snow Melt On Surface Runoff Of Sava River In Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvat, A.; Brilly, M.; Vidmar, A.; Kobold, M.

    2009-04-01

    Snow is a type of precipitation in the form of crystalline water ice, consisting of a multitude of snowflakes that fall from clouds. Snow remains on the ground until it melts or sublimates. Spring snow melt is a major source of water supply to areas in temperate zones near mountains that catch and hold winter snow, especially those with a prolonged dry summer. In such places, water equivalent is of great interest to water managers wishing to predict spring runoff and the water supply of cities downstream. In temperate zone like in Slovenia the snow melts in the spring and contributes certain amount of water to surface flow. This amount of water can be great and can cause serious floods in case of fast snow melt. For this reason we tried to determine the influence of snow melt on the largest river basin in Slovenia - Sava River basin, on surface runoff. We would like to find out if snow melt in Slovenian Alps can cause spring floods and how serious it can be. First of all we studied the caracteristics of Sava River basin - geology, hydrology, clima, relief and snow conditions in details for each subbasin. Furtermore we focused on snow and described the snow phenomenom in Slovenia, detailed on Sava River basin. We collected all available data on snow - snow water equivalent and snow depth. Snow water equivalent is a much more useful measurement to hydrologists than snow depth, as the density of cool freshly fallen snow widely varies. New snow commonly has a density of between 5% and 15% of water. But unfortunately there is not a lot of available data of SWE available for Slovenia. Later on we compared the data of snow depth and river runoff for some of the 40 winter seasons. Finally we analyzed the use of satellite images for Slovenia to determine the snow cover for hydrology reason. We concluded that snow melt in Slovenia does not have a greater influence on Sava River flow. The snow cover in Alps can melt fast due to higher temperatures but the water distributes

  10. Molecular epidemiology of the rabies virus in Slovenia 1994-2010.

    PubMed

    Rihtarič, D; Hostnik, P; Grom, J; Toplak, I

    2011-08-26

    A molecular epidemiology study was performed on a selection of 30 rabies-positive brain samples collected between 1994 and 2010 in Slovenia and originating from the red fox (n=19), badger (n=3), cattle (n=3), dog (n=2), cat (n=1), marten (n=1) and horse (n=1). Based on the comparison of 1092 and 672 nucleotide sequences of nucleoprotein (N) and partial glycoprotein (G) gene regions, a low genetic diversity of the circulating strains was detected, but both phylogenetic trees were consistent with the topology where partial nucleoprotein or glycoprotein genes were used. A high sequence identity in the N and G gene to rabies virus isolates from neighbouring countries was found. The Slovenian strains were clearly different from the vaccine strains SAD B19 and SAD Bern, which have been used in Slovenia since 1988. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Electronic Certification of Death in Slovenia - System Considerations and Development Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Stanimirovic, Dalibor

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and consistent death certification facilitates morbidity and mortality surveillance, and consequently supports evidence-informed health policies. The paper initially explores the current death certification practice in Slovenia, and identifies related deficiencies and system inconsistencies. Finally, the paper outlines a conceptualization of ICT-based model of death certification including renovation of business processes and organizational changes. The research is based on focus group methodology. Structured discussions were conducted with 29 experts from cross-sectional areas related to death certification. Research results imply that effective ICT-based transformation of the existing death certification model should involve a redefinition of functions and relationships between the main actors, as well as a reconfiguration of the technological, organizational, and regulatory elements in the field. The paper provides an insight into the complexities of the death certification and may provide the groundwork for ICT-based transformation of the death certification model in Slovenia.

  12. Assertive outreach in Slovenia; identification of target group and goals of treatment in a new program.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Mirjana

    2009-09-01

    A team from the Rehabilitation unit of Ljubljana psychiatric clinic attended a course on community care in London in October and November 2005. Because we decided that the methods presented to us could be of great use in Slovenia where the Health system is lacking such services we decided to implement them after our return. Immediately after we returned we started to carry out our plan. We designated our target group which were patients who poorly participated in treatment or had multiple and severe difficulties functioning and retaining their progress after discharge. Our goals were to improve patient participation in treatment before and after discharge, less and shorter hospitalizations and better integration of patients into society. Initial results are very positive, which leaves me much hope for further implementation of assertive outreach and community care in Slovenia.

  13. Assessment of landscape diversity and determination of landscape hotspots - a case of Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perko, Drago; Ciglič, Rok; Hrvatin, Mauro

    2017-04-01

    Areas with high landscape diversity can be regarded as landscape hotspots, and vice versa areas with low landscape diversity can be marked as landscape coldspots. The main purpose of this paper is to use quantitative geoinformatical approach and identify parts of our test area (the country of Slovenia) that can be described as very diverse according to natural landscapes and natural elements. We used different digital raster data of natural elements and landscape classifications and defined landscape diversity and landscape hotspots. We defined diversity for each raster pixel by counting the number of different unique types of landscape elements and types of landscapes in its neighborhood. Namely, the method was used separately to define diversity according to natural elements (types of relief forms, rocks, and vegetation) and diversity according to existing geographical landscape classifications of Slovenia (types of landscapes). In both cases one-tenth of Slovenia's surface with the highest landscape diversity was defined as landscape hotspots. The same applies to the coldspots. Additionally we tested the same method of counting different types of landscapes in certain radius also for the area of Europe in order to find areas that are more diverse at continental level. By doing so we were able to find areas that have similar level of diversity as Slovenia according to different European landscape classifications. Areas with landscape diversity may have an advantage in economic development, especially in tourism. Such areas are also important for biodiversity, habitat, and species diversity. On the other hand, localities where various natural influences mix can also be areas where it is hard to transfer best practices from one place to another because of the varying responses of the landscapes to human intervention. Thus it is important to know where areas with high landscape diversity are.

  14. The Conservation Knowledge and Attitudes of Teenagers in Slovenia toward the Eurasian Otter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torkar, Gregor; Mohar, Petra; Gregorc, Tatjana; Nekrep, Igor; Adamic, Marjana Honigsfeld

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on human-otter interactions in Slovenia. The aim of the study was to obtain data about secondary-school students' knowledge of and attitudes toward the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and its conservation. The survey was carried out in fall 2008 and winter 2008-09 and included 273 teenagers. Their average age was 15.57 (SD = 1.01,…

  15. Two Years of ePrescription in Slovenia - Applications and Potentials.

    PubMed

    Stanimirovic, Dalibor; Savic, Dusan

    2018-01-01

    ePrescription is one of the most successful eHealth solutions in Slovenia. Since its national roll-out in early 2016, the quality of its operations has been constantly improving, and the number of users has been growing ever since to reach today's 90% of all healthcare providers. ePrescription facilitates more transparent and safer prescribing of medications, an overview of possible medication interactions, and reduction of administrative and opportunity costs. This paper initially explores the current state of ePrescription in Slovenia and different aspects of its application. Based on the research findings, the paper finally outlines potentials of ePrescription, which could be transformed into tangible benefits with particular implications for healthcare system. The research is based on focus group methodology. Structured discussions were conducted with eminent experts currently in charge of ePrescription (and other eHealth solutions) development and implementation in Slovenia. Research results imply that certain application aspects are relatively easy to define and evaluate, while the overall potentials of ePrescription are difficult to determine in many cases, and relatively unexplored in terms of their implications and operational feasibility.

  16. Changes in Average Sodium Content of Prepacked Foods in Slovenia during 2011–2015

    PubMed Central

    Lavriša, Živa

    2017-01-01

    A voluntary gradual reduction in the salt content of processed foods was proposed Slovenia in 2010. Our objective was to determine the sodium content of prepacked foods in 2015 and to compare these results with data from 2011. Labelled sodium content and 12-month sales data were collected for prepacked foods (N = 5759) from major food stores in Slovenia. The average and sales-weighted sodium content, as well as the share in total sodium sales (STSS) were calculated for different food category levels, particularly focusing on processed meat and derivatives (STSS: 13.1%; 904 mg Na/100 g), bread (9.1%; 546 mg), cheese (5.1%; 524 mg), and ready-to-eat meals (2.2%; 510 mg). Reduced sale-weighted sodium content was observed in cheese (57%), a neutral trend was observed in processed meat and derivatives (99%) and bread (100%), and an increase in sodium content was found in ready meals (112%). Similar trends were observed for average sodium levels, but the difference was significant only in the case of ready meals. No statistically significant changes were observed for the matched products, although about one-third of the matched products had been reformulated by lowering the sodium level by more than 3.8%. Additional efforts are needed to ensure salt reduction in processed foods in Slovenia. Such efforts should combine closer collaboration with the food industry, additional consumer education, and setting specific sodium content targets (limits) for key food categories. PMID:28850061

  17. Changes in Average Sodium Content of Prepacked Foods in Slovenia during 2011-2015.

    PubMed

    Pravst, Igor; Lavriša, Živa; Kušar, Anita; Miklavec, Krista; Žmitek, Katja

    2017-08-29

    A voluntary gradual reduction in the salt content of processed foods was proposed Slovenia in 2010. Our objective was to determine the sodium content of prepacked foods in 2015 and to compare these results with data from 2011. Labelled sodium content and 12-month sales data were collected for prepacked foods ( N = 5759) from major food stores in Slovenia. The average and sales-weighted sodium content, as well as the share in total sodium sales (STSS) were calculated for different food category levels, particularly focusing on processed meat and derivatives (STSS: 13.1%; 904 mg Na/100 g), bread (9.1%; 546 mg), cheese (5.1%; 524 mg), and ready-to-eat meals (2.2%; 510 mg). Reduced sale-weighted sodium content was observed in cheese (57%), a neutral trend was observed in processed meat and derivatives (99%) and bread (100%), and an increase in sodium content was found in ready meals (112%). Similar trends were observed for average sodium levels, but the difference was significant only in the case of ready meals. No statistically significant changes were observed for the matched products, although about one-third of the matched products had been reformulated by lowering the sodium level by more than 3.8%. Additional efforts are needed to ensure salt reduction in processed foods in Slovenia. Such efforts should combine closer collaboration with the food industry, additional consumer education, and setting specific sodium content targets (limits) for key food categories.

  18. Comparison and optimization of radar-based hail detection algorithms in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stržinar, Gregor; Skok, Gregor

    2018-05-01

    Four commonly used radar-based hail detection algorithms are evaluated and optimized in Slovenia. The algorithms are verified against ground observations of hail at manned stations in the period between May and August, from 2002 to 2010. The algorithms are optimized by determining the optimal values of all possible algorithm parameters. A number of different contingency-table-based scores are evaluated with a combination of Critical Success Index and frequency bias proving to be the best choice for optimization. The best performance indexes are given by Waldvogel and the severe hail index, followed by vertically integrated liquid and maximum radar reflectivity. Using the optimal parameter values, a hail frequency climatology map for the whole of Slovenia is produced. The analysis shows that there is a considerable variability of hail occurrence within the Republic of Slovenia. The hail frequency ranges from almost 0 to 1.7 hail days per year with an average value of about 0.7 hail days per year.

  19. Television food advertising to children in Slovenia: analyses using a large 12-month advertising dataset.

    PubMed

    Korošec, Živa; Pravst, Igor

    2016-12-01

    The marketing of energy-dense foods is recognised as a probable causal factor in children's overweight and obesity. To stimulate policymakers to start using nutrient profiling to restrict food marketing, a harmonised model was recently proposed by the WHO. Our objective is to evaluate the television advertising of foods in Slovenia using the above-mentioned model. An analysis is performed using a representative dataset of 93,902 food-related advertisements broadcast in Slovenia in year 2013. The advertisements are linked to specific foods, which are then subject to categorisation according to the WHO and UK nutrient profile model. Advertising of chocolate and confectionery represented 37 % of food-related advertising in all viewing times, and 77 % in children's (4-9 years) viewing hours. During these hours, 96 % of the food advertisements did not pass the criteria for permitted advertising according to the WHO profile model. Evidence from Slovenia shows that, in the absence of efficient regulatory marketing restrictions, television advertising of food to children is almost exclusively linked to energy-dense foods. Minor modifications of the proposed WHO nutrient profile model are suggested.

  20. Assessing the Reliability of Land-Use Data in Slovenia: A Case Study of Terraced Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ažman Momirski, Lucija

    2017-10-01

    Land use relates to the exploitation of land through human activity in the landscape. Land use is also one of the best indicators of a landscape’s structure and processes. Land cover comprises manmade surfaces, agricultural areas, forest and semi-natural areas, wetlands, and bodies of water. In Slovenia more than half of the land (63%) is forested. Manmade surfaces represent less than 5%. A large proportion of relatively inaccessible forest is the main reason why society had a less critical impact on forests in the past in Slovenia in comparison to the majority of central European countries. Regarding the high-quality landscape in the country, Slovenia’s natural features are characterized by a mix of forest and farmland. These land categories (i.e., complex cultivation patterns and land principally used for agriculture with significant areas of natural vegetation) cover 23% of Slovenia. Land-use data for farmland are gathered and provided to the relevant institutions by landowners, who are not specialists in land-use data. In addition, land use is only a two-dimensional tool, which does not recognize elevation differences and terraced slopes. Terraced areas are either omitted from the inventory of land-use data because landowners do not report them, or they are included in the inventory because landowners do not realize that their land is not terraced. Consequently, the differences between the official data on vineyards, orchards, and olive groves on terraces and actual terraced slopes with such land use may differ significantly.

  1. Estimated collective effective dose to the population from nuclear medicine examinations in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Skrk, Damijan; Zontar, Dejan

    2013-01-01

    Background A national survey of patient exposure from nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures was performed by Slovenian Radiation Protection Administration in order to estimate their contribution to the collective effective dose to the population of Slovenia. Methods A set of 36 examinations with the highest contributions to the collective effective dose was identified. Data about frequencies and average administered activities of radioisotopes used for those examinations were collected from all nuclear medicine departments in Slovenia. A collective effective dose to the population and an effective dose per capita were estimated from the collected data using dose conversion factors. Results The total collective effective dose to the population from nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures in 2011 was estimated to 102 manSv, giving an effective dose per capita of 0.05 mSv. Conclusions The comparison of results of this study with studies performed in other countries indicates that the nuclear medicine providers in Slovenia are well aware of the importance of patient protection measures and of optimisation of procedures. PMID:24133396

  2. Attitudes towards antimicrobial drugs among general population in Croatia, Fyrom, Greece, Hungary, Serbia and Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Radosević, Nives; Vlahović-Palcevski, Vera; Benko, Ria; Peklar, Jure; Miskulin, Inka; Matuz, Maria; Papaioannidou, Paraskevi; Sabo, Ana; Palcevska-Koceska, Snezana

    2009-08-01

    A pilot study to assess patients' attitudes towards antimicrobials (ABs) in six European countries (Croatia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), Greece, Hungary, Slovenia and Serbia), as a step preceding educational intervention on the importance of patients' compliance with instructions on taking ABs and consequences of their inappropriate use. Patients' knowledge, emotions and behaviour regarding ABs were assessed using a structured questionnaire, constructed by a psychologist and intended for general population in six European countries. Questionnaires were filled out by individuals who visited pharmacies and general practitioners. A total of 838 questionnaires were filled in. Respondents from Slovenia showed the best knowledge about ABs, followed by Croatians. The highest willingness for self-medication reported respondents from FYROM. The most positive emotions about ABs were expressed by respondents in Greece and Hungary, and the most negative in Slovenia. All components of attitudes towards antibiotics were influenced by country and level of education. Behaviour regarding ABs complied with emotions and knowledge in all countries. The results of this study may lay a basis for conducting national public campaigns, as a step forward in education of patients on rational AB use. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The Curricular Reform of Art Education in Primary School in Slovenia in Terms of Certain Components of the European Competence of Cultural Awareness and Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracun Sova, Rajka; Kemperl, Metoda

    2012-01-01

    One of the important positions of the last curricular reform in Slovenia, which included systemic issues of education (White Paper on Education, 2011) and curricula for compulsory subjects in primary school, is the fact that Slovenia has been integrated into Europe, and thus education should also include the development of core European…

  4. Adults with self-reported learning disabilities in Slovenia: findings from the international adult literacy survey on the incidence and correlates of learning disabilities in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Magajna, Lidija; Kavkler, Marija; Ortar-Krizaj, Martina

    2003-11-01

    This study of adults with self-reported learning disabilities (SRLD) in Slovenia is part of a larger secondary analysis of the data from the International Literacy Survey project (IALS). The purpose of the study was to examine the characteristics of 79 (2.68%) individuals who reported experiencing learning disabilities and compare them to the general population on a variety of indicators of educational background, employment status, and reading and writing activities at work and at home. The proficiency scores of the SRLD individuals were lower in all three literacy domains (prose, document and quantitative literacy). In prose literacy 77.9% of SRLD adults performed at Level 1 and only 7.8% reached the level necessary for a modern technological society. Experiencing learning disabilities was not related to gender or age, however, results showed significant differences between the levels achieved by older and younger people with SRLD. In SRLD groups aged 40 years and above, no one achieved more than the second level of literacy in any domain. Learning disabilities were reported more frequently in rural areas. SRLD groups achieve significantly lower educational attainment, and lower employment status, with a preference for manual labour or craft. These findings are of critical importance. SRLD people report that poorer literacy skills are an obstacle to their progression in employment. In the Slovene sample, the SRLD group stands out for low scores in quantitative literacy. Results show that they are less active, pick up information only auditorily or in short written form. They need more frequent help from relatives in literacy activities. Interpretation of the IALS data on SRLD presents many problems. These include amongst others, problems in terminology, different background factors, and the validity of self-report measures. However, the study also raises many interesting challenges for future research and policy. Increasing the availability of support, assistance

  5. Case study: A severe hailstorm and strong downbursts over northeastern Slovenia on June 16th 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korosec, M.

    2009-09-01

    Introduction A strong isolated storm complex with bow echo feature crossed northeastern Slovenia in the late afternoon hours and caused extensive damage due to severe wind gusts near 30m/s, excessive rainfalls and large hail. Synoptic situation On June 16th 2009, an upper-level ridge persists over southern Europe while a positively tilted short-wave trough, connected to a complex deep trough over northern Europe, crosses central Europe. Accompanied by this trough, a cold front is extending southwestwards towards the Alps. A relatively strong jet steak wraps around the trough axis and creates strong shear environment which overlaps with a narrow band of unstable airmass present ahead of the coming frontal boundary. Behind this trough/front over central Europe, a high pressure area is developing with stable conditions. Over Slovenia, strong surface heating was on going through the day but lack of near-surface convergence zones, limited moisture and strong capping inversion surpressed any storm initiation in the afternoon. Presentation of research This case study will go through a research of damaging bow echo which caused extensive damage due to severe winds, excessive rainfalls and large hail over much of northeastern Slovenia. Numerous trees were down or uprooted and numerous roofs were blown off or were seriously damaged due to severe wind gusts near or exceeding 30m/s. At first stages, when an isolated severe storm entered Slovenia, it had classic high precipitation supercell features while it transformed into a powerful bow echo later on. Very large hail up to 6cm in diameter was first observed in southeast Austria and near the border with Slovenia, while later on the main threat was very strong wind gusts and intense rainfalls. This research paper will show a detailed analysis of the synoptic situation including analysis of satellite, radar and surface observations. Radar imagery clearly showed isolated storm trailing along the near-surface frontal boundary as

  6. The Burden of Tick-Borne Encephalitis in Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) for Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Šmit, Renata; Postma, Maarten J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) presents an increasing burden in many parts of Europe, Asian Russia, Siberia, Asian former USSR and Far East. Incidence can be considered as one way to express the burden. A more comprehensive measure concerns disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), better characterizing the full burden of TBE. TBE burden in DALYs has not yet been estimated, nor has it been specified by the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) studies. Objective The purpose of the present study is to estimate the burden of TBE in Slovenia, expressed in DALYs, both from the population and individual perspectives. We discuss the impact of TBE burden on public health and potential strategies to reduce this burden in Slovenia. Methods The burden of TBE is estimated by using the updated DALYs' methodology first introduced in the GBD project. The DALYs᾽ calculations are based on the health outcomes of the natural course of the disease being modelled. Corrections for under-reporting and under-ascertainment are applied. The impact of uncertainty in parameters in the model was assessed using sensitivity analyses. Results From the population perspective, total DALYs amount to 3,450 (167.8 per 100,000 population), while from the individual perspective they amount to 3.1 per case in 2011. Notably, the consequences of TBE present a larger burden than TBE itself. Conclusions TBE presents a relatively high burden expressed in DALYs compared with estimates for other infectious diseases from the GBD 2010 study for Slovenia. Raising awareness and increasing vaccination coverage are needed to reduce TBE and its consequences. PMID:26672751

  7. Health impact assessment of agriculture and food policies: lessons learnt from the Republic of Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Lock, Karen; Gabrijelcic-Blenkus, Mojca; Martuzzi, Marco; Otorepec, Peter; Wallace, Paul; Dora, Carlos; Robertson, Aileen; Zakotnic, Jozica Maucec

    2003-01-01

    The most important public health priority in agricultural policy-making is currently food safety, despite the relatively higher importance of food security, nutrition, and other agricultural-related health issues in terms of global burden of disease. There is limited experience worldwide of using health impact assessment (HIA) during the development of agriculture and food policies, which perhaps reflects the complex nature of this policy sector. This paper presents methods of HIA used in the Republic of Slovenia, which is conducting a HIA of proposed agricultural and food policies due to its accession to the European Union. It is the first time that any government has attempted to assess the health effects of agricultural policy at a national level. The HIA has basically followed a six-stage process: policy analysis; rapid appraisal workshops with stakeholders from a range of backgrounds; review of research evidence relevant to the agricultural policy; analysis of Slovenian data for key health-related indicators; a report on the findings to a key cross-government group; and evaluation. The experience in Slovenia shows that the HIA process has been a useful mechanism for raising broader public health issues on the agricultural policy agenda, and it has already had positive results for policy formation. HIA is one useful approach to more integrated policy-making across sectors, but clearly it is not the only mechanism to achieve this. A comparison of the approach used in Slovenia with HIA methods in other countries and policy contexts shows that there are still many limitations with HIA application at a government level. Lessons can be learnt from these case studies for future development and application of HIA that is more relevant to policy-makers, and assists them in making more healthy policy choices.

  8. Health impact assessment of agriculture and food policies: lessons learnt from the Republic of Slovenia.

    PubMed Central

    Lock, Karen; Gabrijelcic-Blenkus, Mojca; Martuzzi, Marco; Otorepec, Peter; Wallace, Paul; Dora, Carlos; Robertson, Aileen; Zakotnic, Jozica Maucec

    2003-01-01

    The most important public health priority in agricultural policy-making is currently food safety, despite the relatively higher importance of food security, nutrition, and other agricultural-related health issues in terms of global burden of disease. There is limited experience worldwide of using health impact assessment (HIA) during the development of agriculture and food policies, which perhaps reflects the complex nature of this policy sector. This paper presents methods of HIA used in the Republic of Slovenia, which is conducting a HIA of proposed agricultural and food policies due to its accession to the European Union. It is the first time that any government has attempted to assess the health effects of agricultural policy at a national level. The HIA has basically followed a six-stage process: policy analysis; rapid appraisal workshops with stakeholders from a range of backgrounds; review of research evidence relevant to the agricultural policy; analysis of Slovenian data for key health-related indicators; a report on the findings to a key cross-government group; and evaluation. The experience in Slovenia shows that the HIA process has been a useful mechanism for raising broader public health issues on the agricultural policy agenda, and it has already had positive results for policy formation. HIA is one useful approach to more integrated policy-making across sectors, but clearly it is not the only mechanism to achieve this. A comparison of the approach used in Slovenia with HIA methods in other countries and policy contexts shows that there are still many limitations with HIA application at a government level. Lessons can be learnt from these case studies for future development and application of HIA that is more relevant to policy-makers, and assists them in making more healthy policy choices. PMID:12894321

  9. The Significance of Podpe limestone in the Cultural Heritage of Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramar, Sabina; Bedjanič, Mojca; Mirtič, Breda; Mladenović, Ana; Rožič, Boštjan; Skaberne, Dragomir; Zupančič, Nina

    2013-04-01

    Podpeč limestone is characterized by its dark grey, or nearly black colour, with white fossil shells of the Lithiotis. These beds, which have been dated as Lower Jurassic, occur in southern and south-western Slovenia, and are particularly common in areas southwest of Ljubljana. The main quarry, which is not active, is located next to the village of Podpeč near Ljubljana, and has been declared as a geological natural value of national importance; as such, it is officially protected as a natural monument. In the close vicinity of the village there are some other smaller quarries, but all of them have been abandoned. With its very low porosity (0.9%) and water absorption (0.13 - 0.30 % by mass), but relatively high compressive strength (185 MPa), this limestone is quite durable, although its colouring becomes somewhat bleached when situated outdoors. The use of Podpeč limestone was first documented in the case of the Roman period in Slovenia, when it was used for funerary stelae, votive altars, boundary stones, and other artefacts. At the end of the 5th Century AD, with the fall of the Roman Empire, stone-cutting ceased at Podpeč for the next few centuries. Before 1850 Podpeč limestone had no special value. Only very few portals or pilasters made of this stone are known, and no evidence has been found in churches. However, towards the end of the 19th Century Podpeč limestone became better-known, although before the first half of the 20th Century there were no significant stonecutting workshops in Podpeč. After this, stone was supplied progressively from the main quarry. Large numbers of buildings in Ljubljana and central Slovenia have sills, lintels and jambs made of Podpeč limestone. Production stopped in 1967. The internationally renowned Slovenian architect Jože Plečnik (1872-1957) used Podpeč limestone in various Slovenian buildings - the central stadium in Ljubljana, the National University Library, many altars and churches (Bogojina, the Ši\\vska and

  10. Status, distribution and morphometric/meristic characteristics of Cobitis elongata Heckel et Kner 1858 from Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Povz, Meta; Sumer, Suzana

    2003-01-01

    Cobitis elongata Heckel et Kner inhabits the rivers Sava, Kolpa, Krka, Gracnica and Hudinja (the Danube river basin). The species is common in its distribution area. In the Red List of endangered Pisces and Cyclostomata in Slovenia, it is classified as endangered. Status and distribution data of the species from previous reports and recent research were summarized. A total of 31 specimens from the river Kolpa were morphologically studied. Sixteen morphometric and four meristic characteristics were analysed using standard numerical taxonomic techniques. 99.8% of the total variation of standard length was explained by preanal distance, dorsal and ventral fin lengths as well as minimum body height.

  11. Protection of agriculture against drought in Slovenia based on vulnerability and risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dovžak, M.; Stanič, S.; Bergant, K.; Gregorič, G.

    2012-04-01

    Past and recent extreme events, like earthquakes, extreme droughts, heat waves, flash floods and volcanic eruptions continuously remind us that natural hazards are an integral component of the global environment. Despite rapid improvement of detection techniques many of these events evade long-term or even mid-term prediction and can thus have disastrous impacts on affected communities and environment. Effective mitigation and preparedness strategies will be possible to develop only after gaining the understanding on how and where such hazards may occur, what causes them, what circumstances increase their severity, and what their impacts may be and their study has the recent years emerged as under the common title of natural hazard management. The first step in natural risk management is risk identification, which includes hazard analysis and monitoring, vulnerability analysis and determination of the risk level. The presented research focuses on drought, which is at the present already the most widespread as well as still unpredictable natural hazard. Its primary aim was to assess the frequency and the consequences of droughts in Slovenia based on drought events in the past, to develop methodology for drought vulnerability and risk assessment that can be applied in Slovenia and wider in South-Eastern Europe, to prepare maps of drought risk and crop vulnerability and to guidelines to reduce the vulnerability of the crops. Using the amounts of plant available water in the soil, slope inclination, solar radiation, land use and irrigation infrastructure data sets as inputs, we obtained vulnerability maps for Slovenia using GIS-based multi-criteria decision analysis with a weighted linear combination of the input parameters. The weight configuration was optimized by comparing the modelled crop damage to the assessed actual damage, which was available for the extensive drought case in 2006. Drought risk was obtained quantitatively as a function of hazard and

  12. A comparative study of contemporary user involvement within healthcare systems across England, Poland and Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Lichon, Mateusz; Kavcic, Matic; Masterson, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how healthcare-users' engagement is perceived, how it occurs and how these perceptions differ between three European countries: England, Poland and Slovenia, using the concepts of voice, choice and coproduction. This comparative, qualitative study is based on a review of legal documents, academic literature and semi-structured interviews conducted in October and November 2011. A research sample consisted of 21 interviewees representing various stakeholders including healthcare-users, doctors and managers. Primary and secondary data were analysed using theoretical thematic analysis. Emerging themes were identified from the interviews and related to the indicators describing healthcare-users' involvement in the voice, choice and coproduction model. Results of the comparative qualitative research suggest that the healthcare-users' influence is strongly grounded in England where the healthcare system and professionals are prepared to include healthcare-users in the decision-making process. In Slovenia, cultural development of healthcare-users' involvement seems to proceed the institutional development. In Poland, institutions are ready to involve healthcare-users in decision-making process although the cultural desirability of involving users among doctors and patients is lacking. The notion of user involvement is increasingly gaining importance and research attention, yet there is still little known about the way cultural, political, historical differences between various European countries influence it. This paper explores this little known area using the original approach of user involvement (Dent et al., 2011) with input from various stakeholders including patients, healthcare representatives and academics.

  13. Community actions against alcohol drinking in Slovenia--a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Susic, Tonka Poplas; Svab, Igor; Kolsek, Marko

    2006-07-27

    To define the national strategy and public actions to reduce alcohol related harm, based on societal consensus. Alcohol abuse is an avoidable behaviour that can threaten health. In Slovenia, only a few public campaigns against drinking alcohol are under way. It is important to establish which community measures are acceptable to society in Slovenia in order to reduce alcohol-related risks. A Delphi study with 45 professionals from different disciplines was conducted. Participants offered many suggestions to improve the current situation. After three rounds of questionnaires, 86 participant statements were accepted as a consensus. Actions such as: state monopolies, alcohol taxation, legislative restrictions on availability and purchase of alcohol, age-related restriction on sales, drink-driving laws, school-based alcohol education and media information campaigns are most likely to be achieved by consensus. The main target populations for implementation of alcohol-related educational programs are children, young people and employees. As a result of the study, a number of community actions against drinking alcohol that could be acceptable for society can now be suggested. They vary across different target populations, change agents (individuals, organizations and institutions) and methods of implementation.

  14. The Role and Use of E-Materials in Vocational Education and Training: The Case of Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mažgon, Jasna; Šebart, Mojca Kovac; Štefanc, Damijan

    2015-01-01

    In the paper some issues and problems regarding the implementation of ICT in initial vocational education and training in Slovenia are discussed. After the brief analysis of the main theoretical characteristics of ICT and e-materials, the key findings from the recent EU survey on the ICT in schools are presented and some conclusions on the basis…

  15. Health manpower planning in Slovenia: a policy analysis of the changes in roles of stakeholders and methodologies.

    PubMed

    Albreht, Tit; Klazinga, Niek

    2002-12-01

    A heightened awareness about medical manpower issues can be observed in countries that are in a state of political, economic, and social transition. Slovenia entered the transition process in 1989 and became an independent country in 1991. Transition and independence influenced its health care in several ways. It changed the health care system and its financing (by introducing a Bismarckian style of social insurance). It then redistributed power from the Ministry of Health to several stakeholders. A major change occurred in the labor market in health care when the flow of health professionals from the newly independent countries greatly decreased. The decrease was partly due to the consequences of the war in the Balkans and partly due to independent labor legislation in Slovenia. Transitional changes brought new stakeholders to the scene, with a resulting redistribution of responsibilities for health manpower policies and the use of various methodologies. This policy analysis offers a detailed description of the contextual framework, quantitative data on medical manpower development, and, most important, interviews with representatives of the key stakeholders and study of relevant policy documents. We conclude that all stakeholders underpin the need for a structured approach toward health manpower planning in the form of a more coherent system of planning, decision making, and control. A compromise on mutual responsibilities between the less dominant Ministry of Health and the two new powerful stakeholders, the Health Insurance Institute of Slovenia and the Medical Chamber of Slovenia, seems necessary.

  16. Monitoring presence and advance of the alien invasive western corn rootworm beetle in eastern Slovenia with highly sensitive Metcalf traps.

    PubMed

    Hummel, H E; Urek, G; Modic, S; Hein, D F

    2005-01-01

    The American Chrysomelid beetle Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (D.v.v.), also called the western corn rootworm, spread from the location of its original introduction into Europe, Belgrade airport (BACA 1993), in all directions. Within a decade it occupied almost all countries of South-eastern and Central Europe. However, it reached Slovenia as late as 2003: Only 19 specimen were found in maize fields of the eastern and also western provinces. Already in the summer of 2004, their number had risen to 386 which were mainly found in the eastern provinces near the borders to Croatia, Austria and Hungary. For their monitoring, a simple trap is being described which can be acquired in high numbers at a very low price and can guaranty a most sensitive detection of beetles. The Metcalf cup trap which in Slovenia so far has been unknown performed the task of monitoring quite well at five locations. It will also facilitate the future search for new and increasing infestations. Comparing 2004 with the year 2003, D.v.v. expanded its range in eastern Slovenia by about 15 km. These new infestations will include territories in which fields of the regionally Important oil seed pumpkin Cucurbita pepo are located. With important traffic connections between South-eastern and Central Europe, Slovenia will occupy a bridgehead function in the preventive protection of maize from D.v.v. spreading into more northerly European regions including western Austria and southern Germany.

  17. Intergenerational Exchange of Knowledge, Skills, Values and Practices between Self-Organized Active Citizens in Maribor, Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krašovec, Sabina Jelenc; Gregorcic, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Our paper deals with intergenerational informal learning developed by participatory democracy process in the Self-organized District Communities (SDC) in Maribor, the second largest city in Slovenia. It is based on the assumption that SDC assemblies, being safe and trustworthy, are very powerful spaces for behavioural and values exchange between…

  18. Comparative Analysis of Musical Abilities of 11-Year-Olds from Slovenia and the Island of Martinique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerman, Janez; Pretnar, Tatjana

    2006-01-01

    The focus of the study is the comparison between the musical abilities of 11-year-old children on the island of Martinique and in Slovenia, and finding out to what extent their development of musical abilities is influenced by musical and cultural family background, music school attendance, choral singing and playing orchestral instruments. Our…

  19. The Effects of Nutrition Education on 6th Graders Knowledge of Nutrition in Nine-Year Primary Schools in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostanjevec, Stojan; Jerman, Janez; Koch, Verena

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating nutrition topics in the primary school curricula should support the acquisition of nutrition knowledge in different ways and indirectly the development of healthy eating habits in children and teenagers. In Slovenia, nutrition education is part of all primary school education levels and may take the form of compulsory and/or elective…

  20. The Role of Inter-Professional Collaboration in Developing Inclusive Education: Experiences of Teachers and Occupational Therapists in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suc, Lea; Bukovec, Boris; Karpljuk, Damir

    2017-01-01

    This was the first qualitative study of the inclusion of children with special needs into regular schools in Slovenia that focused on inter-professional collaboration and its contributions to the inclusion process. Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted with primary school teachers (N = 36) and occupational therapists (N = 9) to…

  1. European Innovation Policy Concepts and the Governance of Innovation: Slovenia and the Struggle for Organizational Readiness at the National Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebhardt, Christiane; Stanovnik, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the interdependency of European Policy and governance of innovation. The authors elaborate on the policy implementation context of Slovenia, a small and less advanced European member state in a transition process. The literature on innovation policy, governance and existing innovation concepts aiming to accelerate economic…

  2. International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends (InPACT) Proceedings (Ljubljana, Slovenia, May 2-4, 2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pracana, Clara, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    We are delighted to welcome you to the International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends (InPACT) 2015, taking place in Ljubljana, Slovenia, from 2 to 4 of May. Psychology, nowadays, offers a large range of scientific fields where it can be applied. The goal of understanding individuals and groups (mental functions and behavioral…

  3. A Validation Study of the National Assessment Instruments for Young English Language Learners in Norway and Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pižorn, Karmen; Moe, Eli

    2012-01-01

    This article is a validation study of two national large-scale tests that measure the language proficiency of 11/12 year-old English learners in Norway and Slovenia. Following the example of Alderson and Banerjee (2008), the authors of the article have employed the EALTA guidelines for good practice to validate the tests, and to formulate major…

  4. END 2016: International Conference on Education and New Developments. Conference Proceedings (Ljubljana, Slovenia, June 12-14, 2016)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmo, Mafalda, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    We are delighted to welcome you to the International Conference on Education and New Developments 2016--END 2016, taking place in Ljubljana, Slovenia, from 12 to 14 of June. Education, in our contemporary world, is a right since we are born. Every experience has a formative effect on the constitution of the human being, in the way one thinks,…

  5. Infant botulism: first two confirmed cases in Slovenia and literature review.

    PubMed

    Radšel, Anja; Andlovic, Alenka; Neubauer, David; Osredkar, Damjan

    2013-11-01

    In Europe, infant botulism is a rare but probably under-diagnosed disease. With the intent to spread the awareness of this potentially life-threatening disease, we present a review of the literature with the emphasis on European epidemiology and a practical approach to diagnosis. We also report the first two confirmed cases of infant botulism in Slovenia and describe our way to the final diagnosis in a clinical setting where all appropriate diagnostic tests and treatment options are not readily available. The second case is particularly interesting, presenting with profound diarrhea following initial constipation, an unlikely symptom for an infant with botulism and possibly caused by Bacteroides fragilis. Copyright © 2013 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Accommodaton of constitutional due process rights within the new patients' rights legislation in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Ivanc, Blaz

    2011-09-01

    The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Slovenia issued several decisions concerning the protection of patients' rights (e.g. decisions on involuntary commitment, on access to health care, on rights related to obligatory and voluntary health insurance). Consequently, the Parliament renewed Health Legislation by the enactment of the Patients' Rights Act (February 2008) and of the Mental Health Act (July 2008). Both bills enshrine a charter of patients' rights that may be considered as concretization of several human rights that are protected by the Constitution. The discussion is focused on the due process rights (e.g. equal protection of rights, right to judicial protection, right to legal remedies, legal guarantees in proceedings related to deprivation of personal liberty) that were in particular addressed by the Court. The results demonstrate that their effective implementation was one of the most important demands that the Legislature had to accommodate when enacting new bills.

  7. Seroprevalence of Toxocara antibodies among patients suspected of ocular toxocariasis in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Šoba, Barbara; Kraut, Aleksandra; Stirn-Kranjc, Branka

    2004-01-01

    Ocular toxocariasis named also ocular larva migrans is caused by larvae of the roundworm Toxocara spp. The purpose of this study was to find out the seroprevalence of Toxocara antibodies in patients suspected of ocular toxocariasis. Between January 2001 and December 2003, sera from 239 ocular patients, aged 3 to 80 years, were examined by ELISA and confirmed by Western blot test. Out of the 239 patients, 172 (72%) were seronegative and 67 (28%) were Toxocara seropositive; 95% CI (22-34%). The median age of Toxocara seropositive patients was 37.6 years. There was no significant difference in the number of Toxocara positive sera between the younger age group (≤14 years) and the older age group (>14 years), p>0.05. A high rate of Toxocara seropositivity in ocular patients should alert the ophthalmologists in Slovenia to include toxocariasis in the differential diagnosis of eye diseases more frequently. PMID:15381862

  8. Monitoring Diabrotica v. virgifera (Col.: Chrysomelidae) in southeastern Slovenia: increasing population trend and host spectrum expansion.

    PubMed

    Ulrichs, C; Dinnesen, S; Nedelev, T; Hummel, H E; Modic, S; Urek, G

    2008-01-01

    Ever since the western corn rootworm (WCR) (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera), an alien invasive species from North America, has been introduced into Europe on at least 3 separate occasions, it spread within 15 years over the entire area of south-eastern and central Europe (except Denmark). Until quite recently, Zea mays L. was the only known host plant whereas in North America WCR also attacks members of the plant family Cucurbitaceae. In August of 2006, we were able to validate these findings also in the Old World by observing WCR visiting blossoms of oil pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.). Beside this first report of WCR on this regionally and economically important crop, a population increase in Gaberje near Lendava, Eastern Slovenia, was observed. Some future consequences of multiple hosts for integrated pest management (IPM) of WCR are being discussed.

  9. Factors affecting the ecology of tick-borne encephalitis in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Knap, N; Avšič-Županc, T

    2015-07-01

    Recognition of factors that influence the formation of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) foci is important for assessing the risk of humans acquiring the viral infection and for establishing what can be done (within reasonable boundaries) to minimize that risk. In Slovenia, the dynamics of the TBE vector, i.e. Ixodes ricinus, was studied over a 4-year period and the prevalence of infection in ticks was established. Two groups of tick hosts were investigated: deer and small mammals. Red deer have been confirmed as having a direct influence on the incidence of TBE and rodents have been recognized as important sentinels for TBE infections, although their role in the enzootic cycle of the virus still remains to be elucidated. Last, forest and agricultural areas, which are influenced by human activity, are suitable habitats for ticks, and important for TBEV transmission and establishment. Human behaviour is also therefore an important factor and should always be considered in studies of TBE ecology.

  10. Envitonmental monitoring and radiation protection in Škocjan Caves, Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debevec Gerjeviè, V.; Jovanovič, P.

    2012-04-01

    Škocjan Caves were listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1986, due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage. Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Park Škocjan Caves established monitoring that includes caves microclimate parameters: humidity, CO2, wind flow and radon concentration and daughter products. The approach in managing the working place with natural background radiation is complex. Monitoring of Radon has been functioning for more than ten years now. Presentation will show the dynamic observed in the different parts of the caves, related to radon daughter products and other microclimatic data. Relation of background radiation to carrying capacity will be explained. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The equivalent dose for each employed person is also established on regular basis and it is part of medical survey of workers in the caves. A system of education of the staff working in the caves in the field of radiation protection will be presented as well.

  11. Hepatitis C virus genotypes in 1,504 patients in Slovenia, 1993-2007.

    PubMed

    Seme, Katja; Vrhovac, Maja; Mocilnik, Tina; Maticic, Mojca; Lesnicar, Gorazd; Baklan, Zvonko; Volkar, Jelka Meglic; Rajter, Mojca; Stepec, Srecko; Lunar, Maja; Poljak, Mario

    2009-04-01

    In order to identify the main routes of hepatitis C (HCV) transmission and to determine the HCV genotype distribution and its dynamics during a 15-year period in Slovenia, HCV genotypes were detected using the INNO-LiPA HCV II (Innogenetics) test for serum samples obtained from 1,504 patients representing 72.6% of all patients with chronic hepatitis C diagnosed from 1993 to 2007. HCV genotype 1 was predominant (56%), followed by genotypes 3, 2, and 4, with a prevalence of 37.8%, 5%, and 1.2%, respectively. HCV genotypes 5 and 6 were not detected in any patient. Patients infected with HCV genotype 3 were significantly younger (mean age 28.9 +/- 8.5 years) than those infected with genotype 1 (mean age 38.9 +/- 14.8 years; P < 0.0001) and those infected with HCV genotype 2 (mean age 50.3 +/- 18.2 years; P < 0.0001). Intravenous drug use was identified as the most frequent possible HCV transmission route (34.3%), followed by medical-related transmission such as transfusion of HCV-contaminated blood or blood products, and hemodialysis (12.5%). Being an intravenous drug user was found to be strongly associated with HCV genotype 3 (OR, 3.71 [95% CI, 2.97-4.65]; P < 0.0001) and reporting infection by transfusion of blood or blood products was found to be strongly associated with HCV genotype 1 (OR, 3.28 [95% CI, 2.18-4.95]; P < 0.0001). During the 15-year period, the proportion of genotype 3 increased substantially, reflecting the fact that the HCV epidemic in Slovenia is driven mostly by intravenous drug use. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Contribution of Drinking Water Softeners to Daily Phosphate Intake in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Jereb, Gregor; Poljšak, Borut; Eržen, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    The cumulative phosphate intake in a typical daily diet is high and, according to several studies, already exceeds recommended values. The exposure of the general population to phosphorus via drinking water is generally not known. One of the hidden sources of phosphorus in a daily diet is sodium polyphosphate, commonly used as a drinking water softener. In Slovenia, softening of drinking water is carried out exclusively within the internal (household) drinking water supply systems to prevent the accumulation of limescale. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of sodium phosphates in the drinking water in Slovenia in different types of buildings, to determine residents’ awareness of the presence of chemical softeners in their drinking water, and to provide an exposure assessment on the phosphorus intake from drinking water. In the current study, the presence of phosphates in the samples of drinking water was determined using a spectrophotometric method with ammonium molybdate. In nearly half of the samples, the presence of phosphates as water softeners was confirmed. The measured concentrations varied substantially from 0.2 mg PO4/L to 24.6 mg PO4/L. Nearly 70% of the respondents were not familiar with the exact data on water softening in their buildings. It follows that concentrations of added phosphates should be controlled and the consumers should be informed of the added chemicals in their drinking water. The health risks of using sodium polyphosphate as a drinking water softener have not been sufficiently investigated and assessed. It is highly recommended that proper guidelines and regulations are developed and introduced to protect human health from adverse effects of chemicals in water intended for human consumption. PMID:28984825

  13. Contribution of Drinking Water Softeners to Daily Phosphate Intake in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Jereb, Gregor; Poljšak, Borut; Eržen, Ivan

    2017-10-06

    The cumulative phosphate intake in a typical daily diet is high and, according to several studies, already exceeds recommended values. The exposure of the general population to phosphorus via drinking water is generally not known. One of the hidden sources of phosphorus in a daily diet is sodium polyphosphate, commonly used as a drinking water softener. In Slovenia, softening of drinking water is carried out exclusively within the internal (household) drinking water supply systems to prevent the accumulation of limescale. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of sodium phosphates in the drinking water in Slovenia in different types of buildings, to determine residents' awareness of the presence of chemical softeners in their drinking water, and to provide an exposure assessment on the phosphorus intake from drinking water. In the current study, the presence of phosphates in the samples of drinking water was determined using a spectrophotometric method with ammonium molybdate. In nearly half of the samples, the presence of phosphates as water softeners was confirmed. The measured concentrations varied substantially from 0.2 mg PO4/L to 24.6 mg PO4/L. Nearly 70% of the respondents were not familiar with the exact data on water softening in their buildings. It follows that concentrations of added phosphates should be controlled and the consumers should be informed of the added chemicals in their drinking water. The health risks of using sodium polyphosphate as a drinking water softener have not been sufficiently investigated and assessed. It is highly recommended that proper guidelines and regulations are developed and introduced to protect human health from adverse effects of chemicals in water intended for human consumption.

  14. Assessment and Mitigation of PM pollution in the border regions of Austria and Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhrner, Ulrich; Reifeltshammer, Rafael; Lackner, Bettina; Forkel, Renate; Sturm, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Many cities, towns and regions located at the southern fringe of the Alps face remarkably high PM levels particularly during the winter period. The project PMinter aimed 1) to analyse the air quality in S-Styria, S-Carinthia and N-Slovenia, 2) to evaluate local and regional measures to develop effective air quality management plans and finally 3) to support a sustainable improvement of air quality in the project region. Using wood for residential heating is very popular in Austria and in Slovenia. To assess the contribution from wood smoke to the total PM burden and the impact of regional and large scale transport as well as the impact of secondary aerosols were major goals of PMinter. Due to the complex terrain air quality and exposure assessment is challenging. To resolve sources which are located in valleys and basins, emissions were computed or processed on 1 km x 1 km resolution for the entire program area. A new combined model approach was developed and tested successfully using a state-of-the-art CTM (WRF/Chem) on the regional scale and the Lagrangian particle model GRAL on the local scale. A detailed analysis and comparisons with measurements and regional/local scale scenario simulations were carried out. Residential heating using wood was identified as the major source and PM component dominant on the "local scale" ( 10 km), secondary inorganic aerosol was the dominant PM component on the regional scale ( 10 km - 150 km) and above. Various mitigation scenarios for PM were computed. A "local" scenario where individual heating facilities using solid fuels were replaced by district heating and a regional scenario with 35% reduced ammonia emissions from agriculture proved to be most effective.

  15. Presence and Potential Distribution of Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Kalan, Katja; Ivovic, Vladimir; Glasnovic, Peter; Buzan, Elena

    2017-11-07

    In Slovenia, two invasive mosquito species are present, Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes japonicus (Theobald, 1901) (Diptera: Culicidae). In this study, we examined their actual distribution and suitable habitats for new colonizations. Data from survey of species presence in 2013 and 2015, bioclimatic variables and altitude were used for the construction of predictive maps. We produced various models in Maxent software and tested two bioclimatic variable sets, WorldClim and CHELSA. For the variable selection of A. albopictus modeling we used statistical and expert knowledge-based approach, whereas for A. j. japonicus we used only a statistically based approach. The best performing models for both species were chosen according to AIC score-based evaluation. In 2 yr of sampling, A. albopictus was largely confined to the western half of Slovenia, whereas A. j. japonicus spread significantly and can be considered as an established species in a large part of the country. Comparison of models with WorldClim and CHELSA variables for both species showed models with CHELSA variables as a better tool for prediction. Finally, we validated the models performance in predicting distribution of species according to collected field data. Our study confirms that both species are co-occurring and are sympatric in a large part of the country area. The tested models could be used for future prevention of invasive mosquitoes spreading in other countries with similar bioclimatic conditions. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. European Union's strategy on endocrine disrupting chemicals and the current position of Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Perharič, Lucija; Fatur, Tanja; Drofenik, Jernej

    2016-06-01

    In view of the European Union regulations 1107/2009 and 528/2012, which say that basic substances in plant protection and biocidal products marketed in the European Union (EU) should not have an inherent capacity to cause endocrine disruption, an initiative was started to define scientific criteria for the identification of endocrine disruptors (EDs). The objectives of the EU strategy on EDs are to protect human health and the environment, to assure the functioning of the market, and to provide clear and coherent criteria for the identification of EDs that could have broad application in the EU legislation. Policy issues were to be addressed by the Ad-hoc group of Commission Services, EU Agencies and Member States established in 2010, whereas the scientific issues were to be addressed by the Endocrine Disruptors Expert Advisory Group (ED EAG), established in 2011. The ED EAG adopted the 2002 World Health Organization (WHO) definition of endocrine disruptor and agreed that for its identification it is necessary to produce convincing evidence of a biologically plausible causal link between an adverse effect and endocrine disrupting mode of action. In 2014, the European Commission proposed four ED identification criteria options and three regulatory options, which are now being assessed for socio-economic, environmental, and health impact. Slovenia supports the establishing of identification criteria and favours option 4, according to which ED identification should be based on the WHO definition with the addition of potency as an element of hazard characterisation. As for regulatory options, Slovenia favours the risk-based rather than hazard-based regulation.

  17. Community pharmacists' perspectives on implementation of Medicines Use Review in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Nabergoj Makovec, Urska; Kos, Mitja; Pisk, Nina

    2018-06-16

    Background In December 2014 Slovene Chamber of Pharmacies defined procedures for Medicines Use Review (MUR) in Slovenia, together with an educational program and certification to ensure pharmacists' competency to perform MUR. The first 15 pharmacists were certified in June 2015 and implemented the service in their practices. Objective This study aimed to understand the implementation of MUR from the perspectives of the first community pharmacists providing the service in practice. Methods A focus group with first MUR providers took place in February 2016, 6 months after the first pharmacists were certified to provide MUR service. Based on regional and institutional criteria ten pharmacists from the first certified group were chosen and invited to participate in guided discussion, where the development and assurance of competencies, the provision of the service in practice and the future of the service were addressed. The discussion was voice recorded with written consent obtained from all participants. Analysis was performed in NVivo 11 software with the use of inductive qualitative content analysis approach. Main outcome measure Views, challenges and opportunities for the Medicines Use Review service in Slovenia. Results Seven pharmacists attended the focus group, 5 from public pharmaceutical institution and 2 from concessionary pharmacies. Three main thematical categories were identified: quality assurance of MUR, different stakeholders' perceptions of MUR and MURs' management. Pharmacists' broad knowledge in pharmacotherapy was emphasized as the basis of quality provision and main advantage in performing MUR in comparison with other healthcare professions. Recognisability of MUR among different stakeholders should be improved with comprehensive approach in marketing of the service. Positive patient feedback was reported, however persuading them to attend MUR presented a challenge. Better management of the service, especially in terms of work organization, would

  18. Confirmed inguinal lymphogranuloma venereum genovar L2c in a man who had sex with men, Slovenia, 2015.

    PubMed

    Matičič, Mojca; Klavs, Irena; Videčnik Zorman, Jerneja; Vidmar Vovko, Darja; Kogoj, Rok; Keše, Darja

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory-confirmed lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) case in Slovenia was reported in 2015, in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative man presenting with inguinal lymphadenopathy. He reported unprotected insertive anal intercourse with two male partners in Croatia. Variant L2c of Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in clinical samples. Although the patient was eventually cured, the recommended treatment regimen with doxycycline had to be prolonged.

