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Sample records for zk60 magnesium alloy

  1. Cyclic hardening behavior of extruded ZK60 magnesium alloy with different grain sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lixin; Zhang, Wencong; Chen, Wenzhen; Wang, Wenke

    2018-04-01

    Montonic and fully reversed strain-controlled cyclic deformation experiments were conducted on extruded ZK60 magnesium alloy with two different grain sizes in ambient air. Results revealed that the hardening rates of the ZK60 magnesium alloy rods with fine grain and coarse grain in the monotonic deformation and the fully reversed strain-controlled cyclic deformation were opposite along the extrusion direction. Electron Backscatter Diffration analysis revealed that fine grains were more easily rotated than coarse grains under the cyclic deformation. Under the twinning and detwinning process of the cyclic deformation at a large strain amplitude, the coarse grained ZK60 magnesium alloys were more prone to tension twinning {10-12}<10-11> and more residual twins were observed. Texture hardening of coarse grained magnesium alloy was more obvious in cyclic defromation than fine-grained magnesium alloy.

  2. Effect of intermediate annealing on the microstructure and mechanical property of ZK60 magnesium alloy produced by twin roll casting and hot rolling

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hongmei, E-mail: hmchen@just.edu.cn; Zang, Qianhao; Yu, Hui

    2015-08-15

    Twin roll cast (designated as TRC in short) ZK60 magnesium alloy strip with 3.5 mm thickness was used in this paper. The TRC ZK60 strip was multi-pass rolled at different temperatures, intermediate annealing heat treatment was performed when the thickness of the strip changed from 3.5 mm to 1 mm, and then continued to be rolled until the thickness reached to 0.5 mm. The effect of intermediate annealing during rolling process on microstructure, texture and room temperature mechanical properties of TRC ZK60 strip was studied by using OM, TEM, XRD and electronic universal testing machine. The introduction of intermediate annealingmore » can contribute to recrystallization in the ZK60 sheet which was greatly deformed, and help to reduce the stress concentration generated in the rolling process. Microstructure uniformity and mechanical properties of the ZK60 alloy sheet were also improved; in particular, the room temperature elongation was greatly improved. When the TRC ZK60 strip was rolled at 300 °C and 350 °C, the room temperature elongation of the rolled sheet with 0.5 mm thickness which was intermediate annealed during the rolling process was increased by 95% and 72% than that of no intermediate annealing, respectively. - Highlights: • Intermediate annealing was introduced during hot rolling process of twin roll cast ZK60 alloy. • Intermediate annealing can contribute to recrystallization and reduce the stress concentration in the deformed ZK60 sheet. • Microstructure uniformity and mechanical properties of the ZK60 sheet were improved, in particular, the room temperature elongation. • The elongation of the rolled ZK60 sheet after intermediate annealed was increased by 95% and 72% than that of no intermediate annealing.« less

  3. In Vitro Corrosion and Cytocompatibility of ZK60 Magnesium Alloy Coated with Hydroxyapatite by a Simple Chemical Conversion Process for Orthopedic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bing; Huang, Ping; Ou, Caiwen; Li, Kaikai; Yan, Biao; Lu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium and its alloys—a new class of degradable metallic biomaterials—are being increasingly investigated as a promising alternative for medical implant and device applications due to their advantageous mechanical and biological properties. However, the high corrosion rate in physiological environments prevents the clinical application of Mg-based materials. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on ZK60 magnesium alloy substrates to mediate the rapid degradation of Mg while improving its cytocompatibility for orthopedic applications. A simple chemical conversion process was applied to prepare HA coating on ZK60 magnesium alloy. Surface morphology, elemental compositions, and crystal structures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The corrosion properties of samples were investigated by immersion test and electrochemical test. Murine fibroblast L-929 cells were harvested and cultured with coated and non-coated ZK60 samples to determine cytocompatibility. The degradation results suggested that the HA coatings decreased the degradation of ZK60 alloy. No significant deterioration in compression strength was observed for all the uncoated and coated samples after 2 and 4 weeks’ immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). Cytotoxicity test indicated that the coatings, especially HA coating, improved cytocompatibility of ZK60 alloy for L929 cells. PMID:24300096

  4. Effect of thermal treatment on the bio-corrosion and mechanical properties of ultrafine-grained ZK60 magnesium alloy.

    PubMed

    Choi, H Y; Kim, W J

    2015-11-01

    The combination of solid solution heat treatments and severe plastic deformation by high-ratio differential speed rolling (HRDSR) resulted in the formation of an ultrafine-grained microstructure with high thermal stability in a Mg-5Zn-0.5Zr (ZK60) alloy. When the precipitate particle distribution was uniform in the matrix, the internal stresses and dislocation density could be effectively removed without significant grain growth during the annealing treatment (after HRDSR), leading to enhancement of corrosion resistance. When the particle distribution was non-uniform, rapid grain growth occurred in local areas where the particle density was low during annealing, leading to development of a bimodal grain size distribution. The bimodal grain size distribution accelerated corrosion by forming a galvanic corrosion couple between the fine-grained and coarse-grained regions. The HRDSR-processed ZK60 alloy with high thermal stability exhibited high corrosion resistance, high strength and high ductility, and excellent superplasticity, which allow the fabrication of biodegradable magnesium devices with complicated designs that have a high mechanical integrity throughout the service life in the human body. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. In vitro degradation and biocompatibility of a strontium-containing micro-arc oxidation coating on the biodegradable ZK60 magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiao; Yang, Xiaoming; Tan, Lili; Li, Mei; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Ke; Hu, Zhuangqi; Qiu, Jianhong

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are promising biodegradable implant candidates for orthopedic application. In the present study, a phosphate-based micro-arc oxidation (MAO) coating was applied on the ZK60 alloy to decrease its initial degradation rate. Strontium (Sr) was incorporated into the coating in order to improve the bioactivity of the coating. The in vitro degradation studies showed that the MAO coating containing Sr owned a better initial corrosion resistance, which was mainly attributed to the superior inner barrier layer, and a better long-term protective ability, probably owning to its larger thickness, superior inner barrier layer and the superior apatite formation ability. The degradation of MAO coating was accompanied by the formation of degradation layer and Ca-P deposition layer. The in vitro cell tests demonstrated that the incorporation of Sr into the MAO coating enhanced both the proliferation of preosteoblast cells and the alkaline phosphatase activity of the murine bone marrow stromal cells. In conclusion, the MAO coating with Sr is a promising surface treatment for the biodegradable magnesium alloys.

  6. Influence of ECAP process on mechanical and corrosion properties of pure Mg and ZK60 magnesium alloy for biodegradable stent applications

    PubMed Central

    Mostaed, Ehsan; Vedani, Maurizio; Hashempour, Mazdak; Bestetti, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) was performed on ZK60 alloy and pure Mg in the temperature range 150–250 °C. A significant grain refinement was detected after ECAP, leading to an ultrafine grain size (UFG) and enhanced formability during extrusion process. Comparing to conventional coarse grained samples, fracture elongation of pure Mg and ZK60 alloy were significantly improved by 130% and 100%, respectively, while the tensile strength remained at high level. Extrusion was performed on ECAP processed billets to produce small tubes (with outer/inner diameter of 4/2.5 mm) as precursors for biodegradable stents. Studies on extruded tubes revealed that even after extrusion the microstructure and microhardness of the UFG ZK60 alloy were almost stable. Furthermore, pure Mg tubes showed an additional improvement in terms of grain refining and mechanical properties after extrusion. Electrochemical analyses and microstructural assessments after corrosion tests demonstrated two major influential factors in corrosion behavior of the investigated materials. The presence of Zn and Zr as alloying elements simultaneously increases the nobility by formation of a protective film and increase the local corrosion damage by amplifying the pitting development. ECAP treatment decreases the size of the second phase particles thus improving microstructure homogeneity, thereby decreasing the localized corrosion effects. PMID:25482411

  7. Characteristics of MAO coating obtained on ZK60 Mg alloy under two and three steps voltage-increasing modes in dual electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Wang, Ze-Xin; Lu, Sheng; Lv, Wei-gang; Jiang, Xi-zhi; Sun, Lei

    2017-03-01

    The micro-arc oxidation process was conducted on ZK60 Mg alloy under two and three steps voltage-increasing modes by DC pulse electrical source. The effect of each mode on current-time responses during MAO process and the coating characteristic were analysed and discussed systematically. The microstructure, thickness and corrosion resistance of MAO coatings were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS), microscope with super-depth of field and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results indicate that two and three steps voltage-increasing modes can improve weak spark discharges with insufficient breakdown strength in later period during the MAO process. Due to higher value of voltage and voltage increment, the coating with maximum thickness of about 20.20μm formed under two steps voltage-increasing mode shows the best corrosion resistance. In addition, the coating fabricated under three steps voltage-increasing mode shows a smoother coating with better corrosion resistance due to the lower amplitude of voltage-increasing.

  8. Al2O3 Nanoparticle Addition to Commercial Magnesium Alloys: Multiple Beneficial Effects

    PubMed Central

    Paramsothy, Muralidharan; Chan, Jimmy; Kwok, Richard; Gupta, Manoj

    2012-01-01

    The multiple beneficial effects of Al2O3 nanoparticle addition to cast magnesium based systems (followed by extrusion) were investigated, constituting either: (a) enhanced strength; or (b) simultaneously enhanced strength and ductility of the corresponding magnesium alloys. AZ31 and ZK60A nanocomposites containing Al2O3 nanoparticle reinforcement were each fabricated using solidification processing followed by hot extrusion. Compared to monolithic AZ31 (tension levels), the corresponding nanocomposite exhibited higher yield strength (0.2% tensile yield strength (TYS)), ultimate strength (UTS), failure strain and work of fracture (WOF) (+19%, +21%, +113% and +162%, respectively). Compared to monolithic AZ31 (compression levels), the corresponding nanocomposite exhibited higher yield strength (0.2% compressive yield strength (CYS)) and ultimate strength (UCS), lower failure strain and higher WOF (+5%, +5%, −4% and +11%, respectively). Compared to monolithic ZK60A (tension levels), the corresponding nanocomposite exhibited lower 0.2% TYS and higher UTS, failure strain and WOF (−4%, +13%, +170% and +200%, respectively). Compared to monolithic ZK60A (compression levels), the corresponding nanocomposite exhibited lower 0.2% CYS and higher UCS, failure strain and WOF (−10%, +7%, +15% and +26%, respectively). The capability of Al2O3 nanoparticles to enhance the properties of cast magnesium alloys in a way never seen before with micron length scale reinforcements is clearly demonstrated. PMID:28348301

  9. Development and properties of duplex MgF2/PCL coatings on biodegradable magnesium alloy for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Makkar, Preeti; Kang, Hoe Jin; Padalhin, Andrew R; Park, Ihho; Moon, Byoung-Gi; Lee, Byong Taek

    2018-01-01

    The present work addresses the performance of polycaprolactone (PCL) coating on fluoride treated (MgF2) biodegradable ZK60 magnesium alloy (Mg) for biomedical application. MgF2 conversion layer was first produced by immersing Mg alloy substrate in hydrofluoric acid solution. The outer PCL coating was then prepared using dip coating technique. Morphology, elements profile, phase structure, roughness, mechanical properties, invitro corrosion, and biocompatibility of duplex MgF2/PCL coating were then characterized and compared to those of fluoride coated and uncoated Mg samples. The invivo degradation behavior and biocompatibility of duplex MgF2/PCL coating with respect to ZK60 Mg alloy were also studied using rabbit model for 2 weeks. SEM and TEM analysis showed that the duplex coating was uniform and comprised of porous PCL film (~3.3 μm) as upper layer with compact MgF2 (~2.2 μm) as inner layer. No significant change in microhardness was found on duplex coating compared with uncoated ZK60 Mg alloy. The duplex coating showed improved invitro corrosion resistance than single layered MgF2 or uncoated alloy samples. The duplex coating also resulted in better cell viability, cell adhesion, and cell proliferation compared to fluoride coated or uncoated alloy. Preliminary invivo studies indicated that duplex MgF2/PCL coating reduced the degradation rate of ZK60 Mg alloy and exhibited good biocompatibility. These results suggested that duplex MgF2/PCL coating on magnesium alloy might have great potential for orthopedic applications.

  10. Development and properties of duplex MgF2/PCL coatings on biodegradable magnesium alloy for biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Makkar, Preeti; Kang, Hoe Jin; Padalhin, Andrew R.; Park, Ihho; Moon, Byoung-Gi

    2018-01-01

    The present work addresses the performance of polycaprolactone (PCL) coating on fluoride treated (MgF2) biodegradable ZK60 magnesium alloy (Mg) for biomedical application. MgF2 conversion layer was first produced by immersing Mg alloy substrate in hydrofluoric acid solution. The outer PCL coating was then prepared using dip coating technique. Morphology, elements profile, phase structure, roughness, mechanical properties, invitro corrosion, and biocompatibility of duplex MgF2/PCL coating were then characterized and compared to those of fluoride coated and uncoated Mg samples. The invivo degradation behavior and biocompatibility of duplex MgF2/PCL coating with respect to ZK60 Mg alloy were also studied using rabbit model for 2 weeks. SEM and TEM analysis showed that the duplex coating was uniform and comprised of porous PCL film (~3.3 μm) as upper layer with compact MgF2 (~2.2 μm) as inner layer. No significant change in microhardness was found on duplex coating compared with uncoated ZK60 Mg alloy. The duplex coating showed improved invitro corrosion resistance than single layered MgF2 or uncoated alloy samples. The duplex coating also resulted in better cell viability, cell adhesion, and cell proliferation compared to fluoride coated or uncoated alloy. Preliminary invivo studies indicated that duplex MgF2/PCL coating reduced the degradation rate of ZK60 Mg alloy and exhibited good biocompatibility. These results suggested that duplex MgF2/PCL coating on magnesium alloy might have great potential for orthopedic applications. PMID:29608572

  11. Corrosion assessment and enhanced biocompatibility analysis of biodegradable magnesium-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompa, Luis Enrique

    Magnesium alloys have raised immense interest to many researchers because of its evolution as a new third generation material. Due to their biocompatibility, density, and mechanical properties, magnesium alloys are frequently reported as prospective biodegradable implant materials. Moreover, magnesium based alloys experience a natural phenomena to biodegrade in aqueous solutions due to its corrosive activity, which is excellent for orthopedic and cardiovascular applications. However, major concerns with such alloys are fast and non-uniform corrosion degradation. Controlling the degradation rate in the physiological environment determines the success of an implant. In this investigation, three grades of magnesium alloys: AZ31B, AZ91E and ZK60A were studied for their corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and contact angle meter are used to study surface morphology, chemistry, roughness and wettability, respectively. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of the leached metal ions was evaluated by a tetrazolium based bio-assay, MTS.

  12. The Dynamic Flow and Failure Behavior of Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eswar Prasad, K.; Li, B.; Dixit, N.; Shaffer, M.; Mathaudhu, S. N.; Ramesh, K. T.

    2014-01-01

    We review the dynamic behavior of magnesium alloys through a survey of the literature and a comparison with our own high-strain-rate experiments. We describe high-strain-rate experiments (at typical strain rates of 103 s-1) on polycrystalline pure magnesium as well as two magnesium alloys, AZ31B and ZK60. Both deformation and failure are considered. The observed behaviors are discussed in terms of the fundamental deformation and failure mechanisms in magnesium, considering the effects of grain size, strain rate, and crystallographic texture. A comparison of current results with the literature studies on these and other Mg alloys reveals that the crystallographic texture, grain size, and alloying elements continue to have a profound influence on the high-strain-rate deformation behavior. The available data set suggests that those materials loaded so as to initiate extension twinning have relatively rate-insensitive strengths up to strain rates of several thousand per second. In contrast, some rate dependence of the flow stress is observed for loading orientations in which the plastic flow is dominated by dislocation mechanisms.

  13. Elastic Properties and Internal Friction of Two Magnesium Alloys at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Freels, M.; Liaw, P. K.; Garlea, E.

    2011-06-01

    for a sample of known geometry, dimensions, and mass. In addition, RUS allows determination of internal friction, or damping, at different frequencies and temperatures. Polycrystalline pure magnesium (Mg) exhibits excellent high damping properties. However, the poor mechanical properties limit the applications of pure Mg. Although alloying can improve the mechanical properties of Mg, the damping properties are reduced with additions of alloying elements. Therefore, it becomes necessary to study and develop Mg-alloys with simultaneous high damping capacity and improved mechanical properties. Moreover, studies involving the high temperature dynamic elastic properties of Mg alloys are limited. In this study, the elastic properties and internal friction of two magnesium alloys were studied at elevated temperatures using RUS. The effect of alloy composition and grain size was investigated. The wrought magnesium alloys AZ31 and ZK60 were employed. Table 1 gives the nominal chemical compositions of these two alloys. The ZK60 alloy is a commercial extruded plate with a T5 temper, i.e. solution-treated at 535 C for two hours, quenched in hot water, and aged at 185 C for 24 hours. The AZ31 alloy is a commercial rolled plate with a H24 temper, i.e. strain hardened and partially annealed.« less

  14. Electrodeposition of magnesium and magnesium/aluminum alloys

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Anton

    1988-01-01

    Electrolytes and plating solutions for use in processes for electroplating and electroforming pure magnesium and alloys of aluminum and magnesium and also electrodeposition processes. An electrolyte of this invention is comprised of an alkali metal fluoride or a quaternary ammonium halide, dimethyl magnesium and/or diethyl magnesium, and triethyl aluminum and/or triisobutyl aluminum. An electrolyte may be dissolved in an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent to form a plating solution. The proportions of the component compounds in the electrolyte are varied to produce essentially pure magnesium or magnesium/aluminum alloys having varying selected compositions.

  15. Electrodeposition of magnesium and magnesium/aluminum alloys

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, A.

    1988-01-21

    Electrolytes and plating solutions for use in processes for electroplating and electroforming pure magnesium and alloys of aluminum and magnesium and also electrodeposition processes. An electrolyte of this invention is comprised of an alkali metal fluoride or a quaternary ammonium halide, dimethyl magnesium and/or diethyl magnesium, and triethyl aluminum and/or triisobutyl aluminum. An electrolyte may be dissolved in an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent to form a plating solution. The proportions of the component compounds in the electrolyte are varied to produce essentially pure magnesium or magnesium/aluminum alloys having varying selected compositions.

  16. Corrosion in Magnesium and a Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akavipat, Sanay

    Magnesium and a magnesium alloy (AZ91C) have been ion implanted over a range of ions energies (50 to 150 keV) and doses (1 x 10('16) to 2 x 10('17) ions/cm('2)) to modify the corrosion properties of the metals. The corrosion tests were done by anodic polarization in chloride -free and chloride-containing aqueous solutions of a borated -boric acid with a pH of 9.3. Anodic polarization measurements showed that some implantations could greatly reduce the corrosion current densities at all impressed voltages and also increased slightly the pitting potential, which indicated the onset of the chloride attack. These improvements in corrosion resistance were caused by boron implantations into both types of samples. However, iron implantations were found to improve only the magnesium alloy. To study the corrosion in more detail, Scanning Auger Microprobe Spectrometer (SAM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with an X-ray Energy Spectrometry (XES) attachment, and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) measurements were used to analyze samples before, after, and at various corrosion stages. In both the unimplanted pure magnesium and AZ91C samples, anodic polarization results revealed that there were three active corrosion stages (Stages A, C, and E) and two passivating stages (Stages B and D). Examination of Stages A and B in both types of samples showed that only a mild, generalized corrosion had occurred. In Stage C of the TD samples, a pitting breakdown in the initial oxide film was observed. In Stage C of the AZ91C samples, galvanic and intergranular attack around the Mg(,17)Al(,12) intermetallic islands and along the matrix grain boundaries was observed. Stage D of both samples showed the formation of a thick, passivating oxygen containing, probably Mg(OH)(,2) film. In Stage E, this film was broken down by pits, which formed due to the presence of the chloride ions in both types of samples. Stages A through D of the unimplanted samples were not seen in the boron or iron

  17. Scaled-Up Fabrication of Thin-Walled ZK60 Tubing using Shear Assisted Processing and Extrusion (ShAPE)

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, Scott A.; Joshi, Vineet V.; Overman, Nicole R.

    Shear Assisted Processing and Extrusion (ShAPE) has been scaled-up and applied to direct extrusion of thin-walled magnesium tubing. Using ShAPE, billets of ZK60A-T5 were directly extruded into round tubes having an outer diameter of 50.8 mm and wall thickness of 1.52 mm. The severe shearing conditions inherent to ShAPE resulted in microstructural refinement with an average grain size of 3.8μm measured at the midpoint of the tube wall. Tensile testing per ATSM E-8 on specimens oriented parallel to the extrusion direction gave an ultimate tensile strength of 254.4 MPa and elongation of 20.1%. Specimens tested perpendicular to the extrusion directionmore » had an ultimate tensile strength of 297.2 MPa and elongation of 25.0%. Due to material flow effects resulting from the simultaneous linear and rotational shear intrinsic to ShAPE, ram force and electrical power consumption during extrusion were just 40 kN and 11.5 kW respectively. This represents a significant reduction in ram force and power consumption compared to conventional extrusion. As such, there is potential for ShAPE to offer a scalable, lower cost extrusion option with potentially improved bulk mechanical properties.« less

  18. Nondestructive spot test method for magnesium and magnesium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, M. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A method for spot test identification of magnesium and various magnesium alloys commonly used in aerospace applications is described. The spot test identification involves color codes obtained when several drops of 3 M hydrochloric acid are placed on the surface to be tested. After approximately thirty seconds, two drops of this reacted acid is transferred to each of two depressions in a spot plate for additions of other chemicals with subsequent color changes indicating magnesium or its alloy.

  19. Imparting passivity to vapor deposited magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Ryan C.

    Magnesium has the lowest density of all structural metals. Utilization of low density materials is advantageous from a design standpoint, because lower weight translates into improved performance of engineered products (i.e., notebook computers are more portable, vehicles achieve better gas mileage, and aircraft can carry more payload). Despite their low density and high strength to weight ratio, however, the widespread implementation of magnesium alloys is currently hindered by their relatively poor corrosion resistance. The objective of this research dissertation is to develop a scientific basis for the creation of a corrosion resistant magnesium alloy. The corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys is affected by several interrelated factors. Among these are alloying, microstructure, impurities, galvanic corrosion effects, and service conditions, among others. Alloying and modification of the microstructure are primary approaches to controlling corrosion. Furthermore, nonequilibrium alloying of magnesium via physical vapor deposition allows for the formation of single-phase magnesium alloys with supersaturated concentrations of passivity-enhancing elements. The microstructure and surface morphology is also modifiable during physical vapor deposition through the variation of evaporation power, pressure, temperature, ion bombardment, and the source-to-substrate distance. Aluminum, titanium, yttrium, and zirconium were initially chosen as candidates likely to impart passivity on vapor deposited magnesium alloys. Prior to this research, alloys of this type have never before been produced, much less studied. All of these metals were observed to afford some degree of corrosion resistance to magnesium. Due to the especially promising results from nonequilibrium alloying of magnesium with yttrium and titanium, the ternary magnesium-yttrium-titanium system was investigated in depth. While all of the alloys are lustrous, surface morphology is observed under the scanning

  20. Advanced Conversion Coatings for Magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nibhanupudi, Syam; Manavbasi, Alp

    Magnesium and its alloys have excellent physical and mechanical properties due to their high strength-to-weight ratio and are ideal for various applications in automotive, aerospace and defense sectors. However, Mg alloys are also highly susceptible to corrosion under harsh environments. Owing to this carcinogenicity as well as environmental impact of hexavalent chromium fueled by stringent environmental regulations, an environmentally green alternative to the carcinogenic hexavalent chromium coatings on magnesium is due.

  1. Precipitation and Hardening in Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Jian-Feng

    2012-11-01

    Magnesium alloys have received an increasing interest in the past 12 years for potential applications in the automotive, aircraft, aerospace, and electronic industries. Many of these alloys are strong because of solid-state precipitates that are produced by an age-hardening process. Although some strength improvements of existing magnesium alloys have been made and some novel alloys with improved strength have been developed, the strength level that has been achieved so far is still substantially lower than that obtained in counterpart aluminum alloys. Further improvements in the alloy strength require a better understanding of the structure, morphology, orientation of precipitates, effects of precipitate morphology, and orientation on the strengthening and microstructural factors that are important in controlling the nucleation and growth of these precipitates. In this review, precipitation in most precipitation-hardenable magnesium alloys is reviewed, and its relationship with strengthening is examined. It is demonstrated that the precipitation phenomena in these alloys, especially in the very early stage of the precipitation process, are still far from being well understood, and many fundamental issues remain unsolved even after some extensive and concerted efforts made in the past 12 years. The challenges associated with precipitation hardening and age hardening are identified and discussed, and guidelines are outlined for the rational design and development of higher strength, and ultimately ultrahigh strength, magnesium alloys via precipitation hardening.

  2. Magnesium Alloys for Space Hardware Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aroh, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    There have been advances in magnesium alloy development that NASA has not taken into consideration for space hardware because of a lack of test data. Magnesium alloys offer excellent weight reduction, specific strength, and deep space radiation mitigation. Traditionally, magnesium has been perceived as having too poor of a flammability resistance and corrosion resistance to be used for flight. Recent developments in magnesium alloying has led to the formation of two alloys, WE43 and Elektron 21, which are self-extinguishing and significantly less flammable because of their composition. Likewise, an anodizing process called Tagnite was formulated to deter any concern with galvanic and saltwater corrosion. The Materials Science Branch at Kennedy Space Center is currently researching these new alloys and treatments to better understand how they behave in the harsh environment of space. Successful completion of the proposed testing should result in a more thorough understanding of modern aerospace materials and processes, and possibly the permission to use magnesium alloys in future NASA designs.

  3. A new magnesium alloy system: TEXAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiese, Björn; Mendis, Chamini; Blawert, Carsten; Nyberg, Eric; Kainer, Karl Ulrich; Hort, Norbert

    A new TEXAS alloy system (Mg-Sn-Nd-Ca-Al-Si) is presented in order to extend the range of applications for magnesium alloys. The alloy has been produced by permanent mould direct chill casting, a process that provides a homogenous distribution of alloying elements throughout the entire casting. This work presents microstructural features and a new Mg-Sn-Ca phase with the morphology of hexagonal platelets. Additionally mechanical properties and the corrosion behaviour of TEXAS alloys are presented in as cast and heat treated conditions.

  4. Fatigue Analysis of Magnesium Alloys Components for Car Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsavina, Liviu; Rusu, Lucian; Șerban, Dan Andrei; Negru, Radu Marcel; Cernescu, Anghel

    2017-12-01

    The use of magnesium alloys in the automotive industry increased in the last decade because of their low weight and relative good mechanical properties. However, the variable loading conditions require a good fatigue behavior. This paper summaries the fatigue properties of magnesium alloys and presents new fatigue curve results for die cast AM50 magnesium alloy.

  5. A review on magnesium alloys as biodegradable materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xue-Nan; Zheng, Yu-Feng

    2010-06-01

    Magnesium alloys attracted great attention as a new kind of degradable biomaterials. One research direction of biomedical magnesium alloys is based on the industrial magnesium alloys system, and another is the self-designed biomedical magnesium alloys from the viewpoint of biomaterials. The mechanical, biocorrosion properties and biocompatibilities of currently reported Mg alloys were summarized in the present paper, with the mechanical properties of bone tissue, the healing period postsurgery, the pathophysiology and toxicology of the alloying elements being discussed. The strategy in the future development of biomedical Mg alloys was proposed.

  6. Statistical Analysis on the Mechanical Properties of Magnesium Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ruoyu; Jiang, Xianquan; Zhang, Hongju; Zhang, Dingfei; Wang, Jingfeng; Pan, Fusheng

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of statistical characteristics of mechanical properties is very important for the practical application of structural materials. Unfortunately, the scatter characteristics of magnesium alloys for mechanical performance remain poorly understood until now. In this study, the mechanical reliability of magnesium alloys is systematically estimated using Weibull statistical analysis. Interestingly, the Weibull modulus, m, of strength for magnesium alloys is as high as that for aluminum and steels, confirming the very high reliability of magnesium alloys. The high predictability in the tensile strength of magnesium alloys represents the capability of preventing catastrophic premature failure during service, which is essential for safety and reliability assessment. PMID:29113116

  7. Metastable bcc mischmetal-magnesium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Sabariz, A.L.R.

    1989-02-01

    The bcc phase in the MM-Mg system can be metastably retained at room temperature for magnesium composition within the range 16 at.% - 20 at.%. The retention of a lower composition was restricted by quenching rate and at higher concentrations by intermetallic compound precipitation. The lattice parameter for the pure bcc mischmetal phase was determined by extrapolation. The value obtained (a/sub E/ = 4.131 /angstrom/) was in good agreement with the theoretical value (a/sub t/ = 4.156 /angstrom/). Magnetic susceptibility data suggested that bcc mischmetal-magnesium alloys underwent a change from paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic behavior on cooling at /approximately/20 K, independentmore » of magnesium composition. The value found for the magnetic effective moment per gram-atom-magnetic-rare earth of each bcc MM-Mg alloy examined (MM - 16 Mg, MM - 18 Mg and MM - 20 Mg) was found to be constant (p/sub eff/ approx. 1.62 ..mu../sub B/), independent of the magnesium composition. The observed Curie-Weiss temperature values decreasing with the magnesium content increasing were due to magnetic dilution. The equilibrium reaction bcc ..-->.. dhcp + MMMg presented an undercooling effect of /approximately/40/degree/C around the eutectoid composition (/approximately/17 at.% Mg). The sluggish character of this reaction was considered the strongest effect for the bcc structure retention in the mischmetal-magnesium system. 16 refs., 27 figs.« less

  8. Blood compatibility of magnesium and its alloys.

    PubMed

    Feyerabend, Frank; Wendel, Hans-Peter; Mihailova, Boriana; Heidrich, Stefanie; Agha, Nezha Ahmad; Bismayer, Ulrich; Willumeit-Römer, Regine

    2015-10-01

    Blood compatibility analysis in the field of biomaterials is a highly controversial topic. Especially for degradable materials like magnesium and its alloys no established test methods are available. The purpose of this study was to apply advanced test methodology for the analysis of degrading materials to get a mechanistic insight into the corrosion process in contact with human blood and plasma. Pure magnesium and two magnesium alloys were analysed in a modified Chandler-Loop setup. Standard clinical parameters were determined, and a thorough analysis of the resulting implant surface chemistry was performed. The contact of the materials to blood evoked an accelerated inflammatory and cell-induced osteoconductive reaction. Corrosion products formed indicate a more realistic, in vivo like situation. The active regulation of corrosion mechanisms of magnesium alloys by different cell types should be more in the focus of research to bridge the gap between in vitro and in vivo observations and to understand the mechanism of action. This in turn could lead to a better acceptance of these materials for implant applications. The presented study deals with the first mechanistic insights during whole human blood contact and its influence on a degrading magnesium-based biomaterial. The combination of clinical parameters and corrosion layer analysis has been performed for the first time. It could be of interest due to the intended use of magnesium-based stents and for orthopaedic applications for clinical applications. An interest for the readers of Acta Biomaterialia may be given, as one of the first clinically approved magnesium-based devices is a wound-closure device, which is in direct contact with blood. Moreover, for orthopaedic applications also blood contact is of high interest. Although this is not the focus of the manuscript, it could help to rise awareness for potential future applications. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  9. Platelet compatibility of magnesium alloys.

    PubMed

    Yahata, Chie; Mochizuki, Akira

    2017-09-01

    Lately, Mg alloys have been investigated as a new class of biomaterials owing to their excellent biodegradability and biocompatibility. It has previously been reported that the in vitro compatibility of a Mg alloy containing aluminum and zinc (AZ) alloy with the blood coagulation system is excellent due to Mg 2+ ions eluting from the alloy. In this study, the compatibility of the AZ alloy with platelets was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and flow cytometry. In the flow cytometry analysis, the platelets were stained using PAC-1 and P-selectin antibodies. SEM images and PAC-1 analyses showed no negative effects on the platelets, whereas P-selectin analysis showed marked platelet activation. To understand these contradictory results, the amount of β-thromboglobulin (β-TG) released from the platelets was investigated. From that investigation, it was concluded that platelets are markedly activated by the alloys. In addition to clarifying divergent results depending on the analysis method used, the effects of Mg 2+ ions and pH on platelet activation were studied. These results show that platelet activation is caused by an increase in pH at the alloy surface owing to the erosion of the alloy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ternary Magnesium-Lithium Base Constitution Diagrams and Magnesium Alloys of Low Alloy Additions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1951-03-01

    progress In eperimental development of mgmesiu-bease &alls with low alloy additions. The primry purpose of this investiptiU is to obtain alloys baving a...Casting Magnesium-Lithium Base Ternary Alloys Melting and Castirg Technigue The design , construction and operation of equipment for melting and...protection during heat treatment were: 1. Design and construction of a specimen container to hold a number of specimens in an inert atmosphere in order to WAC

  11. Wettability of magnesium based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ornelas, Victor Manuel

    The premise of this project was to determine the wettability behavior of Mg-based alloys using three different liquids. Contact angle measurements were carried out along with utilizing the Zisman method for obtaining values for the critical surface tension. Adhesion energy values were also found through the use of the Young-Dupre equation. This project utilized the Mg-based alloy Mg-2Zn-2Gd with supplemented alpha-Minimum Essential Medium (MEM), Phosphate Buffer Saline solution (PBS), and distilled water. These three liquids are commonly used in cell cultivation and protein adsorption studies. Supplemented alpha-MEM consisted of alpha-MEM, fetal bovine serum, and penicillin-streptomycin. Mg-2Zn-2Gd was used because of observed superior mechanical properties and better corrosion resistance as compared to conventional Mg-alloys. These attractive properties have made it possible for this alloy to be used in biomedical devices within the human body. However, the successful use of this alloy system in the human body requires knowledge in the response of protein adsorption on the alloy surface. Protein adsorption depends on many parameters, but one of the most important factors is the wettability behavior at the surface.

  12. Mechanistic origin and prediction of enhanced ductility in magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhaoxuan; Ahmad, Rasool; Yin, Binglun; Sandlöbes, Stefanie; Curtin, W. A.

    2018-01-01

    Development of ductile magnesium alloys is key to their use in reducing the weight of vehicles and other applications. Wu et al. tackle this issue by determining the underlying mechanisms in unprocessed magnesium alloys. Dilute amounts of solutes enhanced certain ductility-improving mechanisms over ones that cause brittle fracture. From this, the authors developed a theory that may be helpful for screening the large number of potential magnesium alloy compositions.

  13. Research Progress in Plasma arc welding of Magnesium Alloys and Magnesium Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Li; Yang, Zou; Yongbo, Li; Lei, Jiao; Ruijun, Hou

    2017-11-01

    Magnesium alloys and magnesium matrix composites by means of its excellent performance have wide application prospect in electronics, automotive, biotechnology, aerospace field, and welding technology has become a key of restricting its application. This paper describes the welding characteristics of magnesium, the obvious advantages in the application and the domestic and foreign research advance technology of plasma arc welding of magnesium, and summarizes the existing problems and development trends of plasma arc welding technology of magnesium.

  14. Tuning the Hydrogen Storage in Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Er, Suleyman; de Wijs, Gilles A.; Brocks, Geert

    2011-03-01

    We investigate the hydrogen storage properties of promising magnesium alloys. Mg H2 (7.6 wt % H) would be a very useful storage material if the (de)hydrogenation kinetics can be improved and the desorption temperature is markedly lowered. Using first principles calculations, we show that hydrides of Mg-transition metal (TM) alloys adopt a structure that promotes faster (de)hydrogenation kinetics, as is also observed in experiment. Within the lightweight TMs, the most promising alloying element is titanium. Alloying Mg with Ti alone, however, is not sufficient to decrease the stability of the hydride phases, which is necessary to reduce the hydrogen desorption temperature. We find that adding aluminium or silicon markedly destabilizes Mg-Ti hydrides and stabilizes Mg-Ti alloys. Finally, we show that controlling the structure of Mg-Ti-Al(Si) system by growing it as multilayers, has a beneficial influence on the thermodynamic properties and makes it a stronger candidate for hydrogen storage.

  15. Security assessment of magnesium alloys used as biodegradable implant material.

    PubMed

    Sun, X; Cao, Z Y; Liu, J G; Feng, C

    2015-01-01

    The security risk of magnesium alloys used as biodegradable implant material was evaluated in this study. Dose-response assessment was conducted by using toxicological data from authoritative public health agencies (World Health Organization) and assuming 1~3 years of uniform corrosion. Through modification calculation, the tolerable corrosion rate of biodegradable magnesium alloys in vivo was proposed, which theoretically ensured the bio-safety of the degradation products. The tolerable limits corresponding to various component elements in magnesium alloys were considered separately, although there are deficits in the toxicological data of some component elements. The influence of corrosion on the strength of magnesium alloys was evaluated, which would contribute to the rationally utilization of magnesium alloys as degradable implant materials. This study illustrates that not only toxicological calculations but also mechanical performance should be taken into consideration when developing novel degradable metallic implant.

  16. In vitro mechanical integrity of hydroxyapatite coated magnesium alloy.

    PubMed

    Kannan, M Bobby; Orr, Lynnley

    2011-08-01

    The mechanical integrity of resorbable implants during service, especially in load bearing orthopaedic applications, is critical. The high degradation rate of resorbable magnesium and magnesium-based implants in body fluid may potentially cause premature in-service failure. In this study, a magnesium alloy (AZ91) was potentiostatically coated with hydroxyapatite at different cathodic voltages in an attempt to enhance the mechanical integrity. The mechanical integrity of the uncoated and hydroxyapatite coated alloys was evaluated after in vitro testing of the coated samples in simulated body fluid (SBF). The uncoated alloy showed 40% loss in the mechanical strength after five days exposure to SBF. However, the hydroxyapatite coated alloy exposed to SBF showed 20% improvement in the mechanical strength as compared to that of the uncoated alloy. The alloy coated potentiostatically at -2 V performed better than the -3 V coated alloy. The cross-sectional analysis of the coatings revealed relatively uniform coating thickness for the -2 V coated alloy, whereas the -3 V coated alloy exhibited areas of uneven coating. This can be attributed to the increase in hydrogen evolution on the alloy during -3 V coating as compared to -2 V coating. The scanning electron micrographs of the in vitro tested alloy revealed that hydroxyapatite coating significantly reduced the localized corrosion of the alloy, which is critical for better in-service mechanical integrity. Thus, the study suggests that the in vitro mechanical integrity of resorbable magnesium-based alloy can be improved by potentiostatic hydroxyapatite coating. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd

  17. Multi-functional magnesium alloys containing interstitial oxygen atoms

    PubMed Central

    Kang, H.; Choi, H. J.; Kang, S. W.; Shin, S. E.; Choi, G. S.; Bae, D. H.

    2016-01-01

    A new class of magnesium alloys has been developed by dissolving large amounts of oxygen atoms into a magnesium lattice (Mg-O alloys). The oxygen atoms are supplied by decomposing titanium dioxide nanoparticles in a magnesium melt at 720 °C; the titanium is then completely separated out from the magnesium melt after solidification. The dissolved oxygen atoms are located at the octahedral sites of magnesium, which expand the magnesium lattice. These alloys possess ionic and metallic bonding characteristics, providing outstanding mechanical and functional properties. A Mg-O-Al casting alloy made in this fashion shows superior mechanical performance, chemical resistance to corrosion, and thermal conductivity. Furthermore, a similar Mg-O-Zn wrought alloy shows high elongation to failure (>50%) at room temperature, because the alloy plastically deforms with only multiple slips in the sub-micrometer grains (<300 nm) surrounding the larger grains (~15 μm). The metal/non-metal interstitial alloys are expected to open a new paradigm in commercial alloy design. PMID:26976372

  18. Multi-functional magnesium alloys containing interstitial oxygen atoms.

    PubMed

    Kang, H; Choi, H J; Kang, S W; Shin, S E; Choi, G S; Bae, D H

    2016-03-15

    A new class of magnesium alloys has been developed by dissolving large amounts of oxygen atoms into a magnesium lattice (Mg-O alloys). The oxygen atoms are supplied by decomposing titanium dioxide nanoparticles in a magnesium melt at 720 °C; the titanium is then completely separated out from the magnesium melt after solidification. The dissolved oxygen atoms are located at the octahedral sites of magnesium, which expand the magnesium lattice. These alloys possess ionic and metallic bonding characteristics, providing outstanding mechanical and functional properties. A Mg-O-Al casting alloy made in this fashion shows superior mechanical performance, chemical resistance to corrosion, and thermal conductivity. Furthermore, a similar Mg-O-Zn wrought alloy shows high elongation to failure (>50%) at room temperature, because the alloy plastically deforms with only multiple slips in the sub-micrometer grains (<300 nm) surrounding the larger grains (~15 μm). The metal/non-metal interstitial alloys are expected to open a new paradigm in commercial alloy design.

  19. Corrosion resistant properties of polyaniline acrylic coating on magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathiyanarayanan, S.; Azim, S. Syed; Venkatachari, G.

    2006-12-01

    The performance of the paint coating based on acrylic-polyaniline on magnesium alloy ZM 21 has been studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 0.5% NaCl solution. The polyaniline was prepared by chemical oxidative method of aniline with ammonium persulphate in phosphoric acid medium. The phosphate-doped polyaniline was characterized by FTIR and XRD methods. Acrylic paint containing the phosphate-doped polyaniline was prepared and coated on magnesium ZM 21 alloy. The coating was able to protect the magnesium alloy and no base metal dissolution was noted even after 75 days exposure to sodium chloride solution.

  20. Magnesium-based biodegradable alloys: Degradation, application, and alloying elements

    PubMed Central

    Pogorielov, Maksym; Husak, Eugenia; Solodivnik, Alexandr; Zhdanov, Sergii

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the paradigm about the metal with improved corrosion resistance for application in surgery and orthopedy was broken. The new class of biodegradable metal emerges as an alternative for biomedical implants. These metals corrode gradually with an appropriate host response and release of corrosion products. And it is absolutely necessary to use essential metals metabolized by hosting organism with local and general nontoxic effect. Magnesium serves this aim best; it plays the essential role in body metabolism and should be completely excreted within a few days after degradation. This review summarizes data from Mg discovery and its first experimental and clinical application of modern concept of Mg alloy development. We focused on biodegradable metal application in general surgery and orthopedic practice and showed the advantages and disadvantages Mg alloys offer. We focused on methods of in vitro and in vivo investigation of degradable Mg alloys and correlation between these methods. Based on the observed data, a better way for new alloy pre-clinical investigation is suggested. This review analyzes possible alloying elements that improve corrosion rate, mechanical properties, and gives the appropriate host response. PMID:28932493

  1. In vitro corrosion and biocompatibility of binary magnesium alloys.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xuenan; Zheng, Yufeng; Cheng, Yan; Zhong, Shengping; Xi, Tingfei

    2009-02-01

    As bioabsorbable materials, magnesium alloys are expected to be totally degraded in the body and their biocorrosion products not deleterious to the surrounding tissues. It's critical that the alloying elements are carefully selected in consideration of their cytotoxicity and hemocompatibility. In the present study, nine alloying elements Al, Ag, In, Mn, Si, Sn, Y, Zn and Zr were added into magnesium individually to fabricate binary Mg-1X (wt.%) alloys. Pure magnesium was used as control. Their mechanical properties, corrosion properties and in vitro biocompatibilities (cytotoxicity and hemocompatibility) were evaluated by SEM, XRD, tensile test, immersion test, electrochemical corrosion test, cell culture and platelet adhesion test. The results showed that the addition of alloying elements could influence the strength and corrosion resistance of Mg. The cytotoxicity tests indicated that Mg-1Al, Mg-1Sn and Mg-1Zn alloy extracts showed no significant reduced cell viability to fibroblasts (L-929 and NIH3T3) and osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1); Mg-1Al and Mg-1Zn alloy extracts indicated no negative effect on viabilities of blood vessel related cells, ECV304 and VSMC. It was found that hemolysis and the amount of adhered platelets decreased after alloying for all Mg-1X alloys as compared to the pure magnesium control. The relationship between the corrosion products and the in vitro biocompatibility had been discussed and the suitable alloying elements for the biomedical applications associated with bone and blood vessel had been proposed.

  2. Column strength of magnesium alloy AM-57S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, M

    1942-01-01

    Tests were made to determine the column strength of extruded magnesium alloy AM-57S. Column specimens were tested with round ends and with flat ends. It was found that the compressive properties should be used in computations for column strengths rather than the tensile properties because the compressive yield strength was approximately one-half the tensile yield strength. A formula for the column strength of magnesium alloy AM-57S is given.

  3. Al-TiH2 Composite Foams Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasada Rao, A. K.; Oh, Y. S.; Ain, W. Q.; A, Azhari; Basri, S. N.; Kim, N. J.

    2016-02-01

    The work presented here in describes the synthesis of aluminum based titanium-hydride particulate composite by casting method and its foaming behavior of magnesium alloy. Results obtained indicate that the Al-10TiH2 composite can be synthesized successfully by casting method. Further, results also reveal that closed-cell magnesium alloy foam can be synthesized by using Al-10TiH2 composite as a foaming agent.

  4. Properties of boride-added powder metallurgy magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Syota; Fujima, Takuya; Takagi, Ken-ichi

    2009-06-01

    Magnesium alloys with metallic borides, magnesium diboride (MgB2) or aluminum diboride (AlB2), were investigated regarding their mechanical properties, transverse rupture strength (TRS) and micro Vickers hardness (HV). The alloys were made from pure Mg, Al and B powders by mechanical alloying and hot pressing to have boride content of between 2.0 and 20 vol%. The alloy with AlB2 exhibited an obvious improvement of HV around a boride content of 6 vol% though the other alloy, with MgB2, did not. TRS showed moderate maxima around the same boride content region for the both alloys. X-ray diffraction measurements indicated an intermetallic compound, Mg17Al12, formed in the alloy with AlB2, which was consistent with its higher hardness.

  5. Microwave-assisted magnesium phosphate coating on the AZ31 magnesium alloy.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yufu; Babaie, Elham; Lin, Boren; Bhaduri, Sarit B

    2017-08-18

    Due to the combination of many unique properties, magnesium alloys have been widely recognized as suitable metallic materials for fabricating degradable biomedical implants. However, the extremely high degradation kinetics of magnesium alloys in the physiological environment have hindered their clinical applications. This paper reports for the first time the use of a novel microwave-assisted coating process to deposit magnesium phosphate (MgP) coatings on the Mg alloy AZ31 and improve its in vitro corrosion resistance. Newberyite and trimagnesium phosphate hydrate (TMP) layers with distinct features were fabricated at various processing times and temperatures. Subsequently, the corrosion resistance, degradation behavior, bioactivity and cytocompatibility of the MgP coated AZ31 samples were investigated. The potentiodynamic polarization tests reveal that the corrosion current density of the AZ31 magnesium alloy in simulated body fluid (SBF) is significantly suppressed by the deposited MgP coatings. Additionally, it is seen that MgP coatings remarkably reduced the mass loss of the AZ31 alloy after immersion in SBF for two weeks and promoted precipitation of apatite particles. The high viability of preosteoblast cells cultured with extracts of coated samples indicates that the MgP coatings can improve the cytocompatibility of the AZ31 alloy. These attractive results suggest that MgP coatings, serving as the protective and bioactive layer, can enhance the corrosion resistance and biological response of magnesium alloys.

  6. REGENERATION OF FISSION-PRODUCT-CONTAINING MAGNESIUM-THORIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Chiotti, P.

    1964-02-01

    A process of regenerating a magnesium-thorium alloy contaminated with fission products, protactinium, and uranium is presented. A molten mixture of KCl--LiCl-MgCl/sub 2/ is added to the molten alloy whereby the alkali, alkaline parth, and rare earth fission products (including yttrium) and some of the thorium and uranium are chlorinated and

  7. Deformation behaviour of a new magnesium ternary alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmi, P.; Kaya, A. Arslan; Sorgente, D.; Palumbo, G.

    2018-05-01

    Magnesium based alloys are yet to fill a greater niche especially in the automotive and aeronautical industry. In fact, such alloys have a big weight saving potential, together with good damping characteristics. However, nowadays about 90% of Magnesium products are produced by casting, mainly using two alloy systems, namely Mg-Al-Zn (AZ91D) and Mg-Al (AM50, AM60). Now the emphasis, especially after having achieved considerable success in creep resistance and understanding of the deformation behaviour of Magnesium, has been shifted towards wrought alloys; AZ31, in this case, is the most popular. In this work a multi-element Magnesium alloy, developed to improve the deformation capacity of such a lightweight material, has been investigated and compared to a commercial AZ31B. The possibility of adopting such a multi-element Magnesium alloy for manufacturing components via unconventional sheet forming (such as superplastic forming, warm hydroforming, incremental forming) has been proved in the present work focusing the attention on the superplastic field. Free inflation tests were thus conducted at 450°C setting constant pressure to investigate the superplastic behaviour (in terms of dome height and strain rate sensitivity index) of both the multi-element Magnesium alloy (Mg-2Zn-Ce) and the commercial one (AZ31B). To enhance information on the thickness distribution and investigate the microstructure evolution, metallographic analyses on the samples used to carry out free inflation tests were also performed. The developed ternary alloy manifested quite a good deformation behaviour (high strain rate sensitivity index), even being tested in the as cast condition; in addition a limited grain coarsening was observed in the specimens after deformation.

  8. High Strength and Thermally Stable Nanostructured Magnesium Alloys and Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yuan-Wei

    Magnesium and its alloys are currently in the spotlight of global research because of the need to limit energy consumption and reduce the environmental impact. In particular, their low densities compared to other structural metals make them a very attractive alternative in the automobile and aerospace industries. However, their low strength compared to other structural materials (e.g. Al and steels) has limited their widespread application. This dissertation presents the results of developing and investigation of a high strength nanostructured magnesium-aluminum alloy and composite. The nanostructured magnesium alloy is prepared by cryomilling and consolidated by spark-plasma-sintering. Focused ion beam is used to prepare micropillars with different diameters ranging from 1.5 to 8 mum and micro-compression test is conducted by nanoindenter in order to evaluate the mechanical properties. The yield strength obtained in the present study is around three times higher than conventional magnesium alloys (120 MPa vs. 370 MPa). The yield strength of the nanostructured magnesium alloy is further improved through hot extrusion, resulting in a yield strength of 550 MPa and an ultimate strength of 580 MPa. The nanostructured magnesium alloy exhibits a strong size-dependence, and a significant improvement in strength is observed when the pillar diameter is reduced to below 3.5 mum. The deformation mechanisms of the compressed pillars were characterized using transmission electron microscopy. The size-induced strengthening is attributed to a less number of dislocation sources along with a higher activity of non-basal deformation mechanisms. We have also developed a high strength and thermally stable nanostructured magnesium composite by adding diamantane. A yield strength of 500 MPa is achieved, moreover, excellent thermal stability is demonstrated in the magnesium alloy containing diamantanes. The strength and grain size are thermally stable after annealing at 400°C for 100

  9. Light-weight titanium magnesium alloys by vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Ward-Close, C.M.; Lu, G.; Bagnall, K.E.

    A novel range of Ti-Mg alloys were produced by a high rate evaporation and vapor quenching route. Magnesium is virtually insoluble in titanium under equilibrium conditions, and this alloy combination is not possible by conventional ingot metallurgy due to the high vapor pressure of magnesium, which boils at atmospheric pressure below the melting point of titanium. X-ray diffraction data showed that at least 27 wt% magnesium was retained in solid solution. Each 1 wt% addition of magnesium reduced the alloy density by approximately 1%. For the more dilute alloys (< 10 wt%) heat treatment in air or in vacuum upmore » to 700 C was accompanied by a very substantial increase in hardness, which could not be explained in terms of oxygen absorption by the titanium lattice. A Ti-9Mg alloy has been studied by transmission electron microscopy using electron energy loss (PEELS) and energy dispersive X-ray techniques. After hot-pressing, particles in the 2--20 nm range, and others at about 100 nm diameter were found within the grains and in the grain boundaries respectively. These particles were identified as magnesium. Controlled oxidation led to the formation of MgO particles, and an increase in hardness by a factor of 2.3.« less

  10. Wide Strip Casting Technology of Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, W.-J.; Kim, J. J.; Kim, I. J.; Choo, D.

    Extensive investigations relating to the production of high performance and low cost magnesium sheet by strip casting have been performed for the application to automotive parts and electronic devices. Research on magnesium sheet production technology started in 2004 by Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology (RIST) with support of Pohang Iron and Steel Company (POSCO). POSCO has completed the world's first plant to manufacture magnesium coil. Another big project in order to develop wide strip casting technology for the automotive applications of magnesium sheets was started in succession.

  11. Toward New Magnesium Alloy Design - Theoretical and Experimental Studies of the Influence of Alloying Elements on Deformation Twinning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-27

    Research Office (W911NF-12-1-0023). Ab initio calculations have been performed to study the effects of solute atoms on the c/a ratio of magnesium alloys ... effects of alloying elements on the c/a ratio of magnesium were performed. The most commonly and extensively used alloying elements such as Al, Mn, and... Magnesium Alloy Design - Theoretical and Experimental Studies of the Influence of Alloying Elements on Deformation Twinning M.F. Horstemeyer

  12. Biodegradable Magnesium Alloys: A Review of Material Development and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Persaud-Sharma, Dharam; McGoron, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium based alloys possess a natural ability to biodegrade due to corrosion when placed within aqueous substances, which is promising for cardiovascular and orthopedic medical device applications. These materials can serve as a temporary scaffold when placed in vivo, which is desirable for treatments when temporary supportive structures are required to assist in the wound healing process. The nature of these materials to degrade is attributed to the high oxidative corrosion rates of magnesium. In this review, a summary is presented for magnesium material development, biocorrosion characteristics, as well as a biological translation for these results. PMID:22408600

  13. Influence of Magnesium Alloy Degradation on Undifferentiated Human Cells.

    PubMed

    Cecchinato, Francesca; Agha, Nezha Ahmad; Martinez-Sanchez, Adela Helvia; Luthringer, Berengere Julie Christine; Feyerabend, Frank; Jimbo, Ryo; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Wennerberg, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are of particular interest in medical science since they provide compatible mechanical properties with those of the cortical bone and, depending on the alloying elements, they have the capability to tailor the degradation rate in physiological conditions, providing alternative bioresorbable materials for bone applications. The present study investigates the in vitro short-term response of human undifferentiated cells on three magnesium alloys and high-purity magnesium (Mg). The degradation parameters of magnesium-silver (Mg2Ag), magnesium-gadolinium (Mg10Gd) and magnesium-rare-earth (Mg4Y3RE) alloys were analysed after 1, 2, and 3 days of incubation in cell culture medium under cell culture condition. Changes in cell viability and cell adhesion were evaluated by culturing human umbilical cord perivascular cells on corroded Mg materials to examine how the degradation influences the cellular development. The pH and osmolality of the medium increased with increasing degradation rate and it was found to be most pronounced for Mg4Y3RE alloy. The biological observations showed that HUCPV exhibited a more homogeneous cell growth on Mg alloys compared to high-purity Mg, where they showed a clustered morphology. Moreover, cells exhibited a slightly higher density on Mg2Ag and Mg10Gd in comparison to Mg4Y3RE, due to the lower alkalinisation and osmolality of the incubation medium. However, cells grown on Mg10Gd and Mg4Y3RE generated more developed and healthy cellular structures that allowed them to better adhere to the surface. This can be attributable to a more stable and homogeneous degradation of the outer surface with respect to the incubation time.

  14. Influence of Magnesium Alloy Degradation on Undifferentiated Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Sanchez, Adela Helvia; Luthringer, Berengere Julie Christine; Feyerabend, Frank; Jimbo, Ryo; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Wennerberg, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Background Magnesium alloys are of particular interest in medical science since they provide compatible mechanical properties with those of the cortical bone and, depending on the alloying elements, they have the capability to tailor the degradation rate in physiological conditions, providing alternative bioresorbable materials for bone applications. The present study investigates the in vitro short-term response of human undifferentiated cells on three magnesium alloys and high-purity magnesium (Mg). Materials and Methods The degradation parameters of magnesium-silver (Mg2Ag), magnesium-gadolinium (Mg10Gd) and magnesium-rare-earth (Mg4Y3RE) alloys were analysed after 1, 2, and 3 days of incubation in cell culture medium under cell culture condition. Changes in cell viability and cell adhesion were evaluated by culturing human umbilical cord perivascular cells on corroded Mg materials to examine how the degradation influences the cellular development. Results and Conclusions The pH and osmolality of the medium increased with increasing degradation rate and it was found to be most pronounced for Mg4Y3RE alloy. The biological observations showed that HUCPV exhibited a more homogeneous cell growth on Mg alloys compared to high-purity Mg, where they showed a clustered morphology. Moreover, cells exhibited a slightly higher density on Mg2Ag and Mg10Gd in comparison to Mg4Y3RE, due to the lower alkalinisation and osmolality of the incubation medium. However, cells grown on Mg10Gd and Mg4Y3RE generated more developed and healthy cellular structures that allowed them to better adhere to the surface. This can be attributable to a more stable and homogeneous degradation of the outer surface with respect to the incubation time. PMID:26600388

  15. A Study on Factors Affecting the Degradation of Magnesium and a Magnesium-Yttrium Alloy for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Ian; Liu, Huinan

    2013-01-01

    Controlling degradation of magnesium or its alloys in physiological saline solutions is essential for their potential applications in clinically viable implants. Rapid degradation of magnesium-based materials reduces the mechanical properties of implants prematurely and severely increases alkalinity of the local environment. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the effects of three interactive factors on magnesium degradation, specifically, the addition of yttrium to form a magnesium-yttrium alloy versus pure magnesium, the metallic versus oxide surfaces, and the presence versus absence of physiological salt ions in the immersion solution. In the immersion solution of phosphate buffered saline (PBS), the magnesium-yttrium alloy with metallic surface degraded the slowest, followed by pure magnesium with metallic or oxide surfaces, and the magnesium-yttrium alloy with oxide surface degraded the fastest. However, in deionized (DI) water, the degradation rate showed a different trend. Specifically, pure magnesium with metallic or oxide surfaces degraded the slowest, followed by the magnesium-yttrium alloy with oxide surface, and the magnesium-yttrium alloy with metallic surface degraded the fastest. Interestingly, only magnesium-yttrium alloy with metallic surface degraded slower in PBS than in DI water, while all the other samples degraded faster in PBS than in DI water. Clearly, the results showed that the alloy composition, presence or absence of surface oxide layer, and presence or absence of physiological salt ions in the immersion solution all influenced the degradation rate and mode. Moreover, these three factors showed statistically significant interactions. This study revealed the complex interrelationships among these factors and their respective contributions to degradation for the first time. The results of this study not only improved our understanding of magnesium degradation in physiological environment, but also presented the key

  16. Ballistic Characterization of the Scalability of Magnesium Alloy AMX602

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    Powder Metallurgy 4 5. Fabrication Procedure 4 6. Mechanical Property Analysis 5 7. Ballistic Experimental Procedures 6 8. Ballistic Experimental...compositions of noncombustive Mg alloy powders 4. Powder Metallurgy The powder was consolidated at room temperature using a 2,000-kN hydraulic press...evaluation of advanced powder metallurgy magnesium alloys for dynamic applications. Aberdeen Proving Ground (MD): Army Research Laboratory (US); 2009 May

  17. Corrosion resistance of titanium ion implanted AZ91 magnesium alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Chenglong; Xin Yunchang; Tian Xiubo

    2007-03-15

    Degradable metal alloys constitute a new class of materials for load-bearing biomedical implants. Owing to their good mechanical properties and biocompatibility, magnesium alloys are promising in degradable prosthetic implants. The objective of this study is to improve the corrosion behavior of surgical AZ91 magnesium alloy by titanium ion implantation. The surface characteristics of the ion implanted layer in the magnesium alloys are examined. The authors' results disclose that an intermixed layer is produced and the surface oxidized films are mainly composed of titanium oxide with a lesser amount of magnesium oxide. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that the oxide has threemore » layers. The outer layer which is 10 nm thick is mainly composed of MgO and TiO{sub 2} with some Mg(OH){sub 2}. The middle layer that is 50 nm thick comprises predominantly TiO{sub 2} and MgO with minor contributions from MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and TiO. The third layer from the surface is rich in metallic Mg, Ti, Al, and Ti{sub 3}Al. The effects of Ti ion implantation on the corrosion resistance and electrochemical behavior of the magnesium alloys are investigated in simulated body fluids at 37{+-}1 deg. C using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open circuit potential techniques. Compared to the unimplanted AZ91 alloy, titanium ion implantation significantly shifts the open circuit potential (OCP) to a more positive potential and improves the corrosion resistance at OCP. This phenomenon can be ascribed to the more compact surface oxide film, enhanced reoxidation on the implanted surface, as well as the increased {beta}-Mg{sub 12}Al{sub 17} phase.« less

  18. Copper-silicon-magnesium alloys for latent heat storage

    DOE PAGES

    Gibbs, P. J.; Withey, E. A.; Coker, E. N.; ...

    2016-06-21

    The systematic development of microstructure, solidification characteristics, and heat of solidification with composition in copper-silicon-magnesium alloys for thermal energy storage is presented. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to relate the thermal characteristics to microstructural development in the investigated alloys and clarifies the location of one of the terminal three-phase eutectics. Repeated thermal cycling highlights the thermal storage stability of the transformation through multiple melting events. In conclusion, two near-terminal eutectic alloys display high enthalpies of solidification, relatively narrow melting ranges, and stable transformation hysteresis behaviors suited to thermal energy storage.

  19. Recycling of Magnesium Alloy Employing Refining and Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xiaofei; Zink, Peter A.; Pal, Uday B.; Powell, Adam C.

    2013-04-01

    Pure magnesium was recycled from partially oxidized 50.5 wt pct Mg-Al scrap alloy and AZ91 Mg alloy (9 wt pct Al, 1 wt pct Zn). Refining experiments were performed using a eutectic mixture of MgF2-CaF2 molten salt (flux). During the experiments, potentiodynamic scans were performed to determine the electrorefining potentials for magnesium dissolution and magnesium bubble nucleation in the flux. The measured electrorefining potential for magnesium bubble nucleation increased over time as the magnesium content inside the magnesium alloy decreased. Potentiostatic holds and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were employed to measure the electronic and ionic resistances of the flux. The electronic resistivity of the flux varied inversely with the magnesium solubility. Up to 100 pct of the magnesium was refined from the Mg-Al scrap alloy by dissolving magnesium and its oxide into the flux followed by argon-assisted evaporation of dissolved magnesium and subsequently condensing the magnesium vapor. Solid oxide membrane electrolysis was also employed in the system to enable additional magnesium recovery from magnesium oxide in the partially oxidized Mg-Al scrap. In an experiment employing AZ91 Mg alloy, only the refining step was carried out. The calculated refining yield of magnesium from the AZ91 alloy was near 100 pct.

  20. Biodegradable Magnesium Alloys Developed as Bone Repair Materials: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chen; Ren, Zheng; Xu, Yongdong; Pang, Song; Zhao, Xinbing

    2018-01-01

    Bone repair materials are rapidly becoming a hot topic in the field of biomedical materials due to being an important means of repairing human bony deficiencies and replacing hard tissue. Magnesium (Mg) alloys are potentially biocompatible, osteoconductive, and biodegradable metallic materials that can be used in bone repair due to their in situ degradation in the body, mechanical properties similar to those of bones, and ability to positively stimulate the formation of new bones. However, rapid degradation of these materials in physiological environments may lead to gas cavities, hemolysis, and osteolysis and thus, hinder their clinical orthopedic applications. This paper reviews recent work on the use of Mg alloy implants in bone repair. Research to date on alloy design, surface modification, and biological performance of Mg alloys is comprehensively summarized. Future challenges for and developments in biomedical Mg alloys for use in bone repair are also discussed. PMID:29725492

  1. Investigation of Tin as a Constituent of Inorganic Coatings for Magnesium Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-05-01

    WORDS (Continue on revete side if neceeeary and identify by block number) Inorganic Coatings Coatings for Magnesium Tin Magnesium Corrosion PR suaJEC...stannous pyrophosphate 10 grams dextrine water to one (1) liter (1) White, E.L. and F.W. Fink Corrosion protection of Magnesium and Magnesium alloys

  2. Precipitation Behavior of Magnesium Alloys Containing Neodymium and Yttrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Ellen L. S.

    Magnesium is the lightest of the structural metals and has great potential for reducing the weight of transportation systems, which in turn reduces harmful emissions and improves fuel economy. Due to the inherent softness of Mg, other elements are typically added in order to form a fine distribution of precipitates during aging, which improves the strength by acting as barriers to moving dislocations. Mg-RE alloys are unique among other Mg alloys because they form precipitates that lie parallel to the prismatic planes of the Mg matrix, which is an ideal orientation to hinder dislocation slip. However, RE elements are expensive and impractical for many commercial applications, motivating the rapid design of alternative alloy compositions with comparable mechanical properties. Yet in order to design new alloys reproducing some of the beneficial properties of Mg-RE alloys, we must first fully understand precipitation in these systems. Therefore, the main objectives of this thesis are to identify the roles of specific RE elements (Nd and Y) on precipitation and to relate the precipitate microstructure to the alloy strength. The alloys investigated in this thesis are the Mg-Nd, Mg-Y, and Mg-Y-Nd systems, which contain the main alloying elements of commercial WE series alloys (Y and Nd). In all three alloy systems, a sequence of metastable phases forms upon aging. Precipitate composition, atomic structure, morphology, and spatial distribution are strongly controlled by the elastic strain energy originating from the misfitting coherent precipitates. The dominating role that strain energy plays in these alloy systems gives rise to very unique microstructures. The evolution of the hardness and precipitate microstructure with aging revealed that metastable phases are the primary strengthening phases of these alloys, and interact with dislocations by shearing. Our understanding of precipitation mechanisms and commonalities among the Mg-RE alloys provide future avenues to

  3. Effect of deformation twin on toughness in magnesium binary alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somekawa, Hidetoshi; Inoue, Tadanobu; Tsuzaki, Kaneaki

    2015-08-01

    The impact of alloying elements on toughness was investigated using eight kinds of Mg-0.3 at.% X (X = Al, Ag, Ca, Gd, Mn, Pb, Y and Zn) binary alloys with meso-grained structures. These binary alloys had an average grain size of approximately 20 μm. The fracture toughness and crack propagation behaviour were influenced by the alloying elements; the Mg-Ag and Mg-Pb alloys had the highest and the lowest toughness amongst the alloys, respectively, irrespective of presence in their ? type deformation twins. The twin boundaries affected the crack propagation behaviour in most of the alloys; in contrast, not only was the fracture related to the twin boundaries, but also the intergranular fracture occurred in the alloys that included rare earth elements. The influential factor for toughness in the meso- and the coarse-grained magnesium alloys, which readily formed deformation twins during plastic deformation, was not the change in lattice parameter with chemical composition, but the twin boundary segregation energy.

  4. "Electroless" E-Coating for Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Guang-Ling

    By utilizing the unique electrochemistry of Mg, a thin organic film can rapidly be deposited on the surface of a Mg alloy by dipping the Mg alloy in a cathodic E-coating bath solution without applying a current or potential. The self-deposited coating is selectively formed on Mg alloy surfaces. Although the "electroless" E-coating pre-film is relatively thin, it can offer sufficient corrosion protection for Mg alloys in a chloride-containing environment. The stability of the film can be significantly improved after curing. The corrosion resistance of the substrate Mg alloy has an important effect on the corrosion protection performance of the coating. The coating is more protective on a corrosion resistant Mg alloy than on a non-corrosion resistant Mg substrate. The coating protection performance is also influenced by the substrate surface condition or pre-treatment process. Wet cleaning + heat-treatment may be a cost-effective surface preparation/treatment for the "electroless" E-coating in industrial applications.

  5. In vitro degradation behavior and cytocompatibility of Mg–Zn–Zr alloys

    PubMed Central

    Huan, Z. G.; Leeflang, M. A.; Fratila-Apachitei, L. E.; Duszczyk, J.

