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Sample records for zn br rb

  1. Emission characteristics of Xe-RbBr plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heneral, A. A.; Avtaeva, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    The luminescence spectra of the longitudinal pulsed-periodic discharge in Xe-RbBr gas-vapour mixtures at low pressures are experimentally studied. Conditions for obtaining strong UV radiation of XeBr* exiplex molecules in the spectral range of 200-425 nm are found. The greatest output of the XeBr* UV radiation is provided at temperature of the gas-discharge tube walls of ~1000 K. The maximum UV emission power of the whole plasma volume is 4.8 W. Formation of XeBr* exciplex molecules in the pulsed-periodic discharge in Xe-RbBr gas-vapour mixtures at low pressures is discussed.

  2. New high performing scintillators: RbSr2Br5:Eu and RbSr2I5:Eu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stand, L.; Zhuravleva, M.; Johnson, J.; Koschan, M.; Lukosi, E.; Melcher, C. L.

    2017-11-01

    We report the crystal growth and scintillation properties of two new ternary metal halide scintillators, RbSr2Br5 and RbSr2I5, activated with divalent europium. Transparent 7 mm diameter single crystals with 2.5% Eu2+ were grown in evacuated quartz ampoules via the Bridgman technique. RbSr2Br5 and RbSr2I5 have monoclinic crystal structures with densities of 4.18 g/cm3 and 4.55 g/cm3 respectively. These materials are hygroscopic and have some intrinsic radioactivity due to the presence of 87Rb. Luminescence properties typical of the 5d-4f radiative transition in Eu2+ were observed. The X-ray excited emissions consisted of singular peaks centered at 429 nm for RbSr2Br5:Eu 2.5% and 445 nm for RbSr2I4:Eu 2.5%. RbSr2Br5:Eu 2.5% had a light yield of 64,700 photons/MeV, with an energy resolution of 4.0%, and RbSr2I5:Eu 2.5% had a light yield of 90,400 ph/MeV with an energy resolution of 3.0% at 662 keV. Both crystals have an excellent proportional response over a wide range of gamma-ray energies.

  3. Electronic structure and fundamental absorption edges of KPb2Br5, K0.5Rb0.5Pb2Br5, and RbPb2Br5 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasova, A. Yu.; Isaenko, L. I.; Kesler, V. G.; Pashkov, V. M.; Yelisseyev, A. P.; Denysyuk, N. M.; Khyzhun, O. Yu.

    2012-05-01

    X-ray photoelectron core-level and valence-band spectra for pristine and Ar+-ion irradiated (001) surfaces of KPb2Br5, K0.5Rb0.5Pb2Br5, and RbPb2Br5 single crystals grown by the Bridgman method have been measured and fundamental absorption edges of the ternary bromides have been recorded in the polarized light at 300 K and 80 K. The present X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results reveal high chemical stability of (001) surfaces of KxRb1-xPb2Br5 (x=0, 0.5, and 1.0) single crystals. Substitution of potassium for rubidium in KxRb1-xPb2Br5 does not cause any changes of binding energy values and shapes of the XPS constituent element core-level spectra. Measurements of the fundamental absorption edges indicate that band gap energy, Eg, increases by about 0.14 and 0.19 eV when temperature decreases from 300 K to 80 K in KPb2Br5 and RbPb2Br5, respectively. Furthermore, there is no dependence of the Eg value for KPb2Br5 upon the light polarization, whilst the band gap energy value for RbPb2Br5 is bigger by 0.03-0.05 eV in the case of E‖c compared to those in the cases of E‖a and E‖b.

  4. Total absorption γ -ray spectroscopy of the β -delayed neutron emitters Br 87 , Br 88 , and Rb 94

    SciTech Connect

    Valencia, E.; Tain, J. L.; Algora, A.

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the decay of Br-87,Br-88 and Rb-94 using total absorption gamma-ray spectroscopy. These important fission products are beta-delayed neutron emitters. Our data show considerable beta gamma intensity, so far unobserved in high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, from states at high excitation energy. We also find significant differences with the beta intensity that can be deduced from existing measurements of the beta spectrum. We evaluate the impact of the present data on reactor decay heat using summation calculations. Although the effect is relatively small it helps to reduce the discrepancy between calculations and integral measurements of the photon component for U-235 fissionmore » at cooling times in the range 1-100 s. We also use summation calculations to evaluate the impact of present data on reactor antineutrino spectra. We find a significant effect at antineutrino energies in the range of 5 to 9 MeV. In addition, we observe an unexpected strong probability for. emission from neutron unbound states populated in the daughter nucleus. The. branching is compared to Hauser-Feshbach calculations, which allow one to explain the large value for bromine isotopes as due to nuclear structure. However the branching for Rb-94, although much smaller, hints of the need to increase the radiative width gamma by one order of magnitude. This increase in gamma would lead to a similar increase in the calculated (n, gamma) cross section for this very neutron-rich nucleus with a potential impact on r process abundance calculations.« less

  5. Postsynthesis Phase Transformation for CsPbBr3/Rb4PbBr6 Core/shell Nanocrystals with Exceptional Photostability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Zhang, Congyang; Huang, Shouqiang; Li, Zhichun; Kong, Long; Jin, Ling; Wang, Junhui; Wu, Kaifeng; Li, Liang

    2018-06-15

    Lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) as promising optoelectronic materials are intensively researched. However, the instability is one of the biggest challenges needed to overcome before fulfill their practical applications. To improve their stability, we present a postsynthetic controlled phase transformation of CsPbBr3 toward CsPbBr3/Rb4PbBr6 core/shell structure triggered by rubidium oleate treatment. The resulted core/shell NCs show exceptional photostability both in solution and on-chip. The solution of CsPbBr3/Rb4PbBr6 NCs can remain over 90% of the initial emission photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQY) after 42 h of intense light-emitting diodes illumination (450 nm, 175 mW/cm2), which is even better than the conventional CdSe/CdS quantum dots whose emission drop to 50% after 18 h under the same condition. We believe that the exceptional photostability should be resulted from the protection of the robust Rb4PbBr6 shell on CsPbBr3 NCs.

  6. Total absorption γ -ray spectroscopy of the β -delayed neutron emitters Br 87 , Br 88 , and Rb 94

    DOE PAGES

    Valencia, E.; Tain, J. L.; Algora, A.; ...

    2017-02-21

    In this paper, we investigate the decay of 87,88Br and 94Rb using total absorption γ-ray spectroscopy. These important fission products are β-delayed neutron emitters. Our data show considerable βγ intensity, so far unobserved in high-resolution γ-ray spectroscopy, from states at high excitation energy. We also find significant differences with the β intensity that can be deduced from existing measurements of the β spectrum. We evaluate the impact of the present data on reactor decay heat using summation calculations. Although the effect is relatively small it helps to reduce the discrepancy between calculations and integral measurements of the photon component formore » 235U fission at cooling times in the range 1-100 s. We also use summation calculations to evaluate the impact of present data on reactor antineutrino spectra. We find a significant effect at antineutrino energies in the range of 5 to 9 MeV. In addition, we observe an unexpected strong probability for γ emission from neutron unbound states populated in the daughter nucleus. The γ branching is compared to Hauser-Feshbach calculations, which allow one to explain the large value for bromine isotopes as due to nuclear structure. However the branching for 94Rb, although much smaller, hints of the need to increase the radiative width Γ γ by one order of magnitude. Finally, this increase in Γ γ would lead to a similar increase in the calculated (n, γ) cross section for this very neutron-rich nucleus with a potential impact on r process abundance calculations.« less

  7. Site preference for luminescent activator ions in doped fluoroperovskite RbZnF3.

    PubMed

    Saroj, Sanjay Kumar; Nagarajan, Rajamani

    2018-08-05

    With the dual objective of investigating the site preferences of larger sized activator ions and to append luminescence property to the perovskite structured RbZnF 3 , doping of manganese(II), cerium(III), europium(III) and terbium(III) ions (5 mol%) was carried out. Although cubic symmetry of RbZnF 3 was preserved for all the doped samples, site preference of rare-earth ions for the A-site Rb + leading to an inverse perovskite arrangement has been noticed from careful analysis of lattice parameters from refinement of powder X-ray diffraction data. Undoped RbZnF 3 exhibited rod-like morphology in the transmission electron microscopic image. In addition to an intense band around 230 nm assignable to the charge transfer from ZnF 3 - to Rb + , typical transitions of respective dopant ions were observed in their UV-visible spectra. The doped samples showed luminescence in blue, green and red regions and time decay experiments suggested uniform dispersion of them without any clustering effect. The lower phonon energy of RbZnF 3 matrix by virtue of the presence of heavier rubidium at the A-site together with its doping with rare-earth ions resulting in an inverse perovskite like arrangement could favour their utility in various practical applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Photodegradation of Acid Violet 7 with AgBr-ZnO under highly alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Krishnakumar, B; Swaminathan, M

    2012-12-01

    The photocatalytic activity of AgBr-ZnO was investigated for the degradation of Acid Violet 7 (AV 7) in aqueous solution using UV-A light. AgBr-ZnO is found to be more efficient than commercial ZnO and prepared ZnO at pH 12 for the mineralization of AV 7. The effects of operational parameters such as the amount of photocatalyst, dye concentration, initial pH on photo mineralization have been analyzed. Expect oxone, other oxidants decrease the degradation efficiency. Addition of metal ions and anions decrease the degradation efficiency of AgBr-ZnO significantly. The mineralization of AV 7 has also been confirmed by COD measurements. The mechanism of degradation by AgBr-ZnO is proposed to explain its higher activity under UV light. The catalyst is found to be reusable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cation ordering and effect of biaxial strain in double perovskite CsRbCaZnCl 6

    DOE PAGES

    Pilania, G.; Uberuaga, B. P.

    2015-03-19

    Here, we investigate the electronic structure, energetics of cation ordering, and effect of biaxial strain on double perovskite CsRbCaZnCl 6 using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The two constituents (i.e., CsCaCl 3 and RbZnCl 3) forming the double perovskite exhibit a stark contrast. While CsCaCl 3 is known to exist in a cubic perovskite structure and does not show any epitaxial strain induced phase transitions within an experimentally accessible range of compressive strains, RbZnCl 3 is thermodynamically unstable in the perovskite phase and exhibits ultra-sensitive response at small epitaxial strains if constrained in the perovskite phase. We showmore » that combining the two compositions in a double perovskite structure not only improves overall stability but also the strain-polarization coupling of the material. Our calculations predict a ground state with P4/nmm space group for the double perovskite, where A-site cations (i.e., Cs and Rb) are layer-ordered and B-site cations (i.e., Ca and Zn) prefer a rocksalt type ordering. The electronic structure and bandgap in this system are shown to be quite sensitive to the B-site cation ordering and is minimally affected by the ordering of A-site cations. We find that at experimentally accessible compressive strains CsRbCaZnCl 6 can be phase transformed from its paraelectric ground state to an antiferroelectric state, where Zn atoms contribute predominantly to the polarization. Furthermore, both energy difference and activation barrier for a transformation between this antiferroelectric state and the corresponding ferroelectric configuration are predicted to be small. As a result, the computational approach presented here opens a new pathway towards a rational design of novel double perovskites with improved strain response and functionalities.« less

  10. Characterization of ZnBr2 solution as a liquid radiation shield for mobile hot cell window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrin, Muhammad Hannan; Ahmad, Megat Harun Al Rashid Megat; Hasan, Hasni; Rahman, Anwar Abdul; Azman, Azraf; Hassan, Mohd Zaid; Mamat, Mohd Rizal B.; Muhamad, Shalina Sheikh; Hamzah, Mohd Arif; Jamro, Rafhayudi; Wo, Yii Mei; Hamssin, Nurliyana

    2017-01-01

    The Mobile Hot Cell (MHC) has a viewing window which is usually made of almost transparent radiation shield material for the safety of MHC operators. Mobility is the main criterion for MHC; therefore liquid solution that can act as a radiation shield is usually selected as the window for MHC due to ease of transportation instead of a solid glass. As reported, Zinc Bromide (ZnBr2) solution was successfully used in viewing window for MHCs in South Africa and China. It was chosen due to its transparent solution, excellent performance as radiation shielding for gamma radiation, ease in preparation, handling, storage and treatment. Nevertheless, data and baseline studies on ZnBr2 as radiation shield are quite few. Therefore, a study on this matter was carried out. The preparation of ZnBr2 solution was processed at laboratory scale and the radiation shielding experiments were carried out using Cs-137 as radiation source. ZnBr2 solution was prepared by mixing ZnBr2 powder with distilled water. The mixing percentage of ZnBr2 powder, (%wt.) was varied to study the effect of density on the attenuation coefficient. The findings from this study will be used as a guideline in the production and management of ZnBr2 solution for MHC applications.

  11. Crystal structure of the new A2SnTa6X18 (A = K, Rb, Cs; X = Cl, Br) cluster compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, P.; Wilmet, M.; Malaman, B.; Paofai, S.; Dumait, N.; Cordier, S.

    2018-01-01

    The crystal structure of the new cluster compounds A2SnTa6X18 (with A = K, Rb, Cs, and X = Cl, Br) was determined by using single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, and 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy. Those compounds crystallize in the Cs2EuNb6Br18-type structure of space group R 3 ̅. This type of structure is built up on discrete edge-bridged [M6Xi12Xa6]4- cluster units arranged according to a pseudo face-centered cubic stacking, where the octahedral and tetrahedral vacancies are fully occupied by divalent tin cations and monovalent alkaline cations, respectively. The tin cations influence on the halogen matrix and the electronic effects on the cluster units in the Cs2EuNb6Br18-type structure are discussed by comparison with isotype compounds. From those analyses, the ionic radius of Sn2+ in coordination number VI is estimated to be 1.14(1) Å. Finally, K2SnTa6Br18 might be considered as a new example of compound containing a quite bare stannous ion (5 s2 configuration).

  12. Point defects in Cd(Zn)Te and TlBr: Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lordi, Vincenzo

    2013-09-01

    The effects of various crystal defects on the performances of CdTe, CdZnxTe (CZT), and TlBr for room-temperature high-energy radiation detection are examined using first-principles theoretical methods. The predictive, parameter-free, atomistic approaches used provide fundamental understanding of defect properties that are difficult to measure and also allow rapid screening of possibilities for material engineering, such as optimal doping and annealing conditions. Several recent examples from the author's work are reviewed, including: (i) accurate calculations of the thermodynamic and electronic properties of native point defects and point defect complexes in CdTe and CZT; (ii) the effects of Zn alloying on the native point defect properties in CZT; (iii) point defect diffusion and binding leading to Te clustering in Cd(Zn)Te; (iv) the profound effect of native point defects—principally vacancies—on the intrinsic material properties of TlBr, particularly its electronic and ionic conductivity; and (v) a study on doping TlBr to independently control the electronic and ionic conductivity.

  13. Inelastic neutron scattering investigation of low temperature phase transition in Rb2ZnCl4 and K2ZnCl4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quilichini, M.; Dvořák, V.; Boutrouille, P.

    1991-09-01

    Inelastic scattering of neutrons has revealed soft optic modes at the T point frac{1}{2}({b}^*+{c}^*) of the Brillouin zone both in Rb2ZnCl4 and K2ZnCl4 which are responsible for the phase transition from the ferroelectric to the lowest temperature phase of these materials. Moreover, in K2ZnCl4 near the T point a minimum on the soft optic branch in the direction (μ{b}^*+frac{1}{2}{c}^*) has been found which confirms the existence of a new incommensurate phase recently discovered by Gesi. The origin of this incommensurate phase is discussed from a phenomenological point of view and formulae for elastic constants are derived describing their behaviour near transition into incommensurate phase. Des mesures de diffusion inélastique des neutrons ont mis en évidence l'existence d'un mode optique mou au point T(frac{1}{2}({b}^*+{c}^*)) de la zone de Brillouin responsable de la transition de la phase ferroélectrique vers la phase basse température dans les deux composés Rb2ZnCl4 and K2ZnCl4. Pour K2ZnCl4 on montre que la branche optique molle présente un minimum au voisinage de T dans la direction (μ{b}^*+frac{1}{2}{c}^*), ce qui confirme l'existence de la nouvelle phase incommensurable récemment trouvée par Gesi. L'origine de cette phase est discutée sur la base d'un modèle phénoménologique dont on dérive aussi les formules des constantes élastiques et leur comportement au voisinage de la transition vers la phase incommensurable.

  14. The relationship between the electronic structure and thermoelectric properties of Zintl compounds M2Zn5As4 (M = K, Rb).

    PubMed

    Yang, Gui; Yang, Jueming; Yan, Yuli; Wang, Yuanxu

    2014-03-28

    The electronic structure and the thermoelectric properties of M2Zn5As4 (M = K, Rb) are studied by the first principles and the semiclassical BoltzTraP theory. It is determined that they are semiconductors with an indirect band gap of about 1 eV, which is much larger than that of Ca5Al2Sb6 (0.50 eV). The calculated electronic localization function indicates that they are typical Zintl bonding compounds. The combination of heavy and light bands near the valence band maximum may improve their thermoelectric performance. Rb2Zn5As4 exhibits relatively large Seebeck coefficients, high electrical conductivities, and the large "maximum" thermoelectric figures of merit (ZeT). Compared with Ca5Al2Sb6, the highest ZeT of Rb2Zn5As4 appears at relatively low carrier concentration. For Rb2Zn4As5, the p-type doping may achieve a higher thermoelectric performance than n-type doping. The thermoelectric properties of Rb2Zn5As4 are possibly superior to those of Ca5Al2Sb6.

  15. THE INTERSECTION OF STABLE AND NON-EQUILIBRIUM TETRAHEDRA IN A MUTUAL 7- COMPONENT SYSTEM OF Li, Na, Rb, T1/Br, C1, NO$sub 3$, SO$sub 4$ (in Russian)

    SciTech Connect

    Dombrovskaya, N.S.; Khakhlova, N.V.; Alekseeva, E.A.

    1961-04-21

    The most stable configuration of the mixture of the 16 salts formed from Li, Na, Rb, Tl/Br, Cl, NO/sub 3/, and S0/sub 4/ con ture which however interact, resulting in a stable mixture. On the basis of exchange reactions the following equation has been derived: LiBr + NaNO/sub 3/ + RbCl + 1/2Tl/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ = 1/ 2LiSO/sub 4/ + NaCl + RbNO/sub 3/ + TlBr. In addition, several binary complexes are also formed, such as Li/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ - Rb/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, 4Li/sub 2/SO/ sub 4/ - RbSO /sub 4/, RbCl - 2Li/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and possible others. Inmore » view of the great interest, the intersection of stable and non-equilibrium tetrahedra consisting of components of both, was experimentally studied by thermai analysis. On the basis of cooling curves the following deflection points have been observed: 453 deg C, precipitation of the first Li/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ crystals; 409 deg , coprecipitation of Li/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and NaCl; 391 deg , coprecipitation of Li/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, NaCl snd TlBr; and finally at 107 deg , formation of the quaternary eutectic with the previously mentioned salts + RbNO/sub 3/. The microstructures of the stable and non-equilibrium phases are quite similar. (TTT)« less

  16. Ion-pairing in aqueous CaCl 2 and RbBr solutions. Simultaneous structural refinement of XAFS and XRD data

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, Thai V.; Fulton, John L.

    2013-01-22

    We present a new methodology involving the simultaneous refinement of both x-ray absorption and x-ray diffraction spectra (X-ray Absorption/Diffraction Structural Refinement,XADSR), to study hydration and ion pair structure of CaCl 2 and RbBr salts in concentrated aqueous solutions. The XADSR analysis includes the XAFS spectra analysis of both the cation and anion as a probe of their short-range structure with an XRD spectral analysis as a probe of the global structural. Together they deliver a comprehensive picture of the cation and anion hydration, the contact ion pair (CIP) structure and the solvent-separated ion pair (SSIP) structure. XADSR analysis of 6.0more » m aqueous CaCl 2 reveals that there are an insignificant number of Ca 2+-Cl- CIP’s, but there are approximately 3.4 SSIP’s separated by about 4.99 Å. In contrast XADSR analysis of aqueous RbBr yields about 0.7 pair CIP at a bond length 3.51 Å. The present work demonstrates a new approach for a direct co-refinement of XRD and XAFS spectra in a simple and reliable fashion, opening new opportunities for analysis in various disordered and crystalline systems. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is operated for the U.S. Department of Energy by Battelle.« less

  17. New metal oxides of the family Am[( TO) q]: ALiMn 3O 4 and ALiZn 3O 4 ( A = K, Rb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppe, R.; Seipp, E.; Baier, R.

    1988-01-01

    The new compounds KLiMn 3O 4 ( I), RbLiMn 3O 4 ( II), KLiZn 3O 4 ( III) and RbLiZn 3O 4 ( IV) have been prepared by solid state reaction of A2O ( A = K, Rb), Li 2O, and MO ( M = Mn, Zn). The isomorphous compounds are tetragonal, space group {I4}/{m}, Z = 2 , with lattice constants a = 838.32(4) pm, c = 341.88(3) pm for I; a = 840.66(8) pm, c = 344.85(4) pm for II; a = 819.27(9) pm, c = 334.20(7) pm for III,a = 823.62(9) pm, c = 339.73(7) pm for IV, as determined from Guinier X-ray powder patterns. The orange-colored manganates and colorless zincates are sensitive to moisture. The crystal structures of II and III have been determined by single-crystal X-ray techniques and refined to R = 0.09 ( II) and R = 0.06 ( III). The structure is built up from chains of face-shared cubes, 1∞[A O{8}/{2}] (A = K, Rb) , running parallel to the c axis. These are connected by Li + and M2+ ( M = Mn, Zn), statistically distributed on tetrahedral positions between the chains.

  18. Point Defect Properties of Cd(Zn)Te and TlBr for Room-Temperature Gamma Radiation Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lordi, Vincenzo

    2013-03-01

    The effects of various crystal defects in CdTe, Cd1-xZnxTe (CZT), and TlBr are critical for their performance as room-temperature gamma radiation detectors. We use predictive first principles theoretical methods to provide fundamental, atomic scale understanding of the defect properties of these materials to enable design of optimal growth and processing conditions, such as doping, annealing, and stoichiometry. Several recent cases will be reviewed, including (i) accurate calculations of the thermodynamic and electronic properties of native point defects and point defect complexes in CdTe and CZT; (ii) the effects of Zn alloying on the native point defect properties of CZT; (iii) point defect diffusion and binding related to Te clustering in Cd(Zn)Te; (iv) the profound effect of native point defects--principally vacancies--on the intrinsic material properties of TlBr, particularly electronic and ionic conductivity; (v) tailored doping of TlBr to independently control the electronic and ionic conductivity; and (vi) the effects of metal impurities on the electronic properties and device performance of TlBr detectors. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 with support from the National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Nonproliferation and Verification Research and Development NA-22.

  19. Influence of alkali metals (Na, Li, Rb) on the performance of electrostatic spray-assisted vapor deposited Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altamura, Giovanni; Wang, Mingqing; Choy, Kwang-Leong

    2016-02-01

    Electrostatic Spray-Assisted Vapor Deposition (ESAVD) is a non-vacuum and cost-effective method to deposit metal oxide, various sulphide and chalcogenide at large scale. In this work, ESAVD was used to deposit Cu2ZnSn(S1-xSex)4 (CZTSSe) absorber. Different alkali metals like Na, Li and Rb were incorporated in CZTSSe compounds to further improve the photovoltaic performances of related devices. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, no experimental study has been carried out to test the effect of Li and Rb incorporation in CZTSSe solar cells. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and glow discharge spectroscopy have been used to characterize the phase purity, morphology and composition of as-deposited CZTSSe thin films. Photovoltaic properties of the resulting devices were determined by completing the solar cells as follows: Mo/CZTSSe/CdS/i-ZnO/Al:ZnO/Ni/Al. The results showed that Li, Na and Rb incorporation can increase power conversion efficiency of CZTS devices up to 5.5%. The introduction of a thiourea treatment, has improved the quality of the absorber|buffer interface, pushed the device efficiency up to 6.3% which is at the moment the best reported result for ESAVD deposited CZTSSe solar cells.

  20. Enhanced photocatalytic performances and magnetic recovery capacity of visible-light-driven Z-scheme ZnFe2O4/AgBr/Ag photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jie; Cheng, Yahui; Wang, Tianzhao; Feng, Deqiang; Zheng, Lingcheng; Shao, Dawei; Wang, Weichao; Wang, Weihua; Lu, Feng; Dong, Hong; Zheng, Rongkun; Liu, Hui

    2018-05-01

    High efficiency, high stability and easy recovery are three key factors for practical photocatalysts. Z-scheme heterostructure is one of the most promising photocatalytic systems to meet all above requirements. However, efficient Z-scheme photocatalysts which could absorb visible light are still few and difficult to implement at present. In this work, the composite photocatalysts ZnFe2O4/AgBr/Ag were prepared through a two-step method. A ∼92% photodegradation rate on methyl orange was observed within 30 min under visible light, which is much better than that of individual ZnFe2O4 or AgBr/Ag. The stability was also greatly improved compared with AgBr/Ag. The increased performance is resulted from the suitable band alignment of ZnFe2O4 and AgBr, and it is defined as Z-scheme mechanism which was demonstrated by detecting active species and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Besides, ZnFe2O4/AgBr/Ag is ferromagnetic and can be recycled by magnet. These results show that ZnFe2O4/AgBr/Ag is a potential magnetically recyclable photocatalyst which can be driven by visible light.

  1. Adjusting the introduction of cations (MA, Cs or Rb) to obtain highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells based on (FAPbI3)0.9(FAPbBr3)0.1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guozhen; Zheng, Haiying; Zhu, Liangzheng; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Hayat, Tasawar; Pan, Xu; Mo, Li'e; Dai, Songyuan

    2018-05-29

    Although power conversion efficiency (PCE) of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has increased to 22.7%, the instability when exposed to moisture and heat hindered their further practical development. In this study, to gain highly efficient and stable perovskite component, MA, Cs and Rb cations are respectively introduced into the (FAPbI3)0.9(FAPbBr3)0.1 film which is rarely used due to the poor photovoltaic performance. The effects of different contents of MA, Cs or Rb cations on the performance of (FAPbI3)0.9(FAPbBr3)0.1 films and devices are systematically studied. The results show that the devices with Cs cation exhibit markedly improved photovoltaic performance and stability, attributing to the obviously enhanced quality of films and their intrinsic stability. The (FAPbI3)0.9(FAPbBr3)0.1 devices with 10% Cs obtain a PCE as high as 19.94%. More importantly, the unsealed devices retain about 80% and 90% of the initial PCE at 85 °C after 260 h and under 45±5% relative humidity (RH) after 1440 h, respectively, which are more brilliant than that with 15% MA and 5% Rb under the same condition. It indicates that a highly efficient and stable perovskite component has been achieved and the PSCs based on this component will expect to promote the further development. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity of visible-light-driven plasmonic Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaojuan, E-mail: lixiaojuan@fzu.edu.cn; Tang, Duanlian; Tang, Fan

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • A plasmonic Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} photocatalyst has been successfully synthesized. • Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites exhibit high visible light photocatalytic activity. • Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} photocatalyst is stable and magnetically separable. - Abstract: A visible-light-driven plasmonic Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposite has been successfully synthesized via a deposition–precipitation and photoreduction through a novel one-pot process. X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy were employed to investigate the crystal structure, chemical composition, morphology, and optical properties of the as-prepared nanocomposites. The photocatalytic activities of the nanocomposites were evaluated by photodegradationmore » of Rhodamine B (RhB) and phenol under visible light. The results demonstrated that the obtained Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites exhibited higher photocatalytic activity as compared to pure ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. In addition, the sample photoreduced for 20 min and calcined at 500 °C achieved the highest photocatalytic activity. Furthermore, the Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposite has high stability under visible light irradiation and could be conveniently separated by using an external magnetic field.« less

  3. A reconnaissance Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, U-Pb, and K-Ar study of some host rocks and ore minerals in the West Shasta Cu- Zn district, California ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kistler, R.W.; McKee, E.H.; Futa, K.; Peterman, Z.E.; Zartman, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Copley Greenstone, Balaklala Rhyolite, and Mule Mountain stock in the West Shasta Cu-Zn district, California, have Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, U-Pb, and K-Ar systematics that indicate they are a cogenetic suite of ensimatic island-arc rocks about 400 Ma. Pervasive alteration and mineralization of these rocks, for the most part, was syngenetic and the major component of the mineralizing fluid was Devonian seawater. K-Ar ages of quarz-sericite concentrates from ore horizons and Rb-Sr systematics of a few rock and ore specimens record a later thermal and mineralizing event in the district of about 260 Ma. Contamination of some rocks with pelagic sediments is indicated by the Sm-Nd data. -Authors

  4. Compact heat and mass exchangers of the plate fin type in thermal sorption systems: Application in an absorption heat pump with the working pair CH3OH-LiBr/ZnBr2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Harry

    The possible application of Compact Heat and Mass Exchangers (CHME) in a gas fired Absorption Heat Pump (AHP) for domestic heating is studied. The above mentioned heat and mass exchangers are of the plate type. The space between the parallel and plain plates is filled up with corrugated plates of a certain height. The plain and finned plates are stacked and welded together. This gives a heat and mass exchanger which is very compact, expressed by a high area density (m2/m3). This leads to heat and mass transfer processes with small temperature and concentration differences. For testing purposes a pilot plant was built using the above type of components in order to test their heat and/or mass transfer performance. Only the generator is of the Shell And Tube (SAT) type. As the working pair, CH3OH - LiBr/ ZnBr2 was chosen, with the alcohol as the solvent and the salt mixture as the absorbent. This leads to sub atmospheric working pressures with only solvent in the vapor phase. Three series of experiments have been carried out, during which the input parameters were varied over a certain range. It is concluded that the plate fin CHMES are very suitable for application in an AHP for domestic heating purposes.

  5. Characterization of detector-systems based on CeBr3, LaBr3, SrI2 and CdZnTe for the use as dosemeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, P.; Behnke, B.; Dombrowski, H.; Neumaier, S.

    2017-11-01

    For the upgrade of existing dosimetric early warning networks in Europe spectrometric detectors based on CeBr3, LaBr3, SrI2, and CdZnTe are investigated as possible substitutes for the current detector generation which is mainly based on gas filled detectors. The additional information on the nuclide vector which can be derived from the spectra of γ-radiation is highly useful for an appropriate response in case of a nuclear or radiological accident. The measured γ-spectra will be converted into ambient dose equivalent H* (10) using a method where the spectrum is subdivided into multiple energy bands. For each band the conversion coefficients from count rate to dose rate is determined. The derivation of these conversion coefficients is explained in this work. Both experimental and simulative approaches are investigated using quasi-mono-energetic γ-sources and synthetic spectra from Monte-Carlo simulations to determine the conversion coefficients for each detector type. Finally, precision of the obtained characterization is checked by irradiation of the detectors in different well-known photon fields with traceable dose rates.

  6. Unusual structural phase transition in [N(C2H5)4][N(CH3)4][ZnBr4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, Monika K.; Ingram, Adam; Cach, Ryszard; Czapla, Zbigniew; Czupiński, Olaf; Dacko, Sławomir; Staniorowski, Piotr

    2018-04-01

    The new hybrid organic-inorganic crystal [N(C2H5)4][N(CH3)4][ZnBr4] was grown and its physical properties and structural phase transition are presented. On the basis of thermal analysis (DSC (differential scanning calorimetry), DTA (differential thermal analysis), DTG), X-ray structural, dilatometric and dielectric studies as well as optical observation, the reversible first-order phase transition at 490/488 K on heating and cooling run, respectively, has been found. An appearance of domain structure of ferroelastic type gives evidence for an untypical lowering of crystal symmetry during the phase transition. At room temperature, the satisfying crystal structure solution was found in the tetragonal system, in the P?21m space group.

  7. High-performance planar green light-emitting diodes based on a PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbBr3/ZnO sandwich structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhi-Feng; Sun, Xu-Guang; Wu, Di; Xu, Ting-Ting; Zhuang, Shi-Wei; Tian, Yong-Tao; Li, Xin-Jian; Du, Guo-Tong

    2016-05-01

    Recently, perovskite-based light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide emitters have attracted much attention because of their excellent properties of high color purity, tunable emission wavelength and a low-temperature processing technique. As is well-known, organic light-emitting diodes have shown powerful capabilities in this field; however, the fabrication of these devices typically relies on high-temperature and high-vacuum processes, which increases the final cost of the product and renders them uneconomical for use in large-area displays. Organic/inorganic hybrid halide perovskites match with these material requirements, as it is possible to prepare such materials with high crystallinity through solution processing at low temperature. Herein, we demonstrated a high-brightness green light-emitting diode based on PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbBr3/ZnO sandwich structures by a spin-coating method combined with a sputtering system. Under forward bias, a dominant emission peak at ~530 nm with a low full width of half-maximum (FWHM) of 30 nm can be achieved at room temperature. Owing to the high surface coverage of the CH3NH3PbBr3 layer and a device design based on carrier injection and a confinement configuration, the proposed diode exhibits good electroluminescence performance, with an external quantum efficiency of 0.0645%. More importantly, we investigated the working stability of the studied diode under continuous operation to verify the sensitivity of the electroluminescence performance to ambient atmosphere and to assess the suitability of the diode for practical applications. Moreover, the underlying reasons for the undesirable emission decay are tentatively discussed. This demonstration of an effective green electroluminescence based on CH3NH3PbBr3 provides valuable information for the design and development of perovskites as efficient emitters, thus facilitating their use in existing applications and suggesting new potential applications.

  8. The association between content of the elements S, Cl, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br in normal and cirrhotic liver tissue from Danes and Greenlandic Inuit examined by dual hierarchical clustering analysis.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Jens; Milman, Nils; Pind, Niels; Pedersen, Henrik; Mulvad, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Meta-analysis of previous studies evaluating associations between content of elements sulphur (S), chlorine (Cl), potassium (K), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and bromine (Br) in normal and cirrhotic autopsy liver tissue samples. Normal liver samples from 45 Greenlandic Inuit, median age 60 years and from 71 Danes, median age 61 years. Cirrhotic liver samples from 27 Danes, median age 71 years. Element content was measured using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Dual hierarchical clustering analysis, creating a dual dendrogram, one clustering element contents according to calculated similarities, one clustering elements according to correlation coefficients between the element contents, both using Euclidian distance and Ward Procedure. One dendrogram separated subjects in 7 clusters showing no differences in ethnicity, gender or age. The analysis discriminated between elements in normal and cirrhotic livers. The other dendrogram clustered elements in four clusters: sulphur and chlorine; copper and bromine; potassium and zinc; iron. There were significant correlations between the elements in normal liver samples: S was associated with Cl, K, Br and Zn; Cl with S and Br; K with S, Br and Zn; Cu with Br. Zn with S and K. Br with S, Cl, K and Cu. Fe did not show significant associations with any other element. In contrast to simple statistical methods, which analyses content of elements separately one by one, dual hierarchical clustering analysis incorporates all elements at the same time and can be used to examine the linkage and interplay between multiple elements in tissue samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Ore genesis of the Wusihe carbonate-hosted Zn-Pb deposit in the Dadu River Valley district, Yangtze Block, SW China: evidence from ore geology, S-Pb isotopes, and sphalerite Rb-Sr dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Suo-Fei; Gong, Yong-Jun; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Zhang, Xiao-Jing; Li, Qian; Zeng, Guo-Ping

    2018-01-01

    The Wusihe carbonate-hosted Zn-Pb deposit (3.7 Mt. Zn + Pb at a grade of 8.6% Zn and 2.0% Pb) is the largest deposit in the Dadu River Valley district of the Sichuan-Yunnan-Guizhou metallogenic province of southwest China. Three types of orebodies occur: (1) stratiform, banded and lamellar, within dolomite of the Neoproterozoic Dengying Formation; (2) vein type; and (3) breccia type. Four stages of mineralization are distinguished: (i) pyrite stage, (ii) pyrite-pyrrhotite-galena-sphalerite-bitumen stage, (iii) sphalerite-galena stage, and (iv) bitumen-calcite stage. Sphalerite and galena from stages II and III show δ34S ranges from +7.1 to +9.7‰ and +9.1 to +13.1‰, respectively. High-precision in situ lead isotope analyses of sulfides show 208Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 206Pb/204Pb ratios of 37.938 to 38.336, 15.579 to 15.682, and 17.951 to 18.195, respectively, which suggest a mixing of lead from the basement and the host rocks. Rb-Sr isotope analyses for six sphalerite samples of stage II yielded an isochron age of 411 ± 10 Ma (MSWD = 1.4). Combining all available ore geology and geochemical data, together with fluid inclusion data reported previously, we suggest that the Wusihe deposit is a Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposit.

  10. Remarkably Enhancing Green-Excitation Efficiency for Solar Energy Utilization: Red Phosphors Ba2ZnS3:Eu2+, X- Co-Doped Halide Ions (X = Cl, Br, I).

    PubMed

    Luo, Tingting; Du, Yun; Qiu, Zhongxian; Li, Yanmei; Wang, Xiaofang; Zhou, Wenli; Zhang, Jilin; Yu, Liping; Lian, Shixun

    2017-05-15

    Eu 2+ -activated Ba 2 ZnS 3 has been reported as a red phosphor with a broad emission band peaking at 650 nm under blue excitation for white-LED. In this study, Ba 2 ZnS 3 :Eu 2+ , X - (X = F, Cl, Br, I) phosphors doped with halide ions were prepared by traditional high-temperature solid-state reaction. Phase identification of powders was performed by X-ray powder diffraction analysis, confirming the existence of single-phase Ba 2 ZnS 3 crystals without dopant. The corresponding excitation spectra showed an additional broad band in the green region peaking at 550 nm when the phosphor was halogenated except by the smallest F - . It was proved that the green-excitation efficiency successively strengthened from Cl - , to Br - , to I - , which suggested larger halide ions made a greater contribution to the further splitting of the t 2g energy level of the doped Eu 2+ ions in the host Ba 2 ZnS 3 , and the optimized formula Ba 1.995 ZnS 2.82 :Eu 2+ 0.005 , I - 0.18 showed a potential application in solar spectral conversion for agricultural greenhouse and solar cell. Defect chemistry theory and crystal field theory provided insights into the key role of halide ions in enhancing green-excitation efficiency.

  11. The Luanchuan Mo-W-Pb-Zn-Ag magmatic-hydrothermal system in the East Qinling metallogenic belt, China: Constrains on metallogenesis from C-H-O-S-Pb isotope compositions and Rb-Sr isochron ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hua-Wen; Zhang, Shou-Ting; Santosh, M.; Zheng, Luo; Tang, Li; Li, Dong; Zhang, Xu-Huang; Zhang, Yun-Hui

    2015-11-01

    The Luanchuan Mo-W-Pb-Zn-Ag polymetallic ore district is located in the East Qinling metallogenic belt on the southern margin of the North China Craton. Two ore fields (Nannihu and Yuku) are recognized in the district, and three types of deposits are identified from the two ore fields as follows: (1) the 6 proximal porphyry-skarn type Mo-W deposits occurring at the inner contact zone of the granite porphyries, (2) the 3 middle skarn-hydrothermal type Zn deposits, and (3) the 8 distal hydrothermal type Pb-Zn-Ag deposits at the periphery of the porphyry. We present C-H-O isotope compositions of hydrothermal quartz and calcite, S-Pb isotope compositions of sulfide minerals, and sphalerite Rb-Sr isochron ages from the 17 deposits. The geochemical and geochronological data from the two ore fields all show systematic temporal and spatial variation, and primarily lead to the following inferences. (1) The temperatures and salinities of the ore-forming fluids decreased during mineralization. The ore-forming fluids gradually evolved from magmatic water to mixed magmatic-meteoric water. (2) The metallogenic components were primarily derived from igneous rocks, with increasing proportions of the materials from the ore-bearing rocks. (3) The mineralization ages of these deposits are close (147-136 Ma), which correspond to the emplacement of the granite intrusions. (4) The three types of deposits and the ore-related late Mesozoic intrusives constitute a unified magmatic-hydrothermal-mineralization system. Finally, we also suggest exploration strategies for the Luanchuan ore district.

  12. Instrumentation effects on U and Pu CBNM standards spectra quality measured on a 500 mm3 CdZnTe and a 2×2 inch LaBr3 detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meleshenkovskii, I.; Borella, A.; Van der Meer, K.; Bruggeman, M.; Pauly, N.; Labeau, P. E.; Schillebeeckx, P.

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, there is interest in developing gamma-ray measuring devices based on the room temperature operated medium resolution detectors such as semiconductor detectors of the CdZnTe type and scintillators of the LaBr3 type. This is true also for safeguards applications and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has launched a project devoted to the assessment of medium resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy for the verification of the isotopic composition of U and Pu bearing samples. This project is carried out within the Non-Destructive Assay Working Group of the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA). In this study we analyze medium resolution spectra of U and Pu standards with the aim to develop an isotopic composition determination algorithm, particularly suited for these types of detectors. We show how the peak shape of a CdZnTe detector is influenced by the instrumentation parameters. The experimental setup consisted of a 500 mm3 CdZnTe detector, a 2×2 inch LaBr3 detector, two types of measurement instrumentation - an analogue one and a digital one, and a set of certified samples - a 207Bi point source and U and Pu CBNM standards. The results of our measurements indicate that the lowest contribution to the peak asymmetry and thus the smallest impact on the resolution of the 500 mm3 CdZnTe detector was achieved with the digital MCA. Analysis of acquired spectra allowed to reject poor quality measurement runs and produce summed spectra files with the least impact of instrumentation instabilities. This work is preliminary to further studies concerning the development of an isotopic composition determination algorithm particularly suited for CZT and LaBr3 detectors for safeguards applications.

  13. Variable dimensionality and framework found in a series of quaternary zinc selenites, A{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 4}·xH{sub 2}O (A = Na, Rb, and Cs; 0≤x≤1) and Cs{sub 2}Zn{sub 2}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 3}·2H{sub 2}O

    SciTech Connect

    Lü, Minfeng; Jo, Hongil; Oh, Seung-Jin

    Five new alkali metal zinc selenites, A{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 4}·xH{sub 2}O (A = Na, Rb, and Cs; 0≤x≤1) and Cs{sub 2}Zn{sub 2}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 3}·2H{sub 2}O have been synthesized by heating a mixture of ZnO, SeO{sub 2} and A{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (A = Na, Rb, and Cs), and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and spectroscopic analyses techniques. All of the reported materials revealed a rich structural chemistry with different frameworks and connection modes of Zn{sup 2+}. While Rb{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 4} and Cs{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 4}·H{sub 2}O revealed three-dimensional frameworks consisting of isolated ZnO{sub 4} tetrahedra and SeO{submore » 3} polyhedra, Na{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 4}, Cs{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 4}, and Cs{sub 2}Zn{sub 2}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 3}·2H{sub 2}O contained two-dimensional [Zn{sub 3}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 4}]{sup 2-} layers. Specifically, whereas isolated ZnO{sub 4} tetrahedra and SeO{sub 3} polyhedra are arranged into two-dimensional [Zn{sub 3}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 4}]{sup 2-} layers in two cesium compounds, circular [Zn{sub 3}O{sub 10}]{sup 14-} chains and SeO{sub 3} linkers are formed in two-dimensional [Zn{sub 3}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 4}]{sup 2-} layers in Na{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 4}. Close structural examinations suggest that the size of alkali metal is significant in determining the framework geometry as well as connection modes of transition metal cations. - Graphical abstract: Variable dimensions and frameworks were found in a series of quaternary zinc selenites, A{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 4} (A = Na, Rb and Cs). - Highlights: • Five novel quaternary zinc selenites are synthesized. • All the selenites with different structures contain polarizable d{sup 10} and lone pair cations. • The size of alkali metal cations is significant in determining the framework geometry.« less

  14. Stable p-i-n FAPbBr 3 devices with improved efficiency using sputtered ZnO as electron transport layer [Stable p-i-n FAPbBr 3 devices with improved efficiency using sputtered inorganic electron transport layer

    DOE PAGES

    Subbiah, Anand S.; Agarwal, Sumanshu; Mahuli, Neha; ...

    2017-02-10

    Here, radio-frequency magnetron sputtering is demonstrated as an effective tool to deposit highly crystalline thin zinc oxide (ZnO) layer directly on perovskite absorber as an electron transport layer (ETL). As an absorber, formamidinium lead tribromide (FAPbBr 3) is fabricated through a modified single-step solution process using hydrogen bromide (HBr) as an additive resulting in complete surface coverage and highly crystalline material. A planar p-i-n device architecture with spin-coated poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly-styrenesulfonic acid (PEDOT:PSS) as hole transport material (HTM) and sputtered ZnO as ETL results in a short circuit current density of 9.5 mA cm -2 and an open circuit potential of 1.19more » V. Numerical simulations are performed to validate the underlying loss mechanisms. The use of phenyl C 60 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) interface layer between FAPbBr 3 and sputter-coated ZnO offers shielding from potential plasma-related interface damage. The modified interface results in a better device efficiency of 8.3% with an open circuit potential of 1.35 V. Such devices offer better stability under continuous illumination under ambient conditions in comparison with the conventional organic ETL (PCBM)-based devices.« less

  15. Stable p-i-n FAPbBr 3 devices with improved efficiency using sputtered ZnO as electron transport layer [Stable p-i-n FAPbBr 3 devices with improved efficiency using sputtered inorganic electron transport layer

    SciTech Connect

    Subbiah, Anand S.; Agarwal, Sumanshu; Mahuli, Neha

    Here, radio-frequency magnetron sputtering is demonstrated as an effective tool to deposit highly crystalline thin zinc oxide (ZnO) layer directly on perovskite absorber as an electron transport layer (ETL). As an absorber, formamidinium lead tribromide (FAPbBr 3) is fabricated through a modified single-step solution process using hydrogen bromide (HBr) as an additive resulting in complete surface coverage and highly crystalline material. A planar p-i-n device architecture with spin-coated poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly-styrenesulfonic acid (PEDOT:PSS) as hole transport material (HTM) and sputtered ZnO as ETL results in a short circuit current density of 9.5 mA cm -2 and an open circuit potential of 1.19more » V. Numerical simulations are performed to validate the underlying loss mechanisms. The use of phenyl C 60 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) interface layer between FAPbBr 3 and sputter-coated ZnO offers shielding from potential plasma-related interface damage. The modified interface results in a better device efficiency of 8.3% with an open circuit potential of 1.35 V. Such devices offer better stability under continuous illumination under ambient conditions in comparison with the conventional organic ETL (PCBM)-based devices.« less

  16. In vitro DNA binding, pBR322 plasmid cleavage and molecular modeling study of chiral benzothiazole Schiff-base-valine Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes to evaluate their enantiomeric biological disposition for molecular target DNA.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Rahman; Afzal, Mohd; Arjmand, Farukh

    2014-10-15

    Bicyclic heterocyclic compounds viz. benzothiazoles are key components of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules and participate directly in the encoding of genetic information. Benzothiazoles, therefore, represent a potent and selective class of antitumor compounds. The design and synthesis of chiral antitumor chemotherapeutic agents of Cu(II) and Zn(II), L- and -D benzothiazole Schiff base-valine complexes 1a &b and 2a &b, respectively were carried out and thoroughly characterized by spectroscopic and analytical techniques. Interaction of 1a and b and 2a and b with CT DNA by employing UV-vis, florescence, circular dichroic methods and cleavage studies of 1a with pBR322 plasmid, molecular docking were done in order to demonstrate their enantiomeric disposition toward the molecular drug target DNA. Interestingly, these studies unambiguously demonstrated the greater potency of L-enantiomer in comparison to D-enantiomer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. In vitro DNA binding, pBR322 plasmid cleavage and molecular modeling study of chiral benzothiazole Schiff-base-valine Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes to evaluate their enantiomeric biological disposition for molecular target DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh, Rahman; Afzal, Mohd; Arjmand, Farukh

    2014-10-01

    Bicyclic heterocyclic compounds viz. benzothiazoles are key components of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules and participate directly in the encoding of genetic information. Benzothiazoles, therefore, represent a potent and selective class of antitumor compounds. The design and synthesis of chiral antitumor chemotherapeutic agents of Cu(II) and Zn(II), L- and -D benzothiazole Schiff base-valine complexes 1a &b and 2a &b, respectively were carried out and thoroughly characterized by spectroscopic and analytical techniques. Interaction of 1a and b and 2a and b with CT DNA by employing UV-vis, florescence, circular dichroic methods and cleavage studies of 1a with pBR322 plasmid, molecular docking were done in order to demonstrate their enantiomeric disposition toward the molecular drug target DNA. Interestingly, these studies unambiguously demonstrated the greater potency of L-enantiomer in comparison to D-enantiomer.

  18. Crystal structures of K2[XSi5O12] (X = Fe2+, Co, Zn) and Rb2[XSi5O12] (X = Mn) leucites: comparison of monoclinic P21/c and Ia{\\overline 3}d polymorph structures and inverse relationship between tetrahedral cation (T = Si and X)-O bond distances and intertetrahedral T-O-T angles.

    PubMed

    Bell, Anthony M T; Henderson, C Michael B

    2018-06-01

    The leucite tectosilicate mineral analogues K 2 X 2+ Si 5 O 12 (X = Fe 2+ , Co, Zn) and Rb 2 X 2+ Si 5 O 12 (X = Mn) have been synthesized at elevated temperatures both dry at atmospheric pressure and at controlled water vapour pressure; for X = Co and Zn both dry and hydrothermally synthesized samples are available. Rietveld refinement of X-ray data for hydrothermal K 2 X 2+ Si 5 O 12 (X = Fe 2+ , Co, Zn) samples shows that they crystallize in the monoclinic space group P2 1 /c and have tetrahedral cations (Si and X) ordered onto distinct framework sites [cf. hydrothermal K 2 MgSi 5 O 12 ; Bell et al. (1994a), Acta Cryst. B50, 560-566]. Dry-synthesized K 2 X 2+ Si 5 O 12 (X = Co, Zn) and Rb 2 X 2+ Si 5 O 12 (X = Mn) samples crystallize in the cubic space group Ia{\\overline 3}d and with Si and X cations disordered in the tetrahedral framework sites as typified by dry K 2 MgSi 5 O 12 . Both structure types have tetrahedrally coordinated SiO 4 and XO 4 sharing corners to form a partially substituted silicate framework. Extraframework K + and Rb + cations occupy large channels in the framework. Structural data for the ordered samples show that mean tetrahedral Si-O and X-O bond lengths cover the ranges 1.60 Å (Si-O) to 2.24 Å (Fe 2+ -O) and show an inverse relationship with the intertetrahedral angles (T-O-T) which range from 144.7° (Si-O-Si) to 124.6° (Si-O-Fe 2+ ). For the compositions with both disordered and ordered tetrahedral cation structures (K 2 MgSi 5 O 12 , K 2 CoSi 5 O 12 , K 2 ZnSi 5 O 12 , Rb 2 MnSi 5 O 12 and Cs 2 CuSi 5 O 12 leucites) the disordered polymorphs always have larger unit-cell volumes, larger intertetrahedral T-O-T angles and smaller mean T-O distances than their isochemical ordered polymorphs. The ordered samples clearly have more flexible frameworks than the disordered structures which allow the former to undergo a greater degree of tetrahedral collapse around the interframework cavity cations. Multivariant linear regression has

  19. Study of the ferroelastic phase transition in the tetraethylammonium compound [N(C{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 4}]{sub 2}ZnBr{sub 4} by magic-angle spinning and static NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Ae Ran, E-mail: aeranlim@hanmail.net, E-mail: arlim@jj.ac.kr

    The ferroelastic phase transition of tetraethylammonium compound [N(C{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 4}]{sub 2}ZnBr{sub 4} at the phase transition temperature (T{sub C}) = 283 K was characterized by magic-angle spinning (MAS) and static nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and confirmed by optical polarizing spectroscopy. The structural geometry near T{sub C} was studied in terms of the chemical shifts and the spin-lattice relaxation times T{sub 1ρ} in the rotating frame for {sup 1}H MAS NMR and {sup 13}C cross-polarization (CP)/MAS NMR. The two inequivalent ethyl groups were distinguishable in the {sup 13}C NMR spectrum, and the T{sub 1ρ} results indicate that they undergo tumblingmore » motion above T{sub C} in a coupled manner. From the {sup 14}N NMR results, the two nitrogen nuclei in the N(C{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 4}{sup +} ions were distinguishable above T{sub C}, and the splitting in the spectra below T{sub C} was related to the ferroelastic domains with different orientations.« less

  20. Mixing Enthalpies of TbBr3-MBr Liquid Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rycerz, L.; Gaune-Escard, M.

    2001-12-01

    The molar enthalpies of mixing, Δmix Hm in the binary liquid systems TbBr3-MBr (M = Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) have been m easured with a Calvet-type high-tem perature microcalorimeter over the entire composition range with an accuracy of about 6 %. Mixing of the two liquid components was achieved by using the "break-off am poule" technique. All the investigated systems show negative enthalpies of mixing with a minim um value of approxim ately -1.25, - 8 .3 , -17.0, - 2 0 . 0 and -22.5 kJ mol -1, for M = Li, Na, K, Rb and Cs, respectively. The mixing enthalpy in the TbBr3- LiBr system is positive in the TbBr3-rich region. For all the systems, the enthalpy minimum occurs at mole fraction xTbBr3 ≈ 0.3 - 0.4. The molar enthalpies of form ation Δ formHm (3MBr, TbBr3, 1) for M = Li, Na, K, Rb and Cs at 1113 K (arising from the reaction 3M Br(1) +TbBr3(1) = (3MBr, TbBr3) (1)) are found to be -4 .8 , -31.3, -63.3, -70.3 and -8 1 .2 kJ mol-1 , respectively. The leastsquares coefficients A, B, C, D and E in the equation λ (kJ mol-1) = A + B x + C x2 + Dx3 + Ex4, where A is an interaction param eter and x = xTbBr , are also reported.

  1. HAGRID/ VANDLE spectroscopy of Rb decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Thomas; Grzywacz, Robert; Taylor, Steven; Paulauskas, Stanley; Smith, Karl; Vandle Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Many neutron-rich isotopes that contribute in both decay heat production and r-process nucleosynthesis have substantial beta-delayed neutron branching ratios. Beta-delayed neutron emission is a relatively complicated mechanism which can leave the daughter in an gamma-emitting excited state. A comprehensive understanding of their energy output and decay strength, S_beta, therefore requires the detection of both neutrons and gamma rays in coincidence. A series of measurements of delayed neutron precursors were performed at the On-Line Test Facility (OLTF) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratories using chemically selective ion sources and an enhanced VANDLE array. The main goal of this experiment was to revisit the decays of IAEA-marked priority precursors, including bromine, rubidium, cesium, and iodine, that are required to model the global properties in the fission of 238U.The unique data set, with neutron and gamma ray coincidences, benefited from the addition of a high-efficiency gamma-ray array, consisting of 16 LaBr3 crystals (HAGRiD), and a set of large volume NaI detectors to the VANDLE array. Characterization of and preliminary results from the new gamma-ray array for the decays of 94Rb and 97Rb will be presented. National Nuclear Security Administration under the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances program through DOE Award No. DE-NA0002132 and the Office of Nuclear Physics, U.S. Department of Energy under Award No. DE-FG02-96ER40983.

  2. Proton decay of 73Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Andrew; Anderson, C.; Barney, J.; Estee, J.; Lynch, W. G.; Manfredi, J.; Setiawan, H.; Showalter, R. H.; Sweany, S.; Tangwancharoen, S.; Tsang, M. B.; Winkelbauer, J. R.; Brown, K. W.; Elson, J. M.; Pruitt, C.; Sobotka, L. G.; Chajecki, Z.; Lee, J.

    2017-09-01

    Properties of nuclei beyond the proton drip-line are important for mass models, nuclear structure, and astrophysics. Weakly-bound or proton-unbound nuclei near the rp-process waiting points, such as the unbound Tz = -1/2 nucleus 73Rb, play a critical role in constraining calculations and observations of type I x-ray bursts. For instance, the rp process is greatly slowed near 72Kr (N = Z) due to its relatively long β-decay half life and inhibited proton capture. This waiting point, however, may be bypassed by sequential 2p-capture through 73Rb -a reaction which is sensitive to the 73Rb proton separation energy, Sp. Using invariant-mass spectroscopy, we have performed an experiment at NSCL to measure the decay of 73Rb ->p+72Kr in an attempt to directly determine Sp (73Rb) . Analysis of reconstructed proton-emission spectra and decay signatures will be discussed. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Nuclear Physics, Award No. DE-FG02-94ER40848.

  3. Systematic features in the structure of doubly odd nuclei around A~=80 mass region: Band structure in 76Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Bermúdez, G.; Baktash, C.; Lister, C. J.; Cardona, M. A.

    1988-08-01

    Multiple-particle γ-ray coincidence techniques have been used to establish the high spin structure of 76Rb. Two ΔI=1 bands were found built on the Iπ=1- ground state and on the Iπ=(4+) isomeric state at 316.8 keV energy. Systematic of positive parity bands seen in the Br-Kr-Rb isotones with N=39 and 41 is discussed.

  4. Regulation of RB Transcription In Vivo by RB Family Members▿ ‡

    PubMed Central

    Burkhart, Deborah L.; Ngai, Lynn K.; Roake, Caitlin M.; Viatour, Patrick; Thangavel, Chellappagounder; Ho, Victoria M.; Knudsen, Erik S.; Sage, Julien

    2010-01-01

    In cancer cells, the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor RB is directly inactivated by mutation in the RB gene or functionally inhibited by abnormal activation of cyclin-dependent kinase activity. While variations in RB levels may also provide an important means of controlling RB function in both normal and cancer cells, little is known about the mechanisms regulating RB transcription. Here we show that members of the RB and E2F families bind directly to the RB promoter. To investigate how the RB/E2F pathway may regulate Rb transcription, we generated reporter mice carrying an eGFP transgene inserted into a bacterial artificial chromosome containing most of the Rb gene. Expression of eGFP largely parallels that of Rb in transgenic embryos and adult mice. Using these reporter mice and mutant alleles for Rb, p107, and p130, we found that RB family members modulate Rb transcription in specific cell populations in vivo and in culture. Interestingly, while Rb is a target of the RB/E2F pathway in mouse and human cells, Rb expression does not strictly correlate with the cell cycle status of these cells. These experiments identify novel regulatory feedback mechanisms within the RB pathway in mammalian cells. PMID:20100864

  5. The Rb problem in massive AGB stars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Mesa, V.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Zamora, O.; Plez, B.; Manchado, A.; Karakas, A. I.; Lugaro, M.

    2017-03-01

    The asymptotic giant branch (AGB) is formed by low- and intermediate-mass stars (0.8 M_{⊙} < M < 8 M_{⊙}) in their last nuclear-burning phase, when they develop thermal pulses (TP) and suffer extreme mass loss. AGB stars are the main contributor to the enrichment of the interstellar medium (ISM) and thus to the chemical evolution of galaxies. In particular, the more massive AGB stars (M > 4 M_{⊙}) are expected to produce light (e.g., Li, N) and heavy neutron-rich s-process elements (such as Rb, Zr, Ba, Y, etc.), which are not formed in lower mass AGB stars and Supernova explosions. Classical chemical analyses using hydrostatic atmospheres revealed strong Rb overabundances and high [Rb/Zr] ratios in massive AGB stars of our Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds (MC), confirming for the first time that the ^{22}Ne neutron source dominates the production of s-process elements in these stars. The extremely high Rb abundances and [Rb/Zr] ratios observed in the most massive stars (specially in the low-metallicity MC stars) uncovered a Rb problem; such extreme Rb and [Rb/Zr] values are not predicted by the s-process AGB models, suggesting fundamental problems in our present understanding of their atmospheres. We present more realistic dynamical model atmospheres that consider a gaseous circumstellar envelope with a radial wind and we re-derive the Rb (and Zr) abundances in massive Galactic AGB stars. The new Rb abundances and [Rb/Zr] ratios derived with these dynamical models significantly resolve the problem of the mismatch between the observations and the theoretical predictions of the more massive AGB stars.

  6. RB Loss Promotes Prostate Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Thangavel, Chellappagounder; Boopathi, Ettickan; Liu, Yi; Haber, Alex; Ertel, Adam; Bhardwaj, Anshul; Addya, Sankar; Williams, Noelle; Ciment, Stephen J.; Cotzia, Paolo; Dean, Jeffry L.; Snook, Adam; McNair, Chris; Price, Matt; Hernandez, James R.; Zhao, Shuang G.; Birbe, Ruth; McCarthy, James B.; Turley, Eva A.; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Feng, Felix Y.; Dicker, Adam P.; Knudsen, Karen E.; Den, Robert B.

    2017-01-01

    RB loss occurs commonly in neoplasia but its contributions to advanced cancer have not been assessed directly. Here we show that RB loss in multiple murine models of cancer produces a prometastatic phenotype. Gene expression analyses showed that regulation of the cell motility receptor RHAMM by the RB/E2F pathway was critical for epithelial–mesenchymal transition, motility, and invasion by cancer cells. Genetic modulation or pharmacologic inhibition of RHAMM activity was sufficient and necessary for metastatic phenotypes induced by RB loss in prostate cancer. Mechanistic studies in this setting established that RHAMM stabilized F-actin polymerization by controlling ROCK signaling. Collectively, our findings show how RB loss drives metastatic capacity and highlight RHAMM as a candidate therapeutic target for treating advanced prostate cancer. PMID:27923835

  7. Skin Tumors Rb(eing) Uncovered

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Clotilde; Paramio, Jesús M.; Santos, Mirentxu

    2013-01-01

    The Rb1 gene was the first bona fide tumor suppressor identified and cloned more than 25 years ago. Since then, a plethora of studies have revealed the functions of pRb and the existence of a sophisticated and strictly regulated pathway that modulates such functional roles. An emerging paradox affecting Rb1 in cancer connects the relatively low number of mutations affecting Rb1 gene in specific human tumors, compared with the widely functional inactivation of pRb in most, if not in all, human cancers. The existence of a retinoblastoma family of proteins pRb, p107, and p130 and their potential unique and overlapping functions as master regulators of cell cycle progression and transcriptional modulation by similar processes, may provide potential clues to explain such conundrum. Here, we will review the development of different genetically engineered mouse models, in particular those affecting stratified epithelia, and how they have offered new avenues to understand the roles of the Rb family members and their targets in the context of tumor development and progression. PMID:24381932

  8. Distribution of Rb atoms on the antirelaxation RbH coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Wang, Zhiguo; Xia, Tao

    2017-04-01

    We observe the extension of relaxation time of 131Xe with RbH coating, and compare the different depositions of Rb atoms on the inner surface of the vapor cell with and without RbH coating respectively to research the mechanism of coating prolongation. From the 5*5 um2 images of microscopy, we find that on the bare glass surface the Rb atoms form large random separated islands, and to the contrary they deposite as many regular longitudinal stripe of small islands on the RbH coating. We attribute these different distributions to the different molecular interactions between RbH coating and bare glass to Rb atom and build a simple rational physical model to explain this phenomenon. On the one hand, the small islands, or in other words, the relative uniform distribution on RbH coating may result from the relative stronger interaction of Rb to RbH than to the bare glass. On the other hand, the regular longitudinal stripe may stem from the grain boundaries which is related to the macroscopic shape of the vapor cell. And this longitudinal distribution can generate cylindrically electric gradient as used in some theoretically references before.

  9. Pathways for the OH + Br2 → HOBr + Br and HOBr + Br → HBr + BrO Reactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongyan; Qiu, Yudong; Schaefer, Henry F

    2016-02-11

    The OH radical reaction with Br2 and the subsequent reaction HOBr + Br are of exceptional importance to atmospheric chemistry and environmental chemistry. The entrance complex, transition state, and exit complex for both reactions have been determined using the coupled-cluster method with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations CCSD(T) with correlation consistent basis sets up to size cc-pV5Z and cc-pV5Z-PP. Coupled cluster effects with full triples (CCSDT) and full quadruples (CCSDTQ) are explicitly investigated. Scalar relativistic effects, spin-orbit coupling, and zero-point vibrational energy corrections are evaluated. The results from the all-electron basis sets are compared with those from the effective core potential (ECP) pseudopotential (PP) basis sets. The results are consistent. The OH + Br2 reaction is predicted to be exothermic 4.1 ± 0.5 kcal/mol, compared to experiment, 3.9 ± 0.2 kcal/mol. The entrance complex HO···BrBr is bound by 2.2 ± 0.2 kcal/mol. The transition state lies similarly well below the reactants OH + Br2. The exit complex HOBr···Br is bound by 2.7 ± 0.6 kcal/mol relative to separated HOBr + Br. The endothermicity of the reaction HOBr + Br → HBr + BrO is 9.6 ± 0.7 kcal/mol, compared with experiment 8.7 ± 0.3 kcal/mol. For the more important reverse (exothermic) HBr + BrO reaction, the entrance complex BrO···HBr is bound by 1.8 ± 0.6 kcal/mol. The barrier for the HBr + BrO reaction is 6.8 ± 0.9 kcal/mol. The exit complex (Br···HOBr) for the HBr + BrO reaction is bound by 1.9 ± 0.2 kcal/mol with respect to the products HOBr + Br.

  10. Rb3TlBr6•1.14H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villars, P.; Cenzual, K.; Daams, J.; Gladyshevskii, R.; Shcherban, O.; Dubenskyy, V.; Kuprysyuk, V.; Savysyuk, I.; Zaremba, R.

    This document is part of Subvolume A10 'Structure Types. Part 10: Space Groups (140) I4/mcm - (136) P42/mnm' of Volume 43 'Crystal Structures of Inorganic Compounds' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'.

  11. Materials Data on Rb4CdBr6 (SG:167) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  12. Total absorption studies of high priority decays for reactor applications: 86 Br and 91 Rb

    DOE PAGES

    Algora, A.; Rice, S.; Guadilla, V.; ...

    2017-09-13

    Preliminary results from beta decay studies of nuclei that are important for reactor applications are presented. The beta decays have been studied using the total absorption technique (TAS) and the pure beams provided by the JYFLTRAP system at the IGISOL facility of the University of Jyväskylä.

  13. 76 FR 65941 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211-524 Series, RB211-Trent 700 Series, and RB211...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211-524 Series, RB211-Trent 700 Series, and RB211-Trent 800 Series...-Royce plc (RR), asked us to consider changing the information for getting the service information to... plc, PO Box 31, Derby, DE24 8BJ, United Kingdom, phone: 011-44-1331-242424, fax: 011-44-1332- 249936...

  14. Zn2+ and Sr2+ Adsorption at the TiO2 (110)-Electrolyte Interface: Influence of Ionic Strength, Coverage, and Anions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang,Z.; Fenter, P.; Cheng, L.

    2006-01-01

    The X-ray standing wave technique was used to probe the sensitivity of Zn{sup 2+} and Sr{sup 2+} ion adsorption to changes in both the adsorbed ion coverage and the background electrolyte species and concentrations at the rutile ({alpha}-TiO{sub 2}) (110)-aqueous interface. Measurements were made with various background electrolytes (NaCl, NaTr, RbCl, NaBr) at concentrations as high as 1 m. The results demonstrate that Zn{sub 2+} and Sr{sub 2+} reside primarily in the condensed layer and that the ion heights above the Ti-O surface plane are insensitive to ionic strength and the choice of background electrolyte (with <0.1 Angstroms changes overmore » the full compositional range). The lack of any specific anion coadsorption upon probing with Br{sup -}, coupled with the insensitivity of Zn{sup 2+} and Sr{sup 2+} cation heights to changes in the background electrolyte, implies that anions do not play a significant role in the adsorption of these divalent metal ions to the rutile (110) surface. Absolute ion coverage measurements for Zn{sup 2+} and Sr{sup 2+} show a maximum Stern-layer coverage of {approx}0.5 monolayer, with no significant variation in height as a function of Stern-layer coverage. These observations are discussed in the context of Gouy-Chapman-Stern models of the electrical double layer developed from macroscopic sorption and pH-titration studies of rutile powder suspensions. Direct comparison between these experimental observations and the MUltiSIte Complexation (MUSIC) model predictions of cation surface coverage as a function of ionic strength revealed good agreement between measured and predicted surface coverages with no adjustable parameters.« less

  15. Molecular pathways: regulation of metabolism by RB.

    PubMed

    Clem, Brian F; Chesney, Jason

    2012-11-15

    The discovery of the retinoblastoma (RB-1) gene as a tumor suppressor that is disrupted in a majority of human cancers either via direct or indirect genetic alterations has resulted in increased interest in its functions and downstream effectors. Although the canonical pathway that links this tumor suppressor to human cancers details its interaction with the E2F transcription factors and cell-cycle progression, recent studies have shown an essential role for RB-1 in the suppression of glycolytic and glutaminolytic metabolism. Characterization of the precise metabolic transporters and enzymes suppressed by the RB-E2F axis should enable the identification of small molecule antagonists that have selective and potent antitumor properties. ©2012 AACR.