  19. Evaluating the Carrying Capacity in The Škocjan Caves, Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debevec Gerjevic, V.

    2009-04-01

    Park Škocjanske jame, Slovenija is a multidesignation site, located in south western part of Slovenia. In 1986 the Škocjanske jame - Škocjan Caves were listed in UNESCO world heritage list, in 1996 the Government of Republic Slovenia established the Regional Park Škocjanske jame, Slovenija. In 1999 the underground course of The Reka River in Škocjan Caves was designated a Ramsar site as first underground wetland of international importance. The park lies within three locations Natura 2000. In 2004 Park Škocjanske jame became a MAB locality as The Karst Biosphere Reserve. The tourist activity was already developed in the early 19th century. Today's research projects are focused on quality of caves microclimate, in order to enable the cave to remain as pristine as possible due to tourism and on the other hand to provide safe environment for people who work in the caves, and on quality of the water that flows from buffer zone to the underground world an then to the sea in Italy. The tourist activity increased during the past years. With the aim of nature conservation and protection the management plan was developed and special programme of monitoring started in order to detect changes in the environment due to the anthropogenic impact. In the park we consider the estimation of the carrying capacity as a key element for preparation of proper management guidelines for the tourism development in site. The caves system is rich in several halls and tunnels and distinguishes the caves for its variety of dimensions. There are several limitations of the visits and number of visitors. They merely depend on spatial characteristic of the caves and its surroundings and on human resources of the experts stuff that is in charge of guiding tourists groups to the caves. There is no simple formula that could be used for evaluation of capacity on general, but detailed studies of several locations and suitable description of parameters could give us an idea of proposing the

  20. Seasonal dynamics of three insect pests in the cabbage field in central Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Trdan, Stanislav; Vidrih, Matej; Bobnar, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    From the beginning of April until the beginning of November 2006, a seasonal dynamics of three harmful insect species--Swede midge (Contarinia nasturtii [Kieffer], Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), flea beetles (Phyllotreta spp., Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae), and diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella [L.], Lepidoptera, Plutellidae)--was investigated at the Laboratory Field of the Biotechnical Faculty in Ljubljana (Slovenia). The males were monitored with pheromone traps; the males of Swede midge were trapped with the traps of Swiss producer (Agroscope FAW, Wädenswill), while the adult flea beetles (trap type KLP+) and diamondback moths (trap type RAG) were trapped with the Hungarian traps (Plant Protection Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences). The pheromone capsules were changed in 4-week intervals, while the males were counted on about every 7th day. The first massive occurrence of diamondback moth (1.6 males/trap/day) was established in the second 10 days period of April, and the pest remained active until the 2nd 10 days period of September. The adults were the most numerous in the period between the end of May until the middle of June, but even then their number did not exceed three males caught per day. In the first 10 days period of May, the first adult flea beetles were recorded in the pheromone traps, while their notable number (0.8 males/trap/day) was stated in the third 10 days period of May. Absolutely the highest number of the beetles was recorded in the second (19 adults/trap/day) and in the third (25 adults/trap/day) 10 days of July, and the pest occurred until the beginning of October. The first massive occurrence of Swede midge (0.4 males/trap/day) was established in the second 10 days period of May, while the highest number of males (8/trap/day) were caught in the second 10 days period of July. In the third 10 days period of October, the last adults were found in the traps. Based on the results of monitoring of three cabbage insect pests we ascertained

  1. High prevalence of enteric viruses in untreated individual drinking water sources and surface water in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Steyer, Andrej; Torkar, Karmen Godič; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Ion; Poljšak-Prijatelj, Mateja

    2011-09-01

    Waterborne infections have been shown to be important in outbreaks of gastroenteritis throughout the world. Although improved sanitary conditions are being progressively applied, fecal contaminations remain an emerging problem also in developed countries. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of fecal contaminated water sources in Slovenia, including surface waters and groundwater sources throughout the country. In total, 152 water samples were investigated, of which 72 samples represents groundwater from individual wells, 17 samples from public collection supplies and 63 samples from surface stream waters. Two liters of untreated water samples were collected and concentrated by the adsorption/elution technique with positively charged filters followed by an additional ultracentrifugation step. Group A rotaviruses, noroviruses (genogroups I and II) and astroviruses were detected with real-time RT-PCR method in 69 (45.4%) out of 152 samples collected, of which 31/89 (34.8%) drinking water and 38/63 (60.3%) surface water samples were positive for at least one virus tested. In 30.3% of drinking water samples group A rotaviruses were detected (27/89), followed by noroviruses GI (2.2%; 2/89) and astroviruses (2.2%; 2/89). In drinking groundwater samples group A rotaviruses were detected in 27 out of 72 tested samples (37.5%), genogroup I noroviruses in two (2.8%), and human astroviruses in one (1.4%) samples. In surface water samples norovirus genogroup GII was the most frequently detected (41.3%; 26/63), followed by norovirus GI (33.3%; 21/63), human astrovirus (27.0%; 17/63) and group A rotavirus (17.5%; 11/63). Our study demonstrates relatively high percentage of groundwater contamination in Slovenia and, suggests that raw groundwater used as individual drinking water supply may constitute a possible source of enteric virus infections. In the future, testing for enteric viruses should be applied for drinking water sources in waterborne outbreaks

  2. Drenov Grič black limestone as a heritage stone from Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramar, Sabina; Rožič, Boštjan; Žbona, Nina; Bedjanič, Mojca; Mladenović, Ana

    2016-04-01

    The limestone known as Drenov Grič black limestone is considered one of the most beautiful Slovenian natural stones due to its homogenous black colour interwoven with white veins. Over the centuries it has been exploited from three major quarries west of Ljubljana, with the main quarry at Drenov Grič playing the primary role in supplying building material for the central parts of Slovenia. All the quarries are currently not active. In the area of Drenov grič, one locality of black limestone is protected - Kuclerjev kamnolom quarry. It has the status of 'valuable natural feature of national importance' and is protected as a natural monument. This well-stratified micritic limestone of Triassic (Carnian) age occurs in 10-80 cm thick beds, with thin marl interlayers. The stone contains abundant fossil bivalves and ostracods. Apart from calcite as the main component, dolomite, quartz, illite/muscovite and pyrite are also present. The limestone is relatively rich in carbonaceous and bituminous organic matter, which is responsible for the black colour of the stone. This component does not have any adverse effect on mechanical and physical characteristics. As the lime¬stone is dense, thus facilitating a good polish, it has been commercially considered as marble. The stone has been widely used in Slovenian monuments, not only in Ljubljana but also in other regions of Slovenia. Many inner and outdoor architectural elements were made of this limestone, particularly in the baroque period, which was known for the extensive use of black limestones also in other European countries. The most significant use of this limestone has been recorded in sculptured portals and altars. Some of the important buildings decorated utilising this stone, are the Ljubljana Cathedral, the St. James's Parish Church, and the Franciscan Church of the Annunciation, all of which are located in Ljubljana, some of them having been declared as cultural monuments of local or national importance. When

  3. Study of pulmonary functions of the tourist guides in two show caves in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debevec Gerjevic, V.; Jovanovič, P.

    2009-04-01

    Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage, the Škocjan Caves were entered on UNESCO's list of natural and cultural world heritage sites in 1986. Caves have always been special places for people all over the world. There has been a lot of research done in the field of speleology and also in medicine in relation to speleotherapy. There is still one field left partial unexplored and its main issue covers the interaction between special ecosystems as caves and human activities and living. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The issue of epidemiologic research encompass several factors that are not necessarily related to the radon. Park Škocjan Caves established research monitoring projects such as caves microclimate parameters, quality of the water, every day's data from our meteorological station useful tool in public awareness related to pollution and climate change. Last year a special study was started in order to evaluate pulmonary functions of persons who work in the caves and those who work mostly in offices. Two groups of tourist guides from Škocjan Caves and Postojna Cave were included in

  4. Premature Mortality in Slovenia in Relation to Selected Biological, Socioeconomic, and Geographical Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Artnik, Barbara; Vidmar, Gaj; Javornik, Jana; Laaser, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    Aim To determine biological (sex and age), socioeconomic (marital status, education, and mother tongue) and geographical (region) factors connected with causes of death and lifespan (age at death, years-of-potential-life-lost, and mortality rate) in Slovenia in the 1990s. Methods In this population-based cross-sectional study, we analyzed all deaths in the 25-64 age group (N = 14 816) in Slovenia in 1992, 1995, and 1998. Causes of death, classified into groups according to the 10th revision of International Classification of Diseases, were linked to the data on the deceased from the 1991 Census. Stratified contingency-table analyses were performed. Years-of-potential-life-lost (YPLL) were calculated on the basis of population life-tables stratified by region and linearly modeled by the characteristics of the deceased. Poisson regression was applied to test the differences in mortality rate. Results Across all socioeconomic strata, men died at younger age than women (index of excess mortality in men exceeded 200 for all studied years) and from different prevailing causes (injuries in men aged <45 years; neoplasms in women aged >35 years). For men, higher education was associated with fewer deaths from digestive and respiratory system diseases. The least educated women died relatively often from circulatory diseases, but rarely from neoplasms. Single people died from neoplasms less often. Marriage in comparison with divorce reduced the mortality rate by 1.9-fold in both men and women (P<0.001). Mortality rate in both men and women decreased with increasing education level (P<0.001). Mortality rate of ethnic Slovenians was half the mortality rate of ethnic minority members and immigrants (P<0.001). Analysis of YPLL revealed limited and nonlinear impact of education level on premature mortality. The share of neoplasms was the highest in the cluster of socioeconomically prosperous regions, whereas the share of circulatory diseases was increased in poorer regions

  5. Patients' knowledge and attitude towards therapeutic reference pricing system in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Marđetko, Nika; Kos, Mitja

    2016-10-01

    Background The therapeutic reference pricing (TRP) in Slovenia was implemented for proton pump inhibitors in 2013 and for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and lipid-lowering medicines in 2014. Objective The study aimed to assess patients' knowledge and attitude towards the TRP system. Moreover, the patients' willingness to pay was evaluated for patients who rejected the substitution of a current medicine within a therapeutic class by the reference medicine for which no co-payment is needed. Setting Invitation of patients to participate in a survey and filling in the first part of the questionnaire was run in the community pharmacies in Slovenia. The second part of the questionnaire was filled in at patients' home. Method A representative sample of 676 patients that had been prescribed at least one medicine from the three therapeutic classes was surveyed. The survey was carried out from 15th May to 15th June 2014 in 40 community pharmacies with the help of the pharmacists, who filled in the first part of the questionnaire in the presence of the patients. The second part of the questionnaire was filled in by 475 patients at home and returned by prepaid mail. Main outcome measure Patients' knowledge of and attitude to the TRP system implemented into Slovenian health care practice. Results Most of the statements describing patient' rights and duties within the TRP system were known by approximately 50 % of the patients. Patients were inhomogeneous in their view about the necessity and benefits of the TRP system, most of them regarded it as an unnecessary burden. Among 50.4 % of the patients who were required to copay for their medicine, 46.7 % accepted and 3.7 % rejected co-payment. The average co-payment was € 6.92, while the expressed average willingness to co-pay was € 10.4 per 3 months of therapy. Conclusion Our results indicate that the implementation of the TRP system and potential upgrades represent a significant challenge for the patients.

  6. Recent Improvement Of The Institutional Radioactive Waste Management System In Slovenia

    SciT

    Sueiae, S.; Fabjan, M.; Hrastar, U.

    2008-07-01

    The task of managing institutional radioactive waste was assigned to the Slovenian National Agency for Radwaste Management by the Governmental Decree of May 1999. This task ranges from the collection of waste at users' premises to the storage in the Central Storage Facility in (CSF) and afterwards to the planned Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LILW) repository. By this Decree ARAO also became the operator of the CSF. The CSF has been in operation since 1986. Recent improvements of the institutional radioactive waste management system in Slovenia are presented in this paper. ARAO has been working on the reestablishment ofmore » institutional radioactive waste management since 1999. The Agency has managed to prepare the most important documents and carry out the basic activities required by the legislation to assure a safe and environmentally acceptable management of the institutional radioactive waste. With the aim to achieve a better organized operational system, ARAO took the advantage of the European Union Transition Facility (EU TF) financing support and applied for the project named 'Improvement of the management of institutional radioactive waste in Slovenia via the design and implementation of an Information Business System'. Through a public invitation for tenders one of the Slovenian largest software company gained the contract. Two international radwaste experts from Belgium were part of their project team. The optimization of the operational system has been carried out in 2007. The project was executed in ten months and it was divided into two phases. The first phase of the project was related with the detection of weaknesses and implementation of the necessary improvements in the current ARAO operational system. With the evaluation of the existing system, possible improvements were identified. In the second phase of the project the software system Information Business System (IBS) was developed and implemented by the group of IT experts. As a

  7. The impact of pharmaceutical innovation on premature mortality, cancer mortality, and hospitalization in Slovenia, 1997-2010.

    PubMed

    Lichtenberg, Frank R

    2015-04-01

    In Slovenia during the period 2000-2010, the number of years of potential life lost before the age of 70 years per 100,000 population under 70 years of age declined 25 %. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that pharmaceutical innovation played a key role in reducing premature mortality from all diseases in Slovenia, and to examine the effects of pharmaceutical innovation on the age-standardized number of cancer deaths and on hospitalization from all diseases. Estimates and other data were used to calculate the incremental cost effectiveness of pharmaceutical innovation in Slovenia. Longitudinal disease-level data was analyzed to determine whether diseases for which there was greater pharmaceutical innovation-a larger increase in the number of new chemical entities (NCEs) previously launched-had larger declines in premature mortality, the age-standardized number of cancer deaths, and the number of hospital discharges. My methodology controls for the effects of macroeconomic trends and overall changes in the healthcare system. Premature mortality from a disease is inversely related to the number of NCEs launched more than 5 years earlier. On average, the introduction of an additional NCE for a disease reduced premature mortality from the disease by 2.4 % 7 years later. The age-standardized number of cancer deaths is inversely related to the number of NCEs launched 1-6 years earlier, conditional on the age-standardized number of new cancer cases diagnosed 0-2 years earlier. On average, the launch of an NCE reduced the number of hospital discharges 1 year later by approximately 1.5 %. The estimates imply that approximately two-thirds of the 2000-2010 decline in premature mortality was due to pharmaceutical innovation. If no NCEs had been launched in Slovenia during 1992-2003, the age-standardized number of cancer deaths in 2008 would have been 12.2 % higher. The NCEs launched in Slovenia during 2003-2009 are estimated to have reduced the number of

  8. Carbonate Chemistry and Isotope Characteristics of Groundwater of Ljubljansko Polje and Ljubljansko Barje Aquifers in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Ljubljansko polje and Ljubljansko Barje aquifers are the main groundwater resources for the needs of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia. Carbonate chemistry and isotope analysis of the groundwater were performed to acquire new hydrogeological data, which should serve as a base for improvement of hydrogeological conceptual models of both aquifers. A total of 138 groundwater samples were collected at 69 sampling locations from both aquifers. Major carbonate ions and the stable isotope of oxygen were used to identify differences in the recharging areas of aquifers. Four groups of groundwater were identified: (1) Ljubljansko polje aquifer, with higher Ca2+values, as limestone predominates in its recharge area, (2) northern part of Ljubljansko Barje aquifer, with prevailing dolomite in its recharge area, (3) central part of Ljubljansko Barje aquifer, which lies below surface cover of impermeable clay and is poor in carbonate, and (4) Brest and Iški vršaj aquifer in the southern part of Ljubljansko Barje with higher Mg2+ in groundwater and dolomite prevailing in its recharge area. The radioactive isotope tritium was also used to estimate the age of groundwater. Sampled groundwater is recent with tritium activity between 4 and 8 TU and residence time of up to 10 years. PMID:24453928

  9. The environmental management problem of Pohorje, Slovenia: A new group approach within ANP - SWOT framework.

    PubMed

    Grošelj, Petra; Zadnik Stirn, Lidija

    2015-09-15

    Environmental management problems can be dealt with by combining participatory methods, which make it possible to include various stakeholders in a decision-making process, and multi-criteria methods, which offer a formal model for structuring and solving a problem. This paper proposes a three-phase decision making approach based on the analytic network process and SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis. The approach enables inclusion of various stakeholders or groups of stakeholders in particular stages of decision making. The structure of the proposed approach is composed of a network consisting of an objective cluster, a cluster of strategic goals, a cluster of SWOT factors and a cluster of alternatives. The application of the suggested approach is applied to a management problem of Pohorje, a mountainous area in Slovenia. Stakeholders from sectors that are important for Pohorje (forestry, agriculture, tourism and nature protection agencies) who can offer a wide range of expert knowledge were included in the decision-making process. The results identify the alternative of "sustainable development" as the most appropriate for development of Pohorje. The application in the paper offers an example of employing the new approach to an environmental management problem. This can also be applied to decision-making problems in various other fields. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Seismic Microzonation of Breginjski Kot (NW Slovenia) Based on Detailed Engineering Geological Mapping

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Breginjski kot is among the most endangered seismic zones in Slovenia with the seismic hazard assessed to intensity IX MSK and the design ground acceleration of 0.250 g, both for 500-year return period. The most destructive was the 1976 Friuli Mw = 6.4 earthquake which had maximum intensity VIII-IX. Since the previous microzonation of the area was based solely on the basic geological map and did not include supplementary field research, we have performed a new soil classification of the area. First, a detailed engineering geological mapping in scale 1 : 5.000 was conducted. Mapped units were described in detail and some of them interpreted anew. Stiff sites are composed of hard to medium-hard rocks which were subjected to erosion mainly evoked by glacial and postglacial age. At that time a prominent topography was formed and different types of sediments were deposited in valleys by mass flows. A distinction between sediments and weathered rocks, their exact position, and thickness are of significant importance for microzonation. On the basis of geological mapping, a soil classification was carried out according to the Medvedev method (intensity increments) and the Eurocode 8 standard (soil factors) and two microzonation maps were prepared. The bulk of the studied area is covered by soft sediments and nine out of ten settlements are situated on them. The microzonation clearly points out the dependence of damage distribution in the case of 1976 Friuli earthquake to local site effects. PMID:24453884

  11. The adaptation and implementation of guidelines for responsible media reporting on suicide in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Tančič Grum, Alenka; Poštuvan, Vita; Podlesek, Anja; De Leo, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The existing literature provides evidence of the link between media reporting and suicide in terms of either preventive or provocative effects. Hence, working with media representatives on responsible reporting on suicide is of great importance. Until recently in Slovenia, there has been an obvious lack of communication between media representatives and suicidologists. The aims of the present study were twofold; firstly, to introduce the adaptation and dissemination of intervention on responsible media reporting, and secondly, to evaluate the effectiveness of the implemented intervention on suicide reporting. Methods We used a pre-post research design. Newspaper articles were retrieved over two 12-month periods: the baseline period and the follow-up period. In between, we had a year of implementation of our intervention program (launching and disseminating the Guidelines via workshops). Each retrieved article was rated qualitatively with respect to its adherence to the Guidelines. Results The comparison of baseline and follow-up periods revealed some significant differences. Reporting in the follow-up period was less sensationalistic, there was less reporting about specific cases of suicides and more about causes of suicide and pathways out of mental distress. Furthermore, in the follow-up period, there was a significant improvement related to headlines of media articles. Contact information about where to seek help was more often included in the articles. Conclusion The findings are promising, but working with the media needs to be continuous and ongoing if sustainable results are to be achieved. PMID:28289461

  12. Influence of generic reference pricing on medicine cost in Slovenia: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Marđetko, Nika; Kos, Mitja

    2018-01-01

    Aim To assess the impact of the generic reference pricing (GRP) system on the prices and cost of medicines in Slovenia approximately 8 years after its introduction in 2003 and before the implementation of the therapeutic reference pricing system. Methods A retrospective study of all medicines (N = 789) included in the GRP system on January 31, 2012 was performed. Medicine prices and cost were analyzed between January 31, 2012 and December 31, 2013 after every update (N = 11) of the maximum reimbursable price (MRP) and were compared to the price and cost on January 31, 2012 (index date). Time trends of different types of medicine prices (maximum allowed price, MRP, and actual wholesale price) were graphically analyzed, and actual wholesale price adjustments to the MRP changes and the budget impact of the GRP were assessed. Results In the 2-year study period, the long-term performance of the GRP system was associated with an approximate 45% decrease in the average MRP or an approximate 20% cost reduction. For each MRP update period, the GRP reduced the cost based on the maximum allowed price for approximately 30%. The wholesale price adjustments were mostly made for medicines priced above the MRP and reduced patients’ out-of-pocket cost. Conclusions In the long term, the GRP system effectively reduced medicine prices and the cost of reimbursed products. PMID:29740992

  13. Leaving home in Slovenia: a quantitative exploration of residential independence among young adults.

    PubMed

    Kuhar, Metka; Reiter, Herwig

    2014-12-01

    The present paper analyzes and contextualizes the phenomenon of prolonged co-residence of parents and young adult children in Slovenia. It analyzes the process of moving out or staying at home on the basis of a subsample of young people between 19 and 29 who are no longer at school included in the representative Slovenian field survey Youth 2010. Young people still living in the household of their parents or (legal) guardians are compared with those who have already left. The analysis considers factors associated with the status transitions from youth to adulthood; the demographic, social and economic background; and the perception of the parent-child relationship quality and parenting style by the children. Our findings point to the importance of possibilities for independent housing and the economic capacity of young people and their family. The most important factor behind moving out seems to be a stable partnership. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. DNA Identification of Skeletal Remains from World War II Mass Graves Uncovered in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Marjanović, Damir; Durmić-Pašić, Adaleta; Bakal, Narcisa; Haverić, Sanin; Kalamujić, Belma; Kovačević, Lejla; Ramić, Jasmin; Pojskić, Naris; Škaro, Vedrana; Projić, Petar; Bajrović, Kasim; Hadžiselimović, Rifat; Drobnič, Katja; Huffine, Ed; Davoren, Jon; Primorac, Dragan

    2007-01-01

    Aim To present the joint effort of three institutions in the identification of human remains from the World War II found in two mass graves in the area of Škofja Loka, Slovenia. Methods The remains of 27 individuals were found in two small and closely located mass graves. The DNA was isolated from bone and teeth samples using either standard phenol/chloroform alcohol extraction or optimized Qiagen DNA extraction procedure. Some recovered samples required the employment of additional DNA purification methods, such as N-buthanol treatment. QuantifilerTM Human DNA Quantification Kit was used for DNA quantification. PowerPlex 16 kit was used to simultaneously amplify 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci. Matching probabilities were estimated using the DNA View program. Results Out of all processed samples, 15 remains were fully profiled at all 15 STR loci. The other 12 profiles were partial. The least successful profile included 13 loci. Also, 69 referent samples (buccal swabs) from potential living relatives were collected and profiled. Comparison of victims' profile against referent samples database resulted in 4 strong matches. In addition, 5 other profiles were matched to certain referent samples with lower probability. Conclusion Our results show that more than 6 decades after the end of the World War II, DNA analysis may significantly contribute to the identification of the remains from that period. Additional analysis of Y-STRs and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers will be performed in the second phase of the identification project. PMID:17696306

  15. The Association Between Belief in God and Fertility Desires in Slovenia and the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Cranney, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Context Research on the association between religiosity and fertility—and, particularly, on the effects of secularization on fertility desires and outcomes—has been concerned primarily with mechanisms that are fundamentally institutional and are embedded in formal religious structures. Supplementary explanations focused on noninstitutional dimensions of religiosity have never been tested. Methods Conventional ordinary least-squares regression was used to test the association between belief in God (i.e., a personal God or some sort of life force) and fertility desires among 2,251 women aged 18–45 in Slovenia and 951 women aged 15–44 in the Czech Republic who participated in the European Family and Fertility Survey in the mid-1990s. Results In both samples, substantial proportions of women either were nonbelievers or believed in God but were not institutionally religious. Belief in God was independently associated with fertility desires even in analyses controlling for self-reported religiosity. Women who believed in a personal God wanted approximately 0.2 more children, and those who believed in a life force wanted approximately 0.1 more children, than nonbelievers. Results were similar across several alternative measures of religiosity. Conclusions At least some of the connection between religiosity and fertility apparently is attributable to metaphysical beliefs. Future research on the effect of secularization on fertility decline should investigate the potentially distinct effects of different dimensions of religiosity. PMID:25682844

  16. Mineral and chemical composition of the Jezersko meteorite—A new chondrite from Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miler, Miloš; Ambrožič, Bojan; Mirtič, Breda; Gosar, Mateja; Å turm, Sašo.; Dolenec, Matej; Jeršek, Miha

    2014-10-01

    The Jezersko meteorite is a newly confirmed stony meteorite found in 1992 in the Karavanke mountains, Slovenia. The meteorite is moderately weathered (W2), indicating short terrestrial residence time. Chondrules in partially recrystallized matrix are clearly discernible but often fragmented and have mean diameter of 0.73 mm. The meteorite consists of homogeneous olivine (Fa19.4) and low-Ca pyroxenes (Fs16.7Wo1.2), of which 34% are monoclinic, and minor plagioclase (Ab83An11Or6) and Ca-pyroxene (Fs6Wo45.8). Troilite, kamacite, zoned taenite, tetrataenite, chromite, and metallic copper comprise about 16.5 vol% of the meteorite. Phosphates are represented by merrillite and minor chlorapatite. Undulatory extinction in some olivine grains and other shock indicators suggests weak shock metamorphism between stages S2 and S3. The bulk chemical composition generally corresponds to the mean H chondrite composition. Low siderophile element contents indicate the oxidized character of the Jezersko parent body. The temperatures recorded by two-pyroxene, olivine-chromite, and olivine-orthopyroxene geothermometers are 854 °C, 737-787 °C, and 750 °C, respectively. Mg concentration profiles across orthopyroxenes and clinopyroxenes indicate relatively fast cooling at temperatures above 700 °C. A low cooling rate of 10 °C Myr-1 was obtained from metallographic data. Considering physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties, meteorite Jezersko was classified as an H4 S2(3) ordinary chondrite.

  17. The association between belief in God and fertility desires in Slovenia and the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Cranney, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Research on the association between religiosity and fertility-and, particularly, on the effects of secularization on fertility desires and outcomes-has been concerned primarily with mechanisms that are fundamentally institutional and are embedded in formal religious structures. Supplementary explanations focused on noninstitutional dimensions of religiosity have never been tested. Conventional ordinary least-squares regression was used to test the association between belief in God (i.e., a personal God or some sort of life force) and fertility desires among 2,251 women aged 18-45 in Slovenia and 951 women aged 15-44 in the Czech Republic who participated in the European Family and Fertility Survey in the mid-1990s. In both samples, substantial proportions of women either were nonbelievers or believed in God but were not institutionally religious. Belief in God was independently associated with fertility desires even in analyses controlling for self-reported religiosity. Women who believed in a personal God wanted approximately 0.2 more children, and those who believed in a life force wanted approximately 0.1 more children, than nonbelievers. Results were similar across several alternative measures of religiosity. At least some of the connection between religiosity and fertility apparently is attributable to metaphysical beliefs. Future research on the effect of secularization on fertility decline should investigate the potentially distinct effects of different dimensions of religiosity. Copyright © 2015 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  18. Influence of anti-asthmatic medications on dental caries in children in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Samec, Tomi; Amaechi, Bennett Tochukwu; Battelino, Tadej; Krivec, Uroš; Jan, Janja

    2013-05-01

    OBJECTIVE.  The study investigated the influence of exposure to anti-asthmatic medications and of various factors on the caries prevalence in children in Slovenia. METHODS.  The study population consisted of children aged 2 to 17 years (n = 220) under treatment for asthma, who had used anti-asthmatic medications for at least 1 year; 220 controls were matched for age. Caries status was determined by the number of decayed, missing, and filled surfaces through clinical examination by two calibrated dentists using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System-II scoring criteria. Questionnaires completed by parents and data from the patients' medical records provided information on various confounding factors. RESULTS.  Asthmatic children had significantly higher (P ≤ 0.01) prevalence of caries on primary and permanent teeth in all age groups, and the proportion of caries-free children was significantly smaller (P ≤ 0.05). In multivariate regression analysis, asthma diagnosis, child's age, daily use of inhaled glucocorticoids, length and frequency of medicine application, spacer use, mouth rinsing with water after medicine application, parents' education, frequent food and drink consumption, and frequency of toothbrushing were associated with caries experience of asthmatic children. CONCLUSION.  Children with asthma who had used anti-asthmatic medications had higher caries experience in primary and permanent teeth. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, BSPD and IAPD.

  19. Longevity in Slovenia: Past and potential gains in life expectancy by age and causes of death.

    PubMed

    Lotrič Dolinar, Aleša; Došenović Bonča, Petra; Sambt, Jože

    2017-06-01

    In Slovenia, longevity is increasing rapidly. From 1997 to 2014, life expectancy at birth increased by 7 and 5 years for men and women, respectively. This paper explores how this gain in life expectancy at birth can be attributed to reduced mortality from five major groups of causes of death by 5-year age groups. It also estimates potential future gains in life expectancy at birth. The importance of the five major causes of death was analysed by cause-elimination life tables. The total elimination of individual causes of death and a partial hypothetical adjustment of mortality to Spanish levels were analysed, along with age and cause decomposition (Pollard). During the 1997-2014 period, the increase in life expectancy at birth was due to lower mortality from circulatory diseases (ages above 60, both genders), as well as from lower mortality from neoplasms (ages above 50 years) and external causes (between 20 and 50 years) for men. However, considering the potential future gains in life expectancy at birth, by far the strongest effect can be attributed to lower mortality due to circulatory diseases for both genders. If Spanish mortality rates were reached, life expectancy at birth would increase by more than 2 years, again mainly because of lower mortality from circulatory diseases in very old ages. Life expectancy analyses can improve evidence-based decision-making and allocation of resources among different prevention programmes and measures for more effective disease management that can also reduce the economic burden of chronic diseases.

  20. The adaptation and implementation of guidelines for responsible media reporting on suicide in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Roškar, Saška; Tančič Grum, Alenka; Poštuvan, Vita; Podlesek, Anja; De Leo, Diego

    2017-03-01

    The existing literature provides evidence of the link between media reporting and suicide in terms of either preventive or provocative effects. Hence, working with media representatives on responsible reporting on suicide is of great importance. Until recently in Slovenia, there has been an obvious lack of communication between media representatives and suicidologists. The aims of the present study were twofold; firstly, to introduce the adaptation and dissemination of intervention on responsible media reporting, and secondly, to evaluate the effectiveness of the implemented intervention on suicide reporting. We used a pre-post research design. Newspaper articles were retrieved over two 12-month periods: the baseline period and the follow-up period. In between, we had a year of implementation of our intervention program (launching and disseminating the Guidelines via workshops). Each retrieved article was rated qualitatively with respect to its adherence to the Guidelines. The comparison of baseline and follow-up periods revealed some significant differences. Reporting in the follow-up period was less sensationalistic, there was less reporting about specific cases of suicides and more about causes of suicide and pathways out of mental distress. Furthermore, in the follow-up period, there was a significant improvement related to headlines of media articles. Contact information about where to seek help was more often included in the articles. The findings are promising, but working with the media needs to be continuous and ongoing if sustainable results are to be achieved.

  1. Cadmium measurements in blood and hair of occupationally non-exposed military recruits and in the foods of plant origin produced in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Erzen, Ivan; Zaletel Kragelj, Lijana

    2003-10-01

    To determine cadmium content in the most frequently consumed foods of plant origin grown in different regions of Slovenia, assess cadmium content in the biological materials (blood and hair) from Slovenian young men, and verify the hypothesis that the cadmium pollution of the environment varies across regions in Slovenia. We analyzed cadmium concentration in 982 composite samples of foods of plant origin, and determined the cadmium burden in the population by analyzing cadmium content in whole blood and hair samples from 742 randomly selected healthy men aged 18-26 years. There were significant differences in cadmium content in the analyzed foods with respect to the regions in Slovenia where were the foods of plant origin were produced (p<0.001). The median cadmium content in 463 blood specimens was 0.5 microg/L, and 4 ng/g in 245 hair specimens. Cadmium content in the blood and hair samples from study participants varied significantly across regions in Slovenia (p<0.001 and p<0.003, respectively). Cadmium content in foods of plant origin and cadmium burden in the blood showed only a weak correlation (Spearman's r=0.13), whereas the correlation between cadmium content in the foods and hair was much stronger (Spearman's r=0.55). Our research confirmed the hypothesis of regionally different environmental pollution with cadmium, and clearly showed the connection between cadmium burden in foods and in population in Slovenia.

  2. National health care providers' database (NHCPD) of Slovenia--information technology solution for health care planning and management.

    PubMed

    Albreht, T; Paulin, M

    1999-01-01

    The article describes the possibilities of planning of the health care providers' network enabled by the use of information technology. The cornerstone of such planning is the development and establishment of a quality database on health care providers, health care professionals and their employment statuses. Based on the analysis of information needs, a new database was developed for various users in health care delivery as well as for those in health insurance. The method of information engineering was used in the standard four steps of the information system construction, while the whole project was run in accordance with the principles of two internationally approved project management methods. Special attention was dedicated to a careful analysis of the users' requirements and we believe the latter to be fulfilled to a very large degree. The new NHCPD is a relational database which is set up in two important state institutions, the National Institute of Public Health and the Health Insurance Institute of Slovenia. The former is responsible for updating the database, while the latter is responsible for the technological side as well as for the implementation of data security and protection. NHCPD will be inter linked with several other existing applications in the area of health care, public health and health insurance. Several important state institutions and professional chambers are users of the database in question, thus integrating various aspects of the health care system in Slovenia. The setting up of a completely revised health care providers' database in Slovenia is an important step in the development of a uniform and integrated information system that would support top decision-making processes at the national level.

  3. Digital structural interpretation of mountain-scale photogrammetric 3D models (Kamnik Alps, Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolžan, Erazem; Vrabec, Marko

    2015-04-01

    From the earliest days of geological science, mountainous terrains with their extreme topographic relief and sparse to non-existent vegetation were utilized to a great advantage for gaining 3D insight into geological structure. But whereas Alpine vistas may offer perfect panoramic views of geology, the steep mountain slopes and vertical cliffs make it very time-consuming and difficult (if not impossible) to acquire quantitative mapping data such as precisely georeferenced traces of geological boundaries and attitudes of structural planes. We faced this problem in mapping the central Kamnik Alps of northern Slovenia, which are built up from Mid to Late Triassic succession of carbonate rocks. Polyphase brittle tectonic evolution, monotonous lithology and the presence of temporally and spatially irregular facies boundary between bedded platform carbonates and massive reef limestones considerably complicate the structural interpretation of otherwise perfectly exposed, but hardly accessible massif. We used Agisoft Photoscan Structure-from-Motion photogrammetric software to process a series of overlapping high-resolution (~0.25 m ground resolution) vertical aerial photographs originally acquired by the Geodetic Authority of the Republic of Slovenia for surveying purposes, to derive very detailed 3D triangular mesh models of terrain and associated photographic textures. Phototextures are crucial for geological interpretation of the models as they provide additional levels of detail and lithological information which is not resolvable from geometrical mesh models alone. We then exported the models to Paradigm Gocad software to refine and optimize the meshing. Structural interpretation of the models, including mapping of traces and surfaces of faults and stratigraphic boundaries and determining dips of structural planes, was performed in MVE Move suite which offers a range of useful tools for digital mapping and interpretation. Photogrammetric model was complemented by

  4. Evolution of the morphology of the river Dragonja (SW Slovenia) due to land-use changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keesstra, S. D.; van Huissteden, J.; Vandenberghe, J.; Van Dam, O.; de Gier, J.; Pleizier, I. D.

    2005-07-01

    The effects of increasing agricultural land use on fluvial morphology have received much attention in fluvial research. However, in several regions in Europe, a reversing trend of decreasing agricultural activity and land abandonment, followed by reforestation, is observed. The response of fluvial morphology deserves attention because of its large impacts on landscape and riverine habitats. With the help of geomorphological mapping, multi-date aerial photography and a range of dating techniques, we reconstructed the evolution of the morphology of the riverbed and the floodplain of the Dragonja river in southwestern Slovenia. The results of this study show that the fluvial morphology in this Mediterranean catchment has changed considerably as a result of shifts in agricultural land use, in particular large-scale land abandonment in the second half of the 20th century. Until the first half of the 19th century, floodplain aggradation prevailed. Probably around 1870, a large erosion event occurred from which the floodplain did not fully recover. A terrace standing 2.5 m above the present floodplain was formed. Natural reforestation, due to depopulation since World War II, caused a reduction in discharge and sediment supply to the river. The decreased intensity and frequency of floods allowed invasion of the riverbed by vegetation, causing narrowing and incision of the riverbed. This resulted in the formation of a terrace, which now stands 1.5 m above the present-day river. This terrace is about 60 years old. However, the largest increase in forest area occurred since 1975, which intensified this process of riverbed narrowing and incision, creating a local terrace at 0.5 m at 0.5 m above the presently meandering river.

  5. Oral health of the elderly living in residential homes in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Petelin, Milan; Cotič, Jasna; Perkič, Katja; Pavlič, Alenka

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate oral health status of the elderly, living in eight randomly selected residential homes for senior citizens across the country. The percentage of the elderly is growing worldwide. With ageing, risks of various oral diseases, including dental caries and periodontal disease, are growing. Altogether 296 elderly people (88 men, 208 women) of average age 79.89 ± 7.4 years were questioned about their medical condition and oral health practice and examined orally. Evaluation of clinical examination was carried out by DMFT, plaque index (Silness and Löe, 1964) and Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Need (CPITN). Of 296 participants, 106 (35.8%) were edentulous, 95 (32.1%) had one to nine teeth and 95 persons (32.1%) had 10 or more teeth. The average number of teeth in an individual was small: 6.76 ± 7.47. The average number of teeth with caries lesions was 3.59 ± 4.70, filled teeth 1.94 ± 3.63 and teeth without caries or fillings 1.19 ± 2.41. The average DMFT value was 30.75. In 69.5% of participants, dental plaque was visible with the naked eye. Of 171 subjects, in whom CPITN index was appraised, 81.9% would need oral hygiene education, 56.7% would need scaling and root planning and 21.6% would need periodontal surgical treatment. The results of this study indicate poor oral health of the elderly living in residential homes situated in different towns in Slovenia. It is of utmost importance to highlight the necessity of improving oral health care of this population. © 2011 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. No implication of Simian virus 40 in pathogenesis of malignant pleural mesothelioma in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Hmeljak, Julija; Kern, Izidor; Cör, Andrej

    2010-01-01

    remains the main risk factor for malignant pleural mesothelioma in Slovenia.

  7. Ability to Work and Employability of Patients in Opioid Substitution Treatment Programs in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Bilban, Marjan; Kastelič, Andrej; Zaletel-Kragelj, Lijana

    2008-01-01

    Aim To assess the ability to work and employability of individuals taking part in opioid substitution treatment programs (OSTP). Methods The study was composed of two surveys. In the first survey, 237 of 480 patients enrolled in OSTP responded to the questionnaire about their employment status, opinion about employment, and perception of assignments before and during OSTP. In the second survey, 66 of 100 employers responded to the questionnaire on the occurrence, perception, and management of addiction problems in their companies. Results Unemployment rate in individuals enrolled in OSTP was 43.5% and decreased during OSTP by 10.5% (P = 0.027). Irregular use of OSTP medications was the most important factor for unemployment (odds ratio, 2.44; P = 0.016). OSTP was highly effective in achieving a positive change in patients’ perception of different kinds of assignments previously perceived as beyond their abilities. Thus, perception of mentally demanding assignments (P < 0.001), working at unfavorable hours (P < 0.001), and forced work pace (P < 0.001) represented much lower burden after entering OSTP. Only 6.6% of employers reported illicit drugs as being a problem at their companies and 79.1% believed they would not recognize a person under the influence of illicit drugs. In 93.0% of the cases, applicants for a job would have had lower chances if they had been drug users; the percentage was slightly higher for those taking part in OSTP (94.7%). Conclusion OSTP in Slovenia was effective in increasing both employability and OSTP patients’ ability to work. To facilitate complete rehabilitation, particularly in obtaining employment for the patients, the process must involve the society as a whole. PMID:19090610

  8. Prevalence of antibodies against Leptospira sp. in snakes, lizards and turtles in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Leptospiral infections in poikilothermic (cold blooded) animals have received very little attention and the literature concerning natural infections of these animals is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of leptospiral antibodies in reptiles, imported into Slovenia and intended to be pets in close contact with humans. A total of 297 reptiles (22 snakes, 210 lizards and 65 turtles) were tested for specific antibodies against serovars of Leptospira interrogans sensu stricto using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Live cultures of different serovars were used as antigens. MAT was performed according to standard procedures and the degree of reaction was interpreted by estimating the percentage of agglutinated leptospires. Samples showing titres of ≥ 50 against one or more serovars were considered as positive. Results Antibodies against seven pathogenic serovars of L. interrogans sensu stricto were detected in 46 of 297 reptiles. Among 22 snakes, specific antibodies against pathogenic serovars of three Leptospira species (L. interrogans, L. kirschneri and L. borgpetersenii) at titre levels from 1:50 to 1:400 were detected in 6 snakes. In 31 of 210 lizards, specific antibodies were found in titres from 1:50 to 1:1000 and, finally, among 65 turtles (terrapins and tortoises), 9 had specific antibodies at titre levels between 1:50 and 1:1600. Animals imported from non-EU countries showed significantly higher prevalence (25.0%; 95 confidence interval: 16.7–33.3%) than animals from EU member states (10.4%; confidence interval: 6.1–14.7%). Conclusions Reptiles may be considered as potential reservoirs of L. interrogans sensu stricto. Origin of the animals is a risk factor for presence of leptospiral antibodies, especially in lizards. Special attention should be focused on animals from non-EU member states. PMID:24020619

  9. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and vaccination: knowledge and attitudes among healthcare professionals and the general public in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Troha, Majda; Šterbenc, Anja; Mlaker, Martina; Poljak, Mario

    2018-06-01

    This study evaluates knowledge of and attitudes toward human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and vaccination among healthcare professionals and the general public in Slovenia. Five statements were designed to evaluate participants' opinions regarding age at HPV vaccine administration and potential delay in vaccination, associations of HPV vaccination with riskier sexual behavior, HPV vaccine safety, the importance of the internet as a source of information, and the significance of HPV vaccination in boys. Participants were asked to express agreement or disagreement with each statement. A total of 605 surveys were completed by medical students (n = 259), parents of sixth-graders in 2016 (n = 103) and 2017 (n = 103), pediatricians and school medicine specialists (n = 21), gynecologists (n = 34), and women visiting gynecology outpatient clinics (n = 85). The highest level of knowledge and belief in the HPV vaccine and its safety was observed among pediatricians and school medicine specialists. Medical students tend to have a very positive attitude toward HPV vaccination, although they need additional education about HPV vaccine safety. Some healthcare professionals showed signs of HPV vaccine hesitancy, and their beliefs were somewhat similar to those of the general public. Although the overall attitude towards HPV vaccination is generally positive, additional education must be provided to both healthcare professionals and the general public in order to achieve higher HPV vaccination coverage rates in Slovenia.

  10. The use of different tobacco and related products, with and without flavours, among 15-year-olds in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Koprivnikar, Helena; Zupanic, Tina

    2017-06-01

    Different tobacco and related products, like waterpipe, e-cigarettes, are gaining popularity among adolescents in different countries; the data for Slovenia is currently limited. The purpose of this paper is to present the latest data on the use of different tobacco and related products, with or without flavours, among 15-year old students in Slovenia. Data for 15-year-old students were drawn from 2014 Slovene database of the cross-national survey Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children. The survey sample was selected with stratified two-stage sampling method. The survey was performed in schools with a self-administered web questionnaire. The survey questionnaire included international compulsory, selected optional and national questions, all on a variety of topics related to youth health behaviour. 25.2% of 15-year-old students reported current (past 30-day) use of any tobacco related product, mainly cigarettes (93.1% of users), followed by waterpipe (11.7%) and cigars, cigarillos and pipes (9.4%). Exclusive use of unconventional products is low (5.1% of users). 85.5% of users of any product used one product, 48.5% of users used products with flavours. The use of different products, one or more products, and flavoured products was related to gender. A comprehensive tobacco control and prevention must address all tobacco and related products.

  11. Drafting New Curricula in South-East Europe. Final Report of the Regional Seminar (Bohinj, Slovenia, April 26-28, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozemeijer, Saskia, Ed.

    The aim of the regional seminar on curriculum renewal, held in Bohinj, Slovenia in April 2002 was to contribute to human resource development and capacity-building in the field of curriculum development. It is currently widely recognized that curriculum renewal is an important component in the reform and in improving the quality of education. The…

  12. Variability Analysis for Effectiveness and Improvement in Classrooms and Schools in Upper Secondary Education in Slovenia: Assessment of/for Learning Analytic Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zupanc, Darko; Urank, Matjaz; Bren, Matevz

    2009-01-01

    From 1995, data on students' achievement in schools (i.e., teacher's grades) and all data on achievement in the 5-subject group certificate--the "Matura" exam--have been systematically gathered for the entire yearly cohort of students in upper secondary education in Slovenia. This paper describes an on-line data selection system and data…

  13. DNA profiling of figs (Ficus carica L.) from Slovenia and Californian USDA collection revealed the uniqueness of some North Adriatic varieties

    A set of 23 local varieties from Slovenia and 218 fig accessions from Californian fig germplasm collection were compared to determine the identity of genotypes and their possible genetic relationships. Figs were genotyped using twelve microsatellite loci. One hundred alleles were identified over all...

  14. Drainage efficiency of large dowels as a stabilising measure, case study of Slano Blato landslide (Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askarinejad, Amin; Molinari, Orlando; Macek, Matej; Petkovsek, Ana; Springman, Sarah

    2013-04-01

    The Slano Blato landslide, with a volume of more than 1 million m3, is one of the largest landslides in Slovenia. The sliding mass consists mainly of clay and clayey gravel of highly weathered and deteriorated flysch type clastic soft rocks, while a minor part represents grains of limestones. Large movements were firstly scientifically reported in 1789 by B. Hacquet followed by the catastrophic events in 1888 and 1902. The landslide was stabilised through extensive remediation measures approximately 100 years ago. The landslide was reactivated again in November 2000, after an intense rainfall event. The upper part of the landslide was stabilized by a curved row of large hollow dowels (6 to 8 m in diameter and ~20 m deep), which were designed to fulfil both retaining and the drainage requirements. Draining the sliding material will have two effects, i) decreasing the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of the slope and ii) increasing the effective stress and shear strength of the sliding material. The drainage efficiency of the installed dowels is examined analytically and numerically. The analytical calculation is performed under simplified assumptions according to the classical theory of Dupuit and Thiem. Comparison between these results and limited insitu measurements implies that the amount of water discharge into the dowels and the groundwater drawdown can be fairly well determined using a simplified 3D analytical model. The numerical calculations were conducted using the finite element program PLAXIS under different steady state and transient scenarios. Results are compared with a case of 'no drainage' to capture the extent of drainage upslope and downslope. These simulations show that the installation of the dowels leads to successful drainage of the slope at least to a radius of 40 m. The pattern of potential lines of the flow net in the slope, derived from the 3D analytical models, shows that the row of dowels can be replaced by a 2D plane flow trench drain

  15. Non-verbal communication of the residents living in homes for the older people in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Zaletel, Marija; Kovacev, Asja Nina; Sustersic, Olga; Kragelj, Lijana Zaletel

    2010-09-01

    Aging of the population is a growing problem in all developed societies. The older people need more health and social services, and their life quality in there is getting more and more important. The study aimed at determining the characteristics of non-verbal communication of the older people living in old people's homes (OPH). The sample consisted of 267 residents of the OPH, aged 65-96 years, and 267 caregivers from randomly selected twenty-seven OPH. Three types of non-verbal communication were observed and analysed using univariate and multivariate statistical methods. In face expressions and head movements about 75% older people looked at the eyes of their caregivers, and about 60% were looking around, while laughing or pressing the lips together was rarely noticed. The differences between genders were not statistically significant while statistically significant differences among different age groups was observed in dropping the eyes (p = 0.004) and smiling (0.008). In hand gestures and trunk movements, majority of older people most often moved forwards and clenched fingers, while most rarely they stroked and caressed their caregivers. The differences between genders were statistically significant in leaning on the table (p = 0.001), and changing the position on the chair (0.013). Statistically significant differences among age groups were registered in leaning forwards (p = 0.006) and pointing to the others (p = 0.036). In different modes of speaking and paralinguistic signs almost 75% older people spoke normally, about 70% kept silent, while they rarely quarrelled. The differences between genders were not statistically significant while statistically significant differences among age groups was observed in persuasive speaking (p = 0.007). The present study showed that older people in OPH in Slovenia communicated significantly less frequently with hand gestures and trunk movements than with face expressions and head movements or different modes of speaking

  16. Effect of salinity on metal mobility in Sečovlje salina sediment (northern Adriatic, Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovač, N.; Ramšak, T.; Glavaš, N.; Dolenec, M.; Rogan Šmuc, N.