    2010-01-01

    Zinc and zirconium were selected as the alloying elements in biodegradable magnesium alloys, considering their strengthening effect and good biocompatibility. The degradation rate, hydrogen evolution, ion release, surface layer and in vitro cytotoxicity of two Mg–Zn–Zr alloys, i.e. ZK30 and ZK60, and a WE-type alloy (Mg–Y–RE–Zr) were investigated by means of long-term static immersion testing in Hank’s solution, non-static immersion testing in Hank’s solution and cell-material interaction analysis. It was found that, among these three magnesium alloys, ZK30 had the lowest degradation rate and the least hydrogen evolution. A magnesium calcium phosphate layer was formed on the surface of ZK30 sample during non-static immersion and its degradation caused minute changes in the ion concentrations and pH value of Hank’s solution. In addition, the ZK30 alloy showed insignificant cytotoxicity against bone marrow stromal cells as compared with biocompatible hydroxyapatite (HA) and the WE-type alloy. After prolonged incubation for 7 days, a stimulatory effect on cell proliferation was observed. The results of the present study suggested that ZK30 could be a promising material for biodegradable orthopedic implants and worth further investigation to evaluate its in vitro and in vivo degradation behavior. PMID:20532960

  6. The Corrosion Protection of Magnesium Alloy AZ31B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.; Mendrek, M. J.; Mitchell, M. L.; Torres, P. D.

    1997-01-01

    Corrosion rates for bare and coated Magnesium alloy AZ31B have been measured. Two coatings, Dow-23(Trademark) and Tagnite(Trademark), have been tested by electrochemical methods and their effectiveness determined. Electrochemical methods employed were the scanning reference electrode technique (SRET), the polarization resistance technique (PR) and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique (EIS). In addition, general corrosion and stress corrosion methods were employed to examine the effectiveness of the above coatings in 90 percent humidity. Results from these studies are presented.

  7. Study on Hydroforming of Magnesium Alloy Tube under Temperature Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinsong; Wang, Shouren; Zhang, Yongliang; Wang, Gaoqi; Guo, Peiquan; Qiao, Yang

    2018-01-01

    First of all, under 100 °C, 150 °C, 200 °C, 250 °C, 300 °C and 350 °C, respectively do the test of magnesium alloy AZ31B temperature tensile and the fracture of SEM electron microscopic scanning, studying the plastic forming ability under six different temperature. Secondly, observe and study the real stress-strain curves and fracture topography. Through observation and research can concluded that with the increase of temperature, the yield strength and tensile strength of AZ31B was increased, and the elongation rate and the plastic deformation capacity are increased obviously. Taking into account the actual production, energy consumption, and mold temperature resistance, 250 °Cwas the best molding temperature. Finally, under the temperature condition of 250 °C, the finite element simulation and simulation of magnesium alloy profiled tube were carried out by Dynaform, and the special wall and forming limit diagram of magnesium alloy were obtained. According to the forming wall thickness and forming limit diagram, the molding experiment can be optimized continuously.

  8. The Corrosion of Magnesium and of the Magnesium Aluminum Alloys Containing Manganese

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, J A

    1927-01-01

    The extensive use of magnesium and its alloys in aircraft has been seriously handicapped by the uncertainties surrounding their resistance to corrosion. This problem has been given intense study by the American Magnesium Corporation and at the request of the Subcommittee on Materials for Aircraft of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics this report was prepared on the corrosion of magnesium. The tentative conclusions drawn from the experimental facts of this investigation are as follows: the overvoltage of pure magnesium is quite high. On immersion in salt water the metal corrodes with the liberation of hydrogen until the film of corrosion product lowers the potential to a critical value. When the potential reaches this value it no longer exceeds the theoretical hydrogen potential plus the overvoltage of the metal. Rapid corrosion consequently ceases. When aluminum is added, especially when in large amounts, the overvoltage is decreased and hydrogen plates out at a much lower potential than with pure magnesium. The addition of small amount of manganese raises the overvoltage back to practically that of pure metal, and the film is again negative.

  9. Magnesium Alloys as a Biomaterial for Degradable Craniofacial Screws

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Sarah E.; Verdelis, Konstantinos; Maiti, Spandan; Pal, Siladitya; Chung, William L.; Chou, Da-Tren; Kumta, Prashant N.; Almarza, Alejandro J.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, magnesium (Mg) alloys have received significant attention as a potential biomaterial for degradable implants, and this study was directed at evaluating the suitability of Mg for craniofacial bone screws. The objective was to implant screws fabricated from commercially available Mg-alloys (pure Mg and AZ31) in-vivo in a rabbit mandible. First, Mg-alloy screws were compared to stainless steel screws in an in-vitro pull-out test and determined to have a similar holding strength (~40N). A finite element model of the screw was created using the pull-out test data, and the model can be used for future Mg-alloy screw design. Then, Mg-alloy screws were implanted for 4, 8, and 12 weeks, with two controls of an osteotomy site (hole) with no implant and a stainless steel screw implanted for 12 weeks. MicroCT (computed tomography) was used to assess bone remodeling and Mg-alloy degradation, both visually and qualitatively through volume fraction measurements for all time points. Histologic analysis was also completed for the Mg-alloys at 12 weeks. The results showed that craniofacial bone remodeling occurred around both Mg-alloy screw types. Pure Mg had a different degradation profile than AZ31, however bone growth occurred around both screw types. The degradation rate of both Mg-alloy screw types in the bone marrow space and the muscle were faster than in the cortical bone space at 12 weeks. Furthermore, it was shown that by alloying Mg, the degradation profile could be changed. These results indicate the promise of using Mg-alloys for craniofacial applications. PMID:24384125

  10. Ductilization of High-Strength Magnesium Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-17

    ductility in this system. Figure 4 compares true stress strain curves measured for the solution-treated and peak-aged conditions. Fractography of the...plane 1.274 1.094 1.213 Figure 4. Measured true stress-strain curves and fractography of WE43 Mg alloy Figure 3. FLAPW...Therefore, the enhancement of grain boundary cohesion plays an important role in the improvement of ductility. Figure 5 Fractography of WE43 at

  11. On the shock response of the magnesium alloy Elektron 675

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazell, Paul; Appleby-Thomas, Gareth; Siviour, Clive; Wielewski, Euan

    2011-06-01

    Alloying elements such as aluminium, zinc or rare-earths allow precipitation hardening of magnesium (Mg). The low densities of such strengthened Mg alloys have led to their adoption as aerospace materials and (more recently) they are being considered as armour materials. Consequently, understanding their response to high-strain rate loading is becoming increasingly important. Here, the plate-impact technique was employed to measure longitudinal stress evolution in armour-grade wrought Mg-alloy Elektron 675 under 1D shock loading. The strength and spall behaviour was interrogated, with an estimate made of the material's Hugoniot elastic limit. Finally, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques were employed to investigate post-shock microstructural changes.

  12. Friction Stir Welding of Magnesium Alloy Type AZ 31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupec, Tomáš; Behúlová, Mária; Turňa, Milan; Sahul, Miroslav

    The paper deals with welding of Mg alloy of the type AZ 31 by Friction Stir Welding technology (FSW). The FSW technology is at present predominantly used for welding light metals and alloys, as aluminium, magnesium and their alloys. Experimental part consists of performing the simulation and fabrication of welded joints on a new-installed welding equipment available at the Welding Research Institute — Industrial Institute of SR Bratislava. Welding tools made of tool steel type H 13 were used for welding experiments. Geometry of welding tools was designed on the base of literature knowledge. Suitable welding parameters and conditions were determined using numerical simulation. Main emphasis was laid upon the tool revolutions, welding speed and tool bevel angle. The effect of welding parameters on the quality of welded joints was assessed. Assessment of welded joints was carried out by radiography, light microscopy, hardness measurement and EDX microanalysis. Static tensile test was employed for mechanical testing.

  13. Shot peening influence on corrosion resistance of AE21 magnesium alloy.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-12-15

    "Evaluation of the electrochemical characteristics of the AE21 magnesium alloy is presented in the article. : The surfaces of tested alloys were treated by grinding and grinding followed by sodium bicarbonate shotpeening. : The specimens were evaluat...

  14. Biomedical coatings on magnesium alloys - a review.

    PubMed

    Hornberger, H; Virtanen, S; Boccaccini, A R

    2012-07-01

    This review comprehensively covers research carried out in the field of degradable coatings on Mg and Mg alloys for biomedical applications. Several coating methods are discussed, which can be divided, based on the specific processing techniques used, into conversion and deposition coatings. The literature review revealed that in most cases coatings increase the corrosion resistance of Mg and Mg alloys. The critical factors determining coating performance, such as corrosion rate, surface chemistry, adhesion and coating morphology, are identified and discussed. The analysis of the literature showed that many studies have focused on calcium phosphate coatings produced either using conversion or deposition methods which were developed for orthopaedic applications. However, the control of phases and the formation of cracks still appear unsatisfactory. More research and development is needed in the case of biodegradable organic based coatings to generate reproducible and relevant data. In addition to biocompatibility, the mechanical properties of the coatings are also relevant, and the development of appropriate methods to study the corrosion process in detail and in the long term remains an important area of research. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Endothelial responses of magnesium and other alloying elements in magnesium-based stent materials

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Nan; Zhu, Donghui

    2016-01-01

    Biodegradable tailored magnesium (Mg) alloys are some of the most promising scaffolds for cardiovascular stents. During the course of degradation after implantation, all the alloying elements in the scaffold will be released to the surrounding vascular tissues. However, fundamental questions regarding the toxicity of alloying elements towards vascular cells, the maximum amount of each element that could be used in alloy design, or how each of the alloying elements affects vascular cellular activity and gene expression, are still not fully answered. This work systematically addressed these questions by revealing how application of different alloying elements commonly used in Mg stent materials influences several indices of human endothelial cell health, i.e., viability, proliferations, cytoskeletal reorganizations, migration, and the gene expression profile. The overall cell viability and proliferation showed a decreasing trend with increasing concentrations of the ions, and the half maximal effective concentrations (EC50) for each element were determined. When applied at a low concentration of around 10 mM, Mg had no adverse effects but improved cell proliferation and migration instead. Mg ions also altered endothelial gene expression significantly in a dose dependent manner. Most of the changed genes are related to angiogenesis and the cell adhesion signaling pathways. Findings from this work provide useful information on maximum safe doses of these ions for endothelial cells, endothelial responses towards these metal ions, and some guidance for future Mg stent design. PMID:25363018

  16. Effect of Alloying Elements on Nano-ordered Wear Property of Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Takahiro; Hirayama, Tomoko; Matsuoka, Takashi; Somekawa, Hidetoshi

    2017-03-01

    The effect of alloying elements on nano-ordered wear properties was investigated using fine-grained pure magnesium and several types of 0.3 at. pct X (X = Ag, Al, Ca, Li, Mn, Y, and Zn) binary alloys. They had an average grain size of 3 to 5 μm and a basal texture due to their production by the extrusion process. The specific wear rate was influenced by the alloying element; the Mg-Ca and Mg-Mn alloys showed the best and worst wear property, respectively, among the present alloying elements, which was the same trend as that for indentation hardness. Deformed microstructural observations revealed no formation of deformation twins, because of the high activation of grain boundary-induced plasticity. On the contrary, according to scratched surface observations, when grain boundary sliding partially contributed to deformation, these alloys had large specific wear rates. These results revealed that the wear property of magnesium alloys was closely related to the plastic deformation mechanism. The prevention of grain boundary sliding is important to improve the wear property, which is the same as that of a large-scale wearing configuration. One of the influential factors is the change in the lattice parameter with the chemical composition, i.e., ∂( c/ a)/∂ C. An alloying element that has a large value of ∂( c/ a)/∂ C effectively enhances the wear property.

  17. Mitigation of Corrosion on Magnesium Alloy by Predesigned Surface Corrosion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuming; Wu, Guosong; Peng, Xiang; Li, Limin; Feng, Hongqing; Gao, Biao; Huo, Kaifu; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid corrosion of magnesium alloys is undesirable in structural and biomedical applications and a general way to control corrosion is to form a surface barrier layer isolating the bulk materials from the external environment. Herein, based on the insights gained from the anticorrosion behavior of corrosion products, a special way to mitigate aqueous corrosion is described. The concept is based on pre-corrosion by a hydrothermal treatment of Al-enriched Mg alloys in water. A uniform surface composed of an inner compact layer and top Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) microsheet is produced on a large area using a one-step process and excellent corrosion resistance is achieved in saline solutions. Moreover, inspired by the super-hydrophobic phenomenon in nature such as the lotus leaves effect, the orientation of the top microsheet layer is tailored by adjusting the hydrothermal temperature, time, and pH to produce a water-repellent surface after modification with fluorinated silane. As a result of the trapped air pockets in the microstructure, the super-hydrophobic surface with the Cassie state shows better corrosion resistance in the immersion tests. The results reveal an economical and environmentally friendly means to control and use the pre-corrosion products on magnesium alloys. PMID:26615896

  18. Mitigation of Corrosion on Magnesium Alloy by Predesigned Surface Corrosion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuming; Wu, Guosong; Peng, Xiang; Li, Limin; Feng, Hongqing; Gao, Biao; Huo, Kaifu; Chu, Paul K

    2015-11-30

    Rapid corrosion of magnesium alloys is undesirable in structural and biomedical applications and a general way to control corrosion is to form a surface barrier layer isolating the bulk materials from the external environment. Herein, based on the insights gained from the anticorrosion behavior of corrosion products, a special way to mitigate aqueous corrosion is described. The concept is based on pre-corrosion by a hydrothermal treatment of Al-enriched Mg alloys in water. A uniform surface composed of an inner compact layer and top Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) microsheet is produced on a large area using a one-step process and excellent corrosion resistance is achieved in saline solutions. Moreover, inspired by the super-hydrophobic phenomenon in nature such as the lotus leaves effect, the orientation of the top microsheet layer is tailored by adjusting the hydrothermal temperature, time, and pH to produce a water-repellent surface after modification with fluorinated silane. As a result of the trapped air pockets in the microstructure, the super-hydrophobic surface with the Cassie state shows better corrosion resistance in the immersion tests. The results reveal an economical and environmentally friendly means to control and use the pre-corrosion products on magnesium alloys.

  19. Mitigation of Corrosion on Magnesium Alloy by Predesigned Surface Corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuming; Wu, Guosong; Peng, Xiang; Li, Limin; Feng, Hongqing; Gao, Biao; Huo, Kaifu; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-11-01

    Rapid corrosion of magnesium alloys is undesirable in structural and biomedical applications and a general way to control corrosion is to form a surface barrier layer isolating the bulk materials from the external environment. Herein, based on the insights gained from the anticorrosion behavior of corrosion products, a special way to mitigate aqueous corrosion is described. The concept is based on pre-corrosion by a hydrothermal treatment of Al-enriched Mg alloys in water. A uniform surface composed of an inner compact layer and top Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) microsheet is produced on a large area using a one-step process and excellent corrosion resistance is achieved in saline solutions. Moreover, inspired by the super-hydrophobic phenomenon in nature such as the lotus leaves effect, the orientation of the top microsheet layer is tailored by adjusting the hydrothermal temperature, time, and pH to produce a water-repellent surface after modification with fluorinated silane. As a result of the trapped air pockets in the microstructure, the super-hydrophobic surface with the Cassie state shows better corrosion resistance in the immersion tests. The results reveal an economical and environmentally friendly means to control and use the pre-corrosion products on magnesium alloys.

  20. Manufacturing and characterization of magnesium alloy foils for use as anode materials in rechargeable magnesium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schloffer, Daniel; Bozorgi, Salar; Sherstnev, Pavel; Lenardt, Christian; Gollas, Bernhard

    2017-11-01

    The fabrication of thin foils of magnesium for use as anode material in rechargeable magnesium ion batteries is described. In order to improve its workability, the magnesium was alloyed by melting metallurgy with zinc and/or gadolinium, producing saturated solid solutions. The material was extruded to thin foils and rolled to a thickness of approximately 100 μm. The electrochemical behavior of Mg-1.63 wt% Zn, Mg-1.55 wt% Gd and Mg-1.02 wt% Zn-1.01 wt% Gd was studied in (PhMgCl)2-AlCl3/THF electrolyte by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic cycling in symmetrical cells. Analysis of the current-potential curves in the Tafel region and the linear region close to the equilibrium potential show almost no effect of the alloying elements on the exchange current densities (5-45 μA/cm2) and the transfer coefficients. Chemical analyses of the alloy surfaces and the electrolyte demonstrate that the alloying elements not only dissolve with the magnesium during the anodic half-cycles, but also re-deposit during the cathodic half-cycles together with the magnesium and aluminum from the electrolyte. Given the negligible corrosion rate in aprotic electrolytes under such conditions, no adverse effects of alloying elements are expected for the performance of magnesium anodes in secondary batteries.

  1. Phenolic Modified Ceramic Coating on Biodegradable Mg Alloy: The Improved Corrosion Resistance and Osteoblast-Like Cell Activity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hung-Pang; Lin, Da-Jun; Yeh, Ming-Long

    2017-06-25

    Magnesium alloys have great potential for developing orthopedic implants due to their biodegradability and mechanical properties, but the rapid corrosion rate of the currently-available alloys limits their clinical applications. To increase the corrosion resistance of the substrate, a protective ceramic coating is constructed by a micro-arc oxidation (MAO) process on ZK60 magnesium alloy. The porous ceramic coating is mainly composed of magnesium oxide and magnesium silicate, and the results from cell cultures show it can stimulate osteoblastic cell growth and proliferation. Moreover, gallic acid, a phenolic compound, was successfully introduced onto the MAO coating by grafting on hydrated oxide and chelating with magnesium ions. The gallic acid and rough surface of MAO altered the cell attachment behavior, making it difficult for fibroblasts to adhere to the MAO coating. The viability tests showed that gallic acid could suppress fibroblast growth and stimulate osteoblastic cell proliferation. Overall, the porous MAO coating combined with gallic acid offered a novel strategy for increasing osteocompatibility.

  2. Phenolic Modified Ceramic Coating on Biodegradable Mg Alloy: The Improved Corrosion Resistance and Osteoblast-Like Cell Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hung-Pang; Lin, Da-Jun; Yeh, Ming-Long

    2017-01-01

    Magnesium alloys have great potential for developing orthopedic implants due to their biodegradability and mechanical properties, but the rapid corrosion rate of the currently-available alloys limits their clinical applications. To increase the corrosion resistance of the substrate, a protective ceramic coating is constructed by a micro-arc oxidation (MAO) process on ZK60 magnesium alloy. The porous ceramic coating is mainly composed of magnesium oxide and magnesium silicate, and the results from cell cultures show it can stimulate osteoblastic cell growth and proliferation. Moreover, gallic acid, a phenolic compound, was successfully introduced onto the MAO coating by grafting on hydrated oxide and chelating with magnesium ions. The gallic acid and rough surface of MAO altered the cell attachment behavior, making it difficult for fibroblasts to adhere to the MAO coating. The viability tests showed that gallic acid could suppress fibroblast growth and stimulate osteoblastic cell proliferation. Overall, the porous MAO coating combined with gallic acid offered a novel strategy for increasing osteocompatibility. PMID:28773055

  3. Effect of Microstructure on the Mechanical Properties of Extruded Magnesium and a Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGhee, Paul

    The main objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between the fatigue behavior and crystallographic texture evolution of magnesium (Mg) alloys with a range of microalloying element content processed under various extrusion conditions. Several Mg alloys were processed under a range of extrusion temperatures, extrusion ratios, and alloying content and tested under monotonic and cyclic fatigue loading conditions: fully-reversed condition tested at strain amplitudes of 0.15% - 1.00% in strain-control mode. After fatigue testing, Mg microstructural analysis was performed using SEM, TEM, optical microscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. Microstructural observations revealed significant grain refinement through a combination of zirconium (Zr) addition and hot-extrusion, producing fine equiaxed grain structure with grain sizes ranging between 1-5 microm. Texture analysis and partial compression testing results showed that the initial texture of the extruded alloy gradually evolved upon compressive loading along the c-axes inducing extension twinning creating a strong basal texture along the extrusion direction. Full tensile and compression testing at room temperature showed that the combination of hot extrusion and Zr addition can further refine the grains of the Mg alloys microstructure and enhance the texture while simultaneously enhancing the mechanical properties.

  4. Lightweight design of automobile frame based on magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, R.; Jiang, X.; Minoru, O.; Ju, D. Y.

    2018-06-01

    The structural performance and lightweighting of car base frame design is a challenging task due to all the performance targets that must be satisfied. In this paper, three kinds of materials (iron, aluminum and magnesium alloy) replacement along with section design optimization strategy is proposed to develop a lightweight car frame structure to satisfy the tensile and safety while reducing weight. Two kinds of cross-sections are considered as the design variables. Using Ansys static structure, the design optimization problem is solved, comparing the results of each step, structure of the base flame is optimized for lightweight.

  5. Wear Properties of ECAP-Processed AM80 Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopi, K. R.; Shivananda Nayaka, H.; Sahu, Sandeep

    2017-07-01

    AM80 magnesium alloy was subjected to equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP), and microstructural evolution was studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Grain size was found to decrease up to 3 µm after four passes. An increase in number of ECAP passes led to a corresponding increase in hardness of the processed samples. Unprocessed and ECAP-processed samples were subjected to wear test using pin-on-disk wear test machine to study the wear behavior. Effects of varying loads (30 and 40 N) with sliding distances (2500 and 5000 m) were studied. The results showed reduction in wear mass loss for the ECAP-processed samples in comparison with unprocessed condition. Coefficient of friction (COF) was studied for different loads, and improvement in COF values was observed for ECAP-processed samples compared to unprocessed condition. Worn surfaces were studied using SEM and energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer, and they exhibited plastic deformation, delamination, plowing, wear debris and oxidation in the sliding direction. X-ray diffraction analysis was conducted on the worn surfaces to identify the phases. It revealed the presence of magnesium oxide and magnesium aluminum oxide which led to oxidation wear in the sliding direction. Wear mechanism was found to be abrasive and oxidation wear.

  6. Iron-magnesium alloy in the Earth's Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovinskaia, N.; Dubrovinsky, L.; Abrikosov, I.

    2005-12-01

    Composition of the Earth's outer core is a geochemical parameter crucial for understanding the evolution and current dynamics of our planet. Since it was recognized that the liquid metallic outer core is about 10% less dense than pure iron, different elements lighter than iron, including Si, S, O, C, and H, were proposed as major or at least significantly abundant in Earth's core. However, combination of experimental results with theoretical and geochemical considerations shows that it is unlikely that any one of these elements can account for the density deficit on its own. In series of experiments in a multianvil apparatus and in electrically- and laser-heated diamond anvil cells, we demonstrate that high pressure promotes solubility of magnesium in iron and at megabar pressure range more than 10 at% of Mg can dissolve in Fe. At pressures above 95 to 100 GPa, molten iron reacts with periclase MgO forming an iron-magnesium alloy and iron oxide. Our observations suggest that magnesium can be an important light element in Earth's outer core, but it cannot account for the seismologically determined density deficit on its own.

  7. The High Strain Rate Deformation Behavior of High Purity Magnesium and AZ31B Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livescu, Veronica; Cady, Carl M.; Cerreta, Ellen K.; Henrie, Benjamin L.; Gray, George T.

    The deformation in compression of pure magnesium and AZ31B magnesium alloy, both with a strong basal pole texture, has been investigated as a function of temperature, strain rate, and specimen orientation. The mechanical response of both metals is highly dependent upon the orientation of loading direction with respect to the basal pole. Specimens compressed along the basal pole direction have a high sensitivity to strain rate and temperature and display a concave down work hardening behavior. Specimens loaded perpendicularly to the basal pole have a yield stress that is relatively insensitive to strain rate and temperature and a work hardening behavior that is parabolic and then linearly upwards. Both specimen orientations display a mechanical response that is sensitive to temperature and strain rate. Post mortem characterization of the pure magnesium was conducted on a subset of specimens to determine the microstructural and textural evolution during deformation and these results are correlated with the observed work hardening behavior and strain rate sensitivities were calculated.

  8. A quantitative study on magnesium alloy stent biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuanming; Wang, Lizhen; Gu, Xuenan; Chu, Zhaowei; Guo, Meng; Fan, Yubo

    2018-06-06

    Insufficient scaffolding time in the process of rapid corrosion is the main problem of magnesium alloy stent (MAS). Finite element method had been used to investigate corrosion of MAS. However, related researches mostly described all elements suffered corrosion in view of one-dimensional corrosion. Multi-dimensional corrosions significantly influence mechanical integrity of MAS structures such as edges and corners. In this study, the effects of multi-dimensional corrosion were studied using experiment quantitatively, then a phenomenological corrosion model was developed to consider these effects. We implemented immersion test with magnesium alloy (AZ31B) cubes, which had different numbers of exposed surfaces to analyze differences of dimension. It was indicated that corrosion rates of cubes are almost proportional to their exposed-surface numbers, especially when pitting corrosions are not marked. The cubes also represented the hexahedron elements in simulation. In conclusion, corrosion rate of every element accelerates by increasing corrosion-surface numbers in multi-dimensional corrosion. The damage ratios among elements with the same size are proportional to the ratios of corrosion-surface numbers under uniform corrosion. The finite element simulation using proposed model provided more details of changes of morphology and mechanics in scaffolding time by removing 25.7% of elements of MAS. The proposed corrosion model reflected the effects of multi-dimension on corrosions. It would be used to predict degradation process of MAS quantitatively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigation of Deformation Dynamics in a Wrought Magnesium Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Wei; Qiao, Hua; An, Ke

    2014-11-01

    In the present research, the deformation dynamics and the effect of the deformation history on plastic deformation in a wrought magnesium alloy have been studied using real-time in-situ neutron diffraction measurements under a continuous loading condition and elastic-viscoplastic self-consistent (EVPSC) polycrystal modeling. The experimental results reveal that the pre-deformation delayed the activation of the tensile twinning during subsequent compression, mainly resulting from the residual strain. No apparent detwinning occurred during unloading and even in the elastic region during reverse loading. It is believed that the grain rotation played an important role in the elastic region during reverse loading. The EVPSCmore » model, which has been recently updated by implementing the twinning and detwinning model, was employed to characterize the deformation mechanism during the strain-path changes. The simulation result predicts well the experimental observation from the real-time in-situ neutron diffraction measurements. The present study provides a deep insight of the nature of deformation mechanisms in a hexagonal close-packed structured polycrystalline wrought magnesium alloy, which might lead to a new era of deformation-mechanism research.« less

  10. The microstructure, mechanical and friction properties of protective diamond like carbon films on magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Y. S.; Wu, Y. F.; Yang, H.; Cang, K.; Song, G. H.; Li, Z. X.; Zhou, K.

    2011-12-01

    Protective hard coatings deposited on magnesium alloys are believed to be effective for overcoming their poor wear properties. In this work, diamond-like carbon (DLC) films as hard protective films were deposited on AZ91 magnesium alloy by arc ion plating under negative pulse bias voltages ranging from 0 to -200 V. The microstructure, composition and mechanical properties of the DLC films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and nanoindentation. The tribological behavior of uncoated and coated AZ91 magnesium alloy was investigated using a ball-on-disk tribotester. The results show that the negative pulse bias voltage used for film deposition has a significant effect on the sp3 carbon content and mechanical properties of the deposited DLC films. A maximum sp3 content of 33.3% was obtained at -100 V, resulting in a high hardness of 28.6 GPa and elastic modulus of 300.0 GPa. The DLC films showed very good adhesion to the AZ91 magnesium alloy with no observable cracks and delamination even during friction testing. Compared with the uncoated AZ91 magnesium alloy, the magnesium alloy coated with DLC films exhibits a low friction coefficient and a narrow, shallow wear track. The wear resistance and surface hardness of AZ91 magnesium alloy can be significantly improved by coating a layer of DLC protective film due to its high hardness and low friction coefficient.

  11. Effectivity of fluoride treatment on hydrogen and corrosion product generation in temporal implants for different magnesium alloys.

    PubMed

    Trinidad, Javier; Arruebarrena, Gurutze; Marco, Iñigo; Hurtado, Iñaki; Sáenz de Argandoña, Eneko

    2013-12-01

    The increasing interest on magnesium alloys relies on their biocompatibility, bioabsorbility and especially on their mechanical properties. Due to these characteristics, magnesium alloys are becoming a promising solution to be used, as temporary implants. However, magnesium alloys must overcome their poor corrosion resistance. This article analyses the corrosion behaviour in phosphate-buffered saline solution of three commercial magnesium alloys (AZ31B, WE43 and ZM21) as well as the influence of fluoride treatment on their corrosion behaviour. It is shown that the corrosion rate of all the alloys is decreased by fluoride treatment. However, fluoride treatment affects each alloy differently.

  12. Biofunctionalized anti-corrosive silane coatings for magnesium alloys.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Yue, Zhilian; Romeo, Tony; Weber, Jan; Scheuermann, Torsten; Moulton, Simon; Wallace, Gordon

    2013-11-01

    Biodegradable magnesium alloys are advantageous in various implant applications, as they reduce the risks associated with permanent metallic implants. However, a rapid corrosion rate is usually a hindrance in biomedical applications. Here we report a facile two step procedure to introduce multifunctional, anti-corrosive coatings on Mg alloys, such as AZ31. The first step involves treating the NaOH-activated Mg with bistriethoxysilylethane to immobilize a layer of densely crosslinked silane coating with good corrosion resistance; the second step is to impart amine functionality to the surface by treating the modified Mg with 3-amino-propyltrimethoxysilane. We characterized the two-layer anticorrosive coating of Mg alloy AZ31 by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, static contact angle measurement and optical profilometry, potentiodynamic polarization and AC impedance measurements. Furthermore, heparin was covalently conjugated onto the silane-treated AZ31 to render the coating haemocompatible, as demonstrated by reduced platelet adhesion on the heparinized surface. The method reported here is also applicable to the preparation of other types of biofunctional, anti-corrosive coatings and thus of significant interest in biodegradable implant applications. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cellular response of chondrocytes to magnesium alloys for orthopedic applications

    PubMed Central

    LIAO, YI; XU, QINGLI; ZHANG, JIAN; NIU, JIALING; YUAN, GUANGYIN; JIANG, YAO; HE, YAOHUA; WANG, XINLING

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr (JDBM), brushite (CaHPO4·2H2O)-coated JDBM (C-JDBM), AZ31, WE43, pure magnesium (Mg) and Ti alloy (TC4) on rabbit chondrocytes were investigated in vitro. Adhesion experiments revealed the satisfactory morphology of chondrocytes on the surface of all samples. An indirect cytotoxicity test using MTT assay revealed that C-JDBM and TC4 exhibited results similar to those of the negative control, better than those obtained with JDBM, AZ31, WE43 and pure Mg (p<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences observed between the JDBM, AZ31, WE43 and pure Mg group (p>0.05). The results of indirect cell cytotoxicity and proliferation assays, as well as those of apoptosis assay, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) quantification, assessment of collagen II (Col II) levels and RT-qPCR revealed a similar a trend as was observed with MTT assay. These findings suggested that the JDBM alloy was highly biocompatible with chondrocytes in vitro, yielding results similar to those of AZ31, WE43 and pure Mg. Furthermore, CaHPO4·2H2O coating significantly improved the biocompatibility of this alloy. PMID:25975216

  14. MUTLI-OBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION OF MICROSTRUCTURE IN WROUGHT MAGNESIUM ALLOYS

    SciTech Connect

    Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam; Gorti, Sarma B; Simunovic, Srdjan

    2013-01-01

    The microstructural features that govern the mechanical properties of wrought magnesium alloys include grain size, crystallographic texture, and twinning. Several processes based on shear deformation have been developed that promote grain refinement, weakening of the basal texture, as well as the shift of the peak intensity away from the center of the basal pole figure - features that promote room temperature ductility in Mg alloys. At ORNL, we are currently exploring the concept of introducing nano-twins within sub-micron grains as a possible mechanism for simultaneously improving strength and ductility by exploiting a potential dislocation glide along the twin-matrix interface amore » mechanism that was originally proposed for face-centered cubic materials. Specifically, we have developed an integrated modeling and optimization framework in order to identify the combinations of grain size, texture and twin spacing that can maximize strength-ductility combinations. A micromechanical model that relates microstructure to material strength is coupled with a failure model that relates ductility to a critical shear strain and a critical hydrostatic stress. The micro-mechanical model is combined with an optimization tool based on genetic algorithm. A multi-objective optimization technique is used to explore the strength-ductility space in a systematic fashion and identify optimum combinations of the microstructural parameters that will simultaneously maximize the strength-ductility in the alloy.« less

  15. Investigation of twin-twin interaction in deformed magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qi; Ostapovets, Andriy; Zhang, Xiyan; Tan, Li; Liu, Qing

    2018-03-01

    Using transmission electron microscopy, we characterised the structures of the boundary caused by the interactions between different ? twin variants that share the same ? zone axis in a deformed magnesium alloy. We found that the twin-twin boundaries can adopt the habit planes that are parallel to the (0 0 0 2) basal plane or the ? prismatic plane or the ? twinning plane of the interacting twins. To investigate the formation mechanism of various twin-twin boundaries, we also performed atomic simulations. The results indicate that the formation of a twin-twin boundary may be related to the reaction of twinning disconnections that glide on the basal-prismatic planes of the interacting twins.

  16. Chemical conversion coating for protecting magnesium alloys from corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Bhargava, Gaurang; Allen, Fred M.; Skandan, Ganesh

    A chromate-free, self-healing conversion coating solution for magnesium alloy substrates, composed of 10-20 wt. % Mg(NO.sub.3).sub.2.6H.sub.2O, 1-5 wt. % Al(NO.sub.3).sub.3.9H.sub.2O, and less than 1 wt. % of [V.sub.10O.sub.28].sup.6- or VO.sub.3.sup.- dissolved in water. The corrosion resistance offered by the resulting coating is in several hundreds of hours in salt-spray testing. This prolonged corrosion protection is attributed to the creation of a unique structure and morphology of the conversion coating that serves as a barrier coating with self-healing properties. Hydroxoaluminates form the backbone of the barrier protection offered while the magnesium hydroxide domains facilitate the "slow release" of vanadium compounds asmore » self-healing moieties to defect sites, thus providing active corrosion protection.« less

  17. Surface modifications of magnesium alloys for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingxin; Cui, Fuzhai; Lee, In Seop

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, research on magnesium (Mg) alloys had increased significantly for hard tissue replacement and stent application due to their outstanding advantages. Firstly, Mg alloys have mechanical properties similar to bone which avoid stress shielding. Secondly, they are biocompatible essential to the human metabolism as a factor for many enzymes. In addition, main degradation product Mg is an essential trace element for human enzymes. The most important reason is they are perfectly biodegradable in the body fluid. However, extremely high degradation rate, resulting in too rapid loss of mechanical strength in chloride containing environments limits their applications. Engineered artificial biomaterials with appropriate mechanical properties, surface chemistry, and surface topography are in a great demand. As the interaction between the cells and tissues with biomaterials at the tissue--implant interface is a surface phenomenon; surface properties play a major role in determining both the biological response to implants and the material response to the physiological condition. Therefore, the ability to modify the surface properties while preserve the bulk properties is important, and surface modification to form a hard, biocompatible and corrosion resistant modified layer have always been an interesting topic in biomaterials field. In this article, attempts are made to give an overview of the current research and development status of surface modification technologies of Mg alloys for biomedical materials research. Further, the advantages/disadvantages of the different methods and with regard to the most promising method for Mg alloys are discussed. Finally, the scientific challenges are proposed based on own research and the work of other scientists.

  18. [Single cell gel electrophoresis of a magnesium alloy coated with beta-tricalcium phosphate].

    PubMed

    Hao, Yu-quan; Tan, Li-li; Yan, Ting-ting; Yan, Xiu-lin; Yang, Ke; Ai, Hong-jun

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate the genotoxicity of a magnesium alloy coated with beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP). Four groups were designed. In the first group, AZ31B magnesium alloy surface was coated with beta-TCP using chemical bath deposition, and in the second group magnesium alloy was tested. The other two groups were negative control (pure titanium) and positive control groups (0.5 mg/L bleomycin). Single cell gel electrophoresis was adopted to investigate genotoxicity of the alloy samples in different groups, and 60 cells from each group were analysed. Tail moment and tail DNA percentage were used as reliable indicators to show DNA damage in lymphocytes induced by every testing sample. Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) test was used to compare results from 4 groups. There were no significant differences in tail moment and tail DNA percentage between magnesium alloy group [(0.52 +/- 0.12), (6.82 +/- 1.81)%] and magnesium alloy coated with beta-TCP group [(0.51 +/- 0.12), (6.89 +/- 1.93)%, P > 0.05]. Tail moment and tail DNA percentage in negative group were (0.47 +/- 0.14) and (6.29 +/- 1.64)%, and tail moment and tail DNA percentage in positive group were (5.17 +/- 1.23) and (22.09 +/- 4.51)%. No significant increase was found in DNA damage in lymphocytes induced by magnesium alloy coated with beta-TCP.

  19. Laser Surface Alloying of Copper, Manganese, and Magnesium with Pure Aluminum Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiru, Woldetinsay G.; Sankar, M. Ravi; Dixit, Uday S.

    2016-03-01

    Laser surface alloying is one of the recent technologies used in the manufacturing sector for improving the surface properties of the metals. Light weight materials like aluminum alloys, titanium alloys, and magnesium alloys are used in the locomotive, aerospace, and structural applications. In the present work, an experimental study was conducted to improve the surface hardness of commercially pure aluminum plate. CO2 laser is used to melt pre-placed powders of pure copper, manganese, and magnesium. Microstructure of alloyed surface was analyzed using optical microscope. The best surface alloying was obtained at the optimum values of laser parameters, viz., laser power, scan speed, and laser beam diameter. In the alloyed region, microhardness increased from 30 HV0.5 to 430 HV0.5, while it was 60 HV0.5 in the heat-affected region. Tensile tests revealed some reduction in the strength and total elongation due to alloying. On the other hand, corrosion resistance improved.

  20. Preparation and corrosion resistance of magnesium phytic acid/hydroxyapatite composite coatings on biodegradable AZ31 magnesium alloy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Cai, Shu; Zhang, Feiyang; Xu, Guohua; Wang, Fengwu; Yu, Nian; Wu, Xiaodong

    2017-06-01

    In this work, a magnesium phytic acid/hydroxyapatite composite coating was successfully prepared on AZ31 magnesium alloy substrate by chemical conversion deposition technology with the aim of improving its corrosion resistance and bioactivity. The influence of hydroxyapatite (HA) content on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of the coatings was investigated. The results showed that with the increase of HA content in phytic acid solution, the cracks on the surface of the coatings gradually reduced, which subsequently improved the corrosion resistance of these coated magnesium alloy. Electrochemical measurements in simulated body fluid (SBF) revealed that the composite coating with 45 wt.% HA addition exhibited superior surface integrity and significantly improved corrosion resistance compared with the single phytic acid conversion coating. The results of the immersion test in SBF showed that the composite coating could provide more effective protection for magnesium alloy substrate than that of the single phytic acid coating and showed good bioactivity. Magnesium phytic acid/hydroxyapatite composite, with the desired bioactivity, can be synthesized through chemical conversion deposition technology as protective coatings for surface modification of the biodegradable magnesium alloy implants. The design idea of the new type of biomaterial is belong to the concept of "third generation biomaterial". Corrosion behavior and bioactivity of coated magnesium alloy are the key issues during implantation. In this study, preparation and corrosion behavior of magnesium phytic acid/hydroxyapatite composite coatings on magnesium alloy were studied. The basic findings and significance of this paper are as follows: 1. A novel environmentally friendly, homogenous and crack-free magnesium phytic acid/hydroxyapatite composite coating was fabricated on AZ31 magnesium alloy via chemical conversion deposition technology with the aim of enhancing its corrosion resistance and

  1. Surface modification of biodegradable magnesium and its alloys for biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Peng; Liu, Xuanyong

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium and its alloys are being paid much attention recently as temporary implants, such as orthopedic implants and cardiovascular stents. However, the rapid degradation of them in physiological environment is a major obstacle preventing their wide applications to date, which will result in rapid mechanical integrity loss or even collapse of magnesium-based implants before injured tissues heal. Moreover, rapid degradation of the magnesium-based implants will also cause some adverse effects to their surrounding environment, such as local gas cavity around the implant, local alkalization and magnesium ion enrichment, which will reduce the integration between implant and tissue. So, in order to obtain better performance of magnesium-based implants in clinical trials, special alloy designs and surface modifications are prerequisite. Actually, when a magnesium-based implant is inserted in vivo, corrosion firstly happens at the implant-tissue interface and the biological response to implant is also determined by the interaction at this interface. So the surface properties, such as corrosion resistance, hemocompatibility and cytocompatibility of the implant, are critical for their in vivo performance. Compared with alloy designs, surface modification is less costly, flexible to construct multi-functional surface and can prevent addition of toxic alloying elements. In this review, we would like to summarize the current investigations of surface modifications of magnesium and its alloys for biomedical application. The advantages/disadvantages of different surface modification methods are also discussed as a suggestion for their utilization. PMID:26816637

  2. Torsional and axial damping properties of the AZ31B-F magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anes, V.; Lage, Y. E.; Vieira, M.; Maia, N. M. M.; Freitas, M.; Reis, L.

    2016-10-01

    Damping properties for the AZ31B-F magnesium alloy were evaluated for pure axial and pure shear loading conditions at room temperature. Hysteretic damping results were measured through stress-strain controlled tests. Moreover, the magnesium alloy viscous damping was measured with frequency response functions and free vibration decay, both results were obtained by experiments. The axial and shear damping ratio (ASDR) has been identified and described, specifically for free vibration conditions.

  3. Development of Rolling Schedules for Equal Channel Angular Extrusion (ECAE)-Processed AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    Processed AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheet by Laszlo J Kecskes, Vincent H Hammond, Michael Eichhorst, Norman Herzig, and Lothar Meyer...Angular Extrusion (ECAE)–Processed AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheet by Laszlo J Kecskes and Vincent H Hammond Weapons and Materials Research...successfully reduced into 1.5-mm-thick sheets . Two sets of plates, each with a different texture type, were evaluated. Microscopic examination of

  4. A Limited Dynamic Investigation of Magnesium Alloy AZ31B in 3 Orientations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    YYYY) September 2016 2. REPORT TYPE Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 August 2014–31 December 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A ...ARL-TR-7807 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory A Limited Dynamic Investigation of Magnesium Alloy AZ31B in 3 Orientations...Laboratory A Limited Dynamic Investigation of Magnesium Alloy AZ31B in 3 Orientations by Tyrone L Jones Weapons and Materials Research Directorate

  5. Facile formation of biomimetic color-tuned superhydrophobic magnesium alloy with corrosion resistance.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Takahiro; Sakamoto, Michiru

    2011-03-15

    The design of color-tuned magnesium alloy with anticorrosive properties and damping capacity was created by means of a simple and inexpensive method. The vertically self-aligned nano- and microsheets were formed on magnesium alloy AZ31 by a chemical-free immersion process in ultrapure water at a temperature of 120 °C, resulting in the color expression. The color changed from silver with metallic luster to some specific colors such as orange, green, and orchid, depending on the immersion time. The color-tuned magnesium alloy showed anticorrosive performance and damping capacity. In addition, the colored surface with minute surface textures was modified with n-octadecyltrimethoxysilane (ODS), leading to the formation of color-tuned superhydrophobic surfaces. The corrosion resistance of the color-tuned superhydrophobic magnesium alloy was also investigated using electrochemical potentiodynamic measurements. Moreover, the color-tuned superhydrophobic magnesium alloy showed high hydrophobicity not just for pure water but also for corrosive liquids, such as acidic, basic, and some aqueous salt solutions. In addition, the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard D 3359-02 cross cut tape test was performed to investigate the adhesion of the color-tuned superhydrophobic film to the magnesium alloy surface.

  6. In vivo corrosion of four magnesium alloys and the associated bone response.

    PubMed

    Witte, F; Kaese, V; Haferkamp, H; Switzer, E; Meyer-Lindenberg, A; Wirth, C J; Windhagen, H

    2005-06-01

    Degrading metal alloys are a new class of implant materials suitable for bone surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the degradation mechanism at the bone-implant interface of different degrading magnesium alloys in bone and to determine their effect on the surrounding bone. Sample rods of four different magnesium alloys and a degradable polymer as a control were implanted intramedullary into the femora of guinea pigs. After 6 and 18 weeks, uncalcified sections were generated for histomorphologic analysis. The bone-implant interface was characterized in uncalcified sections by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), element mapping and X-ray diffraction. Results showed that metallic implants made of magnesium alloys degrade in vivo depending on the composition of the alloying elements. While the corrosion layer of all magnesium alloys accumulated with biological calcium phosphates, the corrosion layer was in direct contact with the surrounding bone. The results further showed high mineral apposition rates and an increased bone mass around the magnesium rods, while no bone was induced in the surrounding soft tissue. From the results of this study, there is a strong rationale that in this research model, high magnesium ion concentration could lead to bone cell activation.

  7. Atomistic modeling of grain boundary behavior under shear conditions in magnesium and magnesium-based binary alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahhas, M. K.; Groh, S.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the structure, the energetic, and the strength of a { 10 1 bar 1 } < 11 2 bar 0 > symmetric tilt grain boundary in magnesium and magnesium binary alloys were analyzed in the framework of (semi-)empirical potentials. Following a systematic investigation of the transferability and accuracy of the interatomic potentials, atomistic calculations of the grain boundary energy, the grain boundary sliding energy, and the grain boundary strength were performed in pure magnesium and in binary MgX alloys (X = Al, Ca, Gd, Li, Sn, Y, Ag, Nd, and Pb). The data gained in this study were analyzed to identify the most critical material parameters controlling the strength of the grain boundary, and their consequence on atomic shuffling motions occurring at the grain boundary. From the methodology perspective, the role of in-plane and out-of plane relaxation on the grain boundary sliding energy curves was investigated. In pure magnesium, the results showed that in-plane relaxation is critical in activating b2{ 10 1 bar 1 } twinning dislocation resulting in grain boundary migration. In the alloy systems, however, grain boundary migration was disabled as a consequence of the pinning of the grain boundary by segregated elements. Finally, while the grain boundary energy, the shape of the grain boundary sliding energy curves, and the grain boundary sliding energy are critical parameters controlling the grain boundary strength in pure magnesium, only the grain boundary energy and the segregation energy of the alloying elements at the grain boundary were identified as critical material parameters in the alloys system.

  8. Lattice softening in body-centered-cubic lithium-magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, I. S.; Tsuru, T.; Chrzan, D. C.

    2017-08-01

    A first-principles investigation of the influence of lattice softening on lithium-magnesium alloys near the body-centered-cubic (bcc)/hexagonal close-packed (hcp) transition composition is presented. Results show that lithium-magnesium alloys display a softening of the shear modulus C11-C12 , and an acoustic phonon branch between the Γ and N high symmetry points, as the composition approaches the stability limit for the bcc phase. This softening is accompanied by an increase in the size of the dislocation core region. Ideal tensile strength calculations predict that ordered phases of lithium-magnesium alloys are intrinsically brittle. Methods to make the alloys more ductile are discussed, and the propensity for these alloys to display gum-metal-like behavior is assessed.

  9. A review on the effect of welding on the corrosion of magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, N. S.; Alias, J.

    2017-10-01

    Welding is an important joining technique for lightweight alloys with their increasing applications in aerospace, aircraft, automotive, electronics and other industries. The applications of lightweight alloys particularly magnesium alloys increased rapidly due to their beneficial properties such as low density, high strength-to-mass ratio, good dimensional stability, electromagnetic shielding and good recyclability. The effect of welding on the corrosion of magnesium alloys are reviewed in this paper, which closely related to the developed microstructure by the welding process. The paper focuses particularly on friction stir and laser welding. The basic principles of friction stir and laser welding are discussed, to present the likelihood of defects which significantly affect the corrosion of magnesium alloy. The finding in corrosion demonstrated the morphology of corrosion occurrence on each welded region, and observation on the potential and current values are also included.

  10. Cyclic Plasticity Constitutive Model for Uniaxial Ratcheting Behavior of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y. C.; Liu, Zheng-Hua; Chen, Xiao-Min; Long, Zhi-Li

    2015-05-01

    Investigating the ratcheting behavior of magnesium alloys is significant for the structure's reliable design. The uniaxial ratcheting behavior of AZ31B magnesium alloy is studied by the asymmetric cyclic stress-controlled experiments at room temperature. A modified kinematic hardening model is established to describe the uniaxial ratcheting behavior of the studied alloy. In the modified model, the material parameter m i is improved as an exponential function of the maximum equivalent stress. The modified model can be used to predict the ratcheting strain evolution of the studied alloy under the single-step and multi-step asymmetric stress-controlled cyclic loadings. Additionally, due to the significant effect of twinning on the plastic deformation of magnesium alloy, the relationship between the material parameter m i and the linear density of twins is discussed. It is found that there is a linear relationship between the material parameter m i and the linear density of twins induced by the cyclic loadings.

  11. A Study of Magnesium-Base Metallic Systems and Development of Principles for Creation of Corrosion-Resistant Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhina, I. Yu.

    2014-11-01

    The effect of 26 alloying elements on the corrosion resistance of high-purity magnesium in a 0.5-n solution of sodium chloride and in a humid atmosphere (0.005 n) is studied. The Mg - Li, Mg - Ag, Mg - Zn, Mg - Cu, Mg - Gd, Mg - Al, Mg - Zr, Mg - Mn and other binary systems, which present interest as a base for commercial or perspective castable magnesium alloys, are studied. The characteristics of corrosion resistance of the binary alloys are analyzed in accordance with the group and period of the Mendeleev's periodic law. The roles of the electrochemical and volume factors and of the factor of the valence of the dissolved element are determined.

  12. The production of fine grained magnesium alloys through thermomechanical processing for the optimization of microstructural and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, John Paul

    The low density and high strength to weight ratio of magnesium alloys makes them ideal candidates to replace many of the heavier steel and aluminum alloys currently used in the automotive and other industries. Although cast magnesium alloys components have a long history of use in the automotive industry, the integration of wrought magnesium alloys components has been hindered by a number of factors. Grain refinement through thermomechanical processing offers a possible solution to many of the inherent problems associated with magnesium alloys. This work explores the development of several thermomechanical processing techniques and investigates their impact on the microstructural and mechanical properties of magnesium alloys. In addition to traditional thermomechanical processing, this work includes the development of new severe plastic deformation techniques for the production of fine grain magnesium plate and pipe and develops a procedure by which the thermal microstructural stability of severely plastically deformed microstructures can be assessed.

  13. Hemolysis and cytotoxicity mechanisms of biodegradable magnesium and its alloys.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Zhen; Liu, Xiaoli; Huang, Tao; Xi, TingFei; Zheng, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    Good hemocompatibility and cell compatibility are essential requirements for coronary stents, especially for biodegradable magnesium alloy stents, which could change the in situ environment after implanted. In this work, the effects of magnesium ion concentration and pH value on the hemolysis and cytotoxicity have been evaluated. Solution with different Mg(2+) concentration gradients and pH values of normal saline and cell culture media DMEM adjusted by MgCl2 and NaOH respectively were tested for the hemolysis and cell viability. Results show that even when the concentration of Mg(2+) reaches 1000 μg/mL, it has little destructive effect on erythrocyte, and the high pH value over 11 caused by the degradation is the real reason for the high hemolysis ratio. Low concentrations of Mg(2+) (<100 μg/mL) cause no cytotoxicity to L929 cells, of which the cell viability is above 80%, while high concentrations of Mg(2+) (>300 μg/mL) could induce obvious death of the L929 cells. The pH of the extract plays a synergetic effect on cytotoxicity, due to the buffer action of the cell culture medium. To validate this conclusion, commercial pure Mg using normal saline and PBS as extract was tested with the measurement of pH and Mg(2+) concentration. Pure Mg leads to a higher hemolysis ratio in normal saline (47.76%) than in buffered solution (4.38%) with different pH values and low concentration of Mg(2+). The Mg extract culture media caused no cytotoxicity, with pH=8.44 and 47.80 μg/mL Mg(2+). It is suggested that buffered solution and dynamic condition should be adopted in the hemolysis evaluation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. In Vitro Biocompatibility and Endothelialization of Novel Magnesium-Rare Earth Alloys for Improved Stent Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Nan; Watson, Nevija; Xu, Zhigang; Chen, Yongjun; Waterman, Jenora; Sankar, Jagannathan; Zhu, Donghui

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) based alloys are the most advanced cardiovascular stent materials. This new generation of stent scaffold is currently under clinical evaluation with encouraging outcomes. All these Mg alloys contain a certain amount of rare earth (RE) elements though the exact composition is not yet disclosed. RE alloying can usually enhance the mechanical strength of different metal alloys but their toxicity might be an issue for medical applications. It is still unclear how RE elements will affect the magnesium (Mg) alloys intended for stent materials as a whole. In this study, we evaluated MgZnCaY-1RE, MgZnCaY-2RE, MgYZr-1RE, and MgZnYZr-1RE alloys for cardiovascular stents applications regarding their mechanical strength, corrosion resistance, hemolysis, platelet adhesion/activation, and endothelial biocompatibility. The mechanical properties of all alloys were significantly improved. Potentiodynamic polarization showed that the corrosion resistance of four alloys was at least 3–10 times higher than that of pure Mg control. Hemolysis test revealed that all the materials were non-hemolytic while little to moderate platelet adhesion was found on all materials surface. No significant cytotoxicity was observed in human aorta endothelial cells cultured with magnesium alloy extract solution for up to seven days. Direct endothelialization test showed that all the alloys possess significantly better capability to sustain endothelial cell attachment and growth. The results demonstrated the promising potential of these alloys for stent material applications in the future. PMID:24921251

  15. Degradation of magnesium and its alloys: dependence on the composition of the synthetic biological media.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Wolf-Dieter; de Mele, Monica Fernández Lorenzo; Nascimento, Maria Lucia; Zeddies, Miriam

    2009-08-01

    Magnesium and its alloys are highly degradable metals that are potentially useful as biomaterials, especially in orthopaedic and cardiovascular applications. However, the in vivo corrosion has proved to be too high. Because of the complexity of in vivo conditions, a careful study of the corrosion of magnesium in synthetic solutions that simulate the in vivo environment is necessary as a first approach to predict the actual in vivo situation. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of the electrolyte composition on the corrosion behavior of magnesium and two Mg-alloys in synthetic biological media. Pure magnesium and its alloys (AZ31 and LAE442) were employed in the experiments. Electrochemical potentiodynamic polarization curves were recorded in sodium chloride and PBS electrolytes with different chloride ion and albumin concentration. Optical and SEM observations complemented by EDX analysis were made. The results showed that magnesium corrosion is localized in chloride- and albumin-containing buffer solutions. They also showed that the chloride concentration and the presence of buffer and protein strongly affect the electrochemical behavior of magnesium and magnesium alloys.

  16. Characterization of Coatings on Steel Self-Piercing Rivets for Use with Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCune, Robert C.; Forsmark, Joy H.; Upadhyay, Vinod; Battocchi, Dante

    Incorporation of magnesium alloys in self-pierce rivet (SPR) joints poses several unique challenges among which are the creation of spurious galvanic cells and aggravated corrosion of adjacent magnesium when coated steel rivets are employed. This work firstly reviews efforts on development of coatings to steel fasteners for the diminution of galvanic corrosion when used with magnesium alloys. Secondly, approaches, based on several electrochemical methods, for the measurement of the galvanic-limiting effect of a number of commercially-available coatings to hardened 10B37 steel self-piercing rivets inserted into alloy couples incorporating several grades of magnesium are reported. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), zero-resistance ammeter (ZRA), corrosion potential and potential-mapping visualization methods (e.g. scanning vibrating electrode technique — SVET) are illustrated for the several rivet coatings considered.

  17. Nanoparticle Addition to Enhance the Mechanical Response of Magnesium Alloys Including Nanoscale Deformation Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramsothy, Muralidharan; Gupta, Manoj

    In this study, various magnesium alloy nanocomposites derived from AZ (Aluminium-Zinc) or ZK (Zinc-Zirconium) series matrices and containing Al2O3, Si3N4, TiC or carbon nanotube (CNT) nanoparticle reinforcement (representative oxide, nitride, carbide or carbon nanoparticle reinforcement, respectively) were fabricated using solidification processing followed by hot extrusion. The main aim here was to simultaneously enhance tensile strength and ductility of each alloy using nanoparticles. The magnesium-oxygen strong affinity and magnesium-carbon weak affinity (comparison of extremes in affinity) are both well known in the context of magnesium composite processing. However, an approach to possibly quantify this affinity in magnesium nanocomposite processing is not clear. In this study accordingly, Nanoscale Electro Negative Interface Density or NENID quantifies the nanoparticle-alloy matrix interfacial area per unit volume in the magnesium alloy nanocomposite taking into consideration the electronegativity of the nanoparticle reinforcement. The beneficial (as well as comparative) effect of the nanoparticles on each alloy is discussed in this article. Regarding the mechanical performance of the nanocomposites, it is important to understand the experimentally observed nanoparticle-matrix interactions during plastic deformation (nanoscale deformation mechanisms). Little is known in this area based on direct observations for metal matrix nanocomposites. Here, relevant multiple nanoscale phenomena includes the emanation of high strain zones (HSZs) from nanoparticle surfaces.

  18. Electrochemical Performance Estimation of Anodized AZ31B Magnesium Alloy as Function of Change in the Current Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girón, L.; Aperador, W.; Tirado, L.; Franco, F.; Caicedo, J. C.

    2017-08-01

    The anodized AZ31B magnesium alloys were synthesized via electrodeposition processes. The aim of this work was to determine the electrochemical behavior of magnesium alloys by using anodized alloys as a protective coating. The anodized alloys were characterized by x-ray diffraction, exhibiting the crystallography orientation for Mg and MgO phases. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to determine the chemical composition of anodized magnesium alloys. By using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Tafel curves, it was possible to estimate the electrochemical behavior of anodized AZ31B magnesium alloys in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS). Scanning electron microscopy was performed to analyze chemical changes and morphological surface changes on anodized Mg alloys due to the reaction in HBSS/anodized magnesium surface interface. Electrochemical behavior in HBSS indicates that the coatings may be a promising material for biomedical industry.

  19. Role of alloying elements on twin growth and twin transmission in magnesium alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Kumar, Mariyappan Arul; Beyerlein, Irene Jane; Lebensohn, Ricardo A.; ...

    2017-08-24

    A spatially-resolved crystal plasticity Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)-based model is employed to study the effect of alloying addition on twin thickening and twin transmission in hexagonal close packed (HCP) magnesium. In the simulations, the influence of alloying additions is represented through the differences in the critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) of different slip and twinning modes. The results show that for the same grain orientation, twin type and boundary conditions, anisotropy in the CRSS values have a significant effect on twin thickening and twin transmission. Those with large differences in CRSS favor both twin thickening and twin transmission, and vicemore » versa for those with small differences. Furthermore, less difference among the CRSS values enhances the dependence of thickening and transmission on the neighboring grain orientation.« less

  20. Role of alloying elements on twin growth and twin transmission in magnesium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Mariyappan Arul; Beyerlein, Irene Jane; Lebensohn, Ricardo A.

    A spatially-resolved crystal plasticity Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)-based model is employed to study the effect of alloying addition on twin thickening and twin transmission in hexagonal close packed (HCP) magnesium. In the simulations, the influence of alloying additions is represented through the differences in the critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) of different slip and twinning modes. The results show that for the same grain orientation, twin type and boundary conditions, anisotropy in the CRSS values have a significant effect on twin thickening and twin transmission. Those with large differences in CRSS favor both twin thickening and twin transmission, and vicemore » versa for those with small differences. Furthermore, less difference among the CRSS values enhances the dependence of thickening and transmission on the neighboring grain orientation.« less

  1. Effect of Iron and Magnesium on Alloy AL9M Structure and Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazhenov, V. E.; Koltygin, A. V.; Belov, V. D.

    2017-09-01

    The effect of iron impurity on the structure and properties of aluminum alloy AL9M, especially its action on magnesium distribution within the structure, is studied. The microstructure of a cast component of this alloy broken during operation is analyzed. It is shown that iron impurity has an unfavorable effect on structure and mechanical properties of a casting due to appearance of Al9Fe2Si and Al18Fe2Mg7Si10 intermetallics. Formation of these intermetallics consumes a considerable amount of magnesium and lowers the content of the Q(Al5Cu2Mg8Si6) strengthening phase in the alloy structure.

  2. Preparation of aluminum-magnesium alloy from magnesium oxide in RECl3-KCl-MgCl2 electrolyte by molten salts electrolysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shaohua; Wu, Lin; Yang, Fengli; Li, Mingzhou; Hu, Xianwei; Wang, Zhaowen; Shi, Zhongning; Gao, Bingliang

    Aluminum-magnesium alloys were prepared from magnesium oxide by molten salt electrolysis method. 10w%RECl3-63.5w%KCl-23.5w%MgCl2-3w%MgO was taken as electrolyte. The results showed that RE could be attained in aluminum-magnesium alloy, and it was proved that the RE was reduced directly by aluminum. Magnesium in the alloy was produced by electrolysis on cathode. The content of RE in the alloy was about 0.8wt %-1.2wt%, and the content of Mg in the alloy was lwt%˜6wt% with electrolytic times. The highest current efficiency was 81.3% with 0.8A/cm2 current density. The process of electrolysis was controlled together by electrochemical polarization and concentration polarization.

  3. Interfacial Reaction During Dissimilar Joining of Aluminum Alloy to Magnesium and Titanium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson, J. D.; Panteli, A.; Zhang, C. Q.; Baptiste, D.; Cai, E.; Prangnell, P. B.

    Ultrasonic welding (USW), a solid state joining process, has been used to produce welds between AA6111 aluminum alloy and AZ31 magnesium alloys or titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. The mechanical properties of the welds have been assessed and it has been shown that it is the nature and thickness of the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) at the joint line that are critical in determining joint strength and particularly fracture energy. Al-Mg welds suffer from a very low fracture energy, even when strength is comparable with that of similar metal Mg-Mg welds, due to a thick IMC layer always being formed. It is demonstrated that in USW of Al-Ti alloy the slow interdiffusion kinetics means that an IMC layer does not form during welding, and fracture energy is greater. A model has been developed to predict IMC formation during welding and provide an understanding of the critical factors that determine the IMC thickness. It is predicted that in Al-Mg welds, most of the lMC thickening occurs whilst the IMC regions grow as separate islands, prior to the formation of a continuous layer.

  4. A Review of Dissimilar Welding Techniques for Magnesium Alloys to Aluminum Alloys.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liming; Ren, Daxin; Liu, Fei

    2014-05-08

    Welding of dissimilar magnesium alloys and aluminum alloys is an important issue because of their increasing applications in industries. In this document, the research and progress of a variety of welding techniques for joining dissimilar Mg alloys and Al alloys are reviewed from different perspectives. Welding of dissimilar Mg and Al is challenging due to the formation of brittle intermetallic compound (IMC) such as Mg 17 Al 12 and Mg₂Al₃. In order to increase the joint strength, three main research approaches were used to eliminate or reduce the Mg-Al intermetallic reaction layer. First, solid state welding techniques which have a low welding temperature were used to reduce the IMCs. Second, IMC variety and distribution were controlled to avoid the degradation of the joining strength in fusion welding. Third, techniques which have relatively controllable reaction time and energy were used to eliminate the IMCs. Some important processing parameters and their effects on weld quality are discussed, and the microstructure and metallurgical reaction are described. Mechanical properties of welds such as hardness, tensile, shear and fatigue strength are discussed. The aim of the report is to review the recent progress in the welding of dissimilar Mg and Al to provide a basis for follow-up research.

  5. A Review of Dissimilar Welding Techniques for Magnesium Alloys to Aluminum Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liming; Ren, Daxin; Liu, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Welding of dissimilar magnesium alloys and aluminum alloys is an important issue because of their increasing applications in industries. In this document, the research and progress of a variety of welding techniques for joining dissimilar Mg alloys and Al alloys are reviewed from different perspectives. Welding of dissimilar Mg and Al is challenging due to the formation of brittle intermetallic compound (IMC) such as Mg17Al12 and Mg2Al3. In order to increase the joint strength, three main research approaches were used to eliminate or reduce the Mg-Al intermetallic reaction layer. First, solid state welding techniques which have a low welding temperature were used to reduce the IMCs. Second, IMC variety and distribution were controlled to avoid the degradation of the joining strength in fusion welding. Third, techniques which have relatively controllable reaction time and energy were used to eliminate the IMCs. Some important processing parameters and their effects on weld quality are discussed, and the microstructure and metallurgical reaction are described. Mechanical properties of welds such as hardness, tensile, shear and fatigue strength are discussed. The aim of the report is to review the recent progress in the welding of dissimilar Mg and Al to provide a basis for follow-up research. PMID:28788646

  6. Development of High-Strength Nanostructured Magnesium Alloys for Light-Weight Weapon Systems and Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-13

    strength nanocrystalline Mg-alloys via cryomilling and spark - plasma - sintering , 2) demonstrate the unveil evidence of nanotwins in nanocrystalline...Christopher Melnyk, Wei H. Kao, Jenn-Ming Yang. Cryomilling and spark plasma sintering of nanocrystalline magnesium-based alloy, Journal of Materials...accomplished several important milestones: 1) manufacture of high strength nanocrystalline Mg-alloys via cryomilling and spark plasma sintering (SPS

  7. Effect of hot working on the damping capacity and mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K.; Kang, C.; Kim, K.

    2015-04-01

    Magnesium alloys have received much attention for their lightweight and other excellent properties, such as low density, high specific strength, and good castability, for use in several industrial and commercial applications. However, both magnesium and its alloys show limited room-temperature formability owing to the limited number of slip systems associated with their hexagonal close-packed crystal structure. It is well known that crystallographic texture plays an important role in both plastic deformation and macroscopic anisotropy of magnesium alloys. Many authors have concentrated on improving the room- temperature formability of Mg alloys. However, despite having a lot of excellent properties in magnesium alloy, the study for various properties of magnesium alloy have not been clarified enough yet. Mg alloys are known to have a good damping capacity compared to other known metals and their alloys. Also, the damping properties of metals are generally recognized to be dependent on microstructural factors such as grain size and texture. However, there are very few studies on the relationship between the damping capacity and texture of Magnesium alloys. Therefore, in this study, specimens of the AZ31 magnesium alloy, were processed by hot working, and their texture and damping property investigated. A 60 mm × 60 mm × 40 mm rectangular plate was cut out by machining an ingot of AZ31 magnesium alloy (Mg-3Al-1Zn in mass%), and rolling was carried out at 673 K to a rolling reduction of 30%. Then, heat treatment was carried out at temperatures in the range of 573-723 K for durations in the range of 30-180 min. The samples were immediately quenched in oil after heat treatment to prevent any change in the microstructure. Texture was evaluated on the compression planes by the Schulz reflection method using nickel-filtered Cu Kα radiation. Electron backscatter diffraction measurements were conducted to observe the spatial distribution of various orientations. Specimens

  8. Application of YAG Laser TIG Arc Hybrid Welding to Thin AZ31B Magnesium Alloy Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taewon; Kim, Jongcheol; Hasegawa, Yu; Suga, Yasuo

    A magnesium alloy is said to be an ecological material with high ability of recycling and lightweight property. Especially, magnesium alloys are in great demand on account of outstanding material property as a structural material. Under these circumstances, research and development of welding process to join magnesium alloy plates are of great significance for wide industrial application of magnesium. In order to use it as a structure material, the welding technology is very important. TIG arc welding process is the most ordinary process to weld magnesium alloy plates. However, since the heat source by the arc welding process affects the magnesium alloy plates, HAZ of welded joint becomes wide and large distortion often occurs. On the other hand, a laser welding process that has small diameter of heat source seems to be one of the possible means to weld magnesium alloy in view of the qualitative improvement. However, the low boiling point of magnesium generates some weld defects, including porosity and solidification cracking. Furthermore, precise edge preparation is very important in butt-welding by the laser welding process, due to the small laser beam diameter. Laser/arc hybrid welding process that combines the laser beam and the arc is an effective welding process in which these two heat sources influence and assist each other. Using the hybrid welding, a synegistic effect is achievable and the disadvantages of the respective processes can be compensated. In this study, YAG laser/TIG arc hybrid welding of thin magnesium alloy (AZ31B) sheets was investigated. First of all, the effect of the irradiation point and the focal position of laser beam on the quality of a weld were discussed in hybrid welding. Then, it was confirmed that a sound weld bead with sufficient penetration is obtained using appropriate welding conditions. Furthermore, it was made clear that the heat absorption efficiency is improved with the hybrid welding process. Finally, the tensile tests

  9. Degraded and osteogenic properties of coated magnesium alloy AZ31; an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jinpeng; Jing, Yongbin; Wang, Yaming; Zhang, Jinghuai; Xie, Huanxin; Yan, Jinglong

    2016-03-14

    Degraded and osteogenic property of coated magnesium alloy was evaluated for the fracture fixation in rabbits. Magnesium alloy AZ31 with a different coating thickness by microarc oxidation was used, and the bilateral radial fracture model was created by the bite bone clamp. Thirty-six New Zealand white rabbits in weight of 2.5~3.0 kg were randomly divided into A, B, and C groups at four time points and other 3 rabbits as the control group without magnesium alloy. Coated magnesium alloy AZ31 was implanted on the fracture and fixed with silk thread. Indexes such as general observation, histology, X-ray, hematology, and mechanical properties were observed and detected at 2nd, 4th, 8th, and 12th week after implantation. Fracture in each rabbit was healed at 12th week after implantation. Among the three groups, the best results of general observation, histology, and X-ray appeared in A group without coating. However, A group showed the worst results from the perspective of mechanical properties about tensile strength and flexural strength, which failed to reach that of the natural bone at the 12th week. Comprehensive results displayed that C group with 20-μm coating was better than others in mechanical properties, while there is no difference between B and C groups in hematology. Degradation rate is inversely proportional to the coating thickness. And magnesium alloy with a 20-μm coating is more suitable for the fracture fixation.