  16. Rb1 loss modifies but does not initiate alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (aRMS) is a myogenic childhood sarcoma frequently associated with a translocation-mediated fusion gene, Pax3:Foxo1a. Methods We investigated the complementary role of Rb1 loss in aRMS tumor initiation and progression using conditional mouse models. Results Rb1 loss was not a necessary and sufficient mutational event for rhabdomyosarcomagenesis, nor a strong cooperative initiating mutation. Instead, Rb1 loss was a modifier of progression and increased anaplasia and pleomorphism. Whereas Pax3:Foxo1a expression was unaltered, biomarkers of aRMS versus embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma were both increased, questioning whether these diagnostic markers are reliable in the context of Rb1 loss. Genome-wide gene expression in Pax3:Foxo1a,Rb1 tumors more closely approximated aRMS than embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. Intrinsic loss of pRb function in aRMS was evidenced by insensitivity to a Cdk4/6 inhibitor regardless of whether Rb1 was intact or null. This loss of function could be attributed to low baseline Rb1, pRb and phospho-pRb expression in aRMS tumors for which the Rb1 locus was intact. Pax3:Foxo1a RNA interference did not increase pRb or improve Cdk inhibitor sensitivity. Human aRMS shared the feature of low and/or heterogeneous tumor cell pRb expression. Conclusions Rb1 loss from an already low pRb baseline is a significant disease modifier, raising the possibility that some cases of pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma may in fact be Pax3:Foxo1a-expressing aRMS with Rb1 or pRb loss of function. PMID:24274149

  17. C and RB Fountains:. Recent Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bize, S.; Sortais, Y.; Abgrall, M.; Zhang, S.; Calonico, D.; Mandache, C.; Lemonde, P.; Laurent, P.; Santarelli, G.; Salomon, C.; Clairon, A.; Luiten, A.; Tobar, M.

    2002-04-01

    We discuss the present performance and limits of our Cs and Rb fountains. The BNM/LPTF operates three cold atom clocks: two Cs fountains and a dual Cs-Rb fountain. By using an ultra-stable cryogenic sapphire oscillator to interrogate the atoms the frequency stability reaches 3.6 × 10-14τ-1/2. The accuracy of our fountains is now near 10-15. We discuss here the problems to be solved to reach a 10-16 accuracy. For instance this implies a continuous monitoring of the collisional frequency shift at the percent level in Cs. In contrast, 87Rb cold atom clocks exhibit a collisional shift ~ 100 times smaller than Cs which should lead to a better ultimate accuracy. Comparing the hyperfine energies of atoms with different atomic numbers Z, one can search for a possible violation of the Einstein Equivalence Principle. When interpreted as a test of the stability of the fine structure constant (α = e2/4πγ0ħc), measurements of the ratio νRb/νCs spread over a two year interval show no change of α at the 7 × 10-15/year level.

  18. Transition probabilities of Br II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bengtson, R. D.; Miller, M. H.

    1976-01-01

    Absolute transition probabilities of the three most prominent visible Br II lines are measured in emission. Results compare well with Coulomb approximations and with line strengths extrapolated from trends in homologous atoms.

  19. Experimental study of the isovector giant dipole resonance in 80Zr and 81Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceruti, S.; Camera, F.; Bracco, A.; Mentana, A.; Avigo, R.; Benzoni, G.; Blasi, N.; Bocchi, G.; Bottoni, S.; Brambilla, S.; Crespi, F. C. L.; Giaz, A.; Leoni, S.; Million, B.; Morales, A. I.; Nicolini, R.; Pellegri, L.; Riboldi, S.; Wieland, O.; Bazzacco, D.; Ciemala, M.; Farnea, E.; Gottardo, A.; Kmiecik, M.; Maj, A.; Mengoni, D.; Michelagnoli, C.; Modamio, V.; Montanari, D.; Napoli, D.; Recchia, F.; Sahin, E.; Ur, C.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Wasilewska, B.; Zieblinski, M.

    2017-01-01

    The isovector giant dipole resonance (IVGDR) γ decay was measured in the compound nuclei 80Zr and 81Rb at an excitation energy of E*=54 MeV. The fusion reaction 40Ca+40Ca at Ebeam=136 MeV was used to form the compound nucleus 80Zr, while the reaction 37Cl+44Ca at Ebeam=95 MeV was used to form the compound nucleus 81Rb at the same excitation energy. The IVGDR parameters extracted from the analysis were compared with the ones found at higher excitation energy (E*=83 MeV). The comparison allows one to observe two different nuclear mechanisms: (i) the IVGDR intrinsic width remains constant with the excitation energy in the nucleus 81Rb; (ii) the isospin-violating spreading width (i.e., Coulomb spreading width) remains constant with the excitation energy in the nucleus 80Zr. The experimental setup used for the γ -ray detection was composed by the AGATA demonstrator array coupled to the large-volume LaBr3:Ce detectors of the HECTOR+ array.

  20. K-Rb Laser Pump Lamp

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-11-01

    for K-Rb Lamps With Xenon and Argon Figure 25 Specimen for Protective Coating Evaluation 65 Figure 26 Specimen Coated With Fused Tin- Aluminide After...through hot titanium and copper purifiers to maia.in low levels (a few ppm) of oxygen, nitrogen and water vapor. The box also contains an integral...case with titanium , zirconium, thorium, and other common reactive metals. 15 - -’-- .--󈨑CP>4 -_ A thin strip of uranium is inserted into the fill

  1. In-situ Rb-Sr geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, F. S.; Nowicki, K.; Whitaker, T.

    This paper reports on the first rubidium-strontium (Rb-Sr) radiometric dates using a Laser Desorption Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (LDRIMS) instrument capable of being miniaturized for flight to another planet. The LDRIMS instrument produces dates in under 24 hours, requires minimal sample preparation, and avoids the interference and mass resolution issues associated with other geochronology measurements. We have begun testing the bench-top prototype on the Boulder Creek Granite (BCG), from Colorado, comprised primarily of a gneissic quartz monzonite and granodiorite; whole rock Rb-Sr TIMS measurements result in dates of 1700± 40 Ma [1]. Data reduction of the LDRIMS Rb-Sr measurements on calibrated repeat runs result in a date for the BCG of 1.727± 0.087 Ga (n=288, MSWD=1). Most geochronology applications are willing to accept an MSWD up to ~2.7; at MSWD=2, the precision improves to ± 0.062 Ga. This technology is moving from lab prototype to field deployable instrument, and provides an opportunity to directly address the science goals of Mars Sample Return (MSR) within the bounds posed by current scientific, fiscal, and political pressures on the Mars program. Additionally, LDRIMS could potentially be flown to the Moon under the Discovery or New Frontiers program. We posit that in-situ geochronology missions to Mars to triage and validate samples for Mars Sample Return (MSR) are technically feasible in the 2018-2022 time frame.

  2. CoBr2-TMTU-zinc catalysed-Pauson-Khand reaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuefan; Xu, Lingmin; Yu, Ruocheng; Chen, Jiahua; Yang, Zhen

    2012-08-25

    A cobalt-TMTU complex, derived from the in situ reduction of CoBr(2) with Zn in the presence of TMTU, can catalyze Pauson-Khand reaction at a balloon pressure of CO, which enables the synthesis of structurally diverse cyclopentenones. This catalytic system works efficiently for both intermolecular and intramolecular PK reactions.

  3. Low Work Function 2.81 eV Rb2CO3-Doped Polyethylenimine Ethoxylated for Inverted Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeonggi; Kim, Hyo-Min; Jang, Jin

    2018-06-06

    We report a low work function (2.81 eV), Rb 2 CO 3 -doped polyethyleneimine ethoxylated (PEIE) which is used for highly efficient and long-lifetime, inverted organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Doping Rb 2 CO 3 into PEIE decreases the work function of Li-doped ZnO (LZO) by 1.0 eV and thus significantly improves electron injection ability into the emission layer (EML). The inverted OLED with PEIE:Rb 2 CO 3 interfacial layer (IL) exhibits higher efficiency and longer operation lifetime than those of the device with a PEIE IL. It is found also that Mg-doped ZnO (MZO) can be used instead of LZO as electron transporting layer. Rb 2 CO 3 shows a low work function of 2.81 eV. The OLED with MZO/PEIE:Rb 2 CO 3 exhibits low operating voltage of 5.0 V at 1000 cd m -2 and low efficiency roll-off of 11.8% at high luminance of 10 000 cd m -2 . The results are due to the suppressed exciton quenching at the MZO/organic EML interface.

  4. High Br- Content CsPb(Cl yBr1- y)3 Perovskite Nanocrystals with Strong Mn2+ Emission through Diverse Cation/Anion Exchange Engineering.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Xia, Zhiguo; Pan, Caofeng; Gong, Yue; Gu, Lin; Liu, Quanlin; Zhang, Jin Z

    2018-04-11

    The unification of tunable band edge (BE) emission and strong Mn 2+ doping luminescence in all-inorganic cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) CsPbX 3 (X = Cl and Br) is of fundamental importance in fine tuning their optical properties. Herein, we demonstrate that benefiting from the differentiation of the cation/anion exchange rate, ZnBr 2 and preformed CsPb 1- x Cl 3 : xMn 2+ NCs can be used to obtain high Br - content Cs(Pb 1- x- z Zn z )(Cl y Br 1- y ) 3 : xMn 2+ perovskite NCs with strong Mn 2+ emission, and the Mn 2+ substitution ratio can reach about 22%. More specifically, the fast anion exchange could be realized by the soluble halide precursors, leading to anion exchange within a few seconds as observed from the strong BE emission evolution, whereas the cation exchange instead generally required at least a few hours; moreover, their exchange mechanism and dynamics process have been evaluated. The Mn 2+ emission intensity could be further varied by controlling the replacement of Mn 2+ by Zn 2+ with prolonged ion exchange reaction time. White light emission of the doped perovskite NCs via this cation/anion synergistic exchange strategy has been realized, which was also successfully demonstrated in a prototype white light-emitting diode (LED) device based on a commercially available 365 nm LED chip.

  5. Advances in TlBr detector development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitomi, Keitaro; Shoji, Tadayoshi; Ishii, Keizo

    2013-09-01

    Thallium bromide (TlBr) is a promising compound semiconductor for fabrication of gamma-ray detectors. The attractive physical properties of TlBr lie in its high photon stopping power, high resistivity and good charge transport properties. Gamma-ray detectors fabricated from TlBr crystals have exhibited excellent spectroscopic performance. In this paper, advances in TlBr radiation detector development are reviewed with emphasis on crystal growth, detector fabrication, physical properties and detector performance.

  6. Synthesis and structure resolution of RbLaF4.

    PubMed

    Rollet, Anne-Laure; Allix, Mathieu; Veron, Emmanuel; Deschamps, Michael; Montouillout, Valérie; Suchomel, Matthew R; Suard, Emmanuelle; Barre, Maud; Ocaña, Manuel; Sadoc, Aymeric; Boucher, Florent; Bessada, Catherine; Massiot, Dominique; Fayon, Franck

    2012-02-20

    The synthesis and structure resolution of RbLaF(4) are described. RbLaF(4) is synthesized by solid-state reaction between RbF and LaF(3) at 425 °C under a nonoxidizing atmosphere. Its crystal structure has been resolved by combining neutron and synchrotron powder diffraction data refinements (Pnma,a = 6.46281(2) Å, b = 3.86498(1) Å, c = 16.17629(4) Å, Z = 4). One-dimensional (87)Rb, (139)La, and (19)F MAS NMR spectra have been recorded and are in agreement with the proposed structural model. Assignment of the (19)F resonances is performed on the basis of both (19)F-(139)La J-coupling multiplet patterns observed in a heteronuclear DQ-filtered J-resolved spectrum and (19)F-(87)Rb HMQC MAS experiments. DFT calculations of both the (19)F isotropic chemical shieldings and the (87)Rb, (139)La electric field gradient tensors using the GIPAW and PAW methods implemented in the CASTEP code are in good agreement with the experimental values and support the proposed structural model. Finally, the conductivity of RbLaF(4) and luminescence properties of Eu-doped LaRbF(4) are investigated.

  7. Rb, Sr, Nd, and Sm concentrations in quartz

    SciTech Connect

    Rossman, G.R.; Weis, D.; Wasserburg, G.J.

    1987-09-01

    The concentrations of Rb, Sr, Nd and Sm in quartz crystals from Crystal Peak, Colorado; Steward Mine, California; Tomas Gonzaga, Minas Gerais, Brazil; and Coleman Mines, Arkansas, were determined by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Concentrations ranged from: 1.17 to 177 ppb Rb; 3.26 to 1027 ppm Sr; 0.0159 to 0.48 ppm Sm; 0.127 to 2.81 ppb Nd. In the Brazilian crystal, concentrations of these elements were correlated with the amount of fluid inclusion water measured visually by turbidity and quantitatively with infrared adsorption spectroscopy. The highest Rb content was found for a crystal free of visible inclusions, indicating that smallmore » amounts of Rb can also occur in quartz itself. Rb and Sr contents are much lower in synthetic quartz grown commercially from the Arkansas quartz.« less

  8. Bacteriorhodopsin–ZnO hybrid as a potential sensing element for low-temperature detection of ethanol vapour

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Saurav; Bagchi, Sudeshna; Prasad, Senthil; Sharma, Anupma; Kumar, Ritesh; Kaur, Rishemjit; Singh, Jagvir

    2016-01-01

    Summary Zinc oxide (ZnO) and bacteriorhodopsin (bR) hybrid nanostructures were fabricated by immobilizing bR on ZnO thin films and ZnO nanorods. The morphological and spectroscopic analysis of the hybrid structures confirmed the ZnO thin film/nanorod growth and functional properties of bR. The photoactivity results of the bR protein further corroborated the sustainability of its charge transport property and biological activity. When exposed to ethanol vapour (reducing gas) at low temperature (70 °C), the fabricated sensing elements showed a significant increase in resistivity, as opposed to the conventional n-type behaviour of bare ZnO nanostructures. This work opens up avenues towards the fabrication of low temperature, photoactivated, nanomaterial–biomolecule hybrid gas sensors. PMID:27335741

  9. Observation of Quantum Beating in rb at 2.1 THz and 18.2 THz: Long-Range Rb^{*}-Rb Interactions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldshlag, William; Ricconi, Brian J.; Eden, J. Gary

    2017-06-01

    The interaction of Rb 7s ^{2}S_{1/2}, 5d ^{2}D_{3/2,5/2} and 5p ^{2}P_{3/2} atoms with the background species at long range (100-1000Å) has been observed by pump-probe ultrafast laser spectroscopy. Parametric four-wave mixing in Rb vapor with pairs of 50-70 fs pulses produces coherent Rb 6P-5S emission at 420 nm that is modulated by Rb quantum beating. The two dominant beating frequencies are 18.2 THz and 2.07 THz, corresponding to quantum beating between 7S and 5D states and to the (5D-5P_{3/2})-(5P_{3/2}-5S) defect, respectively. Analysis of Rabi oscillations in these pump-probe experiments allows for the mean interaction energy at long range to be determined. The figure shows Fourier transform spectra of representative Rabi oscillation waveforms. The waveform and spectrum at left illustrate quantum beating in Rb at 2.1 THz. The spectrum at right is dominated by the 18.2 THz frequency component generated by 7S-5D beating in Rb. Insets show respective temporal behaviors of the 6P-5S line near the coherent transient (zero interpulse delay).

  10. 75 FR 51654 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-22B and RB211-524 Series Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-22B and RB211-524 Series Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal... Rolls-Royce plc: Amendment 39-16402. Docket No. FAA-2009- 1157; Directorate Identifier 2009-NE-26-AD...) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to Rolls-Royce plc RB211-22B series and RB211-524B4-D-02, RB211...

  11. ZN2+ INDUCES COX-2 EXPRESSION THROUGH DOWNREGULATION OF LIPID PHOSPHATASE PTEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zn2+ Induces COX-2 Expression through Downregulation of Lipid Phosphatase PTEN <br>Weidong Wu*, James M. Samet, Philip A. Bromberg*?, Young E. Whang?, and Lee M. Graves* ?<br>*CEMALB, ?Department of Medicine, and ?Department of Pharmacology, UNC-Chapel Hill, NC27599; Human Studie...

  12. Ozone Depletion Potential of CH3Br

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sander, Stanley P.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Sze, Nien Dak; Scott, Courtney; Rodriquez, Jose M.; Weisenstein, Debra K.

    1998-01-01

    The ozone depletion potential (ODP) of methyl bromide (CH3Br) can be determined by combining the model-calculated bromine efficiency factor (BEF) for CH3Br and its atmospheric lifetime. This paper examines how changes in several key kinetic data affect BEF. The key reactions highlighted in this study include the reaction of BrO + H02, the absorption cross section of HOBr, the absorption cross section and the photolysis products of BrON02, and the heterogeneous conversion of BrON02 to HOBR and HN03 on aerosol particles. By combining the calculated BEF with the latest estimate of 0.7 year for the atmospheric lifetime of CH3Br, the likely value of ODP for CH3Br is 0.39. The model-calculated concentration of HBr (approximately 0.3 pptv) in the lower stratosphere is substantially smaller than the reported measured value of about I pptv. Recent publications suggested models can reproduce the measured value if one assumes a yield for HBr from the reaction of BrO + OH or from the reaction of BrO + H02. Although the DeAlore et al. evaluation concluded any substantial yield of HBr from BrO + HO2 is unlikely, for completeness, we calculate the effects of these assumed yields on BEF for CH3Br. Our calculations show that the effects are minimal: practically no impact for an assumed 1.3% yield of HBr from BrO + OH and 10% smaller for an assumed 0.6% yield from BrO + H02.

  13. Breakpoint structure of the Anopheles gambiae 2Rb chromosomal inversion.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Neil F; Sangaré, Djibril M; Regier, Allison A; Reidenbach, Kyanne R; Bretz, David A; Sharakhova, Maria V; Emrich, Scott J; Traore, Sekou F; Costantini, Carlo; Besansky, Nora J; Collins, Frank H

    2010-10-25

    Alternative arrangements of chromosome 2 inversions in Anopheles gambiae are important sources of population structure, and are associated with adaptation to environmental heterogeneity. The forces responsible for their origin and maintenance are incompletely understood. Molecular characterization of inversion breakpoints provides insight into how they arose, and provides the basis for development of molecular karyotyping methods useful in future studies. Sequence comparison of regions near the cytological breakpoints of 2Rb allowed the molecular delineation of breakpoint boundaries. Comparisons were made between the standard 2R+b arrangement in the An. gambiae PEST reference genome and the inverted 2Rb arrangements in the An. gambiae M and S genome assemblies. Sequence differences between alternative 2Rb arrangements were exploited in the design of a PCR diagnostic assay, which was evaluated against the known chromosomal banding pattern of laboratory colonies and field-collected samples from Mali and Cameroon. The breakpoints of the 7.55 Mb 2Rb inversion are flanked by extensive runs of the same short (72 bp) tandemly organized sequence, which was likely responsible for chromosomal breakage and rearrangement. Application of the molecular diagnostic assay suggested that 2Rb has a single common origin in An. gambiae and its sibling species, Anopheles arabiensis, and also that the standard arrangement (2R+b) may have arisen twice through breakpoint reuse. The molecular diagnostic was reliable when applied to laboratory colonies, but its accuracy was lower in natural populations. The complex repetitive sequence flanking the 2Rb breakpoint region may be prone to structural and sequence-level instability. The 2Rb molecular diagnostic has immediate application in studies based on laboratory colonies, but its usefulness in natural populations awaits development of complementary molecular tools.

  14. [Experimental investigation of mechanisms of forming RbH by irradiating a Rb+H2 mixture with laser light].

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Jing; Dai, Kang; Shen, Yi-Fan

    2008-11-01

    The radiation of a laser photoexcited Rb atoms from the ground state to the 5P3/2 level in a mixture of Rb vapor and hydrogen. The energy-pooling collision 5P3/2 + 5P3/2 --> 5S1/2 + 5D producted 5D state. The Rb (5P3/2) density and spatial distribution were mapped by monitoring the absorption of a counter-propagating laser beam, tuned to the 5P3/2 --> 7S1/2 transition, which could be translated parallel to the pump beam. In the presence of radiation trapping, the spontaneous radiation rate is multiplied by the transmission factor T5P3/2 --> 5S1/2, which describes the average probability that photons emitted within the fluorescence detection region can pass through the optically thick vapor without being absorbed. The T5P3/2 --> 5S1/2 is related to the frequency dependent absorption cross section and the density and spatial distribution of atoms in the level of the transition. The effective radiative rates of the Rb D2 line as a function of the H2 pressure were obtained. These quantities were combined with the measured excited atom density and fluorescence ratio to yield absolute energy-pooling rate coefficient. The quenching collision Rb (5P3/2) + H2 (v = 0) --> Rb(5S) + H2 (v = 2) producted state H2 (v= 2). This process is at least 16 times faster than the Rb (5P3/2) radiative decay rate. The reverse process of this process is relatively unlikely due to their large translational energy defect. The cross section for the process H2 (v = 2) + H2 (v = 0) --> H2 (vn = 1) + H2 (v = 0) + 3 920.2 cm(-1) is 7.7 x 10(-19) cm2. Hence the relaxation rate of this vibrational level is relatively slow and the nuclear spin statistics is conserved. The H2 (v = 2) density was determined by using the cross section for Rb (5P3/2)-H2 quenching. RbH was fromed by the Rb(5D) + H2 and Rb (5P3/2) + H2 (v = 2) reactions and observed by laser absorption. The ratio of 5D --> 5P3/2 to 5P3/2 --> 5S1/2 fluorescence was measured as a function of the H2 density. The absorption of the laser beam

  15. Silencing of RB1 and RB2/P130 during adipogenesis of bone marrow stromal cells results in dysregulated differentiation.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Stefania; Alessio, Nicola; Di Bernardo, Giovanni; Cipollaro, Marilena; Melone, Mariarosa Ab; Peluso, Gianfranco; Giordano, Antonio; Galderisi, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) is different from fat found elsewhere in the body, and only recently have some of its functions been investigated. BMAT may regulate bone marrow stem cell niche and plays a role in energy storage and thermogenesis. BMAT may be involved also in obesity and osteoporosis onset. Given the paramount functions of BMAT, we decided to better clarify the human bone marrow adipogenesis by analyzing the role of the retinoblastoma gene family, which are key players in cell cycle regulation. Our data provide evidence that the inactivation of RB1 or RB2/P130 in uncommitted bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) facilitates the first steps of adipogenesis. In cultures with silenced RB1 or RB2/P130, we observed an increase of clones with adipogenic potential and a higher percentage of cells accumulating lipid droplets. Nevertheless, the absence of RB1 or RB2/P130 impaired the terminal adipocyte differentiation and gave rise to dysregulated adipose cells, with alteration in lipid uptake and release. For the first time, we evidenced that RB2/P130 plays a role in bone marrow adipogenesis. Our data suggest that while the inactivation of retinoblastoma proteins may delay the onset of last cell division and allow more BMSC to be committed to adipocyte, it did not allow a permanent cell cycle exit, which is a prerequisite for adipocyte terminal maturation.

  16. Silencing of RB1 and RB2/P130 during adipogenesis of bone marrow stromal cells results in dysregulated differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Capasso, Stefania; Alessio, Nicola; Di Bernardo, Giovanni; Cipollaro, Marilena; Melone, Mariarosa AB; Peluso, Gianfranco; Giordano, Antonio; Galderisi, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) is different from fat found elsewhere in the body, and only recently have some of its functions been investigated. BMAT may regulate bone marrow stem cell niche and plays a role in energy storage and thermogenesis. BMAT may be involved also in obesity and osteoporosis onset. Given the paramount functions of BMAT, we decided to better clarify the human bone marrow adipogenesis by analyzing the role of the retinoblastoma gene family, which are key players in cell cycle regulation. Our data provide evidence that the inactivation of RB1 or RB2/P130 in uncommitted bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) facilitates the first steps of adipogenesis. In cultures with silenced RB1 or RB2/P130, we observed an increase of clones with adipogenic potential and a higher percentage of cells accumulating lipid droplets. Nevertheless, the absence of RB1 or RB2/P130 impaired the terminal adipocyte differentiation and gave rise to dysregulated adipose cells, with alteration in lipid uptake and release. For the first time, we evidenced that RB2/P130 plays a role in bone marrow adipogenesis. Our data suggest that while the inactivation of retinoblastoma proteins may delay the onset of last cell division and allow more BMSC to be committed to adipocyte, it did not allow a permanent cell cycle exit, which is a prerequisite for adipocyte terminal maturation. PMID:24281253

  17. Coordinated Regulation of Intestinal Functions in C. elegans by LIN-35/Rb and SLR-2

    PubMed Central

    Kirienko, Natalia V.; McEnerney, John D. K.; Fay, David S.

    2008-01-01

    LIN-35 is the sole C. elegans representative of the pocket protein family, which includes the mammalian Retinoblastoma protein pRb and its paralogs p107 and p130. In addition to having a well-established and central role in cell cycle regulation, pocket proteins have been increasingly implicated in the control of critical and diverse developmental and cellular processes. To gain a greater understanding of the roles of pocket proteins during development, we have characterized a synthetic genetic interaction between lin-35 and slr-2, which we show encodes a C2H2-type Zn-finger protein. Whereas animals harboring single mutations in lin-35 or slr-2 are viable and fertile, lin-35; slr-2 double mutants arrest uniformly in early larval development without obvious morphological defects. Using a combination of approaches including transcriptome profiling, mosaic analysis, starvation assays, and expression analysis, we demonstrate that both LIN-35 and SLR-2 act in the intestine to regulate the expression of many genes required for normal nutrient utilization. These findings represent a novel role for pRb family members in the maintenance of organ function. Our studies also shed light on the mechanistic basis of genetic redundancy among transcriptional regulators and suggest that synthetic interactions may result from the synergistic misregulation of one or more common targets. PMID:18437219

  18. Formation of Reactive Br Species by Freezing in Solutions of NaBr-Metal-Hydrogen Peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinjo, M.; Arakaki, T.

    2005-12-01

    The role of reactive halogen species (e.g. BrOH) in the destruction of stratospheric ozone is well known and largely understood. In recent years, it became clear that reactive Br species can also play a significant role in tropospheric ozone destruction, but sources of reactive Br species in the troposphere are not well understood. When an aqueous solution is frozen, solutes in the solution are excluded from the ice phase and the solutes are concentrated in the solution phase. Freezing processes cause red-ox reactions in the solution. We tried to understand the effects of freezing processes of solutions on formation of reactive Br species. Hydrogen peroxide (HOOH) and metallic ions were added to a mixing solution of NaBr and allyl alcohol (AA). If reactive Br species are formed, they react with AA, and free Br ion concentration decreases in the solution. When HOOH and Fe(III) or Cu(II) were added to the NaBr and AA solution and frozen, free Br ion concentration decreased. It is possible that OH radical formation from reaction between HOOH and Fe(II) or Cu(I) was induced by freezing processes and the OH radical probably oxidized Br ion to reactive Br species. Study of the effects of pH showed that decrease of Br ion concentration was the highest at pH = 4.0. Freezing processes could be an important source of reactive Br species in high altitude clouds and Polar Regions.

  19. Photoinduced Br Desorption from CsBr Thin Films Grown on Cu(100)

    SciTech Connect

    Halliday, Matthew T.; Joly, Alan G.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2015-10-22

    Thin films of CsBr deposited onto metals such as copper are potential photocathode materials for light sources and other applications. We investigate desorption dynamics of Br atoms from CsBr films grown on insulator (KBr, LiF) and metal (Cu) substrates induced by sub-bandgap 6.4 eV laser pulses. The experimental results demonstrate that the peak kinetic energy of Br atoms desorbed from CsBr/Cu films is much lower than that for the hyperthermal desorption from CsBr/LiF films. Kelvin probe measurements indicate negative charge at the surface following Br desorption from CsBr/Cu films. Our ab initio calculations of excitons at CsBr surfaces demonstrate thatmore » this behavior can be explained by an exciton model of desorption including electron trapping at the CsBr surface. Trapped negative charges reduce the energy of surface excitons available for Br desorption. We examine the electron-trapping characteristics of low-coordinated sites at the surface, in particular, divacancies and kink sites. We also provide a model of cation desorption caused by Franck-Hertz excitation of F centers at the surface in the course of irradiation of CsBr/Cu films. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms of photoinduced structural evolution of alkali halide films on metal substrates and activation of metal photocathodes coated with CsBr.« less

  20. .sup.82 Sr-.sup.82 Rb Radioisotope generator

    DOEpatents

    Grant, Patrick M.; Erdal, Bruce R.; O'Brien, Harold A.

    1976-01-01

    An improved .sup.82 Sr-.sup.82 Rb radioisotope generator system, based upon the complexing ion exchange resin Chelex-100, has been developed. Columns of this material can be easily and rapidly milked, and the Rb-Sr separation factor for a fresh generator was found to be > 10.sup.7. Approximately 80 percent of the .sup.82 Rb present was delivered in a 15-ml volume of aqueous 0.2 M NH.sub.4 Cl solution. After more than 6 liters of eluant had been put through the generator, the Rb-Sr separation factor was still observed to be > 10.sup.5, and no unusual strontium breakthrough behavior was seen in the system over nearly three .sup.82 Sr half lives.

  1. Unit 3, STA. 158+ 40 RB, Hinckson Run culvertdetail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 3, STA. 158+ 40 RB, Hinckson Run culvert-detail - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  2. Characterization of Thallium Bromide (TlBr) for Room Temperature Radiation Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Holland McTyeire

    Thallium bromide (TlBr) has emerged as a remarkably well-suited material for room temperature radiation detection. The unique combination of high-Z elements, high density, suitable band gap, and excellent electrical transport properties present in TlBr have brought device performance up to par with CdZnTe (CZT), the current market-leading room temperature radiation detector material. TlBr research is at an earlier stage than that of CZT, giving hope that the material will see even further improvement in electronic properties. Improving a resistive semiconductor material requires knowledge of deep levels present in the material and the effects of these deep levels on transport properties. Very few deep level studies have been conducted on TlBr, and none with the depth required to generate useful growth suggestions. In this dissertation, deep levels in nominally undoped and doped TlBr samples are studied with electrical and optical methods. Photo-Induced Conductivity Transient Spectroscopy (PICTS) is used to discover many deep levels in TlBr electrically. These levels are compared to sub-band gap optical transitions originating from defects observed in emission spectra. The results of this research indicate that the origin of resistivity in TlBr is likely due to deep level defects pinning the Fermi level at least ˜0.7 eV from either the conduction or valence band edge. The effect of dopants and deep levels on transport in TlBr is assessed with microwave photoconductivity decay analysis. It is found that Pb-, Se-, and O-doping decreases carrier lifetime in TlBr, whereas C-doping does not. TlBr exhibits weak ionic conductivity at room temperature, which both negatively affects the leakage current of detectors and leads to device degradation over time. Researchers are actively looking for ways to reduce or eliminate the ionic conductivity, but are faced with an intriguing challenge of materials engineering: is it possible to mitigate the ionic conduction of TlBr

  3. Light shift effects in the Rb-87 maser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busca, G.; Tetu, M.; Vanier, J.

    1973-01-01

    Previous work has shown the possibility to overcome the dependence of the Rb-87 maser frequency on light intensity by tuning the cavity at a proper setting. The conditions for this setting, called the light-independent frequency setting (LIFS), are carefully investigated. The results presented prove the existence of the LIFS and provide a new criterion for an automatic cavity tuning of the Rb maser.

  4. Nqrs Data for C26H35Br2CuP2 (Subst. No. 1603)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C26H35Br2CuP2 (Subst. No. 1603)

  5. Cd4As2Br3

    PubMed Central

    Kars, Mohammed; Roisnel, Thierry; Dorcet, Vincent; Rebbah, Allaoua; Otero-Diáz, L. Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Single crystals of Cd4As2Br3 (tetra­cadmium biarsenide tri­bromide) were grown by a chemical transport reaction. The structure is isotypic with the members of the cadmium and mercury pnictidohalides family with general formula M 4 A 2 X 3 (M = Cd, Hg; A = P, As, Sb; X = Cl, Br, I) and contains two independent As atoms on special positions with site symmetry -3 and two independent Cd atoms, of which one is on a special position with site symmetry -3. The Cd4As2Br3 structure consists of AsCd4 tetra­hedra sharing vertices with isolated As2Cd6 octa­hedra that contain As–As dumbbells in the centre of the octahedron. The Br atoms are located in the voids of this three-dimensional arrangement and bridge the different polyhedra through Cd⋯Br contacts. PMID:24764933

  6. Transitions of the type 2s-2p in fluorinelike and oxygenlike As, Se, Br, and Rb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, U.; Seely, J. F.; Behring, W. E.; Richardson, M. C.; Goldsmith, S.

    1985-01-01

    Transitions of the type 2s-2p in the F I and O I isoelectronic sequences of arsenic, selenium, bromine, and rubidium have been identified in spectra from laser-produced plasmas. Wavelengths in the range 50 to 90 A were measured to an accuracy of 0.01 A or better. The wavelengths of the magnetic-dipole transitions within the ground configurations are predicted.

  7. Timing Performance of TlBr Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitomi, Keitaro; Tada, Tsutomu; Onodera, Toshiyuki; Shoji, Tadayoshi; Kim, Seong-Yun; Xu, Yuanlai; Ishii, Keizo

    2013-08-01

    The timing performance of TlBr detectors was evaluated at room temperature (22 °C). 0.5-mm-thick planar TlBr detectors with Tl circular electrodes with a diameter of 3 mm were fabricated from TlBr crystals grown by the traveling molten zone method using a zone-purified material. The pulse rise time of the TlBr detector was measured using a digital oscilloscope as the cathode surface of the device was irradiated with a 22Na gamma-ray source. Coincidence timing spectra were obtained between the TlBr detector and a BaF2 scintillation detector when both detectors were irradiated with 511 keV positron annihilation gamma-rays. The timing resolution of the TlBr detector was found to be inversely proportional to the applied bias voltage. The TlBr detector, in coincidence with the BaF2 detector, exhibited timing resolutions characterized by a 6.5 ns full width at half maximum (FWHM) and an 8.5 ns FWHM with and without an energy window of 350 keV-560 keV, respectively.

  8. Aneuploidy in spermatids of Robertsonian (Rb) chromosome heterozygous mice.

    PubMed

    Manieu, Catalina; González, Marisel; López-Fenner, Julio; Page, Jesús; Ayarza, Eliana; Fernández-Donoso, Raúl; Berríos, Soledad

    2014-12-01

    Rb translocations are chromosomal rearrangements frequently found in natural populations of the house mouse Mus musculus domesticus. The standard diploid karyotype of the house mouse consisting of 40 telocentric chromosomes may be reduced by the emergence of metacentric Rb chromosomes. Multiple simple Rb heterozygotes form trivalents exhibiting higher anaphase nondisjunction frequency and consequently higher number of unbalanced gametes than in normal males. This work will attempt to establish whether frequencies of aneuploidy observed in heterozygote spermatids of the house mouse M. musculus domesticus show differences in chromosomes derived from different trivalents. Towards this goal, the number and distribution frequency of aneuploidy was assessed via FISH staining of specific chromosomes of spermatids derived from 2n = 32 individuals. Our results showed that for a given set of target chromosomes, 90% of the gametes were balanced, resulting from alternate segregation, and that there were no differences (approx. 10%) in aneuploidy frequencies in chromosomes derived from different trivalents. These observations suggest that segregation effectiveness does not depend on the type of chromosomes involved in trivalents. As a consequence of the trivalent's configuration, joint segregation of the telocentric chromosomes occurs thus favoring their appearance together in early spermatids. Our data suggest that Rb chromosomes and their telocentric homologs are subject to architectural constraints placing them close to each other. This proximity may ultimately facilitate fusion between them, hence contributing to a prevalence of Rb metacentric chromosomes.

  9. Human biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of 82Rb.

    PubMed

    Senthamizhchelvan, Srinivasan; Bravo, Paco E; Esaias, Caroline; Lodge, Martin A; Merrill, Jennifer; Hobbs, Robert F; Sgouros, George; Bengel, Frank M

    2010-10-01

    Prior estimates of radiation-absorbed doses from (82)Rb, a frequently used PET perfusion tracer, yielded discrepant results. We reevaluated (82)Rb dosimetry using human in vivo biokinetic measurements. Ten healthy volunteers underwent dynamic PET/CT (6 contiguous table positions, each with separate (82)Rb infusion). Source organ volumes of interest were delineated on the CT images and transferred to the PET images to obtain time-integrated activity coefficients. Radiation doses were estimated using OLINDA/EXM 1.0. The highest mean absorbed organ doses (μGy/MBq) were observed for the kidneys (5.81), heart wall (3.86), and lungs (2.96). Mean effective doses were 1.11 ± 0.22 and 1.26 ± 0.20 μSv/MBq using the tissue-weighting factors of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), publications 60 and 103, respectively. Our current (82)Rb dosimetry suggests reasonably low radiation exposure. On the basis of this study, a clinical (82)Rb injection of 2 × 1,480 MBq (80 mCi) would result in a mean effective dose of 3.7 mSv using the weighting factors of the ICRP 103-only slightly above the average annual natural background exposure in the United States (3.1 mSv).

  10. New molten salt systems for high-temperature molten salt batteries: LiF-LiCl-LiBr-based quaternary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Syozo; Inaba, Minoru; Tasaka, Akimasa

    To develop novel multi-component molten salt systems more effectively, we developed a simulative technique using the CALPHAD (Calculation of Phase Diagram and Thermodynamics) method to estimate the ionic conductivity and the melting point. The validity of this new simulative technique was confirmed by comparing the simulated ionic conductivities and melting points of typical high-temperature molten salts, such as LiF-LiCl-LiBr, LiF-LiBr-KBr, LiCl-LiBr-KBr, and LiCl-LiBr-LiI, with those reported data in the literature or experimentally obtained. This simulative technique was used to develop new quaternary molten salt systems for use as electrolytes in high-temperature molten salt batteries (called thermal batteries). The targets of the ionic conductivity and the melting point were set at 2.0 S cm -1 and higher at 500 °C, and in the range of 350-430 °C, respectively, to replace the LiCl-KCl system (1.85 S cm -1 at 500 °C) within the conventional design of the heat generation system for thermal batteries. Using the simulative method, six kinds of novel quaternary systems, LiF-LiCl-LiBr-MX (M = Na and K; X = F, Cl, and Br), which contain neither environmentally instable anions such as iodides nor expensive cations such as Rb + and Cs +, were proposed. Experimental results showed that the LiF-LiCl-LiBr-0.10NaX (X = Cl and Br) and LiF-LiCl-LiBr-0.10KX (X = F, Cl, and Br) systems meet our targets of both the ionic conductivity and the melting point.

  11. Long-Lived Near-Earth Asteroid 2013 RB6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emel'yanenko, V. V.; Emel'yanenko, N. Yu.

    2018-01-01

    The search for asteroids that maintain stable motion in the zone between the Earth and Mars has been performed. The near-Earth object 2013 RB6, which has avoided close encounters with the planets for a long period of time, has been found. Integration of the equations of motion of the object shows that its dynamical lifetime in the zone between the Earth and Mars significantly exceeds 100 Myr. 2013 RB6 moves away from orbital resonances with the planets, but is in the secular resonance ν5. Solving the question of its origin requires further observations.

  12. Die Interhalogenkationen [Br2F5]+ und [Br3F8].

    PubMed

    Ivlev, Sergei; Karttunen, Antti; Buchner, Magnus; Conrad, Matthias; Kraus, Florian

    2018-05-02

    Wir berichten über die Synthese und Charakterisierung der bislang einzigen Polyhalogenkationen, in denen verbrückende Fluoratome vorliegen. Das [Br2F5]+-Kation enthält eine symmetrische [F2Br-µ-F-BrF2]-Brücke, das [Br3F8]+-Kation enthält unsymmetrische µ-F-Brücken. Die Fluoronium-Ionen wurden in Form ihrer [SbF6]--Salze erhalten und Raman-, und 19F-NMR-spektroskopisch, sowie durch Röntgenbeugung am Einkristall untersucht. Quantenchemische Rechnungen, sowohl für die isolierten Kationen in der Gasphase, als auch für die Festkörper selbst, wurden durchgeführt. Populationsanalysen zeigen, dass die µ-F-Atome die am stärksten negativ partialgeladenen Atome der Kationen sind. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. New Scintillator Materials (K2CeBr5) and (Cs2CeBr5)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawrami, R.; Volz, M. P.; Batra, A. K.; Aggarwal, M. D.; Roy, U. N.; Groza, M.; Burger, A.; Cherepy, Nerine; Niedermayr, Thomas; Payne, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    Cesium cerium bromide (Cs2CeBr5) and potassium cerium bromide (K2CeBr5) are new scintillator materials for X-ray and gamma ray detector applications. Recently halide scintillator materials, such as Ce doped lanthanum bromide has been proved to be very important material for the same purpose. These materials are highly hygroscopic; a search for high light yield non-hygroscopic materials was highly desirable to advance the scintillator technology. In this paper, we are reporting the crystal growth of novel scintillator materials, cesium cerium bromide (Cs2CeBr5) and potassium cerium bromide (K2CeBr5). Crystals were successfully grown from the melt using the vertical Bridgman-Stockbarger technique, in a comparison with the high performance LaBr3 or LaCl3 crystals, cerium based alkali halides crystals, (Cs2CeBr5) and (K2CeBr5) have similar scintillation properties, while being much less hygroscopic. Furthermore, cesium based compounds will not suffer from the self-activity present in potassium and lanthanum compounds. However the Cs2CeBr5 crystals did not grow properly probably due to non-congruent melting or to some phase transition during cooling. Keywords." Scintillator materials; Ce3+; Energy resolution; Light yield; K2CeBr5

  14. Materials Data on RbBe3ZnF9 (SG:188) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  15. Forming Rb(+) snowballs in the center of He nanodroplets.

    PubMed

    Theisen, Moritz; Lackner, Florian; Ernst, Wolfgang E

    2010-12-07

    Helium nanodroplets doped with rubidium atoms are ionized by applying a resonant two-step ionization scheme. Subsequent immersion of rubidium ions is observed in time-of-flight mass spectra. While alkali-metal atoms usually desorb from the surface of a helium nanodroplet upon electronic excitation, rubidium in its excited 5(2)P(1/2) state provides an exception from this rule (Auböck et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2008, 101, 35301). In our new experiment, Rb atoms are selectively excited either to the 5(2)P(1/2) or to the 5(2)P(3/2) state. From there they are ionized by a laser pulse. Time-of-flight mass spectra of the ionization products reveal that the intermediate population of the 5(2)P(1/2) state does not only make the ionization process Rb-monomer selective, but also gives rise to a very high yield of Rb(+)-He(N) complexes. Ions with masses of up to several thousand amu have been monitored, which can be explained by an immersion of the single Rb ion into the He nanodroplet, where most likely a snowball is formed in the center of the He nanodroplet. As the most stable position for an ion is in the center of a He nanodroplet, our results agree well with theory.

  16. Rate constant for the reaction SO + BrO yields SO2 + Br

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brunning, J.; Stief, L.

    1986-01-01

    The rate of the radical-radical reaction SO + BrO yields SO2 + Br has been determined at 298 K in a discharge flow system near 1 torr pressure with detection of SO and BrO via collision-free sampling mass spectrometry. The rate constant was determined using two different methods: measuring the decay of SO radicals in the presence of an excess of BrO and measuring the decay of BrO radicals in excess SO. The results from the two methods are in reasonable agreement and the simple mean of the two values gives the recommended rate constant at 298 K, k = (5.7 + or - 2.0) x 10 to the -11th cu cm/s. This represents the first determination of this rate constant and it is consistent with a previously derived lower limit based on SO2 formation. Comparison is made with other radical-radical reactions involving SO or BrO. The reaction SO + BrO yields SO2 + Br is of interest for models of the upper atmosphere of the earth and provides a potential coupling between atmospheric sulfur and bromine chemistry.

  17. First-principles calculations of two cubic fluoropervskite compounds: RbFeF3 and RbNiF3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubarak, A. A.; Al-Omari, Saleh

    2015-05-01

    We present first-principles calculations of the structural, elastic, electronic, magnetic and optical properties for RbFeF3 and RbNiF3. The full-potential linear augmented plan wave (FP-LAPW) method within the density functional theory was utilized to perform the present calculations. We employed the generalized gradient approximation as exchange-correlation potential. It was found that the calculated analytical lattice parameters agree with previous studies. The analysis of elastic constants showed that the present compounds are elastically stable and anisotropic. Moreover, both compounds are classified as a ductile compound. The calculations of the band structure and density functional theory revealed that the RbFeF3 compound has a half-metallic behavior while the RbNiF3 compound has a semiconductor behavior with indirect (M-Γ) band gap. The ferromagnetic behavior was studied for both compounds. The optical properties were calculated for the radiation of up to 40 eV. A beneficial optics technology is predicted as revealed from the optical spectra.

  18. Immune responses of bison and efficacy after booster vaccination with Brucella abortus strain RB51

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thirty-one bison heifers were randomly assigned to saline (control; n=7) or single vaccination (n=24) with 1010 CFU of B. abortus strain RB51 (RB51). Some vaccinated bison were randomly selected for booster vaccination with 10**10 CFU of RB51 at 11 months after initial vaccination (n=16). When comp...

  19. Analysis of Etched CdZnTe Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, J. D.; Bubulac, L. O.; Jaime-Vasquez, M.; Lennon, C. M.; Arias, J. M.; Smith, P. J.; Jacobs, R. N.; Markunas, J. K.; Almeida, L. A.; Stoltz, A.; Wijewarnasuriya, P. S.; Peterson, J.; Reddy, M.; Jones, K.; Johnson, S. M.; Lofgreen, D. D.

    2016-09-01

    State-of-the-art as-received (112)B CdZnTe substrates have been examined for surface impurity contamination and polishing residue. Two 4 cm × 4 cm and one 6 cm × 6 cm (112)B state-of-the-art as-received CdZnTe wafers were analyzed. A maximum surface impurity concentration of Al = 1.7 × 1015 atoms cm-2, Si = 3.7 × 1013 atoms cm-2, Cl = 3.12 × 1015 atoms cm-2, S = 1.7 × 1014 atoms cm-2, P = 1.1 × 1014 atoms cm-2, Fe = 1.0 × 1013 atoms cm-2, Br = 1.2 × 1014 atoms cm-2, and Cu = 4 × 1012 atoms cm-2 was observed on the as-received CdZnTe wafers. CdZnTe particulates and residual SiO2 polishing grit were observed on the surface of the as-received (112)B CdZnTe substrates. The polishing grit/CdZnTe particulate density on CdZnTe wafers was observed to vary across a 6 cm × 6 cm wafer from ˜4 × 107 cm-2 to 2.5 × 108 cm-2. The surface impurity and damage layer of the (112)B CdZnTe wafers dictate that a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) preparation etch is required. The contamination for one 4 cm × 4 cm and one 6 cm × 6 cm CdZnTe wafer after a standard MBE Br:methanol preparation etch procedure was also analyzed. A maximum surface impurity concentration of Al = 2.4 × 1015 atoms cm-2, Si = 4.0 × 1013 atoms cm-2, Cl = 7.5 × 1013 atoms cm-2, S = 4.4 × 1013 atoms cm-2, P = 9.8 × 1013 atoms cm-2, Fe = 1.0 × 1013 atoms cm-2, Br = 2.9 × 1014 atoms cm-2, and Cu = 5.2 × 1012 atoms cm-2 was observed on the MBE preparation-etched CdZnTe wafers. The MBE preparation-etched surface contamination consists of Cd(Zn)Te particles/flakes. No residual SiO2 polishing grit was observed on the (112)B surface.

  20. Novel hybrid light-emitting devices based on MAPbBr3 nanoplatelets:PVK nanocomposites and zinc oxide nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Szu-Ping; Chang, Chun-Kai; Yang, Sheng-Hsiung; Chang, Che-Yu; Chao, Yu-Chiang

    2018-01-01

    In this research, we demonstrate inverted perovskite light-emitting devices (PeLEDs) based on zinc oxide nanorod arrays (ZnO NAs) as the electron transport layer and methylammonium lead bromide nanoplatelets (MAPbBr3 NPLs) as the emissive material for the first time. The polyethyleneimine ethoxylated (PEIE) was inserted between the ZnO NAs and the MAPbBr3 NPLs layer to reduce the energy barrier and improve the electron injection efficiency. Besides, different weight ratios of poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) were blended with MAPbBr3 NPLs to make evenly dispersed nanocomposite films, thereby enhancing the performance of devices. Meanwhile, the photoluminescence of MAPbBr3 NPLs:PVK nanocomposite film was increased due to reduced self-quenching and prolonged carrier lifetime. Inverted PeLEDs with the configuration of ITO/PEIE-modified ZnO NAs/MAPbBr3 NPLs:PVK/TFB/Au were fabricated and evaluated, using TFB as the hole transport layer. The current density of the devices containing PVK matrix was significantly suppressed compared to those without PVK. Herein, the best device revealed a max brightness of 495 cd m-2 and a low turn-on voltage of 3.1 V that shows potential use in light-emitting applications.

  1. Le ciment brûle toujours

    PubMed Central

    Lebreton, T.; Fontaine, M.; Le Floch, R.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Les brûlures chimiques par ciment représentent une cause fréquente de corrosion cutanée en France. Elles nécessitent fréquemment un traitement chirurgical. Notre étude rétrospective concerne tous les patients admis pour une brûlure par ciment dans le service entre 2004 et 2016. Quarante-neuf patients âgés de 21 à 71 ans ont été pris en charge dans le centre des brûlés du Centre Hospitalier Saint Joseph Saint Luc à Lyon entre 2004 et 2016. La population concernée était majoritairement masculine, relativement jeune (44 ans en moyenne) et professionnellement active. Les brûlures survenaient principalement dans le cadre d’accidents domestiques (78%). Elles étaient profondes et atteignaient majoritairement les membres inférieurs, de façon bilatérale. La surface brûlée représentait 3% de la surface cutanée totale. Presque tous les patients (98%) ont nécessité une prise en charge chirurgicale pour excision et autogreffe de peau mince. Un seul patient a bénéficié d’une cicatrisation dirigée. Le délai moyen entre la brûlure et la chirurgie était de 13 jours et la durée moyenne d’hospitalisation de 8 jours. Sept patients ont nécessité une prise en charge en centre de rééducation à leur sortie du service. Cette étude confirme la sévérité des brûlures chimiques par ciment. Elle met également en avant l’impact que peut avoir ce type de brûlure en terme de retentissement socio-économique dans une population de patients majoritairement jeune et active. Elle insiste sur le fait que des mesures doivent être prises afin d’informer cette population rarement professionnelle sur les risques encourus lors du mésusage du ciment. La réglementation actuelle, classant le ciment comme irritant, ne prend pas en compte son caractère corrosif et devrait être amendée. PMID:28592929

  2. MATRIX METALLOPROTEINS (MMP)-MEDIATED PHOSPHORYLATION OF THE EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR (EGFR) IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS (HAEC) EXPOSED TO ZINC (ZN)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP)-Mediated Phosphorylation of The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) in Human Airway Epithelial Cells (HAEC) Exposed to Zinc (Zn)>Weidong Wu, James M. Samet, Robert Silbajoris, Lisa A. Dailey, Lee M. Graves, and Philip A. Bromberg<br>Center fo...

  3. Layer-by-layer deposition of nanostructured CsPbBr3 perovskite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetnikova, A. A.; Matyushkin, L. B.; Andronov, A. A.; Sokolov, V. S.; Aleksandrova, O. A.; Moshnikov, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    Layer-by-layer deposition of nanostructured perovskites cesium lead halide thin films is described. The method of deposition is based on alternate immersion of the substrate in the precursor solutions or colloidal solution of nanocrystals and methyl acetate/lead nitrate solution using the device for deposition of films by SILAR and dip-coating techniques. An example of obtaining a photosensitive structure based on nanostructures of ZnO nanowires and layers of CsBbBr3 nanocrystals is also shown.

  4. Comparison of Cu2+ and Zn2+ thermalcatalyst in treating diazo dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Y. Y.; Wong, Y. S.; Ong, S. A.; Lutpi, N. A.; Ho, L. N.

    2018-05-01

    This research demonstrates the comparison between copper (II) sulphate (CuSO4) and zinc oxide (ZnO) as thermalcatalysts in thermolysis process for the treatment of diazo reactive black 5 (RB 5) wastewater. CuSO4 was found to be the most effective thermalcatalyst in comparison to ZnO. The color removal efficiency of RB 5 catalysed by CuSO4 and ZnO were 91.55 % at pH 9.5 and 7.36 % at pH 2, respectively. From the UV-Vis wavelength scan, CuSO4 catalyst is able to cleave the molecular structure bonding more efficiently compared to ZnO. ZnO which only show a slight decay on the main chemical network strands: azo bond, naphthalene and benzene rings whereas CuSO4 catalyst is able to fragment azo bond and naphthalene more effectively. The degradation reactions of CuSO4 and ZnO as thermalcatalysts in thermolysis process were compared.

  5. Kepler-Daten von BR Cyg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagel, Lienhard

    2015-01-01

    In the Kepler field is the eclipsing binary BR Cyg. He is a BAV program star. In the KIC (Kepler Input Catalogue) he is associated with the identifier kplr009899416 [1]. There have been determined 1084 minima and as many secondary minima. Acknowledgement: This paper makes use of data from the Kepler exoplanetarchive.

  6. Observation of Feshbach resonances between ultracold Na and Rb atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fudong; Xiong, Dezhi; Li, Xiaoke; Wang, Dajun

    2013-03-01

    Absolute ground-state 23Na87Rb molecule has a large electric dipole moment of 3.3 Debye and its two body exchange chemical reaction is energetically forbidden at ultracold temperatures. It is thus a nice candidate for studying quantum gases with dipolar interactions. We have built an experiment setup to investigate ultracold collisions between Na and Rb atoms as a first step toward the production of ground state molecular samples. Ultracold mixtures are first obtained by evaporative cooling of Rb and sympathetic cooling of Na. They are then transferred to a crossed dipole trap and prepared in different spin combinations for Feshbach resonance study. Several resonances below 1000 G are observed with both atoms prepared in either | F = 1,mF = 1 > or | F = 1,mF = - 1 > hyperfine states. Most of them are within 30 G of predicted values§ based on potentials obtained by high quality molecular spectroscopy studies. This work is supported by RGC Hong Kong. § E. Tiemann, private communications

  7. Observation of coherent backscattering of light in ultracold ^85Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulatunga, P.; Sukenik, C. I.; Havey, M. D.; Kupriyanov, D. V.; Sokolov, I. M.

    2002-05-01

    We report investigation of multiple coherent light scattering from ^85Rb atoms confined in a magneto-optic trap. In experimental studies, measurements are made of coherent backscattering of a low-intensity probe beam tuned near the F = 3 - F' = 4 transition in ^85Rb atoms. Polarization of backscattered light is determined by a backscattering polarimeter; the spatial distribution of light intensity is measured by a liquid-nitrogen cooled CCD camera set in the focal plane of the analyzing optics. The instrument has angular resolution of about 100 micro-radians, and a polarization analyzing power of roughly 1000. In this paper we describe the instrument details, including calibration procedures, and our measurements of atomic coherent backscattering. In a theoretical study of intensity enhancement of near-resonant backscattered light from cold ^85,87Rb atoms, we consider scattering orders up to 8 and a Gaussian atom distribution in the MOT. Enhancement factors are calculated for all D1 and D2 hyperfine components and for both isotopes.

  8. Investigation of the RbCa molecule: Experiment and theory.

    PubMed

    Pototschnig, Johann V; Krois, Günter; Lackner, Florian; Ernst, Wolfgang E

    2015-04-01

    We present a thorough theoretical and experimental study of the electronic structure of RbCa. The mixed alkali-alkaline earth molecule RbCa was formed on superfluid helium nanodroplets. Excited states of the molecule in the range of 13 000-23 000 cm -1 were recorded by resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization time-of-flight spectroscopy. The experiment is accompanied by high level ab initio calculations of ground and excited state properties, utilizing a multireference configuration interaction method based on multiconfigurational self consistent field calculations. With this approach the potential energy curves and permanent electric dipole moments of 24 electronic states were calculated. In addition we computed the transition dipole moments for transitions from the ground into excited states. The combination of experiment and theory allowed the assignment of features in the recorded spectrum to the excited [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] states, where the experiment allowed to benchmark the calculation. This is the first experimental work giving insight into the previously unknown RbCa molecule, which offers great prospects in ultracold molecular physics due to its magnetic and electronic dipole moment in the [Formula: see text] ground state.

  9. Modelling the petrogenesis of high Rb/Sr silicic magmas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halliday, A.N.; Davidson, J.P.; Hildreth, W.; Holden, P.

    1991-01-01

    Rhyolites can be highly evolved with Sr contents as low as 0.1 ppm and Rb Sr > 2,000. In contrast, granite batholiths are commonly comprised of rocks with Rb Sr 100. Mass-balance modelling of source compositions, differentiation and contamination using the trace-element geochemistry of granites are therefore commonly in error because of the failure to account for evolved differentiates that may have been erupted from the system. Rhyolitic magmas with very low Sr concentrations (???1 ppm) cannot be explained by any partial melting models involving typical crustal source compositions. The only plausible mechanism for the production of such rhyolites is Rayleigh fractional crystallization involving substantial volumes of cumulates. A variety of methods for modelling the differentiation of magmas with extremely high Rb/Sr is discussed. In each case it is concluded that the bulk partition coefficients for Sr have to be large. In the simplest models, the bulk DSr of the most evolved types is modelled as > 50. Evidence from phenocryst/glass/whole-rock concentrations supports high Sr partition coefficients in feldspars from high silica rhyolites. However, the low modal abundance of plagioclase commonly observed in such rocks is difficult to reconcile with such simple fractionation models of the observed trace-element trends. In certain cases, this may be because the apparent trace-element trend defined by the suite of cognetic rhyolites is the product of different batches of magma with separate differentiation histories accumulating in the magma chamber roof zone. ?? 1991.

  10. Laser cooling of nuclear spin 0 alkali 78Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behr, J. A.; Gorelov, A.; Anholm, M.

    2015-05-01

    The textbook example for sub-Doppler cooling is a J = 1/2 I = 0 alkali atom in lin ⊥ lin molasses. In the σ+ σ- configuration of a standard MOT, the main sub-Doppler cooling mechanism relies on changing alignment (MF2 population) with the summed linear polarization orientation, but there is no such variation in AC Stark shift for F = 1/2. We have nevertheless looked for signs of sub-Doppler cooling by trapping I = 0 78Rb in a standard MOT and measuring the cloud size as a function of laser detuning and intensity. The 78Rb cloud size does not change significantly with lowered intensity, and expands slightly with detuning, consistent with minimal to no sub-Doppler cooling. Our geometry does show the well-known substantially smaller cloud size with detuning and intensity for I = 3/2 87Rb. Maintaining an I = 0 alkali cloud size with lowered intensity will help our planned β- ν correlation experiments in 38mK decay by suppressing possible production of photoassisted dimers. Supported by NSERC and NRC Canada through TRIUMF.

  11. Differential gene expression profiling of endometrium during the mid-luteal phase of the estrous cycle between a repeat breeder (RB) and non-RB cows.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Ken-Go; Hosoe, Misa; Kizaki, Keiichiro; Fujii, Shiori; Kanahara, Hiroko; Takahashi, Toru; Sakumoto, Ryosuke

    2017-03-23

    Repeat breeding directly affects reproductive efficiency in cattle due to an increase in services per conception and calving interval. This study aimed to investigate whether changes in endometrial gene expression profile are involved in repeat breeding in cows. Differential gene expression profiles of the endometrium were investigated during the mid-luteal phase of the estrous cycle between repeat breeder (RB) and non-RB cows using microarray analysis. The caruncular (CAR) and intercaruncular (ICAR) endometrium of both ipsilateral and contralateral uterine horns to the corpus luteum were collected from RB (inseminated at least three times but not pregnant) and non-RB cows on Day 15 of the estrous cycle (4 cows/group). Global gene expression profiles of these endometrial samples were analyzed with a 15 K custom-made oligo-microarray for cattle. Immunohistochemistry was performed to investigate the cellular localization of proteins of three identified transcripts in the endometrium. Microarray analysis revealed that 405 and 397 genes were differentially expressed in the CAR and ICAR of the ipsilateral uterine horn of RB, respectively when compared with non-RB cows. In the contralateral uterine horn, 443 and 257 differentially expressed genes were identified in the CAR and ICAR of RB, respectively when compared with non-RB cows. Gene ontology analysis revealed that genes involved in development and morphogenesis were mainly up-regulated in the CAR of RB cows. In the ICAR of both the ipsilateral and contralateral uterine horns, genes related to the metabolic process were predominantly enriched in the RB cows when compared with non-RB cows. In the analysis of the whole uterus (combining the data above four endometrial compartments), RB cows showed up-regulation of 37 genes including PRSS2, GSTA3 and PIPOX and down-regulation of 39 genes including CHGA, KRT35 and THBS4 when compared with non-RB cows. Immunohistochemistry revealed that CHGA, GSTA3 and PRSS2 proteins

  12. Dynamical interferences to probe short-pulse photoassociation of Rb atoms and stabilization of Rb{sub 2} dimers

    SciTech Connect

    Mur-Petit, Jordi; Luc-Koenig, Eliane; Masnou-Seeuws, Francoise

    2007-06-15

    We analyze the formation of Rb{sub 2} molecules with short photoassociation pulses applied to a cold {sup 85}Rb sample. A pump laser pulse couples a continuum level of the ground electronic state X {sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +} with bound levels in the 0{sub u}{sup +}(5S+5P{sub 1/2}) and 0{sub u}{sup +}(5S+5P{sub 3/2}) vibrational series. The nonadiabatic coupling between the two excited channels induces time-dependent beatings in the populations. We propose to take advantage of these oscillations to design further laser pulses that probe the photoassociation process via photoionization or that optimize the stabilization in deep levels of the ground state.

  13. Visible Light Driven Nanosecond Bromide Oxidation by a Ru Complex with Subsequent Br-Br Bond Formation.

    PubMed

    Li, Guocan; Ward, William M; Meyer, Gerald J

    2015-07-08

    Visible light excitation of [Ru(deeb)(bpz)2](2+) (deeb = 4,4'-diethylester-2,2'-bipyridine; bpz = 2,2'-bipyrazine), in Br(-) acetone solutions, led to the formation of Br-Br bonds in the form of dibromide, Br2(•-). This light reactivity stores ∼1.65 eV of free energy for milliseconds. Combined (1)H NMR, UV-vis and photoluminescence measurements revealed two distinct mechanisms. The first involves diffusional quenching of the excited state by Br(-) with a rate constant of (8.1 ± 0.1) × 10(10) M(-1) s(-1). At high Br(-) concentrations, an inner-sphere pathway is dominant that involves the association of Br(-), most likely with the 3,3'-H atoms of a bpz ligand, before electron transfer from Br(-) to the excited state, ket = (2.5 ± 0.3) × 10(7) s(-1). In both mechanisms, the direct photoproduct Br(•) subsequently reacts with Br(-) to yield dibromide, Br(•) + Br(-) → Br2(•-). Under pseudo-first-order conditions, this occurs with a rate constant of (1.1 ± 0.4) × 10(10) M(-1) s(-1) that was, within experimental error, the same as that measured when Br(•) were generated with ultraviolet light. Application of Marcus theory to the sensitized reaction provided an estimate of the Br(•) formal reduction potential E(Br(•)/Br(-)) = 1.22 V vs SCE in acetone, which is about 460 mV less positive than the accepted value in H2O. The results demonstrate that Br(-) oxidation by molecular excited states can be rapid and useful for solar energy conversion.

  14. The RB-related gene Rb2/p130 in neuroblastoma differentiation and in B-myb promoter down-regulation.

    PubMed

    Raschellà, G; Tanno, B; Bonetto, F; Negroni, A; Claudio, P P; Baldi, A; Amendola, R; Calabretta, B; Giordano, A; Paggi, M G

    1998-05-01

    The retinoblastoma family of nuclear factors is composed of RB, the prototype of the tumour suppressor genes and of the strictly related genes p107 and Rb2/p130. The three genes code for proteins, namely pRb, p107 and pRb2/p130, that share similar structures and functions. These proteins are expressed, often simultaneously, in many cell types and are involved in the regulation of proliferation and differentiation. We determined the expression and the phosphorylation of the RB family gene products during the DMSO-induced differentiation of the N1E-115 murine neuroblastoma cells. In this system, pRb2/p130 was strongly up-regulated during mid-late differentiation stages, while, on the contrary, pRb and p107 resulted markedly decreased at late stages. Differentiating N1E-115 cells also showed a progressive decrease in B-myb levels, a proliferation-related protein whose constitutive expression inhibits neuronal differentiation. Transfection of each of the RB family genes in these cells was able, at different degrees, to induce neuronal differentiation, to inhibit [3H]thymidine incorporation and to down-regulate the activity of the B-myb promoter.

  15. Effect of solvent on the electronic absorption spectral properties of some mixed β-octasubstituted Zn(II)-tetraphenylporphyrins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhyrappa, P.; Sankar, M.

    2018-01-01

    A series of mixed β-octasubstituted Zn(II)-porphyrins, 2,3,12,13-tetra(chloro/cyano/methyl)-5,7,8,10,15,17,18,20-octaphenylporphinato zinc(II), ZnTPP(Ph)4X4 (X = CN, Cl and CH3) have been examined by electronic absorption spectroscopy in various solvents. These Zn(II)-porphyrins exhibited varying degree of red-shift of absorption bands as high as 20-30 nm in 'B' band and 50-60 nm in longest wavelength band, 'Q(0,0)' band in polar solvents relative to that found in nonpolar solvents. The red-shift of B and Q(0,0) bands showed an unusual trend, ZnTPP(Ph)4(CN)4 > ZnTPP(Ph)4(CH3)4 > ZnTPP(Ph)4Cl4 but fails to follow an anticipated anodic shift in first porphyrin ring oxidation (vs Ag/AgCl) potential: ZnTPP(Ph)4(CN)4 (1.02 V) > ZnTPP(Ph)4Cl4 (0.74 V) > ZnTPP(Ph)4(CH3)4 (0.38 V). Such a trend suggests the combined effect of non-planarity of the macrocycle and electronic effect of the peripheral substituents. The equilibrium constants for the binding of nitrogenous bases with the Zn(II)-porphyrins showed as high as twenty fold increase for ZnTPP(Ph)4X4 (X = Br and CN) relative to ZnTPP(Ph)4(CH3)4 and follow the order: ZnTPP(Ph)4(CN)4 > ZnTPP(Ph)4Br4 > ZnTPP(Ph)4(CH3)4 ≤ ZnTPP which is approximately in line with an increase in anodic shift of their first ring redox potentials (ZnTPP(Ph)4(CN)4 (1.02 V) > ZnTPP(Ph)4Br4 (0.72 V) > ZnTPP (0.84 V) > ZnTPP(Ph)4(CH3)4) (0.38 V).

  16. Experimental studies on BrO/Br ratios at Stromboli, Etna, Masaya, Gorely and Nyiragongo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrowski, Nicole; Wittmer, Julian; Liotta, Marcello; Calabrese, Sergio; Giuffrida, Giovanni; Brusca, Lorenzo; Platt, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    Since the discovery of BrO in a volcanic plume (Bobrowski et al. 2003) many measurements have been performed as well as modelling to understand the radical chemistry in volcanic plumes, in particular, the interaction between volcanic gas species, released under strongly reduced conditions, and the oxidizing atmosphere. Besides the goal in atmospheric chemistry to better determine the impact of volcanic emission (e.g. reactive bromine) on the local (and maybe global) scale, volcanologists also have an interest to understand if the BrO/SO2 ratios can be used as a monitoring parameter giving further insides in dynamic processes of volcanoes. One of the major advantages when utilizing BrO/SO2 ratios is the relatively easiness of the measurements, which can be taken in a safe distance from volcanic activity accompanied by a good temporal resolution partly even during explosive eruptions. Recently, it has been shown (Lübcke et al., 2013) that already existing automatically running measurement networks can now be used to gain long-term data sets of BrO/SO2 ratios. However, one of the arguments which potentially makes volcanological interpretations difficult is the reactivity of BrO. Therefore it is, of great importance to link the measurements of BrO and gaseous hydrogen bromide to the total emission flux of bromine in order to estimate the pristine gas composition released from magmas. In particular, meteorological influences, trace gas composition of the surrounding atmosphere and the volcanic gas composition can all potentially effect the formation of BrO and might have to be considered. Some of these factors potentially also influence near source in-situ measurement. We need to answer the question: Can we correlate BrO measurements to the total bromine outgassing? Only with this knowledge we can relate changes of the measured gas ratios (BrO/SO2) to the volcanic fluids emitted by the underlying magma and can interpret data as signals from depth, which provide insight

  17. [Application of gene capture technology on mutation screening of RB1 gene in retinoblastoma patients].