    2016-12-01

    Saline sediment (saline healing mud or "fango") from the Sečovlje Salina (northern Adriatic, Slovenia) is traditionally used in the coastal health resorts as a virgin material for medical treatment, wellness and relax purposes. Therapeutic qualities of the healing mud depend on its mineralogical composition and physical, mineralogical, geochemical and biological properties. Their microbial and potentially toxic elements contamination are the most important features affecting user safety. However, the degree of metal toxicity (and its regulation) for natural healing mud is still under discussion. Therefore, the influence of the overlying water salinity on the mobility of heavy metals (and some other geochemical characteristic) was studied for saline sediments of the Sečovlje Salina. Experiments takes place in tanks under defined conditions i.e. at day (21 °C): night (16 °C) cycle for three months. Sediment was covered with water of different salinities (36, 155, 323 g NaCl L-1 and distillate water) and mixed/stirred every week during the experimental period. At the same time, the evaporated water was replaced with distilled water. The mud samples were analyzed, at the beginning and at the end of experiment, for mineral (XRD), elemental composition (ICP-MS) and organic content (% TOC, % TN). Geochemical analysis of the aqueous phase (content of cations and anions) have also been carried out in an accredited Canadian laboratory Actlabs (Activation Laboratories, Canada). Salinity and maturation of sediment does not significantly affect its mineral composition. The samples taken at the end of the experiment have higher percent of water but lower organic carbon concentration. Concentrations of investigated elements are comparable to that in surface sediments from Central Adriatic Sea. In the water phase, concentrations of most elements (As, Ba, Cu, Mo, Mn, Ni, Sr, Sb) rise from the beginning to the end of the experiment, whereas the metal (potentially toxic elements

  17. Longidorus carniolensis sp. n. (Nematoda, Longidoridae) from vineyard soil in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Sirca, Saša; Urek, Gregor; Lazarova, Stela; Elshishka, Milka; Peneva, Vlada

    2011-01-01

    A new needle nematode, Longidorus carniolensissp. n., recovered from the soil around the roots of grapevine Vitis vinifera L. from Slovenia, is described and illustrated. Longidorus carniolensisis an amphimictic species, characterised by females with a moderately long (L=5.6-8.2 mm) and plump (a=51-72.4, ave. 66.3) body, assuming a spiral to C-shape when heat relaxed. Head region continuous, anteriorly almost flat, lip region 23-25 µm wide; guiding ring situated posteriorly (42-47 μm, 43-50 μm in males), odontostyle long (ave. 146.6 (136-157) μm); pharyngeal glands with normal location, their nuclei of approximately equal size; tail bluntly conoidal to almost hemispherical. Males abundant, spicules slender and long (122-145 μm), ventromedian supplements 13-17, irregularly spaced, preceded by an adanal pair. Four juvenile stages present, the first stage juvenile with bluntly conoidal tail. Codes for identifying the new species when using the key by Chen et al. (1997) are: A 56, B 4, C 4, D 1, E 4, F 35, G 1, H 1, I 2. The new species is morphologically the most similar to Longidorus poessneckensis Altherr, 1974, Longidorus macrosoma Hooper, 1961, Longidorus caespiticola Hooper, 1961, Longidorus helveticus Lamberti et al., 2001, Longidorus macroteromucronatus Altherr, 1974, Longidorus pius Barsi & Lamberti, 2001, Longidorus raskii Lamberti & Agostinelli, 1993, Longidorus kheirii Pedram et al. 2008, Longidorus silvae Roca, 1993, Longidorus iuglandis Roca et al., 1985, Longidorus vinearum Bravo & Roca, 1995 and Longidorus major Roca & d'Erico, 1987, but differs from these species either by the body and odontostyle length, position of guide ring, head region and tail shape or the shape of the first stage juvenile tail. Sequence data from the D2-D3 region of the 28S rDNA distinguishes this new species from other speciesof the genus Longidorus with known sequences. Relationships of Longidorus carniolensissp. n. with other Longidorus species based on analysis of this

  18. Longidorus carniolensis sp. n. (Nematoda, Longidoridae) from vineyard soil in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Širca, Saša; Urek, Gregor; Lazarova, Stela; Elshishka, Milka; Peneva, Vlada

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A new needle nematode, Longidorus carniolensis sp. n., recovered from the soil around the roots of grapevine Vitis vinifera L. from Slovenia, is described and illustrated. Longidorus carniolensisis an amphimictic species, characterised by females with a moderately long (L=5.6–8.2 mm) and plump (a=51–72.4, ave. 66.3) body, assuming a spiral to C-shape when heat relaxed. Head region continuous, anteriorly almost flat, lip region 23–25 µm wide; guiding ring situated posteriorly (42–47 μm, 43–50 μm in males), odontostyle long (ave. 146.6 (136–157) μm); pharyngeal glands with normal location, their nuclei of approximately equal size; tail bluntly conoidal to almost hemispherical. Males abundant, spicules slender and long (122–145 μm), ventromedian supplements 13–17, irregularly spaced, preceded by an adanal pair. Four juvenile stages present, the first stage juvenile with bluntly conoidal tail. Codes for identifying the new species when using the key by Chen et al. (1997) are: A 56, B 4, C 4, D 1, E 4, F 35, G 1, H 1, I 2. The new species is morphologically the most similar to Longidorus poessneckensis Altherr, 1974, Longidorus macrosoma Hooper, 1961, Longidorus caespiticola Hooper, 1961, Longidorus helveticus Lamberti et al., 2001, Longidorus macroteromucronatus Altherr, 1974, Longidorus pius Barsi & Lamberti, 2001, Longidorus raskii Lamberti & Agostinelli, 1993, Longidorus kheirii Pedram et al. 2008, Longidorus silvae Roca, 1993, Longidorus iuglandis Roca et al., 1985, Longidorus vinearum Bravo & Roca, 1995 and Longidorus major Roca & d’Erico, 1987, but differs from these species either by the body and odontostyle length, position of guide ring, head region and tail shape or the shape of the first stage juvenile tail. Sequence data from the D2-D3 region of the 28S rDNA distinguishes this new species from other speciesof the genus Longidorus with known sequences. Relationships of Longidorus carniolensis sp. n. with other Longidorus

  19. Development of soil quality along a chronosequence under natural succession in the Dragonja catchment, SW Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hall, Rutger; Cammeraat, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural fields have been increasingly abandoned in several regions in Southern Europe. In many cases this leads to natural vegetation succession which may have a direct impact on soil quality,biodiversity and hydrological connectivity. This research aims at getting insight on the effects of natural vegetation succession on the development of soil quality in the Sub-Mediterranean Dragonja catchment in SW Slovenia. This site was chosen due to its uniform geology, geomorphology and soil types. Four different stages of vegetation succession (i.e. field, abandoned field, young forest, semi-mature forest) were selected and sampled on both north-, and south-facing slopes, resulting in 8 treatments for which 6 representative sites were sampled. Samples were analysed on OC and TN content, EC, pH, bulk density, aggregate stability and grain size distribution. To get insight on the changes in biodiversity vegetation records were made distinguishing five different plant functional groups (i.e. juveniles, grasses, herbs, shrubs and trees). Age group (i.e. stage of vegetation succession) significantly influenced the OC and TN content, aggregate stability, bulk density and pH. Directly after abandonment, between age group 0 and 1, OC and TN content, aggregate stability and pH increased significantly and bulk density decreased significantly. OC content was most affected by age group and furthermore significantly correlated to TN content, aggregate stability, bulk density and pH. Regarding biodiversity, there was a significant increase in cover by trees between age group 1 and 2 and a significant decrease between age group 2 and 3. Cover by herbs decreased significantly between age group 1 and 2. The number of different trees and shrubs increased significantly between age group 0 and 1, and the number of different juveniles increased significantly between age group 2 and 3. Another factor significantly influencing the soil's quality is aspect. Although not found for each age

  20. Hereditary Angioedema Nationwide Study in Slovenia Reveals Four Novel Mutations in SERPING1 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Rijavec, Matija; Korošec, Peter; Šilar, Mira; Zidarn, Mihaela; Miljković, Jovan; Košnik, Mitja

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterized by swelling of the face, lips, tongue, larynx, genitalia, or extremities, with abdominal pain caused by intra-abdominal edema. HAE is caused by mutations affecting the C1 inhibitor gene, SERPING1, resulting in low levels of C1 inhibitor (Type I HAE) or normal levels of ineffective C1 inhibitor (Type II HAE). A nationwide survey identified nine unrelated families with HAE in Slovenia, among whom 17 individuals from eight families were recruited for genetic analyses. A diagnosis of HAE was established in the presence of clinical and laboratory criteria (low C1 inhibitor antigenic levels and/or function), followed up by a positive family history. Genetic studies were carried out using PCR and sequencing to detect SERPING1 mutations in promoter, noncoding exon 1, the 7 coding exons, and exon-intron boundaries. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was performed in order to search for large deletions/duplications in SERPING1 gene. A mutation responsible for HAE was identified in patients from seven families with the disease. In HAE type I families, one previously reported substitution (Gln67Stop, c.265C>T) and four novel mutations were identified. The new mutations included two missense substitutions, Ser128Phe (c.449C>T), and Glu429Lys (c.1351G>A), together with two frameshift mutations, indel (c.49delGinsTT) and deletion (c.593_594delCT). Both families with HAE type II harbored the two well-known substitutions affecting the arginyl residue at the reactive center in exon 8, Arg444Cys (c.1396C>T) and Arg444His (c.1397G>A), respectively. In one patient only the homozygous variant g.566T>C (c.-21T>C) was identified. Our study identified four novel mutations in the Slovenian HAE population, highlighting the heterogeneity of mutations in the SERPING1 gene causing C1 inhibitor deficiency and HAE. In a single patient with HAE a homozygous variant g.566T>C (c.-21T>C) might be responsible

  1. Hereditary angioedema nationwide study in Slovenia reveals four novel mutations in SERPING1 gene.

    PubMed

    Rijavec, Matija; Korošec, Peter; Šilar, Mira; Zidarn, Mihaela; Miljković, Jovan; Košnik, Mitja

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterized by swelling of the face, lips, tongue, larynx, genitalia, or extremities, with abdominal pain caused by intra-abdominal edema. HAE is caused by mutations affecting the C1 inhibitor gene, SERPING1, resulting in low levels of C1 inhibitor (Type I HAE) or normal levels of ineffective C1 inhibitor (Type II HAE). A nationwide survey identified nine unrelated families with HAE in Slovenia, among whom 17 individuals from eight families were recruited for genetic analyses. A diagnosis of HAE was established in the presence of clinical and laboratory criteria (low C1 inhibitor antigenic levels and/or function), followed up by a positive family history. Genetic studies were carried out using PCR and sequencing to detect SERPING1 mutations in promoter, noncoding exon 1, the 7 coding exons, and exon-intron boundaries. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was performed in order to search for large deletions/duplications in SERPING1 gene. A mutation responsible for HAE was identified in patients from seven families with the disease. In HAE type I families, one previously reported substitution (Gln67Stop, c.265C>T) and four novel mutations were identified. The new mutations included two missense substitutions, Ser128Phe (c.449C>T), and Glu429Lys (c.1351G>A), together with two frameshift mutations, indel (c.49delGinsTT) and deletion (c.593_594delCT). Both families with HAE type II harbored the two well-known substitutions affecting the arginyl residue at the reactive center in exon 8, Arg444Cys (c.1396C>T) and Arg444His (c.1397G>A), respectively. In one patient only the homozygous variant g.566T>C (c.-21T>C) was identified. Our study identified four novel mutations in the Slovenian HAE population, highlighting the heterogeneity of mutations in the SERPING1 gene causing C1 inhibitor deficiency and HAE. In a single patient with HAE a homozygous variant g.566T>C (c.-21T>C) might be responsible

  2. Site effects and soil-structure resonance study in the Kobarid basin (NW Slovenia) using microtremors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosar, A.

    2010-04-01

    The town of Kobarid is located in one of three areas with the highest seismic hazard in Slovenia. It was hit by several 1976-1977 Friuli sequence earthquakes and recently by the 1998 and 2004 Krn Mountains earthquakes which caused damage of intensity up to VII EMS-98 scale. The town is located in a small basin filled with heterogeneous glaciofluvial Quaternary sediments in which site effects due to soft sediments are expected. The existing microzonation which is based on surface geological data only is inadequate, and no borehole or geophysical data are available in the basin that would allow a modelling approach of site effects assessment. The microtremor horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) method was therefore applied in order to assess the fundamental frequency of the sediments. Investigations were performed on a 100×100 m dense grid and 106 free-field measurements acquired. Clear HVSR peaks were obtained in the majority of the surveyed area. The eastern part of the basin is characterized by two well separated peaks which indicate distinct shallow and deep impedance contrasts. The iso-frequency map of sediments shows a distribution in a broad range of 1.8-22.2 Hz. The observed frequencies can be related to the total thickness of Quaternary sediments (sand, gravel) in the western part of the basin only. They are deposited over bedrock built of Cretaceous flysch. In the eastern part the obtained fundamental frequencies are influenced by the presence of a shallow conglomerate layer inside sandy gravel or lacustrine chalk. The extent of these layers was not known before. Microtremor measurements were also performed inside 19 characteristic buildings of various heights (from two to four stories), and longitudinal and transverse fundamental frequencies determined from amplitude spectra. A potential of soil-structure resonance was assessed by comparing building frequencies with the free-field sediments frequencies derived from the iso-frequency map. For two

  3. Consequences of an unusual flood event: case study of a drainage canal breach on a fluvial plain in NE Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmar, Ines; Ambrožič, Bojan; Debeljak, Barbara; Dolžan, Erazem; Gregorin, Špela; Grom, Nina; Herman, Polona; Keršmanc, Teja; Mencin, Eva; Mernik, Natalija; Švara, Astrid; Trobec, Ana; Turnšek, Anita; Vodeb, Petra; Torkar, Anja; Brenčič, Mihael

    2013-04-01

    On November 4-6 2012 heavy precipitation resulted in floods in the middle and lower course of Drava River in NE Slovenia causing damage to many properties in the flooded area. The meteorological situation that led to consequent floods was characterized by high precipitation, fast snowmelt, SW wind and relatively high air temperature. The weather event was part of a cyclone which was spreading over the area of North, West and Central Europe in the direction of Central Europe and carried with it the passing of a cold front through Slovenia on November 4 and 5. The flood wave travelled on the Drava River from Austria to Slovenia past the 11 hydroelectric power plants after eventually moving over the Slovenian-Croatian border. The river discharge increased in the early morning of November 5 reaching 3165 m3/s. This work focuses on a single event in the Ptujsko polje where among other damage caused by the flooding, the river broke through the drainage canal of the Formin hydroelectric power plant and changed its course. The Ptujsko polje contains two fluvial terraces. In the area of Formin HPP, the lower terrace is 1.5 km wide and the surface as well as the groundwater gradient shift from west to east with the groundwater flowing parallel to the river. These characteristics contributed to the flooding and consequential breach in the embankment of the drainage canal. Several aspects of the recent floods are discussed including a critical reflection of data accessibility, possible causes and mechanisms behind it as well as the possibility of its forecasting. Synthesis of accessible data from open domain sources is performed with emphasis on geological conditions. Discharge and precipitation data from the data base of Slovenian Environment Agency are collected, reviewed and analyzed. The flood event itself is analyzed and described in detail. It is determined that the flood wave was different from the ones regulated by natural processes which points to an anthropogenic

  4. Temporal and spectral properties of the songs of the southern green stink bug Nezara viridula (L.) from Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Cokl, A; Virant-Doberlet, M; Stritih, N

    2000-01-01

    Substrate born songs of the southern green stinkbug Nezara viridula (L.) from Slovenia were recorded and analysed. The male calling song is composed of narrow-band regularly repeated single pulses and of broad-band frequency modulated pulses grouped into pulse trains. The female calling song is characterised by broad-band pulsed and narrow-band non-pulsed pulse trains. A frequency modulated pre-pulse precedes the narrow-band pulse train. A frequency-modulated post-pulse usually follows the pulse train of the male courtship song. The male calling song triggers broad-band pulse trains of the female courtship song. The female also produces a repelling low-frequency vibration that inhibits male calling and courtship. The male rival song is characterised by prolonged pulses with a typical frequency modulation.

  5. Hydraulics of Reka-Timavo system, Classical Karst (Carso), Slovenia-Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrovsek, Franci; Kaufmann, Georg; Peric, Borut

    2016-04-01

    In tectonically active areas, karst systems continuously adapt to the relatively rapid changes of the structural and boundary conditions. The flow pathways in such systems are characterised by high variability of channel cross-sections and breakdowns, which restrict the flow and cause high fluctuations of groundwater level, particularly if the recharge variations are high. One of the world's most prominent karst systems with such characteristics is the Kras/Carso plateau (Classical Karst), which extends between SW Slovenia and NE Italy. The ground water dynamics is mainly influenced by the allogenic input of Reka river which sinks at the Škocjanske jame (Škocjan caves) and emerges about 40 km north-west at the coast of Adria near Duino in springs of Timavo. The ratio between highest and lowest flow of Reka reaches 1700 with the maximum measured discharge 305 m3/s, and minimum 0.18 m3/s. This work is based on the long-term continuous monitoring of basic physical parameters of underground flow within six active caves of the Reka-Timavo system. Using stage, temperature and specific electric conductivity hydrographs, following questions were addressed: How do different signals (flood pulse, temperature, SEP) propagate through the system? How does the known geometry relate to the recorded hydrographs in caves? Can we infer on the structure of unknown parts of the system from the recorded hydrographs ? Where are the restrictions causing floods in different parts of the system? The data analysis includes heuristic and statistical analysis of the hydrographs and optimisation based hydraulic modelling. The response to recharge events is vigorous; high flow variability causes extreme stage variations along the whole observed system, with more than 100 m difference between the base and highest water levels at rising and recession rates reaching almost 10 m/h. By analysing large recharge events, we show that high floods in the two most upstream caves (Škocjanske jame and Ka

  6. Modelling mass movement susceptibility for Alpine infrastructure in the Karavank Mountains (Austria/Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, C.; Kern, K.; Lieb, G. K.

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study is the generation of indicative susceptibility maps on a regional scale that can be used as a decision support tool for land use management (i.e. risk potential on alpine infrastructure). The study in particular focuses on geomorphological processes (rockfall and debris flows in unconsolidated rock) that reshape the land surface by erosion, transport and deposition. When interacting with human activity (e.g. road, alpine trails) such naturally occurring processes can quickly become natural hazards. The study area is located in the Karavank Mountains, a border region between Austria and Slovenia, and covers approx. 200 sq km with maximum altitudes above 2.000 m a.s.l. (Hochstuhl: 2.237 m a.s.l.). The Karavanks form an east-west striking mountain chain (approx. 120 km total length) of the southeastern Alps that consists mainly of thick Triassic carbonate sequences and, with less extent, Paleozoic carbonate rocks crystalline rocks. The mountain chain is separated into the Northern Karavanks and the Southern Karavanks by a structural boundary (Periadriatic Line). In addition, the area is known for extreme weather events due to Adriatic cyclones with daily accumulated precipitation of more than 200 mm that regularly trigger hazardous and torrential processes like rockfall events and debris flows. To assess the triggering factors and trajectories, two different disposition and process models (one for rockfall and one for debris flow, respectively) were developed. The information about potential source areas was obtained by combining various types of information (e.g. DTM derivatives, geotechnical units, vegetation). Threshold slope values for potential rockfall source areas were attributed to different lithological units according to field observations. The defined threshold slope angles cover values from 42° in Triassic carbonates up to 46° in massive crystalline rocks. For debris flows areas with a slope inclination < 20° as well as areas with

  7. Incidence trends in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in Slovenia, 1983-2009: role of human papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Strojan, Primož; Zadnik, Vesna; Šifrer, Robert; Lanišnik, Boštjan; Didanović, Vojislav; Jereb, Sara; Poljak, Mario; Kocjan, Boštjan J; Gale, Nina

    2015-12-01

    An increase in the incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) was observed in several population-based registries and has been attributed to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. In the present study, we aimed to assess the contribution of HPV infection to the burden of mucosal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in Slovenia. For this purpose, data from the nationwide Cancer Registry of Slovenia for cases diagnosed between 1983 and 2009 were analyzed to determine time trends of age-adjusted incidence rates and survival in terms of annual percentage change (APC) for HNSCC in potentially HPV-related and HPV-unrelated sites. In addition, determination of p16 protein, HPV DNA and E6/E7 mRNA was performed in a cohort of OPSCC patients identified from the prospective database for the years 2007-2008. In total, 2,862 cases of HNSCC in potentially HPV-related sites and 7,006 cases in potentially HPV-unrelated sites were identified with decreased incidence observed over the time period in both groups (-0.58; 95 % CI -1.28 to -0.13 and -0.90; 95 % CI -1.23 to -0.57). Regardless of the group, incidence trends for both genders showed a significant decrease in men and increase in women. In a cohort of 99 OPSCC patients diagnosed between 2007 and 2008, 20 (20.2 %) patients had HPV positive tumors and exhibited a superior outcome compared to HPV-negative patients. In conclusion, results of the epidemiologic and histopathologic study confirmed that HPV infection had no major impact on the incidence trends in the Slovenian patients with HNSCC and, specifically, OPSCC during the studied period.

  8. Geochemical investigation of potentially harmful elements in household dust from a mercury-contaminated site, the town of Idrija (Slovenia).

    PubMed

    Bavec, Špela; Gosar, Mateja; Miler, Miloš; Biester, Harald

    2017-06-01

    A comprehensive geochemical investigation of potentially harmful elements (PHEs) in household dust from the town of Idrija (Slovenia), once a world-famous Hg mining town that is now seriously polluted, was performed for the first time. After aqua regia digestion, the content of mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) was measured. PHE-bearing particles were recognised and observed by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectrometry before and after exposure to simulated stomach acid (SSA). Mercury binding forms were identified by Hg thermal desorption technique and gastric bioaccessible Hg was estimated after SSA extraction by ICP-MS. With regard to rural and urban background values for Slovenia, high Hg content (6-120 mg/kg) and slightly elevated As content (1-13 mg/kg) were found. Mercury pollution is a result of past mining and ore processing activities. Arsenic content is potentially associated with As enrichment in local soils. Four Hg binding forms were identified: all samples contained Hg bound to the dust matrix, 14 samples contained cinnabar, two samples contained metallic Hg (Hg 0 ), and one sample assumingly contained mercury oxide. After exposure to SSA, Hg-bearing phases showed no signs of dissolution, while other PHE-bearing phases were significantly morphologically and/or chemically altered. Estimated gastric Hg bioaccessibility was low (<0.006-0.09 %), which is in accordance with identified Hg binding forms and high organic carbon content (15.9-31.5 %) in the dust samples.

  9. Measuring mechanisms for quality assurance in primary care systems in transition: test of a new instrument in Slovenia and Uzbekistan.

    PubMed

    Kringos, Dionne Sofia; Boerma, Wienke; Pellny, Martina

    2009-01-01

    This World Health Organization (WHO) study aimed to develop and field test an instrument to assess the availability of structures and mechanisms for managing quality in primary care in countries in transition. The instrument is based on a literature study, consensus meetings with experts, and observations in these countries. It consists of three parts: a semi-structured questionnaire on national policies and mechanisms; a structured questionnaire for general practitioners (GPs); and a structured questionnaire for use with managers of primary care facilities. The instrument has been field tested in 2007 in Slovenia and Uzbekistan. In Slovenia, leadership on quality improvement was weak and local managers reported few incentives and resources to control quality. There was a lack of external support for quality improvement activities. Availability and use of clinical guidelines for GPs were not optimal. GPs found teamwork and communication with patients inadequate. In Uzbekistan, primary care quality and standards in health centres were extensively regulated and laid down in numerous manuals, instructions and other documents. Managers, however, indicated the need for more financial and non-financial levers for quality improvement and they wanted to know more about modern healthcare management. GPs reported strong involvement in activities such as peer review and clinical audit, and reported frequent use of clinical guidelines. Overall, the information gathered with the provisional instrument has resulted in policy recommendations. At the same time, the pilot resulted in improvements to the instrument. Application of the instrument helps decision makers to identify improvement areas in the infrastructure for managing the quality of primary care.

  10. First experience with a new biomedical engineering program in Slovenia established following the TEMPUS IV CRH-BME joint project guidelines.

    PubMed

    Jarm, Tomaz; Miklavcic, Damijan

    2014-01-01

    A new study program of biomedical engineering was recently established at Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia. It is based on the long-lasting tradition of education in the field of BME at the host institution and is built on the BME areas in which the research groups of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering have been traditionally successful. The program was prepared in accordance with the recommendations of the TEMPUS IV CRH-BME Project consortium.

  11. Molecular analyses of Erwinia amylovora strains isolated in Russia, Poland, Slovenia and Austria describing further spread of fire blight in Europe.

    PubMed

    Jock, Susanne; Wensing, Annette; Pulawska, Joanna; Drenova, Nataliya; Dreo, Tanja; Geider, Klaus

    2013-08-25

    Fire blight, a bacteriosis of apple and pear, was assayed with molecular tools to associate its origin in Russia, Slovenia and south-eastern Austria with neighboring countries. The identification of all investigated strains was confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy except one. Independent isolation was verified by the level of amylovoran synthesis and by the number of short sequence DNA repeats in plasmid pEA29. DNA of gently lysed E. amylovora strains from Russia, Slovenia, Austria, Hungary, Italy, Spain, Croatia, Poland, Central Europe and Iran was treated with restriction enzymes XbaI and SpeI to create typical banding patterns for PFGE analysis. The pattern Pt2 indicated that most Russian E. amylovora strains were related to strains from Turkey and Iran. Strains from Slovenia exhibited patterns Pt3 and Pt2, both present in the neighboring countries. Strains were also probed for the recently described plasmid pEI70 detected in Pt1 strains from Poland and in Pt3 strains from other countries. The distribution of pattern Pt3 suggests distribution of fire blight from Belgium and the Netherlands to Central Spain and Northern Italy and then north to Carinthia. The PFGE patterns indicate that trade of plants may have introduced fire blight into southern parts of Europe proceeded by sequential spread. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in vocational rehabilitation and disability assessment in Slovenia: state of law and users' perspective.

    PubMed

    Ptyushkin, Pavel; Vidmar, Gaj; Burger, Helena; Marinček, Crt; Escorpizo, Reuben

    2011-01-01

    This study illustrates the use of the ICF in vocational rehabilitation and disability assessment in Slovenia. A review of the Slovenian law about vocational rehabilitation was performed. A survey was developed and group and individual interviews were conducted with professionals involved in vocational rehabilitation who use the ICF. The vast majority of the respondents believe that ICF helps to create a common language for multidisciplinary communication. The main advantages of the ICF identified by the respondents are that it provides a holistic view of the person, assesses complexities of functioning, provides a unified language and offers a quick and easy insight into functioning. The disadvantages of ICF are complicated terminology and subjectivity of the assessor. A difficulty encountered by the users is that by law, only body functions of the ICF are assessed. Additional qualitative analysis of the users' understanding of ICF and its purpose revealed heterogeneity. Significant differences between public and private organisations were found. ICF is a promising tool for use in vocational rehabilitation and disability assessment in Slovenia. A major challenge is the lack of interface between ICF and policies on vocational rehabilitation in Slovenia.

  13. Rare tradition of the folk medicinal use of Aconitum spp. is kept alive in Solčavsko, Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Povšnar, Marija; Koželj, Gordana; Kreft, Samo; Lumpert, Mateja

    2017-08-08

    Aconitum species are poisonous plants that have been used in Western medicine for centuries. In the nineteenth century, these plants were part of official and folk medicine in the Slovenian territory. According to current ethnobotanical studies, folk use of Aconitum species is rarely reported in Europe. The purpose of this study was to research the folk medicinal use of Aconitum species in Solčavsko, Slovenia; to collect recipes for the preparation of Aconitum spp., indications for use, and dosing; and to investigate whether the folk use of aconite was connected to poisoning incidents. In Solčavsko, a remote alpine area in northern Slovenia, we performed semi-structured interviews with 19 informants in Solčavsko, 3 informants in Luče, and two retired physicians who worked in that area. Three samples of homemade ethanolic extracts were obtained from informants, and the concentration of aconitine was measured. In addition, four extracts were prepared according to reported recipes. All 22 informants knew of Aconitum spp. and their therapeutic use, and 5 of them provided a detailed description of the preparation and use of "voukuc", an ethanolic extract made from aconite roots. Seven informants were unable to describe the preparation in detail, since they knew of the extract only from the narration of others or they remembered it from childhood. Most likely, the roots of Aconitum tauricum and Aconitum napellus were used for the preparation of the extract, and the solvent was homemade spirits. Four informants kept the extract at home; two extracts were prepared recently (1998 and 2015). Three extracts were analyzed, and 2 contained aconitine. Informants reported many indications for the use of the extract; it was used internally and, in some cases, externally as well. The extract was also used in animals. The extract was measured in drops, but the number of drops differed among the informants. The informants reported nine poisonings with Aconitum spp., but none of

  14. Prediction of blood lead levels in children before and after remediation of soil samples in the upper Meza Valley, Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Jez, Erika; Lestan, Domen

    2015-10-15

    The Meza Valley, Slovenia, has been contaminated by Pb smelting, resulting in an epidemic of lead poisoning in childhood. The potential of remediation with EDTA soil washing to mitigate the risk from Pb poisoning was investigated by applying the Integrated Exposure Uptake Bio-kinetic (IEUBK) model. Soils from 79 locations were collected and the total and bio-accessible Pb concentrations were determined before and after extraction with 60 mmol kg(-1) EDTA. Extraction reduced the soil Pb concentration in towns of Mezica, Zerjav and Crna by 53, 67 and 62%, respectively, and the concentration of in vitro bio-accessible Pb in the simulated human gastric phase by 2.6-, 3.2- and 2.9-times, respectively. The predictions of the IEUBK model based on Pb contamination data were verified with data on blood Pb levels in children. The IEUBK model predicted that, after soil remediation, the number of locations at which the expected blood Pb level in children was higher than the stipulated 10 μg d L(-1) would decrease by 90, 38 and 91% in the towns of Mezica, Zerjav and Crna, respectively. The results confirmed the feasibility of soil washing with EDTA as an efficient remediation measure in Mezica and Crna and advice for soil capping/removal for the most polluted town of Zerjav. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Bioindication of human-induced soil degradation in enclosed karst depressions (dolines) using Ellenberg indicator values (Classical Karst, Slovenia).

    PubMed

    Breg Valjavec, Mateja; Zorn, Matija; Čarni, Andraž

    2018-05-29

    One of the frequently used bioindication methods is Ellenberg indicator values (EIVs), which are commonly applied in Central Europe as bioindicators of ecological characteristics. However, very few studies have tested EIVs as a bioindication of human-induced soil degradation. We tested the ability of EIVs to distinguish between localities of degraded karst depressions (dolines) and localities of semi-natural (agricultural) soils in preserved dolines on the Kras Plateau (Classical Karst, SW Slovenia). We compared the results of bioindications of soil nutrient content (N), soil reaction (R) and soil moisture (M) with measured soil parameters. Low values of organic carbon, a slightly alkaline soil reaction and low organic sulphur content are chemical indicators of soil degradation in dolines, in comparison with preserved reference dolines (high organic carbon, slightly acid reaction, higher S). EIV reaction is the most reliable plant indicator value that can distinguish between degraded and non-degraded soil plots. According to a regression tree, sulphur (S) and C/N are the most important factors for division on the basis of EIV reaction. By applying the EIV reaction of diagnostic plant species, we significantly improved bioindication of soil degradation, although in the case of EIV nutrients, bioindication was not improved. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Mineralogical and microstructural studies of mortars from the bath complex of the Roman villa rustica near Mosnje (Slovenia)

    SciT

    Kramar, Sabina, E-mail: sabina.kramar@rescen.si; Zalar, Vesna; Urosevic, Maja

    This study deals with the characterization of mortars collected from bath complex of the Roman villa rustica from an archeological site near Mosnje (Slovenia). The mortar layers of the mosaics, wall paintings and mortar floors were investigated. A special aggregate consisting of brick fragments was present in the mortars studied. The mineralogical and petrographic compositions of the mortars were determined by means of optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy. Analysis of aggregate-binder interfaces using SEM-EDS revealed various types of reactivity rims. In order to assess the hydraulic characteristics of the mortars, the acid-soluble fractions were determined by ICP-OES.more » Furthermore, the results of Hg-porosimetry and gas sorption isotherms showed that mortars with a higher content of brick fragments particles exhibited a higher porosity and a greater BET surface area but a lower average pore diameter compared to mortars lacking this special aggregate. - Highlights: {yields} Mineral and microstructural characterizations of brick-lime mortars. {yields} Hydraulic character of mortars in Roman baths complex. {yields} Reaction rims were observed around brick fragments and dolomitic grains. {yields} Higher content of brick particles yielded a higher BET surface area. {yields} Addition of brick particles increased porosity and diminished pore size diameter.« less

  17. Application of 6D Building Information Model (6D BIM) for Business-storage Building in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pučko, Zoran; Vincek, Dražen; Štrukelj, Andrej; Šuman, Nataša

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an application of 6D building information modelling (6D BIM) on a real business-storage building in Slovenia. First, features of building maintenance in general are described according to the current Slovenian legislation, and also a general principle of BIM is given. After that, step-by-step activities for modelling 6D BIM are exposed, namely from Element list for maintenance, determination of their lifetime and service measures, cost analysing and time analysing to 6D BIM modelling. The presented 6D BIM model is designed in a unique way in which cost analysis is performed as 5D BIM model with linked data to use BIM Construction Project Management Software (Vico Office), integrated with 3D BIM model, whereas time analysis as 4D BIM model is carried out as non-linked data with the help of Excel (without connection to 3D BIM model). The paper is intended to serve as a guide to the building owners to prepare 6D BIM and to provide an insight into the relevant dynamic information about intervals and costs for execution of maintenance works in the whole building lifecycle.

  18. Influence of the Sostanj coal-fired thermal power plant on mercury and methyl mercury concentrations in Lake Velenje, Slovenia

    PubMed

    Kotnik; Horvat; Mandic; Logar

    2000-10-02

    Lake Velenje is located in one of the most polluted regions in Slovenia, the Salek Valley. The major source of pollution in the valley is the coal-fired thermal power plant in Sostanj (STPP, capacity 775 MW). It has five separate units. All units have electrostatic precipitators for fly ash removal. Unit 4 also has installed a wet flue gas desulfurisation system (FGD system). Total mercury (THg) concentrations were measured in lignite, slag and ash samples from the STPP. In flue gas, different mercury species (THg, MeHg, Hg2+, Hg0) were determined separately for unit 4 and unit 5 which use different flue gas cleaning technology. Mercury and methyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations were also measured in lake water at different depths, in inflow water, outflow water, rain, snow and lake sediments in order to establish the influence of the power plant on the lake. Most mercury emitted from the power plant is in the elemental form. The ratio between oxidised and elemental Hg depends on the flue gas cleaning technology. Mass balance calculations have been performed for the STPP. The results show that the major sources of mercury in Lake Velenje are wet deposition and lake inflows. Total and MeHg concentrations in the water column are very low and can be compared to other non-contaminated freshwater lakes in the world.

  19. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Slovenia, 2006-12: rise and fall of the multidrug-resistant NG-MAST genogroup 1407 clone?

    PubMed

    Jeverica, Samo; Golparian, Daniel; Matičič, Mojca; Potočnik, Marko; Mlakar, Boštjan; Unemo, Magnus

    2014-06-01

    To determine the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates obtained between 2006 and 2012 in Slovenia. Gonococcal isolates obtained between 2006 and 2012 in Slovenia (n = 194) were investigated with Etest for susceptibility to cefixime, ceftriaxone, penicillin, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, tetracycline, gentamicin and spectinomycin. All isolates were examined with N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing for molecular epidemiology and sequencing of the major extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC) resistance determinants (penA, mtrR and penB) was performed. The overall prevalence of decreased susceptibility or resistance to cefixime and ceftriaxone (MIC ≥0.125 mg/L) was 11% and 5%, respectively. The decreased susceptibility or resistance showed an epidemic peak in 2011 (33% for cefixime and 11% for ceftriaxone), decreasing to 6% and 4%, respectively, in 2012. ST1407 (9% of isolates), ST21 (6%) and ST225 (6%) were the most common sequence types (STs) during 2006-12. Genogroup G1407 (ST1407 most prevalent ST), an internationally spread clone with decreased susceptibility or resistance to ESCs, was most prevalent (48%) in 2009. However, the G1407 prevalence then declined: in 2010, 30%; in 2011, 28%; and in 2012, 8%. Instead, in 2012 the ESC- and ciprofloxacin-susceptible G21 was the predominant genogroup (26%). The prevalence of gonococcal resistance to ESCs in Slovenia has been high, but fluctuating. Fortunately, in 2012 some ESC- and ciprofloxacin-susceptible clones, such as genogroups G21, G1195 and G2992, appeared to have mainly replaced the multidrug-resistant G1407 clone, a replacement also seen in several European countries. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Statistical analyses of soil properties on a quaternary terrace sequence in the upper sava river valley, Slovenia, Yugoslavia

    Vidic, N.; Pavich, M.; Lobnik, F.

    1991-01-01

    Alpine glaciations, climatic changes and tectonic movements have created a Quaternary sequence of gravely carbonate sediments in the upper Sava River Valley, Slovenia, Yugoslavia. The names for terraces, assigned in this model, Gu??nz, Mindel, Riss and Wu??rm in order of decreasing age, are used as morphostratigraphic terms. Soil chronosequence on the terraces was examined to evaluate which soil properties are time dependent and can be used to help constrain the ages of glaciofluvial sedimentation. Soil thickness, thickness of Bt horizons, amount and continuity of clay coatings and amount of Fe and Me concretions increase with soil age. The main source of variability consists of solutions of carbonate, leaching of basic cations and acidification of soils, which are time dependent and increase with the age of soils. The second source of variability is the content of organic matter, which is less time dependent, but varies more within soil profiles. Textural changes are significant, presented by solution of carbonate pebbles and sand, and formation is silt loam matrix, which with age becomes finer, with clay loam or clayey texture. The oldest, Gu??nz, terrace shows slight deviation from general progressive trends of changes of soil properties with time. The hypothesis of single versus multiple depositional periods of deposition was tested with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) on a staggered, nested hierarchical sampling design on a terrace of largest extent and greatest gravel volume, the Wu??rm terrace. The variability of soil properties is generally higher within subareas than between areas of the terrace, except for the soil thickness. Observed differences in soil thickness between the areas of the terrace could be due to multiple periods of gravel deposition, or to the initial differences of texture of the deposits. ?? 1991.

  1. Risk assessment of buckwheat flour contaminated by thorn-apple (Datura stramonium L.) alkaloids: a case study from Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Perharič, Lucija; Koželj, Gordana; Družina, Branko; Stanovnik, Lovro

    2013-01-01

    In Slovenia, a mass poisoning incident involving 73 consumers with symptoms such as dry mouth, hot red skin, blurred vision, tachycardia, urinary retention, ataxia, speech disturbance, disorientation and visual hallucinations occurred in 2003. In all cases, consumers had eaten buckwheat flour food products within the last few hours. Investigations by responsible authorities identified the contamination of a range of buckwheat food products with thorn-apple (Datura stramonium L.) seeds containing toxic alkaloids, atropine and scopolamine. To ensure the safe consumption of buckwheat food products, we carried out risk characterisation and proposed provisional maximum residue levels (MRLs) of atropine and scopolamine mixture in buckwheat flour. In the absence of critical "no observed adverse effect levels" for atropine and scopolamine, we based our estimation of the acute reference doses on the lowest recommended therapeutic doses. Taking into account the additive effect of the two alkaloids, we calculated acute reference doses of the mixture, that is 0.05 µg/kg of body mass for atropine and 0.03 µg/kg of body mass for scopolamine. MRLs for atropine and scopolamine mixture in buckwheat flour were estimated in a worst-case scenario, that is consumption of 100 g of flour by a child weighing 10 kg and taking into account a range of atropine/scopolamine ratio in implicated food products, that is 0.85-3.3. We proposed the national MRLs for atropine/scopolamine mixture in buckwheat food products: 4.0 µg/kg (atropine) and 2.0 µg/kg(scopolamine). However, in view of the large variability in the alkaloid content, depending on the origin of the Datura, we propose that risk assessment should be carried out on a case-by-case basis, taking into account the ratio between atropine and scopolamine content in a particular sample.

  2. The nutritional quality of foods carrying health-related claims in Germany, The Netherlands, Spain, Slovenia and the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, A; Scarborough, P; Hieke, S; Kusar, A; Pravst, I; Raats, M; Rayner, M

    2016-01-01

    Backgroung/Objectives: Compares the nutritional quality of pre-packaged foods carrying health-related claims with foods that do not carry health-related claims. Subject/Methods: Cross-sectional survey of pre-packaged foods available in Germany, The Netherlands, Spain, Slovenia and the United Kingdom in 2013. A total of 2034 foods were randomly sampled from three food store types (a supermarket, a neighbourhood store and a discounter). Nutritional information was taken from nutrient declarations present on food labels and assessed through a comparison of mean levels, regression analyses and the application of a nutrient profile model currently used to regulate health claims in Australia and New Zealand (Food Standards Australia New Zealand's Nutrient Profiling Scoring Criterion, FSANZ NPSC). Results: Foods carrying health claims had, on average, lower levels, per 100 g, of the following nutrients, energy—29.3 kcal (P<0.05), protein—1.2 g (P<0.01), total sugars—3.1 g (P<0.05), saturated fat—2.4 g (P<0.001), and sodium—842 mg (P<0.001), and higher levels of fibre—0.8 g (P<0.001). A similar pattern was observed for foods carrying nutrition claims. Forty-three percent (confidence interval (CI) 41%, 45%) of foods passed the FSANZ NPSC, with foods carrying health claims more likely to pass (70%, CI 64%, 76%) than foods carrying nutrition claims (61%, CI 57%, 66%) or foods that did not carry either type of claim (36%, CI 34%, 38%). Conclusions: Foods carrying health-related claims have marginally better nutrition profiles than those that do not carry claims; these differences would be increased if the FSANZ NPSC was used to regulate health-related claims. It is unclear whether these relatively small differences have significant impacts on health. PMID:27406158

  3. Should we adjust health education methodology to low-educated employees needs? Findings from Latvia, Poland, Slovenia and Spain.

    PubMed

    Korzeniowska, Elżbieta; Puchalski, Krzysztof; Goszczyńska, Eliza; Pyżalski, Jacek

    2014-06-01

    The presented study explored health beliefs and experiences as well as health education needs of low-educated employees (LEEs) (incomplete primary, primary, lower secondary and basic vocational education) in comparison to those with higher education (secondary and tertiary education) in four European countries: Latvia, Poland, Slovenia and Spain. The main aim was to identify a specificity of low-educated employees (LEEs) by capturing their opinions, experiences, attitudes and needs concerning health education. The sample consisted of 1691 individuals with the status of an employee (approximately 400 respondents in each of 4 countries participating in the project). The respondents were aged 25-54 (both the control group and the target group consisted in 1/3 of the following age groups: 25-34, 35-44 and 45-54). The respondents were interviewed during the years 2009 and 2010 with a structured questionnaire concerning their health, health behaviours as well as educational needs concerning health education. The study revealed substantial differences in the attitudes of people from this group concerning methodology of health education. LEEs prefer more competitions and campaigns and less written educational materials in comparison to those with higher education. Additionally, they more often perceive a fee, longer time, necessity to take part in a knowledge test and a concern that their health will be checked as factors that can discourage them from taking part in a health training. On the other hand, LEEs can by encouraged to take part in such a training by a media broadcast concerning the event, snacks or lottery during the training, or financial incentives. The results of the study proved the need for specific health education guidelines to conduct health education for low-educated employees. These guidelines should take in account the sources of health education preferred by LEEs as well as the factors that can encourage/discourage their participation in trainings

  4. Molecular genetic identification of skeletal remains from the Second World War Konfin I mass grave in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Zupanic Pajnic, Irena; Gornjak Pogorelc, Barbara; Balazic, Joze

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes molecular genetic identification of one third of the skeletal remains of 88 victims of postwar (June 1945) killings found in the Konfin I mass grave in Slovenia. Living relatives were traced for 36 victims. We analyzed 84 right femurs and compared their genetic profiles to the genetic material of living relatives. We cleaned the bones, removed surface contamination, and ground the bones into powder. Prior to DNA isolation using Biorobot EZ1 (Qiagen), the powder was decalcified. The nuclear DNA of the samples was quantified using the real-time polymerase chain reaction method. We extracted 0.8 to 100 ng DNA/g of bone powder from 82 bones. Autosomal genetic profiles and Y-chromosome haplotypes were obtained from 98% of the bones, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes from 95% of the bones for the HVI region and from 98% of the bones for the HVII region. Genetic profiles of the nuclear and mtDNA were determined for reference persons. For traceability in the event of contamination, we created an elimination database including genetic profiles of the nuclear and mtDNA of all persons that had been in contact with the skeletal remains. When comparing genetic profiles, we matched 28 of the 84 bones analyzed with living relatives (brothers, sisters, sons, daughters, nephews, or cousins). The statistical analyses showed a high confidence of correct identification for all 28 victims in the Konfin I mass grave (posterior probability ranged from 99.9% to more than 99.999999%).

  5. Water, Biodiversity and Climate Change Studies in International Schools Network of the Park Škocjan Caves, Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debevec Gerjevic, Vanja

    2010-05-01

    As UNESCO World Heritage Site, Ramsar Site and Biosphere Reserve the Park Škocjan Caves strongly believes in development of quality educational programme in order to fulfill the guidelines of international conventions and also provide for awareness and development in the future. Ten years ago we started with water analysis projects and performed several projects related to natural, cultural and social aspect of water protection. We developed a special model of training the teachers and educating the children. Together we have accomplished two international projects, two national project and several research projects dealing with The Reka river and karst phenomena. In 2003 we officially established the schools network, where we join in research education programmes five elementary schools form Slovenia and two from Italy. They are all located beside the surface and underground flow of the Reka River. Fifteen teachers and more than hundred children are involved in educational programme every year. Our work in the schools network enables us to bring science to society in a comprehensive way including the scientists and their work in preparation and implementation of projects. With teachers help we promote science studies but also encourage children to do social projects in order to keep intergeneration connections and gain knowledge of past experience and life from our grandparents. The paper will present the role of protected area in public awareness and education with special emphasis on natural phenomena of water in the Karst region as a toll for joint work in the field for scientists and school children. Chemical and biological analysis of the Reka River and other water bodies will be presented and accompanied with the biodiversity survey and climate change research projects. New approach of performing the research studies and presentation of results for schoolchildren will be explained.

  6. Molecular genetic identification of skeletal remains from the Second World War Konfin I mass grave in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Gornjak Pogorelc, Barbara; Balažic, Jože

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes molecular genetic identification of one third of the skeletal remains of 88 victims of postwar (June 1945) killings found in the Konfin I mass grave in Slovenia. Living relatives were traced for 36 victims. We analyzed 84 right femurs and compared their genetic profiles to the genetic material of living relatives. We cleaned the bones, removed surface contamination, and ground the bones into powder. Prior to DNA isolation using Biorobot EZ1 (Qiagen), the powder was decalcified. The nuclear DNA of the samples was quantified using the real-time polymerase chain reaction method. We extracted 0.8 to 100 ng DNA/g of bone powder from 82 bones. Autosomal genetic profiles and Y-chromosome haplotypes were obtained from 98% of the bones, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes from 95% of the bones for the HVI region and from 98% of the bones for the HVII region. Genetic profiles of the nuclear and mtDNA were determined for reference persons. For traceability in the event of contamination, we created an elimination database including genetic profiles of the nuclear and mtDNA of all persons that had been in contact with the skeletal remains. When comparing genetic profiles, we matched 28 of the 84 bones analyzed with living relatives (brothers, sisters, sons, daughters, nephews, or cousins). The statistical analyses showed a high confidence of correct identification for all 28 victims in the Konfin I mass grave (posterior probability ranged from 99.9% to more than 99.999999%). PMID:20217112

  7. Topical topic: value of fine needle aspiration biopsy in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma: twenty-six years of experience in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Pohar-Marinsek, Ziva; Anzic, Jozica; Jereb, Berta

    2002-06-01

    Chemotherapy (Cht) for rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) given before local treatment can prevent mutilating surgery and high-dose irradiation (RT). Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) can confirm the diagnosis and neoadjuvant treatment can start without delay. The purpose of our study was to assess the role of FNAB in the management of childhood RMS in Slovenia. A total of 78 children and young adults were included. FNAB provided the pre-treatment diagnosis in 37 and surgical biopsy in 41 patients. In 61 cases recurrent/metastatic disease was aspirated. Cytological diagnoses were compared to the original histological diagnoses. All case histories, cytological and histological material were reviewed and immunocytochemical staining performed when necessary. FNAB provided a correct diagnosis of malignancy in all 37 primary tumours, a specific diagnosis of RMS was given in 29 (78%). With the use of immunocytochemistry during the last 15 years, the accuracy has risen to 87%. FNAB provided the diagnosis of recurrence/metastasis in 57/61 cases. No complications of FNAB were noted. Review of histology reclassified five original diagnoses of RMS into one malignant rhabdoid tumour and four sarcomas NOS. In review of cytology we were able to sub classify 80% of RMS. FNAB is a safe method, which enables us to establish the pre-treatment diagnosis of RMS, and to some extent even its type, without delay. In our study, FNAB successfully replaced surgical biopsy in 87% of RMS patients during the last 15 years. Neoadjuvant Cht was started immediately, surgery was delayed and more conservative. Consequently, the risk for treatment sequelae was considerably reduced. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Determination of hydrogeological conditions in large unconfined aquifer: A case study in central Drava plain (NE Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keršmanc, Teja; Brenčič, Mihael

    2016-04-01

    In several countries, many unregulated landfills exits which releasing harmful contaminations to the underlying aquifer. The Kidričevo industrial complex is located in southeastern part of Drava plain in NW Slovenia. In the past during the production of alumina and aluminum approximately 11.2 million tons of wastes were deposit directly on the ground on two landfills covering an area of 61 hectares. Hydrogeological studies were intended to better characterized conditions bellow the landfill. Geological and hydrogeological conditions of Quaternary unconfined aquifer were analyzed with lithological characterization of well logs and cutting debris and XRF diffraction of silty sediments on 9 boreholes. Hydrogeological conditions: hydraulic permeability aquifer was determined with hydraulic tests and laboratory grain size analyses where empirical USBR and Hazen methods were applied. Dynamics of groundwater was determined by groundwater contour maps and groundwater level fluctuations. The impact of landfill was among chemical analyses of groundwater characterised by electrical conductivity measurements and XRF spectrometry of sand sediments. The heterogeneous Quaternary aquifer composed mainly of gravel and sand, is between 38 m and 47.5 m thick. Average hydraulic permeability of aquifer is within the decade 10-3 m/s. Average hydraulic permeability estimated on grain size curves is 6.29*10-3 m/s, and for the pumping tests is 4.0*10-3 m/s. General direction of groundwater flow is from west to east. During high water status the groundwater flow slightly changes flow direction to the southwest and when pumping station in Kidričevo (NW of landfill) is active groundwater flows to northeast. Landfills have significant impact on groundwater quality.

  9. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of multiple sclerosis in paediatric population in Slovenia: A descriptive nation-wide study.

    PubMed

    Bizjak, Neli; Osredkar, Damjan; Perković Benedik, Mirjana; Šega Jazbec, Saša

    2017-11-01

    Although multiple sclerosis usually affects young adults, paediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (pMS) is increasingly recognized in the past ten years. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence of pMS in Slovenia and to characterize the clinical, laboratory and neuroradiological characteristics of pMS at the disease onset. We performed a national retrospective descriptive study including all patients diagnosed with pMS between January 1992 and June 2017. We reviewed data of all patients younger than 18 years at the first demyelinating event. The estimated incidence of pMS was 0.66/100,000 children per year. We included 61 patients (77% were female) with a median age at diagnosis of 16.3 years. In 4 patients, onset of pMS was before the age of 12 years old (childhood-onset pMS). Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis was most prevalent, with only 2 patients presenting a primary progressive pMS. Polysymptomatic pMS was found at onset in 59% of patients and monosymptomatic in 41%. In the cerebrospinal fluid study, 88% of patients had positive oligoclonal bands. Brain magnetic resonance imaging studies showed a predominant supratentorial involvement (100% of patients). The clinical pattern of pMS in our cohort of patients was characterized by polysymptomatic presentation and predominantly sensory symptoms at onset, developing a relapsing-remitting pMS pattern. It is important to gather more information about the incidence of pMS and its initial presentation and clinical course to improve early recognition and appropriate initiation of immunomodulatory treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of the quality of life in families with children who have intellectual and developmental disabilities in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Cagran, B; Schmidt, M; Brown, I

    2011-12-01

    Research was conducted, within the framework of the International Family Quality of Life Project, on the quality of life of families with a member who has a disability. We concentrated on the nine specific domains that the family life measure used, and recorded data from five of its six measurement dimensions: Importance, Opportunities, Initiative, Attainment and Satisfaction. The sample consisted of 20 families from Slovenia with children who have intellectual or developmental disabilities. The data were collected using the Family Quality of Life Survey-2006. Except for Community Interaction, the other domains (Health, Financial Well-Being, Family Relations, Support from Others, Support Services, Influence of Values, Careers, Leisure and Recreation) show statistically significant differences among the five dimensions measured. Importance was rated highest, and Attainment and Opportunities were rated lowest, while Initiative and Satisfaction were evaluated lower than Importance but higher than Attainment and Opportunities. Among the domains of family life, Family Relations was evaluated the highest from the perspective of all five dimensions. The family members rated Importance high for all of the quality of family life domains, but it appears from the lower Opportunities scores that their opportunities are limited; this may result in fewer possibilities for attaining a better quality of life. The results of our research are useful to Slovene researchers who work in the areas of special pedagogy and rehabilitation, politicians, non-governmental organisations and social services. The quality of life of families with children with disabilities, their empowerment and their inclusion into community life should be significantly enhanced when consideration is given to all the family members' support and service needs. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Number of Heat Wave Deaths by Diagnosis, Sex, Age Groups, and Area, in Slovenia, 2015 vs. 2003

    PubMed Central

    Perčič, Simona; Kukec, Andreja; Cegnar, Tanja; Hojs, Ana

    2018-01-01

    Background: Number of deaths increases during periods of elevated heat. Objectives: To examine whether differences in heat-related deaths between 2003 and 2015 occurred in Slovenia. Materials and Methods: We estimated relative risks for deaths for the observed diagnoses, sex, age, and area, as well as 95% confidence intervals and excess deaths associated with heat waves occurring in 2015 and 2003. For comparison between 2015 and 2003, we calculated relative risks ratio and 95% confidence intervals. Results: Statistically significant in 2015 were the following: age group 75+, all causes of deaths (RR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.00–1.22); all population, circulatory system diseases (RR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.01–1.30) and age group 75+, diseases of circulatory system (RR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.01–1.34). Statistically significant in 2003 were the following: female, age group 5–74, circulatory system diseases (RR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.08–2.62). Discussion: Comparison between 2015 and 2003, all, circulatory system diseases (RRR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.01–1.55); male, circulatory system diseases (RRR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.41–2.43); all, age group 75+ circulatory system diseases (RRR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.07–1.69); male, age group 75+, circulatory system diseases (RRR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.03–2.25) and female, age group 75+, circulatory system diseases (RRR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.08–1.89). Conclusions: Public health efforts are urgent and should address circulatory system causes and old age groups. PMID:29361792

  12. Analysis of human induced changes in a karst landscape - the filling of dolines in the Kras plateau, Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Kovačič, Gregor; Ravbar, Nataša

    2013-03-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the increased pressure on karst landscapes due to expansive economic and urban development is presented with the aim of evaluating changes in land use and their deleterious effects on karst relief forms. The study focuses on two areas surrounding the relatively quickly growing settlements of Hrpelje-Kozina and Divača on the Kras plateau (Slovenia) that have been subjected to intensive urban and business development and traffic since the motorway was brought to their vicinity fifteen years ago. National legislation loopholes and technological improvement were the cause of the commonly unsupervised human encroachment which caused the widespread degradation of the landscape. By comparing different topographical and ortophotographical materials from the past four decades and by detailed field inspection of land use and environmental changes, as well as the morphometrical characterization of dolines, the following results have been found: due to the population growth in the past four decades (39% and 50%, respectively), an increase of settlement area by 18 and 11 percentage points took place. Consequently, between 25 and 27% of dolines have disappeared or have been extensively modified (filled up and leveled). According to the local spatial plans, an additional 18% to 28% dolines are endangered. Broad human induced changes in the karst landscape have resulted in a noticeable increase in landscape deterioration, which is consistent with similar phenomena observed in other regions. Due to the extreme susceptibility of the karst to human activities that may lead to the degradation of its exceptional esthetic and environmental value, the alteration of karst processes such as corrosion, endangering of unique habitats and the quality of non-renewable natural resources, it is necessary to promptly define measures for its protection at the national level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The study of the interactions between groundwater and Sava River water in the Ljubljansko polje aquifer system (Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrzel, Janja; Solomon, D. Kip; Blažeka, Željko; Ogrinc, Nives

    2018-01-01

    River basin aquifers are common sites for drinking water wells as bank filtration can be a cost effective pretreatment technology. A groundwater vulnerability to pollution depends on a groundwater mean residence time and on a relative contribution of river water versus local precipitation to groundwater. Environmental isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen (δ18O and δ2H), tritium (3H) and concentrations of nitrate (NO3-) were used to investigate hydrological pathways, mean residence time and interactions between surface water and groundwater in the Ljubljansko polje aquifer system in Slovenia. δ18O and δ2H values indicate a spatial variability of the influence of individual groundwater sources inside the aquifer - local precipitation and the Sava River water. Fractions of river water in groundwater depend on the depth of perforated screens in the pumping wells and their distance from the Sava River. It was estimated that groundwater at wells Kleče 11, Hrastje 3, and Hrastje 8 is mostly composed of recently infiltrated local precipitation, while the Sava River is the dominant source of groundwater at the well Jarški prod 1. Groundwater at wells Kleče 8, Kleče 12, and Jarški prod 3 contains on average between 41% and 48% of the Sava River water. The 3H and 3H/3He methods indicate short mean residence time of groundwater present at Jarški prod (2-7 years) and Hrastje (7-8 years). A small fraction (<10%) of old groundwater is present at Kleče. Furthermore, infiltration of local precipitation influenced the levels of NO3- at Hrastje. These data extend our understanding of groundwater flow in the Ljubljansko polje aquifer system, interactions between the Sava River water/local precipitation and groundwater, and the utility of isotope tracers in evaluating the spatial distribution of groundwater vulnerability to pollution.