  10. Biocompatibility enhancement of rare earth magnesium alloy by laser surface processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Shilin; Wang, Yuqing; Liu, Haifeng; Guan, Yingchun

    2018-01-01

    Although magnesium and magnesium alloys are considered biocompatible and biodegradable, insufficient biocompatibility in body fluid environment is still the major drawback of magnesium alloys for their successful applications as biodegradable orthopaedic implants. In this work, magnesium alloy surface with both enhanced corrosion resistance and better cell adhesion property was directly fabricated by laser surface processing. Laser surface melting was used to improve corrosion resistance of Mg-6Gd-0.6Ca alloy. After laser surface melting, laser surface texturing was utilized on melted surface for better cell adhesion property. The corrosion resistance of laser-treated and as-received samples were evaluated using electrochemical technique. The effect of laser surface treatment on phase and microstructure evolution was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. This work investigated the effect of laser treatment on cell distribution across the surface of magnesium alloy substrates. Osteoblast was cultured on the laser-treated surface and as-received surface. Cell morphology was observed with a scanning electron microscopy, and cell viability was evaluated by optical density measurement.

  11. Characterization and Properties of Micro-arc Composite Ceramic Coatings on Magnesium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Long; Jiang, Bailing; Ge, Yanfeng

    2013-05-21

    Magnesium alloys are of growing interest for many industrial applications due to their favorable strength-to-weight ratio and excellent cast ability. However, one of the limiting factors in the use of magnesium on production vehicles is its poor corrosion resistance. Micro-arc Composite Ceramic (MCC) coatings on AZ91D magnesium alloys were prepared in combination with Micro-arc Oxidation (MAO) and electrophoresis technologies. The microstructure, corrosion resistance, abrasion resistance, stone impact resistance, thermal shock resistance and adhesion of MCC coating were studied, respectively. The surface and cross-section morphologies of MAO and MCC coating showed that the outer organic coating filled the holes on themore » surface of the MAO coating. It acted as a shelter on the MAO coating surface when the MCC coatings were exposed to corrosive environments. The corrosion resistance of the MCC coating was characterized by a copper-accelerated acetic acid salt spray test. The testing results showed that the creep back from scribe lines was less than 1mm and completely fit the evaluation standard. The composite structure of the MCC coating vastly improved the corrosion resistance of Mg alloys. According to testing standards, the resistance to abrasion, stone impact resistance, thermal shock resistance and adhesion of MCC coatings completely met the evaluation standard requirements. The MCC coated AZ91D magnesium alloys possessed excellent properties; this is a promising corrosion and wear resistance surface treatment technology on magnesium alloys for production vehicles.« less

  12. Design of experiment (DOE) study of biodegradable magnesium alloy synthesized by mechanical alloying using fractional factorial design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salleh, Emee Marina; Ramakrishnan, Sivakumar; Hussain, Zuhailawati

    2014-06-01

    The biodegradable nature of magnesium (Mg) makes it a most highlighted and attractive to be used as implant materials. However, rapid corrosion rate of Mg alloys especially in electrolytic aqueous environment limits its performance. In this study, Mg alloy was mechanically milled by incorporating manganese (Mn) as alloying element. An attempt was made to study both effect of mechanical alloying and subsequent consolidation processes on the bulk properties of Mg-Mn alloys. 2k-2 factorial design was employed to determine the significant factors in producing Mg alloy which has properties closes to that of human bones. The design considered six factors (i.e. milling time, milling speed, weight percentage of Mn, compaction pressure, sintering temperature and sintering time). Density and hardness were chosen as the responses for assessing the most significant parameters that affected the bulk properties of Mg-Mn alloys. The experimental variables were evaluated using ANOVA and regression model. The main parameter investigated was compaction pressure.

  13. Effect of Solution Treatment on Microstructure and Properties of Gd - AZ91 Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yao; Wang, Huiling

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the Gd-AZ91 alloy was manufactured by adding rare earth element Gd in AZ91 magnesium alloy. The effects of solution treatment on the microstructures of rare earth elements Gd were investigated by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and equipment for testing mechanical properties. The experimental results show that the addition of rare earth element Gd in AZ91 magnesium alloy can refine the alloy grain, turn β-Mg17Al12 phase into a discontinuous network or point structure, and produce granular compound Al2Gd in the alloy; when solution temperature is about 380 °C, the alloy structure is the best, the tensile strength of the alloy is the largest with the value larger than 250Mpa; when the solution temperature exceeds 380 °C, the alloy structure is coarsened and the mechanical properties of the alloy are reduced. With the increase of rare earth element Gd content, the tensile strength of the alloy shows a tendency to increase gradually, which Indicates that the addition of a certain amount of rare earth elements Gd can improve the plasticity of the alloy.

  14. Effects of Zn-In-Sn elements on the electric properties of magnesium alloy anode materials.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhan; Ju, Dongying; Zhao, Hongyang; Hu, Xiaodong

    2011-06-01

    A new magnesium alloy anode is based on an environmentally friendly electrode that contains none of mercury, lead and chromate, but it can enhance the electric properties of alloy significantly. Magnesium alloy adding eco-friendly elements Zn-In-Sn which was developed by orthogonal design were obtained by two casting methods. The effect of additive elements on performance of electrode material was studied. The effects of elements addition and casting method on electric properties and corrosive properties of Mg-Zn-In-Sn alloys were investigated by using electrochemical measurements, corrosive tests and observation of surface structure. The results show that Mg-Zn-In-Sn alloy anode has higher electromotive force and more stable work potential than that commercial magnesium alloy AZ91. It is suitable for anode material of magnesium battery for its small hydrogen evolution, less self-corrosion rate and easy to shed corrosive offspring off. Copyright © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Corrosion Behavior of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy in Three Different Physiological Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Juncen; Li, Qing; Zhang, Haixiao; Chen, Funan

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium alloys have been considered as promising biomedical materials and were studied in different physiological environments. In this work, corrosion behavior of AZ91D magnesium alloy in artificial saliva, simulated body fluid (SBF), and 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution was investigated using electrochemical techniques and a short-term immersion test. In contrast with other physiological environments, the amount of aggressive ions in artificial saliva is small. In addition, a protective film is formed on the surface of samples in artificial saliva. Experimental results suggest that corrosion resistance of AZ91D magnesium alloy in artificial saliva is better than that in c-SBF and 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution.

  16. FE Modelling of Tensile and Impact Behaviours of Squeeze Cast Magnesium Alloy AM60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiCecco, Sante; Altenhof, William; Hu, Henry

    In response to the need for reduced global emissions, the transportation industry has been steadily increasing the magnesium content in vehicles. This trend has resulted in experimental documentation of numerous alloy and casting combinations, while comparatively little work has been done regarding the development of numerical material models for vehicle crashworthiness simulations. In this study, material mechanical behaviour was implemented into an existing material model within the nonlinear FEA code LS-DYNA to emulate the mechanical behaviour of squeeze cast magnesium alloy AM60 with a relatively thick section of 10 mm thickness. Model validation was achieved by comparing the numerical and experimental results of a tensile test and Charpy impact event. Validation found an average absolute error of 5.44% between numerical and experimental tensile test data, whereas a relatively large discrepancy was found during Charpy evaluation. This discrepancy has been attributed to the presence of microstructure inhomogeneity in the squeeze cast magnesium alloy AM60.

  17. The Degradation Interface of Magnesium Based Alloys in Direct Contact with Human Primary Osteoblast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Laipple, Daniel; Luthringer, Bérengère; Feyerabend, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium alloys have been identified as a new generation material of orthopaedic implants. In vitro setups mimicking physiological conditions are promising for material / degradation analysis prior to in vivo studies however the direct influence of cell on the degradation mechanism has never been investigated. For the first time, the direct, active, influence of human primary osteoblasts on magnesium-based materials (pure magnesium, Mg-2Ag and Mg-10Gd alloys) is studied for up to 14 days. Several parameters such as composition of the degradation interface (directly beneath the cells) are analysed with a scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray and focused ion beam. Furthermore, influence of the materials on cell metabolism is examined via different parameters like active mineralisation process. The results are highlighting the influences of the selected alloying element on the initial cells metabolic activity. PMID:27327435

  18. The Degradation Interface of Magnesium Based Alloys in Direct Contact with Human Primary Osteoblast Cells.

    PubMed

    Ahmad Agha, Nezha; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Laipple, Daniel; Luthringer, Bérengère; Feyerabend, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium alloys have been identified as a new generation material of orthopaedic implants. In vitro setups mimicking physiological conditions are promising for material / degradation analysis prior to in vivo studies however the direct influence of cell on the degradation mechanism has never been investigated. For the first time, the direct, active, influence of human primary osteoblasts on magnesium-based materials (pure magnesium, Mg-2Ag and Mg-10Gd alloys) is studied for up to 14 days. Several parameters such as composition of the degradation interface (directly beneath the cells) are analysed with a scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray and focused ion beam. Furthermore, influence of the materials on cell metabolism is examined via different parameters like active mineralisation process. The results are highlighting the influences of the selected alloying element on the initial cells metabolic activity.

  19. Conventional and improved cytotoxicity test methods of newly developed biodegradable magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hyung-Seop; Kim, Hee-Kyoung; Kim, Yu-Chan; Seok, Hyun-Kwang; Kim, Young-Yul

    2015-11-01

    Unique biodegradable property of magnesium has spawned countless studies to develop ideal biodegradable orthopedic implant materials in the last decade. However, due to the rapid pH change and extensive amount of hydrogen gas generated during biocorrosion, it is extremely difficult to determine the accurate cytotoxicity of newly developed magnesium alloys using the existing methods. Herein, we report a new method to accurately determine the cytotoxicity of magnesium alloys with varying corrosion rate while taking in-vivo condition into the consideration. For conventional method, extract quantities of each metal ion were determined using ICP-MS and the result showed that the cytotoxicity due to pH change caused by corrosion affected the cell viability rather than the intrinsic cytotoxicity of magnesium alloy. In physiological environment, pH is regulated and adjusted within normal pH (˜7.4) range by homeostasis. Two new methods using pH buffered extracts were proposed and performed to show that environmental buffering effect of pH, dilution of the extract, and the regulation of eluate surface area must be taken into consideration for accurate cytotoxicity measurement of biodegradable magnesium alloys.

  20. Structure and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Weld Joints of Magnesium Alloy AZ31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasawa, T.; Otsuka, M.; Yokota, T.; Ueki, T.

    The applicability of friction stir welding to hot rolled sheet of commercial magnesium alloy AZ31 plates has been investigated. Friction stir weld joint showed mechanical strength comparable to that of base material, though the ductility remained at one half of that of the latter. The results are consistent with the microstructure which is characterized by a fine grained bond layer bounded by-intermediate grained base metals. It is found that both anodizing treatment and insertion of aluminum foil between batting faces do not degrade the joint properties at all. The results suggest that friction stir welding can be potentially applied to magnesium alloy.

  1. Thermodynamic criteria for the removal of impurities from end-of-life magnesium alloys by evaporation and flux treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraki, Takehito; Takeda, Osamu; Nakajima, Kenichi; Matsubae, Kazuyo; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, the possibility of removing impurities during magnesium recycling with pyrometallurgical techniques has been evaluated by using a thermodynamic analysis. For 25 different elements that are likely to be contained in industrial magnesium alloys, the equilibrium distribution ratios between the metal, slag and gas phases in the magnesium remelting process were calculated assuming binary systems of magnesium and an impurity element. It was found that calcium, gadolinium, lithium, ytterbium and yttrium can be removed from the remelted end-of-life (EoL) magnesium products by oxidization. Calcium, cerium, gadolinium, lanthanum, lithium, plutonium, sodium, strontium and yttrium can be removed by chlorination with a salt flux. However, the other elements contained in magnesium alloy scrap are scarcely removed and this may contribute toward future contamination problems. The third technological option for the recycling of EoL magnesium products is magnesium recovery by a distillation process. Based on thermodynamic considerations, it is predicted that high-purity magnesium can be recovered through distillation because of its high vapor pressure, yet there is a limit on recoverability that depends on the equilibrium vapor pressure of the alloying elements and the large energy consumption. Therefore, the sustainable recycling of EoL magnesium products should be an important consideration in the design of advanced magnesium alloys or the development of new refining processes.

  2. Thermodynamic criteria for the removal of impurities from end-of-life magnesium alloys by evaporation and flux treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hiraki, Takehito; Takeda, Osamu; Nakajima, Kenichi; Matsubae, Kazuyo; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the possibility of removing impurities during magnesium recycling with pyrometallurgical techniques has been evaluated by using a thermodynamic analysis. For 25 different elements that are likely to be contained in industrial magnesium alloys, the equilibrium distribution ratios between the metal, slag and gas phases in the magnesium remelting process were calculated assuming binary systems of magnesium and an impurity element. It was found that calcium, gadolinium, lithium, ytterbium and yttrium can be removed from the remelted end-of-life (EoL) magnesium products by oxidization. Calcium, cerium, gadolinium, lanthanum, lithium, plutonium, sodium, strontium and yttrium can be removed by chlorination with a salt flux. However, the other elements contained in magnesium alloy scrap are scarcely removed and this may contribute toward future contamination problems. The third technological option for the recycling of EoL magnesium products is magnesium recovery by a distillation process. Based on thermodynamic considerations, it is predicted that high-purity magnesium can be recovered through distillation because of its high vapor pressure, yet there is a limit on recoverability that depends on the equilibrium vapor pressure of the alloying elements and the large energy consumption. Therefore, the sustainable recycling of EoL magnesium products should be an important consideration in the design of advanced magnesium alloys or the development of new refining processes. PMID:27877407

  3. Influence of Cobalt on the Properties of Load-Sensitive Magnesium Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Klose, Christian; Demminger, Christian; Mroz, Gregor; Reimche, Wilfried; Bach, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Maier, Hans Jürgen; Kerber, Kai

    2013-01-01

    In this study, magnesium is alloyed with varying amounts of the ferromagnetic alloying element cobalt in order to obtain lightweight load-sensitive materials with sensory properties which allow an online-monitoring of mechanical forces applied to components made from Mg-Co alloys. An optimized casting process with the use of extruded Mg-Co powder rods is utilized which enables the production of magnetic magnesium alloys with a reproducible Co concentration. The efficiency of the casting process is confirmed by SEM analyses. Microstructures and Co-rich precipitations of various Mg-Co alloys are investigated by means of EDS and XRD analyses. The Mg-Co alloys' mechanical strengths are determined by tensile tests. Magnetic properties of the Mg-Co sensor alloys depending on the cobalt content and the acting mechanical load are measured utilizing the harmonic analysis of eddy-current signals. Within the scope of this work, the influence of the element cobalt on magnesium is investigated in detail and an optimal cobalt concentration is defined based on the performed examinations. PMID:23344376

  4. Magnesium

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate . Where can I find out more about ... on food sources of magnesium: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for magnesium ( ...

  5. Evaluation of magnesium ions release, biocorrosion, and hemocompatibility of MAO/PLLA-modified magnesium alloy WE42.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ping; Cao, Lu; Liu, Yin; Xu, Xinhua; Wu, Xiangfeng

    2011-01-01

    Magnesium alloys may potentially be applied as biodegradable metallic materials in cardiovascular stent. However, the high corrosion rate hinders its clinical application. In this study, a new approach was adopted to control the corrosion rate by fabricating a biocompatible micro-arc oxidation/poly-L-lactic acid (MAO/PLLA) composite coating on the magnesium alloy WE42 substrate and the biocompatibility of the modified samples was investigated. The scanning electronic microscope (SEM) images were used to demonstrate the morphology of the samples before and after being submerged in hanks solution for 4 weeks. The degradation was evaluated through the magnesium ions release rate and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) test. The biocompatibility of the samples was demonstrated by coagulation time and hemolysis behavior. The result shows that the poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) effectively improved the corrosion resistance by sealing the microcracks and microholes on the surface of the MAO coating. The modified samples had good compatibility. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A comparison of corrosion inhibition of magnesium aluminum and zinc aluminum vanadate intercalated layered double hydroxides on magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lian; Zhang, Fen; Lu, Jun-Cai; Zeng, Rong-Chang; Li, Shuo-Qi; Song, Liang; Zeng, Jian-Min

    2018-04-01

    The magnesium aluminum and zinc aluminum layered double hydroxides intercalated with NO3 -(MgAl-NO3-LDH and ZnAl-NO3-LDH) were prepared by the coprecipitation method, and the magnesium aluminum and the zinc aluminum layered double hydroxides intercalated with VO x -(MgAl-VO x -LDH and ZnAl-VO x -LDH) were prepared by the anion-exchange method. Morphologies, microstructures and chemical compositions of LDHs were investigated by SEM, EDS, XRD, FTIR, Raman and TG analyses. The immersion tests were carried to determine the corrosion inhibition properties of MgAl-VO x -LDH and ZnAl-VO x -LDH on AZ31 Mg alloys. The results showed that ZnAl-VO x -LDH possesses the best anion-exchange and inhibition abilities. The influence of treatment parameters on microstructures of LDHs were discussed. Additionally, an inhibition mechanism for ZnAl-VO x -LDH on the AZ31 magnesium alloy was proposed and discussed.

  7. Corrosion resistance and cytocompatibility of biodegradable surgical magnesium alloy coated with hydrogenated amorphous silicon.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yunchang; Jiang, Jiang; Huo, Kaifu; Tang, Guoyi; Tian, Xiubo; Chu, Paul K

    2009-06-01

    The fast degradation rates in the physiological environment constitute the main limitation for the applications of surgical magnesium alloys as biodegradable hard-tissue implants. In this work, a stable and dense hydrogenated amorphous silicon coating (a-Si:H) with desirable bioactivity is deposited on AZ91 magnesium alloy using magnetron sputtering deposition. Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reveal that the coating is mainly composed of hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The hardness of the coated alloy is enhanced significantly and the coating is quite hydrophilic as well. Potentiodynamic polarization results show that the corrosion resistance of the coated alloy is enhanced dramatically. In addition, the deterioration process of the coating in simulated body fluids is systematically investigated by open circuit potential evolution and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The cytocompatibility of the coated Mg is evaluated for the first time using hFOB1.19 cells and favorable biocompatibility is observed. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Calcium phosphate coating on magnesium alloy for modification of degradation behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Fu-zhai; Yang, Jing-xin; Jiao, Yan-peng; Yin, Qing-shui; Zhang, Yu; Lee, In-Seop

    2008-06-01

    Magnesium alloy has similar mechanical properties with natural bone, but its high susceptibility to corrosion has limited its application in orthopedics. In this study, a calcium phosphate coating is formed on magnesium alloy (AZ31) to control its degradation rate and enhance its bioactivity and bone inductivity. Samples of AZ31 plate were placed in the supersaturated calcification solution prepared with Ca(NO3)2, NaH2PO4 and NaHCO3, then the calcium phosphate coating formed. Through adjusting the immersion time, the thickness of uniform coatings can be changed from 10 to 20 μm. The composition, phase structure and morphology of the coatings were investigated. Bonding strength of the coatings and substrate was 2-4 MPa in this study. The coatings significantly decrease degradation rate of the original Mg alloy, indicating that the Mg alloy with calcium phosphate coating is a promising degradable bone material.

  9. Study on the blood compatibility and biodegradation properties of magnesium alloys.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Akira; Kaneda, Hideki

    2015-02-01

    Lately, several magnesium alloys have been investigated as a new class of biomaterials owing to their excellent biodegradability in living tissues. In this study, we considered AZ series of Mg alloy containing aluminum (3% to 9%) and zinc (1%) as a model magnesium alloy, and investigated their biodegradation in whole blood and blood compatibility in vitro. The results of the elution property of metal ions determined using chromogenic assay and the associated pH change show that the degradation resistance of the AZ series alloys in blood is improved by alloying aluminum. Furthermore, the blood compatibility of the alloys was investigated in terms of their hemolysis, factor Xa-like activity, using spectrophotometry and chromogenic assay, respectively, and coagulation time measurements (prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time). The results indicated that the blood compatibility of the AZ series alloys is excellent, irrespective of the alloy composition. The excellent blood compatibility with the coagulation system could be attributed to the eluted Mg(2+) ion, which suppresses the activation of certain coagulation factors in the intrinsic and/or extrinsic coagulation pathways. In terms of the degradation resistance of the AZ series alloys in blood, the results of pH change in blood and the amount of the eluted metal ions indicate that the performance is markedly improved with an increase in aluminum content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Textural states of a hot-worked MA2-1 magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serebryany, V. N.; Kochubei, A. Ya.; Kurtasov, S. F.; Mel'Nikov, K. E.

    2007-02-01

    Quantitative texture analysis is used to study texture formation in an MA2-1 magnesium alloy subjected to axisymmetric upsetting at temperatures of 250-450°C and strain rates of 10-4-100 -1. The deformed structure is examined by optical microscopy, and the results obtained are used to plot the structural-state diagram of the alloy after 50% upsetting. The experimental textures are compared with the textures calculated in terms of a thermoactivation model.

  11. Influence of aggressive ions on the degradation behavior of biomedical magnesium alloy in physiological environment.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yunchang; Huo, Kaifu; Tao, Hu; Tang, Guoyi; Chu, Paul K

    2008-11-01

    Various electrochemical approaches, including potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential evolution and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), are employed to investigate the degradation behavior of biomedical magnesium alloy under the influence of aggressive ions, such as chloride, phosphate, carbonate and sulfate, in a physiological environment. The synergetic effects and mutual influence of these ions on the degradation behavior of Mg are revealed. Our results demonstrate that chloride ions can induce porous pitting corrosion. In the presence of phosphates, the corrosion rate decreases and the formation of pitting corrosion is significantly delayed due to precipitation of magnesium phosphate. Hydrogen carbonate ions are observed to stimulate the corrosion of magnesium alloy during the early immersion stage but they can also induce rapid passivation on the surface. This surface passivation behavior mainly results from the fast precipitation of magnesium carbonate in the corrosion product layer that can subsequently inhibit pitting corrosion completely. Sulfate ions are also found to stimulate magnesium dissolution. These results improve our understanding on the degradation mechanism of surgical magnesium in the physiological environment.

  12. Preparation of Si-containing oxide coating and biomimetic apatite induction on magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Huijun; Dong, Qing; Dou, Jinhe; Pan, Yaokun; Chen, Chuanzhong

    2016-12-01

    Magnesium and its alloys are recently found important in the field of bone repairing for their ideal mechanical performance and excellent biocompatibility. Micro-arc oxidation (MAO) is a simple, controllable and efficient electrochemistry method that can prepare protective ceramic coatings on magnesium alloys. The properties of the MAO coating, such as thickness, microstructure, roughness and composition, can easily be controlled by adjusting the voltage, current density, duration or the electrolyte concentration. In this work, MAO coatings are prepared on ZK61 magnesium alloy at different voltages. The structure characteristics and element distributions of the coating are investigated by XRD, TEM, SEM and EPMA. The MAO samples are immersed in SBF for 7, 14 and 28 days respectively. The corrosion behaviors of the samples in SBF were also investigated by potentiodynamic polarization curves. The corrosion products were characterized by EDS and FT-IR. The MAO coated ZK61 alloy samples showed excellent corrosion resistance and bioactivity. The MAO method demonstrates a great potential in the preparation of degradable and bioactive orthopedic magnesium-based implants.

  13. Applications of Computer Simulation Methods in Plastic Forming Technologies for Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. H.; Zheng, W. T.; Shang, Y. L.; Wu, X.; Palumbo, G.; Tricarico, L.

    2007-05-01

    Applications of computer simulation methods in plastic forming of magnesium alloy parts are discussed. As magnesium alloys possess very poor plastic formability at room temperature, various methods have been tried to improve the formability, for example, suitable rolling process and annealing procedures should be found to produce qualified magnesium alloy sheets, which have the reduced anisotropy and improved formability. The blank can be heated to a warm temperature or a hot temperature; a suitable temperature field is designed, tools should be heated or the punch should be cooled; suitable deformation speed should be found to ensure suitable strain rate range. Damage theory considering non-isothermal forming is established. Various modeling methods have been tried to consider above situations. The following situations for modeling the forming process of magnesium alloy sheets and tubes are dealt with: (1) modeling for predicting wrinkling and anisotropy of sheet warm forming; (2) damage theory used for predicting ruptures in sheet warm forming; (3) modeling for optimizing of blank shape and dimensions for sheet warm forming; (4) modeling in non-steady-state creep in hot metal gas forming of AZ31 tubes.

  14. Development of a Ballistic Specification for Magnesium Alloy AZ31B

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) June 2007– July 2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Development of a Ballistic Specification for Magnesium Alloy...SEAMAN D SHOCKEY 333 RAVENSWOOD AVE MENLO PARK CA 94025 6 RMI TITANIUM CO J BENNETT E CHRIST F JANOWSKI W PALLANTE S ROBERTSON

  15. Structure-property relations and modeling of small crack fatigue behavior of various magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Jairus Daniel

    Lightweight structural components are important to the automotive and aerospace industries so that better fuel economy can be realized. Magnesium alloys in particular are being examined to fulfill this need due to their attractive stiffness- and strength-to-weight ratios when compared to other materials. However, when introducing a material into new roles, one needs to properly characterize its mechanical properties. Fatigue behavior is especially important considering aerospace and automotive component applications. Therefore, quantifying the structure-property relationships and accurately predicting the fatigue behavior for these materials are vital. This study has two purposes. The first is to quantify the structure-property relationships for the fatigue behavior in an AM30 magnesium alloy. The second is to use the microstructural-based MultiStage Fatigue (MSF) model in order to accurately predict the fatigue behavior of three magnesium alloys: AM30, Elektron 21, and AZ61. While some studies have previously quantified the MSF material constants for several magnesium alloys, detailed research into the fatigue regimes, notably the microstructurally small crack (MSC) region, is lacking. Hence, the contribution of this work is the first of its kind to experimentally quantify the fatigue crack incubation and MSC regimes that are used for the MultiStage Fatigue model. Using a multi-faceted experimental approach, these regimes were explored with a replica method that used a dual-stage silicone based compound along with previously published in situ fatigue tests. These observations were used in calibrating the MultiStage Fatigue model.

  16. Hot forging of roll-cast high aluminum content magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishi, Tomohiro; Watari, Hisaki; Suzuki, Mayumi; Haga, Toshio

    2017-10-01

    This paper reports on hot forging of high aluminum content magnesium alloy sheets manufactured using horizontal twin-roll casting. AZ111 and AZ131 were applied for twin-roll casting, and a hot-forging test was performed to manufacture high-strength magnesium alloy components economically. For twin-roll casting, the casting conditions of a thick sheet for hot forging were investigated. It was found that twin-roll casting of a 10mm-thick magnesium alloy sheet was possible at a roll speed of 2.5m/min. The grain size of the cast strip was 50 to 70µm. In the hot-forging test, blank material was obtained from as-cast strip. A servo press machine with a servo die cushion was used to investigate appropriate forging conditions (e.g., temperature, forging load, and back pressure) for twin-roll casts (TRCs) AZ111 and AZ131. It was determined that high aluminum content magnesium alloy sheets manufactured using twin-roll casting could be forged with a forging load of 150t and a back pressure of 3t at 420 to 430°C. Applying back pressure during hot forging effectively forged a pin-shaped product.

  17. Anisotropy and Asymmetry of Yield in Magnesium Alloys at Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson, Joseph

    2014-10-01

    Mechanical anisotropy and asymmetry are often pronounced in wrought magnesium alloys and are detrimental to formability and service performance. Single crystals of magnesium are highly anisotropic due to the large difference in critical resolved shear stress between the softest and hardest deformation modes. Polycrystalline magnesium alloys exhibit lower anisotropy, influenced by texture, solute level, and precipitates. In this work, a fundamental study of the effects of alloying, precipitate formation, and texture on the change in anisotropy and asymmetry from the pure magnesium single crystal case to polycrystalline alloys has been performed. It is demonstrated that much of the reduction in anisotropy and asymmetry arises from overall strengthening as solute, precipitates, and grain boundary effects are accounted for. Precipitates are predicted to be more effective than solute in reducing anisotropy and asymmetry, but shape and habit are critical since precipitates produce highly anisotropic strengthening. A small deviation from an ideal basal texture (15 deg spread) has a very strong effect in reducing anisotropy and asymmetry, similar in magnitude to the maximum effect produced by precipitation. Elasto-plastic modeling suggests that this is due to a contribution from basal slip to initial plastic deformation, even when global yield is not controlled by this mode.

  18. Study on Thermal Conductivity of Personal Computer Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy Casing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, MeiHong

    With the rapid development of computer technology, micro-state atoms by simulating the movement of material to analyze the nature of the macro-state have become an important subject. Materials, especially aluminium-magnesium alloy materials, often used in personal computer case, this article puts forward heat conduction model of the material, and numerical methods of heat transfer performance of the material.

  19. Modeling of microstructure evolution of magnesium alloy during the high pressure die casting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Mengwu; Xiong, Shoumei

    2012-07-01

    Two important microstructure characteristics of high pressure die cast magnesium alloy are the externally solidified crystals (ESCs) and the fully divorced eutectic which form at the filling stage of the shot sleeve and at the last stage of solidification in the die cavity, respectively. Both of them have a significant influence on the mechanical properties and performance of magnesium alloy die castings. In the present paper, a numerical model based on the cellular automaton (CA) method was developed to simulate the microstructure evolution of magnesium alloy during cold-chamber high pressure die casting (HPDC) process. Modeling of dendritic growth of magnesium alloy with six-fold symmetry was achieved by defining a special neighbourhood configuration and calculating of the growth kinetics from complete solution of the transport equations. Special attention was paid to establish a nucleation model considering both of the nucleation of externally solidified crystals in the shot sleeve and the massive nucleation in the die cavity. Meanwhile, simulation of the formation of fully divorced eutectic was also taken into account in the present CA model. Validation was performed and the capability of the present model was addressed by comparing the simulated results with those obtained by experiments.

  20. Ballistic Analysis of New Military Grade Magnesium Alloys for Armor Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Tyrone L.; Kondoh, Katsuyoshi

    Since 2006, the U.S. Army has been evaluating magnesium (Mg) alloys for ballistic structural applications. While Mg-alloys have been used in military structural applications since WWII, very little research has been done to improve its mediocre ballistic performance. The Army's need for ultra-lightweight armor systems has led to research and development of high strength, high ductility Mg-alloys. The U.S. Army Research Laboratory contracted through International Technology Center-Pacific Contract Number FA-5209-09-P-0158 with the Joining and Welding Research Instituteof Osaka University to develop the next generation of high strength, high ductility Mg-alloys using a novel Spinning Water Atomization Process for rapid solidification. New alloys AMX602 and ZAXE1711 in extruded bar form were characterized for microstructure, mechanical, and ballistic response. Significant increases in ballistic performance were evident when compared to the baseline alloy AZ31B.

  1. High-Throughput Study of Diffusion and Phase Transformation Kinetics of Magnesium-Based Systems for Automotive Cast Magnesium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Alan A; Zhao, Ji-Cheng; Riggi, Adrienne

    The objective of the proposed study is to establish a scientific foundation on kinetic modeling of diffusion, phase precipitation, and casting/solidification, in order to accelerate the design and optimization of cast magnesium (Mg) alloys for weight reduction of U.S. automotive fleet. The team has performed the following tasks: 1) study diffusion kinetics of various Mg-containing binary systems using high-throughput diffusion multiples to establish reliable diffusivity and mobility databases for the Mg-aluminum (Al)-zinc (Zn)-tin (Sn)-calcium (Ca)-strontium (Sr)-manganese (Mn) systems; 2) study the precipitation kinetics (nucleation, growth and coarsening) using both innovative dual-anneal diffusion multiples and cast model alloys to provide largemore » amounts of kinetic data (including interfacial energy) and microstructure atlases to enable implementation of the Kampmann-Wagner numerical model to simulate phase transformation kinetics of non-spherical/non-cuboidal precipitates in Mg alloys; 3) implement a micromodel to take into account back diffusion in the solid phase in order to predict microstructure and microsegregation in multicomponent Mg alloys during dendritic solidification especially under high pressure die-casting (HPDC) conditions; and, 4) widely disseminate the data, knowledge and information using the Materials Genome Initiative infrastructure (http://www.mgidata.org) as well as publications and digital data sharing to enable researchers to identify new pathways/routes to better cast Mg alloys.« less

  2. Effect of Iron Impurity on the Phase Composition, Structure and Properties of Magnesium Alloys Containing Manganese and Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkova, E. F.

    2017-07-01

    Results of a study of the interaction between iron impurity and manganese and aluminum alloying elements during formation of phase composition in alloys of the Mg - Mn, Mg - Al, Mg - Al - Mn, and Mg - Al - Zn - Mn systems are presented. It is proved that this interaction results in introduction of Fe into the intermetallic phase. The phase compositions of model magnesium alloys and commercial alloys MA2-1 and MA5 are studied. It is shown that both manganese and aluminum may bind the iron impurity into phases. Composite Fe-containing intermetallic phases of different compositions influence differently the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys.

  3. Biomimetic hydrophobic surface fabricated by chemical etching method from hierarchically structured magnesium alloy substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Yin, Xiaoming; Zhang, Jijia; Wang, Yaming; Han, Zhiwu; Ren, Luquan

    2013-09-01

    As one of the lightest metal materials, magnesium alloy plays an important role in industry such as automobile, airplane and electronic product. However, magnesium alloy is hindered due to its high chemical activity and easily corroded. Here, inspired by typical plant surfaces such as lotus leaves and petals of red rose with super-hydrophobic character, the new hydrophobic surface is fabricated on magnesium alloy to improve anti-corrosion by two-step methodology. The procedure is that the samples are processed by laser first and then immersed and etched in the aqueous AgNO3 solution concentrations of 0.1 mol/L, 0.3 mol/L and 0.5 mol/L for different times of 15 s, 40 s and 60 s, respectively, finally modified by DTS (CH3(CH2)11Si(OCH3)3). The microstructure, chemical composition, wettability and anti-corrosion are characterized by means of SEM, XPS, water contact angle measurement and electrochemical method. The hydrophobic surfaces with microscale crater-like and nanoscale flower-like binary structure are obtained. The low-energy material is contained in surface after DTS treatment. The contact angles could reach up to 138.4 ± 2°, which hydrophobic property is both related to the micro-nano binary structure and chemical composition. The results of electrochemical measurements show that anti-corrosion property of magnesium alloy is improved. Furthermore, our research is expected to create some ideas from natural enlightenment to improve anti-corrosion property of magnesium alloy while this method can be easily extended to other metal materials.

  4. The microstructure of the surface layer of magnesium laser alloyed with aluminum and silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Dziadoń, Andrzej

    2016-08-15

    The surface layer under analysis was formed as a result of diffusion bonding of a thin AlSi20 plate to a magnesium substrate followed by laser melting. Depending on the process parameters, the laser beam melted the AlSi20 plate only or the AlSi20 plate and a layer of the magnesium surface adjacent to it. Two types of microstructure of the remelted layer were thus analyzed. If the melting zone was limited to the AlSi20 plate, the microstructure of the surface layer was typical of a rapidly solidified hypereutectic Al–Si alloy. Since, however, the liquid AlSi20 reacted with the magnesium substrate, themore » following intermetallic phases formed: Al{sub 3}Mg{sub 2}, Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} and Mg{sub 2}Si. The microstructure of the modified surface layer of magnesium was examined using optical, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. The analysis of the surface properties of the laser modified magnesium revealed that the thin layer has a microstructure of a rapidly solidified Al–Si alloy offering good protection against corrosion. By contrast, the surface layer containing particles of intermetallic phases was more resistant to abrasion but had lower corrosion resistance than the silumin type layer. - Highlights: •A CO{sub 2} laser was used for surface alloying of Mg with AlSi20. •Before alloying, an AlSi20 plate was diffusion bonded with the Mg substrate. •The process parameters affected the alloyed layer microstructure and properties. •With melting limited to AlSi20, the layer had a structure of rapidly solidified AlSi20. •Mg–Al and Mg–Si phases were present when both the substrate and the plate were melted.« less

  5. Appropriate Mechanochemical Conditions for Corrosion-Fatigue Testing of Magnesium Alloys for Temporary Bioimplant Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harandi, Shervin Eslami; Singh Raman, R. K.

    2015-05-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys possess great potential as bioimplants. A temporary implant employed as support for the repair of a fractured bone must possess sufficient strength to maintain their mechanical integrity for the required duration of healing. However, Mg alloys are susceptible to sudden cracking or fracture under the simultaneous action of cyclic loading and the corrosive physiological environment, i.e., corrosion fatigue (CF). Investigations of such fracture should be performed under appropriate mechanochemical conditions that appropriately simulate the actual human body conditions. This article reviews the existing knowledge on CF of Mg alloys in simulated body fluid and describes a relatively more accurate testing procedure developed in the authors' laboratory.

  6. Study on the corrosion resistance and anti-infection of modified magnesium alloy.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ningning; Tan, Cui; Li, Qing; Xi, Zhongxian

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a low-cost and multifunctional hydroxyapatite (HA)/pefloxacin (PFLX) drug eluting layer is coated on magnesium (Mg) alloy through a simple hydrothermal and dip process. The drug PFLX could provide effective prevention for bone infection and inflammation due to its broad-spectrum antibacterial property. And HA would promote the growth of new bone and further improve the biocompatibility of implants. Besides, both PFLX and HA exhibits excellent corrosion protection for Mg alloy substrate. This coating is of great value for improving the application of Mg alloy as biomaterials.

  7. Research activities of biomedical magnesium alloys in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yufeng; Gu, Xuenan

    2011-04-01

    The potential application of Mg alloys as bioabsorable/biodegradable implants have attracted much recent attention in China. Advances in the design and biocompatibility evaluation of bio-Mg alloys in China are reviewed in this paper. Bio-Mg alloys have been developed by alloying with the trace elements existing in human body, such as Mg-Ca, Mg-Zn and Mg-Si based systems. Additionally, novel structured Mg alloys such as porous, composited, nanocrystalline and bulk metallic glass alloys were tried. To control the biocorrosion rate of bio-Mg implant to match the self-healing/regeneration rate of the surrounding tissue in vivo, surface modification layers were coated with physical and chemical methods.

  8. Improving the Corrosion Resistance of Biodegradable Magnesium Alloys by Diffusion Coating Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Galit Katarivas; Aghion, Eli

    Magnesium alloys suffer from accelerated corrosion in physiological environment and hence their use as a structural material for biodegradable implants is limited. The present study focuses on a diffusion coating treatment that amplifies the beneficial effect of Neodymium on the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys. The diffusion coating layer was obtained by applying 1 µm Nd coating on EW10X04 magnesium alloy using Electron-gun evaporator and PVD process. The coated alloy was heat treated at 350°C for 3 hours in a protective atmosphere of N2+0.2%SF6. The micro structure characteristics were evaluated by SEM, XRD, and XPS; the corrosion resistance was examined by potentiodynamic polarization and EIS analysis. The corrosion resistance of the diffusion coated alloy was significantly improved compared to the uncoated material. This was related to: (i) formation of Nd2O3 in the outer scale, (ii) integration of Nd in the MgO oxide layer, and (iii) formation of secondary phase Mg41Nd5 along the grain boundaries of α-Mg.

  9. Correlation between crystallographic anisotropy and dendritic orientation selection of binary magnesium alloys.

    PubMed

    Du, Jinglian; Guo, Zhipeng; Zhang, Ang; Yang, Manhong; Li, Mei; Xiong, Shoumei

    2017-10-19

    Both synchrotron X-ray tomography and EBSD characterization revealed that the preferred growth directions of magnesium alloy dendrite change as the type and amount of solute elements. Such growth behavior was further investigated by evaluating the orientation-dependent surface energy and the subsequent crystallographic anisotropy via ab-initio calculations based on density functional theory and hcp lattice structure. It was found that for most binary magnesium alloys, the preferred growth direction of the α-Mg dendrite in the basal plane is always [Formula: see text], and independent on either the type or concentration of the additional elements. In non-basal planes, however, the preferred growth direction is highly dependent on the solute concentration. In particular, for Mg-Al alloys, this direction changes from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] as the Al-concentration increased, and for Mg-Zn alloys, this direction changes from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text] as the Zn-content varied. Our results provide a better understanding on the dendritic orientation selection and morphology transition of magnesium alloys at the atomic level.

  10. An integrated approach to model strain localization bands in magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxevanakis, K. P.; Mo, C.; Cabal, M.; Kontsos, A.

    2018-02-01

    Strain localization bands (SLBs) that appear at early stages of deformation of magnesium alloys have been recently associated with heterogeneous activation of deformation twinning. Experimental evidence has demonstrated that such "Lüders-type" band formations dominate the overall mechanical behavior of these alloys resulting in sigmoidal type stress-strain curves with a distinct plateau followed by pronounced anisotropic hardening. To evaluate the role of SLB formation on the local and global mechanical behavior of magnesium alloys, an integrated experimental/computational approach is presented. The computational part is developed based on custom subroutines implemented in a finite element method that combine a plasticity model with a stiffness degradation approach. Specific inputs from the characterization and testing measurements to the computational approach are discussed while the numerical results are validated against such available experimental information, confirming the existence of load drops and the intensification of strain accumulation at the time of SLB initiation.

  11. Development of Thin-Walled Magnesium Alloy Extrusions for Improved Crash Performance Based Upon Texture Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Bruce W.; Agnew, Sean R.; Klein, Robert W.; McKinley, Jonathan

    Recent investigations suggest that it is possible to achieve dramatic modifications to both strength and ductility of magnesium alloys through a combination of alloying, grain refinement, and texture control. The current work explores the possibility of altering the texture in extruded thin-walled magnesium alloy tubes for improved ductility during axial crush in which energy is absorbed through progressive buckling. The texture evolution was predicted using the viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) crystal plasticity model, with strain path input from continuum-based finite element simulations of extrusion. A limited diversity of textures can be induced by altering the strain path through the extrusion die design. In some cases, such as for simple bar extrusion, the textures predicted can be connected with simple shape change. In other cases, a subtle influence of strain path involving shear-reverse-shear is predicted. The most promising textures predicted for a variety of strain paths are selected for subsequent experimental study.

  12. Opportunities and challenges for the biodegradable magnesium alloys as next-generation biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Wenjiang

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, biodegradable magnesium alloys emerge as a new class of biomaterials for tissue engineering and medical devices. Deploying biodegradable magnesium-based materials not only avoids a second surgical intervention for implant removal but also circumvents the long-term foreign body effect of permanent implants. However, these materials are often subjected to an uncontrolled and fast degradation, acute toxic responses and rapid structural failure presumably due to a localized, too rapid corrosion process. The patented Mg–Nd–Zn–based alloys (JiaoDa BioMg [JDBM]) have been developed in Shanghai Jiao Tong University in recent years. The alloy series exhibit lower biodegradation rate and homogeneous nanophasic degradation patterns as compared with other biodegradable Mg alloys. The in vitro cytotoxicity tests using various types of cells indicate excellent biocompatibility of JDBM. Finally, bone implants using JDBM-1 alloy and cardiovascular stents using JDBM-2 alloy have been successfully fabricated and in vivo long-term assessment via implantation in animal model have been performed. The results confirmed the reduced degradation rate in vivo, excellent tissue compatibility and long-term structural and mechanical durability. Thus, this novel Mg-alloy series with highly uniform nanophasic biodegradation represent a major breakthrough in the field and a promising candidate for manufacturing the next generation biodegradable implants. PMID:27047673

  13. Microstructure and Corrosion Characterization of Squeeze Cast AM50 Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachdeva, Deepika; Tiwari, Shashank; Sundarraj, Suresh; Luo, Alan A.

    2010-12-01

    Squeeze casting of magnesium alloys potentially can be used in lightweight chassis components such as control arms and knuckles. This study documents the microstructural analysis and corrosion behavior of AM50 alloys squeeze cast at different pressures between 40 and 120 MPa and compares them with high-pressure die cast (HPDC) AM50 alloy castings and an AM50 squeeze cast prototype control arm. Although the corrosion rates of the squeeze cast samples are slightly higher than those observed for the HPDC AM50 alloy, the former does produce virtually porosity-free castings that are required for structural applications like control arms and wheels. This outcome is extremely encouraging as it provides an opportunity for additional alloy and process development by squeeze casting that has remained relatively unexplored for magnesium alloys compared with aluminum. Among the microstructural parameters analyzed, it seems that the β-phase interfacial area, indicating a greater degree of β network, leads to a lower corrosion rate. Weight loss was the better method for determining corrosion behavior in these alloys that contain a large fraction of second phase, which can cause perturbations to an overall uniform surface corrosion behavior.

  14. Study on microstructure and strengthening mechanism of AZ91-Y magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Huisheng; Guo, Feng; Su, Juan; Liu, Liang; Chen, Baodong

    2018-03-01

    AZ91-Y magnesium alloy with different thicknesses were prepared by die casting process. The main existence forms of Y in alloy and the effects of Y on microstructure and mechanical properties of alloy were studied, the main reason for the change of mechanical properties and fracture mechanism were analyzed. The results show that, yttrium exists mainly in the forms of Al2Y phase and trace solid solution in α-Mg. Yttrium can refine the grain of α-Mg, reduce the amount of eutectic β-Mg17Al12 phase and promote its discrete distribution. The room temperature tensile strength and elongation of alloy increased first and then decreased with the increase of Y content. The designed alloys containing 0.6% Y (measured containing 0.63% Y) have better mechanical properties. The change of mechanical properties of alloy is a comprehensive reflection of the effect of solid solution, grain refinement and second phase. The cracking of Al2Y phase and β-Mg17Al12 phase and crack propagation through Al2Y phase and β-Mg17Al12 phase are the main fracture mechanism of magnesium alloy containing yttrium. The cooling rate does not change the trend of the influence of Y, but affects the degree of influence of Y.

  15. A feasibility study of using biodegradable magnesium alloy in glaucoma drainage device

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang-Ji; Xie, Lin; Pan, Fu-Sheng; Wang, Yong; Liu, Hong; Tang, Yu-Rong; Hutnik, Cindy ML

    2018-01-01

    Technological advances in glaucoma have challenged the traditional treatment paradigm. Historically incisional surgery has been used in cases of advanced disease and/or uncontrolled intraocular pressures resistant to medical or laser interventions. More recently, perhaps due to advancements in imaging, surgery has been suggested to be beneficial earlier in the treatment paradigm. Despite these trends, surgical manipulation of the tissues and unpredictability of wound healing continue to result in surgical failure. Magnesium is an essential element for human body and plays a critically important role in maintaining the functional and structural integrity of several tissues, including the eye. Due to several of its advantageous properties such as non-toxicity, biodegradability, and high biological compatibility, magnesium alloy has attracted great attention as a novel biomaterial. Biodegradable cardiovascular stents made of magnesium alloy have already been introduced into clinical practice. The purpose of this review is to determine if bioabsorbable magnesium alloys can be utilized as a promising candidate for the development of a new generation of glaucoma surgical assistive devices. PMID:29376002

  16. Al₂O₃ Coatings on Magnesium Alloy Deposited by the Fluidized Bed (FB) Technique.

    PubMed

    Baiocco, Gabriele; Rubino, Gianluca; Tagliaferri, Vincenzo; Ucciardello, Nadia

    2018-01-09

    Magnesium alloys are widely employed in several industrial domains for their outstanding properties. They have a high strength-weight ratio, with a density that is lower than aluminum (33% less), and feature good thermal properties, dimensional stability, and damping characteristics. However, they are vulnerable to oxidation and erosion-corrosion phenomena when applied in harsh service conditions. To avoid the degradation of magnesium, several coating methods have been presented in the literature; however, all of them deal with drawbacks that limit their application in an industrial environment, such as environmental pollution, toxicity of the coating materials, and high cost of the necessary machinery. In this work, a plating of Al₂O₃ film on a magnesium alloy realized by the fluidized bed (FB) technique and using alumina powder is proposed. The film growth obtained through this cold deposition process is analyzed, investigating the morphology as well as tribological and mechanical features and corrosion behavior of the plated samples. The resulting Al₂O₃ coatings show consistent improvement of the tribological and anti-corrosive performance of the magnesium alloy.

  17. Al2O3 Coatings on Magnesium Alloy Deposited by the Fluidized Bed (FB) Technique

    PubMed Central

    Rubino, Gianluca; Ucciardello, Nadia

    2018-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are widely employed in several industrial domains for their outstanding properties. They have a high strength-weight ratio, with a density that is lower than aluminum (33% less), and feature good thermal properties, dimensional stability, and damping characteristics. However, they are vulnerable to oxidation and erosion-corrosion phenomena when applied in harsh service conditions. To avoid the degradation of magnesium, several coating methods have been presented in the literature; however, all of them deal with drawbacks that limit their application in an industrial environment, such as environmental pollution, toxicity of the coating materials, and high cost of the necessary machinery. In this work, a plating of Al2O3 film on a magnesium alloy realized by the fluidized bed (FB) technique and using alumina powder is proposed. The film growth obtained through this cold deposition process is analyzed, investigating the morphology as well as tribological and mechanical features and corrosion behavior of the plated samples. The resulting Al2O3 coatings show consistent improvement of the tribological and anti-corrosive performance of the magnesium alloy. PMID:29315222

  18. Phase composition and corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, G. I.

    2008-03-01

    The effects of phase composition of castable experimental and commercial alloys based on the Mg-Al, Mg-Al-Mn, Mg-Al-Zn-Mn, and Mg-Zn-Zr systems and of the form of existence of iron and hydrogen admixtures on the rate of corrosion of the alloys in 3% solution of NaCl are studied. The roles of heat treatment in the processes of hydrogen charging and phase formation in alloy ML5pch and of hydrogen in the process of formation of zirconium hydrides and zinc zirconides in alloys of the Mg-Zn-Zr system and their effect on the corrosion and mechanical properties of alloy ML12 are discussed.

  19. Fabrication of a Delaying Biodegradable Magnesium Alloy-Based Esophageal Stent via Coating Elastic Polymer

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Tianwen; Yu, Jia; Cao, Jun; Gao, Fei; Zhu, Yueqi; Cheng, Yingsheng; Cui, Wenguo

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal stent implantation can relieve esophageal stenosis and obstructions in benign esophageal strictures, and magnesium alloy stents are a good candidate because of biodegradation and biological safety. However, biodegradable esophageal stents show a poor corrosion resistance and a quick loss of mechanical support in vivo. In this study, we chose the elastic and biodegradable mixed polymer of Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) as the coated membrane on magnesium alloy stents for fabricating a fully biodegradable esophageal stent, which showed an ability to delay the degradation time and maintain mechanical performance in the long term. After 48 repeated compressions, the mechanical testing demonstrated that the PCL-PTMC-coated magnesium stents possess good flexibility and elasticity, and could provide enough support against lesion compression when used in vivo. According to the in vitro degradation evaluation, the PCL-PTMC membrane coated on magnesium was a good material combination for biodegradable stents. During the in vivo evaluation, the proliferation of the smooth muscle cells showed no signs of cell toxicity. Histological examination revealed the inflammation scores at four weeks in the magnesium-(PCL-PTMC) stent group were similar to those in the control group (p > 0.05). The α-smooth muscle actin layer in the media was thinner in the magnesium-(PCL-PTMC) stent group than in the control group (p < 0.05). Both the epithelial and smooth muscle cell layers were significantly thinner in the magnesium-(PCL-PTMC) stent group than in the control group. The stent insertion was feasible and provided reliable support for at least four weeks, without causing severe injury or collagen deposition. Thus, this stent provides a new stent for the treatment of benign esophageal stricture and a novel research path in the development of temporary stents in other cases of benign stricture. PMID:28773505

  20. A fundamental study on the structural integrity of magnesium alloys joined by friction stir welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Harish Mangebettu

    The goal of this research is to study the factors that influence the physical and mechanical properties of lap-shear joints produced using friction stir welding. This study focuses on understanding the effect of tool geometry and weld process parameters including the tool rotation rate, tool plunge depth and dwell time on the mechanical performance of similar magnesium alloy and dissimilar magnesium to aluminum alloy weld joints. A variety of experimental activities were conducted including tensile and fatigue testing, fracture surface and failure analysis, microstructure characterization, hardness measurements and chemical composition analysis. An investigation on the effect of weld process conditions in friction stir spot welding of magnesium to magnesium produced in a manner that had a large effective sheet thickness and smaller interfacial hook height exhibited superior weld strength. Furthermore, in fatigue testing of friction stir spot welded of magnesium to magnesium alloy, lap-shear welds produced using a triangular tool pin profile exhibited better fatigue life properties compared to lap-shear welds produced using a cylindrical tool pin profile. In friction stir spot welding of dissimilar magnesium to aluminum, formation of intermetallic compounds in the stir zone of the weld had a dominant effect on the weld strength. Lap-shear dissimilar welds with good material mixture and discontinues intermetallic compounds in the stir zone exhibited superior weld strength compared to lap-shear dissimilar welds with continuous formation of intermetallic compounds in the stir zone. The weld structural geometry like the interfacial hook, hook orientation and bond width also played a major role in influencing the weld strength of the dissimilar lap-shear friction stir spot welds. A wide scatter in fatigue test results was observed in friction stir linear welds of aluminum to magnesium alloys. Different modes of failure were observed under fatigue loading including crack

  1. Bio-Corrosion of Magnesium Alloys for Orthopaedic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Emily K.; Ehrensberger, Mark T.

    2017-01-01

    Three Mg alloys, Mg–1.34% Ca–3% Zn (MCZ), Mg–1.34% Ca–3% Zn–0.2% Sr (MCZS), and Mg–2% Sr (MS), were examined to understand their bio-corrosion behavior. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and polarization scans were performed after 6 days of immersion in cell culture medium, and ion release and changes in media pH were tracked over a 28 day time period. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of alloy microstructure was performed to help interpret the results of the electrochemical testing. Results indicate that corrosion resistance of the alloys is as follows: MCZ > MCZS > MS. PMID:28862647

  2. Magnesium alloys as body implants: fracture mechanism under dynamic and static loadings in a physiological environment.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Lokesh; Raman, R K Singh

    2012-02-01

    It is essential that a metallic implant material possesses adequate resistance to cracking/fracture under the synergistic action of a corrosive physiological environment and mechanical loading (i.e. stress corrosion cracking (SCC)), before the implant can be put to actual use. This paper presents a critique of the fundamental issues with an assessment of SCC of a rapidly corroding material such as magnesium alloys, and describes an investigation into the mechanism of SCC of a magnesium alloy in a physiological environment. The SCC susceptibility of the alloy in a simulated human body fluid was established by slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) testing using smooth specimens under different electrochemical conditions for understanding the mechanism of SCC. However, to assess the life of the implant devices that often possess fine micro-cracks, SCC susceptibility of notched specimens was investigated by circumferential notch tensile (CNT) testing. CNT tests also produced important design data, i.e. threshold stress intensity for SCC (KISCC) and SCC crack growth rate. Fractographic features of SCC were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The SSRT and CNT results, together with fractographic evidence, confirmed the SCC susceptibility of both smooth and notched specimens of a magnesium alloy in the physiological environment. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. RGDC Peptide-Induced Biomimetic Calcium Phosphate Coating Formed on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lin; Wang, Lina; Fan, Lingying; Xiao, Wenjun; Lin, Bingpeng; Xu, Yimeng; Liang, Jun; Cao, Baocheng

    2017-01-01

    Magnesium alloys as biodegradable metal implants have received a lot of interest in biomedical applications. However, magnesium alloys have extremely high corrosion rates a in physiological environment, which have limited their application in the orthopedic field. In this study, calcium phosphate compounds (Ca–P) coating was prepared by arginine–glycine–aspartic acid–cysteine (RGDC) peptide-induced mineralization in 1.5 simulated body fluid (SBF) to improve the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of the AZ31 magnesium alloys. The adhesion of Ca–P coating to the AZ31 substrates was evaluated by a scratch test. Corrosion resistance and cytocompatibility of the Ca–P coating were investigated. The results showed that the RGDC could effectively promote the nucleation and crystallization of the Ca–P coating and the Ca–P coating had poor adhesion to the AZ31 substrates. The corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of the biomimetic Ca–P coating Mg alloys were greatly improved compared with that of the uncoated sample. PMID:28772717

  4. Biodegradable Orthopedic Magnesium-Calcium (MgCa) Alloys, Processing, and Corrosion Performance.

    PubMed

    Salahshoor, Meisam; Guo, Yuebin

    2012-01-09

    Magnesium-Calcium (Mg-Ca) alloy has received considerable attention as an emerging biodegradable implant material in orthopedic fixation applications. The biodegradable Mg-Ca alloys avoid stress shielding and secondary surgery inherent with permanent metallic implant materials. They also provide sufficient mechanical strength in load carrying applications as opposed to biopolymers. However, the key issue facing a biodegradable Mg-Ca implant is the fast corrosion in the human body environment. The ability to adjust degradation rate of Mg-Ca alloys is critical for the successful development of biodegradable orthopedic implants. This paper focuses on the functions and requirements of bone implants and critical issues of current implant biomaterials. Microstructures and mechanical properties of Mg-Ca alloys, and the unique properties of novel magnesium-calcium implant materials have been reviewed. Various manufacturing techniques to process Mg-Ca based alloys have been analyzed regarding their impacts on implant performance. Corrosion performance of Mg-Ca alloys processed by different manufacturing techniques was compared. In addition, the societal and economical impacts of developing biodegradable orthopedic implants have been emphasized.

  5. Laser surface modification of Ti and TiC coatings on magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. M.; Lee, S. G.; Park, J. S.; Kim, H. G.

    2014-12-01

    In order to enhance the surface properties of magnesium alloy, a highly intense laser surface melting process following plasma spraying of Ti or TiC on AZ31 alloy were employed. When laser surface melting was applied to Ti coated magnesium alloy, the formation of fine Ti particle dispersed surface layer on the substrate occurred. The corrosion potential of the AZ31 alloy with Ti dispersed surface was significantly increased in 3.5 wt % NaCl solution. Additionally, an improved hardness was observed for the laser treated specimens as compared to the untreated AZ31 alloy. Laser melting process following plasma thermal deposition was also applied for obtaining in situ TiC coating layer on AZ31 alloy. The TiC coating layer could be successfully formed via in situ reaction between pure titanium and carbon powders. Incomplete TiC formation was observed in the plasma sprayed specimen, while completely transformed TiC layer was found after post laser melting process. It was also confirmed that the laser post treatment induced enhanced adhesion strength between the coating and the substrate.

  6. Biodegradable Orthopedic Magnesium-Calcium (MgCa) Alloys, Processing, and Corrosion Performance

    PubMed Central

    Salahshoor, Meisam; Guo, Yuebin

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium-Calcium (Mg-Ca) alloy has received considerable attention as an emerging biodegradable implant material in orthopedic fixation applications. The biodegradable Mg-Ca alloys avoid stress shielding and secondary surgery inherent with permanent metallic implant materials. They also provide sufficient mechanical strength in load carrying applications as opposed to biopolymers. However, the key issue facing a biodegradable Mg-Ca implant is the fast corrosion in the human body environment. The ability to adjust degradation rate of Mg-Ca alloys is critical for the successful development of biodegradable orthopedic implants. This paper focuses on the functions and requirements of bone implants and critical issues of current implant biomaterials. Microstructures and mechanical properties of Mg-Ca alloys, and the unique properties of novel magnesium-calcium implant materials have been reviewed. Various manufacturing techniques to process Mg-Ca based alloys have been analyzed regarding their impacts on implant performance. Corrosion performance of Mg-Ca alloys processed by different manufacturing techniques was compared. In addition, the societal and economical impacts of developing biodegradable orthopedic implants have been emphasized. PMID:28817036

  7. Development of Rolling Schedules for AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    Materials 2 2.2 Hot Rolling 3 2.2 Sample Characterization: Microstructure and Tensile Properties 3 3. Rolling Experiments 5 3.1 High-Temperature...material systems for protective and structural applications, especially in ground vehicles. Magnesium (Mg), due to its low density (~25% that of steel ...applications, wrought Mg is difficult to produce in thin sheets because of its inherently low ductility . As a result, Mg sheet is often produced at

  8. In vitro degradation and mechanical integrity of calcium-containing magnesium alloys in modified-simulated body fluid.

    PubMed

    Kannan, M Bobby; Raman, R K Singh

    2008-05-01

    The successful applications of magnesium-based alloys as degradable orthopaedic implants are mainly inhibited due to their high degradation rates in physiological environment and consequent loss in the mechanical integrity. This study examines the degradation behaviour and the mechanical integrity of calcium-containing magnesium alloys using electrochemical techniques and slow strain rate test (SSRT) method, respectively, in modified-simulated body fluid (m-SBF). Potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results showed that calcium addition enhances the general and pitting corrosion resistances of magnesium alloys significantly. The corrosion current was significantly lower in AZ91Ca alloy than that in AZ91 alloy. Furthermore, AZ91Ca alloy exhibited a five-fold increase in the surface film resistance than AZ91 alloy. The SSRT results showed that the ultimate tensile strength and elongation to fracture of AZ91Ca alloy in m-SBF decreased only marginally (approximately 15% and 20%, respectively) in comparison with these properties in air. The fracture morphologies of the failed samples are discussed in the paper. The in vitro study suggests that calcium-containing magnesium alloys to be a promising candidate for their applications in degradable orthopaedic implants, and it is worthwhile to further investigate the in vivo corrosion behaviour of these alloys.

  9. Fatigue crack initiation of magnesium alloys under elastic stress amplitudes: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B. J.; Xu, D. K.; Wang, S. D.; Han, E. H.

    2017-12-01

    The most advantageous property of magnesium (Mg) alloys is their density, which is lower compared with traditional metallic materials. Mg alloys, considered the lightest metallic structural material among others, have great potential for applications as secondary load components in the transportation and aerospace industries. The fatigue evaluation of Mg alloys under elastic stress amplitudes is very important in ensuring their service safety and reliability. Given their hexagonal close packed structure, the fatigue crack initiation of Mg and its alloys is closely related to the deformation mechanisms of twinning and basal slips. However, for Mg alloys with shrinkage porosities and inclusions, fatigue cracks will preferentially initiate at these defects, remarkably reducing the fatigue lifetime. In this paper, some fundamental aspects about the fatigue crack initiation mechanisms of Mg alloys are reviewed, including the 3 followings: 1) Fatigue crack initiation of as-cast Mg alloys, 2) influence of microstructure on fatigue crack initiation of wrought Mg alloys, and 3) the effect of heat treatment on fatigue initiation mechanisms. Moreover, some unresolved issues and future target on the fatigue crack initiation mechanism of Mg alloys are also described.

  10. Effect of Mucin and Bicarbonate Ion on Corrosion Behavior of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy for Airway Stents.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yongseok; Owuor, Daniel; Waterman, Jenora T; White, Leon; Collins, Boyce; Sankar, Jagannathan; Gilbert, Thomas W; Yun, Yeoheung

    2014-08-15

    The biodegradable ability of magnesium alloys is an attractive feature for tracheal stents since they can be absorbed by the body through gradual degradation after healing of the airway structure, which can reduce the risk of inflammation caused by long-term implantation and prevent the repetitive surgery for removal of existing stent. In this study, the effects of bicarbonate ion (HCO₃ - ) and mucin in Gamble's solution on the corrosion behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy were investigated, using immersion and electrochemical tests to systematically identify the biodegradation kinetics of magnesium alloy under in vitro environment, mimicking the epithelial mucus surfaces in a trachea for development of biodegradable airway stents. Analysis of corrosion products after immersion test was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to identify the effects of bicarbonate ions and mucin on the corrosion behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloys with the temporal change of corrosion resistance. The results show that the increase of the bicarbonate ions in Gamble's solution accelerates the dissolution of AZ31 magnesium alloy, while the addition of mucin retards the corrosion. The experimental data in this work is intended to be used as foundational knowledge to predict the corrosion behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy in the airway environment while providing degradation information for future in vivo studies.

  11. Wear and Corrosion Properties of 316L-SiC Composite Coating Deposited by Cold Spray on Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jie; Ma, Bing; Liu, Guang; Song, Hui; Wu, Jinming; Cui, Lang; Zheng, Ziyun

    2017-08-01

    In order to improve the wear and corrosion resistance of commonly used magnesium alloys, 316L stainless steel coating and 316L-SiC composite coating have been deposited directly on commercial AZ80 magnesium alloy using cold spraying technology (CS). The microstructure, hardness and bonding strength of as-sprayed coatings were studied. Their tribological properties sliding against Si3N4 and GCr15 steel under unlubricated conditions were evaluated by a ball-on-disk tribometer. Corrosion behaviors of coated samples were also evaluated and compared to that of uncoated magnesium alloy substrate in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution by electrochemical measurements. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the corresponding wear tracks and corroded surfaces to determine wear and corrosion mechanisms. The results showed that the as-sprayed coatings possessed higher microhardness and more excellent wear resistance than magnesium alloy substrate. Meanwhile, 316L and 316L-SiC coating also reduced the corrosion current density of magnesium alloy and the galvanic corrosion of the substrates was not observed after 200-h neutral salt spray exposure, which demonstrated that corrosion resistance of a magnesium alloy substrate could be greatly improved by cold-sprayed stainless steel-based coatings.