    PubMed

    Meng, Q Y; Huang, L Z; Wang, B; Li, X X; Liang, J H

    2017-06-11

    Objectives: To analyze RB1 gene mutation in retinoblastoma (RB) patients using gene capture technology. Methods: Experimental research. The clinical data of 17 RB patients were collected at Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University People's Hospital from June 2010 to Jun 2014. Peripheral blood samples of seventeen RB patients and their parents were collected and genomic DNA were extracted. DNA library from RB patients was mixed with designed gene capture probe of RB1 exons and its flanking sequences. The data were analyzed using bioinformatics software. To avoid the false positive, the abnormal sites were verified using the Sanger sequencing method. Results: Totally, there were 17 RB patients, including 12 males and 5 females, from 0.5 to 23 years old, average ages were (3.2±5.2) years old. Both eyes were involved in 6 patients. The other 11 cases were only one eye was attacked. Four RB patients were found to have germline mutations, among whom 2 had bilateral tumors and 2 had unilateral tumors. 2 novel missense mutations were identified, including 15(th) exon c.1408A>T (p. Ile470Phe) and c.1960G>C (p. Val654Leu) at 19(th) exon. No RB1 mutation was identified in any of their parents. We also identified 2 mutations reported previously. One is c.1030C>T termination mutation at 10(th) exon in a bilateral RB patients and his father, who was diagnosed with unilateral RB. The other is c.371-372delTA frame shift mutation at 3(rd) exon. No mutation was found in their parents. Conclusions: Two novel germline RB1 mutations were found using gene capture technology, which enriched RB1 mutations library. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2017, 53: 455-459) .

  18. Molecular elimination of Br2 in photodissociation of CH2BrC(O)Br at 248 nm using cavity ring-down absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fan, He; Tsai, Po-Yu; Lin, King-Chuen; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Yan, Chi-Yu; Yang, Shu-Wei; Chang, A H H

    2012-12-07

    The primary elimination channel of bromine molecule in one-photon dissociation of CH(2)BrC(O)Br at 248 nm is investigated using cavity ring-down absorption spectroscopy. By means of spectral simulation, the ratio of nascent vibrational population in v = 0, 1, and 2 levels is evaluated to be 1:(0.5 ± 0.1):(0.2 ± 0.1), corresponding to a Boltzmann vibrational temperature of 581 ± 45 K. The quantum yield of the ground state Br(2) elimination reaction is determined to be 0.24 ± 0.08. With the aid of ab initio potential energy calculations, the obtained Br(2) fragments are anticipated to dissociate on the electronic ground state, yielding vibrationally hot Br(2) products. The temperature-dependence measurements support the proposed pathway via internal conversion. For comparison, the Br(2) yields are obtained analogously from CH(3)CHBrC(O)Br and (CH(3))(2)CBrC(O)Br to be 0.03 and 0.06, respectively. The trend of Br(2) yields among the three compounds is consistent with the branching ratio evaluation by Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus method. However, the latter result for each molecule is smaller by an order of magnitude than the yield findings. A non-statistical pathway so-called roaming process might be an alternative to the Br(2) production, and its contribution might account for the underestimate of the branching ratio calculations.

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on the conversion of ginsenoside Rb1 to Rg3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Kwon, Sun-Kyu; Sung, Nak-Yun; Jung, Pil-Mun; Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Sharma, Arun K.; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    Ginsenosides, the most important secondary metabolites in ginseng, have various biological activities. Many studies have focused on the conversion of one of the major ginsenosides, Rb1, to the more active minor ginsenoside, Rg3. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the conversion of Rb1 to Rg3. Rb1 solutions were gamma-irradiated at doses of 10 and 30 kGy and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC chromatograms showed a decreased content of Rb1 with increasing irradiation dose, but the content of Rg3 was increased. The highest content of Rg3 was present in the 30 kGy-irradiated Rb1 sample. The cytotoxic effects tested in cancer cell lines were increased in the gamma-irradiated group. Therefore, these results suggest that gamma irradiation can be an effective method for the conversion of the ginsenoside Rb1 to Rg3.

  20. Reverse-bias-driven dichromatic electroluminescence of n-ZnO wire arrays/p-GaN film heterojunction light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Junseok; Choi, Ji Eun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Hwang, Sunyong; Kim, Sung Kyu; Kim, Jong Kyu; Jeong, Hu Young; Hong, Young Joon

    2016-09-01

    Position-controlled n-ZnO microwire (MW) and nanowire-bundle (NW-B) arrays were fabricated using hydrothermal growth of ZnO on a patterned p-GaN film. Both the wire/film p-n heterojunctions showed electrical rectification features at reverse-bias (rb) voltages, analogous to backward diodes. Dichromatic electroluminescence (EL) emissions with 445- and 560-nm-wavelength peaks displayed whitish-blue and greenish-yellow light from MW- and NW-B-based heterojunctions at rb voltages, respectively. The different dichromatic EL emission colors were studied based on photoluminescence spectra and the dichromatic EL peak intensity ratios as a function of the rb voltage. The different EL colors are discussed with respect to depletion thickness and electron tunneling probability determined by wire/film junction geometry and size.

  1. Reverse-bias-driven dichromatic electroluminescence of n-ZnO wire arrays/p-GaN film heterojunction light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Junseok; Choi, Ji Eun; Hong, Young Joon, E-mail: yjhong@sejong.ac.kr

    Position-controlled n-ZnO microwire (MW) and nanowire-bundle (NW-B) arrays were fabricated using hydrothermal growth of ZnO on a patterned p-GaN film. Both the wire/film p–n heterojunctions showed electrical rectification features at reverse-bias (rb) voltages, analogous to backward diodes. Dichromatic electroluminescence (EL) emissions with 445- and 560-nm-wavelength peaks displayed whitish-blue and greenish-yellow light from MW- and NW-B-based heterojunctions at rb voltages, respectively. The different dichromatic EL emission colors were studied based on photoluminescence spectra and the dichromatic EL peak intensity ratios as a function of the rb voltage. The different EL colors are discussed with respect to depletion thickness and electron tunnelingmore » probability determined by wire/film junction geometry and size.« less

  2. RB loss contributes to aggressive tumor phenotypes in MYC-driven triple negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Erik S; McClendon, A Kathleen; Franco, Jorge; Ertel, Adam; Fortina, Paolo; Witkiewicz, Agnieszka K

    2015-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by multiple genetic events occurring in concert to drive pathogenic features of the disease. Here we interrogated the coordinate impact of p53, RB, and MYC in a genetic model of TNBC, in parallel with the analysis of clinical specimens. Primary mouse mammary epithelial cells (mMEC) with defined genetic features were used to delineate the combined action of RB and/or p53 in the genesis of TNBC. In this context, the deletion of either RB or p53 alone and in combination increased the proliferation of mMEC; however, the cells did not have the capacity to invade in matrigel. Gene expression profiling revealed that loss of each tumor suppressor has effects related to proliferation, but RB loss in particular leads to alterations in gene expression associated with the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. The overexpression of MYC in combination with p53 loss or combined RB/p53 loss drove rapid cell growth. While the effects of MYC overexpression had a dominant impact on gene expression, loss of RB further enhanced the deregulation of a gene expression signature associated with invasion. Specific RB loss lead to enhanced invasion in boyden chambers assays and gave rise to tumors with minimal epithelial characteristics relative to RB-proficient models. Therapeutic screening revealed that RB-deficient cells were particularly resistant to agents targeting PI3K and MEK pathway. Consistent with the aggressive behavior of the preclinical models of MYC overexpression and RB loss, human TNBC tumors that express high levels of MYC and are devoid of RB have a particularly poor outcome. Together these results underscore the potency of tumor suppressor pathways in specifying the biology of breast cancer. Further, they demonstrate that MYC overexpression in concert with RB can promote a particularly aggressive form of TNBC. PMID:25602521

  3. Deregulation of RB1 expression by loss of imprinting in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Sumadi Lukman; Krech, Till; Hasemeier, Britta; Schipper, Elisa; Schweitzer, Nora; Vogel, Arndt; Kreipe, Hans; Lehmann, Ulrich

    2014-08-01

    The tumour suppressor gene RB1 is frequently silenced in many different types of human cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, mutations of the RB1 gene are relatively rare in HCC. A systematic screen for the identification of imprinted genes deregulated in human HCC revealed that RB1 shows imprint abnormalities in a high proportion of primary patient samples. Altogether, 40% of the HCC specimens (16/40) showed hyper- or hypomethylation at the CpG island in intron 2 of the RB1 gene. Re-analysis of publicly available genome-wide DNA methylation data confirmed these findings in two independent HCC cohorts. Loss of correct DNA methylation patterns at the RB1 locus leads to the aberrant expression of an alternative RB1-E2B transcript, as measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Demethylation at the intron 2 CpG island by DNMT1 knock-down or aza-deoxycytidine (DAC) treatment stimulated expression of the RB1-E2B transcript, accompanied by diminished RB1 main transcript expression. No aberrant DNA methylation was found at the RB1 locus in hepatocellular adenoma (HCA, n = 10), focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH, n = 5) and their corresponding adjacent liver tissue specimens. Deregulated RB1 expression due to hyper- or hypomethylation in intron 2 of the RB1 gene is found in tumours without loss of heterozygosity and is associated with a decrease in overall survival (p = 0.032) if caused by hypermethylation of CpG85. This unequivocally demonstrates that loss of imprinting represents an important additional mechanism for RB1 pathway inactivation in human HCC, complementing well-described molecular defects. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Antireflective coating for AgBr-TlI and AgBr-TlBr0.46I0.54 solid solution crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korsakov, Alexandr; Salimgareev, Dmitrii; Lvov, Alexandr; Zhukova, Liya

    2016-12-01

    We researched the process of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation for the crystals of AgBr-TlI and AgBr-TlBr0.46I0.54 systems. It was found that on the surface of irradiated crystals, the film is formed and film grain size depends on exposure time and crystal composition. This film proved to gain the transmission by reducing the reflection from its surface within the 8.0-27.0 μm range.

  5. MECHANISMS OF ZN-INDUCED SIGNAL INITIATION THROUGH THE EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR (EGFR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    MECHANISMS OF Zn-INDUCED SIGNAL INITIATION THROUGH THE EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR (EGFR)<br>James M. Samet*, Lee M. Graves? and Weidong Wu?. *Human Studies Division, NHEERL, ORD, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, and ?Center for Environmental Medicine, University of North C...

  6. Dipolar collisions of ultracold 23Na87Rb molecules.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Mingyang; Ye, Xin; He, Junyu; Quéméner, Goulven; González-Martínez, Maykel; Dulieu, Olivier; Wang, Dajun

    2017-04-01

    Although ultracold polar molecules have long been proposed as a primary candidate for investigating dipolar many body physics, many of their basic properties, like their collisions in external electric fields, are still largely unknown. In fact, despite the successful production of several new ultracold molecular species in the last two years, so far the only available dipolar collision data is still from JILA's fermionic 40K87Rb experiment in 2010. In this talk, we will describe our investigation on dipolar collisions of ultracold bosonic and chemically stable 23Na87Rb molecules which possess a large permanent electric dipole moment. With a moderate electric field, an effective dipole moment large enough to strongly couple higher partial waves into the collisions can be achieved. We will report the influence of this effect on the molecular collisions observed in our experiment. Our theoretical model for understanding these observations will also be presented. This work is supported by the Hong Kong RGC CUHK404712 and the ANR/RGC Joint Research Scheme ACUHK403/13.

  7. Local structure of solid Rb at megabar pressures

    SciTech Connect

    De Panfilis, S.; Gorelli, F.; Santoro, M.

    2015-06-07

    We have investigated the local and electronic structure of solid rubidium by means of x-ray absorption spectroscopy up to 101.0 GPa, thus doubling the maximum investigated experimental pressure. This study confirms the predicted stability of phase VI and was completed by the combination of two pivotal instrumental solutions. On one side, we made use of nanocrystalline diamond anvils, which, contrary to the more commonly used single crystal diamond anvils, do not generate sharp Bragg peaks (glitches) at specific energies that spoil the weak fine structure oscillations in the x-ray absorption cross section. Second, we exploited the performance of a state-of-the-artmore » x-ray focussing device yielding a beam spot size of 5 × 5 μm{sup 2}, spatially stable over the entire energy scan. An advanced data analysis protocol was implemented to extract the pressure dependence of the structural parameters in phase VI of solid Rb from 51.2 GPa up to the highest pressure. A continuous reduction of the nearest neighbour distances was observed, reaching about 6% over the probed pressure range. We also discuss a phenomenological model based on the Einstein approximation to describe the pressure behaviour of the mean-square relative displacement. Within this simplified scheme, we estimate the Grüneisen parameter for this high pressure Rb phase to be in the 1.3–1.5 interval.« less

  8. Electron Impact Ionization Cross Sections in Rb and Cs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddish, T. J.; Lukomski, M.; Sutton, S.; Kedzierski, W.; McConkey, J. W.; Bartschat, K.; Bartlett, P. L.; Stelbovics, A. T.; Bray, I.

    2006-05-01

    We present a new atom trapping technique for determining absolute, total ionisation cross sections (TICS) out of an excited atom. The novel feature of this method is in utilizing Doppler cooling of neutral atoms to determine ionisation cross sections. This fluorescence-monitoring experiment, which is a variant of the `trap loss' technique, has enabled us to obtain the experimental electron impact ionisation cross sections out of the Cs 6^2P3/2 excited state between 7 - 400 eV. New CCC, R-Matrix with Pseudo-States (RMPS), and Born approximation single ionisation cross sections (SICS) are also presented for both the ground and excited states of Cs and Rb, and compared with the available experimental data. The comparison of the results reveals the importance of the autoionisation and multiple ionisation contributions to the TICS. The autoionisation contribution appears to be substantial for ionisation out of the Cs 6^2P and Rb 5^2P excited states; ˜ 3-4 larger than the direct ionisation contribution predicted by CCC at ˜ 30-50 eV. This surprising result shows the importance of multi-electron processes in determining the ionisation cross sections of heavy alkali atoms.

  9. Coulomb Impurity Potential RbCl Quantum Pseudodot Qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xin-Jun; Qi, Bin; Xiao, Jing-Lin

    2015-08-01

    By employing a variational method of Pekar type, we study the eigenenergies and the corresponding eigenfunctions of the ground and the first-excited states of an electron strongly coupled to electron-LO in a RbCl quantum pseudodot (QPD) with a hydrogen-like impurity at the center. This QPD system may be used as a two-level quantum qubit. The expressions of electron's probability density versus time and the coordinates, and the oscillating period versus the Coulombic impurity potential and the polaron radius have been derived. The investigated results indicate ① that the probability density of the electron oscillates in the QPD with a certain oscillating period of , ② that due to the presence of the asymmetrical potential in the z direction of the RbCl QPD, the electron probability density shows double-peak configuration, whereas there is only one peak if the confinement is a two-dimensional symmetric structure in the xy plane of the QPD, ③ that the oscillation period is a decreasing function of the Coulombic impurity potential, whereas it is an increasing one of the polaron radius.

  10. Phase Diagram of Quaternary System NaBr-KBr-CaBr2-H2O at 323 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Rui-Zhi; Wang, Wei; Yang, Lei; Sang, Shi-Hua

    2018-03-01

    The phase equilibria in the system NaBr-KBr-CaBr2-H2O at 323 K were studied using the isothermal dissolution equilibrium method. Using the experimental solubilities of salts data, phase diagram was constructed. The phase diagram have two invariant points, five univariant curves, and four crystallization fields. The equilibrium solid phases in the system are NaBr, NaBr · 2H2O, KBr, and CaBr2 · 4H2O. The solubilities of salts in the system at 323 K were calculated by Pitzer's equation. There is shown that the calculated solubilities agree well with experimental data.

  11. Revised and extended analysis of Br IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riyaz, A.; Rahimullah, K.; Tauheed, A.

    2014-01-01

    The spectrum of three-times ionized bromine Br IV has been studied in the 319-2350 Å wavelength region. The spectrum was recorded on a 3-m normal incidence vacuum spectrograph at the St. Francis Xavier University, Antigonish (Canada) and 6.65-m grazing incidence spectrograph at the Zeeman laboratory (Amsterdam). The light sources used were a triggered spark and sliding spark, respectively. The ground configuration of Br IV 3d104s24p2, the excited configurations 3d104s4p3+3d104s24p (4d+5d+6d+5s+6s+7s) in the odd parity system and 3d104s24p (5p+4f+5f)+3d104s4p2 (4d+5s)+3d104p4 in the even parity system have been studied. Relativistic Hartree-Fock (HFR) and least squares fitted (LSF) parametric calculations were used to interpret the observed spectrum. 120 Levels of Br IV have now been established, 58 being new. Among 424 spectral lines, 277 are newly classified. The levels 4s4p35S2, 4s24p4d 3F4 and 4p5p (3P0, 1, 3D1, 2, 3S1) are revised. We estimate the accuracy of our measured wavelength for sharp and unblended lines to be ±0.005 Å. The ionization limit is determined as 385,390±100 cm-1 (47.782±0.012 eV).

  12. Dye adsorbates BrPDI, BrGly, and BrAsp on anatase TiO2(001) for dye-sensitized solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çakır, D.; Gülseren, O.; Mete, E.; Ellialtıoǧlu, Ş.

    2009-07-01

    Using the first-principles plane-wave pseudopotential method within density functional theory, we systematically investigated the interaction of perylenediimide (PDI)-based dye compounds (BrPDI, BrGly, and BrAsp) with both unreconstructed (UR) and reconstructed (RC) anatase TiO2(001) surfaces. All dye molecules form strong chemical bonds with surface in the most favorable adsorption structures. In UR-BrGly, RC-BrGly, and RC-BrAsp cases, we have observed that highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital levels of molecules appear within band gap and conduction-band region, respectively. Moreover, we have obtained a gap narrowing upon adsorption of BrPDI on the RC surface. Because of the reduction in effective band gap of surface-dye system and possibly achieving the visible-light activity, these results are valuable for photovoltaic and photocatalytic applications. We have also considered the effects of hydration of surface to the binding of BrPDI. It has been found that the binding energy drops significantly for the completely hydrated surfaces.

  13. Ozone Depletion Potential of CH3Br. Appendix H

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Sze, Nien Dak; Scott, Courtney; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Sander, Stanley P.

    1998-01-01

    The ozone depletion potential (ODP) of methyl bromide (CH3Br) can be determined by combining the model-calculated bromine efficiency factor (BEF) for CH3Br and its atmospheric lifetime. This paper examines how changes in several key kinetic data affect BEF. The key reactions highlighted in this study include the reaction of BrO + HO2, the absorption cross section of HOBr, the absorption cross section and the photolysis products of BrONO2, and the heterogeneous conversion of BrONO2 to HOBr and HNO3 on aerosol particles. By combining the calculated BEF with the latest estimate of 0.7 year for the atmospheric lifetime of CH3Br, the likely value of ODP for CH3Br is 0.39. The model-calculated concentration of HBr (approx. 0.3 pptv) in the lower stratosphere is substantially smaller than the reported measured value of about 1 pptv. Recent publications suggested models can reproduce the measured value if one assumes a yield for HBr from the reaction of BrO + OH or from the reaction of BrO + HO2. Although the evaluation concluded any substantial yield of HBr from BrO + HO2 is unlikely, for completeness, we calculate the effects of these assumed yields on BEF for CH3Br. Our calculations show that the effects are minimal: practically no impact for an assumed 1.3% yield of HBr from BrO + OH and 10% smaller for an assumed 0.6% yield from BrO + HO2.

  14. 76 FR 24793 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-524 Series and RB211 Trent 500, 700, and 800...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-524 Series and RB211 Trent 500, 700, and 800 Series... adding the following new AD: 2011-09-07 Rolls-Royce plc (RR): Amendment 39-16669. Docket No. FAA- 2010... identified in this AD, contact Rolls-Royce plc, P.O. Box 31, Derby, DE24 8BJ, United Kingdom; phone: 011 44...

  15. Pumilio and nanos RNA-binding proteins counterbalance the transcriptional consequences of RB1 inactivation.

    PubMed

    Miles, Wayne O; Dyson, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    The ability of the retinoblastoma protein (RB) tumor suppressor to repress transcription stimulated by the E2 promoter binding factors (E2F) is integral to its biological functions. Our recent report described a conserved feedback mechanism mediated by the RNA-binding proteins Pumilio and Nanos that increases in importance following RB loss and helps cells to tolerate deregulated E2F.

  16. RB1CC1 protein suppresses type II collagen synthesis in chondrocytes and causes dwarfism.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Ichiro; Chano, Tokuhiro; Kita, Hiroko; Matsusue, Yoshitaka; Okabe, Hidetoshi

    2011-12-23

    RB1-inducible coiled-coil 1 (RB1CC1) functions in various processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, senescence, apoptosis, and autophagy. The conditional transgenic mice with cartilage-specific RB1CC1 excess that were used in the present study were made for the first time by the Cre-loxP system. Cartilage-specific RB1CC1 excess caused dwarfism in mice without causing obvious abnormalities in endochondral ossification and subsequent skeletal development from embryo to adult. In vitro and in vivo analysis revealed that the dwarf phenotype in cartilaginous RB1CC1 excess was induced by reductions in the total amount of cartilage and the number of cartilaginous cells, following suppressions of type II collagen synthesis and Erk1/2 signals. In addition, we have demonstrated that two kinds of SNPs (T-547C and C-468T) in the human RB1CC1 promoter have significant influence on the self-transcriptional level. Accordingly, human genotypic variants of RB1CC1 that either stimulate or inhibit RB1CC1 transcription in vivo may cause body size variations.

  17. RB1CC1 Protein Suppresses Type II Collagen Synthesis in Chondrocytes and Causes Dwarfism*

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Ichiro; Chano, Tokuhiro; Kita, Hiroko; Matsusue, Yoshitaka; Okabe, Hidetoshi

    2011-01-01

    RB1-inducible coiled-coil 1 (RB1CC1) functions in various processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, senescence, apoptosis, and autophagy. The conditional transgenic mice with cartilage-specific RB1CC1 excess that were used in the present study were made for the first time by the Cre-loxP system. Cartilage-specific RB1CC1 excess caused dwarfism in mice without causing obvious abnormalities in endochondral ossification and subsequent skeletal development from embryo to adult. In vitro and in vivo analysis revealed that the dwarf phenotype in cartilaginous RB1CC1 excess was induced by reductions in the total amount of cartilage and the number of cartilaginous cells, following suppressions of type II collagen synthesis and Erk1/2 signals. In addition, we have demonstrated that two kinds of SNPs (T-547C and C-468T) in the human RB1CC1 promoter have significant influence on the self-transcriptional level. Accordingly, human genotypic variants of RB1CC1 that either stimulate or inhibit RB1CC1 transcription in vivo may cause body size variations. PMID:22049074

  18. RB4CD12 epitope expression and heparan sulfate disaccharide composition in brain vasculature.

    PubMed

    Hosono-Fukao, Tomomi; Ohtake-Niimi, Shiori; Nishitsuji, Kazuchika; Hossain, Md Motarab; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Michikawa, Makoto; Uchimura, Kenji

    2011-11-01

    RB4CD12 is a phage display antibody that recognizes a heparan sulfate (HS) glycosaminoglycan epitope. The epitope structure is proposed to contain a trisulfated disaccharide, [-IdoA(2-OSO(3))-GlcNSO(3) (6-OSO(3))-], which supports HS binding to various macromolecules such as growth factors and cytokines in central nervous tissues. Chemically modified heparins that lack the trisulfated disaccharides failed to inhibit the RB4CD12 recognition of HS chains. To determine the localization of the RB4CD12 anti-HS epitope in the brain, we performed an immunohistochemical analysis for cryocut sections of mouse brain. The RB4CD12 staining signals were colocalized with laminin and were detected abundantly in the vascular basement membrane. Bacterial heparinases eliminated the RB4CD12 staining signals. The RB4CD12 epitope localization was confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy. Western blotting analysis revealed that the size of a major RB4CD12-positive molecule is ∼460 kDa in a vessel-enriched fraction of the mouse brain. Disaccharide analysis with reversed-phase ion-pair HPLC showed that [-IdoA(2-OSO(3))-GlcNSO(3) (6-OSO(3))-] trisulfated disaccharide residues are present in HS purified from the vessel-enriched brain fraction. These results indicated that the RB4CD12 anti-HS epitope exists in large quantities in the brain vascular basement membrane. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. 75 FR 61114 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211-Trent 800 Series Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211-Trent 800 Series Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation.... Fax: (202) 493-2251. Contact Rolls-Royce plc, P.O. Box 31, Derby, England, DE248BJ; telephone: 011-44... proposed AD, for Rolls- Royce plc RB211-Trent 800 series turbofan engines. That proposed AD would have...

  20. 75 FR 15321 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211-Trent 800 Series Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211-Trent 800 Series Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... Rolls-Royce plc: Amendment 39-16239. Docket No. FAA-2009- 1004; Directorate Identifier 2009-NE-36-AD.... Applicability (c) This AD applies to Rolls-Royce plc models RB211-Trent 875- 17, Trent 877-17, Trent 884-17...

  1. Emulsification properties of biosurfactant produced from Pseudomonas aeruginosa RB 28.

    PubMed

    Sifour, Mohamed; Al-Jilawi, Majid H; Aziz, Ghazi M

    2007-04-15

    Biosurfactant produced from P. aeruginosa RB 28 was extracted, purified and characterized. Thin layer chromatography results showed that the extract contained two different compounds. The identification of the nature of the two compounds showed that they were glycolipids and rhamnose was the sugar moiety in these glycolipids. It was concluded that these compounds were rhamnolipids. The production of biosurfactant was started at late log phase and reached its maximal level (2.7 g L(-1)) at the stationary phase. Study of some rhamnolipid properties showed that sunflower oil, heptadecane and paraffin were efficiently emulsified and emulsions formed with vegetable oils (olive oil, corn oil and sunflower oil) were more stable than emulsions formed with hydrocarbons.

  2. The electrical transport properties of liquid Rb using pseudopotential theory

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, A. B., E-mail: amit07patel@gmail.com; Bhatt, N. K., E-mail: amit07patel@gmail.com; Thakore, B. Y., E-mail: amit07patel@gmail.com

    2014-04-24

    Certain electric transport properties of liquid Rb are reported. The electrical resistivity is calculated by using the self-consistent approximation as suggested by Ferraz and March. The pseudopotential due to Hasegawa et al for full electron-ion interaction, which is valid for all electrons and contains the repulsive delta function due to achieve the necessary s-pseudisation was used for the calculation. Temperature dependence of structure factor is considered through temperature dependent potential parameter in the pair potential. Finally, thermo-electric power and thermal conductivity are obtained. The outcome of the present study is discussed in light of other such results, and confirms themore » applicability of pseudopotential at very high temperature via temperature dependent pair potential.« less

  3. Performance retention of the RB211 powerplant in service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Astridge, B. L.; Pinder, J. T.

    1981-01-01

    An understanding of the mechanisms of deterioration is essential in order that features to counteract performance degradation can be built into the basic design of an engine and nacelle. Furthermore, the interpretation must be continued in service for effective feedback to provide modifications which may be necessary in maintaining a satisfactory performance retention program. The in service assessment must be accurate as to magnitude and causes and this requires consideration of: (1) the powerplant as a complete entity, i.e., the engine components and nacelle including the thrust reverser; (2) measurement of performance in flight rather than by sole reliance on the scaling of test cell data to flight conditions (although some correlation should be possible); and (3) the relationship of engine parts condition to overhaul performance and in flight deterioration level of that engine. These aspects are addressed by consideration of the RB211 engine in service in both the Lockheed L1011 Tristar and Boeing 747 aircraft.

  4. Free-tropospheric BrO investigations based on GOME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, P.; van Roozendael, M.; Backman, L.; Damski, J.; Thölix, L.; Fayt, C.; Taalas, P.

    2003-04-01

    Bromine compounds contribute significantly to the stratospheric ozone depletion. However measurements of most bromine compounds are sparse or non-existent, and experimental studies essentially rely on BrO observations. The differences between balloon and ground based measurements of stratospheric BrO columns and satellite total column measurements are too large to be explained by measurement uncertainties. Therefore, it has been assumed that there is a concentration of BrO in the free troposphere of about 1-3 ppt. In a previous work, we have calculated the tropospheric BrO abundance as the difference between total BrO and stratospheric BrO columns. The total vertical column densities of BrO are extracted from GOME measurements using IASB-BIRA algorithms. The stratospheric amount has been calculated using chemical transport models (CTM). Results from SLIMCAT and FinROSE simulations are used for this purpose. SLIMCAT is a widely used 3D CTM that has been tested against balloon measurements. FinROSE is a 3D CTM developed at FMI. We have tried several different tropospheric BrO profiles. Our results show that a profile with high BrO concentrations in the boundary layer usually gives unrealistically high tropospheric column values over areas of low albedo (like oceans). This suggests that the tropospheric BrO would be predominantly distributed in the free troposphere. In this work, attempts are made to identify the signature of a free tropospheric BrO content when comparing cloudy and non-cloudy scenes. The possible impact of orography on measured BrO columns is also investigated.

  5. High energy XeBr electric discharge laser

    DOEpatents

    Sze, Robert C.; Scott, Peter B.

    1981-01-01

    A high energy XeBr laser for producing coherent radiation at 282 nm. The XeBr laser utilizes an electric discharge as the excitation source to minimize formation of molecular ions thereby minimizing absorption of laser radiation by the active medium. Additionally, HBr is used as the halogen donor which undergoes harpooning reactions with Xe.sub.M * to form XeBr*.

  6. High energy XeBr electric discharge laser

    DOEpatents

    Sze, R.C.; Scott, P.B.

    A high energy XeBr laser for producing coherent radiation at 282 nm is disclosed. The XeBr laser utilizes an electric discharge as the excitation source to minimize formation of molecular ions thereby minimizing absorption of laser radiation by the active medium. Additionally, HBr, is used as the halogen donor which undergoes harpooning reactions with Xe/sub M/ to form XeBr.

  7. First-Principles Study of Impurities in TlBr

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Mao-Hua

    2012-01-01

    TlBr is a promising semiconductor material for room-temperature radiation detection. Material purification has been the driver for the recent improvement in the TlBr detector performance, mainly reflected by the significant increase in the carrier mobility-lifetime product. This suggests that impurities have significant impact on the carrier transport in TlBr. In this paper, first-principles calculations are used to study the properties of a number of commonly observed impurities in TlBr. The impurity-induced gap states are presented and their effects on the carrier trapping are discussed.

  8. First-principles study of impurities in TlBr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Mao-Hua

    2012-04-01

    TlBr is a promising semiconductor material for room-temperature radiation detection. Material purification has been the driver for the recent improvement in the TlBr detector performance, mainly reflected by the significant increase in the carrier mobility-lifetime product. This suggests that impurities have significant impact on the carrier transport in TlBr. In this paper, first-principles calculations are used to study the properties of a number of commonly observed impurities in TlBr. The impurity-induced gap states are presented and their effects on the carrier trapping are discussed.

  9. Penning trap mass measurement of 72Br

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valverde, A. A.; Bollen, G.; Cooper, K.; Eibach, M.; Gulyuz, K.; Izzo, C.; Morrissey, D. J.; Ringle, R.; Sandler, R.; Schwarz, S.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Villari, A. C. C.

    2015-03-01

    The Low Energy Beam and Ion Trap (LEBIT) Penning trap mass spectrometer was used to perform an improved-precision mass measurement of 72Br and the low-lying isomeric state, Brm72, giving mass excesses of -59 062.2 (1.0 )keV and -58 960.9 (1.2 )keV , respectively. These values are consistent with the values from the 2012 atomic mass evaluation [Chin. Phys. C 36, 1603 (2012), 10.1088/1674-1137/36/12/003] and the Nubase2012 evaluation of nuclear properties [Chin. Phys. C 36, 1157 (2012), 10.1088/1674-1137/36/12/001]. The uncertainties on the mass of the ground state and isomeric state have been reduced by a factor of seven.

  10. Growth kinetics of Bacillus stearothermophilus BR219

    SciTech Connect

    Worden, R.M.; Subramanian, R.; Bly, M.J.

    1991-12-31

    Bacillus stearothermophilus BR219, a phenol-resistant thermophile, can convert phenol to the specialty chemical catechol. The growth kinetics of this organism were studied in batch, continuous, and immobilized-cell culture. Batch growth was insensitive to pH between 6.0 and 8.0, but little growth occurred at 5.5. In continuous culture on a dilute medium supplemented with 10 mM phenol, several steady states were achieved between dilution rates of 0.25 and 1.3 h{sup -1}. Phenol degradation was found to be uncoupled from growth. Immobilized cells grew rapidly in a rich medium, but cell viability plummeted following a switch to a dilute medium supplemented withmore » 5 mM phenol.« less

  11. Experimental Model to Study the Role of Retinoblastoma Gene Product (pRb) for Determination of Adipocyte Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Popov, B V; Shilo, P S; Zhidkova, O V; Zaichik, A M; Petrov, N S

    2015-06-01

    Using stable constitutive expression of retinoblastoma gene product (pRb) in polypotent mesenchymal 10T1/2 cells we obtained stable cell lines hyperexpressing functionally active or inactive mutant pRb. The cells producing active exogenous pRb demonstrated high sensitivity to adipocyte differentiation inductors, whereas production of inactive form of the exogenous protein suppressed adipocyte differentiation. The obtained lines can serve as the experimental model for studying the role of pRb in determination of adipocyte differentiation.

  12. 75 FR 27973 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211-524C2 Series Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... RB211-524C2 Series Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... Rolls-Royce plc (RR) model RB211-524C2-19 and RB211-524C2-B-19 turbofan engines. These engines are...

  13. 75 FR 49368 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-Trent 900 Series Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ...-Royce Trent 900 Series Propulsion Systems Alert Non- Modification Service Bulletin (NMSB) RB.211-72... Propulsion Systems Alert NMSB RB.211-72-AG329, Revision 1, dated January 13, 2010. The actions described in... Series Propulsion Systems Alert Non-Modification Service Bulletin (NMSB) RB.211-72-AG329, Revision 1...

  14. Immune Responses and Protection against Experimental Brucella suis biovar 1 Challenge in Non-vaccinated or RB51-Vaccinated Cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Twenty Hereford heifers, approximately 9 months of age, were vaccinated with saline (control) or 2 x 10**10 CFU of Brucella abortus strain RB51 (RB51) vaccine. Immunologic responses after inoculation demonstrated significantly greater (P<0.05) antibody and proliferative responses to RB51 antigens i...

  15. Efficacy of dart or booster vaccination with strain RB51 in protecting bison against experimental Brucella abortus challenge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vaccination is an effective tool for reducing the prevalence of brucellosis in natural hosts. In this study, we characterized the efficacy of the Brucella abortus strain RB51 (RB51) vaccine in bison when delivered by single intramuscular vaccination (Hand RB51), single pneumatic dart delivery (Dart ...

  16. Constrained dipole oscillator strength distributions, sum rules, and dispersion coefficients for Br2 and BrCN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashok; Thakkar, Ajit J.

    2017-03-01

    Dipole oscillator strength distributions for Br2 and BrCN are constructed from photoabsorption cross-sections combined with constraints provided by the Kuhn-Reiche-Thomas sum rule, the high-energy behavior of the dipole-oscillator-strength density and molar refractivity data when available. The distributions are used to predict dipole sum rules S (k) , mean excitation energies I (k) , and van der Waals C6 coefficients. Coupled-cluster calculations of the static dipole polarizabilities of Br2 and BrCN are reported for comparison with the values of S (- 2) extracted from the distributions.

  17. Mechanistic Analysis of the C-H Amination Reaction of Menthol by CuBr2 and Selectfluor.

    PubMed

    Sathyamoorthi, Shyam; Lai, Yin-Hung; Bain, Ryan M; Zare, Richard N

    2018-05-18

    The mechanism of the Ritter-type C-H amination reaction of menthol with acetonitrile using CuBr 2 , Selectfluor, and Zn(OTf) 2 , first disclosed by Baran and coworkers in 2012, was studied using a combination of online electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, continuous UV/vis spectrometric monitoring, and density functional theory calculations. In addition to corroborating Baran's original mechanistic proposal, these studies uncovered a second pathway to product formation, which likely only occurs in microdroplets. DFT calculations show that neither pathway has a barrier that is greater than 6.8 kcal/mol, suggesting that both mechanisms are potentially operative under ambient conditions.

  18. Zn2+ selectively stabilizes FdU-substituted DNA through a unique major groove binding motif

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Supratim; Salsbury, Freddie R.; Horita, David A.; Gmeiner, William H.

    2011-01-01

    We report, based on semi-empirical calculations, that Zn2+ binds duplex DNA containing consecutive FdU–dA base pairs in the major groove with distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry. In this previously uncharacterized binding motif, O4 and F5 on consecutive FdU are axial ligands while three water molecules complete the coordination sphere. NMR spectroscopy confirmed Zn2+ complexation occurred with maintenance of base pairing while a slight hypsochromic shift in circular dichroism (CD) spectra indicated moderate structural distortion relative to B-form DNA. Zn2+ complexation inhibited ethidium bromide (EtBr) intercalation and stabilized FdU-substituted duplex DNA (ΔTm > 15°C). Mg2+ neither inhibited EtBr complexation nor had as strong of a stabilizing effect. DNA sequences that did not contain consecutive FdU were not stabilized by Zn2+. A lipofectamine preparation of the Zn2+–DNA complex displayed enhanced cytotoxicity toward prostate cancer cells relative to the individual components prepared as lipofectamine complexes indicating the potential utility of Zn2+–DNA complexes for cancer treatment. PMID:21296761

  19. Aberrant Retinoblastoma (RB)-E2F Transcriptional Regulation Defines Molecular Phenotypes of Osteosarcoma*

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Milcah C.; Sarver, Aaron L.; Tomiyasu, Hirotaka; Cornax, Ingrid; Van Etten, Jamie; Varshney, Jyotika; O'Sullivan, M. Gerard; Subramanian, Subbaya; Modiano, Jaime F.

    2015-01-01

    We previously identified two distinct molecular subtypes of osteosarcoma through gene expression profiling. These subtypes are associated with distinct tumor behavior and clinical outcomes. Here, we describe mechanisms that give rise to these molecular subtypes. Using bioinformatic analyses, we identified a significant association between deregulation of the retinoblastoma (RB)-E2F pathway and the molecular subtype with worse clinical outcomes. Xenotransplantation models recapitulated the corresponding behavior for each osteosarcoma subtype; thus, we used cell lines to validate the role of the RB-E2F pathway in regulating the prognostic gene signature. Ectopic RB resets the patterns of E2F regulated gene expression in cells derived from tumors with worse clinical outcomes (molecular phenotype 2) to those comparable with those observed in cells derived from tumors with less aggressive outcomes (molecular phenotype 1), providing a functional association between RB-E2F dysfunction and altered gene expression in osteosarcoma. DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylase inhibitors similarly reset the transcriptional state of the molecular phenotype 2 cells from a state associated with RB deficiency to one seen with RB sufficiency. Our data indicate that deregulation of RB-E2F pathway alters the epigenetic landscape and biological behavior of osteosarcoma. PMID:26378234

  20. Discovery of 72Rb: A Nuclear Sandbank Beyond the Proton Drip Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, H.; Sinclair, L.; Söderström, P.-A.; Lorusso, G.; Davies, P.; Ferreira, L. S.; Maglione, E.; Wadsworth, R.; Wu, J.; Xu, Z. Y.; Nishimura, S.; Doornenbal, P.; Ahn, D. S.; Browne, F.; Fukuda, N.; Inabe, N.; Kubo, T.; Lubos, D.; Patel, Z.; Rice, S.; Shimizu, Y.; Takeda, H.; Baba, H.; Estrade, A.; Fang, Y.; Henderson, J.; Isobe, T.; Jenkins, D.; Kubono, S.; Li, Z.; Nishizuka, I.; Sakurai, H.; Schury, P.; Sumikama, T.; Watanabe, H.; Werner, V.

    2017-11-01

    In this Letter, the observation of two previously unknown isotopes is presented for the first time: 72Rb with 14 observed events and 77Zr with one observed event. From the nonobservation of the less proton-rich nucleus 73Rb, we derive an upper limit for the ground-state half-life of 81 ns, consistent with the previous upper limit of 30 ns. For 72Rb, we have measured a half-life of 103(22) ns. This observation of a relatively long-lived odd-odd nucleus, 72Rb, with a less exotic odd-even neighbor, 73Rb, being unbound shows the diffuseness of the proton drip line and the possibility of sandbanks to exist beyond it. The 72Rb half-life is consistent with a 5+→5 /2- proton decay with an energy of 800-900 keV, in agreement with the atomic mass evaluation proton-separation energy as well as results from the finite-range droplet model and shell model calculations using the GXPF1A interaction. However, we cannot explicitly exclude the possibility of a proton transition between 9+(72Rb)→9 /2+ (71Kr) isomeric states with a broken mirror symmetry. These results imply that 72Kr is a strong waiting point in x-ray burst r p -process scenarios.

  1. Notch signaling inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma following inactivation of the RB pathway

    PubMed Central

    Viatour, Patrick; Ehmer, Ursula; Saddic, Louis A.; Dorrell, Craig; Andersen, Jesper B.; Lin, Chenwei; Zmoos, Anne-Flore; Mazur, Pawel K.; Schaffer, Bethany E.; Ostermeier, Austin; Vogel, Hannes; Sylvester, Karl G.; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S.; Grompe, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third cancer killer worldwide with >600,000 deaths every year. Although the major risk factors are known, therapeutic options in patients remain limited in part because of our incomplete understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms influencing HCC development. Evidence indicates that the retinoblastoma (RB) pathway is functionally inactivated in most cases of HCC by genetic, epigenetic, and/or viral mechanisms. To investigate the functional relevance of this observation, we inactivated the RB pathway in the liver of adult mice by deleting the three members of the Rb (Rb1) gene family: Rb, p107, and p130. Rb family triple knockout mice develop liver tumors with histopathological features and gene expression profiles similar to human HCC. In this mouse model, cancer initiation is associated with the specific expansion of populations of liver stem/progenitor cells, indicating that the RB pathway may prevent HCC development by maintaining the quiescence of adult liver progenitor cells. In addition, we show that during tumor progression, activation of the Notch pathway via E2F transcription factors serves as a negative feedback mechanism to slow HCC growth. The level of Notch activity is also able to predict survival of HCC patients, suggesting novel means to diagnose and treat HCC. PMID:21875955

  2. Assimilation of NH₄Br in Polyvinyl Alcohol/Poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) Polymer Blend-Based Electrolyte and Its Effect on Ionic Conductivity.

    PubMed

    Parameswaran, V; Nallamuthu, N; Devendran, P; Manikandan, A; Nagarajan, E R

    2018-06-01

    Biodegradable polymer blend electrolyte based on ammonium based salt in variation composition consisting of PVA:PVP were prepared by using solution casting technique. The obtained films have been analyzed by various technical methods like as XRD, FT-IR, TG-DSC, SEM analysis and impedance spectroscopy. The XRD and FT-IR analysis exposed the amorphous nature and structural properties of the complex formation between PVA/PVP/NH4Br. Impedance spectroscopy analysis revealed the ionic conductivity and the dielectric properties of PVA/PVP/NH4Br polymer blend electrolyte films. The maximum ionic conductivity was determined to be 6.14 × 10-5 Scm-1 for the composition of 50%PVA: 50%PVP: 10% NH4Br with low activation energy 0.3457 eV at room temperature. Solid state battery is fabricated using highest ionic conducting polymer blend as electrolyte with the configuration Zn/ZnSO4 · 7H2O (anode) ∥ 50%PVA: 50%PVP: 10% NH4Br ∥ Mn2O3 (cathode). The observed open circuit voltage is 1.2 V and its performance has been studied.

  3. ZnO nanorods decorated with ZnS nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Joicy, S.; Sivakumar, P.; Thangadurai, P., E-mail: thangaduraip.nst@pondiuni.edu.in

    In this study, ZnO nanorods (NRs) and ZnS nanoparticles decorated ZnO-NRs were prepared by a combination of hydrothermal and hydrolysis method. Structural and optical properties of the samples were studied by XRD, FE-SEM, UV-Vis DRS and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Microscopy analysis revealed that the diameter of ZnO-NRs was ∼500 nm and the length was ranging from a few hundred nm to several micrometers and their surface was decorated with ZnS nanoparticles. UV-Vis DRS showed the absorption of ZnS decorated ZnO-NRs was blue shifted with respect to pure ZnO-NRs which enhanced the separation of electron-hole pairs. PL spectrum of ZnS decorated ZnO-NRs showedmore » a decrease in intensity of UV and green emissions with the appearance of blue emission at 436 nm.« less

  4. Overlapping and distinct pRb pathways in the mammalian auditory and vestibular organs

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Mingqian; Sage, Cyrille; Tang, Yong; Lee, Sang Goo; Petrillo, Marco; Hinds, Philip W

    2011-01-01

    Retinoblastoma gene (Rb1) is required for proper cell cycle exit in the developing mouse inner ear and its deletion in the embryo leads to proliferation of sensory progenitor cells that differentiate into hair cells and supporting cells. In a conditional hair cell Rb1 knockout mouse, Pou4f3-Cre-pRb™/™, pRb™/™ utricular hair cells differentiate and survive into adulthood whereas differentiation and survival of pRb™/™ cochlear hair cells are impaired. To comprehensively survey the pRb pathway in the mammalian inner ear, we performed microarray analysis of pRb™/™ cochlea and utricle. The comparative analysis shows that the core pathway shared between pRb™/™ cochlea and utricle is centered on e2F, the key pathway that mediates pRb function. A majority of differentially expressed genes and enriched pathways are not shared but uniquely associated with pRb™/™ cochlea or utricle. In pRb™/™ cochlea, pathways involved in early inner ear development such as Wnt/β-catenin and Notch were enriched, whereas pathways involved in proliferation and survival are enriched in pRb™/™ utricle. Clustering analysis showed that the pRb™/™ inner ear has characteristics of a younger control inner ear, an indication of delayed differentiation. We created a transgenic mouse model (ER-Cre-pRbflox/flox) in which Rb1 can be acutely deleted postnatally. Acute Rb1 deletion in the adult mouse fails to induce proliferation or cell death in inner ear, strongly indicating that Rb1 loss in these postmitotic tissues can be effectively compensated for, or that pRb-mediated changes in the postmitotic compartment result in events that are functionally irreversible once enacted. This study thus supports the concept that pRb-regulated pathways relevant to hair cell development, encompassing proliferation, differentiation and survival, act predominantly during early development. PMID:21239885

  5. Biosafety of parenteral Brucella abortus RB51 vaccine in bison calves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roffe, T.J.; Olsen, S.C.; Gidlewski, T.; Jensen, A.E.; Palmer, M.V.; Huber, R.

    1999-01-01

    Vaccination is considered among the primary management tools for reducing brucellosis prevalence in Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) ungulates. Before their use, however, vaccine safety and efficacy must be demonstrated. Twenty-seven female bison (Bison bison) calves (approx 5 months old) were vaccinated with Brucella abortus Strain RB51 (1.5 x 1010 colony forming units [CFU], subcutaneously) as part of routine management. We assessed the persistence, pathology, shedding, and transmission associated with RB51 by serial necropsy, bacteriology, histopathology, and serology of 20 of these 27 vaccinated calves, and RB51 serology of 10 nonvaccinated, commingling adult females. With the exception of 1 calf, RB51 dot-blot titers at necropsy were <1:80. Strain RB51 was cultured from lymph nodes in 4 of 4 calves at 14 weeks postvaccination (PV), 4 of 4 calves at 18 weeks PV, 1 of 4 calves at 22 weeks PV, 3 of 4 at 26 weeks PV, and 0 of 4 calves at 30 weeks PV. No gross lesions were observed. Mild histologic changes occurred only in a few draining lymph nodes early in sampling. Adverse clinical effects were not observed in vaccinates. Swabs from nasopharynx, conjunctiva, rectum, and vagina were uniformly culture negative for RB51. Strain RB51 dot-blot assays of bison cows were negative at a 1:20 dilution at 26 weeks PV. Our results suggest that RB51 persists longer in bison calves than in domestic cattle and is systemically distributed within lymphatic tissues. However, bison apparently clear the RB51 vaccine strain without shedding, transmission, or significant adverse reactions.

  6. Ouabain-sensitive Rb+ uptake in mouse eggs and preimplantation conceptuses

    SciTech Connect

    Van Winkle, L.J.; Campione, A.L.

    1991-07-01

    The results of histochemical and immunocytochemical studies have been used elsewhere to support the hypothesis that Na+/K(+)-ATPase expression is initiated or increases dramatically in preimplantation mouse conceptuses just before they begin to cavitate. Moreover, localization of the enzyme in the inner membrane of the mural trophoblast is thought to be involved directly in formation and maintenance of the blastocyst cavity. Presumably, Na+/K(+)-ATPase extrudes the cation, Na+, and therefore water into the cavity. The cation transporting activity of the enzyme can be determined by measuring ouabain-sensitive Rb+ uptake by cells. Therefore, we measured Rb+ uptake in mouse eggs and preimplantation conceptusesmore » at various stages of development. 86Rb+ uptake by conceptuses increased linearly with time for at least 60 min in medium containing 0.7 mM total Rb+ plus K+ in the absence or presence of 1.0 mM ouabain, and ouabain inhibited more than 70% of 86Rb+ uptake. The ouabain concentration at 1/2 of maximum inhibition of the ouabain-sensitive component of 86Rb+ uptake was about 10-20 microM in eggs and conceptuses at all stages of preimplantation development. Moreover, ouabain-sensitive Rb+ uptake had a twofold higher Vmax value in blastocysts than in eggs or conceptuses at earlier stages of development (i.e., approximately 173 vs 70-100 fmole.conceptus-1.min-1), although the total cell surface area also was probably about two times greater in blastocysts than in eggs or other conceptuses. Ouabain-sensitive Rb+ transport in eggs and conceptuses may have occurred via a single ouabain-sensitive Rb+ transporter with a Hill coefficient of 1.5-1.8 (Hill plots). When it was assumed that the Hill coefficient had a value of 2.0, however, eggs and conceptuses appeared to contain at least two forms of Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity.« less

  7. RB1 deficiency in triple-negative breast cancer induces mitochondrial protein translation.

    PubMed

    Jones, Robert A; Robinson, Tyler J; Liu, Jeff C; Shrestha, Mariusz; Voisin, Veronique; Ju, YoungJun; Chung, Philip E D; Pellecchia, Giovanna; Fell, Victoria L; Bae, SooIn; Muthuswamy, Lakshmi; Datti, Alessandro; Egan, Sean E; Jiang, Zhe; Leone, Gustavo; Bader, Gary D; Schimmer, Aaron; Zacksenhaus, Eldad

    2016-10-03

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) includes basal-like and claudin-low subtypes for which no specific treatment is currently available. Although the retinoblastoma tumor-suppressor gene (RB1) is frequently lost together with TP53 in TNBC, it is not directly targetable. There is thus great interest in identifying vulnerabilities downstream of RB1 that can be therapeutically exploited. Here, we determined that combined inactivation of murine Rb and p53 in diverse mammary epithelial cells induced claudin-low-like TNBC with Met, Birc2/3-Mmp13-Yap1, and Pvt1-Myc amplifications. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that Rb/p53-deficient tumors showed elevated expression of the mitochondrial protein translation (MPT) gene pathway relative to tumors harboring p53 deletion alone. Accordingly, bioinformatic, functional, and biochemical analyses showed that RB1-E2F complexes bind to MPT gene promoters to regulate transcription and control MPT. Additionally, a screen of US Food and Drug Administration-approved (FDA-approved) drugs identified the MPT antagonist tigecycline (TIG) as a potent inhibitor of Rb/p53-deficient tumor cell proliferation. TIG preferentially suppressed RB1-deficient TNBC cell proliferation, targeted both the bulk and cancer stem cell fraction, and strongly attenuated xenograft growth. It also cooperated with sulfasalazine, an FDA-approved inhibitor of cystine xCT antiporter, in culture and xenograft assays. Our results suggest that RB1 deficiency promotes cancer cell proliferation in part by enhancing mitochondrial function and identify TIG as a clinically approved drug for RB1-deficient TNBC.

  8. RB1 deficiency in triple-negative breast cancer induces mitochondrial protein translation

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Robert A.; Robinson, Tyler J.; Liu, Jeff C.; Shrestha, Mariusz; Voisin, Veronique; Ju, YoungJun; Chung, Philip E.D.; Pellecchia, Giovanna; Fell, Victoria L.; Bae, SooIn; Muthuswamy, Lakshmi; Egan, Sean E.; Jiang, Zhe; Leone, Gustavo; Bader, Gary D.; Schimmer, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) includes basal-like and claudin-low subtypes for which no specific treatment is currently available. Although the retinoblastoma tumor-suppressor gene (RB1) is frequently lost together with TP53 in TNBC, it is not directly targetable. There is thus great interest in identifying vulnerabilities downstream of RB1 that can be therapeutically exploited. Here, we determined that combined inactivation of murine Rb and p53 in diverse mammary epithelial cells induced claudin-low–like TNBC with Met, Birc2/3-Mmp13-Yap1, and Pvt1-Myc amplifications. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that Rb/p53-deficient tumors showed elevated expression of the mitochondrial protein translation (MPT) gene pathway relative to tumors harboring p53 deletion alone. Accordingly, bioinformatic, functional, and biochemical analyses showed that RB1-E2F complexes bind to MPT gene promoters to regulate transcription and control MPT. Additionally, a screen of US Food and Drug Administration–approved (FDA-approved) drugs identified the MPT antagonist tigecycline (TIG) as a potent inhibitor of Rb/p53-deficient tumor cell proliferation. TIG preferentially suppressed RB1-deficient TNBC cell proliferation, targeted both the bulk and cancer stem cell fraction, and strongly attenuated xenograft growth. It also cooperated with sulfasalazine, an FDA-approved inhibitor of cystine xCT antiporter, in culture and xenograft assays. Our results suggest that RB1 deficiency promotes cancer cell proliferation in part by enhancing mitochondrial function and identify TIG as a clinically approved drug for RB1-deficient TNBC. PMID:27571409

  9. Recent Development of TlBr Gamma-Ray Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitomi, Keitaro; Tada, Tsutomu; Kim, Seong-Yun; Wu, Yan; Tanaka, Tomonobu; Shoji, Tadayoshi; Yamazaki, Hiromichi; Ishii, Keizo

    2011-08-01

    Planar detectors, strip detectors, and double-sided strip detectors were fabricated from TlBr crystals grown by the traveling molten zone method using zone-purified material. The detector performance including the leakage current, energy resolutions, and timing performance were evaluated in order to assess the capability of the detectors for PET and SPECT applications. The TlBr detectors exhibited excellent spectroscopic performance at room temperature. An energy resolution of 3.4% FWHM at 511 keV was obtained from a TlBr planar detector 1 mm thick. A TlBr strip detector 1 mm thick with four anode strip electrodes exhibited almost uniform detector performance over the strips with the average energy resolution of 4.4% FWHM at 511 keV. A TlBr double-sided strip detector exhibited an energy resolution of 6.3% FWHM for 122 keV gamma-rays. Coincidence timing spectra between a TlBr planar detector and a BaF2 scintillation detector were recorded at room temperature. Timing resolutions of 14 ns and 24 ns were obtained from TlBr detectors 0.5 mm and 1 mm thick, respectively. By cooling the detector to 0° C, an improved timing resolution of 12 ns was obtained from a TlBr detector 1 mm thick.

  10. Experimental and ab initio structure of BrNO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwabia Tchana, F.; Orphal, J.; Kleiner, I.; Rudolph, H. D.; Willner, H.; Garcia, P.; Bouba, O.; Demaison, J.; Redlich, B.

    The ν2 fundamental bands of different isotopomers of BrNO2 (79Br15N16O2, 81Br15N16O2, 79Br14N18O2 and 79Br14N16O18O) located around 13 µm were recorded using high-resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. More than 8000 lines of all these isotopomers were reproduced using a Watson-type A-reduced Hamiltonian with a root-mean-square deviation of better than 7 × 10-4 cm-1 for the four isotopomers. Rotational and centrifugal distortion constants for the ν2 = 1 states as well as for the vibrational ground states of these isotopomers were determined. For the first time, an analysis of the ground-state rotational constants obtained in this study combined with the constants obtained in our previous work on the ν2 bands of 79Br14N16O2 and 81Br14N16O2 has allowed us to calculate the rm structure of nitryl bromide. The structural parameters obtained were rm(Br-N) = 2.0118(16) Å, rm(N-O) = 1.1956(12) Å and α(O-N-O) = 131.02(12) Å. A new ab initio structure of nitryl bromide calculated at the CCSD(T)/SDB-aug-cc-pVQZ level of theory is presented and was found to be in fair agreement with the experimental structure.

  11. Reactions of salts of hexakis(pyridine N-oxide)M(II) complexes (M = Co, Ni, Zn) and alkali halides used in infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmos, J.; van Veen, A.

    A number of salts of hexakis(pyridine N-oxide)zinc(II) complexes decompose in alkali halide pellets. Initially ion exchange occurs, often followed by the formation of Zn(pyno) 3X 2 (pyno = pyridine N-oxide; X = Br, Cl). The analogous cobalt and nickel compounds are nearly always stable. A mull between alkali halide plates gives greater amounts of the same product Washing this product with toluene gives Zn(pyno) 2X 2. Examples of i.r. and far i.r. spectra are given. Energetical and structural effects are discussed. Far i.r. spectra of M(pyno) 3X 2(M = Co, Zn) confirm the structure [M(pyno) 6][MX 4] for these compounds. New compounds are [Zn(pyno) 2(NO 3) 2], [Zn(pyno- d5) 2[NO 3) 2], [Zn(pyno- d5) 6](NO 3) 2 and [Zn(pyno) 6]I 2.

  12. Determination of the electric field gradient in RbCaF3 near the phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepp, M. A.; Man, P. P.; Trokiner, A.; Zanni, H.; Fraissard, J.

    1992-12-01

    The fluoroperovskite, RbCaF 3 undergoes a phase transition at 195.5K from a cubic to a tetragonal phase. The order parameter for this transition is directly related to the electric field gradient which arises in the tetragonal phase. In this work, we have used three NMR methods to measure the electric field gradient at the 87Rb site in a single crystal of RbCaF 3, very near this transition. These experiments are based on recent theoretical developments which allow the measurement of quadrupole parameters even for nuclei in a weak electric field gradient.

  13. Special K: testing the potassium link between radioactive rubidium (86Rb) turnover and metabolic rate.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Sean; Mathialagan, Priya D; Maloney, Shane K

    2014-04-01

    The measurement of (86)Rb turnover recently has been suggested as a useful method for measuring field metabolic rate in small animals. We investigated a proposed mechanism of (86)Rb turnover, its analogy to K(+), by comparing the turnover of (86)Rb in a model insect, the rhinoceros beetle Xylotrupes gideon, fed a diet of plum jam or plum jam enriched with K(+) or Rb(+). The turnover of (86)Rb in the beetles on the K(+) and the Rb(+) diets was higher than that for beetles on the jam diet (F2,311=32.4; P=1.58×10(-13)). We also exposed the beetles to different ambient temperatures to induce differences in metabolic rate ( ) while feeding them the jam and K(+) diets. was higher at higher ambient temperature (Ta) for both jam (F1,11=14.56; P=0.003) and K(+) (F1,8=15.39; P=0.004) dietary groups, and the turnover of (86)Rb was higher at higher Ta for both jam (F1,11=10.80; P=0.007) and K(+) (F1,8=12.34; P=0.008) dietary groups. There was a significant relationship between (86)Rb turnover and for both the jam (F1,11=35.00; P=1.0×10(-3)) and the K(+) (F1,8=64.33; P=4.3×10(-5)) diets, but the relationship differed between the diets (F1,19=14.07; P=0.001), with a higher (86)Rb turnover in beetles on the K(+)-enriched than on the jam diet at all Ta. We conclude that (86)Rb turnover is related to K(+) metabolism, and that this is the mechanism of the relationship between (86)Rb turnover and . Studies relating (86)Rb turnover to should maintain dietary [K] as close as possible to that of natural diets for the most accurate calibrations for free-ranging animals.

  14. Coherent Multiple Light Scattering in Ultracold Atomic Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulatunga, Pasad; Sukenik, C. I.; Balik, Salim; Havey, M. D.; Kupriyanov, D. V.; Sokolov, I. M.

    2003-05-01

    Wave transport in mesoscopic systems can be strongly influenced by coherent multiple scattering,which can lead to novel magneto-optic, transmission, and backscattering effects of light in atomic vapors. Although related to traditional studies of radiation trapping, in ultracold vapors negligible frequency or phase redistribution takes place in the scattering, and high-order coherent light scattering occurs. Among other things, this leads to enhancement of the influence of otherwise small non-resonant terms in the scattering amplitudes. We report investigation of multiple coherent light scattering from ultracold Rb atoms confined in a magneto-optic trap (MOT). In experimental studies, measurements are made of the angular, spectral, and polarization-dependent coherent backscattering profile of a low-intensity probe beam tuned near the F = 3 - F' = 4 hyperfine transition. The influence of higher probe beam intensity is also studied. In a theoretical study of angular intensity enhancement of backscattered light, we consider scattering orders up to 10 and a realistic and asymmetric Gaussian atom distribution in the MOT. Supported by NSF, NATO, and RFBR.

  15. Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis: Characterization Rb Promoted Iron Catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar,A.; Jacobs, G.; Ji, Y.

    Rubidium promoted iron Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) catalysts were prepared with two Rb/Fe atomic ratios (1.44/100 and 5/100) using rubidium nitrate and rubidium carbonate as rubidium precursors. Results of catalytic activity and deactivation studies in a CSTR revealed that rubidium promoted catalysts result in a steady conversion with a lower deactivation rate than that of the corresponding unpromoted catalyst although the initial activity of the promoted catalyst was almost half that of the unpromoted catalyst. Rubidium promotion results in lower methane production, and higher CO2, alkene and 1-alkene fraction in FTS products. M{umlt o}ssbauer spectroscopic measurements of CO activated and workingmore » catalyst samples indicated that the composition of the iron carbide phase formed after carbidization was -Fe5 C2 for both promoted and unpromoted catalysts. However, in the case of the rubidium promoted catalyst, '-Fe2.2C became the predominant carbidic phase as FTS continued and the overall catalyst composition remained carbidic in nature. In contrast, the carbide content of the unpromoted catalyst was found to decline very quickly as a function of synthesis time. Results of XANES and EXAFS measurements suggested that rubidium was present in the oxidized state and that the compound most prevalent in the active catalyst samples closely resembled that of rubidium carbonate.« less

  16. Beta-delayed neutron emission from 94Rb at CARIBU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Gemma; Chowdhury, P.; Lister, C.; Brown, T.; Chillery, T.; Copp, P.; Doucet, E.; Carpenter, M.; Savard, G.; Zhu, S.; Mitchell, Aj

    2017-09-01

    Beta-delayed neutron emission studies are important in the astrophysical r-process, nuclear structure and for nuclear reactor safety and design. The probability of β-delayed neutron emission in 94Sr is 10.2(2)%. Many of the γ rays in 94Sr are misplaced, and an estimated 26% are thought to be missing. Recently, substantial γ strength from above the neutron separation energy in 94Sr has been reported. An experiment to understand this high-lying γ strength was performed with the X-Array (a high-efficiency HPGe clover array), SCANS (Small CLYC Array for Neutron Scattering) and the SATURN decay station (Scintillator And Tape Using Radioactive Nuclei) for γ, fast-neutron and β-particle detection, respectively. Data from β decay of 94Rb ions delivered from CARIBU were collected in a triggerless digital data acquisition system, with detected β, n, and γ events correlated offline. A new 94Sr level scheme will be presented, with confirmation of new levels and transitions, in addition to evidence of γ strength above the neutron separation energy. NNSA Stewardship Science Academic Alliance Program through USDOE under Grant DE-NA0002932; USDOE, Office of Nucl Phys, under Contract No. DE-FG02-96ER40978; Louisiana State Board of Regents RCS LEQSF(2016-19)-RD-A-09; DE-AC02-06CHI1357.

  17. Understanding Zeeman EIT Noise Correlation Spectra in Buffered Rb Vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Leary, Shannon; Zheng, Aojie; Crescimanno, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Noise correlation spectroscopy on systems manifesting Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT) holds promise as a simple, robust method for performing high-resolution spectroscopy used in applications such as EIT-based atomic magnetometry and clocks. During laser light's propagation through a resonant medium, interaction with the medium converts laser phase noise into intensity noise. While this noise conversion can diminish the precision of EIT applications, noise correlation techniques transform the noise into a useful spectroscopic tool that can improve the application's precision. Using a single diode laser with large phase noise, we examine laser intensity noise and noise correlations from Zeeman EIT in a buffered Rb vapor. Of particular interest is a narrow noise correlation feature, resonant with EIT, that has been shown in earlier work to be power-broadening resistant at low powers. We report here on our recent experimental work and complementary theoretical modeling on EIT noise spectra, including a study of power broadening of the narrow noise correlation feature. Understanding the nature of the noise correlation spectrum is essential for optimizing EIT-noise applications.

  18. Short-range photoassociation of LiRb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasing, David; Stevenson, Ian; Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Elliott, Daniel; Chen, Yong

    2017-04-01

    We have observed short-range photoassociation of 7Li85Rb to the two lowest vibrational states of the d3 Π potential. We have also observed several a3Σ+ vibrational levels with generation rates between 102 and 103 molecules per second, resulting from the spontaneous decay of these d3 Π molecules. This is the first observation of many of these a3Σ+ levels. We observe an alternation of the peak heights in the rotational photoassociation spectrum that depends on the parity of the excited molecular state. Franck-Condon overlap calculations predict that photoassociation to higher vibrational levels of the d3 Π , in particular the sixth vibrational level, should populate the lowest vibrational level of the a3Σ+ state with a rate as high as 104 molecules per second. This work also motivates an experimental search for short-range photoassociation to other bound molecules, such as the c3Σ+ or b3 Π , as prospects for preparing ground-state molecules. The experimental work was funded by the Purdue Office of the Vice President for Research AMO Incentive Grant 206732 and J.P.-R. acknowledges support from NSF Grant No. PHY-130690.

  19. Ultracold collisions between Rb atoms and a Sr+ ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meir, Ziv; Sikorsky, Tomas; Ben-Shlomi, Ruti; Dallal, Yehonatan; Ozeri, Roee

    2015-05-01

    In last decade, a novel field emerged, in which ultracold atoms and ions in overlapping traps are brought into interaction. In contrast to the short ranged atom-atom interaction which scales as r-6, atom-ion potential persists for hundreds of μm's due to its lower power-law scaling - r-4. Inelastic collisions between the consistuents lead to spin and charge transfer and also to molecule formation. Elastic collisions control the energy transfer between the ion and the atoms. The study of collisions at the μK range has thus far been impeded by the effect of the ion's micromotion which limited collision energy to mK scale. Unraveling this limit will allow to investigate few partial wave and even S-wave collisions. Our system is capable of trapping Sr+ ions and Rb and Sr atoms and cooling them to their quantum ground state. Atoms and ions are trapped and cooled in separate chambers. Then, the atoms are transported using an optical conveyer belt to overlap the ions. In contrast to other experiments in this field where the atoms are used to sympathetic cool the ion, our system is also capable of ground state cooling the ion before immersing it into the atom cloud. By this method, we would be able to explore heating and cooling dynamics in the ultracold regime.

  20. Density Functional Study of Structures and Electron Affinities of BrO4F/BrO4F−

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Liangfa; Xiong, Jieming; Wu, Xinmin; Qi, Chuansong; Li, Wei; Guo, Wenli

    2009-01-01

    The structures, electron affinities and bond dissociation energies of BrO4F/BrO4F− species have been investigated with five density functional theory (DFT) methods with DZP++ basis sets. The planar F-Br…O2…O2 complexes possess 3A′ electronic state for neutral molecule and 4A′ state for the corresponding anion. Three types of the neutral-anion energy separations are the adiabatic electron affinity (EAad), the vertical electron affinity (EAvert), and the vertical detachment energy (VDE). The EAad value predicted by B3LYP method is 4.52 eV. The bond dissociation energies De (BrO4F → BrO4-mF + Om) (m = 1–4) and De− (BrO4F− → BrO4-mF− + Om and BrO4F− → BrO4-mF + Om−) are predicted. The adiabatic electron affinities (EAad) were predicted to be 4.52 eV for F-Br…O2…O2 (3A′←4A′) (B3LYP method). PMID:19742128

  1. Autochthonous tumors driven by Rb1 loss have an ongoing requirement for the RBP2 histone demethylase.

    PubMed

    McBrayer, Samuel K; Olenchock, Benjamin A; DiNatale, Gabriel J; Shi, Diana D; Khanal, Januka; Jennings, Rebecca B; Novak, Jesse S; Oser, Matthew G; Robbins, Alissa K; Modiste, Rebecca; Bonal, Dennis; Moslehi, Javid; Bronson, Roderick T; Neuberg, Donna; Nguyen, Quang-De; Signoretti, Sabina; Losman, Julie-Aurore; Kaelin, William G

    2018-04-17

    Inactivation of the retinoblastoma gene ( RB1 ) product, pRB, is common in many human cancers. Targeting downstream effectors of pRB that are central to tumorigenesis is a promising strategy to block the growth of tumors harboring loss-of-function RB1 mutations. One such effector is retinoblastoma-binding protein 2 (RBP2, also called JARID1A or KDM5A), which encodes an H3K4 demethylase. Binding of pRB to RBP2 has been linked to the ability of pRB to promote senescence and differentiation. Importantly, genetic ablation of RBP2 is sufficient to phenocopy pRB's ability to induce these cellular changes in cell culture experiments. Moreover, germline Rbp2 deletion significantly impedes tumorigenesis in Rb1 +/- mice. The value of RBP2 as a therapeutic target in cancer, however, hinges on whether loss of RBP2 could block the growth of established tumors as opposed to simply delaying their onset. Here we show that conditional, systemic ablation of RBP2 in tumor-bearing Rb1 +/- mice is sufficient to slow tumor growth and significantly extend survival without causing obvious toxicity to the host. These findings show that established Rb1 -null tumors require RBP2 for growth and further credential RBP2 as a therapeutic target in human cancers driven by RB1 inactivation.