  14. Consumption of fruits and vegetables and probabilistic assessment of the cumulative acute exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides of schoolchildren in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Blaznik, Urška; Yngve, Agneta; Eržen, Ivan; Hlastan Ribič, Cirila

    2016-02-01

    Adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables is a part of recommendations for a healthy diet. The aim of the present study was to assess acute cumulative dietary exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides via fruit and vegetable consumption by the population of schoolchildren aged 11-12 years and the level of risk for their health. Cumulative probabilistic risk assessment methodology with the index compound approach was applied. Slovenia, primary schools. Schoolchildren (n 1145) from thirty-one primary schools in Slovenia. Children were part of the PRO GREENS study 2009/10 which assessed 11-year-olds' consumption of fruit and vegetables in ten European countries. The cumulative acute exposure amounted to 8.3 (95% CI 7.7, 10.6) % of the acute reference dose (ARfD) for acephate as index compound (100 µg/kg body weight per d) at the 99.9th percentile for daily intake and to 4.5 (95% CI 3.5, 4.7) % of the ARfD at the 99.9th percentile for intakes during school time and at lunch. Apples, bananas, oranges and lettuce contributed most to the total acute pesticides intake. The estimations showed that acute dietary exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides is not a health concern for schoolchildren with the assessed dietary patterns of fruit and vegetable consumption.

  15. An eight-year survey of the intestinal parasites of carnivores, hoofed mammals, primates, ratites and reptiles in the Ljubljana zoo in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Kvapil, Pavel; Kastelic, Marjan; Dovc, Alenka; Bartova, Eva; Cizek, Petr; Lima, Natacha; Strus, Spela

    2017-04-21

    Problems with parasitic infections and their interspecies transmissions are common in zoological gardens and could pose serious health damage to captive animals. This study presents results of eight-year monitoring of intestinal parasites in animals from Zoo Ljubljana, Slovenia. A total of 741 faecal samples from 40 animal species were collected two to four times per year and examined microscopically. Intestinal parasites were detected in 45% of samples, with detection of helminths (Cestoda, Nematoda - Ascaridida, Enoplida, Strongylida, Oxyurida, Rhabditida and Trichurida) and protists (Apicomplexa and Ciliophora) in 25% and 13% of samples, respectively; mixed infection was found in 7% of samples. The mostly infected were ungulates (61%), followed by reptiles (44%), ratites (29%), primates (22%) and carnivores (7%). During the observation period, the number of infected animal species increased from 8 to 25. This is the first long-term monitoring study of intestinal parasites in zoo animals from Slovenia. Routine monitoring of parasitic infection and regular deworming and hygienic measures are necessary to prevent gastrointestinal infections in captive animals.

  16. Public participation in reconstruction after the earthquakes in Friuli (Italy) and the Upper Soca Valley (Slovenia) in 1976, 1998, and 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipan, P.

    2012-04-01

    Northern Friuli (in northeast Italy) and the Upper Soča Valley (in northwest Slovenia) are extremely seismically active. The earthquakes of 6 May and 15 September 1976, with an epicenter in the Venzone area, claimed 939 lives in Italy and 157,000 people were left homeless. The same two earthquakes affected northwest Slovenia, which was still part of communist Yugoslavia at the time; they did not claim any lives, but they damaged 12,000 buildings and 13,000 people were left homeless. The "Easter Earthquake" of 12 April 1998, with an epicenter in the Krn Mountains, damaged 4,000 structures in Slovenia, among which nearly 1,500 had to be completely rebuilt. Even though there was noticeably less damage than in the 1976 earthquakes, in some settlements more than 80% of the houses were damaged. The same area was hit by another earthquake on 12 July 2004, which damaged nearly 2,000 structures, including some that had already been repaired after the 1998 earthquake. More than three decades after the 1976 earthquakes, a qualitative study was carried out on public participation in rebuilding after these earthquakes and public influence on the success of rebuilding. The research is based on studies of cases of individual settlements in Italy and Slovenia, where in-depth interviews were conducted with relevant persons that had been directly involved in the post-earthquake rebuilding efforts. This article highlights six case studies ranked on Arnstein's ladder of citizen participation. Examples from Italy include Venzone, Portis, and Resia for the 1976 earthquakes, and examples from Slovenia include Breginj for the 1976 earthquakes, Drežni\\vske Ravne for the 1998 earthquake, and Čezsoča for the 1998 and 2004 earthquakes. Alongside various political, legislative, and administrative circumstances, a responsible citizenry was also an important factor. In the case of Venzone, the majority of the residents and stakeholders had a positive influence on the preservation of

  17. Role of stress in burnout among students of medicine and dentistry--a study in Ljubljana, Slovenia, Faculty of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Kogoj, Tina Krokter; Cebašek-Travnik, Zdenka; Zaletel-Kragelj, Lijana

    2014-09-01

    Medical education is challenging, but for some students it can be very stressful. Studies suggest that stress during medical education can have a negative impact on students' mental health and that burnout is frequent among medical school students. The aim of this study was to measure burnout among students of medicine/dentistry (M/D) at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, in relation to their perception of stress, so as to enable planning preventative activities for students at risk. The data were collected in a cross-sectional study, carried out in spring 2008 among the total population of MID students of 1St, 3rd, 4th and 6th year, using a self-administered online questionnaire. Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI) instrument was used. Separate burnout scores were calculated for the exhaustion and disengagement dimensions of burnout, and related to students'perception of stress. Multiple linear regression method was carried out to adjust the association estimates for several potential confounders (gender, study program, relationship status, and grade). The overall response rate was 47.2%, and a total of 476 students participated. Students scored higher on exhaustion than on disengagement dimension--the mean value of burnout scores on the exhaustion dimension scale was -1.68, while it was -4.58 on the disengagement dimension scale. The results showed a statistically significant difference between high and low risk-for-stress groups of students in both burnout dimensions (average value of burnout scores on the exhaustion scale: high risk-for-stress group -3.69, low risk-for-stress group 0.19, p<0.001; average value of burnout scores on the disengagement scale: high risk-for-stress group -5.57, low risk-for-stress group -3.65, p<0.001). After adjustment for potential confounders differences on both burnout subscales remained almost unchanged. Results confirmed our hypothesis that M/D students of Ljubljana Faculty of Medicine who frequently

  18. Geomorphological map and preliminary analysis of Quaternary sediments in the Planica-Tamar valley (Julian Alps, NW Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Andrej; Šmuc, Andrej

    2016-04-01

    The Planica-Tamar valley is located in the Julian Alps in north-west Slovenia. The Planica-Tamar valley represents typical mountain glacial valley bounded by steep, mainly carbonate cliffs with some glacial deposits still preserved. The valley is currently being filled with numerous Holocene sediments deposited by rock falls, landslides, mass gravity flows and fluvial flows. These deposits are forming active or inactive interfingering talus slopes, alluvial and debris-flow fans, all of them with a complex history of sedimentation and erosion forming unconformity bounded sedimentary units. In order to make a thorough analysis of these deposits a detailed geomorphological map in a scale of 1:10 000 has been made. Six different types of sedimentary deposits were defined and mapped. These are moraines, lacustrine sediments, fluvio-glacial deposits, talus slopes, debris fans and alluvial fans. Other mapped features also include shape of ravines, their depths, ridges and direction of sedimentary flow. Additionally areas of active, semi-active and inactive sedimentation were marked. Moraines forms a ridge in the bottom of the valleys and are composed of unconsolidated, poorly sorted, subangular grains ranging from clay size to a few cubic meters big blocks. Lacustrine sediments are represented by laminated well sorted sand and silt, while fluvio-glacial deposits are composed of washed out subrounded sands and gravels. Talus slope deposits are characterised by clast-supported poorly sorted very angular gravel. Debris flow fans are represented by extremely poorly sorted matrix-supported gravels with grain size ranging from clay to few cubic meters big blocks. Alluvial fans are composed by variety of sedimentary textures. Sediments at the fan apex are clast-supported poorly sorted very angular gravels with up to a few cubic meters big block. In the middle part of the fan the sieve deposits are common, while in the distal parts a few centimeters thick layers of sand and

  19. A Multiproxy Record of the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event in Shallow-Water Carbonates from the Dinaric Carbonate Platform, Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettinger, N. P.; Martindale, R. C.; Kosir, A.; Thibodeau, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Oceanic anoxic events (OAEs) have been shown to have an intimate influence on source rock deposition, marine extinctions, and the reorganization of carbonate factories throughout geologic time. Today, the possibility of environmental deterioration such as warming, acidification, and decreased oxygenation in modern oceans has increased the importance of ancient analogues. Therefore, studies of ancient rapid environmental change, such as the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event, can inform our understanding of how marine ecosystems will respond to similar stresses in the future. The Toarcian OAE coincides with a marine mass extinction and the deposition of deep-water black shales; the putative cause of the OAE is the emplacement of the Karoo-Ferrar-Chon Aike Large Igneous Province. Although black shales are the hallmark of oceanic anoxic events, the contemporaneous shallow marine response to anoxia and other stresses is subtler and poorly documented by comparison. We will present a record of Pliensbachian-Toarcian aged shallow-water carbonates from the Dinaric Carbonate Platform in Slovenia. This platform provides a key record of the Toarcian OAE, as it is one of the few platforms from the Tethys Ocean that experienced nearly continuous sedimentation throughout the Pliensbachian and Toarcian as a result of tectonic quiescence. Sedimentological, geochemical, and paleontological data from two sections of the Trnovski Gozd karst plateau are used to assess the timing of volcanism and the response of biotic and abiotic carbonates to environmental changes associated with the OAE. Benthic forams, dasycladacean algae, and oncolitic packstones dominate diverse skeletal assemblages in the Pliensbachian record. The stage boundary coincides with anomalies in redox-sensitive elements, a hiatus in carbonate production represented by marine firmgrounds, and an anomalous increase in mercury content. The early Toarcian record is dominated by crinoidal-oolitic packstones and grainstones

  20. Strategies for a risky business: How drug dealers manage customers, suppliers and competitors in Italy, Slovenia and Germany.

    PubMed

    Tzvetkova, Marina; Pardal, Mafalda; Disley, Emma; Rena, Alice; Talic, Sanela; Forberger, Sarah

    2016-05-01

    A growing body of literature aims to improve understanding of the operations of drug trafficking markets through conducting interviews with dealers and traffickers. Insight into how these individuals conduct business can provide evidence to inform the efforts by policy makers, law enforcement and practitioners to disrupt illicit markets. This paper aims to make a contribution to this evidence base by extending the number of European countries in which interviews have been conducted with incarcerated drug dealers and traffickers. It draws on interviews with 135 men convicted of offences related to the distribution or sale of heroin or cocaine and imprisoned in Italy, Slovenia and Germany. The research was conducted as part of the Reframing Addictions Project (ALICE-RAP) funded by the European Commission. The sample was diverse. It included a range of nationalities and some individuals who were members of organised crime groups. The majority of the interviewees were dealers who sold at the retail and street level, but there were some who were importers and wholesalers. Most dealers in each of the three countries reported having more than one regular supplier, and were able to respond to periods of over and under supply without losing customers. Supply arrangements varied in terms of frequency and quantities bought. Dealers engaged in repeated transactions and their relationships with customers were based on trust and reputation. Dealers aimed to sell to regular customers and to provide drugs of good quality. While dealers sought to maximise their profits by cutting drugs with cutting agents, the quality of drugs that they sold could affect their reputation and thus their profits and position in the market. Lastly, while there are some significant differences in the approach between those involved in organised crime groups and those who are not, and between street dealers and those operating at higher levels of the market, there were striking similarities in terms of

  1. Peripheral Arterial Disease and Ankle-Brachial Pressure Index as Predictors of Mortality in Residents of Metlika County, Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Mlačak, Blaž; Blinc, Aleš; Pohar, Maja; Stare, Janez

    2006-01-01

    Aim To test how the presence of peripheral arterial disease predicted mortality of middle-aged and elderly residents of Metlika county, a rural area in southeastern Slovenia. Methods In 1987, we interviewed and examined a representative cohort of 646 subjects aged 45-80 years at inclusion without overt coronary or cerebrovascular disease, for cardiovascular risk factors and measured the ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI). Peripheral arterial disease was defined as ABPI<0.90. The subjects were followed up 15 years or until death. All-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality were assessed and compared between subjects with and without peripheral arterial disease in a multivariate model. Results There were 580 subjects with normal ABPI and 66 subjects with peripheral arterial disease, among which 49 were asymptomatic and 17 had intermittent claudication. Because subjects with peripheral arterial disease were on average 10 years older than those without peripheral arterial disease, the mere presence of peripheral arterial disease was not an independent predictor of mortality. However, there was a significant interaction of peripheral arterial disease with age, with a more pronounced adverse prognostic effect of peripheral arterial disease in younger than in older age groups. For a 55-year-old subject with peripheral arterial disease, the hazard ratio of dying from any cause in the follow-up period was 2.44 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-4.96) in comparison to an age-matched subject without peripheral arterial disease, but at 75 years of age, the hazard ratio decreased to only 0.71 (95% CI, 0.46-1.09). For cardiovascular mortality, the hazard ratio in the presence of peripheral arterial disease was 6.05 (95% CI, 1.87-16.27) at 55 years and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.54-1.52) at 75 years. Among patients with peripheral arterial disease, each decrement of ABPI at inclusion by 0.10 significantly increased the cardiovascular mortality after 15 years by 30% (P = 0

  2. The influence of climate variability on chemical composition of European wines: a regional scale study (Italy and Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbante, Carlo; Polo, Fabio; Cozzi, Giulio; Ogrinc, Nives; Turetta, Clara

    2016-04-01

    Climate change is having an increasing influence on vine phenology and grape composition, affecting vinifications, wine chemistry and the quality of productions. Wine grape cultivation provides a good test case for measuring indirect impacts mediated by changes in agriculture, because viticulture is sensitive to climate and is concentrated in Mediterranean climate regions that are global biodiversity hotspots. Moreover, on a regional level and on a shorter time scale, the seasonal weather conditions modify the quality of yields determining the final properties of wine. In the present research, we studied wines from Italy and Slovenia with the purpose of differentiating them by the different vintages (from 2009 to 2012), which are supposed to be influenced by temperature and rain during each year's growing season. Specific chemical techniques were used, in particular mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and isotopic mass spectrometry (IRMS), both of which are usually employed to detect wine adulterations and to establish the geographical provenance of wines. In particular, we investigated the relationship between macro- and micro-elements, Rare Earth Elements and stable isotopes [δ13C, δ18O, (D/H)I, (D/H)II]. The datasets were examined via statistical techniques to show their relation to weather conditions as well as their mutual connection. Italian and Slovenian wines were distinguished, with the exception of few samples, by both TEs and REEs results. This separation, due to different elemental compositions, may be justified as being part of two distinct environmental and geographical belongings (terroir) but also to the processes of wine production, from the harvest to the bottling, which have certainly interfered and characterized the products. In the case of Italian wines the weather conditions were evidenced with an important separation of stable isotopes which they confirmed to be very sensitive Regarding Slovenian wines, the studied regions were characterized of

  3. Modeling the structure and operation of drug supply chains: The case of cocaine and heroin in Italy and Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Caulkins, Jonathan P; Disley, Emma; Tzvetkova, Marina; Pardal, Mafalda; Shah, Hemali; Zhang, Xiaoke

    2016-05-01

    Multiple layers of dealers connect international drug traffickers to users. The fundamental activity of these dealers is buying from higher-level dealers and re-selling in smaller quantities at the next lower market level. Each instance of this can be viewed as completing a drug dealing "cycle". This paper introduces an approach for combining isolated accounts of such cycles into a coherent model of the structure, span, and profitability of the various layers of the domestic supply chain for illegal drugs. The approach is illustrated by synthesizing data from interviews with 116 incarcerated dealers to elucidate the structure and operation of distribution networks for cocaine and heroin in Italy and Slovenia. Inmates' descriptions of cycles in the Italian cocaine market suggest fairly orderly networks, with reasonably well-defined market levels. The Italian heroin market appears to have more "level-jumpers" who skip a market level by making a larger number of sales per cycle, with each sale being of a considerably smaller weight. Slovenian data are sparser, but broadly consistent. Incorporating prices allows calculation of how much of the revenue from retail sales is retained by dealers at each market level. In the Italian cocaine market, both retail sellers and the international supply chain outside of Italy each appear to receive about 30-40% of what users spend, with the remaining 30% going to higher-level dealers operating in Italy (roughly 10% to those at the multi-kilo level and 20% to lower level wholesale dealers). Factoring in cycle frequencies permits rough estimation of the number of organizations at each market level per billion euros in retail sales, and of annual net revenues for organizations at each level. These analyses provide an approach to gaining insight into the structure and operation of the supply chain for illegal drugs. They also illustrate the value of two new graphical tools for describing illicit drug supply chains and hint at possible

  4. Study on the applicability of the microtremor HVSR method to support seismic microzonation in the town of Idrija (W Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosar, Andrej

    2017-06-01

    The town of Idrija is located in an area with an increased seismic hazard in W Slovenia and is partly built on alluvial sediments or artificial mining and smelting deposits which can amplify seismic ground motion. There is a need to prepare a comprehensive seismic microzonation in the near future to support seismic hazard and risk assessment. To study the applicability of the microtremor horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) method for this purpose, 70 free-field microtremor measurements were performed in a town area of 0.8 km2 with 50-200 m spacing between the points. The HVSR analysis has shown that it is possible to derive the sediments' resonance frequency at 48 points. With the remaining one third of the measurements, nearly flat HVSR curves were obtained, indicating a small or negligible impedance contrast with the seismological bedrock. The isofrequency (a range of 2.5-19.5 Hz) and the HVSR peak amplitude (a range of 3-6, with a few larger values) maps were prepared using the natural neighbor interpolation algorithm and compared with the geological map and the map of artificial deposits. Surprisingly no clear correlation was found between the distribution of resonance frequencies or peak amplitudes and the known extent of the supposed soft sediments or deposits. This can be explained by relatively well-compacted and rather stiff deposits and the complex geometry of sedimentary bodies. However, at several individual locations it was possible to correlate the shape and amplitude of the HVSR curve with the known geological structure and prominent site effects were established in different places. In given conditions (very limited free space and a high level of noise) it would be difficult to perform an active seismic refraction or MASW measurements to investigate the S-wave velocity profiles and the thickness of sediments in detail, which would be representative enough for microzonation purposes. The importance of the microtremor method is

  5. Multidisciplinary work on barium contamination of the karstic upper Kupa River drainage basin (Croatia and Slovenia); calling for watershed management.

    PubMed

    Francisković-Bilinski, S; Bilinski, H; Grbac, R; Zunić, J; Necemer, M; Hanzel, D

    2007-02-01

    The present work was designed as an extension of a previous study of a barium anomaly observed in stream sediments of the Kupa River. In its upper part the Kupa River drains a region underlain by a trans-boundary aquifer. The river is a significant water resource in a region of tourism, sport, and fishing in both Croatia and Slovenia. The contamination source is situated in Homer (Lokve), Croatia, where barite was mined until 10 years ago. The barium processing waste material (<3-mm fraction) was carelessly deposited in gardens, forests, and into a sinkhole, which has an underground link with the Kupica River, a tributary of the Kupa River. Barium waste and stream sediments were analyzed using comparative techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Mössbauer spectroscopy, and grain size analysis. XRD of the waste material identified the major minerals quartz, barite, and dolomite and the Fe-containing minor minerals muscovite and goethite. Barite was identified as a minor or trace mineral in the Kupica River sediments. XRF analysis of the waste material has shown Ba and Fe to be the predominant elements, Ca and K to be minor elements, and Mn, Zn, Sr, Pb, Co, Cu, As, Zr, Rb, Y, and Mo to be trace elements. Mössbauer spectroscopy performed at room temperature (RT) was used to study iron minerals, particularly to obtain information on the valence status of Fe ions. Grain size analysis of the waste material (<63-microm fraction) has shown that it contains 23.5% clay-size material in comparison with 7-8% clay-size material in stream sediments. It is our aim to combine geochemical and medical methods to investigate the possible impact of waste disposal on human health in Lokve. At this stage of the work, concentrations of Ba and other toxic elements in the water compartment of the Kupica River (a source of drinking water) have not been monitored by Croatian Waters (name of the Croatian water authorities). The necessity of such measurements in future

  6. Petrological, geochemical and isotopic characteristics of lignite and calcified lignite from mining area Pesje, Velenje Basin, Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrabec, Mirijam; Markič, Miloš; Vrabec, Marko; Jaćimović, Radojko; Kanduč, Tjaša

    2014-05-01

    Lignite (organic rich) and calcified lignite (inorganic rich) samples from excavation field -50c mining area Pesje, Velenje Basin, Slovenia were investigated. During geological and structural mapping lignite and calcified lignite samples were systematically taken for determination of their petrological, geochemical and isotopic characteristics. Lignite is composed of fine detritical gelified matrix. At least five different types of calcified lignite were recognized forming laminations, calcifications after wood, petrified wood and complete replacements of lignite with carbonate. All measured parameters so far indicate geochemical processes during sedimentation of the Velenej Basin. After macroscopic description samples were split to organic and inorganic component (Ward, 1984) and powdered in an agate mortar for geochemical and isotopic analyses. Major and trace elements (As, B, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Sb, Se, Th, U, Zn) in these samples were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using k-0 standardization method (Jaćimović et al, 2002). The isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen was determined using a Europa 20-20 continuous flow IRMS ANCA-SL preparation module. A 1 mg amount of a sample was weighed in a tin capsule for carbon and 10 mg for nitrogen analysis. Samples for carbon analyses were pretreated with 1 M HCl to remove carbonates. Carbonate samples from carbonate-rich strata and calcified xylite were first roasted at 450 deg C (Krantz et al., 1987). Three miligrams of carbonate sample was transformed into CO2 by reaction with anhydrous H3PO4 at 55 deg C under vacuum (McCrea, 1950) and measured with GV 2003 isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Measured isotopic composition of oxygen as VPDB values was recalculated to the VSMOW reference standard to enable the comparison with data from other coal basins. SEM/EDXS of carbonate rich sediments was performed with JEOL JSM 5800 electron microanalyzer scanning electron microscope

  7. Front of package symbols as a tool to promote healthier food choices in Slovenia: Accompanying explanatory claim can considerably influence the consumer's preferences.

    PubMed

    Miklavec, Krista; Pravst, Igor; Raats, Monique M; Pohar, Jure

    2016-12-01

    Many nutrition and/or health symbols were introduced in different countries in the past years and Slovenia is no exception. The objective of our study was to examine familiarity with and perception of the Protective Food symbol (PF symbol) in Slovenia and to investigate consumers' associations related to the symbol, and the influence of symbols' appearance on their preferences. The study was conducted through online questionnaire with incorporated word-association tasks and conjoint analysis; GfK consumer panel and social media (Facebook) were used for recruitment of Slovenian adults (n=1050; 534 men, 516 women). The majority (78%) of the participants reported they had previously seen the PF symbol, and 64% declared familiarity with it. Familiarity was verified using a word-association task in which we analysed the nature of the symbol's description, distinguishing the description of symbol's visual appearance or its meaning. In this task, 73% of the participants described the symbol's meaning with reference to health or a healthy lifestyle, confirming their familiarity with it. Women and those responsible for grocery shopping were significantly more familiar with the symbol. The impact of the symbol's appearance on consumers' preferences was investigated using conjoint analysis consisting of two attributes - three different symbols found on foods in Slovenia (PF symbol, Choices Programme symbol and Keyhole symbol), and accompanying worded claims. Although worded claims had less relative importance (29.5%) than the symbols (70.5%), we show that careful choice of the wording can affect consumers' preferences considerably. The lowest part-worth utility was observed without an accompanying claim, and the highest for the claim directly communicating health ("Protects your health"). The fact that most participants are well familiar with the PF symbol indicates the symbol's potential to promote healthier food choices, which could be further improved by an accompanying

  8. Methodological approach in determination of small spatial units in a highly complex terrain in atmospheric pollution research: the case of Zasavje region in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Kukec, Andreja; Boznar, Marija Z; Mlakar, Primoz; Grasic, Bostjan; Herakovic, Andrej; Zadnik, Vesna; Zaletel-Kragelj, Lijana; Farkas, Jerneja; Erzen, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    The study of atmospheric air pollution research in complex terrains is challenged by the lack of appropriate methodology supporting the analysis of the spatial relationship between phenomena affected by a multitude of factors. The key is optimal design of a meaningful approach based on small spatial units of observation. The Zasavje region, Slovenia, was chosen as study area with the main objective to investigate in practice the role of such units in a test environment. The process consisted of three steps: modelling of pollution in the atmosphere with dispersion models, transfer of the results to geographical information system software, and then moving on to final determination of the function of small spatial units. A methodology capable of designing useful units for atmospheric air pollution research in highly complex terrains was created, and the results were deemed useful in offering starting points for further research in the field of geospatial health.

  9. Impact of dust filter installation in ironworks and construction on brownfield area on the toxic metal concentration in street and house dust (Celje, Slovenia).

    PubMed

    Zibret, Gorazd

    2012-05-01

    This article presents the impact of the ecological investment in ironworks (dust filter installation) and construction works at a highly contaminated brownfield site on the chemical composition of household dust (HD) and street sediment (SS) in Celje, Slovenia. The evaluation is based on two sampling campaigns: the first was undertaken 1 month before the ecological investment became operational and the second 3 years later. The results show that dust filter installations reduced the content of Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Mo, W and Zn on average by 58% in HD and by 51% in SS. No reduction was observed at sampling points in the upwind direction from the ironworks. By contrast, the impact of the construction works on the highly contaminated brownfield site was detected by a significant increase (on average by 37%) of elements connected to the brownfield contamination in SS. Such increase was not detected in HD.

  10. Effect of unstable layer depth on the pore pressure distribution, case study of the Slano Blato landslide (Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askarinejad, Amin; Secchi, Bandar; Macek, Matej; Petkovsek, Ana; Springman, Sarah

    2013-04-01

    The Slano Blato landslide is one of the largest landslides in Slovenia with a volume of more than 1 mio m3 of moving debris. The landslide is located at the border of Triassic limestone and Eocene flysch formations. Flysch is composed of layers of marls and sandstones. The sliding mass consists mainly of clay and clayey gravel of highly weathered and deteriorated flysch, while a minor part represents grains and blocks of limestones. (Petkovšek et al., 2009). The first documentation of an instability event dates back to 1789 and the landslide was reactivated during a heavy rain period in November 2000. Since then, the ground surface level above the unstable material on the upper zones of the landslide is significantly decreasing so that the current slope surface is now more than 10 m below the terrain surveyed in 1998. The new landslide topography results in different pore pressure distributions in the slope, which were anticipated to have a detrimental effect on the stability and movement regime of the slope. The main goal of this work is to investigate the effect of the overlying debris depth on the pore water pressure distribution during a predefined precipitation scenario. The behaviour of the unsaturated soil and the effects of fissures in the bedrock are also considered in the analysis. Hydro-mechanical simulations were performed using 2D finite element software (PLAXIS) and numerical results are compared with results from analytical models, which use a 1D steady state formulation for the hydraulic part and a 2D limit equilibrium approach to calculate the safety factors. The numerical studies show significant change in the pore water pressure distribution in the landslide body with variation of the debris depth. An increase in the debris depth leads to higher suction due to the deeper location of the water table. Higher suction increases landslide stability due to: i) increase of the effective stress and hence the shear strength of the material and ii

  11. Influence of geomorphic setting on sedimentation of two adjacent alpine lakes, Triglav Lakes Valley (Julian Alps, NW Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smuc, Andrej; Skabene, Dragomir; Muri, Gregor; Vreča, Polona; Jaćimović, Radojko; Čermelj, Branko; Turšič, Janja

    2013-04-01

    The Triglav Lakes Valley is elongated, 7km long depression, located high (at places over 2000 m.a.s.l.) in the central part of the Julian Alps (NW Slovenia). It hosts 6 small isolated lakes that formed due to the combination of Neogene tectonic and Pleistocene glaciation. The study is focused on the 5th and 6th Triglav Valley Lakes that characterize lower part of the valley. The lakes are located so close to each other that they are even connected in times of high water. Thus, they share the same bedrock geology, are subjected to the same climatic forcing and share similar vegetation communities. Despite their proximity, the lakes differ in their hydrologic and geomorphic setting. The lakes have no permanent surface tributaries; however 5th is fed periodically, at times of high water level, by the Močivec spring, while additional water flows from the swamp area near its northern shore. An underground spring on the eastern side of 5th represents the lake's only permanent freshwater inflow, while drainage takes place to the west via a small ponor. 6th has only one weak underground spring on the eastern side of the lake. Water levels may fluctuate between 2 and 3 m. Additionally, the lakes have different configuration of lakes shores; the northern shores of the 5th lake are low-angle soil and debris covered plateau, while southern shores of the 5th lake and shores of the 6th lake are represented by heavily karstified carbonate base rock and covered partly by trees. The detailed sedimentary analysis of the lakes record showed some similarities, but also some significant differences. Sediments of both lakes are represented by fine-grained turbidity current deposits that are transported from lake shores during snow melt or storms. The grain-size and sedimentary rates of the lakes are however markedly different. The 5th lake has coarser grained sediments, with mean ranging from 46 to 60 µm and records higher sedimentation rates of ~0,57 cm/year, compared to the 6th lake

  12. The collaboration of general practitioners and nurses in primary care: a comparative analysis of concepts and practices in Slovenia and Spain.

    PubMed

    Hämel, Kerstin; Vössing, Carina

    2017-09-01

    Aim A comparative analysis of concepts and practices of GP-nurse collaborations in primary health centres in Slovenia and Spain. Cross-professional collaboration is considered a key element for providing high-quality comprehensive care by combining the expertise of various professions. In many countries, nurses are also being given new and more extensive responsibilities. Implemented concepts of collaborative care need to be analysed within the context of care concepts, organisational structures, and effective collaboration. Background review of primary care concepts (literature analysis, expert interviews), and evaluation of collaboration in 'best practice' health centres in certain regions of Slovenia and Spain. Qualitative content analysis of expert interviews, presentations, observations, and group discussions with professionals and health centre managers. Findings In Slovenian health centres, the collaboration between GPs and nurses has been strongly shaped by their organisation in separate care units and predominantly case-oriented functions. Conventional power structures between professions hinder effective collaboration. The introduction of a new cross-professional primary care concept has integrated advanced practice nurses into general practice. Conventional hierarchies still exist, but a shared vision of preventive care is gradually strengthening attitudes towards team-oriented care. Formal regulations or incentives for teamwork have yet to be implemented. In Spain, health centres were established along with a team-based care concept that encompasses close physician-nurse collaboration and an autonomous role for nurses in the care process. Nurses collaborate with GPs on more equal terms with conflicts centring on professional disagreements. Team development structures and financial incentives for team achievements have been implemented, encouraging teams to generate their own strategies to improve teamwork. Clearly defined structures, shared visions of

  13. Habitat modeling for brown trout population in alpine region of Slovenia with focus on determination of preference functions, fuzzy rules and fuzzy sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santl, Saso; Carf, Masa; Preseren, Tanja; Jenic, Aljaz

    2013-04-01

    Water withdrawals and consequently reduction of discharges in river streams for different water uses (hydro power, irrigation, etc.) usually impoverish habitat suitability for naturally present river fish fauna. In Slovenia reduction of suitable habitats resulting from water abstractions frequently impacts local brown trout (Salmo truta) populations. This is the reason for establishment of habitat modeling which can qualitatively and quantitatively support decision making for determination of the environmental flow and other mitigation measures. Paper introduces applied methodology for habitat modeling where input data preparation and elaboration with required accuracy has to be considered. For model development four (4) representative and heterogeneous sampling sites were chosen. Two (2) sampling sections were located within the sections with small hydropower plants and were considered as sections affected by water abstractions. The other two (2) sampling sections were chosen where there are no existing water abstractions. Precise bathymetric mapping for chosen river sections has been performed. Topographic data and series of discharge and water level measurements enabled establishment of calibrated hydraulic models, which provide data on water velocities and depths for analyzed discharges. Brief field measurements were also performed to gather required data on dominant and subdominant substrate size and cover type. Since the accuracy of fish distribution on small scale is very important for habitat modeling, a fish sampling method had to be selected and modified for existing river microhabitats. The brown trout specimen's locations were collected with two (2) different sampling methods. A method of riverbank observation which is suitable for adult fish in pools and a method of electro fishing for locating small fish and fish in riffles or hiding in cover. Ecological and habitat requirements for fish species vary regarding different fish populations as well as eco

  14. Determinants of self-rated health in elderly populations in urban areas in Slovenia, Lithuania and UK: findings of the EURO-URHIS 2 survey.

    PubMed

    Stanojevic Jerkovic, Olivera; Sauliune, Skirmante; Šumskas, Linas; Birt, Christopher A; Kersnik, Janko

    2017-05-01

    Ageing imposes extra financial burdens on social and health services in developed countries. Self-rated health (SRH) is considered to be both a reliable measurement of overall health status including morbidity and mortality and an important predictor of hospitalization, functional impairment and greater demand for health-care services in the elderly. Our aim was to identify factors associated with poor SRH in elderly populations and investigate possible differences between urban areas in Slovenia, Lithuania and UK. Data were obtained from population-based surveys from the European Urban Health Indicator System Part 2 project. The stratified representative sample (41% men and 59% women) consisted of a total of 2547 respondents aged ≥65 from the urban areas in the three countries. The prevalence of poor SRH was highest in Lithuanian urban areas. The strongest factors associated with poor SRH were low education [OR (odds ratio) 4.3, 95% CI (confidence interval) 2.5-7.3, P < 0.001], restriction of activities attributable to a chronic disease (OR 2.6, 95% CI 2.2-3.0, P < 0.001), inadequate physical activity (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.5, P = 0.007) and poor mental health (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.1-1.2, P < 0.001). The main factors associated with poor SRH by country included the following: living alone (Slovenia) (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.7, P = 0,023), female sex (Lithuania) (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.0-4.2, P = 0.058) and inadequate physical activity (UK) (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3-3.6, P = 0,003). Despite different levels of poor SRH, the factors associated with poor SRH were similar for the urban areas of the three countries. Factors associated with poor SRH in the urban areas could also reflect either cultural differences or specific situations for elderly in that country, which need further research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  15. A lidar, GIS and basic spatial statistic application for the study of ravine and palaeo-ravine evolution in the upper Vipava valley, SW Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popit, Tomislav; Rožič, Boštjan; Šmuc, Andrej; Kokalj, Žiga; Verbovšek, Timotej; Košir, Adrijan

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of high resolution airborne lidar topography represents an essential tool for the geomorphological investigation of surface features. Here we present a detailed lidar-based geomorphological analysis of the ravines cut into the slopes of the upper Vipava valley, NW Slovenia. The NE slopes are defined by an Oligocene thrust-front of Mesozoic carbonates overthrusted on Tertiary flysch and covered by numerous fan-shaped Quaternary gravity flows, deposited in palaeo-ravines cut into the flysch base rock. In contrast, the opposite SW slopes are composed solely of flysch. The large dextral-slip Vipava fault extending in the NW-SE direction is present in the central part of the valley. Our research revealed that although the ravines on both slopes of the Vipava valley are lithologically and tectonically controlled, significant statistical differences in their directions exist. Thus, ravines on opposite slopes are not solely related to the Vipava fault system deformation, but instead reflect a more complex tectonic setting. We believe that the ravines are controlled by second-order faults and fault zones that connect the Vipava fault with adjacent faults. On the SW slopes, these include connecting faults between the Vipava and the southwestern Raša fault, with the ravines on the NE slopes formed in fault zones connecting the Vipava and northeastern Predjama faults.

  16. Seroprevalence of human T cell leukaemia/lymphoma virus type I (HTLV-I) in pregnant women, patients attending venereological outpatient services and intravenous drug users from Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Poljak, M; Bednarik, J; Rednak, K; Seme, K; Kristancic, L; Celan-Lucu, B

    1998-01-01

    To establish current seroprevalence of human T cell leukaemia/lymphoma virus type I (HTLV-I) infection in some low- and high-risk populations from Slovenia, 10,369 and 869 serum samples collected during Slovenian 1994 unlinked surveys of human immunodeficiency viruses seroprevalence in pregnant women and patients attending venereological outpatient services, respectively, and 219 serum samples collected from Slovenian intravenous drug abusers during 1995 and 1996, were screened for the presence of anti-HTLV-I antibodies using commercial particle agglutination test Serodia HTLV-I (Fujirebio, Tokyo, Japan). Only one sample obtained from a pregnant woman was found repeatedly positive in the screening test. Presence of anti-HTLV-I antibodies in the reactive sample was undoubtedly confirmed with supplemental Western blot test. The prevalence of antibodies to HTLV-I in the Slovenian population might be somewhere between one in 10,000 (0.01%) and one in 15,000 (0.0066%), which is similar or even higher to prevalence rates in other European countries.

  17. Assessment of metal pollution sources by SEM/EDS analysis of solid particles in snow: a case study of Žerjav, Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Miler, Miloš; Gosar, Mateja

    2013-12-01

    Solid particles in snow deposits, sampled in mining and Pb-processing area of Žerjav, Slovenia, have been investigated using scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). Identified particles were classified as geogenic-anthropogenic, anthropogenic, and secondary weathering products. Geogenic-anthropogenic particles were represented by scarce Zn- and Pb-bearing ore minerals, originating from mine waste deposit. The most important anthropogenic metal-bearing particles in snow were Pb-, Sb- and Sn-bearing oxides and sulphides. The morphology of these particles showed that they formed at temperatures above their melting points. They were most abundant in snow sampled closest to the Pb-processing plant and least abundant in snow taken farthest from the plant, thus indicating that Pb processing was their predominant source between the last snowfall and the time of sampling. SEM/EDS analysis showed that Sb and Sn contents in these anthropogenic phases were higher and more variable than in natural Pb-bearing ore minerals. The most important secondary weathering products were Pb- and Zn-containing Fe-oxy-hydroxides whose elemental composition and morphology indicated that they mostly resulted from oxidation of metal-bearing sulphides emitted from the Pb-processing plant. This study demonstrated the importance of single particle analysis using SEM/EDS for differentiation between various sources of metals in the environment.

  18. Response of shallow-water carbonates and reef systems to the Toarcian Ocean Anoxic Event (183 Ma) on the Dinaric Carbonate Platform (Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martindale, R. C.; Kosir, A.; Schaller, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    With rising concerns regarding the persistence of coral reefs through the 21st century, there is a crucial need to understand how these ecosystems will respond to future environmental deterioration (e.g. ocean warming, acidification, and decreased oxygenation). Several ancient events have been identified as good analogues for modern ecological changes, however, most of these correspond to mass extinction events. By studying carbon cycle perturbations that caused more minor ecosystem collapse, such as the Toarcian Ocean Anoxic Event (T-OAE), the key physiological, ecological, and environmental features that correlate with species and community survival can be assessed. The Dinaric Carbonate Platform, which extends from northeastern Italy to northwestern Albania, is one of the few platforms in Europe that captures an almost continuous shallow-water record of Pliensbachian and Toarcian strata. Specifically, this comparatively poorly studied platform captures the T-OAE in shallow-water carbonates. One such outcrop on the Trnovski Gozd karst plateau in western Slovenia contains both Pleinsbachian lithiotid (bivalve) biostromes and coral bioherms (i.e. coral reefs). The occurrence of both lithiotid and coral buildups in one section is extremely rare and provides the opportunity to study the response of both communities, as well as the carbonate system as a whole, to the T-OAE. This research focuses on the lithology and chemostratigraphy from this locality, particularly identifying the T-OAE horizon more precisely. Additionally, (micro)facies analyses and paleontological analyses of the reefs themselves will be presented. These data will establish the paleoenvironmental conditions that favored reef growth in the Pliensbachian, as well as what conditions changed at the stage boundary and T-OAE to cause the collapse of the shallow-water carbonates and reef systems.

  19. A prevalence study on outdoor air pollution and respiratory diseases in children in Zasavje, Slovenia, as a lever to trigger evidence-based environmental health activities.

    PubMed

    Kukec, Andreja; Farkas, Jerneja; Erzen, Ivan; Zaletel-Kragelj, Lijana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the population burden of respiratory diseases in the Zasavje region of Slovenia that can be attributed to outdoor air pollution in order to gain relevant grounds for evidence based public health activities. In 2008, 981 schoolchildren (age 6 to 12 years) were observed in a prevalence study. The prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases (CRD) and frequent acute respiratory symptoms (FARS) was related to the level of outdoor air pollution in the local environment (low, moderate and high pollution areas). Logistic regression was used as a method for statistical analysis. The prevalence of CRD was 3.0 % in low pollution areas, 7.5 % in moderate pollution areas, and 9.7 % in high pollution areas (p=0.005). After adjustment for the effects of confounders, 2.91-times higher odds for CRD were registered in high pollution areas in comparison to low pollution areas (p=0.017). The prevalence of FARS was: 7.8 % in low pollution areas, 13.3 % in moderate pollution areas and 15.9 % in high pollution areas (p=0.010). After adjustment for the effects of confounders, 2.02-times higher odds for FARS were registered in high pollution areas in comparison to low pollution areas (p=0.023). The study confirmed a significantly higher prevalence of CRD and FARS in children living in high pollution areas of Zasavje. These results at least partially prompted mutual understanding and cross-sectoral cooperation - prerequisites for solving complex problems involving the impact of air pollution on health.

  20. Integration of models of various types of aquifers for water quality management in the transboundary area of the Soča/Isonzo river basin (Slovenia/Italy).

    PubMed

    Vižintin, Goran; Ravbar, Nataša; Janež, Jože; Koren, Eva; Janež, Naško; Zini, Luca; Treu, Francesco; Petrič, Metka

    2018-04-01

    Due to intrinsic characteristics of aquifers groundwater frequently passes between various types of aquifers without hindrance. The complex connection of underground water paths enables flow regardless of administrative boundaries. This can cause problems in water resources management. Numerical modelling is an important tool for the understanding, interpretation and management of aquifers. Useful and reliable methods of numerical modelling differ with regard to the type of aquifer, but their connections in a single hydrodynamic model are rare. The purpose of this study was to connect different models into an integrated system that enables determination of water travel time from the point of contamination to water sources. The worst-case scenario is considered. The system was applied in the Soča/Isonzo basin, a transboundary river in Slovenia and Italy, where there is a complex contact of karst and intergranular aquifers and surface flows over bedrock with low permeability. Time cell models were first elaborated separately for individual hydrogeological units. These were the result of numerical hydrological modelling (intergranular aquifer and surface flow) or complex GIS analysis taking into account the vulnerability map and tracer tests results (karst aquifer). The obtained cellular models present the basis of a contamination early-warning system, since it allows an estimation when contaminants can be expected to appear, and in which water sources. The system proves that the contaminants spread rapidly through karst aquifers and via surface flows, and more slowly through intergranular aquifers. For this reason, karst water sources are more at risk from one-off contamination incidents, while water sources in intergranular aquifers are more at risk in cases of long-term contamination. The system that has been developed is the basis for a single system of protection, action and quality monitoring in the areas of complex aquifer systems within or on the borders of

  1. Consumers’ Exposure to Nutrition and Health Claims on Pre-Packed Foods: Use of Sales Weighting for Assessing the Food Supply in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Pravst, Igor; Kušar, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Insights into the use of health-related information on foods are important for planning studies about the effects of such information on the consumer’s understanding, purchasing, and consumption of foods, and also support further food policy decisions. We tested the use of sales data for weighting consumers’ exposure to health-related labeling information in the Slovenian food supply. Food labeling data were collected from 6342 pre-packed foods available in four different food stores in Slovenia. Consumers’ exposure was calculated as the percentage of available food products with particular food information in the food category. In addition, 12-month sales data were used to calculate sales weighted exposure as a percentage of sold food products with certain food information in the food category. The consumer’s in-store and sales-weighted exposure to nutrition claims was 37% and 45%, respectively. Exposure to health claims was much lower (13%, 11% when sales-weighted). Health claims were mainly found in the form of general non-specific claims or function claims, while children’s development and reduction of disease risk claims were present on only 0.1% and 0.2% of the investigated foods, respectively. Sales data were found very useful for establishing a reliable estimation of consumers’ exposure to information provided on food labels. The high penetration of health-related information on food labels indicates that careful regulation of this area is appropriate. Further studies should focus on assessing the nutritional quality of foods labeled with nutrition and health claims, and understanding the importance of such labeling techniques for consumers’ food preferences and choices. PMID:26569301

  2. Consumers' Exposure to Nutrition and Health Claims on Pre-Packed Foods: Use of Sales Weighting for Assessing the Food Supply in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Pravst, Igor; Kušar, Anita

    2015-11-12

    Insights into the use of health-related information on foods are important for planning studies about the effects of such information on the consumer's understanding, purchasing, and consumption of foods, and also support further food policy decisions. We tested the use of sales data for weighting consumers' exposure to health-related labeling information in the Slovenian food supply. Food labeling data were collected from 6342 pre-packed foods available in four different food stores in Slovenia. Consumers' exposure was calculated as the percentage of available food products with particular food information in the food category. In addition, 12-month sales data were used to calculate sales weighted exposure as a percentage of sold food products with certain food information in the food category. The consumer's in-store and sales-weighted exposure to nutrition claims was 37% and 45%, respectively. Exposure to health claims was much lower (13%, 11% when sales-weighted). Health claims were mainly found in the form of general non-specific claims or function claims, while children's development and reduction of disease risk claims were present on only 0.1% and 0.2% of the investigated foods, respectively. Sales data were found very useful for establishing a reliable estimation of consumers' exposure to information provided on food labels. The high penetration of health-related information on food labels indicates that careful regulation of this area is appropriate. Further studies should focus on assessing the nutritional quality of foods labeled with nutrition and health claims, and understanding the importance of such labeling techniques for consumers' food preferences and choices.

  3. Characterisation of heavy metal-bearing phases in stream sediments of the Meža River Valley, Slovenia, by means of SEM/EDS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miler, M.; Gosar, M.

    2010-02-01

    Stream sediment reflects the rock structure of the catchment area, its geochemical characteristics and possible recent contamination upstream of the sampling point and thus, it is most frequently used in geochemical researches of heavy metal pollution. Stream sediment samples were collected along the Meža River and its tributaries and the Drava River, located in the NNE part of Slovenia. Previous geochemical studies have shown that these sediments are heavily polluted with heavy metals as a consequence of past mining of Pb-Zn ore and steelworks activities. Conventional geochemical analyses (ICP-MS, AAS, etc.) provided limited information on mineralogy, morphology and sources of heavy metal-bearing phases therefore SEM/EDS was utilized. Several problems were confronted with during EDS analysis, which are related to identification and quantification of light elements, identification of elements due to peak overlaps and quantification of spectra from unpolished samples. These problems were successfully dealt with. SEM/EDS enabled successful identification of heavy metal-bearing phases in stream sediments. Ore mineral phases, such as cerussite, sphalerite, smithsonite and galena, different heavy metal-bearing Fe-alloys, Fe-oxides and spherical particles and common rock-forming and accessory mineral phases, such as barite, rutile, ilmenite, zircon and monazite, were identified using solely SEM/EDS. These results were used for subsequent geochemical interpretation and source apportionment of heavy metals, according to associations of different heavy metal-bearing phases. Heavy metal-bearing phases were arranged by their source and genesis into three groups, denoted as geogenic/technogenic, technogenic and geogenic.

  4. Statistical downscaling of general-circulation-model- simulated average monthly air temperature to the beginning of flowering of the dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergant, Klemen; Kajfež-Bogataj, Lučka; Črepinšek, Zalika

    2002-02-01

    Phenological observations are a valuable source of information for investigating the relationship between climate variation and plant development. Potential climate change in the future will shift the occurrence of phenological phases. Information about future climate conditions is needed in order to estimate this shift. General circulation models (GCM) provide the best information about future climate change. They are able to simulate reliably the most important mean features on a large scale, but they fail on a regional scale because of their low spatial resolution. A common approach to bridging the scale gap is statistical downscaling, which was used to relate the beginning of flowering of Taraxacum officinale in Slovenia with the monthly mean near-surface air temperature for January, February and March in Central Europe. Statistical models were developed and tested with NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis predictor data and EARS predictand data for the period 1960-1999. Prior to developing statistical models, empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis was employed on the predictor data. Multiple linear regression was used to relate the beginning of flowering with expansion coefficients of the first three EOF for the Janauary, Febrauary and March air temperatures, and a strong correlation was found between them. Developed statistical models were employed on the results of two GCM (HadCM3 and ECHAM4/OPYC3) to estimate the potential shifts in the beginning of flowering for the periods 1990-2019 and 2020-2049 in comparison with the period 1960-1989. The HadCM3 model predicts, on average, 4 days earlier occurrence and ECHAM4/OPYC3 5 days earlier occurrence of flowering in the period 1990-2019. The analogous results for the period 2020-2049 are a 10- and 11-day earlier occurrence.

  5. Intended Career Choice in Family Medicine in Slovenia: An Issue of Gender, Family Background or Empathic Attitudes in Final Year Medical Students?