  12. Effect of Mucin and Bicarbonate Ion on Corrosion Behavior of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy for Airway Stents

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yongseok; Owuor, Daniel; Waterman, Jenora T.; White, Leon; Collins, Boyce; Sankar, Jagannathan; Gilbert, Thomas W.; Yun, Yeoheung

    2014-01-01

    The biodegradable ability of magnesium alloys is an attractive feature for tracheal stents since they can be absorbed by the body through gradual degradation after healing of the airway structure, which can reduce the risk of inflammation caused by long-term implantation and prevent the repetitive surgery for removal of existing stent. In this study, the effects of bicarbonate ion (HCO3−) and mucin in Gamble’s solution on the corrosion behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy were investigated, using immersion and electrochemical tests to systematically identify the biodegradation kinetics of magnesium alloy under in vitro environment, mimicking the epithelial mucus surfaces in a trachea for development of biodegradable airway stents. Analysis of corrosion products after immersion test was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to identify the effects of bicarbonate ions and mucin on the corrosion behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloys with the temporal change of corrosion resistance. The results show that the increase of the bicarbonate ions in Gamble’s solution accelerates the dissolution of AZ31 magnesium alloy, while the addition of mucin retards the corrosion. The experimental data in this work is intended to be used as foundational knowledge to predict the corrosion behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy in the airway environment while providing degradation information for future in vivo studies. PMID:28788166

  13. Preparation of Permanent Mold Coating Using Magnesia Powder for Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Guangsi; Wang, Guangtai; Yu, Haifeng; Ye, Sheng

    A kind of permanent mold coating for magnesium alloy was developed using magnesia powder and diatomite as refractory aggregate. The properties of the coating were tested and analyzed by various ingredients. The final ingredient was determined through the tests which are to find out the optimal proportion of two kinds of aggregate and the influences to coating properties by changing the proportion of binder and suspending agents. The experimental results shown that the permanent mold coating performed good properties on magnesium alloys when the optimized ratio of magnesia powder and diatomite was 6: 4, and the integrated property is very excellent when the coating was prepared with 2 percent of sodium bentonite, 0.4 percent of CMC, 7 percent of sodium hexametaphosphate, and 7 percent of sodium silicate. The excellent performance has also been proved by actual casting test.

  14. Research on super-hydrophobic surface of biodegradable magnesium alloys used for vascular stents.

    PubMed

    Wan, Peng; Wu, Jingyao; Tan, LiLi; Zhang, Bingchun; Yang, Ke

    2013-07-01

    Micro-nanometer scale structure of nubby clusters overlay was constructed on the surface of an AZ31 magnesium alloy by a wet chemical method. The super-hydrophobicity was achieved with a water contact angle of 142° and a sliding angle of about 5°. The microstructure and composition of the super-hydrophobic surface were characterized by SEM and FTIR. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to evaluate the corrosion behavior, and the hemocompatibility of the super-hydrophobic surface was investigated by means of hemolytic and platelet adhesion tests. Results showed that the super-hydrophobic treatment could improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys in PBS and inhibit blood platelet adhesion on the surface, which implied excellent hemocompatibility with controlled degradation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Chrome-free Samarium-based Protective Coatings for Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Legan; Cui, Xiufang; Yang, Yuyun; Lin, Lili; Xiao, Qiang; Jin, Guo

    The microstructure of chrome-free samarium-based conversion coating on magnesium alloy was investigated and the corrosion resistance was evaluated as well. The micro-morphology, transverse section, crystal structure and composition of the coating were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X- ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The corrosion resistance was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results reveal that the morphology of samarium conversion coating is of crack-mud structure. Tiny cracks distribute in the compact coating deposited by samarium oxides. XRD, EDS and XPS results characterize that the coating is made of amorphous and trivalent-samarium oxides. The potentiodynamic polarization curve, EIS and OCP indicate that the samarium conversion coating can improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys.

  16. Biodegradation behavior of micro-arc oxidized AZ31 magnesium alloys formed in two different electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyfoori, A.; Mirdamadi, Sh.; Khavandi, A.; Raufi, Z. Seyed

    2012-11-01

    Degradation behavior of coated magnesium alloys is among most prominent factors for their biomedical applications. In this study, bio-corrosion behavior of micro-arc oxidized magnesium AZ31 alloys formed in silicate and phosphate baths was investigated in r-SBF medium. For this purpose polarization behavior and open circuit profile of the coated samples were achieved by electrochemical and immersion tests, respectively. Moreover, the morphology and composition of the coatings were evaluated before and after immersion test using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results showed that the phosphate film had better corrosion resistance and greater thickness than silicate film and, in turn, the lesser degradability in SBF solution, so that Ca2+ and PO43- containing compounds were more abundant on silicate film than phosphate film. Moreover phosphate film had greater surface roughness and lesser hydrophilic nature.

  17. Remanufacture of Zirconium-Based Conversion Coatings on the Surface of Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhe; Jin, Guo; Song, Jiahui; Cui, Xiufang; Cai, Zhaobing

    2017-04-01

    Brush plating provides an effective method for creating a coating on substrates of various shapes. A corroded zirconium-based conversion coating was removed from the surface of a magnesium alloy and then replaced with new coatings prepared via brush plating. The structure and composition of the remanufactured coating were determined via x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results revealed that the coatings consist of oxide, fluoride, and tannin-related organics. The composition of the coatings varied with the voltage. Furthermore, as revealed via potentiodynamic polarization spectroscopy, these coatings yielded a significant increase in the corrosion resistance of the magnesium alloy. The friction coefficient remained constant for almost 300s during wear resistance measurements performed under a 1-N load and dry sliding conditions, indicating that the remanufactured coatings provide effective inhibition to corrosion.

  18. Resistance of Magnesium Alloys to Corrosion Fatigue for Biodegradable Implant Applications: Current Status and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Raman, R. K. Singh; Harandi, Shervin Eslami

    2017-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys are attracting increasing interest as the most suitable metallic materials for construction of biodegradable and bio-absorbable temporary implants. However, Mg-alloys can suffer premature and catastrophic fracture under the synergy of cyclic loading and corrosion (i.e., corrosion fatigue (CF)). Though Mg alloys are reported to be susceptible to CF also in the corrosive human body fluid, there are very limited studies on this topic. Furthermore, the in vitro test parameters employed in these investigations have not properly simulated the actual conditions in the human body. This article presents an overview of the findings of available studies on the CF of Mg alloys in pseudo-physiological solutions and the employed testing procedures, as well as identifying the knowledge gap. PMID:29144428

  19. Resistance of Magnesium Alloys to Corrosion Fatigue for Biodegradable Implant Applications: Current Status and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Raman, R K Singh; Harandi, Shervin Eslami

    2017-11-16

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys are attracting increasing interest as the most suitable metallic materials for construction of biodegradable and bio-absorbable temporary implants. However, Mg-alloys can suffer premature and catastrophic fracture under the synergy of cyclic loading and corrosion (i.e., corrosion fatigue (CF)). Though Mg alloys are reported to be susceptible to CF also in the corrosive human body fluid, there are very limited studies on this topic. Furthermore, the in vitro test parameters employed in these investigations have not properly simulated the actual conditions in the human body. This article presents an overview of the findings of available studies on the CF of Mg alloys in pseudo-physiological solutions and the employed testing procedures, as well as identifying the knowledge gap.

  20. Functionalized Polymeric Membrane with Enhanced Mechanical and Biological Properties to Control the Degradation of Magnesium Alloy.

    PubMed

    Wong, Hoi Man; Zhao, Ying; Leung, Frankie K L; Xi, Tingfei; Zhang, Zhixiong; Zheng, Yufeng; Wu, Shuilin; Luk, Keith D K; Cheung, Kenneth M C; Chu, Paul K; Yeung, Kelvin W K

    2017-04-01

    To achieve enhanced biological response and controlled degradation of magnesium alloy, a modified biodegradable polymer coating called polycaprolactone (PCL) is fabricated by a thermal approach in which the heat treatment neither alters the chemical composition of the PCL membrane nor the rate of magnesium ion release, pH value, or weight loss, compared with the untreated sample. The changes in the crystallinity, hydrophilicity, and oxygen content of heat-treated PCL coating not only improve the mechanical adhesion strength between the coating and magnesium substrate but also enhance the biological properties. Moreover, the thermally modified sample can lead to higher spreading and elongation of osteoblasts, due to the enhanced hydrophilicity and CO to CO functional group ratio. In the analyses of microcomputed tomography from one to four weeks postoperation, the total volume of new bone formation on the heat-treated sample is 10%-35% and 70%-90% higher than that of the untreated and uncoated controls, respectively. Surprisingly, the indentation modulus of the newly formed bone adjacent to the heat-treated sample is ≈20% higher than that of both controls. These promising results reveal the clinical potential of the modified PCL coating on magnesium alloy in orthopedic applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Influence of Zeolite Coating on the Corrosion Resistance of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, P Chakraborty; Woo, Ren Ping; Grayson, Sam Matthew; Majumder, Amrita; Raman, R K Singh

    2014-08-22

    The protective performance of zeolite coating on AZ91D magnesium alloy was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 0.1 M sodium chloride solution (NaCl). Electrical equivalent circuit (EEC) was developed based upon hypothetical corrosion mechanisms and simulated to correspond to the experimental data. The morphology and the chemical nature of the coating were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Post corrosion morphologies of the zeolite coated and the uncoated AZ91D alloy were investigated using SEM. The corrosion resistance of the zeolite coated specimen was at least one order of magnitude higher than the uncoated specimen.

  2. Biodegradable magnesium alloys for orthopaedic applications: A review on corrosion, biocompatibility and surface modifications.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Sankalp; Curtin, James; Duffy, Brendan; Jaiswal, Swarna

    2016-11-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys have been extensively explored as potential biodegradable implant materials for orthopaedic applications (e.g. Fracture fixation). However, the rapid corrosion of Mg based alloys in physiological conditions has delayed their introduction for therapeutic applications to date. The present review focuses on corrosion, biocompatibility and surface modifications of biodegradable Mg alloys for orthopaedic applications. Initially, the corrosion behaviour of Mg alloys and the effect of alloying elements on corrosion and biocompatibility is discussed. Furthermore, the influence of polymeric deposit coatings, namely sol-gel, synthetic aliphatic polyesters and natural polymers on corrosion and biological performance of Mg and its alloy for orthopaedic applications are presented. It was found that inclusion of alloying elements such as Al, Mn, Ca, Zn and rare earth elements provides improved corrosion resistance to Mg alloys. It has been also observed that sol-gel and synthetic aliphatic polyesters based coatings exhibit improved corrosion resistance as compared to natural polymers, which has higher biocompatibility due to their biomimetic nature. It is concluded that, surface modification is a promising approach to improve the performance of Mg-based biomaterials for orthopaedic applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fatigue strength of a magnesium MA2-1 alloy after equal-channel angular pressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terent'ev, V. F.; Dobatkin, S. V.; Prosvirnin, D. V.; Bannykh, I. O.; Kopylov, V. I.; Serebryany, V. N.

    2010-09-01

    The fatigue strength of a magnesium MA2-1 alloy is studied after annealing and equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP). The ultrafine-grained structure formed upon ECAP is shown to increase the plasticity of the material during static tension, to decrease the cyclic life to failure, and not to decrease the fatigue limit. The mechanisms of crack nucleation and growth during cyclic deformation are investigated.

  4. Controlling corrosion rate of Magnesium alloy using powder mixed electrical discharge machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razak, M. A.; Rani, A. M. A.; Saad, N. M.; Littlefair, G.; Aliyu, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    Biomedical implant can be divided into permanent and temporary employment. The duration of a temporary implant applied to children and adult is different due to different bone healing rate among the children and adult. Magnesium and its alloys are compatible for the biodegradable implanting application. Nevertheless, it is difficult to control the degradation rate of magnesium alloy to suit the application on both the children and adult. Powder mixed electrical discharge machining (PM-EDM) method, a modified EDM process, has high capability to improve the EDM process efficiency and machined surface quality. The objective of this paper is to establish a formula to control the degradation rate of magnesium alloy using the PM-EDM method. The different corrosion rate of machined surface is hypothesized to be obtained by having different combinations of PM-EDM operation inputs. PM-EDM experiments are conducted using an opened-loop PM-EDM system and the in-vitro corrosion tests are carried out on the machined surface of each specimen. There are four operation inputs investigated in this study which are zinc powder concentration, peak current, pulse on-time and pulse off-time. The results indicate that zinc powder concentration is significantly affecting the response with 2 g/l of zinc powder concentration obtaining the lowest corrosion rate. The high localized temperature at the cutting zone in spark erosion process causes some of the zinc particles get deposited on the machined surface, hence improving the surface characteristics. The suspended zinc particles in the dielectric fluid have also improve the sparking efficiency and the uniformity of sparks distribution. From the statistical analysis, a formula was developed to control the corrosion rate of magnesium alloy within the range from 0.000183 mm/year to 0.001528 mm/year.

  5. Texture evolution during thermomechanical processing in rare earth free magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Victoria Mayne

    The use of wrought magnesium alloys is highly desirable for a wide range of applications where low component weight is desirable due to the high specific strength and stiffness the alloys can achieve. However, the implementation of wrought magnesium has been hindered by the limited room temperature formability which typically results from deformation processing. This work identifies opportunities for texture modification during thermomechanical processing of conventional (rare earth free) magnesium alloys via a combination of experimental investigation and polycrystal plasticity simulations. During deformation, it is observed that a homogeneous distribution of coarse intermetallic particles efficiently weakens deformation texture at all strain levels, while a highly inhomogeneous particle distribution is only effective at high strains. The particle deformation effects are complemented by the addition of alkaline earth solute, which modifies the relative deformation mode activity. During recrystallization, grains with basal orientations recrystallize more readily than off-basal grains, despite similar levels of internal misorientation. Dislocation substructure investigations revealed that this is a result of enhanced nucleation in the basal grains due to the dominance of prismatic slip. This dissertation identifies avenues to enhance the potential formability of magnesium alloys during thermomechanical processing by minimizing the evolved texture strength. The following are the identified key aspects of microstructural control: -Maintaining a fine grain size, likely via Zener pinning, to favorably modify deformation mode activity and homogenize deformation. -Developing a coarse, homogeneously distributed population of coarse intermetallic particles to promote a diffuse deformation texture. -Minimizing the activity of prismatic slip to retard the recrystallization of grains with basal orientations, allowing the development of a more diffuse recrystallization texture.

  6. A Generic Metallographic Preparation Method for Magnesium Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    treated castings or wrought alloys. Stains solid solution, leaves compound white. 9: 100-ml water 0.2–2-g oxalic acid For pure Mg and most alloys. Swab...water 2-g oxalic acid Pure Mg Mg-Mn Mg-Al, Mg-Al-Zn (Al+Znɝ%) Mg-Al, Mg-Al-Zn (Al+Zn>5%) Mg-Zn-Zr Mg-Th-Zr Swab...using a 100-ml ethanol, 10-ml distilled water, 10-ml acetic acid , and 5-g picric acid etchant. Immersed and using gentle agitation 5–20 s. Though not

  7. Solution softening in magnesium alloys: the effect of solid solutions on the dislocation core structure and nonbasal slip.

    PubMed

    Tsuru, T; Udagawa, Y; Yamaguchi, M; Itakura, M; Kaburaki, H; Kaji, Y

    2013-01-16

    There is a pressing need to improve the ductility of magnesium alloys so that they can be applied as lightweight structural materials. In this study, a mechanism for enhancing the ductility of magnesium alloys has been pursued using the atomistic method. The generalized stacking fault (GSF) energies for basal and prismatic planes in magnesium were calculated by using density functional theory, and the effect of the GSF energy on the dislocation core structures was examined using a semidiscrete variational Peierls-Nabarro model. Yttrium was found to have an anomalous influence on the solution softening owing to a reduction in the GSF energy gradient.

  8. Hot deformation characteristics of AZ80 magnesium alloy: Work hardening effect and processing parameter sensitivities

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Y.; Wan, L.; Guo, Z. H.

    Isothermal compression experiment of AZ80 magnesium alloy was conducted by Gleeble thermo-mechanical simulator in order to quantitatively investigate the work hardening (WH), strain rate sensitivity (SRS) and temperature sensitivity (TS) during hot processing of magnesium alloys. The WH, SRS and TS were described by Zener-Hollomon parameter (Z) coupling of deformation parameters. The relationships between WH rate and true strain as well as true stress were derived from Kocks-Mecking dislocation model and validated by our measurement data. The slope defined through the linear relationship of WH rate and true stress was only related to the annihilation coefficient Ω. Obvious WH behaviormore » could be exhibited at a higher Z condition. Furthermore, we have identified the correlation between the microstructural evolution including β-Mg17Al12 precipitation and the SRS and TS variations. Intensive dynamic recrystallization and homogeneous distribution of β-Mg17Al12 precipitates resulted in greater SRS coefficient at higher temperature. The deformation heat effect and β-Mg17Al12 precipitate content can be regarded as the major factors determining the TS behavior. At low Z condition, the SRS becomes stronger, in contrast to the variation of TS. The optimum hot processing window was validated based on the established SRS and TS values distribution maps for AZ80 magnesium alloy.« less

  9. Biocorrosion of magnesium alloys: a new principle in cardiovascular implant technology?

    PubMed Central

    Heublein, B; Rohde, R; Kaese, V; Niemeyer, M; Hartung, W; Haverich, A

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To develop and test a new concept of the degradation kinetics of newly developed coronary stents consisting of magnesium alloys. Methods: Design of a coronary stent prototype consisting of the non-commercial magnesium based alloy AE21 (containing 2% aluminium and 1% rare earths) with an expected 50% loss of mass within six months. Eleven domestic pigs underwent coronary implantation of 20 stents (overstretch injury). Results: No stent caused major problems during implantation or showed signs of initial breakage in the histological evaluation. There were no thromboembolic events. Quantitative angiography at follow up showed a significant (p < 0.01) 40% loss of perfused lumen diameter between days 10 and 35, corresponding to neointima formation seen on histological analysis, and a 25% re-enlargement (p < 0.05) between days 35 and 56 caused by vascular remodelling (based on intravascular ultrasound) resulting from the loss of mechanical integrity of the stent. Inflammation (p < 0.001) and neointimal plaque area (p < 0.05) depended significantly on injury score. Planimetric degradation correlated with time (r = 0.67, p < 0.01). Conclusion: Vascular implants consisting of magnesium alloy degradable by biocorrosion seem to be a realistic alternative to permanent implants. PMID:12748224

  10. Biocorrosion of magnesium alloys: a new principle in cardiovascular implant technology?

    PubMed

    Heublein, B; Rohde, R; Kaese, V; Niemeyer, M; Hartung, W; Haverich, A

    2003-06-01

    To develop and test a new concept of the degradation kinetics of newly developed coronary stents consisting of magnesium alloys. Design of a coronary stent prototype consisting of the non-commercial magnesium based alloy AE21 (containing 2% aluminium and 1% rare earths) with an expected 50% loss of mass within six months. Eleven domestic pigs underwent coronary implantation of 20 stents (overstretch injury). No stent caused major problems during implantation or showed signs of initial breakage in the histological evaluation. There were no thromboembolic events. Quantitative angiography at follow up showed a significant (p < 0.01) 40% loss of perfused lumen diameter between days 10 and 35, corresponding to neointima formation seen on histological analysis, and a 25% re-enlargement (p < 0.05) between days 35 and 56 caused by vascular remodelling (based on intravascular ultrasound) resulting from the loss of mechanical integrity of the stent. Inflammation (p < 0.001) and neointimal plaque area (p < 0.05) depended significantly on injury score. Planimetric degradation correlated with time (r = 0.67, p < 0.01). Vascular implants consisting of magnesium alloy degradable by biocorrosion seem to be a realistic alternative to permanent implants.

  11. Yield Asymmetry Design of Magnesium Alloys by Integrated Computational Materials Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dongsheng; Joshi, Vineet V.; Lavender, Curt A.

    2013-11-01

    Deformation asymmetry of magnesium alloys is an important factor on machine design in automobile industry. Represented by the ratio of compressive yield stress (CYS) against tensile yield stress (TYS), deformation asymmetry is strongly related to microstructure, characterized by texture and grain size. Modified intermediate phi-model, a polycrystalline viscoplasticity model, is used to predict the deformation behavior of magnesium alloys with different grain sizes. Validated with experimental results, integrated computational materials engineering is applied to find out the route in achieving desired asymmetry by thermomechanical processing. In some texture, for example, rolled texture, CYS/TYS is smaller than 1 under different loadingmore » directions. In some texture, for example, extruded texture, asymmetry is large along normal direction. Starting from rolled texture, the asymmetry will increased to close to 1 along rolling direction after compressed to a strain of 0.2. Our model shows that grain refinement increases CYS/TYS. Besides texture control, grain refinement can also optimize the yield asymmetry. After the grain size decreased to a critical value, CYS/TYS reaches to 1 since CYS increases much faster than TYS. By tailoring the microstructure using texture control and grain refinement, it is achievable to optimize yield asymmetry in wrought magnesium alloys.« less

  12. Yield asymmetry design of magnesium alloys by integrated computational materials engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dongsheng; Joshi, Vineet; Lavender, Curt

    2013-11-01

    Deformation asymmetry of magnesium alloys is an important factor on machine design in the automobile industry. Represented by the ratio of compressive yield stress (CYS) against tensile yield stress (TYS), deformation asymmetry is strongly related to texture and grain size. A polycrystalline viscoplasticity model, modified intermediate Φ-model, is used to predict the deformation behavior of magnesium alloys with different grain sizes. Validated with experimental results, integrated computational materials engineering is applied to find out the route in achieving desired asymmetry via thermomechanical processing. For example, CYS/TYS in rolled texture is smaller than 1 under different loading directions. In other textures,more » such as extruded texture, CYS/TYS is large along the normal direction. Starting from rolled texture, asymmetry will increase to close to 1 along the rolling direction after being compressed to a strain of 0.2. Our modified Φ-model also shows that grain refinement increases CYS/TYS. Along with texture control, grain refinement also can optimize the yield asymmetry. After the grain size decreases to a critical value, CYS/TYS reaches to 1 because CYS increases much faster than TYS. By tailoring the microstructure using texture control and grain refinement, it is achievable to optimize yield asymmetry in wrought magnesium alloys.« less

  13. Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy: Grain Refinement by Adjusting Pulse Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jing; Zhou, Yong; Liu, Changmeng; Wu, Qianru; Chen, Xianping; Lu, Jiping

    2016-01-01

    Wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) offers a potential approach to fabricate large-scale magnesium alloy components with low cost and high efficiency, although this topic is yet to be reported in literature. In this study, WAAM is preliminarily applied to fabricate AZ31 magnesium. Fully dense AZ31 magnesium alloy components are successfully obtained. Meanwhile, to refine grains and obtain good mechanical properties, the effects of pulse frequency (1, 2, 5, 10, 100, and 500 Hz) on the macrostructure, microstructure and tensile properties are investigated. The results indicate that pulse frequency can result in the change of weld pool oscillations and cooling rate. This further leads to the change of the grain size, grain shape, as well as the tensile properties. Meanwhile, due to the resonance of the weld pool at 5 Hz and 10 Hz, the samples have poor geometry accuracy but contain finer equiaxed grains (21 μm) and exhibit higher ultimate tensile strength (260 MPa) and yield strength (102 MPa), which are similar to those of the forged AZ31 alloy. Moreover, the elongation of all samples is above 23%. PMID:28773944

  14. Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy: Grain Refinement by Adjusting Pulse Frequency.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Zhou, Yong; Liu, Changmeng; Wu, Qianru; Chen, Xianping; Lu, Jiping

    2016-10-09

    Wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) offers a potential approach to fabricate large-scale magnesium alloy components with low cost and high efficiency, although this topic is yet to be reported in literature. In this study, WAAM is preliminarily applied to fabricate AZ31 magnesium. Fully dense AZ31 magnesium alloy components are successfully obtained. Meanwhile, to refine grains and obtain good mechanical properties, the effects of pulse frequency (1, 2, 5, 10, 100, and 500 Hz) on the macrostructure, microstructure and tensile properties are investigated. The results indicate that pulse frequency can result in the change of weld pool oscillations and cooling rate. This further leads to the change of the grain size, grain shape, as well as the tensile properties. Meanwhile, due to the resonance of the weld pool at 5 Hz and 10 Hz, the samples have poor geometry accuracy but contain finer equiaxed grains (21 μm) and exhibit higher ultimate tensile strength (260 MPa) and yield strength (102 MPa), which are similar to those of the forged AZ31 alloy. Moreover, the elongation of all samples is above 23%.

  15. Production of Magnesium and Aluminum-Magnesium Alloys from Recycled Secondary Aluminum Scrap Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gesing, Adam J.; Das, Subodh K.; Loutfy, Raouf O.

    2016-02-01

    An experimental proof of concept was demonstrated for a patent-pending and trademark-pending RE12™ process for extracting a desired amount of Mg from recycled scrap secondary Al melts. Mg was extracted by electrorefining, producing a Mg product suitable as a Mg alloying hardener additive to primary-grade Al alloys. This efficient electrorefining process operates at high current efficiency, high Mg recovery and low energy consumption. The Mg electrorefining product can meet all the impurity specifications with subsequent melt treatment for removing alkali contaminants. All technical results obtained in the RE12™ project indicate that the electrorefining process for extraction of Mg from Al melt is technically feasible. A techno-economic analysis indicates high potential profitability for applications in Al foundry alloys as well as beverage—can and automotive—sheet alloys. The combination of technical feasibility and potential market profitability completes a successful proof of concept. This economical, environmentally-friendly and chlorine-free RE12™ process could be disruptive and transformational for the Mg production industry by enabling the recycling of 30,000 tonnes of primary-quality Mg annually.

  16. Biological activity evaluation of magnesium fluoride coated Mg-Zn-Zr alloy in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hongfeng; Wang, Jingbo; Chen, Minfang; Liu, Debao

    2017-06-01

    To explore the biodegradable characteristics and biological properties, which could promote new bone formation, of MgF 2 coated magnesium alloy (Mg-3wt%Zn-0.5wt%Zr) in rabbits. Magnesium alloy with MgF 2 coating was made and the MgF 2 /Mg-Zn-Zr was implanted in the femoral condyle of rabbits. Twelve healthy adult Japanese white rabbits in weight of 2.8-3.2kg were averagely divided into A(Mg-Zn-Zr) group and B(MgF 2 /MgZn-Zr) group. Indexes such as microstructural evolution, SEM scan, X-ray, Micro-CT and mechanical properties were observed and detected at 1th day, 2th, 4th, 8th, 12th, 24th week after implantation. Low-density regions occurred around the cancellous bone, and the regions gradually expanded during the 12weeks after implantation. The implant was gradually absorbed from 12 to 24weeks. The density of surrounding cancellous bone increased compared with the 12th week data. The degradation rate of B group was lower than that of A group (P<0.01), while the density of the surrounding cancellous bone increased more evenly. In B group, SEM images after 12weeks showed the rich bone tissues on the alloy surface that were attached by active fibers. Micro-CT also presented alloy residue potholes on the surfaces of alloy combinated with bone tissues. Additionally, the trabecular bone had relatively integrated structures with surrounding cavities. MgF 2 can effectively decrease the degradation rate of Mg-Zn-Zr in vivo. Mg-Zn-Zr coated with MgF 2 can effectively inhibit the corrosion, and delay the release of magnesium ions. The biological properties of the coating itself presented good biocompatibility and bioactivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Biomechanical characteristics of bioabsorbable magnesium-based (MgYREZr-alloy) interference screws with different threads.

    PubMed

    Ezechieli, Marco; Ettinger, Max; König, Carolin; Weizbauer, Andreas; Helmecke, Patrick; Schavan, Robert; Lucas, Arne; Windhagen, Henning; Becher, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    Degradable magnesium implants have received increasing interest in recent years. In anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery, the well-known osteoconductive effects of biodegradable magnesium alloys may be useful. The aim of this study was to examine whether interference screws made of MgYREZr have comparable biomechanical properties to commonly used biodegradable screws and whether a different thread on the magnesium screw has an influence on the fixation strength. Five magnesium (MgYREZr-alloy) screws were tested per group. Three different groups with variable thread designs (Designs 1, 2, and 3) were produced and compared with the commercially available bioabsorbable Bioacryl rapid polylactic-co-glycolic acid screw Milagro ® . In vitro testing was performed in synthetic bone using artificial ligament fixed by an interference screw. The constructs were pretensioned with a constant load of 60 N for 30 s followed by 500 cycles between 60 N and 250 N at 1 Hz. Construct displacements between the 1st and 20th and the 21st and 500th cycles were recorded. After a 30 s break, a maximum load to failure test was performed at 1 mm/s measuring the maximum pull-out force. The maximum loads to failure of all three types of magnesium interference screws (Design 1: 1,092 ± 133.7 N; Design 2: 1,014 ± 103.3 N; Design 3: 1,001 ± 124 N) were significantly larger than that of the bioabsorbable Milagro ® interference screw (786.8 ± 62.5 N) (p < 0.05). However, the greatest maximum load was found with magnesium screw Design 1. Except for a significant difference between Designs 1 and 2, there were no further significant differences among the four groups in displacement after the 20th cycle. Biomechanical testing showed higher pull-out forces for magnesium compared with a commercial polymer screw. Hence, they suggest better stability and are a potential alternative. The thread geometry does not significantly influence the stability provided by the

  18. Effect of parylene C coating on the antibiocorrosive and mechanical properties of different magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surmeneva, M. A.; Vladescu, A.; Cotrut, C. M.; Tyurin, A. I.; Pirozhkova, T. S.; Shuvarin, I. A.; Elkin, B.; Oehr, C.; Surmenev, R. A.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, parylene C coating with the thickness of 2 μm was deposited on different magnesium alloy substrates (AZ31, WE43 and AZ91). The structure and phase composition of parylene C coating was analysed by Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, extensive surface characterization was done using atomic force microscopy. The corrosion performance of polymer-coated magnesium alloys was investigated by electrochemical measurements in Hanks' balanced salts solution that simulates bodily fluids at 37 ± 0.5 °C. The depth-dependent mechanical properties including Young's modulus and nanohardness of parylene C films were investigated using nanoindentation technique. The effect of the penetration depth on the properties on nano- and microscale level have been described in detail. The percentage of elastic recovery was used to characterize the elastic properties of the polymeric coatings. The results of XRD showed (020) preferred orientation of the monoclinic unit cell of the alpha phase of parylene C. The parylene C revealed a semicrystalline structure with nanocrystalline blocks of 4.9 nm. The parylene C film shows a uniform surface morphology with a higher roughness level at micro and nanoscales compared to magnesium alloy surfaces. All of the uncoated substrates exhibited a low corrosion resistance compared to the coated samples, indicating that the corrosion resistance of the magnesium alloys could be improved by parylene C coating. The resulting average nanohardness and Young's modulus of the parylene C coatings deposited onto different substrates were in the range of 0.18-0.25 GPa and 4.19-5.14 GPa, respectively. Furthermore, a higher percentage of elastic recovery of the polymer coating indicated a higher elasticity as compared to the magnesium alloy surface. The polymer coating has revealed the ability to recover elastically. Therefore, parylene C coating can not only improve corrosion resistance, but also

  19. Characterization of Aluminum Magnesium Alloy Reverse Sensitized via Heat Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    been on ships that had seen an unknown cycle of painting - stripping -repainting, so some variation was expected. 16 The exact age and range of...Figure 44. Effect of Temperature on Al-Mg Alloys. Adapted from [9]. d. Other heat treatment techniques – high power diode laser (HPDL) arrays Because...25] B. Baker et. al, "Use of High-Power diode Laser Arrays for Pre- and Post- Weld Heating During Friction Stir Welding of Steels," in Friction

  20. Electrophoretic deposition of nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating on AZ91 magnesium alloy implants with different surface treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojaee, Ramin; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Raeissi, Keyvan

    2013-11-01

    Bio-absorbable magnesium (Mg) based alloys have been introduced as innovative orthopedic implants during recent years. It has been specified that rapid degradation of Mg based alloys in physiological environment should be restrained in order to be utilized in orthopedic trauma fixation and vascular intervention. In this developing field of healthcare materials, micro-arc oxidation (MAO), and MgF2 conversion coating were exploited as surface pre-treatment of AZ91 magnesium alloy to generate a nanostructured hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) coating via electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were used to characterize the obtained powder and coatings. The potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the coated and uncoated specimens, and in vitro bioactivity evaluation were performed in simulated body fluid. Results revealed that the MAO/n-HAp coated AZ91 Mg alloy samples with a rough topography and lower corrosion current density leads to a lower Mg degradation rate accompanied by high bioactivity.

  1. Resistance Element Welding of Magnesium Alloy/austenitic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manladan, S. M.; Yusof, F.; Ramesh, S.; Zhang, Y.; Luo, Z.; Ling, Z.

    2017-09-01

    Multi-material design is increasingly applied in the automotive and aerospace industries to reduce weight, improve crash-worthiness, and reduce environmental pollution. In the present study, a novel variant of resistance spot welding technique, known as resistance element welding was used to join AZ31 Mg alloy to 316 L austenitic stainless steel. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the joints were evaluated. It was found that the nugget consisted of two zones, including a peripheral fusion zone on the stainless steel side and the main fusion zone. The tensile shear properties of the joints are superior to those obtained by traditional resistance spot welding.

  2. Effects of surface treatments and bonding types on the interfacial behavior of fiber metal laminate based on magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xi; Ma, Quanyang; Dai, Yu; Hu, Faping; Liu, Gang; Xu, Zouyuan; Wei, Guobing; Xu, Tiancai; Zeng, Qingwen; Xie, Weidong

    2018-01-01

    Fiber metal laminates based on magnesium alloys (MgFML) with different surface treatments and different bonding types were tested and analyzed. By using dynamic contact angle measurement and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), it was found that phosphating treatment can significantly improve the surface energy and wettability of magnesium alloy, and the surface energy of phosphated magnesium alloy was approximately 50% higher than that of abraded-only magnesium alloy. The single cantilever beam (SCB) test showed that the interfacial fracture energies of directly bonded MgFMLs based on abraded-only magnesium and abraded + phosphated magnesium were 650 J/m2 and 1030 J/m2, respectively, whereas the interfacial fracture energies of indirectly bonded MgFMLs were 1650 J/m2 and 2260 J/m2, respectively. Phosphating treatment and modified polypropylene interleaf were observed to improve the tensile strength and interfacial fracture toughness of MgFML. In addition, the rougher surface was more conducive to enhance the bonding strength and interfacial fracture toughness of MgFML.

  3. Effect of surface roughness on the in vitro degradation behaviour of a biodegradable magnesium-based alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, R.; Kannan, M. Bobby; He, Y.; Sandham, A.

    2013-08-01

    In this study, the in vitro degradation behaviour of AZ91 magnesium alloy with two different surface finishes was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in simulated body fluid (SBF). The polarisation resistance (Rp) of the rough surface alloy immersed in SBF for 3 h was ~30% lower as compared to that of the smooth surface alloy. After 12 h immersion in SBF, the Rp values for both the surface finishes decreased and were also similar. However, localised degradation occurred sooner, and to a noticeably higher severity in the rough surface alloy as compared to the smooth surface alloy.

  4. One-step electrodeposition process to fabricate corrosion-resistant superhydrophobic surface on magnesium alloy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qin; Chen, Dexin; Kang, Zhixin

    2015-01-28

    A simple, one-step method has been developed to construct a superhydrophobic surface by electrodepositing Mg-Mn-Ce magnesium plate in an ethanol solution containing cerium nitrate hexahydrate and myristic acid. Scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were employed to characterize the surfaces. The shortest electrodeposition time to obtain a superhydrophobic surface was about 1 min, and the as-prepared superhydrophobic surfaces had a maximum contact angle of 159.8° and a sliding angle of less than 2°. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements demonstrated that the superhydrophobic surface greatly improved the corrosion properties of magnesium alloy in 3.5 wt % aqueous solutions of NaCl, Na2SO4, NaClO3, and NaNO3. Besides, the chemical stability and mechanical durability of the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface were also examined. The presented method is rapid, low-cost, and environmentally friendly and thus should be of significant value for the industrial fabrication of anticorrosive superhydrophobic surfaces and should have a promising future in expanding the applications of magnesium alloys.

  5. Effect of sulfur and magnesium on hot ductility and pitting corrosion for Inconel 690 alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, K.; Zhang, B.; Zhang, S.

    1995-12-31

    A series of hot tensile tests has been performed to study the effect of sulfur and magnesium on hot ductility of Inconel 690 alloy. The hot ductility has been evaluated from the reduction of area in hot tensile tests using a Gleeble testing machine. The value of reduction in area decreased with increasing sulfur content in the temperature range from 900 C to 1,200 C. When sulfur content was larger than 0.0025%, a ductility dip appeared, and the greater the sulfur content, the deeper and wider the ductility dip. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analyses showed that the fracture appearancesmore » changed gradually from transgranular to intergranular with increasing sulfur content, meanwhile sulfur and titanium segregation were observed at grain boundaries. The ductility dip of 690 alloy with relatively higher sulfur content could be inhibited by adding appropriate amount of magnesium. However, excessive addition led to magnesium precipitation, which was detrimental to hot ductility. The pitting test has also been conducted and the results showed that pitting rate obviously increased with increasing sulfur content.« less

  6. Improved hydrogen absorption and desorption kinetics of magnesium-based alloy via addition of yttrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tai; Li, Qiang; Liu, Ning; Liang, Chunyong; Yin, Fuxing; Zhang, Yanghuan

    2018-02-01

    Yttrium (Y) is selected to modify the microstructure of magnesium (Mg) to improve the hydrogen storage performance. Thereby, binary alloys with the nominal compositions of Mg24Yx (x = 1-5) are fabricated by inexpensive casting technique. Their microstructure and phase transformation during hydriding and dehydriding process are characterized by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis. The isothermal hydrogen absorption and desorption kinetics are also measured by a Sievert's-type apparatus at various temperatures. Typical multiphase structures of binary alloy can be clearly observed. All of these alloys can reversibly absorb and desorb large amount of hydrogen at proper temperatures. The addition of Y markedly promotes the hydrogen absorption kinetics. However, it results in a reduction of reversible hydrogen storage capacity. A maximum value of dehydrogenation rate is observed with the increase of Y content. The Mg24Y3 alloy has the optimal desorption kinetic performance, and it can desorb about 5.4 wt% of hydrogen at 380 °C within 12 min. Combining Johnson-Mehl-Avrami kinetic model and Arrhenius equation, the dehydrogenation activation energy of the alloys are evaluated. The Mg24Y3 alloy also has the lowest dehydrogenation activation energy (119 kJ mol-1).

  7. Biodegradability and platelets adhesion assessment of magnesium-based alloys using a microfluidic system

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lumei; Koo, Youngmi; Collins, Boyce; Xu, Zhigang; Sankar, Jagannathan

    2017-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg)-based stents are extensively explored to alleviate atherosclerosis due to their biodegradability and relative hemocompatibility. To ensure the quality, safety and cost-efficacy of bioresorbable scaffolds and full utilization of the material tunability afforded by alloying, it is critical to access degradability and thrombosis potential of Mg-based alloys using improved in vitro models that mimic as closely as possible the in vivo microenvironment. In this study, we investigated biodegradation and initial thrombogenic behavior of Mg-based alloys at the interface between Mg alloys’ surface and simulated physiological environment using a microfluidic system. The degradation properties of Mg-based alloys WE43, AZ31, ZWEK-L, and ZWEK-C were evaluated in complete culture medium and their thrombosis potentials in platelet rich plasma, respectively. The results show that 1) physiological shear stress increased the corrosion rate and decreased platelets adhesion rate as compared to static immersion; 2) secondary phases and impurities in material composition induced galvanic corrosion, resulting in higher corrosion resistance and platelet adhesion rate; 3) Mg-based alloys with higher corrosion rate showed higher platelets adhesion rate. We conclude that a microfluidic-based in vitro system allows evaluation of biodegradation behaviors and platelets responses of Mg-based alloys under specific shear stress, and degradability is related to platelets adhesion. PMID:28797069

  8. Coating of biodegradable magnesium alloy bone implants using nanostructured diopside (CaMgSi2O6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, Mehdi; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Savabi, Omid; Beni, Batoul Hashemi; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium alloys with their biodegradable characteristic can be a very good candidate to be used in orthopedic implants. However, magnesium alloys may corrode and degrade too fast for applications in the bone healing procedure. In order to enhance the corrosion resistance and the in vitro bioactivity of a magnesium alloy, a nanostructured diopside (CaMgSi2O6) film was coated on AZ91 magnesium alloy through combined micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and electrophoretic deposition (EPD) methods. The crystalline structures, morphologies and compositions of the coated and uncoated substrates were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and immersion test in simulated body fluid (SBF) were employed to evaluate the corrosion resistance and the in vitro bioactivity of the samples. The results of our investigation showed that the nanostructured diopside coating deposited on the MAO layer increases the corrosion resistance and improves the in vitro bioactivity of the biodegradable magnesium alloy.

  9. Composites of aluminum alloy and magnesium alloy with graphite showing low thermal expansion and high specific thermal conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oddone, Valerio; Boerner, Benji; Reich, Stephanie

    2017-12-01

    High thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion and low density are three important features in novel materials for high performance electronics, mobile applications and aerospace. Spark plasma sintering was used to produce light metal-graphite composites with an excellent combination of these three properties. By adding up to 50 vol.% of macroscopic graphite flakes, the thermal expansion coefficient of magnesium and aluminum alloys was tuned down to zero or negative values, while the specific thermal conductivity was over four times higher than in copper. No degradation of the samples was observed after thermal stress tests and thermal cycling. Tensile strength and hardness measurements proved sufficient mechanical stability for most thermal management applications. For the production of the alloys, both prealloyed powders and elemental mixtures were used; the addition of trace elements to cope with the oxidation of the powders was studied.

  10. Composites of aluminum alloy and magnesium alloy with graphite showing low thermal expansion and high specific thermal conductivity

    PubMed Central

    Oddone, Valerio; Boerner, Benji; Reich, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Abstract High thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion and low density are three important features in novel materials for high performance electronics, mobile applications and aerospace. Spark plasma sintering was used to produce light metal–graphite composites with an excellent combination of these three properties. By adding up to 50 vol.% of macroscopic graphite flakes, the thermal expansion coefficient of magnesium and aluminum alloys was tuned down to zero or negative values, while the specific thermal conductivity was over four times higher than in copper. No degradation of the samples was observed after thermal stress tests and thermal cycling. Tensile strength and hardness measurements proved sufficient mechanical stability for most thermal management applications. For the production of the alloys, both prealloyed powders and elemental mixtures were used; the addition of trace elements to cope with the oxidation of the powders was studied. PMID:28458742

  11. Composites of aluminum alloy and magnesium alloy with graphite showing low thermal expansion and high specific thermal conductivity.

    PubMed

    Oddone, Valerio; Boerner, Benji; Reich, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    High thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion and low density are three important features in novel materials for high performance electronics, mobile applications and aerospace. Spark plasma sintering was used to produce light metal-graphite composites with an excellent combination of these three properties. By adding up to 50 vol.% of macroscopic graphite flakes, the thermal expansion coefficient of magnesium and aluminum alloys was tuned down to zero or negative values, while the specific thermal conductivity was over four times higher than in copper. No degradation of the samples was observed after thermal stress tests and thermal cycling. Tensile strength and hardness measurements proved sufficient mechanical stability for most thermal management applications. For the production of the alloys, both prealloyed powders and elemental mixtures were used; the addition of trace elements to cope with the oxidation of the powders was studied.

  12. An Environmentally Friendly Process Involving Refining and Membrane-Based Electrolysis for Magnesium Recovery from Partially Oxidized Scrap Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xiaofei; Pal, Uday B.; Powell, Adam C.

    2013-10-01

    Magnesium is recovered from partially oxidized scrap alloy by combining refining and solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis. In this combined process, a molten salt eutectic flux (45 wt.% MgF2-55 wt.% CaF2) containing 10 wt.% MgO and 2 wt.% YF3 was used as the medium for magnesium recovery. During refining, magnesium and its oxide are dissolved from the scrap into the molten flux. Forming gas is bubbled through the flux and the dissolved magnesium is removed via the gas phase and condensed in a separate condenser at a lower temperature. The molten flux has a finite solubility for magnesium and acts as a selective medium for magnesium dissolution, but not aluminum or iron, and therefore the magnesium recovered has high purity. After refining, SOM electrolysis is performed in the same reactor to enable electrolysis of the dissolved magnesium oxide in the molten flux producing magnesium at the cathode and oxygen at the SOM anode. During SOM electrolysis, it is necessary to decrease the concentration of the dissolved magnesium in the flux to improve the faradaic current efficiency and prevent degradation of the SOM. Thus, for both refining and SOM electrolysis, it is very important to measure and control the magnesium solubility in the molten flux. High magnesium solubility facilitates refining whereas lower solubility benefits the SOM electrolysis process. Computational fluid dynamics modeling was employed to simulate the flow behavior of the flux stirred by the forming gas. Based on the modeling results, an optimized design of the stirring tubes and its placement in the flux are determined for efficiently removing the dissolved magnesium and also increasing the efficiency of the SOM electrolysis process.

  13. Corrosion Thermodynamics of Magnesium and Alloys from First Principles as a Function of Solvation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limmer, Krista; Williams, Kristen; Andzelm, Jan

    Thermodynamics of corrosion processes occurring on magnesium surfaces, such as hydrogen evolution and water dissociation, have been examined with density functional theory (DFT) to evaluate the effect of impurities and dilute alloying additions. The modeling of corrosion thermodynamics requires examination of species in a variety of chemical and electronic states in order to accurately represent the complex electrochemical corrosion process. In this study, DFT calculations for magnesium corrosion thermodynamics were performed with two DFT codes (VASP and DMol3), with multiple exchange-correlation functionals for chemical accuracy, as well as with various levels of implicit and explicit solvation for surfaces and solvated ions. The accuracy of the first principles calculations has been validated against Pourbaix diagrams constructed from solid, gas and solvated charged ion calculations. For aqueous corrosion, it is shown that a well parameterized implicit solvent is capable of accurately representing all but the first coordinating layer of explicit water for charged ions.

  14. Simulation of complex magnesium alloy texture using the axial component fit method with central normal distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, T. M.; Serebryany, V. N.

    2017-12-01

    The component fit method in quantitative texture analysis assumes that the texture of the polycrystalline sample can be represented by a superposition of weighted standard distributions those are characterized by position in the orientation space, shape and sharpness of the scattering. The components of the peak and axial shapes are usually used. It is known that an axial texture develops in materials subjected to direct pressing. In this paper we considered the possibility of modelling a texture of a magnesium sample subjected to equal-channel angular pressing with axial components only. The results obtained make it possible to conclude that ECAP is also a process leading to the appearance of an axial texture in magnesium alloys.

  15. Process-Structure-Property Relationship in Magnesium-Based Biodegradable Alloy for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivedi, Pramanshu

    Magnesium alloys are considered to be the next generation of biomaterials because of their ability to degrade in the physiological environment. We elucidate here the impact of multiaxial forging of Mg-2Zn-2Gd alloy on grain refinement to sub-micron regime and relate the structure to mechanical properties and biological functionality. As-cast and annealed samples were multiaxial forged (MAF) for a total number of two passes with a true strain of 2/pass. Considering that the microstructure governs the biological response of materials, we studied the constituents of the microstructure in conjunction with the mechanical behavior. The antimicrobial behavior in a Mg-2Zn-2Gd alloy with different grain size in the range of 44 microm to 710 nm was studied by seeding. Surface energy and contact angle measurements using goniometer and wettability were assessed with water, SBF, n-Hexane, and DMEM. The structure-property relationship in Mg-2Zn-2Gd alloy to maintaining mechanical integrity during degradation was studied by seeding Escherichia coli ( E. coli). Furthermore, we studied the effect of degradation behavior in the presence and absence of cells. This was followed by the study of bioactivity in terms of phases present on the surface and degradation products in simulated body fluid (SBF). Magnesium coated with apatite using a biomimetic approach were placed in a 24-well culture plate with alpha-MEM media and the degradation behavior was studied in the absence and presence of cells (seeding density: 10,000 cells/cm2). The change in pH was monitored at regular intervals. Cell attachment was studied by seeding the cells for 4h and cell viability was studied by seeding the cells for up to 1, 3, and 7 days. The study underscores that the fine-grained alloys exhibited superior mechanical properties, antimicrobial resistance, and cell attachment. The degradation rate was also least for fine-grained alloy. The higher surface energy of ultrafine-grained Mg-2Zn-2Gd alloy led to the

  16. Evaluation of magnesium-yttrium alloy as an extraluminal tracheal stent.

    PubMed

    Luffy, Sarah A; Chou, Da-Tren; Waterman, Jenora; Wearden, Peter D; Kumta, Prashant N; Gilbert, Thomas W

    2014-03-01

    Tracheomalacia is a relatively rare problem, but can be challenging to treat, particularly in pediatric patients. Due to the presence of mechanically deficient cartilage, the trachea is unable to resist collapse under physiologic pressures of respiration, which can lead to acute death if left untreated. However, if treated, the outcome for patients with congenital tracheomalacia is quite good because the cartilage tends to spontaneously mature over a period of 12 to 18 months. The present study investigated the potential for the use of degradable magnesium-3% yttrium alloy (W3) to serve as an extraluminal tracheal stent in a canine model. The host response to the scaffold included the formation of a thin, vascularized capsule consisting of collagenous tissue and primarily mononuclear cells. The adjacent cartilage structure was not adversely affected as observed by bronchoscopic, gross, histologic, and mechanical analysis. The W3 stents showed reproducible spatial and temporal fracture patterns, but otherwise tended to corrode quite slowly, with a mix of Ca and P rich corrosion product formed on the surface and observed focal regions of pitting. The study showed that the approach to use degradable magnesium alloys as an extraluminal tracheal stent is promising, although further development of the alloys is required to improve the resistance to stress corrosion cracking and improve the ductility. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Structure and in vitro bioactivity of ceramic coatings on magnesium alloys by microarc oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Huijun; Dong, Qing; Dou, Jinhe; Pan, Yaokun; Chen, Chuanzhong

    2016-12-01

    Magnesium and its alloys have the potential to serve as lightweight, degradable, biocompatible and bioactive orthopedic implants for load-bearing applications. However, severe local corrosion attack and high corrosion rate have prevented their further clinical use. Micro-arc oxidation (MAO) is proved to be a simple, controllable and efficient electrochemistry technique that can prepare protective ceramic coatings on magnesium alloys. In this paper, electrolyte containing silicate salts was used for microarc oxidation to form ceramic bioactive coatings on the ZK61 alloy substrate. The structure characteristics and element distributions of the coating were investigated by XRD, TEM, SEM and EPMA. The MAO samples were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7 and 14 days, respectively. The surface characteristic of the immersed coatings was investigated by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results show that these MAO coatings have low crystallinity and are mainly composed of MgO, Mg2SiO4 and Mg2Si2O6. The coating surface is porous. During the SBF immersion period, the nucleation and precipitation of bone-like apatites occur on the MAO coating surface. The corrosion resistance of the substrate is improved by the MAO coatings.

  18. Production Process of Biocompatible Magnesium Alloy Tubes Using Extrusion and Dieless Drawing Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kustra, Piotr; Milenin, Andrij; Płonka, Bartłomiej; Furushima, Tsuyoshi

    2016-06-01

    Development of technological production process of biocompatible magnesium tubes for medical applications is the subject of the present paper. The technology consists of two stages—extrusion and dieless drawing process, respectively. Mg alloys for medical applications such as MgCa0.8 are characterized by low technological plasticity during deformation that is why optimization of production parameters is necessary to obtain good quality product. Thus, authors developed yield stress and ductility model for the investigated Mg alloy and then used the numerical simulations to evaluate proper manufacturing conditions. Grid Extrusion3d software developed by authors was used to determine optimum process parameters for extrusion—billet temperature 400 °C and extrusion velocity 1 mm/s. Based on those parameters the tube with external diameter 5 mm without defects was manufactured. Then, commercial Abaqus software was used for modeling dieless drawing. It was shown that the reduction in the area of 60% can be realized for MgCa0.8 magnesium alloy. Tubes with the final diameter of 3 mm were selected as a case study, to present capabilities of proposed processes.

  19. Mechanical properties of carbon fibre-reinforced polymer/magnesium alloy hybrid laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Pengpeng; Wu, Xuan; Pan, Yingcai; Tao, Ye; Wu, Guoqing; Huang, Zheng

    2018-04-01

    In this study, we prepared fibre metal laminates (FMLs) consisting of high-modulus carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) prepregs and thin AZ31 alloy sheets by using hot-pressing technology. Tensile and low-velocity impact tests were performed to evaluate the mechanical properties and fracture behaviour of the magnesium alloy-based FMLs (Mg-FMLs) and to investigate the differences in the fracture behaviour between the Mg-FMLs and traditional Mg-FMLs. Results show that the Mg-FMLs exhibit higher specific tensile strength and specific tensile modulus than traditional Mg-FMLs and that the tensile behaviour of the Mg-FMLs is mainly governed by the CFRP because of the combination of high interlaminar shear properties and thin magnesium alloy layers. The Mg-FMLs exhibit excellent bending stiffness. Hence, no significant difference between the residual displacement d r and indentation depth d i , and the permanent deformation is mainly limited to a small zone surrounding the impact location after the impact tests.

  20. A cross-shear deformation for optimizing the strength and ductility of AZ31 magnesium alloys

    PubMed Central

    Hamad, Kotiba; Ko, Young Gun

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium alloys have recently attracted great interest due their lightweight and high specific strength. However, because of their hexagonal close-packed structure, they have few active slip systems, resulting in poor ductility and high mechanical anisotropy at room temperature. In the present work, we used a cross-shear deformation imposed by a differential speed rolling (DSR) technique to improve the room temperature strength and ductility of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets. To introduce the cross-shear deformation, the sheets were rotated 180° around their longitudinal axis between the adjacent passes of DSR. The sheets of the AZ31 alloy subjected to the cross-shear deformation showed a uniform fine microstructure (1.2 ± 0.1 μm) with weak basal textures. The fabricated sheets showed a simultaneous high ultimate tensile strength and elongation-to-failure, i.e., ~333 MPa and ~21%, respectively. These were explained based on the structural features evolved due to the cross-shear deformation by DSR. The high strength was attributed to the uniform fine microstructure, whereas the high ductility was explained based on the basal texture weakening. PMID:27406685

  1. Development of Graphene Nanoplatelet-Reinforced AZ91 Magnesium Alloy by Solidification Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandemir, Sinan

    2018-04-01

    It is a challenging task to effectively incorporate graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) which have recently emerged as potential reinforcement for strengthening metals into magnesium-based matrices by conventional solidification processes due to their large surface areas and poor wettability. A solidification processing which combines mechanical stirring and ultrasonic dispersion of reinforcements in liquid matrix was employed to develop AZ91 magnesium alloy matrix composites reinforced with 0.25 and 0.5 wt.% GNPs. The microstructural studies conducted with scanning and transmission electron microscopes revealed that fairly uniform distribution and dispersion of GNPs through the matrix were achieved due to effective combination of mechanical and ultrasonic stirring. The GNPs embedded into the magnesium matrix led to significant enhancement in the hardness, tensile strength and ductility of the composites compared to those of unreinforced AZ91 alloy. The strength enhancement was predominantly attributed to the grain refinement by the GNP addition and dislocation generation strengthening due to the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between the matrix and reinforcement. The improved ductility was attributed to the refinement of β eutectics by transforming from lamellar to the divorced eutectics due to the GNP additions. In addition, the strengthening efficiency of the composite with 0.25 wt.% GNP was found to be higher than those of the composite with 0.5 wt.% GNP as the agglomeration tendency of GNPs is increased with increasing GNP content. These results were compared with those of the GNP-reinforced magnesium composites reported in the literature, indicating the potential of the process introduced in this study in terms of fabricating light and high-performance metal matrix composites.

  2. Structure and Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of a Magnesium Mg-Y-Nd-Zr Alloy after High Pressure Torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukyanova, E. A.; Martynenko, N. S.; Serebryany, V. N.; Belyakov, A. N.; Rokhlin, L. L.; Dobatkin, S. V.; Estrin, Yu. Z.

    2017-11-01

    The structure and the properties of an Mg-Y-Nd-Zr alloy (WE43) are studied after high pressure torsion (HPT) in the temperature range 20-300°C. Structure refinement proceeds mainly by deformation twinning with the formation of a partial nanocrystalline structure with a grain size of 30-100 nm inside deformation twins. The WE43 alloy is shown to be aged during heating after HPT due to the decomposition of a magnesium solid solution. HPT at room temperature and subsequent aging causes maximum hardening. It is shown that HPT significantly accelerates the decomposition of a magnesium solid solution. HPT at all temperatures considerably increases the tensile strength and the yield strength upon tensile tests and significantly decreases plasticity. Subsequent aging additionally hardens the WE43 alloy. A potentiodynamic study shows that the corrosion resistance of this alloy after HPT increases. However, subsequent aging degrades the corrosion properties of the alloy.

  3. Micromorphological effect of calcium phosphate coating on compatibility of magnesium alloy with osteoblast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiromoto, Sachiko; Yamazaki, Tomohiko

    2017-12-01

    Octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) coatings were developed to control the degradation speed and to improve the biocompatibility of biodegradable magnesium alloys. Osteoblast MG-63 was cultured directly on OCP- and HAp-coated Mg-3Al-1Zn (wt%, AZ31) alloy (OCP- and HAp-AZ31) to evaluate cell compatibility. Cell proliferation was remarkably improved with OCP and HAp coatings which reduced the corrosion and prevented the H2O2 generation on Mg alloy substrate. OCP-AZ31 showed sparse distribution of living cell colonies and dead cells. HAp-AZ31 showed dense and homogeneous distribution of living cells, with dead cells localized over and around corrosion pits, some of which were formed underneath the coating. These results demonstrated that cells were dead due to changes in the local environment, and it is necessary to evaluate the local biocompatibility of magnesium alloys. Cell density on HAp-AZ31 was higher than that on OCP-AZ31 although there was not a significant difference in the amount of Mg ions released in medium between OCP- and HAp-AZ31. The outer layer of OCP and HAp coatings consisted of plate-like crystal with a thickness of around 0.1 μm and rod-like crystals with a diameter of around 0.1 μm, respectively, which grew from a continuous inner layer. Osteoblasts formed focal contacts on the tips of plate-like OCP and rod-like HAp crystals, with heights of 2-5 μm. The spacing between OCP tips of 0.8-1.1 μm was wider than that between HAp tips of 0.2-0.3 μm. These results demonstrated that cell proliferation depended on the micromorphology of the coatings which governed spacing of focal contacts. Consequently, HAp coating is suitable for improving cell compatibility and bone-forming ability of the Mg alloy.

  4. Twinning-detwinning behavior during cyclic deformation of magnesium alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Soo Yeol; Wang, Huamiao; Gharghouri, Michael A.

    2015-05-26

    In situ neutron diffraction has been used to examine the deformation mechanisms of a precipitation-hardened and extruded Mg-8.5wt.%Al alloy subjected to (i) compression followed by reverse tension (texture T1) and (ii) tension followed by reverse compression (texture T2). Two starting textures are used: (1) as-extruded texture, T1, in which the basal pole of most grains is normal to the extrusion axis and a small portion of grains are oriented with the basal pole parallel to the extrusion axis; (2) a reoriented texture, T2, in which the basal pole of most grains is parallel to the extrusion axis. For texture T1,more » the onset of extension twinning corresponds well with the macroscopic elastic-plastic transition during the initial compression stage. The non-linear macroscopic stress/strain behavior during unloading after compression is more significant than during unloading after tension. For texture T2, little detwinning occurs after the initial tension stage, but almost all of the twinned volumes are detwinned during loading in reverse compression.« less

  5. Interdiffusion and reaction between pure magnesium and aluminum alloy 6061

    DOE PAGES

    Kammerer, C. C.; Fu, Mian; Zhou, Le; ...

    2015-06-01

    Using solid-to-solid couples investigation, this study characterized the reaction products evolved and quantified the diffusion kinetics when pure Mg bonded to AA6061 is subjected to thermal treatment at 300°C for 720 hours, 350°C for 360 hours, and 400°C for 240 hours. Characterization techniques include optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Parabolic growth constants were determined for γ-Mg 17Al 12, β-Mg 2Al 3, and the elusive ε-phase. Similarly, the average effective interdiffusion coefficients of major constituents were calculated for Mg (ss), γ-Mg 17Al 12, β-Mg 2Al 3, and AA6061. The activation energies andmore » pre-exponential factors for both parabolic growth constant and average effective interdiffusion coefficients were computed using the Arrhenius relationship. The activation energy for growth of γ-Mg 17Al 12 was significantly higher than that for β-Mg 2Al 3 while the activation energy for interdiffusion of γ-Mg 17Al 12 was only slightly higher than that for β-Mg 2Al 3. As a result, comparisons are made between the results of this study and those of diffusion studies between pure Mg and pure Al to examine the influence of alloying additions in AA6061.« less

  6. Surface characteristics and corrosion behaviour of WE43 magnesium alloy coated by SiC film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Cheng, Y.; Zheng, Y. F.; Zhang, X.; Xi, T. F.; Wei, S. C.

    2012-01-01

    Amorphous SiC film has been successfully fabricated on the surface of WE43 magnesium alloy by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) technique. The microstructure and elemental composition were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GAXRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The immersion test indicated that SiC film could efficiently slow down the degradation rate of WE43 alloy in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 ± 1 °C. The indirect toxicity experiment was conducted using L929 cell line and the results showed that the extraction medium of SiC coated WE43 alloys exhibited no inhibitory effect on L929 cell growth. The in vitro hemocompatibility of the samples was investigated by hemolysis test and blood platelets adhesion test, and it was found that the hemolysis rate of the coated WE43 alloy decreased greatly, and the platelets attached on the SiC film were slightly activated with a round shape. It could be concluded that SiC film prepared by PECVD made WE43 alloy more appropriate to biomedical application.

  7. Workability Limits of Magnesium Alloy AZ31B Subjected to Equal Channel Angular Pressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arun, M. S.; Chakkingal, Uday

    2018-03-01

    Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) is an important severe plastic deformation process to produce ultrafine grained microstructures in metals and alloys. Magnesium and its alloys generally possess poor workability at temperatures below 250 °C. This investigation examines the influence of different passes and processing routes of ECAP on improving the workability of Mg alloy AZ31B. ECAP was carried out for three passes using a die of angle 120° using processing routes Bc and C. The operating temperature was 523 K for the first pass and 423 K for the subsequent two passes. The resultant microstructure and mechanical properties were determined. Workability of the alloy at 423 K (150 °C) was determined using upsetting experiments on cylindrical specimens machined from the annealed and ECAPed samples. Workability limit diagrams have been constructed for the various processed conditions. The workability data generated were also analyzed using five different workability criteria (also referred to as ductile fracture models) and the material constants for these five models were evaluated. Specimens processed by two passes through route C (pass 2C) exhibits better workability compared to other passes since the workability limit line after this pass shows maximum safe working area and lies above the other workability lines. Among the five different workability criteria investigated, the Freudenthal workability criterion is more suitable for prediction of failure in this alloy.

  8. Biomimetic coating of magnesium alloy for enhanced corrosion resistance and calcium phosphate deposition.

    PubMed

    Cui, W; Beniash, E; Gawalt, E; Xu, Z; Sfeir, C

    2013-11-01

    Degradable metals have been suggested as biomaterials with revolutionary potential for bone-related therapies. Of these candidate metals, magnesium alloys appear to be particularly attractive candidates because of their non-toxicity and outstanding mechanical properties. Despite their having been widely studied as orthopedic implants for bone replacement/regeneration, their undesirably rapid corrosion rate under physiological conditions has limited their actual clinical application. This study reports the use of a novel biomimetic peptide coating for Mg alloys to improve the alloy corrosion resistance. A 3DSS biomimetic peptide is designed based on the highly acidic, bioactive bone and dentin extracellular matrix protein, phosphophoryn. Surface characterization techniques (scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and diffuse-reflectance infrared spectroscopy) confirmed the feasibility of coating the biomimetic 3DSS peptide onto Mg alloy AZ31B. The 3DSS peptide was also used as a template for calcium phosphate deposition on the surface of the alloy. The 3DSS biomimetic peptide coating presented a protective role of AZ31B in both hydrogen evolution and electrochemical corrosion tests. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Effect of Hydraulic Pressure on Warm Hydro Mechanical Deep Drawing of Magnesium Alloy Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Wu, Linzhi; Yuan, Shijian

    The uniaxial tensile test and hydraulic bulging test of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets were applied to study the influence of temperature on the material properties and obtain the forming limit curves at different temperatures. Numerical simulations of warm hydro mechanical deep drawing were carried out to investigate the effect of hydraulic pressure on the formability of a cylindrical cup, and the simplified hydraulic pressure profiles were used to simulate the loading procedure of hydraulic pressure. The optimal hydraulic pressure at different temperatures were given and verified by experimental studies at temperature 100°C and 170V.

  10. Interactions between laser and arc plasma during laser-arc hybrid welding of magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liming; Chen, Minghua

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents the results of the investigation on the interactions between laser and arc plasma during laser-arc hybrid welding on magnesium alloy AZ31B using the spectral diagnose technique. By comparably analyzing the variation in plasma information (the shape, the electron temperature and density) of single tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding with the laser-arc hybrid welding, it is found that the laser affects the arc plasma through the keyhole forming on the workpiece. Depending on the welding parameters there are three kinds of interactions taking place between laser and arc plasma.

  11. A systematic multiscale modeling and experimental approach to protect grain boundaries in magnesium alloys from corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Horstemeyer, Mark R.; Chaudhuri, Santanu

    2015-09-30

    A multiscale modeling Internal State Variable (ISV) constitutive model was developed that captures the fundamental structure-property relationships. The macroscale ISV model used lower length scale simulations (Butler-Volmer and Electronics Structures results) in order to inform the ISVs at the macroscale. The chemomechanical ISV model was calibrated and validated from experiments with magnesium (Mg) alloys that were investigated under corrosive environments coupled with experimental electrochemical studies. Because the ISV chemomechanical model is physically based, it can be used for other material systems to predict corrosion behavior. As such, others can use the chemomechanical model for analyzing corrosion effects on their designs.

  12. Synthesis of hybrid sol-gel coatings for corrosion protection of we54-ae magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Barrios, C. A.; Duarte, N. Z.; Hernández, L. M.; Peña, D. Y.; Coy, A. E.; Viejo, F.

    2013-11-01

    The present work shows some preliminary results related to the synthesis, characterization and corrosion evaluation of different hybrid sol-gel coatings applied on the WE54-AE magnesium alloy attending to the two experimental variables, i.e. the precursors ratio and the aging time, which may affect the quality and the electrochemical properties of the coatings resultant. The experimental results confirmed that, under some specific experimental conditions, it was possible to obtain homogeneous and uniform, porous coatings with good corrosion resistance that also permit to accommodate corrosion inhibitors.

  13. Development of 1500mm Wide Wrought Magnesium Alloys by Twin Roll Casting Technique in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duygulu, Ozgur; Ucuncuoglu, Selda; Oktay, Gizem; Temur, Deniz Sultan; Yucel, Onuralp; Kaya, Ali Arslan

    Magnesium alloy AZ31, AZ61, AZ91, AM50 and AM60 sheets were produced by twin roll casting first time in Turkey. Sheets of 4.5-6.5mm thick and 1500mm width were successfully achieved. Microstructure of the sheet was analyzed by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Semi-quantitative analyses were performed by SEM-EDS. In addition, X-ray studies were performed for both characterization and texture purposes. Mechanical properties were investigated by tensile tests and also hardness measurements. Homogenization and annealing heat treatments were performed on the produced sheets.

  14. Microstructural Aspects in FSW and TIG Welding of Cast ZE41A Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlone, Pierpaolo; Astarita, Antonello; Rubino, Felice; Pasquino, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, magnesium ZE41A alloy plates were butt joined through friction stir welding (FSW) and Tungsten Inert Gas welding processes. Process-induced microstructures were investigated by optical and SEM observations, EDX microanalysis and microhardness measurements. The effect of a post-welded T5 heat treatment on FSW joints was also assessed. Sound joints were produced by means of both techniques. Different elemental distributions and grain sizes were found, whereas microhardness profiles reflect microstructural changes. Post-welding heat treatment did not induce significant alterations in elemental distribution. The FSW-treated joint showed a more homogeneous hardness profile than the as-welded FSW joint.