  2. Probing the structural and electronic properties of cationic rubidium-gold clusters: [AunRb]+ (n = 1-10)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ya-Ru; Zhang, Hai-Rong; Qian, Yu; Duan, Xu-Chao; Hu, Yan-Fei

    2016-03-01

    Density functional theory has been applied to study the geometric structures, relative stabilities, and electronic properties of cationic [AunRb]+ and Aun + 1+ (n = 1-10) clusters. For the lowest energy structures of [AunRb]+ clusters, the planar to three-dimensional transformation is found to occur at cluster size n = 4 and the Rb atoms prefer being located at the most highly coordinated position. The trends of the averaged atomic binding energies, fragmentation energies, second-order difference of energies, and energy gaps show pronounced even-odd alternations. It indicated that the clusters containing odd number of atoms maintain greater stability than the clusters in the vicinity. In particular, the [Au6Rb]+ clusters are the most stable isomer for [AunRb]+ clusters in the region of n = 1-10. The charges in [AunRb]+ clusters transfer from the Rb atoms to Aun host. Density of states revealed that the Au-5d, Au-5p, and Rb-4p orbitals hardly participated in bonding. In addition, it is found that the most favourable channel of the [AunRb]+ clusters is Rb+ cation ejection. The electronic localisation function (ELF) analysis of the [AunRb]+ clusters shown that strong interactions are not revealed in this study.

  3. ZnS-Based ZnSTe:N/n-ZnS Light-Emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichino, Kunio; Kojima, Takahiro; Obata, Shunsuke; Kuroyanagi, Takuma; Nakazawa, Shoichi; Kashiyama, Shota

    2013-11-01

    ZnS1-xTex:N/n-ZnS diodes have been fabricated in an attempt to convert ZnS into p-type by Te incorporation and the resulting upward shift of the valence band maximum. The diodes exhibit clear rectification in the current-voltage characteristic and a peak of the electron-beam-induced current at the ZnS1-xTex:N/n-ZnS interface. Furthermore, a ZnS0.85Te0.15:N/n-ZnS diode exhibits blue-green electroluminescence due to self-activated emission in n-ZnS at 290 K under a forward current. These results suggest p-type conduction in ZnS1-xTex:N, and thus the LED operation of a ZnS-based pn-junction.

  4. Unreported Emission Lines of Rb, Ce, La, Sr, Y, Zr, Pb and Se Detected Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepore, K. H.; Mackie, J.; Dyar, M. D.; Fassett, C. I.

    2017-01-01

    Information on emission lines for major and minor elements is readily available from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as part of the Atomic Spectra Database. However, tabulated emission lines are scarce for some minor elements and the wavelength ranges presented on the NIST database are limited to those included in existing studies. Previous work concerning minor element calibration curves measured using laser-induced break-down spectroscopy found evidence of Zn emission lines that were not documented on the NIST database. In this study, rock powders were doped with Rb, Ce, La, Sr, Y, Zr, Pb and Se in concentrations ranging from 10 percent to 10 parts per million. The difference between normalized spectra collected on samples containing 10 percent dopant and those containing only 10 parts per million were used to identify all emission lines that can be detected using LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) in a ChemCam-like configuration at the Mount Holyoke College LIBS facility. These emission spectra provide evidence of many previously undocumented emission lines for the elements measured here.

  5. Rb1 haploinsufficiency promotes telomere attrition and radiation-induced genomic instability.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Vasconcellos, Iria; Anastasov, Natasa; Sanli-Bonazzi, Bahar; Klymenko, Olena; Atkinson, Michael J; Rosemann, Michael

    2013-07-15

    Germline mutations of the retinoblastoma gene (RB1) predispose to both sporadic and radiation-induced osteosarcoma, tumors characterized by high levels of genomic instability, and activation of alternative lengthening of telomeres. Mice with haploinsufficiency of the Rb1 gene in the osteoblastic lineage reiterate the radiation susceptibility to osteosarcoma seen in patients with germline RB1 mutations. We show that the susceptibility is accompanied by an increase in genomic instability, resulting from Rb1-dependent telomere erosion. Radiation exposure did not accelerate the rate of telomere loss but amplified the genomic instability resulting from the dysfunctional telomeres. These findings suggest that telomere maintenance is a noncanonical caretaker function of the retinoblastoma protein, such that its deficiency in cancer may potentiate DNA damage-induced carcinogenesis by promoting formation of chromosomal aberrations, rather than simply by affecting cell-cycle control. ©2013 AACR.

  6. Unit 5, STA. 13+00+RB, point stadiumcontext Johnstown Local Flood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 5, STA. 13+00+RB, point stadium-context - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  7. Unit 5, STA, 13+00+RB, point stadiumdetail Johnstown Local Flood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 5, STA, 13+00+RB, point stadium-detail - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  8. Unit 5, STA. 19+00+RB, access rampcontext Johnstown Local Flood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 5, STA. 19+00+RB, access ramp-context - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  9. Unit 5, STA. 53+25+RB, Conrad buildingcontext Johnstown Local Flood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 5, STA. 53+25+RB, Conrad building-context - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  10. Unit 3, STA. 158+40 RB, Hinckson Run culvert context ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 3, STA. 158+40 RB, Hinckson Run culvert context - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  11. Unit 5, STA. 53+25+RB, Conrad buildingdetail Johnstown Local Flood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 5, STA. 53+25+RB, Conrad building-detail - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  12. Unit 5, STA. 19+00+RB, access rampdetail Johnstown Local Flood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 5, STA. 19+00+RB, access ramp-detail - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  13. Spectroscopy of Rb{sub 2} dimers in solid {sup 4}He

    SciTech Connect

    Moroshkin, P.; Hofer, A.; Ulzega, S.

    We present experimental and theoretical studies of the absorption, emission, and photodissociation spectra of Rb{sub 2} molecules in solid helium. We have identified 11 absorption bands of Rb{sub 2}. All laser-excited molecular states are quenched by the interaction with the He matrix. The quenching results in efficient population of a metastable (1) {sup 3}{pi}{sub u} state, which emits fluorescence at 1042 nm. In order to explain the fluorescence at the forbidden transition and its time dependence we propose a new molecular exciplex Rb{sub 2}({sup 3}{pi}{sub u})He{sub 2}. We have also found evidence for the formation of diatomic bubble states followingmore » photodissociation of Rb{sub 2}.« less

  14. Estimating BrAC from transdermal alcohol concentration data using the BrAC estimator software program.

    PubMed

    Luczak, Susan E; Rosen, I Gary

    2014-08-01

    Transdermal alcohol sensor (TAS) devices have the potential to allow researchers and clinicians to unobtrusively collect naturalistic drinking data for weeks at a time, but the transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC) data these devices produce do not consistently correspond with breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) data. We present and test the BrAC Estimator software, a program designed to produce individualized estimates of BrAC from TAC data by fitting mathematical models to a specific person wearing a specific TAS device. Two TAS devices were worn simultaneously by 1 participant for 18 days. The trial began with a laboratory alcohol session to calibrate the model and was followed by a field trial with 10 drinking episodes. Model parameter estimates and fit indices were compared across drinking episodes to examine the calibration phase of the software. Software-generated estimates of peak BrAC, time of peak BrAC, and area under the BrAC curve were compared with breath analyzer data to examine the estimation phase of the software. In this single-subject design with breath analyzer peak BrAC scores ranging from 0.013 to 0.057, the software created consistent models for the 2 TAS devices, despite differences in raw TAC data, and was able to compensate for the attenuation of peak BrAC and latency of the time of peak BrAC that are typically observed in TAC data. This software program represents an important initial step for making it possible for non mathematician researchers and clinicians to obtain estimates of BrAC from TAC data in naturalistic drinking environments. Future research with more participants and greater variation in alcohol consumption levels and patterns, as well as examination of gain scheduling calibration procedures and nonlinear models of diffusion, will help to determine how precise these software models can become. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  15. Preparation and characterization of ZnO/graphene nanocomposite for improved photovoltaic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayabal, P.; Gayathri, S.; Sasirekha, V.; Mayandi, J.; Ramakrishnan, V.

    2014-11-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles and ZnO/graphene (ZG) nanocomposite were synthesized via simple chemical route and its application as a photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was demonstrated. The prepared ZnO and ZG were structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman techniques. The scanning electron micrograph of ZG revealed the spherical-shaped ZnO nanoparticles of particle size 160 nm was anchored on the two-dimensional graphene sheets. UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy showed that the ZG nanocomposite has enriched visible light absorption. The DSSCs were fabricated using the synthesized ZnO and ZG nanocomposite as photoanode and the effect of low-cost organic dyes on the photovoltaic performances of the solar cells were investigated. Comprehensive performances of ZG are better than that of ZnO-based DSSCs. The ZG DSSCs show power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.5 and 0.98 % for RB and EY sensitized electrodes, respectively. Moreover, the ZG dominates in many aspects due to the presence of graphene.

  16. Pumilio and nanos RNA-binding proteins counterbalance the transcriptional consequences of RB1 inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Wayne O; Dyson, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    The ability of the retinoblastoma protein (RB) tumor suppressor to repress transcription stimulated by the E2 promoter binding factors (E2F) is integral to its biological functions. Our recent report described a conserved feedback mechanism mediated by the RNA-binding proteins Pumilio and Nanos that increases in importance following RB loss and helps cells to tolerate deregulated E2F. PMID:27308363

  17. Similar decrease in spontaneous morphine abstinence by methadone and RB 101, an inhibitor of enkephalin catabolism.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, F; Fournié-Zaluski, M C; Roques, B P; Maldonado, R

    1996-09-01

    1. The dual inhibitor of enkephalin degrading enzymes, RB 101, is able to block endogenous enkephalin metabolism completely, leading to potent antinociceptive responses potentiated by blockade of CCKB receptors. In this study we have investigated the effects induced by RB 101 given alone, or with the CCKB antagonist, PD-134,308, on a model of spontaneous morphine withdrawal and substitutive maintenance in rats. 2. Animals were chronically treated with morphine for 7 days followed, 36 h after the interruption of drug administration, by a maintenance treatment for 5 days with methadone (2 mg kg-1, i.p.), clonidine (0.025 mg kg-1, i.p.), RB 101 (40 mg kg-1, i.p.), PD-134,308 (3 mg kg-1, i.p.) or a combination of RB 101 plus PD-134,308. Several behavioural observations were made during this period in order to evaluate the acute effects as well as the consequence of chronic maintenance induced on spontaneous withdrawal by the different treatments. 3. Methadone was the most effective compound in decreasing the spontaneous withdrawal syndrome after acute administration. Both, methadone and RB 101 had similar effectiveness in reducing opiate abstinence during the period of substitutive treatment. PD-134,308 did not show any effect when administered alone and did not modify the effect of RB 101. 4. Naloxone (1 mg kg-1, s.c.) failed to precipitate any sign of withdrawal when injected at the end of the chronic maintenance treatment suggesting that, under the present conditions, methadone and RB 101 did not induce significant physical opiate-dependence. 5. The mildness of the side effects induced by chronic RB 101, suggests that systemically active inhibitors of enkephalin catabolism could represent a promising treatment in the maintenance of opiate addicts.

  18. Similar decrease in spontaneous morphine abstinence by methadone and RB 101, an inhibitor of enkephalin catabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, F.; Fournié-Zaluski, M. C.; Roques, B. P.; Maldonado, R.

    1996-01-01

    1. The dual inhibitor of enkephalin degrading enzymes, RB 101, is able to block endogenous enkephalin metabolism completely, leading to potent antinociceptive responses potentiated by blockade of CCKB receptors. In this study we have investigated the effects induced by RB 101 given alone, or with the CCKB antagonist, PD-134,308, on a model of spontaneous morphine withdrawal and substitutive maintenance in rats. 2. Animals were chronically treated with morphine for 7 days followed, 36 h after the interruption of drug administration, by a maintenance treatment for 5 days with methadone (2 mg kg-1, i.p.), clonidine (0.025 mg kg-1, i.p.), RB 101 (40 mg kg-1, i.p.), PD-134,308 (3 mg kg-1, i.p.) or a combination of RB 101 plus PD-134,308. Several behavioural observations were made during this period in order to evaluate the acute effects as well as the consequence of chronic maintenance induced on spontaneous withdrawal by the different treatments. 3. Methadone was the most effective compound in decreasing the spontaneous withdrawal syndrome after acute administration. Both, methadone and RB 101 had similar effectiveness in reducing opiate abstinence during the period of substitutive treatment. PD-134,308 did not show any effect when administered alone and did not modify the effect of RB 101. 4. Naloxone (1 mg kg-1, s.c.) failed to precipitate any sign of withdrawal when injected at the end of the chronic maintenance treatment suggesting that, under the present conditions, methadone and RB 101 did not induce significant physical opiate-dependence. 5. The mildness of the side effects induced by chronic RB 101, suggests that systemically active inhibitors of enkephalin catabolism could represent a promising treatment in the maintenance of opiate addicts. Images Figure 4 PMID:8872371

  19. Mutational analysis of the RB1 gene and the inheritance patterns of retinoblastoma in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Yousef, Yacoub A; Tbakhi, Abdelghani; Al-Hussaini, Maysa; AlNawaiseh, Ibrahim; Saab, Ala; Afifi, Amal; Naji, Maysa; Mohammad, Mona; Deebajah, Rasha; Jaradat, Imad; Sultan, Iyad; Mehyar, Mustafa

    2018-04-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is a childhood cancer developing in the retina due to RB1 pathologic variant. Herein we are evaluating the oncogenic mutations in the RB1 gene and the inheritance patterns of RB in the Jordanian patients. In this prospective study, the peripheral blood of 50 retinoblastoma patients was collected, genomic DNA was extracted, mutations were identified using Quantitative multiplex PCR (QM-PCR), Allele-specific PCR, Next Generation Sequencing analysis, and Sanger sequencing. In this cohort of 50 patients, 20(40%) patients had unilateral RB and 30(60%) were males. Overall, 36(72%) patients had germline disease, 17(47%) of whom had the same RB1 pathologic variant detected in one of the parents (inherited disease). In the bilateral group, all (100%) patients had germline disease; 13(43%) of them had inherited mutation. In the unilateral group, 6(30%) had germline disease, 4(20%) of them had inherited mutation. Nonsense mutation generating a stop codon and producing a truncated non-functional protein was the most frequent detected type of mutations (n = 15/36, 42%). Only one (2%) of the patients had mosaic mutation, and of the 17 inherited cases, 16(94%) had an unaffected carrier parent. In conclusion, in addition to all bilateral RB patients in our cohort, 30% of unilateral cases showed germline mutation. Almost half (47%) of germline cases had inherited disease from affected (6%) parent or unaffected carrier (94%). Therefore molecular screening is critical for the genetic counseling regarding the risk for inherited RB in both unilateral and bilateral cases including those with no family history.

  20. Rb and p53 Liver Functions Are Essential for Xenobiotic Metabolism and Tumor Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Nantasanti, Sathidpak; Toussaint, Mathilda J. M.; Youssef, Sameh A.; Tooten, Peter C. J.; de Bruin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The tumor suppressors Retinoblastoma (Rb) and p53 are frequently inactivated in liver diseases, such as hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) or infections with Hepatitis B or C viruses. Here, we discovered a novel role for Rb and p53 in xenobiotic metabolism, which represent a key function of the liver for metabolizing therapeutic drugs or toxins. We demonstrate that Rb and p53 cooperate to metabolize the xenobiotic 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC). DDC is metabolized mainly by cytochrome P450 (Cyp)3a enzymes resulting in inhibition of heme synthesis and accumulation of protoporphyrin, an intermediate of heme pathway. Protoporphyrin accumulation causes bile injury and ductular reaction. We show that loss of Rb and p53 resulted in reduced Cyp3a expression decreased accumulation of protoporphyrin and consequently less ductular reaction in livers of mice fed with DDC for 3 weeks. These findings provide strong evidence that synergistic functions of Rb and p53 are essential for metabolism of DDC. Because Rb and p53 functions are frequently disabled in liver diseases, our results suggest that liver patients might have altered ability to remove toxins or properly metabolize therapeutic drugs. Strikingly the reduced biliary injury towards the oxidative stress inducer DCC was accompanied by enhanced hepatocellular injury and formation of HCCs in Rb and p53 deficient livers. The increase in hepatocellular injury might be related to reduce protoporphyrin accumulation, because protoporphrin is well known for its anti-oxidative activity. Furthermore our results indicate that Rb and p53 not only function as tumor suppressors in response to carcinogenic injury, but also in response to non-carcinogenic injury such as DDC. PMID:26967735

  1. ATM/RB1 mutations predict shorter overall survival in urothelial cancer.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ming; Grivas, Petros; Emamekhoo, Hamid; Mendiratta, Prateek; Ali, Siraj; Hsu, JoAnn; Vasekar, Monali; Drabick, Joseph J; Pal, Sumanta; Joshi, Monika

    2018-03-30

    Mutations of DNA repair genes, e.g. ATM/RB1 , are frequently found in urothelial cancer (UC) and have been associated with better response to cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Further external validation of the prognostic value of ATM/RB1 mutations in UC can inform clinical decision making and trial designs. In the discovery dataset, ATM/RB1 mutations were present in 24% of patients and were associated with shorter OS (adjusted HR 2.67, 95% CI, 1.45-4.92, p = 0.002). There was a higher mutation load in patients carrying ATM/RB1 mutations (median mutation load: 6.7 versus 5.5 per Mb, p = 0.072). In the validation dataset, ATM/RB1 mutations were present in 22.2% of patients and were non-significantly associated with shorter OS (adjusted HR 1.87, 95% CI, 0.97-3.59, p = 0.06) and higher mutation load (median mutation load: 8.1 versus 7.2 per Mb, p = 0.126). Exome sequencing data of 130 bladder UC patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset were analyzed as a discovery cohort to determine the prognostic value of ATM/RB1 mutations. Results were validated in an independent cohort of 81 advanced UC patients. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was performed to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) to compare overall survival (OS). ATM/RB1 mutations may be a biomarker of poor prognosis in unselected UC patients and may correlate with higher mutational load. Further studies are required to determine factors that can further stratify prognosis and evaluate predictive role of ATM/RB1 mutation status to immunotherapy and platinum-based chemotherapy.

  2. Flg22-Triggered Immunity Negatively Regulates Key BR Biosynthetic Genes.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Góngora, Tamara; Kim, Seong-Ki; Lozano-Durán, Rosa; Zipfel, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    In plants, activation of growth and activation of immunity are opposing processes that define a trade-off. In the past few years, the growth-promoting hormones brassinosteroids (BR) have emerged as negative regulators of pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI), promoting growth at the expense of defense. The crosstalk between BR and PTI signaling was described as negative and unidirectional, since activation of PTI does not affect several analyzed steps in the BR signaling pathway. In this work, we describe that activation of PTI by the bacterial PAMP flg22 results in the reduced expression of BR biosynthetic genes. This effect does not require BR perception or signaling, and occurs within 15 min of flg22 treatment. Since the described PTI-induced repression of gene expression may result in a reduction in BR biosynthesis, the crosstalk between PTI and BR could actually be negative and bidirectional, a possibility that should be taken into account when considering the interaction between these two pathways.

  3. The environmental impact of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) use in dairy production

    PubMed Central

    Capper, Judith L.; Castañeda-Gutiérrez, Euridice; Cady, Roger A.; Bauman, Dale E.

    2008-01-01

    The environmental impact of using recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) in dairy production was examined on an individual cow, industry-scale adoption, and overall production system basis. An average 2006 U.S. milk yield of 28.9 kg per day was used, with a daily response to rbST supplementation of 4.5 kg per cow. Rations were formulated and both resource inputs (feedstuffs, fertilizers, and fuels) and waste outputs (nutrient excretion and greenhouse gas emissions) calculated. The wider environmental impact of production systems was assessed via acidification (AP), eutrophication (EP), and global warming (GWP) potentials. From a producer perspective, rbST supplementation improved individual cow production, with reductions in nutrient input and waste output per unit of milk produced. From an industry perspective, supplementing one million cows with rbST reduced feedstuff and water use, cropland area, N and P excretion, greenhouse gas emissions, and fossil fuel use compared with an equivalent milk production from unsupplemented cows. Meeting future U.S. milk requirements from cows supplemented with rbST conferred the lowest AP, EP, and GWP, with intermediate values for conventional management and the highest environmental impact resulting from organic production. Overall, rbST appears to represent a valuable management tool for use in dairy production to improve productive efficiency and to have less negative effects on the environment than conventional dairying. PMID:18591660

  4. Novel mutations in the RB1 gene from Chinese families with a history of retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Leilei; Jia, Renbing; Zhao, Junyang; Fan, Jiayan; Zhou, YiXiong; Han, Bing; Song, Xin; Wu, Li; Zhang, He; Song, Huaidong; Ge, Shengfang; Fan, Xianqun

    2015-04-01

    Retinoblastoma is an aggressive eye cancer that develops during infancy and is divided into two clinical types, sporadic and heritable. RB1 has been identified as the only pathological gene responsible for heritable retinoblastoma. Here, we identified 11 RB1 germline mutations in the Han pedigrees of 17 bilateral retinoblastoma patients from China. Four mutations were nonsense mutations, five were splice site mutations, and two resulted in a frame shift due to an insertion or a deletion. Three of the mutations had not been previously reported, and the p.Q344L mutation occurred in two generations of retinoblastoma patients. We investigated phenotypic-genotypic relationships for the novel mutations and showed that these mutations affected the expression, location, and function of the retinoblastoma protein. Abnormal protein localization was observed after transfection of the mutant genes. In addition, changes in the cell cycle distribution and apoptosis rates were observed when the Saos-2 cell line was transfected with plasmids encoding the mutant RB1 genes. Our findings expand the spectrum of known RB1 mutations and will benefit the investigation of RB1 mutation hotspots. Genetic counseling can be offered to families with heritable RB1 mutations.

  5. Ginsenoside Rb1 promotes browning through regulation of PPARγ in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Mu, Qianqian; Fang, Xin; Li, Xiaoke; Zhao, Dandan; Mo, Fangfang; Jiang, Guangjian; Yu, Na; Zhang, Yi; Guo, Yubo; Fu, Min; Liu, Jun-Li; Zhang, Dongwei; Gao, Sihua

    2015-10-23

    Browning of white adipocyte tissue (WAT) has received considerable attention due to its potential implication in preventing obesity and related comorbidities. Ginsenoside Rb1 is reported to improve glycolipid metabolism and reduce body weight in obese animals. However whether the body reducing effect mediates by browning effect remains unclear. For this purpose, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were used to study the effect of ginsenoside Rb1 on browning adipocytes specific genes and oxygen consumptions. The results demonstrate that 10 μM of ginsenoside Rb1 increases basal glucose uptake and promoted browning evidenced by significant increases in mRNA expressions of UCP-1, PGC-1α and PRDM16 in 3T3-L1 mature adipocytes. Further, ginsenoside Rb1 also increases PPARγ activity. And the browning effect is abrogated by GW9692, a PPARγ antagonist. In addition, ginsenoside Rb1 increases basal respiration rate, ATP production and uncoupling capacity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Those effects are also blunted by GW9692. The results suggest that ginsenoside Rb1 promote browning of 3T3-L1 adipocytes through induction of PPARγ. Our finding offer a new source to discover browning agonists and also useful to understand and extend the applications of ginseng and its constituents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. {sup 85}Rb tunable-interaction Bose-Einstein condensate machine

    SciTech Connect

    Altin, P. A.; Robins, N. P.; Doering, D.

    We describe our experimental setup for creating stable Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) of {sup 85}Rb with tunable interparticle interactions. We use sympathetic cooling with {sup 87}Rb in two stages, initially in a tight Ioffe-Pritchard magnetic trap and subsequently in a weak, large-volume, crossed optical dipole trap, using the 155 G Feshbach resonance to manipulate the elastic and inelastic scattering properties of the {sup 85}Rb atoms. Typical {sup 85}Rb condensates contain 4x10{sup 4} atoms with a scattering length of a=+200a{sub 0}. Many aspects of the design presented here could be adapted to other dual-species BEC machines, including those involving degenerate Fermi-Bose mixtures.more » Our minimalist apparatus is well suited to experiments on dual-species and spinor Rb condensates, and has several simplifications over the {sup 85}Rb BEC machine at JILA, which we discuss at the end of this article.« less

  7. SoLid: An innovative anti-neutrino detector for searching oscillations at the SCK•CEN BR2 reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, Yamiel; SoLid Collaboration

    2017-02-01

    The SoLid experiment intends to search for active-to-sterile anti-neutrino oscillations at a very short baseline from the SCK•CEN BR2 research reactor (Mol, Belgium). A novel detector approach to measure reactor anti-neutrinos was developed based on an innovative sandwich of composite polyvinyl-toluene and 6LiF:ZnS(Ag) scintillators. The system is highly segmented and read out by a network of wavelength shifting fibers and SiPM. High experimental sensitivity can be achieved compared to other standard technologies thanks to the combination of high granularity, good neutron-gamma discrimination using 6LiF:ZnS(Ag) scintillator and precise localisation of the Inverse Beta Decay products. This technology can be considered as a new generation of an anti-neutrino detector. This compact system requires limited passive shielding and relies on spatial topology to determine the different classes of backgrounds. We will describe the principle of detection and the detector design. Particular focus on the neutron discrimination will be made, as well as on the capability to use cosmic muons for channel equalisation and energy calibration. The performance of the first 288 kg SoLid module (SM1), based on the data taken at BR2 from February to September 2015, will be presented. We will conclude with the next phase, which will start in 2016, and the future plans of the experiment.

  8. Oxidation mechanisms of CF2Br2 and CH2Br2 induced by air nonthermal plasma.

    PubMed

    Schiorlin, Milko; Marotta, Ester; Dal Molin, Marta; Paradisi, Cristina

    2013-01-02

    Oxidation mechanisms in air nonthermal plasma (NTP) at room temperature and atmospheric pressure were investigated in a corona reactor energized by +dc, -dc, or +pulsed high voltage.. The two bromomethanes CF(2)Br(2) and CH(2)Br(2) were chosen as model organic pollutants because of their very different reactivities with OH radicals. Thus, they served as useful mechanistic probes: they respond differently to the presence of humidity in the air and give different products. By FT-IR analysis of the postdischarge gas the following products were detected and quantified: CO(2) and CO in the case of CH(2)Br(2), CO(2) and F(2)C ═ O in the case of CF(2)Br(2). F(2)C ═ O is a long-lived oxidation intermediate due to its low reactivity with atmospheric radicals. It is however removed from the NTP processed gas by passage through a water scrubber resulting in hydrolysis to CO(2) and HF. Other noncarbon containing products of the discharge were also monitored by FT-IR analysis, including HNO(3) and N(2)O. Ozone, an important product of air NTP, was never detected in experiments with CF(2)Br(2) and CH(2)Br(2) because of the highly efficient ozone depleting cycles catalyzed by BrOx species formed from the bromomethanes. It is concluded that, regardless of the type of corona applied, CF(2)Br(2) reacts in air NTP via a common intermediate, the CF(2)Br radical. The possible reactions leading to this radical are discussed, including, for -dc activation, charge exchange with O(2)(-), a species detected by APCI mass spectrometry.

  9. Decreased RB1 mRNA, Protein, and Activity Reflect Obesity-Induced Altered Adipogenic Capacity in Human Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Petrov, Petar; Serrano, Marta; Ortega, Francisco; García-Ruiz, Estefanía; Oliver, Paula; Ribot, Joan; Ricart, Wifredo; Palou, Andreu; Bonet, Mª Luisa; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Retinoblastoma (Rb1) has been described as an essential player in white adipocyte differentiation in mice. No studies have been reported thus far in human adipose tissue or human adipocytes. We aimed to investigate the possible role and regulation of RB1 in adipose tissue in obesity using human samples and animal and cell models. Adipose RB1 (mRNA, protein, and activity) was negatively associated with BMI and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) while positively associated with the expression of adipogenic genes (PPARγ and IRS1) in both visceral and subcutaneous human adipose tissue. BMI increase was the main contributor to adipose RB1 downregulation. In rats, adipose Rb1 gene expression and activity decreased in parallel to dietary-induced weight gain and returned to baseline with weight loss. RB1 gene and protein expression and activity increased significantly during human adipocyte differentiation. In fully differentiated adipocytes, transient knockdown of Rb1 led to loss of the adipogenic phenotype. In conclusion, Rb1 seems to play a permissive role for human adipose tissue function, being downregulated in obesity and increased during differentiation of human adipocytes. Rb1 knockdown findings further implicate Rb1 as necessary for maintenance of adipogenic characteristics in fully differentiated adipocytes. PMID:23315497

  10. Gut vagal afferents are necessary for the eating-suppressive effect of intraperitoneally administered ginsenoside Rb1 in rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ling; Wang, David Q-H; Lo, Chunmin C; Arnold, Myrtha; Tso, Patrick; Woods, Stephen C; Liu, Min

    2015-12-01

    Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) reduces food intake in both lean and high-fat diet induced-obese rats; however, the sites and/or mediation of the eating-suppressive effect of Rb1 have not previously been identified. We hypothesized that intraperitoneally (ip) administered Rb1 exerts its anorectic action by enhancing sensitivity to satiation signals, such as cholecystokinin (CCK), and/or that it acts through vagal afferent nerves that relay the satiating signaling to the hindbrain. To test these hypotheses, we gave ip bolus doses of Rb1 (2.5-10.0mg/kg) and CCK-8 (0.125-4.0μg/kg) alone or in combination and assessed food intake in rats. Low doses of Rb1 (2.5mg/kg) or CCK-8 (0.125μg/kg) alone had no effect on food intake whereas higher doses did. When these subthreshold doses of Rb1 and CCK-8 were co-administered, the combination significantly reduced food intake relative to saline controls, and this effect was attenuated by lorglumide, a selective CCK1-receptor antagonist. Interestingly, lorglumide blocked food intake induced by an effective dose of CCK-8 alone, but not by Rb1 alone, suggesting that Rb1's anorectic effect is independent of the CCK1 receptor. To determine whether peripherally administered Rb1 suppresses feeding via abdominal vagal nerves, we evaluated the effect of ip Rb1 injection in subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (SDA) and control rats. Rb1's effect on food intake was significantly attenuated in SDA rats, compared with that in SHAM controls. These data indicate that the vagal afferent system is the major pathway conveying peripherally administered Rb1's satiation signal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 75 FR 27964 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-22B and RB211-524 Series Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ...-1157; Directorate Identifier 2009-NE-26-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR... p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. Fax: (202) 493-2251. Contact Rolls-Royce plc... Information Rolls-Royce plc has issued Alert Service Bulletin RB.211-72-AF336, dated October 24, 2007. The...

  12. The Effect of Mustard Gas on Salivary Trace Metals (Zn, Mn, Cu, Mg, Mo, Sr, Cd, Ca, Pb, Rb)

    PubMed Central

    Zamani Pozveh, Elham; Seif, Ahmad; Ghalayani, Parichehr; Maleki, Abbas; Mottaghi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    We have determined and compared trace metals concentration in saliva taken from chemical warfare injures who were under the exposure of mustard gas and healthy subjects by means of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) for the first time. The influence of preliminary operations on the accuracy of ICP-OES analysis, blood contamination, the number of restored teeth in the mouth, salivary flow rate, and daily variations in trace metals concentration in saliva were also considered. Unstimulated saliva was collected at 10:00–11:00 a.m. from 45 subjects in three equal groups. The first group was composed of 15 healthy subjects (group 1); the second group consisted of 15 subjects who, upon chemical warfare injuries, did not use Salbutamol spray, which they would have normally used on a regular basis (group 2); and the third group contained the same number of patients as the second group, but they had taken their regular medicine (Salbutamol spray; group 3). Our results showed that the concentration of Cu in saliva was significantly increased in the chemical warfare injures compared to healthy subjects, as follows: healthy subjects 15.3± 5.45(p.p.b.), patients (group 2) 45.77±13.65, and patients (Salbutamol spray; group 3) 29 ±8.51 (P <0.02). In contrast, zinc was significantly decreased in the patients, as follows: healthy subjects 37 ± 9.03(p.p.b.), patients (group 2) 12.2 ± 3.56, and patients (Salbutamol spray; group 3) 20.6 ±10.01 (P < 0.01). It is important to note that direct dilution of saliva samples with ultrapure nitric acid showed the optimum ICP-OES outputs. PMID:25965704

  13. Two-dimensional electron gases in MgZnO/ZnO and ZnO/MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures grown by dual ion beam sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rohit; Arif Khan, Md; Sharma, Pankaj; Than Htay, Myo; Kranti, Abhinav; Mukherjee, Shaibal

    2018-04-01

    This work reports on the formation of high-density (~1013-1014 cm-2) two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in ZnO-based heterostructures, grown by a dual ion beam sputtering system. We probe 2DEG in bilayer MgZnO/ZnO and capped ZnO/MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures utilizing MgZnO barrier layers with varying thickness and Mg content. The effect of the ZnO cap layer thickness on the ZnO/MgZnO/ZnO heterostructure is also studied. Hall measurements demonstrate that the addition of a 5 nm ZnO cap layer results in an enhancement of the 2DEG density by about 1.5 times compared to 1.11 × 1014 cm-2 for the uncapped bilayer heterostructure with the same 30 nm barrier thickness and 30 at.% Mg composition in the barrier layer. From the low-temperature Hall measurement, the sheet carrier concentration and mobility are both found to be independent of the temperature. The capacitance-voltage measurement suggests a carrier density of ~1020 cm-3, confined in 2DEG at the MgZnO/ZnO heterointerface. The results presented are significant for the optimization of 2DEG for the eventual realization of cost-effective and large-area MgZnO/ZnO-based high-electron-mobility transistors.

  14. Experimental Determination of the Ionization Energy in TlBr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitomi, Keitaro; Onodera, Toshiyuki; Kim, Seong-Yun; Shoji, Tadayoshi; Ishii, Keizo

    2015-06-01

    The average ionization energy required to excite an electron-hole pair in TlBr was estimated to be 5.50 ± 0.05 eV by comparing the peak position of 59.5-keV gamma rays obtained from four pixels of a pixelated TlBr detector to the peak position obtained from a Si PIN photodiode at room temperature.

  15. Application of TlBr to nuclear medicine imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirignano, Leonard; Kim, Hadong; Kargar, Alireza; Churilov, Alexei V.; Ciampi, Guido; Higgins, William; Kim, Suyoung; Barber, Bradford; Haston, Kyle; Shah, Kanai

    2012-10-01

    Thallium bromide (TlBr) has been under development for room temperature gamma ray spectroscopy due to high density, high Z and wide bandgap of the material. Furthermore, its low melting point (460 °C), cubic crystal structure and congruent melting with no solid-solid phase transitions between the melting point and room temperature, TlBr can be grown by relatively simple melt based methods. As a result of improvements in material processing and detector fabrication over the last several years, TlBr with electron mobility-lifetime products (μeτe) in the mid 10-3 cm2/V range has been obtained. In this paper we are going to report on our unipolar charging TlBr results for the application as a small animal imaging. For SPECT application, about 5 mm thick pixellated detectors were fabricated and tested. About 1 % FWHM at 662 keV energy resolution was estimated at room temperature. By applying the depth correction technique, less than 1 % energy resolution was estimated. We are going to report the results from orthogonal strip TlBr detector for PET application. In this paper we also present our latest detector highlights and recent progress made in long term stability of TlBr detectors at or near room temperature. This work is being supported by the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) and the Department of Energy (DOE).

  16. RB mutation and RAS overexpression induce resistance to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity in glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Morales, Mario; Sánchez-García, Francisco Javier; Golán-Cancela, Irene; Hernández-Pedro, Norma; Costoya, Jose A; de la Cruz, Verónica Pérez; Moreno-Jiménez, Sergio; Sotelo, Julio; Pineda, Benjamín

    2015-01-01

    Several theories aim to explain the malignant transformation of cells, including the mutation of tumor suppressors and proto-oncogenes. Deletion of Rb (a tumor suppressor), overexpression of mutated Ras (a proto-oncogene), or both, are sufficient for in vitro gliomagenesis, and these genetic traits are associated with their proliferative capacity. An emerging hallmark of cancer is the ability of tumor cells to evade the immune system. Whether specific mutations are related with this, remains to be analyzed. To address this issue, three transformed glioma cell lines were obtained (Rb(-/-), Ras(V12), and Rb(-/-)/Ras(V12)) by in vitro retroviral transformation of astrocytes, as previously reported. In addition, Ras(V12) and Rb(-/-)/Ras(V12) transformed cells were injected into SCID mice and after tumor growth two stable glioma cell lines were derived. All these cells were characterized in terms of Rb and Ras gene expression, morphology, proliferative capacity, expression of MHC I, Rae1δ, and Rae1αβγδε, mult1, H60a, H60b, H60c, as ligands for NK cell receptors, and their susceptibility to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Our results show that transformation of astrocytes (Rb loss, Ras overexpression, or both) induced phenotypical and functional changes associated with resistance to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Moreover, the transfer of cell lines of transformed astrocytes into SCID mice increased resistance to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity, thus suggesting that specific changes in a tumor suppressor (Rb) and a proto-oncogene (Ras) are enough to confer resistance to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity in glioma cells and therefore provide some insight into the ability of tumor cells to evade immune responses.

  17. Derivation of Apollo 14 High-Al Basalts at Discrete Times: Rb-Sr Isotopic Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hui. Hejiu; Neal, Clive, R.; Shih, Chi-Yu; Nyquist, Laurence E.

    2012-01-01

    Pristine Apollo 14 (A-14) high-Al basalts represent the oldest volcanic deposits returned from the Moon [1,2] and are relatively enriched in Al2O3 (>11 wt%) compared to other mare basalts (7-11 wt%). Literature Rb-Sr isotopic data suggest there are at least three different eruption episodes for the A-14 high-Al basalts spanning the age range approx.4.3 Ga to approx.3.95 Ga [1,3]. Therefore, the high-Al basalts may record lunar mantle evolution between the formation of lunar crust (approx.4.4 Ga) and the main basin-filling mare volcanism (<3.85 Ga) [4]. The high-Al basalts were originally classified into five compositional groups [5,6], and then regrouped into three with a possible fourth comprising 14072 based on the whole-rock incompatible trace element (ITE) ratios and Rb-Sr radiometric ages [7]. However, Rb-Sr ages of these basalts from different laboratories may not be consistent with each other because of the use of different 87Rb decay constants [8] and different isochron derivation methods over the last four decades. This study involved a literature search for Rb-Sr isotopic data previously reported for the high-Al basalts. With the re-calculated Rb-Sr radiometric ages, eruption episodes of A-14 high-Al basalts were determined, and their petrogenesis was investigated in light of the "new" Rb-Sr isotopic data and published trace element abundances of these basalts.

  18. Ginsenoside Rb1 inhibits fibrillation and toxicity of alpha-synuclein and disaggregates preformed fibrils.

    PubMed

    Ardah, Mustafa T; Paleologou, Katerina E; Lv, Guohua; Menon, Sindhu A; Abul Khair, Salema B; Lu, Jia-Hong; Safieh-Garabedian, Bared; Al-Hayani, Abdulmonem A; Eliezer, David; Li, Min; El-Agnaf, Omar M A

    2015-02-01

    Compelling evidence indicates that α-synuclein (α-syn) aggregation plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and other synucleinopathies. Identification of compounds that inhibit or reverse the aggregation process may thus represent a viable therapeutic strategy against PD and related disorders. Ginseng is a well-known medicinal plant that has been used in East Asia for more than two thousand years to treat several conditions. It is now understood that the pharmacological properties of ginseng can be attributed to its biologically active components, the ginsenosides, which in turn have been shown to have neuroprotective properties. We therefore sought to determine for the first time, the potential of the most frequently used and studied ginsenosides, namely Rg1, Rg3 and Rb1, as anti-amyloidogenic agents. The effect of Rg1, Rg3 and Rb1 on α-syn aggregation and toxicity was determined by an array of biophysical, biochemical and cell-culture-based techniques. Among the screened ginsenosides, only Rb1 was shown to be a potent inhibitor of α-syn fibrillation and toxicity. Additionally, Rb1 exhibited a strong ability to disaggregate preformed fibrils and to inhibit the seeded polymerization of α-syn. Interestingly, Rb1 was found to stabilize soluble non-toxic oligomers with no β-sheet content, that were susceptible to proteinase K digestion, and the binding of Rb1 to those oligomers may represent a potential mechanism of action. Thus, Rb1 could represent the starting point for designing new molecules that could be utilized as drugs for the treatment of PD and related disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Atmospheric lifetimes and ozone depletion potentials of methyl bromide (CH3Br) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2)

    SciTech Connect

    Mellouki, A.; Talukdar, R.K.; Schmoltner, A.

    The rate coefficients for the reactions of OH radical with CH3Br and CH2Br2 were measured as functions of temperature using the laser photolysis - laser induced fluorescence method. This data was incorporated into a semiempirical model (Solomon et al., 1992) and a 2D model to calculate the steady-state ozone depletion potentials (ODP) and atmospheri lifetimes, tau, with greatly improved accuracy as compared to earlier studies. The calculated ODPs and tau are 0.65 and 1.7 years and 0.17 and 0.41 years for CH3Br and CH2Br2, respectively, using the semiempirical model. These lifetimes agree well with those calculated using a 2D model.more » This study better quantifies the ODPs and tau of these species which are needed inputs for discussion of possible regulation of human emissions currently under international considerations. 29 refs.« less

  20. Zn precipitation and Li depletion in Zn implanted ZnO

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, K. S.; Jagadish, C.; Wong-Leung, J., E-mail: jenny.wongleung@anu.edu.au

    2016-07-11

    Ion implantation of Zn substituting elements in ZnO has been shown to result in a dramatic Li depletion of several microns in hydrothermally grown ZnO. This has been ascribed to a burst of mobile Zn interstials. In this study, we seek to understand the reason behind this interstitial mediated transient enhanced diffusion in Li-containing ZnO samples after Zn implantation. ZnO wafers were implanted with Zn to two doses, 5 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup −2} and 1 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −2}. Secondary ion mass spectrometry was carried out to profile the Li depletion depth for different annealing temperatures between 600 and 800 °C. The 800 °C annealing hadmore » the most significant Li depletion of close to 60 μm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was carried out in selected samples to identify the reason behind the Li depletion. In particular, TEM investigations of samples annealed at 750 °C show significant Zn precipitation just below the depth of the projected range of the implanted ions. We propose that the Zn precipitation is indicative of Zn supersaturation. Both the Li depletion and Zn precipitation are competing synchronous processes aimed at reducing the excess Zn interstitials.« less

  1. Donor impurity incorporation during layer growth of Zn II-VI semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    The maximum halogen donor concentration in Zn II-VI semiconductors during layer growth is studied using a standard model from statistical mechanics. Here the driving force for incorporation is an increase in entropy upon mixing of the donor impurity into the available anion lattice sites in the host binary. A formation energy opposes this increase and thus equilibrium is attained at some maximum concentration. Considering the halogen donor impurities within the Zn II-VI binary semiconductors ZnO, ZnS, ZnSe and ZnTe, a heat of reaction obtained from reported diatomic bond strengths is shown to be directly proportional to the log of maximum donor concentration. The formation energy can then be estimated and an expression for maximum donor concentration derived. Values for the maximum donor concentration with each of the halogen impurities, within the Zn II-VI compounds, are computed. This model predicts that the halogens will serve as electron donors in these compounds in order of increasing effectiveness as: F, Br, I, Cl. Finally, this result is taken to be equivalent to an alternative model where donor concentration depends upon impurity diffusion and the conduction band energy shift due to a depletion region at the growing crystal's surface. From this, we are able to estimate the diffusion activation energy for each of the impurities mentioned above. Comparisons are made with reported values and relevant conclusions presented.

  2. The new barium zinc mercurides Ba3ZnHg10 and BaZn0.6Hg3.4 - Synthesis, crystal and electronic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Michael; Wendorff, Marco; Röhr, Caroline

    2012-12-01

    The title compounds Ba3ZnHg10 and BaZn0.6Hg3.4 were synthesized from stoichiometric ratios of the elements in Ta crucibles. Their crystal structures, which both represent new structure types, have been determined using single crystal X-ray data. The structure of Ba3ZnHg10 (orthorhombic, oP28, space group Pmmn, a=701.2(3), b=1706.9(8), c=627.3(3)pm, Z=2, R1=0.0657) contains folded 44 Hg nets, where the meshes form the bases of flat rectangular pyramids resembling the structure of BaAl4. The flat pyramids are connected via Hg-Zn/Hg bonds, leaving large channels at the folds, in which Ba(1) and Hg(2) atoms alternate. Whereas the remaining Hg/Zn atoms form a covalent 3D network of three- to five-bonded atoms with short M-M distances (273-301 pm; CN 9-11), the Hg(2) atoms in the channels adopt a comparatively large coordination number of 12 and increased distances (317-348 pm) to their Zn/Hg neighbours. In the structure of BaZn0.6Hg3.4 (cubic, cI320, space group I4bar3d, a=2025.50(7) pm, Z=64, R1=0.0440), with a chemical composition not much different from that of Ba3ZnHg10, the Zn/Hg atoms of the mixed positions M(1/2) are arranged in an slightly distorted primitive cubic lattice with a 4×4×4 subcell relation to the unit cell. The 24 of the originating 64 cubes contain planar cis tetramers Hg(5,6)4 with Hg in a nearly trigonal planar or tetrahedral coordination. In another 24 of the small cubes, two opposing faces are decorated by Hg(3,4)2 dumbbells, two by Ba(2) atoms respectively. The third type of small cubes are centered by Ba(1) atoms only. The complex 3D polyanionic Hg/Zn network thus formed is compared with the Hg partial structure in Rb3Hg20 applying a group-subgroup relation. Despite their different overall structures, the connectivity of the negatively charged Hg atoms, the rather metallic Zn bonding characteristic (as obtained from FP-LAPW band structure calculations) and the coordination number of 16 for all Ba cations relate the two title compounds.

  3. 75 FR 50877 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211-524C2 Series Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211-524C2 Series Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation.... The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2010-17-13 Rolls-Royce plc (Formerly Rolls...) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to Rolls-Royce plc (RR) model RB211-524C2-19 and RB211-524C2-B...

  4. pRb phosphorylation regulates the proliferation of supporting cells in gentamicin-damaged neonatal avian utricle.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jingfang; Sun, Shan; Li, Wenyan; Chen, Yan; Li, Huawei

    2014-10-01

    The ability of nonmammalian vertebrates to regenerate hair cells (HCs) after damage-induced HC loss has stimulated and inspired research in the field of HC regeneration. The protein pRb encoded by retinoblastoma gene Rb1 forces sensory progenitor cells to exit cell cycle and maintain differentiated HCs and supporting cells (SCs) in a quiescent state. pRb function is regulated by phosphorylation through the MEK/ERK or the pRb/Raf-1 signaling pathway. In our previous study, we have shown that pRb phosphorylation is crucial for progenitor cell proliferation and survival during the early embryonic stage of avian otocyst sensory epithelium development. However, in damaged avian utricle, the role of pRb in regulating the cell cycling of SCs or HCs regeneration still remains unclear. To further elucidate the function of pRb phosphorylation on SCs re-entering the cell cycle triggered by gentamycin-induced HCs damage, we isolated neonatal chicken utricles and treated them with the MEK inhibitor U0126 or the pRb/Raf-1 inhibitor RRD-251, respectively in vitro. We found that after gentamycin-induced HCs damage, pRb phosphorylation is important for the quiescent SCs re-entering the cell cycle in the neonatal chicken utricle. In addition, the proliferation of SCs decreased in a dose-dependent manner in response to both U0126 and RRD-251, which indicates that both the MEK/ERK and the pRb/Raf-1 signaling pathway play important roles in pRb phosphorylation in damaged neonatal chicken utricle. Together, these findings on the function of pRb in damaged neonatal chicken utricle improve our understanding of the regulation of the cell cycle of SCs after HCs loss and may shed light on the mammalian HC regeneration from SCs in damaged organs.

  5. RB1 status in triple negative breast cancer cells dictates response to radiation treatment and selective therapeutic drugs.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Tyler J W; Liu, Jeff C; Vizeacoumar, Frederick; Sun, Thomas; Maclean, Neil; Egan, Sean E; Schimmer, Aaron D; Datti, Alessandro; Zacksenhaus, Eldad

    2013-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) includes basal-like and claudin-low subtypes for which only chemotherapy and radiation therapy are currently available. The retinoblastoma (RB1) tumor suppressor is frequently lost in human TNBC. Knockdown of RB1 in luminal BC cells was shown to affect response to endocrine, radiation and several antineoplastic drugs. However, the effect of RB1 status on radiation and chemo-sensitivity in TNBC cells and whether RB1 status affects response to divergent or specific treatment are unknown. Using multiple basal-like and claudin-low cell lines, we hereby demonstrate that RB-negative TNBC cell lines are highly sensitive to gamma-irradiation, and moderately more sensitive to doxorubicin and methotrexate compared to RB-positive TNBC cell lines. In contrast, RB1 status did not affect sensitivity of TNBC cells to multiple other drugs including cisplatin (CDDP), 5-fluorouracil, idarubicin, epirubicin, PRIMA-1(met), fludarabine and PD-0332991, some of which are used to treat TNBC patients. Moreover, a non-biased screen of ∼3400 compounds, including FDA-approved drugs, revealed similar sensitivity of RB-proficient and -deficient TNBC cells. Finally, ESA(+)/CD24(-/low)/CD44(+) cancer stem cells from RB-negative TNBC lines were consistently more sensitive to gamma-irradiation than RB-positive lines, whereas the effect of chemotherapy on the cancer stem cell fraction varied irrespective of RB1 expression. Our results suggest that patients carrying RB-deficient TNBCs would benefit from gamma-irradiation as well as doxorubicin and methotrexate therapy, but not necessarily from many other anti-neoplastic drugs.

  6. Optical Feshbach resonances and ground-state-molecule production in the RbHg system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borkowski, Mateusz; Muñoz Rodriguez, Rodolfo; Kosicki, Maciej B.; Ciuryło, Roman; Żuchowski, Piotr S.

    2017-12-01

    We present the prospects for photoassociation, optical control of interspecies scattering lengths, and, finally, the production of ultracold absolute ground-state molecules in the Rb+Hg system. We use the state-of-the-art ab initio methods for the calculations of ground- [CCSD(T)] and excited-state (EOM-CCSD) potential curves. The RbHg system, thanks to the wide range of stable Hg bosonic isotopes, offers possibilities for mass tuning of ground-state interactions. The optical lengths describing the strengths of optical Feshbach resonances near the Rb transitions are favorable even at large laser detunings. Ground-state RbHg molecules can be produced with efficiencies ranging from about 20% for deeply bound to at least 50% for weakly bound states close to the dissociation limit. Finally, electronic transitions with favorable Franck-Condon factors can be found for the purposes of a STIRAP transfer of the weakly bound RbHg molecules to the absolute ground state using commercially available lasers.

  7. The DREAM complex through its subunit Lin37 cooperates with Rb to initiate quiescence

    PubMed Central

    Mages, Christina FS; Wintsche, Axel; Bernhart, Stephan H

    2017-01-01

    The retinoblastoma Rb protein is an important factor controlling the cell cycle. Yet, mammalian cells carrying Rb deletions are still able to arrest under growth-limiting conditions. The Rb-related proteins p107 and p130, which are components of the DREAM complex, had been suggested to be responsible for a continued ability to arrest by inhibiting E2f activity and by recruiting chromatin-modifying enzymes. Here, we show that p130 and p107 are not sufficient for DREAM-dependent repression. We identify the MuvB protein Lin37 as an essential factor for DREAM function. Cells not expressing Lin37 proliferate normally, but DREAM completely loses its ability to repress genes in G0/G1 while all remaining subunits, including p130/p107, still bind to target gene promoters. Furthermore, cells lacking both Rb and Lin37 are incapable of exiting the cell cycle. Thus, Lin37 is an essential component of DREAM that cooperates with Rb to induce quiescence. PMID:28920576

  8. Resetting of RbSr ages of volcanic rocks by low-grade burial metamorphism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asmeroma, Y.; Damon, P.; Shafiqullah, M.; Dickinson, W.R.; Zartman, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    We report a nine-point RbSr whole-rock isochron age of 70??3 Ma (MSWD 3.97) for Mid-Jurassic volcanic rocks. The same rocks have also been dated by the UThPb method on zircon, giving a crystallization age of 166 ?? 11 Ma, over twice as old as the RbSr age. The data demonstrate that whole-rock RbSr ages of volcanic rocks, even lava flows with SiO2 content as low as 57 wt.%, are susceptible to complete resetting. The rocks range in composition from rhyodacite tuffs to andesite lavas. The complete breakdown of all major minerals that contain Rb and Sr resulted in an alteration mineral assemblage consisting of phengite, albite, secondary quartz, and minor amounts of chlorite and epidote. Phengite is the K-bearing product of the breakdown of biotite and K-feldspar. Pressure during low-grade metamorphism of the volcanic rocks, estimated from phengite composition to have been in the range of 4 to 6 kbar, points to thrust-related burial as the main cause of resetting. Consequently, such reset isochrons may date large-scale events such as regional thrusting and metamorphism. The coherent resetting of the RbSr isochron suggests large-scale pervasive fluid movement during thrust-related burial metamorphism. ?? 1991.

  9. Organ size control is dominant over Rb family inactivation to restrict proliferation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ehmer, Ursula; Zmoos, Anne-Flore; Auerbach, Raymond K; Vaka, Dedeepya; Butte, Atul J; Kay, Mark A; Sage, Julien

    2014-07-24

    In mammals, a cell's decision to divide is thought to be under the control of the Rb/E2F pathway. We previously found that inactivation of the Rb family of cell cycle inhibitors (Rb, p107, and p130) in quiescent liver progenitors leads to uncontrolled division and cancer initiation. Here, we show that, in contrast, deletion of the entire Rb gene family in mature hepatocytes is not sufficient for their long-term proliferation. The cell cycle block in Rb family mutant hepatocytes is independent of the Arf/p53/p21 checkpoint but can be abrogated upon decreasing liver size. At the molecular level, we identify YAP, a transcriptional regulator involved in organ size control, as a factor required for the sustained expression of cell cycle genes in hepatocytes. These experiments identify a higher level of regulation of the cell cycle in vivo in which signals regulating organ size are dominant regulators of the core cell cycle machinery. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Microbial transformation of ginsenoside Rb1 to compound K by Lactobacillus paralimentarius.

    PubMed

    Quan, Lin-Hu; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Li, Guan Hao; Choi, Kwang-Tea; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the major ginsenoside Rb1 was transformed into the more pharmacologically active minor compound K by food grade Lactobacillus paralimentarius LH4, which was isolated from kimchi, a traditional Korean fermented food. The enzymatic reaction was analyzed by TLC, HPLC, and NMR. Using the cell-free enzyme of Lactobacillus paralimentarius LH4 at optimal conditions for 30 °C at pH 6.0, 1.0 mg ml(-1) ginsenoside Rb1 was transformed into 0.52 mg ml(-1) compound K within 72 h, with a corresponding molar conversion yield of 88 %. The cell-free enzyme hydrolyzed the two glucose moieties attached to the C-3 position and the outer glucose moiety attached to the C-20 position of the ginsenoside Rb1. The cell-free enzyme hydrolyzed the ginsenoside Rb1 along the following pathway: ginsenoside Rb1 → gypenoside XVII and ginsenoside Rd → ginsenoside F2 → compound K. Our results indicate that Lactobacillus paralimentarius LH4 has the potential to be applied for the preparation of compound K in the food industry.

  11. ATM Mediates pRB Function To Control DNMT1 Protein Stability and DNA Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Misa; Hayashi, Naoyuki; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Sasaki, Nobunari; Nishiuchi, Takumi; Doki, Yuichiro; Okamoto, Takahiro; Kohno, Susumu; Muranaka, Hayato; Kitajima, Shunsuke; Yamamoto, Ken-ichi

    2013-01-01

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene (RB) product has been implicated in epigenetic control of gene expression owing to its ability to physically bind to many chromatin modifiers. However, the biological and clinical significance of this activity was not well elucidated. To address this, we performed genetic and epigenetic analyses in an Rb-deficient mouse thyroid C cell tumor model. Here we report that the genetic interaction of Rb and ATM regulates DNMT1 protein stability and hence controls the DNA methylation status in the promoters of at least the Ink4a, Shc2, FoxO6, and Noggin genes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that inactivation of pRB promotes Tip60 (acetyltransferase)-dependent ATM activation; allows activated ATM to physically bind to DNMT1, forming a complex with Tip60 and UHRF1 (E3 ligase); and consequently accelerates DNMT1 ubiquitination driven by Tip60-dependent acetylation. Our results indicate that inactivation of the pRB pathway in coordination with aberration in the DNA damage response deregulates DNMT1 stability, leading to an abnormal DNA methylation pattern and malignant progression. PMID:23754744

  12. Multiple conformations are a conserved and regulatory feature of the RB1 5′ UTR

    PubMed Central

    Kutchko, Katrina M.; Sanders, Wes; Ziehr, Ben; Phillips, Gabriela; Solem, Amanda; Halvorsen, Matthew; Weeks, Kevin M.; Moorman, Nathaniel

    2015-01-01

    Folding to a well-defined conformation is essential for the function of structured ribonucleic acids (RNAs) like the ribosome and tRNA. Structured elements in the untranslated regions (UTRs) of specific messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are known to control expression. The importance of unstructured regions adopting multiple conformations, however, is still poorly understood. High-resolution SHAPE-directed Boltzmann suboptimal sampling of the Homo sapiens Retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) 5′ UTR yields three distinct conformations compatible with the experimental data. Private single nucleotide variants (SNVs) identified in two patients with retinoblastoma each collapse the structural ensemble to a single but distinct well-defined conformation. The RB1 5′ UTRs from Bos taurus (cow) and Trichechus manatus latirostris (manatee) are divergent in sequence from H. sapiens (human) yet maintain structural compatibility with high-probability base pairs. SHAPE chemical probing of the cow and manatee RB1 5′ UTRs reveals that they also adopt multiple conformations. Luciferase reporter assays reveal that 5′ UTR mutations alter RB1 expression. In a traditional model of disease, causative SNVs disrupt a key structural element in the RNA. For the subset of patients with heritable retinoblastoma-associated SNVs in the RB1 5′ UTR, the absence of multiple structures is likely causative of the cancer. Our data therefore suggest that selective pressure will favor multiple conformations in eukaryotic UTRs to regulate expression. PMID:25999316

  13. Green Synthesized Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Nanoparticles Induce Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in Lathyrus sativus L. Root Bioassay System

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Kamal K.; Golari, Dambaru; Venugopal, A.; Achary, V. Mohan M.; Phaomei, Ganngam; Parinandi, Narasimham L.; Sahu, Hrushi K.; Panda, Brahma B.

    2017-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP-GS) were synthesised from the precursor zinc acetate (Zn(CH3COO)2) through the green route using the milky latex from milk weed (Calotropis gigantea L. R. Br) by alkaline precipitation. Formation of the ZnONP-GS was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy followed by characterization and confirmation by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Both the ZnONP-GS and the commercially available ZnONP-S (Sigma-Aldrich) and cationic Zn2+ from Zn(CH3COO)2 were tested in a dose range of 0–100 mg·L−1 for their potency (i) to induce oxidative stress as measured by the generation reactive oxygen species (ROS: O2•−, H2O2 and •OH), cell death, and lipid peroxidation; (ii) to modulate the activities of antioxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX); and (iii) to cause DNA damage as determined by Comet assay in Lathyrus sativus L. root bioassay system. Antioxidants such as Tiron and dimethylthiourea significantly attenuated the ZnONP-induced oxidative and DNA damage, suggesting the involvement of ROS therein. Our study demonstrated that both ZnONP-GS and ZnONP-S induced oxidative stress and DNA damage to a similar extent but were significantly less potent than Zn2+ alone. PMID:28524089

  14. Green Synthesized Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Nanoparticles Induce Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in Lathyrus sativus L. Root Bioassay System.

    PubMed

    Panda, Kamal K; Golari, Dambaru; Venugopal, A; Achary, V Mohan M; Phaomei, Ganngam; Parinandi, Narasimham L; Sahu, Hrushi K; Panda, Brahma B

    2017-05-18

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP-GS) were synthesised from the precursor zinc acetate (Zn(CH₃COO)₂) through the green route using the milky latex from milk weed ( Calotropis gigantea L. R. Br) by alkaline precipitation. Formation of the ZnONP-GS was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy followed by characterization and confirmation by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Both the ZnONP-GS and the commercially available ZnONP-S (Sigma-Aldrich) and cationic Zn 2+ from Zn(CH₃COO)₂ were tested in a dose range of 0-100 mg·L -1 for their potency (i) to induce oxidative stress as measured by the generation reactive oxygen species (ROS: O₂ •- , H₂O₂ and • OH), cell death, and lipid peroxidation; (ii) to modulate the activities of antioxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX); and (iii) to cause DNA damage as determined by Comet assay in Lathyrus sativus L. root bioassay system. Antioxidants such as Tiron and dimethylthiourea significantly attenuated the ZnONP-induced oxidative and DNA damage, suggesting the involvement of ROS therein. Our study demonstrated that both ZnONP-GS and ZnONP-S induced oxidative stress and DNA damage to a similar extent but were significantly less potent than Zn 2+ alone.

  15. Effects of ZnSO4 and Zn-EDTA broadcast or banded to soil on Zn bioavailability in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Zn fractions in soil.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Aiqing; Yang, Shu; Wang, Bini; Tian, Xiaohong; Zhang, Youlin

    2018-08-01

    Human Zn deficiency is prevalent in developing countries, and staple grains are commonly bio-fortified to increase their Zn contents. We measured Zn content, distribution, and bioavailability in calcareous soil and in wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L.) in Shaanxi Province, China, when either an organic Zn-ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Zn-EDTA) or an inorganic zinc sulfate heptahydrate (ZnSO 4 ·7H 2 O) Zn source was banded below the seedbed or broadcasted into soil. Compared with ZnSO 4 ·7H 2 O, Zn-EDTA fertilization produced higher Zn concentration and uptake in wheat plants. However, Zn bioavailability in grain remained low, with [phytate]/[Zn] ratio >15 and the resulting estimated dietary total absorbed zinc (TAZ) < 3 mg Zn/d. ZnSO 4 banded into soil had little short-term effect on grain Zn concentration but had a high residual effect and promoted the maintenance of a high concentration of the Zn fraction bound to loose organic matter (LOM-Zn) in rhizosphere soil. Both ZnSO 4 and Zn-EDTA were more efficient if uniformly mixed through the soil than if banded to soil. Both ZnSO 4 and Zn-EDTA had limited effects on Zn bioavailability in wheat plants due to the high rate of Zn fixation in this calcareous soil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular characterization of BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 paralogous transcription factors involved in the regulation of aliphatic glucosinolate profiles in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis.

    PubMed

    Baskar, Venkidasamy; Park, Se Won

    2015-07-01

    Glucosinolates (GSL) are one of the major secondary metabolites of the Brassicaceae family. In the present study, we aim at characterizing the multiple paralogs of aliphatic GSL regulators, such as BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 genes in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis, by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis in different tissues and at various developmental stages. An overlapping gene expression pattern between the BrMYBs as well as their downstream genes (DSGs) was found at different developmental stages. Among the BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 paralogous genes, the BrMYB28.3 and BrMYB29.1 genes were dominantly expressed in most of the developmental stages, compared to the other paralogs of the BrMYB genes. Furthermore, the differential expression pattern of the BrMYBs was observed under various stress treatments. Interestingly, BrMYB28.2 showed the least expression in most developmental stages, while its expression was remarkably high in different stress conditions. More specifically, the BrMYB28.2, BrMYB28.3, and BrMYB29.1 genes were highly responsive to various abiotic and biotic stresses, further indicating their possible role in stress tolerance. Moreover, the in silico cis motif analysis in the upstream regulatory regions of BrMYBs showed the presence of various putative stress-specific motifs, which further indicated their responsiveness to biotic and abiotic stresses. These observations suggest that the dominantly expressed BrMYBs, both in different developmental stages and under various stress treatments (BrMYB28.3 and BrMYB29.1), may be potential candidate genes for altering the GSL level through genetic modification studies in B. rapa ssp. pekinensis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  17. Finding the Missing Stratospheric Br(sub y): A Global Modeling Study of CHBr3 and CH2Br2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Q.; Stolarski, R. S.; Kawa, S. R.; Nielsen, J. E.; Douglass, A. R.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Blake, D. R.; Atlas, E. L.; Ott, L. E.

    2010-01-01

    Recent in situ and satellite measurements suggest a contribution of 5 pptv to stratospheric inorganic bromine from short-lived bromocarbons. We conduct a modeling study of the two most important short-lived bromocarbons, bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), with the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model (GEOS CCM) to account for this missing stratospheric bromine. We derive a "top-down" emission estimate of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 using airborne measurements in the Pacific and North American troposphere and lower stratosphere obtained during previous NASA aircraft campaigns. Our emission estimate suggests that to reproduce the observed concentrations in the free troposphere, a global oceanic emission of 425 Gg Br yr(exp -1) for CHBr3 and 57 Gg Br yr(exp -l) for CH2Br2 is needed, with 60% of emissions from open ocean and 40% from coastal regions. Although our simple emission scheme assumes no seasonal variations, the model reproduces the observed seasonal variations of the short-lived bromocarbons with high concentrations in winter and low concentrations in summer. This indicates that the seasonality of short-lived bromocarbons is largely due to seasonality in their chemical loss and transport. The inclusion of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 contributes 5 pptv bromine throughout the stratosphere. Both the source gases and inorganic bromine produced from source gas degradation (BrSLS) in the troposphere are transported into the stratosphere, and are equally important. Inorganic bromine accounts for half (2.5 pptv) of the bromine from the inclusion of CHBr3 and CHzBr2 near the tropical tropopause and its contribution rapidly increases to 100% as altitude increases. More than 85% of the wet scavenging of Br(sub y)(sup VSLS) occurs in large-scale precipitation below 500 hPa. Our sensitivity study with wet scavenging in convective updrafts switched off suggests that Br(sub y)(sup SLS) in the stratosphere is not sensitive to convection. Convective scavenging only

  18. 75 FR 19957 - B-R Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP10-129-000] B-R Pipeline Company; Notice of Application April 9, 2010. Take notice that on April 8, 2010, B-R Pipeline Company (B-R... should be directed to Counsel for B-R Pipeline Company, William H. Penniman or Michael Brooks, Sutherland...

  19. An adiabatic spectroscopic investigation of the CsRb system in ground and numerous excited states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souissi, Hanen; Jellali, Soulef; Maha, Chaieb; Habli, Héla; Oujia, Brahim; Gadéa, Florent Xavier

    2017-10-01

    Via ab-initio approximations, we investigate the electronic and structural features of the CsRb molecule. Adiabatic potential energy curves of 261,3Σ+, 181,3Π and 61,3Δ electronic states with their derived spectroscopic constants as well as vibrational levels spacing have been carried out and well explained. Our approach is founded on an Effective Core Potential (ECP) describing the valence electrons of the system. Using a large Gaussian basis set, the full valence Configuration Interaction can be applied easily on the two-effective valence electrons of the CsRb system. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of the electric dipolar properties has been made through the investigation of both permanent and transition dipole moments (PDM and TDM). It is significant that the ionic character connected with electron transfer that is linked to Cs+ Rb- state has been clearly illustrated in the adiabatic permanent dipole moment.

  20. K-Ca and Rb-Sr Dating of Lunar Granite 14321 Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Justin I.; Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.