    PubMed

    Ster, Marija Petek; Selic, Polona

    2017-06-01

    Among a variety of complex factors affecting a decision to take family medicine as a future specialisation, this study focused on demographic characteristics and assessed empathic attitudes in final year medical students. A convenience sampling method was employed in two consecutive academic years of final year medical students at the Faculty of Medicine in Ljubljana, Slovenia, in May 2014 and May 2015. A modified version of the 16-item Jefferson Scale of Empathy - Student Version (JSE-S) was administered to examine self-reported empathic attitudes. An intended career in family medicine was reported using a five-point Likert scale. Of the 175 medical school seniors in study year 2013/14, there were 64 (36.6%) men and 111 (63.4%) women, while in the second group (study year 2014/5), there were 68 (40.5%) men and 100 (59.5%) women; 168 students in total. They were 24.9±1.6 (generation 2013/4) and 24.9±1.7 (generation 2014/15) years old. Thirty-six percent of the students in the academic year 2013/14 intended to choose family medicine as a future career, and a similar proportion in academic year 2014/15 (31.7%). Gender (χ 2 =6.763, p=0.034) and empathic attitudes (c 2 =14.914; p=0.001) had a bivariate association with an intended career choice of family medicine in the 2014/15 generation. When logistic regression was applied to this group of students, an intended career choice in family medicine was associated with empathic attitudes (OR 1.102, 95% CI 1.040-1.167, p=0.001), being single (OR 3.659, 95% CI 1.150-11.628, p=0.028) and the father having only primary school education (OR 142.857 95% CI 1.868, p=0.025), but not with gender (OR 1.117, 95% CI 0.854-1.621, p=0.320). The level of students' father's education, and not living in an intimate partnership, increased the odds on senior medical students to choose family medicine, yet we expected higher JSE-S scores to be associated with interest in this speciality. To deepen our understanding, this study should be

  6. PREFACE: European Microbeam Analysis Society's 14th European Workshop on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis (EMAS 2015), Portorož, Slovenia, 3-7 May 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llovet, Xavier; Matthews, Michael B.; Čeh, Miran; Langer, Enrico; Žagar, Kristina

    2016-02-01

    This volume of the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 14th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis which took place from the 3rd to the 7th of May 2015 in the Grand Hotel Bernardin, Portorož, Slovenia. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on a career in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a unique format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field.This workshop was organized in collaboration with the Jožef Stefan Institute and SDM - Slovene Society for Microscopy. The technical programme included the following topics: electron probe microanalysis, STEM and EELS, materials applications, cathodoluminescence and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and their applications. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. The best presentation by a young scientist was awarded with an invitation to attend the 2016 Microscopy and Microanalysis meeting at Columbus, Ohio. The prize went to Shirin Kaboli, of the Department of Metals and Materials Engineering of McGill University (Montréal, Canada), for her talk entitled "Electron channelling contrast reconstruction with electron backscattered diffraction". The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 71 posters from 16 countries were on display at the meeting and that the participants came from as far away as Japan, Canada, USA, and Australia. A selection of participants with posters was invited

  7. Fontinalis antipyretica as a bioindicator of environmental conditions in freshwater ecosystem from Sava River watershed and Cerknişko Lake, Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanduč, Tjaša; Mechora, Špela; Stibilj, Vekoslava

    2014-05-01

    Polluted waters recharging from agriculture water systems into watersheds have influence on water quality and living habitat. Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen in combination with other minor and trace elements are often used to trace biogeochemical processes and contamination of water systems. The aim of the study was to assess state of environment with minor and trace elements and stable isotopes of C and N in selected Slovenian streams. Ten locations in Notranjska region, Slovenia, with different land use in the catchment (town, village, agricultural areas, farms, dairy farms), including reference point considered as non-polluted site, were sampled. Samples of water and aquatic moss F. antipyretica in Slovenian fresh waters were taken in all four seasons during years 2010 and 2012, but for stable isotope analyses of C and N only in three seasons during years 2010 and 2011. The water chemistry of investigated locations is dominated by hydrogen carbonate - calcium - magnesium, concentrations of nitrate seasonally range from 2.07 mg/l to 6.4 mg/l and at reference site does not exceed 1.3 mg/l. Total alkalinity of water at investigated locations ranges from 2.9 to 6.02 mM. The pH of investigated water range from 7.2 to 8.5, waters are saturated with oxygen (up to 134%) and conductivity ranges from 295 to 525 mikroS/cm, while at reference site conductivity is up to 180 mikroS/cm. The content of minor and trace elements in F. antipyretica ranged for Ni 4-38 mikrog/g, Zn 17-105 mikrog/g, Pb 2-28 mikrog/g, Cd 220-1953 ng/g, Cu 4-27 mikrog/g, Cr 4-49 mikrog/g, As 1-6 mikrog/g and Se 0.33-3.24 mikrog/g. The most polluted watershed was Pšata stream (agricultural areas, cattle farm) with highest values for Ni, Cr, Pb, Zn and As. The highest content of Se, was found in village (dairy farms) in Žerovniščica stream. The highest values were measured in February and October. Isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon seasonally range from -13.3 to -8.1‰, and

  8. Woman in Physics in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeleznik, Nadja; Conradi, Marjetka; Remskar, Maja

    2009-04-01

    Slovenian female physicists are organized in an informal network that incorporates more than 100 women working in research, academia, government, and industry. In the past three years we have accomplished several actions in order to motivate young girls and students to pursue physics. Our main achievement was publishing the monograph Physics—My Education in September 2007. The book includes 79 autobiographic contributions of female physicists presenting their life and work in different areas: science (institutes and universities), teaching, industry, and government. We have also organized an exhibition about Slovene women in physics, presenting the very first female physicists and all the next generations. A very popular item among women and men was also a T-shirt with our logo. By selling the books and T-shirts we have collected money for scholarships for female students of physics. The first four scholarships were awarded on March 8, 2008, in the spirit of the International Women's Day.

  9. Women in physics in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remskar, Maja; Gunde, Marta Klanjsek; Zeleznik, Nadja; Kralj, Veronika Iglic; Janzekovic, Helena; Gomboc, Andreja

    2013-03-01

    Slovenian female physicists have been organized in the "Neformalna Mreža Slovenskih Fizičark" (Informal Network of Female Physicists) since 2002. The network incorporates more than 120 women working in research, academia, government, and industry. In the last three years we have been active in promoting physics among young girls, educating the public on progress in nuclear science for peaceful use, public discussion on the situation of women in science, and distribution of the book Fizika, Moj Poklic (Physics, My Profession), published in 2007. We have a representative on the National Commission of Women in Science at the Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Technology. In the Commission we proposed a research survey with gender sensitivity on the current situation of researchers with PhD degrees, which was performed in 2010. Here we present the main results of this survey for respondents of both genders working in the natural sciences.

  10. The Use of Legally-Imposed and Locally-Negotiated Incentive Approaches in the Siting of Nuclear Waste Management Facilities: Comparing Stakeholders' Views in the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovenia - 13534

    SciT

    Kojo, Matti; Richardson, Phil

    The purpose here is to contribute to the discussion surrounding the use of community benefits (also known as added value) in radioactive waste facility siting programmes. These are becoming more widely used following a series of programme failures around the world, due in the main to a lack of local involvement. A number of different models for the use of community benefits and why they may or may not assist a siting process exist in the literature, based on either a voluntary market approach or one involving coercion by a state authority or developer. Review of real-life examples suggests thatmore » two main approaches to the use of benefits exist, a 'legally-mandated' approach where details are laid down in legislation, and a 'locally-negotiated' approach where the details are agreed by the parties through discussions. As part of the European Commission supported IPPA project (Implementing Public Participation Approaches in Radioactive Waste Disposal), stakeholder groups in three participant countries, the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovenia, all of which currently utilise the 'legally-mandated' approach to the provision of community benefits, were invited to respond to a series of questions designed to explore their attitudes and thoughts about the two approaches and related issues such as trust in the institutions and the legal framework. Some initial results and conclusions are presented, although this work is continuing and will be reported at the end of the IPPA project in 2013. (authors)« less

  11. A wild ‘albino’ bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) from Slovenia shows three bottlenecks in the anthocyanin pathway and significant differences in the expression of several regulatory genes compared to the common blue berry type

    PubMed Central

    Veberic, Robert; Slatnar, Ana; Koron, Darinka; Miosic, Silvija; Chen, Ming-Hui; Haselmair-Gosch, Christian; Halbwirth, Heidi; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja

    2017-01-01

    Relative expressions of structural genes and a number of transcription factors of the anthocyanin pathway relevant in Vaccinium species, and related key enzyme activities were compared with the composition and content of metabolites in skins of ripe fruits of wild albino and blue bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) found in Slovenia. Compared to the common blue type, the albino variant had a 151-fold lower total anthocyanin and a 7-fold lower total phenolic content in their berry skin, which correlated with lower gene expression of flavonoid 3-O-glycosyltransferase (FGT; 33-fold), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (FHT; 18-fold), anthocyanidin synthase (ANS; 11-fold), chalcone synthase (CHS, 7.6-fold) and MYBPA1 transcription factor (22-fold). The expression of chalcone isomerase (CHI), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR), anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and MYBC2 transcription factor was reduced only by a factor of 1.5–2 in the albino berry skins, while MYBR3 and flavonoid 3’,5’-hydroxylase (F3’5’H) were increased to a similar extent. Expression of the SQUAMOSA class transcription factor TDR4, in contrast, was independent of the color type and does therefore not seem to be correlated with anthocyanin formation in this variant. At the level of enzymes, significantly lower FHT and DFR activities, but not of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and CHS/CHI, were observed in the fruit skins of albino bilberries. A strong increase in relative hydroxycinnamic acid derivative concentrations indicates the presence of an additional bottleneck in the general phenylpropanoid pathway at a so far unknown step between PAL and CHS. PMID:29272302

  12. A wild 'albino' bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) from Slovenia shows three bottlenecks in the anthocyanin pathway and significant differences in the expression of several regulatory genes compared to the common blue berry type.

    PubMed

    Zorenc, Zala; Veberic, Robert; Slatnar, Ana; Koron, Darinka; Miosic, Silvija; Chen, Ming-Hui; Haselmair-Gosch, Christian; Halbwirth, Heidi; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja

    2017-01-01

    Relative expressions of structural genes and a number of transcription factors of the anthocyanin pathway relevant in Vaccinium species, and related key enzyme activities were compared with the composition and content of metabolites in skins of ripe fruits of wild albino and blue bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) found in Slovenia. Compared to the common blue type, the albino variant had a 151-fold lower total anthocyanin and a 7-fold lower total phenolic content in their berry skin, which correlated with lower gene expression of flavonoid 3-O-glycosyltransferase (FGT; 33-fold), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (FHT; 18-fold), anthocyanidin synthase (ANS; 11-fold), chalcone synthase (CHS, 7.6-fold) and MYBPA1 transcription factor (22-fold). The expression of chalcone isomerase (CHI), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR), anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and MYBC2 transcription factor was reduced only by a factor of 1.5-2 in the albino berry skins, while MYBR3 and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) were increased to a similar extent. Expression of the SQUAMOSA class transcription factor TDR4, in contrast, was independent of the color type and does therefore not seem to be correlated with anthocyanin formation in this variant. At the level of enzymes, significantly lower FHT and DFR activities, but not of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and CHS/CHI, were observed in the fruit skins of albino bilberries. A strong increase in relative hydroxycinnamic acid derivative concentrations indicates the presence of an additional bottleneck in the general phenylpropanoid pathway at a so far unknown step between PAL and CHS.

  13. Public perception and stakeholder involvement in the crisis management of sediment-related disasters and their mitigation: the case of the Stože debris flow in NW Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Mikoš, Matjaz

    2011-04-01

    Sediments can pose a threat to humans not only when these deposits are polluted but also due to their large quantities. This physical aspect of sediments as a risk will be shown on a case study of a sediment-related disaster that occurred in the mountainous part of Slovenia, Central Europe in 2000. In November 2000, after a long wet period a large debris landslide had been triggered on the Stože slope and stopped in the channel of the Mangart creek. Such an event took the majority of local inhabitants and emergency staff by surprise. Nevertheless, they had just organized the first mitigation measures when, after 35 hours, they were surprised by an even larger debrisflowinitiated as the second phase of the same mass movement event. Within a few minutes, the wet debris flow had devastated the alpine valley of the Koritnica River and killed 7 people in the village of Log pod Mangartom. This paper deals with crisis management and first mitigation measures under this very tense situation of searching for dead bodies. The uncertainty about possible new debris flows drove all inhabitants out of the village by a decision of the civil protection unit, and also other activities of the emergency relief units were overshadowed by the 7 victims. One of the main problems and challenges at the same time was the over 700,000 m³ of wet debris flow deposits in the area of the village of Log pod Mangartom within the Triglav National park, which posed a direct threat of flooding during the first heavy rainfalls in spring 2001, and which were about to be removed to make place for future debris flows. The understanding about what really happened or about the immediate triggering factors was different among the professionals in charge for relief action and for preparing a final remediation plan. The first phase during and immediately after the disaster (relief intervention of emergency units especially those for civil protection) can be described as Concern-Driven Crisis Management or

  14. Studies of body composition in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Tomazo-Ravnik, T

    1998-12-01

    The distribution of subcutaneous fat, fat mass and body composition in the growth period between 14 and 18 years of age was analysed in Slovenian youths. Measurements were taken in the years 1988/89 on 282 boys and 299 girls originating from towns and villages. The fat pattern was analysed using the indices of subcutaneous adiposity, trunk adiposity, extremity adiposity and trunk/extremity ratio. Fat mass was calculated using the method of Slaughter and body composition with the five-way fractionation method of Ross and Kerr. The amount of fat increases with age, with higher values in girls. Lean body mass is as expected greater in boys. This analysis shows the dynamics of changes of skin, adipose, muscle, bone and residual masses. The difference between predicted and actual, measured weights in the male series are between 3.53 to 3.17 kg and in the female between 4.02 to 4.69 kg.

  15. Contextualising ECEC Research: The Case of Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidmar, Maša

    2015-01-01

    In the present study the longitudinal relations between quantity of centre-based child care (in months) and teacher reports of internalising and externalising behaviour in the first and second grades were examined for 325 Slovenian children. The socio-political context of affordable, accessible and homogenously high-quality child care is quite…

  16. Analyses of gold artifacts from Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šmit, Ž.; Budnar, M.; Pelicon, P.; Zorko, B.; Knific, T.; Istenič, J.; Trampuž-Orel, N.; Demortier, G.

    2000-03-01

    The method of particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) was used for the study of two gold archaeological finds: a Norico-Pannonian brooch, presumably a votive item, and a pair of earrings and a ring from a Slavic female grave. The analysis was performed by an external proton millibeam and aimed to identify the manufacturing techniques. The brooch, including the spring, was made of a rather pure 98% gold. This may indicate that the brooch was produced for votive purposes, as a more flexible spring would suit an object to be worn. The Slavic ring was made of a different alloy than the earrings; moreover, its inhomogeneous alloy reveals the exploitation of local gold sources.

  17. Metrology Institute of the Republic of Slovenia

    participated in this process, which has enabled us to identify goals and key field of action. The strategy is the basis for further actions and action plans that are to be... More 19. 12. 2017 Congratulations to

  18. Protection against lightning on the geomagnetic observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čop, R.; Milev, G.; Deželjin, D.; Kosmač, J.

    2014-04-01

    The Sinji Vrh Geomagnetic Observatory was built on the brow of the mountain Gora, above Ajdovščina, and all over Europe one may hardly find an area which is more often struck by lightning than this south-western part of Slovenia. When the humid air masses of a storm front hit the edge of Gora, they rise up more than 1000 m in a very short time, and this causes the additional electrical charge of stormy clouds. The reliability of operations performed in the every building of observatory could be increased by understanding the formation of lightning in the thunderstorm cloud, the application of already proven methods of protection against a strike of lightning and against its secondary effects. To reach this goal the following groups of experts have to co-operate: the experts in the field of protection against lightening phenomenon, the constructors and manufacturers of equipment and the observatory managers.

  19. Protection against lightning at a geomagnetic observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čop, R.; Milev, G.; Deželjin, D.; Kosmač, J.

    2014-08-01

    The Sinji Vrh Geomagnetic Observatory was built on the brow of Gora, the mountain above Ajdovščina, which is a part of Trnovo plateau, and all over Europe one can hardly find an area which is more often struck by lightning than this southwestern part of Slovenia. When the humid air masses of a storm front hit the edge of Gora, they rise up more than 1000 m in a very short time, and this causes an additional electrical charge of stormy clouds. The reliability of operations performed in every section of the observatory could be increased by understanding the formation of lightning in a thunderstorm cloud and the application of already-proven methods of protection against a stroke of lightning and against its secondary effects. To reach this goal the following groups of experts have to cooperate: experts in the field of protection against lightning, constructors and manufacturers of equipment and observatory managers.

  20. Ti-in-biotite geothermometry in non-graphitic, peraluminous metapelites from Crni vrh and Resavski humovi (Central Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erić, Suzana; Logar, Mihovil; Milovanović, Dragan; Babič, Danilo; Adnađević, Borivoj

    2009-02-01

    The study discusses the application of the Ti-in-biotite geothermometer of Henry et al. (2005) to the example of biotites from non-graphitic peraluminous micaschists of Central Serbia. Three petrographically different micaschists were distinguished on the basis of the following mineral assemblages: CV1 (St-Grt-Bt-Ms-Pg-Pl-Qtz), CV2 (Grt-St-Ky-Bt-Ms-Pl-Qtz) and RH (Grt-St-Bt-Ms-Pl-Qtz). Applying different geothermobarometers it was estimated that the studied micaschists were metamorphosed at average temperatures and pressures of 530 °C and 520 MPa (CV1incl), 580 °C and 670 MPa (CV1), 630 °C and 700 MPa (CV2) and 550 °C, 680 MPa (RH). The average temperatures obtained by the Ti-in-biotite method revealed uniform values for CV1 and CV2 micaschists and these values are very similar to the temperatures obtained by other methods. In contrast, the application of Ti-in-biotite geothermometer for RH micaschist yields the temperature difference of 85-110 °C. The variability of temperature is interpreted as a result of a positive correlation of Ti contents and XMg values in RH biotite, which is in disagreement with the principles of the Ti-in-biotite method. The positive Ti-XMg correlation is a result of the compositional variability shown by RH biotites from different samples, which can possibly be related to compositional inhomogeneities of the pelitic protolith. On the other hand, the Ti-in-biotite geothermometer for CV2 biotite gave very uniform temperatures despite variable Ti contents (Ti = 0.260, sd = 0.018 apfu). This is explained as result of the low sensitivity of Ti-in-biotite geothermometer for high Ti concentrations (> 0.25 apfu).

  1. Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in wild game in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Križman, M.; Kirbiš, A.; Jamnikar-Ciglenečki, U.

    2017-09-01

    Wildlife is usually not exposed to clinically-used antimicrobial agents but can acquire antimicrobial resistance throughout contact with humans, domesticated animals and environments. Samples of faeces from intestines (80 in total) were collected from roe deer (52), wild boars (11), chamois (10) red deer (6) and moufflon (1). After culture on ChromID extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) plates to select for growth of ESBL-producing bacteria, 25 samples produced bacterial colonies for further study. Six species of bacteria were identified from the 25 samples: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Serratia fonticola, Stenotrophomonas nitritireducens, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. Two ESBL enzymes were amplified from group TEM and three from group CTX-M-1. Undercooked game meat and salami can be a source of resistant bacteria when animals are not eviscerated properly.

  2. Immigrant Students' Achievements in Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Šori, Iztok; Šušteric, Nika; Gaber, Slavko

    2011-01-01

    Achievement gaps between immigrant and native students indicate failure to assure educational equity in the majority of countries assessed by the Programme for International Student Assessment in 2009 (PISA, 2009). The present article explains disparate achievement results in Europe, first testing the hypothesis of old and new democracies. In…

  3. In Slovenia, Sostanj Primary School Collaborates with Its Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cercek, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    Sostanj Primary School offers a learning process which can enrich traditional forms of schooling. It demonstrates how a school, including its infrastructure, can influence family life and the environment, creating new social patterns and a local identity. Pupils and teachers are involved in different thematic projects and programmes, together with…

  4. Some Aspects of Sustainable Development in Kindergartens in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vodopivec, Jurka Lepicnik

    2011-01-01

    Aspects of environmental crisis (industrialization, explosive growth of population and urbanization) have a negative effect on the environment. However, they also impact the mentality of population (for example, urbanization has lead to the decreasing numbers of adults and children having a direct contact with the natural environment).…

  5. Adolescents in the Postsocialist Slovenia: Between Parental Authority and Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhar, Metka

    2010-01-01

    The study examines the relationship between parental and adolescents' perceptions of (communicative) ways of parental power assertion in situations challenging parental authority (dialogical communication, parental reminder, nonreciprocal communication), the perceived most probable outcomes of these situations, and attitudes toward ideal outcomes…

  6. Measuring Efficiency of Secondary Healthcare Providers in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Blatnik, Patricia; Bojnec, Štefan; Tušak, Matej

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The chief aim of this study was to analyze secondary healthcare providers' efficiency, focusing on the efficiency analysis of Slovene general hospitals. We intended to present a complete picture of technical, allocative, and cost or economic efficiency of general hospitals. Methods We researched the aspects of efficiency with two econometric methods. First, we calculated the necessary quotients of efficiency with the stochastic frontier analyze (SFA), which are realized by econometric evaluation of stochastic frontier functions; then, with the data envelopment analyze (DEA), we calculated the necessary quotients that are based on the linear programming method. Results Results on measures of efficiency showed that the two chosen methods produced two different conclusions. The SFA method concluded Celje General Hospital is the most efficient general hospital, whereas the DEA method concluded Brežice General Hospital was the hospital to be declared as the most efficient hospital. Conclusion Our results are a useful tool that can aid managers, payers, and designers of healthcare policy to better understand how general hospitals operate. The participants can accordingly decide with less difficulty on any further business operations of general hospitals, having the best practices of general hospitals at their disposal. PMID:28730180

  7. Snežna jama (Slovenia): Interdisciplinary dating of cave sediments and implication for landscape evolution.

    PubMed

    Häuselmann, Philipp; Mihevc, Andrej; Pruner, Petr; Horáček, Ivan; Čermák, Stanislav; Hercman, Helena; Sahy, Diana; Fiebig, Markus; Hajna, Nadja Zupan; Bosák, Pavel

    2015-10-15

    Caves are important markers of surface evolution, since they are, as a general rule, linked with ancient valley bottoms by their springs. However, caves can only be dated indirectly by means of the sediments they contain. If the sediment is older than common dating methods, one has to use multiple dating approaches in order to get meaningful results. U/Th dating, palaeomagnetic analysis of flowstone and sediment profiles, cosmogenic dating of quartz pebbles, and mammalian dating allowed a robust estimate of speleogenesis, sediment deposition, climatic change at the surface, and uplift history on the Periadriatic fault line during the Plio-Pleistocene. Our dates indicate that Snežna jama was formed in the (Upper) Miocene, received its sedimentary deposits during the Pliocene in a rather low-lying, hilly landscape, and became inactive due to uplift along the Periadriatic and Sava faults and climatic changes at the beginning of the Quaternary. Although it is only a single cave, the information contained within it makes it an important site of the Southern Alps.

  8. Rate and Risk of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Among Sportswomen in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Vauhnik, Renata; Morrissey, Matthew C.; Rutherford, Olga M.; Turk, Zmago; Pilih, Iztok A.; Perme, Maja Pohar

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Context: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-injury rate is greater among female athletes than among male athletes. Objective: To investigate the rate and risk of ACL injury among Slovenian sportswomen playing professional basketball, team handball, or volleyball. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: The Slovenian National Organizations of basketball, team handball, and volleyball. Patients or Other Participants: During the 2003–2004 season, we prospectively followed 585 Slovenian sportswomen registered in the Slovenian National Organizations of basketball, team handball, and volleyball. Main Outcome Measure(s): We asked sportswomen and coaches to document the occurrence of every significant traumatic knee injury requiring medical attention. Injury rate and injury risk were calculated for sportswomen in each sport group. To calculate injury rate, we estimated the average exposure of each sportswoman during the research period. Results: During the 2003–2004 season, 585 Slovenian sportswomen sustained 12 ACL injuries. The ACL-injury risk was different in athletes participating in the various sports, with basketball players having the greatest ACL-injury risk and volleyball players having the lowest ACL-injury risk (P  =  .04). The risk of ACL injury among Slovenian sportswomen was 2.1 per 100 athletes (95% confidence interval  =  0.9, 3.2), whereas the rate of ACL injury was 0.037 per 1000 exposure hours (95% confidence interval  =  0.016, 0.06). Conclusions: Overall differences in injury risk were found among sports, but no differences were noted among divisions within sports. No differences for injury rate were observed between or within sports. The rate and risk of ACL injury among Slovenian sportswomen are high, with basketball players having the greatest ACL-injury risk. PMID:21214356

  9. To What Extent Do School Leaders in Slovenia Understand Physical School Environments as a Learning Factor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cencic, Majda

    2017-01-01

    School leaders are a central factor of the quality of learning and teaching in schools. It is generally believed that the staff model their behaviour on leaders, which means if school leaders understand the physical school environment to be an important factor of learning, school staff (teachers and other professional staff) will also do so. To…

  10. Rethinking Adult Education for Development II. Conference Proceedings (Ljubljana, Slovenia, October 6-9, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svetina, Metka, Ed.

    This book contains papers, reports, and opening and closing speeches presented at a worldwide conference of adult education experts. The document begins with the following: an introduction (Jelenc); a reprinted article, "Time to Collectively Rethink Our Field" (Franklin W. Spikes); and opening speeches by various adult education officials (Jelenc,…

  11. Frequency of Preschool Teacher Education Students' Participation in Extracurricular Music Activities in Croatia and Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaškovic, Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Extracurricular music activities are those performed outside regular and obligatory school programme. Students' aesthetic education is the goal of art extracurricular activities. The point and purpose of these activities is to uphold favourable conditions for the realisation of various cultural-art activities through which the insight into…

  12. Self-medication among healthcare and non-healthcare students at University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika; Hladnik, Ziga; Kersnik, Janko

    2010-01-01

    To determine the incidence of self-medication among University of Ljubljana students and the effect of the type of curriculum on the pattern of self-medication. The study included a sample of 1,294 students who freely accessed a self-administered web-based questionnaire in the Slovene language that consisted of a preliminary letter introducing the term 'self-treatment' and 2 sections about self-medication. The preliminary letter asked participants to report the practice of self-treatment during the past year. The main outcome measures were percentages of those reporting self-medication during the past year, which were then used to compare healthcare and non-healthcare students. A majority of students (1,195, 92.3%), both healthcare and non-healthcare, reported the use of some sort of self-medication during the study period. More healthcare students in their senior year (353, 94.1%) than those in their junior year (245, 89.4%) used self-medication (p = 0.04). Healthcare students (p = 0.05) thought that self-medication without improvement of the symptoms should last for 1 week or less. They acquired the drugs for self-medication from pharmacies; thought that previous doctors' advice in a similar situation was a more important reason for self-medication; would seek the advice of a physician or pharmacist for different ways of self-treatment, and quite interestingly thought that self-medication was not very safe. On the other hand, non-healthcare students acquired the drugs from healers and friends. The study showed that self-medication was common among all University of Ljubljana students, but that healthcare-related education in students and young adults led to more responsible use of self-medication. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Freshwater biodissolution rates of limestone in the temperate climate of the Dinaric karst in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulec, J.; Prelovšek, M.

    2015-01-01

    Dissolution rates in two freshwater karst systems were determined by using tablets of dense micrite-biopelmicrite Cretaceous limestone. Submerged limestone tablets in riverbeds were subjected to a natural gradient from complete darkness to direct sunlight. Higher light rates significantly (p < 0.05) increased the epilithic biomass of phototrophs and the overall dissolution rates, which were highest at the Unica spring (- 49.2 μm a- 1), but the exact portion of light-dependent dissolution remains elusive. In the karst river Unica, with its big fluctuations in environmental parameters (e.g., discharge), light rates can be used in estimating the dissolution rates enhanced by phototrophs. Natural biofilms in aquatic systems have important implications for landform evolution, and the impact on limestone dissolution rates is comparable with rates of debris falling from steep slopes.

  14. Bureaucratisation of the Teaching Profession in Decentralised Vocational Education--The Case of Slovenia, Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ermenc, Klara Skubic; Mažgon, Jasna

    2015-01-01

    Since 2001, Slovenian vocational education has undergone major changes at the curricular and financing levels, particularly moving towards competence-based and open curricula and the decentralisation of responsibilities. Both tendencies have changed the role of the teacher, who has become a team worker with many new responsibilities in planning,…

  15. Mercury Contamination and Biogeochemical Cycling Associated with the Historic Idrija Mining Area of Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, M. E.; Bonzongo, J. J.; Barkay, T.; Horvat, M.; Faganeli, J.

    2001-12-01

    The Idrija Mine is the second largest Hg mine in the world, which operated for 500 years before recently closing. More than five million tons of ore were mined with only 73% recovered. Hg-laden tailings still line the banks. Exhausts from stacks and mineshafts caused elevated levels of airborne Hg, most of which was deposited in the Idrija basin leading to elevated Hg levels in surficial soils. Hg is continually being transported downstream with approximately 1,500 kg per year entering the northern Adriatic Sea 100 km away. Multidisciplinary studies were conducted on samples collected throughout the Idrija and Soca River systems and waters and sediments in the Gulf of Trieste including Hg speciation, Hg transformation activities in sediments and soils, and the presence and expression of bacterial Hg resistance (mer) genes. Total Hg in the Idrija River increased from <3 to >300 ng/L with MeHg accounting for about 0.5%. Concentrations decreased downstream, but increased again in the Soca River and in the estuary with MeHg accounting for nearly 1.5% of the total. However, while bacteria upstream of the mine did not contain mer genes, such genes were detected in bacteria collected downstream for nearly 40 km, and these genes were transcribed. Total Hg levels decreased offshore, but values over 30 ng/L were noted in bottom waters. MeHg concentrations in the Gulf were highest in bottom waters. Sediments near the river mouth contained 40 micro-g/g total Hg with MeHg concentrations of about 3 ng/g. Sediments several km into the Gulf contained 50-fold less total Hg but only 10-fold less MeHg that decreased with depth in the sediment. Hg in sediment pore waters varied between 1 and 8 ng/L, with MeHg accounting for about 30%. Hg methylation and MeHg demethylation were active in Gulf sediments with highest activities near the surface. MeHg was degraded by an oxidative pathway with >97% of the C released from MeHg as carbon dioxide. Hg methylation depth profiles resembled profiles of dissolved MeHg. Despite the closure of the Idrija Mine, Hg-laden waters still strongly impact the riverine, estuarine, and marine systems. Organisms in the Idrija River responded to Hg stress, and high Hg levels persist into the Gulf. Increases in total Hg and MeHg in the estuary demonstrate the remobilization of Hg, presumably as HgS dissolution and recycling. Gulf sediments actively produce MeHg, which enters bottoms waters and the marine food chain.

  16. Snežna jama (Slovenia): Interdisciplinary dating of cave sediments and implication for landscape evolution

    PubMed Central

    Häuselmann, Philipp; Mihevc, Andrej; Pruner, Petr; Horáček, Ivan; Čermák, Stanislav; Hercman, Helena; Sahy, Diana; Fiebig, Markus; Hajna, Nadja Zupan; Bosák, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Caves are important markers of surface evolution, since they are, as a general rule, linked with ancient valley bottoms by their springs. However, caves can only be dated indirectly by means of the sediments they contain. If the sediment is older than common dating methods, one has to use multiple dating approaches in order to get meaningful results. U/Th dating, palaeomagnetic analysis of flowstone and sediment profiles, cosmogenic dating of quartz pebbles, and mammalian dating allowed a robust estimate of speleogenesis, sediment deposition, climatic change at the surface, and uplift history on the Periadriatic fault line during the Plio-Pleistocene. Our dates indicate that Snežna jama was formed in the (Upper) Miocene, received its sedimentary deposits during the Pliocene in a rather low-lying, hilly landscape, and became inactive due to uplift along the Periadriatic and Sava faults and climatic changes at the beginning of the Quaternary. Although it is only a single cave, the information contained within it makes it an important site of the Southern Alps. PMID:26516294

  17. On-Entry Assessment of School Competencies and Academic Achievement: A Comparison between Slovenia and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidmar, Maša; Niklas, Frank; Schneider, Wolfgang; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    The foundation of school success is laid early in children's lives. Consequently, assessments of academic precursors may help to identify children in need of additional support. Such early assessments could also be interesting from an international perspective when educational systems are compared. This analysis is used to inform on the…

  18. Work-family balance by women GP specialist trainees in Slovenia: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Petek, Davorina; Gajsek, Tadeja; Petek Ster, Marija

    2016-01-28

    Women physicians face many challenges while balancing their many roles: doctor, specialist trainee, mother and partner. The most opportune biological time for a woman to start a family coincides with a great deal of demands and requirements at work. In this study we explored the options and capabilities of women GP specialist trainees in coordinating their family and career. This is a phenomenological qualitative research. Ten GP specialist trainees from urban and rural areas were chosen by the purposive sampling technique, and semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted, recorded, transcribed and analysed by using thematic analysis process. Open coding and the book of codes were formed. Finally, we performed the process of code reduction by identifying the themes, which were compared, interpreted and organised in the highest analytical units--categories. One hundred fifty-five codes were identified in the analysis, which were grouped together into eleven themes. The identified themes are: types, causes and consequences of burdens, work as pleasure and positive attitude toward self, priorities, planning and help, and understanding of superiors, disburdening and changing in specialisation. The themes were grouped into four large categories: burdens, empowerment, coordination and needs for improvement. Women specialist trainees encounter intense burdens at work and home due to numerous demands and requirements during their specialisation training. In addition, there is also the issue of the work-family conflict. There are many consequences regarding burden and strain; however, burnout stands out the most. In contrast, reconciliation of work and family life and needs can be successful. The key element is empowerment of women doctors. The foremost necessary systemic solution is the reinforcement of general practitioners in primary health care and their understanding of the specialisation training scheme with more flexible possibilities for time adaptations of specialist training.

  19. Črna Jama as a cold air trap cave within Postojna Cave, Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šebela, Stanka; Turk, Janez

    2017-10-01

    Črna Jama is the coldest section of cave within the Postojna Cave System. Mean annual air temperatures at the Črna Jama 2 site are 5.6 °C (2015) and 5.7 °C (2016), and at the Črna Jama 3 site 7.1 °C (2015) and 7.2 (2016), whereas the mean external air temperature was 10.3 °C (2015) and 10.0 °C (2016). In Lepe Jame, the passage most heavily visited by tourists, the mean cave-air temperature is 10.7 °C (2014-2017). Črna Jama exhibits winter and summer temperature regimes. During warm periods (Tcave < Tout), it acts as a cold air trap, exchanging no air with the outside atmosphere. Under such conditions the cave-air temperature shows no short-term diurnal temperature oscillations. Cave-air temperature is significantly stable and affected only by elevation of the groundwater table, which is associated with precipitation. During cold periods (Tcave > Tout), ventilation takes place and dense, cold, outside air sinks into Črna Jama because of the favourable cave entrance morphology. Recent Črna Jama air temperature data (2014-2017) indicate a < 0.5 °C higher temperature than that recorded in historical data since 1933. Črna Jama is the most appropriate place within the Postojna Cave System to study long-term climatic changes. There are hardly any tourist visits to the cave, and human impacts on the cave climate are essentially reduced.

  20. Generational changes in the growth of children from Maribor and Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Bigec, Martin

    2013-05-01

    Among the numerous factors which influence a child's growth and development are also factors of changeable socio-economic environment and life style. Our aim was to evaluate these changes and contribute to preventive measures and evaluation of a child's growth in pediatric practice. Therefore, we decided to estimate the state of body growth in two generations of children from Maribor at five and six years of age of both gender, establish secular changes and define standards. On a representative sample (gender and age) of 1461 children from Maribor measured in 1996 and a sample of 608 children from Maribor, measured in 1966, 28 body features were studied and compared in each population unit. Variables were statistically and epidemiologically assessed and results were controlled by a test. The following anthropometric differences were significant: in 5-year old boys the measures in the 1996 generation are statistically higher than in 1966 - foot length, head length, upper arm skinfold, subscapular skinfold, arm length, arm diameter, upper thigh skinfold, stature (length), suprailiac skinfold, and body weight. Decreased measures are: abdomen circumference, knee circumference, sitting height, elbow circumference, biacromial diameter, and face heigth. In 6-year old boys additional features have increased in comparison with the year 1966: sternal height, tight circumference, hip width, chest circumference; following measures have decreased: face height, head circumference. In 5-year old girls: increased measures in comparison with the generation from 1966 are: lower leg length, head length, ankle circumference, upper arm skinfold, body weight, billiac diameter, body height, subscapular skinfold, chest circumference, hip circumference, sternal height, suprailiac skinfold, decreased measures are: head circumference, elbow circumference, face circumference, shoulder with, sitting height. In 6-year old girls additional measures are increased: wrist circumference, arm length and chest circumference. Changing trends show an increased tendency towards decrease or increase of most body measurements. In everyday practice the most commonly used measurements are: body mass, head circumference, body length in babies and body height in pre-school children. Our measurements proved, with a p-value of 0.001, that measurements of children in 1966, also shown in diagrams, are significantly different from measurements in 1996. In the second part of this paper we present a part of the anthropometric measurement study carried out for the standardization of the DENVER II developmental screening test. There were 1596 healthy Slovene children between zero and six and half years of age included into the observation. Children come from Maribor, Koper, Velenje and Ljubljana. We used the Cameron's measurement and statistical method. Diagrams were made for following body measures: body mass, body height, head circumference, upper arm circumference, thigh circumference and body mass index. A comparative analysis with the Euro-Growth study showed that our results correspond with the European standards. Therefore, our results are suggested to be applied in everyday pediatric practice.

  1. Late Quaternary glaciation of the Upper Soca River Region (Southern Julian Alps, NW Slovenia)

    Bavec, Milos; Tulaczyk, Slawek M.; Mahan, Shannon; Stock, Gregory M.

    2004-01-01

    Extent of Late Quaternary glaciers in the Upper Soc??a River Region (Southern Julian Alps, SE Europe) has been analyzed using a combination of geological mapping, glaciological modeling, and sediment dating (radiocarbon, U/Th series and Infrared Stimulated Luminescence-IRSL). Field investigations focused mainly on relatively well preserved Quaternary sequences in the Bovec Basin, an intramontane basin located SW of the Mediterranean/Black Sea divide and surrounded by mountain peaks reaching from approximately 2100 up to 2587 m a.s.l. Within the Basin we recognized two Late Quaternary sedimentary assemblages, which consist of the same facies association of diamictons, laminated lacustrine deposits and sorted fluvial sediments. Radiocarbon dating of the upper part of the lake sediments sequence (between 12790??85 and 5885??60 14C years b.p.) indicates that the younger sedimentary assemblage was deposited during the last glacial maximum and through early Holocene (Marine Isotope Stage 21, MIS 2-1). Sediment ages obtained for the older assemblage with U/Th and IRSL techniques (between 154.74??22.88 and 129.93??7.90 ka b.p. for selected samples) have large errors but both methods yield results consistent with deposition during the penultimate glacial-interglacial transition (MIS 6-5). Based on analyses of field data combined with glaciological modeling, we argue that both sediment complexes formed due to high sediment productivity spurred by paraglacial conditions with glaciers present in the uplands around the Bovec Basin but not extending down to the basin floor. Our study shows that the extent and intensity of direct glacial sedimentation by Late Quaternary glaciers in the region was previously significantly overestimated. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. When and How Does Europe Matter? Higher Education Policy Change in Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukasovic, Martina

    2014-01-01

    The study underlying this article investigates the factors under which European policy initiatives with respect to higher education (HE), such as the Bologna Process, lead to policy change at the national level. In theoretical terms, it uses institutionalist approaches to the Europeanization of public policy developed in the fields of comparative…

  3. Mercury biogeochemistry in the Idrija River, Slovenia, from above the mine into the Gulf of Trieste

    Hines, M.E.; Horvat, M.; Faganeli, J.; Bonzongo, J.-C.J.; Barkay, T.; Major, E.B.; Scott, K.J.; Bailey, E.A.; Warwick, J.J.; Lyons, W.B.

    2000-01-01

    The Idrija Mine is the second largest Hg mine in the world which operated for 500 years. Mercury (Hg)-laden tailings still line the banks, and the system is a threat to the Idrija River and water bodies downstream including the Soca/Isonzo River and the Gulf of Trieste in the northern Adriatic Sea. A multidisciplinary study was conducted in June 1998 on water samples collected throughout the Idrija and Soca River systems and waters and sediments in the Gulf. Total Hg in the Idrija River increased >20-fold downstream of the mine from 60 ng liter-1 with methyl mercury (MeHg) accounting for ~0.5%. Concentrations increased again downstream and into the estuary with MeHg accounting for nearly 1.5% of the total. While bacteria upstream of the mine did not contain mercury detoxification genes (mer), such genes were detected in bacteria collected downstream. Benthic macroinvertebrate diversity decreased downstream of the mine. Gulf waters near the river mouth contained up to 65 ng liter-1 total Hg with ~0.05 ng liter-1 MeHg. Gulf sediments near the river mouth contained 40 ??g g-1 total Hg with MeHg concentrations of about 3 ng g-1. Hg in sediment pore waters varied between 1 and 8 ng liter-1, with MeHg accounting for up to 85%. Hg methylation and MeHg demethylation were active in Gulf sediments with highest activities near the surface. MeHg was degraded by an oxidative pathway with >97% C released from MeHg as CO2. Hg methylation depth profiles resembled profiles of dissolved MeHg. Hg-laden waters still strongly impact the riverine, estuarine, and marine systems. Macroinvertebrates and bacteria in the Idrija River responded to Hg stress, and high Hg levels persist into the Gulf. Increases in total Hg and MeHg in the estuary demonstrate the remobilization of Hg, presumably as HgS dissolution and recycling. Gulf sediments actively produce MeHg, which enters bottom waters and presumably the marine food chain. (C) 2000 Academic Press.

  4. Bilingualism through the Eyes of Monolinguals and Bilinguals. Attitudes of Adolescents from Slovenia and Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlan, Marina

    This study assessed differences in attitudes toward bilingualism within and between two groups of monolingual and bilingual adolescents in two neighboring regions, Slovene Istra and the coastal area of Italy. Participants were 227 monolingual and bilingual secondary school students who provided demographic information and completed a scale that…

  5. Association of dietary type with fecal microbiota in vegetarians and omnivores in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Matijašić, Bojana Bogovič; Obermajer, Tanja; Lipoglavšek, Luka; Grabnar, Iztok; Avguštin, Gorazd; Rogelj, Irena

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover differences in the human fecal microbiota composition driven by long-term omnivore versus vegan/lacto-vegetarian dietary pattern. In addition, the possible association of demographic characteristics and dietary habits such as consumption of particular foods with the fecal microbiota was examined. This study was conducted on a Slovenian population comprising 31 vegetarian participants (11 lacto-vegetarians and 20 vegans) and 29 omnivore participants. Bacterial DNA was extracted from the frozen fecal samples by Maxwell 16 Tissue DNA Purification Kit (Promega). Relative quantification of selected bacterial groups was performed by real-time PCR. Differences in fecal microbiota composition were evaluated by PCR-DGGE fingerprinting of the V3 16S rRNA region. Participants' demographic characteristics, dietary habits and health status information were collected through a questionnaire. Vegetarian diet was associated with higher ratio (% of group-specific DNA in relation to all bacterial DNA) of Bacteroides-Prevotella, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Clostridium clostridioforme and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, but with lower ratio (%) of Clostridium cluster XIVa. Real-time PCR also showed a higher concentration and ratio of Enterobacteriaceae (16S rDNA copies/g and %) in female participants (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01) and decrease in Bifidobacterium with age (p < 0.01). DGGE analysis of the 16S rRNA V3 region showed that relative quantity of DGGE bands from certain bacterial groups was lower (Bifidobacterium, Streptococus, Collinsella and Lachnospiraceae) or higher (Subdoligranulum) among vegetarians, indicating the association of dietary type with bacterial community composition. Sequencing of selected DGGE bands revealed the presence of common representatives of fecal microbiota: Bacteroides, Eubacterium, Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcaceae, Bifidobacterium and Lachnospiraceae. Up to 4 % of variance in microbial community analyzed by DGGE could be explained by the vegetarian type of diet. Long-term vegetarian diet contributed to quantity and associated bacterial community shifts in fecal microbiota composition. Consumption of foods of animal origin (eggs, red meat, white meat, milk, yoghurt, other dairy products, fish and seafood) and vegetarian type of diet explained the largest share of variance in microbial community structure. Fecal microbiota composition was also associated with participants' age, gender and body mass.

  6. Detection of mycobacteria in aquarium fish in Slovenia by culture and molecular methods.

    PubMed

    Pate, M; Jencic, V; Zolnir-Dovc, M; Ocepek, M

    2005-04-06

    Thirty-five aquarium fish were investigated for the presence of mycobacteria by culture and molecular methods. The following species were examined: goldfish Carassius auratus auratus, guppy Poecilia reticulata, 4 three-spot gourami Trichogaster trichopterus, dwarf gourami Colisa lalia, Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens, freshwater angelfish Pterophyllum scalare, African cichlid fish Cichlidae spp., cichlid fish Microgeophagus altispinosus, cichlid fish Pseudotropheus lombardoi, blue streak hap Labidochromis caeruleus, sterlet Acipenser ruthenus, southern platyfish Xiphophorus maculatus, and catfish Corydoras spp. Isolates of mycobacteria were obtained in 29 cases (82.9%). Two specimens were positive using Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining, but the cultivation failed. Four specimens were both ZN- and culture-negative. On the basis of GenoType Mycobacterium assay (Hain Life-science) and restriction enzyme analysis of the amplified products (PCR-RFLP), 23 isolates (79.3%) were identified: 7 as Mycobacterium fortuitum, 6 as M. gordonae, 6 as M. marinum, 3 as M. chelonae, and 1 as M. peregrinum. Five isolates remained unidentified (Mycobacterium spp.). One case probably represented a mixed infection (M. marinum/M. fortuitum). Since M. marinum infections are also detected in humans, the significance of mycobacteria in aquarium fish should not be overlooked.

  7. Pre-School Foreign Language Teaching and Learning--A Network Innovation Project in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumen, Mihaela; Berro, Fanika Fras; Cagran, Branka

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes some findings about teaching foreign languages (FL) in a pre-school setting obtained from the Network Innovation Project (NIP). The aims of the NIP were to research and practise the most effective teaching approaches and organizational models in teaching and learning of FL in pre-schools. The objectives were to determine how…

  8. Teacher Development in Slovenia for Teaching Foreign Languages at the Primary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumen, Mihaela; Fojkar, Mateja Dagarin

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of foreign languages into the first three-year cycle of primary school has spurred the need for qualified teachers, and is one of the main discussion points among experts in foreign language teaching. Most of the contemporary studies report that there is a global gap between the supply of qualified teachers of foreign languages to…

  9. What Comes Beyond the Standard Models, Proceedings to the 9th Workshop held in Bled, Slovenia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankoc Borstnik, Norma; Nielsen, Holger Bech; Froggatt, Colin D.; Lukman, Dragan

    2006-12-01

    Contents: 1. Child Universes in the Laboratory (S. Ansoldi and E.I. Guendelman) 2. Relation between Finestructure Constants at the Planck Scale from Multiple Point Principle (D.L. Bennett, L.V. Laperashvili and H.B. Nielsen) 3. On the Origin of Families of Fermions and Their Mass Matrices -- Approximate Analyses of Properties of Four Families Within Approach Unifying Spins and Charges (M. Breskvar, D. Lukman and N.S. Mankoc Borstnik) 4. Cosmoparticle Physics: Cross-disciplinary Study of Physics Beyond the Standard Model (M.Yu. Khlopov) 5. Discussion Section on 4th Generation (M.Yu. Khlopov) 6. Involution Requirement on a Boundary Makes Massless Fermions Compactified on a Finite Flat Disk Mass Protected (N.S. Mankoc Borstnik and H.B. Nielsen) 7. How Can Group Theory be Generalized so Perhaps Providing Further Information About Our Universe? (R. Mirman) 8. Future Dependent Initial Conditions from Imaginary Part in Lagrangian (H.B. Nielsen and M. Ninomiya) 9. Coupling Self-tuning to Critical Lines From Highly Compact Extra Dimensions (K. Petrov)

  10. Correlation of TBE Incidence with Red Deer and Roe Deer Abundance in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Knap, Nataša; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a virus infection which sometimes causes human disease. The TBE virus is found in ticks and certain vertebrate tick hosts in restricted endemic localities termed TBE foci. The formation of natural foci is a combination of several factors: the vectors, a suitable and numerous enough number of hosts and in a habitat with suitable vegetation and climate. The present study investigated the influence of deer on the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis. We were able to obtain data from deer culls. Using this data, the abundance of deer was estimated and temporal and spatial analysis was performed. The abundance of deer has increased in the past decades, as well as the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis. Temporal analysis confirmed a correlation between red deer abundance and tick-borne encephalitis occurrence. Additionally, spatial analysis established, that in areas with high incidence of tick-borne encephalitis red deer density is higher, compared to areas with no or few human cases of tick-borne encephalitis. However, such correlation could not be confirmed between roe deer density and the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis. This is presumably due to roe deer density being above a certain threshold so that availability of tick reproduction hosts has no apparent effect on ticks' host finding and consequently may not be possible to correlate with incidence of human TBE. PMID:23776668

  11. The Cultural Responsiveness of Teacher Candidates Towards Roma Pupils in Serbia and Slovenia--Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecek, Mojca; Macura-Milovanovic, Suncica; Vujisic-Živkovic, Nataša

    2014-01-01

    In many countries, there is a growing need for teacher awareness and sensitivity to cultural differences, what is often called culturally responsive teaching. This is why teacher education institutions are making significant efforts to require student teachers to enrol in courses that focus on understanding, tolerance and acceptance of differences…

  12. Processes of Self-Regulated Learning in Music Theory in Elementary Music Schools in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Barbara Smolej; Peklaj, Cirila

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was determine how students regulate their learning in music theory (MT). The research is based on the socio-cognitive theory of learning. The aim of our study was twofold: first, to design the instruments for measuring (meta)cognitive and affective-motivational processes in learning MT, and, second, to examine the relationship…

  13. Virtual Reality Hypnosis In The Treatment Of Chronic Neuropathic Pain: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Oneal, Brent J.; Patterson, David R.; Soltani, Maryam; Teeley, Aubriana; Jensen, Mark P.