  15. Microstructural characterization of ultrasonic impact treated aluminum-magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Kim Ngoc Thi

    Aluminum 5456-H116 has high as-welded strength, is formable, and highly corrosion resistant, however, it can become sensitized when exposed to elevated temperatures for a prolonged time. Sensitization results in the formation of a continuous β phase at the grain boundaries that is anodic to the matrix. Thus the grain boundaries become susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and intergranular corrosion cracking (IGC). Cracking issues on aluminum superstructures have prompted the use of a severe plastic deformation processes, such as ultrasonic impact treatment (UIT), to improve SCC resistance. This study correlated the effects of UIT on the properties of 5456-H116 alloy to the microstructural evolution of the alloy and helped develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that cause the microstructural evolution. Ultrasonic impact treatment produces a deformed layer at the surface ˜ 10 to 18 µm thick that is characterized by micro-cracks, tears, and voids. Ultrasonic impact treatment results in grain refinement within the deformation layer and extending below the deformed layer. The microstructure exhibits weak crystallographic texture with larger fraction of high angle grain boundaries. Nanocrystalline grains within the deformation layer vary in size from 2 to 200 nm in diameter and exhibit curved or wavy grain boundaries. The nanocrystalline grains are thermally stable up to 300°C. Above 300°C, grain growth occurs with an activation energy of ˜ 32 kJ/mol. Below the deformation layer, the microstructure is characterized by submicron grains, complex structure of dislocations, sub-boundaries, and Moiré fringes depicting overlapping grains. The deformation layer does not exhibit the presence of a continuous β phase, however below the deformation layer; a continuous β phase along the grain boundaries is present. In general the highest hardness and yield strength is at the UIT surface which is attributed to the formation of nanocrystalline grains

  16. The Influence of Novel Alloying Additions on the Performance of Magnesium Alloy AZ31B

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    More recently, alloys using a variety of the rare earth elements have been developed. Typically, these alloys have shown significant improvements...in mechanical properties and to a lesser degree in corrosion performance. However, rare earth elements are often costly and heavier than Mg. Thus...1.0 0.004 Max — — Note: Fe = iron; RE = rare earth . SEM micrograph and energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) results for selected alloys are shown in

  17. Corrosion resistance and durability of superhydrophobic surface formed on magnesium alloy coated with nanostructured cerium oxide film and fluoroalkylsilane molecules in corrosive NaCl aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Takahiro; Masuda, Yoshitake; Sakamoto, Michiru

    2011-04-19

    The corrosion resistant performance and durability of the superhydrophobic surface on magnesium alloy coated with nanostructured cerium oxide film and fluoroalkylsilane molecules in corrosive NaCl aqueous solution were investigated using electrochemical and contact angle measurements. The durability of the superhydrophobic surface in corrosive 5 wt% NaCl aqueous solution was elucidated. The corrosion resistant performance of the superhydrophobic surface formed on magnesium alloy was estimated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The EIS measurements and appropriate equivalent circuit models revealed that the superhydrophobic surface considerably improved the corrosion resistant performance of magnesium alloy AZ31. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard D 3359-02 cross cut tape test was performed to investigate the adhesion of the superhydrophobic film to the magnesium alloy surface. The corrosion formation mechanism of the superhydrophobic surface formed on the magnesium alloy was also proposed. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  18. Comparison of magnesium alloys and poly-l-lactide screws as degradable implants in a canine fracture model.

    PubMed

    Marukawa, Eriko; Tamai, Masato; Takahashi, Yukinobu; Hatakeyama, Ichiro; Sato, Masaru; Higuchi, Yusuke; Kakidachi, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Hirofumi; Sakamoto, Takamitsu; Honda, Jun; Omura, Ken; Harada, Hiroyuki

    2016-10-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate in vivo the biological responses to implants composed of biodegradable anodized WE43 (containing magnesium yttrium, rare earth elements and zirconium; Elektron SynerMag®) magnesium alloy, monolithic WE43 magnesium alloy and poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA), which are commonly used materials in clinic settings, and to evaluate the effectiveness of the materials as bone screws. The effectiveness of the magnesium alloy implants in osteosynthesis was evaluated using a bone fracture model involving the tibia of beagle dogs. For the monolithic WE43 implants, radiological, and histological evaluation revealed that bone trabeculae around the implanted monolithic WE43 decreased because of an inflammatory response. However, there was no damage due to hydrogen gas or inflammatory response in the bone tissue around the anodized WE43 implants. After 4 weeks, all the PLLA implants (n = 3) had broken but the WE43 implants had not (n = 6). These results suggest that the WE43 implants had sufficient strength to fix bone fractures at load-bearing sites in orthopedic and oral maxillofacial surgery. Therefore, these biodegradable magnesium alloys are good candidates for replacing biodegradable polymers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1282-1289, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Machining-induced surface transformations of magnesium alloys to enhance corrosion resistance in human-like environment

    SciTech Connect

    Bruschi, Stefania; Bertolini, Rachele; Ghiotti, Andrea

    We report that magnesium alloys are becoming increasingly attractive for producing temporary prosthetic devices thanks to their bioresorbable characteristics in human body. However, their poor corrosion resistance to body fluids seriously limits their applicability. In this work, machining-induced surface transformations are explored as means to enhance corrosion resistance of AZ31 magnesium alloy. Surface characteristics including topography, residual stresses, wettability, microstructures and depth of transformed layer, were analysed and correlated to in-vitro corrosion resistance. Results showed that cryogenic machining at low feed provided the most promising corrosion reduction. Finally, thorough physical characterizations gave fundamental insights into possible drivers for this enhancedmore » resistance.« less

  20. Machining-induced surface transformations of magnesium alloys to enhance corrosion resistance in human-like environment

    DOE PAGES

    Bruschi, Stefania; Bertolini, Rachele; Ghiotti, Andrea; ...

    2018-04-22

    We report that magnesium alloys are becoming increasingly attractive for producing temporary prosthetic devices thanks to their bioresorbable characteristics in human body. However, their poor corrosion resistance to body fluids seriously limits their applicability. In this work, machining-induced surface transformations are explored as means to enhance corrosion resistance of AZ31 magnesium alloy. Surface characteristics including topography, residual stresses, wettability, microstructures and depth of transformed layer, were analysed and correlated to in-vitro corrosion resistance. Results showed that cryogenic machining at low feed provided the most promising corrosion reduction. Finally, thorough physical characterizations gave fundamental insights into possible drivers for this enhancedmore » resistance.« less

  1. The effect of axial external magnetic field on tungsten inert gas welding of magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Caixia; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Jing

    2018-04-01

    The influences of axial external magnetic field on the microstructure and mechanical property of the AZ31 magnesium (Mg) alloy joints were studied. The microstructure of Mg alloy joint consisted of the weld seam, heat affected zone and base metal zone. The average grain size of weld seam welded with magnetic field is 39 μm, which is 38% smaller than that of the joint welded with absence of magnetic field. And the microhardness of weld seam increases with the help of magnetic field treatment, owing to the coarse grain refinement. With coil current of 2.0A, the maximum mechanical property of joint increases 6.7% to 255 MPa over the specimen without magnetic field treatment. Furthermore, fracture location is near heat affected area and the fracture surface is characterized with ductile fracture.

  2. Chitosan coatings crosslinked with genipin for corrosion protection of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets.

    PubMed

    de Y Pozzo, Ludmila; da Conceição, Thiago F; Spinelli, Almir; Scharnagl, Nico; Pires, Alfredo T N

    2018-02-01

    In this study, coatings of chitosan crosslinked with genipin were prepared on sheets of AZ31 magnesium alloy and their corrosion protection properties were characterized by means of potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The coatings were also characterized by means of FTIR and XPS. It was observed that the crosslinking process decreases the corrosion current and shifts the corrosion potential of the alloy to less negative values. The EIS analysis demonstrated that the crosslinking process increases the maximum impedance after short and long exposure times. The superior performance of the crosslinked coatings is related to a lower degree of swelling, as observed in the swelling tests carried out on free-standing films. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A facile method to fabricate a superhydrophobic surface with biomimetic structure on magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Zigang; Zhu, Jiyuan

    2018-06-01

    Superhydrophobic surface was obtained via a convenient two-step method in this paper on magnesium alloy. The microstructured oxide or hydroxide layers were constructed on the Mg alloy though hydrothermal process. The treated sample was modified with low-energy surface material. After modification, the contact angle of water droplet on the surface is higher than 150° which indicates superhydrophobicity. With scanning electron microscope(SEM), mammillaria-herrerae-like rough structure was obtained. The composition of the superhydrophobic film was analyzed by using x-ray Diffraction instrument and Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer. Moreover, the superhydrophobic surface has good stability. The potentiodynamic polarization test shows that the corrosion current density of superhydrophobic surface was 1–2 order of magnitudes smaller than the bare substrate, which means the anti-corrosion performance has been improved significantly. This route offers an environmentally-benign and effective way to fabricate superhydrophobic surface without using complicated equipment and dangerous chemicals.

  4. Influence of Zeolite Coating on the Corrosion Resistance of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, P. Chakraborty; Woo, Ren Ping; Grayson, Sam Matthew; Majumder, Amrita; Raman, R. K. Singh

    2014-01-01

    The protective performance of zeolite coating on AZ91D magnesium alloy was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 0.1 M sodium chloride solution (NaCl). Electrical equivalent circuit (EEC) was developed based upon hypothetical corrosion mechanisms and simulated to correspond to the experimental data. The morphology and the chemical nature of the coating were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Post corrosion morphologies of the zeolite coated and the uncoated AZ91D alloy were investigated using SEM. The corrosion resistance of the zeolite coated specimen was at least one order of magnitude higher than the uncoated specimen. PMID:28788178

  5. Endothelialization of Novel Magnesium-Rare Earth Alloys with Fluoride and Collagen Coating

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Nan; Workman, Benjamin; Zhu, Donghui

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys are promising scaffolds for the next generation of cardiovascular stents because of their better biocompatibility and biodegradation compared to traditional metals. However, insufficient mechanical strength and high degradation rate are still the two main limitations for Mg materials. Hydrofluoric acid (HF) treatment and collagen coating were used in this research to improve the endothelialization of two rare earth-based Mg alloys. Results demonstrated that a nanoporous film structure of fluoride with thickness of ~20 μm was formed on the Mg material surface, which improved the corrosion resistance. Primary human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) had much better attachment, spreading, growth and proliferation (the process of endothelialization) on HF-treated Mg materials compared to bare- or collagen-coated ones. PMID:24670478

  6. The Origin of Fracture in the I-ECAP of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gzyl, Michal; Rosochowski, Andrzej; Boczkal, Sonia; Qarni, Muhammad Jawad

    2015-11-01

    Magnesium alloys are very promising materials for weight-saving structural applications due to their low density, comparing to other metals and alloys currently used. However, they usually suffer from a limited formability at room temperature and low strength. In order to overcome those issues, processes of severe plastic deformation (SPD) can be utilized to improve mechanical properties, but processing parameters need to be selected with care to avoid fracture, very often observed for those alloys during forming. In the current work, the AZ31B magnesium alloy was subjected to SPD by incremental equal-channel angular pressing (I-ECAP) at temperatures varying from 398 K to 525 K (125 °C to 250 °C) to determine the window of allowable processing parameters. The effects of initial grain size and billet rotation scheme on the occurrence of fracture during I-ECAP were investigated. The initial grain size ranged from 1.5 to 40 µm and the I-ECAP routes tested were A, BC, and C. Microstructures of the processed billets were characterized before and after I-ECAP. It was found that a fine-grained and homogenous microstructure was required to avoid fracture at low temperatures. Strain localization arising from a stress relaxation within recrystallized regions, namely twins and fine-grained zones, was shown to be responsible for the generation of microcracks. Based on the I-ECAP experiments and available literature data for ECAP, a power law between the initial grain size and processing conditions, described by a Zener-Hollomon parameter, has been proposed. Finally, processing by various routes at 473 K (200 °C) revealed that route A was less prone to fracture than routes BC and C.

  7. Magnesium Alloy WE43 and WE43-T5 - Mechanical and Thermal Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Chongchen

    Magnesium alloys are promising in aerospace, automotive and electronic industries due to low density, high specific strength and excellent machinability. A rare earth element alloy (WE43) is studied in as cast and heat treated conditions. Multiscale characterization is conducted to understand the nanomechanical response using a nanoindentor and microscale behavior using tensile tests. Further, compressive characterization is conducted across six orders of strain rate magnitudes from 10-3 to 3x103 s -1 under the range of liquid nitrogen (-196°C) to room temperature (25°C). Based on the results, a constitutive model is developed to estimate the plastic behavior of as-cast WE43 and WE43-T5 at different strain rates and under different temperatures. In addition, dynamic properties are studied using a dynamic mechanical analyzer at 1-100 Hz loading frequencies and the temperature range from 35°C to 500°C. Only Yttrium-rich cuboidal phase and zirconium-rich phase were present in WE43-T5 alloy and the eutectic phase was absent. Also, the grain size was reduced due to the hot rolling process. The difference in microstructure reflects into the mechanical properties. WE43-T5 specimens have improved mechanical properties over the as-cast alloy. Two transition temperatures are found at 210 and 250°C based on the storage and loss moduli results. The Mg24Y5 peak is found in the high temperature x-ray diffraction results along with a new Mg12Nd peak at those two temperature points. The corrosion behavior, studied by 7-day immersion in 3.5% NaCl solution, shows that the heat treated alloy has significantly lower corrosion rate than the as-cast alloy due to the absence of the eutectic mixture in the microstructure. With rapidly growing applications of magnesium alloys, particularly with rare earth elements, this study is expected to provide critical data and structure-property correlations that will help the scientific community.

  8. Corrosion behavior of mesoporous bioglass-ceramic coated magnesium alloy under applied forces.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feiyang; Cai, Shu; Xu, Guohua; Shen, Sibo; Li, Yan; Zhang, Min; Wu, Xiaodong

    2016-03-01

    In order to research the corrosion behavior of bioglass-ceramic coated magnesium alloys under applied forces, mesoporous 45S5 bioactive glass-ceramic (45S5 MBGC) coatings were successfully prepared on AZ31 substrates using a sol-gel dip-coating technique followed by a heat treatment at the temperature of 400°C. In this work, corrosion behavior of the coated samples under applied forces was characterized by electrochemical tests and immersion tests in simulated body fluid. Results showed that the glass-ceramic coatings lost the protective effects to the magnesium substrate in a short time when the applied compressive stress was greater than 25MPa, and no crystallized apatite was formed on the surface due to the high Mg(2+) releasing and the peeling off of the coatings. Whereas, under low applied forces, apatite deposition and crystallization on the coating surface repaired cracks to some extent, thus improving the corrosion resistance of the coated magnesium during the long-term immersion period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hybrid organic-inorganic coatings including nanocontainers for corrosion protection of magnesium alloy ZK30

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartsonakis, I. A.; Koumoulos, E. P.; Charitidis, C. A.; Kordas, G.

    2013-08-01

    This study is focused on the fabrication, characterization, and application of corrosion protective coatings to magnesium alloy ZK30. Hybrid organic-inorganic coatings were synthesized using organic-modified silicates together with resins based on bisphenol A diglycidyl ether. Cerium molybdate nanocontainers (ncs) with diameter 100 ± 20 nm were loaded with corrosion inhibitor 2-mercaptobenzothiazole and incorporated into the coatings in order to improve their anticorrosion properties. The coatings were investigated for their anticorrosion and nanomechanical properties. The morphology of the coatings was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The composition was estimated by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The mechanical integrity of the coatings was studied through nanoindentation and nanoscratch techniques. Scanning probe microscope imaging of the coatings revealed that the addition of ncs creates surface incongruity; however, the hardness to modulus ratio revealed significant strengthening of the coating with increase of ncs. Studies on their corrosion behavior in 0.5 M sodium chloride solutions at room temperature were made using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Artificial defects were formatted on the surface of the films in order for possible self-healing effects to be evaluated. The results showed that the coated magnesium alloys exhibited only capacitive response after exposure to corrosive environment for 16 months. This behavior denotes that the coatings have enhanced barrier properties and act as an insulator. Finally, the scratched coatings revealed a partial recovery due to the increase of charge-transfer resistance as the immersion time elapsed.

  10. Fiber laser micromachining of magnesium alloy tubes for biocompatible and biodegradable cardiovascular stents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, Ali Gökhan; Previtali, Barbara; Colombo, Daniele; Ge, Qiang; Vedani, Maurizio; Petrini, Lorenza; Wu, Wei; Biffi, Carlo Alberto

    2012-02-01

    Magnesium alloys constitute an attractive solution for cardiovascular stent applications due to their intrinsic properties of biocompatibility and relatively low corrosion resistance in human-body fluids, which results in as a less intrusive treatment. Laser micromachining is the conventional process used to cut the stent mesh, which plays the key role for the accurate reproduction of the mesh design and the surface quality of the produced stent that are important factors in ensuring the mechanical and corrosion resistance properties of such a kind of devices. Traditionally continuous or pulsed laser systems working in microsecond pulse regime are employed for stent manufacturing. Pulsed fiber lasers on the other hand, are a relatively new solution which could balance productivity and quality aspects with shorter ns pulse durations and pulse energies in the order of mJ. This work reports the study of laser micromachining and of AZ31 magnesium alloy for the manufacturing of cardiovascular stents with a novel mesh design. A pulsed active fiber laser system operating in nanosecond pulse regime was employed for the micromachining. Laser parameters were studied for tubular cutting on a common stent material, AISI 316L tubes with 2 mm in diameter and 0.2 mm in thickness and on AZ31 tubes with 2.5 mm in diameter and 0.2 in thickness. In both cases process parameters conditions were examined for reactive and inert gas cutting solutions and the final stent quality is compared.

  11. Manufacture of gradient micro-structures of magnesium alloys using two stage extrusion dies

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Yeong-Maw; Huang, Tze-Hui; Alexandrov, Sergei

    2013-12-16

    This paper aims to manufacture magnesium alloy metals with gradient micro-structures using hot extrusion process. The extrusion die was designed to have a straight channel part combined with a conical part. Materials pushed through this specially-designed die generate a non-uniform velocity distribution at cross sections inside the die and result in different strain and strain rate distributions. Accordingly, a gradient microstructure product can be obtained. Using the finite element analysis, the forming temperature, effective strain, and effective strain rate distributions at the die exit were firstly discussed for various inclination angles in the conical die. Then, hot extrusion experiments withmore » a two stage die were conducted to obtain magnesium alloy products with gradient micro-structures. The effects of the inclination angle on the grain size distribution at cross sections of the products were also discussed. Using a die of an inclination angle of 15°, gradient micro-structures of the grain size decreasing gradually from 17 μm at the center to 4 μm at the edge of product were achieved.« less

  12. Unraveling cyclic deformation mechanisms of a rolled magnesium alloy using in situ neutron diffraction

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Wei; An, Ke; Liaw, Peter K.

    2014-12-23

    In the current study, the deformation mechanisms of a rolled magnesium alloy were investigated under cyclic loading using real-time in situ neutron diffraction under a continuous-loading condition. The relationship between the macroscopic cyclic deformation behavior and the microscopic response at the grain level was established. The neutron diffraction results indicate that more and more grains are involved in the twinning and detwinning deformation process with the increase of fatigue cycles. The residual twins appear in the early fatigue life, which is responsible for the cyclic hardening behavior. The asymmetric shape of the hysteresis loop is attributed to the early exhaustionmore » of the detwinning process during compression, which leads to the activation of dislocation slips and rapid strain-hardening. The critical resolved shear stress for the activation of tensile twinning closely depends on the residual strain developed during cyclic loading. In the cycle before the sample fractured, the dislocation slips became active in tension, although the sample was not fully twinned. The increased dislocation density leads to the rise of the stress concentration at weak spots, which is believed to be the main reason for the fatigue failure. Furthermore, the deformation history greatly influences the deformation mechanisms of hexagonal-close-packed-structured magnesium alloy during cyclic loading.« less

  13. Stamping of Thin-Walled Structural Components with Magnesium Alloy AZ31 Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fuh-Kuo; Chang, Chih-Kun

    2005-08-01

    In the present study, the stamping process for manufacturing cell phone cases with magnesium alloy AZ31 sheets was studied using both the experimental approach and the finite element analysis. In order to determine the proper forming temperature and set up a fracture criterion, tensile tests and forming limit tests were first conducted to obtain the mechanical behaviors of AZ31 sheets at various elevated temperatures. The mechanical properties of Z31 sheets obtained from the experiments were then adopted in the finite element analysis to investigate the effects of the process parameters on the formability of the stamping process of cell phone cases. The finite element simulation results revealed that both the fracture and wrinkle defects could not be eliminated at the same time by adjusting blank-holder force or blank size. A drawbead design was then performed using the finite element simulations to determine the size and the location of drawbead required to suppress the wrinkle defect. An optimum stamping process, including die geometry, forming temperature, and blank dimension, was then determined for manufacturing the cell phone cases. The finite element analysis was validated by the good agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data. It confirms that the cell phone cases can be produced with magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet by the stamping process at elevated temperatures.

  14. Experimental investigation of anisotropy evolution of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets under tensile loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tari, D. Ghaffari; Worswick, M. J.

    2011-05-01

    Increasing demand for lighter final products has created new opportunities for the application of new light weight materials. Due to high strength to density ratio and good magnetic resistance properties, magnesium alloys are good candidates to replace steel and aluminum for same application. However, limited numbers of active slip deformation mechanisms, result in a decreased formability at room temperature. Furthermore, wrought magnesium alloys have an initial crystallographic texture, remained from the prior rolling operations, which makes them highly anisotropic. In this paper, tensile tests are performed at room temperature and 200° C at different strain rates and orientations relative to the rolling direction, including rolling, 30°, 45°, 60° and transverse orientation. The strain rates adopted for these experiments varied from 0.001 to 1.0. The testing results show the effect of temperature on the strain rate sensitivity of AZ31 sheets. The extent of deformation is continuously recorded using two separate high temperature extensometers. The results of testing show an increase in the r-values with the plastic deformation. The strain rate sensitivity of AZ31 increased as the temperature was elevated. At higher strain rates the measured r-values are larger and the slope of its evolution with the plastic strain is steeper.

  15. Deformation and spallation of a magnesium alloy under high strain rate loading

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.; Lu, L.; Li, C.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate deformation and damage of a magnesium alloy, AZ91, under high strain rate (similar to 10(5) s(-1)) loading via planar impact. The soft-recovered specimens are examined with electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD). EBSD analysis reveals three types of twinning: {1012} extension, {10 (1) over bar1} contraction, and {10 (1) over bar1}-{10 (1) over bar2) double twinning, and their number density increases with increasing impact velocity. The extension twins dominate contraction and double twins in size and number. Dislocation densities of the recovered specimens are evaluated with x-ray diffraction, and increase with increasing impact velocity. X-ray tomography is used to resolvemore » three-dimensional microstructure of shock-recovered samples. The EBSD and tomography results demonstrate that the second phase, Mg17Al12, plays an important role in both deformation twinning and tensile cracking. Deformation twinning appears to be a common mechanism in deformation of magnesium alloys at low, medium and high strain rates, in addition to dislocation motion. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.« less

  16. Surface modification of steels and magnesium alloy by high current pulsed electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Shengzhi; Gao, Bo; Wu, Aimin; Zou, Jianxin; Qin, Ying; Dong, Chuang; An, Jian; Guan, Qingfeng

    2005-11-01

    High current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) is now developing as a useful tool for surface modification of materials. When concentrated electron flux transferring its energy into a very thin surface layer within a short pulse time, superfast processes such as heating, melting, evaporation and consequent solidification, as well as dynamic stress induced may impart the surface layer with improved physico-chemical and mechanical properties. This paper presents our research work on surface modification of steels and magnesium alloy with HCPEB of working parameters as electron energy 27 keV, pulse duration ∼1 μs and energy density ∼2.2 J/cm2 per pulse. Investigations performed on carbon steel T8, mold steel D2 and magnesium alloy AZ91HP have shown that the most pronounced changes of phase-structure state and properties occurring in the near-surface layers, while the thickness of the modified layer with improved microhardness (several hundreds of micrometers) is significantly greater than that of the heat-affected zone. The formation mechanisms of surface cratering and non-stationary hardening effect in depth are discussed based on the elucidation of non-equilibrium temperature filed and different kinds of stresses formed during pulsed electron beam melting treatment. After the pulsed electron beam treatments, samples show significant improvements in measurements of wear and corrosion resistance.

  17. Flow behaviour of magnesium alloy AZ31B processed by equal-channel angular pressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arun, M. S.; Chakkingal, U.

    2014-08-01

    Magnesium alloys are characterised by their low density, high specific strength and stiffness. But, the potential application of Mg is limited by its low room-temperature ductility & formability. Formability can be improved by developing an ultrafine grained (UFG) structure. Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) is a well known process that can be used to develop an ultrafine grained microstructure. The aim of this study was to investigate the flow behaviour of AZ31B magnesium alloy after ECAP. The specimen was subjected to three passes of ECAP with a die angle of 120° using processing route Bc. The processing temperature was 523 K for the first pass and 423 K for the subsequent two passes. The microstructure characterisation was done. Compression tests of ECAPed and annealed specimens were carried out at strain rates of 0.01 - 1s-1 and deformation temperatures of 200 - 300°C using computer servo-controlled Gleeble-3800 system. The value of activation energy Q and the empirical materials constants of A and n were determined. The equations relating flow stress and Zener-Hollomon parameter were proposed. In the case annealed AZ31, the activation energy was determined to be 154 kJ/mol, which was slightly higher than the activation energy of 144 kJ/mol for ECAPed AZ31.

  18. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy Processed by I-ECAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gzyl, Michal; Rosochowski, Andrzej; Pesci, Raphael; Olejnik, Lech; Yakushina, Evgenia; Wood, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Incremental equal channel angular pressing (I-ECAP) is a severe plastic deformation process used to refine grain size of metals, which allows processing very long billets. As described in the current article, an AZ31B magnesium alloy was processed for the first time by three different routes of I-ECAP, namely, A, BC, and C, at 523 K (250 °C). The structure of the material was homogenized and refined to ~5 microns of the average grain size, irrespective of the route used. Mechanical properties of the I-ECAPed samples in tension and compression were investigated. Strong influence of the processing route on yield and fracture behavior of the material was established. It was found that texture controls the mechanical properties of AZ31B magnesium alloy subjected to I-ECAP. SEM and OM techniques were used to obtain microstructural images of the I-ECAPed samples subjected to tension and compression. Increased ductility after I-ECAP was attributed to twinning suppression and facilitation of slip on basal plane. Shear bands were revealed in the samples processed by I-ECAP and subjected to tension. Tension-compression yield stress asymmetry in the samples tested along extrusion direction was suppressed in the material processed by routes BC and C. This effect was attributed to textural development and microstructural homogenization. Twinning activities in fine- and coarse-grained samples have also been studied.

  19. Effect of severe plastic deformation on microstructure of squeeze-cast magnesium alloy AZ31 plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, Kai Soon; Tan, Ming Jen; Atsushi, Danno; Chua, Beng Wah; Ho, Meng Kwong

    2016-10-01

    High cost and poor room temperature formability of magnesium alloy sheet are the key factors that limit its application as a feedstock material for press forming. Production of Mg plates by squeeze casting with further processing by severe plastic deformation (SPD) is a potential method to reduce cost and improve formability. In this study, AZ31 Mg plate of dimension 96×96×4 mm was successfully produced by squeeze casting, using a novel melt transfer technique, at a forging force and speed of 180 Ton and 200 mm/sec respectively. The effect of severe plastic deformation (SPD) using groove pressing on the mechanical properties of squeeze-casted Mg plate after partial homogenization was subsequently investigated. Observation of the microstructure after two cycles of groove pressing, under decreasing temperature from 543K to 493K, shows a significant grain refinement from 39 to 4.7 µm. The Vickers hardness increased by approximately 25% from 56 to 74.1 which suggests an improvement in mechanical strength as a result of both the grain refinement and work hardening. The result shows that squeeze casting combined with groove pressing is potentially an effective method for preparation of thin magnesium alloy plate with fine-grained structure and improved mechanical properties.

  20. High-Speed Rolling of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Having Different Initial Textures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onuki, Yusuke; Hara, Kenichiro; Utsunomiya, Hiroshi; Szpunar, Jerzy A.

    2015-02-01

    It is known that magnesium alloys can be rolled up to a large thickness reduction and develop a unique texture when the rolling speed is high (>1000 m/min). In order to understand the texture formation mechanism during high-strain-rate deformation, high-speed rolling of AZ31 magnesium alloy samples having different initial textures was conducted. The main components of the textures after the rolling were the RD-split basal, which consisted of 10°-20° inclining basal poles from the normal direction toward the rolling direction of the sheet, regardless of the different initial textures. With preheating at 473 K, all the samples were rolled without cracking while all were cracked when preheating was not applied. The optical micrographs and EBSD measurements showed a significant amount of twins and the cracks that developed along the shear bands consisted with laminated twins. Based on the texture simulation using the visco-plastic self-consistent model, it is concluded that the rapid development of the RD-split basal component from the initial basal alignment along the transverse direction was attributable to the tension twinning, The effect of the initial texture on the crack formation can be explained by the activation of the twinning system.

  1. Effects of the types of overlap on the mechanical properties of FSSW welded AZ series magnesium alloy joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dan; Shen, Jun; Wang, Lin-Zhi

    2012-03-01

    The effects of the types of overlap on the mechanical properties of the friction stir spot welding (FSSW) welded AZ series magnesium alloy joints were investigated by microstructural observations, microhardness tests, and tensile tests. The results show that the microstructure of the stir zone adjacent to the periphery of the rotating pin is mainly composed of the upper sheet. The average distance D between the longitudinal segment of the curved interface and the keyhole periphery, the tensile shear force, and the microhardness of the stir zone of the FSSW welded AZ61 alloy joint are the highest in all samples. During FSSW of AZ31 and AZ61 dissimilar magnesium alloys, the irregular deformation of the longitudinal segment of the curved interface appears, while the microhardness of the stir zone is higher when AZ61 alloy is the upper sheet. Moreover, the microhardness of the stir zone increases initially and then decreases sharply in the longitudinal test position.

  2. Microstructure and Properties of Cobalt-and Zinc-Containing Magnetic Magnesium Alloys Processed by High-Pressure Die Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, Christian; Demminger, Christian; Maier, Hans Jürgen

    The inherent magnetic properties of lightweight alloys based on magnesium and cobalt offer a novel way in order to measure mechanical loads throughout the entire structural component using the magnetoelastic effect. Because the solubility of cobalt in the magnesium matrix is negligible, the magnetic properties mainly originate from Co-rich precipitates. Thus, the size and distribution of Co-containing phases within the alloy's microstructure wields a major influence on the amplitude of the load-sensitive properties which can be measured by employing the harmonic analysis of eddy-current signals. In this study, Mg-Co-based alloys are produced by several casting methods which allow the application of different cooling rates, e.g. gravity die casting and high-pressure die casting. The differences between the manufactured alloys' micro- and phase structures are compared depending on the applied cooling rate and the superior magnetic and mechanical properties of the high-pressure die cast material are demonstrated.

  3. Biocorrosion behavior and cell viability of adhesive polymer coated magnesium based alloys for medical implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdal-hay, Abdalla; Dewidar, Montasser; Lim, Jae Kyoo

    2012-11-01

    The present study was ultimately aimed to design novel adhesive biodegradable polymer, poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc), coatings onto Mg based alloys by the dip-coating technique in order to control the degradation rate and enhance the biocompatibility of magnesium alloys. The influence of various solvents on PVAc surface topography and their protection of Mg alloys were dramatically studied in vitro. Electrochemical polarization, degradation, and PVAc film cytocompatibility were also tested. Our results showed that the solvent had a significant effect on coating quality. PVAc/dichloromethane solution showed a porous structure and solution concentration could control the porous size. The coatings prepared using tetrahydrofuran and dimethylformamide solvents are exceptional in their ability to generate porous morphology even at low polymer concentration. In general, the corrosion performance appears to be different on different PVAc-solvent system. Immersion tests illustrated that the porous morphology on PVAc stabilized corrosion rates. A uniform corrosion attack in artificial simulation body fluid was also exhibited. The cytocompatibility of osteoblast cells (MC3T3) revealed high adherence, proliferation, and survival on the porous structure of PVAc coated Mg alloy, which was not observed for the uncoated samples. This novel PVAc coating is a promising candidate for biodegradable implant materials, which might widen the use of Mg based implants.

  4. Effect of ECAP processing on corrosion resistance of AE21 and AE42 magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minárik, P.; Král, R.; Janeček, M.

    2013-09-01

    Corrosion properties of AE21 and AE42 magnesium alloys were investigated in the extruded state and after subsequent 8 passes of Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) via route Bc, by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) in 0.1 M NaCl solution. The resulting microstructure was observed by the Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Corrosion layer created after 7 days of immersion was observed by (SEM) in order to explain different evolution of the corrosion resistance after ECAP processing in both alloys. It was found that Al-rich Al11RE3 dispersed particles (present in both alloys) strongly influence the corrosion process and enhance the corrosion resistance. Ultra-fine grained structure was found to reduce the corrosion resistance in AE21. On the other hand, the microstructure of AE42 after ECAP and particularly the better distribution of the alloying elements in the matrix enhance the corrosion resistance when compared to the extruded material.

  5. Microstructure characterization of LAE442 magnesium alloy processed by extrusion and ECAP

    SciTech Connect

    Minárik, Peter; Král, Robert; Pešička, Josef

    2016-02-15

    The magnesium alloy LAE442 was processed by extrusion and equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) to achieve ultrafine grained microstructure. Detailed characterization of the microstructure was performed by scanning electron microscope, electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscope. The initial, as-cast, microstructure consisted of large grains of ~ 1 mm. The grain refinement due to the processing by severe plastic deformation led to a decrease of the average grain size to ~ 1.7 μm after the final step of ECAP. A detailed characterization of secondary phases showed the precipitation of Al{sub 11}RE{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}Ca and Al{sub 10}RE{sub 2}Mn{submore » 7} intermetallic phases. X-ray diffraction measurements proved that Li is dissolved within the magnesium matrix in the as-cast condition. Newly formed Al{sub 3}Li phase was observed after ECAP. The texture formation due to the extrusion and ECAP was different from that in the other magnesium alloys due to the activation of non-basal slip systems as a result of the decrease of the c/a ratio. - Highlights: • Combined extrusion and equal channel angular pressing results in significant grain refinement by factor 1000 approximately. • Al{sub 11}RE{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}Ca and Al{sub 10}RE{sub 2}Mn{sub 7} secondary phases are present in the as-cast material while Li was dissolved in the Mg matrix. • Extrusion and ECAP have no effect on the composition of the secondary phases but they influence strongly their distribution. • Texture evolution is affected by decrease of c/a ratio due to the presence of Li and resulting activation of non-basal slip.« less

  6. Nanostructured calcium phosphate coatings on magnesium alloys: characterization and cytocompatibility with mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Maria Emil; Aslani, Arash; Tian, Qiaomu; Liu, Huinan

    2015-05-01

    This article reports the deposition and characterization of nanostructured calcium phosphate (nCaP) on magnesium-yttrium alloy substrates and their cytocompatibility with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). The nCaP coatings were deposited on magnesium and magnesium-yttrium alloy substrates using proprietary transonic particle acceleration process for the dual purposes of modulating substrate degradation and BMSC adhesion. Surface morphology and feature size were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and quantitative image analysis tools. Surface elemental compositions and phases were analyzed using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The deposited nCaP coatings showed a homogeneous particulate surface with the dominant feature size of 200-500 nm in the long axis and 100-300 nm in the short axis, and a Ca/P atomic ratio of 1.5-1.6. Hydroxyapatite was the major phase identified in the nCaP coatings. The modulatory effects of nCaP coatings on the sample degradation and BMSC behaviors were dependent on the substrate composition and surface conditions. The direct culture of BMSCs in vitro indicated that multiple factors, including surface composition and topography, and the degradation-induced changes in media composition, influenced cell adhesion directly on the sample surface, and indirect adhesion surrounding the sample in the same culture. The alkaline pH, the indicator of Mg degradation, played a role in BMSC adhesion and morphology, but not the sole factor. Additional studies are necessary to elucidate BMSC responses to each contributing factor.

  7. Wear Resistance Increase by Friction Stir Processing for Partial Magnesium Replacement in Aluminium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balos, Sebastian; Labus Zlatanovic, Danka; Janjatovic, Petar; Dramicanin, Miroslav; Rajnovic, Dragan; Sidjanin, Leposava

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the influence of friction stir processing (FSP) was evaluated as a way of increasing mechanical properties and a way of replacing the magnesium content in aluminium alloys. FSP was done on AA5754 H111 aluminium alloy, containing 3 % Mg, by using various types of tools and different welding speeds, rotational speeds and tilt angles. Wear test was done against SiC abrasive papers. SiC was used to simulate extreme abrasive wear conditions. The wear test was done on untreated AA5754 specimens, processed AA5754 specimens and untreated AA5083 H111 specimens, the latter containing 4.5 % Mg. AA5083 was chosen as an alternative to AA5754, but with a significantly higher Mg content. Base material microhardness was 60 HV1 and 80 HV1 for AA5754 and AA5083 alloys respectively. To find the effect of FSP on AA5754 alloy, microstructures were studied, mainly grain size in the stir zone. It was found, that an elevated processing and rotational speed, without tilt angle and the tool without a reservoir resulted in an increase in hardness of the AA5754 to 70 HV1, but with the occurrence of tunneling defect and the wear rate of 79.3 mg. Lower FSP parameters and a tilted tool with a reservoir resulted in microhardness of 68 HV1 and wear rate of 68.2 mg without tunneling. These wear values are lower than those obtained with unmodified Al-alloys: AA5754 97.2 mg and AA5083 86.3 mg. An increased wear resistance can be attributed to the combined effect of grain boundary strengthening mechanism and solid solution strengthening, versus only the latter in untreated alloys.

  8. Bio-Adaption between Magnesium Alloy Stent and the Blood Vessel: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun; Zhao, Nan; Betts, Lexxus; Zhu, Donghui

    2016-09-01

    Biodegradable magnesium (Mg) alloy stents are the most promising next generation of bio-absorbable stents. In this article, we summarized the progresses on the in vitro studies, animal testing and clinical trials of biodegradable Mg alloy stents in the past decades. These exciting findings led us to propose the importance of the concept "bio-adaption" between the Mg alloy stent and the local tissue microenvironment after implantation. The healing responses of stented blood vessel can be generally described in three overlapping phases: inflammation, granulation and remodeling. The ideal bio-adaption of the Mg alloy stent, once implanted into the blood vessel, needs to be a reasonable function of the time and the space/dimension. First, a very slow degeneration of mechanical support is expected in the initial four months in order to provide sufficient mechanical support to the injured vessels. Although it is still arguable whether full mechanical support in stented lesions is mandatory during the first four months after implantation, it would certainly be a safety design parameter and a benchmark for regulatory evaluations based on the fact that there is insufficient human in vivo data available, especially the vessel wall mechanical properties during the healing/remodeling phase. Second, once the Mg alloy stent being degraded, the void space will be filled by the regenerated blood vessel tissues. The degradation of the Mg alloy stent should be 100% completed with no residues, and the degradation products (e.g., ions and hydrogen) will be helpful for the tissue reconstruction of the blood vessel. Toward this target, some future research perspectives are also discussed.

  9. Bio-Adaption between Magnesium Alloy Stent and the Blood Vessel: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jun; Zhao, Nan; Betts, Lexxus; Zhu, Donghui

    2016-01-01

    Biodegradable magnesium (Mg) alloy stents are the most promising next generation of bio-absorbable stents. In this article, we summarized the progresses on the in vitro studies, animal testing and clinical trials of biodegradable Mg alloy stents in the past decades. These exciting findings led us to propose the importance of the concept “bio-adaption” between the Mg alloy stent and the local tissue microenvironment after implantation. The healing responses of stented blood vessel can be generally described in three overlapping phases: inflammation, granulation and remodeling. The ideal bio-adaption of the Mg alloy stent, once implanted into the blood vessel, needs to be a reasonable function of the time and the space/dimension. First, a very slow degeneration of mechanical support is expected in the initial four months in order to provide sufficient mechanical support to the injured vessels. Although it is still arguable whether full mechanical support in stented lesions is mandatory during the first four months after implantation, it would certainly be a safety design parameter and a benchmark for regulatory evaluations based on the fact that there is insufficient human in vivo data available, especially the vessel wall mechanical properties during the healing/remodeling phase. Second, once the Mg alloy stent being degraded, the void space will be filled by the regenerated blood vessel tissues. The degradation of the Mg alloy stent should be 100% completed with no residues, and the degradation products (e.g., ions and hydrogen) will be helpful for the tissue reconstruction of the blood vessel. Toward this target, some future research perspectives are also discussed. PMID:27698548

  10. Characterization of coatings formed on AZX magnesium alloys by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anawati, Anawati; Gumelar, Muhammad Dikdik

    2018-05-01

    Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) is an electrochemical anodization process which involves the application of a high voltage to create intense plasma on a metal surface to form a ceramic type of oxide. The resulted coating exhibits high wear resistance and good corrosion barrier which are suitable to enhance the performance of biodegradable Mg alloys. In this work, the role of alloying element Ca in modifying the characteristics of PEO layer formed on AZ61 series magnesium alloys was investigated. PEO treatment was conducted on AZ61, AZX611, and AZX612 alloys in 0.5 M Na3PO4 solution at a constant current of 200 A/m2 at 25°C for 8 min. The resulted coatings were characterized by field emission-scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), as well as hardness test. The presence of alloying element Ca in the AZ61 alloys accelerated the PEO coatings formation without altering the coating properties significantly. The coating formed on AZX specimen was slightly thicker ( 14-17 µm) than that of formed onthe AZ specimens ( 13 µm). Longer exposure time to plasma discharge was the reason for faster thickening of the coating layer on AZX specimen. XRD detected a similar crystalline oxide phase of Mg3(PO4)2 in the oxide formed on all of the specimens. Zn was highly incorporated in the coatings with a concentration in the range 24-30 wt%, as analyzed by XRF. Zn compound might exist in amorphous phases. The microhardness test on the coatings revealed similar average hardness 124 HVon all of the specimens.

  11. Cytocompatibility of magnesium and AZ31 alloy with three types of cell lines using a direct in vitro method.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Akira; Yahata, Chie; Takai, Hung

    2016-09-01

    Magnesium alloys have been investigated by many researchers as a new absorbable biomaterial owing to their excellent degradability with non-maleficence or low-maleficence in living tissues. In the present work, the in vitro cytocompatibility of an Magnesium alloy was investigated by culturing cells directly on it. Investigations were carried out in terms of the cell viability along with the use of scanning electron microscopy to observe its morphology. The cell lines used were derived from fibroblast, endothelial, and smooth muscle cells. Pure magnesium and AZ31 alloy composed of magnesium (96 %), aluminum (3 %), and zinc (1 %) were adopted as models. The viability of cells on the metal samples and on the margin area of a multi-well plate was investigated. For direct culturing on metal, a depression in the viability and morphologically stressed cells were observed. In addition, the cell viability was also depressed for the margin area. To clarify the factors causing the negative effects, the amount of eluted metal ions and pH changes in the medium because of the erosion of the Magnesium samples were investigated, together with the cytotoxicity of sole metal ions corresponding to the composition of the metals. It was found that Mg(2+), Zn(2+), and Al(3+) ions were less toxic at the investigated concentrations, and that these factors will not produce negative effects on cells. Consequently, these factors cannot fully explain the results.

  12. Effect of Tricalcium Magnesium Silicate Coating on the Electrochemical and Biological Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Hadipour, Mohammadreza; Nadernezhad, Ali; Aghaie, Ermia; Behnamian, Yashar; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, a sol-gel-synthesized tricalcium magnesium silicate powder was coated on Ti-6Al-4V alloys using plasma spray method. Composition of feed powder was evaluated by X-ray diffraction technique before and after the coating process. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to study the morphology of coated substrates. The corrosion behaviors of bare and coated Ti-6Al-4V alloys were examined using potentiodynamic polarization test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in stimulated body fluids. Moreover, bare and coated Ti-6Al-4V alloys were characterized in vitro by culturing osteoblast and mesenchymal stem cells for several days. Results demonstrated a meaningful improvement in the corrosion resistance of Ti-6Al-4V alloys coated with tricalcium magnesium silicate compared with the bare counterparts, by showing a decrease in corrosion current density from 1.84 μA/cm2 to 0.31 μA/cm2. Furthermore, the coating substantially improved the bioactivity of Ti-6Al-4Valloys. Our study on corrosion behavior and biological response of Ti-6Al-4V alloy coated by tricalcium magnesium silicate proved that the coating has considerably enhanced safety and applicability of Ti-6Al-4V alloys, suggesting its potential use in permanent implants and artificial joints. PMID:26383641

  13. Influence of shot peening on corrosion properties of biocompatible magnesium alloy AZ31 coated by dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD).

    PubMed

    Mhaede, Mansour; Pastorek, Filip; Hadzima, Branislav

    2014-06-01

    Magnesium alloys are promising materials for biomedical applications because of many outstanding properties like biodegradation, bioactivity and their specific density and Young's modulus are closer to bone than the commonly used metallic implant materials. Unfortunately their fatigue properties and low corrosion resistance negatively influenced their application possibilities in the field of biomedicine. These problems could be diminished through appropriate surface treatments. This study evaluates the influence of a surface pre-treatment by shot peening and shot peening+coating on the corrosion properties of magnesium alloy AZ31. The dicalcium phosphate dihydrate coating (DCPD) was electrochemically deposited in a solution containing 0.1M Ca(NO3)2, 0.06M NH4H2PO4 and 10mL/L of H2O2. The effect of shot peening on the surface properties of magnesium alloy was evaluated by microhardness and surface roughness measurements. The influence of the shot peening and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate layer on the electrochemical characteristics of AZ31 magnesium alloy was evaluated by potentiodynamic measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 0.9% NaCl solution at a temperature of 22±1°C. The obtained results were analyzed by the Tafel-extrapolation method and equivalent circuit method. The results showed that the application of shot peening process followed by DCPD coating improves the properties of the AZ31 surface from corrosion and mechanical point of view. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Magnesium alloy covered stent for treatment of a lateral aneurysm model in rabbit common carotid artery: An in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wu; Wang, Yong-Li; Chen, Mo; Chen, Liang; Zhang, Jian; Li, Yong-Dong; Li, Ming-Hua; Yuan, Guang-Yin

    2016-11-01

    Magnesium alloy covered stents have rarely been used in the common carotid artery (CCA). We evaluated the long-term efficacy of magnesium alloy covered stents in a lateral aneurysm model in rabbit CCA. Magnesium alloy covered stents (group A, n = 7) or Willis covered stents (group B, n = 5) were inserted in 12 New Zealand White rabbits and they were followed up for 12 months. The long-term feasibility for aneurysm occlusion was studied through angiograms; the changes in vessel area and lumen area were assessed with IVUS. Complete aneurysmal occlusion was achieved in all aneurysms. Angiography showed that the diameter of the stented CCA in group A at 6 and 12 months was significantly greater than the diameter immediately after stent placement. On intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) examination, the mean lumen area of the stented CCA in group A was significantly greater at 6 and 12 months than that immediately after stent placement; the mean lumen area was also significantly greater in group A than in group B at the same time points. The magnesium alloy covered stents proved to be an effective approach for occlusion of lateral aneurysm in the rabbit CCA; it provides distinct advantages that are comparable to that obtained with the Willis covered stent.

  15. Comparative study on the biodegradation and biocompatibility of silicate bioceramic coatings on biodegradable magnesium alloy as biodegradable biomaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, M.; Fathi, M. H.; Savabi, O.; Razavi, S. M.; Hashemibeni, B.; Yazdimamaghani, M.; Vashaee, D.; Tayebi, L.

    2014-03-01

    Many clinical cases as well as in vivo and in vitro assessments have demonstrated that magnesium alloys possess good biocompatibility. Unfortunately, magnesium and its alloys degrade too quickly in physiological media. In order to improve the biodegradation resistance and biocompatibility of a biodegradable magnesium alloy, we have prepared three types of coating include diopside (CaMgSi2O6), akermanite (Ca2MgSi2O6) and bredigite (Ca7MgSi4O16) coating on AZ91 magnesium alloy through a micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. In this research, the biodegradation and biocompatibility behavior of samples were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro analysis was performed by cytocompatibility and MTT-assay and the in vivo test was conducted on the implantation of samples in the greater trochanter of adult rabbits. The results showed that diopside coating has the best bone regeneration and bredigite has the best biodegradation resistance compared to others.

  16. Influence of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria on the Corrosion Residual Strength of an AZ91D Magnesium Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xianyong; Liu, Yaohui; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Jiaan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the corrosion residual strength of the AZ91D magnesium alloy in the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria is studied. In the experiments, the chemical composition of corrosion film was analyzed by a scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. In addition, a series of instruments, such as scanning electronic microscope, pH-meter and an AG-10TA materials test machine, were applied to test and record the morphology of the corrosion product, fracture texture and mechanical properties of the AZ91D magnesium alloy. The experiments show that the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) play an important role in the corrosion process of the AZ91D magnesium alloy. Pitting corrosion was enhanced by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Corrosion pits are important defects that could lead to a significant stress concentration in the tensile process. As a result, sulfate-reducing bacteria influence the corrosion residual strength of the AZ91D magnesium alloy by accelerating pitting corrosion. PMID:28788236

  17. Systematic understanding of corrosion behavior of plasma electrolytic oxidation treated AZ31 magnesium alloy using a mouse model of subcutaneous implant.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yongseok; Tan, Zongqing; Jurey, Chris; Collins, Boyce; Badve, Aditya; Dong, Zhongyun; Park, Chanhee; Kim, Cheol Sang; Sankar, Jagannathan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to identify the differences between corrosion rates, corrosion types, and corrosion products in different physiological environments for AZ31 magnesium alloy and plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) treated AZ31 magnesium alloy. In vitro and in vivo tests were performed in Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) and mice for 12 weeks, respectively. The corrosion rates of both AZ31 magnesium alloy and PEO treated AZ31 magnesium alloy were calculated based on DC polarization curves, volume of hydrogen evolution, and the thickness of corrosion products formed on the surface. Micro X-ray computed tomography (Micro-CT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to analyze morphological and chemical characterizations of corrosion products. The results show that there is more severe localized corrosion after in vitro test in HBSS; however, the thicknesses of corrosion products formed on the surface for AZ31 magnesium alloy and PEO treated AZ31 magnesium alloy in vivo were about 40% thicker than the thickness of corrosion products generated in vitro. The ratio of Ca and P (Ca/P) in the corrosion products also differed. The Ca deficient region and higher content of Al in corrosion product than AZ31 magnesium alloy were identified after in vivo test in contrast with the result of in vitro test. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Increased corrosion resistance of the AZ80 magnesium alloy by rapid solidification.

    PubMed

    Aghion, E; Jan, L; Meshi, L; Goldman, J

    2015-11-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and Mg-alloys are being considered as implantable biometals. Despite their excellent biocompatibility and good mechanical properties, their rapid corrosion is a major impediment precluding their widespread acceptance as implantable biomaterials. Here, we investigate the potential for rapid solidification to increase the corrosion resistance of Mg alloys. To this end, the effect of rapid solidification on the environmental and stress corrosion behavior of the AZ80 Mg alloy vs. its conventionally cast counterpart was evaluated in simulated physiological electrolytes. The microstructural characteristics were examined by optical microscopy, SEM, TEM, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The corrosion behavior was evaluated by immersion, salt spraying, and potentiodynamic polarization. Stress corrosion resistance was assessed by Slow Strain Rate Testing. The results indicate that the corrosion resistance of rapidly solidified ribbons is significantly improved relative to the conventional cast alloy due to the increased Al content dissolved in the α-Mg matrix and the correspondingly reduced presence of the β-phase (Mg17 Al12 ). Unfortunately, extrusion consolidated solidified ribbons exhibited a substantial reduction in the environmental performance and stress corrosion resistance. This was mainly attributed to the detrimental effect of the extrusion process, which enriched the iron impurities and increased the internal stresses by imposing a higher dislocation density. In terms of immersion tests, the average corrosion rate of the rapidly solidified ribbons was <0.4 mm/year compared with ∼2 mm/year for the conventionally cast alloy and 26 mm/year for the rapidly solidified extruded ribbons. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Dealloying, Microstructure and the Corrosion/Protection of Cast Magnesium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Sieradzki, Karl; Aiello, Ashlee; McCue, Ian

    The purpose of this project was to develop a greater understanding of micro-galvanic corrosion effects in cast magnesium alloys using both experimental and computational methods. Experimental accomplishments have been made in the following areas of interest: characterization, aqueous free-corrosion, atmospheric corrosion, ionic liquid dissolution, rate kinetics of oxide dissolution, and coating investigation. Commercial alloys (AZ91D, AM60, and AZ31B), binary-phase alloys (αMg-2at.%Al, αMg-5at.%Al, and Mg-8at.%Al), and component phases (Mg, Al, β-Mg, β-1%Zn, MnAl3) were obtained and characterized using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Full immersion in aqueous chloride was used to characterize the corrosionmore » behavior of alloys. Rotating disc electrodes (RDEs) were used to observe accelerated long-term corrosion behavior. Al surface redistribution for freely corroded samples was analyzed using SEM, EDS, and lithium underpotential deposition (Li UPD). Atmospheric corrosion was observed using contact angle evolution, overnight pH monitoring, and surface pH evolution studies. Ionic liquid corrosion characterization was performed using linear sweep voltammetry and potentiostatic dissolution in 150° choline chloride-urea (cc-urea). Two surface coatings were investigated: (1) Li-carbonate and (2) cc-urea. Li-carbonate coatings were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), SEM, and aqueous free corrosion potential monitoring. Hydrophobic cc-urea coatings were characterized using contact angle measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Oxide dissolution rate kinetics were studied using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Computational accomplishments have been made through the development of Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations which model time- and composition-dependent effects on the microstructure due to spatial redistribution of alloying

  20. Solidification, growth mechanisms, and associated properties of aluminum-silicon and magnesium lightweight casting alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosch, Timothy Al

    Continually rising energy prices have inspired increased interest in weight reduction in the automotive and aerospace industries, opening the door for the widespread use and development of lightweight structural materials. Chief among these materials are cast Al-Si and magnesium-based alloys. Utilization of Al-Si alloys depends on obtaining a modified fibrous microstructure in lieu of the intrinsic flake structure, a process which is incompletely understood. The local solidification conditions, mechanisms, and tensile properties associated with the flake to fiber growth mode transition in Al-Si eutectic alloys are investigated here using bridgman type gradient-zone directional solidification. Resulting microstructures are examined through quantitative image analysis of two-dimensional sections and observation of deep-etched sections showing three-dimensional microstructural features. The transition was found to occur in two stages: an initial stage dominated by in-plane plate breakup and rod formation within the plane of the plate, and a second stage where the onset of out-of-plane silicon rod growth leads to the formation of an irregular fibrous structure. Several microstructural parameters were investigated in an attempt to quantify this transition, and it was found that the particle aspect ratio is effective in objectively identifying the onset and completion velocity of the flake to fiber transition. The appearance of intricate out-of-plane silicon instability formations was investigated by adapting a perturbed-interface stability analysis to the Al-Si system. Measurements of silicon equilibrium shape particles provided an estimate of the anisotropy of the solid Si/liquid Al-Si system and incorporation of this silicon anisotropy into the model was found to improve prediction of the instability length scale. Magnesium alloys share many of the benefits of Al-Si alloys, with the added benefit of a 1/3 lower density and increased machinability. Magnesium castings

  1. Micromorphological effect of calcium phosphate coating on compatibility of magnesium alloy with osteoblast

    PubMed Central

    Hiromoto, Sachiko; Yamazaki, Tomohiko

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) coatings were developed to control the degradation speed and to improve the biocompatibility of biodegradable magnesium alloys. Osteoblast MG-63 was cultured directly on OCP- and HAp-coated Mg-3Al-1Zn (wt%, AZ31) alloy (OCP- and HAp-AZ31) to evaluate cell compatibility. Cell proliferation was remarkably improved with OCP and HAp coatings which reduced the corrosion and prevented the H2O2 generation on Mg alloy substrate. OCP-AZ31 showed sparse distribution of living cell colonies and dead cells. HAp-AZ31 showed dense and homogeneous distribution of living cells, with dead cells localized over and around corrosion pits, some of which were formed underneath the coating. These results demonstrated that cells were dead due to changes in the local environment, and it is necessary to evaluate the local biocompatibility of magnesium alloys. Cell density on HAp-AZ31 was higher than that on OCP-AZ31 although there was not a significant difference in the amount of Mg ions released in medium between OCP- and HAp-AZ31. The outer layer of OCP and HAp coatings consisted of plate-like crystal with a thickness of around 0.1 μm and rod-like crystals with a diameter of around 0.1 μm, respectively, which grew from a continuous inner layer. Osteoblasts formed focal contacts on the tips of plate-like OCP and rod-like HAp crystals, with heights of 2–5 μm. The spacing between OCP tips of 0.8–1.1 μm was wider than that between HAp tips of 0.2–0.3 μm. These results demonstrated that cell proliferation depended on the micromorphology of the coatings which governed spacing of focal contacts. Consequently, HAp coating is suitable for improving cell compatibility and bone-forming ability of the Mg alloy. PMID:28179963

  2. In vivo characterization of magnesium alloy biodegradation using electrochemical H2 monitoring, ICP-MS, and XPS.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Daoli; Wang, Tingting; Nahan, Keaton; Guo, Xuefei; Zhang, Zhanping; Dong, Zhongyun; Chen, Shuna; Chou, Da-Tren; Hong, Daeho; Kumta, Prashant N; Heineman, William R

    2017-03-01

    The effect of widely different corrosion rates of Mg alloys on four parameters of interest for in vivo characterization was evaluated: (1) the effectiveness of transdermal H 2 measurements with an electrochemical sensor for noninvasively monitoring biodegradation compared to the standard techniques of in vivo X-ray imaging and weight loss measurement of explanted samples, (2) the chemical compositions of the corrosion layers of the explanted samples by XPS, (3) the effect on animal organs by histology, and (4) the accumulation of corrosion by-products in multiple organs by ICP-MS. The in vivo biodegradation of three magnesium alloys chosen for their widely varying corrosion rates - ZJ41 (fast), WKX41 (intermediate) and AZ31 (slow) - were evaluated in a subcutaneous implant mouse model. Measuring H 2 with an electrochemical H 2 sensor is a simple and effective method to monitor the biodegradation process in vivo by sensing H 2 transdermally above magnesium alloys implanted subcutaneously in mice. The correlation of H 2 levels and biodegradation rate measured by weight loss shows that this non-invasive method is fast, reliable and accurate. Analysis of the insoluble biodegradation products on the explanted alloys by XPS showed all of them to consist primarily of Mg(OH) 2 , MgO, MgCO 3 and Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 with ZJ41 also having ZnO. The accumulation of magnesium and zinc were measured in 9 different organs by ICP-MS. Histological and ICP-MS studies reveal that there is no significant accumulation of magnesium in these organs for all three alloys; however, zinc accumulation in intestine, kidney and lung for the faster biodegrading alloy ZJ41 was observed. Although zinc accumulates in these three organs, no toxicity response was observed in the histological study. ICP-MS also shows higher levels of magnesium and zinc in the skull than in the other organs. Biodegradable devices based on magnesium and its alloys are promising because they gradually dissolve and thereby

  3. Biocorrosion resistance of coated magnesium alloy by microarc oxidation in electrolyte containing zirconium and calcium salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ya-Ming; Guo, Jun-Wei; Wu, Yun-Feng; Liu, Yan; Cao, Jian-Yun; Zhou, Yu; Jia, De-Chang

    2014-09-01

    The key to use magnesium alloys as suitable biodegradable implants is how to adjust their degradation rates. We report a strategy to prepare biocompatible ceramic coating with improved biocorrosion resistance property on AZ91D alloy by microarc oxidation (MAO) in a silicate-K2ZrF6 solution with and without Ca(H2PO4)2 additives. The microstructure and biocorrosion of coatings were characterized by XRD and SEM, as well as electrochemical and immersion tests in simulated body fluid (SBF). The results show that the coatings are mainly composed of MgO, Mg2SiO4, m-ZrO2 phases, further Ca containing compounds involve the coating by Ca(H2PO4)2 addition in the silicate-K2ZrF6 solution. The corrosion resistance of coated AZ91D alloy is significantly improved compared with the bare one. After immersing in SBF for 28 d, the Si-Zr5-Ca0 coating indicates a best corrosion resistance performance.

  4. Enhanced performance of magnesium alloy for drug-eluting vascular scaffold application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Hongzhou; Li, Daikun; Mao, Daoyong; Bai, Ningning; Chen, Yashi; Li, Qing

    2018-03-01

    Bio-absorbable magnesium alloys drug-eluting vascular scaffold was developed to resolve the defect of permanent metal and drug-eluting stents, most notably a chronic vessel wall inflammation and the risk of stent thrombosis. Nevertheless, violent chemical reaction and rapid degradation under physiological conditions limits their application. Furthermore, multifunctional drug-eluting stents which could reduce the formation of thrombus and repair the damaged vessels need more attention to fundamentally cure the coronary artery disease. Herein, a drug delivery system (Mg/MgO/PLA-FA) which can realize sustainable release of ferulaic acid was designed via anodic oxidation process and dip coating process. Electrochemical tests and immersion experiments showed that the superior anticorrosion behavior, it is due to the dense MgO-PLA composite layer. The released ferulaic acid can effectively decrease platelets adhesion and aggregation during the early stage of implantation. Besides, hemolysis tests showed that the composite coatings endowed the Mg alloy with a low hemolysis ratio. The Mg/MgO/PLA-FA composite materials may be appropriate for applications on biodegradable Mg alloys drug-eluting stents.

  5. LSP/MAO composite bio-coating on AZ80 magnesium alloy for biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ying; Hu, Qiang; Song, Renguo; Hu, Xiaxia

    2017-06-01

    A composite bio-coating was fabricated on AZ80 magnesium (Mg) alloy by using micro-arc oxidation (MAO) under the pretreatment of laser shock peening (LSP) in order to improve the bio-corrosion resistance and the mechanical integrity. LSP treatment could induce grain refinement and compressive residual stress field on the surface of material. MAO bio-coating was grown in alkaline electrolyte with hydroxyapatite (HA, Ca 10 (PO4) 6 (OH) 2 ) to improve the biological properties of the material. The microstructure, element and phase composition for untreated based material (BM) and treated samples (LSP layer, MAO bio-coating and LSP/MAO composite bio-coating) were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electrochemical tests and slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) tests were used to evaluate the corrosion resistance and the stress corrosion susceptibility in simulated body fluid (SBF). The results indicated that LSP/MAO composite bio-coating can not only improve the corrosion resistance of Mg alloy substrate evidently but also increase the mechanical properties in SBF compared to LSP layer and MAO bio-coating. Mg alloy treated by LSP/MAO composite technique should be better suited as biodegradable orthopedic implants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of macrophages on in vitro corrosion behavior of magnesium alloy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Hiromoto, Sachiko; Yamazaki, Tomohiko; Niu, Jialin; Huang, Hua; Jia, Gaozhi; Li, Haiyan; Ding, Wenjiang; Yuan, Guangyin

    2016-10-01

    The influence of cells on the corrosion behavior of biomedical magnesium alloy is an important but less studied topic, which is helpful for understanding the inconsistent corrosion rates between in vitro and in vivo experiments. In this work, macrophages were directly cultured on Mg-2.1Nd-0.2Zn-0.5Zr (wt %, abbreviated as JDBM) alloy surface for 72 or 168 hours. Macrophages retained good viability and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was greatly promoted on the alloy. Weight loss, Mg(2+) concentration, and cross-section observation results demonstrated that macrophages accelerated the in vitro corrosion of JDBM. The coverage of cell body did not affect the local thickness of corrosion product layer. The corrosion product layer had a porous inner Mg(OH)2 layer and a dense outer layer mainly composed of O, P, Mg, and Ca. The uniform acceleration of JDBM corrosion was attributed to the omnidirection diffusion of ROS from macrophages. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2476-2487, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Achieving high strength and high ductility in magnesium alloy using hard-plate rolling (HPR) process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui–Yuan; Yu, Zhao–Peng; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Chun–Guo; Zha, Min; Wang, Cheng; Jiang, Qi–Chuan

    2015-11-01

    Magnesium alloys are highly desirable for a wide range of lightweight structural components. However, rolling Mg alloys can be difficult due to their poor plasticity, and the strong texture yielded from rolling often results in poor plate forming ability, which limits their further engineering applications. Here we report a new hard-plate rolling (HPR) route which achieves a large reduction during a single rolling pass. The Mg-9Al-1Zn (AZ91) plates processed by HPR consist of coarse grains of 30-60 μm, exhibiting a typical basal texture, fine grains of 1-5 μm and ultrafine (sub) grains of 200-500 nm, both of the latter two having a weakened texture. More importantly, the HPR was efficient in gaining a simultaneous high strength and uniform ductility, i.e., ~371 MPa and ~23%, respectively. The superior properties should be mainly attributed to the cooperation effect of the multimodal grain structure and weakened texture, where the former facilitates a strong work hardening while the latter promotes the basal slip. The HPR methodology is facile and effective, and can avoid plate cracking that is prone to occur during conventional rolling processes. This strategy is applicable to hard-to-deform materials like Mg alloys, and thus has a promising prospect for industrial application.

  8. Effects of Neodymium and Calcium on the Thermal Stability of AZ71 Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Cheng-Feng; Huang, Shi-Jei; Chen, Jhewn-Kuang; Li, Hsien-Tsung; Chan, Kam-Shau

    2018-03-01

    The effects of an addition of 0-2 wt% Nd on thermal stability of 0-3 wt% Ca-containing modified AZ71 magnesium alloys was investigated. The ignition temperature was found to increase from that of AZ71, 574, to 825 °C with the addition of 0.5 wt% Ca and 1 wt% Nd. The ignition temperature was further increased to 1114 °C when 3 wt% Ca was added. The Ca- and Nd-added AZ71 was isothermally maintained at a temperature of 500 °C in air for 12 h. The MgO-CaO-Nd2O3 formed on the surface to improve the thermal stability of the AZ71-xCa-yNd alloys. While both the tensile strength and ductility decreased with the Ca concentration in the alloy, an addition of 1 wt% Nd was found able to alleviate the degradation effects of Ca on the tensile strength and ductility at 170 °C. Both solid solution formation and precipitation strengthening contributed to the increase in toughness. AZ71 containing 0.5-2 wt% Ca and 1 wt% Nd provides the optimum combination of ignition resistance and mechanical properties.