    2011-01-01

    K-Ca and Rb-Sr age determinations were made for a bulk feldspar-rich portion of an Apollo rock fragment of the pristine lunar granite clast (14321,1062), an acid-leached split of the sample, and the leachate. K-Ca and Rb-Sr data were also obtained for a whole rock sample of Apollo ferroan anorthosite (FAN, 15415). The recent detection [1] of widespread intermediate composition plagioclase indicates that the generation of a diversity of evolved lunar magmas maybe more common and therefore more important to our understanding of crust formation than previously believed. Our new data strengthen the K-Ca and Rb-Sr internal isochrons of the well-studied Apollo sample 14321 [2], which along with a renewed effort to study evolved lunar magmas will provide an improved understanding of the petrogenetic history of evolved rocks on the Moon.

  1. Dual-species Bose-Einstein condensate of {sup 87}Rb and {sup 133}Cs

    SciTech Connect

    McCarron, D. J.; Cho, H. W.; Jenkin, D. L.

    2011-07-15

    We report the formation of a dual-species Bose-Einstein condensate of {sup 87}Rb and {sup 133}Cs in the same trapping potential. Our method exploits the efficient sympathetic cooling of {sup 133}Cs via elastic collisions with {sup 87}Rb, initially in a magnetic quadrupole trap and subsequently in a levitated optical trap. The two condensates each contain up to 2x10{sup 4} atoms and exhibit a striking phase separation, revealing the mixture to be immiscible due to strong repulsive interspecies interactions. Sacrificing all the {sup 87}Rb during the cooling, we create single-species {sup 133}Cs condensates of up to 6x10{sup 4} atoms.

  2. Hyperfine frequencies of {sup 87}Rb and {sup 133}Cs atoms in Xe gas

    SciTech Connect

    McGuyer, B. H.; Xia, T.; Jau, Y.-Y.

    2011-09-15

    The microwave resonant frequencies of ground-state {sup 87}Rb and {sup 133}Cs atoms in Xe buffer gas are shown to have a relatively large nonlinear dependence on the Xe pressure, presumably because of RbXe or CsXe van der Waals molecules. The nonlinear shifts for Xe are opposite in sign to the previously measured shifts for Ar and Kr, even though all three gases have negative linear shifts. The Xe data show striking discrepancies with the previous theory for nonlinear shifts. Most of this discrepancy is eliminated by accounting for the spin-rotation interaction, {gamma}N{center_dot}S, in addition to the hyperfine-shift interaction, {delta} Amore » I{center_dot}S, in the molecules. To the limit of our experimental accuracy, the shifts of {sup 87}Rb and {sup 133}Cs in He, Ne, and N{sub 2} were linear with pressure.« less

  3. Precision control of eluted activity from a Sr/Rb generator for cardiac positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Klein, R; Adler, A; Beanlands, R S; deKemp, R A

    2004-01-01

    A rubidium-82 (/sup 82/Rb) elution system is described for use with clinical positron emission tomography. The system is self-calibrating with 1.4% repeatability, independent of generator activity and elution flow rate. Saline flow is switched between a /sup 82/Sr//sup 82/Rb generator and a bypass line to achieve a constant activity elution of /sup 82/Rb. In the present study, pulse width modulation (PWM) of a solenoid valve is compared to simple threshold control as a means to simulate a proportional valve. A predictive-corrective control algorithm is developed which produces a constant activity elution within the constraints of long feedback delay and short elution time. Accurate constant-activity elutions of 10-70% of the total generator activity were demonstrated using the threshold comparison control. The adaptive-corrective control of the PWM valve provided a substantial improvement in precision of the steady-state output.

  4. Dual species entanglement of Rb and Cs qubits with Rydberg blockade for crosstalk free qubit measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Kevin; Yu, Zhaoning; Ebert, Matthew; Sun, Yuan; Saffman, Mark

    2016-05-01

    One of the outstanding challenges facing neutral atom qubit approaches to quantum computation is suppression of crosstalk between proximal qubits due to scattered light that is generated during optical pumping and measurement operations. We have recently proposed a dual species approach to solving this challenge whereby computational qubits encoded in Cs atoms are entangled with Rb atoms via an interspecies Rydberg interaction. The quantum state of a Cs atom can then be readout by measuring the state of a Rb atom. The difference in resonant wavelengths of the two species effectively suppresses crosstalk. We will present progress towards experimental demonstration of dual species entanglement using Rb and Cs atoms cotrapped in a single beam optical trap. Work supported by the ARL CDQI.

  5. Electro-migration of impurities in TlBr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Kim, Eunlim; Kim, H.; Tappero, R.; Bolotnikov, A. E.; Camarda, G. S.; Hossain, A.; Cirignano, L.; James, R. B.

    2013-10-01

    We observed the electro-migration of Cu, Ag, and Au impurities that exist in positive-ion states in TlBr detectors under electric field strengths typically used for device operation. The migration occurred predominantly through bulk- and specific-channels, which are presumed to be a network of grain and sub-grain boundaries. The electro-migration velocity of Cu, Ag, and Au in TlBr is about 4-8 × 10-8 cm/s at room temperature under an electric field of 500-800 V/mm. The instability and polarization effects of TlBr detectors might well be correlated with the electro-migration of residual impurities in TlBr, which alters the internal electric field over time. The effect may also have been due to migration of the electrode material itself, which would allow for the possibility of a better choice for contact material and for depositing an effective diffusion barrier. From our findings, we suggest that applying our electro-migration technique for purifying material is a promising new way to remove electrically active metallic impurities in TlBr crystals, as well as other materials.

  6. Theoretical investigation of the He4Br2 conformers.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Álvaro; Prosmiti, Rita; Villarreal, Pablo; Delgado-Barrio, Gerardo

    2012-07-05

    Full dimensional quantum dynamics calculations of the three lowest isomers of the He(4)Br(2) van der Waals molecule in its ground electronic state are reported. The calculations are performed using the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) method and a realistic potential form that includes the sum of three body ab initio coupled-cluster single double triple [CCSD(T)] He-Br(2) interactions plus the He-He and Br-Br interactions. This potential exhibits several multiple minima, with the three lowest ones lying very close in energy, just within 2 cm(-1). Such small differences are also found in the calculated binding energies of the three most stable conformers, indicating the floppiness of the system and, thus, the need of accurate potential forms and quantum full dynamics methods to treat this kind of complexes. The 12 dimensional results reported in this work present benchmark data and, thus, can serve to evaluate approximate methods aiming to describe higher order rare gas-dihalogen (N > 4) complexes. A comparison with previous studies using different potential forms and approaches to the energetics for the He(4)Br(2) cluster is also presented.

  7. The nootropic properties of ginseng saponin Rb1 are linked to effects on anxiety.

    PubMed

    Churchill, James D; Gerson, Jennifer L; Hinton, Kendra A; Mifek, Jennifer L; Walter, Michael J; Winslow, Cynthia L; Deyo, Richard A

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that crude ginseng extracts enhance performance on shock-motivated tasks. Whether such performance enhancements are due to memory-enhancing (nootropic) properties of ginseng, or to other non-specific effects such as an influence on anxiety has not been determined. In the present study, we evaluated both the nootropic and anxiolytic effects of the ginseng saponin Rb1. In the first experiment, 80 five-day-old male chicks received intraperitoneal injections of 0, 0.25, 2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg Rb1. Performance on a visual discrimination task was evaluated 15 minutes, 24 and 72 hours later. Acquisition of a visual discrimination task was unaffected by drug treatment, but the number of errors was significantly reduced in the 0.25 mg/kg group during retention trials completed 24 and 72 hours after injection. Animals receiving higher dosages showed trends towards enhancement initially, but demonstrated impaired performance when tested 72 hours later. Rb1 had no effect on response rates or body weight. In the second experiment, 64 five-day-old male chicks received similar injections of Rb1 (0, 0.25, 2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg) and separation distress was evaluated 15 minutes, 24 and 72 hours later. Rb1 produced a change in separation distress that depended on the dose and environmental condition under which distress was recorded. These data suggest that Rb1 can improve memory for a visual discrimination task and that the nootropic effect may be related to changes in anxiety.

  8. Imbedded Nanocrystals of CsPbBr3 in Cs4 PbBr6 : Kinetics, Enhanced Oscillator Strength, and Application in Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junwei; Huang, Wenxiao; Li, Peiyun; Onken, Drew R; Dun, Chaochao; Guo, Yang; Ucer, Kamil B; Lu, Chang; Wang, Hongzhi; Geyer, Scott M; Williams, Richard T; Carroll, David L

    2017-11-01

    Solution-grown films of CsPbBr 3 nanocrystals imbedded in Cs 4 PbBr 6 are incorporated as the recombination layer in light-emitting diode (LED) structures. The kinetics at high carrier density of pure (extended) CsPbBr 3 and the nanoinclusion composite are measured and analyzed, indicating second-order kinetics in extended and mainly first-order kinetics in the confined CsPbBr 3 , respectively. Analysis of absorption strength of this all-perovskite, all-inorganic imbedded nanocrystal composite relative to pure CsPbBr 3 indicates enhanced oscillator strength consistent with earlier published attribution of the sub-nanosecond exciton radiative lifetime in nanoprecipitates of CsPbBr 3 in melt-grown CsBr host crystals and CsPbBr 3 evaporated films. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Atmospheric test of the J(BrONO2)/kBrO+NO2 ratio: implications for total stratospheric Bry and bromine-mediated ozone loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreycy, S.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Dorf, M.; Feng, W.; Hossaini, R.; Kritten, L.; Werner, B.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2013-07-01

    We report on time-dependent O3, NO2 and BrO profiles measured by limb observations of scattered skylight in the stratosphere over Kiruna (67.9° N, 22.1° E) on 7 and 8 September 2009 during the autumn circulation turn-over. The observations are complemented by simultaneous direct solar occultation measurements around sunset and sunrise performed aboard the same stratospheric balloon payload. Supporting radiative transfer and photochemical modelling indicate that the measurements can be used to constrain the ratio J(BrONO2)/kBrO+NO2, for which at T = 220 ± 5 K an overall 1.7 (+0.4 -0.2) larger ratio is found than recommended by the most recent Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) compilation (Sander et al., 2011). Sensitivity studies reveal the major reasons are likely to be (1) a larger BrONO2 absorption cross-section σBrONO2, primarily for wavelengths larger than 300 nm, and (2) a smaller kBrO+NO2 at 220 K than given by Sander et al. (2011). Other factors, e.g. the actinic flux and quantum yield for the dissociation of BrONO2, can be ruled out. The observations also have consequences for total inorganic stratospheric bromine (Bry) estimated from stratospheric BrO measurements at high NOx loadings, since the ratio J(BrONO2)/kBrO+NO2 largely determines the stratospheric BrO/Bry ratio during daylight. Using the revised J(BrONO2)/kBrO+NO2 ratio, total stratospheric Bry is likely to be 1.4 ppt smaller than previously estimated from BrO profile measurements at high NOx loadings. This would bring estimates of Bry inferred from organic source gas measurements (e.g. CH3Br, the halons, CH2Br2, CHBr3, etc.) into closer agreement with estimates based on BrO observations (inorganic method). The consequences for stratospheric ozone due to the revised J(BrONO2)/kBrO+NO2 ratio are small (maximum -0.8%), since at high NOx (for which most Bry assessments are made) the enhanced ozone loss by overestimating Bry is compensated for by the suppressed ozone loss due to the underestimation

  10. Effect of enzyme on extraction of ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg3 from Panax notoginseng roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuong, Nguyen Tran Xuan; Thy, Lu Thi Mong; Khang, Nguyen Luu Vinh; My, Huynh Thi Kieu; Tam, Nguyen Le Phuong; Hieu, Nguyen Huu

    2018-04-01

    Panax notoginseng is distributed throughout the north and northwest of Vietnam, especially Ha Giang, Lao Cai, and Cao Bang provinces. The root of this plant contains ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rd, Rg3), flavonoids, polyacetylene, polysaccharides, amino acids, fatty acids, and peptides. In this study, the ratios of enzyme (Viscozyme, Termamyl, Cellulase), solvent of components, and time extraction were investigated. The results showed that the highest contents of Rb1 and Rg3 were achieved in the sample extracted with the ratio of enzymes V:C:T = 1:0:0, ethanol:water (60:40, v/v) as extracting solvent in 45 minutes. Then, conditions of high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector method to determine the content of ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg3 in the roots of Panax notoginseng were studied, including wavelength, mobile phase, and flow rate. The separation was subjected on a reversed-phase C18 column using acetonitrile (A) and water (B) as mobile phase. The gradient elution was set as follow: 0-10 min, 15-25% A; 10-20 min, 25-30% A; 20-40 min, 30-60% A; 40-60 min, 60-80% A; and 60-65 min back to 15% A before the next injection, at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min, and the wavelength was set at 202 nm. The linear range was from 298.59 to 696.72 µg/mL for Rb1 and from 8.19 to 19.10 µg/L for Rg3. The limits of detection for Rb1 and Rg3 obtained were 0.31 µg/mL and 0.33 µg/mL, respectively. The limits of quantification were 0.95 µg/mL and 1.01 µg/mL for Rb1 and Rg3, respectively. Consequently, the high performance liquid chromatography demonstrated the highly sensitive and accurate method for determination of Rb1 and Rg3 in Panax notoginseng.

  11. Electron affinities of the alkali dimers - Na2, K2, and Rb2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, H.; Dixon, D. A.; Walch, S. P.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Gole, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Ab initio calculations on the ground states of the alkali dimers, Na2, K2, and Rb2, and their anions are reported. The calculations employ large Gaussian basis sets and account for nearly all of the valence correlation energy. The calculated atomic electron affinities are within 0.02 eV of experiment and the calculated adiabatic electron affinities for Na2, K2, and Rb2 are, respectively, 0.470, 0.512, and 0.513 eV.

  12. Effect of electric field on RbCl quantum pseudodot qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zhi-Hui; Xiao, Jing-Lin

    2018-04-01

    By employing the variational method of Pekar type, we study the effects of electric field on RbCl quantum pseudodot (QPD) qubits. Our results confirm that (1) the electron oscillates in the RbCl QPD with a certain period; (2) the electron's probability density is a raising function of electric field; (3) the oscillating frequency is an increasing one of the electric field and the two-dimensional electron gas chemical potential. Two ways are found for prolonging the lifetime of the qubit and suppressing the decoherence in the quantum information field.

  13. Effects of Shannon entropy and electric field on polaron in RbCl triangular quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M, Tiotsop; A, J. Fotue; S, C. Kenfack; N, Issofa; H, Fotsin; L, C. Fai

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the time evolution of the quantum mechanical state of a polaron is examined using the Pekar type variational method on the condition of the electric-LO-phonon strong-coupling and polar angle in RbCl triangular quantum dot. We obtain the eigenenergies, and the eigenfunctions of the ground state, and the first excited state respectively. This system in a quantum dot can be treated as a two-level quantum system qubit and the numerical calculations are performed. The effects of Shannon entropy and electric field on the polaron in the RbCl triangular quantum dot are also studied.

  14. High-resolution Measurement of Contact Ion-pair Structures in Aqueous RbCl Solutions from the Simultaneous Corefinement of their Rb and Cl K-edge XAFS and XRD Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, Van-Thai; Fulton, John L.

    2016-06-21

    In concentrated solutions of aqueous RbCl, all of the Rb+ and Cl- ions exist as contact ion pairs. This full structural assessment is derived from the refinement of three independent experimental measurements: the Rb and Cl K-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) and the x-ray diffraction spectra (XRD). This simultaneous refinement of the XAFS and XRD data provides high accuracy since each method probes the structure of different local regions about the ions with high sensitivity. At high RbCl concentration (6 m (mol/kg )) the solution is dominated by Rb+ - Cl- contact ion pairs yielding an average of 1.5more » pairs at an Rb-Cl distance of 3.24 Å. Upon formation of these ion pairs, approximately 1.1 waters molecules are displaced from the Rb+ and 1.4 water molecules from Cl-. The hydration shells about both the cation and anion are also determined. These results greatly improve the understanding of monovalent ions and provide a basis for testing the Rb+-Cl- interaction potentials used in molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. This research was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences.« less

  15. New insight into halogen release from experimental studies on BrO/Br ratios in volcanic plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrowski, Nicole; Wittmer, Julian; Liotta, Marcello; Calabrese, Sergio; Giuffrida, Giovanni; Brusca, Lorenzo; Platt, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    Since the discovery of BrO in a volcanic plume (Bobrowski et al. 2003) many measurements have been performed as well as modelling to understand the radical chemistry in volcanic plumes, in particular, the interaction between volcanic gas species, released under strongly reduced conditions, and the oxidizing atmosphere. Besides the goal in atmospheric chemistry to better determine the impact of volcanic emission (e.g. reactive bromine) on the local (and maybe global) scale, volcanologists also have an interest to understand if the BrO/SO2 ratios can be used as a monitoring parameter giving further insides in dynamic processes of volcanoes. However, one of the arguments which potentially makes volcanological interpretations difficult is the reactivity of BrO. Therefore it is, of great importance to link the measurements of BrO and gaseous hydrogen bromide to the total emission flux of bromine in order to estimate the pristine gas composition released from magmas. In particular, trace gas composition of the surrounding atmosphere, the volcanic gas composition and meteorological parameters can all potentially effect the formation of BrO and might have to be considered. Some of these factors potentially also influence near source (crater rim) in-situ measurement. We need to answer the question: Can we correlate BrO measurements to the total bromine outgassing? Only with this knowledge we can relate changes of the measured gas ratios (BrO/SO2) to the volcanic fluids emitted by the underlying magma and can interpret data as signals from depth, which provide insight on the degassing of magmatic bodies inside the Earth. Some studies indicate that the BrO/SO2 ratio is close to a temporarily equilibrium already after only few minutes of the gas emission from the vent (e.g. Bobrowski and Giuffrida, 2012). This equilibrium seems to be relatively independent from meteorological parameters except for extreme conditions. We here present an empirical approach to answer the above

  16. All-Ambient Processed Binary CsPbBr3-CsPb2Br5 Perovskites with Synergistic Enhancement for High-Efficiency Cs-Pb-Br-Based Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xisheng; Jin, Zhiwen; Zhang, Jingru; Bai, Dongliang; Bian, Hui; Wang, Kang; Sun, Jie; Wang, Qian; Liu, Shengzhong Frank

    2018-02-28

    All-inorganic CsPbBr 3 perovskite solar cells display outstanding stability toward moisture, light soaking, and thermal stressing, demonstrating great potential in tandem solar cells and toward commercialization. Unfortunately, it is still challenging to prepare high-performance CsPbBr 3 films at moderate temperatures. Herein, a uniform, compact CsPbBr 3 film was fabricated using its quantum dot (QD)-based ink precursor. The film was then treated using thiocyanate ethyl acetate (EA) solution in all-ambient conditions to produce a superior CsPbBr 3 -CsPb 2 Br 5 composite film with a larger grain size and minimal defects. The achievement was attributed to the surface dissolution and recrystallization of the existing SCN - and EA. More specifically, the SCN - ions were first absorbed on the Pb atoms, leading to the dissolution and stripping of Cs + and Br - ions from the CsPbBr 3 QDs. On the other hand, the EA solution enhances the diffusion dynamics of surface atoms and the surfactant species. It is found that a small amount of CsPb 2 Br 5 in the composite film gives the best surface passivation, while the Br-rich surface decreases Br vacancies (V Br ) for a prolonged carrier lifetime. As a result, the fabricated device gives a higher solar cell efficiency of 6.81% with an outstanding long-term stability.

  17. Polymorphism in 2-X-adamantane derivatives (X = Cl, Br).

    PubMed

    Negrier, Philippe; Barrio, María; Tamarit, Josep Ll; Mondieig, Denise

    2014-08-14

    The polymorphism of two 2-X-adamantane derivatives, X = Cl, X = Br, has been studied by X-ray powder diffraction and normal- and high-pressure (up to 300 MPa) differential scanning calorimetry. 2-Br-adamantane displays a low-temperature orthorhombic phase (space group P212121, Z = 4) and a high-temperature plastic phase (Fm3̅m, Z = 4) from 277.9 ± 1.0 K to the melting point at 413.4 ± 1.0 K. 2-Cl-adamantane presents a richer polymorphic behavior through the temperature range studied. At low temperature it displays a triclinic phase (P1̅, Z = 2), which transforms to a monoclinic phase (C2/c, Z = 8) at 224.4 ± 1.0 K, both phases being ordered. Two high-temperature orientationally disordered are found for this compound, one hexagonal (P63/mcm, Z = 6) at ca. 241 K and the highest one, cubic (Fm3̅m, Z = 4), being stable from 244 ± 1.0 K up to the melting point at 467.5 ± 1.0 K. No additional phase appears due to the increase in pressure within the studied range. The intermolecular interactions are found to be weak, especially for the 2-Br-adamantane compound for which the Br···Br as well as C-Br···H distances are larger than the addition of the van der Waals radii, thus confirming the availability of this compound for building up diamondoid blocks.

  18. Genomic identification and characterization of the elite strains Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense BR 3267 and Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi BR 3262 recommended for cowpea inoculation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leite, Jakson; Passos, Samuel Ribeiro; Simões-Araújo, Jean Luiz; Rumjanek, Norma Gouvêa; Xavier, Gustavo Ribeiro; Zilli, Jerri Édson

    2017-03-31

    The leguminous inoculation with nodule-inducing bacteria that perform biological nitrogen fixation is a good example of an "eco-friendly agricultural practice". Bradyrhizobium strains BR 3267 and BR 3262 are recommended for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) inoculation in Brazil and showed remarkable responses; nevertheless neither strain was characterized at species level, which is our goal in the present work using a polyphasic approach. The strains presented the typical phenotype of Bradyrhizobium with a slow growth and a white colony on yeast extract-mannitol medium. Strain BR 3267 was more versatile in its use of carbon sources compared to BR 3262. The fatty acid composition of BR 3267 was similar to the type strain of Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense; while BR 3262 was similar to Bradyrhizobium elkanii and Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and three housekeeping genes placed both strains within the genus Bradyrhizobium: strain BR 3267 was closest to B. yuanmingense and BR 3262 to B. pachyrhizi. Genome average nucleotide identity and DNA-DNA reassociation confirmed the genomic identification of B. yuanmingense BR 3267 and B. pachyrhizi BR 3262. The nodC and nifH gene analyses showed that strains BR 3267 and BR 3262 hold divergent symbiotic genes. In summary, the results indicate that cowpea can establish effective symbiosis with divergent bradyrhizobia isolated from Brazilian soils. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  19. Surgical resection and radiofrequency ablation initiate cancer in cytokeratin-19+- liver cells deficient for p53 and Rb.

    PubMed

    Matondo, Ramadhan B; Toussaint, Mathilda Jm; Govaert, Klaas M; van Vuuren, Luciel D; Nantasanti, Sathidpak; Nijkamp, Maarten W; Pandit, Shusil K; Tooten, Peter Cj; Koster, Mirjam H; Holleman, Kaylee; Schot, Arend; Gu, Guoqiang; Spee, Bart; Roskams, Tania; Rinkes, Inne Borel; Schotanus, Baukje; Kranenburg, Onno; de Bruin, Alain

    2016-08-23

    The long term prognosis of liver cancer patients remains unsatisfactory because of cancer recurrence after surgical interventions, particularly in patients with viral infections. Since hepatitis B and C viral proteins lead to inactivation of the tumor suppressors p53 and Retinoblastoma (Rb), we hypothesize that surgery in the context of p53/Rb inactivation initiate de novo tumorigenesis.We, therefore, generated transgenic mice with hepatocyte and cholangiocyte/liver progenitor cell (LPC)-specific deletion of p53 and Rb, by interbreeding conditional p53/Rb knockout mice with either Albumin-cre or Cytokeratin-19-cre transgenic mice.We show that liver cancer develops at the necrotic injury site after surgical resection or radiofrequency ablation in p53/Rb deficient livers. Cancer initiation occurs as a result of specific migration, expansion and transformation of cytokeratin-19+-liver (CK-19+) cells. At the injury site migrating CK-19+ cells formed small bile ducts and adjacent cells strongly expressed the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ). Isolated cytokeratin-19+ cells deficient for p53/Rb were resistant against hypoxia and TGFβ-mediated growth inhibition. CK-19+ specific deletion of p53/Rb verified that carcinomas at the injury site originates from cholangiocytes or liver progenitor cells.These findings suggest that human liver patients with hepatitis B and C viral infection or with mutations for p53 and Rb are at high risk to develop tumors at the surgical intervention site.

  20. Surgical resection and radiofrequency ablation initiate cancer in cytokeratin-19+- liver cells deficient for p53 and Rb

    PubMed Central

    Govaert, Klaas M; van Vuuren, Luciel D; Nantasanti, Sathidpak; Nijkamp, Maarten W; Pandit, Shusil K; Tooten, Peter CJ; Koster, Mirjam H; Holleman, Kaylee; Schot, Arend; Gu, Guoqiang; Spee, Bart; Roskams, Tania; Rinkes, Inne Borel; Schotanus, Baukje; Kranenburg, Onno; de Bruin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The long term prognosis of liver cancer patients remains unsatisfactory because of cancer recurrence after surgical interventions, particularly in patients with viral infections. Since hepatitis B and C viral proteins lead to inactivation of the tumor suppressors p53 and Retinoblastoma (Rb), we hypothesize that surgery in the context of p53/Rb inactivation initiate de novo tumorigenesis. We, therefore, generated transgenic mice with hepatocyte and cholangiocyte/liver progenitor cell (LPC)-specific deletion of p53 and Rb, by interbreeding conditional p53/Rb knockout mice with either Albumin-cre or Cytokeratin-19-cre transgenic mice. We show that liver cancer develops at the necrotic injury site after surgical resection or radiofrequency ablation in p53/Rb deficient livers. Cancer initiation occurs as a result of specific migration, expansion and transformation of cytokeratin-19+-liver (CK-19+) cells. At the injury site migrating CK-19+ cells formed small bile ducts and adjacent cells strongly expressed the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ). Isolated cytokeratin-19+ cells deficient for p53/Rb were resistant against hypoxia and TGFβ-mediated growth inhibition. CK-19+ specific deletion of p53/Rb verified that carcinomas at the injury site originates from cholangiocytes or liver progenitor cells. These findings suggest that human liver patients with hepatitis B and C viral infection or with mutations for p53 and Rb are at high risk to develop tumors at the surgical intervention site. PMID:27323406

  1. 76 FR 12277 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211-Trent 768, 772, and 772B Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211-Trent 768, 772, and 772B Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal...). Those ADs both require the same initial and repetitive visual inspections of Rolls-Royce plc RB211-Trent... FR 24911, May 6, 1998): 98-09-27R1 Rolls-Royce plc: Amendment 39-16620. Docket No. FAA-2010- 0960...

  2. 75 FR 58290 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211 Trent 700 and Trent 800 Series Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211 Trent 700 and Trent 800 Series Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal...-20-11 Rolls-Royce plc: Amendment 39-16446. Docket No. FAA- 2010-0364; Directorate Identifier 2009-NE.... Affected ADs (b) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to Rolls-Royce plc model (RR) RB211 Trent 768-60...

  3. 75 FR 15326 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211-Trent 500, 700, and 800 Series Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211-Trent 500, 700, and 800 Series Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal... the final stages of approach. The investigation of the incident has established that, under certain...), with a proposed AD. The proposed AD applies to Rolls-Royce plc RB211-Trent 500, 700, and 800 series...

  4. Luminescence of BaBrI and SrBrI single crystals doped with Eu2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalaev, A. A.; Shendrik, R.; Myasnikova, A. S.; Bogdanov, A.; Rusakov, A.; Vasilkovskyi, A.

    2018-05-01

    The crystal growth procedure and luminescence properties of pure and Eu2+-doped BaBrI and SrBrI crystals are reported. Emission and excitation spectra were recorded under ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet excitations. The energy of the first Eu2+ 4f-5d transition and SrBrI band gap are obtained. The electronic structure calculations were performed within GW approximation as implemented in the Vienna Ab Initio Simulation Package. The energy between lowest Eu2+ 5d state and the bottom of conduction band are found based on luminescence quenching parameters. The vacuum referred binding energy diagram of lanthanide levels was constructed using the chemical shift model.

  5. Reactions of N2O5 with Salty and Surfactant-Coated Glycerol: Interfacial Conversion of Br- to Br2 Mediated by Alkylammonium Cations.

    PubMed

    Shaloski, Michael A; Gord, Joseph R; Staudt, Sean; Quinn, Sarah L; Bertram, Timothy H; Nathanson, Gilbert M

    2017-05-18

    Gas-liquid scattering and product-yield experiments are used to investigate reactions of N 2 O 5 with glycerol containing Br - and surfactant ions. N 2 O 5 oxidizes Br - to Br 2 for every solution tested: 2.7 M NaBr, 0.03 M tetrahexylammonium bromide (THABr), 0.03 M THABr + 0.5 M NaBr, 0.03 M THABr + 0.5 M NaCl, 0.03 M THABr + 0.01 M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and 0.01 M cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTABr). N 2 O 5 also reacts with glycerol itself to produce mono- and dinitroglycerin. Surface tension measurements indicate that 0.03 M THABr and 2.7 M NaBr have similar interfacial Br - concentrations, though their bulk Br - concentrations differ by 90-fold. We find that twice as much Br 2 is produced in the presence of THA + , implying that the conversion of Br - to Br 2 is initiated at the interface, perhaps mediated by the charged, hydrophobic pocket within the surface THA + cation. The addition of 0.5 M NaBr, 0.5 M NaCl, or 0.01 M SDS to 0.03 M THABr lowers the Br 2 production rate by 23%, 63%, and 67% of the THABr value, respectively. When CTA + is substituted for THA + , Br 2 production drops to 12% of the THABr value. The generation of Br 2 under such different conditions implies that trace amounts of surface-active alkylammonium ions can catalyze interfacial N 2 O 5 reactions, even when salts and other surfactants are present.

  6. Reactivity of BrCl, Br₂, BrOCl, Br₂O, and HOBr toward dimethenamid in solutions of bromide + aqueous free chlorine.

    PubMed

    Sivey, John D; Arey, J Samuel; Tentscher, Peter R; Roberts, A Lynn

    2013-02-05

    HOBr, formed via oxidation of bromide by free available chlorine (FAC), is frequently assumed to be the sole species responsible for generating brominated disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Our studies reveal that BrCl, Br(2), BrOCl, and Br(2)O can also serve as brominating agents of the herbicide dimethenamid in solutions of bromide to which FAC was added. Conditions affecting bromine speciation (pH, total free bromine concentration ([HOBr](T)), [Cl(-)], and [FAC](o)) were systematically varied, and rates of dimethenamid bromination were measured. Reaction orders in [HOBr](T) ranged from 1.09 (±0.17) to 1.67 (±0.16), reaching a maximum near the pK(a) of HOBr. This complex dependence on [HOBr](T) implicates Br(2)O as an active brominating agent. That bromination rates increased with increasing [Cl(-)], [FAC](o) (at constant [HOBr](T)), and excess bromide (where [Br(-)](o)>[FAC](o)) implicate BrCl, BrOCl, and Br(2), respectively, as brominating agents. As equilibrium constants for the formation of Br(2)O and BrOCl (aq) have not been previously reported, we have calculated these values (and their gas-phase analogues) using benchmark-quality quantum chemical methods [CCSD(T) up to CCSDTQ calculations plus solvation effects]. The results allow us to compute bromine speciation and hence second-order rate constants. Intrinsic brominating reactivity increased in the order: HOBr ≪ Br(2)O < BrOCl ≈ Br(2) < BrCl. Our results indicate that species other than HOBr can influence bromination rates under conditions typical of drinking water and wastewater chlorination.

  7. In vitro cytotoxic potential of friedelin in human MCF-7 breast cancer cell: Regulate early expression of Cdkn2a and pRb1, neutralize mdm2-p53 amalgamation and functional stabilization of p53.

    PubMed

    Subash-Babu, Pandurangan; Li, David K; Alshatwi, Ali A

    2017-10-02

    We aimed to explore the cytotoxic and apoptotic effect of friedelin on breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Cytotoxic effect of friedelin on MCF-7 cells was analyzed using MTT, cell and nuclear morphology. The apoptosis mechanism of friedelin on MCF-7 cells was analyzed using real-time PCR. Friedelin potentially inhibit 78% of MCF-7 cell's growth, the IC 50 value was 1.8μM in 24h and 1.2μM in 48h. Friedelin increased ROS significantly and DNA damage was confirmed by tunel assay. We found characteristically 52% apoptotic cells and 6% necrotic cells in PI, AO/ErBr staining after 48h treatment with 1.2μM of friedelin. Apoptosis was confirmed by significantly (p≤0.001) increased tumor suppressor gene Cdkn1a, pRb2, p53, Nrf2, caspase-3 and decreased Bcl-2, mdm2 & PCNA expression after 48h. In conclusion, friedelin effectively inhibit breast cancer MCF-7 cell growth, it was associated with early expression of Cdkn1a, pRb2 and activation of p53 and caspases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  8. Isotopic Shift of Atom-Dimer Efimov Resonances in K-Rb Mixtures: Critical Effect of Multichannel Feshbach Physics.

    PubMed

    Kato, K; Wang, Yujun; Kobayashi, J; Julienne, P S; Inouye, S

    2017-04-21

    Multichannel Efimov physics is investigated in ultracold heteronuclear admixtures of K and Rb atoms. We observe a shift in the scattering length where the first atom-dimer resonance appears in the ^{41}K-^{87}Rb system relative to the position of the previously observed atom-dimer resonance in the ^{40}K-^{87}Rb system. This shift is well explained by our calculations with a three-body model including van der Waals interactions, and, more importantly, multichannel spinor physics. With only minor differences in the atomic masses of the admixtures, the shift in the atom-dimer resonance positions can be cleanly ascribed to the isolated and overlapping Feshbach resonances in the ^{40}K-^{87}Rb and ^{41}K-^{87}Rb systems, respectively. Our study demonstrates the role of multichannel Feshbach physics in determining Efimov resonances in heteronuclear three-body systems.

  9. Synthesis and properties of Rb2GeF6:Mn4+ red-emitting phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Shono; Nakamura, Toshihiro; Adachi, Sadao

    2018-02-01

    Rb2GeF6:Mn4+ red-emitting phosphors were synthesized by coprecipitation and their structural and optical properties were investigated by laser microscopy observation, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, photoluminescence (PL) analysis, PL excitation (PLE) spectroscopy, and PL decay measurement. Single-crystalline ingots in the form of a hexagonal pyramid were prepared with a basal plane diameter of ˜2 mm. The XRD analysis suggested that Rb2GeF6 crystallizes in the hexagonal structure (C6v4 = P63mc) with a = 0.5955 nm and c = 0.9672 nm. The phosphor exhibited the strong Mn4+-related zero-phonon line (ZPL) emission peak typically observed in host crystals with piezoelectrically active lattices such as a hexagonal lattice. The quantum efficiencies of the bulk ingot and powdered samples were 87 and 74%, respectively, with nearly the same luminescence decay time of ˜6 ms. The exact ZPL energies and related crystal-field and Racah parameters were obtained from the PL and PLE spectra by Franck-Condon analysis. Temperature-dependent PL intensities were analyzed from T = 20 to 500 K using a thermal quenching model by considering Bose-Einstein phonon statistics. A comparative discussion on the phosphor properties of Rb2GeF6:Mn4+ and Rb2MF6:Mn4+ with M = Si and Ti was also given.

  10. Miniature Dual-Mode Absolute Scalar Magnetometer Based on the Rubidium Isotope 87Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korth, H.; Strohbehn, K.; Kitching, J.

    2016-10-01

    Miniaturized absolute scalar magnetometer based on the rubidium isotope 87Rb takes advantage of recent breakthroughs in micro-fabricated atomic devices, has a total mass of 210 g and uses <1 W of power, and maintains a sensitivity of 0.1 nT rms.

  11. Creation of a strongly dipolar gas of ultracold ground-state 23 Na87 Rb molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Mingyang; Zhu, Bing; Lu, Bo; Ye, Xin; Wang, Fudong; Wang, Dajun; Vexiau, Romain; Bouloufa-Maafa, Nadia; Quéméner, Goulven; Dulieu, Olivier

    2016-05-01

    We report on successful creation of an ultracold sample of ground-state 23 Na87 Rb molecules with a large effective electric dipole moment. Through a carefully designed two-photon Raman process, we have successfully transferred the magneto-associated Feshbach molecules to the singlet ground state with high efficiency, obtaining up to 8000 23 Na87 Rb molecules with peak number density over 1011 cm-3 in their absolute ground-state level. With an external electric field, we have induced an effective dipole moment over 1 Debye, making 23 Na87 Rb the most dipolar ultracold particle ever achieved. Contrary to the expectation, we observed a rather fast population loss even for 23 Na87 Rb in the absolute ground state with the bi-molecular exchange reaction energetically forbidden. The origin for the short lifetime and possible ways of mitigating it are currently under investigation. Our achievements pave the way toward investigation of ultracold bosonic molecules with strong dipolar interactions. This work is supported by the Hong Kong RGC CUHK404712 and the ANR/RGC Joint Research Scheme ACUHK403/13.

  12. Electric manipulation of ultracold polar ^40K^87Rb molecules in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quéméner, Goulven; Bohn, John

    2009-05-01

    Ultracold fermionic polar molecules of ^40K^87Rb in their absolute rovibronic ground state (v=0,n=0,^1σ) have been created recently [1] in a magnetic trap and open new perspectives to create fermionic degenerate gases of polar molecules. To achieve this goal, it is very important to understand the collisional properties of such molecules under magnetic and electric fields. In our presentation, we investigate ground state fermionic ^40K^87Rb + ^40K^87Rb collisions in the presence of a magnetic field and explore the possibility to control these collisions when an electric field is applied. We will explore the main physical processes that can lead to such manipulation. This problem is complicated by the Zeeman and Stark splitting of all levels of the polar molecules and by the possibility of forming ^40K2 + ^87Rb2 chemical products. 1 - K.-K. Ni, S. Ospelkaus, M. H. G. de Miranda, A. Pe'er, B. Neyenhuis, J. J. Zirbel, S. Kotochigova, P. S. Julienne, D. S. Jin, and J. Ye, Science 322, 231 (2008).

  13. Superconductivity in the Narrow Gap Semiconductor RbBi 11/3Te 6

    DOE PAGES

    Malliakas, Christos D.; Chung, Duck Young; Claus, Helmut; ...

    2016-10-16

    Superconductivity was discovered in the layered compound RbBi 11/3Te 6, featuring Bi vacancies and a narrow band gap of 0.25(2) eV at room temperature. In addition, a sharp superconducting transition at similar to 3.2 K was observed in polycrystalline ingots. The superconducting volume fraction of oriented single crystals is almost 100%, confirming bulk superconductivity. Systematic Se and Sb substitutions in RbBi 11/3-ySb ySe xTe 6-x, revealed a dependence of the superconducting transition on composition that can increase the T c up to similar to 10%. The RbBi 11/3Te 6 system is the first member of the new homologous series Rb[Bimore » 2n+11/3Te 3n+6] with infinite Bi 2Te 3-like layers. Lastly, the large degree of chemical tunability of the electronic structure of the homology via doping and/or substitution gives rise to a new family of superconductors.« less

  14. Frequent disruption of the RB pathway in indolent follicular lymphoma suggests a new combination therapy

    PubMed Central

    Oricchio, Elisa; Ciriello, Giovanni; Jiang, Man; Boice, Michael H.; Schatz, Jonathan H.; Heguy, Adriana; Viale, Agnes; de Stanchina, Elisa; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Bouska, Alyssa; McKeithan, Tim; Sander, Chris; Tam, Wayne; Seshan, Venkatraman E.; Chan, Wing-Chung; Chaganti, R.S.K.

    2014-01-01

    Loss of cell cycle controls is a hallmark of cancer and has a well-established role in aggressive B cell malignancies. However, the role of such lesions in indolent follicular lymphoma (FL) is unclear and individual lesions have been observed with low frequency. By analyzing genomic data from two large cohorts of indolent FLs, we identify a pattern of mutually exclusive (P = 0.003) genomic lesions that impair the retinoblastoma (RB) pathway in nearly 50% of FLs. These alterations include homozygous and heterozygous deletions of the p16/CDKN2a/b (7%) and RB1 (12%) loci, and more frequent gains of chromosome 12 that include CDK4 (29%). These aberrations are associated with high-risk disease by the FL prognostic index (FLIPI), and studies in a murine FL model confirm their pathogenic role in indolent FL. Increased CDK4 kinase activity toward RB1 is readily measured in tumor samples and indicates an opportunity for CDK4 inhibition. We find that dual CDK4 and BCL2 inhibitor treatment is safe and effective against available models of FL. In summary, frequent RB pathway lesions in indolent, high-risk FLs indicate an untapped therapeutic opportunity. PMID:24913233

  15. 76 FR 36981 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211-Trent 500 Series Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211--Trent 500 Series Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation... condition on an aviation product. The MCAI describes the unsafe condition as: A Trent 500 engine has been found with thermal distress of the Intermediate Pressure (IP) Turbine Nozzle Guide Vanes. The resultant...

  16. Key technologies and applications of laser cooling and trapping {sup 87}Rb atomic system

    SciTech Connect

    Ru, Ning, E-mail: runing@buaa.edu.cn; Zhang, Li, E-mail: mewan@buaa.edu.cn; Key Laboratory for Metrology, Changcheng Institute of Metrology and Measurement

    2016-06-28

    Atom Interferometry is proved to be a potential method for measuring the acceleration of atoms due to Gravity, we are now building a feasible system of cold atom gravimeter. In this paper development and the important applications of laser cooling and trapping atoms are introduced, some key techniques which are used to obtain {sup 87}Rb cold atoms in our experiments are also discussed.

  17. Derivation of Apollo 14 High-Al Basalts at Discrete Times: Rb-Sr Isotopic Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, H.; Neal, C. R.; Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.

    2012-03-01

    Four eruption episodes were identified for A-14 high-Al basalts. Rb-Sr isotopic data and ITE ratios show that their parental melt compositions of are correlated through mixing of evolved components with a relatively primitive magma ocean cumulate.

  18. Unit 3, STA. 5+00 RB Little Conemaugh River, sideslope with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 3, STA. 5+00 RB Little Conemaugh River, sideslope with masonry walls (with parapets)-detail - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  19. Unit 3, STA. 5+00 RB Little Conemaugh River, sideslope with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 3, STA. 5+00 RB Little Conemaugh River, sideslope with masonry walls (with parapets)-context - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  20. Unit 3, STA. 173+00+RB, employee entrance gate and Footbridge, Cambria ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 3, STA. 173+00+RB, employee entrance gate and Footbridge, Cambria iron company National Historic Landmark-detail of east abutment - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  1. Unit 5, STA. 50+00+RB, retaining wall at Orner Building & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 5, STA. 50+00+RB, retaining wall at Orner Building & First U.M. Church Rectory-detail - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  2. Unit 5, STA. 56+30+RB, 536538 Vine Street Buildng detail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 5, STA. 56+30+RB, 536-538 Vine Street Buildng detail - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  3. Unit 5, STA. 50+00+RB, retaining wall at First U.M. Churchdetail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 5, STA. 50+00+RB, retaining wall at First U.M. Church-detail - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  4. Unit 5, STA. 50+00+RB, Orner Building, First U.M. Church Rectory, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 5, STA. 50+00+RB, Orner Building, First U.M. Church Rectory, & First U.M. Church-context - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  5. 75 FR 264 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211-Trent 800 Series Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ...-1004; Directorate Identifier 2009-NE-36-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc.... Contact Rolls-Royce plc, P.O. Box 31, Derby, England; telephone: 011-44-1332-249428; fax: 011-44-1332... condition may exist on Rolls-Royce plc RB211 Trent 800 series turbofan engines. The MCAI states: During 2004...

  6. Experimental investigation of a pulsed Rb-Ar excimer-pumped alkali laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hongling; Wang, Zhimin; Zhang, Fengfeng; Wang, Mingqiang; Tian, Zhaoshuo; Peng, Qinjun; Cui, Dafu; Xu, Zuyan

    2017-03-01

    We present experimental results of an exciplex-pumped alkali laser (XPAL) at 780 nm based on the 52P3/2 → 52S1/2 transition of the Rb atom in mixtures of Rb vapor and Ar. A laboratory-built Ti:sapphire laser with a pulse repetition rate of 3 kHz and a pulse width of 100 ns is used as the pump source. The maximum laser pulse energy of 0.26 µJ at 780 nm is obtained under an absorbed pump pulse energy of 42 µJ at 755 nm in mixtures of Rb vapor and Ar at a temperature of 423 K, corresponding to an optical conversion efficiency of 0.62%. Further experiments show that the output laser at 780 nm can always be detected for pump wavelengths ranging from 754 to 759 nm, indicating that Rb-Ar mixtures can be effectively pumped by commercial laser diodes (LDs) with a bandwidth of 5 nm.

  7. G1 arrest and differentiation can occur independently of Rb family function

    PubMed Central

    Wirt, Stacey E.; Adler, Adam S.; Gebala, Véronique; Weimann, James M.; Schaffer, Bethany E.; Saddic, Louis A.; Viatour, Patrick; Vogel, Hannes; Chang, Howard Y.; Meissner, Alex

    2010-01-01

    The ability of progenitor cells to exit the cell cycle is essential for proper embryonic development and homeostasis, but the mechanisms governing cell cycle exit are still not fully understood. Here, we tested the requirement for the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein and its family members p107 and p130 in G0/G1 arrest and differentiation in mammalian cells. We found that Rb family triple knockout (TKO) mouse embryos survive until days 9–11 of gestation. Strikingly, some TKO cells, including in epithelial and neural lineages, are able to exit the cell cycle in G0/G1 and differentiate in teratomas and in culture. This ability of TKO cells to arrest in G0/G1 is associated with the repression of key E2F target genes. Thus, G1 arrest is not always dependent on Rb family members, which illustrates the robustness of cell cycle regulatory networks during differentiation and allows for the identification of candidate pathways to inhibit the expansion of cancer cells with mutations in the Rb pathway. PMID:21059851

  8. Evidence of three-body correlation functions in Rb+ and Sr2+ acetonitrile solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angelo, P.; Pavel, N. V.

    1999-09-01

    The local structure of Sr2+ and Rb+ ions in acetonitrile has been investigated by x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and molecular dynamics simulations. The extended x-ray absorption fine structure above the Sr and Rb K edges has been interpreted in the framework of multiple scattering (MS) formalism and, for the first time, clear evidence of MS contributions has been found in noncomplexing ion solutions. Molecular dynamics has been used to generate the partial pair and triangular distribution functions from which model χ(k) signals have been constructed. The Sr2+ and Rb+ acetonitrile pair distribution functions show very sharp and well-defined first peaks indicating the presence of a well organized first solvation shell. Most of the linear acetonitrile molecules have been found to be distributed like hedgehog spines around the Sr2+ and Rb+ ions. The presence of three-body correlations has been singled out by the existence of well-defined peaks in the triangular configurations. Excellent agreement has been found between the theoretical and experimental data enforcing the reliability of the interatomic potentials used in the simulations. These results demonstrate the ability of the XAS technique in probing the higher-order correlation functions in solution.

  9. RB-ARD: A proof of concept rule-based abort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Richard; Marinuzzi, John

    1987-01-01

    The Abort Region Determinator (ARD) is a console program in the space shuttle mission control center. During shuttle ascent, the Flight Dynamics Officer (FDO) uses the ARD to determine the possible abort modes and make abort calls for the crew. The goal of the Rule-based Abort region Determinator (RB/ARD) project was to test the concept of providing an onboard ARD for the shuttle or an automated ARD for the mission control center (MCC). A proof of concept rule-based system was developed on a LMI Lambda computer using PICON, a knowdedge-based system shell. Knowdedge derived from documented flight rules and ARD operation procedures was coded in PICON rules. These rules, in conjunction with modules of conventional code, enable the RB-ARD to carry out key parts of the ARD task. Current capabilities of the RB-ARD include: continuous updating of the available abort mode, recognition of a limited number of main engine faults and recommendation of safing actions. Safing actions recommended by the RB-ARD concern the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) limit shutdown system and powerdown of the SSME Ac buses.

  10. First principles study of structural, electronic and optical properties of polymorphic forms of Rb 2Te

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alay-e-Abbas, S. M.; Shaukat, A.

    2011-05-01

    First-principles density functional theory calculations have been performed for structural, electronic and optical properties of three polymorphic forms of rubidium telluride. Our calculations show that the sequence of pressure induced phase transitions for Rb 2Te is Fm3¯m → Pnma → P6 3/mmc which is governed by the coordination numbers of the anions. From our calculated low transition pressure value for the Fm3¯m phase to the Pnma phase transition of Rb 2Te, the experimentally observed meta-stability of Fm3¯m phase at ambient conditions seems reasonable. The electronic band structure has been calculated for all the three phases and the change in the energy band gap is discussed for the transitioning phases. The energy band gaps obtained for the three phases of Rb 2Te decrease on going from the meta-stable phase to the high-pressure phases. Total and partial density of states for the polymorphs of Rb 2Te has been computed to elucidate the contribution of various atomic states on the electronic band structure. Furthermore, optical properties for all the polymorphic forms have been presented in form of the complex dielectric function.

  11. Photoassociation of cold (RbCs)2 tetramers in the ground electronic state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gacesa, Marko; Côté, Robin

    2017-04-01

    We theoretically investigate prospects for photoassociative formation of cold (RbCs)2 tetramers from a pair of ultracold RbCs molecules. The long-range region of the potential energy surface (PES) of the lowest electronic state of (RbCs)2 can be affected by orienting both RbCs molecules by an external electric field. In fact, we find a long-range barrier that supports long-range shelf states for relative angles between the dimers' internuclear axes smaller than about 20°. We show that these shelf states can be populated by spontaneous decay from the first excited electronic state which can be efficiently populated by photoassociation from the scattering continuum at ultracold temperatures. The vibrationally excited ground-state tetramer molecules formed this way have sufficiently long lifetimes to allow experimental detection. Moreover, for the relative angles between the dimers close to 20°, the proposed approach may result in production of deeply bound tetramers. Partially supported by the NASA Postdoctoral Program at the NASA Ames Research Center, administered by USRA and the MURI US Army Research Office Grant No. W911NF-14-1-0378 (MG), and by the PIF program of the National Science Foundation Grant No. PHY-141556.

  12. A Faraday laser lasing on Rb 1529 nm transition.

    PubMed

    Chang, Pengyuan; Peng, Huanfa; Zhang, Shengnan; Chen, Zhangyuan; Luo, Bin; Chen, Jingbiao; Guo, Hong

    2017-08-21

    We present the design and performance characterization of a Faraday laser directly lasing on the Rb 1529 nm transition (Rb, 5P 3/2  - 4D 5/2 ) with high stability, narrow spectral linewidth and low cost. This system does not need an additional frequency-stabilized pump laser as a prerequisite to preparing Rb atom from 5S to 5P excited state. Just by using a performance-improved electrodeless discharge lamp-based excited-state Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (LESFADOF), we realized a heterogeneously Faraday laser with the frequency corresponding to atomic transition, working stably over a range of laser diode (LD) current from 85 mA to 171 mA and the LD temperature from 11 °C to 32 °C, as well as the 24-hour long-term frequency fluctuation range of no more than 600 MHz. Both the laser linewidth and relative intensity noisy (RIN) are measured. The Faraday laser lasing on Rb 1529 nm transition (telecom C-band) can be applied to further research on metrology, microwave photonics and optical communication systems. Besides, since the transitions correspongding to the populated excited-states of alkali atoms within lamp are extraordinarily rich, this scheme can increase the flexibility for choosing proper wavelengths for Faraday laser and greatly expand the coverage of wavelength corresponding to atomic transmission for laser frequency stabilization.

  13. The effect of magnetic field on RbCl quantum pseudodot qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jing-Lin

    2015-07-01

    Under the condition of strong electron-LO-phonon coupling in a RbCl quantum pseudodot (QPD) with an applied magnetic field (MF), the eigenenergies and the eigenfunctions of the ground and the first excited states (GFES) are obtained by using a variational method of the Pekar type (VMPT). A single qubit can be realized in this two-level quantum system. The electron’s probability density oscillates in the RbCl QPD with a certain period of T0 = 7.933 fs when the electron is in the superposition state of the GFES. The results indicate that due to the presence of the asymmetrical structure in the z direction of the RbCl QPD, the electron’s probability density shows double-peak configuration, whereas there is only peak if the confinement is a symmetric structure in the x and y directions of the RbCl QPD. The oscillating period is an increasing function of the cyclotron frequency and the polaron radius, whereas it is a decreasing one of the chemical potential of the two-dimensional electron gas and the zero point of the pseudoharmonic potential (PP).

  14. Ginsenoside Rb1 improves spatial learning and memory by regulation of cell genesis in the hippocampal subregions of rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Hoang-Gia, Trinh; Wu, Hui; Lee, Mi-Ra; Gu, Lijuan; Wang, Chunyan; Yun, Beom-Sik; Wang, Qijun; Ye, Shengquan; Sung, Chang-Keun

    2011-03-25

    Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) is known to improve learning and memory in hippocampus-dependent tasks. However, the cellular mechanism remains unknown. Cell genesis in hippocampus is involved in spatial learning and memory. In the present study, Rb1 was orally administrated to adult rats for 30days. The behavioral training tests indicated that Rb1 improved spatial cognitive performance of rats in Morris water maze (MWM). Furthermore, we investigated the effects of Rb1 on cell genesis in adult rats' hippocampus, using thymidine analog bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) as a marker for dividing cells. It has been shown that hippocampal cell genesis can be influenced by several factors such as learning and exercise. In order to avoid the effects of the interfering factors, only the rats treated with Rb1 without training in MWM were used to investigate cell genesis in hippocampus. When BrdU was given to the rats 30days prior to being killed, it was shown that oral administration of Rb1 significantly increased cell survival in dentate gyrus and hippocampal subregion CA3. However, when BrdU was injected 2h prior to sacrifice, the results indicated that Rb1 had no significant influence on cell proliferation in the hippocampal subregions. Thus, an increase of cell survival in hippocampus stimulated by Rb1 may be one of the mechanisms by which ginseng facilitates spatial learning and memory. Our study also indicates that Rb1 may be developed as a therapeutic agent for patients with memory impairment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ginsenoside Rb1 ameliorates liver fat accumulation by upregulating perilipin expression in adipose tissue of db/db obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xizhong; Ye, Lifang; Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Juan; Wang, Guoqiang; Guo, Chao; Shang, Wenbin

    2014-01-01

    Background Ginsenoside Rb1 (G-Rb1), the major active constituent of ginseng, improves insulin sensitivity and exerts antidiabetic effects. We tested whether the insulin-sensitizing and antidiabetic effects of G-Rb1 results from a reduction in ectopic fat accumulation, mediated by inhibition of lipolysis in adipocytes. Methods Obese and diabetic db/db mice were treated with daily doses of 20 mg/kg G-Rb1 for 14 days. Hepatic fat accumulation was evaluated by measuring liver weight and triglyceride content. Levels of blood glucose and serum insulin were used to evaluate insulin sensitivity in db/db mice. Lipolysis in adipocytes was evaluated by measuring plasma-free fatty acids and glycerol release from 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with G-Rb1. The expression of relevant genes was analyzed by western blotting, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Results G-Rb1 increased insulin sensitivity and alleviated hepatic fat accumulation in obese diabetic db/db mice, and these effects were accompanied by reduced liver weight and hepatic triglyceride content. Furthermore, G-Rb1 lowered the levels of free fatty acids in obese mice, which may contribute to a decline in hepatic lipid accumulation. Corresponding to these results, G-Rb1 significantly suppressed lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and upregulated the perilipin expression in both 3T3-L1 adipocytes and mouse epididymal fat pads. Moreover, G-Rb1 increased the level of adiponectin and reduced that of tumor necrosis factor-α in obese mice, and these effects were confirmed in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Conclusion G-Rb1 may improve insulin sensitivity in obese and diabetic db/db mice by reducing hepatic fat accumulation and suppressing adipocyte lipolysis; these effects may be mediated via the upregulation of perilipin expression in adipocytes. PMID:26199550

  16. Spatial and temporal variations of Rb/Sr ratios of the bulk surface sediments in Lake Qinghai

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The Rb/Sr ratios of lake sediments have been suggested as indicators of weathering intensity by increasing work. However, the geochemistry of Rb/Sr ratios of lake sediments is variable between different lakes. In this study, we investigated the spatial and temporal patterns of Rb/Sr ratios, as well as those of other major elements in surface sediments of Lake Qinghai. We find that the spatial pattern of Rb/Sr ratios of the bulk sediments correlates well with that of the mass accumulation rate, and those of the terrigenous fractions, e.g., SiO2, Ti, and Fe. The temporal variations of Rb/Sr ratios also synchronize with those of SiO2, Ti, and Fe of each individual core. These suggest that Rb/Sr ratios of the surface sediments are closely related to terrigenous input from the catchment. Two out of eight cores show similar trends between Rb/Sr ratios and precipitation indices on decadal scales; however, the other cores do not show such relationship. The result of this study suggests that physical weathering and chemical weathering in Lake Qinghai catchment have opposite influence on Rb/Sr ratios of the bulk sediments, and they compete in dominating the Rb/Sr ratios of lake sediments on different spatial and temporal scales. Therefore, it is necessary to study the geochemistry of Rb/Sr ratio of lake sediments (especially that on short term timescales) particularly before it is used as an indicator of weathering intensity of the catchment. PMID:20615264

  17. Polarization effect in the Ionic conductor TlBr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha Leao, Cedric; Lordi, Vincenzo

    2012-02-01

    TlBr is an ionic crystal that in recent years has been standing out as one of the most promising materials for effective room temperature radiation detection. However, its exceptional performance invariably degrades after operation times that vary from hours to several weeks. This phenomenon, known as polarization, is assigned to the undesirable ionic current that sets in the crystal under an applied bias, leading to the accumulation of oppositely charged Tl+ and Br- ions at the electric contacts of the device. This charge build up induces a field that opposes the applied bias, impairing the collection of the photo-induced carriers. In this presentation, we use parameter free quantum mechanical simulations to discuss the possible origins of the polarization effect in TlBr, showing that ionic mobility in the intrinsic material is not enough to account for effects reported by several groups. We then discuss other possible causes for the degradation of biased TlBr and propose ways to prevent its occurrence, via careful co-doping as well as a judicious choice of the metal contacts to be employed.

  18. The stability of TlBr detectors at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dönmez, Burçin; He, Zhong; Kim, Hadong; Cirignano, Leonard J.; Shah, Kanai S.

    2010-11-01

    Thallium bromide (TlBr) is a promising semiconductor detector material due to its high atomic number (Tl: 81, Br: 35), high density (7.56 g/cm 3) and wide band gap (2.68 eV). Current TlBr detectors suffer from polarization, which causes performance degradation over time when high voltage is applied. A 4.6-mm thick TlBr detector with pixellated anodes made by Radiation Monitoring Devices Inc. was used in the experiments. The detector has a planar cathode and nine anode pixels surrounded by a guard ring. The pixel pitch is 1.0-mm. Digital pulse waveforms of preamplifier outputs were recorded using a multi-channel GaGe PCI digitizer board for pulse shaping. Several experiments were carried out at -20 °C while the detector was under bias for over a month. No polarization effect was observed and the detector's spectroscopic performance improved over time. Energy resolution of 1.5% FWHM at 662 keV has been measured without depth correction at -2000 V cathode bias. Average electron mobility-lifetime of (5.7±0.8) ×10 -3 cm 2/V has been measured from four anode pixels.

  19. Development of TlBr detectors for PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Ariño-Estrada, Gerard; Du, Junwei; Kim, Hadong; Cirignano, Leonard J; Shah, Kanai S; Cherry, Simon R; Mitchell, Gregory S

    2018-05-04

    Thallium bromide (TlBr) is a promising semiconductor detector material for positron emission tomography (PET) because it can offer very good energy resolution and 3-D segmentation capabilities, and it also provides detection efficiency surpassing that of commonly used scintillators. Energy, timing, and spatial resolution were measured for thin (<1 mm) TlBr detectors. The energy and timing resolution were measured simultaneously for the same planar 0.87 mm-thick TlBr device. An energy resolution of (6.41.3)% at 511 keV was achieved at -400 V bias voltage and at room temperature. A timing resolution of (27.84.1) ns FWHM was achieved for the same operating conditions when appropriate energy gating was applied. The intrinsic spatial resolution was measured to be 0.9 mm FWHM for a TlBr detector with metallic strip contacts of 0.5 mm pitch. As material properties improve, higher bias voltage should improve timing performance. A stack of thin detectors with finely segmented readout can create a modular detector with excellent energy and spatial resolution for PET applications. . © 2018 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.

  20. Infections fongiques des brûlé : revue

    PubMed Central

    Arnould, JF.; Le Floch, R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Les infections fongiques locales ou générales sont souvent d’une extrême gravité chez les brûlés. Les brûlés combinent de nombreux facteurs de risque à une immunodépression induite par la brûlure. Les infections de plaies sont le fait des genres Candida, Aspergillus et des agents de mucormycoses. Ces deux derniers cas sont à l’origine de lésions particulièrement sévères. Leur diagnostic repose sur la biopsie cutanée avec examens mycologique et anatomopathologique. Le traitement est essentiellement chirurgical, associé à une antibiothérapie adaptée. Les septicémies sont le fait de levures, essentiellement du genre Candida. Le diagnostic en est difficile dans le contexte des brûlés et repose souvent sur une forte suspicion clinique. Leur traitement repose sur les échinocandines et plus secondairement sur le fluconazole. PMID:26668558

  1. Pressure and temperature dependence kinetics study of the NO + BrO yielding NO2 + Br reaction - Implications for stratospheric bromine photochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, R. T.; Sander, S. P.; Yung, Y. L.

    1979-01-01

    The reactivity of NO with BrO radicals over a wide range of pressure (100-700 torr) and temperature (224-398 K) is investigated using the flash photolysis-ultraviolet absorption technique. The flash photolysis system consists of a high-pressure xenon arc light source, a reaction cell/gas filter/flash lamp combination, and a 216.5 half-meter monochromator/polychromator/spectrography for wavelength selectivity. The details of the reaction and its corresponding Arrhenius expression are identified. The results are compared with previous measurements, and atmospheric implications of the reaction are discussed. The NO + BrO yielding NO2 + Br reaction is shown to be important in controlling the concentration ratios of BrO/Br and BrO/HBr in the stratosphere, but this reaction does not affect the catalytic efficiency of BrOx in ozone destruction.

  2. Immune Responses of Bison and Efficacy after Booster Vaccination with Brucella abortus Strain RB51

    PubMed Central

    McGill, J. L.; Sacco, R. E.; Hennager, S. G.

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-one bison heifers were randomly assigned to receive saline or a single vaccination with 1010 CFU of Brucella abortus strain RB51. Some vaccinated bison were randomly selected for booster vaccination with RB51 at 11 months after the initial vaccination. Mean antibody responses to RB51 were greater (P < 0.05) in vaccinated bison after initial and booster vaccination than in nonvaccinated bison. The proliferative responses by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from the vaccinated bison were greater (P < 0.05) than those in the nonvaccinated bison at 16 and 24 weeks after the initial vaccination but not after the booster vaccination. The relative gene expression of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) was increased (P < 0.05) in the RB51-vaccinated bison at 8, 16, and 24 weeks after the initial vaccination and at 8 weeks after the booster vaccination. The vaccinated bison had greater (P < 0.05) in vitro production of IFN-γ at all sampling times, greater interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production in various samplings after the initial and booster vaccinations, and greater IL-6 production at one sampling time after the booster vaccination. Between 170 and 180 days of gestation, the bison were intraconjunctivally challenged with approximately 1 × 107 CFU of B. abortus strain 2308. The incidences of abortion and infection were greater (P < 0.05) in the nonvaccinated bison after experimental challenge than in the bison receiving either vaccination treatment. Booster-vaccinated, but not single-vaccinated bison, had a reduced (P < 0.05) incidence of infection in fetal tissues and maternal tissues compared to that in the controls. Compared to the nonvaccinated bison, both vaccination treatments lowered the colonization (measured as the CFU/g of tissue) of Brucella organisms in all tissues, except in retropharyngeal and supramammary lymph nodes. Our study suggests that RB51 booster vaccination is an effective vaccination strategy for enhancing herd immunity against brucellosis in

  3. Obtaining continuous BrAC/BAC estimates in the field: A hybrid system integrating transdermal alcohol biosensor, Intellidrink smartphone app, and BrAC Estimator software tools.

    PubMed

    Luczak, Susan E; Hawkins, Ashley L; Dai, Zheng; Wichmann, Raphael; Wang, Chunming; Rosen, I Gary

    2018-08-01

    Biosensors have been developed to measure transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC), but converting TAC into interpretable indices of blood/breath alcohol concentration (BAC/BrAC) is difficult because of variations that occur in TAC across individuals, drinking episodes, and devices. We have developed mathematical models and the BrAC Estimator software for calibrating and inverting TAC into quantifiable BrAC estimates (eBrAC). The calibration protocol to determine the individualized parameters for a specific individual wearing a specific device requires a drinking session in which BrAC and TAC measurements are obtained simultaneously. This calibration protocol was originally conducted in the laboratory with breath analyzers used to produce the BrAC data. Here we develop and test an alternative calibration protocol using drinking diary data collected in the field with the smartphone app Intellidrink to produce the BrAC calibration data. We compared BrAC Estimator software results for 11 drinking episodes collected by an expert user when using Intellidrink versus breath analyzer measurements as BrAC calibration data. Inversion phase results indicated the Intellidrink calibration protocol produced similar eBrAC curves and captured peak eBrAC to within 0.0003%, time of peak eBrAC to within 18min, and area under the eBrAC curve to within 0.025% alcohol-hours as the breath analyzer calibration protocol. This study provides evidence that drinking diary data can be used in place of breath analyzer data in the BrAC Estimator software calibration procedure, which can reduce participant and researcher burden and expand the potential software user pool beyond researchers studying participants who can drink in the laboratory. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Direct conversion of bio-ethanol to isobutene on nanosized Zn(x)Zr(y)O(z) mixed oxides with balanced acid-base sites.

    PubMed

    Sun, Junming; Zhu, Kake; Gao, Feng; Wang, Chongmin; Liu, Jun; Peden, Charles H F; Wang, Yong

    2011-07-27

    We report the design and synthesis of nanosized Zn(x)Zr(y)O(z) mixed oxides for direct and high-yield conversion of bio-ethanol to isobutene (~83%). ZnO is addded to ZrO(2) to selectively passivate zirconia's strong Lewis acidic sites and weaken Brönsted acidic sites, while simultaneously introducing basicity. As a result, the undesired reactions of bio-ethanol dehydration and acetone polymerization/coking are suppressed. Instead, a surface basic site-catalyzed ethanol dehydrogenation to acetaldehyde, acetaldehyde to acetone conversion via a complex pathway including aldol-condensation/dehydrogenation, and a Brönsted acidic site-catalyzed acetone-to-isobutene reaction pathway dominates on the nanosized Zn(x)Zr(y)O(z) mixed oxide catalyst, leading to a highly selective process for direct conversion of bio-ethanol to isobutene.

  5. Enhanced sensitivity for detection of low-level germline mosaic RB1 mutations in sporadic retinoblastoma cases using deep semiconductor sequencing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhao; Moran, Kimberly; Richards-Yutz, Jennifer; Toorens, Erik; Gerhart, Daniel; Ganguly, Tapan; Shields, Carol L; Ganguly, Arupa

    2014-03-01

    Sporadic retinoblastoma (RB) is caused by de novo mutations in the RB1 gene. Often, these mutations are present as mosaic mutations that cannot be detected by Sanger sequencing. Next-generation deep sequencing allows unambiguous detection of the mosaic mutations in lymphocyte DNA. Deep sequencing of the RB1 gene on lymphocyte DNA from 20 bilateral and 70 unilateral RB cases was performed, where Sanger sequencing excluded the presence of mutations. The individual exons of the RB1 gene from each sample were amplified, pooled, ligated to barcoded adapters, and sequenced using semiconductor sequencing on an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine. Six low-level mosaic mutations were identified in bilateral RB and four in unilateral RB cases. The incidence of low-level mosaic mutation was estimated to be 30% and 6%, respectively, in sporadic bilateral and unilateral RB cases, previously classified as mutation negative. The frequency of point mutations detectable in lymphocyte DNA increased from 96% to 97% for bilateral RB and from 13% to 18% for unilateral RB. The use of deep sequencing technology increased the sensitivity of the detection of low-level germline mosaic mutations in the RB1 gene. This finding has significant implications for improved clinical diagnosis, genetic counseling, surveillance, and management of RB. © 2013 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  6. Brûlure chez l’épileptique: brûlure pas comme les autres

    PubMed Central

    Boukind, S.; Elatiqi, O.K.; Dlimi, M.; Elamrani, D.; Benchamkha, Y.; Ettalbi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary L’association brûlure et épilepsie est une constatation fréquente au Maroc. Ces brûlures, souvent itératives, touchent le plus souvent des femmes jeunes de milieu rural. L’accident survient habituellement au domicile, le plus souvent dans la cuisine à la suite d’une chute sur un moyen de cuisson posé au sol. Elles peuvent être inaugurales de la maladie mais surviennent plus souvent chez des patients connus mais au traitement mal suivi. Les conséquences de ces brûlures, toujours profondes, sont souvent dramatiques en termes de séquelles, chez des patients ayant déjà une insertion sociale rendue difficile par l’épilepsie. La prise en charge doit être multidisciplinaire et concerner à la fois la brûlures et l’épilepsie. Des mesures de prévention simples, visant à équilibrer l’épilepsie et éviter au patient de se trouver seul à proximité d’une source de chaleur, doivent être mises en place. PMID:27252613

  7. TlBr and TlBr xI 1-x crystals for γ-ray detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churilov, Alexei V.; Ciampi, Guido; Kim, Hadong; Higgins, William M.; Cirignano, Leonard J.; Olschner, Fred; Biteman, Viktor; Minchello, Mark; Shah, Kanai S.