    2009-01-01

    This case report evaluates virtual reality hypnosis (VRH) in treating chronic neuropathic pain in a patient with a 5-year history of failed treatments. The patient participated in a 6-month trial of VRH, and her pain ratings of intensity and unpleasantness dropped on average 36% and 33%, respectively, over the course of 33 sessions. In addition, she reported both no pain and a reduction of pain for an average of 3.86 and 12.21 hours, respectively, after treatment sessions throughout the course of the VRH treatment. These reductions and the duration of treatment effects following VRH treatment were superior to those following a trial of standard hypnosis (non-VR) treatment. However, the pain reductions with VRH did not persist over long periods of time. The findings support the potential of VRH treatment for helping individuals with refractory chronic pain conditions. PMID:18726807

  14. Sedimentary record of subsidence pulse at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary interval in the Slovenian Basin (eastern Southern Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rožič, Boštjan; Jurkovšek, Tea Kolar; Rožič, Petra Žvab; Gale, Luka

    2017-08-01

    In the Alpine Realm the Early Jurassic is characterized by the disintegration and partial drowning of vast platform areas. In the eastern part of the Southern Alps (present-day NW Slovenia), the Julian Carbonate Platform and the adjacent, E-W extending Slovenian Basin underwent partial disintegration, drowning and deepening from the Pliensbachian on, whereas only nominal environmental changes developed on the large Dinaric (Friuli, Adriatic) Carbonate Platform to the south (structurally part of the Dinarides). These events, however, were preceded by an earlier - and as yet undocumented extensional event - that took place near the Triassic/Jurassic boundary. This paper provides evidence of an accelerated subsidence from four selected areas within the Slovenian Basin, which show a trend of eastwardly-decreasing deformation. In the westernmost (Mrzli vrh) section - the Upper Triassic platform-margin - massive dolomite is overlain by the earliest Jurassic toe-of-slope carbonate resediments and further, by basin-plain micritic limestone. Further east (Perbla and Liščak sections) the Triassic-Jurassic transition interval is marked by an increase in resedimented carbonates. We relate this to the increasing inclination and segmentation of the slope and adjacent basin floor. The easternmost (Mt. Porezen) area shows a rather monotonous, latest Triassic-Early Jurassic basinal sedimentation. However, changes in the thickness of the Hettangian-Pliensbachian Krikov Formation point to a tilting of tectonic blocks within the basin area. Lateral facies changes at the base of the formation indicate that the tilting occurred at and/or shortly after the Triassic/Jurassic boundary

  15. The stellar occultation by the dwarf planet Haumea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Sanz, Pablo; Ortiz, Jose Luis; Sicardy, Bruno; Rossi, Gustavo; Berard, Diane; Morales, Nicolas; Duffard, Rene; Braga-Ribas, Felipe; Hopp, Ulrich; Ries, Christoph; Nascimbeni, Valerio; Marzari, Francesco; Granata, Valentina; Pál, András; Kiss, Csaba; Pribulla, Theodor; Milan Komzík, Richard; Hornoch, Kamil; Pravec, Petr; Bacci, Paolo; Maestripieri, Martina; Nerli, Luca; Mazzei, Leonardo; Bachini, Mauro; Martinelli, Fabio; Succi, Giacomo; Ciabattari, Fabrizio; Mikuz, Herman; Carbognani, Albino; Gaehrken, Bernd; Mottola, Stefano; Hellmich, Stephan; Rommel, Flavia; Fernández-Valenzuela, Estela; Campo Bagatin, Adriano; Haumea occultation international Collaboration: https://cloud.iaa.csic.es/public.php?service=files&t=d9276f8ab1a316cef13bee28bef75add

    2017-10-01

    The dwarf planet Haumea is a very peculiar Trans-Neptunian Object (TNO) with unique and exotic characteristics. It is currently classified as one of the five dwarf planets of the solar system, and it is the only one for which size, shape, albedo, density and other basic properties were not accurately known. To solve that we predicted an occultation of the star GaiaDR1 1233009038221203584 by Haumea and organized observations within the expected shadow path. Medium/large telescopes were needed to record the occultation with enough signal to noise ratio because the occulted star is of similar brightness as Haumea (R~17.7 mag). We will report results derived from this successful stellar occultation by Haumea on 2017 January 21st. The occultation was positive from 12 telescopes at 10 observing stations in Europe: the Asiago Observatory 1.8m telescope (Italy), the Mount Agliale Observatory 0.5m telescope (Italy), the Lajatico Astronomical Centre 0.5m telescope (Italy), the S.Marcello Pistoiese Observatory 0.6m telescope (Italy), the Crni Vrh Observatory 0.6m telescope (Slovenia), the Ondrejov Observatory 0.65m telescope (Czech Republic), the Bavarian Public Observatory 0.81m telescope (Germany), the Konkoly Observatory 1m and 0.6m telescopes (Hungary), the Skalnate Pleso Observatory 1.3m telescope (Slovakia), and the Wendelstein Observatory 2m and 0.4m telescopes (Germany). This is the occultation by a TNO with the largest number of chords ever recorded.Part of this work has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under Grant Agreement No. 687378.

  16. A Preliminary Investigation of the Reinforcement Function of Signal Detections in Simulated Baggage Screening: Further Support for the Vigilance Reinforcement Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Lindsey C.; Bell, Matthew; Olson, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    The vigilance reinforcement hypothesis (VRH) asserts that errors in signal detection tasks are partially explained by operant reinforcement and extinction processes. VRH predictions were tested with a computerized baggage screening task. Our experiment evaluated the effects of signal schedule (extinction vs. variable interval 6 min) and visual…

  17. The physiological basis for regeneration response to variable retention harvest treatments in three pine species

    Matthew D. Powers; Kurt S. Pregitzer; Brian J. Palik; Christopher R. Webster

    2011-01-01

    Variable retention harvesting (VRH) is promoted for enhancing biodiversity and ecosystem processes in managed forests, but regeneration responses to the complex stand structures that result from VRH are poorly understood. We analyzed foliar stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C), oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O...

  18. Determination of Transport Parameters in Unsaturated Zone by Tracer Experiment in the Porous Aquifer located at Ljubljana, Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmar, S.; Cencur Curk, B.

    2009-04-01

    The gravel sandy aquifer of Ljubljansko polje is the source of drinking water for nearly 300.000 inhabitants of the Ljubljana city and vicinity. There are two main waterworks: Kleče and Hrastje. The plain area of Ljubljansko polje is a tectonic sink and consists of river sediments that can reach in thickness more than 100 m in the deepest part. The bedrock is the impermeable permocarbonic clayey shale, mudstones and sandstones. The hydraulic conductivity of Ljubljansko polje sediments is very good, from 10-2 m/s in the central part to 3.7•10-3 m/s on the borders of the plain. The average groundwater level is 20 m below surface. A numerical groundwater flow model was established for the wider area of the Ljubljansko polje aquifer. The fore mentioned model was not calibrated on solute transport parameters but only on water levels and this lead to unreliability in the transport model and its predictions of pollution scenarios. The transport model needs to calculate reliable scenarios of pollution dispersion, which can only be achieved with the application of real transport parameters. Human activities in the area of the Hrastje waterworks of Ljubljana threaten to degrade groundwater quality. For this reason several tracer experiments were carried out in the past. Despite a great risk, the experiments were performed on the catchment area of the Hrastje waterworks, inside the second water protection zone. During the experiments the water from Hrastje waterworks was still in use for drinking water supply. The tracer experiments were carried out in order to determine the solute transport parameters such as advection, dispersion and sorption. The research proved that the tracers could be used safely on sensitive area and that the researchers are capable and qualified to carry it out with a highest level of security. Since none of the past tracer experiments, carried out in the same area, gave us any detailed information on pollutant spreading in unsaturated zone a new tracer experiment was performed. Uranine was used as a tracer with a single time injection (1 kg) directly into the unsaturated zone. To achieve no sorption on organic particles the top layer of the ground (approx. 1m) was removed. The concentrations of the tracer spreading were observed in the well which is down gradient (approx. 22m) from the injection point. The tracer experiment was monitored for 305 days with records recorded every 4 minutes. All major events observed from the breakthrough curve, corresponded to rain events with a different delay depending on the water content in the unsaturated zone. When the unsaturated zone contains water the response in the observation well was faster than when the unsaturated zone was dry. The obtained data have been used in an analytical method (Multi-Dispersion-Model (MDM)). This solution provided the following transport parameters: mean transit time, mean velocity, longitudinal dispersion and dispersivity. The obtained parameters from the analytical solution will also be verified in the numerical model. The final results should enable better knowledge of the solute transport parameters and thus a better understanding of pollution dispersion as a help for water supply management system including measures for pollution prevention and as an actions/measure scenario in case of pollution.

  19. Depression in Intimate Partner Violence Victims in Slovenia: A Crippling Pattern of Factors Identified in Family Practice Attendees.

    PubMed

    Guček, Nena Kopčavar; Selič, Polona

    2018-01-26

    This multi-centre cross-sectional study explored associations between prevalence of depression and exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) at any time in patients' adult life in 471 participants of a previous IPV study. In 2016, 174 interviews were performed, using the Short Form Domestic Violence Exposure Questionnaire, the Zung Scale and questions about behavioural patterns of exposure to IPV. Family doctors reviewed patients' medical charts for period from 2012 to 2016, using the Domestic Violence Exposure Medical Chart Check List, for conditions which persisted for at least three years. Depression was found to be associated with any exposure to IPV in adult life and was more likely to affect women. In multivariable logistic regression modelling, factors associated with self-rated depression were identified (p < 0.05). Exposure to emotional and physical violence was identified as a risk factor in the first model, explaining 23% of the variance. The second model explained 66% of the variance; past divorce, dysfunctional family relationships and a history of incapacity to work increased the likelihood of depression in patients. Family doctors should consider IPV exposure when detecting depression, since lifetime IPV exposure was found to be 40.4% and 36.9% of depressed revealed it.

  20. Emerging Knowledge of Distant Environments: An International Study of Four and Six Year Olds in England, Slovenia and Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Joy; Suggate, Jennifer; Bajd, Barbara; Tsaliki, Elisavel; Duraki, Danica; Paraskevopoulos, Stephanos; Razpet, Nada; Dimec, Darja Skribe

    1999-01-01

    Investigated the nature and origins of early ideas about the environment held by children. Found that data explain aspects of the knowledge children have about various environments before they enter school, the development of this knowledge from ages 4 to 6, and young children's developing understanding of the impacts of environmental changes.…

  1. Curriculum Mapping of the Master's Program in Pharmacy in Slovenia with the PHAR-QA Competency Framework.

    PubMed

    Gmeiner, Tanja; Horvat, Nejc; Kos, Mitja; Obreza, Aleš; Vovk, Tomaž; Grabnar, Iztok; Božič, Borut

    2017-05-02

    This article presents the results of mapping the Slovenian pharmacy curriculum to evaluate the adequacy of the recently developed and validated European Pharmacy Competences Framework (EPCF). The mapping was carried out and evaluated progressively by seven members of the teaching staff at the University of Ljubljana's Faculty of Pharmacy. Consensus was achieved by using a two-round modified Delphi technique to evaluate the coverage of competences in the current curriculum. The preliminary results of the curriculum mapping showed that all of the competences as defined by the EPCF are covered in Ljubljana's academic program. However, because most EPCF competences cover healthcare-oriented pharmacy practice, a lack of competences was observed for the drug development and production perspectives. Both of these perspectives are important because a pharmacist is (or should be) responsible for the entire process, from the development and production of medicines to pharmaceutical care in contact with patients. Nevertheless, Ljubljana's graduates are employed in both of these pharmaceutical professions in comparable proportions. The Delphi study revealed that the majority of differences in scoring arise from different perspectives on the pharmacy profession (e.g., community, hospital, industrial, etc.). Nevertheless, it can be concluded that curriculum mapping using the EPCF is very useful for evaluating and recognizing weak and strong points of the curriculum. However, the competences of the framework should address various fields of the pharmacist's profession in a more balanced way.

  2. Stress Factors among Nurses at the Primary and Secondary Level of Public Sector Health Care: The Case of Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Starc, Jasmina

    2018-02-15

    Working in nursing is mentally and physically demanding and is one of the most stressful professions. To determine the basic causes of stress and examine the symptoms of stress among healthcare professionals at the primary and secondary level of health care. The research was based on the descriptive and causal non-experimental method of empirical research. The independent samples t-test was used. The survey results have shown that those employed in nursing are exposed to stressful situations on a daily basis, most often involving psychological or physical violence in the workplace (M = 4.2), dealing with death (M = 3.9), lack of personnel (M = 3.9) and a high frequency of patients (M = 3.8). The following stress factors cause women greater stress than they do men: relationships among co-workers (t = 2.745; p = 0.006), psychological or physical violence in the workplace (t = 3.492; p = 0.001), and working with difficult patients (t = 2.427; p = 0.017). To manage risks, employees and employers must work together and establish a suitable safety and organisational culture, which would enable them to manage and reduce stress.

  3. Integration of Work and Learning. Proceedings of the Workshop on Curriculum Innovation (2nd, Bled, Slovenia, September 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This proceedings consists of 13 papers and 3 working group presentations from a 3-day workshop on issues of work-linked learning relevant for curriculum development. "Welcome" (Slavko Gaber, Peter de Rooij) is followed by two introductory papers: "Integration of Work and Learning: A Challenge for Both Schools and Companies"…

  4. Practical Work in Biology, Chemistry and Physics at Lower Secondary and General Upper Secondary Schools in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorgo, Andrej; Spernjak, Andreja

    2012-01-01

    Syllabi in the science subjects, biology, chemistry and physics at lower and general upper secondary school are compared in the light of their underlying philosophies, goals, objectives and recognized importance in science teaching. Even though all syllabi were prepared within the same framework, great differences among syllabi concerning…

  5. Status and Developments of eLearning in the EU10 Member States: The Cases of Estonia, Hungary and Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ala-Mutka, Kirsti; Gaspar, Pal; Kismihok, Gabor; Suurna, Margit; Vehovar, Vasja

    2010-01-01

    This article summarises research carried out between 2006 and 2008 by IPTS (Institution for Prospective Technological Studies) in collaboration with a consortium of experts from 10 member states, led by ICEGEC. The project gathered information on eLearning developments to assess drivers and barriers and to suggest implications for policy and…

  6. School Leadership of the Future: How the National Education Institute in Slovenia Supported Schools to Develop Distributed Leadership Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sentocnik, Sonja; Rupar, Brigita

    2009-01-01

    Current educational literature suggests that distributing leadership in schools can facilitate individual and organizational development. While many state agencies in the United States and Europe are encouraging schools to reshape their leadership practice to distribute responsibilities for leadership tasks across roles, empirical research on how…

  7. Use of strategic environmental assessment in the site selection process for a radioactive waste disposal facility in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Dermol, Urška; Kontić, Branko

    2011-01-01

    The benefits of strategic environmental considerations in the process of siting a repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) are presented. The benefits have been explored by analyzing differences between the two site selection processes. One is a so-called official site selection process, which is implemented by the Agency for radwaste management (ARAO); the other is an optimization process suggested by experts working in the area of environmental impact assessment (EIA) and land-use (spatial) planning. The criteria on which the comparison of the results of the two site selection processes has been based are spatial organization, environmental impact, safety in terms of potential exposure of the population to radioactivity released from the repository, and feasibility of the repository from the technical, financial/economic and social point of view (the latter relates to consent by the local community for siting the repository). The site selection processes have been compared with the support of the decision expert system named DEX. The results of the comparison indicate that the sites selected by ARAO meet fewer suitability criteria than those identified by applying strategic environmental considerations in the framework of the optimization process. This result stands when taking into account spatial, environmental, safety and technical feasibility points of view. Acceptability of a site by a local community could not have been tested, since the formal site selection process has not yet been concluded; this remains as an uncertain and open point of the comparison. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of information and communication technology in the transformation of the healthcare business model: a case study of Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Stanimirovic, Dalibor; Vintar, Mirko

    The Slovenian healthcare business model (BM) has largely failed to integrate information and communication technologies (ICT) into its operational context, instead maintaining its rigid structure and traditional 'way of doing business'wo managers of public clinics). Findings present a roadmap for the redefinition of BM elements and the transformation of the Slovenian healthcare BM. It includes the specific reconfiguration of BM actors and their interactions, and the application of advanced ICT solutions, which could facilitate more effective utilisation of healthcare resources and promote an improved delivery of healthcare services and products. The presented development approach and derived conceptual solution could be transferable to other countries with similar socio-economic characteristics and comparable healthcare systems, subject to certain adjustments and inclusion of national specifics.

  9. Total and Free Sugar Content of Pre-Packaged Foods and Non-Alcoholic Beverages in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Scientific evidence of the association between free sugar consumption and several adverse health effects has led many public health institutions to take measures to limit the intake of added or free sugar. Monitoring the efficiency of such policies and the amount of free sugar consumed requires precise knowledge of free sugar content in different food products. To meet this need, our cross-sectional study aimed at assessing free sugar content for 10,674 pre-packaged food items available from major Slovenian food stores during data collection in 2015. Together, 52.6% of all analyzed products contained free sugar, which accounted for an average of 57.5% of the total sugar content. Food categories with the highest median free sugar content were: honey and syrups (78.0 g/100 g), jellies (62.9 g/100 g), chocolate and sweets (44.6 g/100 g), jam and spreads (35.9 g/100 g), and cereal bars (23.8 g/100 g). Using year-round sales data provided by the retailers, the data showed that chocolate, sweets, and soft drinks alone accounted for more than 50% of all free sugar sold on the Slovenian market. The results of this study can be used to prepare more targeted interventions and efficient dietary recommendations. PMID:29385691

  10. Total and Free Sugar Content of Pre-Packaged Foods and Non-Alcoholic Beverages in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Zupanič, Nina; Miklavec, Krista; Kušar, Anita; Žmitek, Katja; Fidler Mis, Nataša; Pravst, Igor

    2018-01-30

    Scientific evidence of the association between free sugar consumption and several adverse health effects has led many public health institutions to take measures to limit the intake of added or free sugar. Monitoring the efficiency of such policies and the amount of free sugar consumed requires precise knowledge of free sugar content in different food products. To meet this need, our cross-sectional study aimed at assessing free sugar content for 10,674 pre-packaged food items available from major Slovenian food stores during data collection in 2015. Together, 52.6% of all analyzed products contained free sugar, which accounted for an average of 57.5% of the total sugar content. Food categories with the highest median free sugar content were: honey and syrups (78.0 g/100 g), jellies (62.9 g/100 g), chocolate and sweets (44.6 g/100 g), jam and spreads (35.9 g/100 g), and cereal bars (23.8 g/100 g). Using year-round sales data provided by the retailers, the data showed that chocolate, sweets, and soft drinks alone accounted for more than 50% of all free sugar sold on the Slovenian market. The results of this study can be used to prepare more targeted interventions and efficient dietary recommendations.

  11. Adverse events following school-based vaccination of girls with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in Slovenia, 2009 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Šubelj, Maja; Učakar, Veronika; Kraigher, Alenka; Klavs, Irena

    2016-01-01

    Adverse events following immunisation (AEFIs) with qHPV reported to the Slovenian AEFI Registry for the first four school years of the vaccination programme were analysed. We calculated annual reporting rates for 11-14 year-old vaccinees with AEFIs, using the number of qHPV doses distributed within the school-based vaccination programme as the denominator. Between September 2009 and August 2013, 211 AEFIs that occurred in 89 vaccinees were reported, a rate of 149.5 vaccinees with AEFI per 100,000 qHPV doses distributed. For five vaccinees, serious AEFIs (8.4 per 100,000 doses distributed) were reported. The highest reporting rates were for fatigue, headache, and fever (≥ 38.0⁰) (53.8, 40.3, and 35.3 per 100,000 qHPV doses distributed, respectively). As no AEFI resulted in permanent sequelae and they all were categorised as serious only due to the criterion of a minimum of one day of hospitalisation, this provides reassurance for the safety of our school-based HPV vaccination programme. Further AEFI surveillance is warranted to provide data for HPV vaccination programme monitoring and evaluation of its safety.

  12. Yeasts isolated from three varieties of grapes cultivated in different locations of the Dolenjska vine-growing region, Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Raspor, Peter; Milek, Damjana Miklic; Polanc, Julijana; Mozina, Sonja Smole; Cadez, Neza

    2006-05-25

    The number and diversity of yeasts on grape berry surfaces are influenced by several factors, such as grape variety, degree of grape maturity at harvest, climatological conditions, geographic location, physical damage of grapes, the intensity of pest management etc. Cvicek is a typical Slovene wine, which has obtained a special protection under the Slovene Wine Law for its geographical origin. This blended red wine is produced from different grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), mostly from red grapes of Zametovka and Modra frankinja and from white grapes of Kraljevina. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of geographical locations in the Dolenjska vine-growing region and to obtain precise information about the influence of different grape varieties on the composition of yeast community on grape berries. The restriction fragment length polymorphism of PCR-amplified fragments from the rDNA gene cluster (PCR RFLP of rDNA) has been used for the differentiation of yeast species. The standard identification procedure has been performed on representative strains that shared identical RFLP profiles. The number of yeasts and yeast species isolated varied according to different grape varieties, Zametovka, Modra frankinja and Kraljevina (V. vinifera L.) and according to different sampling location. On the surface of grape berries 13 different yeast species have been identified. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has not been found.

  13. A resolution congratulating the people and Government of the Republic of Slovenia on the twentieth anniversary of the country's independence.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Harkin, Tom [D-IA

    2011-06-21

    Senate - 06/21/2011 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Agreed to in SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Quality of care for patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 in ‘model practices’ in Slovenia – first results

    PubMed Central

    Mlakar, Mitja

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background A new organisation at the primary level, called model practices, introduces a 0.5 full-time equivalent nurse practitioner as a regular member of the team. Nurse practitioners are in charge of registers of chronic patients, and implement an active approach into medical care. Selected quality indicators define the quality of management. The majority of studies confirm the effectiveness of the extended team in the quality of care, which is similar or improved when compared to care performed by the physician alone. The aim of the study is to compare the quality of management of patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 before and after the introduction of model practices. Methods A cohort retrospective study was based on medical records from three practices. Process quality indicators, such as regularity of HbA1c measurement, blood pressure measurement, foot exam, referral to eye exam, performance of yearly laboratory tests and HbA1c level before and after the introduction of model practices were compared. Results The final sample consisted of 132 patients, whose diabetes care was exclusively performed at the primary care level. The process of care has significantly improved after the delivery of model practices. The most outstanding is the increase of foot exam and HbA1c testing. We could not prove better glycaemic control (p>0.1). Nevertheless, the proposed benchmark for the suggested quality process and outcome indicators were mostly exceeded in this cohort. Conclusion The introduction of a nurse into the team improves the process quality of care. Benchmarks for quality indicators are obtainable. Better outcomes of care need further confirmation. PMID:27703537

  15. Quality of care for patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 in 'model practices' in Slovenia - first results.

    PubMed

    Petek, Davorina; Mlakar, Mitja

    2016-09-01

    A new organisation at the primary level, called model practices, introduces a 0.5 full-time equivalent nurse practitioner as a regular member of the team. Nurse practitioners are in charge of registers of chronic patients, and implement an active approach into medical care. Selected quality indicators define the quality of management. The majority of studies confirm the effectiveness of the extended team in the quality of care, which is similar or improved when compared to care performed by the physician alone. The aim of the study is to compare the quality of management of patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 before and after the introduction of model practices. A cohort retrospective study was based on medical records from three practices. Process quality indicators, such as regularity of HbA1c measurement, blood pressure measurement, foot exam, referral to eye exam, performance of yearly laboratory tests and HbA1c level before and after the introduction of model practices were compared. The final sample consisted of 132 patients, whose diabetes care was exclusively performed at the primary care level. The process of care has significantly improved after the delivery of model practices. The most outstanding is the increase of foot exam and HbA1c testing. We could not prove better glycaemic control (p>0.1). Nevertheless, the proposed benchmark for the suggested quality process and outcome indicators were mostly exceeded in this cohort. The introduction of a nurse into the team improves the process quality of care. Benchmarks for quality indicators are obtainable. Better outcomes of care need further confirmation.

  16. Characterization of egg laying hen and broiler fecal microbiota in poultry farms in Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Videnska, Petra; Rahman, Md Masudur; Faldynova, Marcela; Babak, Vladimir; Matulova, Marta Elsheimer; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella; Krizek, Ivan; Smole-Mozina, Sonja; Kovac, Jasna; Szmolka, Ama; Nagy, Bela; Sedlar, Karel; Cejkova, Darina; Rychlik, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Poultry meat is the most common protein source of animal origin for humans. However, intensive breeding of animals in confined spaces has led to poultry colonisation by microbiota with a zoonotic potential or encoding antibiotic resistances. In this study we were therefore interested in the prevalence of selected antibiotic resistance genes and microbiota composition in feces of egg laying hens and broilers originating from 4 different Central European countries determined by real-time PCR and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, respectively. strA gene was present in 1 out of 10,000 bacteria. The prevalence of sul1, sul2 and tet(B) in poultry microbiota was approx. 6 times lower than that of the strA gene. tet(A) and cat were the least prevalent being present in around 3 out of 10,000,000 bacteria forming fecal microbiome. The core chicken fecal microbiota was formed by 26 different families. Rather unexpectedly, representatives of Desulfovibrionaceae and Campylobacteraceae, both capable of hydrogen utilisation in complex microbial communities, belonged among core microbiota families. Understanding the roles of individual population members in the total metabolism of the complex community may allow for interventions which might result in the replacement of Campylobacteraceae with Desulfovibrionaceae and a reduction of Campylobacter colonisation in broilers, carcasses, and consequently poultry meat products.

  17. Characterization of Egg Laying Hen and Broiler Fecal Microbiota in Poultry Farms in Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Videnska, Petra; Rahman, Md. Masudur; Faldynova, Marcela; Babak, Vladimir; Matulova, Marta Elsheimer; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella; Krizek, Ivan; Smole-Mozina, Sonja; Kovac, Jasna; Szmolka, Ama; Nagy, Bela; Sedlar, Karel; Cejkova, Darina; Rychlik, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Poultry meat is the most common protein source of animal origin for humans. However, intensive breeding of animals in confined spaces has led to poultry colonisation by microbiota with a zoonotic potential or encoding antibiotic resistances. In this study we were therefore interested in the prevalence of selected antibiotic resistance genes and microbiota composition in feces of egg laying hens and broilers originating from 4 different Central European countries determined by real-time PCR and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, respectively. strA gene was present in 1 out of 10,000 bacteria. The prevalence of sul1, sul2 and tet(B) in poultry microbiota was approx. 6 times lower than that of the strA gene. tet(A) and cat were the least prevalent being present in around 3 out of 10,000,000 bacteria forming fecal microbiome. The core chicken fecal microbiota was formed by 26 different families. Rather unexpectedly, representatives of Desulfovibrionaceae and Campylobacteraceae, both capable of hydrogen utilisation in complex microbial communities, belonged among core microbiota families. Understanding the roles of individual population members in the total metabolism of the complex community may allow for interventions which might result in the replacement of Campylobacteraceae with Desulfovibrionaceae and a reduction of Campylobacter colonisation in broilers, carcasses, and consequently poultry meat products. PMID:25329397

  18. Inclusive Education for Children with Specific Learning Difficulties: Analysis of Opportunities and Barriers in Inclusive Education in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavkler, Marija; Babuder, Milena Košak; Magajna, Lidija

    2015-01-01

    Inclusive education allows for universal inclusion, participation and achievement of all children, including children with specific learning difficulties (SpLD). Children with SpLD form a heterogeneous group with diverse cognitive deficits, special educational needs (SEN) and strengths, and have a legislated right to the continuum of both…

  19. Pre-Service Preschool Teachers' Beliefs about Foreign Language Learning and Early Foreign Language Teaching in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fojkar, Mateja Dagarin; Skubic, Darija

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of foreign languages in preschool education has prompted the need for qualified teachers. However, most recent studies report a gap between the supply of qualified foreign language teachers of young learners and the demand for such teachers as foreign languages are introduced earlier and earlier. The authors of this paper…

  20. Assessment of the Quality of Life in Families with Children Who Have Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cagran, B.; Schmidt, M.; Brown, I.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research was conducted, within the framework of the International Family Quality of Life Project, on the quality of life of families with a member who has a disability. We concentrated on the nine specific domains that the family life measure used, and recorded data from five of its six measurement dimensions: "Importance,…

  1. Stress Factors among Nurses at the Primary and Secondary Level of Public Sector Health Care: The Case of Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Starc, Jasmina

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Working in nursing is mentally and physically demanding and is one of the most stressful professions. AIM: To determine the basic causes of stress and examine the symptoms of stress among healthcare professionals at the primary and secondary level of health care. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The research was based on the descriptive and causal non-experimental method of empirical research. The independent samples t-test was used. RESULTS: The survey results have shown that those employed in nursing are exposed to stressful situations on a daily basis, most often involving psychological or physical violence in the workplace (M = 4.2), dealing with death (M = 3.9), lack of personnel (M = 3.9) and a high frequency of patients (M = 3.8). The following stress factors cause women greater stress than they do men: relationships among co-workers (t = 2.745; p = 0.006), psychological or physical violence in the workplace (t = 3.492; p = 0.001), and working with difficult patients (t = 2.427; p = 0.017). CONCLUSION: To manage risks, employees and employers must work together and establish a suitable safety and organisational culture, which would enable them to manage and reduce stress. PMID:29531616

  2. Exposure to mercury in susceptible population groups living in the former mercury mining town of Idrija, Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Kobal, Alfred B; Snoj Tratnik, Janja; Mazej, Darja; Fajon, Vesna; Gibičar, Darija; Miklavčič, Ana; Kocman, David; Kotnik, Jože; Sešek Briški, Alenka; Osredkar, Joško; Krsnik, Mladen; Prezelj, Marija; Knap, Črtomir; Križaj, Bojana; Liang, Lian; Horvat, Milena

    2017-01-01

    500 years of mercury (Hg) mining in the town of Idrija has caused severe pollution in Idrija and its surroundings. Following the closure of the mine in 1995, the environment remains contaminated with Hg. Sources of elemental-, inorganic- and methyl Hg exposure were identified, potential environmental level of exposure to Hg was evaluated and actual internal exposure to Hg was assessed in selected susceptible population groups comprising school-age children and pregnant women living in Idrija and in control groups from rural and urban environments. The study of pregnant women (n=31) was conducted between 2003 and 2008, and the study of school-age children (n=176) in 2008. Potential interaction of Hg with selenium (Se) in plasma was assessed in both study populations, while in pregnant women antioxidative enzyme activity (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase) in erythrocytes of maternal and cord blood was also assessed. Actual exposure to Hg as indicated by levels of Hg in children's blood (geometric mean (GM) 0.92µg/L), mother's blood (GM 1.86µg/L), children's urine (GM 1.08µg/g crea.), mother's urine (GM 2.51µg/L), children's hair (GM 241ng/g) and mother's hair (GM 251ng/g) was higher in the two study groups from Idrija than in the control groups from rural areas, but was still at the level of a "normal" population and reflects mainly exposure to elemental Hg (Hg°) from dental amalgam and, to a certain extent atmospheric Hg°. Furthermore, the internal doses of Hg received during pregnancy did not decrease the bioavailability of Se. Based on observation in children, the increase in Se protein expression is suggested to be a consequence of moderately elevated exposure to Hg°. The observed changes in activity of antioxidative enzymes, as biomarkers of oxidative stress, appear to be mainly associated with pregnancy per se and not with an increased exposure to Hg. In view of the continuing increased potential for Hg exposure and the low number of pregnant women studied, the results warrant a further longitudinal study of a larger group of pregnant women residing in the area of the former mercury mine. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Curriculum Mapping of the Master’s Program in Pharmacy in Slovenia with the PHAR-QA Competency Framework

    PubMed Central

    Gmeiner, Tanja; Horvat, Nejc; Kos, Mitja; Obreza, Aleš; Vovk, Tomaž; Grabnar, Iztok; Božič, Borut

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of mapping the Slovenian pharmacy curriculum to evaluate the adequacy of the recently developed and validated European Pharmacy Competences Framework (EPCF). The mapping was carried out and evaluated progressively by seven members of the teaching staff at the University of Ljubljana’s Faculty of Pharmacy. Consensus was achieved by using a two-round modified Delphi technique to evaluate the coverage of competences in the current curriculum. The preliminary results of the curriculum mapping showed that all of the competences as defined by the EPCF are covered in Ljubljana’s academic program. However, because most EPCF competences cover healthcare-oriented pharmacy practice, a lack of competences was observed for the drug development and production perspectives. Both of these perspectives are important because a pharmacist is (or should be) responsible for the entire process, from the development and production of medicines to pharmaceutical care in contact with patients. Nevertheless, Ljubljana’s graduates are employed in both of these pharmaceutical professions in comparable proportions. The Delphi study revealed that the majority of differences in scoring arise from different perspectives on the pharmacy profession (e.g., community, hospital, industrial, etc.). Nevertheless, it can be concluded that curriculum mapping using the EPCF is very useful for evaluating and recognizing weak and strong points of the curriculum. However, the competences of the framework should address various fields of the pharmacist’s profession in a more balanced way. PMID:28970436

  4. Distribution and geochemical characterization of coalbed gases at excavation fields at natural analogue site area Velenje Basin, Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanduč, Tjaša; Žigon, Stojan; Grassa, Fausto; Sedlar, Jerneja; Zadnik, Ivo; Zavšek, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Unconventional gas resources, including coal bed methane and shale gas, are a growing part of the global energy mix, which has changed the economic and strategic picture for gas consuming and producing countries, including the USA, China and Australia that, together are responsible for around half the currently recoverable unconventional gas resources. However, CBM production was often hindered by low permeability and mineralization in cleats and fractures, necessitating the development of cost effective horizontal drilling and completion techniques. Geochemical and isotopic monitoring of coalbed gases at excavation fields in Velenje Basin started in year 2000, with the aim to obtain better insights into the origin of coalbed gases. Results from active excavation fields in the mining areas Pesje and Preloge in the year period 2014-2015 are presented in this study. Composition and isotopic composition of coalbed gases were determined with mass - spectrometric methods. The chemical (methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen) and isotopic composition of carbon in methane and carbon dioxide in the Velenje Basin vary and depend on the composition of the source of coalbed gas before excavation, advancement of the working face, depth of the longwall face, pre-mining activity and newly mined activity. The basic gas components determined in excavation fields are carbon dioxide and methane. Knowledge of the stable isotope geochemistry of coal bed and shale gas and the related production water is essential to determine not only gas origins but also the dominant methanogenic pathway in the case of microbial gas. Concentrations of methane at active excavation fields are changing from 1.8 to 63.9 %, concentrations of carbon dioxide are changing from 36.1 to 98.2% and CDMI (Carbon Dioxide Methane Index) index from 0.2 to 100 %. Isotopic composition of carbon dioxide is changing from -11.0 to -1.9‰ , isotopic composition of methane from -71.8 to -43.3‰ , isotopic composition of deuterium in methane from -343.9 to -223.1‰ , respectively. Further, these characteristics of methane have been compared with those observed in other coal sedimentary basins worldwide. The isotopic compositions of carbon and hydrogen in methane in the excavation fields show its biogenic origin, while a high Carbon Dioxide Methane Index (CDMI index) indicates the bacterial and endogenic origin of carbon dioxide.

  5. 31 CFR 585.509 - Trading in certain pre-sanctions obligations of debtors in the Republics of Slovenia, Croatia...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading in certain pre-sanctions... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 585.509 Trading in..., and Macedonia authorized. (a) All transactions by U.S. persons involving secondary market trading in...

  6. Meta-Analysis and Empirical Research of Learning Style Theories in Higher Education: The Case of Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penger, Sandra; Tekavcic, Metka; Dimovski, Vlado

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have pointed out that students learn effectively in a harmonic environment and by using teaching aids which match the students' learning style preferences (Li et al., 2008). The learning styles literature is having a revival during last years. Although learning styles have been heavily researched (Coffield et al., 2004; Reynold &…

  7. VIRTUAL REALITY HYPNOSIS FOR PAIN ASSOCIATED WITH RECOVERY FROM PHYSICAL TRAUMA1,2

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, David R.; Jensen, Mark P.; Wiechman, Shelley A.; Sharar, Sam R.

    2010-01-01

    Pain following traumatic injuries is common, can impair injury recovery and is often inadequately treated. In particular, the role of adjunctive nonpharmacologic analgesic techniques is unclear. The authors report a randomized, controlled study of 21 hospitalized trauma patients to assess the analgesic efficacy of virtual reality hypnosis (VRH)—hypnotic induction and analgesic suggestion delivered by customized virtual reality (VR) hardware/software. Subjective pain ratings were obtained immediately and 8 hours after VRH (used as an adjunct to standard analgesic care) and compared to both adjunctive VR without hypnosis and standard care alone. VRH patients reported less pain intensity and less pain unpleasantness compared to control groups. These preliminary findings suggest that VRH analgesia is a novel technology worthy of further study, both to improve pain management and to increase availability of hypnotic analgesia to populations without access to therapist-provided hypnosis and suggestion. PMID:20509069

  8. Quantum interference magnetoconductance of polycrystalline germanium films in the variable-range hopping regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhaoguo; Peng, Liping; Zhang, Jicheng; Li, Jia; Zeng, Yong; Zhan, Zhiqiang; Wu, Weidong

    2018-06-01

    Direct evidence of quantum interference magnetotransport in polycrystalline germanium films in the variable-range hopping (VRH) regime is reported. The temperature dependence of the conductivity of germanium films fulfilled the Mott VRH mechanism with the form of ? in the low-temperature regime (?). For the magnetotransport behaviour of our germanium films in the VRH regime, a crossover, from negative magnetoconductance at the low-field to positive magnetoconductance at the high-field, is observed while the zero-field conductivity is higher than the critical value (?). In the regime of ?, the magnetoconductance is positive and quadratic in the field for some germanium films. These features are in agreement with the VRH magnetotransport theory based on the quantum interference effect among random paths in the hopping process.

  9. High Temperature Elastic Properties of Single Crystal Mullite (Approximately 2.5Al2O3.SiO2) by Brillouin Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palko, James W.; Sayir, Ali; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Kriven, Waltraud M.; Bass, Jay D.; Farmer, Serene C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The complete elastic tensor of mullite has been determined by brillouin spectroscopy at room temperature and elevated temperatures up to 1200C. Equivalent, isotropic moduli (bulk, shear, and Young's) have been calculated. The room temperature values obtained using Voigt-Reuss-Hill averaging are: K(sub VRH) = 173.5 + 6.9 GPa, G(sub VRH) = 88.0 + 3.5 GPa, E(sub VRH) = 225.9 + 9.0 GPa. All moduli show relatively gradual decreases with temperature. The temperature derivatives obtained for the equivalent, isotropic moduli are: dK(sub VRH)/dT = - 17.5 + 2.5 MPa/deg. C, dG(sub VRH)/dT = -8.8 + 1.4 MPa/deg. C, dE(sub VRH)/dT = -22.6 + 2.8 MPa/deg C. Substantial differences between bulk properties calculated from the single crystal measurements in this study and the properties reported in the literature for polycrystalline sintered mullite are identified, indicating the importance of factors such as microstructure, intergranular phases, and composition to the elasticity of mullite ceramics.

  10. Electrical transport via variable range hopping in an individual multi-wall carbon nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain Khan, Zishan; Husain, M.; Perng, T. P.; Salah, Numan; Habib, Sami

    2008-11-01

    E-beam lithography is used to make four leads on an individual multi-wall carbon nanotube for carrying out electrical transport measurements. Temperature dependence of conductance of an individual multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWNT) is studied over a temperature range of (297 4.8 K). The results indicate that the conduction is governed by variable range hopping (VRH) for the entire temperature range (297 4.8 K). This VRH mechanism changes from three dimensions (3D) to two dimensions (2D) as we go down to 70 K. Three-dimensional variable range hopping (3D VRH) is responsible for conduction in the temperature range (297 70 K), which changes to two-dimensional VRH for much lower temperatures (70 4.8 K). For 3D VRH, various Mott parameters such as density of states, hopping distance and hopping energy have been calculated. The 2D VRH mechanism has been applied for the temperature range (70 4.8 K) and, with the help of this model, the parameters such as localization length and hopping distance are calculated. All these parameters give interesting information about this complex structure, which may be useful for many applications.

  11. Intraoperative Subcortical Electrical Mapping of the Optic Tract in Awake Surgery Using a Virtual Reality Headset.

    PubMed

    Mazerand, Edouard; Le Renard, Marc; Hue, Sophie; Lemée, Jean-Michel; Klinger, Evelyne; Menei, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Brain mapping during awake craniotomy is a well-known technique to preserve neurological functions, especially the language. It is still challenging to map the optic radiations due to the difficulty to test the visual field intraoperatively. To assess the visual field during awake craniotomy, we developed the Functions' Explorer based on a virtual reality headset (FEX-VRH). The impaired visual field of 10 patients was tested with automated perimetry (the gold standard examination) and the FEX-VRH. The proof-of-concept test was done during the surgery performed on a patient who was blind in his right eye and presenting with a left parietotemporal glioblastoma. The FEX-VRH was used intraoperatively, simultaneously with direct subcortical electrostimulation, allowing identification and preservation of the optic radiations. The FEX-VRH detected 9 of the 10 visual field defects found by automated perimetry. The patient who underwent an awake craniotomy with intraoperative mapping of the optic tract using the FEX-VRH had no permanent postoperative visual field defect. Intraoperative visual field assessment with the FEX-VRH during direct subcortical electrostimulation is a promising approach to mapping the optical radiations and preventing a permanent visual field defect during awake surgery for epilepsy or tumor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Progress and Problems in Reforming Public Language Examinations in Europe: Cameos from the Baltic States, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Slovenia, France and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckes, Thomas; Ellis, Melanie; Kalnberzina, Vita; Pizorn, Karmen; Springer, Claude; Szollas, Krisztina; Tsagari, Constance

    2005-01-01

    Contributions from seven European countries pinpoint major projects, problems, and prospects of reforming public language assessment procedures. Each country has faced unique problems in the reform process, yet there have also been several common themes emerging, such as a focus on multilingualism, communicative skills, standardization, reference…

  13. Transport of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and ozone to the Alpine Global Atmosphere Watch stations Jungfraujoch (Switzerland), Zugspitze and Hohenpeissenberg (Germany), Sonnblick (Austria) and Mt. Krvavec (Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, August; Scheifinger, Helfried; Spangl, Wolfgang; Weiss, Andrea; Gilge, Stefan; Fricke, Wolfgang; Ries, Ludwig; Cemas, Danijel; Jesenovec, Brigita

    The Alpine stations Zugspitze, Hohenpeissenberg, Sonnblick, Jungfraujoch and Mt. Krvavec contribute to the Global Atmosphere Watch Programme (GAW) of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The aim of GAW is the surveillance of the large-scale chemical composition of the atmosphere. Thus, the detection of air pollutant transport from regional sources is of particular interest. In this paper, the origin of NO x (measured with a photo-converter), CO and O 3 at the four Alpine GAW stations is studied by trajectory residence time statistics. Although these methods originated during the early 1980s, no comprehensive study of different atmospheric trace gases measured simultaneously at several background observatories in the Alps was conducted up to present. The main NO x source regions detected by the trajectory statistics are the northwest of Europe and the region covering East Germany, Czech Republic and southeast Poland, whereas the main CO source areas are the central, north eastern and eastern parts of Europe with some gradient from low to high latitudes. Subsiding air masses from west and southwest are relatively poor in NO x and CO. The statistics for ozone show strong seasonal effects. Near ground air masses are poor in ozone in winter but rich in ozone in summer. The main source for high ozone concentration in winter is air masses that subside from higher elevations, often enhanced by foehn effects at Hohenpeissenberg. During summer, the Mediterranean constitutes an important additional source for high ozone concentrations. Especially during winter, large differences between Hohenpeissenberg and the higher elevated stations are found. Hohenpeissenberg is frequently within the inversion, whereas the higher elevated stations are above the inversion. Jungfraujoch is the only station where the statistics detect an influence of air rich in CO and NO x from the Po Basin.

  14. Trace elements and nitrogen content in naturally growing moss Hypnum cupressiforme in urban and peri-urban forests of the Municipality of Ljubljana (Slovenia).

    PubMed

    Berisha, S; Skudnik, M; Vilhar, U; Sabovljević, M; Zavadlav, S; Jeran, Z

    2017-02-01

    We monitored trace metals and nitrogen using naturally growing moss Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw. in urban and peri-urban forests of the City Municipality of Ljubljana. The aim of this study was to explore the differences in atmospheric deposition of trace metals and nitrogen between urban and peri-urban forests. Samples were collected at a total of 44 sites in urban forests (forests within the motorway ring road) and peri-urban forests (forests outside the motorway ring road). Mosses collected in urban forests showed increased trace metal concentrations compared to samples collected from peri-urban forests. Higher values were significant for As, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Tl and V. Within the motorway ring road, the notable differences in element concentrations between the two urban forests were significant for Cr, Ni and Mo. Factor analysis showed three groups of elements, highlighting the contribution of traffic emissions, individual heating appliances and the resuspension of contaminated soils and dust as the main sources of trace elements in urban forests.

  15. The dynamics of mercury near Idrija mercury mine, Slovenia: Horizontal and vertical distributions of total, methyl, and ethyl mercury concentrations in soils.

    PubMed

    Tomiyasu, Takashi; Kodamatani, Hitoshi; Imura, Ryusuke; Matsuyama, Akito; Miyamoto, Junko; Akagi, Hirokatsu; Kocman, David; Kotnik, Jože; Fajon, Vesna; Horvat, Milena

    2017-10-01

    The distributions of the total mercury (T-Hg), methylmercury (MeHg), and ethylmercury (EtHg) concentrations in soil and their relationship to chemical composition of the soil and total organic carbon content (TOC, %) were investigated. Core samples were collected from hill slope on the right and left riverbanks of the Idrija River. Former smelting plant is located on the right bank. The T-Hg average in each of the core samples ranged from 0.25 to 1650 mg kg -1 . The vertical T-Hg variations in the samples from the left bank showed no significant change with depth. Conversely, the T-Hg varied with depth, with the surface, or layers several centimeters from the surface, tending to show the highest values in the samples from the right bank. Since the right and left bank soils have different chemical compositions, different pathways of mercury delivery into soils were suggested. The MeHg and EtHg concentrations ranged from n.d. (not detected) to 444 μg kg -1 and n.d. to 17.4 μg kg -1 , respectively. The vertical variations of MeHg and EtHg were similar to those of TOC, except for the near-surface layers containing TOC greater than 20%. These results suggest that the decomposition of organic matter is closely related to organic mercury formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Taxonomy of Teaching Methods and Teaching Forms for Youth in Non-Formal Education in the National Youth Council of Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miloševic Zupancic, Vesna

    2018-01-01

    Research from the field of non-formal education (NFE) in youth work emphasises the central role of experiential learning and learning in groups. The present paper aims to research teaching methods and teaching forms in NFE in youth work. The research sought to answer the following research questions: 'What teaching forms can be found in NFE for…

  17. Merging National Forest and National Forest Health Inventories to Obtain an Integrated Forest Resource Inventory – Experiences from Bavaria, Slovenia and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Kovač, Marko; Bauer, Arthur; Ståhl, Göran

    2014-01-01

    Backgrounds, Material and Methods To meet the demands of sustainable forest management and international commitments, European nations have designed a variety of forest-monitoring systems for specific needs. While the majority of countries are committed to independent, single-purpose inventorying, a minority of countries have merged their single-purpose forest inventory systems into integrated forest resource inventories. The statistical efficiencies of the Bavarian, Slovene and Swedish integrated forest resource inventory designs are investigated with the various statistical parameters of the variables of growing stock volume, shares of damaged trees, and deadwood volume. The parameters are derived by using the estimators for the given inventory designs. The required sample sizes are derived via the general formula for non-stratified independent samples and via statistical power analyses. The cost effectiveness of the designs is compared via two simple cost effectiveness ratios. Results In terms of precision, the most illustrative parameters of the variables are relative standard errors; their values range between 1% and 3% if the variables’ variations are low (s%<80%) and are higher in the case of higher variations. A comparison of the actual and required sample sizes shows that the actual sample sizes were deliberately set high to provide precise estimates for the majority of variables and strata. In turn, the successive inventories are statistically efficient, because they allow detecting the mean changes of variables with powers higher than 90%; the highest precision is attained for the changes of growing stock volume and the lowest for the changes of the shares of damaged trees. Two indicators of cost effectiveness also show that the time input spent for measuring one variable decreases with the complexity of inventories. Conclusion There is an increasing need for credible information on forest resources to be used for decision making and national and international policy making. Such information can be cost-efficiently provided through integrated forest resource inventories. PMID:24941120

  18. Jessor's Problem Behavior Theory: Cross-National Evidence from Hungary, the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan, Turkey, and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Chen, Pan; Jenkins, Dusty D.; Burcu, Esra; Torrente, Ginesa; Sheu, Chuen-Jim

    2010-01-01

    Jessor (2008) has recently called attention to "description" versus "explanation" in cross-cultural and cross-national comparative scholarship on adolescent development, particularly, the etiology of adolescent problem behaviors. In the current study, we were interested in testing to what extent problem behavior theory…

  19. International Seminar on The Role of Dosimetry in High-Quality EMF Risk Assessment Held in Ljubljana, Slovenia and Zagreb, Croatia on 13-15 September 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    wireless communication usage and exposure to different parts of the body (especially for children and foetuses ), including multiple exposure from...Calculation of induced electric fields in pregnant women and in the foetus is urgently needed. Very little computation has been carried out on...advanced models of the pregnant human and the foetus with appropriate anatomical modelling. It is important to assess possible enhanced induction of

  20. The Triglav Glacier (South-Eastern Alps, Slovenia): Volume Estimation, Internal Characterization and 2000-2013 Temporal Evolution by Means of Ground Penetrating Radar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Gobbo, Costanza; Colucci, Renato R.; Forte, Emanuele; Triglav Čekada, Michaela; Zorn, Matija

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that small glaciers of mid latitudes and especially those located at low altitude respond suddenly to climate changes both on local and global scale. For this reason their monitoring as well as evaluation of their extension and volume is essential. We present a ground penetrating radar (GPR) dataset acquired on September 23 and 24, 2013 on the Triglav glacier to identify layers with different characteristics (snow, firn, ice, debris) within the glacier and to define the extension and volume of the actual ice. Computing integrated and interpolated 3D using the whole GPR dataset, we estimate that at the moment of data acquisition the ice area was 3800 m2 and the ice volume 7400 m3. Its average thickness was 1.95 m while its maximum thickness was slightly more than 5 m. Here we compare the results with a previous GPR survey acquired in 2000. A critical review of the historical data to find the general trend and to forecast a possible evolution is also presented. Between 2000 and 2013, we observed relevant changes in the internal distribution of the different units (snow, firn, ice) and the ice volume reduced from about 35,000 m3 to about 7400 m3. Such result can be achieved only using multiple GPR surveys, which allow not only to assess the volume occupied by a glacial body, but also to image its internal structure and the actual ice volume. In fact, by applying one of the widely used empirical volume-area relations to infer the geometrical parameters of the glacier, a relevant underestimation of ice-loss would be achieved.

  1. "Vojnik i Narod" The Soldier and the People Civil-Military Relations in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Civil-Military Relations in Slovenia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-08-07

    province.57 Slaven Letica calls the JNA’s status a "state within a state.ං The Constitution of 1974, Yugoslavia’s sixth (and last), was an attempt by...defense units were led by the ’"Remington, 66. 57 Dean, 45-46. ’° Slaven Letica , Obecana Zemlja [The Promised Land] (Zagreb: Globus International, 1992...Soldiers, Peasants and Bureaucrats. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1982. Letica , Slaven. Obecana Zemlja. [The Promised Land]. Zagreb: Globus

  2. A WRF/Chem sensitivity study using ensemble modelling for a high ozone episode in Slovenia and the Northern Adriatic area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žabkar, Rahela; Koračin, Darko; Rakovec, Jože

    2013-10-01

    A high ozone (O3) concentrations episode during a heat wave event in the Northeastern Mediterranean was investigated using the WRF/Chem model. To understand the major model uncertainties and errors as well as the impacts of model inputs on the model accuracy, an ensemble modelling experiment was conducted. The 51-member ensemble was designed by varying model physics parameterization options (PBL schemes with different surface layer and land-surface modules, and radiation schemes); chemical initial and boundary conditions; anthropogenic and biogenic emission inputs; and model domain setup and resolution. The main impacts of the geographical and emission characteristics of three distinct regions (suburban Mediterranean, continental urban, and continental rural) on the model accuracy and O3 predictions were investigated. In spite of the large ensemble set size, the model generally failed to simulate the extremes; however, as expected from probabilistic forecasting the ensemble spread improved results with respect to extremes compared to the reference run. Noticeable model nighttime overestimations at the Mediterranean and some urban and rural sites can be explained by too strong simulated winds, which reduce the impact of dry deposition and O3 titration in the near surface layers during the nighttime. Another possible explanation could be inaccuracies in the chemical mechanisms, which are suggested also by model insensitivity to variations in the nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions. Major impact factors for underestimations of the daytime O3 maxima at the Mediterranean and some rural sites include overestimation of the PBL depths, a lack of information on forest fires, too strong surface winds, and also possible inaccuracies in biogenic emissions. This numerical experiment with the ensemble runs also provided guidance on an optimum model setup and input data.

  3. Adult Education and the Labour Market. European Society for Research on the Education of Adults Seminar Proceedings (Ljubljana, Slovenia, October 10-12, 1993). First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klenovsek, Tanja Vilic, Ed.; Olesen, Henning Salling, Ed.