  9. Zirconium, calcium, and strontium contents in magnesium based biodegradable alloys modulate the efficiency of implant-induced osseointegration

    PubMed Central

    Mushahary, Dolly; Sravanthi, Ragamouni; Li, Yuncang; Kumar, Mahesh J; Harishankar, Nemani; Hodgson, Peter D; Wen, Cuie; Pande, Gopal

    2013-01-01

    Development of new biodegradable implants and devices is necessary to meet the increasing needs of regenerative orthopedic procedures. An important consideration while formulating new implant materials is that they should physicochemically and biologically mimic bone-like properties. In earlier studies, we have developed and characterized magnesium based biodegradable alloys, in particular magnesium-zirconium (Mg-Zr) alloys. Here we have reported the biological properties of four Mg-Zr alloys containing different quantities of strontium or calcium. The alloys were implanted in small cavities made in femur bones of New Zealand White rabbits, and the quantitative and qualitative assessments of newly induced bone tissue were carried out. A total of 30 experimental animals, three for each implant type, were studied, and bone induction was assessed by histological, immunohistochemical and radiological methods; cavities in the femurs with no implants and observed for the same period of time were kept as controls. Our results showed that Mg-Zr alloys containing appropriate quantities of strontium were more efficient in inducing good quality mineralized bone than other alloys. Our results have been discussed in the context of physicochemical and biological properties of the alloys, and they could be very useful in determining the nature of future generations of biodegradable orthopedic implants. PMID:23976848

  10. Improvements to the strength and corrosion resistance of aluminum-magnesium-manganese alloys of near-AA5083 chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Mark Christopher

    Aluminum alloys of the 5000 series (AI-Mg-Mn) are extremely popular in a wide range of applications that call for a balance of moderately high strength, good corrosion resistance, and light weight, all at a moderate cost. One of the most popular 5000 series alloys is designated A1-5083, containing, in addition to aluminum, approximately 4 wt% magnesium and 0.7 wt% manganese. In order to increase the range of versatility of this particular alloy, a number of modifications have been examined that will potentially improve the strength and corrosion resistance characteristics while maintaining a chemical composition that is very close to the proven 5083 alloy. The strength of the 5083-based alloys under study are investigated with two goals in mind---to maximize the potential strength characteristics in a "standard" 5083 form through changes in minor processing parameters or through minor alloying additions. Increasing the standard alloy's potential is possible through improved efficiency of "preprocessing" heat treatments that maximize the homogeneous dispersion of secondary manganese-based particles. For the modified alloy study, additions of scandium and zirconium are shown to improve strength not only by forming secondary particles in the alloy, but also through substitutional solid solution strengthening, even when added at very small levels. Corrosion resistance of these 5083-based alloys is investigated once again through minor alloying additions; specifically zinc, copper, and silver. Zinc is particularly effective in that it changes the corrosion-susceptible binary aluminum-magnesium phase that would otherwise form on grain boundaries following exposure to moderately elevated temperatures for extended periods of time to a ternary aluminum-magnesium-zinc phase. This chemical composition of this ternary phase that forms following zinc additions can be further altered through minor additions of copper and silver. By determining threshold levels for these

  11. In vitro and in vivo studies of biodegradable fine grained AZ31 magnesium alloy produced by equal channel angular pressing.

    PubMed

    Ratna Sunil, B; Sampath Kumar, T S; Chakkingal, Uday; Nandakumar, V; Doble, Mukesh; Devi Prasad, V; Raghunath, M

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the present work is to investigate the role of different grain sizes produced by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) on the degradation behavior of magnesium alloy using in vitro and in vivo studies. Commercially available AZ31 magnesium alloy was selected and processed by ECAP at 300°C for up to four passes using route Bc. Grain refinement from a starting size of 46μm to a grain size distribution of 1-5μm was successfully achieved after the 4th pass. Wettability of ECAPed samples assessed by contact angle measurements was found to increase due to the fine grain structure. In vitro degradation and bioactivity of the samples studied by immersing in super saturated simulated body fluid (SBF 5×) showed rapid mineralization within 24h due to the increased wettability in fine grained AZ31 Mg alloy. Corrosion behavior of the samples assessed by weight loss and electrochemical tests conducted in SBF 5× clearly showed the prominent role of enhanced mineral deposition on ECAPed AZ31 Mg in controlling the abnormal degradation. Cytotoxicity studies by MTT colorimetric assay showed that all the samples are viable. Additionally, cell adhesion was excellent for ECAPed samples particularly for the 3rd and 4th pass samples. In vivo experiments conducted using New Zealand White rabbits clearly showed lower degradation rate for ECAPed sample compared with annealed AZ31 Mg alloy and all the samples showed biocompatibility and no health abnormalities were noticed in the animals after 60days of in vivo studies. These results suggest that the grain size plays an important role in degradation management of magnesium alloys and ECAP technique can be adopted to achieve fine grain structures for developing degradable magnesium alloys for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Tribology and Tool Wear of Hot Dip Galvanized Zinc Magnesium Alloys on Cold Rolled Steel Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, A. E.; Berger, E.; Freudenthaler, J.; Leomann, F.; Walch, C.

    2011-05-01

    Recently zinc based coatings on cold rolled steel with improved functionality in terms of forming and/or corrosion behaviour have been intensively investigated in the steel industry1,2,3. One of the most promising products are zinc magnesium alloys produced in hot dip galvanizing process. These coatings were already introduced in construction industry a few years ago1. With some modifications the improved properties of the coating are also interesting for automotive industry. In the present work the tribological potential of hot dip galvanized zinc magnesium coatings (HDG/ZM) produced at an industrial line under regular production, was studied in terms of sliding properties, adhesive and abrasive tool wear. First a short introduction into surface morphology of HDG/ZM will be given. For the tribological characterization of the material, which is the main topic of the contribution, different tests were performed on hot dip galvanised zinc magnesium material and results were compared with classic hot dip galvanized zinc coating (HDG/Z). The investigations are mainly based on the strip draw test which allows the determination of the friction coefficient directly by using a constant contact pressure. Deep drawing property was tested by forming model cups. The abrasive tool wear was tested using a standard test for material used in automotive industry. The adhesive tool wear was investigated by characterizing the coating material transferred to the tool in the strip draw test. All performed tests show an improved drawability of HDG/ZM compared to classical HDG/Z reference material. However the most promising difference between HDG/ZM and HDG/Z is that galling was found to be less for HDG/ZM than for HDG/Z. Therefore HDG/ZM is an interesting system not only with respect to corrosion protection but also in terms of tribology and provides clear advantages in formability.

  13. Tribology and Tool Wear of Hot Dip Galvanized Zinc Magnesium Alloys on Cold Rolled Steel Sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Raab, A. E.; Berger, E.; Freudenthaler, J.

    Recently zinc based coatings on cold rolled steel with improved functionality in terms of forming and/or corrosion behaviour have been intensively investigated in the steel industry. One of the most promising products are zinc magnesium alloys produced in hot dip galvanizing process. These coatings were already introduced in construction industry a few years ago. With some modifications the improved properties of the coating are also interesting for automotive industry. In the present work the tribological potential of hot dip galvanized zinc magnesium coatings (HDG/ZM) produced at an industrial line under regular production, was studied in terms of sliding properties, adhesivemore » and abrasive tool wear.First a short introduction into surface morphology of HDG/ZM will be given. For the tribological characterization of the material, which is the main topic of the contribution, different tests were performed on hot dip galvanised zinc magnesium material and results were compared with classic hot dip galvanized zinc coating (HDG/Z). The investigations are mainly based on the strip draw test which allows the determination of the friction coefficient directly by using a constant contact pressure. Deep drawing property was tested by forming model cups. The abrasive tool wear was tested using a standard test for material used in automotive industry. The adhesive tool wear was investigated by characterizing the coating material transferred to the tool in the strip draw test.All performed tests show an improved drawability of HDG/ZM compared to classical HDG/Z reference material. However the most promising difference between HDG/ZM and HDG/Z is that galling was found to be less for HDG/ZM than for HDG/Z. Therefore HDG/ZM is an interesting system not only with respect to corrosion protection but also in terms of tribology and provides clear advantages in formability.« less

  14. Corrosion resistance of the microarc oxidation coatings prepared on magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Ying; Li, Jun Gang; Wu, Ming Zhong; Ma, Zhen; Zhang, Jing Qiang; Wang, Le Le

    2018-06-01

    Ceramic coatings were prepared on the surface of AZ91D magnesium alloy by microarc oxidation technology. The effects of different voltages on morphology, phase composition and thickness of the coatings were characterized by SEM and XRD. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was measured by electrochemical workstation. Results indicated that the microarc oxidation coatings prepared in sodium silicate electrolyte exhibited porous surface and mainly comprised MgO, Mg2SiO4 and a small amount of MgAl2O4. The thickness of the oxide coatings increased rapidly with the increase of voltage. The coating prepared at 400V voltage had good electrochemical corrosion resistance in 3.5wt% NaCl solution.

  15. Grain Refinement of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Weldments by AC Pulsing Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishore Babu, N.; Cross, C. E.

    2012-11-01

    The current study has investigated the influence of alternating current pulsing on the structure and mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy gas tungsten arc (GTA) weldments. Autogenous full penetration bead-on-plate GTA welds were made under a variety of conditions including variable polarity (VP), variable polarity mixed (VPM), alternating current (AC), and alternating current pulsing (ACPC). AC pulsing resulted in significant refinement of weld metal when compared with the unpulsed conditions. AC pulsing leads to relatively finer and more equiaxed grain structure in GTA welds. In contrast, VP, VPM, and AC welding resulted in predominantly columnar grain structures. The reason for this grain refinement may be attributed to the periodic variations in temperature gradient and solidification rate associated with pulsing as well as weld pool oscillation observed in the ACPC welds. The observed grain refinement was shown to result in an appreciable increase in fusion zone hardness, tensile strength, and ductility.

  16. Comparison of Electrochemical Methods for the Evaluation of Cast AZ91 Magnesium Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Tkacz, Jakub; Minda, Jozef; Fintová, Stanislava; Wasserbauer, Jaromír

    2016-01-01

    Linear polarization is a potentiodynamic method used for electrochemical characterization of materials. Obtained values of corrosion potential and corrosion current density offer information about material behavior in corrosion environments from the thermodynamic and kinetic points of view, respectively. The present study offers a comparison of applications of the linear polarization method (from −100 mV to +200 mV vs. EOCP), the cathodic polarization of the specimen (−100 mV vs. EOCP), and the anodic polarization of the specimen (+100 mV vs. EOCP), and a discussion of the differences in the obtained values of the electrochemical characteristics of cast AZ91 magnesium alloy. The corrosion current density obtained by cathodic polarization was similar to the corrosion current density obtained by linear polarization, while a lower value was obtained by anodic polarization. Signs of corrosion attack were observed only in the case of linear polarization including cathodic and anodic polarization of the specimen. PMID:28774046

  17. Corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61: Surface chemistry and protective ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feliu, S.; Llorente, I.

    2015-08-01

    This paper studies the chemical composition of the corrosion product layers formed on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61 following immersion in 0.6 M NaCl, with a view to better understanding their protective action. Relative differences in the chemical nature of the layers were quantified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDX) and low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD). Corrosion behavior was investigated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and hydrogen evolution measurement. An inhibitive effect from the corrosion product layers was observed from EIS, principally in the case of AZ31, as confirmed by hydrogen evolution tests. A link was found between carbonate enrichment observed by XPS in the surface of the corrosion product layer, concomitant with the increase in the protective properties observed by EIS.

  18. Acoustic Emission during Intermittent Creep in an Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibkov, A. A.; Zheltov, M. A.; Gasanov, M. F.; Zolotov, A. E.

    2018-01-01

    The use of high-speed methods to measure deformation, load, and the dynamics of deformation bands, as well as the correlation between the intermittent creep characteristics of the AlMg6 aluminum-magnesium alloy and the parameters of the acoustic emission signals, has been studied experimentally. It has been established that the emergence and rapid expansion of the primary deformation band, which generates a characteristic acoustic emission signal in the frequency range of 10-1000 Hz, is a trigger for the development of a deformation step in the creep curve. The results confirm the accuracy of the mechanism of generating an acoustic signal associated with the emergence of a dislocation band on the external surface of the specimen.

  19. Preparation of Composite Coating on AZ91D Magnesium Alloy by Silica Sol-Micro Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Zhongcai; Zhang, Feifei; Zhao, Ruiqiang; Shen, Xiaoyi

    2016-03-01

    Composite coating was prepared on AZ91D magnesium alloy with a new method which combined silica sol with micro-arc oxidation (MAO). The MAO coating was prepared on the basis of MAO solution, and then coated by sol-gel process. The composite coating was obtained after second MAO treatment. Scanning electron microscopy coupled with X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy spectrum analysis and electrochemical testing was applied to characterize the properties of MAO coating and composite coating. The experimental test results indicated that the Si element derived from SiO2 gel particle embedded into the MAO coating by second MAO treatment. The surface of composite coating became dense and the holes were smaller with silica sol sealing process. The corrosion resistance of composite coating was improved than the MAO coating.

  20. Microstructural evolution of AZ31 magnesium alloy subjected to sliding friction treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Lu, Jinwen; Huo, Wangtu; Zhang, Yusheng; Wei, Q.

    2018-06-01

    Microstructural evolution and grain refinement mechanism in AZ31 magnesium alloy subjected to sliding friction treatment were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy. The process of grain refinement was found to involve the following stages: (I) coarse grains were divided into fine twin plates through mechanical twinning; then the twin plates were transformed to lamellae with the accumulation of residual dislocations at the twin boundaries; (II) the lamellae were separated into subgrains with increasing grain boundary misorientation and evolution of high angle boundaries into random boundaries by continuous dynamic recrystallisation (cDRX); (III) the formation of nanograins. The mechanisms for the final stage, the formation of nanograins, can be classified into three types: (i) cDRX; (ii) discontinuous dynamic recrystallisation (dDRX); (iii) a combined mechanism of prior shear-band and subsequent dDRX. Stored strain energy plays an important role in determining deformation mechanisms during plastic deformation.

  1. Modelling of peak temperature during friction stir processing of magnesium alloy AZ91

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaira Vignesh, R.; Padmanaban, R.

    2018-02-01

    Friction stir processing (FSP) is a solid state processing technique with potential to modify the properties of the material through microstructural modification. The study of heat transfer in FSP aids in the identification of defects like flash, inadequate heat input, poor material flow and mixing etc. In this paper, transient temperature distribution during FSP of magnesium alloy AZ91 was simulated using finite element modelling. The numerical model results were validated using the experimental results from the published literature. The model was used to predict the peak temperature obtained during FSP for various process parameter combinations. The simulated peak temperature results were used to develop a statistical model. The effect of process parameters namely tool rotation speed, tool traverse speed and shoulder diameter of the tool on the peak temperature was investigated using the developed statistical model. It was found that peak temperature was directly proportional to tool rotation speed and shoulder diameter and inversely proportional to tool traverse speed.

  2. Constitutive acoustic-emission elastic-stress behavior of magnesium alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. H., Jr.; Emerson, G. P.

    1977-01-01

    Repeated laoding and unloading of a magnesium alloy below the macroscopic yield stress result in continuous acoustic emissions which are generally repeatable for a given specimen and which are reproducible between different specimens having the same load history. An acoustic emission Bauschinger strain model is proposed to describe the unloading emission behavior. For the limited range of stress examined, loading and unloading stress delays of the order of 50 MN/sq m are observed, and they appear to be dependent upon the direction of loading, the stress rate, and the stress history. The stress delay is hypothesized to be the manifestation of an effective friction stress. The existence of acoustic emission elastic stress constitutive relations is concluded, which provides support for a previously proposed concept for the monitoring of elastic stresses by acoustic emission.

  3. Microstructural Characteristics of High Rate Plastic Deformation in Elektron™ WE43 Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Joseph; Brennan, Sarah T.; Sohn, Yongho; Davis, Bruce; DeLorme, Rick; Cho, Kyu

    High strain rate deformation of WE43 magnesium alloy was carried out by high velocity impacts, and the characteristics and mechanisms of microstructural damage were examined. Six samples were subjected to a variety of high velocity impact loadings that resulted in both partial and full damage. Optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy analyses were performed in order to identify regions of shear localization. These regions were used to map, both quantitatively and qualitatively, the effects of deformation on the microstructure. Shear localization was observed in every sample, and its depth was measured. Evidence of shear localization was observed to a greater extent in samples with partial damage while fracturing was observed more frequently in samples with full damage.

  4. Modeling of deformation behavior and texture evolution in magnesium alloy using the intermediate $$\\phi$$-model

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dongsheng; Ahzi, Said; M'Guil, S. M.

    2014-01-06

    The viscoplastic intermediate phi-model was applied in this work to predict the deformation behavior and texture evolution in a magnesium alloy, an HCP material. We simulated the deformation behavior with different intergranular interaction strengths and compared the predicted results with available experimental results. In this approach, elasticity is neglected and the plastic deformation mechanisms are assumed as a combination of crystallographic slip and twinning systems. Tests are performed for rolling (plane strain compression) of random textured Mg polycrystal as well as for tensile and compressive tests on rolled Mg sheets. Simulated texture evolutions agree well with experimental data. Activities of twinning and slip, predicted by the intermediatemore » $$\\phi$$-model, reveal the strong anisotropic behavior during tension and compression of rolled sheets.« less

  5. Large Strain Behaviour of ZEK100 Magnesium Alloy at Various Strain Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lévesque, Julie; Kurukuri, Srihari; Mishra, Raja; Worswick, Michael; Inal, Kaan

    A constitutive framework based on a rate-dependent crystal plasticity theory is employed to simulate large strain deformation in hexagonal closed-packed metals that deform by slip and twinning. The model allows the twinned zones and the parent matrix to rotate independently. ZEK100 magnesium alloy sheets which significant texture weakening compared to AZ31 sheets are investigated using the model. There is considerable in-plane anisotropy and tension compression asymmetry in the flow behavior of ZEK100. Simulations of uniaxial tension in different directions at various strain rates and the accompanying texture evolution are performed and they are in very good agreement with experimental measurements. The effect of strain rate on the activation of the various slip systems and twinning show that differences in the strain rate dependence of yield stress and Rvalues in ZEK100 have their origin in the activation of different deformation mechanisms.

  6. Potentiostatic control of ionic liquid surface film formation on ZE41 magnesium alloy.

    PubMed

    Efthimiadis, Jim; Neil, Wayne C; Bunter, Andrew; Howlett, Patrick C; Hinton, Bruce R W; MacFarlane, Douglas R; Forsyth, Maria

    2010-05-01

    The generation of potentially corrosion-resistant films on light metal alloys of magnesium have been investigated. Magnesium alloy, ZE41 [Mg-Zn-Rare Earth (RE)-Zr, nominal composition approximately 4 wt % Zn, approximately 1.7 wt % RE (Ce), approximately 0.6 wt % Zr, remaining balance, Mg], was exposed under potentiostatic control to the ionic liquid trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium diphenylphosphate, denoted [P(6,6,6,14)][DPP]. During exposure to this IL, a bias potential, shifted from open circuit, was applied to the ZE41 surface. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and chronoamperometry (CA) were used to monitor the evolution of film formation on the metal surface during exposure. The EIS data indicate that, of the four bias potentials examined, applying a potential of -200 mV versus OCP during the exposure period resulted in surface films of greatest resistance. Both EIS measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging indicate that these surfaces are substantially different to those formed without potential bias. Time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) elemental mapping of the films was utilized to ascertain the distribution of the ionic liquid cationic and anionic species relative to the microstructural surface features of ZE41 and indicated a more uniform distribution compared with the surface following exposure in the absence of a bias potential. Immersion of the treated ZE41 specimens in a chloride contaminated salt solution clearly indicated that the ionic liquid generated surface films offered significant protection against pitting corrosion, although the intermetallics were still insufficiently protected by the IL and hence favored intergranular corrosion processes.

  7. Mechanism and Microstructure of Oxide Fluxes for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L. M.; Zhang, Z. D.; Song, G.; Wang, L.

    2007-03-01

    Five single oxide fluxes—MgO, CaO, TiO2, MnO2, and Cr2O3—were used to investigate the effect of active flux on the depth/width ratio in AZ31B magnesium alloy. The microstructure and mechanical property of the tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding seam were studied. The oxygen content in the weld seam and the arc images during the TIG welding process were analyzed. A series of emission spectroscopy of weld arc for TIG welding for magnesium with and without flux were developed. The results showed that for the five single oxide fluxes, all can increase the weld penetration effectively and grain size in the weld seam of alternating current tungsten inert gas (ACTIG) welding of the Mg alloy. The oxygen content of the welds made without flux is not very different from those produced with oxide fluxes not considering trapped oxide. However, welds that have the best penetration have a relatively higher oxygen content among those produced with flux. It was found that the arc images with the oxide fluxes were only the enlarged form of the arc images without flux; the arc constriction was not observed. The detection of arc spectroscopy showed that the metal elements in the oxides exist as the neutral atom or the first cation in the weld arc. This finding would influence the arc properties. When TIG simulation was carried out on a plate with flux applied only on one side, the arc image video showed an asymmetric arc, which deviated toward the flux free side. The thermal stability, the dissociation energy, and the electrical conductivity of oxide should be considered when studying the mechanism for increased TIG flux weld penetration.

  8. Do biodegradable magnesium alloy intramedullary interlocking nails prematurely lose fixation stability in the treatment of tibial fracture? A numerical simulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haosen; Hao, Zhixiu; Wen, Shizhu

    2017-01-01

    Intramedullary interlocking nailing is an effective technique used to treat long bone fractures. Recently, biodegradable metals have drawn increased attention as an intramedullary interlocking nailing material. In this study, numerical simulations were implemented to determine whether the degradation rate of magnesium alloy makes it a suitable material for manufacturing biodegradable intramedullary interlocking nails. Mechano-regulatory and bone-remodeling models were used to simulate the fracture healing process, and a surface corrosion model was used to simulate intramedullary rod degradation. The results showed that magnesium alloy intramedullary rods exhibited a satisfactory degradation rate; the fracture healed and callus enhancement was observed before complete dissolution of the intramedullary rod. Delayed magnesium degradation (using surface coating techniques) did not confer a significant advantage over the non-delayed degradation process; immediate degradation also achieved satisfactory healing outcomes. However, delayed degradation had no negative effect on callus enhancement, as it did not cause signs of stress shielding. To avoid risks of individual differences such as delayed union, delayed degradation is recommended. Although the magnesium intramedullary rod did not demonstrate rapid degradation, its ability to provide high fixation stiffness to achieve earlier load bearing was inferior to that of the conventional titanium alloy and stainless steel rods. Therefore, light physiological loads should be ensured during the early stages of healing to achieve bony healing; otherwise, with increased loading and degraded intramedullary rods, the fracture may ultimately fail to heal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effects of Grain Refinement and Rare Earth Intermetallics on Mechanical Properties of As-Cast and Wrought Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourbahari, Bita; Mirzadeh, Hamed; Emamy, Massoud

    2018-03-01

    The effects of rare earth intermetallics and grain refinement by alloying and hot extrusion on the mechanical properties of Mg-Gd-Al-Zn alloys have been studied to elucidate some useful ways to enhance the mechanical properties of magnesium alloys. It was revealed that aluminum as an alloying element is a much better grain refining agent compared with gadolinium, but the simultaneous presence of Al and Gd can refine the as-cast grain size more efficiently. The presence of fine and widely dispersed rare earth intermetallics was found to be favorable to achieve finer recrystallized grains during hot deformation by extrusion. The presence of coarse dendritic structure in the GZ61 alloy, grain boundary eutectic containing Mg17Al12 phase in the AZ61 alloy, and rare earth intermetallics with unfavorable morphology in the Mg-4Gd-2Al-1Zn alloy was found to be detrimental to mechanical properties of the alloy in the as-cast condition. As a result, the microstructural refinement induced by hot extrusion process resulted in a significant enhancement in strength and ductility of the alloys. The presence of intermetallic compounds in the extruded Mg-4Gd-2Al-1Zn and Mg-2Gd-4Al-1Zn alloys deteriorated tensile properties, which was related to the fact that such intermetallic compounds act as stress risers and microvoid initiation sites.

  10. Optimization of process factors for self-healing vanadium-based conversion coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kun; Liu, Junyao; Lei, Ting; Xiao, Tao

    2015-10-01

    A self-healing vanadium-based conversion coating was prepared on AZ31 magnesium alloy. The optimum operating conditions including vanadia solution concentration, pH and treating temperature for obtaining the best corrosion protective vanadia coatings and improved localized corrosion resistance to the magnesium substrate were determined by an orthogonal experiment design. Surface morphology and composition of the resultant conversion coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The self-healing behavior of the coating was investigated by cross-cut immersion test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in 3.5% NaCl solution.

  11. Gadolinium accumulation in organs of Sprague-Dawley® rats after implantation of a biodegradable magnesium-gadolinium alloy.

    PubMed

    Myrissa, Anastasia; Braeuer, Simone; Martinelli, Elisabeth; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Goessler, Walter; Weinberg, Annelie Martina

    2017-01-15

    Biodegradable magnesium implants are under investigation because of their promising properties as medical devices. For enhancing the mechanical properties and the degradation resistance, rare earth elements are often used as alloying elements. In this study Mg10Gd pins were implanted into Sprague-Dawley® rats. The pin volume loss and a possible accumulation of magnesium and gadolinium in the rats' organs and blood were investigated in a long-term study over 36weeks. The results showed that Mg10Gd is a fast disintegrating material. Already 12weeks after implantation the alloy is fragmented to smaller particles, which can be found within the intramedullary cavity and the cortical bones. They disturbed the bone remodeling until the end of the study. The results concerning the elements' distribution in the animals' bodies were even more striking, since an accumulation of gadolinium could be observed in the investigated organs over the whole time span. The most affected tissue was the spleen, with up to 3240μgGd/kg wet mass, followed by the lung, liver and kidney (up to 1040, 685 and 207μgGd/kg). In the brain, muscle and heart, the gadolinium concentrations were much smaller (less than 20μg/kg), but an accumulation could still be detected. Interestingly, blood serum samples showed no accumulation of magnesium and gadolinium. This is the first time that an accumulation of gadolinium in animal organs was observed after the application of a gadolinium-containing degradable magnesium implant. These findings demonstrate the importance of future investigations concerning the distribution of the constituents of new biodegradable materials in the body, to ensure the patients' safety. In the last years, biodegradable Mg alloys are under investigation due to their promising properties as orthopaedic devices used for bone fracture stabilization. Gadolinium as Rare Earth Element enhances the mechanical properties of Mg-Gd alloys but its toxicity in humans is still questionable

  12. Analysis of Solid State Bonding in the Extrusion Process of Magnesium Alloys --Numerical Prediction and Experimental Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alharthi, Nabeel H.

    The automotive industry developments focused on increasing fuel efficiency are accomplished by weight reduction of vehicles, which consequently results in less negative environmental impact. Usage of low density materials such as Magnesium alloys is an approach to replace heavier structural components. One of the challenges in deformation processing of Magnesium is its low formability attributed to the hexagonal close packed (hcp) crystal structure. The extrusion process is one of the most promising forming processes for Magnesium because it applies a hydrostatic compression state of stress during deformation resulting in improved workability. Many researchers have attempted to fully understand solid state bonding during deformation in different structural materials such as Aluminum, Copper and other metals and alloys. There is a lack of sufficient understanding of the extrusion welding in these materials as well as very limited knowledge on this subject for hollow profiles made from Magnesium alloys. The weld integrity and the characteristic of the welding microstructure are generally unknown. In this dissertation three related research projects are investigated by using different tools such as microstructure characterization, mechanical testing, thermo-mechanical physical simulation and finite element numerical modeling. Project 1: Microstructure characterization supported by mechanical testing of the extrusion welding regions in Magnesium alloy AM30 extrudate. The microstructure characterization was conducted using Light Optical Microscopy (LOM), in addition to LOM the electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) technique was implemented to characterize in depth the deformed and welded microstructure. Project 2: Finite element numerical simulation of AM30 extrudate to model different process parameters and their influence on localized state variables such as strain, strain rate, temperature and normal pressure within the weld zone. Project 3: Physical simulation

  13. Application of electroless Ni-P coating on magnesium alloy via CrO3/HF free titanate pretreatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabalizadeh, Z.; Seifzadeh, D.

    2017-11-01

    The titanate conversion coating was applied as CrO3/HF free pretreatment for the electroless Ni-P plating on AM60B magnesium alloy. The microscopic images revealed that the alloy surface was completely covered by a cracked conversion film after titanate pretreatment which was mainly composed of Mg(OH)2/MgO, MgF2, TiO2, SiO2, and Al2O3/Al(OH)3. The microscopic images also revealed that numerous Ni nucleation centers were formed over the titanate film after short electroless plating times. The nucleation centers were created not only on the cracked area but also over the whole pretreated surface due to the catalytic action of the titanate film. Also, uniform, dense, and defect-free Ni-P coating with fine structure was achieved after 3 h plating. The Ni-P coating showed mixed crystalline-amorphous structure due to its moderate phosphorus content. The results of two traditional corrosion monitoring methods indicated that the Ni-P coating significantly increases the corrosion resistance of the magnesium alloy. Moreover, Electrochemical Noise (EN) method was used as a non-polarized technique to study the corrosion behavior of the electroless coating at different immersion times. The results of the EN tests were clearly showed the localized nature of the corrosion process. Micro-hardness value of the magnesium alloy was remarkably enhanced after the electroless plating. Finally, suitable adhesion between the Ni-P coating and the magnesium alloy substrate was confirmed by thermal shock and pull-off-adhesion tests.

  14. Effect of equal channel angular pressing on in vitro degradation of LAE442 magnesium alloy.

    PubMed

    Minárik, Peter; Jablonská, Eva; Král, Robert; Lipov, Jan; Ruml, Tomáš; Blawert, Carsten; Hadzima, Branislav; Chmelík, František

    2017-04-01

    Effect of processing by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) on the degradation behaviour of extruded LAE442 magnesium alloy was investigated in a 0.1M NaCl solution, Kirkland's biocorrosion medium (KBM) and Minimum Essential Medium (MEM), both with and without 10% of foetal bovine serum (FBS). Uniform degradation of as extruded and ECAP processed samples in NaCl solution was observed, nevertheless higher corrosion resistance was found in the latter material. The increase of corrosion resistance due to ECAP was observed also after 14-days immersion in all media used. Higher compactness of the corrosion layer formed on the samples after ECAP was responsible for the observed decrease of corrosion resistance, which was proven by scanning electron microscope investigation. Lower corrosion rate in media with FBS was observed and was explained by additional effect of protein incorporation on the corrosion layer stability. A cytotoxicity test using L929 cells was carried out to investigate possible effect of processing on the cell viability. Sufficient cytocompatibility of the extruded samples was observed with no adverse effects of the subsequent ECAP processing. In conclusion, this in vitro study proved that the degradation behaviour of the LAE442 alloy could be improved by subsequent ECAP processing and this material is a good candidate for future in vivo investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. ZM-21 magnesium alloy corrosion properties and cryogenic to elevated temperature mechanical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montana, J. W.; Nelson, E. E.

    1972-01-01

    The mechanical properties of bare ZM-21 magnesium alloy flat tensile specimens were determined for test temperatures of +400 F, +300 F, +200 F, +80 F, 0 F, -100 F, -200 F, and -320 F. The ultimate tensile and yield strengths of the material increased with decreasing temperature with a corresponding reduction in elongation values. Stress corrosion tests performed under: (1) MSFC atmospheric conditions; (2) 95% relative humidity; and (3) submerged in 100 ppm chloride solution for 8 weeks indicated that the alloy is not susceptible to stress corrosion. The corrosion tests indicated that the material is susceptible to attack by crevice corrosion in high humidity and chemical type attack by chloride solution. Atmospheric conditions at MSFC did not produce any adverse effects on the material, probably due to the rapid formation of a protective oxide coating. In both the mechanical properties and the stress corrosion evaluations the test specimens which were cut transverse to the rolling direction had superior properties when compared to the longitudinal properties.

  16. In Vivo Degradation Behavior of the Magnesium Alloy LANd442 in Rabbit Tibiae

    PubMed Central

    Ullmann, Berit; Reifenrath, Janin; Dziuba, Dina; Seitz, Jan-Marten; Bormann, Dirk; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    In former studies the magnesium alloy LAE442 showed promising in vivo degradation behavior and biocompatibility. However, reproducibility might be enhanced by replacement of the rare earth composition metal “E” by only a single rare earth element. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to examine whether the substitution of “E” by neodymium (“Nd”) had an influence on the in vivo degradation rate. LANd442 implants were inserted into rabbit tibiae and rabbits were euthanized after 4, 8, 13 and 26 weeks postoperatively. In vivo µCT was performed to evaluate the in vivo implant degradation behaviour by calculation of implant volume, density true 3-D thickness and corrosion rates. Additionally, weight loss, type of corrosion and mechanical stability were appraised by SEM/EDS-analysis and three-point bending tests. Implant volume, density and true 3-D thickness decreased over time, whereas the variance of the maximum diameters within an implant as well as the corrosion rate and weight loss increased. SEM examination revealed mainly pitting corrosion after 26 weeks. The maximum bending forces decreased over time. In comparison to LAE442, the new alloy showed a slower, but more uneven degradation behavior and less mechanical stability. To summarize, LANd442 appeared suitable for low weight bearing bones but is inferior to LAE442 regarding its degradation morphology and strength. PMID:28824133

  17. Ductility Improvement of an AZ61 Magnesium Alloy through Two-Pass Submerged Friction Stir Processing

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xicai; Cao, Genghua; Zhang, Wen; Qiu, Cheng; Zhang, Datong

    2017-01-01

    Friction stir processing (FSP) has been considered as a novel technique to refine the grain size and homogenize the microstructure of metallic materials. In this study, two-pass FSP was conducted under water to enhance the cooling rate during processing, and an AZ61 magnesium alloy with fine-grained and homogeneous microstructure was prepared through this method. Compared to the as-cast material, one-pass FSP resulted in grain refinement and the β-Mg17Al12 phase was broken into small particles. Using a smaller stirring tool and an overlapping ratio of 100%, a finer and more uniform microstructure with an average grain size of 4.6 μm was obtained through two-pass FSP. The two-pass FSP resulted in a significant improvement in elongation of 37.2% ± 4.3%, but a slight decrease in strength compared with one-pass FSP alloy. Besides the microstructure refinement, the texture evolution in the stir zone is also considered responsible for the ductility improvement. PMID:28772614

  18. Analysis of formability of Ca-added magnesium alloy sheets at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Se-Jong; Lee, Young-Seon; Kim, Daeyong, E-mail: daeyong@kims.re.kr

    The formability of sheets of the Ca-added magnesium alloy AZX311 was analyzed. The parameters affecting the sheet formability, such as the strain-hardening rate and the strain-rate sensitivity, did not seem to be higher in the alloy AZX311 at temperatures of room temperature (RT) and 200 °C. In addition, the critical stress for fracture at RT was lower in AZX311 than in AZ31. However, AZX311 exhibited higher stretchability and formability at low temperatures than AZ31. Electron back-scattered diffraction microscopy revealed that AZX311 had a weaker basal texture as well as broadened basal poles along the transverse direction. Polycrystal plasticity simulations confirmedmore » that this weaker basal texture increases the activity of basal slip over thickness strain, resulting in the higher formability of AZX311. - Highlights: • A weak basal texture with broadening basal poles along the TD in AZX311 • Lower critical stress for fracture at RT in AZX311 than in AZ31 • Lower strain-hardening rates at low temperatures in the AZX311 than in the AZ31 • Higher formability at low temperatures in AZX311 because of the weak basal texture.« less

  19. Understanding Low-cycle Fatigue Life Improvement Mechanisms in a Pre-twinned Magnesium Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Wei; An, Ke

    The mechanisms of fatigue life improvement by pre-twinning process in a commercial rolled magnesium (Mg) alloy have been investigated using real-time in situ neutron diffraction under a continuous-loading condition. It is found that by introducing the excess twinned grains through pre-compression along the rolling direction the fatigue life was enhanced approximately 50%, mainly resulting from the prolonged detwinning process and inhibited dislocation slip during reverse tension. Moreover, after pre-twinning process, the removal of the rapid strain hardening during reverse tension leads to a compressive mean stress value and more symmetric shape of stress-strain hysteresis loop. The pre-twinning has significant impactsmore » on the twinning-detwinning characteristics and deformation modes during cyclic loading and greatly facilitates the twinning-detwinning activities in plastic deformation. The cyclic straining leads to the increase of contribution of tensile twinning deformation in overall plastic deformation in both the as-received and pre-deformed sample. The mechanisms of load partitioning in different groups of grains are closely related to the deformation modes in each deformation stage, while the fatigue cycling has little influence on the load sharing. The pre-twinning process provides an easy and cost-effective route to improve the low-cycle fatigue life through manufacturing and processing, which would advance the wide application of light-weight wrought Mg alloys as structural materials.« less

  20. Effect of shoulder to pin ratio on magnesium alloy Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, N. H.; Ishak, M.; Shah, L. H.

    2017-09-01

    This study focuses on the effect of shoulder to pin diameter ratio on friction stir welding of magnesium alloy AZ31. Two pieces of AZ31 alloy with thickness of 2 mm were friction stir welded by using conventional milling machine. The shoulder to pin diameter ratio used in this experiment are 2.25, 2.5, 2.75, 3, 3.33, 3.66, 4.5, 5 and 5.5. The rotational speed and welding speed used in this study are 1000 rpm and 100 mm/min, respectively. Microstructure observation of welded area was studied by using optical microscope. Equiaxed grains were observed at the TMAZ and stir zone indicating fully plastic deformation. The grain size of stir zone increased with decreasing shoulder to pin ratio from ratio 3.33 to 5.5 due to higher heat input. It is observed that, surface galling and faying surface defect is produced when excessive heat input is applied. To evaluate the mechanical properties of this specimen, tensile test was used in this study. Shoulder to pin ratio 5.5 shows lowest tensile strength while shoulder to pin diameter ratio 3.33 shows highest tensile strength with weld efficiency 91 % from based metal.

  1. Understanding Low-cycle Fatigue Life Improvement Mechanisms in a Pre-twinned Magnesium Alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Wei; An, Ke

    2015-10-03

    The mechanisms of fatigue life improvement by pre-twinning process in a commercial rolled magnesium (Mg) alloy have been investigated using real-time in situ neutron diffraction under a continuous-loading condition. It is found that by introducing the excess twinned grains through pre-compression along the rolling direction the fatigue life was enhanced approximately 50%, mainly resulting from the prolonged detwinning process and inhibited dislocation slip during reverse tension. Moreover, after pre-twinning process, the removal of the rapid strain hardening during reverse tension leads to a compressive mean stress value and more symmetric shape of stress-strain hysteresis loop. The pre-twinning has significant impactsmore » on the twinning-detwinning characteristics and deformation modes during cyclic loading and greatly facilitates the twinning-detwinning activities in plastic deformation. The cyclic straining leads to the increase of contribution of tensile twinning deformation in overall plastic deformation in both the as-received and pre-deformed sample. The mechanisms of load partitioning in different groups of grains are closely related to the deformation modes in each deformation stage, while the fatigue cycling has little influence on the load sharing. The pre-twinning process provides an easy and cost-effective route to improve the low-cycle fatigue life through manufacturing and processing, which would advance the wide application of light-weight wrought Mg alloys as structural materials.« less

  2. Improving the packing density of calcium phosphate coating on a magnesium alloy for enhanced degradation resistance.

    PubMed

    Kannan, M Bobby

    2013-05-01

    In this study, an attempt was made to improve the packing density of calcium phosphate (CaP) coating on a magnesium alloy by tailoring the coating solution for enhanced degradation resistance of the alloy for implant applications. An organic solvent, ethanol, was added to the coating solution to decrease the conductivity of the coating solution so that hydrogen bubble formation/bursting reduces during the CaP coating process. Experimental results confirmed that ethanol addition to the coating solution reduces the conductivity of the solution and also decreases the hydrogen evolution/bubble bursting. In vitro electrochemical experiments, that is, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization showed that CaP coating produced in 30% (v/v) ethanol containing coating solution (3E) exhibits significantly higher degradation resistance (i.e., ~50% higher polarization resistance and ~60% lower corrosion current) than the aqueous solution coating. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of the coatings revealed that the packing of 3E coating was denser than that of aqueous coating, which can be attributed to the lower hydrogen evolution in the former than in the latter. Further increase in the ethanol content in the coating solution was not beneficial; in fact, the coating produced in 70% (v/v) ethanol containing solution (7E) showed degradation resistance much inferior to that of the aqueous coating, which is due to low thickness of 7E coating. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Effect of dissolution of magnesium alloy AZ31 on the rheological properties of Phosphate Buffer Saline.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Usman; Rakesh, Leela; Shabib, Ishraq; Haider, Waseem

    2018-06-05

    The issue of long-term incompatible interactions associated with the permanent implants can be eliminated by using various biodegradable metal implants. The recent research is focusing on the use of degradable stents to restore most of the hindrances of capillaries, and coronary arteries by supplying instant blood flow with constant mechanical and structural support. However, internal endothelialization and infection due to the corrosion of implanted stents are not easy to diagnose in the long run. In the recent past, magnesium (Mg) has been widely investigated for the cardiovascular stent applications. Here we made an attempt to understand the biodegradation process of Mg alloy stent by studying the degradation of Mg alloy AZ31 (3 wt% Aluminum, 1 wt% Zn) powder at various time-intervals in simulated blood fluid using the Rheological methods. The degradability of the Mg stent in the arteries affects the stress-strain properties of blood plasma and the subsequent flow conditions. Blood and plasma viscosities alter due to the degradation of Mg resulting from the stress-strain experienced in the blood vessels, in which the stent is inserted. Here our objective was to explore the influence of Mg degradation on the blood plasma viscosity by studying the viscoelastic properties. In this work, the effect of dissolution of Mg alloy AZ31 on the rheological properties of Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS) at various time intervals have been investigated. The viscosity of the PBS-AZ31 solution increased with the dissolution of both slurries and percolated clear solution. The only exception was day-7 of the percolated clear solution, where viscosity was decreased showing a reduction in viscosity at initial stages of dissolution. The frequency sweep showed the tendency of the PBS-AZ31 gelation up to 100 rad/s frequency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Formation of a hydrophobic and corrosion resistant coating on magnesium alloy via a one-step hydrothermal method.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Tianxu; Hu, Yaobo; Zhang, Yuxin; Pan, Fusheng

    2017-11-01

    A hydrophobic coating was fabricated on the surface of magnesium alloy using a simple one-step hydrothermal method with the use of environmentally friendly agent. Scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle test were used to characterize the surfaces. Corrosion behavior in a 3.5wt.% NaCl solution was evaluated using OCP time curves test, potentiodynamic polarization test and EIS analysis. The findings show that the substrate is covered by the coating of magnesium hydroxide and magnesium stearate, reaching a contact angle of around 146°. Corrosion behavior show huge improvement, the progress with increase of treatment time could be related to the increased growth rate of coating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of self-assembly of 3-phosphonopropionic acid, 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane and dopamine on the corrosion behaviors and biocompatibility of a magnesium alloy.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chang-Jiang; Hou, Yu; Wang, Ya-Nan; Gao, Fei; Liu, Tao; Hou, Yan-Hua; Zhu, Yu-Fu; Ye, Wei; Wang, Ling-Ren

    2016-10-01

    Magnesium based alloys are attracting tremendous interests as the novel biodegradable metallic biomaterials. However, the rapid in vivo degradation and the limited surface biocompatibility restrict their clinical applications. Surface modification represents one of the important approaches to control the corrosion rate of Mg based alloys and to enhance the biocompatibility. In the present study, in order to improve the corrosion resistance and surface biocompatibility, magnesium alloy (AZ31B) was modified by the alkali heating treatment followed by the self-assembly of 3-phosphonopropionic acid, 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) and dopamine, respectively. The results of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) indicated that the molecules were successfully immobilized on the magnesium alloy surface by the self-assembly. An excellent hydrophilic surface was obtained after the alkali heating treatment and the water contact angle increased to some degree after the self-assembly of dopamine, APTMS and 3-phosphonopropionic acid, however, the hydrophilicity of the modified samples was better than that of the pristine magnesium substrate. Due to the formation of the passivation layer after the alkali heating treatment, the corrosion resistance of the magnesium alloy was obviously improved. The corrosion rate further decreased to varying degrees after the self-assembly surface modification. The blood compatibility of the pristine magnesium was significantly improved after the surface modification. The hemolysis rate was reduced from 56% of the blank magnesium alloy to 18% of the alkali heating treated sample and the values were further reduced to about 10% of dopamine-modified sample and 7% of APTMS-modified sample. The hemolysis rate was below 5% for the 3-phosphonopropionic acid modified sample. As compared to the pristine magnesium alloy, fewer platelets were attached and activated on the

  6. The Use of AC-DC-AC Methods in Assessing Corrosion Resistance Performance of Coating Systems for Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCune, Robert C.; Upadhyay, Vinod; Wang, Yar-Ming; Battocchi, Dante

    The potential utility of AC-DC-AC electrochemical methods in comparative measures of corrosion-resisting coating system performance for magnesium alloys under consideration for the USAMP "Magnesium Front End Research and Development" project was previously shown in this forum [1]. Additional studies of this approach using statistically-designed experiments have been conducted with focus on alloy types, pretreatment, topcoat material and topcoat thickness as the variables. Additionally, sample coupons made for these designed experiments were also subjected to a typical automotive cyclic corrosion test cycle (SAE J2334) as well as ASTM B117 for comparison of relative performance. Results of these studies are presented along with advantages and limitations of the proposed methodology.

  7. Insitu grown superhydrophobic Zn-Al layered double hydroxides films on magnesium alloy to improve corrosion properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Meng; Pang, Xiaolu; Wei, Liang; Gao, Kewei

    2015-05-01

    A hierarchical superhydrophobic zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (Zn-Al LDHs) film has been fabricated on a magnesium alloy substrate via a facile hydrothermal crystallization method following chemical modification. The characteristics of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscope (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). XRD patterns and SEM images showed that the micro/nanoscale hierarchical LDHs film surfaces composed of ZnO nanorods and Zn-Al LDHs nanowalls structures. The static contact angle (CA) for the prepared surfaces was observed at around 165.6°. The corrosion resistance of the superhydrophobic films was estimated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiondynamic polarization measurement. EIS and polarization measurements revealed that the superhydrophobic Zn-Al LDHs coated magnesium alloy had better corrosion resistance in neutral 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution.

  8. Tensile properties of AZ11A-0 magnesium-alloy sheet under rapid-heating and constant temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurg, Ivo M

    1956-01-01

    Specimens of AZ31A-0 magnesium alloy sheet were heated to rupture at nominal rates of 0.2 F to 100 F per second under constant tensile load conditions. The data are presented and compared with the results of conventional tensile stress-strain tests at elevated temperatures after 1.2-hour exposure. A temperature-rate parameter was used to construct master curves from which stresses and temperatures for yield and rupture can be predicted under rapid-heating conditions. A comparison of the elevated-temperature tensile properties of AZ31A-0 and HK31XA-H24 magnesium-alloy sheet under both constant-temperature and rapid-heating conditions is included.

  9. Finite-Element Analysis of Melt Flow in Horizontal Twin-Roll Casting of Magnesium Alloy AZ31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong-Jin

    Twin-roll casting has been useful in production of thin strips of metals. Especially, the process of horizontal twin-roll casting is often used for magnesium and aluminum alloys, which are lighter in weight and smaller in specific heat as well as latent heat in comparison to steel. In the present investigation, where magnesium alloy AZ31 was targeted, asymmetric behavior of the melt flow due to the gravity was examined in terms of contact length and pressure, and the nozzle for melt ejection was modified for its shape and location. Variations of the melt flow including vortexes were investigated in consideration of heterogeneous nucleation and uniform microstructure. The melt flow was further examined in the perspective of possible randomness of the grain orientation through thickness under differential speeds of rolls.

  10. Application of neutron diffraction in characterization of texture evolution during high-temperature creep in magnesium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, Sven C; Sediako, Dimitry; Shook, S

    2010-01-01

    A good combination of room-temperature and elevated temperature strength and ductility, good salt-spray corrosion resistance and exceUent diecastability are frequently among the main considerations in development of a new alloy. Unfortunately, there has been much lesser effort in development of wrought-stock alloys for high temperature applications. Extrudability and high temperature performance of wrought material becomes an important factor in an effort to develop new wrought alloys and processing technologies. This paper shows some results received in creep testing and studies of in-creep texture evolution for several wrought magnesium alloys developed for use in elevated-temperature applications. These studies were performed usingmore » E3 neutron spectrometer of the Canadian Neutron Beam Centre in Chalk River, ON, and HIPPO time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, NM.« less

  11. Microstructure evolution and texture development of hot form-quench (HFQ) AZ31 twin roll cast (TRC) magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alias, J.; Zhou, X.; Das, Sanjeev; El-Fakir, Omer; Thompson, G. E.

    2017-12-01

    The present study on the microstructure evolution of hot form-quench (HFQ) AZ31 twin roll cast magnesium alloy attempt to provide an understanding on the grain structure and heterogeneous intermetallic phase formation in the alloy and texture development following the HFQ process. Grain recrystallization and partial dissolution of eutectic β-Mg17Al12 phase particles were occurred during the solution heat treatment at 450°C, leaving the alloy consists of recrystallized grains and discontinuous or random β-Mg17Al12 phase particles distribution with small volume fraction. The particles act as effective nucleation sites for new grains during recrystallization and variation of recrystallization occurrence contributed to texture alteration. The partial or full β-Mg17Al12 phase dissolution following the HFQ induces void formation that act as fracture nucleation site and the corresponding texture alteration in the recrystallized grains led to poor formability in TRC alloy.

  12. Surface integrity and corrosion performance of biomedical magnesium-calcium alloy processed by hybrid dry cutting-finish burnishing.

    PubMed

    Salahshoor, M; Li, C; Liu, Z Y; Fang, X Y; Guo, Y B

    2018-02-01

    Biodegradable magnesium-calcium (MgCa) alloy is a very attractive orthopedic biomaterial compared to permanent metallic alloys. However, the critical issue is that MgCa alloy corrodes too fast in the human organism. Compared to dry cutting, the synergistic dry cutting-finish burnishing can significantly improve corrosion performance of MgCa0.8 (wt%) alloy by producing a superior surface integrity including good surface finish, high compressive hook-shaped residual stress profile, extended strain hardening in subsurface, and little change of grain size. A FEA model was developed to understand the plastic deformation of MgCa materials during burnishing process. The measured polarization curves, surface micrographs, and element distributions of the corroded surfaces by burnishing show an increasing and uniform corrosion resistance to simulated body fluid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A biodegradable AZ91 magnesium alloy coated with a thin nanostructured hydroxyapatite for improving the corrosion resistance.

    PubMed

    Mukhametkaliyev, T M; Surmeneva, M A; Vladescu, A; Cotrut, C M; Braic, M; Dinu, M; Vranceanu, M D; Pana, I; Mueller, M; Surmenev, R A

    2017-06-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the properties of an AZ91 alloy coated with nanostructured hydroxyapatite (HA) prepared by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The bioactivity and biomineralization of the AZ91 magnesium alloy coated with HA were investigated in simulated body fluid (SBF) via an in vitro test. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were performed. The samples were immersed in SBF to study the ability of the surface to promote the formation of an apatite layer as well as corrosion resistance and mass change of the HA-coated AZ91 alloy. Electrochemical tests were performed to estimate the corrosion behaviour of HA-coated and uncoated samples. The results revealed the capability of the HA coating to significantly improve the corrosion resistance of the uncoated AZ91 alloy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhanced mechanical properties and increased corrosion resistance of a biodegradable magnesium alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO).

    PubMed

    White, Leon; Koo, Youngmi; Neralla, Sudheer; Sankar, Jagannathan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2016-06-01

    We report the enhanced mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloys by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating in NaOH, Na 2 SiO 3 , KF and NaH 2 PO 4 ·2H 2 O containing electrolytes. Mechanical properties including wear resistance, surface hardness and elastic modulus were increased for PEO-coated AZ31 Mg alloys (PEO-AZ31). DC polarization in Hank's solution indicating that the corrosion resistance significantly increased for PEO-coating in KF-contained electrolyte. Based on these results, the PEO coating method shows promising potential for use in biodegradable implant applications where tunable corrosion and mechanical properties are needed.

  15. The Relation between the Tensile Properties and Constitution of Aluminium-Rich Aluminium-Magnesium-Manganese-Zinc Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1946-08-01

    magnesium and lljs of zinc in the fully heat treated condition were .37.0 tons/in»2, 40.1 tons/in.2 aid Gji respectively and for the alloy with 4>» of...heat treated condition were 37.0 tons/in.2,» 40.1 tons/in.2 and Gji respectively, and for the 4ilill alloy. 40.4 tons/in.2 44.5 tons/in.2 and 2J5

  16. In Vivo Corrosion of Two Novel Magnesium Alloys ZEK100 and AX30 and Their Mechanical Suitability as Biodegradable Implants

    PubMed Central

    Huehnerschulte, Tim Andreas; Angrisani, Nina; Rittershaus, Dina; Bormann, Dirk; Windhagen, Henning; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    In magnesium alloys, the components used modify the alloy properties. For magnesium implants in contact with bone, rare earths alloys are commonly examined. These were shown to have a higher corrosion resistance than other alloys and a high mechanical strength, but their exact composition is hard to predict. Therefore a reduction of their content could be favorable. The alloys ZEK100 and AX30 have a reduced content or contain no rare earths at all. The aim of the study was to investigate their in vivo degradation and to assess the suitability of the in vivo µCT for the examination of their corrosion. Implants were inserted in rabbit tibiae. Clinical examinations, X-rays and in vivo µCT scans were done regularly. Afterwards implants were analyzed with REM, electron dispersive X-ray (EDX), weighing and mechanical testing. The in vivo µCT is of great advantage, because it allows a quantification of the corrosion rate and qualitative 3D assessment of the corrosion morphology. The location of the implant has a remarkable effect on the corrosion rate. Due to its mechanical characteristics and its corrosion behavior, ZEK100 was judged to be suitable, while AX30, which displays favorable degradation behavior, has too little mechanical strength for applications in weight bearing bones. PMID:28879972

  17. Determination of rare earth and concomitant elements in magnesium alloys by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fariñas, Juan C; Rucandio, Isabel; Pomares-Alfonso, Mario S; Villanueva-Tagle, Margarita E; Larrea, María T

    2016-07-01

    An Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, In, Mn, Ni, Si, Sr, Y, Zn, Zr and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu) in magnesium alloys, including the new rare earth elements-alloyed magnesium, has been developed. Robust conditions have been established as nebulizer argon flow rate of 0.5mLmin(-1) and RF incident power of 1500W, in which matrix effects were significantly reduced around 10%. Three acid digestion procedures were performed at 110°C in closed PFA vessels heated in an oven, in closed TFM vessels heated in a microwave furnace, and in open polypropylene tubes with reflux caps heated in a graphite block. The three digestion procedures are suitable to put into solution the magnesium alloys samples. From the most sensitive lines, one analytical line with lack or low spectral interferences has been selected for each element. Mg, Rh and Sc have been studied as internal standards. Among them, Rh was selected as the best one by using Rh I 343.488nm and Rh II 249.078nm lines as a function of the analytical lines. The trueness and precision have been established by using the Certified Reference Material BCS 316, as well as by means of recovery studies. Quantification limits were between 0.1 and 9mgkg(-1) for Lu and Pr, respectively, in a 2gL(-1) magnesium matrix solution. The method developed has been applied to the commercial alloys AM60, AZ80, ZK30, AJ62, WE54 and AE44. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Combined effects of cerium and cooling rate on microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ91 magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Huisheng; Guo, Feng; Su, Juan

    2018-01-01

    The specimens of AZ91-xCe(x = 0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, mass fraction wt%) with different thicknesses were prepared by die casting process, their as-cast microstructure and room temperature mechanical properties were investigated to analyze the change rule of microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ91 magnesium alloy under combined effects of cooling rate and cerium content. The results show that, the microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ91 magnesium alloy were twofold influenced by cooling rate and cerium content. With the increase of cooling rate and Ce content, the average as-cast grain size is evidently refined; the amount of β-Mg17Al12 decreases and distribution becomes discrete. While decreasing cooling rate or increasing Ce content, Al4Ce phase is more and the morphology tends to strip and needle from granular and short rod-like. The tensile strength and elongation of AZ91-xCe magnesium alloy are improved with increasing cooling rate. With the increase of Ce content, the tensile strength and elongation of AZ91-xCe magnesium alloy increased first and decreased afterwards, besides the action of Ce to improve tensile strength and elongation is more evident under faster cooling rate. Mechanical properties of samples are optimal in this work, when Ce content is 0.96% and cooling rate is 39.6 K s-1, tensile strength (259.7 MPa) and elongation (5.5%) are reached maximum, respectively.

  19. Microstructure and corrosion behavior of die-cast AM60B magnesium alloys in a complex salt solution. A slow positron beam study

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y. F.; Yang, W.; Qin, Q. L.

    2013-12-15

    The microstructure and corrosion behavior of high pressure die-cast (HPDC) and super vacuum die-cast (SVDC) AM60B magnesium alloys were investigated in a complex salt solution using slow positron beam technique and potentiodynamic polarization tests. The experiments revealed that a CaCO 3 film was formed on the surface of the alloys and that the rate of CaCO 3 formation for the SVDC alloy with immersion time was slower than that of the HPDC alloy. The larger volume fraction of b-phase in the skin layer of the SVDC alloy than that of the HPDC alloy was responsible for the better corrosion resistance.

  20. An in vivo model to assess magnesium alloys and their biological effect on human bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Sayuri; Chaya, Amy; Verdelis, Kostas; Bilodeau, Elizabeth A; Sfeir, Charles

    2015-12-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys have many unique qualities which make them ideal candidates for bone fixation devices, including biocompatibility and degradation in vivo. Despite a rise in Mg alloy production and research, there remains no standardized system to assess their degradation or biological effect on human stem cells in vivo. In this study, we developed a novel in vivo model to assess Mg alloys for craniofacial and orthopedic applications. Our model consists of a collagen sponge seeded with human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) around a central Mg alloy rod. These scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously in mice and analyzed after eight weeks. Alloy degradation and biological effect were determined by microcomputed tomography (microCT), histological staining, and immunohistochemistry (IHC). MicroCT showed greater volume loss for pure Mg compared to AZ31 after eight weeks in vivo. Histological analysis showed that hBMSCs were retained around the Mg implants after 8 weeks. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry showed the expression of dentin matrix protein 1 and osteopontin around both pure Mg and AZ31 with implanted hBMSCs. In addition, histological sections showed a thin mineral layer around all degrading alloys at the alloy-tissue interface. In conclusion, our data show that degrading pure Mg and AZ31 implants are cytocompatible and do not inhibit the osteogenic property of hBMSCs in vivo. These results demonstrate that this model can be used to efficiently assess the biological effect of corroding Mg alloys in vivo. Importantly, this model may be modified to accommodate additional cell types and clinical applications. Magnesium (Mg) alloys have been investigated as ideal candidates for bone fixation devices due to high biocompatibility and degradation in vivo, and there is a growing need of establishing an efficient in vivo material screening system. In this study, we assessed degradation rate and biological effect of Mg alloys by transplanting Mg alloy rod with

  1. Effect of temperature on the anisotropy of AZ31 magnesium alloy rolling sheet under high strain rate deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanyu; Mao, Pingli; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Zheng; Wang, Zhi

    2018-04-01

    In order to investigate the effect of temperature on the anisotropic behaviour of AZ31 magnesium alloy rolling sheet under high strain rate deformation, the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar was used to analyse the dynamic mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy rolling sheet in three directions, rolling direction(RD), transverse direction (TD) and normal direction (ND). The texture of the rolling sheet was characterised by X-ray analysis and the microstructure prior and after high strain rate deformation was observed by optical microscope (OM). The results demonstrated that AZ31magnesium alloy rolling sheet has strong initial {0 0 0 2} texture, which resulted at the obvious anisotropy in high strain rate deformation at 20 °C. The anisotropy reflected in stress-strain curve, yield stress, peak stress and microstructure. The anisotropy became much weaker when the deformation temperature increased up to 250 °C. Continuing to increase the deformation temperature to 350 °C the anisotropy of AZ31 rolling sheet essentially disappeared. The decreasing tendency of anisotropy with increasing temperature was due to the fact that when the deformation temperature increased, the critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) for pyramidal 〈c + a〉 slip, which was the predominant slip mechanism for ND, decreased close to that of twinning, which was the predominant deformation mechanism for RD and TD. The deformation mechanism at different directions and temperatures and the Schmid factor (SF) at different directions were discussed in the present paper.

  2. Electrochemical characteristics of calcium-phosphatized AZ31 magnesium alloy in 0.9 % NaCl solution.

    PubMed

    Hadzima, Branislav; Mhaede, Mansour; Pastorek, Filip

    2014-05-01

    Magnesium alloys suffer from their high reactivity in common environments. Protective layers are widely created on the surface of magnesium alloys to improve their corrosion resistance. This article evaluates the influence of a calcium-phosphate layer on the electrochemical characteristics of AZ31 magnesium alloy in 0.9 % NaCl solution. The calcium phosphate (CaP) layer was electrochemically deposited in a solution containing 0.1 M Ca(NO3)2, 0.06 M NH4H2PO4 and 10 ml l(-1) of H2O2. The formed surface layer was composed mainly of brushite [(dicalcium phosphate dihidrate (DCPD)] as proved by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The surface morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Immersion test was performed in order to observe degradation of the calcium phosphatized surfaces. The influence of the phosphate layer on the electrochemical characteristics of AZ31, in 0.9 % NaCl solution, was evaluated by potentiodynamic measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The obtained results were analysed by the Tafel-extrapolation method and equivalent circuits method. The results showed that the polarization resistance of the DCPD-coated surface is about 25 times higher than that of non-coated surface. The CaP electro-deposition process increased the activation energy of corrosion process.

  3. Preparation and corrosion resistance of electroless Ni-P/SiC functionally gradient coatings on AZ91D magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui-Long; Liu, Ling-Yun; Dou, Yong; Zhang, Wen-Zhu; Jiang, Wen-Feng

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, the protective electroless Ni-P/SiC gradient coatings on AZ91D magnesium alloy substrate were successfully prepared. The prepared Ni-P/SiC gradient coatings were characterized for its microstructure, morphology, microhardness and adhesion to the substrate. The deposition reaction kinetics was investigated and an empirical rate equation for electroless Ni-P/SiC plating on AZ91D magnesium alloy was developed. The anticorrosion properties of the Ni-P/SiC gradient coatings in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution were evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies. The potentiodynamic polarization measurements revealed that the SiC concentration in the bath and heat treatment can influence the corrosion protection performance of electroless deposited Ni-P/SiC gradient coatings. EIS studies indicated that higher charge transfer resistance and slightly lower capacitance values were obtained for Ni-P/SiC gradient coatings compared to Ni-P coatings. The corrosion resistance of the Ni-P/SiC gradient coatings increases initially and decreases afterwards with the sustained increasing of immersion time in the aggressive medium. The electroless Ni-P/SiC gradient coatings can afford better corrosion protection for magnesium alloy substrate compared with Ni-P coatings.

  4. Dual-beam laser welding of AZ31B magnesium alloy in zero-gap lap joint configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harooni, Masoud; Carlson, Blair; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2014-03-01

    Porosity within laser welds of magnesium alloys is one of the main roadblocks to achieving high quality joints. One of the causes of pore formation is the presence of pre-existing coatings on the surface of magnesium alloy such as oxide or chromate layers. In this study, single-beam and dual-beam laser heat sources are investigated in relation to mitigation of pores resulting from the presence of the as-received oxide layer on the surface of AZ31B-H24 magnesium alloy during the laser welding process. A fiber laser with a power of up to 4 kW is used to weld samples in a zero-gap lap joint configuration. The effect of dual-beam laser welding with different beam energy ratios is studied on the quality of the weld bead. The purpose of this paper is to identify the beam ratio that best mitigates pore formation in the weld bead. The laser molten pool and the keyhole condition, as well as laser-induced plasma plume are monitored in real-time by use of a high speed charge-coupled device (CCD) camera assisted with a green laser as an illumination source. Tensile and microhardness tests were used to measure the mechanical properties of the laser welded samples. Results showed that a dual-beam laser configuration can effectively mitigate pore formation in the weld bead by a preheating-welding mechanism.

  5. The Preparation, Characterization and Formation Mechanism of a Calcium Phosphate Conversion Coating on Magnesium Alloy AZ91D.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Li, Yanyan; Zhou, Yong; Ding, Yigang

    2018-05-28

    The poor corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys is one of the main obstacles preventing their widespread usage. Due to the advantages of lower cost and simplicity in operation, chemical conversion coating has drawn considerable attention for its improvement of the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys. In this study, a calcium phosphate coating was prepared on magnesium alloy AZ91D by chemical conversion. For the calcium phosphate coating, the effect of processing parameters on the microstructure and corrosion resistance was studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electrochemical methods, and the coating composition was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The calcium phosphate coating was mainly composed of CaHPO₄·2H₂O (DCPD), with fewer cracks and pores. The coating with the leaf-like microstructure provided great corrosion resistance to the AZ91D substrate, and was obtained under the following conditions: 20 min, ambient temperature, and no stirring. At the same time, the role of NH₄H₂PO₄ as the coating-forming agent and the acidifying agent in the conversion process was realized, and the formation mechanism of DCPD was discussed in detail in this work.

  6. Nanostructured calcium phosphate coatings on magnesium alloys: characterization and cytocompatibility with mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Iskandar, Maria Emil; Aslani, Arash; Tian, Qiaomu

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the deposition and characterization of nanostructured calcium phosphate (nCaP) on magnesium–yttrium alloy substrates and their cytocompatibility with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). The nCaP coatings were deposited on magnesium and magnesium–yttrium alloy substrates using proprietary transonic particle acceleration process for the dual purposes of modulating substrate degradation and BMSC adhesion. Surface morphology and feature size were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and quantitative image analysis tools. Surface elemental compositions and phases were analyzed using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The deposited nCaP coatings showed a homogeneous particulate surface with the dominant feature size of 200–500 nm in the long axis and 100–300 nm in the short axis, and a Ca/P atomic ratio of 1.5–1.6. Hydroxyapatite was the major phase identified in the nCaP coatings. The modulatory effects of nCaP coatings on the sample degradation and BMSC behaviors were dependent on the substrate composition and surface conditions. The direct culture of BMSCs in vitro indicated that multiple factors, including surface composition and topography, and the degradation-induced changes in media composition, influenced cell adhesion directly on the sample surface, and indirect adhesion surrounding the sample in the same culture. The alkaline pH, the indicator of Mg degradation, played a role in BMSC adhesion and morphology, but not the sole factor. Additional studies are necessary to elucidate BMSC responses to each contributing factor. PMID:25917827

  7. Effects of CH3OH Addition on Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation of AZ31 Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yongyi; Chen, Li; Yan, Zongcheng; Zhang, Yalei

    2015-09-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) films on AZ31 magnesium alloys were prepared in alkaline silicate electrolytes (base electrolyte) with the addition of different volume concentrations of CH3OH, which was used to adjust the thickness of the vapor sheath. The compositions, morphologies, and thicknesses of ceramic layers formed with different CH3OH concentrations were determined via X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Corrosion behavior of the oxide films was evaluated in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution using potentiodynamic polarization tests. PEO coatings mainly comprised Mg, MgO, and Mg2SiO4. The addition of CH3OH in base electrolytes affected the thickness, pores diameter, and Mg2SiO4 content in the films. The films formed in the electrolyte containing 12% CH3OH exhibited the highest thickness. The coatings formed in the electrolyte containing different concentrations of CH3OH exhibited similar corrosion resistance. The energy consumption of PEO markedly decreased upon the addition of CH3OH to the electrolytes. The result is helpful for energy saving in the PEO process. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21376088), the Project of Production, Education and Research, Guangdong Province and Ministry of Education (Nos. 2012B09100063, 2012A090300015), and Guangzhou Science and Technology Plan Projects of China (No. 2014Y2-00042)

  8. A Microstructure Study on an AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Tube after Hot Metal Gas Forming Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi; Wu, Xin

    2007-06-01

    An AZ31 magnesium alloy tube has been deformed by the hot metal gas forming (HMGF) technique. Microstructures before and after deformation have been investigated by using Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) and Electron Microscopy. Due to the inhomogeneous distribution by induction heating, there is a temperature gradient distribution along the tube axis. Accordingly, the deformation mechanism is also different. In the middle area of deformation zone where the temperature is ˜410 °C, almost no twinning has been found, whereas at the edge areas of deformation zone where the temperature is ˜200 °C, a high density of twins has been found. EBSD experiments show a weak (0001) fiber texture along the radial direction of the tube before and after deformation in the high-temperature zone. EBSD experiments on the low temperature deformation region were not successful due to the high stored energy. Schmid factor analysis on the EBSD data shows that, despite the (0001) fiber texture, there are still many grains favoring basal slip along both the axis direction and hoop direction.