    2010-04-01

    TlBr and TlBr xI 1-x are wide bandgap semiconductor materials being investigated for applications in γ-ray spectroscopy. They have a good combination of density and atomic numbers, promising to make them very efficient detectors. Their low melting points and simple cubic and orthorhombic crystal structures are favorable for bulk crystal growth. However, these semiconductors need to be extremely pure to become useful as radiation detectors. Impurities can lead to charge trapping and scattering, reducing the charge transit lengths and limiting the detector thickness to <1 mm. Additional purification steps were implemented to improve the purity and mobility-lifetime product ( μτ) of electrons. Detector-grade TlBr with the electron μτ product of up to 6×10 -3 cm 2/V has been produced, which allowed operation of detectors up to 15 mm thickness. The ternary TlBr xI 1-x was investigated at different compositions to vary the bandgap and explore the effect of added TlI on the long term stability of detectors. The material analysis and detector characterization results are included.

  8. SoLid: Search for Oscillations with Lithium-6 Detector at the SCK-CEN BR2 reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, G.; Beaumont, W.; Buhour, J. M.; Coupé, B.; Cucoanes, A. S.; D'Hondt, J.; Durand, D.; Fallot, M.; Fresneau, S.; Giot, L.; Guillon, B.; Guilloux, G.; Janssen, X.; Kalcheva, S.; Koonen, E.; Labare, M.; Moortgat, C.; Pronost, G.; Raes, L.; Ryckbosch, D.; Ryder, N.; Shitov, Y.; Vacheret, A.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Weber, A.; Yermia, F.

    2016-04-01

    Sterile neutrinos have been considered as a possible explanation for the recent reactor and Gallium anomalies arising from reanalysis of reactor flux and calibration data of previous neutrino experiments. A way to test this hypothesis is to look for distortions of the anti-neutrino energy caused by oscillation from active to sterile neutrino at close stand-off (˜ 6- 8m) of a compact reactor core. Due to the low rate of anti-neutrino interactions the main challenge in such measurement is to control the high level of gamma rays and neutron background. The SoLid experiment is a proposal to search for active-to-sterile anti-neutrino oscillation at very short baseline of the SCK•CEN BR2 research reactor. This experiment uses a novel approach to detect anti-neutrino with a highly segmented detector based on Lithium-6. With the combination of high granularity, high neutron-gamma discrimination using 6LiF:ZnS(Ag) and precise localization of the Inverse Beta Decay products, a better experimental sensitivity can be achieved compared to other state-of-the-art technology. This compact system requires minimum passive shielding allowing for very close stand off to the reactor. The experimental set up of the SoLid experiment and the BR2 reactor will be presented. The new principle of neutrino detection and the detector design with expected performance will be described. The expected sensitivity to new oscillations of the SoLid detector as well as the first measurements made with the 8 kg prototype detector deployed at the BR2 reactor in 2013-2014 will be reported.

  9. Non-enzymatic antioxidant accumulations in BR-deficient and BR-insensitive barley mutants under control and drought conditions.

    PubMed

    Gruszka, Damian; Janeczko, Anna; Dziurka, Michal; Pociecha, Ewa; Fodor, Jozsef

    2017-12-07

    Drought is one of the most adverse stresses that affect plant growth and yield. Disturbances in metabolic activity resulting from drought cause overproduction of reactive oxygen species. It is postulated that brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate plant tolerance to the stress conditions, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. An involvement of endogenous BRs in regulation of the antioxidant homeostasis is not fully clarified either. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the role of endogenous BRs in regulation of non-enzymatic antioxidants in barley (Hordeum vulgare) under control and drought conditions. The plant material included the 'Bowman' cultivar and a group of semi-dwarf near-isogenic lines (NILs), representing mutants deficient in BR biosynthesis or signaling. In general, accumulations of 11 compounds representing various types of non-enzymatic antioxidants were analyzed under both conditions. The analyses of accumulations of reduced and oxidized forms of ascorbate indicated that the BR mutants contain significantly higher contents of dehydroascorbic acid under drought conditions when compared with the 'Bowman' cultivar. The analysis of glutathione accumulation indicated that under the control conditions the BR-insensitive NILs contained significantly lower concentrations of this antioxidant when compared with the rest of genotypes. Therefore, we postulate that BR sensitivity is required for normal accumulation of glutathione. A complete accumulation profile of various tocopherols indicated that functional BR biosynthesis and signaling are required for their normal accumulation under both conditions. Results of this study provided an insight into the role of endogenous BRs in regulation of the non-enzymatic antioxidant homeostasis. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  10. Electronic structure and spectra of the RbHe van der Waals system including spin orbit interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhiflaoui, Jamila; Bejaoui, Mohamed; Berriche, Hamid

    2017-12-01

    The potential energy interaction, the spectroscopic properties and dipole functions of the RbHe van der Waals dimer have been investigated. We used a one-electron pseudopotential approach and large Gaussian basis sets to represent the two atoms Rb and He. The Rb+ core and the electron-He interactions were replaced by semi-local pseudopotentials and a core-core interaction is included. Therefore, the number of active electrons of RbHe is reduced to only one electron. Consequently, the potential energy curves and dipole moments for many electronic states dissociating into Rb(5s,5p,4d,6s,6p,5d,7s)+He are performed at the SCF level. In addition, the spin-orbit coupling is included in the calculation. The Rb+He interaction, in its ground state, is taken from accurate CCSD (T) calculations and fitted to an analytical expression for a better description of the potential in all internuclear ranges. The spectroscopic properties of the RbHe electronic states are extracted. The comparison of these constants has shown a very good agreement for the ground state as well as for the lower excited states when compared with existing theoretical and experimental studies.

  11. Top-seeded solution growth and morphology change of RbTiOPO4:Ta single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ziqing; Chen, Yang; Zhu, Pengfei; Ji, Nianjing; Duan, Xiulan; Jiang, Huaidong

    2018-04-01

    The RbTiOPO4:Ta single crystal with dimensions of 4 mm × 31 mm × 18 mm was successfully grown by Top Seeded Solution Growth Technique. It is concluded that the doping Ta element can strongly influence the growth and morphology of the RbTiOPO4 crystal. The evident morphology change of RbTiOPO4:Ta crystal with respect to RbTiOPO4 crystal has been observed and the (1 0 0) crystal face was more developed than any other crystal faces. The possible reasons of the morphology change were analyzed through experimental and theoretical methods. Several methods were tried to increase crystallographic a direction dimension of RbTiOPO4:Ta crystals. Finally, the RbTiOPO4:Ta single crystal with crystallographic a direction dimension up to 6 mm was obtained by using thicker seed crystal. This way makes it possible to get isometric RbTiOPO4:Ta crystals, which is beneficial for nonlinear optical applications due to larger area in x-y plane.

  12. Precision-controlled elution of a 82Sr/82Rb generator for cardiac perfusion imaging with positron emission tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, R.; Adler, A.; Beanlands, R. S.; de Kemp, R. A.

    2007-02-01

    A rubidium-82 (82Rb) elution system is described for use with positron emission tomography. Due to the short half-life of 82Rb (76 s), the system physics must be modelled precisely to account for transport delay and the associated activity decay and dispersion. Saline flow is switched between a 82Sr/82Rb generator and a bypass line to achieve a constant-activity elution of 82Rb. Pulse width modulation (PWM) of a solenoid valve is compared to simple threshold control as a means to simulate a proportional valve. A predictive-corrective control (PCC) algorithm is developed which produces a constant-activity elution within the constraints of long feedback delay and short elution time. The system model parameters are adjusted through a self-tuning algorithm to minimize error versus the requested time-activity profile. The system is self-calibrating with 2.5% repeatability, independent of generator activity and elution flow rate. Accurate 30 s constant-activity elutions of 10-70% of the total generator activity are achieved using both control methods. The combined PWM-PCC method provides significant improvement in precision and accuracy of the requested elution profiles. The 82Rb elution system produces accurate and reproducible constant-activity elution profiles of 82Rb activity, independent of parent 82Sr activity in the generator. More reproducible elution profiles may improve the quality of clinical and research PET perfusion studies using 82Rb.

  13. Protective properties of ginsenoside Rb1 against UV-B radiation-induced oxidative stress in human dermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sun-Joo; Kim, Kyunghoon; Lim, Chang-Jin

    2015-06-01

    Ginsenosides, also known as ginseng saponins, are responsible for most pharmacological effect of ginseng. Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) exerts a variety of pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antistress, anti-aging and anti-neurodegenerative activities. The aim of the present work was to assess the skin anti-photoaging properties of Rb1 in human dermal keratinocyte HaCaT cells. The anti-photoaging activity was evaluated by analyzing the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) as well as cell viability for HaCaT cells under UV-B irradiation. Rb1 was able to suppress the ROS levels which were elevated under UV-B irradiation, and unable to influence cellular survival in UV-B-irradiated HaCaT cells. Rb1 diminished the enhancement of MMP-2 gelatinolytic activity in conditioned medium, which corresponded with the decreased MMP-2 protein levels in both conditioned medium and cellular lysate prepared from UV-B-irradiated HaCaT cultures. Rb1 could restore the total glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity diminished in UV-B-irradiated HaCaT cells. Ginsenoside Rb1 possesses skin anti-photoaging properties through scavenging ROS and decreasing MMP-2 levels possibly by enhancing antioxidant activity in keratinocytes under UV-B irradiation.

  14. Field study of vaccination of cattle with Brucella abortus strains RB51 and 19 under high and low disease prevalence.

    PubMed

    Lord, V R; Schurig, G G; Cherwonogrodzky, J W; Marcano, M J; Melendez, G E

    1998-08-01

    To assess humoral and protective immunity in cattle vaccinated by 12 months with Brucella abortus vaccine strains RB51 and 19 under field conditions of high and low brucellosis prevalence. 450 seronegative female cattle: 330 three to eight months old (calves), and 120 ten to twelve months old (heifers). Ranch A had high prevalence (39%) of brucellosis, and ranch B had low prevalence (2%), as determined by results of conventional serologic testing: agar gel immunodiffusion and the ring test. Seronegative cattle were vaccinated once or twice with 5 x 10(9) colony-forming units of B abortus strain RB51 or once with strain 19. After vaccinating 285 cattle with strain RB51 and 165 with strain 19, 74 (26%) and 30 (18%), respectively, were bred to seropositive bulls, then were kept within the infected herd of origin. All cattle vaccinated with strain 19 seroconverted 30 days later. All 285 cattle vaccinated with strain RB51 had negative results for all serologic tests, including agar gel immunodiffusion. All RB51-vaccinated cattle that became pregnant had negative results for the ring test and for conventional serologic tests after their first calving. Strain RB51 can be used as a live organism vaccine without inducing antibody titers that interfere with serodiagnosis, and induced 100% protection against field strain B abortus-induced abortion in cattle vaccinated at least 1 year before mating to an infected bull. Vaccination with strain 19 under similar conditions was less effective than vaccination with strain RB51.

  15. Precision-controlled elution of a 82Sr/82Rb generator for cardiac perfusion imaging with positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Klein, R; Adler, A; Beanlands, R S; Dekemp, R A

    2007-02-07

    A rubidium-82 ((82)Rb) elution system is described for use with positron emission tomography. Due to the short half-life of (82)Rb (76 s), the system physics must be modelled precisely to account for transport delay and the associated activity decay and dispersion. Saline flow is switched between a (82)Sr/(82)Rb generator and a bypass line to achieve a constant-activity elution of (82)Rb. Pulse width modulation (PWM) of a solenoid valve is compared to simple threshold control as a means to simulate a proportional valve. A predictive-corrective control (PCC) algorithm is developed which produces a constant-activity elution within the constraints of long feedback delay and short elution time. The system model parameters are adjusted through a self-tuning algorithm to minimize error versus the requested time-activity profile. The system is self-calibrating with 2.5% repeatability, independent of generator activity and elution flow rate. Accurate 30 s constant-activity elutions of 10-70% of the total generator activity are achieved using both control methods. The combined PWM-PCC method provides significant improvement in precision and accuracy of the requested elution profiles. The (82)Rb elution system produces accurate and reproducible constant-activity elution profiles of (82)Rb activity, independent of parent (82)Sr activity in the generator. More reproducible elution profiles may improve the quality of clinical and research PET perfusion studies using (82)Rb.

  16. RB1 is the crucial target of the Merkel cell polyomavirus Large T antigen in Merkel cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hesbacher, Sonja; Pfitzer, Lisa; Wiedorfer, Katharina; Angermeyer, Sabrina; Borst, Andreas; Haferkamp, Sebastian; Scholz, Claus-Jürgen; Wobser, Marion; Schrama, David; Houben, Roland

    2016-05-31

    The pocket protein (PP) family consists of the three members RB1, p107 and p130 all possessing tumor suppressive properties. Indeed, the PPs jointly control the G1/S transition mainly by inhibiting E2F transcription factors. Notably, several viral oncoproteins are capable of binding and inhibiting PPs. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is considered as etiological factor for Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) with expression of the viral Large T antigen (LT) harboring an intact PP binding domain being required for proliferation of most MCC cells. Therefore, we analyzed the interaction of MCPyV-LT with the PPs. Co-IP experiments indicate that MCPyV-LT binds potently only to RB1. Moreover, MCPyV-LT knockdown-induced growth arrest in MCC cells can be rescued by knockdown of RB1, but not by p107 or p130 knockdown. Accordingly, cell cycle arrest and E2F target gene repression mediated by the single PPs can only in the case of RB1 be significantly reverted by MCPyV-LT expression. Moreover, data from an MCC patient indicate that loss of RB1 rendered the MCPyV-positive MCC cells LT independent. Thus, our results suggest that RB1 is the dominant tumor suppressor PP in MCC, and that inactivation of RB1 by MCPyV-LT is largely sufficient for its growth supporting function in established MCPyV-positive MCC cells.

  17. Is the 'Bromine Explosion' generated from the reaction BrO HO2 alone?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnke, Wolfgang; Zetzsch, Cornelius

    2010-05-01

    We observed bromine explosions (a fast production of atomic Br and Cl under tropospheric conditions) in various smog chamber experiments in Teflon bags at room temperature at a relative humidity of about 80% in the presence of NaCl/NaBr-aerosol, simulated sunlight and ozone (200 - 400 ppb). Time profiles of ozone and hydrocarbons (HCs: n-butane, 2,2-dimethylbutane, tetramethylbutane and toluene, initially about 2 ppb each) were monitored to determine concentrations and source strengths of OH radicals, atomic Cl and Br and the corresponding time profiles of BrCl and Br2 as their photolytic precursors. The number and size of aerosols are measured as well as their chemical composition (Br-, Cl- and oxalic acid). Full records of raw data from the smog chamber runs are available at www.eurochamp.org for potential users. Chemical box model calculations deliver concentrations of various intermediates, such as aldehydes, HO2 and RO2 radicals and the inorganic halogen compounds ClO, BrO, HOCl and HOBr, where HOBr from O3 + Br- => BrO- + O2 in the aqueous/adsorbed phase induces the following gas-phase/ heterogeneous chain reaction Br + O3 => BrO + O2(1) BrO + HO2 => HOBr + O2(2a) HOBr + (Aerosol) => HOBrad(3) Surface-adsorbed HOBr reacts with Br- or Cl- to produce Br2 or BrCl, both of which are released and photolysed. Formation of Br2 should prevail up to Cl-/Br- -ratios of about 104 (Fickert, S., J.W. Adams, J.N. Crowley, J. Geophys. Res., D104, 23719-23727, 1999). A maximum of this ratio is reached about 30 minutes after the beginning and decreases during the next hours - probably by reaction of Br2 with oxalate and absorption of HBr, formed from the reaction of Br with aldehydes. Parallel to chain reaction (1)-(3) a chain reaction replacing Br by Cl seems possible but can not be realized, since the main sink of atomic Cl is its reaction with hydrocarbons - leading to chain termination - in contrast to atomic Br (ratio of rates: kCl[O3]/kCl[HC] ~ 0.1; kBr[O3]/kBr

  18. Isolation, characterization, and computational studies of the novel [Mo3(mu3-Br)2(mu-Br)3Br6]2- cluster anion.

    PubMed

    Paraskevopoulou, Patrina; Makedonas, Christodoulos; Psaroudakis, Nikolaos; Mitsopoulou, Christiana A; Floros, Georgios; Seressioti, Andriana; Ioannou, Marinos; Sanakis, Yiannis; Rath, Nigam; Gómez García, Carlos J; Stavropoulos, Pericles; Mertis, Konstantinos

    2010-03-01

    The novel trimolybdenum cluster [Mo(3)(mu(3)-Br)(2)(mu-Br)(3)Br(6)](2-) (1, {Mo(3)}(9+), 9 d-electrons) has been isolated from the reaction of [Mo(CO)(6)] with 1,2-C(2)H(4)Br(2) in refluxing PhCl. The compound has been characterized in solution by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), UV-vis spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and in the solid state by X-ray analysis (counter-cations: (n-Bu)(4)N(+) (1), Et(4)N(+), Et(3)BzN(+)), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), magnetic susceptibility measurements, and infrared spectroscopy. The least disordered (n-Bu)(4)N(+) salt crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c, a = 20.077(2) A, b = 11.8638(11) A, c = 22.521(2) A, alpha = 90 deg, beta = 109.348(4) deg, gamma = 90 deg, V = 5061.3(9) A(3), Z = 4 and contains an isosceles triangular metal arrangement, which is capped by two bromine ligands. Each edge of the triangle is bridged by bromine ions. The structure is completed by six terminal bromine ligands. According to the magnetic measurements and the EPR spectrum the trimetallic core possesses one unpaired electron. Electrochemical data show that oxidation by one electron of 1 is reversible, thus proceeding with retention of the trimetallic core, while the reduction is irreversible. The effective magnetic moment of 1 (mu(eff), 1.55 mu(B), r.t.) is lower than the spin-only value (1.73 mu(B)) for S = 1/2 systems, most likely because of high spin-orbit coupling of Mo(III) and/or magnetic coupling throughout the lattice. The ground electronic state of 1 was studied using density functional theory techniques under the broken symmetry formalism. The ground state is predicted to exhibit strong antiferromagnetic coupling between the three molybdenum atoms of the core. Moreover, our calculated data predict two broken symmetry states that differ only by 0.4 kcal/mol (121 cm(-1)). The antiferromagnetic character is delocalized over three magnetic orbitals populated by three electrons. The assignment of the

  19. Identification of BrONO as the major product in the gas-phase reaction of Br and NO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Orlando, J.J.; Burkholder, J.B.

    2000-03-16

    Products of the gas-phase reaction of Br atoms with NO{sub 2} have been quantitatively determined at temperatures between 215 and 300 K in an environmental chamber interfaced to an FT-IR spectrometer. The major product of the reaction (yield > 75%) was found to be the cis isomer of BrONO, which was identified and quantified by means of its N-O stretching fundamental at 1,660 cm{sup {minus}1}; this represents the first gas-phase detection of this species. Although rapid thermal decomposition back to Br and NO{sub 2} precludes its detection at room temperature (lifetime < 1 s), BrONO was detected at temperatures atmore » and below 263 K. Isomerization of the BrONO to BrNO{sub 2} was found to be an important fate of BrONO at low temperatures. The rate coefficient for this process was found to increase with decreasing pressure, indicative of a heterogeneous process. At 700 Torr, this isomerization rate was (0.013 {+-} 0.003) s{sup {minus}1}, independent of temperature over the range 218--243 K. Evidence was also obtained for rapid reactions between Br atoms and both BrONO and BrNO{sub 2} (10{sup {minus}10} > k > 10{sup {minus}11}cm{sup 3} molecule{sup {minus}1}s{sup {minus}1}).« less

  20. Phospho-T356RB1 predicts survival in HPV-negative squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    PubMed Central

    Handorf, Elizabeth; Nikonova, Anna; Dubyk, Cara; Peri, Suraj; Lango, Miriam; Ridge, John A.; Serebriiskii, Ilya G.; Burtness, Barbara; Golemis, Erica A.; Mehra, Ranee

    2015-01-01

    Locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) that is not associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) has a poor prognosis in contrast to HPV-positive disease. To better understand the importance of RB1 activity in HPV-negative SCCHN, we investigated the prognostic value of inhibitory CDK4/6 phosphorylation of RB1 on threonine 356 (T356) in archival HPV-negative tumor specimens from patients who underwent surgical resection and adjuvant radiation. We benchmarked pT356RB1 to total RB1, Ki67, pT202/Y204ERK1/2, and TP53, as quantified by automatic quantitative analysis (AQUA), and correlated protein expression with tumor stage and grade. High expression of pT356RB1 but not total RB1 predicted reduced overall survival (OS; P = 0.0295), indicating the potential relevance of post-translational phosphorylation. Paired analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data for regulators of this RB1 phosphorylation identified loss or truncating mutation of negative regulator CDKN2A (p16) and elevated expression of the CDK4/6 activator CCND1 (cyclin D) as also predicting poor survival. Given that CDK4/6 inhibitors have been most effective in the context of functional RB1 and low expression or deletion of p16 in other tumor types, these data suggest such agents may merit evaluation in HPV-negative SCCHN, specifically in cases associated with high pT356RB1. PMID:26265441

  1. A Rb1 promoter variant with reduced activity contributes to osteosarcoma susceptibility in irradiated mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Syndromic forms of osteosarcoma (OS) account for less than 10% of all recorded cases of this malignancy. An individual OS predisposition is also possible by the inheritance of low penetrance alleles of tumor susceptibility genes, usually without evidence of a syndromic condition. Genetic variants involved in such a non-syndromic form of tumor predisposition are difficult to identify, given the low incidence of osteosarcoma cases and the genetic heterogeneity of patients. We recently mapped a major OS susceptibility QTL to mouse chromosome 14 by comparing alpha-radiation induced osteosarcoma in mouse strains which differ in their tumor susceptibility. Methods Tumor-specific allelic losses in murine osteosacoma were mapped along chromosome 14 using microsatellite markers and SNP allelotyping. Candidate gene search in the mapped interval was refined using PosMed data mining and mRNA expression analysis in normal osteoblasts. A strain-specific promoter variant in Rb1 was tested for its influence on mRNA expression using reporter assay. Results A common Rb1 allele derived from the BALB/cHeNhg strain was identified as the major determinant of radiation-induced OS risk at this locus. Increased OS-risk is linked with a hexanucleotide deletion in the promoter region which is predicted to change WT1 and SP1 transcription factor-binding sites. Both in-vitro reporter and in-vivo expression assays confirmed an approx. 1.5 fold reduced gene expression by this promoter variant. Concordantly, the 50% reduction in Rb1 expression in mice bearing a conditional hemizygous Rb1 deletion causes a significant rise of OS incidence following alpha-irradiation. Conclusion This is the first experimental demonstration of a functional and genetic link between reduced Rb1 expression from a common promoter variant and increased tumor risk after radiation exposure. We propose that a reduced Rb1 expression by common variants in regulatory regions can modify the risk for a malignant

  2. Micaschist and Impure Marble - two Examples for Lithology Related Constraints to Rb-Sr Microsampling Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegmann, M. I.; Hammerschmidt, K.

    2003-12-01

    Retrograde overprinted calcite-bearing micaschists and mica-containing marbles from the northern part of the Cycladic blueschist belt on South-Evia, Greece, have been investigated to understand the interplay between bulk rock chemistry, mineral assemblage and resetting of the Rb-Sr isotope system during deformation. White mica represents two optical distinguishable microstructures, isoclinal folds (S1) and axial plain cleavage (S2) induced by flattening and elongation episode of isothermal exhumation. The varying Si content of phengites is not related to microstructures. Due to microstructural complexity and grain size variation the application of Rb-Sr microsampling method was expected effective investigation of Rb and Sr rich mineral phases to elucidate constraints for geochronological and isotope geochemical imprint in microstructures. Drilling out calcite, albite and mica samples with weights down to 200æg each out of 30æm thick sections realized textural controlled separation. Calculated Rb-Sr mica ages show lithology-related scattering but totally not microstructural induced variation. Particulary, S1 and S2 phengites in micaschist yield similar age values around 31 Ma. In contrast, impure marble mica within similar S1 and S2 have Rb-Sr mica ages widely scattering between 34 and 50 Ma. Therefore, structural elements formed by these phengites are not distinguishable in terms of geochronolgy. Explaining the scatter of age values, principally, two possibilities were taken into account, (i) the fluid flux neccessary to homogenize Sr isotope composition in mica and calcite (albite) might have been less effective in impure marble than in micaschist due to the generation of CO2. In constrast to this possibility, calcite 87Sr/86Sr in both specimen are quite homogeneous at least on cm-scale, e.g. values of 0.712125 ñ 66 (2s) for impure marble and of 0.721419 ñ 42 for micaschist were meassured. Albite 87Sr/86Sr corroborate Sr homogenisation on scale this study was

  3. Zn uptake, translocation and grain Zn loading in rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes selected for Zn deficiency tolerance and high grain Zn

    PubMed Central

    Impa, Somayanda M.; Morete, Mark J.; Ismail, Abdelbagi M.; Schulin, Rainer; Johnson-Beebout, Sarah E.

    2013-01-01

    Zn deficiency is a widespread problem in rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown under flooded conditions, limiting growth and grain Zn accumulation. Genotypes with Zn deficiency tolerance or high grain Zn have been identified in breeding programmes, but little is known about the physiological mechanisms conferring these traits. A protocol was developed for growing rice to maturity in agar nutrient solution (ANS), with optimum Zn-sufficient growth achieved at 1.5 μM ZnSO4.7H2O. The redox potential in ANS showed a decrease from +350 mV to −200 mV, mimicking the reduced conditions of flooded paddy soils. In subsequent experiments, rice genotypes contrasting for Zn deficiency tolerance and grain Zn were grown in ANS with sufficient and deficient Zn to assess differences in root uptake of Zn, root-to-shoot Zn translocation, and in the predominant sources of Zn accumulation in the grain. Zn efficiency of a genotype was highly influenced by root-to-shoot translocation of Zn and total Zn uptake. Translocation of Zn from root to shoot was more limiting at later growth stages than at the vegetative stage. Under Zn-sufficient conditions, continued root uptake during the grain-filling stage was the predominant source of grain Zn loading in rice, whereas, under Zn-deficient conditions, some genotypes demonstrated remobilization of Zn from shoot and root to grain in addition to root uptake. Understanding the mechanisms of grain Zn loading in rice is crucial in selecting high grain Zn donors for target-specific breeding and also to establish fertilizer and water management strategies for achieving high grain Zn. PMID:23698631

  4. Efficient exciton generation in atomic passivated CdSe/ZnS quantum dots light-emitting devices

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Byoung-Ho; Lee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Sang-Won; Kim, Sae-Wan; Lee, Jun-Woo; Gopalan, Sai-Anand; Park, Ji-Sub; Kwon, Dae-Hyuk; Bae, Jin-Hyuk; Kim, Hak-Rin; Kang, Shin-Won

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the first-ever surface modification of green CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) using bromide anions (Br-) in cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The Br- ions reduced the interparticle spacing between the QDs and induced an effective charge balance in QD light-emitting devices (QLEDs). The fabricated QLEDs exhibited efficient charge injection because of the reduced emission quenching effect and their enhanced thin film morphology. As a result, they exhibited a maximum luminance of 71,000 cd/m2 and an external current efficiency of 6.4 cd/A, both significantly better than those of their counterparts with oleic acid surface ligands. In addition, the lifetime of the Br- treated QD based QLEDs is significantly improved due to ionic passivation at the QDs surface. PMID:27686147

  5. NWA 7034 Martian Breccia: Disturbed Rb-Sr Systematics, Preliminary Is Approximately 4.4 Ga Sm-Nd Age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Peng, Zhan Xiong; Agee, C

    2013-01-01

    Agee et al. [1] reported a Rb-Sr age of 2.089 [plus or minus] 0.081 Ga for the unique Martian meteoritic breccia NWA 7034 making it the oldest Martian basalt, dating to the early Am-azonian epoch [2] of Martian geologic history. We have attempt-ed to confirm this exciting result. Our new Rb-Sr analyses show the Rb-Sr isotopic system to be disturbed, but preliminary Sm-Nd data suggest an even older age of approximately 4.4 Ga for at least some brec-cia components.

  6. Effect of Ligand Substitution around the Dy(III) on the SMM Properties of Dual-Luminescent Zn-Dy and Zn-Dy-Zn Complexes with Large Anisotropy Energy Barriers: A Combined Theoretical and Experimental Magnetostructural Study.

    PubMed

    Costes, Jean Pierre; Titos-Padilla, Silvia; Oyarzabal, Itziar; Gupta, Tulika; Duhayon, Carine; Rajaraman, Gopalan; Colacio, Enrique

    2016-05-02

    The new dinuclear Zn(II)-Dy(III) and trinuclear Zn(II)-Dy(III)-Zn(II) complexes of formula [(LZnBrDy(ovan) (NO3)(H2O)](H2O)·0.5(MeOH) (1) and [(L(1)ZnBr)2Dy(MeOH)2](ClO4) (3) (L and L(1) are the dideprotonated forms of the N,N'-2,2-dimethylpropylenedi(3-methoxysalicylideneiminato and 2-{(E)-[(3-{[(2E,3E)-3-(hydroxyimino)butan-2-ylidene ]amino}-2,2-dimethylpropyl)imino]methyl}-6-methoxyphenol Schiff base compartmental ligands, respectively) have been prepared and magnetostructurally characterized. The X-ray structure of 1 indicates that the Dy(III) ion exhibits a DyO9 coordination sphere, which is made from four O atoms coming from the compartmental ligand (two methoxy terminal groups and two phenoxido bridging groups connecting Zn(II) and Dy(III) ions), other four atoms belonging to the chelating nitrato and ovanillin ligands, and the last one coming to the coordinated water molecule. The structure of 3 shows the central Dy(III) ion surrounded by two L(1)Zn units, so that the Dy(III) and Zn(II) ions are linked by phenoxido/oximato bridging groups. The Dy ion is eight-coordinated by the six O atoms afforded by two L(1) ligands and two O atoms coming from two methanol molecules. Alternating current (AC) dynamic magnetic measurements of 1, 3, and the previously reported dinuclear [LZnClDy(thd)2] (2) complex (where thd = 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato ligand) indicate single molecule magnet (SMM) behavior for all these complexes with large thermal energy barriers for the reversal of the magnetization and butterfly-shaped hysteresis loops at 2 K. Ab initio calculations on 1-3 show a pure Ising ground state for all of them, which induces almost completely suppressed quantum tunnelling magnetization (QTM), and thermally assisted quantum tunnelling magnetization (TA-QTM) relaxations via the first excited Kramers doublet, leading to large energy barriers, thus supporting the observation of SMM behavior. The comparison between the experimental and theoretical

  7. Ionic current and polarization effect in TlBr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leão, Cedric Rocha; Lordi, Vincenzo

    2013-02-01

    Thallium bromide (TlBr) is an ionic semiconductor that has shown great capacity for accurate radiation detection. Its application to this end, however, has been hampered by degradation of performance over time, in a process called polarization. This effect has been traditionally assigned to a build-up of ions at the electrodes, which would counteract an applied electrical bias field. Here, we estimate the ionic mobility in TlBr and its possible association with the polarization effect using parameter-free quantum simulations. Our results indicate that in samples with up to moderate levels of impurities, ions cannot traverse distances large enough to generate zones of accumulation and depletion in the crystal, suggesting different causes for the polarization effect.

  8. Characterization of pixelated TlBr detectors with Tl electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitomi, Keitaro; Onodera, Toshiyuki; Kim, Seong-Yun; Shoji, Tadayoshi; Ishii, Keizo

    2014-05-01

    A 4.36-mm-thick pixelated thallium bromide (TlBr) detector with Tl electrodes was fabricated from a crystal grown by the traveling molten zone method using zone-purified material. The detector had four 1×1 mm2 pixelated anodes. The detector performance was characterized at room temperature. The mobility-lifetime products of electrons for each pixel of the TlBr detector were measured to be >2.8×10-3 cm2/V. The four pixelated anodes of the detector exhibited energy resolutions of 1.5-1.8% full width at half maximum (FWHM) for 662-keV gamma rays for single-pixel events with the depth correction method. An energy resolution of 4.5% FWHM for 662-keV gamma rays was obtained from a reconstructed energy spectrum using two-pixel events from the two pixelated anodes on the detector.

  9. Development of brain injury criteria (BrIC).

    PubMed

    Takhounts, Erik G; Craig, Matthew J; Moorhouse, Kevin; McFadden, Joe; Hasija, Vikas

    2013-11-01

    Rotational motion of the head as a mechanism for brain injury was proposed back in the 1940s. Since then a multitude of research studies by various institutions were conducted to confirm/reject this hypothesis. Most of the studies were conducted on animals and concluded that rotational kinematics experienced by the animal's head may cause axonal deformations large enough to induce their functional deficit. Other studies utilized physical and mathematical models of human and animal heads to derive brain injury criteria based on deformation/pressure histories computed from their models. This study differs from the previous research in the following ways: first, it uses two different detailed mathematical models of human head (SIMon and GHBMC), each validated against various human brain response datasets; then establishes physical (strain and stress based) injury criteria for various types of brain injury based on scaled animal injury data; and finally, uses Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) (Hybrid III 50th Male, Hybrid III 5th Female, THOR 50th Male, ES-2re, SID-IIs, WorldSID 50th Male, and WorldSID 5th Female) test data (NCAP, pendulum, and frontal offset tests) to establish a kinematically based brain injury criterion (BrIC) for all ATDs. Similar procedures were applied to college football data where thousands of head impacts were recorded using a six degrees of freedom (6 DOF) instrumented helmet system. Since animal injury data used in derivation of BrIC were predominantly for diffuse axonal injury (DAI) type, which is currently an AIS 4+ injury, cumulative strain damage measure (CSDM) and maximum principal strain (MPS) were used to derive risk curves for AIS 4+ anatomic brain injuries. The AIS 1+, 2+, 3+, and 5+ risk curves for CSDM and MPS were then computed using the ratios between corresponding risk curves for head injury criterion (HIC) at a 50% risk. The risk curves for BrIC were then obtained from CSDM and MPS risk curves using the linear relationship

  10. Time-of-Flight Measurements on TlBr Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, K.; Shorohov, M.; Sawada, T.; Seto, S.

    2015-04-01

    Carrier transport properties of TlBr crystals grown using the Bridgman method were investigated by the time-of-flight technique. The electron and hole mobilities were measured as 20 - 27 cm2 /Vs and 1.0 - 2.0 cm2/Vs respectively at room temperature. The temperature dependence of the electron mobility increases with decreasing temperature as approximated by a well-known empirical formula reflecting the reciprocal of the LO-phonon density.

  11. Digital pulse processing for planar TlBr detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakhostin, M.; Hitomi, K.; Ishii, K.; Kikuchi, Y.

    2010-04-01

    We report on a digital pulse processing algorithm for correction of charge trapping in the planar TlBr detectors. The algorithm is performed on the signals digitized at the preamplifier stage. The algorithm is very simple and is implemented with little computational effort. By using a digitizer with a sampling rate of 250 MSample/s and 8 bit resolution, an energy resolution of 6.5% is achieved at 511 keV with a 0.7 mm thick detector.

  12. High gradient rf gun studies of CsBr photocathodes

    DOE PAGES

    Vecchione, Theodore; Maldonado, Juan R.; Gierman, Stephen; ...

    2015-04-03

    CsBr photocathodes have 10 times higher quantum efficiency with only 3 times larger intrinsic transverse emittance than copper. They are robust and can withstand 80 MV/m fields without breaking down or emitting dark current. They can operate in 2×10⁻⁹ torr vacuum and survive exposure to air. They are well suited for generating high pulse charge in rf guns without a photocathode transfer system.

  13. The Role of Adenosine A2BR in Metastatic Melanoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-07-01

    100% complete. ACURO approval to perform animal studies was obtained July 2016. Specific Aim 1, Subtask 2: 100% complete. Use CRISPR /Cas9 technology...immune cell interactions, the first objective was to use the CRISPR Cas9 system to knock out A2BR expression in melanoma cell lines. Melanoma cell lines...and sgRNA3 to work but sgRNA2 would not be as efficient. We considered commercially available constructs to potentially improve the CRISPR knock

  14. Extended analysis of fifth spectrum of bromine: Br V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riyaz, A.; Tauheed, A.; Rahimullah, K.

    2014-11-01

    The fifth spectrum of bromine (Br V) has been studied in the 200-2400 Å wavelength region. The spectrum was photographed on a 3-m normal incidence vacuum spectrograph at the St. Francis Xavier University, Antigonish (Canada) and 6.65-m grazing incidence spectrograph at the Zeeman laboratory (Amsterdam). The light sources used were a triggered spark and sliding spark. The ground configuration of Br V is 4s24p. The excited configurations 4s4p2+4s2(4d+5d+5s+6s+7s+5g+6g)+4s4p(5p+4f)+4p24d in the even parity system and the 4p3+4s2(5p+6p+7p+4f)+4s4p4d+4s4p5s configurations in the odd parity system have been studied. Relativistic Hartree-Fock (HFR) and least squares fitted (LSF) parametric calculations have been used to interpret the observed spectrum. 99 levels of Br V have now been established, 43 being new. Among 394 classified spectral lines, 181 are newly classified. The level 4s27s 2S1/2 is revised. We estimate the accuracy of our measured wavelengths for sharp and unblended lines to be±0.005 Å. The ionization limit is determined as 479,657±200 cm-1 (59.470±0.025 eV).

  15. a High-Precision Branching-Ratio Measurement for the Superallowed β+ Emitter 74Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, R.; Chagnon-Lessard, S.; Finlay, P.; Garrett, P. E.; Hadinia, B.; Leach, K. G.; Svensson, C. E.; Wong, J.; Ball, G.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Glister, J.; Hackman, G.; Tardiff, E. R.; Triambak, S.; Williams, S. J.; Leslie, J. R.; Andreoiu, C.; Chester, A.; Cross, D.; Starosta, K.; Yates, S. W.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2013-03-01

    Precision measurements of superallowed Fermi beta decay allow for tests of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix (CKM) unitarity, the conserved vector current hypothesis, and the magnitude of isospin-symmetry-breaking effects in nuclei. A high-precision measurement of the branching ratio for the β+ decay of 74Rb has been performed at the Isotope Separator and ACcelerator (ISAC) facility at TRIUMF. The 8π spectrometer, an array of 20 close-packed HPGe detectors, was used to detect gamma rays emitted following the decay of 74Rb. PACES, an array of 5 Si(Li) detectors, was used to detect emitted conversion electrons, while SCEPTAR, an array of plastic scintillators, was used to detect emitted beta particles. A total of 51γ rays have been identified following the decay of 21 excited states in the daughter nucleus 74Kr.

  16. Evidence of nontermination of collective rotation near the maximum angular momentum in Rb75

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P. J.; Afanasjev, A. V.; Wadsworth, R.; Andreoiu, C.; Austin, R. A. E.; Carpenter, M. P.; Dashdorj, D.; Finlay, P.; Freeman, S. J.; Garrett, P. E.; Görgen, A.; Greene, J.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hyland, B.; Jenkins, D. G.; Johnston-Theasby, F. L.; Joshi, P.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Moore, F.; Mukherjee, G.; Phillips, A. A.; Reviol, W.; Sarantites, D.; Schumaker, M. A.; Seweryniak, D.; Smith, M. B.; Svensson, C. E.; Valiente-Dobon, J. J.; Ward, D.

    2010-12-01

    Two of the four known rotational bands in Rb75 were studied via the Ca40(Ca40,αp)Rb75 reaction at a beam energy of 165 MeV. Transitions were observed up to the maximum spin Imax of the assigned configuration in one case and one-transition short of Imax in the other. Lifetimes were determined using the residual Doppler shift attenuation method. The deduced transition quadrupole moments show a small decrease with increasing spin, but remain large at the highest spins. The results obtained are in good agreement with cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky calculations, which indicate that these rotational bands do not terminate, but remain collective at Imax.

  17. LIBS and LIFS for rapid detection of Rb traces in blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Jeffery, Mohammad O.; Telle, Helmut H.

    2002-05-01

    Tests that can quickly and efficiently detect traces of illegal performance enhancing drugs are becoming essential. Certain performance enhancing drugs lead to an increase in the count of red blood cells. The proportion of blood made up of red cells is normally around 42 percent. At least 90 percent of Rubidium measured in whole blood is located in the red blood cells. If Rubidium Chloride (RbCl) is given to an athlete around 30 minutes before competing and a sample of their blood (a drop on a filter) was subsequently tested for Rubidium content, the test will give a direct indication of the red blood cell count. In this contribution, we describe an efficient and fast test based on spectroscopic techniques that can be used to detect trace levels of Rubidium. Our experiments employed Rubidium nitride (RbNO3) and trace levels down to 0.3 percent were successfully detected.

  18. The Apollo 17 'melt sheet' - Chemistry, age and Rb/Sr systematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winzer, S. R.; Nava, D. F.; Schuhmann, S.; Philpotts, J. A.; Schuhmann, P. J.; Lum, R. K. L.; Lindstrom, M. M.; Lindstrom, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    Major, minor, and trace-element compositions, age data, and Rb/Sr systematics of Apollo 17 boulders have been compiled, and additional analyses performed on a norite breccia clast (77215) included in the Apollo 17, Station 7 boulder. The Apollo 17 boulders are found to be identical or nearly so in major, minor, and trace-element composition, suggesting that they all originated as an impact melt analogous to melt sheets found in larger terrestrial craters. The matrix dates (Ar-40/Ar-39) and Rb/Sr systematics available suggest that this impact melt formed by a single impact about 4 billion years ago. This impact excavated, shocked, brecciated, and melted norites, norite cumulates, and possibly anorthositic gabbros and dunites about 4.4 billion years old. The impact was likely a major one, possibly the Serenitatis basin-forming event.

  19. Internal state control of a dense sample of ultracold 23Na87Rb molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xin; Guo, Mingyang; He, Junyu; Wang, Dajun; Quemener, Goulven; Gonzalez-Martinez, Maykel; Dulieu, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    We report the optimized production of ultracold 23Na87Rb molecules with completely controlled population distribution among internal states. Starting from a sample of 104 weakly bound Feshbach molecules, we achieved a hyperfine-structure-resolved STIRAP transfer to the ground state with an efficiency up to 95%. By tuning the frequency difference between the Raman lasers and applying an additional microwave signal, we realized the preparation of NaRb samples in different vibrational, rotational, and hyperfine levels. Based on this achievement, some results on molecular collisions with a range of possible loss channels will also be reported. This work was supported by the French ANR/Hong Kong RGC COPOMOL project (Grant No. A-CUHK403/13), the RGC General Research Fund (Grant No. CUHK14301815).

  20. Ar-Ar and Rb-Sr Ages of the Tissint Olivine-phyric Martian Shergottite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J.; Herzog, G. F.; Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Turin, B.; Lindsay, F. N.; Delaney, J. S.; Swisher, C. C., III; Agee, C.

    2013-01-01

    The fifth martian meteorite fall, Tissint, is an olivine-phyric shergottite that contains olivine macrocrysts (approximately 1.5 mm) [1]. [2] reported the Sm-Nd age of Tissint as 596 plus or minus 23 Ma along with Rb-Sr data that defined no isochron. [3] reported Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd ages of 583 plus or minus 86 Ma and 616 plus or minus 67 Ma, respectively. The cosmic-ray exposure ages of Tissint are 1.10 plus or minus 0.15 Ma based on 10Be [4], and 1.0-1.1 Ma, based on 3He, 21Ne, and 38Ar [5,6].We report Ar-Ar ages and Rb-Sr data.

  1. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd Study of Asuka 881394: Evidence of "Late" Metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, Y.; Takeda, H.

    2011-01-01

    The Asuka 881394 achondrite contains fossil Al-26 and Mn-53 [1,2,3] and has a Pb-207/Pb-206 age of 4566.5 plus or minus 0.2 Ma [3], the oldest for an achondrite. Preliminary results showed initial Sm-146/Sm-144 = (7.4 plus or minus 1.2) x 10(exp -3), indicative of an ancient age, but Rb-87 - Sr-87 and Sm-147 - Nd-143 ages of 4370 plus or minus 60 and 4490 plus or minus 20 Ma, resp. [1], were younger than expected from the presence of short-lived nuclides. We revisit the Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd chronology of A881394 in an attempt to establish whether late metamorphism led to inconsistency in its apparent ages.

  2. Luminescence and Excitation Spectra of U 3+ doped RbY 2 Cl 7 Single Crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Karbowiak, M.; Murdoch, K.; Drożdżyński, J.; ...

    1996-08-01

    Uranium(3+) doped single crystals of RbY 2 Cl 7 with a uranium concentration of 0.05% and 0.2% were grown by the Bridgman-Stockbarger method using RbU 2 Cl 7 as the doping substance. Polished plates of ca. 5 mm in diameter were used for measurements of luminescence and excitation spectra. And since the U 3+ ions occupy two somewhat different site symmetries, a splitting of all observed f-f bands was observed. Furthermore, the analysis of the spectra enabled definitively an assignment of 22 crystal field bands for both site symmetries as well as the total crystal field splitting of the groundmore » level, equal to 473 cm -1 and 567 cm -1 for the first and second site symmetry, respectively.« less

  3. Transformation of EIA to EIT by incoherent pumping of the 85Rb D1 line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hoon; Kim, Jung Dong; Jung, Tae Young; Kim, Jung Bog

    2012-10-01

    We have observed a transformation from electromagnetically-induced absorption (EIA) to electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in open systems of the 85Rb D1 line by adding an incoherent optical pumping laser. This result raises a new question about recent theoretical work which does not address the degree of open. The pump beam only plays a role in transferring atoms by a spontaneous transition into the interacting system for EIT observation, which is an incoherent process. The dependence of the absorption spectra on the intensity and the polarization of each laser beam were observed. We have found the same tendencies in all transitions except the F = 2 ↔ F' = 3 transition of the 85Rb D1 line, which is the system that almost satisfies conventional EIA conditions.

  4. Thermal, optical, and dielectric properties of fluoride Rb2TaF7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogorel'tsev, E. I.; Mel'nikova, S. V.; Kartashev, A. V.; Gorev, M. V.; Flerov, I. N.; Laptash, N. M.

    2017-05-01

    The thermal, optical, and dielectric properties of fluoride Rb2TaF7 were investigated. It was observed that the variation in chemical pressure in fluorides A 2 +TaF7 caused by the cation substitution of rubidium for ammonium does not affect the ferroelastic nature of structural distortions, but leads to stabilization of the high- and low-temperature phases and enhancement of birefringence. The entropy of the phase transition P4/nmm ↔ Cmma is typical of the shift transformations, which is consistent with a model of the initial and distorted phase structures. The anisotropy of chemical pressure causes the change of signs of the anomalous strain and baric coefficient dT/ dp of Rb2TaF7 as compared with the values for its ammonium analog.

  5. Laser cooling of 85Rb atoms to the recoil-temperature limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chang; Kuan, Pei-Chen; Lan, Shau-Yu

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate the laser cooling of 85Rb atoms in a two-dimensional optical lattice. We follow the two-step degenerate Raman sideband cooling scheme [Kerman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 439 (2000), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.84.439], where a fast cooling of atoms to an auxiliary state is followed by a slow cooling to a dark state. This method has the advantage of independent control of the heating rate and cooling rate from the optical pumping beam. We operate the lattice at a Lamb-Dicke parameter η =0.45 and show the cooling of spin-polarized 85Rb atoms to the recoil temperature in both dimensions within 2.4 ms with the aid of adiabatic cooling.

  6. Phenomenological study of nuclear structure of neutron-rich 88Rb isotope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Surbhi; Gupta, Anuradha; Bharti, Arun

    2018-05-01

    A theoretical study of the nuclear structure of odd-odd 88Rb nucleus in the A ˜100 mass region is carried out by using the angular-momentum-projection technique implemented in the Projected Shell Model (PSM). The influence of the high-j orbitals, h11/2 for neutrons and g9/2 for protons on the structure of 88Rb isotope is investigated in the present case by assuming an axial symmetry in the deformed basis. For this isotope, PSM calculations are performed to obtain the yrast line and also the description of the formation of the yrast level structure from multi-quasi-particle configurations. The back-bending in moment of inertia and transition energies have also been calculated and compared with the experimental data.

  7. Rb-Sr age of the Shergotty achondrite and implications for metamorphic resetting of isochron ages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D. D.; Wooden, J.; Bansal, B.; Wiesmann, H.; Mckay, G.

    1979-01-01

    The age of the Shergotty achondrite is determined by Rb-Sr isotope analysis and the metamorphic resetting of isochron ages, which is presumed to have occurred during a shock event in the history of the meteorite, is discussed. The isochron best fitting the Rb-Sr evolution diagram is found to correspond to an age of 165 million years, with an initial Sr-87/Sr-86 value of 0.72260. Different apparent ages obtained by the K-Ar and Sm-Nd methods are interpreted in terms of a model which quantifies the degree of resetting of internal isochron ages by low temperature solid state diffusion. On the basis of these considerations, it is concluded that Shergotty crystallized from a melt 650 million years ago, was shock heated to 300 to 400 C after its parent body was involved in a collision 165 million years ago, and was first exposed to cosmic rays two million years ago.

  8. The Effect of Phonons in RbCl Quantum Pseudodot Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yong; Ding, Zhao-Hua; Xiao, Jing-Lin

    2016-07-01

    By employing the Pekar variational method, the eigenenergies and eigenfunctions of the ground and first-excited states are obtained in a strong electron-longitudinal optical (LO) phonon coupling RbCl quantum pseudodot (QPD). A single qubit can be realized in this two-level quantum system. The electron probability density (EPD) oscillates in the RbCl QPD with a certain period. The investigated results show that the EPD rises with raising the chemical potential of the two-dimensional electron gas and the zero point of the pseudoharmonic potential, whereas it decays with increasing the polaron radius. However, the oscillating period (OP) possesses precisely the opposite characteristics. Through the results and analysis above, we find three ways to adjust the EPD and the OP via changing the chemical potential of the two-dimensional electron gas, the zero point of the pseudoharmonic potential, and the polaron radius.

  9. 2011 investigation of internal contamination with radioactive strontium following rubidium Rb 82 cardiac PET scan.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Satish K; Chang, Arthur; Murphy, Matthew W; Buzzell, Jennifer; Ansari, Armin; Whitcomb, Robert C; Miller, Charles; Jones, Robert; Saunders, David P; Cavicchia, Philip; Watkins, Sharon M; Blackmore, Carina; Williamson, John A; Stephens, Michael; Morrison, Melissa; McNees, James; Murphree, Rendi; Buchanan, Martha; Hogan, Anthony; Lando, James; Nambiar, Atmaram; Torso, Lauren; Melnic, Joseph M; Yang, Lucie; Lewis, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    During routine screening in 2011, US Customs and Border Protection (CBP) identified 2 persons with elevated radioactivity. CBP, in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory, informed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that these people could have increased radiation exposure as a result of undergoing cardiac Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans several months earlier with rubidium Rb 82 chloride injection from CardioGen-82. We conducted a multistate investigation to assess the potential extent and magnitude of radioactive strontium overexposure among patients who had undergone Rb 82 PET scans. We selected a convenience sample of clinical sites in 4 states and reviewed records to identify eligible study participants, defined as people who had had an Rb 82 PET scan between February and July 2011. All participants received direct radiation screening using a radioisotope identifier able to detect the gamma energy specific for strontium-85 (514 keV) and urine bioassay for excreted radioactive strontium. We referred a subset of participants with direct radiation screening counts above background readings for whole body counting (WBC) using a rank ordering of direct radiation screening. The rank order list, from highest to lowest, was used to contact and offer voluntary enrollment for WBC. Of 308 participants, 292 (95%) had direct radiation screening results indistinguishable from background radiation measurements; 261 of 265 (98%) participants with sufficient urine for analysis had radioactive strontium results below minimum detectable activity. None of the 23 participants who underwent WBC demonstrated elevated strontium activity above levels associated with routine use of the rubidium Rb 82 generator. Among investigation participants, we did not identify evidence of strontium internal contamination above permissible levels. This investigation might serve as a model for future investigations of radioactive internal contamination incidents.

  10. Vectorial atomic magnetometer based on coherent transients of laser absorption in Rb vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenci, L.; Auyuanet, A.; Barreiro, S.; Valente, P.; Lezama, A.; Failache, H.

    2014-04-01

    We have designed and tested an atomic vectorial magnetometer based on the analysis of the coherent oscillatory transients in the transmission of resonant laser light through a Rb vapor cell. We show that the oscillation amplitudes at the Larmor frequency and its first harmonic are related through a simple formula to the angles determining the orientation of the magnetic field vector. The magnetometer was successfully applied to the measurement of the ambient magnetic field.

  11. Rb-Sr systematics and REE abundances in Shalka and several other diogenites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, K.; Yabuki, S.; Kagi, H.; Masuda, A.

    1994-07-01

    The diogenites have been regarded as igneous products in the early solar system and they have been considered to have genetically close relationship with eucrites. Depsite their simple mineralogical compositions and narrow range for major-element compositions, diogenites have been known to show wide Rare Earth Elements (REE) variations in absolute concentration and in mutual abundance ratios. Furthermore, some diogenites have peculiar Rb-Sr isotope systematics (ages younger than 4.5 b.y.). The Shalka meteorite belongs to the diogenites, and a unique REE abundance pattern has been reported. We performed Rb-Sr isotopic analyses and measured REE abundances in the Shalka diogenite with several other diogenites to discuss their genesis. Roughly speaking, REE patterns in diogenites are characterized by the negative Eu anomaly and the depletion of light REE. For Shalka, some heterogeneity in REE abundance patterns have been observed. While one sample chip shows the REE pattern with a large negative Eu anomaly and depleted light REE, particularly characterized by the concave curvature for the La-Nd span, other samples show the pattern nearly flat or the pattern enriched in light REE. These variations could not be explained easily by the simple mixing process of LREE-depleted components and LREE-enriched melt, but they imply some metamorphism process. The Rb-Sr isotopic data for Shalka are shown with the data for other several diogenites. These observations indicate that Shalka would undergo a significant extent of metamorphism followed by redistribution of REE and the disturbance of the Rb-Sr systematics. We are going to do further studies on Shalka to discuss the metamorphic process and compare it with other diogenites.

  12. Leptin/LepRb in the Ventral Tegmental Area Mediates Anxiety-Related Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Guo, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background: Leptin, an adipose-derived hormone, has been implicated in emotional regulation. We have previously shown that systemic administration of leptin produces anxiolytic-like effects and deletion of the leptin receptor, LepRb, in midbrain dopamine neurons leads to an anxiogenic phenotype. This study investigated whether activation or deletion of LepRb in the ventral tegmental area of adult mice is capable of inducing anxiolytic and anxiogenic effects, respectively. Methods: Mice were cannulated in the ventral tegmental area and received bilateral intra-ventral tegmental area infusions of leptin or the JAK2/STAT3 inhibitor AG490. Anxiety-like behaviors were assessed using the elevated plus-maze, light-dark box, and novelty suppressed feeding tests. Deletion of LepRb in the ventral tegmental area was achieved by bilateral injection of AAV-Cre into the ventral tegmental area of adult Leprflox/flox mice. Anxiety-related behaviors were evaluated 3 weeks after viral injection. Results: Intra-ventral tegmental area infusions of leptin reduced anxiety-like behaviors, as indicated by increased percent open-arm time and open-arm entries in the elevated plus-maze test, increased time spent in the light side and decreased latency to enter the light side of the light-dark box, and decreased latency to feed in the novelty suppressed feeding test. Blockade of JAK2/STAT3 signaling in the ventral tegmental area by AG490 attenuated the anxiolytic effect produced by systemic administration of leptin. Leprflox/flox mice injected with AAV-Cre into the ventral tegmental area showed decreased leptin-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and enhanced anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated plus-maze test and the novelty suppressed feeding test. Conclusions: These findings suggest that leptin-LepRb signaling in the ventral tegmental area plays an important role in the regulation of anxiety-related behaviors. PMID:26438799

  13. FIBER AND INTEGRATED OPTICS: Detection of the optical anisotropy in KTP:Rb waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buritskiĭ, K. S.; Dianov, Evgenii M.; Maslov, Vladislav A.; Chernykh, V. A.; Shcherbakov, E. A.

    1990-10-01

    The optical characteristics of channel waveguides made of rubidium-activated potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP:Rb) were determined. The refractive index increment of such waveguides was found to exhibit a considerable anisotropy: Δnx / Δnz approx 2. A deviation of the distribution of the refractive index in a channel waveguide from the model distribution was observed for ion-exchange times in excess of 1 h.

  14. Study of the sensitivity of neonates to digoxin: contribution of erythrocyte /sup 86/Rb uptake test

    SciTech Connect

    Zannad, F.; Marchal, F.; Royer, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    In general, there is little agreement how digoxin should be used in newborn, and the results of studies in this field seem contradictory. This study attempts a quantitative assessment of the number and the sensitivity of cellular receptors for digoxin in the organism, by the in vitro measurement of erythrocyte /sup 86/Rb neonates compared with adults and old people. Red blood cells are first incubated with differing concentrations of digoxin, and then incubated with /sup 86/Rb. The initial level of /sup 86/Rb uptake (Rbi) is that observed in the absence of digoxin. The 50% index of captation (IC50) is themore » digoxin concentration in nanograms per ml at which /sup 86/Rb uptake is half Rbi. Three grups of patients were studied: Group I: 12 neonates, less that 5 days old; Group II: 11 adults (26 to 57 years old); Group III: 9 elderly people (71 to 82 years old). Rbi was significantly lower in neonates (Mean +/- SD: 25.8% +/- 3.5, P less than 0.001) and in the elderly (29.9% +/- 3.1) than in adults (36.8% +/- 4.6). IC50 was significantly lower in the elderly (12.1 mg/ml +/- 2.4) than in the adult patients (20.5 ng/ml +/- 5.5, P less than 0.001). In the newborns, values of IC50 were widely scattered (16.2 ng/ml +/- 7.2). The authors suggest that since Rbi reflects Na+, K+-ATPase activity, this activity is diminished in newborn and old people, and indicates that they have fewer cellular recaptors for digoxin than adults. In the elderly, the low IC50 would imply increased sensitivity to digoxin. In neonates, the wide range of values for IC50 suggests considerable individual variation in sensitivity to digoxin. The results aer consistent with the recently recomnended lower dosages of digoxin i neonates.« less

  15. Status of lithium-filled specimen subcapsules for the HFIR-MFE-RB10J experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, J.P.; Howell, M.; Lenox, K.E.

    1998-09-01

    The HFIR-MFE-RB-10J experiment will be irradiated in a Removable Beryllium position in the HFIR for 10 reactor cycles, accumulating approximately 5 dpa in steel. The upper region of the capsule contains two lithium-filled subcapsules containing vanadium specimens. This report describes the techniques developed to achieve a satisfactory lithium fill with a specimen occupancy of 26% in each subcapsule.

  16. Synthesis of hollow ZnO microspheres by an integrated autoclave and pyrolysis process.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jinxia; Huang, Xintang; Wang, Enke; Ai, Hanhua

    2006-03-28

    Hollow zinc oxide microspheres have been synthesized from a micro ZnBr2·2H2O precursor obtained by an autoclave process in bromoform steam at 220 °C /2.5 MPa. Field-emission scanning electron microscropy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) show that the products are about 1.0 µm single crystal spherical particles with hollow interiors, partly open surfaces and walls self-assembled by ZnO nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows that the as-prepared ZnO hollow spheres are of a hexagonal phase structure. A possible formation mechanism is suggested on the basis of the shape evolution of ZnO nanostructures observed by SEM and TEM. The room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectrum shows UV emission around 386 nm and weak green emission peaks indicating that there are few defects in the single crystal grains of the ZnO microspheres.

  17. Thermally stable solids based on endohedrally doped ZnS clusters.

    PubMed

    Matxain, Jon M; Piris, Mario; Lopez, Xabier; Ugalde, Jesus M

    2009-01-01

    The existence of inorganic, hollow, fullerene-like ZnS clusters has been theoretically predicted and then recently confirmed experimentally. These clusters were observed to trap alkali metals and halogens because the ionization energies (IE) of alkali metals are very similar to the electron affinities (EA) of halogens. This opens the possibility of forming molecular solids composed of these fullerene building blocks because the energy released due to the difference between the IE and EA would be very small. Herein we have focused on assembling bare Zn(12)S(12) and endohedral X@Zn(12)S(12)-Y@Zn(12)S(12) dimers (X = Na, K; Y = Cl, Br) by considering the square-faces-square orientation of every two adjacent clusters, which leads to a fcc cubic crystal structure in the solid. The structures were fully optimized in all cases, and their thermal stability was confirmed by ab initio thermal molecular dynamics calculations. The optimum lattice parameter of the solids was found to be around 13.8 A, which corresponds to distances of about 2.5 A between monomers, which is typical of covalent Zn-S bonds. The resulting solids are nanoporous materials similar to B(12)N(12). Due to their nanoporous structure, these zeolite-shaped solids could be used in heterogeneous catalysis and as storage materials and molecular sieves.

  18. High-precision branching-ratio measurement for the superallowed β+ emitter 74Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, R.; Ball, G. C.; Leslie, J. R.; Svensson, C. E.; Towner, I. S.; Andreoiu, C.; Chagnon-Lessard, S.; Chester, A.; Cross, D. S.; Finlay, P.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Garrett, P. E.; Glister, J.; Hackman, G.; Hadinia, B.; Leach, K. G.; Rand, E. T.; Starosta, K.; Tardiff, E. R.; Triambak, S.; Williams, S. J.; Wong, J.; Yates, S. W.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2013-10-01

    A high-precision branching-ratio measurement for the superallowed β+ decay of 74Rb was performed at the TRIUMF Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC) radioactive ion-beam facility. The scintillating electron-positron tagging array (SCEPTAR), composed of 10 thin plastic scintillators, was used to detect the emitted β particles; the 8π spectrometer, an array of 20 Compton-suppressed HPGe detectors, was used for detecting γ rays that were emitted following Gamow-Teller and nonanalog Fermi β+ decays of 74Rb; and the Pentagonal Array of Conversion Electron Spectrometers (PACES), an array of 5 Si(Li) detectors, was employed for measuring β-delayed conversion electrons. Twenty-three excited states were identified in 74Kr following 8.241(4)×108 detected 74Rb β decays. A total of 58 γ-ray and electron transitions were placed in the decay scheme, allowing the superallowed branching ratio to be determined as B0=99.545(31)%. Combined with previous half-life and Q-value measurements, the superallowed branching ratio measured in this work leads to a superallowed ft value of 3082.8(65) s. Comparisons between this superallowed ft value and the world-average-corrected Ft¯ value, as well as the nonanalog Fermi branching ratios determined in this work, provide guidance for theoretical models of the isospin-symmetry-breaking corrections in this mass region.

  19. Lifetime of vibrational levels from Fourier grid calculations: RbCs example.

    PubMed

    Londoño, B E; Mahecha, J; Luc-Koenig, E; Crubellier, A

    2011-11-14

    We present systematic calculations of the lifetimes of vibrational levels of excited Rb(5s)Cs(6p(1/2)) 0(+) electronic states. We show that a precise description of the variation with the internuclear distance of the transition dipole moment between electronic states is essential. It is also crucial to account precisely for the spin-orbit coupling between the Rb(5s)Cs(6p) A (1)Σ(+) and b (3)Π states. We describe the general trends of the probability of formation of stable molecules in the Rb(5s)Cs(6s) X (1)Σ(+) and a (3)Σ(+) electronic states, through radiative decay from the 0(+)v' levels, together with the branching ratios for the obtention of singlet or triplet molecules, stable with respect to dissociation. Furthermore, this analysis allows us to demonstrate the efficiency of the Mapped Fourier Grid Hamiltonian Representation method (MFGHR) to determine rigorously the energy variation, throughout the continuous part of the spectrum, of the density of an observable connecting bound vibrational levels and continuum states. The resolution in energy can be adapted to the studied problem through a judicious choice of the grid parameters.

  20. Tunable High Q Superconducting Microwave Resonator for Hybrid System with ^87Rb atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Zaeill; Voigt, K. D.; Lee, Jongmin; Hoffman, J. E.; Grover, J. A.; Ravets, S.; Zaretskey, V.; Palmer, B. S.; Hafezi, M.; Taylor, J. M.; Anderson, J. R.; Dragt, A. J.; Lobb, C. J.; Orozco, L. A.; Rolston, S. L.; Wellstood, F. C.

    2012-02-01

    We have developed a frequency tuning system for a ``lumped-element'' thin-film superconducting Al microwave resonator [1] on sapphire intended for coupling to hyperfine ground states of cold trapped ^87Rb atoms, which are separated by about fRb=6.83 GHz. At T=12 mK and on resonance at 6.81 GHz, the loaded quality factor was 120,000. By moving a carefully machined Al pin towards the inductor of the resonator using a piezo stage, we were able to tune the resonance frequency over a range of 35 MHz and within a few kHz of fRb. While measuring the power dependent response of the resonator at each tuned frequency, we observed anomalous decreases in the quality factor at several frequencies. These drops were more pronounced at lower power. We discuss our results, which suggest these resonances are attributable to discrete two-level systems.[4pt] [1] Z. Kim et al., AIP ADVANCES 1, 042107 (2011).

  1. Rb-Sr And Sm-Nd Ages, and Petrogenesis of Depleted Shergottite Northwest Africa 5990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, C. Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.; Irving, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Northwest Africa (NWA) 5990 is a very fresh Martian meteorite recently found on Hamada du Draa, Morocco and was classified as an olivine-bearing diabasic igneous rock related to depleted shergottites [1]. The study of [1] also showed that NWA 5990 resembles QUE 94201 in chemical, textural and isotopic aspects, except QUE 94201 contains no olivine. The depleted shergottites are characterized by REE patterns that are highly depleted in LREE, older Sm-Nd ages of 327-575 Ma and highly LREE-depleted sources with Nd= +35+48 [2-7]. Age-dating these samples by Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr methods is very challenging because they have been strongly shocked and contain very low abundances of light rare earth elements (Sm and Nd), Rb and Sr. In addition, terrestrial contaminants which are commonly present in desert meteorites will compromise the equilibrium of isotopic systems. Since NWA 5990 is a very fresh meteorite, it probably has not been subject to significant desert weathering and thus is a good sample for isotopic studies. In this report, we present Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic results for NWA 5990, discuss the correlation of the determined ages with those of other depleted shergottites, especially QUE 94201, and discuss the petrogenesis of depleted shergottites.

  2. Tet1 is required for Rb phosphorylation during G1/S phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Shengsong; Zhu, Ziqi; Wang, Yiqin

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: •Tet1 was required for NIT3T3 proliferation. •Tet1 depletion inhibited G1-S entry. •Cyclin D1 accumulation and Rb phosphorylation was blocked by Tet1 knockdown. -- Abstract: DNA methylation plays an important role in many biological processes, including regulation of gene expression, maintenance of chromatin conformation and genomic stability. TET-family proteins convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), which indicates that these enzymes may participate in DNA demethylation. The function of TET1 has not yet been well characterized in somatic cells. Here, we show that depletion of Tet1 in NIH3T3 cells inhibits cell growth. Furthermore, Tet1 knockdown blocks cyclin D1 accumulation in G1more » phase, inhibits Rb phosphorylation and consequently delays entrance to G1/S phase. Taken together, this study demonstrates that Tet1 is required for cell proliferation and that this process is mediated through the Rb pathway.« less

  3. An adaptable dual species effusive source and Zeeman slower design demonstrated with Rb and Li

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, William, E-mail: william.bowden@physics.ox.ac.uk; Gunton, Will; Semczuk, Mariusz

    2016-04-15

    We present a dual-species effusive source and Zeeman slower designed to produce slow atomic beams of two elements with a large mass difference and with very different oven temperature requirements. We demonstrate this design for the case of {sup 6}Li and {sup 85}Rb and achieve magneto-optical trap (MOT) loading rates equivalent to that reported in prior work on dual species (Rb+Li) Zeeman slowers operating at the same oven temperatures. Key design choices, including thermally separating the effusive sources and using a segmented coil design to enable computer control of the magnetic field profile, ensure that the apparatus can be easilymore » modified to slow other atomic species. By performing the final slowing using the quadrupole magnetic field of the MOT, we are able to shorten our Zeeman slower length making for a more compact system without compromising performance. We outline the construction and analyze the emission properties of our effusive sources. We also verify the performance of the source and slower, and we observe sequential loading rates of 12 × 10{sup 8} atoms/s for a Rb oven temperature of 140 °C and 1.1 × 10{sup 8} atoms/s for a Li reservoir at 460 °C, corresponding to reservoir lifetimes for continuous operation of 10 and 4 years, respectively.« less

  4. Direct regulation of RNA polymerase III transcription by RB, p53 and c-Myc.

    PubMed

    Felton-Edkins, Zoë A; Kenneth, Niall S; Brown, Timothy R P; Daly, Nicole L; Gomez-Roman, Natividad; Grandori, Carla; Eisenman, Robert N; White, Robert J

    2003-01-01

    The synthesis of tRNA and 5S rRNA by RNA polymerase (pol) III is cell cycle regulated in higher organisms. Overexpression of pol III products is a general feature of transformed cells. These observations may be explained by the fact that a pol III-specific transcription factor, TFIIIB, is strongly regulated by the tumor suppressors RB and p53, as well as the proto-oncogene product c-Myc. RB and p53 repress TFIIIB, but this restraint can be lost in tumors through a variety of mechanisms. In contrast, c-Myc binds and activates TFIIIB, causing potent induction of pol III transcription. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and RNA interference, we show that c-Myc interacts with tRNA and 5S rRNA genes in transformed cervical cells, stimulating their expression. Availability of pol III products may be an important determinant of a cell's capacity to grow. The ability to regulate pol III output may therefore be integral to the growth control functions of RB, p53 and c-Myc.