    This book contains papers, reports, and welcoming speeches from a seminar for European adult education researchers. The following are included: "Background and Thematic Outline for the ESREA (European Society for Research on the Education of Adults) Seminar on Research into Adult Education and the Labor Market" (Olesen); "Welcoming…

  4. Fifty-Five Years of Pediatric Endocrinology and 50 Years of the Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    BATTELINO, Tadej

    2015-01-01

    Paediatric endocrinology started its independent development early in the general development of this specialty, with a strong focus on research and clinical excellence. Slovenian paediatric endocrinology was an integral part of the European paediatric endocrinology from its beginnings and a founding member of the first ‘International Study Group for Diabetes in Children and Adolescents’. After the pioneering work of Prof. Lev Matajc, Prof. Ciril Kržišnik firmly integrated the Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases at the University Children’s Hospital in Ljubljana in the international scientific community. In the last decade, the department participates in cutting-edge research and provides clinical services at highest international standards. PMID:27646909

  5. The Influence of Workers' Health Status on Employers' Decision-Making During Personnel Restructuring in a Typical Public Limited Enterprise in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Margan, Andrea; Dodič-Fikfak, Metoda

    2015-09-01

    Alongside individual indicators of job performance, even workers' health status could be a criterion for selection. The mechanisms for health selection are a reduction of productivity in relation to illness or certain health behaviour. The aim of the study was to establish how indicators of workers' health status, which are accessible to the employer, influence the employer's decision-making on which workers to retain and which to dismiss during personnel restructuring in the enterprise. Due to a planned closure of a plant, the observed company began personnel restructuring which included a strategic decrease in the number of employees and the relocation of workers within the company. Two nested case control studies were conducted. The cases were divided into two groups and defined as follows: employees who were relocated and employees whose employment contract was terminated. The results show that the disability category and long-time sick leave exert the greatest influence on the employer's decision on the selection of workers. Workers with work-related disability have lower odds to be relocated to a new workplace (OR=0.5; 95% CI 0.2 to 1.1) and higher odds to be dismissed (OR=6.51; 95% CI 3.33 to 12.72). The workers with a history of a long-time sick leave also have lower odds to be relocated (OR=0.31; 95% CI 0.11 to 0.88) and higher odds to be dismissed (OR=4.32; 95% CI 2.08 to 8.96). Indicators of health which were accessible to the employer actually exerted influence on the employer's decision-making, which could show a direct form of health selection.

  6. Necessary organizational changes according to Burke-Litwin model in the head nurses system of management in healthcare and social welfare institutions - the Slovenia experience.

    PubMed

    Filej, Bojana; Skela-Savic, Brigita; Vicic, Visnja H; Hudorovic, Narcis

    2009-05-01

    To discover which changes should be implemented in the system of head nursing management in Slovenian healthcare institutions and social welfare institutions. The questionnaire was distributed to 155 head nurses of Slovenian hospitals, primary healthcare centres and social welfare institutions. The Burke-Litwin organizational change model has been used to look at which changes have to be implemented in the management system of head nurses. In hospitals head nurses have greater independent competence for planning professional training of nursing employees (p<.022) and are also more independent when it comes to selecting employees when it comes to new job openings (M=4.20, S.D.=.83, p<.004). According to the Burke-Litwin organizational change model, the elements to which changes should be introduced include "external environment" for primary healthcare centres and social welfare institutions, and "system (policies and procedures)" for primary healthcare centres. According to results of our study, changes are needed in leadership and management of nursing in primary healthcare centres. In social welfare institutions changes are only required in leadership. Organizational changes are not necessary for any element of the Burke-Litwin model for hospitals.

  7. Multi-element analysis of wines by ICP-MS and ICP-OES and their classification according to geographical origin in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Selih, Vid S; Sala, Martin; Drgan, Viktor

    2014-06-15

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and optical emission were used to determine the multi-element composition of 272 bottled Slovenian wines. To achieve geographical classification of the wines by their elemental composition, principal component analysis (PCA) and counter-propagation artificial neural networks (CPANN) have been used. From 49 elements measured, 19 were used to build the final classification models. CPANN was used for the final predictions because of its superior results. The best model gave 82% correct predictions for external set of the white wine samples. Taking into account the small size of whole Slovenian wine growing regions, we consider the classification results were very good. For the red wines, which were mostly represented from one region, even-sub region classification was possible with great precision. From the level maps of the CPANN model, some of the most important elements for classification were identified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bioconversion of Coal: Hydrologic indicators of the extent of coal biodegradation under different redox conditions and coal maturity, Velenje Basin case study, Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanduč, Tjaša; Grassa, Fausto; Lazar, Jerneja; Jamnikar, Sergej; Zavšek, Simon; McIntosh, Jennifer

    2014-05-01

    Underground mining of coal and coal combustion for energy has significant environmental impacts. In order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, other lower -carbon energy sources must be utilized. Coalbed methane (CBM) is an important source of relatively low-carbon energy. Approximately 20% of world's coalbed methane is microbial in origin (Bates et al., 2011). Interest in microbial CBM has increased recently due to the possibility of stimulating methanogenesis. Despite increasing interest, the hydrogeochemical conditions and mechanisms for biodegradation of coal and microbial methane production are poorly understood. This project aims to examine geochemical characteristics of coalbed groundwater and coalbed gases in order to constrain biogeochemical processes to better understand the entire process of coal biodegradation of coal to coalbed gases. A better understanding of geochemical processes in CBM areas may potentially lead to sustainable stimulation of microbial methanogenesis at economical rates. Natural analogue studies of carbon dioxide occurring in the subsurface have the potential to yield insights into mechanisms of carbon dioxide storage over geological time scales (Li et al., 2013). In order to explore redox processes related to methanogenesis and determine ideal conditions under which microbial degradation of coal is likely to occur, this study utilizes groundwater and coalbed gas samples from Velenje Basin. Determination of the concentrations of methane, carbondioxide, nitrogen, oxygen, argon was performed with homemade NIER mass spectrometer. Isotopic composition of carbon dioxide, isotopic composition of methane, isotopic composition of deuterium in methane was determined with Europa-Scientific IRMS with an ANCA-TG preparation module and Thermo Delta XP GC-TC/CF-IRMS coupled to a TRACE GC analyzer. Total alkalinity of groundwater was measured by Gran titration. Major cations were analyzed by ICP-OES and anions by IC method. Isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon was determined by MultiflowBio preparation module. The stable isotope composition of sulphur was determined with a Europa Scientific 20-20 continuous flow IRMS ANCA-SL preparation module. Concentrations of tritium were determined with the electrolytic enrichment method. PHREEQC for Windows was used to perform thermodynamic modelling. The average coalbed gas composition in the coalbed seam is approximately carbon dioxide: methane > 2:1, where a high proportion of CO2 is adsorbed on the lignite structure, while methane is present free in coal fractures. It can be concluded that isotopic composition of carbon in methane from -70.4‰ to -50.0‰ is generated via acetate fermentation and via reduction of carbon dioxide, while isotopic composition of carbon in methane values range from -50.0‰ to -18.8‰, thermogenic methane can be explained by secondary processes, causing enrichment of residual methane with the heavier carbon isotope. Isotopic composition of deuterium in methane range from -343.9‰ to -223.1‰. Isotopic composition of carbon in carbon dioxide values at excavation fields range from -11.0‰ to +5‰ and are endogenic and microbial in origin. The major ion chemistry, redox conditions, stable isotopes and tritium measured in groundwater from the Velenje Basin, suggest that the Pliocene and Triassic aquifers contain distinct water bodies. Groundwater in the Triassic aquifer is dominated by hydrogen carbonate, calcium, magnesium and isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon indicating degradation of soil organic matter and dissolution of carbonate minerals, similar to surface waters. In addition, groundwater in the Triassic aquifer has isotopic composition of oxygen and isotopic composition of deuterium values which plot near surface waters on the local and global meteoric water lines and detectable tritium reflects recent recharge. In contrast, groundwater in the Pliocene aquifers is enriched in magnesium, sodium, calcium, potassium, and silica and has alkalinity and isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon values with low sulphate and nitrate concentrations. These waters have likely been influenced by sulfate reduction and microbial methanogenesis associated with coal seams and dissolution of feldspars and magnesium-rich clay minerals. Pliocene aquifer waters are also depleted in heavier oxygen isotope and heavier deuterium isotope and have tritium concentrations near the detection limit, suggesting these waters are older. References Bates, B.L., McIntosh J.C., Lohse K.A., Brooks P.D. 2011: Influence of groundwater flowpaths, residence times, and nutrients on the extent of microbial methanogenesis in coal beds: Powder River Basin, USA, Chemical geology, 284, 45-61. Li, W., Cheng Y., Wang L., Zhou H., Wang H., Wang L. 2013: Evaluating the security of geological coalbed sequestration of supercritical CO2 reservoirs: The Haishiwan coalfield, China as a natural analogue, International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 13, 102-111.

  9. The pattern of physical comorbidity and the psychosocial determinants of depression: a prospective cohort study on a representative sample of family practice attendees in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Selič, Polona; Svab, Igor; Rifel, Janez; Pavlič, Danica Rotar; Cerne, Anja; King, Michael; Nazareth, Irwin

    2011-09-01

    Objectives This study aims to present the patterns of physical comorbidity in depressed patients and factors strongly associated with depression in a representative sample of Slovenian family practice attendees.Methods Medical data was obtained for 911 general practice attendees. Of them, 221 (24.3%) were diagnosed as depressed. The depressive states of the subjects were evaluated using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Physical comorbidity was assessed with a questionnaire covering the most common health problems in the Slovenian adult population. Several psycho-social factors were also analysed.Results Those variables significantly related to ICD depression were included in multivariate binary logistic regression analysis, adjusted by age, gender and education. The calculation included the chi-square, odds ratio (OR) with confidence interval (95% CI) and P-value. A P-value < 0.05 was marked as statistically significant.Conclusions There was no significant difference in the number of concurrent chronic diseases in depressed and non-depressed subjects. The risk of depression was increased by the presence of several concomitant factors. The burden of somatic co-morbidity was shown to be smaller than the impact of psychosocial determinants, which also acted as protective factors: the feeling of safety at home and the absence of problems in intimate relationships. The abuse of alcohol and drugs by a family member and current poor financial situation were strongly associated with depression. The impact of concurrent incontinence and chronic bowel disease was also important, though somewhat weaker.

  10. Knowledge of, Attitudes toward, and Acceptance of Genetically Modified Organisms among Prospective Teachers of Biology, Home Economics, and Grade School in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorgo, Andrej; Ambrozic-Dolinsek, Jana

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate knowledge, opinions, and attitudes toward, as well as readiness to accept genetically modified organisms (GMOs) among prospective primary and secondary Slovene teachers. Our findings are that prospective teachers want to take an active role in rejecting or supporting individual GMOs and are aware of…

  11. Knowlege of, attitudes toward, and acceptance of genetically modified organisms among prospective teachers of biology, home economics, and grade school in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Sorgo, Andrej; Ambrožič-Dolinšek, Jana

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate knowledge, opinions, and attitudes toward, as well as readiness to accept genetically modified organisms (GMOs) among prospective primary and secondary Slovene teachers. Our findings are that prospective teachers want to take an active role in rejecting or supporting individual GMOs and are aware of the importance of education about genetically modified organism (GMO) items and their potential significance for society. Through cluster analysis, we recognized four clusters of GMOs, separated by degree of genetically modified acceptability. GM plants and microorganisms which are recognized as useful are accepted. They are undecided about organisms used in research or medicine and reject organisms used for food consumption and for fun. There are only weak correlations between knowledge and attitudes and knowledge and acceptance of GMOs, and a strong correlation between attitudes and acceptance. The appropriate strategies and actions for improving university courses in biotechnology are discussed. Copyright © 2010 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Prediction of toxicity and comparison of alternatives using WebTEST (Web-services Toxicity Estimation Software Tool)(Bled Slovenia)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Java-based web service is being developed within the US EPA’s Chemistry Dashboard to provide real time estimates of toxicity values and physical properties. WebTEST can generate toxicity predictions directly from a simple URL which includes the endpoint, QSAR method, and ...

  13. Diurnal and seasonal variations of concentration and size distribution of nano aerosols (10-1100 nm) enclosing radon decay products in the Postojna Cave, Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Bezek, M; Gregoric, A; Kávási, N; Vaupotic, J

    2012-11-01

    At the lowest point along the tourist route in the Postojna Cave, the activity concentration of radon ((222)Rn) short-lived decay products and number concentration and size distribution of background aerosol particles in the size range of 10-1100 nm were measured. In the warm yearly season, aerosol concentration was low (52 cm(-3)) with 21 % particles smaller than 50 nm, while in the cold season, it was higher (1238 cm(-3)) with 8 % of <50 nm particles. Radon activity concentrations were 4489 and 1108 Bq m(-3), and fractions of unattached radon decay products were 0.62 and 0.13, respectively.

  14. Analysis of the Impact of Fault Mechanism Radiation Patterns on Macroseismic Fields in the Epicentral Area of 1998 and 2004 Krn Mountains Earthquakes (NW Slovenia)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Two moderate magnitude (Mw = 5.6 and 5.2) earthquakes in Krn Mountains occurred in 1998 and 2004 which had maximum intensity VII-VIII and VI-VII EMS-98, respectively. Comparison of both macroseismic fields showed unexpected differences in the epicentral area which cannot be explained by site effects. Considerably, different distribution of the highest intensities can be noticed with respect to the strike of the seismogenic fault and in some localities even higher intensities have been estimated for the smaller earthquake. Although hypocentres of both earthquakes were only 2 km apart and were located on the same seismogenic Ravne fault, their focal mechanisms showed a slight difference: almost pure dextral strike-slip for the first event and a strike-slip with small reverse component on a steep fault plane for the second one. Seismotectonically the difference is explained as an active growth of the Ravne fault at its NW end. The radiation patterns of both events were studied to explain their possible impact on the observed variations in macroseismic fields and damage distribution. Radiation amplitude lobes were computed for three orthogonal directions: radial P, SV, and SH. The highest intensities of both earthquakes were systematically observed in directions of four (1998) or two (2004) large amplitude lobes in SH component (which corresponds mainly to Love waves), which have significantly different orientation for both events. On the other hand, radial P direction, which is almost purely symmetrical for the strike-slip mechanism of 1998 event, showed for the 2004 event that its small reverse component of movement has resulted in a very pronounced amplitude lobe in SW direction where two settlements are located which expressed higher intensities in the case of the 2004 event with respect to the 1998 one. Although both macroseismic fields are very complex due to influences of multiple earthquakes, retrofitting activity after 1998, site effects, and sparse distribution of settlements, unusual differences in observed intensities can be explained with different radiation patterns. PMID:24772011

  15. Analysis of the impact of fault mechanism radiation patterns on macroseismic fields in the epicentral area of 1998 and 2004 Krn Mountains earthquakes (NW Slovenia).

    PubMed

    Gosar, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    Two moderate magnitude (Mw = 5.6 and 5.2) earthquakes in Krn Mountains occurred in 1998 and 2004 which had maximum intensity VII-VIII and VI-VII EMS-98, respectively. Comparison of both macroseismic fields showed unexpected differences in the epicentral area which cannot be explained by site effects. Considerably, different distribution of the highest intensities can be noticed with respect to the strike of the seismogenic fault and in some localities even higher intensities have been estimated for the smaller earthquake. Although hypocentres of both earthquakes were only 2 km apart and were located on the same seismogenic Ravne fault, their focal mechanisms showed a slight difference: almost pure dextral strike-slip for the first event and a strike-slip with small reverse component on a steep fault plane for the second one. Seismotectonically the difference is explained as an active growth of the Ravne fault at its NW end. The radiation patterns of both events were studied to explain their possible impact on the observed variations in macroseismic fields and damage distribution. Radiation amplitude lobes were computed for three orthogonal directions: radial P, SV, and SH. The highest intensities of both earthquakes were systematically observed in directions of four (1998) or two (2004) large amplitude lobes in SH component (which corresponds mainly to Love waves), which have significantly different orientation for both events. On the other hand, radial P direction, which is almost purely symmetrical for the strike-slip mechanism of 1998 event, showed for the 2004 event that its small reverse component of movement has resulted in a very pronounced amplitude lobe in SW direction where two settlements are located which expressed higher intensities in the case of the 2004 event with respect to the 1998 one. Although both macroseismic fields are very complex due to influences of multiple earthquakes, retrofitting activity after 1998, site effects, and sparse distribution of settlements, unusual differences in observed intensities can be explained with different radiation patterns.

  16. Do Admission Criteria for Teacher Education Institutions Matter? A Comparative Study on Beliefs of Student Teachers from Serbia and Slovenia about Inclusive Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecek, Mojca; Macura-Milovanovic, Suncica

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between admissions criteria, the preparation provided by teacher education programmes and student teachers' (STs) beliefs about inclusive education (IE) are rarely made explicit. The paucity of data regarding this relationship leads us to question whether teacher candidates' prior beliefs matter relative to admissions criteria or…

  17. Information Systems Development--ISD '94. Methods & Tools. Theory & Practice. Proceedings of the International Conference (4th, Bled, Slovenia, September 20-22, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zupancic, Joze, Ed.; Wrycza, Stanislaw, Ed.

    These proceedings present 3 invited papers, 65 submitted papers, and 17 presentations on work in progress that were given at the Fourth International Conference on Information Systems Development. The three invited papers are: "Information Systems Planning in Small Business" (Georgios Doukidis, Panagiotis Lybereas, Robert D. Galliers);…

  18. Ventilatory Response to Hypercapnia Predicts Dementia with Lewy Bodies in Late-Onset Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Sho; Mizukami, Katsuyoshi; Arai, Tetsuaki; Ogawa, Ryoko; Kikuchi, Norihiro; Hattori, Satoshi; Darby, David; Asada, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that developing major depressive disorder (MDD) at 50 years of age or older can predict dementia. Depression is particularly common in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and occasionally occurs before the onset of extrapyramidal symptoms. Moreover, systemic autonomic dysfunction, including an abnormal ventilatory response to hypercapnia (VRH), is common in patients with DLB. Here, we aimed to determine whether the VRH is useful for distinguishing depression that is predictive of DLB from other types of MDD. Participants were 35 consecutive patients with first onset MDD at 50 years or older with bradykinesia. After diagnosing the clinical subtype of MDD according to DSM-IV criteria, each subject underwent a battery of psychological tests, autonomic examinations including VRH, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and 123I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy. Longitudinal follow-up showed that all 18 patients with abnormal VRH results developed DLB, whereas none of the 17 patients with normal VRH results converted to DLB within the study period (sensitivity: 100% , specificity: 100%). Additionally, over half of the DLB converters showed abnormalities on other autonomic examinations. For converters, the most common MDD subtype had psychotic and melancholic features simultaneously. The frequency of hypersensitivity to psychotropics was higher in converters than it was in non-converters. In the present study, patients with abnormal VRH results were very likely to develop DLB. Thus, for patients with late-onset MDD accompanied by bradykinesia, the VRH in combination with the clinical subtype of MDD or hypersensitivity to psychotropics may be useful for diagnosing prodromal DLB.

  19. Carbon isotope discrimination and water stress in trembling aspen following variable retention harvesting.

    PubMed

    Bladon, Kevin D; Silins, Uldis; Landhäusser, Simon M; Messier, Christian; Lieffers, Victor J

    2007-07-01

    Variable retention harvesting (VRH) has been proposed as a silvicultural practice to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem integrity. No previous study has examined tree carbon isotope discrimination to provide insights into water stress that could lead to dieback and mortality of trees following VRH. We measured and compared the carbon isotope ratios (delta(13)C) in stem wood of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) before and after VRH. Eight trees were sampled from isolated residual, edge and control (interior of unharvested stand) positions from each of seven plots in three regions (Calling Lake and Drayton Valley, Alberta and Lac Duparquet, Québec). After VRH, the general trend in mean delta(13)C was residual > edge > control trees. Although this trend is indicative of water stress in residual trees, it also suggests that edge trees received some sheltering effect, reducing their stress compared with that of residuals. A strong inverse relationship was found between the delta(13)C values and the mean annual precipitation in each region. The trend in mean delta(13)C signature was Calling Lake > Drayton Valley > Lac Duparquet trees. These results suggest that residual or edge trees in drier regions are more likely to suffer water stress following VRH. We also observed a trend of greater delta(13)C in stout trees compared with slender trees, both before and after VRH. The evidence of greater water stress in stout trees likely occurred because of a positive relationship between stem diameter and crown volume per basal area. Our results provide evidence that water stress could be the driving mechanism leading to dieback and mortality of residual trees shortly after VRH. Additionally, the results from edge trees indicate that leaving hardwood residuals in larger patches or more sheltered landscape positions could reduce the water stress to which these trees are subjected, thereby reducing dieback and mortality.

  20. American Society of Hand Therapists

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the ... Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the ...

  1. VIRTUAL REALITY HYPNOSIS FOR PAIN CONTROL IN A PATIENT WITH GLUTEAL HIDRADENITIS:A CASE REPORT1

    PubMed Central

    SOLTANI, MARYAM; TEELEY, AUBRIANA M.; WIECHMAN, SHELLEY A.; JENSEN, MARK P.; SHARAR, SAM R.; PATTERSON, DAVID R.

    2012-01-01

    This case report describes the use of hypnotic analgesia induced through immersive three-dimensional computer-generated virtual reality, better known as virtual reality hypnosis (VRH), in the treatment of a patient with ongoing pain associated with gluteal hidradenitis, The patient participated in the study for two consecutive days white hospitalized at a regional trauma centre. At pretreatment, she reported severe pain intensity and unpleasantness as well as high levels of anxiety and nervousness. She was then administered two sessions of virtual reality hypnotic treatment for decreased pain and anxiety. The patient’s ratings of ‘time spent thinking about pain’, pain intensity, ‘unpleasantness of pain’, and anxiety decreased from before to after each daily VRH session, as well as from Day One to Day Two. The findings indicate that VRH may benefit individuals with severe, ongoing pain from a chronic condition, and that a controlled clinical trial examining its efficacy is warranted. PMID:23205274

  2. Electron and thermal transport via variable range hopping in MoSe2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suri, Dhavala; Patel, R. S.

    2017-06-01

    Bulk single crystal molybdenum diselenide has been studied for its electronic and thermal transport properties. We perform resistivity measurements with current in-plane (CIP) and current perpendicular to plane (CPP) as a function of temperature. The CIP measurements exhibit metal to semiconductor transition at ≃31 K. In the semiconducting phase (T > 31 K), the transport is best explained by the variable range hopping (VRH) model. Large magnitude of resistivity in the CPP mode indicates strong structural anisotropy. The Seebeck coefficient as a function of temperature measured in the range of 90-300 K also agrees well with the VRH model. The room temperature Seebeck coefficient is found to be 139 μV/K. VRH fittings of the resistivity and the Seebeck coefficient data indicate high degree of localization.

  3. Positive magnetoresistance in Fe3Se4 nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D.; Jiang, J. J.; Liu, W.; Zhang, Z. D.

    2011-04-01

    We report the magnetotransport properties of Fe3Se4 nanowire arrays in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) porous membrane. The temperature dependence of resistance of Fe3Se4 nanowires at a zero field shows thermal activated behavior below 295 K. The exponential relationship in resistance is consistent with the model of strong localization with variable-range hopping (VRH) for a finite one-dimensional wire. Resistance versus magnetic field curves below 100 K show small positive magnetoresistance (MR). The field dependencies of log[R(H)/R(0)] explain the positive MR as the effect of magnetic field on the VRH conduction.

  4. Origin and enhancement of spin polarized current in diluted magnetic oxides by oxygen vacancies

    SciT

    Chou, Hsiung, E-mail: hchou@mail.nsysu.edu.tw; Yang, Kung-Shang; Tsao, Yao-Chung

    Spin polarized current (SPC) is a crucial characteristic of diluted magnetic oxides due to the potential application of oxides in spintronic devices. However, most research has been focused on ferromagnetic properties rather than polarization of electric current, because direct measurements are difficult and the origin of SPC has yet to be fully understood. The method to increase the SPC percentage is beyond practical consideration at present. To address this problem, we focus on the role of oxygen vacancies (V{sub O}) on SPC, which are controlled by growing the Co-doped ZnO thin-films at room temperature in a reducing atmosphere [Ar + (1%–30%)H{sub 2}].more » We found that the conductivity increases with an increase of V{sub O} via two independent channels: the variable range hopping (VRH) within localized states and the itinerant transport in the conduction band. The point contact Andreev reflection measurements at 4.2 K, where the electric conduction is governed only by the VRH mechanism, prove that the current flowing in the VRH hopping channel is SPC. The percentage of SPC increases with the introduction of V{sub O} and increase in its concentration. The transport measurement shows that by manipulating V{sub O}, one can control the percentage of VRH hopping conduction such that it can even dominate room temperature conduction. The highest achieved SPC ratio at room temperature was 80%.« less

  5. Decade-long bird community response to the spatial pattern of variable retention harvesting in red pine (Pinus resinosa) forests

    Eddie L. Shea; Lisa A. Schulte; Brian J. Palik

    2017-01-01

    Structural complexity is widely recognized as an inherent characteristic of unmanaged forests critical to their function and resilience, but often reduced in their managed counterparts. Variable retention harvesting (VRH) has been proposed as a way to restore or enhance structural complexity in managed forests, and thereby sustain attendant biodiversity and ecosystem...

  6. Long-term impacts of variable retention harvesting on ground-layer plant communities in Pinus resinosa forests

    Margaret W. Roberts; Anthony W. D' Amato; Christel C. Kern; Brian J. Palik; Lorenzo Marini

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about loss of biodiversity and structural complexity in managed forests have recently increased and led to the development of new management strategies focused on restoring or maintaining ecosystem functions while also providing wood outputs. Variable retention harvest (VRH) systems, in which mature overstorey trees are retained in various spatial arrangements...

  7. Spectroscopic classification of PSN J16303221+0913530 as a Type Ia Supernova at maximum light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piascik, A. S.; Steele, I. A.; Mikuz, H.

    2015-08-01

    PSN J16303221+0913530 (RA=16:30:32.21 DEC=+09:13:53.0, mag=18.2) was discovered by Crni Vrh Observatory on 2015-08-05.85 UT, refer to CBAT report http://www.cbat.eps.harvard.edu/unconf/followups/J16303221+0913530.html for details.

  8. Hopping conduction in zirconium oxynitrides thin film deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jie; Zhan, Guanghui; Liu, Jingquan; Yang, Bin; Xu, Bin; Feng, Jie; Chen, Xiang; Yang, Chunsheng

    2015-10-01

    Zirconium oxynitrides thin film thermometers were demonstrated to be useful temperature sensors. However, the basic conduction mechanism of zirconium oxynitrides films has been a long-standing issue, which hinders the prediction and optimization of their ultimate performance. In this letter, zirconium oxynitrides films were grown on sapphire substrates by magnetron sputtering and their electric transport mechanism has been systemically investigated. It was found that in high temperatures region (>150 K) the electrical conductivity was dominated by thermal activation for all samples. In the low temperatures range, while Mott variable hopping conduction (VRH) was dominated the transport for films with relatively low resistance, a crossover from Mott VRH conduction to Efros-Shklovskii (ES) VRH was observed for films with relatively high resistance. This low temperature crossover from Mott to ES VRH indicates the presence of a Coulomb gap (~7 meV). These results demonstrate the competing and tunable conduction mechanism in zirconium oxynitrides thin films, which would be helpful for optimizing the performance of zirconium oxynitrides thermometer.

  9. Effects of variable retention harvesting on natural tree regeneration in Pinus resinosa (red pine) forests

    Margaret W. Roberts; Anthony W. D' Amato; Christel C. Kern; Brian J. Palik

    2017-01-01

    Concerns over loss of ecosystem function and biodiversity in managed forests have led to the development of silvicultural approaches that meet ecological goals as well as sustain timber production. Variable Retention Harvest (VRH) practices, which maintain mature overstory trees across harvested areas, have been suggested as an approach to balance these objectives;...

  10. New cohort growth and survival in variable retention harvests of a pine ecosystem in Minnesota, USA

    Rebecca A. Montgomery; Brian J. Palik; Suzanne B. Boyden; Peter B. Reich

    2013-01-01

    There is significant interest in silvicultural systems such as variable retention harvesting (VRH) that emulate natural disturbance and increase structural complexity, spatial heterogeneity, and biological diversity in managed forests. However, the consequences of variable retention harvesting for new cohort growth and survival are not well characterized in many forest...

  11. 76 FR 43346 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Open Mobile...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ..., Dubendorf, Switzerland; Eurofins Product Service GmbH, Reichenwalde, Germany; Expway, Paris, France..., Inc., Nashua, NH; SEVEN, Helsinki, Finland; SFR, Paris, France; Sintesio, Foundation, Bled, SLOVENIA...

  12. 8 CFR 217.2 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Brunei, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland..., Norway, Portugal, Republic of Korea, San Marino, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden...

  13. 48 CFR 52.222-19 - Child Labor-Cooperation with Authorities and Remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece..., Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain...

  14. 8 CFR 217.2 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Brunei, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland..., Norway, Portugal, Republic of Korea, San Marino, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden...

  15. 8 CFR 217.2 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Brunei, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland..., Norway, Portugal, Republic of Korea, San Marino, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden...

  16. 48 CFR 52.222-19 - Child Labor-Cooperation with Authorities and Remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong..., Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden...

  17. 8 CFR 217.2 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Brunei, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland..., Norway, Portugal, Republic of Korea, San Marino, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden...

  18. 48 CFR 52.222-19 - Child Labor-Cooperation with Authorities and Remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany..., Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia...

  19. 48 CFR 52.222-19 - Child Labor-Cooperation with Authorities and Remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece..., Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain...

  20. 77 FR 2558 - Identification of Foreign Countries Whose Nationals Are Eligible To Participate in the H-2A and H...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... account the four factors identified above. The Secretary of Homeland Security also considered other... Romania Samoa Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands South Africa South Korea Spain Switzerland Tonga...

  1. Carrier Transport and Effective Barrier Height of Low Resistance Metal Contact to Highly Mg-Doped p-GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Youngjun; Kim, Hyunsoo

    2011-08-01

    The effective barrier height and carrier transport mechanism of low resistance Ag-based contact to highly Mg-doped p-GaN were investigated. The specific contact resistance obtained was as low as 7.0×10-4 Ω cm2. The electrical resistivity of p-GaN was found to increase depending on ˜T-1/4, indicating variable-range hopping (VRH) conduction through Mg-related deep-level defects. Based on the VRH conduction model, the effective barrier height for carrier transport could be measured as 0.12 eV, which is low enough to explain the formation of excellent ohmic contact. The deep-level defects were also found to induce surface Fermi pinning.

  2. The Single-Crystal Elasticity of Yttria (Y2O3) to High Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriven, Waltraud M.; Palko, James W.; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Bass, Jay D.; Sayir, Ali; Levine, Stanley R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The single-crystal elastic moduli of yttria have been measured by Brillouin spectroscopy up to 1200 C. The room temperature values obtained are C11 = 223.6 +/- 0.6 GPa, C44 = 74.6 +/- 0.5 GPa, and C12 = 112.4 +/- 1.0 GPa. The resulting bulk and (Voigt-Reuss-Hill) shear moduli are K = 149.5 +/- 1.0 GPa and G(sub VRH) = 66.3 +/- 0.8 GPa, respectively. These agree much more closely with experimental values reported for polycrystalline samples than do previous single-crystal measurements. Linear least squares regressions to the variation of bulk and shear moduli with temperature result in derivatives of dK/dT = -17 +/- 2 MPa/degC and dG(sub VRH)/dT = -8 +/- 2 MPa/degC. Elastic anisotropy was found to remain essentially constant over the temperature range studied.

  3. Study of temperature dependent electrical properties of Se80-xTe20Bix (x = 0, 3, 6) glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deepika, Singh, Hukum

    2018-05-01

    This paper reports the variation in electrical properties of Se80-xTe20Bix (x = 0, 3, 6) glasses studied at different temperatures. The amorphous samples were prepared using the melt quenching method and the electrical measurements were performed on Keithley Electrometer in the temperature ranging from 298-373 K. The I-V characteristics were noted at different temperatures and the data obtained was analysed to get dc electrical conductivity and activation energy of electrical conduction. Further, Mott's 3D VRH model has been applied to obtain density of states, hopping range and hopping energy at different temperatures. The obtained results show that dc electrical conductivity increases with increase in Bi composition in Se-Te system. These compositions also show close agreement to Mott's VRH model.

  4. Broad and Narrow Personality Traits Predicting Academic Achievement over Compulsory Schooling: A Cross-Sectional Study in Two Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zupancic, Maja; Kavcic, Tina; Slobodskaya, Helena R.; Akhmetova, Olga A.

    2016-01-01

    Incremental predictive value of 5 broad and 13 narrow personality traits for academic achievement over and beyond age, gender, parental education, and country was examined in Russian and Slovene 8- to 15-year-olds. Personality data were collected from mothers (Russia: N = 994, Slovenia: N = 624) and adolescents (Russia: N = 481, Slovenia: N = 310)…

  5. 15 CFR 742.6 - Regional stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain..., Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and..., South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom or the United States. (4) RS Column...

  6. 15 CFR 742.6 - Regional stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain..., Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and..., South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom or the United States. (4) RS Column...

  7. 15 CFR 742.6 - Regional stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain..., Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and..., South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom or the United States. (4) RS Column...

  8. 76 FR 2915 - Identification of Foreign Countries Whose Nationals Are Eligible To Participate in the H-2A and H...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    .... This determination is made taking into account the four factors identified above. The Secretary of... Guinea, Samoa, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu as countries whose nationals are... Samoa Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands South Africa South Korea Tonga Turkey Tuvalu Ukraine...

  9. Forecasting Training Needs in the Hotel, Catering and Tourism Sector: A Comparative Analysis of Results from Regional Studies in Three European Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giffard, Andre; Guegnard, Christine; Strietska-Ilina, Olga

    2001-01-01

    A pilot study on the hotel, catering, and tourism sector was conducted in the Burgundy region of France, Northwest region of the Czech Republic, and Podravje region of Slovenia. Three main kinds of factors of change were brought out. The first, evoked in Slovenia and the Czech Republic, concerned the opening of borders. Typical trends were…

  10. The Kosovo Conflict: Emerging Relationships and Implications for Greece

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    geographic and political peace-maker. Unofficial recommendations include: integrate Slovenia, Romania , Bulgaria, Albania, and Former Yugoslav Republic of...integrate Slovenia, Romania , Bulgaria, Albania, and Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) into the EU to facilitate a common Balkan and

  11. Spin-orbit interaction and negative magnetoresistance for localized electrons in InSb quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, S.; Manago, T.; Nishizako, N.; Geka, H.; Shibasaki, I.

    2010-02-01

    Weak-field magnetoresistance (MR) in the variable-range hopping (VRH) in the presence of spin-orbit interaction (SOI) for 2DEGs at the hetero-interface of InSb quantum wells was examined in view of the quantum interference (QI) effect. Samples with the sheet resistance, ρ> ρc= h/ e2, exhibit VRH, while those with ρ< ρc exhibit weak localiz ation (WL) at low temperatures, where h/ e2 is the quantum resistance. In the WL regime, a positive magnetoresistance (MR) peak due to the weak anti-localization (WAL) with SOI is clearly observed in low magnetic field. In contrast, the low-field hopping MR remains entirely negative surviving the SOI, indicating that the hopping MR due to the QI is completely negative regardless of the SOI. This result supports the predictions based on the directed-path approach for forward-scattering paths ignoring the back-scattering return loops for the QI in the VRH.

  12. SciT

    Berryman, J. G.

    While the well-known Voigt and Reuss (VR) bounds, and the Voigt-Reuss-Hill (VRH) elastic constant estimators for random polycrystals are all straightforwardly calculated once the elastic constants of anisotropic crystals are known, the Hashin-Shtrikman (HS) bounds and related self-consistent (SC) estimators for the same constants are, by comparison, more difficult to compute. Recent work has shown how to simplify (to some extent) these harder to compute HS bounds and SC estimators. An overview and analysis of a subsampling of these results is presented here with the main point being to show whether or not this extra work (i.e., in calculating bothmore » the HS bounds and the SC estimates) does provide added value since, in particular, the VRH estimators often do not fall within the HS bounds, while the SC estimators (for good reasons) have always been found to do so. The quantitative differences between the SC and the VRH estimators in the eight cases considered are often quite small however, being on the order of ±1%. These quantitative results hold true even though these polycrystal Voigt-Reuss-Hill estimators more typically (but not always) fall outside the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds, while the self-consistent estimators always fall inside (or on the boundaries of) these same bounds.« less

  13. 22 CFR 228.03 - Identification of principal geographic code numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Belarus, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Gabon, Georgia...*, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, People's Republic of China, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Serbia*, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden...

  14. 48 CFR 22.1503 - Procedures for acquiring end products on the List of Products Requiring Contractor Certification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... more (see Subpart 25.4); or (4) Armenia, Aruba, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic..., Romania, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, or the United Kingdom...

  15. 48 CFR 22.1503 - Procedures for acquiring end products on the List of Products Requiring Contractor Certification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... more (see Subpart 25.4); or (4) Armenia, Aruba, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic..., Romania, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, or the United Kingdom...

  16. 48 CFR 22.1503 - Procedures for acquiring end products on the List of Products Requiring Contractor Certification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... more (see Subpart 25.4); or (4) Aruba, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark..., Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, or the United Kingdom and the...

  17. Find a Pediatrician or Pediatric Specialist

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  18. Aplastic Anemia & MDS International Foundation

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  19. Find an Eye M.D.

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  1. News Lists Registration

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  3. 77 FR 12935 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; New Designated Country (Armenia) and Other Trade Agreements Updates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... necessary, to select regulatory approaches that maximize net benefits (including potential economic... regarding the burden estimates or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions..., Macao China, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain...

  4. Judgment, 24 June 1987.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    The Constitutional Court of Slovenia held that Article 65 of the Law on Marriage and Family Relations of Slovenia is not unconstitutional. Law 65 provides that a spouse may request a divorce on the grounds that "the marriage is not possible to continue due to whatever reason." The Court rejected the argument of the applicant that a court must determine fault and specific grounds on which the marriage is impossible to continue. full text

  5. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Boron and Nitrogen co-doped Reduced Graphene Oxide for the Protection of Electromagnetic Radiation in Ku-Band.

    PubMed

    Umrao, Sima; Gupta, Tejendra K; Kumar, Shiv; Singh, Vijay K; Sultania, Manish K; Jung, Jung Hwan; Oh, Il-Kwon; Srivastava, Anchal

    2015-09-09

    The electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding of reduced graphene oxide (MRG), B-doped MRG (B-MRG), N-doped MRG (N-MRG), and B-N co-doped MRG (B-N-MRG) have been studied in the Ku-band frequency range (12.8-18 GHz). We have developed a green, fast, and cost-effective microwave assisted route for synthesis of doped MRG. B-N-MRG shows high electrical conductivity in comparison to MRG, B-MRG and N-MRG, which results better electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding ability. The co-doping of B and N significantly enhances the electrical conductivity of MRG from 21.4 to 124.4 Sm(-1) because N introduces electrons and B provides holes in the system and may form a nanojunction inside the material. Their temperature-dependent electrical conductivity follows 2D-variable range hopping (2D-VRH) and Efros-Shklovskii-VRH (ES-VRH) conduction model in a low temperature range (T<50 K). The spatial configuration of MRG after doping of B and N enhances the space charge polarization, natural resonance, dielectric polarization, and trapping of EM waves by internal reflection leading to a high EMI shielding of -42 dB (∼99.99% attenuation) compared to undoped MRG (-28 dB) at a critical thickness of 1.2 mm. Results suggest that the B-N-MRG has great potential as a candidate for a new type of EMI shielding material useful in aircraft, defense industries, communication systems, and stealth technology.

  6. Sensitive photo-thermal response of graphene oxide for mid-infrared detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Jung Jun; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Jeong, Sooyeon; Moon, Byoung Hee; Han, Joong Tark; Jeong, Hee Jin; Lee, Geon-Woong; Hwang, Ha Ryong; Lee, Young Hee; Jeong, Seung Yol; Lim, Seong Chu

    2015-09-01

    This study characterizes the effects of incident infrared (IR) radiation on the electrical conductivity of graphene oxide (GO) and examines its potential for mid-IR detection. Analysis of the mildly reduced GO (m-GO) transport mechanism near room temperature reveals variable range hopping (VRH) for the conduction of electrons. This VRH behavior causes the m-GO resistance to exhibit a strong temperature dependence, with a large negative temperature coefficient of resistance of approximately -2 to -4% K-1. In addition to this hopping transport, the presence of various oxygen-related functional groups within GO enhances the absorption of IR radiation significantly. These two GO material properties are synergically coupled and provoke a remarkable photothermal effect within this material; specifically, a large resistance drop is exhibited by m-GO in response to the increase in temperature caused by the IR absorption. The m-GO bolometer effect identified in this study is different from that exhibited in vanadium oxides, which require added gold-black films that function as IR absorbers owing to their limited IR absorption capability.This study characterizes the effects of incident infrared (IR) radiation on the electrical conductivity of graphene oxide (GO) and examines its potential for mid-IR detection. Analysis of the mildly reduced GO (m-GO) transport mechanism near room temperature reveals variable range hopping (VRH) for the conduction of electrons. This VRH behavior causes the m-GO resistance to exhibit a strong temperature dependence, with a large negative temperature coefficient of resistance of approximately -2 to -4% K-1. In addition to this hopping transport, the presence of various oxygen-related functional groups within GO enhances the absorption of IR radiation significantly. These two GO material properties are synergically coupled and provoke a remarkable photothermal effect within this material; specifically, a large resistance drop is exhibited by m

  7. Electrical transport and thermochromic properties of polyaniline/chitosan/Co3O4 ternary nano composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    V, Mini; Kamath, Archana; S, Raghu; Chapi, Sharanappa; H, Devendrappa

    2015-06-01

    A new Polyaniline/ chitosan/ Co3O4 (CPAESCO) ternary nanocomposite is prepared by in situ oxidation polymerization of aniline in the presence of (NH4)2S2O8, chitosan and Co3O4. The Structural, Thermal, Optical and Electrical features of Polyaniline (PANI), Polyaniline/ chitosan (CPANI) and CPAESCO were analyzed using FT-IR, TGA, UV-vis analysis and Impedance spectroscopy by varying temperature. The results show that the introduction of the Co3O4 nanoparticles into CPANI matrix enhanced its properties. Mott's parameters show 3D -VRH Type conduction in it.

  8. PREFACE: XXIVth Conference of the Danubian Countries on the Hydrological Forecasting and Hydrological Bases of Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilly, Mitja; Bonacci, Ognjen; Nachtnebel, Peter Hans; Szolgay, Ján; Balint, Gabor

    2008-10-01

    This volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science presents a selection of papers that were given at the 24th Conference of the Danube Countries. Within the framework of the International Hydrological Program IHP of UNESCO. Since 1961 the Danube countries have successfully co-operated in organizing conferences on Hydrological Forecasting and Hydrological Water Management Issues. The 24th Conference of the Danube Countries took place between 2-4 June 2008 in Bled, Slovenia and was organized by the National Committee of Slovenia for the International Hydrological Program of UNESCO, under the auspices of the President of Republic of Slovenia. It was organized jointly by the Slovenian National Commission for UNESCO and the Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, under the support of UNESCO, WMO, and IAHS. Support for the attendance of some participants was provided by UNESCO. Additional support for the symposium was provided by the Slovene Commission for UNESCO, Environmental Agency of Slovenia, Karst Research Institute, Hydropower plants on the lower Sava River and Chair of Hydraulics Engineering FGG University of Ljubljana. All participants expressed great interest and enthusiasm in presenting the latest research results and sharing practical experiences in the Hydrology of the Danube River basin. The Editorial Board, who were nominated at the Conference, initially selected 80 full papers for publication from 210 submitted extended abstracts and papers provided by authors from twenty countries. Altogether 51 revised papers were accepted for publishing in this volume. Papers are divided by conference topics: Hydrological forecasting Hydro-meteorological extremes, floods and droughts Global climate change and antropogenic impacts on hydrological processes Water management Floods, morphological processes, erosion, sediment transport and sedimentation Developments in hydrology Mitja Brilly, Ognjen Bonacci, Peter Hans Nachtnebel, Ján Szolgay

  9. Colossal permittivity and the polarization mechanism of (Mg, Mn) co-doped LaGaO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Tingting; Liu, Zhifu; Zhang, Faqiang; Li, Yongxiang

    2018-03-01

    Mg and Mn co-doped LaGa0.7-xMgxMn0.3O3 (x = 0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15) ceramics were prepared by a solid-state reaction method. The electrical properties of the LaGa0.7-xMgxMn0.3O3 ceramics were studied in detail by dielectric spectra, impedance spectra, and I-V characteristic analysis. Colossal permittivity up to 104 could be obtained across the frequency range up to 104 Hz. The impedance analysis of the co-doped LaGaO3 ceramics indicated that the Mott's variable range hopping (VRH) polarization should be the main origin of colossal permittivity. Mg and Mn co-doping suppressed the formation of Mn3+ and enhanced the VRH polarization, resulting in increased permittivity. Partial localization of electrons by Mg reduced the long-range electron hopping and led to the decrease in dielectric loss.

  10. -Sb Glasses at Low Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souri, Dariush; Azizpour, Parvin; Zaliani, Hamideh

    2014-09-01

    Semiconducting glasses of the type 40TeO2-(60 - x) V2O5- xSb were prepared by rapid melt quenching and their dc electrical conductivity was measured in the temperature range 180-296 K. For these glassy samples, the dc electrical conductivity ranged from 2.26 × 10-7 S cm-1 to 1.11 × 10-5 S cm-1 at 296 K, indicating the conductivity is enhanced by increasing the V2O5 content. These experimental results could be explained on the basis of different mechanisms (based on polaron-hopping theory) in the different temperature regions. At temperatures above Θ D/2 (where Θ D is the Debye temperature), the non-adiabatic small polaron hopping (NASPH) model is consistent with the data, whereas at temperatures below Θ D/2, a T -1/4 dependence of the conductivity indicative of the variable range hopping (VRH) mechanism is dominant. For all these glasses crossover from SPH to VRH conduction was observed at a characteristic temperature T R ≤ Θ D/2. In this study, the hopping carrier density and carrier mobility were determined at different temperatures. N ( E F), the density of states at (or near) the Fermi level, was also determined from the Mott variables; the results were dependent on V2O5 content.

  11. Structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of Co-doped nanocrystalline La0.7Te0.3Mn0.7Co0.3O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meenakshi; Kumar, Amit; Mahato, Rabindra Nath

    2018-02-01

    Structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of the nanocrystalline La0.7Te0.3Mn0.7Co0.3O3 perovskite manganite were investigated. X-ray diffraction pattern indicated that the nanocrystalline sample crystallized in orthorhombic crystal structure with Pbnm space group. The average particle size was calculated using scanning electron microscope and it was found to be ∼150 nm. Temperature dependence magnetization measurements revealed ferromagnetic-paramagnetic phase transition and the Curie temperature (TC) was found to be ∼201 K. Field dependence magnetization showed the hysteresis at low temperature with a coercive field of ∼0.34 T and linear dependence at high temperature corresponds to paramagnetic region. Based on the magnetic field dependence magnetization data, the maximum entropy change and relative cooling power (RCP) were estimated and the values were 1.002 J kg-1 K-1 and 90 J kg-1 for a field change of 5 T respectively. Temperature dependent resistivity ρ(T) data exhibited semiconducting-like behavior at high temperature and the electrical transport was well explained by Mott's variable-range hopping (VRH) conduction mechanism in the temperature range of 250 K-300 K. Using the VRH fit, the calculated hoping distance (Rh) at 300 K was 54.4 Å and density of states N(EF) at room temperature was 7.04 × 1018 eV-1 cm-3. These values were comparable to other semiconducting oxides.

  12. Anomalously small resistivity and thermopower of strongly compensated semiconductors and topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tianran; Shklovskii, B. I.

    2013-04-01

    In the recent paper, we explained why the maximum bulk resistivity of topological insulators (TIs) such as Bi2Se3 is so small [B. Skinner, T. Chen, and B. I. Shklovskii, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.109.176801 109, 176801 (2012)]. Using the model of completely compensated semiconductor we showed that when the Fermi level is pinned in the middle of the gap the activation energy of resistivity is Δ=0.3(Eg/2), where Eg is the semiconductor gap. In this paper, we consider a strongly compensated n-type semiconductor. We find the position of the Fermi level μ calculated from the bottom of the conduction band Ec and the activation energy of resistivity Δ as a function of compensation K, and show that Δ=0.3(Ec-μ) holds at any 0<1-K≪1. In the same range of relatively high temperatures, the Peltier energy (heat) Π is even smaller: Π≃Δ/2=0.15(Ec-μ). We also show that at low temperatures, the activated conductivity crosses over to variable range hopping (VRH) and find the characteristic temperature of VRH, TES, as a function of K.

  13. Stereospecific analysis of triacylglycerols as a useful means to evaluate genuineness of pumpkin seed oils: lesson from virgin olive oil analyses.

    PubMed

    Butinar, Bojan; Bucar-Miklavcic, Milena; Valencic, Vasilij; Raspor, Peter

    2010-05-12

    In Slovenia two superb vegetable oils with high added nutritional value are produced: "Ekstra devisko oljcno olje Slovenske Istre (extra virgin olive oil from Slovene Istra)" and "Stajersko prekmursko bucno olje (pumpkin seed oil from Slovenia)". Their quality and genuineness must be monitored as adulteration can easily be undertaken. Olive oil genuineness determination experiences can show how analyses following an experience data-driven decision tree gathering several chemical determinations (fatty acids, (E)-isomers of fatty acids, sterol and tocopherol determinations) may be helpful in assessing the pumpkin seed oil from Slovenia genuineness. In the present work a set of HPLC triacylglycerol determinations was performed, based on the nine main triacylglycerols (LLLn, LLL, PLL, LOO, PLO, OOO, POO, SPL, and SLS) on a limited number of different pumpkin seed oils from northeastern Slovenia. The performed determinations showed that stereospecific analyses of triacylglycerols together with other chemical determinations can be useful in building a protocol for the evaluation of the genuineness of pumpkin seed oil from Slovenia.

  14. Do open access biomedical journals benefit smaller countries? The Slovenian experience.

    PubMed

    Turk, Nana

    2011-06-01

    Scientists from smaller countries have problems gaining visibility for their research. Does open access publishing provide a solution? Slovenia is a small country with around 5000 medical doctors, 1300 dentists and 1000 pharmacists. A search of Slovenia's Bibliographic database was carried out to identity all biomedical journals and those which are open access. Slovenia has 18 medical open access journals, but none has an impact factor and only 10 are indexed by Slovenian and international bibliographic databases. The visibility and quality of medical papers is poor. The solution might be to reduce the number of journals and encourage Slovenian scientists to publish their best articles in them. © 2011 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2011 Health Libraries Group.

  15. Targeting a portion of central European spider diversity for permanent preservation.

    PubMed

    Candek, Klemen; Gregorič, Matjaž; Kostanjšek, Rok; Frick, Holger; Kropf, Christian; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2013-01-01

    Given the limited success of past and current conservation efforts, an alternative approach is to preserve tissues and genomes of targeted organisms in cryobanks to make them accessible for future generations. Our pilot preservation project aimed to obtain, expertly identify, and permanently preserve a quarter of the known spider species diversity shared between Slovenia and Switzerland, estimated at 275 species. We here report on the faunistic part of this project, which resulted in 324 species (227 in Slovenia, 143 in Switzerland) for which identification was reasonably established. This material is now preserved in cryobanks, is being processed for DNA barcoding, and is available for genomic studies.

  16. Targeting a portion of central European spider diversity for permanent preservation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Given the limited success of past and current conservation efforts, an alternative approach is to preserve tissues and genomes of targeted organisms in cryobanks to make them accessible for future generations. Our pilot preservation project aimed to obtain, expertly identify, and permanently preserve a quarter of the known spider species diversity shared between Slovenia and Switzerland, estimated at 275 species. We here report on the faunistic part of this project, which resulted in 324 species (227 in Slovenia, 143 in Switzerland) for which identification was reasonably established. This material is now preserved in cryobanks, is being processed for DNA barcoding, and is available for genomic studies. PMID:24723774

  17. Limited Effects of Variable-Retention Harvesting on Fungal Communities Decomposing Fine Roots in Coastal Temperate Rainforests.

    PubMed

    Philpott, Timothy J; Barker, Jason S; Prescott, Cindy E; Grayston, Sue J

    2018-02-01

    Fine root litter is the principal source of carbon stored in forest soils and a dominant source of carbon for fungal decomposers. Differences in decomposer capacity between fungal species may be important determinants of fine-root decomposition rates. Variable-retention harvesting (VRH) provides refuge for ectomycorrhizal fungi, but its influence on fine-root decomposers is unknown, as are the effects of functional shifts in these fungal communities on carbon cycling. We compared fungal communities decomposing fine roots (in litter bags) under VRH, clear-cut, and uncut stands at two sites (6 and 13 years postharvest) and two decay stages (43 days and 1 year after burial) in Douglas fir forests in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Fungal species and guilds were identified from decomposed fine roots using high-throughput sequencing. Variable retention had short-term effects on β-diversity; harvest treatment modified the fungal community composition at the 6-year-postharvest site, but not at the 13-year-postharvest site. Ericoid and ectomycorrhizal guilds were not more abundant under VRH, but stand age significantly structured species composition. Guild composition varied by decay stage, with ruderal species later replaced by saprotrophs and ectomycorrhizae. Ectomycorrhizal abundance on decomposing fine roots may partially explain why fine roots typically decompose more slowly than surface litter. Our results indicate that stand age structures fine-root decomposers but that decay stage is more important in structuring the fungal community than shifts caused by harvesting. The rapid postharvest recovery of fungal communities decomposing fine roots suggests resiliency within this community, at least in these young regenerating stands in coastal British Columbia. IMPORTANCE Globally, fine roots are a dominant source of carbon in forest soils, yet the fungi that decompose this material and that drive the sequestration or respiration of this carbon remain largely

  18. Magnetoreresistance of carbon nanotube-polypyrrole composite yarns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, R.; Ghorbani, S. R.; Arabi, H.; Foroughi, J.