  9. Layer-by-Layer Assembly of a Self-Healing Anticorrosion Coating on Magnesium Alloys.

    PubMed

    Fan, Fan; Zhou, Chunyu; Wang, Xu; Szpunar, Jerzy

    2015-12-16

    Fabrication of self-healing anticorrosion coatings has attracted attention as it has the ability to extend the service life and prevent the substrate from corrosive attack. However, a coating system with a rapid self-healing ability and an improved corrosion resistance is rarely reported. In this work, we developed a self-healing anticorrosion coating on a magnesium alloy (AZ31). The coating comprises a cerium-based conversion layer, a graphene oxide layer, and a branched poly(ethylene imine) (PEI)/poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) multilayer. We incorporated the graphene oxide as corrosion inhibitors and used the PEI/PAA multilayers to provide the self-healing ability to the coating systems. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the composition of the multilayers, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze the surface morphology. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results illustrate the improved corrosion resistance of the coating. The proposed coating also has a rapid self-healing ability in the presence of water.

  10. Lateral Compression Properties of Magnesium Alloy Tubes Fabricated via Hydrostatic Extrusion Integrated with Circular ECAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Jiuming; Hu, Fangyi; Cao, Quoc Dinh; Yuan, Renshu; Wu, Zhilin; Cai, Hongming; Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Xinping

    2017-03-01

    Hydrostatic extrusion integrated with circular equal channel angular pressing has been previously proposed for fabricating AZ80 magnesium alloy tubes as a method to obtain high-strength tubes for industrial applications. In order to axial tensile strength, circumferential mechanical properties are also important for tubular structures. The tensile properties of AZ80 tubes have been previously studied; however, the circumferential properties have not been examined. In this work, circumferential mechanical properties of these tubes were studied using lateral compression tests. An analytical model is proposed to evaluate the circumferential elongation, which is in good agreement with finite element results. The effects of the extrusion ratio and conical mandrel angle on the circumferential elongation and lateral compression strength are discussed. The strain distribution in the sample during lateral compression testing was found to be inhomogeneous, and cracks initially appeared on the inner surface of the sample vertex. The circumferential elongation and lateral compression strength increased with the extrusion ratio and conical mandrel angle. The anisotropy of the tube's mechanical properties was insignificant when geometric effects were ignored.

  11. Microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ91 magnesium alloy subject to deep cryogenic treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gui-rong; Wang, Hong-ming; Cai, Yun; Zhao, Yu-tao; Wang, Jun-jie; Gill, Simon P. A.

    2013-09-01

    AZ91 magnesium alloy was subjected to a deep cryogenic treatment. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) methods were utilized to characterize the composition and microstructure of the treated samples. The results show that after two cryogenic treatments, the quantity of the precipitate hardening β phase increases, and the sizes of the precipitates are refined from 8-10 μm to 2-4 μm. This is expected to be due to the decreased solubility of aluminum in the matrix at low temperature and the significant plastic deformation owing to internal differences in thermal contraction between phases and grains. The polycrystalline matrix is also noticeably refined, with the sizes of the subsequent nanocrystalline grains in the range of 50-100 nm. High density dislocations are observed to pile up at the grain boundaries, inducing the dynamic recrystallization of the microstructure, leading to the generation of a nanocrystalline grain structure. After two deep cryogenic treatments, the tensile strength and elongation are found to be substantially increased, rising from 243 MPa and 4.4% of as-cast state to 299 MPa and 5.1%.

  12. Microstructural evolution and grain growth kinetics of GZ31 magnesium alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Roostaei, M., E-mail: miladroustaei68@ut.ac.ir

    2016-08-15

    Grain growth behavior of Mg–3Gd–1Zn (GZ31) magnesium alloy was studied in a wide range of annealing time and temperature to clarify the kinetics of grain growth, microstructural evolution and related metallurgical phenomena. This material exhibited typical normal grain growth mode under annealing conditions with annealing temperature of lower than 300 °C and soaking time of lower than 240 min. However, the abnormality in grain growth was also evident at annealing temperature of 400 °C and 500 °C. The dependence of abnormal grain growth (AGG) at mentioned annealing temperatures upon microstructural features such as dispersed precipitates, which were rich in Znmore » and Gd, was investigated by optical micrographs, X-ray diffraction patterns, scanning electron microscopy images, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis spectra. The bimodality in grain-size distribution histograms also signified the occurrence of AGG. Based on the experimental data on grain growth obtained by annealing treatments, the grain growth exponent and the activation energy were also figured out.« less

  13. Initiation and strain compatibility of connected extension twins in AZ31 magnesium alloy at high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiao, E-mail: liuxiao0105@163.com

    2016-12-15

    Uniaxial compression tests were carried out at 350 °C and a strain rate of 0.3 s{sup −1} on as-extruded AZ31 magnesium alloy samples. At a true strain of − 0.1, extension twin pairs in a grain and twin chains across adjacent grains were detected. The orientation of selected twins and their host grains were determined by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) techniques. The Schmid factors (SFs), accommodation strains and geometric compatibility factors (m{sup ′}) were calculated. Analysis of the data indicated that the formation of twin pair and twin chain was related to the SF and m{sup ′}. Regarding to twinmore » chain across adjacent grains, accommodation strain was also involved. The selection of twin variants in twin chain was generally determined by m{sup ′}. When the twins required the operation of pyramidal slip or twinning in adjacent grain, the corresponding connected twins with a relative high m{sup ′} were selected in this adjacent grain. - Highlights: •The formation of paired twins is studied during high temperature deformation. •The initiation of twinning in twin pair and twin chain obeys the Schmid law. •The twin variants' selection in twin chain is related to the geometric compatibility factor. •The accommodation strain plays an important role on the formation of twin chain.« less

  14. Investigation of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of ECAP-Processed AM Series Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopi, K. R.; Nayaka, H. Shivananda; Sahu, Sandeep

    2016-09-01

    Magnesium alloy Mg-Al-Mn (AM70) was processed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) at 275 °C for up to 4 passes in order to produce ultrafine-grained microstructure and improve its mechanical properties. ECAP-processed samples were characterized for microstructural analysis using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Microstructural analysis showed that, with an increase in the number of ECAP passes, grains refined and grain size reduced from an average of 45 to 1 µm. Electron backscatter diffraction analysis showed the transition from low angle grain boundaries to high angle grain boundaries in ECAP 4 pass sample as compared to as-cast sample. The strength and hardness values an showed increasing trend for the initial 2 passes of ECAP processing and then started decreasing with further increase in the number of ECAP passes, even though the grain size continued to decrease in all the successive ECAP passes. However, the strength and hardness values still remained quite high when compared to the initial condition. This behavior was found to be correlated with texture modification in the material as a result of ECAP processing.

  15. Effect of Thermal History on Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Prepared by Friction Stir Processing

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Fang; Zhang, Datong; Li, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    Hot-rolled AZ31 (Mg-2.57Al-0.84Zn-0.32Mn, in mass percentage) magnesium alloy is subjected to friction stir processing in air (normal friction stir processing, NFSP) and under water (submerged friction stir processing, SFSP). Thermal history of the two FSP procedures is measured, and its effect on microstructures and mechanical properties of the experimental materials is investigated. Compared with NFSP, the peak temperature during SFSP is lower and the duration time at a high temperature is shorter due to the enhanced cooling effect of water. Consequently, SFSP results in further grain refinement, and the average grain size of the NFSP and SFSP specimens in the stir zone (SZ) are 2.9 μm and 1.3 μm, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examinations confirm that grain refinement is attributed to continuous dynamic recrystallization both for NFSP and SFSP. The average Vickers hardness in the SZ of the NFSP and SFSP AZ31 magnesium alloy are 76 HV and 87 HV. Furthermore, the ultimate tensile strength and the elongation of the SFSP specimen increase from 191 MPa and 31.3% in the NFSP specimen to 210 MPa and 50.5%, respectively. Both the NFSP and SFSP alloys fail through ductile fracture, but the dimples are much more obvious in the SFSP alloy. PMID:28788532

  16. Influence of circumferential notch and fatigue crack on the mechanical integrity of biodegradable magnesium-based alloy in simulated body fluid.

    PubMed

    Bobby Kannan, M; Singh Raman, R K; Witte, F; Blawert, C; Dietzel, W

    2011-02-01

    Applications of magnesium alloys as biodegradable orthopaedic implants are critically dependent on the mechanical integrity of the implant during service. In this study, the mechanical integrity of an AZ91 magnesium alloy was studied using a constant extension rate tensile (CERT) method. The samples in two different geometries that is, circumferentially notched (CN), and circumferentially notched and fatigue cracked (CNFC), were tested in air and in simulated body fluid (SBF). The test results show that the mechanical integrity of the AZ91 magnesium alloy decreased substantially (∼50%) in both the CN and CNFC samples exposed to SBF. Fracture surface analysis revealed secondary cracks suggesting stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of the alloy in SBF. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. In-vitro characterization of stress corrosion cracking of aluminium-free magnesium alloys for temporary bio-implant applications.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Lokesh; Singh Raman, R K; Hofstetter, Joelle; Uggowitzer, Peter J

    2014-09-01

    The complex interaction between physiological stresses and corrosive human body fluid may cause premature failure of metallic biomaterials due to the phenomenon of stress corrosion cracking. In this study, the susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking of biodegradable and aluminium-free magnesium alloys ZX50, WZ21 and WE43 was investigated by slow strain rate tensile testing in a simulated human body fluid. Slow strain rate tensile testing results indicated that each alloy was susceptible to stress corrosion cracking, and this was confirmed by fractographic features of transgranular and/or intergranular cracking. However, the variation in alloy susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking is explained on the basis of their electrochemical and microstructural characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A kinematic hardening constitutive model for the uniaxial cyclic stress-strain response of magnesium sheet alloys at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhitao; Chen, Wufan; Wang, Fenghua; Feng, Miaolin

    2017-11-01

    A kinematic hardening constitutive model is presented, in which a modified form of von Mises yield function is adopted, and the initial asymmetric tension and compression yield stresses of magnesium (Mg) alloys at room temperature (RT) are considered. The hardening behavior was classified into slip, twinning, and untwinning deformation modes, and these were described by two forms of back stress to capture the mechanical response of Mg sheet alloys under cyclic loading tests at RT. Experimental values were obtained for AZ31B-O and AZ31B sheet alloys under both tension-compression-tension (T-C-T) and compression-tension (C-T) loadings to calibrate the parameters of back stresses in the proposed model. The predicted parameters of back stresses in the twinning and untwinning modes were expressed as a cubic polynomial. The predicted curves based on these parameters showed good agreement with the tests.

  19. Influence of Tension-Compression Asymmetry on the Mechanical Behavior of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy Sheets in Bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ping; Beeh, Elmar; Friedrich, Horst E.

    2016-03-01

    Magnesium alloys are promising materials for lightweight design in the automotive industry due to their high strength-to-mass ratio. This study aims to study the influence of tension-compression asymmetry on the radius of curvature and energy absorption capacity of AZ31B-O magnesium alloy sheets in bending. The mechanical properties were characterized using tension, compression, and three-point bending tests. The material exhibits significant tension-compression asymmetry in terms of strength and strain hardening rate due to extension twinning in compression. The compressive yield strength is much lower than the tensile yield strength, while the strain hardening rate is much higher in compression. Furthermore, the tension-compression asymmetry in terms of r value (Lankford value) was also observed. The r value in tension is much higher than that in compression. The bending results indicate that the AZ31B-O sheet can outperform steel and aluminum sheets in terms of specific energy absorption in bending mainly due to its low density. In addition, the AZ31B-O sheet was deformed with a larger radius of curvature than the steel and aluminum sheets, which brings a benefit to energy absorption capacity. Finally, finite element simulation for three-point bending was performed using LS-DYNA and the results confirmed that the larger radius of curvature of a magnesium specimen is mainly attributed to the high strain hardening rate in compression.

  20. Improved stress corrosion cracking resistance of a novel biodegradable EW62 magnesium alloy by rapid solidification, in simulated electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Hakimi, O; Aghion, E; Goldman, J

    2015-06-01

    The high corrosion rate of magnesium (Mg) and Mg-alloys precludes their widespread acceptance as implantable biomaterials. Here, we investigated the potential for rapid solidification (RS) to increase the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance of a novel Mg alloy, Mg-6%Nd-2%Y-0.5%Zr (EW62), in comparison to its conventionally cast (CC) counterpart. RS ribbons were extrusion consolidated in order to generate bioimplant-relevant geometries for testing and practical use. Microstructural characteristics were examined by SEM. Corrosion rates were calculated based upon hydrogen evolution during immersion testing. The surface layer of the tested alloys was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Stress corrosion resistance was assessed by slow strain rate testing and fractography. The results indicate that the corrosion resistance of the RS alloy is significantly improved relative to the CC alloy due to a supersaturated Nd enrichment that increases the Nd2O3 content in the external oxide layer, as well as a more homogeneous structure and reduced grain size. These improvements contributed to the reduced formation of hydrogen gas and hydrogen embrittlement, which reduced the SCC sensitivity relative to the CC alloy. Therefore, EW62 in the form of a rapidly solidified extruded structure may serve as a biodegradable implant for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Tailoring the degradation and biological response of a magnesium-strontium alloy for potential bone substitute application.

    PubMed

    Han, Junjie; Wan, Peng; Ge, Ye; Fan, Xinmin; Tan, Lili; Li, Jianjun; Yang, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Bone defects are very challenging in orthopedic practice. There are many practical and clinical shortcomings in the repair of the defect by using autografts, allografts or xenografts, which continue to motivate the search for better alternatives. The ideal bone grafts should provide mechanical support, fill osseous voids and enhance the bone healing. Biodegradable magnesium-strontium (Mg-Sr) alloys demonstrate good biocompatibility and osteoconductive properties, which are promising biomaterials for bone substitutes. The aim of this study was to evaluate and pair the degradation of Mg-Sr alloys for grafting with their clinical demands. The microstructure and performance of Mg-Sr alloys, in vitro degradation and biological properties including in vitro cytocompatibility and in vivo implantation were investigated. The results showed that the as-cast Mg-Sr alloy exhibited a rapid degradation rate compared with the as-extruded alloy due to the intergranular distribution of the second phase and micro-galvanic corrosion. However, the initial degradation could be tailored by the coating protection, which was proved to be cytocompatible and also suitable for bone repair observed by in vivo implantation. The integrated fracture calluses were formed and bridged the fracture gap without gas bubble accumulation, meanwhile the substitutes simultaneously degraded. In conclusion, the as-cast Mg-Sr alloy with coating is potential to be used for bone substitute alternative. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of bovine serum albumin in Hanks' solution on the corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of a magnesium alloy.

    PubMed

    Harandi, Shervin Eslami; Banerjee, Parama Chakraborty; Easton, Christopher D; Singh Raman, R K

    2017-11-01

    It is essential for any temporary implant to possess adequate strength to maintain their mechanical integrity under the synergistic effects of mechanical loading characteristics of human body and the corrosive physiological environment. Such synergistic effects can cause stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of the addition of bovine serum albumin (BSA) to Hanks' solution in corrosion and SCC susceptibility of AZ91D magnesium alloy. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results indicated that the addition of BSA increased corrosion resistance of the alloy during the first 48h of immersion and then decreased it rapidly. The energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses indicated adsorption of BSA on the alloy surface during initial hours of immersion. However, with the increasing immersion time, BSA chelated with the corrosion products causing disruption of the protective film; thus, it accelerated the corrosion of the alloy. Both the mechanical data and fractographic evidence have confirmed susceptibility of the alloy to SCC. However, in the presence of BSA, the alloy suffered greater SCC which was attributed to its increased susceptibility towards localized corrosion. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Biocorrosion and osteoconductivity of PCL/nHAp composite porous film-based coating of magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdal-hay, Abdalla; Amna, Touseef; Lim, Jae Kyoo

    2013-04-01

    The present study was aimed at designing a novel porous hydroxyapatite/poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (nHAp/PCL) hybrid nanocomposite matrix on a magnesium substrate with high and low porosity. The coated samples were prepared using a dip-coating technique in order to enhance the bioactivity and biocompatibility of the implant and to control the degradation rate of magnesium alloys. The mechanical and biocompatible properties of the coated and uncoated samples were investigated and an in vitro test for corrosion was conducted by electrochemical polarization and measurement of weight loss. The corrosion test results demonstrated that both the pristine PCL and nHAp/PCL composites showed good corrosion resistance in SBF. However, during the extended incubation time, the composite coatings exhibited more uniform and superior resistance to corrosion attack than pristine PCL, and were able to survive severe localized corrosion in physiological solution. Furthermore, the bioactivity of the composite film was determined by the rapid formation of uniform CaP nanoparticles on the sample surfaces during immersion in SBF. The mechanical integrity of the composite coatings displayed better performance (˜34% higher) than the uncoated samples. Finally, our results suggest that the nHAp incorporated with novel PCL composite membranes on magnesium substrates may serve as an excellent 3-D platform for cell attachment, proliferation, migration, and growth in bone tissue. This novel as-synthesized nHAp/PCL membrane on magnesium implants could be used as a potential material for orthopedic applications in the future.

  4. Modeling High Temperature Deformation Behavior of Large-Scaled Mg-Al-Zn Magnesium Alloy Fabricated by Semi-continuous Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianping; Xia, Xiangsheng

    2015-09-01

    In order to improve the understanding of the hot deformation and dynamic recrystallization (DRX) behaviors of large-scaled AZ80 magnesium alloy fabricated by semi-continuous casting, compression tests were carried out in the temperature range from 250 to 400 °C and strain rate range from 0.001 to 0.1 s-1 on a Gleeble 1500 thermo-mechanical machine. The effects of the temperature and strain rate on the hot deformation behavior have been expressed by means of the conventional hyperbolic sine equation, and the influence of the strain has been incorporated in the equation by considering its effect on different material constants for large-scaled AZ80 magnesium alloy. In addition, the DRX behavior has been discussed. The result shows that the deformation temperature and strain rate exerted remarkable influences on the flow stress. The constitutive equation of large-scaled AZ80 magnesium alloy for hot deformation at steady-state stage (ɛ = 0.5) was The true stress-true strain curves predicted by the extracted model were in good agreement with the experimental results, thereby confirming the validity of the developed constitutive relation. The DRX kinetic model of large-scaled AZ80 magnesium alloy was established as X d = 1 - exp[-0.95((ɛ - ɛc)/ɛ*)2.4904]. The rate of DRX increases with increasing deformation temperature, and high temperature is beneficial for achieving complete DRX in the large-scaled AZ80 magnesium alloy.

  5. Use of an AC/DC/AC Electrochemical Technique to Assess the Durability of Protection Systems for Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sen; McCune, Robert C.; Shen, Weidian; Wang, Yar-Ming

    One task under the U.S. Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) "Magnesium Front End Research and Development" (MFERD) Project has been the evaluation of methodologies for the assessment of protective capability for a variety of proposed protection schemes for this hypothesized multi-material, articulated structure. Techniques which consider the entire protection system, including both pretreatments and topcoats are of interest. In recent years, an adaptation of the classical electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) approach using an intermediate cathodic DC polarization step (viz. AC/DC/AC) has been employed to accelerate breakdown of coating protection, specifically at the polymer-pretreatment interface. This work reports outcomes of studies to employ the AC/DC/AC approach for comparison of protective coatings to various magnesium alloys considered for front end structures. In at least one instance, the protective coating system breakdown could be attributed to the poorer intrinsic corrosion resistance of the sheet material (AZ31) relative to die-cast AM60B.

  6. Electrolytic Deposition and Diffusion of Lithium onto Magnesium-9 Wt Pct Yttrium Bulk Alloy in Low-Temperature Molten Salt of Lithium Chloride and Potassium Chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Hanwu; Wu, Yaoming; Wang, Lidong; Wang, Limin

    2009-10-01

    The electrolytic deposition and diffusion of lithium onto bulk magnesium-9 wt pct yttrium alloy cathode in molten salt of 47 wt pct lithium chloride and 53 wt pct potassium chloride at 693 K were investigated. Results show that magnesium-yttrium-lithium ternary alloys are formed on the surface of the cathodes, and a penetration depth of 642 μm is acquired after 2 hours of electrolysis at the cathodic current density of 0.06 A·cm-2. The diffusion of lithium results in a great amount of precipitates in the lithium containing layer. These precipitates are the compound of Mg41Y5, which arrange along the grain boundaries and hinder the diffusion of lithium, and solid solution of yttrium in magnesium. The grain boundaries and the twins of the magnesium-9 wt pct yttrium substrate also have negative effects on the diffusion of lithium.

  7. In vitro degradation of ZM21 magnesium alloy in simulated body fluids.

    PubMed

    Witecka, Agnieszka; Bogucka, Aleksandra; Yamamoto, Akiko; Máthis, Kristián; Krajňák, Tomáš; Jaroszewicz, Jakub; Święszkowski, Wojciech

    2016-08-01

    In vitro degradation behavior of squeeze cast (CAST) and equal channel angular pressed (ECAP) ZM21 magnesium alloy (2.0wt% Zn-0.98wt% Mn) was studied using immersion tests up to 4w in three different biological environments. Hanks' Balanced Salt Solution (Hanks), Earle's Balanced Salt Solution (Earle) and Eagle minimum essential medium supplemented with 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum (E-MEM+10% FBS) were used to investigate the effect of carbonate buffer system, organic compounds and material processing on the degradation behavior of the ZM21 alloy samples. Corrosion rate of the samples was evaluated by their Mg(2+) ion release, weight loss and volume loss. In the first 24h, the corrosion rate sequence of the CAST samples was as following: Hanks>E-MEM+10% FBS>Earle. However, in longer immersion periods, the corrosion rate sequence was Earle>E-MEM+10% FBS≥Hanks. Strong buffering effect provided by carbonate buffer system helped to maintain the pH avoiding drastic increase of the corrosion rate of ZM21 in the initial stage of immersion. Organic compounds also contributed to maintain the pH of the fluid. Moreover, they adsorbed on the sample surface and formed an additional barrier on the insoluble salt layer, which was effective to retard the corrosion of CAST samples. In case of ECAP, however, this effect was overcome by the occurrence of strong localized corrosion due to the lower pH of the medium. Corrosion of ECAP samples was much greater than that of CAST, especially in Hanks, due to higher sensitivity of ECAP to localized corrosion and the presence of Cl(-). The present work demonstrates the importance of using an appropriate solution for a reliable estimation of the degradation rate of Mg-base degradable implants in biological environments, and concludes that the most appropriate solution for this purpose is E-MEM+10% FBS, which has the closest chemical composition to human blood plasma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of strain on the corrosion of magnesium alloys and zinc in physiological environments.

    PubMed

    Törne, Karin; Örnberg, Andreas; Weissenrieder, Jonas

    2017-01-15

    During implantation load-bearing devices experience stress that may influence its mechanical and corrosion profile and potentially lead to premature rupture. The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the Mg-Al alloy AZ61 and Zn was studied in simulated body fluid (m-SBF) and whole blood by slow strain rate (SSR) testing in combination with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and further ex situ analysis including scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. AZ61 was found to be highly susceptible to SCC. EIS analysis show that although the majority of cracking occurred during the apparent plastic straining, cracking initiation occurs already in the elastic region at ∼50% of the ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Shifts in EIS phase angle and open circuit potential can be used to detect the onset of SCC. Zinc demonstrated a highly ductile behavior with limited susceptibility to SCC. No significant decrease in UTS was observed in m-SBF but a decrease in time to failure by ∼25% compared to reference samples indicates some effect on the mechanical properties during the ductile straining. The formation of micro cracks, ∼10μm deep, was indicated by the EIS analysis and later confirmed by ex situ SEM. The results of SSR analysis of zinc in whole blood showed a reduced effect compared to m-SBF and no cracks were detected. It appears that formation of an organic surface layer protects the corroding surface from cracking. These results highlight the importance of considering the effect of biological species on the degradation of implants in the clinical situation. Strain may deteriorate the corrosion properties of metallic implants drastically. We study the influence of load on the corrosion properties of a magnesium alloy and zinc by a combination of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and slow strain rate analysis. This combination of techniques has previously not been used for studying degradation in

  9. Effect of microstructure on the zinc phosphate conversion coatings on magnesium alloy AZ91

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Phuong, Nguyen; Moon, Sungmo; Chang, Doyon; Lee, Kyu Hwan

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the microstructure, particularly of β-Mg17Al12 phase, on the formation and growth of zinc phosphate conversion coatings on magnesium alloy AZ91 (AZ91) was studied. The zinc phosphate coatings were formed on AZ91 with different microstructures produced by heat treatment. The effect of the microstructure on the zinc phosphate coatings were examined using optical microscope (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), coatings weight and etching weight balances, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and salt immersion test. Results showed that as-cast AZ91 contained a high volume fraction of the β-Mg17Al12 phase and it was dissolved into α-Mg phase during heat treatment at 400 °C. The β-phase became center for hydrogen evolution during phosphating reaction (cathodic sites). The decreased volume fraction of the β-phase caused decreasing both coatings weight and etching weight of the phosphating process. However, it increased the crystal size of the coatings and improved corrosion resistance of AZ91 by immersing in 0.5 M NaCl solution. Results also showed that the structure of the zinc phosphate conversion on AZ91 consisted of two layers: an outer crystal Zn3(PO4)2·4H2O (hopeite) and an inner which was mainly composed of MgZn2(PO4)2 and Mg3(PO4)2. A mechanism for the formation of two layers of the coatings was also proposed in this study.

  10. Evaluating the improvement of corrosion residual strength by adding 1.0 wt.% yttrium into an AZ91D magnesium alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Qiang; Liu Yaohui, E-mail: liuyaohui2005@yahoo.com; Fang Shijie

    2010-06-15

    The influence of yttrium on the corrosion residual strength of an AZ91D magnesium alloy was investigated detailedly. Scanning electron microscope was employed to analyze the microstructure and the fractography of the studied alloys. The microstructure of AZ91D magnesium alloy is remarkably refined due to the addition of yttrium. The electrochemical potentiodynamic polarization curve of the studied alloy was performed with a CHI 660b electrochemical station in the three-electrode system. The result reveals that yttrium significantly promotes the overall corrosion resistance of AZ91D magnesium alloy by suppressing the cathodic reaction in corrosion process. However, the nucleation and propagation of corrosion pitsmore » on the surface of the 1.0 wt.% Y modified AZ91D magnesium alloy indicate that pitting corrosion still emerges after the addition of yttrium. Furthermore, stress concentration caused by corrosion pits should be responsible for the drop of corrosion residual strength although the addition of yttrium remarkably weakens the effect of stress concentration at the tip of corrosion pits in loading process.« less

  11. Effects of Sn Addition on the Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Mg-6Zn-3Cu- xSn Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Shen, Jun; Sang, Jia-Xin; Li, Yang; He, Pei-Pei

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, Mg-6Zn-3Cu- xSn (ZC63- xSn) magnesium alloys with different Sn contents (0, 1, 2, 4 wt pct) were fabricated and subjected to different heat treatments. The microstructures and mechanical properties of the obtained ZC63- xSn samples were investigated by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Vickers hardness testing, and tensile testing. It was found that the As-cast Mg-6Zn-3Cu (ZC63) magnesium alloy mainly contained α-Mg grains and Mg(Zn,Cu) particles. Sn dissolved in α-Mg grains when Sn content was below 2 wt pct while Mg2Sn phase forms in the case of Sn content was above 4 wt pct. Addition of Sn refined both α-Mg grains and Mg(Zn,Cu) particles, and increased the volume fraction of Mg(Zn,Cu) particles. Compared with the Sn-free alloy, the microhardness of Sn-containing alloys increased greatly and that of As-extrude ZC63-4Sn sample achieved the highest value. The strength of ZC63 magnesium alloy was significantly enhanced because of Sn addition, which was attributed to grain refinement strengthening, solid solution strengthening, and precipitation strengthening. Furthermore, the ultimate yield stress, yield strength, and elongation of ZC63- xSn magnesium alloys were increased owing to the deceasing grain size induced by extrusion process.

  12. Development of a new biodegradable operative clip made of a magnesium alloy: Evaluation of its safety and tolerability for canine cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Toshihiko; Fukumoto, Takumi; Urade, Takeshi; Kido, Masahiro; Toyama, Hirochika; Asari, Sadaki; Ajiki, Tetsuo; Ikeo, Naoko; Mukai, Toshiji; Ku, Yonson

    2017-06-01

    Operative clips used to ligate vessels in abdominal operation usually are made of titanium. They remain in the body permanently and form metallic artifacts in computed tomography images, which impair accurate diagnosis. Although biodegradable magnesium instruments have been developed in other fields, the physical properties necessary for operative clips differ from those of other instruments. We developed a biodegradable magnesium-zinc-calcium alloy clip with good biologic compatibility and enough clamping capability as an operative clip. In this study, we verified the safety and tolerability of this clip for use in canine cholecystectomy. Nine female beagles were used. We performed cholecystectomy and ligated the cystic duct by magnesium alloy or titanium clips. The chronologic change of clips and artifact formation were compared at 1, 4, 12, 18, and 24 weeks postoperative by computed tomography. The animals were killed at the end of the observation period, and the clips were removed to evaluate their biodegradability. We also evaluated their effect on the living body by blood biochemistry data. The magnesium alloy clip formed much fewer artifacts than the titanium clip, and it was almost absorbed at 6 months postoperative. There were no postoperative complications and no elevation of constituent elements such as magnesium, calcium, and zinc during the observation period in both groups. The novel magnesium alloy clip demonstrated sufficient sealing capability for the cystic duct and proper biodegradability in canine models. The magnesium alloy clip revealed much fewer metallic artifacts in CT than the conventional titanium clip. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The fabrication and hydrophobic property of micro-nano patterned surface on magnesium alloy using combined sparking sculpture and etching route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yunfeng; Wang, Yaming; Liu, Hao; Liu, Yan; Guo, Lixin; Jia, Dechang; Ouyang, Jiahu; Zhou, Yu

    2016-12-01

    Magnesium alloy with micro-nano structure roughness surface, can serve as the loading reservoirs of medicine capsule and industrial lubricating oil, or mimic 'lotus leaf' hydrophobic surface, having the potential applications in medical implants, automobile, aerospace and electronic products, etc. Herein, we propose a novel strategy to design a micro-nano structure roughness surface on magnesium alloy using combined microarc sparking sculpture and etching in CrO3 aqueous solution. A hydrophobic surface (as an applied example) was further fabricated by chemical decorating on the obtained patterned magnesium alloy surface to enhance the corrosion resistance. The results show that the combined micro-nano structure of 7-9 μm diameter big pores insetting with nano-scale fine pores was duplicated after etched the sparking sculptured 'over growth' oxide regions towards the magnesium substrate. The micro-nano structure surface was chemically decorated using AgNO3 and stearic acid, which enables the contact angle increased from 60° to 146.8°. The increasing contact angle is mainly attributed to the micro-nano structure and the chemical composition. The hydrophobic surface of magnesium alloy improved the corrosion potential from -1.521 V of the bare magnesium to -1.274 V. Generally, the sparking sculpture and then etching route demonstrates a low-cost, high-efficacy method to fabricate a micro-nano structure hydrophobic surface on magnesium alloy. Furthermore, our research on the creating of micro-nano structure roughness surface and the hydrophobic treatment can be easily extended to the other metal materials.

  14. In-vitro biodegradation and corrosion-assisted cracking of a coated magnesium alloy in modified-simulated body fluid.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Sajjad; Singh Raman, R K

    2017-09-01

    A calcium phosphate coating was directly synthesized on AZ91D magnesium (Mg) alloy. Resistance of this coating to corrosion in a modified-simulated body fluid (m-SBF) was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Mechanical properties of the bare and coated alloy were investigated using slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) and fatigue testing in air and m-SBF. Very little is reported in the literature on human-body-fluid-assisted cracking of Mg alloys, viz., resistance to corrosion fatigue (CF) and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). This study has a particular emphasis on the effect of bio-compatible coatings on mechanical and electrochemical degradations of Mg alloys for their applications as implants. The results suggest the coating to improve the general as well as pitting corrosion resistance of the alloy. The coating also provides visible improvement in resistance to SCC, but little improvement in CF resistance. This is explained on the basis of pitting behaviour in the presence and absence of the coating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Yttrium Addition on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AZ80-2Sn Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Hansong; Yang, Gang; Li, Di; Xing, Zhihui; Pan, Fusheng

    2015-12-01

    The effects of Y on microstructure and mechanical properties of as-cast AZ80-2Sn magnesium alloys were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Y addition not only changes the as-cast microstructure but also influences the mechanical properties of AZ80-2Sn alloy. Unmodified AZ80-2Sn alloys under casting state show that Mg17Al12 eutectic phase is semicontinuous and reticulated shape and distributes mainly at grain boundaries. Moreover, there are numerous Mg2Sn precipitate particles dispersing in Mg17Al12 eutectic phases. Y addition to as-cast AZ80-2Sn alloys has an important influence on the precipitation phase. But there has no obvious effect on grain refinement with Y addition. The results show that the AZ80-2Sn alloys with variable Y contents all contain Al2Y phase. By adding Y, the amount of Mg17Al12 is decreased and the dimension of that is reduced. Mg17Al12 eutectic phase turns to discontinuous, and the more disperse phases occur with the increase of Y content. The tensile tests indicate that a minor addition of Y can contribute to the formation of the dispersed small polygonal Al2Y particles and the improvement in the room-temperature strength. However, excessive Y addition leads to the coarsening of Al2Y phases, and thus results in the decline of strength and ductility.

  16. Flow-induced corrosion of absorbable magnesium alloy: In-situ and real-time electrochemical study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Jang, Yongseok; Wan, Guojiang; Giridharan, Venkataraman; Song, Guang-Ling; Xu, Zhigang; Koo, Youngmi; Qi, Pengkai; Sankar, Jagannathan; Huang, Nan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2016-03-01

    An in-situ and real-time electrochemical study in a vascular bioreactor was designed to analyze corrosion mechanism of magnesium alloy (MgZnCa) under mimetic hydrodynamic conditions. Effect of hydrodynamics on corrosion kinetics, types, rates and products was analyzed. Flow-induced shear stress (FISS) accelerated mass and electron transfer, leading to an increase in uniform and localized corrosions. FISS increased the thickness of uniform corrosion layer, but filiform corrosion decreased this layer resistance at high FISS conditions. FISS also increased the removal rate of localized corrosion products. Impedance-estimated and linear polarization-measured polarization resistances provided a consistent correlation to corrosion rate calculated by computed tomography.

  17. Investigation of the effect of electric current on serrated deformation and acoustic emission in the aluminum-magnesium alloy 5056

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibkov, A. A.; Denisov, A. A.; Zheltov, M. A.; Zolotov, A. E.; Gasanov, M. F.; Ivolgin, V. I.

    2015-06-01

    The effect of direct electric current on the serrated deformation of the aluminum-magnesium alloy 5056 has been studied using the acoustic emission method and high-speed video filming of propagating deformation bands. The phenomenon of the electric current-induced suppression of low-frequency acoustic emission signals has been revealed in the range of 1 Hz-2 kHz, which is connected with the development of Portevin-Le Chatelier deformation bands. The characteristic times of damping and growth of plastic instabilities and acoustic signals caused by them after current turn-on and turn-off, respectively, have been estimated.

  18. Direct current induced suppression of the Portevin-Le Chatelier serrated deformation in the aluminum-magnesium alloy 5056

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibkov, A. A.; Denisov, A. A.; Zheltov, M. A.; Zolotov, A. E.; Gasanov, M. F.; Kochegarov, S. S.

    2015-02-01

    The effect of direct current induced suppression of the Portevin-Le Chatelier serrated deformation in the aluminum-magnesium alloy 5056 has been revealed experimentally. This effect manifests itself as an increase in the critical plastic strain, which precedes the onset of serrations in the stress-strain curve, with an increase in the current density in the range from 15 to 60 A/mm2. It has been shown that the observed effect is not related to the Joule heating of the entire specimen. Possible mechanisms of the phenomenon have been discussed.

  19. Effect of an aggressive medium on discontinuous deformation of aluminum-magnesium alloy AlMg6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibkov, A. A.; Denisov, A. A.; Zolotov, A. E.; Kochegarov, S. S.

    2017-01-01

    It is experimentally shown that the molecular (chemical) process of surface etching of deformed aluminum-magnesium alloy AlMg6 causes the development of a macroscopic plastic strain step with an amplitude of a few percent. Using numerical simulation of the polycrystalline solid etching process, it is shown that the corrosion front morphology varies during etching from Euclid (flat) to fractal (rough). The results obtained show the key role of the surface state on the development of macroscopic mechanical instability of a material exhibiting the Portevin-Le Chatelier effect.

  20. On the Possibility of using Alluminium-Magnesium Alloys with Improved Mechanical Characteristics for Body Elements of Zenit-2S Launch Vehicle Propellant Tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitalo, V.; Lytvyshko, T.

    2002-01-01

    Yuzhnoye SDO developed several generations of launch vehicles and spacecraft that are characterized by weight perfection, optimal cost, accuracy of output geometrical characteristics, stable strength characteristics, high tightness. The main structural material of launch vehicles are thermally welded non-strengthened aluminium- magnesium alloys. The aluminium-magnesium alloys in the annealed state have insufficiently high strength characteristics. Considerable increase of yield strength of sheets and plates can be reached by cold working but in this case, plasticity reduces. An effective way to improve strength of aluminium-magnesium alloys is their alloying with scandium. The alloying with scandium leads to modification of the structure of ingots (size reduction of cast grain) and formation of supersaturated solid solutions of scandium and aluminium during crystallization. During subsequent heatings (annealing of the ingots, heating for deformation) the solid solution disintegrates with the formation of disperse particles of Al3Sc type, that cause great strengthening of the alloy. High degree of dispersion and density of distribution in the matrix of secondary Al3Sc particles contribute to the considerable increase of the temperature of recrystallization of deformed intermediate products and to the formation of stable non-recrystallized structure. The alloying of alluminium-magnesium alloys with scandium increases their strength and operational characteristics, preserves their technological and corrosion properties, improves weldability. The alloys can be used within the temperature limits ­196-/+150 0C. The experimental structures of propellant tanks made of alluminium-magnesium alloys with scandium have been manufactured and tested. It was ascertained that the propellant tanks have higher margin of safety during loading with internal pressure and higher stability factor of the shrouds during loading with axial compression force which is caused by higher value

  1. A first-principles study of elastic and diffusion properties of magnesium based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganeshan, Swetha

    2011-12-01

    In this thesis, the influence of alloying elements on the elastic and diffusion properties of Magnesium (Mg) has been studied based on first-principles density functional theory. The stress-strain method has been used to predict the elastic constants of the Mg based alloys studied herein. This method involves calculating the resultant change in stress due to application of strain. The validity of this method has been successfully tested for both 0K as well as at finite temperatures. The elastic constants predicted in this work have been correlated to ductility, fracture toughness, stiffness, elastic anisotropy and bond directionality, thus providing a better understanding of the influence of alloying elements on the mechanical and physical properties of Mg. Elastic constants, as a function of temperature have been predicted using first-principles quasi-static approximation. In this approach elastic stiffness coefficients calculated with respect to volume (cij( V)) have been correlated to the equilibrium volume as a function of temperature V(T) from phonon calculations to obtain temperature dependence of elastic stiffness coefficients cij(T). To compare our calculated temperature dependent elastic constants with that of experiments an isentropic correction term has been introduced. It is seen that the influence of this isentropic correction term on the elastic constants becomes significant at high temperatures. The quasi-static approximation has been primarily applied to calculate temperature dependent elastic constants of Mg2Ge, Mg2Si, Mg 2Sn and Mg2Pb. In the case of dilute Mg alloys, a 36 atom supercell with 35 atoms of Mg and one atom of the alloying impurity has been used for calculating the corresponding elastic constants. It is seen that there is a direct correspondence between the trends in the elastic constants and the lattice parameters of all the Mg based alloys studied herein. Elements that cause a decrease (increase) in the lattice constants result in

  2. Influence of the β-Mg17Al12 Phase Morphology on the Corrosion Properties Of Az91hp Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lingling; Zhang, Jumei

    2017-09-01

    The morphology of β-Mg17Al12 phase and corrosion behavior of AZ91HP magnesium alloy after spheroidizing treatment were investigated by optical microcope electrochemical and immersion tests in 3.5% NaCl at 25°C. The results show that the coarse divorced eutectic phase of AZ91HP cast magnesium alloy dissolve into Mg matrix during the isothermal process at 415°C, and the lameller β phase precipitated from magnesium solid solution as perlite-type precipitation during the slowly cooling. Next, the spheroidizing treatment at different temperatures for 20h was carried out, and the lameller β phase were spheroridizing by dissolved themselves. After spheroidizing treatment at 300°C for 20h, many small granular β phase are scattering within the magnesium matrix. The corrosion properties of AZ91HP magnesium alloy in 3.5% NaCl decreased obviously after spheroidizing treatment, the polarization measurement of the alloy can be up to -1.412V from -1.56V of the cast. The β-Mg17Al12 phase act as a corrosion barrier and hinder corrosion propagation, if the second phase is in the form of a spherical morphology.

  3. Effects of Variations in Salt-Spray Conditions on the Corrosion Mechanisms of an AE44 Magnesium Alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Martin, Holly J.; Horstemeyer, M. F.; Wang, Paul T.

    2010-01-01

    The understanding of how corrosion affects magnesium alloys is of utmost importance as the automotive and aerospace industries have become interested in the use of these lightweight alloys. However, the standardized salt-spray test does not produce adequate corrosion results when compared with field data, due to the lack of multiple exposure environments. This research explored four test combinations through three sets of cycles to determine how the corrosion mechanisms of pitting, intergranular corrosion, and general corrosion were affected by the environment. Of the four test combinations, Humidity-Drying was the least corrosive, while the most corrosive test condition was Salt Spray-Humidity-Drying.more » The differences in corrosivity of the test conditions are due to the various reactions needed to cause corrosion, including the presence of chloride ions to cause pit nucleation, the presence of humidity to cause galvanic corrosion, and the drying phase which trapped chloride ions beneath the corrosion by-products.« less

  4. High strain rate deformation and fracture of the magnesium alloy Ma2-1 under shock wave loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garkushin, G. V.; Kanel', G. I.; Razorenov, S. V.

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents the results of measurements of the dynamic elastic limit and spall strength under shock wave loading of specimens of the magnesium alloy Ma2-1 with a thickness ranging from 0.25 to 10 mm at normal and elevated (to 550°C) temperatures. From the results of measurements of the decay of the elastic precursor of a shock compression wave, it has been found that the plastic strain rate behind the front of the elastic precursor decreases from 2 × 105 s-1 at a distance of 0.25 mm to 103 s-1 at a distance of 10 mm. The plastic strain rate in a shock wave is one order of magnitude higher than that in the elastic precursor at the same value of the shear stress. The spall strength of the alloy decreases as the solidus temperature is approached.

  5. Fatigue and quasi‐static mechanical behavior of bio‐degradable porous biomaterials based on magnesium alloys

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, S. M.; Lietaert, K.; Tümer, N.; Li, Y.; Amin Yavari, S.; Zadpoor, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Magnesium and its alloys have the intrinsic capability of degrading over time in vivo without leaving toxic degradation products. They are therefore suitable for use as biodegradable scaffolds that are replaced by the regenerated tissues. One of the main concerns for such applications, particularly in load‐bearing areas, is the sufficient mechanical integrity of the scaffold before sufficient volumes of de novo tissue is generated. In the majority of the previous studies on the effects of biodegradation on the mechanical properties of porous biomaterials, the change in the elastic modulus has been studied. In this study, variations in the static and fatigue mechanical behavior of porous structures made of two different Mg alloys (AZ63 and M2) over different dissolution times ( 6, 12, and 24 h) have been investigated. The results showed an increase in the mechanical properties obtained from stress–strain curve (elastic modulus, yield stress, plateau stress, and energy absorption) after 6–12 h and a sharp decrease after 24 h. The initial increase in the mechanical properties may be attributed to the accumulation of corrosion products in the pores of the porous structure before degradation has considerably proceeded. The effects of mineral deposition was more pronounced for the elastic modulus as compared to other mechanical properties. That may be due to insufficient integration of the deposited particles in the structure of the magnesium alloys. While the bonding of the parts being combined in a composite‐like material is of great importance in determining its yield stress, the effects of bonding strength of both parts is much lower in determining the elastic modulus. The results of the current study also showed that the dissolution rates of the studied Mg alloys were too high for direct use in human body. © 2018 Authors Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 1798

  6. Evaluation of short-term effects of rare earth and other elements used in magnesium alloys on primary cells and cell lines.

    PubMed

    Feyerabend, Frank; Fischer, Janine; Holtz, Jakob; Witte, Frank; Willumeit, Regine; Drücker, Heiko; Vogt, Carla; Hort, Norbert

    2010-05-01

    Degradable magnesium alloys for biomedical application are on the verge of being used clinically. Rare earth elements (REEs) are used to improve the mechanical properties of the alloys, but in more or less undefined mixtures. For some elements of this group, data on toxicity and influence on cells are sparse. Therefore in this study the in vitro cytotoxicity of the elements yttrium (Y), neodymium (Nd), dysprosium (Dy), praseodymium (Pr), gadolinium (Gd), lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), europium (Eu), lithium (Li) and zirconium (Zr) was evaluated by incubation with the chlorides (10-2000 microM); magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) were tested at higher concentrations (200 and 50mM, respectively). The influence on viability of human osteosarcoma cell line MG63, human umbilical cord perivascular (HUCPV) cells and mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7) was determined, as well as the induction of apoptosis and the expression of inflammatory factors (TNF-alpha, IL-1alpha). Significant differences between the applied cells could be observed. RAW exhibited the highest and HUCPV the lowest sensitivity. La and Ce showed the highest cytotoxicity of the analysed elements. Of the elements with high solubility in magnesium alloys, Gd and Dy seem to be more suitable than Y. The focus of magnesium alloy development for biomedical applications should include most defined alloy compositions with well-known tissue-specific and systemic effects. Copyright (c) 2009 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis and properties of hydroxyapatite-containing coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy by micro-arc oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Hui; Han, Yu; Wu, Tao; Tao, Wei; Jian, Xian; Wu, Yunfeng; Xu, Fangjun

    2017-04-01

    In this study, hydroxyapatite-containing coatings were prepared by microarc oxidation on AZ31 magnesium alloy surface to improve its biodegradation performance. Five applied voltages were chosen to prepare the MAO coatings. The results demonstrate that the number of micropores in the films increases but their dimensions decrease after higher voltage is applied. As the surface roughness of the MAO coatings increases with the applied voltage, the wettability of the coatings improves continuously. The MAO coatings were mainly composed of magnesium oxide (MgO) and hydroxyapatite. The amount of hydroxyapatite phase increased with increasing voltage that was applied. The bonding strength became slightly weaker after a higher voltage was applied. But the bonding strengths of all the coatings were consistently higher than 37 MPa, which met the requirement of implant biomaterials. All coatings exhibited higher corrosion resistances and lower hydrogen evolution rate than the bare AZ31 Mg substrate, implying that the degradation rate of the AZ31 Mg alloy was enhanced by the hydroxyapatite-containing coatings. The results indicate that the present treatment of applying hydroxyapatite-containing coatings is a promising technique for the degradable Mg-based biomaterials for orthopedic applications.

  8. Anti-corrosion mechanism of epoxy-resin and different content Fe2O3 coatings on magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Tao; Kong, Fan-mei; Bai, Rui-qin; Zhang, Ru-liang

    2016-12-01

    In this study, anti-corrosion coatings were prepared and coated successfully on magnesium alloy substrates by mixing nanopowders, solvent, curing agent with epoxy resin. The effect of the amount of iron trioxide (Fe2O3) on the adhesion strength and corrosion resistance on magnesium alloy was investigated with standard protocols, and electrochemical measurements were also made in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solutions. The surface morphology and corrosion mechanism after corrosion tests was characterized using FESEM analysis. Nanoparticles in matrix acted as filler, and interstitial cross-linked spaces and other coating artifacts regions (micro cracks and voids) would all affect the anti-corrosion properties of coating. The results showed the proper powder content not only provided adhesion strength to these coatings but also improved obviously their anticorrosion. Hydrogen bound to the amine nitrogen (1N) could take part in the curing process rather than hydrogen of the amide site due to the smaller Δ G and the more stable configuration.

  9. Abnormal macropore formation during double-sided gas tungsten arc welding of magnesium AZ91D alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Jun; You Guoqiang; Long Siyuan

    2008-08-15

    One of the major concerns during gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding of cast magnesium alloys is the presence of large macroporosity in weldments, normally thought to occur from the presence of gas in the castings. In this study, a double-sided GTA welding process was adopted to join wrought magnesium AZ91D alloy plates. Micropores were formed in the weld zone of the first side that was welded, due to precipitation of H{sub 2} as the mushy zone freezes. When the reverse side was welded, the heat generated caused the mushy zone in the initial weld to reform. The micropores in themore » initial weld then coalesced and expanded to form macropores by means of gas expansion through small holes that are present at the grain boundaries in the partially melted zone. Macropores in the partially melted zone increase with increased heat input, so that when a filler metal is used the macropores are smaller in number and in size.« less

  10. Ratcheting Strain and Microstructure Evolution of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy under a Tensile-Tensile Cyclic Loading.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhifeng; Wang, Denghui; Wang, Wenxian; Zhou, Jun; He, Xiuli; Dong, Peng; Zhang, Hongxia; Sun, Liyong

    2018-03-28

    In this paper, studies were conducted to investigate the deformation behavior and microstructure change in a hot-rolled AZ31B magnesium alloy during a tensile-tensile cyclic loading. The relationship between ratcheting effect and microstructure change was discussed. The ratcheting effect in the material during current tensile-tensile fatigue loading exceeds the material's fatigue limit and the development of ratcheting strain in the material experienced three stages: initial sharp increase stage (Stage I); steady stage (Stage II); and final abrupt increase stage (Stage III). Microstructure changes in Stage I and Stage II are mainly caused by activation of basal slip system. The Extra Geometrically Necessary Dislocations (GNDs) were also calculated to discuss the relationship between the dislocation caused by the basal slip system and the ratcheting strain during the cyclic loading. In Stage III, both the basal slip and the {11-20} twins are found active during the crack propagation. The fatigue crack initiation in the AZ31B magnesium alloy is found due to the basal slip and the {11-20} tensile twins.

  11. Ratcheting Strain and Microstructure Evolution of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy under a Tensile-Tensile Cyclic Loading

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Denghui; Wang, Wenxian; Zhou, Jun; He, Xiuli; Dong, Peng; Zhang, Hongxia; Sun, Liyong

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, studies were conducted to investigate the deformation behavior and microstructure change in a hot-rolled AZ31B magnesium alloy during a tensile-tensile cyclic loading. The relationship between ratcheting effect and microstructure change was discussed. The ratcheting effect in the material during current tensile-tensile fatigue loading exceeds the material’s fatigue limit and the development of ratcheting strain in the material experienced three stages: initial sharp increase stage (Stage I); steady stage (Stage II); and final abrupt increase stage (Stage III). Microstructure changes in Stage I and Stage II are mainly caused by activation of basal slip system. The Extra Geometrically Necessary Dislocations (GNDs) were also calculated to discuss the relationship between the dislocation caused by the basal slip system and the ratcheting strain during the cyclic loading. In Stage III, both the basal slip and the {11−20} twins are found active during the crack propagation. The fatigue crack initiation in the AZ31B magnesium alloy is found due to the basal slip and the {11−20} tensile twins. PMID:29597278

  12. Tribological Behaviors of Graphene and Graphene Oxide as Water-Based Lubricant Additives for Magnesium Alloy/Steel Contacts.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hongmei; Jiang, Bin; Dai, Jiahong; Peng, Cheng; Li, Chunxia; Li, Quan; Pan, Fusheng

    2018-01-29

    The tribological behaviors of graphene and graphene oxide (GO) as water-based lubricant additives were evaluated by use of a reciprocating ball-on-plate tribometer for magnesium alloy-steel contacts. Three sets of test conditions were examined to investigate the effect of concentration, the capacity of carrying load and the endurance of the lubrication film, respectively. The results showed that the tribological behaviors of water can be improved by adding the appropriate graphene or GO. Compared with pure deionized water, 0.5 wt.% graphene nanofluids can offer reduction of friction coefficient by 21.9% and reduction of wear rate by 13.5%. Meanwhile, 0.5 wt.% GO nanofluids were found to reduce the friction coefficient and wear rate up to 77.5% and 90%, respectively. Besides this, the positive effect of the GO nanofluids was also more pronounced in terms of the load-carrying capacity and the lubrication film endurance. The wear mechanisms have been tentatively proposed according to the observation of the worn surfaces by field emission scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometer (FESEM-EDS) and Raman spectrum as well as the wettability of the nanofluids on the magnesium alloy surface by goniometer.

  13. Tribological Behaviors of Graphene and Graphene Oxide as Water-Based Lubricant Additives for Magnesium Alloy/Steel Contacts

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hongmei; Jiang, Bin; Dai, Jiahong; Peng, Cheng; Li, Chunxia; Li, Quan; Pan, Fusheng

    2018-01-01

    The tribological behaviors of graphene and graphene oxide (GO) as water-based lubricant additives were evaluated by use of a reciprocating ball-on-plate tribometer for magnesium alloy-steel contacts. Three sets of test conditions were examined to investigate the effect of concentration, the capacity of carrying load and the endurance of the lubrication film, respectively. The results showed that the tribological behaviors of water can be improved by adding the appropriate graphene or GO. Compared with pure deionized water, 0.5 wt.% graphene nanofluids can offer reduction of friction coefficient by 21.9% and reduction of wear rate by 13.5%. Meanwhile, 0.5 wt.% GO nanofluids were found to reduce the friction coefficient and wear rate up to 77.5% and 90%, respectively. Besides this, the positive effect of the GO nanofluids was also more pronounced in terms of the load-carrying capacity and the lubrication film endurance. The wear mechanisms have been tentatively proposed according to the observation of the worn surfaces by field emission scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometer (FESEM-EDS) and Raman spectrum as well as the wettability of the nanofluids on the magnesium alloy surface by goniometer. PMID:29382160

  14. Properties of Rolled AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheet Fabricated by Continuous Variable Cross-Section Direct Extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Li, Feng; Li, Xue Wen; Shi, Wen Yong

    2018-03-01

    Rolling is currently a widely used method for manufacturing and processing high-performance magnesium alloy sheets and has received widespread attention in recent years. Here, we combined continuous variable cross-section direct extrusion (CVCDE) and rolling processes. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the resulting sheets rolled at different temperatures from CVCDE extrudate were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. The results showed that a fine-grained microstructure was present with an average grain size of 3.62 μm in sheets rolled from CVCDE extrudate at 623 K. Dynamic recrystallization and a large strain were induced by the multi-pass rolling, which resulted in grain refinement. In the 573-673 K range, the yield strength, tensile strength and elongation initially increased and then declined as the CVCDE temperature increased. The above results provide an important scientific basis of processing, manufacturing and the active control on microstructure and property for high-performance magnesium alloy sheet.

  15. Development of Zirconium-based Conversion Coatings for the Pretreatment of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy Prior to Electrocoating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reck, James; Wang, Yar-Ming; Kuo, Hong-Hsiang Harry

    This work examines the use of hexafluorozirconic acid based solutions at concentrations from 0.025 M to 0.100 M and pH values of 2.0 to 4.0 for the creation of a zirconia-based conversion coating less than 1 micron thick to protect magnesium alloy AZ91D. Similar coatings have been found to give excellent protection for steel and aluminum alloys, but little research has been conducted on its application to magnesium. Work was performed to gain an understanding of the film formation mechanisms and related kinetics using x-ray photo-electron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and open circuit potential monitoring techniques. A design of experiments approach was taken to determine the effects of acid concentration, pH, and soak time on the corrosion properties both as-deposited and with an application of electrocoat. It was found that the application of the zirconia-based coating significantly increased corrosion resistance, and allowed for an acceptable e-coat application with excellent adherence.

  16. Corrosion resistance and antibacterial properties of polysiloxane modified layer-by-layer assembled self-healing coating on magnesium alloy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanbin; Shi, Liqian; Ji, Xiaojing; Li, Jichen; Han, Zhuangzhuang; Li, Shuoqi; Zeng, Rongchang; Zhang, Fen; Wang, Zhenlin

    2018-04-18

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys have shown great potential in biomedical materials due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. However, rapid corrosion rate, which is an inevitable obstacle, hinders their clinical applications. Besides, it is necessary to endow Mg alloys with antibacterial properties, which are crucial for temporary implants. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and polymethyltrimethoxysilane (PMTMS) were introduced into AZ31 Mg alloys via layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly and siloxane self-condensation reaction. The characteristics of the composite films were investigated by SEM, UV-vis, FT-IR, and XRD measurements. Corrosion resistance of the samples was measured by electrochemical and hydrogen evolution tests. Antibacterial activities of the films against Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated by plate-counting method. The results demonstrated that the composite film with smooth and uniform morphologies could enhance the corrosion resistance of Mg alloys owing to the physical barrier and the self-healing functionality of polysiloxane. Moreover, the composite coating possessed antibacterial properties and could prolong the release of assembled silver ions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Radiological, histological, and hematological evaluation of hydroxyapatite-coated resorbable magnesium alloy screws placed in rabbit tibia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ho-Kyung; Byun, Soo-Hwan; Lee, Jin-Yong; Lee, Jung-Woo; Kim, Sae-Mi; Lee, Sung-Mi; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2017-08-01

    Titanium (Ti) screw has excellent mechanical property, and osseointegration capacity. However, they require surgery for removal. In contrast, polymer screws are resorbable, but they have poor mechanical properties. In this research, magnesium alloy screws (WE43: Mg-Y-Nd-Zr) that have advantages of titanium and polymer were manufactured. In addition, to increase biocompatibility and control degradation rate, the Mg alloy was coated with hydroxyapatite (HA). Torsion test and corrosion test were performed in vitro. For clinical, radiological and histological evaluation, on the eight rabbits, two HA-coated screws were installed in left tibia, and two noncoated screws were installed in right tibia. Each four rabbits were sacrificed 6 and 12 weeks postoperatively. For hematological evaluation, the same type of screws were installed on both legs. Complete blood count (CBC), Mg 2+ concentrate were sampled from the ear central artery on the operation day for a control point, and at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 weeks. Mg alloy screws have no differences of biocompatibility according to the HA coating. However, resorption of screw was slower in case of the HA coating. The hematological problem related releasing of Mg was not found. The results suggest that Mg alloy screws have feasibility for clinical application. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1636-1644, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Thermodynamic investigation of the effect of alkali metal impuries on the processing of aluminum and magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shengjun

    2006-12-01

    Aluminum and magnesium alloys are widely used in the automobile and aerospace industries as structural materials due to their light weight, high specific strength and good formability. However, they suffer from the poor hot rolling characteristics due to undesired impurities like calcium, potassium, lithium and sodium. They increase the hydrogen solubility in the melt and promote the formation of porosity in aluminum castings. During fabrication of aluminum alloys, they cause the hot-shortness and embrittlement due to cracking. They also led to "blue haze" corrosion which promotes the discoloration of aluminum under humid condition. The removal of these elements increases overall melt loss of aluminum alloys when aluminum products are remelted and recast. Na is one of the common impurities in the Al and Mg alloys. In industry, primary Al is produced by the Hall-Heroult process, through the electrolysis of the mixture of molten alumina and cryolite (Al2O3+Na 3AlF6), the latter being added to lower the melting point. Therefore, Al inevitably contains some Na (>0.002%) without further treatment. The Na content in Al is influenced by the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrolysis. Similarly, in the electrolytic production and subsequent processing of Mg, Mg is commonly in contact with molten salt mixtures of NaCl and MgCl 2. Consequently, 2--20 wt. ppm Na is often found in Mg alloys. Besides originating from the industrial production process, Na can be introduced in laboratory experiments from alumina crucibles by the reaction between the molten Al-Mg alloys and the Na2O impurity in the alumina crucible. The trace element K plays a similar role in Al alloys although it is seldom discussed. No systematic theoretic research has been carried out to investigate the behavior of these impurities during the processing of aluminum alloys. The thermodynamic description of the Al-Ca-K-Li-Mg-Na system is needed to understand the effects of Ca, K, Li and Na on phase stability

  19. The Ballistic and Corrosion Evaluation of Magnesium Elektron E675 vs. Baseline Magnesium Alloy AZ31B and Aluminum Alloy 5083 for Armor Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    critical property in reducing the plastic failure of the material. The ductility is marginally better than Mg AZ31B. 2 Table 1. Chemical...composition (%) of metal alloys. Element (%)/Alloy CPMg 9980B AZ31B-H24 AA5083-H131 Aluminum — 2.5–3.5 REM Manganese 0.10 max 0.2–1.0 0.40‒1.0 Zinc — 0.6...This trend was attributed to the lack of ductility in E675 compared to 5083, which reduced energy dissipation. Visual analysis of the Mg E675

  20. The effects of alloying elements on microstructures and mechanical properties of tungsten inert gas welded AZ80 magnesium alloys joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Zhang, Jiansheng; Ding, Rongrong

    2017-11-01

    The effects of alloying elements on the macrostructures, microstructures and tensile strength of AZ80 Mg alloy weldments were studied in the present study. The results indicate that with the decrease of Al element content of filler wire, the welding defects of seam are gradually eliminated and the β-Mg17Al12 phases at α-Mg boundaries are refined and become discontinuous, which are beneficial to the improvement of tensile strength. With AZ31 Mg alloy filler wire, the maximum tensile strength of AZ80 weldment is 220 MPa and fracture occurs at the welding seam of joint. It is experimentally proved that robust AZ80 Mg alloy joints can be obtained by tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process with AZ31 Mg alloy filler wire. However, further study is required to improve the microstructures and reduce welding defects of joint in order to further improve the joining strength of AZ80 Mg alloy joint.

  1. Effect of Sm-Rich Phase on Corrosion Behavior of Hot-Extruded AZ31-1.5Sm Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao; Hu, Zhi; Yan, Hong; Wu, Xiaoquan; Xie, Hecong; Dong, Zhou

    2018-05-01

    The effects of Sm on the corrosion and microstructure behavior of hot-extruded AZ31 magnesium alloy were investigated by SEM, TEM, weight loss analysis, and electrochemical measurements. The results indicated that granular Al2Sm phase 4 μm in size in the hot-extruded AZ31 magnesium alloy modified with 1.5 wt.% Sm leads to significant grain refinement. The corrosion rate decreased from 15.98 × 10-4 to 11.19 × 10-4 g cm-2 h-1 in the transverse section and from 8.57 × 10-4 to 6.20 × 10-4 g cm-2 h-1 in the longitudinal section. Compared to the unmodified alloy, the corrosion potential of the Sm-modified alloy in the transverse and longitudinal sections increased by 98 and 62 mV, respectively, and the R ct value (charge transfer resistance) in the transverse and longitudinal sections of the modified alloy increased from 1764 and 1756 to 2928 and 2408 Ω cm2, respectively. The results showed that the corrosion resistance of hot-extruded AZ31 magnesium alloy was significantly improved by Sm addition due to the grain refinement, the decreased dislocation density, and the suppression of micro-galvanic corrosion caused by Al-Sm-(Mn) intermetallic compounds.

  2. Experimental Characterization and Material Modelling of an AZ31 Magnesium Sheet Alloy at Elevated Temperatures under Consideration of the Tension-Compression Asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, B.-A.; Bouguecha, A.; Bonk, C.; Dykiert, M.

    2017-09-01

    Magnesium sheet alloys have a great potential as a construction material in the aerospace and automotive industry. However, the current state of research regarding temperature dependent material parameters for the description of the plastic behaviour of magnesium sheet alloys is scarce in literature and accurate statements concerning yield criteria and appropriate characterization tests to describe the plastic behaviour of a magnesium sheet alloy at elevated temperatures in deep drawing processes are to define. Hence, in this paper the plastic behaviour of the well-established magnesium sheet alloy AZ31 has been characterized by means of convenient mechanical tests (e. g. tension, compression and biaxial tests) at temperatures between 180 and 230 °C. In this manner, anisotropic and hardening behaviour as well as differences between the tension-compression asymmetry of the yield locus have been estimated. Furthermore, using the evaluated data from the above mentioned tests, two different yield criteria have been parametrized; the commonly used Hill’48 and an orthotropic yield criterion, CPB2006, which was developed especially for materials with hexagonal close packed lattice structure and is able to describe an asymmetrical yielding behaviour regarding tensile and compressive stress states. Numerical simulations have been finally carried out with both yield functions in order to assess the accuracy of the material models.

  3. In Vitro Analysis of Electrophoretic Deposited Fluoridated Hydroxyapatite Coating on Micro-arc Oxidized AZ91 Magnesium Alloy for Biomaterials Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, Mehdi; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Savabi, Omid; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2015-03-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys have been recently introduced as a biodegradable implant for orthopedic applications. However, their fast corrosion, low bioactivity, and mechanical integrity have limited their clinical applications. The main aim of this research was to improve such properties of the AZ91 Mg alloy through surface modifications. For this purpose, nanostructured fluoridated hydroxyapatite (FHA) was coated on AZ91 Mg alloy by micro-arc oxidation and electrophoretic deposition method. The coated alloy was characterized through scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, in vitro corrosion tests, mechanical tests, and cytocompatibility evaluation. The results confirmed the improvement of the corrosion resistance, in vitro bioactivity, mechanical integrity, and the cytocompatibility of the coated Mg alloy. Therefore, the nanostructured FHA coating can offer a promising way to improve the properties of the Mg alloy for orthopedic applications.

  4. Effect of Minor Alloying Elements on Localized Corrosion Behavior of Aluminum-Copper-Magnesium based Solid Solution Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aburada, Tomohiro

    2011-12-01

    The effects and mechanistic roles of a minor alloying element, Ni, on the localized corrosion behavior were explored by studying (Al75Cu 17Mg8)97Ni3 and Al70Cu 18Mg12 amorphous alloys. To explore the minor alloying element limited to the outer surface layers, the corrosion behavior of Al70Cu 18Mg12 amorphous alloy in solutions with and without Ni 2+ was also studied. Both Ni alloying and Ni2+ in solution improved the localized corrosion resistance of the alloys by ennobling the pitting and repassivation potentials. Pit growth by the selective dissolution of Al and Mg was also suppressed by Ni alloying. Remaining Cu and Ni reorganized into a Cu-rich polycrystalline nanoporous structure with continuous ligaments in pits. The minor Ni alloying and Ni2+ in solution suppressed the coarsening of the ligaments in the dealloyed nanoporous structure. The presence of relatively immobile Ni atoms at the surface suppressed the surface diffusion of Cu, which reduced the coarsening of the nanoporous structure, resulting in the formation of 10 to 30 nm wide Cu ligaments. Two mechanistic roles of minor alloying elements in the improvement of the pitting corrosion resistance of the solid solution alloys are elucidated. The first role is the suppression of active dissolution by altering the atomic structure. Ni in solid solution formed stronger bonds with Al, and reduces the probability of weaker Al-Al bonds. The second role is to hinder dissolution by producing a greater negative shift of the true interfacial potential at the dissolution front under the dealloyed layer due to the greater Ohmic resistance through the finer porous structure. These effects contributed to the elevation of pitting potentials by ennobling the applied potential required to produce enough dissolution for the stabilization of pits. Scientifically, this thesis advances the state of understanding of alloy dissolution, particularly the role of minor alloying elements on preferential oxidation at the atomic

  5. Development of the Electromagnetic Continuous Casting Technology for of Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Joon-Pyo; Kim, Myoung-Gyun; Kim, Jong-Ho; Lee, Gyu-Chang

    Currently, magnesium billets produced by ingot casting or direct chill casting process, result in low-quality surfaces and low productivity, Continuous casting technology to solve these problem has not only high-quality surface billets with fine-grained and homogeneous microstructure but also cost down. The latent heat of fusion per weight (J/g) of magnesium is similar to other metals, however, considering the heat emitted to the mold surface during continuous casting in meniscus region and converting it to the latent heat of fusion per volume, magnesium will be rapidly solidified in the mold during continuous casting, which induces subsequent surface defect formation. In this study, electromagnetic casting and stirring (EMC and EMS) techniques are proposed to control solidification process conveniently by compensating the low latent heat of solidification by volume and to fabricate magnesium billet with high-quality surface. This technique was extended to large scale billets up to 300 mm diameter and continuous casting was successfully conducted. Then magnesium billet was used for the fabrication of prototype automobile pulley.