  5. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of (S)-Amino-2-methyl-4-[(76)Br]bromo-3-(E)-butenoic Acid (BrVAIB) for Brain Tumor Imaging.

    PubMed

    Burkemper, Jennifer L; Huang, Chaofeng; Li, Aixiao; Yuan, Liya; Rich, Keith; McConathy, Jonathan; Lapi, Suzanne E

    2015-11-12

    The novel compound, (S)-amino-2-methyl-4-[(76)Br]bromo-3-(E)-butenoic acid (BrVAIB, [(76)Br]5), was characterized against the known system A tracer, IVAIB ([(123)I]8). [(76)Br]5 was prepared in a 51% ± 19% radiochemical yield with high radiochemical purity (≥98%). The biological properties of [(76)Br]5 were compared with those of [(123)I]8. Results showed that [(76)Br]5 undergoes mixed amino acid transport by system A and system L transport, while [(123)I]8 had less uptake by system L. [(76)Br]5 demonstrated higher uptake than [(123)I]8 in DBT tumors 1 h after injection (3.7 ± 0.4% ID/g vs 1.5 ± 0.3% ID/g) and also showed higher uptake vs [(123)I]8 in normal brain. Small animal PET studies with [(76)Br]5 demonstrated good tumor visualization of intracranial DBTs up to 24 h with clearance from normal tissues. These results indicate that [(76)Br]5 is a promising PET tracer for brain tumor imaging and lead compound for a mixed system A and system L transport substrate.

  6. Simultaneous determination of ginsenoside Rb1, naringin, ginsenoside Rb2 and oridonin in rat plasma by LC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of Weifuchun tablet.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yiran; Tian, Tingting; Ma, Yinghua; Xu, Huijun; Du, Yingfeng

    2015-09-01

    A sensitive, specific and rapid liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was developed and validated for analysis of ginsenoside Rb1, naringin, ginsenoside Rb2 and oridonin in rat plasma using sulfamethoxazole as an internal standard (IS). Separation was conducted out on an Agilent Eclipse XDB C18 column with liner gradient elution using acetonitrile (A) and 0.1% aqueous acetic acid (B). A tandem mass spectrometric detection was conducted using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) via an electrospray ionization (ESI) source. A novel multi-determination-periods program was executed to achieve a higher sensitivity by setting three scanning periods. All analytes exhibited good linearity within the concentration range (r>0.9973). The lower limits of quantitation (LLOQ) of ginsenoside Rb1, naringin, ginsenoside Rb2 and oridonin were 2.64, 4.32, 2.32 and 1.56ng/mL, respectively. Intra-day and inter-day precisions of the investigated components exhibited an RSD within 8.3%, and the accuracy (RE) ranged from -8.6% to 6.0% at all quality control levels. The developed method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of ginsenoside Rb1, naringin, ginsenoside Rb2 and oridonin in rats after oral administration of a Weifuchun tablet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Inoculation of Pichia kudriavzevii RB1 degrades the organic acids present in raw compost material and accelerates composting.

    PubMed

    Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Araya, Shogo; Mimoto, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    In this study, the yeast strain Pichia kudriavzevii RB1 was used as an inoculum to accelerate organic matter degradation of rabbit food with added organic acids, which was used as a model food waste for composting. The RB1 strain rapidly degraded the organic acids present in the raw compost material, leading to an increase in pH beyond the neutral level, within 2 days. Both mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria proliferated faster in the compost with RB1 inoculation than in that without inoculation. Although the yeast died with the increase in compost temperature, it affected the early stages of composting prior to the thermophilic stage and accelerated the composting process by 2 days by eliminating the initial lag phase seen in the growth of other microorganisms. Moreover, populations of Bacillus thermoamylovorans, Bacillus foraminis, and Bacillus coagulans became dominant during the thermophilic stages of both composting with and without RB1 inoculation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Inactivation of the RB family prevents thymus involution and promotes thymic function by direct control of Foxn1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Garfin, Phillip M.; Min, Dullei; Bryson, Jerrod L.; Serwold, Thomas; Edris, Badreddin; Blackburn, Clare C.; Richie, Ellen R.; Weinberg, Kenneth I.; Manley, Nancy R.; Viatour, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Thymic involution during aging is a major cause of decreased production of T cells and reduced immunity. Here we show that inactivation of Rb family genes in young mice prevents thymic involution and results in an enlarged thymus competent for increased production of naive T cells. This phenotype originates from the expansion of functional thymic epithelial cells (TECs). In RB family mutant TECs, increased activity of E2F transcription factors drives increased expression of Foxn1, a central regulator of the thymic epithelium. Increased Foxn1 expression is required for the thymic expansion observed in Rb family mutant mice. Thus, the RB family promotes thymic involution and controls T cell production via a bone marrow–independent mechanism, identifying a novel pathway to target to increase thymic function in patients. PMID:23669396

  9. Leiurus quinquestriatus venom inhibits BRL 34915-induced /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ efflux from the rat portal vein

    SciTech Connect

    Quast, U.; Cook, N.S.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of the crude venom of the Israeli scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus on the /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ efflux stimulated by the K/sup +/ channel opener BRL 34915 in the rat portal vein was examined. Applied alone, the venom greatly increased the spontaneous mechanical activity of and the concomitant /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ efflux from the vessel. When the excitability of the vein was suppressed by the dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, PN 200-110, the /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ efflux stimulated by BRL 34915 could be shown to be inhibited by the venom. From the concentration dependence of this inhibition an IC/sub 50/ valuemore » of 0.17 +/- 0.01 mg/ml was estimated. This venom is thus the most potent blocker of BRL 34915-evoked /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ efflux reported so far. 17 references, 2 figures.« less

  10. Effects of ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1 of Panax ginseng on mitosis in root tip cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Ng, W Y; Chao, C Y

    1981-01-01

    The effects of ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1 of Panax ginseng on mitosis in the onion root tip cells as well as on the rate of DNA synthesis in onion seedlings were studied. Results obtained from the concentration and time course study in bulb and seeding root tip cells indicate that Rg1 promotes and Rb1 inhibits mitosis, both being dose-dependent. The promoting effect of Rg1 on the rate of DNA synthesis was observed at the peak hour which occurs at the same time as that of the control. Rb1 was found to shift the peak hour of DNA synthesis to a later period of the experiment. These results are in agreement with the results obtained from the study of the cell cycle by pulse labeling and autoradiography, which show that Rg1 shortens the mitotic cell cycle and S period while Rb1 lengthens them. They in turn increase and decrease the mitotic indices respectively.

  11. Resistive switching in ZnO/ZnO:In nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khakhulin, D. A.; Vakulov, Z. E.; Smirnov, V. A.; Tominov, R. V.; Yoon, Jong-Gul; Ageev, O. A.

    2017-11-01

    A lot of effort nowadays is put into development of new approaches to processing and storage of information in integrated circuits due to limitations in miniaturisation. Our research is dedicated to one of actively developed concepts - oxide based resistive memory devices. A material that draws interest due to its promising technological properties is ZnO but pure ZnO lacks in performance in comparison with some other transition metal oxides. Thus our work is focused on improvement of resistive switching parameters in ZnO films by creation of complex nanocomposites. In this work we report characterisation of a nanocomposite based on PLD grown ZnO films with inclusions of In. Such solution allows us to achieve improvements of main parameters that are critical for ReRAM device: RHRS/RLRS ratio, endurance and retention.

  12. Host range and cell cycle activation properties of polyomavirus large T-antigen mutants defective in pRB binding

    SciTech Connect

    Freund, R.; Bauer, P.H.; Benjamin, T.L.

    1994-11-01

    The authors have examined the growth properties of polyomavirus large T-antigen mutants that ar unable to bind pRB, the product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. These mutants grow poorly on primary mouse cells yet grow well on NIH 3T3 and other established mouse cell lines. Preinfection of primary baby mouse kidney (BMK) epithelial cells with wild-type simian virus 40 renders these cells permissive to growth of pRB-binding polyomavirus mutants. Conversely, NIH 3T3 cells transfected by and expressing wild-type human pRB become nonpermissive. Primary fibroblasts for mouse embryos that carry a homozygous knockout of the RB gene are permissive, whilemore » those from normal littermates are nonpermissive. The host range of polyomavirus pRB-binding mutants is thus determined by expression or lack of expression of functional pRB by the host. These results demonstrate the importance of pRB binding by large T antigen for productive viral infection in primary cells. Failure of pRB-binding mutants to grow well in BMK cells correlates with their failure to induce progression from G{sub 0} or G{sub 1} through the S phase of the cell cycle. Time course studies show delayed synthesis and lower levels of accumulation of large T antigen, viral DNA, and VP1 in mutant compared with wild-type virus-infected BMK cells. These results support a model in which productive infection by polyomavirus in normal mouse cells is tightly coupled to the induction and progression of the cell cycle. 48 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.« less

  13. Rb + adsorption at the quartz(101)-aqueous interface: comparison of resonant anomalous x-ray reflectivity with ab initio calculations

    DOE PAGES

    Bellucci, Francesco; Lee, Sang Soo; Kubicki, James D.; ...

    2015-01-29

    We study adsorption of Rb + to the quartz(101)–aqueous interface at room temperature with specular X-ray reflectivity, resonant anomalous X-ray reflectivity, and density functional theory. The interfacial water structures observed in deionized water and 10 mM RbCl solution at pH 9.8 were similar, having a first water layer at height of 1.7 ± 0.1 Å above the quartz surface and a second layer at 4.8 ± 0.1 Å and 3.9 ± 0.8 Å for the water and RbCl solutions, respectively. The adsorbed Rb + distribution is broad and consists of presumed inner-sphere (IS) and outer-sphere (OS) complexes at heights ofmore » 1.8 ± 0.1 and 6.4 ± 1.0 Å, respectively. Projector-augmented planewave density functional theory (DFT) calculations of potential configurations for neutral and negatively charged quartz(101) surfaces at pH 7 and 12, respectively, reveal a water structure in agreement with experimental results. These DFT calculations also show differences in adsorbed speciation of Rb + between these two conditions. At pH 7, the lowest energy structure shows that Rb + adsorbs dominantly as an IS complex, whereas at pH 12 IS and OS complexes have equivalent energies. The DFT results at pH 12 are generally consistent with the two site Rb distribution observed from the X-ray data at pH 9.8, albeit with some differences that are discussed. In conclusion, surface charge estimated on the basis of the measured total Rb + coverage was -0.11 C/m 2, in good agreement with the range of the surface charge magnitudes reported in the literature.« less

  14. Single-crystal growth of C u4(OH) 6BrF and universal behavior in quantum spin liquid candidates synthetic barlowite and herbertsmithite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasco, C. M.; Trump, B. A.; Tran, Thao T.; Kelly, Z. A.; Hoffmann, C.; Heinmaa, I.; Stern, R.; McQueen, T. M.

    2018-04-01

    Synthetic barlowite, C u4(OH) 6BrF , has emerged as a new quantum spin liquid (QSL) host, containing kagomé layers of S =1 /2 C u2 + ions separated by interlayer C u2 + ions. Similar to synthetic herbertsmithite, ZnC u3(OH) 6C l2 , it has been reported that Z n2 + substitution for the interlayer C u2 + induces a QSL ground state. Here we report a scalable synthesis of single crystals of C u4(OH) 6BrF . Through x-ray, neutron, and electron diffraction measurements coupled with magic angle spinning 19F and 1H NMR spectroscopy, we resolve the previously reported positional disorder of the interlayer C u2 + ions and find that the structure is best described in the orthorhombic space group, Cmcm, with lattice parameters a =6.665 (13 )Å ,b =11.521 (2 )Å ,c =9.256 (18 )Å , and an ordered arrangement of interlayer C u2 + ions. Infrared spectroscopy measurements of the O—H and F—H stretching frequencies demonstrate that the orthorhombic symmetry persists upon substitution of Z n2 + for C u2 + . Specific heat and magnetic susceptibility measurements of Zn-substituted barlowite, Z nxC u4 -x(OH) 6BrF , reveal striking similarities with the behavior of Z nxC u4 -x(OH) 6C l2 . These parallels imply universal behavior of copper kagomé lattices even in the presence of small symmetry-breaking distortions. Thus, synthetic barlowite demonstrates universality of the physics of synthetic C u2 + kagomé minerals and furthers the development of real QSL states.

  15. Immune responses of bison and efficacy after booster vaccination with Brucella abortus strain RB51.

    PubMed

    Olsen, S C; McGill, J L; Sacco, R E; Hennager, S G

    2015-04-01

    Thirty-one bison heifers were randomly assigned to receive saline or a single vaccination with 10(10) CFU of Brucella abortus strain RB51. Some vaccinated bison were randomly selected for booster vaccination with RB51 at 11 months after the initial vaccination. Mean antibody responses to RB51 were greater (P < 0.05) in vaccinated bison after initial and booster vaccination than in nonvaccinated bison. The proliferative responses by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from the vaccinated bison were greater (P < 0.05) than those in the nonvaccinated bison at 16 and 24 weeks after the initial vaccination but not after the booster vaccination. The relative gene expression of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) was increased (P < 0.05) in the RB51-vaccinated bison at 8, 16, and 24 weeks after the initial vaccination and at 8 weeks after the booster vaccination. The vaccinated bison had greater (P < 0.05) in vitro production of IFN-γ at all sampling times, greater interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production in various samplings after the initial and booster vaccinations, and greater IL-6 production at one sampling time after the booster vaccination. Between 170 and 180 days of gestation, the bison were intraconjunctivally challenged with approximately 1 × 10(7) CFU of B. abortus strain 2308. The incidences of abortion and infection were greater (P < 0.05) in the nonvaccinated bison after experimental challenge than in the bison receiving either vaccination treatment. Booster-vaccinated, but not single-vaccinated bison, had a reduced (P < 0.05) incidence of infection in fetal tissues and maternal tissues compared to that in the controls. Compared to the nonvaccinated bison, both vaccination treatments lowered the colonization (measured as the CFU/g of tissue) of Brucella organisms in all tissues, except in retropharyngeal and supramammary lymph nodes. Our study suggests that RB51 booster vaccination is an effective vaccination strategy for enhancing herd immunity against

  16. On the 16O 6+ ion irradiation induced magnetic moment generation in ZnFe2O4 nano ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satalkar, M.; Kane, S. N.; Raghuvanshi, S.

    2018-05-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) was utilized to study the effect of 80 MeV 16O 6+ ion irradiation of the as-burnt ZnFe2O4 samples, prepared by sol-gel auto-combustion technique. The samples were irradiated at fluence: 1 × 1011, 1 × 1012, 1 × 1013, 1 × 1014 ions/cm2 to observe the effect of irradiation on structural properties and cationic distribution. XRD confirms the formation of single phase nanocrystalline cubic spinel ferrites with Scherrer's particle diameter (D) ranging between 15.7 - 17.4 nm. Results very distinctly show the electronic energy loss induced changes in: - experimental and theoretical lattice parameter (aexp., ath.), tetrahedral and octahedral bond length (RA, RB), and shared tetrahedral and octahedral edge (dAE, dBE). The paper reports the generation of magnetic moment of Zn ferrite by swift heavy ion irradiation induced distortion at tetrahedral site.

  17. Ginsenosides Rb1 and Re decrease cardiac contraction in adult rat ventricular myocytes: role of nitric oxide

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Glenda I; Colligan, Peter B; Ren, Bonnie H; Ren, Jun

    2001-01-01

    Panax ginseng is used to enhance stamina and relieve fatigue as well as physical stress. Ginsenoside, the effective component of ginseng, regulates cardiovascular function. This study was to examine the effect of ginsenosides Rb1 and Re on cardiac contractile function at the cellular level. Ventricular myocytes were isolated from adult rat hearts and were stimulated to contract at 0.5 Hz. Contractile properties analysed included: peak shortening (PS), time-to-90%PS (TPS), time-to-90% relengthening (TR90), and fluorescence intensity change (ΔFFI). Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity was determined by the 3H-arginine to 3H-citrulline conversion assay. Both Rb1 and Re exhibited dose-dependent (1 – 1000 nM) inhibition in PS and ΔFFI, with maximal inhibitions between 20 – 25%. Concurrent application Rb1 and Re did not produce any additive inhibition on peak shortening amplitude (with a maximal inhibition of 24.9±6.1%), compared to Rb1 or Re alone. Pretreatment with the NOS inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 μM) abolished the effect of Rb1 and Re. Both Rb1 and Re significantly (P<0.05) stimulated NOS activity concentration-dependently. This study demonstrated a direct depressant action of ginsenosides on cardiomyocyte contraction, which may be mediated in part through increased NO production. PMID:11704635

  18. Involvement of GSK3 and PP2A in ginsenoside Rb1's attenuation of aluminum-induced tau hyperphosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hai-hua; Di, Jing; Liu, Wen-su; Liu, Hui-li; Lai, Hong; Lü, Yong-li

    2013-03-15

    Environmental agent aluminum, a well-known neurotoxin, has been proposed to play a role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and produced clinical and pathological features which were strikingly similar to those seen in AD brain, such as neurofibrillary tangles. Ginsenoside Rb1, highly abundant active component of ginseng, has been demonstrated to be neuroprotective against various neurotoxins. In this study we investigated the effect of Rb1 on aluminum-induced tau hyperphosphorylation in ICR mice. Mice were exposed to aluminum chloride (200 mg/kg/day) for 6 months followed by a post treatment of Rb1 (20 mg/kg/day) for another 4 months. Aluminum exposure induced the cognitive ability by Morris water maze, and upregulated the tau phosphorylation level at Ser396 accompanied by increasing p-GSK and decreasing PP2A level in motor, sensory cortex and hippocampal formation. Post treatment of Rb1 significantly improved the learning and memory and reduced the tau phosphorylation by reversing the p-GSK3 and PP2A level. Our results indicate that ginsenoside Rb1 protected mice against Al-induced toxicity. The possible mechanism may be its role in preventing tau hyperphosphorylation by regulating p-GSK3 and PP2A level, which implicate Rb1 as the potential preventive drug candidate for AD and other tau pathology-related neuronal degenerative diseases. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Ginsenoside Rb2 Alleviates Hepatic Lipid Accumulation by Restoring Autophagy via Induction of Sirt1 and Activation of AMPK.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qi; Wang, Ting; Yang, Liu; Wang, He-Yao

    2017-05-19

    Although Panax ginseng is a famous traditional Chinese medicine and has been widely used to treat a variety of metabolic diseases including hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hepatosteatosis, the effective mediators and molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study we found that ginsenoside Rb2, one of the major ginsenosides in Panax ginseng, was able to prevent hepatic lipid accumulation through autophagy induction both in vivo and in vitro. Treatment of male db/db mice with Rb2 significantly improved glucose tolerance, decreased hepatic lipid accumulation, and restored hepatic autophagy. In vitro, Rb2 (50 µmol/L) obviously increased autophagic flux in HepG2 cells and primary mouse hepatocytes, and consequently reduced the lipid accumulation induced by oleic acid in combination with high glucose. Western blotting analysis showed that Rb2 partly reversed the high fatty acid in combination with high glucose (OA)-induced repression of autophagic pathways including AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and silent information regulator 1 (sirt1). Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of the sirt1 or AMPK pathways attenuated these beneficial effects of Rb2 on hepatic autophagy and lipid accumulation. Taken together, these results suggested that Rb2 alleviated hepatic lipid accumulation by restoring autophagy via the induction of sirt1 and activation of AMPK, and resulted in improved nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and glucose tolerance.

  20. Biological Sources of Branched Glycerol Dialkyl Glycerol Tetraethers (brGDGTs) in Terrestrial Hot Springs: A Possible Link Between Nitrogen-cycling Bacteria and brGDGT Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. X.; Xie, W.; Boyd, E. S.; Hedlund, B. P.; Zhang, C.

    2014-12-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are common in peat, soil, lakes, rivers and hot springs. To seek the potential biological sources of brGDGTs in geothermal environments, we investigated 65 hot springs in the Yellowstone National Park (USA) and Tengchong (China). Together with previously published data from hot springs in the Great Basin (USA) and Tibet (China), we found that the abundance of brGDGTs tended to peak in springs with pH > 8. This contrasts with previous observations indicating an abundance of brGDGTs in acidic soils and peat bogs, suggesting a different biological source and function for lipids in these environments. In support of this hypothesis, a comparison of Cyclization ratios of Branched Tetraethers (CBT) between hot springs and surrounding soils indicated that more brGDGTs with cyclopentane moieties were produced in alkaline hot springs than in nearby low-temperature soils. Since Acidobacteria (the likely source of brGDGTs in peat bog environments) tend to have low CBT ratios, these data suggest a different source for brGDGTs in hot spring environments. RDA and regression analysis integrating brGDGT compounds and nitrogen species indicate that Bacteria involved in the nitrogen biogeochemical cycle (ammonia oxidation and nitrite reduction) may be related to the production of brGDGTs in terrestrial hot springs. However, direct evidence showing the link between nitrogen-cycling bacteria and brGDGT production has yet to be demonstrated under laboratory conditions. Nevertheless, our study expands the possibility of brGDGT sources into bacterial communities in terrestrial geothermal systems where Acidobacteria are absent or only a minor component.

  1. Complexes and saddle point structures, vibrational frequencies and relative energies of intermediates for CH2Br + HBr «-» CH3Br + Br

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa-Garcia, J.

    Ab initio molecular orbital theory was used to study parts of the reaction between the CH2Br radical and the HBr molecule, and two possibilities were analysed: attack on the hydrogen and attack on the bromine of the HBr molecule. Optimized geometries and harmonic vibrational frequencies were calculated at the second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory levels, and comparison with available experimental data was favourable. Then single-point calculations were performed at several higher levels of calculation. In the attack on the hydrogen of HBr, two stationary points were located on the direct hydrogen abstraction reaction path: a very weak hydrogen bonded complex of reactants, C···HBr, close to the reactants, followed by the saddle point (SP). The effects of level of calculation (method + basis set), spin projection, zeropoint energy, thermal corrections (298K), spin-orbit coupling and basis set superposition error (BSSE) on the energy changes were analysed. Taking the reaction enthalpy (298K) as reference, agreement with experiment was obtained only when high correlation energy and large basis sets were used. It was concluded that at room temperature (i.e., with zero-point energy and thermal corrections), when the BSSE was included, the complex disappears and the activation enthalpy (298K) ranges from 0.8kcal mol-1 to 1.4kcal mol-1 above the reactants, depending on the level of calculation. It was concluded also that this result is the balance of a complicated interplay of many factors, which are affected by uncertainties in the theoretical calculations. Finally, another possible complex (X complex), which involves the alkyl radical being attracted to the halogen end of HBr (C···BrH), was explored also. It was concluded that this X complex does not exist at room temperature.

  2. The effects of ginsenoside Rb1 on endothelial damage and ghrelin expression induced by hyperhomocysteine.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhiwei; Lan, Taohua; Wu, Weikang; Wu, Yiling

    2011-01-01

    Studies have indicated that ginsenoside Rb1 and ghrelin could both prevent homocysteine (Hcy)-induced endothelial dysfunction through the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)/nitric oxide (NO) mechanism. This study investigated whether endogenous ghrelin mediates the endothelial protection of ginsenosidee Rb1 through in vitro and in vivo experiments. Rats were randomized into a control group, a hyperhomocysteine (HHcy) model group with a high methionine diet, a ginsenosides (GS) group, and HHcy plus GS group. Plasma ghrelin was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Aortic rings for control and HHcy groups were treated with ghrelin or not. Endothelium-dependent vasodilatation function was evaluated by the aortic ring assay, and the structural changes were visualized by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured, and the experimental conditions were optimized according to NO production. After treatment, the NO, ghrelin, and von Willebrand factor (vWF) levels in the media were detected and analyzed with linear regression. Ghrelin and eNOS expression were observed by cell immunohistochemical staining. Ghrelin receptor antagonist was used to detect the mechanism of ginsenoside Rb1 on NO production, which was reflected by diacetylated 4,5-diaminofluorescein-2 diacetate fluorescence. In vivo experiments demonstrated that plasma ghrelin levels in the HHcy group were significantly elevated vs controls (P < .05) and were significantly increased in the HHcy plus GS group (P < .01). Compared with control, endothelium-dependent vasodilatation function was greatly reduced in the HHcy group (P < .01), which was significantly increased in HHcy plus ghrelin group compared with HHcy group (P < .01). The arterial walls of HHcy group exhibited characteristic pathologic changes, which were repaired in HHcy plus ghrelin group. In vivo, compared with Hcy (200 μM) group, HUVECs pretreated with ginsenoside Rb1 (10 μM) for 30

  3. Multiphoton Rydberg and valence dynamics of CH3Br probed by mass spectrometry and slice imaging.

    PubMed

    Hafliðason, Arnar; Glodic, Pavle; Koumarianou, Greta; Samartzis, Peter C; Kvaran, Ágúst

    2018-06-18

    The multiphoton dynamics of CH3Br were probed by Mass Resolved MultiPhoton Ionization (MR-MPI), Slice Imaging and Photoelectron Imaging in the two-photon excitation region of 66 000 to 80 000 cm-1. Slice images of the CH3+ and Br+ photoproducts of ten two-photon resonant transitions to np and nd Rydberg states of the parent molecule were recorded. CH3+ ions dominate the mass spectra. Kinetic energy release spectra (KERs) were derived from slice and photoelectron images and anisotropy parameters were extracted from the angular distributions of the ions to identify the processes and the dynamics involved. At all wavelengths we observe three-photon excitations, via the two-photon resonant transitions to molecular Rydberg states, forming metastable, superexcited (CH3Br#) states which dissociate to form CH3 Rydberg states (CH3**) along with Br/Br*. A correlation between the parent Rydberg states excited and CH3** formed is evident. For the three highest excitation energies used, the CH3Br# metastable states also generate high kinetic energy fragments of CH3(X) and Br/Br*. In addition for two out of these three wavelengths we also measure one-photon photolysis of CH3Br in the A band forming CH3(X) in various vibrational modes and bromine atoms in the ground (Br) and spin-orbit excited (Br*) states.

  4. Propiconazole is a specific and accessible brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis inhibitor for Arabidopsis and maize.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Thomas; Corvalan, Claudia; Best, Norman B; Budka, Joshua S; Zhu, Jia-Ying; Choe, Sunghwa; Schulz, Burkhard

    2012-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroidal hormones that play pivotal roles during plant development. In addition to the characterization of BR deficient mutants, specific BR biosynthesis inhibitors played an essential role in the elucidation of BR function in plants. However, high costs and limited availability of common BR biosynthetic inhibitors constrain their key advantage as a species-independent tool to investigate BR function. We studied propiconazole (Pcz) as an alternative to the BR inhibitor brassinazole (Brz). Arabidopsis seedlings treated with Pcz phenocopied BR biosynthetic mutants. The steady state mRNA levels of BR, but not gibberellic acid (GA), regulated genes increased proportional to the concentrations of Pcz. Moreover, root inhibition and Pcz-induced expression of BR biosynthetic genes were rescued by 24epi-brassinolide, but not by GA(3) co-applications. Maize seedlings treated with Pcz showed impaired mesocotyl, coleoptile, and true leaf elongation. Interestingly, the genetic background strongly impacted the tissue specific sensitivity towards Pcz. Based on these findings we conclude that Pcz is a potent and specific inhibitor of BR biosynthesis and an alternative to Brz. The reduced cost and increased availability of Pcz, compared to Brz, opens new possibilities to study BR function in larger crop species.

  5. Auger compositional depth profiling of the metal contact-TlBr interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, A. J.; Swanberg, E. L.; Voss, L. F.; Graff, R. T.; Conway, A. M.; Nikolic, R. J.; Payne, S. A.; Kim, H.; Cirignano, L.; Shah, K.

    2015-08-01

    Degradation of room temperature operation of TlBr radiation detectors with time is thought to be due to electromigration of Tl and Br vacancies within the crystal as well as the metal contacts migrating into the TlBr crystal itself due to electrochemical reactions at the metal/TlBr interface. Scanning Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) in combination with sputter depth profiling was used to investigate the metal contact surface/interfacial structure on TlBr devices. Device-grade TlBr was polished and subjected to a 32% HCl etch to remove surface damage and create a TlBr1-xClx surface layer prior to metal contact deposition. Auger compositional depth profiling results reveal non-equilibrium interfacial diffusion after device operation in both air and N2 at ambient temperature. These results improve our understanding of contact/device degradation versus operating environment for further enhancing radiation detector performance.

  6. From photoelectron detachment spectra of BrHBr{sup −}, BrDBr{sup −} and IHI{sup −}, IDI{sup −} to vibrational bonding of BrMuBr and IMuI

    SciTech Connect

    Manz, Jörn; Freie Universität Berlin, Institut für Chemie und Biochemie, 14195 Berlin; Sato, Kazuma

    2015-04-28

    Photoelectron detachment XLX{sup −}(00{sup 0}0) + hν → XLX(vib) + e{sup −} + KER (X = Br or I, L = H or D) at sufficiently low temperatures photoionizes linear dihalogen anions XLX{sup −} in the vibrational ground state (v{sub 1}v{sub 2}{sup l}v{sub 3} = 00{sup 0}0) and prepares the neutral radicals XLX(vib) in vibrational states (vib). At the same time, part of the photon energy (hν) is converted into kinetic energy release (KER) of the electron [R. B. Metz, S. E. Bradforth, and D. M. Neumark, Adv. Chem. Phys. 81, 1 (1992)]. The process may be described approximately inmore » terms of a Franck-Condon type transfer of the vibrational wavefunction representing XLX{sup −}(00{sup 0}0) from the domain close to the minimum of its potential energy surface (PES) to the domain close to the linear transition state of the PES of the neutral XLX. As a consequence, prominent peaks of the photoelectron detachment spectra (pds) correlate with the vibrational energies E{sub XLX,vib} of states XLX(vib) which are centered at linear transition state. The corresponding vibrational quantum numbers may be labeled vib = (v{sub 1}v{sub 2}{sup l}v{sub 3}) = (00{sup 0}v{sub 3}). Accordingly, the related most prominent peaks in the pds are labeled v{sub 3}. We construct a model PES which mimics the “true” PES in the domain of transition state such that it supports vibrational states with energies E{sub XLX,pds,00{sup 0}v{sub 3}} close to the peaks of the pds labeled v{sub 3} = 0, 2, and 4. Subsequently, the same model PES is also used to calculate approximate values of the energies E{sub XMuX,00{sup 0}0} of the isotopomers XMuX(00{sup 0}0). For the heavy isotopomers XHX and XDX, it turns out that all energies E{sub XLX,00{sup 0}v{sub 3}} are above the threshold for dissociation, which means that all heavy XLX(00{sup 0}v{sub 3}) with wavefunctions centered at the transition state are unstable resonances with finite lifetimes. Turning the table, bound states of the heavy XLX

  7. Korean Red Ginseng Saponin Fraction Rich in Ginsenoside-Rb1, Rc and Rb2 Attenuates the Severity of Mouse Collagen-Induced Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Endale, Mehari; Im, Eun Ju; Lee, Joo Young; Kim, Sung Dae; Song, Yong-Bum; Kwak, Yi-Seong; Kim, Chaekyun; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Roh, Seong-Soo; Rhee, Man Hee

    2014-01-01

    Despite a multitude of reports on anti-inflammatory properties of ginseng extracts or individual ginsenosides, data on antiarthritic effect of ginseng saponin preparation with mixed ginsenosides is limited. On the other hand, a combined therapy of safe and inexpensive plant-derived natural products such as ginsenosides can be considered as an alternative to treat arthritis. Our previous in vitro data displayed a strong anti-inflammatory action of red ginseng saponin fraction-A (RGSF-A). We, herein, report a marked antiarthritic property of RGSF-A rich in ginsenoside Rb1, Rc, and Rb2. Collagen-induced arthritic (CIA) mice were treated with RGSF-A or methotrexate (MTX) for 5 weeks. Joint pathology, serum antibody production and leukocye activation, cytokine production in the circulation, lymph nodes, and joints were examined. RGSF-A markedly reduced severity of arthritis, cellular infiltration, and cartilage damage. It suppressed CD3+/CD69+, CD4+/CD25+, CD8+ T-cell, CD19+, B220/CD23+ B-cell, MHCII+/CD11c+, and Gr-1+/CD11b+ cell activations. It further suppressed anti-CII- or anti-RF-IgG/IgM, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-17, and IL-6 secretions but stimulated IL-10 levels in the serum, joint, or splenocyte. RGSF-A attenuated arthritis severity, modified leukocyte activations, and restored cytokine imbalances, suggesting that it can be considered as an antiarthritic agent with the capacity to ameliorate the immune and inflammatory responses in CIA mice. PMID:24833816

  8. Photoluminescence spectra of n-ZnO/p-GaN:(Er + Zn) and p-AlGaN:(Er + Zn) heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Mezdrogina, M. M., E-mail: margaret.m@mail.ioffe.ru; Krivolapchuk, V. V., E-mail: vlad.krivol@mail.ioffe.ru; Feoktistov, N. A.

    2008-07-15

    Luminescence intensity of heterostructures based on n-ZnO/p-GaN:(Er + Zn) and n-ZnO/AlGaN:(Er + Zn) is higher by more than an order of magnitude than the corresponding intensity of separate n-ZnO, p-GaN:(Er + Zn), and AlGaN:(Er + Zn) layers. Most likely, this phenomenon is due to the effective tunneling recombination of charge carriers caused by a decrease in the concentration of the nonradiative recombination centers located between the n-ZnO/p-GaN:(Er + Zn) and n-ZnO/AlGaN:(Er + Zn) layers.

  9. Hybrid Modeling Based on Scsg-Br and Orthophoto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, G.; Huang, Y.; Yue, T.; Li, X.; Huang, W.; He, C.; Wu, Z.

    2018-05-01

    With the development of digital city, digital applications are more and more widespread, while the urban buildings are more complex. Therefore, establishing an effective data model is the key to express urban building models accurately. In addition, the combination of 3D building model and remote sensing data become a trend to build digital city there are a large amount of data resulting in data redundancy. In order to solve the limitation of single modelling of constructive solid geometry (CSG), this paper presents a mixed modelling method based on SCSG-BR for urban buildings representation. On one hand, the improved CSG method, which is called as "Spatial CSG (SCSG)" representation method, is used to represent the exterior shape of urban buildings. On the other hand, the boundary representation (BR) method represents the topological relationship between geometric elements of urban building, in which the textures is considered as the attribute data of the wall and the roof of urban building. What's more, the method combined file database and relational database is used to manage the data of three-dimensional building model, which can decrease the complex processes in texture mapping. During the data processing, the least-squares algorithm with constraints is used to orthogonalize the building polygons and adjust the polygons topology to ensure the accuracy of the modelling data. Finally, this paper matches the urban building model with the corresponding orthophoto. This paper selects data of Denver, Colorado, USA to establish urban building realistic model. The results show that the SCSG-BR method can represent the topological relations of building more precisely. The organization and management of urban building model data reduce the redundancy of data and improve modelling speed. The combination of orthophoto and urban building model further strengthens the application in view analysis and spatial query, which enhance the scope of digital city applications.

  10. Ubiquitous production of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) in global marine environments: a new source indicator for brGDGTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Wenjie; Wang, Yinghui; Zhou, Shangzhe; Hu, Limin; Yang, Huan; Xu, Yunping

    2016-10-01

    Presumed source specificity of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) from bacteria thriving in soil/peat and isoprenoid GDGTs (iGDGTs) from aquatic organisms led to the development of several biomarker proxies for biogeochemical cycle and paleoenvironmental reconstructions. However, recent studies reveal that brGDGTs are also produced in aquatic environments besides soils and peat. Here we examined three cores from the Bohai Sea, and found distinct difference in brGDGT compositions varying with the distance from the Yellow River mouth. We thus propose an abundance ratio of hexamethylated to pentamethylated brGDGT (IIIa / IIa) to evaluate brGDGT sources. The compilation of globally distributed 1354 marine sediments and 589 soils shows that the IIIa / IIa ratio is generally < 0.59 in soils and 0.59-0.92 and > 0.92 in marine sediments with and without significant terrestrial inputs, respectively. Such disparity confirms the existence of two sources for brGDGTs, a terrestrial origin with lower IIIa / IIa and a marine origin with higher IIIa / IIa, which is likely attributed to a generally higher pH and the production of brGDGTs in cold deep water in marine waters. The application of the IIIa / IIa ratio to the East Siberian Arctic Shelf proves it to be a sensitive source indicator for brGDGTs, which is helpful for accurate estimation of organic carbon source and paleoclimates in marine settings.

  11. First-principles study of defects in TlBr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Mao-Hua

    2010-03-01

    TlBr is a promising radiation detection material due to its high gamma-ray stopping efficiency, high resistivity (that reduces dark current and noise), large enough band gap of 2.68 eV (suitable for room temperature applications), and long electron carrier lifetime (for efficient collection of the radiation-generated carriers). The defect properties obtained from density functional calculations will be presented to discuss their roles in carrier trapping and recombination (which affects the carrier lifetime) and carrier compensation (which affects the resistivity).

  12. Auxin-BR Interaction Regulates Plant Growth and Development

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Huiyu; Lv, Bingsheng; Ding, Tingting; Bai, Mingyi; Ding, Zhaojun

    2018-01-01

    Plants develop a high flexibility to alter growth, development, and metabolism to adapt to the ever-changing environments. Multiple signaling pathways are involved in these processes and the molecular pathways to transduce various developmental signals are not linear but are interconnected by a complex network and even feedback mutually to achieve the final outcome. This review will focus on two important plant hormones, auxin and brassinosteroid (BR), based on the most recent progresses about these two hormone regulated plant growth and development in Arabidopsis, and highlight the cross-talks between these two phytohormones. PMID:29403511

  13. Increased mitochondrial function downstream from KDM5A histone demethylase rescues differentiation in pRB-deficient cells

    PubMed Central

    Váraljai, Renáta; Islam, Abul B.M.M.K.; Beshiri, Michael L.; Rehman, Jalees; Lopez-Bigas, Nuria; Benevolenskaya, Elizaveta V.

    2015-01-01

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein pRb restricts cell growth through inhibition of cell cycle progression. Increasing evidence suggests that pRb also promotes differentiation, but the mechanisms are poorly understood, and the key question remains as to how differentiation in tumor cells can be enhanced in order to diminish their aggressive potential. Previously, we identified the histone demethylase KDM5A (lysine [K]-specific demethylase 5A), which demethylates histone H3 on Lys4 (H3K4), as a pRB-interacting protein counteracting pRB's role in promoting differentiation. Here we show that loss of Kdm5a restores differentiation through increasing mitochondrial respiration. This metabolic effect is both necessary and sufficient to induce the expression of a network of cell type-specific signaling and structural genes. Importantly, the regulatory functions of pRB in the cell cycle and differentiation are distinct because although restoring differentiation requires intact mitochondrial function, it does not necessitate cell cycle exit. Cells lacking Rb1 exhibit defective mitochondria and decreased oxygen consumption. Kdm5a is a direct repressor of metabolic regulatory genes, thus explaining the compensatory role of Kdm5a deletion in restoring mitochondrial function and differentiation. Significantly, activation of mitochondrial function by the mitochondrial biogenesis regulator Pgc-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-coactivator 1α; also called PPARGC1A) a coactivator of the Kdm5a target genes, is sufficient to override the differentiation block. Overexpression of Pgc-1α, like KDM5A deletion, inhibits cell growth in RB-negative human cancer cell lines. The rescue of differentiation by loss of KDM5A or by activation of mitochondrial biogenesis reveals the switch to oxidative phosphorylation as an essential step in restoring differentiation and a less aggressive cancer phenotype. PMID:26314709

  14. Computational study of the absorption spectrum of defected ZnS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michos, F. I.; Sigalas, M. M.

    2018-04-01

    Energy levels and absorption spectra of defected ZnS nanoparticles (NPs) were calculated with Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Time Dependent DFT. Several types of defects were examined such as vacancies and substitutions. NPs with S vacancies were found to have their absorption spectra moved to lower energies well inside the visible spectrum with significantly high oscillator strength. Also, NPs with substitution of S atoms with Cl, Br, or I showed significant absorption. In general, this type of defect moves the absorption spectra in lower energies, thus bringing the absorption edge into the visible spectrum, while the unperturbed NPs have absorption edges in the UV region. In addition, ZnS NPs are made from more abundant and less toxic elements than the more commonly used CdSe NPs. For that reason, they may find significant applications in solar cells and other photonic applications, as well as in biosensing applications as biomarkers.

  15. Global observations of BrO in the troposphere using GOME-2 satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theys, N.; van Roozendael, M.; Hendrick, F.; Xin, Y.; Isabelle, D.; Richter, A.; Mathias, B.; Quentin, E.; Johnston, P. V.; Kreher, K.; Martine, D.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements from the GOME-2 satellite instrument have been analyzed for tropospheric BrO using a residual technique that combines measured BrO columns and estimates of the stratospheric BrO content from a climatological approach driven by O3 and NO2 observations. Comparisons between the GOME-2 results and correlative data including ground-based BrO vertical columns and total BrO columns derived from SCIAMACHY nadir observations, present a good level of consistency. We show that the adopted technique enables to separate the stratospheric and tropospheric fractions of the measured total BrO columns and allows studying the BrO plumes in polar region in more detail. While several satellite BrO plumes can largely be explained by an influence of stratospheric descending air, we show that numerous tropospheric BrO hotspots are associated to regions with low tropopause heights as well. Elaborating on simulations using the p-TOMCAT tropospheric chemical transport model, this finding is found to be consistent with the mechanism of bromine release through sea salt aerosols production during blowing snow events. Outside the polar region, evidences are provided for a global tropospheric BrO background with columns of 1-3 x 1013 molec/cm2.

  16. Results for aliovalent doping of CeBr3 with Ca2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guss, Paul; Foster, Michael E.; Wong, Bryan M.; Patrick Doty, F.; Shah, Kanai; Squillante, Michael R.; Shirwadkar, Urmila; Hawrami, Rastgo; Tower, Joshua; Yuan, Ding

    2014-01-01

    Despite the outstanding scintillation performance characteristics of cerium tribromide (CeBr3) and cerium-activated lanthanum tribromide, their commercial availability and application are limited due to the difficulties of growing large, crack-free single crystals from these fragile materials. This investigation employed aliovalent doping to increase crystal strength while maintaining the optical properties of the crystal. One divalent dopant (Ca2+) was used as a dopant to strengthen CeBr3 without negatively impacting scintillation performance. Ingots containing nominal concentrations of 1.9% of the Ca2+ dopant were grown, i.e., 1.9% of the CeBr3 molecules were replaced by CaBr2 molecules, to match our target replacement of 1 out of 54 cerium atoms be replaced by a calcium atom. Precisely the mixture was composed of 2.26 g of CaBr2 added to 222.14 g of CeBr3. Preliminary scintillation measurements are presented for this aliovalently doped scintillator. Ca2+-doped CeBr3 exhibited little or no change in the peak fluorescence emission for 371 nm optical excitation for CeBr3. The structural, electronic, and optical properties of CeBr3 crystals were studied using the density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation. Calculated lattice parameters are in agreement with the experimental data. The energy band structures and density of states were obtained. The optical properties of CeBr3, including the dielectric function, were calculated.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticle composite with poly(p-Br-phenylsilane).

    PubMed

    Kim, Myoung-Hee; Lee, Jun; Mo, Soo-Yong; Woo, Hee-Gweon; Yang, Kap Seung; Kim, Bo-Hye; Lee, Byeong-Gweon; Sohn, Honglae

    2012-05-01

    The one-pot synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticle-poly(p-Br-phenylsilane) composites have been carried out. The conversion of silver(+1) salt to stable silver(0) nanoparticles is promoted by poly(p-Br-phenylsilane), Br-PPS possessing both possible reactive Si-H bonds in the polymer backbone and C-Br bonds in the substituents. The composites were characterized using XRD, TEM, FE-SEM, and solid-state UV-vis analytical techniques. TEM and FE-SEM data show the formation of the composites where large number of silver nanoparticles (less than 30 nm of size) are well dispersed throughout the Br-PPS matrix. XRD patterns are consistent with that for fcc-typed silver. The elemental analysis for Br atom and the polymer solubility confirm that the cleavage of C-Br bond and the Si-Br dative bonding were not occurred appreciably at ambient temperature. Nonetheless, TGA data suggest that some sort of cross-linking was occurred at high temperature. The size and processability of such nanoparticles depend on the ratio of metal to Br-PPS. In the absence of Br-PPS, most of the silver particles undergo macroscopic aggregation, which indicates that the polysilane is necessary for stabilizing the silver nanoparticles.

  18. Combustion instability investigations on the BR710 jet engine

    SciTech Connect

    Konrad, W.; Brehm, N.; Kameier, F.

    1998-01-01

    During the development of the BR710 jet engine, audible combustor instabilities (termed rumble) occurred. Amplitudes measured with test cell microphones were up to 130 dB at around 100 Hz. Disturbances of this amplitude are clearly undesirable, even if only present during start-up, and a research program was initiated to eliminate the problem. Presented here is the methodical and structured approach used to identify, understand, and remove the instability. Some reference is made to theory, which was used for guidance, but the focus of the work is on the research done to find the cause of the problem and to correctmore » it. The investigation followed two separate, but parallel, paths--one looking in detail at individual components of the engine to identify possible involvement in the instability and the other looking at the pressure signals from various parts of a complete engine to help pinpoint the source of the disturbance. The main cause of the BR710 combustor rumble was found to be a self-excited aerodynamic instability arising from the design of the fuel injector head. In the end, minor modifications lead to spray pattern changes, which greatly reduced the combustor noise. As a result of this work, new recommendation are made for reducing the risk of combustion instabilities in jet engines.« less

  19. Anisotropic upper critical magnetic fields in Rb 2 Cr 3 As 3 superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Zhang-Tu; Liu, Yi; Bao, Jin-Ke

    Rb2Cr3As3 is a structurally one-dimensional superconductor containing Cr3As3 chains with a superconducting transition temperature of T-c = 4.8 K. Here we report the electrical resistance measurements for Rb2Cr3As3 single crystals, under magnetic fields up to 29.5 T and at temperatures down to 0.36 K, from which the upper critical fields, H-c2(T), can be obtained in a broad temperature range. For field parallel to the Cr3As3 chains, H-c2(parallel to)(T) is paramagnetically limited with an initial slope of mu(0)dH(c2)(parallel to)/dT|T-c = - 16 T K-1 and a zero-temperature upper critical field of mu H-0(c2)parallel to(0) = 17.5 T. For field perpendicular tomore » the Cr3As3 chains, however, H-c2(perpendicular to)(T) is only limited by orbital pair-breaking effect with mu(0)dH(c2)(perpendicular to)/dT|(Tc) = - 3 T K-1. As a consequence, the anisotropy gamma H = H-c2(parallel to)/H-c2(perpendicular to) decreases sharply near T-c and reverses below 2 K. Remarkably, the low- temperature H-c2(perpendicular to)(T) down to 0.075 T-c remains to increase linearly up to over three times the Pauli paramagnetic limit, which strongly suggests dominant spin-triplet superconductivity in Rb2Cr3As3.« less

  20. Enhanced performance of solution-processed broadband photodiodes by epitaxially blending MAPbBr3 quantum dots and ternary PbSxSe1-x quantum dots as the active layer.

    PubMed

    Sulaman, Muhammad; Yang, Shengyi; Jiang, Yurong; Tang, Yi; Zou, Bingsuo

    2017-12-15

    Organic-inorganic hybrid photodetectors attract more and more interest, since they can combine the advantages of both organic and inorganic materials into one device, and broadband photodetectors are widely used in many scientific and industrial fields. In this work, we demonstrate the enhanced-performance solution-processed broadband photodiodes by epitaxially blending organo-lead halide perovskite (MAPbBr 3 ) colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) with ternary PbS x Se 1-x CQDs as the active layer. As a result, the interfacial features of the hetero-epitaxial nanocomposite MAPbBr 3 :PbS x Se 1-x enables the design and perception of functionalities that are not available for the single-phase constituents or layered devices. By combining the high electrical transport properties of MAPbBr 3 QDs with the highly radiative efficiency of PbS 0.4 Se 0.6 QDs, the photodiodes ITO/ZnO/PbS 0.4 Se 0.6 :MAPbBr 3 /Au exhibit a maximum photoresponsivity and specific detectivity of 21.48 A W -1 and 3.59 × 10 13 Jones, 22.16 A W -1 and 3.70 × 10 13 Jones at room temperature under 49.8 μW cm -2 532 nm laser and 62 μW cm -2 980 nm laser, respectively. This is higher than that of the layered photodiodes ITO/ZnO/PbS 0.4 Se 0.6 /MAPbBr 3 /Au, pure perovskite (MAPbBr 3 ) (or PbS 0.4 Se 0.6 ) QD-based photodiodes reported previously, and it is also better than the traditional inorganic semiconductor-based photodetectors. Our experimental results indicate that epitaxially-aligned nanocomposites (MAPbBr 3 :PbS x Se 1-x ) exhibit remarkable optoelectronic properties that are traceable to their atomic-scale crystalline coherence, and one can utilize the excellent photocarrier diffusion from PbS x Se 1-x into the perovskite to enhance the device performance from the UV-visible to infrared region.

  1. Enhanced performance of solution-processed broadband photodiodes by epitaxially blending MAPbBr3 quantum dots and ternary PbSxSe1-x quantum dots as the active layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaman, Muhammad; Yang, Shengyi; Jiang, Yurong; Tang, Yi; Zou, Bingsuo

    2017-12-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid photodetectors attract more and more interest, since they can combine the advantages of both organic and inorganic materials into one device, and broadband photodetectors are widely used in many scientific and industrial fields. In this work, we demonstrate the enhanced-performance solution-processed broadband photodiodes by epitaxially blending organo-lead halide perovskite (MAPbBr3) colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) with ternary PbSxSe1-x CQDs as the active layer. As a result, the interfacial features of the hetero-epitaxial nanocomposite MAPbBr3:PbSxSe1-x enables the design and perception of functionalities that are not available for the single-phase constituents or layered devices. By combining the high electrical transport properties of MAPbBr3 QDs with the highly radiative efficiency of PbS0.4Se0.6 QDs, the photodiodes ITO/ZnO/PbS0.4Se0.6:MAPbBr3/Au exhibit a maximum photoresponsivity and specific detectivity of 21.48 A W-1 and 3.59 × 1013 Jones, 22.16 A W-1 and 3.70 × 1013 Jones at room temperature under 49.8 μW cm-2 532 nm laser and 62 μW cm-2 980 nm laser, respectively. This is higher than that of the layered photodiodes ITO/ZnO/PbS0.4Se0.6/MAPbBr3/Au, pure perovskite (MAPbBr3) (or PbS0.4Se0.6) QD-based photodiodes reported previously, and it is also better than the traditional inorganic semiconductor-based photodetectors. Our experimental results indicate that epitaxially-aligned nanocomposites (MAPbBr3:PbSxSe1-x) exhibit remarkable optoelectronic properties that are traceable to their atomic-scale crystalline coherence, and one can utilize the excellent photocarrier diffusion from PbSxSe1-x into the perovskite to enhance the device performance from the UV-visible to infrared region.

  2. The role of the RB tumour suppressor pathway in oxidative stress responses in the haematopoietic system

    PubMed Central

    Macleod, Kay F.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to pro-oxidants and defects in the repair of oxidative base damage are associated with disease and ageing and also contribute to the development of anaemia, bone marrow failure and haematopoietic malignancies. This Review assesses emerging data indicative of a specific role for the RB tumour suppressor pathway in the response of the haematopoietic system to oxidative stress. This is mediated through signalling pathways that involve DNA damage sensors, forkhead box O (Foxo) transcription factors and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases and has downstream consequences for cell cycle progression, antioxidant capacity, mitochondrial mass and cellular metabolism. PMID:18800074

  3. Spectroscopy of LiCa and RbSr Molecules on Helium Nanodroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackner, Florian; Krois, Gunter; Ernst, Wolfgang E.

    2013-06-01

    We report on the investigation of mixed alkali metal (Ak) - alkaline earth metal (Ake) molecules on the surface of helium nanodroplets (He_{N}). These molecules have recently attracted considerable attention as candidates for the formation of ultracold molecules with a magnetic and an electronic dipole moment. In our experiments, LiCa and RbSr molecules are formed in a sequential pick-up process in their X^{2}Σ^{+} ground state and cool down rapidly to the droplet temperature of 0.38 K. Excitation spectra of LiCa and RbSr were recorded by using resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization time-of-flight (REMPI-TOF) spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy. On the helium droplet, vibronic transitions in Ak-Ake molecules are broadened and show a characteristic asymmetric peak form, which is caused by the interaction between the molecule and the superfluid He_{N} environment. For the lower electronic transitions in LiCa and RbSr progressions of vibrational bands excited from the X^{2}Σ^{+} (ν'' = 0) state are observed. The LiCa spectra can be compared to molecular beam experiments, which enables the assignment of three band systems near 15260 cm^{-1}, 19300 cm^{-1} and 22120 cm^{-1} as ^{2}Σ^{+}, ^{2}Π_{Ω} and ^{2}Π band, respectively. In the RbSr excitation spectrum we observe a vibrationally resolved band system near 14020 cm^{-1}. Upon electronic excitation, a fraction of the molecules desorb from the droplet surface and dispersed fluorescence spectra allow to study the X^{2}Σ^{+} ground state and excited states of free Ak-Ake molecules. H. Hara, Y. Takasu, Y. Yamaoka, J.M. Doyle, Y. Takahashi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 205304 (2011) C. Callegari and W. E. Ernst, Helium Droplets as Nanocryostats for Molecular Spectroscopy - from the Vacuum Ultraviolet to the Microwave Regime, in: Handbook of High-Resolution Spectroscopy, eds. M. Quack and F. Merkt, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, (2011) L. M. Russon, G. K. Rothschopf, M. D. Morse, A. I

  4. On the preparation of electron sensor using LiRbSO4 samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Muraikhi, M.; Kassem, M. E.; Gaafar, M.; Abdel Gawad, M. M. H.; Ragab, I. M.

    2005-01-01

    The dielectric spectroscopy of metal-metal sulfate LiRbSO4 samples are described with particular emphasis on sensor performance to be used in the field of radiation. The obtained results as the effect of different electron energy beams at fixed dose, 0.5 Gy, showed abrupt change of the electrical properties (electrical conductivity, capacitance, and loss tangent). The results can be explained on the basis of radiation-induced defects followed by radiation quenching. The prepared samples can be used in the field of radiation dosimeter.

  5. Crystal chemistry of elpidite from Khan Bogdo (Mongolia) and its K- and Rb-exchanged forms

    SciTech Connect

    Grigor'eva, A. A.; Zubkova, N. V., E-mail: nata_zubkova@rambler.ru; Pekov, I. V.

    2011-09-15

    Elpidite Na{sub 2}ZrSi{sub 6}O{sub 15} {center_dot} 3H{sub 2}O [space group Pbcm, a = 7.1312(12), b = 14.6853(12), and c = 14.6349(15) Angstrom-Sign ] from Khan Bogdo (Mongolia) and its K- and Rb-exchanged forms K{sub 1.78}Na{sub 0.16}H{sub 0.06}ZrSi{sub 6}O{sub 15} {center_dot} 0.85H{sub 2}O [Cmce, a = 14.054(3), b = 14.308(3), and c = 14.553(3) Angstrom-Sign ] and Na{sub 1.58}Rb{sub 0.2}H{sub 0.22}ZrSi{sub 6}O{sub 15} {center_dot} 2.69H{sub 2}O [Pbcm, a = 7.1280(10), b = 14.644(3), and c = 14.642(3) Angstrom-Sign ] that were obtained by cation exchange at 90 Degree-Sign C, as well as K{sub 1.84}Na{sub 0.11}H{sub 0.05}ZrSi{sub 6}O{sub 15} {center_dot} 0.91H{sub 2}Omore » [Cmce, a = 14.037(3), b = 14.226(3), and c = 14.552(3) Angstrom-Sign ] and Rb{sub 1.78}Na{sub 0.06}H{sub 0.16}ZrSi{sub 6}O{sub 15} {center_dot} 0.90H{sub 2}O [Cmce, a = 14.2999(12), b = 14.4408(15), and c = 14.7690(12) Angstrom-Sign ], obtained at 150 Degree-Sign C are studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. The base of the structures is a heteropolyhedral Zr-Si-O framework whose cavities accommodate Na (K, Rb) cations and H{sub 2}O molecules.« less

  6. Multielectron spectroscopy: energy levels of K n+ and Rb n+ ions (n = 2, 3, 4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalal, M. A.; Soronen, J.; Jänkälä, K.; Huttula, S.-M.; Huttula, M.; Bizau, J.-M.; Cubaynes, D.; Guilbaud, S.; Ito, K.; Andric, L.; Feng, J.; Lablanquie, P.; Palaudoux, J.; Penent, F.

    2017-11-01

    A magnetic bottle time-of-flight spectrometer has been used to perform spectroscopy of K n+ and Rb n+ states with ionization degrees n of 2, 3 and 4. Energy levels are directly measured by detecting in coincidence the n electrons that are emitted as a result of single photon absorption. Experimental results are compared with the energies from the NIST atomic database and ab initio multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculations. Previously unidentified 3p 4(3P)3d 1 4D energy levels of K2+ are assigned.

  7. No Evidence of Isomerism for the First Excited State of {sup 93}Rb

    SciTech Connect

    Miernik, K., E-mail: kmiernik@fuw.edu.pl; Gross, C.J.; Grzywacz, R.

    2014-06-15

    The 253.3–keV excited state located in {sup 93}Rb was studied at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility in Oak Ridge. This state, described as isomeric in databases, was populated in the decay of {sup 93}Kr produced by proton–induced fission of {sup 238}U and isolated using the isotope separation on–line technique. We report that the 253.3–keV level does not reveal isomerism and the upper limit of the half-life from our measurement is 4 ns. Our findings are supported by previously reported results that were not taken into account in the latest nuclear databases.

  8. Raman spectra and phase transitions in Rb{sub 2}KInF{sub 6} elpasolite

    SciTech Connect

    Krylov, A. S.; Krylova, S. N., E-mail: slanky@iph.krasn.ru; Vtyurin, A. N.

    2011-01-15

    The Raman spectra of Rb{sub 2}KInF{sub 6} elpasolite crystal have been studied in a wide temperature range, including two phase transitions: from the cubic phase to the tetragonal phase and then to the monoclinic phase. Several anomalies of internal modes of InF{sub 6} octahedra and low-frequency lattice vibrations, which are related to the structural changes at the transition points, have been found and quantitatively analyzed. The results of a quantitative analysis of the temperature dependences of the parameters of spectral lines are in good agreement with the thermodynamic data on the phase transitions.

  9. Transient response of nonlinear magneto-optic rotation in a paraffin-coated Rb vapor cell

    SciTech Connect

    Momeen, M. Ummal; Rangarajan, G.; Natarajan, Vasant

    2010-01-15

    We study resonant nonlinear magneto-optic rotation (NMOR) in a paraffin-coated Rb vapor cell as the magnetic field is swept. At low sweep rates, the nonlinear rotation appears as a narrow resonance signal with a linewidth of about '300 muG' (2pix420 Hz). At high sweep rates, the signal shows transient response with an oscillatory decay. The decay time constant is of order 100 ms. The behavior is different for transitions starting from the lower or the upper hyperfine level of the ground state because of optical pumping effects.

  10. Single particle excitations in RbAg/sub 4/I/sub 5/

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, S.M.; Salamon, M.B.

    1979-01-01

    In an inelastic neutron experiment on RbAg/sub 4/I/sub 5/ a broad quasielastic peak was observed throughout Q-space. As the temperature was lowered, the quasielastic peak became a broad propagating excitation with dirac constant ..omega.. approx. 2.2 meV. This excitation was measured along several symmetry directions and it exhibited little dispersion. This confirms that the original idea of a single particle excitation corresponding to the Ag/sup +/ ions moving within a potential well created by the rest of the lattice. The temperature dependence of this excitation is consistent with recent calculations of neutron scattering in superionic conductors.

  11. Topologically identical, but geometrically isomeric layers in hydrous α-, β-Rb[UO2(AsO3OH)(AsO2(OH)2)]·H2O and anhydrous Rb[UO2(AsO3OH)(AsO2(OH)2)

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Na; Klepov, Vladislav V.; Villa, Eric M.

    The hydrothermal reaction of uranyl nitrate with rubidium nitrate and arsenic (III) oxide results in the formation of polymorphic α- and β-Rb[UO2(AsO3OH)(AsO2(OH)2)]·H2O (α-, β-RbUAs) and the anhydrous phase Rb[UO2(AsO3OH)(AsO2(OH)2)] (RbUAs). These phases were structurally, chemically and spectroscopically characterized. The structures of all three compounds are based upon topologically identical, but geometrically isomeric layers. The layers are linked with each other by means of the Rb cations and hydrogen bonding. Dehydration experiments demonstrate that water deintercalation from hydrous α- and β-RbUAs yields anhydrous RbUAs via topotactic reactions.

  12. Acceptors in ZnO

    DOE PAGES

    Mccluskey, Matthew D.; Corolewski, Caleb; Lv, Jinpeng; ...

    2015-03-21

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) has potential for a range of applications in the area of optoelectronics. The quest for p-type ZnO has focused much attention on acceptors. In this paper, Cu, N, and Li acceptor impurities are discussed. Experimental evidence shows that these point defects have acceptor levels 3.2, 1.5, and 0.8 eV above the valence-band maximum, respectively. The levels are deep because the ZnO valence band is quite low compared to conventional, non-oxide semiconductors. Using MoO2 contacts, the electrical resistivity of ZnO:Li was measured and showed behavior consistent with bulk hole conduction for temperatures above 400 K. A photoluminescence peakmore » in ZnO nanocrystals has been attributed to an acceptor, which may involve a zinc vacancy. High field (W-band) electron paramagnetic resonance measurements on the nanocrystals revealed an axial center with g = 2.0033 and g = 2.0075, along with an isotropic center at g = 2.0053.« less

  13. Alterations of 86Rb+ fluxes in poliovirus-infected HeLa cells and their dependence on virus replication

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, A.; Geck, P.; Zibirre, R.

    1984-07-30

    Components of the 86Rb+ influx were investigated subsequent to poliovirus infection in the presence and absence of guanidine-HCl, both under normal steady-state conditions and after Na+ preloading of the cells. Measurements of the ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake indicated a biphasic change in the activity of the Na+, K+ pump in the course of virus infection: a transient increase in the second hour postinfection, that was detectable only after Na+ preloading and inhibition after 3 hr. The enhanced activity of the Na+, K+ pump was not affected, while the decrease later was fully prevented by the antiviral agent guanidine-HCl. The piretanide-sensitive 86Rb+more » uptake due to the Na+, K+, 2 Cl- cotransport system also became strongly inhibited beginning in the second hour postinfection. The inhibition of this transport system was partially antagonized by guanidine-HCl. The remaining 86Rb+ influx in the presence of ouabain and piretanide increased in the third hour postinfection. The latter change in 86Rb+ influx, indicating an increased permeability to monovalent cations was completely abolished by guanidine-HCl.« less

  14. Comparison of depopulation and S19-RB51 vaccination strategies for control of bovine brucellosis in high prevalence areas.

    PubMed

    Saez, J L; Sanz, C; Durán, M; García, P; Fernandez, F; Minguez, O; Carbajo, L; Mardones, F; Perez, A; Gonzalez, S; Dominguez, L; Alvarez, J

    2014-06-21

    RB51 vaccination can minimise the diagnostic problems associated with S19 vaccination of adult cattle, but its use for bovine brucellosis (BB) control remains controversial. Here, the evolution of BB prevalence in five high prevalence areas in Spain subjected to different control measures is described: herd depopulation of infected herds (I-III) or mass vaccination with RB51 and S19-RB51 vaccination of replacement heifers (IV-V). Annual data from the eradication campaigns were analysed at the special incidence area (SIA) level and the time to obtain herd prevalence levels of <1 per cent ('controlled status') was obtained at the local veterinary unit (LVU) level and compared using Cox's proportional hazard model. A higher annual rate of decrease in herd prevalence was observed in the SIAs subjected to vaccination (46.9%, 95% CI 43.5% to 50.0%) compared with those managed using stamping out (14.9%, 95% CI 9.6% to 19.9%). No significant differences in the time to achieve controlled status were observed between the stamping-out and vaccination strategies used at the LVU level, with median times of 60 (stamping-out LVUs) and 63 (vaccination LVUs) months. These results suggest that RB51 mass vaccination, in combination with the S19-RB51 vaccination of replacement heifers and strict implementation of other eradication measures, may provide results at least comparable with those resulting from a herd depopulation based strategy. British Veterinary Association.

  15. Insight into the architecture of the NuRD complex: structure of the RbAp48-MTA1 subcomplex.

    PubMed

    Alqarni, Saad S M; Murthy, Andal; Zhang, Wei; Przewloka, Marcin R; Silva, Ana P G; Watson, Aleksandra A; Lejon, Sara; Pei, Xue Y; Smits, Arne H; Kloet, Susan L; Wang, Hongxin; Shepherd, Nicholas E; Stokes, Philippa H; Blobel, Gerd A; Vermeulen, Michiel; Glover, David M; Mackay, Joel P; Laue, Ernest D

    2014-08-08

    The nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex is a widely conserved transcriptional co-regulator that harbors both nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase activities. It plays a critical role in the early stages of ES cell differentiation and the reprogramming of somatic to induced pluripotent stem cells. Abnormalities in several NuRD proteins are associated with cancer and aging. We have investigated the architecture of NuRD by determining the structure of a subcomplex comprising RbAp48 and MTA1. Surprisingly, RbAp48 recognizes MTA1 using the same site that it uses to bind histone H4, showing that assembly into NuRD modulates RbAp46/48 interactions with histones. Taken together with other results, our data show that the MTA proteins act as scaffolds for NuRD complex assembly. We further show that the RbAp48-MTA1 interaction is essential for the in vivo integration of RbAp46/48 into the NuRD complex. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Ginsenoside Rb1 Treatment Attenuates Pulmonary Inflammatory Cytokine Release and Tissue Injury following Intestinal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhen; Meng, Qing-tao; Sun, Qian; Su, Wating; Xia, Zhengyuan; Xia, Zhong-yuan

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Intestinal ischemia reperfusion (II/R) injury plays a critical role in remote organ dysfunction, such as lung injury, which is associated with nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) signaling pathway. In the present study, we tested whether ginsenoside Rb1 attenuated II/R induced lung injury by Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. Methods. II/R injury was induced in male C57BL/6J mice by 45 min of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion followed by 2 hours of reperfusion. Ginsenoside Rb1 was administrated prior to reperfusion with or without ATRA (all-transretinoic acid, the inhibitor of Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway) administration before II/R. Results. II/R induced lung histological injury, which is accompanied with increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), interleukin- (IL-) 6, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α but decreased levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and IL-10 in the lung tissues. Ginsenoside Rb1 reduced lung histological injury and the levels of TNF-α and MDA, as well as wet/dry weight ratio. Interestingly, the increased Nrf2 and HO-1 expression induced by II/R in the lung tissues was promoted by ginsenoside Rb1 treatment. All these changes could be inhibited or prevented by ATRA. Conclusion. Ginsenoside Rb1 is capable of ameliorating II/R induced lung injuries by activating Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. PMID:26161243

  17. Leaching behavior of copper from waste printed circuit boards with Brønsted acidic ionic liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Jinxiu; Chen, Mengjun, E-mail: kyling@swust.edu.cn; Chen, Haiyan

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • A Brønsted acidic ILs was used to leach Cu from WPCBs for the first time. • The particle size of WPCBs has significant influence on Cu leaching rate. • Cu leaching rate was higher than 99% under the optimum leaching conditions. • The leaching process can be modeled with shrinking core model, and the E{sub a} was 25.36 kJ/mol. - Abstract: In this work, a Brønsted acidic ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hydrogen sulfate ([bmim]HSO{sub 4}), was used to leach copper from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs, mounted with electronic components) for the first time, and the leaching behavior ofmore » copper was discussed in detail. The results showed that after the pre-treatment, the metal distributions were different with the particle size: Cu, Zn and Al increased with the increasing particle size; while Ni, Sn and Pb were in the contrary. And the particle size has significant influence on copper leaching rate. Copper leaching rate was higher than 99%, almost 100%, when 1 g WPCBs powder was leached under the optimum conditions: particle size of 0.1–0.25 mm, 25 mL 80% (v/v) ionic liquid, 10 mL 30% hydrogen peroxide, solid/liquid ratio of 1/25, 70 °C and 2 h. Copper leaching by [bmim]HSO{sub 4} can be modeled with the shrinking core model, controlled by diffusion through a solid product layer, and the kinetic apparent activation energy has been calculated to be 25.36 kJ/mol.« less

  18. Single crystal growth and surface chemical stability of KPb2Br5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atuchin, V. V.; Isaenko, L. I.; Kesler, V. G.; Tarasova, A. Yu.