    2018-05-01

    Three types of samples, carbon nanotube yarn and carbon nanotube-polypyrrole composite yarns had been investigated by measurement of the electrical conductivity as a function of temperature and magnetic field. The conductivity was well explained by 3D Mott variable range hopping (VRH) law at T < 100 K. Both positive and negative magnetoresistance (MR) were observed by increasing magnetic field. The MR data were analyzed based a theoretical model. A quadratic positive and negative MR was observed for three samples. It was found that the localization length decreases with applied magnetic field while the density of states increases. The increasing of the density of states induces increasing the number of available energy states for hopping. Thus the electron hopping probability increases in between sites with the shorter distance that results to small the average hopping length.

  19. Investigation of the physical properties of two Laves phase compounds HRh2 (H = Ca and La): A DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahaman, Md. Zahidur; Rahman, Md. Atikur

    2018-05-01

    By using the first-principle calculations, the structural, elastic, electronic and optical properties of Laves phase intermetallic compounds CaRh2 and LaRh2 prototype with MgCu2 are investigated. The evaluated lattice parameters are consistent with the experimental values. The important elastic properties, such as bulk modulus B, shear modulus G, Young’s modulus Y and the Poisson’s ratio v, are computed by applying the Voigt-Reuss-Hill (VRH) approximation. The analysis of Pugh’s ratio exhibits the ductile nature of both the phases. Electronic conductivity is predicted for both the compounds. Most of the contribution comes from Rh-4d states. The study of bonding characteristics reveals the existence of ionic and metallic bonds in both intermetallics. The study of optical properties indicates that CaRh2 is a better dielectric material than LaRh2. Absorption quality of both the phases is good in the ultraviolet region.

  20. Reverse leakage current characteristics of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well ultraviolet/blue/green light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shengjun; Lv, Jiajiang; Wu, Yini; Zhang, Yuan; Zheng, Chenju; Liu, Sheng

    2018-05-01

    We investigated the reverse leakage current characteristics of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) near-ultraviolet (NUV)/blue/green light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Experimental results showed that the NUV LED has the smallest reverse leakage current whereas the green LED has the largest. The reason is that the number of defects increases with increasing nominal indium content in InGaN/GaN MQWs. The mechanism of the reverse leakage current was analyzed by temperature-dependent current–voltage measurement and capacitance–voltage measurement. The reverse leakage currents of NUV/blue/green LEDs show similar conduction mechanisms: at low temperatures, the reverse leakage current of these LEDs is attributed to variable-range hopping (VRH) conduction; at high temperatures, the reverse leakage current of these LEDs is attributed to nearest-neighbor hopping (NNH) conduction, which is enhanced by the Poole–Frenkel effect.

  1. First principles predictions of electronic and elastic properties of BaPb2As2 in the ThCr2Si2-type structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourourou, Y.; Amari, S.; Yahiaoui, I. E.; Bouhafs, B.

    2018-01-01

    A first-principles approach is used to predicts the electronic and elastic properties of BaPb2As2 superconductor compound, using full-potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbitals (FP-L/APW+lo) scheme within the local density approximation LDA. The calculated equilibrium structural parameter a agree well with the experiment while the c/a ratio is far away from the experimental result. The band structure, density of states, together with the charge density and chemical bonding are discussed. The calculated elastic constants for our compound indicate that it is mechanically stable at ambient pressure. Polycrystalline elastic moduli (Young's, Bulk, shear Modulus and the Poisson's ratio) were calculated according to the Voigte-Reusse-Hill (VRH) average.

  2. Study of conduction behavior in Pr0.67Sr0.03Ag0.30MnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Masroor Ahmad; Modi, Anchit; Pandey, Devendra K.; Gaur, N. K.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we report the conduction mechanism in Pr0.67Sr0.03Ag0.30MnO3 system synthesized via conventional solid state reaction route. The structural information was carried by X - Ray diffraction using Rietveld refinement which confirms the secondary phase of the sample. The SEM image shows the formation of double phase composite because of limited reaction of silver with parent compound. The resistivity behavior indicates the semiconducting behavior. The electronic nature can be estimated by means of variable range hopping (VRH) and small polaron hopping (SPH) model showing that the enhancement of double exchange interaction suppress the band gap and boost the carrier delocalization of charge carriers.

  3. Writingmatrix: Connecting Students with Blogs, Tags, and Social Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Vance; Quintana, Nelba; Zeinstejer, Rita; Sirk, Sasa; Molero, Doris; Arena, Carla

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an extensive online project, Writingmatrix [http://writingmatrix.wikispaces.com], involving several key elements essential to collaboration in Web 2.0, such as aggregation, tagging, and social networking. Participant teachers in several different countries--Argentina, Venezuela, and Slovenia--had their adult students at…

  4. Aggression in Primary Schools: The Predictive Power of the School and Home Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozina, Ana

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we analyse the predictive power of home and school environment-related factors for determining pupils' aggression. The multiple regression analyses are performed for fourth- and eighth-grade pupils based on the Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007 (N = 8394) and TIMSS 2011 (N = 9415) databases for Slovenia. At the…

  5. The Identification of Teasing among Students as an Indispensable Step towards Reducing Verbal Aggression in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psunder, Mateja

    2010-01-01

    Surveys have confirmed the ubiquity of aggression in schools, and verbal aggression is not an exception. The identification of teasing as a frequent form of verbal aggression is an indispensable step towards diminishing it. The purpose of this study was to investigate teasing among primary school students in Slovenia. The research showed that…

  6. Vic Goes to Near Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merhar, Vida Kariž; Capuder, Rok; Maroševic, Timotej; Artac, Sonja; Mozer, Alenka; Štekovic, Maja

    2016-01-01

    In the school year 2012-2013 about 50 students (Fig. 1), managed by mentors (teachers from the middle school Gimnazija Vic in Ljubljana, Slovenia) created an atmospheric probe and launched it into an altitude of more than 30 km above Earth's surface. The aim of this "space expedition" was to take pictures of Earth and to measure how air…

  7. Primary School Teachers' Opinions on Teaching the Environmental Studies Subject outside of the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koprivnik, Minka; Korban-Crnjavic, Maja; Hus, Vlasta

    2016-01-01

    With the curriculum reform of the basic school in the Republic of Slovenia, the experiential learning and conducting classes outside the classroom become one of the more important starting points for the subject of Environmental Studies, which is taught in the first three years. With the empirical study, we wanted to research which location is…

  8. Approaches to Internal Testing and Assessment of Knowledge in Relation to the Pupils' Achievements in National Assessment of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Žakelj, Amalija; Grmek, Milena Ivanuš; Cankar, Franc

    2012-01-01

    In this article we are presenting the results of the research "The Connection between the Results in the National Assessment of Knowledge and the Pupils' Socio-cultural Environment, Instruction and Homework," taking place at the National Education Institute, Slovenia, in the years 2008/2009. In the introduction we are writing the…

  9. Transition and Transformation: The Influence of a Learning Package on Student Performance in Soils Geography Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korze, Ana Vovk

    2005-01-01

    Recent political and economic developments in Slovenia, especially its accession to the European Union in 2004, have led to a significant reappraisal of the geography curriculum in higher education, and particularly those elements dealing with the teaching of soils. Physical geography, and especially soils geography, has long been an important…

  10. The Role of Children in Eastern European Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robila, Mihaela; Krishnakumar, Ambika

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the additive effect of attitudes towards gender roles and importance of marriage on the centrality of children in seven East European countries: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, the former East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Russia, and Slovenia using the data from the 1994 International Social Science Survey (ISSP). Results support…

  11. Rethinking the Hidden Curriculum: Daily Routine in Slovene Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorec, Marcela Batistic; Došler, Anita Jug

    2016-01-01

    In Slovenia there is a unitary system of early education for all preschool-aged children. Since the vast majority of children attend full-day programmes, the daily routine represents a significant part of life for children in kindergarten. When systemic and curricular reform of preschools was introduced at the end of the twentieth century, lot of…

  12. Can We Expect to Recruit Future Engineers among Students Who Have Never Repaired a Toy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virtic, Mateja Ploj; Šorgo, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    Education has traditionally focused primarily on content and cognitive goals. While content knowledge is important, to enter to the labour market today, graduates must also develop manual skills and technical literacy. The paper deals with engineering and technology education in Slovenia. It portrays the problem of the decline in interest in…

  13. 19 CFR 12.104b - State Parties to the Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., acceptance, accession or succession, the date of such deposit and the date of entry into force for each State Party: State party Date of deposit Date of entry into force Algeria June 24, 1974 (R) Sept. 24, 1974... entered into force on July 28, 1988. 2. Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia and the Republic of Slovenia each...

  14. 19 CFR 12.104b - State Parties to the Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., acceptance, accession or succession, the date of such deposit and the date of entry into force for each State Party: State party Date of deposit Date of entry into force Algeria June 24, 1974 (R) Sept. 24, 1974... entered into force on July 28, 1988. 2. Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia and the Republic of Slovenia each...

  15. Gender, Previous Knowledge, Personality Traits and Subject-Specific Motivation as Predictors of Students' Math Grade in Upper-Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peklaj, Cirila; Podlesek, Anja; Pecjak, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationships between gender, previous knowledge, different personality traits, subject-specific motivational dimensions and students' math grade in secondary school. A total of 386 first-year students (142 boys and 244 girls) from secondary schools in Slovenia (mean age was 15.7 years) participated in the…

  16. Planning and Evaluating Educational Work in Slovene Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batistic Zorec, Marcela; Hocevar, Andreja

    2012-01-01

    The present article examines the changes in Slovene preschools subsequent to Slovenia's independence in 1991. In the socialist period, the national education programme for preschools was highly structured, goal and content-oriented and subject to schoolization. The Curriculum for Preschools (1999) brought conceptual changes towards education…

  17. A Study of the Use of Narratives in Teaching English as a Foreign Language to Young Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fojkar, Mateja Dagarin; Skela, Janez; Kovac, Pija

    2013-01-01

    The article reports the findings of a survey, conducted among primary school English language teachers in Slovenia, aimed at revealing their attitudes towards the use of narratives in teaching English as a foreign language to children aged from eight to nine years (3rd and 4th grades respectively). The research results show that most teachers use…

  18. Public-Private Dynamics in Higher Education in the Western Balkans: Are Governments Leveling the Playing Field?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemencic, Manja; Zgaga, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes the public-private dynamics in the context of eight Western Balkan countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia). This article examines whether and to what extent these governments "level the playing field" between private and…

  19. Religious Orientation, Low Self-Control, and Deviance: Muslims, Catholics, Eastern Orthodox-, and "Bible Belt" Christians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klanjsek, Rudi; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Trejos-Castillo, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Using adolescent samples from four cultures, the current study tested whether effects by religiosity on deviance varied by the nature of religiosity (intrinsic versus extrinsic) and by the cultural context (Bosnia & Herzegovina, Serbia, Slovenia, and the U.S.). Results indicated: a) that not every type of religiosity has a buffering effect on…

  20. Is There Anything Specific about Early School Leaving in Southeast Europe? A Review of Research and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jugovic, Ivana; Doolan, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Studies on early school leaving (ESL) from countries such as Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia have been missing from the international early school leaving research map. As a contribution to remedying this, the article reviews research papers and strategic documents from these countries, guided by the general…

  1. Implementation of a Multidisciplinary Professional Skills Course at an Electrical Engineering School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gider, F.; Likar, B.; Kern, T.; Miklavcic, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a case study of an innovative approach to teaching at an engineering school. The postgraduate course "Project Work and Communication in Research and Development (R&D)" was developed at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering of the University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia. The main aim of the course was to make…

  2. Trainee Teachers' Ideas about Endangered Birds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torkar, Gregor; Bajd, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    This article explores trainee teachers' conceptions and ideas about endangered bird species and their protection. The study involved 191 students majoring in kindergarten education, primary school natural science or secondary school biology education at the University of Ljubljana Faculty of Education, Slovenia. Data analyses showed that the…

  3. Relationship in Teamwork--Between Cooperation and Parasitism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorgo, Andrej; Logar, Dagmar

    2006-01-01

    The big question which has arisen with the growth of ICT is how to incorporate this new technology into existing curriculum. The authors relate how they established a viable cooperation and transfer of knowledge between subjects biology and ICT in their school in Slovenia. The result was that their students produced more than 150 biological Web…

  4. Symbolic Play in Mixed-Age and Same-Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umek, Ljubica Marjanovic; Musek, Petra Lesnik

    1997-01-01

    Investigated the content, degree of complexity, and wholeness of the transformation in symbolic play among same-age and mixed-age groups of 4- to 7-year olds in Slovenia. Results confirm that, in mixed-age groups, the role definition in symbolic play is provided on a higher level than in same-age groups, which enables social imaginative play to…

  5. Child Development in the Context of Multicultural Pre-School Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umek, Ljubica Marjanovic; Kranjc, Simona; Fekonja, Urska

    This study examined the impact of a multicultural preschool curriculum in Slovenia on preschool children's sensitization to cultural differences and understanding of themselves, others, and different cultures. The curriculum was implemented for a 1-month period for 6.6- to 7-year-olds. Multicultural enrichment was evident in wall decorations, toys…

  6. Automation Is the Answer, but What Is the Question? Progress and Prospects for Central and Eastern European Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgman, Christine L.

    1996-01-01

    Reports on a survey of 70 research libraries in Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia. Results show that libraries are rapidly acquiring automated processing systems, CD-ROM databases, and connections to computer networks. Discusses specific data on system implementation and network services by country and by type of…

  7. Operationalizing the Impossible: The Responsibility to Protect Movement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-23

    colonies. However one question remained; what acts constitute the authority to wage a just punitive war? According to Grotius, natural law dually...of this formerly communist nation immediately resulted in the creation of the nations of Slovenia and Croatia who

  8. Primary School Teacher's Need for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krajncic, Antonija Milivojevic

    2011-01-01

    Globalisation and social changes in Slovenia, especially the formation of an independent country, adoption of the new constitution and implementation of a multi-party political system have caused changes in the education system as well ("Bela knjiga o vzgoji in izobrazevanju v Republiki Sloveniji," 1996, p. 5). Razdevsek Pucek (1997)…

  9. Competence Management System Design in International Multicultural Environment: Registration, Transfer, Recognition and Transparency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starcic, Andreja Istenic

    2012-01-01

    A competence management system (CMS) was devised to assist the registration of competencies in the textile and clothing sector, starting in the four EU countries of Portugal, Slovenia, the UK and Denmark, further leading to the European network. This paper presents the design and development framework assisting international multicultural…

  10. Stocktaking Research on Policies for Education for Democratic Citizenship and Management of Diversity in Southeast Europe. Regional Analysis and Intervention Proposals. Regional Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Cameron; Baumgartl, Bernd

    This report is a contribution to the Stocktaking Research Project on national government policies within the field of education for Education for Democratic Citizenship (EDC) and the Management of Diversity (MofD) in the countries of South East Europe (Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia). The…

  11. International Trends in Health Science Librarianship Part 19: The Balkan States (Bulgaria and Croatia).

    PubMed

    Kirilova, Savina; Skoric, Lea

    2016-09-01

    This is the 19th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. The focus of the present issue is the Balkan Region (Bulgaria and Croatia). The next regular feature column will investigate two other Balkan states - Serbia and Slovenia. JM. © 2016 Health Libraries Group.

  12. Finding the Way out: A Non-Dichotomous Understanding of Violence and Depression Resilience of Adolescents Who Are Exposed to Family Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassis, Wassilis; Artz, Sibylle; Scambor, Christian; Scambor, Elli; Moldenhauer, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In this cross-sectional study on family violence and resilience in a random sample of 5,149 middle school students with a mean age of 14.5 years from four EU-countries (Austria, Germany, Slovenia, and Spain) we examined the prevalence of exposure to family violence, and we worked from the premise that adolescent can be resilient to…

  13. The Second International Scientific Colloquium MATHEMATICS AND CHILDREN (Learning Outcomes) - Monography: Drugi medunarodni znanstveni skup MATEMATIKA I DIJETE (Ishodi ucenja)--monografija

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlekovic, Margita, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Research in the field of mathematics teaching implies multi- and interdisciplinarity. We believe that the lectures, discussions and experience exchange between Croatian and international participants of the Mathematics and Children meetings (scientists from Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Austria, Hungary, Serbia) will initiate and intensify…

  14. Teaching Social Studies with Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancic, Polona; Hus, Vlasta

    2018-01-01

    Social studies is a class students encounter in the fourth and fifth grades of primary school in Slovenia. It includes goals from the fields of geography, sociology, history, ethnology, psychology, economy, politics, ethics, aesthetics, and ecology. Among other didactic recommendations in the national curriculum for teaching, social studies…

  15. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-31

    phosphate. According to Nanowerk News, Prof. Sibani Lisa Biswal, of Rice University and colleagues there and at Lockheed Martin have developed a...Sunscreens with ZnO, TiO2 Nanoparticles May Pose Health Risk Petra Kocbek of the Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, and

  16. Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: Findings from Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemes, Susanna; Libretto, Salvatore; Skinstad, Anne Helene; Garrett, Gerald; Hoffman, Jeffrey A.

    2005-01-01

    In a study to evaluate the drug treatment and aftercare efforts sponsored by the State Department's International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Bureau, residential Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment programs in four European countries-Poland, Spain, Slovenia, and Italy-were examined to identify promising practices and to assess lessons…

  17. Assessment Accommodations for Foreign Pupils in the Light of Educational Justice: Empirical Research among Slovenian Primary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihelic, Mojca Žveglic

    2017-01-01

    The starting points of primary school pupils in a foreign country differ significantly from those of native pupils. In Slovenia, the knowledge of pupils who are foreign citizens (foreign pupils) may be assessed with different accommodations for no more than two years. The presented research conducted on a representative sample of 697 Slovenian…

  18. Early Language Learning: Complexity and Mixed Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enever, Janet, Ed.; Lindgren, Eva, Ed.

    2017-01-01

    This is the first collection of research studies to explore the potential for mixed methods to shed light on foreign or second language learning by young learners in instructed contexts. It brings together recent studies undertaken in Cameroon, China, Croatia, Ethiopia, France, Germany, Italy, Kenya, Mexico, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Tanzania and…

  19. 40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart A of... - Parties to the Montreal Protocol, and Nations Complying With, But Not Parties to, the Protocol

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Slovakia ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Slovenia ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Solomon Island ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Somalia ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ South Africa ✓ ✓ ✓ Spain... 118. Sierra Leone 119. Singapore 120. Solomon Islands 121. Somalia 122. South Africa 123. Sri Lanka...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart A of... - Parties to the Montreal Protocol, and Nations Complying With, But Not Parties to, the Protocol

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Slovakia ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Slovenia ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Solomon Island ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Somalia ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ South Africa ✓ ✓ ✓ Spain... 118. Sierra Leone 119. Singapore 120. Solomon Islands 121. Somalia 122. South Africa 123. Sri Lanka...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart A of... - Parties to the Montreal Protocol, and Nations Complying With, But Not Parties to, the Protocol

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Slovakia ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Slovenia ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Solomon Island ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Somalia ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ South Africa ✓ ✓ ✓ Spain... 118. Sierra Leone 119. Singapore 120. Solomon Islands 121. Somalia 122. South Africa 123. Sri Lanka...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart A of... - Parties to the Montreal Protocol, and Nations Complying With, But Not Parties to, the Protocol

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Slovakia ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Slovenia ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Solomon Island ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Somalia ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ South Africa ✓ ✓ ✓ Spain... 118. Sierra Leone 119. Singapore 120. Solomon Islands 121. Somalia 122. South Africa 123. Sri Lanka...

  3. Great Expectations? Variation in Educational Plans of Students in Post-Socialist Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chykina, Volha; Chung, Hee Jin; Bodovski, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    Using all available waves of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) from 1995 to 2011, this study examines the factors influencing educational expectations of students in five Eastern European countries (Hungary, Lithuania, the Russian Federation, Romania, and Slovenia). We consistently find across countries and waves…

  4. 48 CFR 22.1503 - Procedures for acquiring end products on the List of Products Requiring Contractor Certification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... more (see subpart 25.4); or (4) Armenia, Aruba, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy..., Romania, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, or the United Kingdom...

  5. Learning Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapointe, Archie E.; And Others

    In 1990-91, 20 countries (Brazil, Canada, China, England, France, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Korea, Mozambique, Portugal, Scotland, Slovenia, Soviet Union, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan, and the United States) surveyed the mathematics and science performance of 13-year-old students (and 14 countries also assessed 9-year-olds in the same…

  6. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social…

  7. The Pluralisation of Family Life: Implications for Preschool Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Šebart, Mojca Kovac; Kuhar, Roman

    2017-01-01

    The article takes as its starting point the public debate about the newly proposed Family Code in Slovenia in 2009. Inter alia, the Code introduced a new, inclusive definition of the family in accordance with the contemporary pluralisation of family life. This raised a number of questions about how--if at all--various families are addressed in the…

  8. Fragmented Knowledge and Missing Connections between Knowledge from Different Hierarchical Organisational Levels of Reproduction among Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Šorgo, Andrej; Šiling, Rebeka

    2017-01-01

    Based on the responses of our sample (N = 310) of adolescents and young adults from Slovenia (students of secondary and tertiary schools, university students) to a number of tasks covering reproduction, from the molecular to organismal levels, it can be concluded that their knowledge is seriously flawed. Correlations of knowledge between…

  9. Challenges of the Administrative Consultation Wiki Research Project as a Learning and Competences Development Method for MPA Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovac, Polonca; Stare, Janez

    2015-01-01

    Administrative Consultation Wiki (ACW) is a project run under the auspices of the Faculty of Administration and the Ministry of Public Administration in Slovenia since 2009. A crucial component thereof is the involvement of students of Master of Public Administration (MPA) degree programs to offer them an opportunity to develop competences in…

  10. Didactic Strategies in Early Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hus, Vlasta; Grmek, Milena Ivanus

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to show the results of empirical research on the prevailing teaching strategies for teaching contents of the subject environmental studies (specifically when dealing with natural content) in the first triennium of the nine-year primary school in the Republic of Slovenia. The information was obtained through a survey…

  11. The Impact of War on Child Health in the Countries of the Former Yugoslavia. A Report of a Workshop (Trieste, Italy, March 27-30, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    The wars that began in 1991 in the countries of the former Yugoslavia caused widespread child suffering. This workshop report presents the findings from the Workshop on the Impact of War on Child Health held for doctors from Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Serbia, and Slovenia. The workshop's goal was to address the common interest in the…

  12. Enhancing the Role of Social Partner Organisations in the Area of Vocational Education and Training in the Candidate Countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Institutional Arrangements. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    The role of social partner organizations in vocational education and training (VET) has been compared for Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, the Slovak Republic, and Slovenia. In these countries, a system of industrial relations comparable to those existing in western Europe is emerging gradually.…

  13. 48 CFR 252.225-7045 - Balance of Payments Program-Construction Material Under Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... into the end product (whether or not such costs are paid to a domestic firm), and any applicable duty.... Designated country means— (1) A World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement (WTO GPA) country..., Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan (known in the World Trade...

  14. 48 CFR 252.225-7045 - Balance of Payments Program-Construction Material Under Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... into the end product (whether or not such costs are paid to a domestic firm), and any applicable duty.... Designated country means— (1) A World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement (WTO GPA) country..., Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan (known in the World Trade...

  15. 48 CFR 252.225-7045 - Balance of Payments Program-Construction Material Under Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... into the end product (whether or not such costs are paid to a domestic firm), and any applicable duty.... Designated country means— (1) A World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement (WTO GPA) country..., Romania, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan (known in the World...

  16. Cross National Study on Pre-Service Elementary and Science Teachers' Opinions on Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Šorgo, Andrej; Pipenbaher, Nataša; Šašic, Slavica Šimic; Prokop, Pavol; Kubiatko, Milan; Golob, Nika; Erdogan, Mehmet; Tomažic, Iztok; Bilek, Martin; Fancovicova, Jana; Lamanauskas, Vincentas; Usak, Muhammet

    2015-01-01

    Cross national study on opinions on science teaching was revealed on a sample of 1799 (596 males, 1203 females) pre-service elementary and science teachers' enrolled in various departments at selected universities in Croatia, Czech Republic, Lithuania, Slovakia, Slovenia and Turkey. Three factors explaining 43.4% of variance were extracted from a…

  17. Health Promotion Research and the Public Health Function in Scotland: Prospects for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimbush, Erica; Tannahill, Carol; Hanlon, Phil

    2004-01-01

    Scotland has the worst health in the United Kingdom; worse than comparable areas like the industrial North East of England. Scotland's health also lags behind comparable European countries. In fact, the nearest neighbours in the health "league table" of European nations are Slovenia and Portugal. One has only a limited understanding of…

  18. Transnational Analysis of Vocational Education and Training in the Countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    Vocational education and training (VET) in 10 Central and Eastern European countries--Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovak Republic, and Slovenia--was examined. The analysis focused on the following issues: socioeconomic context of VET reforms; VET at the start of reforms; the European Union Phare…

  19. The Development of the Concept of "Matter": A Cross-Age Study of How Children Describe Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krnel, Dusan; Watson, Rod; Glazar, Sasa A.

    2005-01-01

    The development of the concept of matter was explored by interviewing 84 children aged 3-13 in Slovenia. Children were asked to describe objects and substances placed in front of them. Children's responses were coded and explored for patterns indicating development with age. The patterns of responses indicate that by acting on objects and…

  20. Inclusion in PK-12: An International Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curcic, Svjetlana

    2009-01-01

    With an aim to investigate inclusion across borders, quantitative and qualitative data were examined that came from 18 countries: Australia, Brazil, Canada, Cyprus, Finland, France, Iceland, India, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, the UK, and the USA. Four themes emerged in this study: (1) concerns…

  1. Laying down the Family Burden: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Resilience in the Midst of Family Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassis, Wassilis; Artz, Sibylle; Moldenhauer, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Questionnaire data from a cross-sectional study of a randomly selected sample of 5,149 middle-school students from four EU countries (Austria, Germany, Slovenia, and Spain) were used to explore the effects of family violence burden level, structural and procedural risk and protective factors, and personal characteristics on adolescents who are…

  2. Future Science Teachers' Understandings of Diffusion and Osmosis Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomazic, Iztok; Vidic, Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    The concepts of diffusion and osmosis cross the disciplinary boundaries of physics, chemistry and biology. They are important for understanding how biological systems function. Since future (pre-service) science teachers in Slovenia encounter both concepts at physics, chemistry and biology courses during their studies, we assessed the first-,…

  3. Matching Preservation Decisions with Collection Development Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khislovskaya, Galina

    Based on communication with librarians from Russia, Mongolia, the Baltic States, Bulgaria, Slovenia, the Czech Republic, and Romania, this paper discusses library collection development and preservation policies. Highlights include: mission statements of national and regional libraries; availability of a formal structure responsible for collection…

  4. Place and Role of Music Education in the Planned Curriculum for Kindergartens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denac, Olga

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the results of a research study involving 159 preschool teachers from across Slovenia. The goal of the first phase of the research, the results of which were obtained through a questionnaire sent to preschool teachers, was to establish the difficulties preschool teachers face during curricular planning. The results of the…

  5. The Road to the European Union: Macroeconomic Policy Challenges for Hungary and Poland. Fulbright-Hayes Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2002 (Hungary and Poland).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Teresita R.

    Prospects for the enlargement of the European Union (EU) became imminent when the EU Commission agreed in 1997 to open formal negotiations with five of the Central and Eastern European countries: (1) the Czech Republic; (2) Hungary; (3) Poland; (4) Slovenia; and (5) Estonia. This research project discusses macroeconomic policy challenges that…

  6. Funding System of Full-Time Higher Education and Technical Efficiency: Case of the University of Ljubljana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tajnikar, Maks; Debevec, Jasmina

    2008-01-01

    The present paper tackles the issue of the higher education funding system in Slovenia. Its main attribute is that institutions are classified into study groups according to their fields of education, and funds granted by the state are based on their weights or study group factors (SGF). Analysis conducted using data envelopment analysis tested…

  7. Early versus Late Entry to Preschool: Some Developmental Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zupancic, Maja; Kavcic, Tina

    2004-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between cognitive, motor, social and personality development of 3-year-old children and the age of their entry into preschool, which ranged from 10 to 45 months. 247 children from 17 preschools in different regions of Slovenia, all implementing the same National Curriculum, participated. Preschool teachers…

  8. Comparing Slovenian Year 8 and Year 9 Elementary School Pupils' Knowledge of Electrolyte Chemistry and Their Intrinsic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devetak, Iztok; Lorber, Erna Drofenik; Jurisevic, Mojca; Glazar, Sasa A.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the differences between eight-year elementary school pupils (before the curriculum reform) and nine-year elementary school pupils (soon after the curriculum reform) in Slovenia, as regards specific chemistry knowledge and motivation to learn chemistry. Altogether, 191 elementary school pupils participated in the study. The…

  9. The Transformative Impact of Blended Mobility Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purg, Peter; Širok, Klemen; Brasil, Daniela

    2018-01-01

    Several pedagogical assets of the blended-learning courses conducted within the ADRIART.net partnership originate from their novel site-specific approach and intercultural value. Conducted outside school environments across Austria, Croatia, Italy and Slovenia in 2011-2014, over a dozen of these intensive Master's programme workshops mixed…

  10. Fungal community structure under goat willows (Salix caprea L.) growing at metal polluted site: the potential of screening in a model phytostabilisation study

    Marjana Regvar; Matevz Likar; Andrej Piltaver; Nives Kugonic; Jane E. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Goat willow (Salix caprea L.) was selected in a previous vegetation screening study as a potential candidate for the later-stage phytostabilisation efforts at a heavily metal polluted site in Slovenia. The aims of this study were to identify the fungi colonising roots of S. caprea along the gradient of vegetation succession and...

  11. 77 FR 4631 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Designated Country-Armenia (DFARS Case...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... necessary, to select regulatory approaches that maximize net benefits (including potential economic... aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing the burden, in response to..., Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan (known in the World Trade Organization as ``the Separate...

  12. Social Skills of Slovenian Primary School Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Majda; Prah, Alenka; Cagran, Branka

    2014-01-01

    Social skills of students with special needs play a very important role in their successful integration into inclusive learning environments. The aim of present empirical research was to establish whether students with learning disabilities (LD) attending grades 7-9 of regular primary school in Slovenia experience difficulties in social skills…

  13. Novicke, Spring 2001 (The News, Spring 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korosak, Maja, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This information bulletin is one in a series devoted to adult education and learning in Slovenia. The bulletin is organized in four sections. The first section, SIAE [Slovenian Institute for Adult Education] Events, contains the following articles: "Proposals for Making the Year of Languages" (Sonja Klemencic); "Evaluation of the…

  14. Sustainable Development and ICT in Slovenian Primary and Secondary Schools: Media-Ecological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakrajšek, Srecko; Purg, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the research was to get an overview on the possibilities of sustainable development in relation to information and communication technologies in primary and secondary schools in Slovenia from the perspective of media ecology. The study analyses the reasons for a reorientation of the educational system and new programmes towards…

  15. Theory, Practice and Competences in the Study of Pedagogy--Views of Ljubljana and Belgrade University Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ermenc, Klara Skubic; Vujisic Živkovic, Nataša; Spasenovic, Vera

    2015-01-01

    Over the previous decade, higher education in Slovenia and Serbia has undergone considerable reforms, influenced by the Bologna process and its agenda of competence and learning outcomes. In the context of these reforms, the aim of this research is to consider the question of the relationship between the theoretical and the practical education of…

  16. Factors Influencing the Behavioural Intention to Use Statistical Software: The Perspective of the Slovenian Students of Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brezavšcek, Alenka; Šparl, Petra; Žnidaršic, Anja

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to investigate the main factors influencing the adoption and continuous utilization of statistical software among university social sciences students in Slovenia. Based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), a conceptual model was derived where five external variables were taken into account: statistical software…

  17. FSU/Eastern Europe: Russia spearheads small upturn

    SciT

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The paper discusses the political and legal scene in Russia, domestic restructuring, exploration, drilling, development by Western companies and by Russian companies, and production. Exploration and development in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Serbia are also discussed.

  18. Competence-Based Approach in the Education of Pedagogues--Comparative View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ermenc, Klara Skubic; Vujisic-Živkovic, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents some of the findings of a comparative qualitative study conducted at University of Ljubljana, Slovenia and University of Belgrade, Serbia. It discusses the findings related to the opinions and experiences of the university professors about the role of competences in the pedagogy study programmes. Competence-based approach has…

  19. A Simulation of an Income Contingent Tuition Scheme in a Transition Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vodopivec, Milan

    2009-01-01

    The paper takes advantage of exceptionally rich longitudinal data on the universe of labor force participants in Slovenia and simulates the working of an income contingent loan scheme that seeks to recover part of schooling costs. The simulations show that under the base variant (where the target cost recovery rate is 20% and the contribution rate…

  20. School Leadership and Equity: Slovenian Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trnavcevic, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Many countries around the world have become what might be called "multiethnic" societies. They have to respond to various and diverse culturally based challenges and traditions, which are part of the "flow of nations". Slovenia, as a member of the European Union, has opened the door of the State to the European labour force but…

  1. The Future of Workforce Development--A Global Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twigger, Anthony J.

    Recent research has identified trends in the training systems of 13 countries in Africa (Egypt, Mauritius, South Africa); the Arab States (Bahrain, Jordan); Asia (Australia, Fiji, Malaysia); Eastern Europe (Albania, Slovenia); Western Europe (Ireland, Portugal); and the Mediterranean region (Malta). The trends identified are legislation;…

  2. Dynamics of Inequalities in Access to Higher Education: Bulgaria in a Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilieva-Trichkova, Petya; Boyadjieva, Pepka

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at studying the dynamics of inequalities in access to higher education (HE) both in a historical and a comparative perspective. It uses Bulgaria as a case study and places it among five other countries such as Estonia, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia. The adopted approach differentiates between equity in HE and inequalities…

  3. Identifying and Fostering Higher Levels of Geometric Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Škrbec, Maja; Cadež, Tatjana Hodnik

    2015-01-01

    Pierre M. Van Hiele created five levels of geometric thinking. We decided to identify the level of geometric thinking in the students in Slovenia, aged 9 to 11 years. The majority of students (60.7%) are at the transition between the zero (visual) level and the first (descriptive) level of geometric thinking. Nearly a third (31.7%) of students is…

  4. 7 CFR 305.17 - Authorized treatments; exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorized treatments; exceptions. 305.17 Section 305.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., Libya, Malta, Macedonia, Morocco, Sardinia, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovenia, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, and...

  5. Dielectric response to the low-temperature magnetic defect structure and spin state transition in polycrystalline LaCoO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Rainer; Wu, J.; Leighton, C.; Terry, I.

    2009-03-01

    The dielectric and magnetic properties and their correlations were investigated in polycrystalline perovskite LaCoO3-δ . The intrinsic bulk and grain-boundary (GB) dielectric relaxation processes were deconvoluted using impedance spectroscopy between 20 and 120 K, and resistivity and capacitance were analyzed separately. A thermally induced magnetic transition from a Co3+ low-spin (LS) (S=0;t2g6eg0) to a higher spin state occurs at Ts1≈80K , which is controversial in nature and has been suggested to be an intermediate-spin (IS) state (S=1;t2g5eg1) or a high-spin (HS) state (S=2;t2g4eg2) transition. This spin state transition was confirmed by magnetic-susceptibility measurements and was reflected in the impedance by a split of the single GB relaxation process into two coexisting contributions. This apparent electronic phase coexistence at T>80K was interpreted as a reflection of the coexistence of magnetic LS and IS/HS states. At lower temperatures (T≤40K) perceptible variation in bulk dielectric permittivity with temperature appeared to be correlated with the magnetic susceptibility associated with a magnetic defect structure. At 40KVRH) based on impurity conduction. Below 40 K, a crossover from impurity Mott’s VRH to another type of thermally activated charge transport was detected, which was correlated with the appearance of the defect-related magnetism.

  6. Conduction mechanism in bismuth silicate glasses containing titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dult, Meenakshi; Kundu, R. S.; Murugavel, S.; Punia, R.; Kishore, N.

    2014-11-01

    Bismuth silicate glasses mixed with different concentrations of titanium dioxide having compositions xTiO2-(60-x)Bi2O3-40SiO2 with x=0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 were prepared by the normal melt quench technique. The frequency dependence of the ac electrical conductivity of different compositions of titanium bismuth silicate glasses has been studied in the frequency range 10-1 Hz to 10 MHz and in the temperature range 623-703 K. The temperature and frequency dependent conductivity is found to obey Jonscher's universal power law for all the compositions of titanium bismuth silicate glass system. The dc conductivity (σdc), so called crossover frequency (ωH), and frequency exponent (s) have been estimated from the fitting of experimental data of ac conductivity with Jonscher's universal power law. Enthalpy to dissociate the cation from its original site next to a charge compensating center (Hf) and enthalpy of migration (Hm) have also been estimated. The conductivity data have been analyzed in terms of different theoretical models to determine the possible conduction mechanism. Analysis of the conductivity data and the frequency exponent shows that the correlated barrier hopping of electrons between Ti3+ and Ti4+ ions in the glasses is the most favorable mechanism for ac conduction. The temperature dependent dc conductivity has been analyzed in the framework of theoretical variable range hopping model (VRH) proposed by Mott which describe the hopping conduction in disordered semiconducting systems. The various polaron hopping parameters have also been deduced. Mott's VRH model is found to be in good agreement with experimental data and the values of inverse localization length of s-like wave function (α) obtained by this model with modifications suggested by Punia et al. are close to the ones reported for a number of oxide glasses.

  7. Electronic transport in mixed-phase hydrogenated amorphous/nanocrystalline silicon thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wienkes, Lee Raymond

    Interest in mixed-phase silicon thin film materials, composed of an amorphous semiconductor matrix in which nanocrystalline inclusions are embedded, stems in part from potential technological applications, including photovoltaic and thin film transistor technologies. Conventional mixed-phase silicon films are produced in a single plasma reactor, where the conditions of the plasma must be precisely tuned, limiting the ability to adjust the film and nanoparticle parameters independently. The films presented in this thesis are deposited using a novel dual-plasma co-deposition approach in which the nanoparticles are produced separately in an upstream reactor and then injected into a secondary reactor where an amorphous silicon film is being grown. The degree of crystallinity and grain sizes of the films are evaluated using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction respectively. I describe detailed electronic measurements which reveal three distinct conduction mechanisms in n-type doped mixed-phase amorphous/nanocrystalline silicon thin films over a range of nanocrystallite concentrations and temperatures, covering the transition from fully amorphous to ~30% nanocrystalline. As the temperature is varied from 470 to 10 K, we observe activated conduction, multiphonon hopping (MPH) and Mott variable range hopping (VRH) as the nanocrystal content is increased. The transition from MPH to Mott-VRH hopping around 100K is ascribed to the freeze out of the phonon modes. A conduction model involving the parallel contributions of these three distinct conduction mechanisms is shown to describe both the conductivity and the reduced activation energy data to a high accuracy. Additional support is provided by measurements of thermal equilibration effects and noise spectroscopy, both done above room temperature (>300 K). This thesis provides a clear link between measurement and theory in these complex materials.

  8. Electron transport within transparent assemblies of tin-doped indium oxide colloidal nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grisolia, J.; Decorde, N.; Gauvin, M.; Sangeetha, N. M.; Viallet, B.; Ressier, L.

    2015-08-01

    Stripe-like compact assemblies of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) are fabricated by stop-and-go convective self-assembly (CSA). Systematic evaluation of the electron transport mechanisms in these systems is carried out by varying the length of carboxylate ligands protecting the NCs: butanoate (C4), octanoate (C8) and oleate (C18). The interparticle edge-to-edge distance L0, along with a number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain of the coating ligand, are deduced from small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements and exhibit a linear relationship with a slope of 0.11 nm per carbon pair unit. Temperature-dependent resistance characteristics are analyzed using several electron transport models: Efros-Shklovskii variable range hopping (ES-VRH), inelastic cotunneling (IC), regular island array and percolation. The analysis indicated that the first two models (ES-VRH and IC) fail to explain the observed behavior, and that only simple activated transport takes place in these systems under the experimental conditions studied (T = 300 K to 77 K). Related transport parameters were then extracted using the regular island array and percolation models. The effective tunneling decay constant βeff of the ligands and the Coulomb charging energy EC are found to be around 5.5 nm-1 and 25 meV, respectively, irrespective of ligand lengths. The theoretical tunneling decay constant β calculated using the percolation model is in the range 9 nm-1. Electromechanical tests on the ITO nanoparticle assemblies indicate that their sensitivities are as high as ˜30 and remain the same regardless of ligand lengths, which is in agreement with the constant effective βeff extracted from regular island array and percolation models.

  9. Single-Crystal Elastic Constants of Yttria (Y2O3) Measured to High Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayir, Ali; Palko, James W.; Kriven, Waltraud M.; Sinogeikin, Sergey V.; Bass, Jay D.

    2001-01-01

    Yttria, or yttrium sesquioxide (Y2O3), has been considered for use in nuclear applications and has gained interest relatively recently for use in infrared optics. Single crystals of yttria have been grown successfully at the NASA Glenn Research Center using a laser-heated float zone technique in a fiber and rod. Such samples allow measurement of the single-crystal elastic properties, and these measurements provide useful property data for the design of components using single crystals. They also yield information as to what degree the elastic properties of yttria ceramics are a result of the intrinsic properties of the yttria crystal in comparison to characteristics that may depend on processing, such as microstructure and intergranular phases, which are common in sintered yttria. The single-crystal elastic moduli are valuable for designing such optical components. In particular, the temperature derivatives of elastic moduli allow the dimensional changes due to heating under physical constraints, as well as acoustic excitation, to be determined. The single-crystal elastic moduli of yttria were measured by Brillouin spectroscopy up to 1200 C. The room-temperature values obtained were C(sub 11) = 223.6 + 0.6 GPa, C(sub 44) = 74.6 + 0.5 GPa, and C(sub 12) = 112.4 + 1.0 GPa. The resulting bulk and (Voigt-Reuss-Hill) shear moduli were K = 149.5 + 1.0 GPa and G(sub VRH) = 66.3 + 0.8 GPa, respectively. Linear least-squares regressions to the variation of bulk and shear moduli with temperature resulted in derivatives of dK/dT = -17 + 2 MPa/C and dG(sub VRH)/dT = -8 + 2 MPa/ C. Elastic anisotropy was found to remain essentially constant over the temperature range studied.

  10. Charge carrier transport mechanisms in perovskite CdTiO{sub 3} fibers

    SciT

    Imran, Z.; Rafiq, M. A., E-mail: aftab@cantab.net; Hasan, M. M.

    Electrical transport properties of electrospun cadmium titanate (CdTiO{sub 3}) fibers have been investigated using ac and dc measurements. Air annealing of as spun fibers at 1000 °C yielded the single phase perovskite fibers having diameter ∼600 nm - 800 nm. Both the ac and dc electrical measurements were carried out at temperatures from 200 K – 420 K. The complex impedance plane plots revealed a single semicircular arc which indicates the interfacial effect due to grain boundaries of fibers. The dielectric properties obey the Maxwell-Wagner theory of interfacial polarization. In dc transport study at low voltages, data show Ohmic like behaviormore » followed by space charge limited current (SCLC) with traps at higher voltages at all temperatures (200 K – 420 K). Trap density in our fibers system is N{sub t} = 6.27 × 10{sup 17} /cm{sup 3}. Conduction mechanism in the sample is governed by 3-D variable range hopping (VRH) from 200 K – 300 K. The localized density of states were found to be N(E{sub F}) = 5.51 × 10{sup 21} eV{sup −1} cm{sup −3} at 2 V. Other VRH parameters such as hopping distance (R{sub hop}) and hopping energy (W{sub hop}) were also calculated. In the high temperature range of 320 K – 420 K, conductivity follows the Arrhenius law. The activation energy found at 2 V is 0.10 eV. Temperature dependent and higher values of dielectric constant make the perovskite CdTiO{sub 3} fibers efficient material for capacitive energy storage devices.« less

  11. Granodiorite - one of the most significant Slovenian natural stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramar, Sabina; Trajanova, Mirka; Rogan-Šmuc, Nastja; Gutman, Maja; Bedjanič, Mojca; Mladenovič, Ana

    2015-04-01

    The paper provides a description of the petrographic and mechanical characteristics of granodiorite from the Pohorje Mountains (NE Slovenia) and of its use as a natural stone. This stone, which is a calc-alkaline igneous rock of Miocene age (18.7 Ma), is characterised by its grey colour and by its thick white aplite-pegmatite veins. It mainly consists of plagioclase, quartz, and K-feldspar, which are light coloured constituents, with biotite and a small amount of hornblende as dark coloured minerals. Some other minerals are found in traces, among which pyrite is considered to be the most problematic. However, due to the presence of a small amount of arsenic, the pyrite is quite stable and not prone to alteration. In Slovenia currently two quarries are located in granodiorite, both protected as valuable natural geological features; an active quarry at Cezlak which is the largest quarry in magmatic rocks in Slovenia and the abandoned quarry in Josipdol. Granodiorite is considered the highest quality natural stone in Slovenia. It is characterised by high density, low water absorption, and low open porosity, so that it exhibits high frost and salt resistance, as well as a high compressive strength and an extremely high flexural strength, which is due to its pronounced oriented structure. It is widely recognized throughout Slovenia by its durability and its decorative white veins, and is currently the most frequently used natural stone in Slovenia. It is mainly used as paving and cladding material for residential buildings, churches, and other structures, as well as for squares, thus giving a special character to many of Slovenia's largest towns and cities. Several important buildings are decorated by means of this stone, such as the Slovenian Parliament, the Republic Square business complex, the Maximarket department store, and the Faculty of Law of the University of Ljubljana, all of which are located in Ljubljana, some of them having been declared as cultural

  12. Performance of Environmental Resources of a Tourist Destination

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Despite the apparent importance of destinations’ environmental resources, there appears to be little theoretical and applied research explicitly focusing on destination environmental supply. This research attempts to address this gap in the literature. First, it reviews and evaluates the body of research in tourism environmental resources and proposes a conceptual model to test their performance. The model combines tourism supply–demand view with importance–performance gaps and was used to survey tourism in Slovenia. The results show that the studied destination uses its environmental resources too extensively and that Slovenian environmental tourism experience does not meet visitors’ expectations. This finding challenges Slovenian policy makers, who position Slovenia as a green destination. The proposed model can form the basis for further conceptual and empirical research into the tourism contributions of environmental resources. In its present form, it can be used to examine environmental performance and to suggest policy implications for any destination. PMID:29901033

  13. Developing clinical scenarios from a European perspective: successes and challenges.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Allison; Horton, Khim

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents developmental work involving students from the University College Dublin (UCD), Ireland (n=9), University of Surrey, England (n=8) and University of Ljubljana and University of Maribor, Slovenia (n=5) participating in the Erasmus Intensive Programme. The Erasmus programme offers a two week 'Summer School' in the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Maribor, Slovenia. Using a participatory approach, facilitators from both the UCD and Surrey engaged with students from all of the universities to develop scenarios for simulated learning experiences, in the care of older people, for utilisation on an e learning facility and within the simulated clinical learning environment. Students developed key transferable skills in learning, such as information literacy, cultural diversity, team working, communication, and clinical skills acquisition whilst exploring differences in healthcare delivery in other European countries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The assessment of pharmaceutical sales representatives by family physicians--does it affect the prescribing index?

    PubMed

    Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika; Kersnik, Janko

    2013-06-01

    Physicians' prescribing patterns depend on fixed and influence-sensitive factors. The latter include the influence of interactions with the pharmaceutical industry. To determine whether the assessment of pharmaceutical sales representatives (PSRs) by family physicians was associated with their actual prescribing index. Cross-sectional anonymous postal study. We included all family physicians working in practice settings in Slovenia in 2011. Slovenian family physicians' surgeries. Prescribing index of Slovenian family physicians. We received 247 responses (27.6% response rate). A prescribing index >100% was present in 57 (23.1%) of the respondents. Multivariate analysis revealed that working in regions of Slovenia other than the central region might be associated with a prescribing index >100%. Assessment of PSRs by family physicians was not significantly associated with a prescribing index >100%. The assessment of PSRs by family physicians does not have any substantial correlations with their prescribing index.

  15. Prevalence of Violence Toward Community Nurses: A Questionnaire Survey.

    PubMed

    Gabrovec, Branko

    2017-11-01

    Violence toward nursing staff occurs frequently, particularly in intensive care units and closed or intensive psychiatric facilities, which have been studied previously. However, violence toward community nurses has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to explore the frequency of violence toward community nurses in Slovenia. More than 56% of study respondents were verbally abused by their patients during the past year. More than 42% of all cases of horizontal violence were directed at community nurses.

  16. Freedom of choice in birth, abortion and the place of conscientious objection.

    PubMed

    Kristan, I

    1998-01-01

    The Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia includes two statutes: (a) the freedom to decide about the birth of one's own child (freedom of birth-decision), and (b) the right of conscientious objection, including the right to abortion. This discussion focuses on the principles of "free choice and womens'reproductive freedom". The right of conscientious objection in relation to the right to abortion is also discussed.

  17. Identifying Country-Specific Cultures of Physics Education: A differential item functioning approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesic, Vanes

    2012-11-01

    In international large-scale assessments of educational outcomes, student achievement is often represented by unidimensional constructs. This approach allows for drawing general conclusions about country rankings with respect to the given achievement measure, but it typically does not provide specific diagnostic information which is necessary for systematic comparisons and improvements of educational systems. Useful information could be obtained by exploring the differences in national profiles of student achievement between low-achieving and high-achieving countries. In this study, we aimed to identify the relative weaknesses and strengths of eighth graders' physics achievement in Bosnia and Herzegovina in comparison to the achievement of their peers from Slovenia. For this purpose, we ran a secondary analysis of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007 data. The student sample consisted of 4,220 students from Bosnia and Herzegovina and 4,043 students from Slovenia. After analysing the cognitive demands of TIMSS 2007 physics items, the correspondent differential item functioning (DIF)/differential group functioning contrasts were estimated. Approximately 40% of items exhibited large DIF contrasts, indicating significant differences between cultures of physics education in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia. The relative strength of students from Bosnia and Herzegovina showed to be mainly associated with the topic area 'Electricity and magnetism'. Classes of items which required the knowledge of experimental method, counterintuitive thinking, proportional reasoning and/or the use of complex knowledge structures proved to be differentially easier for students from Slovenia. In the light of the presented results, the common practice of ranking countries with respect to universally established cognitive categories seems to be potentially misleading.

  18. Paramilitaries in the dissolution of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia: Effects on the Peace Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-20

    reportedly continued his financial shenanigans during the war by defrauding Muslim refugees and extended families living in Europe out of £5.6 million, which... financial assistance to the Bosnian Croatian Army called the Croatian Defense Council (HVO). The Yugoslav Army (VJ), the successor to the JNA after Slovenia...and Croatia seceded, provided equipment and financial support to the Bosnian Serb Army (VRS) as well as to the Krajina Serb Army (SVK) in Croatia

  19. The Operational Mentoring and Liaison Team Program as a Model for Assisting the Development of an Effective Afghan National Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-12

    care has been taken to ensure the ANA is comprised of soldiers from all of Afghanistan’s major ethnic groups - Pashtun, Tajik, Uzbek , Hazara, Turkmen...Canada, Croatia, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Poland , Spain, the United Kingdom (UK), and United States have contributed full OMLTs/ETTs...embedded training teams) while Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Latvia, Netherlands, Norway, Poland , Portugal, Romania, Slovenia

  20. Self-Esteem of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students in Regular and Special Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesar, Irena; Smrtnik Vitulic, Helena

    2014-01-01

    The study focuses on the self-esteem of deaf and hard of hearing (D/HH) students from Slovenia. A total of 80 D/HH students from regular and special primary schools (grades 6-9) and from regular and special secondary schools (grades 1-4) completed the Self-Esteem Questionnaire (Lamovec 1994). For the entire group of D/HH students, the results of…