  6. Influences of die channel angles on microstructures and wear behaviors of AZ61 wrought magnesium alloy fabricated by extrusion-shear process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hong-J.; Sun, Z.; Ou, Z.-W.

    2016-12-01

    Extrusion-shear (ES) process for magnesium alloy is a newly developed plastic deformation process, and ES process combines direct extrusion and two steps of ECAE (equal channel angular extrusion). To investigate the effects of the die channel angles on the microstructures and wear behaviors of AZ61 wrought magnesium alloy, the samples used in this study were fabricated by ES process with different die channel angles (120° and 135°). The microstructures of the samples were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and (SEM). The cumulative strains in the ES process were predicted by approaches of numerical simulation and theoretical calculation. To characterize the wear resistance of the samples, pin-on-disk tests under dry sliding conditions with various normal loads and reciprocating frequencies were conducted. To define the wear mechanisms of AZ61 magnesium alloy, the worn surfaces after wear tests were analyzed by SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). Based on the results obtained, die channel angles have significant influences on the grain refinements and wear behaviors of the samples. Decreasing channel angles of the ES die will not only refine the microstructures of magnesium alloys effectively and improve their harnesses, but also improve their wear resistance as decreasing channel angles results in higher friction coefficients and wear rates. With the increase in applied loads and frequencies, wear mechanisms change from mild wear (adhesion, abrasion and oxidation) to severe wear (delamination, plastic deformation and melting). In summary, the wear resistance of ES-processed AZ61 magnesium alloy could be improved by decreasing channel angles of ES dies.

  7. Forming-Limit Diagrams for Magnesium AZ31B and ZEK100 Alloy Sheets at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniswamy, Aravindha R.; Carpenter, Alexander J.; Carter, Jon T.; Hector, Louis G.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2013-11-01

    Modern design and manufacturing methodologies for magnesium (Mg) sheet panels require formability data for use in computer-aided design and computer-aided engineering tools. To meet this need, forming-limit diagrams (FLDs) for AZ31B and ZEK100 wrought Mg alloy sheets were developed at elevated temperatures for strain rates of 10-3 and 10-2 s-1. The elevated temperatures investigated range from 250 to 450 °C for AZ31B and 300 to 450 °C for ZEK100. The FLDs were generated using data from uniaxial tension, biaxial bulge, and plane-strain bulge tests, all carried out until specimen rupture. The unique aspect of this study is that data from materials with consistent processing histories were produced using consistent testing techniques across all test conditions. The ZEK100 alloy reaches greater major true strains at rupture, by up to 60%, than the AZ31B alloy for all strain paths at all temperatures and strain rates examined. Formability limits decrease only slightly with a decrease in temperature, less than 30% decrease for AZ31B and less than 35% decrease for ZEK100 as the temperature decreases from 450 to 300 °C. This suggests that forming processes at 250-300 °C are potentially viable for manufacturing complex Mg components.

  8. Formation of a Spinel Coating on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieber, Maximilian; Simchen, Frank; Scharf, Ingolf; Lampke, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is a common means for the surface modification of light metals. However, PEO of magnesium substrates in dilute electrolytes generally leads to the formation of coatings consisting of unfavorable MgO magnesium oxide. By incorporation of electrolyte components, the phase constitution of the oxide coatings can be modified. Coatings consisting exclusively of MgAl2O4 magnesium-aluminum spinel are produced by PEO in an electrolyte containing hydroxide, aluminate, and phosphate anions. The hardness of the coatings is 3.5 GPa on Martens scale on average. Compared to the bare substrate, the coatings reduce the corrosion current density in dilute sodium chloride solution by approx. one order of magnitude and slightly shift the corrosion potential toward more noble values.

  9. A high-specific-strength and corrosion-resistant magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wanqiang; Birbilis, Nick; Sha, Gang; Wang, Yu; Daniels, John E.; Xiao, Yang; Ferry, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Ultra-lightweight alloys with high strength, ductility and corrosion resistance are desirable for applications in the automotive, aerospace, defence, biomedical, sporting and electronic goods sectors. Ductility and corrosion resistance are generally inversely correlated with strength, making it difficult to optimize all three simultaneously. Here we design an ultralow density (1.4 g cm-3) Mg-Li-based alloy that is strong, ductile, and more corrosion resistant than Mg-based alloys reported so far. The alloy is Li-rich and a solute nanostructure within a body-centred cubic matrix is achieved by a series of extrusion, heat-treatment and rolling processes. Corrosion resistance from the environment is believed to occur by a uniform lithium carbonate film in which surface coverage is much greater than in traditional hexagonal close-packed Mg-based alloys, explaining the superior corrosion resistance of the alloy.

  10. Functionalization of biodegradable magnesium alloy implants with alkylphosphonate self-assembled films.

    PubMed

    Grubač, Z; Metikoš-Huković, M; Babić, R; Rončević, I Škugor; Petravić, M; Peter, R

    2013-05-01

    Mg and Mg-alloys are promising materials for biodegradable implants. In order to slowdown the Mg-alloy (AZ91D) degradation and enhance its biocompatibility, the alloy surface was modified with alkylphosphonate self-assembling films. The binding configuration and the structural organization of alkylphosphonate monolayers on the Mg-alloy surface were investigated using contact angle measurements, FTIR, and XPS. Combination of FTIR and XPS data indicated the presence of several different bonding modes (mono-, di-, and tri dentate) of phosphonate head groups with the alloy surface. The existence of well organized and ordered self-assembled alkylphosphonate monolayers with good barrier protecting properties in a physiological solution is a key step in the development of biocompatible Mg-alloy implants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A high-specific-strength and corrosion-resistant magnesium alloy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wanqiang; Birbilis, Nick; Sha, Gang; Wang, Yu; Daniels, John E; Xiao, Yang; Ferry, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Ultra-lightweight alloys with high strength, ductility and corrosion resistance are desirable for applications in the automotive, aerospace, defence, biomedical, sporting and electronic goods sectors. Ductility and corrosion resistance are generally inversely correlated with strength, making it difficult to optimize all three simultaneously. Here we design an ultralow density (1.4 g cm(-3)) Mg-Li-based alloy that is strong, ductile, and more corrosion resistant than Mg-based alloys reported so far. The alloy is Li-rich and a solute nanostructure within a body-centred cubic matrix is achieved by a series of extrusion, heat-treatment and rolling processes. Corrosion resistance from the environment is believed to occur by a uniform lithium carbonate film in which surface coverage is much greater than in traditional hexagonal close-packed Mg-based alloys, explaining the superior corrosion resistance of the alloy.

  12. Polydopamine mediated assembly of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and bone morphogenetic protein-2 on magnesium alloys for enhanced corrosion resistance and bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanan; Wang, Bi; Jia, Zhanrong; Lu, Xiong; Fang, Liming; Wang, Kefeng; Ren, Fuzeng

    2017-10-01

    Magnesium alloys have the great potential to be used as orthopedic implants due to their biodegradability and mechanical resemblance to human cortical bone. However, the rapid degradation in physiological environment with the evolution of hydrogen gas release hinders their clinical applications. In this study, we developed a novel functional and biocompatible coating strategy through polydopamine mediated assembly of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), onto the surface of AZ31 Mg alloys. Such functional coating has strong bonding with the substrate and can increase surface hydrophilicity of magnesium alloys. In vitro electrochemical corrosion and hydrogen evolution tests demonstrate that the coating can significantly enhance the corrosion resistance and therefore slow down the degradation of AZ31 Mg alloys. In vitro cell culture reveals that immobilization of HA nanoparticles and BMP-2 can obviously promote cell adhesion and proliferation. Furthermore, in vivo implantation tests indicate that with the synergistic effects of HA nanoparticles and BMP-2, the coating does not cause obvious inflammatory response and can significantly reduce the biodegradation rate of the magnesium alloys and induce the new bone formation adjacent to the implants. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2750-2761, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Effect of structural factors on mechanical properties of the magnesium alloy Ma2-1 under quasi-static and high strain rate deformation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garkushin, G. V.; Razorenov, S. V.; Krasnoveikin, V. A.; Kozulin, A. A.; Skripnyak, V. A.

    2015-02-01

    The elastic limit and tensile strength of deformed magnesium alloys Ma2-1 with different structures and textures were measured with the aim of finding a correlation between the spectrum of defects in the material and the resistance to deformation and fracture under quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. The studies were performed using specimens in the as-received state after high-temperature annealing and specimens subjected to equal-channel angular pressing at a temperature of 250°C. The anisotropy of strength characteristics of the material after shock compression with respect to the direction of rolling of the original alloy was investigated. It was shown that, in contrast to the quasi-static loading conditions, under the shock wave loading conditions, the elastic limit and tensile strength of the magnesium alloy Ma2-1 after equal-channel angular pressing decrease as compared to the specimens in the as-received state.

  14. Estimation of Heat Transfer Coefficient in Squeeze Casting of Magnesium Alloy AM60 by Experimental Polynomial Extrapolation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhizhong; Niu, Xiaoping; Hu, Henry

    In this work, a different wall-thickness 5-step (with thicknesses as 3, 5, 8, 12, 20 mm) casting mold was designed, and squeeze casting of magnesium alloy AM60 was performed in a hydraulic press. The casting-die interfacial heat transfer coefficients (IHTC) in 5-step casting were determined based on experimental thermal histories data throughout the die and inside the casting which were recorded by fine type-K thermocouples. With measured temperatures, heat flux and IHTC were evaluated using the polynomial curve fitting method. The results show that the wall thickness affects IHTC peak values significantly. The IHTC value for the thick step is higher than that for the thin steps.

  15. Simultaneous multiscale measurements on dynamic deformation of a magnesium alloy with synchrotron x-ray imaging and diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, L.; Sun, T.; Fezzaa, K.

    Dynamic split Hopkinson pressure bar experiments with in situ synchrotron x-ray imaging and diffraction are conducted on a rolled magnesium alloy at high strain rates of ~5500 s-1. High speed multiscale measurements including stress–strain curves (macroscale), strain fields (mesoscale), and diffraction patterns (microscale) are obtained simultaneously, revealing strong anisotropy in deformation across different length scales. {1012} extension twinning induces homogenized strain fields and gives rise to rapid increase in strain hardening rate, while dislocation motion leads to inhomogeneous deformation and a decrease in strain hardening rate. During the early stage of plastic deformation, twinning is dominant in dynamic compression, whilemore » dislocation motion prevails in quasi-static loading, manifesting a strain-rate dependence of deformation.« less

  16. Characterization of the Surface Film Formed on Molten AZ91D Magnesium Alloy in Atmospheres Containing SO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xian-Fei; Xiong, Shou-Mei

    2012-11-01

    The surface film formed on molten AZ91D magnesium alloy in an atmosphere containing SO2 was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface film primarily contained MgO and MgS and had a network structure. MgS increased the Pilling-Bedworth ratio of the film and enhanced its protective capability. The films with a few pores at the surface consisted of two layers with an outer MgO layer and an inner layer of MgO and MgS. The film without pores at the surface also contained MgS and small amounts of MgSO4 in the outer layer. Increasing the SO2 content in the atmosphere promoted film growth and the formation of the protective film was prevented with the increased temperature.

  17. Evolution processes of the corrosion behavior and structural characteristics of plasma electrolytic oxidation coatings on AZ31 magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dong; Wang, Ruiqiang; Huang, Zhiquan; Wu, Yekang; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Guorui; Li, Dalong; Guo, Changhong; Jiang, Guirong; Yu, Shengxue; Shen, Dejiu; Nash, Philip

    2018-03-01

    Evolution processes of the corrosion behavior and structural characteristics of the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coated AZ31 magnesium alloy were investigated by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), potentio-dynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. Detached coating samples were fabricated by an electrochemical method and more details of the internal micro-structure of coatings were clearly observed on the fractured cross-section morphologies of the samples compared to general polished cross-section morphologies. Evolution mechanisms of the coating corrosion behavior in relation to the evolution of micro-structural characteristics were discussed in detail.

  18. Flow-induced corrosion of absorbable magnesium alloy: In-situ and real-time electrochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Jang, Yongseok; Wan, Guojiang; Giridharan, Venkataraman; Song, Guang-Ling; Xu, Zhigang; Koo, Youngmi; Qi, Pengkai; Sankar, Jagannathan; Huang, Nan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2016-01-01

    An in-situ and real-time electrochemical study in a vascular bioreactor was designed to analyze corrosion mechanism of magnesium alloy (MgZnCa) under mimetic hydrodynamic conditions. Effect of hydrodynamics on corrosion kinetics, types, rates and products was analyzed. Flow-induced shear stress (FISS) accelerated mass and electron transfer, leading to an increase in uniform and localized corrosions. FISS increased the thickness of uniform corrosion layer, but filiform corrosion decreased this layer resistance at high FISS conditions. FISS also increased the removal rate of localized corrosion products. Impedance-estimated and linear polarization-measured polarization resistances provided a consistent correlation to corrosion rate calculated by computed tomography. PMID:28626241

  19. Dynamics of a Lüders Band and Destruction of an Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy, Initiated by a Stress Concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibkov, A. A.; Zheltov, M. A.; Gasanov, M. F.; Zolotov, A. E.

    2018-02-01

    Spatio-temporal localization of deformation and the rupture of the aluminum-magnesium AlMg6 alloy, initiated by a geometrical stress concentrator, are studied in situ by video recording at a speed of 500 to 20000 frames/s. It is established that a stress concentrator in the form of a small notch with a depth about 1% of the width of a flat specimen is an attractor of bands of macrolocalized plastic deformation, starting from a Lüders band and ending with the start of the main crack. The key role of intersecting deformation macrobands in the development of the main crack is revealed. Possible micromechanisms of viscous destruction associated with the dynamics of the intersection of deformation bands are discussed.

  20. The Evolution of In-Grain Misorientation Axes (IGMA) During Deformation of Wrought Magnesium Alloy AZ31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Y. B.; Davies, C. H. J.

    Understanding deformation mechanisms is a prerequisite for the development of more formable magnesium alloys. We have developed a novel approach based on analysis of in-grain misorientation axes which allows identification of the dominant slip system for a large number of grains. We investigated the effects of orientations and temperatures on active deformation mechanisms during the rolling of AZ31, including slip, deformation twinning and deformation banding. The IGMA analysis suggests that increasing rolling temperature promotes activation of prism slip which enhances the rollability of the plate favorably oriented for this slip mode. The approach also reveals an orientation-dependent occurrence of deformation banding and its crystallographic relationship with parent grain. It is concluded that IGMA analysis can be effectively used to study deformation mechanism in hcp metals, and can be used as a criterion for validating some crystal plasticity models.

  1. Effect of pre-straining on the evolution of material anisotropy in rolled magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, H.; Guo, X. Q.; Wu, P. D.

    2013-12-01

    The large strain Elastic Visco-Plastic Self-Consistent (EVPSC) model and the recently developed Twinning and De-Twinning (TDT) model are applied to study the mechanical behavior of rolled magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet. Three different specimen orientations with tilt angles of 0°, 45° and 90° between the rolling direction and longitudinal specimen axis are used to study the mechanical anisotropy under both uniaxial tension and compression. The effect of pre-strain in uniaxial compression along the rolling direction on subsequent uniaxial tension/compression along the three directions is also investigated. It is demonstrated that the twinning during pre-strain in compression and the detwinning in the subsequent deformation have a significant influence on the mechanical anisotropy. Numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental observations found in the literature.

  2. Multiscale measurements on temperature-dependent deformation of a textured magnesium alloy with synchrotron x-ray imaging and diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, L.; Bie, B. X.; Li, Q. H.

    2017-06-01

    In situ synchrotron x-ray imaging and diffraction are used to investigate deformation of a rolled magnesium alloy under uniaxial compression at room and elevated temperatures along two different directions. The loading axis (LA) is either perpendicular or parallel to the normal direction, and these two cases are referred to as LA⊥ and LAk loading, respectively. Multiscale measurements including stressestrain curves (macroscale), strain fields (mesoscale), and diffraction patterns (microscale) are obtained simultaneously. Due to initial texture, f1012g extension twinning is predominant in the LA⊥ loading, while dislocation motion prevails in the LAk loading. With increasing temperature, fewer f1012g extension twins aremore » activated in the LA⊥ samples, giving rise to reduced strain homogenization, while pyramidal slip becomes readily activated, leading to more homogeneous deformation for the LAk loading. The difference in the strain hardening rates is attributed to that in strain field homogenization for these two loading directions« less

  3. Effect of Native Oxide Film on Commercial Magnesium Alloys Substrates and Carbonate Conversion Coating Growth and Corrosion Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Feliu, Sebastián; Samaniego, Alejandro; Bermudez, Elkin Alejandro; El-Hadad, Amir Abdelsami; Llorente, Irene; Galván, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Possible relations between the native oxide film formed spontaneously on the AZ31 and AZ61 magnesium alloy substrates with different surface finish, the chemistry of the outer surface of the conversion coatings that grows after their subsequent immersion on saturated aqueous NaHCO3 solution treatment and the enhancement of corrosion resistance have been studied. The significant increase in the amount of aluminum and carbonate compounds on the surface of the conversion coating formed on the AZ61 substrate in polished condition seems to improve the corrosion resistance in low chloride ion concentration solutions. In contrast, the conversion coatings formed on the AZ31 substrates in polished condition has little effect on their protective properties compared to the respective as-received surface. PMID:28788582

  4. Effect of Native Oxide Film on Commercial Magnesium Alloys Substrates and Carbonate Conversion Coating Growth and Corrosion Resistance.

    PubMed

    Feliu, Sebastián; Samaniego, Alejandro; Bermudez, Elkin Alejandro; El-Hadad, Amir Abdelsami; Llorente, Irene; Galván, Juan Carlos

    2014-03-28

    Possible relations between the native oxide film formed spontaneously on the AZ31 and AZ61 magnesium alloy substrates with different surface finish, the chemistry of the outer surface of the conversion coatings that grows after their subsequent immersion on saturated aqueous NaHCO₃ solution treatment and the enhancement of corrosion resistance have been studied. The significant increase in the amount of aluminum and carbonate compounds on the surface of the conversion coating formed on the AZ61 substrate in polished condition seems to improve the corrosion resistance in low chloride ion concentration solutions. In contrast, the conversion coatings formed on the AZ31 substrates in polished condition has little effect on their protective properties compared to the respective as-received surface.

  5. Effect of keyhole characteristics on porosity formation during pulsed laser-GTA hybrid welding of AZ31B magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Minghua; Xu, Jiannan; Xin, Lijun; Zhao, Zuofu; Wu, Fufa; Ma, Shengnan; Zhang, Yue

    2017-06-01

    This paper experimentally investigates the relationship between laser keyhole characteristics on the porosity formation during pulsed laser-GTA welding of magnesium alloy. Based on direct observations during welding process, the influences of laser keyhole state on the porosity formation were studied. Results show that the porosities in the joint are always at the bottom of fusion zone of the joint, which is closely related to the keyhole behavior. A large depth to wide ratio always leads to the increase of porosity generation chance. Keeping the keyhole outlet open for a longer time benefits the porosity restriction. Overlap of adjacent laser keyhole can effectively decrease the porosity generation, due to the cutting effect between adjacent laser keyholes. There are threshold overlap rate values for laser keyholes in different state.

  6. Calcium phosphate coatings on magnesium alloys for biomedical applications: a review.

    PubMed

    Shadanbaz, Shaylin; Dias, George J

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium has been suggested as a revolutionary biodegradable metal for use as an orthopaedic material. As a biocompatible and degradable metal, it has several advantages over the permanent metallic materials currently in use, including eliminating the effects of stress shielding, improving biocompatibility concerns in vivo and improving degradation properties, removing the requirement of a second surgery for implant removal. The rapid degradation of magnesium, however, is a double-edged sword as it is necessary to control the corrosion rates of the materials to match the rates of bone healing. In response, calcium phosphate coatings have been suggested as a means to control these corrosion rates. The potential calcium phosphate phases and their coating techniques on substrates are numerous and can provide several different properties for different applications. The reactivity and low melting point of magnesium, however, require specific parameters for calcium phosphate coatings to be successful. Within this review, an overview of the different calcium phosphate phases, their properties and their behaviour in vitro and in vivo has been provided, followed by the current coating techniques used for calcium phosphates that may be or may have been adapted for magnesium substrates. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fatigue and quasi-static mechanical behavior of bio-degradable porous biomaterials based on magnesium alloys.

    PubMed

    Hedayati, R; Ahmadi, S M; Lietaert, K; Tümer, N; Li, Y; Amin Yavari, S; Zadpoor, A A

    2018-07-01

    Magnesium and its alloys have the intrinsic capability of degrading over time in vivo without leaving toxic degradation products. They are therefore suitable for use as biodegradable scaffolds that are replaced by the regenerated tissues. One of the main concerns for such applications, particularly in load-bearing areas, is the sufficient mechanical integrity of the scaffold before sufficient volumes of de novo tissue is generated. In the majority of the previous studies on the effects of biodegradation on the mechanical properties of porous biomaterials, the change in the elastic modulus has been studied. In this study, variations in the static and fatigue mechanical behavior of porous structures made of two different Mg alloys (AZ63 and M2) over different dissolution times ( 6, 12, and 24 h) have been investigated. The results showed an increase in the mechanical properties obtained from stress-strain curve (elastic modulus, yield stress, plateau stress, and energy absorption) after 6-12 h and a sharp decrease after 24 h. The initial increase in the mechanical properties may be attributed to the accumulation of corrosion products in the pores of the porous structure before degradation has considerably proceeded. The effects of mineral deposition was more pronounced for the elastic modulus as compared to other mechanical properties. That may be due to insufficient integration of the deposited particles in the structure of the magnesium alloys. While the bonding of the parts being combined in a composite-like material is of great importance in determining its yield stress, the effects of bonding strength of both parts is much lower in determining the elastic modulus. The results of the current study also showed that the dissolution rates of the studied Mg alloys were too high for direct use in human body. © 2018 Authors Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 1798-1811, 2018. © 2018

  8. Analysis of magnesium and copper in aluminum alloys with high repetition rate laser-ablation spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaoyong; Dong, Bo; Chen, Yuqi; Li, Runhua; Wang, Fujuan; Li, Jiaoyang; Cai, Zhigang

    2018-03-01

    In order to improve the analytical speed and performance of laser-ablation based atomic emission spectroscopy, high repetition rate laser-ablation spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy (HRR LA-SIBS) was first developed. Magnesium and copper in aluminum alloys were analyzed with this technique. In the experiments, the fundamental output of an acousto-optically Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operated at 1 kHz repetition rate with low pulse energy and 120 ns pulse width was used to ablate the samples and the plasma emission was enhanced by spark discharge. The spectra were recorded with a compact fiber spectrometer with non-intensified charge-coupled device in non-gating mode. Different parameters relative with analytical performance, such as capacitance, voltage, laser pulse energy were optimized. Under current experimental conditions, calibration curves of magnesium and copper in aluminum alloys were built and limits of detection of them were determined to be 14.0 and 9.9 ppm by HRR LA-SIBS, respectively, which were 8-12 folds better than that achieved by HRR LA under similar experimental condition without spark discharge. The analytical sensitivities are close to those obtained with conventional LIBS but with improved analytical speed as well as possibility of using compact fiber spectrometer. Under high repetition rate operation, the noise level can be decreased and the analytical reproducibility can be improved obviously by averaging multiple measurements within short time. High repetition rate operation of laser-ablation spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy is very helpful for improving analytical speed. It is possible to find applications in fast elements analysis, especially fast two-dimension elemental mapping of solid samples.

  9. In vitro corrosion of magnesium alloy AZ31 — a synergetic influence of glucose and Tris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling-Yu; Liu, Bin; Zeng, Rong-Chang; Li, Shuo-Qi; Zhang, Fen; Zou, Yu-Hong; Jiang, Hongwei George; Chen, Xiao-Bo; Guan, Shao-Kang; Liu, Qing-Yun

    2018-05-01

    Biodegradable Mg alloys have generated great interest for biomedical applications. Accurate predictions of in vivo degradation of Mg alloys through cost-effective in vivo evaluations require the latter to be conducted in an environment close to that of physiological scenarios. However, the roles of glucose and buffering agents in regulating the in vivo degradation performance of Mg alloys has not been elucidated. Herein, degradation behavior of AZ31 alloy is investigated by hydrogen evolution measurements, pH monitoring and electrochemical tests. Results indicate that glucose plays a content-dependent role in degradation of AZ31 alloy in buffer-free saline solution. The presence of a low concentration of glucose, i.e. 1.0 g/L, decreases the corrosion rate of Mg alloy AZ31, whereas the presence of 2.0 and 3.0 g/L glucose accelerates the corrosion rate during long term immersion in saline solution. In terms of Tris-buffered saline solution, the addition of glucose increases pH value and promotes pitting corrosion or general corrosion of AZ31 alloy. This study provides a novel perspective to understand the bio-corrosion of Mg alloys in buffering agents and glucose containing solutions.

  10. In vitro corrosion of magnesium alloy AZ31 — a synergetic influence of glucose and Tris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling-Yu; Liu, Bin; Zeng, Rong-Chang; Li, Shuo-Qi; Zhang, Fen; Zou, Yu-Hong; Jiang, Hongwei George; Chen, Xiao-Bo; Guan, Shao-Kang; Liu, Qing-Yun

    2018-06-01

    Biodegradable Mg alloys have generated great interest for biomedical applications. Accurate predictions of in vivo degradation of Mg alloys through cost-effective in vivo evaluations require the latter to be conducted in an environment close to that of physiological scenarios. However, the roles of glucose and buffering agents in regulating the in vivo degradation performance of Mg alloys has not been elucidated. Herein, degradation behavior of AZ31 alloy is investigated by hydrogen evolution measurements, pH monitoring and electrochemical tests. Results indicate that glucose plays a content-dependent role in degradation of AZ31 alloy in buffer-free saline solution. The presence of a low concentration of glucose, i.e. 1.0 g/L, decreases the corrosion rate of Mg alloy AZ31, whereas the presence of 2.0 and 3.0 g/L glucose accelerates the corrosion rate during long term immersion in saline solution. In terms of Tris-buffered saline solution, the addition of glucose increases pH value and promotes pitting corrosion or general corrosion of AZ31 alloy. This study provides a novel perspective to understand the bio-corrosion of Mg alloys in buffering agents and glucose containing solutions.

  11. Preparation and characterization of HA microflowers coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy by micro-arc oxidation and a solution treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Hui; Yu, Dezhen; Luo, Yan; Wang, Fuping

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium and its alloys are potential biodegradable implant materials due to their attractive biological properties. But the use of magnesium is still hampered by its poor corrosion resistance in physiological fluids. In this work, hydroxyapatite microflowers coating is fabricated by micro-arc oxidation and a solution treatment on AZ31 magnesium alloy. The microstructure and composition are analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are studied in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution, and the apatite-forming ability is studied also. The results show that the corrosion resistance of the magnesium alloy has been enhanced by MAO coating. And the solution treatment can improve the corrosion resistance of the MAO sample, by forming a barrier layer on the surface of the MAO coating, and by penetrating into the outer layer of the MAO film, sealing the micropores and micro-cracks existed in the MAO coating. In addition, the MAO-ST coating also exhibits a high ability to form apatite.

  12. Influence of Applied Voltage and Film-Formation Time on Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of Coatings Formed on Mg-Zn-Zr-Ca Bio-magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yandong, Yu; Shuzhen, Kuang; Jie, Li

    2015-09-01

    The influence of applied voltage and film-formation time on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of coatings formed on a Mg-Zn-Zr-Ca novel bio-magnesium alloy has been investigated by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) treatment. Phase composition and microstructure of as-coated samples were analyzed by the x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. And the porosity and average of micro-pore aperture of the surface on ceramic coatings were analyzed by general image software. Corrosion microstructure of as-coated samples was caught by a microscope digital camera. The long-term corrosion resistance of as-coated samples was tested in simulated body fluid for 30 days. The results showed that the milky white smooth ceramic coating formed on the Mg-Zn-Zr-Ca novel bio-magnesium alloy was a compound of MgO, Mg2SiO4 and MgSiO3, and its corrosion resistance was significantly improved compared with that of the magnesium substrate. In addition, when the MAO applied voltage were 450 V and 500 V and film-formation time were 9 min and 11 min, the surface micro-morphology and the corrosion resistance of as-coated samples were relatively improved. The results provided a theoretical foundation for the application of the Mg-Zn-Zr-Ca novel bio-magnesium alloy in biomedicine.

  13. Investigation of corrosion behavior of biodegradable magnesium alloys using an online-micro-flow capillary flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry setup with electrochemical control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, A.; Ott, N.; Tournier-Fillon, A.; Homazava, N.; Schmutz, P.

    2011-07-01

    The development of biodegradable metallic materials designed for implants or medical stents is new and is one of the most interesting new fields in material science. Besides biocompatibility, a detailed understanding of corrosion mechanisms and dissolution processes is required to develop materials with tailored degradation behavior. The materials need to be sufficiently stable as long as they have to fulfill their medical task. However, subsequently they should dissolve completely in a controlled manner in terms of maximum body burden. This study focuses on the elemental and time resolved dissolution processes of a magnesium rare earth elements alloy which has been compared to pure magnesium with different impurity level. The here described investigations were performed using a novel analytical setup based on a micro-flow capillary online-coupled via a flow injection system to a plasma mass spectrometer. Differences in element-specific and time-dependent dissolution were monitored for various magnesium alloys in contact with sodium chloride or mixtures of sodium and calcium chloride as corrosive media. The dissolution behavior strongly depends on bulk matrix elements, secondary alloying elements and impurities, which are usually present even in pure magnesium.

  14. Development of mechanical properties in a CaO added AZ31 magnesium alloy processed by equal-channel angular pressing

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Seong-Hwan; Metal Forming Technology R&D Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Incheon 406-840; Jung, Ki Ho

    Processing through the application of equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) is recognized as one of the attractive severe plastic deformation techniques where the processed bulk metals generally achieve ultrafine-grained microstructure leading to improved physical characteristics and mechanical properties. Magnesium has received much attention to date for its lightweight, high strength and excellent elasticity. Mg alloys with addition of CaO is reported to provide the successful casting procedure without usage of greenhouse gas, SF{sub 6}, whereas it is generally used for preventing the oxidation of Mg during casting. In the present investigation, a CaO added AZ31 (AZ31-CaO) magnesium alloy was processed bymore » ECAP at elevated temepratures with a few steps of reduction which result in significant grain refinement to ~ 1.5 μm after 6 passes. Compression testing at room temperature demonstrated the AZ31-CaO alloy after ECAP showed enhanced yield strength more than the as-processed commercial AZ31 alloy while both alloys maintained ductility in spite of significant reduction in grain size. The improved strength in the AZ31-CaO alloy was attributed to the formation of fine Al{sub 2}Ca precipitates which experience breaking-up through ECAP and accelerate the microstructural refinement. Moreover, the preservation of ductility was attributed to the enhancement of strain hardening capability in the AZ31 alloy at room temperature. This study discusses the feasibility of using ECAP to improve both strength and ductility on magnesium alloys by applying the diagram describing the paradox of strength and ductility. - Highlights: • AZ31 and AZ31-CaO magnesium alloys were processed by ECAP up to 6 passes. • AZ31-CaO alloy after ECAP showed improved yield strength without losing ductility. • CaO in AZ31 forms fine Al{sub 2}Ca accelerating microstructural refinement during ECAP. • Feasibility of using ECAP was shown to improve both strength and ductility in Mg.« less

  15. The Effect of Grain Size on the Strain Hardening Behavior for Extruded ZK61 Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lixin; Zhang, Wencong; Chen, Wenzhen; Duan, Junpeng; Wang, Wenke; Wang, Erde

    2017-12-01

    The effects of grain size on the tensile and compressive strain hardening behaviors for extruded ZK61 alloys have been investigated by uniaxial tensile and compressive tests along the extrusion directions. Cylindrical tension and compression specimens of extruded ZK61 alloys with various sized grain were fabricated by annealing treatments. Tensile and compressive tests at ambient temperature were conducted at a strain rate of 0.5 × 10-3 s-1. The results indicate that both tensile strain hardening and compressive strain hardening of ZK61 alloys with different grain sizes have an athermal regime of dislocation accumulation in early deformation. The threshold stress value caused dynamic recovery is predominantly related to grain size in tensile strain hardening, but the threshold stress values for different grain sizes are almost identical in compressive strain hardening. There are obvious transition points on the tensile strain hardening curves which indicate the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization (DRX). The tensile strain hardening rate of the coarse-grained alloy obviously decreases faster than that of fine-grained alloys before DRX and the tensile strain hardening curves of different grain sizes basically tend to parallel after DRX. The compressive strain hardening rate of the fine-grained alloy obviously increases faster than that of coarse-grained alloy for twin-induced strain hardening, but compressive strain hardening curves also tend to parallel after twinning is exhausted.

  16. Physical metallurgy of metastable Bcc lanthanide-magnesium alloys for R = La, Gd, and Dy

    SciTech Connect

    Herchenroeder, J.W.; Manfrinetti, P.; Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.

    1989-09-01

    Bcc La-Mg, Gd-Mg, and Dy-Mg alloys have been prepared by an ice water/acetone quench from liquid melts. Single-phase alloys could be retained in a window around the eutectoid composition: 13 to 22 at. pct Mg, 23.6 to 29 at. pct Mg, and 27 to 29 at. pct Mg for La, Gd, and Dy alloys, respectively. At the center of the windows, x-ray diffraction peaks are extremely sharp as in equilibrium bcc structures; however, as alloy composition is moved away from the eutectoid, line broadening is observed. Reversion of the bcc phase to the equilibrium microstructure for R-Mg alloys (R =more » La, Gd, or Dy) has been characterized by differential thermal analysis (DTA) or differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and isothermal annealing. La-Mg alloys revert directly to {alpha}La (dhcp) + LaMg at about 350{degrees}C when heated at 10{degrees}C/min. In contrast, the Gd and Dy alloys revert by a two-step process: first, a transition to an intermediate distorted hcp phase between 300{degrees}C and 400{degrees}C, and, second, the relaxation of this phase to {alpha}R (hcp) + RMg at about 490{degrees}C when heated at 10{degrees}C/min. Isothermal annealing and high temperature x-ray diffraction confirm the nature of these reactions.« less

  17. Long-term in vivo degradation behavior and near-implant distribution of resorbed elements for magnesium alloys WZ21 and ZX50.

    PubMed

    Amerstorfer, F; Fischerauer, S F; Fischer, L; Eichler, J; Draxler, J; Zitek, A; Meischel, M; Martinelli, E; Kraus, T; Hann, S; Stanzl-Tschegg, S E; Uggowitzer, P J; Löffler, J F; Weinberg, A M; Prohaska, T

    2016-09-15

    We report on the long-term effects of degrading magnesium implants on bone tissue in a growing rat skeleton using continuous in vivo micro-Computed Tomography, histological staining and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Two different magnesium alloys-one rapidly degrading (ZX50) and one slowly degrading (WZ21)-were used to evaluate the bone response and distribution of released Mg and Y ions in the femur of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Regardless of whether the alloy degrades rapidly or slowly, we found that bone recovers restitutio ad integrum after complete degradation of the magnesium implant. The degradation of the Mg alloys generates a significant increase in Mg concentration in the cortical bone near the remaining implant parts, but the Mg accumulation disappears after the implant degrades completely. The degradation of the Y-containing alloy WZ21 leads to Y enrichment in adjacent bone tissues and in newly formed bone inside the medullary space. Locally high Y concentrations suggest migration not only of Y ions but also of Y-containing intermetallic particles. However, after the full degradation of the implant the Y-enrichment disappears almost completely. Hydrogen gas formation and ion release during implant degradation did not harm bone regeneration in our samples. Magnesium is generally considered to be one of the most attractive base materials for biodegradable implants, and many magnesium alloys have been optimized to adjust implant degradation. Delayed degradation, however, generates prolonged presence in the organism with the risk of foreign body reactions. While most studies so far have only ranged from several weeks up to 12months, the present study provides data for complete implant degradation and bone regeneration until 24months, for two magnesium alloys (ZX50, WZ21) with different degradation characteristics. μCT monitoring, histological staining and LA-ICP-MS illustrate the distribution of the elements in the

  18. Corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of magnesium alloy modified by alkali heating treatment followed by the immobilization of poly (ethylene glycol), fibronectin and heparin.

    PubMed

    Pan, Changjiang; Hu, Youdong; Hou, Yu; Liu, Tao; Lin, Yuebin; Ye, Wei; Hou, Yanhua; Gong, Tao

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, magnesium alloys are attracting more and more attention as a kind of biodegradable metallic biomaterials, however, their uncontrollable biodegradation speed in vivo and the limited surface biocompatibility hinder their clinical applications. In the present study, with the aim of improving the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility, the magnesium alloy (AZ31B) surface was modified by alkali heating treatment followed by the self-assembly of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS). Subsequently, poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) and fibronectin or fibronectin/heparin complex were sequentially immobilized on the modified surface. The results of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed that the above molecules were successfully immobilized on the magnesium alloy surface. An excellent hydrophilic surface was obtained after the alkali heating treatment while the hydrophilicity decreased to some degree after the self-assembly of APTMS, the surface hydrophilicity was gradually improved again after the immobilization of PEG, fibronectin or fibronectin/heparin complex. The corrosion resistance of the control magnesium alloy was significantly improved by the alkali heating treatment. The self-assembly of APTMS and the following immobilization of PEG further enhanced the corrosion resistance of the substrates, however, the grafting of fibronectin or fibronectin/heparin complex slightly lowered the corrosion resistance. As compared to the pristine magnesium alloy, the samples modified by the immobilization of PEG and fibronectin/heparin complex presented better blood compatibility according to the results of hemolysis assay and platelet adhesion as well as the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). In addition, the modified substrates had better cytocompatibility to endothelial cells due to the improved anticorrosion and the introduction of fibronectin. The substrates

  19. Loss of mechanical properties in vivo and bone-implant interface strength of AZ31B magnesium alloy screws with Si-containing coating.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lili; Wang, Qiang; Lin, Xiao; Wan, Peng; Zhang, Guangdao; Zhang, Qiang; Yang, Ke

    2014-05-01

    In this study the loss of mechanical properties and the interface strength of coated AZ31B magnesium alloy (a magnesium-aluminum alloy) screws with surrounding host tissues were investigated and compared with non-coated AZ31B, degradable polymer and biostable titanium alloy screws in a rabbit animal model after 1, 4, 12 and 21weeks of implantation. The interface strength was evaluated in terms of the extraction torque required to back out the screws. The loss of mechanical properties over time was indicated by one-point bending load loss of the screws after these were extracted at different times. AZ31B samples with a silicon-containing coating had a decreased degradation rate and improved biological properties. The extraction torque of Ti6Al4V, poly-l-lactide (PLLA) and coated AZ31B increased significantly from 1week to 4weeks post-implantation, indicating a rapid osteosynthesis process over 3weeks. The extraction torque of coated AZ31B increased with implantation time, and was higher than that of PLLA after 4weeks of implantation, equalling that of Ti6Al4V at 12weeks and was higher at 21weeks. The bending loads of non-coated AZ31B and PLLA screws degraded sharply after implantation, and that of coated AZ31B degraded more slowly. The biodegradation mechanism, the coating to control the degradation rate and the bioactivity of magnesium alloys influencing the mechanical properties loss over time and bone-implant interface strength are discussed in this study and it is concluded that a suitable degradation rate will result in an improvement in the mechanical performance of magnesium alloys, making them more suitable for clinical application. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Microstructural Characteristics of High Rate Plastic Deformation in Elektron (trademark) WE43 Magnesium Alloy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    extremely lightweight metal , weighing 30% less than aluminum, and 70% less than steel, it also has the highest strength-to-weight ratio among any of the...commonly used non- ferrous and ferrous metallic materials [2]. As magnesium is used more often in structural components, there is an increasing...mechanism of deformation in metals has been shown to be shear localization [6] [7]. The shear localization seen in high strain rate deformation is

  1. ANN Surface Roughness Optimization of AZ61 Magnesium Alloy Finish Turning: Minimum Machining Times at Prime Machining Costs.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Adel Taha; Pimenov, Danil Yurievich; Erdakov, Ivan Nikolaevich; Taha, Mohamed Adel; Soliman, Mahmoud Sayed; El Rayes, Magdy Mostafa

    2018-05-16

    Magnesium alloys are widely used in aerospace vehicles and modern cars, due to their rapid machinability at high cutting speeds. A novel Edgeworth⁻Pareto optimization of an artificial neural network (ANN) is presented in this paper for surface roughness ( Ra ) prediction of one component in computer numerical control (CNC) turning over minimal machining time ( T m ) and at prime machining costs ( C ). An ANN is built in the Matlab programming environment, based on a 4-12-3 multi-layer perceptron (MLP), to predict Ra , T m , and C , in relation to cutting speed, v c , depth of cut, a p , and feed per revolution, f r . For the first time, a profile of an AZ61 alloy workpiece after finish turning is constructed using an ANN for the range of experimental values v c , a p , and f r . The global minimum length of a three-dimensional estimation vector was defined with the following coordinates: Ra = 0.087 μm, T m = 0.358 min/cm³, C = $8.2973. Likewise, the corresponding finish-turning parameters were also estimated: cutting speed v c = 250 m/min, cutting depth a p = 1.0 mm, and feed per revolution f r = 0.08 mm/rev. The ANN model achieved a reliable prediction accuracy of ±1.35% for surface roughness.

  2. The deformation and acoustic emission of aluminum-magnesium alloy under non-isothermal thermo-mechanical loading

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, S. V.; Plotnikov, V. A., E-mail: plotnikov@phys.asu.ru; Lysikov, M. V.

    2015-10-27

    The following study investigates the deformation behavior and acoustic emission in aluminum-magnesium alloy under conditions of non-isothermal thermo-mechanical loading. The accumulation of deformation in the alloy, in conditions of change from room temperature to 500°C, occurs in two temperature intervals (I, II), characterized by different rates of deformation. The rate of deformation accumulation is correlated with acoustic emission. With load increasing in cycles from 40 to 200 MPa, the value of the boundary temperature (T{sub b}) between intervals I and II changes non-monotonically. In cycles with load up to 90 MPa, the T{sub b} value increases, while an increase up to 200 MPamore » makes T{sub b} shift toward lower temperatures. This suggests that the shift of boundaries in the region of low temperatures and the appearance of high-amplitude pulses of acoustic emission characterize the decrease of the magnitude of thermal fluctuations with increasing mechanical load, leading to the rupture of interatomic bonds in an elementary deformation act.« less

  3. ANN Surface Roughness Optimization of AZ61 Magnesium Alloy Finish Turning: Minimum Machining Times at Prime Machining Costs

    PubMed Central

    Erdakov, Ivan Nikolaevich; Taha, Mohamed~Adel; Soliman, Mahmoud Sayed; El Rayes, Magdy Mostafa

    2018-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are widely used in aerospace vehicles and modern cars, due to their rapid machinability at high cutting speeds. A novel Edgeworth–Pareto optimization of an artificial neural network (ANN) is presented in this paper for surface roughness (Ra) prediction of one component in computer numerical control (CNC) turning over minimal machining time (Tm) and at prime machining costs (C). An ANN is built in the Matlab programming environment, based on a 4-12-3 multi-layer perceptron (MLP), to predict Ra, Tm, and C, in relation to cutting speed, vc, depth of cut, ap, and feed per revolution, fr. For the first time, a profile of an AZ61 alloy workpiece after finish turning is constructed using an ANN for the range of experimental values vc, ap, and fr. The global minimum length of a three-dimensional estimation vector was defined with the following coordinates: Ra = 0.087 μm, Tm = 0.358 min/cm3, C = $8.2973. Likewise, the corresponding finish-turning parameters were also estimated: cutting speed vc = 250 m/min, cutting depth ap = 1.0 mm, and feed per revolution fr = 0.08 mm/rev. The ANN model achieved a reliable prediction accuracy of ±1.35% for surface roughness. PMID:29772670

  4. Analysis of heterogeneities in strain and microstructure in aluminum alloy and magnesium processed by high-pressure torsion

    SciTech Connect

    Panda, Subrata, E-mail: subrata.panda@univ-lorrain

    2017-01-15

    Two distinct bulk light metals were opted to study the shear strain evolution and associated heterogeneities in texture/microstructure development during torsional straining by high pressure torsion (HPT): a face centered cubic Al alloy (A5086) and a hexagonal commercial purity Mg. Relatively thick disk samples - four times thicker than usually employed in HPT process - were processed to 180° and 270° rotations. With the help of X-ray tomography, the shear strain gradients were examined in the axial direction. The results showed strongly localized shear deformation in the middle plane of the disks in both materials. These gradients involved strong heterogeneitiesmore » in texture, microstructure and associated hardness, in particular through the thickness direction at the periphery of the disk where the interplay between significant strain hardening and possible dynamic recrystallization could occur. - Highlights: •HPT processing was conducted on bulk specimens thicker than the usual thin-disks. •The Al alloy (A5086) and commercial purity magnesium samples were compared. •Distributions of strain and microhardness were evaluated in the radial and axial direction. •Plastic deformation is highly localized in the middle plane at outer edge in both materials. •Different DRX rates governed the differences in microstructure and hardening behavior.« less

  5. Novel method for controllable fabrication of a superhydrophobic CuO surface on AZ91D magnesium alloy.

    PubMed

    She, Zuxin; Li, Qing; Wang, Zhongwei; Li, Longqin; Chen, Funan; Zhou, Juncen

    2012-08-01

    A novel method for controllable fabrication of a superhydrophobic CuO surface on AZ91D magnesium alloy is reported in this paper. Hierarchical structure composed of micro/nano-featherlike CuO was obtained by electrodeposition of Cu-Zn alloy coating and subsequently an electrochemical anodic treatment in alkaline solution. After modification with lauric acid, the surface became hydrophobicity/superhydrophobicity. The formation of featherlike CuO structures was controllable by varying the coating composition. By applying SEM, ICP-AES, and water contact angle analysis, the effects of coating composition on the surface morphology and hydrophobicity of the as-prepared surfaces were detailedly studied. The results indicated that at the optimal condition, the surface showed a good superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle as high as 155.5 ± 1.3° and a sliding angle as low as about 3°. Possible growth mechanism of featherlike CuO hierarchical structure was discussed. Additionally, the anticorrosion effect of the superhydrophobic surface was studied by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The interface model for anticorrosion mechanism of superhydrophobic surface in corrosive medium was proposed. Besides, the mechanical stability test indicated that the resulting superhydrophobic surfaces have good mechanical stability.

  6. One-step fabrication of biomimetic superhydrophobic surface by electrodeposition on magnesium alloy and its corrosion inhibition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Xue, Jingze; Luo, Dan; Wang, Huiyuan; Gong, Xu; Han, Zhiwu; Ren, Luquan

    2017-04-01

    A facile, rapid and one-step electrodeposition process has been employed to construct a superhydrophobic surface with micro/nano scale structure on a Mg-Sn-Zn (TZ51) alloy, which is expected to be applied as a biodegradable biomedical implant materials. By changing the electrodeposition time, the maximum contact angle of the droplet was observed as high as 160.4°±0.7°. The characteristics of the as-prepared surface were conducted by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Besides, the anti-corrosion performance of the coatings in stimulated body fluid (SBF) solution were investigated by electrochemical measurement. The results demonstrated that the anti-corrosion property of superhydrophobic surface was greatly improved. This method show beneficial effects on the wettability and corrosion behavior, and therefore provides a efficient route to mitigate the undesirable rapid corrosion of magnesium alloy in favor of application for clinical field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative study of CW, nanosecond- and femtosecond-pulsed laser microcutting of AZ31 magnesium alloy stents.

    PubMed

    Gökhan Demir, Ali; Previtali, Barbara

    2014-06-01

    Magnesium alloys constitute an interesting solution for cardiovascular stents due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability in human body. Laser microcutting is the industrially accepted method for stent manufacturing. However, the laser-material interaction should be well investigated to control the quality characteristics of the microcutting process that concern the surface roughness, chemical composition, and microstructure of the final device. Despite the recent developments in industrial laser systems, a universal laser source that can be manipulated flexibly in terms of process parameters is far from reality. Therefore, comparative studies are required to demonstrate processing capabilities. In particular, the laser pulse duration is a key factor determining the processing regime. This work approaches the laser microcutting of AZ31 Mg alloy from the perspective of a comparative study to evaluate the machining capabilities in continuous wave (CW), ns- and fs-pulsed regimes. Three industrial grade machining systems were compared to reach a benchmark in machining quality, productivity, and ease of postprocessing. The results confirmed that moving toward the ultrashort pulse domain the machining quality increases, but the need for postprocessing remains. The real advantage of ultrashort pulsed machining was the ease in postprocessing and maintaining geometrical integrity of the stent mesh after chemical etching. Resultantly, the overall production cycle time was shortest for fs-pulsed laser system, despite the fact that CW laser system provided highest cutting speed.

  8. Potentiostatic pulse-deposition of calcium phosphate on magnesium alloy for temporary implant applications--an in vitro corrosion study.

    PubMed

    Kannan, M Bobby; Wallipa, O

    2013-03-01

    In this study, a magnesium alloy (AZ91) was coated with calcium phosphate using potentiostatic pulse-potential and constant-potential methods and the in vitro corrosion behaviour of the coated samples was compared with the bare metal. In vitro corrosion studies were carried out using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C. Calcium phosphate coatings enhanced the corrosion resistance of the alloy, however, the pulse-potential coating performed better than the constant-potential coating. The pulse-potential coating exhibited ~3 times higher polarization resistance than that of the constant-potential coating. The corrosion current density obtained from the potentiodynamic polarization curves was significantly less (~60%) for the pulse-deposition coating as compared to the constant-potential coating. Post-corrosion analysis revealed only slight corrosion on the pulse-potential coating, whereas the constant-potential coating exhibited a large number of corrosion particles attached to the coating. The better in vitro corrosion performance of the pulse-potential coating can be attributed to the closely packed calcium phosphate particles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Preliminary research on a novel bioactive silicon doped calcium phosphate coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy via electrodeposition.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xun; Wan, Peng; Tan, Lili; Fan, Xinmin; Yang, Ke

    2014-03-01

    A silicon doped calcium phosphate coating was obtained successfully on AZ31 alloy substrate via pulse electrodeposition. A novel dual-layer structure was observed with a porous lamellar-like and outer block-like apatite layer. In vitro immersion tests were adopted in simulated body fluid within 28 days of immersion. Slow degradation rate obtained from weight loss was observed for the Si-doped Ca-P coating, which was also consistent with the results of electrochemical experiments showing an enhanced corrosion resistance for the coating. Further formation of an apatite-like layer on the surface after immersion proved better integrity and biomineralization performance of the coating. Biological characterization was carried out for viability, proliferation and differentiation of MG63 osteoblast-like cells. The coating showed a good cell growth and an enhanced cell proliferation. Moreover, an increased activity of osteogenic marker ALP was found. All the results demonstrated that the Si-doped calcium phosphate was perspective to be used as a coating for magnesium alloy implants to control the degradation rate and enhance the bioactivity, which would facilitate the rapidity of bone tissue repair. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Formation of intermetallic compound coating on magnesium AZ91 cast alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Tianping; Gao, Wei

    2009-08-01

    This study describes an intermetallic compound coating formed on AZ91 Mg cast alloy. The Al sputtered on AZ91 cast alloy reacted with substrate during a short period of heat treatment at 435°C, resulting in the formation of a continuous intermetallic compound layer. The short period treatment has the advantage of minimizing the negative effect on the microstructure of substrate and the mechanical properties, comparing with the reported diffusion coatings. DSC measurement and examination on the cross-section of Al sputtered samples show that local melting occurred along the Al/substrate interface at the temperature range between 430~435°C. The formation mechanism of intermetallic compound coating is proposed in terms of the local melting at Al/substrate interface. The salt water immersion test showed significant improvement in corrosion resistance of the intermetallic compound coated AZ91 cast alloy compared with the as-cast alloys.

  11. Effect of Carbon Nanotube on High-Temperature Formability of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, S. Fida; Paramsothy, M.; Gasem, Z. M.; Patel, F.; Gupta, M.

    2014-08-01

    Room-temperature tensile properties of AZ31 alloy have significantly been improved when reinforced with carbon nanotube via ingot metallurgy process. However, high-temperature (up to 250 °C) elongation-to-failure tensile test of the developed nanocomposite revealed a considerable softening in the AZ31 alloy matrix accompanied by an incredible ductility increment (up to 132%). Microstructural characterization of the fractured samples revealed that the dynamic recrystallization process has induced a complete recrystallization in the AZ31 alloy at a lower temperature (150 °C) followed by substantial grain growth at a higher temperature used in this study. Fractography on the fractured surfaces revealed that the room-temperature mixed brittle-ductile modes of fracture behavior of AZ31 alloy have transformed into a complete ductile mode of fracture at high temperature.

  12. Advanced characterization study of commercial conversion and electrocoating structures on magnesium alloys AZ31B and ZE10A

    DOE PAGES

    Brady, Michael P.; Leonard, Donovan N.; Meyer, III, Harry M.; ...

    2016-03-31

    The local metal-coating interface microstructure and chemistry formed on commercial magnesium alloys Mg–3Al–1Zn (AZ31B) and Mg–1Zn–0.25Zr–<0.5Nd (ZE10A, ZEK100 type) were analyzed as-chemical conversion coated with a commercial hexafluoro-titanate/zirconate type + organic polymer based treatment (Bonderite® 5200) and a commercial hexafluoro-zirconate type + trivalent chromium Cr3 + type treatment (Surtec® 650), and after the same conversion coatings followed by electrocoating with an epoxy based coating, Cathoguard® 525. Characterization techniques included scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and cross-section scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Corrosion behavior was assessed in room temperature saturated aqueous Mg(OH)2 solution with 1 wt.% NaCl. Themore » goal of the effort was to assess the degree to which substrate alloy additions become enriched in the conversion coating, and how the conversion coating was impacted by subsequent electrocoating. Key findings included the enrichment of Al from AZ31B and Zr from ZE10A, respectively, into the conversion coating, with moderate corrosion resistance benefits for AZ31B when Al was incorporated. Varying degrees of increased porosity and modification of the initial conversion coating chemistry at the metal-coating interface were observed after electrocoating. These changes were postulated to result in degraded electrocoating protectiveness. As a result, these observations highlight the challenges of coating Mg, and the need to tailor electrocoating in light of potential degradation of the initial as-conversion coated Mg alloy surface.« less

  13. The development and characterization of a novel aluminum-copper-magnesium P/M alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boland, Christopher Daniel

    Powder metallurgy (P/M) is a metal fabrication process that is characterized by high yield and ability to be automated, as well as the resultant part complexity and reproducibility. This press and sinter process is favoured by the automotive industry. Aluminum alloy P/M parts are particularly attractive because they have a high strength to weight ratio and they can be made to have high corrosion and wear resistance. There are few commercial Al P/M alloys currently in use and they occupy a small portion of the market. To expand the use of aluminum in the industry a new alloy was created, modeled after the wrought AC2024 family of alloys. P/M 2324, with a nominal composition of Al-4.4Cu-1.5Mg, was assessed using physical, chemical and mechanical methods to help maximize alloy properties through processing. The objective of this work was to develop a viable industrial alloy. The investigation of 2324 included the evaluation of starting powders, starting composition, processing methods, secondary treatments, and industrial response. All blending and compacting was completed at Dalhousie University, while sintering was undertaken at Dalhousie and GKN Sinter Metals. The green alloy was assessed for best compaction pressure using green density and strength. The sintered alloy was assessed to determine the best press and sinter variables, using dimensional change, sintered density, apparent hardness, tensile properties and microscopy. These same sintered properties were tested to determine if sintering done on a laboratory scale could be replicated industrially. The viability of heat treatment was tested using differential scanning calorimetry, hardness and tensile properties. The alloy was also subject to modifications of Cu and Mg amounts, as well as to the addition of tin to the base composition. It was determined that compaction at 400MPa and sintering at 600°C for 20min produced the best properties for the sintered bodies. The resultant mechanical properties were

  14. Synthesis, Characterization and Cold Workability of Cast Copper-Magnesium-Tin Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo Bénard, Agustín Eduardo; Martínez Hernández, David; González Reyes, José Gonzalo; Ortiz Prado, Armando; Schouwenaars Franssens, Rafael

    2014-02-01

    The use of Mg as an alloying element in copper alloys has largely been overlooked in scientific literature and technological applications. Its supposed tribological compatibility with iron makes it an interesting option to replace Pb in tribological alloys. This work describes the casting process of high-quality thin slabs of Cu-Mg-Sn alloys with different compositions by means of conventional methods. The resulting phases were analyzed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy techniques. Typical dendritic α-Cu, eutectic Cu2Mg(Sn) and eutectoid non-equilibrium microstructures were found. Tensile tests and Vickers microhardness show the excellent hardening capability of Mg as compared to other copper alloys in the as-cast condition. For some of the slabs and compositions, cold rolling reductions of over 95 pct have been easily achieved. Other compositions and slabs have failed during the deformation process. Failure analysis after cold rolling reveals that one cause for brittleness is the presence of casting defects such as microshrinkage and inclusions, which can be eliminated. However, for high Mg contents, a high volume fraction of the intermetallic phase provides a contiguous path for crack propagation through the connected interdendritic regions.

  15. Corrosion resistance and adhesion strength of a spin-assisted layer-by-layer assembled coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yan-Bin; Liu, Han-Peng; Li, Chang-Yang; Chen, Yong; Li, Shuo-Qi; Zeng, Rong-Chang; Wang, Zhen-Lin

    2018-03-01

    A polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/polyacrylic acid (PAA) layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled composite coating with a multilayer structure for the corrosion protection of AZ31 magnesium alloy was prepared by a novel spin-casting method. The microstructure and composition of this coating were investigated by means of SEM, XRD and FT-IR measurements. Moreover, electrochemical, immersion and scratch tests in vitro were performed to measure the corrosion performance and the adhesion strength. These results indicated that the (PVP/PAA)10 composite coating with defect-free, dense and uniform morphologies could be successfully deposited on the surface of magnesium alloy. The coating had excellent corrosion resistance and adhesion strength.

  16. The one-step electroposition of superhydrophobic surface on AZ31 magnesium alloy and its time-dependence corrosion resistance in NaCl solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yuxing; Hu, Jin; Zhang, Yufen; Tang, Shawei

    2018-01-01

    A calcium myristic superhydrophobicity coating with a hierarchical micro-nanostructure was fabricated on AZ31 magnesium alloy by one-step electroposition. The effects of deposition time on the coating structure, such as morphology, thickness, wettability and phase composition of the coating were studied. The corrosion behavior of the coated samples in 3.5% NaCl solution was also investigated and the corrosion mechanism was discussed. It was found that the deposition time has a visible effect on the morphology, thickness and wettability, which distinctly affects the corrosion resistance of coatings. The corrosion resistance of the coating gradually decreases with the increase in the immersion time due to the disappearance of the air layer which exists on the coating surface. The superhydrophobic surfaces present the temporal limitations to the corrosion resistance of AZ31 magnesium alloy.

  17. Measuring and Modeling the Effects of Mechanical Twinning on the Behavior of Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnew, Sean; Wu, Peidong; Inal, Kaan; El Kadiri, Haitham; Wang, Jian; Tome, Carlos

    Our community has learned a great deal about twinning in Mg alloys over the past decade. Some of these things were known qualitatively in prior decades, but we have now developed a proficiency in characterization and computational modeling which permits a quantitative description of these twinning-induced effects over a wide range of strain rates, temperatures, loading conditions, and in a variety of alloy families. These capabilities could only be dreamed of by prior generations. This lecture will review the effects of the main twinning mode, {10.2} extension twinning (e.g., tension-compression yield asymmetry, yield plateau, anisotropy, rapid strain hardening, detwinning, etc.); characterization, primarily by diffraction-based techniques (electron, X-ray, and neutron); and modeling by crystal plasticity-based methods. Strategies to control these effects through microstructure, texture, and alloy design will be proposed. Finally, outstanding questions which merit further research will be highlighted.

  18. Use of Friction Stir Processing for Improving Heat-Affected Zone Liquation Cracking Resistance of a Cast Magnesium Alloy AZ91D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthik, G. M.; Janaki Ram, G. D.; Kottada, Ravi Sankar

    2017-12-01

    In this work, a cast magnesium alloy AZ91D was friction stir processed. Detailed microstructural studies and Gleeble hot ductility tests were conducted on the as-cast and the FSPed samples to comparatively assess their heat-affected zone liquation cracking behavior. The results show that the use of FSP as a pretreatment to fusion welding can strikingly improve the heat-affected zone liquation cracking resistance of alloy AZ91D by reducing the amount and size of the low-melting eutectic β (Mg17Al12) as well as by refining the matrix grain size.

  19. Effects of Heat Treatment on the Discharge Behavior of Mg-6wt.%Al-1wt.%Sn Alloy as Anode For Magnesium-Air Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Hanqing; Zhu, Hualong; Luo, Jie; Yu, Kun; Shi, Chunli; Fang, Hongjie; Zhang, Yu

    2017-05-01

    Mg-6wt.%Al-1wt.%Sn alloys under different conditions are prepared. Primary magnesium-air batteries are assembled using such experimental Mg-Al-Sn alloys as anodes. The discharge behaviors of different alloys are investigated in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The results show that the solution treatment can facilitate the homogeneous distribution of alloy elements and reduce the accumulation of discharge products. The magnesium-air battery based on the solution-treated Mg-Al-Sn anode presents higher operating voltage and more stable discharge process than those on the as-cast and the aged ones. Although the solution treatment cannot effectively improve the capacity density and the anodic efficiency of the experimental Mg-Al-Sn alloy, it is an effective approach to increasing the power and the energy density during discharge process. Especially at the applied current density of 30 mA cm-2 for 5 h, the solution-treated anode supplies 1.212 V average operating voltage, the anode energy density reaches 1527.2 mWhg-1, while the cast one is 1481.3 mWhg-1 and the aged one is 1478.8 mWhg-1.

  20. Grain Refinement of Magnesium Alloys: A Review of Recent Research, Theoretical Developments, and Their Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    StJohn, D. H.; Easton, M. A.; Qian, M.; Taylor, J. A.

    2013-07-01

    This paper builds on the "Grain Refinement of Mg Alloys" published in 2005 and reviews the grain refinement research on Mg alloys that has been undertaken since then with an emphasis on the theoretical and analytical methods that have been developed. Consideration of recent research results and current theoretical knowledge has highlighted two important factors that affect an alloy's as-cast grain size. The first factor applies to commercial Mg-Al alloys where it is concluded that impurity and minor elements such as Fe and Mn have a substantially negative impact on grain size because, in combination with Al, intermetallic phases can be formed that tend to poison the more potent native or deliberately added nucleant particles present in the melt. This factor appears to explain the contradictory experimental outcomes reported in the literature and suggests that the search for a more potent and reliable grain refining technology may need to take a different approach. The second factor applies to all alloys and is related to the role of constitutional supercooling which, on the one hand, promotes grain nucleation and, on the other hand, forms a nucleation-free zone preventing further nucleation within this zone, consequently limiting the grain refinement achievable, particularly in low solute-containing alloys. Strategies to reduce the negative impact of these two factors are discussed. Further, the Interdependence model has been shown to apply to a broad range of casting methods from slow cooling gravity die casting to fast cooling high pressure die casting and dynamic methods such as ultrasonic treatment.

  1. Shear bands and anisotropy of the mechanical properties of an MA2-1pch magnesium alloy after equal-channel angular pressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serebryany, V. N.; Khar'kova, M. A.; D'yakonov, G. S.; Kopylov, V. I.; Dobatkin, S. V.

    2017-10-01

    Effect of structure and texture on the anisotropy of the mechanical properties of the MA2-1pch magnesium alloy subjected to equal-channel angular pressing and subsequent annealing has been studied in two mutually perpendicular planes Y and X (along and across the pressing direction). The anisotropy of the mechanical properties is shown to be due to various orientations of shear bands and various types of texture inside the bands and outside them in planes X and Y.

  2. Organosilane self-assembled layers (SAMs) and hybrid silicate magnesium-rich primers for the corrosion protection of aluminum alloy 2024 T3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Duhua

    Although current chromate coatings function very well in corrosion protection for aircraft alloys, such as aluminum alloy 2024 T3, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is planning to totally ban the use of chromates as coating materials in the next decade or so because of their extremely toxic effect. For this purpose, both self-assembled layers and silicate magnesium-rich primers were tested to provide the corrosion protection for aluminum alloy. The long-term goal of this research is to develop a coating system to replace the current chromate coating for aircraft corrosion protection. Aluminum alloy 2024 T3 substrates were modified with self-assembled monolayer or multilayer thin films from different alkylsilane compounds. Mono-functional silanes, such as octadecyltrichlorosilane (C18SiCl3), can form a mixed hydrophobic monolayer or multilayer thin film on the aluminum oxide surface to provide a barrier to water and other electrolytes, so the corrosion resistance of the SAMs modified surface was increased significantly. On the other hand, the bi-functional silane self-assembly could attach the aluminum surface through the silicon headgroup while using its functional tailgroup to chemically bond the polymer coating, thus improving the adhesion between the aluminum substrate and coating substantially, and seems to contribute more to corrosion protection of aluminum substrate. Organosilanes were also combined with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) in propel ratios to form a sol-gel binder to make silicate magnesium-rich primers. Analogue to the inorganic zinc-rich coatings, the silicate magnesium-rich primers also showed excellent adhesion and solvent resistance. The sacrificial magnesium pigments and the chemically inert silicate binder both contribute to the anti-corrosion properties. Future studies will be focused on the formula optimization for better toughness, chemical resistance and anticorrosion performance.

  3. Limitation of Current Hardening Models in Predicting Anisotropy by Twinning in HCP Metals: Application to a Rod-Textured AM30 Magnesium Alloy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    model and a phenomenological Voce hard- ening model. The HCP material is exemplified by an extruded AM30 magnesium alloy with a 〈101̄0〉-fiber...effect accounted for by a sort of slip-twin latent hardening in the Voce type hardening model was not able to inflect the simulated curves with loading... Voce model is unable to cap- ture this effect, but the dislocation model [2] is. A pragmatic factor distinctly increasing the stored dis- locations in

  4. MAGNESIUM ALLOYS IN US MILITARY APPLICATIONS: PAST, CURRENT AND FUTURE SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Mathaudhu, Suveen N.; Nyberg, Eric A.

    2010-02-26

    Since the 1940’s Mg-alloys have been used for military applications, from aircraft components to ground vehicles. The drive for usage was primarily availability and lightweighting of military systems. But the promise of widespread military usage was not met largely based on corrosion and flammability concerns, poor mechanical behavior and inferior ballistic response. This review paper will cover historical, current and potential future applications with a focus on scientific, engineering and social barriers relevant to integration of Mg-alloy. It will also present mechanical and physical property improvements solutions which are currently being developed to address these issues.

  5. Effect of heat treatment on the corrosion resistance of modified aluminum-magnesium alloys in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Z.; Aleem, A.

    1993-10-01

    Study of modified Al-2.5Mg alloys containing chromium, silica, iron, and manganese in various tempers (O, H-18, T-4, T-6, T-18, and H-34) has shown that their corrosion resistance is significantly altered by thermomechanical treatment and the beneficial effect of chromium on microstructural changes. Modified binary Al-2.5Mg alloys in the T-6 and T-4 tempers exhibit a higher resistance to corrosion in Arabian Gulf water than H-34 tempers due to the beneficial effect of chromium on microstructural changes.

  6. In Vitro and in Vivo Studies on Biomedical Magnesium Low-Alloying with Elements Gadolinium and Zinc for Orthopedic Implant Applications.

    PubMed

    Bian, Dong; Deng, Jiuxu; Li, Nan; Chu, Xiao; Liu, Yang; Li, Wenting; Cai, Hong; Xiu,