    2011-03-01

    Single crystal of KPb2Br5 has been grown using the Bridgman technique. Initially the synthesis of stoichiometric KPb2Br5 compound was performed from high purity bromide salts. Electronic structure of KPb2Br5 has been determined with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for powdered sample fabricated by grinding in air. Drastic chemical interaction of KPb2Br5 with atmosphere has not been detected. Chemical bonding in potassium- and lead-containing bromides is considered using binding energy differences ΔK=(BE K 2p3/2-BE Br 3d) and ΔPb=(BE Pb 4f7/2-BE Br 3d), respectively, as representative parameters.

  19. Post-transcriptional gene expression control by NANOS is up-regulated and functionally important in pRb-deficient cells

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Wayne O; Korenjak, Michael; Griffiths, Lyra M; Dyer, Michael A; Provero, Paolo; Dyson, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    Inactivation of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (pRb) is a common oncogenic event that alters the expression of genes important for cell cycle progression, senescence, and apoptosis. However, in many contexts, the properties of pRb-deficient cells are similar to wild-type cells suggesting there may be processes that counterbalance the transcriptional changes associated with pRb inactivation. Therefore, we have looked for sets of evolutionary conserved, functionally related genes that are direct targets of pRb/E2F proteins. We show that the expression of NANOS, a key facilitator of the Pumilio (PUM) post-transcriptional repressor complex, is directly repressed by pRb/E2F in flies and humans. In both species, NANOS expression increases following inactivation of pRb/RBF1 and becomes important for tissue homeostasis. By analyzing datasets from normal retinal tissue and pRb-null retinoblastomas, we find a strong enrichment for putative PUM substrates among genes de-regulated in tumors. These include pro-apoptotic genes that are transcriptionally down-regulated upon pRb loss, and we characterize two such candidates, MAP2K3 and MAP3K1, as direct PUM substrates. Our data suggest that NANOS increases in importance in pRb-deficient cells and helps to maintain homeostasis by repressing the translation of transcripts containing PUM Regulatory Elements (PRE). PMID:25100735

  20. Post-transcriptional gene expression control by NANOS is up-regulated and functionally important in pRb-deficient cells.

    PubMed

    Miles, Wayne O; Korenjak, Michael; Griffiths, Lyra M; Dyer, Michael A; Provero, Paolo; Dyson, Nicholas J

    2014-10-01

    Inactivation of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (pRb) is a common oncogenic event that alters the expression of genes important for cell cycle progression, senescence, and apoptosis. However, in many contexts, the properties of pRb-deficient cells are similar to wild-type cells suggesting there may be processes that counterbalance the transcriptional changes associated with pRb inactivation. Therefore, we have looked for sets of evolutionary conserved, functionally related genes that are direct targets of pRb/E2F proteins. We show that the expression of NANOS, a key facilitator of the Pumilio (PUM) post-transcriptional repressor complex, is directly repressed by pRb/E2F in flies and humans. In both species, NANOS expression increases following inactivation of pRb/RBF1 and becomes important for tissue homeostasis. By analyzing datasets from normal retinal tissue and pRb-null retinoblastomas, we find a strong enrichment for putative PUM substrates among genes de-regulated in tumors. These include pro-apoptotic genes that are transcriptionally down-regulated upon pRb loss, and we characterize two such candidates, MAP2K3 and MAP3K1, as direct PUM substrates. Our data suggest that NANOS increases in importance in pRb-deficient cells and helps to maintain homeostasis by repressing the translation of transcripts containing PUM Regulatory Elements (PRE). © 2014 The Authors.

  1. Nutrition chez le brûlé

    PubMed Central

    Perro, G.

    2016-01-01

    Summary La nutrition est un challenge chez le brûlé, paradigme de l’agressé. Les points importants sont les apports entéraux précoces par sonde gastrique voire post pyloriques, la position proclive > 30°, la surveillance du transit et sa régulation par gastro ou entéro-kinétiques, la surveillance du poids, la quantification des apports avec supplémentation parentérale en cas de retard protéino énergétique. Chez l’enfant, l’adhésion à l’alimentation est difficile, de même que chez le senior, où une évaluation nutritionnelle initiale dépiste souvent une dénutrition préexistante. Les compléments alimentaires seront largement prescrits chez les patients de gravité intermédiaire. Les obèses bénéficieront d’un régime hypocalorique et hyperprotidique. Chez l’insuffisant rénal non dialysé il convient de limiter les apports en potassium. En cas brûlure périnéale, on peut proposer soit une constipation de courte durée, soit la mise en place d’un entéro-collecteur, les indications de colostomie étant devenues rares. Les apports entéraux sont difficiles à gérer en cas de décubitus ventral pour SDRA. Chez le brûlé grave de réanimation, l’accent doit plus être mis sur la qualité des nutriments que sur leur quantité. Les anciennes formules d’estimation calorique conduisaient à une surnutrition difficile à administrer et en général mal tolérée; la quantification mesurée par calorimétrie indirecte ou estimée par la formule de Toronto est bien plus adaptée. Plus récemment, l’instauration d’une immunonutrition (supplémentation en vitamines et oligo-éléments, glutamine, arginine, acide Ω 3 et contrôle raisonné de la glycémie) a été proposée pour réduire le stress oxydatif et l’inflammation provoqués par l’accident. PMID:27857647

  2. Evidence for concerted ring opening and C-Br bond breaking in UV-excited bromocyclopropane.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Shubhrangshu; Preston, Thomas J; King, Simon J; Vallance, Claire; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J

    2016-06-28

    Photodissociation of gaseous bromocyclopropane via its A-band continuum has been studied at excitation wavelengths ranging from 230 nm to 267 nm. Velocity-map images of ground-state bromine atoms (Br), spin-orbit excited bromine atoms (Br(∗)), and C3H5 hydrocarbon radicals reveal the kinetic energies of these various photofragments. Both Br and Br(∗) atoms are predominantly generated via repulsive excited electronic states in a prompt photodissociation process in which the hydrocarbon co-fragment is a cyclopropyl radical. However, the images obtained at the mass of the hydrocarbon radical fragment identify a channel with total kinetic energy greater than that deduced from the Br and Br(∗) images, and with a kinetic energy distribution that exceeds the energetic limit for Br + cyclopropyl radical products. The velocity-map images of these C3H5 fragments have lower angular anisotropies than measured for Br and Br(∗), indicating molecular restructuring during dissociation. The high kinetic energy C3H5 signals are assigned to allyl radicals generated by a minor photochemical pathway which involves concerted C-Br bond dissociation and cyclopropyl ring-opening following single ultraviolet (UV)-photon absorption. Slow photofragments also contribute to the velocity map images obtained at the C3H5 radical mass, but the corresponding slow Br atoms are not observed. These features in the images are attributed to C3H5 (+) from the photodissociation of the C3H5Br(+) molecular cation following two-photon ionization of the parent compound. This assignment is confirmed by 118-nm vacuum ultraviolet ionization studies that prepare the molecular cation in its ground electronic state prior to UV photodissociation.

  3. Different aspects of multiplicity distribution of shower particles in central collisions with AgBr target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Swarnapratim; Haiduc, Maria; Neagu, Alina Tania; Firu, Elena

    Different aspects like multiplicity moments, Dq moments and multiplicity fluctuations in terms of scaled variance of the shower particles has been carried out for central events of 16O-AgBr, 22Ne-AgBr and 32S-AgBr interactions at (4.1-4.5) AGeV/c. Comparison of our results with different experimental analysis of central collisions of emulsion data has been performed whenever available.

  4. Bromine cycle in subduction zones through in situ Br monitoring in diamond anvil cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureau, Hélène; Foy, Eddy; Raepsaet, Caroline; Somogyi, Andrea; Munsch, Pascal; Simon, Guilhem; Kubsky, Stefan

    2010-07-01

    The geochemical partitioning of bromine between hydrous haplogranitic melts, initially enriched with respect to Br and aqueous fluids, has been continuously monitored in situ during decompression. Experiments were carried out in diamond anvil cells from 890 °C to room temperature and from 1.7 GPa to room pressure, typically from high P, T conditions corresponding to total miscibility (presence of a supercritical fluid). Br contents were measured in aqueous fluids, hydrous melts and supercritical fluids. Partition coefficients of bromine were characterized at pressure and temperature between fluids, hydrous melts and/or glasses, as appropriate: DBrfluid/melt = (Br) fluid/(Br) melt, ranges from 2.18 to 9.2 ± 0.5 for conditions within the ranges 0.66-1.7 GPa, 590-890 °C; and DBrfluid/glass = (Br) fluid/(Br) glass ranges from 60 to 375 at room conditions. The results suggest that because high pressure melts and fluids are capable of accepting high concentrations of bromine, this element may be efficiently removed from the slab to the mantle source of arc magmas. We show that Br may be highly concentrated in subduction zone magmas and strongly enriched in subduction-related volcanic gases, because its mobility is strongly correlated with that of water during magma degassing. Furthermore, our experimental results suggest that a non negligible part of Br present in the subducted slab may remain in the down-going slab, being transported toward the transition zone. This indicates that the Br cycle in subduction zones is in fact divided in two related but independent parts: (1) a shallower one where recycled Br may leave the slab with a water and silica-bearing "fluid" leading to enriched arc magmas that return Br to the atmosphere. (2) A deeper cycle where Br may be recycled back to the mantle maybe to the transition zone, where it may be present in high pressure water-rich metasomatic fluids.

  5. Highly Efficient Defect Emission from ZnO:Zn and ZnO:S Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everitt, Henry

    2013-03-01

    Bulk Zinc Oxide (ZnO) is a wide band gap semiconductor with an ultraviolet direct band gap energy of 3.4 eV and a broad, defect-related visible wavelength emission band centered near 2 eV. We have shown that the external quantum efficiency can exceed 50% for this nearly white emission band that closely matches the human dark-adapted visual response. To explore the potential of ZnO as a rare earth-free white light phosphor, we investigated the mechanism of efficient defect emission in three types of ZnO powders: unannealed, annealed, and sulfur-doped. Annealing and sulfur-doping of ZnO greatly increase the strength of defect emission while suppressing the UV band edge emission. Continuous wave and ultrafast one- and two-photon excitation spectroscopy are used to examine the defect emission mechanism. Low temperature photoluminescence (PL) and PL excitation (PLE) spectra were measured for all three compounds, and it was found that bound excitons mediate the defect emission. Temperature-dependent PLE spectra for the defect and band edge emission were measured to estimate trapping and activation energies of the bound excitons and clarify the role they play in the defect emission. Time-resolved techniques were used to ascertain the role of exciton diffusion, the effects of reabsorption, and the spatial distributions of radiative and non-radiative traps. In unannealed ZnO we find that defect emission is suppressed and UV band edge emission is inefficient (< 2%) because of reabsorption and non-radiative recombination due to a high density of non-radiative bulk traps. By annealing ZnO, bulk trap densities are reduced, and a high density of defects responsible for the broad visible emission are created near the surface. Interestingly, nearly identical PLE spectra are found for both the band edge and the defect emission, one of many indications that the defect emission is deeply connected to bound excitons. Quantum efficiency, also measured as a function of excitation

  6. Transparent nanocrystalline ZnO and ZnO:Al coatings obtained through ZnS sols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolobkova, E. V.; Evstropiev, S. K.; Nikonorov, N. V.; Vasilyev, V. N.; Evstropyev, K. S.

    2017-11-01

    Thin and uniform ZnO and ZnO:Al coatings were prepared on glass surfaces by using film-forming colloidal solutions containing small ZnS nanoparticles and polyvinylpyrrolidone as a polymer stabilizer. Film-forming ZnS sols were synthesized in the mixed water-propanol-2 solutions by chemical reaction between zinc nitrate and sodium sulfide. The addition of modifying component such as Al(NO3)3 into the film-forming solutions allows one to obtain thin and uniform ZnO:Al coatings. An increase in the sodium sulfide content in film-forming solutions leads to the growth of light absorption in the UV. The evolution of a coating material at all technological stages from the ZnS sols up to the transparent ZnO and ZnO:Al2O3 coatings (the latter kind being denoted further, in accord with a common practice, by ZnO:Al) was studied using the optical spectroscopy, XRD analysis, DSC-TGA, and SEM methods. The chemical processes of decomposing salts and the polymer occur by heating the intermediate composite ZnS/polyvinylpyrrolidone coatings in the 280-500 °C temperature range. Experimental data show that the ZnO and ZnO:Al coatings prepared consist of the slightly elongated oxide nanoparticles. These coatings fully cover the glass surface and demonstrate a high transparency in the UV and visible.

  7. RB Particle Filter Time Synchronization Algorithm Based on the DPM Model.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chunsheng; Shen, Jia; Sun, Yao; Ying, Na

    2015-09-03

    Time synchronization is essential for node localization, target tracking, data fusion, and various other Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) applications. To improve the estimation accuracy of continuous clock offset and skew of mobile nodes in WSNs, we propose a novel time synchronization algorithm, the Rao-Blackwellised (RB) particle filter time synchronization algorithm based on the Dirichlet process mixture (DPM) model. In a state-space equation with a linear substructure, state variables are divided into linear and non-linear variables by the RB particle filter algorithm. These two variables can be estimated using Kalman filter and particle filter, respectively, which improves the computational efficiency more so than if only the particle filter was used. In addition, the DPM model is used to describe the distribution of non-deterministic delays and to automatically adjust the number of Gaussian mixture model components based on the observational data. This improves the estimation accuracy of clock offset and skew, which allows achieving the time synchronization. The time synchronization performance of this algorithm is also validated by computer simulations and experimental measurements. The results show that the proposed algorithm has a higher time synchronization precision than traditional time synchronization algorithms.

  8. Simple and Efficient Single Photon Filter for a Rb-based Quantum Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stack, Daniel; Li, Xiao; Quraishi, Qudsia

    2015-05-01

    Distribution of entangled quantum states over significant distances is important to the development of future quantum technologies such as long-distance cryptography, networks of atomic clocks, distributed quantum computing, etc. Long-lived quantum memories and single photons are building blocks for systems capable of realizing such applications. The ability to store and retrieve quantum information while filtering unwanted light signals is critical to the operation of quantum memories based on neutral-atom ensembles. We report on an efficient frequency filter which uses a glass cell filled with 85Rb vapor to attenuate noise photons by an order of magnitude with little loss to the single photons associated with the operation of our cold 87Rb quantum memory. An Ar buffer gas is required to differentiate between signal and noise photons or similar statement. Our simple, passive filter requires no optical pumping or external frequency references and provides an additional 18 dB attenuation of our pump laser for every 1 dB loss of the single photon signal. We observe improved non-classical correlations and our data shows that the addition of a frequency filter increases the non-classical correlations and readout efficiency of our quantum memory by ~ 35%.

  9. Rydberg-Ritz analysis and quantum defects for Rb and Cs atoms on helium nanodroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackner, Florian; Krois, Günter; Ernst, Wolfgang E.

    2013-08-01

    A Rydberg-Ritz approach is used for the interpretation of Rb-He? and Cs-He? Rydberg states and Rydberg series. Variations of the quantum defects within a Rydberg series give insight into the interaction between the alkali atom's valence electron and the superfluid helium droplet. A screening of the valence electron from the alkali atom core by the helium droplet is observed for high Rydberg states. For states with lower principal quantum number, the effect decreases and the quantum defects are found to lie closer to free atom values, indicating an increased probability for the electron to be found inside the alkali atom core. An investigation of the spin-orbit splitting of the Cs-He? nP(2Π) components reveals that the splitting of the lowest 2Π states is more atom-like [Hund's case (c) coupling] than at higher n states [Hund's case (a) coupling]. In addition, we report a detailed study of the droplet size dependence of Ak-He? Rydberg series on the example of the Rb-He? D(Δ) series. Higher Rydberg states of this series are strongly redshifted, which is also related to the screening effect.

  10. Quorum Sensing Activity of Serratia fonticola Strain RB-25 Isolated from an Ex-landfill Site

    PubMed Central

    Ee, Robson; Lim, Yan-Lue; Tee, Kok-Keng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    Quorum sensing is a unique bacterial communication system which permits bacteria to synchronize their behaviour in accordance with the population density. The operation of this communication network involves the use of diffusible autoinducer molecules, termed N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs). Serratia spp. are well known for their use of quorum sensing to regulate the expression of various genes. In this study, we aimed to characterized the AHL production of a bacterium designated as strain RB-25 isolated from a former domestic waste landfill site. It was identified as Serratia fonticola using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis and this was confirmed by 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. High resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of S. fonticola strain RB-25 spent culture supernatant indicated the existence of three AHLs namely: N-butyryl-L-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL), N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL) and N-(3-oxohexanoyl) homoserine-lactone (3-oxo-C6 HSL). This is the first report of the production of these AHLs in S. fonticola. PMID:24625739

  11. Ionization Spectroscopic Measurement of nP Rydberg Levels of 87Rb Cold Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yufan; Zaheeruddin, Syed; Zhao, Dongmei; Ma, Xinwen; Yang, Jie

    2018-05-01

    We created an ultracold plasma via the spontaneous ionization of cold dense Rydberg atoms of 87Rb in a magneto-optical trap (MOT), and measured the nS1/2 (n = 50-80), nP1/2 (n = 16-23), nP3/2 (n = 16-98), and nD5/2 (n = 49-96) Rydberg levels by detecting the electrons in the ultracold plasma. By fitting the energy levels of Rydberg states, the first ionization potential of 33690.950(11) cm-1 and the quantum defects of S, P, and D orbitals were obtained. The absolute transition energies of nS1/2 (n = 66-80), nP1/2 (n = 16-23), nP3/2 (n = 16-98), and nD5/2 (n = 58-96) states of 87Rb, as well as the quantum defects for p1/2 and p3/2 series, are given for the first time.

  12. High-spin states in the N=50 nucleus ^87Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotiades, N.; Cizewski, J. A.; Krücken, R.; Clark, R. M.; Fallon, P.; Lee, I. Y.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Becker, J. A.; Bernstein, L. A.; McNabb, D. P.; Younes, W.

    2001-10-01

    High-spin states in ^87Rb have been studied following the fission of two compound nuclei (^199Tl and ^197Pb) formed in different fusion-evaporation reactions. The Gammasphere array at LBNL was used to detect γ-ray coincidences. The level scheme has been extended above the previously known 1578 keV, 9/2^+ isomer by observation of many states up to ~7.2 MeV excitation energy. Coupling of the odd g_9/2 proton to the yrast states in the ^86Kr core accounts for the first excited states observed above the 9/2^+ isomer. The level scheme of ^87Rb is also compared to excitations in ^85Kr and the ^89Y isotone. This work has been supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contracts No. W-7405-ENG-36 (LANL), FG02-91ER-40609 (Yale), W-7405-ENG-48 (LLNL) and AC03-76SF00098 (LBNL) and by the National Science Foundation (Rutgers).

  13. Manipulation of ultracold Rb atoms using a single linearly chirped laser pulse.

    PubMed

    Collins, T A; Malinovskaya, S A

    2012-06-15

    At ultracold temperatures, atoms are free from thermal motion, which makes them ideal objects of investigations aiming to advance high-precision spectroscopy, metrology, quantum computation, producing Bose condensates, etc. The quantum state of ultracold atoms may be created and manipulated by making use of quantum control methods employing low-intensity pulses. We theoretically investigate population dynamics of ultracold Rb vapor induced by nanosecond linearly chirped pulses having kW/cm2 beam intensity and show a possibility of controllable population transfer between hyperfine (HpF) levels of 5(2)/S(1/2) state through Raman transitions. Satisfying the one-photon resonance condition with the lowest of the HpF states of 5(2)/P(1/2) or 5(2)/P(3/2) state allows us to enter the adiabatic region of population transfer at very low field intensities, such that corresponding Rabi frequencies are less than or equal to the HpF splitting. This methodology provides a robust way to create a specifically designed superposition state in Rb in the basis of HpF levels and perform state manipulation controllable on the picosecond-to-nanosecond time scale.

  14. Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr, and Mn-Cr Ages of Yamato 74013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C.- Y.; Reese, Y.D.

    2009-01-01

    Yamato 74013 is one of 29 paired diogenites having granoblastic textures. The Ar-39 - Ar-40 age of Y-74097 is approximately 1100 Ma. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd analyses of Y-74013, -74037, -74097, and -74136 suggested that multiple young metamorphic events disturbed their isotopic systems. Masuda et al. reported that REE abundances were heterogeneous even within the same sample (Y-74010) for sample sizes less than approximately 2 g. Both they and Nyquist et al. reported data for some samples showing significant LREE enrichment. In addition to its granoblastic texture, Y-74013 is characterized by large, isolated clots of chromite up to 5 mm in diameter. Takeda et al. suggested that these diogenites originally represented a single or very small number of coarse orthopyroxene crystals that were recrystallized by shock processes. They further suggested that initial crystallization may have occurred very early within the deep crust of the HED parent body. Here we report the chronology of Y-74013 as recorded in chronometers based on long-lived Rb-87 and Sm-147, intermediate- lived Sm-146, and short-lived Mn-53.

  15. Kinetics of Mismatch Formation opposite Lesions by the Replicative DNA Polymerase from Bacteriophage RB69

    SciTech Connect

    Hogg, Matthew; Rudnicki, Jean; Midkiff, John

    2010-04-12

    The fidelity of DNA replication is under constant threat from the formation of lesions within the genome. Oxidation of DNA bases leads to the formation of altered DNA bases such as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine, commonly called 8-oxoG, and 2-hydroxyadenenine, or 2-OHA. In this work we have examined the incorporation kinetics opposite these two oxidatively derived lesions as well as an abasic site analogue by the replicative DNA polymerase from bacteriophage RB69. We compared the kinetic parameters for both wild type and the low fidelity L561A variant. While nucleotide incorporation rates (k{sub pol}) were generally higher for the variant, the presence of amore » lesion in the templating position reduced the ability of both the wild-type and variant DNA polymerases to form ternary enzyme-DNA-dNTP complexes. Thus, the L561A substitution does not significantly affect the ability of the RB69 DNA polymerase to recognize damaged DNA; instead, the mutation increases the probability that nucleotide incorporation will occur. We have also solved the crystal structure of the L561A variant forming an 8-oxoG {center_dot} dATP mispair and show that the propensity for forming this mispair depends on an enlarged polymerase active site.« less

  16. Optimization of lipase-catalyzed synthesis of ginsenoside Rb1 esters using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiang-Ning; Lee, Jeung-Hee; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Shin, Jung-Ah; Adhikari, Prakash; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Lee, Ki-Teak

    2008-11-26

    In the lipase (Novozyme 435)-catalyzed synthesis of ginsenoside Rb1 esters, different acyl donors were found to affect not only the degree of conversion but also the regioselectivity. The reaction of acyl donors with short carbon chain was more effective, showing higher conversion than those with long carbon chain. Among the three solvent systems, the reaction in tert-amyl alcohol showed the highest conversion rate, while the reaction in the mixed solvent of t-BuOH and pyridine (1:1) had the lowest conversion rate. To allow the increase of GRb1 lipophilicity, we decided to further study the optimal condition of synthesis of GRb1 with vinyl decanoate with 10 carbon chain fatty acids in tert-amyl alcohol. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the synthesis condition. From the ridge analysis with maximum responses, the maximum GRb1 conversion was predicted to be 61.51% in a combination of factors (40.2 h, 52.95 degrees C, substrate mole ratio 275.57, and enzyme amount 39.81 mg/mL). Further, the adequacy of the predicted model was examined by additional independent experiments at the predicted maximum synthesis conditions. Results showed that the RSM was effective to optimize a combination of factors for lipase-catalyzed synthesis of ginsenoside Rb1 with vinyl decanoate.

  17. Rietveld refinement of the crystal structures of Rb2 XSi5O12 (X = Ni, Mn).

    PubMed

    Bell, Anthony M T; Henderson, C Michael B

    2016-02-01

    The synthetic leucite silicate framework mineral analogues Rb2 XSi5O12 {X = Ni [dirubidium nickel(II) penta-silicate] and Mn [dirubidium manganese(II) penta-silicate]} have been prepared by high-temperature solid-state synthesis. The results of Rietveld refinements, using X-ray powder diffraction data collected using Cu Kα X-rays, show that the title compounds crystallize in the space group Pbca and adopt the cation-ordered structure of Cs2CdSi5O12 and other leucites. The structures consist of tetra-hedral SiO4 and XO4 units sharing corners to form a partially substituted silicate framework. Extraframework Rb(+) cations sit in channels in the framework. All atoms occupy the 8c general position for this space group. In these refined structures, silicon and X atoms are ordered onto separate tetra-hedrally coordinated sites (T-sites). However, the Ni displacement parameter and the Ni-O bond lengths suggest that for the X = Ni sample, there may actually be some T-site cation disorder.

  18. Rietveld refinement of the crystal structures of Rb2 XSi5O12 (X = Ni, Mn)

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Anthony M. T.; Henderson, C. Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    The synthetic leucite silicate framework mineral analogues Rb2 XSi5O12 {X = Ni [dirubidium nickel(II) penta­silicate] and Mn [dirubidium manganese(II) penta­silicate]} have been prepared by high-temperature solid-state synthesis. The results of Rietveld refinements, using X-ray powder diffraction data collected using Cu Kα X-rays, show that the title compounds crystallize in the space group Pbca and adopt the cation-ordered structure of Cs2CdSi5O12 and other leucites. The structures consist of tetra­hedral SiO4 and XO4 units sharing corners to form a partially substituted silicate framework. Extraframework Rb+ cations sit in channels in the framework. All atoms occupy the 8c general position for this space group. In these refined structures, silicon and X atoms are ordered onto separate tetra­hedrally coordinated sites (T-sites). However, the Ni displacement parameter and the Ni—O bond lengths suggest that for the X = Ni sample, there may actually be some T-site cation disorder. PMID:26958399

  19. Extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray spectral lines in Rb XXIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indu, Khatri; Arun, Goyal; Sunny, Aggarwal; A, K. Singh; Man, Mohan

    2016-03-01

    An extensive theoretical set of atomic data for Rb XXIX in a wide range with L-shell electron excitations to the M-shell has been reported. We have computed energy levels for the lowest 113 fine structure levels of Rb XXIX. The fully relativistic multiconfigurational Dirac-Fock method (MCDF) within the framework of Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian taking quantum electrodynamics (QED) and Breit corrections into account has been adopted for calculations. Radiative data are reported for electric dipole (E1), magnetic dipole (M1), electric quadrupole (E2), and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions from the ground level, although calculations have been performed for a much larger number of levels. To assess the accuracy of results, we performed analogous calculations using flexible atomic code (FAC). Comparisons are made with existing available results and a good agreement has been achieved. Most of the wavelengths calculated lie in the soft x-ray (SXR) region. Lifetimes for all 113 levels have also been provided for the first time. Additionally, we have provided the spectra for allowed transitions from n = 2 to n = 3 within the x-ray region and also compared our SXR photon wavelengths with experimentally recognized wavelengths. We hope that our results will be beneficial in fusion plasma research and astrophysical applications.

  20. In situ measurements of the Runaway Breakdown (RB) on Aragats mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilingarian, A.; Hovsepyan, G.; Mailyan, B.

    2017-12-01

    Acceleration and multiplication of the cosmic ray electrons by strong electric fields in the thundercloud are well-established phenomena comprising the core of the atmospheric high-energy physics. The majority of experimental data on particle acceleration in the thunderclouds comes from space-born experiments detecting Terrestrial Gamma flashes (TGFs) and from networks of particle detectors located on the earth's surface observing Thunderstorm Ground Enhancements (TGEs). Models for explaining both TGF and TGE are based on the concept of a Runaway Breakdown (RB) introduced by A. Gurevich. Prove of these models requires registration of the electromagnetic avalanches developing in the thundercloud and reaching the earth's surface. Unfortunately due to high location of cloud and fast attenuation of electrons in the atmosphere the registration of such an avalanches are very rare. On Aragats mountain in Armenia, where the cloud location is very low we observe several TGE events with sizable electron contribution. We present direct measurements of such an avalanches lasting less than a microsecond; hundreds of such avalanches comprise a TGE lasting few minutes. We recovered as well the differential energy spectra of electron and gamma ray content of avalanches. The abrupt termination of the particle flux by nearby lightning indicates that RB process precedes (initiates) the lightning flash.

  1. Zn uptake behavior of rice genotypes and its implication on grain Zn biofortification

    PubMed Central

    Johnson-Beebout, Sarah E.; Goloran, Johnvie Bayang; Rubianes, Francis H. C.; Jacob, Jack D. C.; Castillo, Oliver B.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding Zn uptake dynamics is critical to rice grain Zn biofortification. Here we examined soil Zn availability and Zn uptake pathways as affected by genotype (high-grain Zn varieties IR69428 and IR68144), Zn fertilization and water management in two pot experiments. Results showed significant interactions (P < 0.05) between genotypes and Zn fertilization on DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid)-extractable soil Zn from early tillering to flowering. DTPA-extractable Zn in soils grown with IR69428 was positively correlated with stem (r = 0.78, P < 0.01), flagleaf (r = 0.60, P < 0.01) and grain (r = 0.67, P < 0.01) Zn concentrations, suggesting improved soil Zn availability and continued soil Zn uptake by IR69428 even at maturity. Conversely for IR68144, DTPA-extractable Zn was positively correlated only with leaf Zn uptake (r = 0.60, P < 0.01) at active tillering, indicating dependence on remobilization for grain Zn loading. Furthermore, the highest grain Zn concentration (P < 0.05) was produced by a combination of IR69428 and Zn fertilization applied at panicle initiation (38.5 μg g−1) compared with other treatments (P < 0.05). The results highlight that Zn uptake behavior of a rice genotype determines the fate of Zn from the soil to the grain. This has implications on overcoming Zn translocation barriers between vegetative parts and grains, and achieving grain Zn biofortification targets (30.0 μg g−1). PMID:27910900

  2. X-ray photoemission analysis of chemically modified TlBr surfaces for improved radiation detectors

    DOE PAGES

    Nelson, A. J.; Voss, L. F.; Beck, P. R.; ...

    2013-01-12

    We subjected device-grade TlBr to various chemical treatments used in room temperature radiation detector fabrication to determine the resulting surface composition and electronic structure. As-polished TlBr was treated separately with HCl, SOCl 2, Br:MeOH and HF solutions. High-resolution photoemission measurements on the valence band electronic structure and Tl 4f, Br 3d, Cl 2p and S 2p core lines were used to evaluate surface chemistry and shallow heterojunction formation. Surface chemistry and valence band electronic structure were correlated with the goal of optimizing the long-term stability and radiation response.

  3. X-ray photoemission analysis of chemically modified TlBr surfaces for improved radiation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, A. J.; Voss, L. F.; Beck, P. R.; Graff, R. T.; Conway, A. M.; Nikolic, R. J.; Payne, S. A.; Lee, J.-S.; Kim, H.; Cirignano, L.; Shah, K.

    2013-04-01

    Device-grade TlBr was subjected to various chemical treatments used in room temperature radiation detector fabrication to determine the resulting surface composition and electronic structure. As-polished TlBr was treated separately with HCl, SOCl2, Br:MeOH, and HF solutions. High-resolution photoemission measurements on the valence band electronic structure and Tl 4f, Br 3d, Cl 2p, and S 2p core lines were used to evaluate surface chemistry and shallow heterojunction formation. Surface chemistry and valence band electronic structure were correlated with the goal of optimizing the long-term stability and radiation response.

  4. Facile synthesis of CsPbBr3/PbSe composite clusters

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thang Phan; Ozturk, Abdullah; Park, Jongee; Sohn, Woonbae; Lee, Tae Hyung; Jang, Ho Won; Kim, Soo Young

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In this work, CsPbBr3 and PbSe nanocomposites were synthesized to protect perovskite material from self-enlargement during reaction. UV absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicate that the addition of Se into CsPbBr3 quantum dots modified the electronic structure of CsPbBr3, increasing the band gap from 2.38 to 2.48 eV as the Cs:Se ratio increased to 1:3. Thus, the emission color of CsPbBr3 perovskite quantum dots was modified from green to blue by increasing the Se ratio in composites. According to X-ray diffraction patterns, the structure of CsPbBr3 quantum dots changed from cubic to orthorhombic due to the introduction of PbSe at the surface. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy confirmed that the atomic distribution in CsPbBr3/PbSe composite clusters is uniform and the composite materials were well formed. The PL intensity of a CsPbBr3/PbSe sample with a 1:1 Cs:Se ratio maintained 50% of its initial intensity after keeping the sample for 81 h in air, while the PL intensity of CsPbBr3 reduced to 20% of its initial intensity. Therefore, it is considered that low amounts of Se could improve the stability of CsPbBr3 quantum dots. PMID:29296127

  5. STS-65 crewmembers work at IML-2 Rack 5 Biorack (BR) aboard Columbia, OV-102

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-07-23

    STS-65 Mission Specialist (MS) Leroy Chiao (top) and MS Donald A. Thomas are seen at work in the International Microgravity Laboratory 2 (IML-2) spacelab science module aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. The two crewmembers are conducting experiments at the IML-2 Rack 5 Biorack (BR). Chiao places a sample in the BR incubator as Thomas handles another sample inside the BR glovebox. The glovebox is used to prepare samples for BR and slow rotating centrifuge microscope (NIZEMI) experiments.

  6. STS-65 crewmembers work at IML-2 Rack 5 Biorack (BR) aboard Columbia, OV-102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Mission Specialist (MS) Leroy Chiao (top) and MS Donald A. Thomas are seen at work in the International Microgravity Laboratory 2 (IML-2) spacelab science module aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. The two crewmembers are conducting experiments at the IML-2 Rack 5 Biorack (BR). Chiao places a sample in the BR incubator as Thomas handles another sample inside the BR glovebox. The glovebox is used to prepare samples for BR and slow rotating centrifuge microscope (NIZEMI) experiments.

  7. Simple radiosensitizing of hypoxic tumor tissues by N2O/Br(-) mixture.

    PubMed

    Billik, P

    2015-07-01

    The radiosensitization model of hypoxic tumor tissues based on the N2O/Br(-) mixture is described. The well-documented radiolysis of water in the presence of N2O and Br(-) ions at a low concentration supports this model. An aqueous solution saturated with N2O gas during the radiolysis generates OH radicals in a large extent. In N2O/Br- media at pH<9, Br2 is formed. Br2 hydrolyzes in an aqueous solution to form a very reactive hypobromous (HOBr) acid. Such process is described by the following chemical reaction: H2O + Br(-) + N2O + ionizing radiation (IR) --> HOBr + OH(-). In vivo formed HOBr as a long-lived product with a high biological activity induces the hypoxic tumor cell damage via many unique mechanisms. A local application or inhalation of an N2O-O2 mixture before or during the radiotherapy to enhance the saturation of tissues with N2O is a key prerequisite. Since the extracellular concentration of Br(-) ions is very low (0.02-0.05 mM), an oral or local application of NaBr should be used to shift the extracellular concentration of Br(-) ions to the mM region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Apparatus for improving the working time of the XeBr laser

    DOEpatents

    Sander, Robert K.; Balog, George; Seegmiller, Emma T.

    1982-01-01

    In XeBr lasers which make use of HBr as the source of bromine, it has been found that the working life of the laser is limited because of dissociation of the HBr in the lasing region to form H.sub.2 and Br.sub.2. Accordingly, apparatus is disclosed for substantially improving the working time of the XeBr laser wherein means are provided for recombining H.sub.2 and Br.sub.2 into HBr and for continuously circulating the gaseous working medium from the lasing region through the recombination region. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

  9. Global observations of tropospheric BrO columns using GOME-2 satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theys, N.; van Roozendael, M.; Hendrick, F.; Yang, X.; de Smedt, I.; Richter, A.; Begoin, M.; Errera, Q.; Johnston, P. V.; Kreher, K.; de Mazière, M.

    2011-02-01

    Measurements from the GOME-2 satellite instrument have been analyzed for tropospheric BrO using a residual technique that combines measured BrO columns and estimates of the stratospheric BrO content from a climatological approach driven by O3 and NO2 observations. Comparisons between the GOME-2 results and BrO vertical columns derived from correlative ground-based and SCIAMACHY nadir observations, present a good level of consistency. We show that the adopted technique enables separation of stratospheric and tropospheric fractions of the measured total BrO columns and allows quantitative study of the BrO plumes in polar regions. While some satellite observed plumes of enhanced BrO can be explained by stratospheric descending air, we show that most BrO hotspots are of tropospheric origin, although they are often associated to regions with low tropopause heights as well. Elaborating on simulations using the p-TOMCAT tropospheric chemical transport model, this result is found to be consistent with the mechanism of bromine release through sea salt aerosols production during blowing snow events. No definitive conclusion can be drawn however on the importance of blowing snow sources in comparison to other bromine release mechanisms. Outside polar regions, evidence is provided for a global tropospheric BrO background with column of 1-3 × 1013 molec cm-2, consistent with previous estimates.

  10. Global observations of tropospheric BrO columns using GOME-2 satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theys, N.; van Roozendael, M.; Hendrick, F.; Yang, X.; de Smedt, I.; Richter, A.; Begoin, M.; Errera, Q.; Johnston, P. V.; Kreher, K.; de Mazière, M.

    2010-11-01

    Measurements from the GOME-2 satellite instrument have been analyzed for tropospheric BrO using a residual technique that combines measured BrO columns and estimates of the stratospheric BrO content from a climatological approach driven by O3 and NO2 observations. Comparisons between the GOME-2 results and BrO vertical columns derived from correlative ground-based and SCIAMACHY nadir observations, present a good level of consistency. We show that the adopted technique enables separation of stratospheric and tropospheric fractions of the measured total BrO columns and allows quantitative study of the BrO plumes in polar regions. While some satellite observed plumes of enhanced BrO can be explained by stratospheric descending air, we show that most BrO hotspots are of tropospheric origin, although they are often associated to regions with low tropopause heights as well. Elaborating on simulations using the p-TOMCAT tropospheric chemical transport model, this result is found to be consistent with the mechanism of bromine release through sea salt aerosols production during blowing snow events. Outside polar regions, evidence is provided for a global tropospheric BrO background with column of 1-3×1013 molec/cm2, consistent with previous estimates.

  11. Apparatus for improving the working time of the XeBr laser

    DOEpatents

    Sander, R.K.; Balog, G.; Seegmiller, E.T.

    1980-03-04

    In XeBr lasers which make use of HBr as the source of bromine, it has been found that the working life of the laser is limited because of dissociation of the HBr in the lasing region to form H/sub 2/ and Br/sub 2/. Accordingly, apparatus is disclosed for substantially improving the working time of the XeBr laser wherein means are provided for recombining H/sub 2/ and Br/sub 2/ into HBr and for continuously circulating the gaseous working medium from the lasing region through the recombination region.

  12. Ge14 Br8 (PEt3 )4 : A Subhalide Cluster of Germanium.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Tanja; Schrenk, Claudio; Schnepf, Andreas

    2018-04-03

    Heating a metastable solution of Ge I Br to room temperature led to the first structurally characterized metalloid subhalide cluster Ge 14 Br 8 (PEt 3 ) 4 (1). Furthermore 1 can be seen as the first isolated binary halide cluster on the way from Ge I Br to elemental germanium, giving insight into the complex reaction mechanism of its disproportionation reaction. Quantum chemical calculations further indicate that a classical bonding situation is realized within 1 and that the last step of the formation of 1 might include the trapping of GeBr 2 units. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. ZnMoO4:Er3+,Yb3+ phosphor with controlled morphology and enhanced upconversion through alkali ions doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luitel, Hom Nath; Chand, Rumi; Watari, Takanori

    2018-04-01

    A facile hydrothermal method was used to synthesize ZnMoO4:Er3+,Yb3+ nanoparticles. The shapes and sizes of the nanoparticles were well tuned by simply monitoring the pH of the starting solution. Microballs consisting of agglomerated nanograins were observed at strong acidic condition. At mild pH, plates and rectangular particles were realized, while strong basic pH stabilized rods. Further increasing pH to extremely basic conditions (pH > 13), rods changed to fragile hairy structures. The nucleation and growth mechanism of nanograins to form different morphology nanoparticles were studied and illustrated. XRD patterns confirmed well crystalline, triclinic structure despite small amount of aliovalent metal ions doping. Under 980 nm excitation, the ZnMoO4:Er3+,Yb3+ nanophosphor exhibited strong green (centered at 530 and 560 nm) and weak red (centered at 660 nm) upconversion (UC) emissions. Substitution of part of the Zn2+ ions by monovalent alkali ions intensified the UC emission intensities drastically. The order of intensification was K+>Na+>Li+>Rb+>no alkali ion. When Zn2+ ions were substituted with 10 at% K+ ions, the green and red UC emissions intensities increased by more than 50 and 15 folds, respectively. Time dependent measurements confirmed efficient Yb to Er energy transfer in the ZnMoO4:Er3+,Yb3+,K+ nanophosphor. The optimized ZnMoO4:Er3+,Yb3+,K+ phosphor exhibited intense UC emissions with 0.31% quantum yield. The upconverted light is visible to naked eye while pumping by laser of less than 1 mW power and opens door for variety of novel applications.

  14. Effects of annealing heat treatment on the corrosion resistance of Zn/Mg/Zn multilayer coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, KiTae; La, JoungHyun; Lee, InGyu; Lee, SangYul; Nam, KyungHoon

    2017-05-01

    Zn coatings alloyed with magnesium offer superior corrosion resistance compared to pure Zn or other Zn-based alloy coatings. In this study, Zn/Mg/Zn multilayer coatings with various Mg layer thicknesses were synthesized using an unbalanced magnetron sputtering process and were annealed to form Zn-Mg intermetallic phases. The effects of the annealing heat treatment on the corrosion resistance of the Zn/Mg/Zn multilayer coatings were evaluated using electrochemical measurements. The extensive diffusion of magnesium species into the upper and lower zinc layer from the magnesium layer in the middle of the coating was observed after the heat treatment. This phenomenon caused (a) the porous microstructure to transition into a dense structure and (b) the formation of a MgZn2 intermetallic phase. The results of the electrochemical measurements demonstrated that the heat treated Zn/Mg/Zn multilayer coatings possessed higher levels of corrosion resistance than the non-heat treated coatings. A Zn/Mg/Zn multilayer coating with MgZn2 and (Zn) phases showed the best corrosion resistance among the heat treated coatings, which could be attributed to the reduced galvanic corrosion effects due to a small potential gradient between the MgZn2 and zinc.

  15. Characterization of polycrystalline TlBr films for radiographic detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, P.R.; Shah, K.S.; Cirignano, L.J.

    1999-06-01

    Vapor deposited films of thallium bromide are evaluated as potential photoconductive layers in new large-area radiographic detectors. The attractiveness of the material lies in its inherent high effective atomic number and high density. Polycrystalline films up to 200 {micro}m in diameter. Current-voltage (IV) tests indicate a bulk resistivity of 10{sup 9}--10{sup 10} {Omega}-cm, limited by ionic conduction. Instability of current with time is also observed, but it can be minimized with cooling. The films demonstrate high gain at relatively low field strengths as compared to other photoconductive layers. Benefits and drawbacks of TlBr are compared to other materials, and possiblemore » solutions are discussed.« less

  16. The Brøset violence checklist (BVC).

    PubMed

    Woods, Phil; Almvik, R

    2002-01-01

    The Brøset violence checklist (BVC) is a short-term violence prediction instrument assessing confusion, irritability, boisterousness, verbal threats, physical threats and attacks on objects as either present or absent. The aim of this paper is to describe the evolution and usefulness of the BVC. This paper reviews studies on the BVC and discusses implications for further research. Empirical research has shown that it has moderate sensitivity and high specificity with an adequate inter-rater reliability. The BVC is a useful instrument for predicting inpatient violence within the next 24-h period. The psychometric properties of the instrument are satisfactory. Results from ongoing studies will give important information on cultural differences, the validity of the BVC in less well staffed wards, the clinical use of the checklist and its ability to predict violence throughout all the hospital stay.

  17. Role of Feshbach resonances in enhancing the production of deeply bound ultracold LiRb molecules with laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gacesa, Marko; Ghosal, Subhas; Côté, Robin

    2010-03-01

    We investigate the possibility of forming deeply bound LiRb molecules in a two-color photoassociation experiment. Ultracold ^6Li and ^87Rb atoms colliding in the vicinity of a magnetic Feshbach resonance are photoassociated into an excited electronic state. A wavepacket is then formed by exciting a few vibrational levels of the excited state and allowed to propagate. We calculate the time-dependent overlaps between the wave packet and the lowest vibrational levels of the ground state. After the optimal overlap is obtained we use the second laser pulse to dump the wave packet and efficiently populate the deeply bound ro-vibrational levels of ^6Li^87Rb in the ground state. The resulting combination of Feshbach-optimized photoassociation (FOPA) with the time-dependent pump-dump approach will produce a large number of stable ultracold molecules in the ground state. This technique is general and applicable to other systems.

  18. Cation displacements and the structures of the superconducting pyrochlore osmates AOs2O6 ( A=K , Rb, and Cs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galati, Rosa; Simon, Charles; Henry, Paul F.; Weller, Mark T.

    2008-03-01

    Variable temperature, 2KRb, and Cs, have been undertaken. Anomalous behaviors in the lattice parameter variations as a function of temperature for the superconducting osmates with A=K , and to a lesser extent for A=Rb , are associated with local, static displacements of the alkali metal cation, which occur below ˜80K . These displacements are random around the 8b position as modeled in the space group Fd-3m ; no evidence for decrease in symmetry from Fd-3m was observed for any sample above 2K . For the nonsuperconducting ANbTeO6 , A=K , Rb, and Cs, phases, similar structural and lattice parameter behaviors are observed with localization of the potassium ions in KNbTeO6 below ˜30K .

  19. Bandwidth and Electron Correlation-Tuned Superconductivity in Rb 0.8 Fe 2 ( Se 1 - z S z ) 2

    DOE PAGES

    Yi, M.; Wang, Meng; Kemper, A. F.; ...

    2015-12-15

    Here, we present a systematic angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy study of the substitution dependence of the electronic structure of Rb 0.8Fe 2(Se 1-zS z) 2 (z = 0, 0.5, 1), where superconductivity is continuously suppressed into a metallic phase. Going from the nonsuperconducting Rb 0.8Fe 2S 2 to superconducting Rb 0.8Fe 2Se 2, we observe little change of the Fermi surface topology, but a reduction of the overall bandwidth by a factor of 2. Hence, for these heavily electron-doped iron chalcogenides, we have identified electron correlation as explicitly manifested in the quasiparticle bandwidth to be the important tuning parameter for superconductivity,more » and that moderate correlation is essential to achieving high T C.« less

  20. Multiferroicity in the generic easy-plane triangular lattice antiferromagnet RbFe(MoO4)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, J. S.; Niedermayer, Ch.; Gasparovic, G.; Broholm, C.; Park, J. M. S.; Shapiro, A. Ya.; Demianets, L. A.; Kenzelmann, M.

    2013-08-01

    RbFe(MoO4)2 is a quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) triangular lattice antiferromagnet (TLA) that displays a zero-field magnetically driven multiferroic phase with a chiral spin structure. By inelastic neutron scattering, we determine quantitatively the spin Hamiltonian. We show that the easy-plane anisotropy is nearly 1/3 of the dominant spin exchange, making RbFe(MoO4)2 an excellent system for studying the physics of the model 2D easy-plane TLA. Our measurements demonstrate magnetic-field-induced fluctuations in this material to stabilize the generic finite-field phases of the 2D XY TLA. We further explain how Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions can generate ferroelectricity only in the zero-field phase. Our conclusion is that multiferroicity in RbFe(MoO4)2, and its absence at high fields, results from the generic properties of the 2D XY TLA.

  1. RbEu (Fe1-xNix) 4As4 : From a ferromagnetic superconductor to a superconducting ferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi; Liu, Ya-Bin; Yu, Ya-Long; Tao, Qian; Feng, Chun-Mu; Cao, Guang-Han

    2017-12-01

    The intrinsically hole-doped RbEuFe4As4 exhibits bulk superconductivity at Tsc=36.5 K and ferromagnetic ordering in the Eu sublattice at Tm=15 K. Here we present a hole-compensation study by introducing extra itinerant electrons via a Ni substitution in the ferromagnetic superconductor RbEuFe4As4 with Tsc>Tm . With the Ni doping, Tsc decreases rapidly, and the Eu-spin ferromagnetism and its Tm remain unchanged. Consequently, the system RbEu (Fe1-xNix) 4As4 transforms into a superconducting ferromagnet with Tm>Tsc for 0.07 ≤x ≤0.08 . The occurrence of superconducting ferromagnets is attributed to the decoupling between Eu2 + spins and superconducting Cooper pairs. The superconducting and magnetic phase diagram is established, which additionally includes a recovered yet suppressed spin-density-wave state.

  2. Novel water soluble morpholine substituted Zn(II) phthalocyanine: Synthesis, characterization, DNA/BSA binding, DNA photocleavage and topoisomerase I inhibition.

    PubMed

    Barut, Burak; Demirbaş, Ümit; Özel, Arzu; Kantekin, Halit

    2017-12-01

    In this study, novel peripherally tetra 3-morpholinophenol substituted zinc(II) phthalocyanine (4) and its water soluble form quaternized zinc(II) phthalocyanine (ZnQ) were synthesized for the first time. These novel compounds were characterized by a combination of different spectroscopic techniques such as FT-IR, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, UV-vis and mass. The DNA binding of ZnQ was investigated using UV-vis absorption titration, competitive ethidium bromide, thermal denaturation and viscosity experiments that the ZnQ bound to CT-DNA via intercalation mode. ZnQ indicated photocleavage activity on supercoiled pBR322 plasmid DNA via formation of singlet oxygen under irradiation at 700nm. Besides, the topoisomerase I inhibitory effect experiments showed that ZnQ inhibited topoisomerase I enzyme in a concentration-dependent manner. The bovine serum albumin (BSA) binding experiments indicated that ZnQ bound to proteins through a static quenching mechanism. All of these results claim that ZnQ has potential agent for photodynamic therapy owing to its nucleic acid interactions and photobiological or photochemical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterisation of a Zn / Ni Plating Bath

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-03

    accelerated corrosion in the first stages which is then slowed down by its own product of corrosion, Zn(OH)212. Zinc hydroxide dehydrates in time to form ZnO ... Electrochemistry , 1991, 21, 642 [5] – Alfantasi, A.M., A study on the synthesis, characterization ans properties of pulse-plated ultrafine- grained Zn-Ni alloy

  4. Relative Renal Blood Flow Measurements With Rb-82 and a Hybrid Gamma Camera Using a Pig Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pretorius, P. H.; Fung, L. C. T.; Schell, C. P.; King, M. A.

    2005-02-01

    We have successfully demonstrated with chronically implanted blood flow probes in a pig model that renal uptake of Rb-82 is indeed sensitive to acute renal blood flow changes. Two flow probes were placed around the left and right renal arteries in a surgical procedure nine weeks before the first Rb-82 measurements. Together with the flow probes, a flow restrictor was implanted around the left renal artery. Single bolus infusions of 6 mCi Rb-82 were used to study the uptake in the kidneys approximately 7 minutes apart in hybrid-image limited-angle acquisitions (stationary camera heads posterior and anterior of the pig) while changing the flow to the left kidney between acquisitions. The acquired data were reconstructed into 7.5-s frames using a maximum likelihood (ML) list-mode reconstruction algorithm exploiting timing signals inserted into the list every 0.25 s. Reconstructed data were orientated to coronal views before regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn over both kidneys with a separate background region for each. The data represented are noisy due to the reconstructed 7.5-s frames, and the total imaging time of 5 min (or 4 Rb-82 half-lives). We were able to show a steady decline in uptake of Rb-82 in the left kidney that correlates with the reduction in renal blood flow. The reduced blood flow to the left kidney affects the Rb-82 uptake to the right kidney slightly, while blood flow decreased up to 33%. Comparing the baseline renal blood flow of the left kidney obtained before and after the intervention indicates that some ischemia persists after blood flow was restored. Attenuation compensation better described the contour of the kidney but only scales the time activity curve without changing its shape.

  5. Neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rb1 on high glucose-induced neurotoxicity in primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Liu, Di; Zhang, Hong; Gu, Wenjuan; Liu, Yuqin; Zhang, Mengren

    2013-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rb1 is one of the main active principles in traditional herb ginseng and has been reported to have a wide variety of neuroprotective effects. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, so the present study aimed to observe the effects of ginsenoside Rb1 on ER stress signaling pathways in high glucose-treated hippocampal neurons. The results from MTT, TUNEL labeling and Annexin V-FITC/PI/Hoechst assays showed that incubating neurons with 50 mM high glucose for 72 h decreased cell viability and increased the number of apoptotic cells whereas treating neurons with 1 μM Rb1 for 72 h protected the neurons against high glucose-induced cell damage. Further molecular mechanism study demonstrated that Rb1 suppressed the activation of ER stress-associated proteins including protein kinase RNA (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK) and C/EBP homology protein (CHOP) and downregulation of Bcl-2 induced by high glucose. Moreover, Rb1 inhibited both the elevation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential induced by high glucose. In addition, the high glucose-induced cell apoptosis, activation of ER stress, ROS accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction can also be attenuated by the inhibitor of ER stress 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) and anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine(NAC). In conclusion, these results suggest that Rb1 may protect neurons against high glucose-induced cell injury through inhibiting CHOP signaling pathway as well as oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.

  6. Rb-Sr Isotopic Systematics of Alkali-Rich Fragments in the Yamato-74442 LL-Chondritic Breccia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yokoyama, T.; Misawa, K.; Okano, O.; Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Simo, J. I.; Tappa, M. J.; Yoneda, S.

    2012-01-01

    Alkali-rich igneous fragments were identified in the brecciated LL-chondrites, Kr henberg (LL5)], Bhola (LL3-6) and Yamato (Y)-74442 (LL4), and show characteristic fractionation patterns of alkaline elements. The K-Rb-Cs-rich fragments in Kr henberg, Bhola, and Y-74442 are very similar in mineralogy and petrography (olivine + pyroxene + glass), suggesting that they could have come from related precursor materials. We have undertaken Rb-Sr isotopic studies on alkali-rich fragments in Y-74442 to precisely determine their crystallization ages and the isotopic signatures of their precursor material(s).

  7. Insight into the structural, electronic, elastic and optical properties of the alkali hydride compounds, XH (X = Rb and Cs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaradat, Raed; Abu-Jafar, Mohammed; Abdelraziq, Issam; Mousa, Ahmad; Ouahrani, Tarik; Khenata, Rabah

    2018-04-01

    The equilibrium structural parameters, electronic and optical properties of the alkali hydrides RbH and CsH compounds in rock-salt (RS) and cesium chloride (CsCl) structures have been studied using the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FP-LAPW) method. Wu and Cohen generalized gradient approximation (WC-GGA) was used for the exchange-correlation potential to compute the equilibrium structural parameters, such as the lattice constant (a0), the bulk modulus (B) and bulk modulus first order pressure derivative (B'). In addition to the WC-GGA, the modified Becke Johnson (mBJ) scheme has been also used to overcome the underestimation of the band gap energies. RbH and CsH compounds are found to be semiconductors (wide energy-band gap) using the WC-GGA method, while they are insulators using the mBJ-GGA method. Elastic constants, mechanical and thermodynamic properties were obtained by using the IRelast package. RbH and CsH compounds at ambient pressure are mechanically stable in RS and CsCl structures; they satisfy the Born mechanical stability criteria. Elastic constants (Cij), bulk modulus (B), shear modulus (S) and Debye temperatures (θD) of RbH and CsH compounds decrease as the alkali radius increases. The RS structure of these compounds at ambient conditions is mechanically stronger than CsCl structure. RbH and CsH in RS and CsCl structures are suitable as dielectric compounds. The wide direct energy band gap for these compounds make them promising compounds for optoelectronic UV device applications. Both RbH and CsH have a wide absorption region, on the other hand RbH absorption is very huge compared to the CsH absorption, RbH is an excellent absorbent material, maximum absorption regions are located in the middle ultraviolet (MUV) region and far ultraviolet (FUV) region. The absorption coefficient α (w), imaginary part of the dielectric constant ɛ2(w) and the extinction coefficient k(w) vary in the same way. The present calculated results are in

  8. Cellphone-based detection platform for rbST biomarker analysis in milk extracts using a microsphere fluorescence immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Susann K J; Zhu, Hongying; Phillips, Stephen; Shiledar, Ashutosh; Feng, Steve; Tseng, Derek; van Ginkel, Leendert A; Nielen, Michel W F; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2014-11-01

    Current contaminant and residue monitoring throughout the food chain is based on sampling, transport, administration, and analysis in specialized control laboratories. This is a highly inefficient and costly process since typically more than 99% of the samples are found to be compliant. On-site simplified prescreening may provide a scenario in which only samples that are suspect are transported and further processed. Such a prescreening can be performed using a small attachment on a cellphone. To this end, a cellphone-based imaging platform for a microsphere fluorescence immunoassay that detects the presence of anti-recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) antibodies in milk extracts was developed. RbST administration to cows increases their milk production, but is illegal in the EU and a public health concern in the USA. The cellphone monitors the presence of anti-rbST antibodies (rbST biomarker), which are endogenously produced upon administration of rbST and excreted in milk. The rbST biomarker present in milk extracts was captured by rbST covalently coupled to paramagnetic microspheres and labeled by quantum dot (QD)-coupled detection antibodies. The emitted fluorescence light from these captured QDs was then imaged using the cellphone camera. Additionally, a dark-field image was taken in which all microspheres present were visible. The fluorescence and dark-field microimages were analyzed using a custom-developed Android application running on the same cellphone. With this setup, the microsphere fluorescence immunoassay and cellphone-based detection were successfully applied to milk sample extracts from rbST-treated and untreated cows. An 80% true-positive rate and 95% true-negative rate were achieved using this setup. Next, the cellphone-based detection platform was benchmarked against a newly developed planar imaging array alternative and found to be equally performing versus the much more sophisticated alternative. Using cellphone-based on-site analysis in

  9. Electrodeposition of Zn and Cu-Zn alloy from ZnO/CuO precursors in deep eutectic solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xueliang; Zou, Xingli; Lu, Xionggang; Lu, Changyuan; Cheng, Hongwei; Xu, Qian; Zhou, Zhongfu

    2016-11-01

    The electrodeposition of Zn and Cu-Zn alloy has been investigated in choline chloride (ChCl)/urea (1:2 molar ratio) based deep eutectic solvent (DES). Cyclic voltammetry study demonstrates that the reduction of Zn(II) to Zn is a diffusion-controlled quasi-reversible, one-step, two electrons transfer process. Chronoamperometric investigation indicates that the electrodeposition of Zn on a Cu electrode typically involves three-dimensional instantaneous nucleation with diffusion-controlled growth process. Micro/nanostructured Zn films can be obtained by controlling the electrodeposition potential and temperature. The electrodeposited Zn crystals preferentially orient parallel to the (101) plane. The Zn films electrodeposited under more positive potentials and low temperatures exhibit improved corrosion resistance in 3 wt% NaCl solution. In addition, Cu-Zn alloy films have also been electrodeposited directly from CuO-ZnO precursors in ChCl/urea-based DES. The XRD analysis indicates that the phase composition of the electrodeposited Cu-Zn alloy depends on the electrodeposition potential.

  10. NY-BR-1 Antigen Expression and anti-NY-BR-1 IgG in Egyptian Breast Cancer Patients: Clinicopathological and Prognostic Significance.

    PubMed

    Abu El-Nazar, Salma Y; Ghazy, Amany A; Ghoneim, Hossam E; Zoheir, Malak; Ahmed, Ahmed S; Sorour, Sally S; Abouelella, Amira M

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common gynecological malignancy in the world. In Egypt, it ranks the first among female malignancies with incidence of 37.7%. Over the last decades, the integration of prognostic and predictive markers in treatment decisions has led to more individualized and optimized therapy. NY-BR-1 antigen has been shown to be frequently expressed in breast cancers. The study aimed to assess the tissue expression of NY-BR-1 antigen and serum IgG antibody to this antigen in Egyptian breast cancer females. The study was conducted on 60 females (10 healthy, 10 having benign breast lesions, 40 with malignant breast cancer). NY-BR-1 Ag expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and anti-NY-BR-1 IgG was assessed by ELISA. Results revealed a significant difference in NY-BR-1 Ag expression between benign and malignant breast cancer patients. There was a significant correlation between NY-BR-1 antigen expression and estrogen receptor's status (P = 0.019), stage of the disease (P = 0.008), menopausal status (P = 0.008), lymph node involvement (P = 0.022) and anti-NY-BR-1 IgG (P = 0.032) among the studied individuals. In addition, there was a statistically significant increase in anti-NY-BR-1 IgG O.D. results among malignant breast cancer group. It is correlated with tumor type (P < 0.001) and progesterone receptor status (P = 0.038). In conclusion, our work may represent a step towards identification of a new prognostic marker specific for breast cancer.

  11. Improved yield and Zn accumulation for rice grain by Zn fertilization and optimized water management.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-yan; Wei, Yan-yan; Dong, Lan-xue; Lu, Ling-li; Feng, Ying; Zhang, Jie; Pan, Feng-shan; Yang, Xiao-e

    2014-04-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency and water scarcity are major challenges in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under an intensive rice production system. This study aims to investigate the impact of water-saving management and different Zn fertilization source (ZnSO4 and Zn-EDTA) regimes on grain yield and Zn accumulation in rice grain. Different water managements, continuous flooding (CF), and alternate wetting and drying (AWD) were applied during the rice growing season. Compared with CF, the AWD regime significantly increased grain yield and Zn concentrations in both brown rice and polished rice. Grain yield of genotypes (Nipponbare and Jiaxing27), on the average, was increased by 11.4%, and grain Zn concentration by 3.9% when compared with those under a CF regime. Zn fertilization significantly increased Zn density in polished rice, with a more pronounced effect of ZnSO4 being observed as compared with Zn-EDTA, especially under an AWD regime. Decreased phytic acid content and molar ratio of phytic acid to Zn were also noted in rice grains with Zn fertilization. The above results demonstrated that water management of AWD combined with ZnSO4 fertilization was an effective agricultural practice to elevate grain yield and increase Zn accumulation and bioavailability in rice grains.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO/ZnSe NWs/PbS QDs solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamruzzaman, M.; Zapien, J. A.

    2017-04-01

    The capture of solar energy has gained the attention for the next generation solar cell. ZnO/ZnSe NW arrays were synthesized on an FTO glass substrate using a simple and facile hydrothermal and ion-exchange approaches. The lead sulfide (PbS) QDs was infiltrated into ZnO/ZnSe NWs via SILAR method for making inorganic quantum dot sensitized ZnO/ZnSe/PbS QDs solar cell. The surface morphology, structural, optical, and J-V characteristics have been investigated. The ZnO/ZnSe NW is a core-shell like structure, and the absorption edge shifted from the UV region (ZnO NWs) to the near infrared region for ZnO/ZnSe NWs/PbS QDs. For PbS QDs-sensitized solar cell, the obtained value of η = 1.1%, J sc = 20.60 mA/cm2, V oc = 155 mV, and FF = 34.7%, respectively. The photovoltaic performance of the device in this study is still inferior. However, it is the first report regarding to ZnO/ZnZe NWs/PbS QDs solar cell. The achieving high absorption and large short circuit current density may interest in further improvement of the device performance by suppressing surface defects, optimizing the quality of ZnO/ZnSe NWs and PbS QDs.

  13. Fluorescence properties of alloyed ZnSeS quantum dots overcoated with ZnTe and ZnTe/ZnS shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adegoke, Oluwasesan; Mashazi, Philani; Nyokong, Tebello; Forbes, Patricia B. C.

    2016-04-01

    Fluorescent alloyed ternary ZnSeS quantum dots (QDs) have been synthesized via the pyrolysis of organometallic precursors. The effects of passivation of ZnTe and ZnTe/ZnS shells on the optical properties of the ternary alloyed ZnSeS core have been studied. A ligand exchange reaction using L-cysteine as a capping ligand was used to obtain water-soluble nanocrystals. The nanocrystals were each characterized by UV/vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) of alloyed ZnSeS QDs was 14% and this value increased to 27% when ZnTe was overcoated around the surface but further coating with a ZnS shell decreased the PL QY slightly to 24%. This implies that ZnTe shell suppressed non-radiative recombination exciton states in the alloyed core while further layering with a ZnS shell offered no further improvement in suppressing the defect states. XPS analysis confirmed the presence of the first shell layering but showed a weakened intensity signal of S (2p) and Se (3d) for the ZnSeS/ZnTe/ZnS QDs. Our work demonstrates for the first time that shell passivation of alloyed Zn-based QDs can offer improved optical properties. We hope the optical information presented in this work will be useful in the selection of alloyed Zn-based QDs appropriate for the intended application.

  14. Controllable synthesis of dual emissive Ag:InP/ZnS quantum dots with high fluorescence quantum yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wu; He, Guoxing; Mei, Shiliang; Zhu, Jiatao; Zhang, Wanlu; Chen, Qiuhang; Zhang, Guilin; Guo, Ruiqian

    2017-11-01

    Dual emissive Cd-free quantum dots (QDs) are in great demand for various applications. However, their synthesis has been faced with challenges. Here, we demonstrate the dual emissive Ag:InP/ZnS core/shell QDs with the excellent photoluminescence quantum yield (PL QY) up to 75% and their PL dependence on the reaction temperature, reaction time, the different ZnX2 (X = I, Cl, and Br) precursors, the ratio of In/Zn and the Ag dopant concentration. The as-prepared Ag:InP/ZnS QDs exhibit dual emission with one peak position of about 492 nm owing to the intrinsic emission, and the other peak position of about 575 nm resulting from Ag-doped emission. These dual emissive QDs are integrated with the commercial GaN-based blue LEDs, and the simulation results show that the Ag:InP/ZnS QDs-based white LEDs could realize bright natural white-lights with the luminous efficacy (LE) of 94.2-98.4 lm/W, the color rendering index (CRI) of 82-83 and the color quality scale (CQS) of 82-83 at different correlated color temperatures (CCT). This unique combination of the above properties makes this new class of dual emissive QDs attractive for white LED applications.

  15. An In-Situ Rb-Sr Dating & Organics Characterization Instrument For A MER+ Sized Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, F.; Whitaker, T.; Nowicki, K.; Zacny, K.; Pierce, J.

    2012-12-01

    We posit that a Mars in-situ geochronology mission that will triage and validate samples for Mars Sample Return (MSR) is technically feasible in the 2018-2022 time frame and addresses the competing scientific, political, and fiscal requirements for flight in this decade.The mission must be responsive to the astrobiological and chronological science goals of the MEPAG, Decadal Survey (DS), and E2E-iSAG, and avoid the MSR appearance of long term political commitment and cost. These requirements can best be accomplished by a rover with a coring drill. JPL has reassessed the MER landing system performance, and determined that the system is capable of significantly higher landed mass (~40-60 kg plus reserve), allowing more sophisticated instruments to be carried. The instrument package is comprised of a time of flight (TOF) mass spectrometer combined with a laser desorption resonance ionization source to sensitively measure isobar free Rb-Sr isotopes for geochronology and organics characterization. The desorption laser is also used with a μRaman/LIBS for mineral characterization, which in combination with the TOF, will additionally provide measurements of K-Ar isotopes for a second form of radiometric dating. The laser desorption resonance ionization mass spectrometry (LDRIMS) technique avoids the interference and mass resolution issues associated with geochronology measurements, and has miniaturization potential. A sample is placed in the TOF mass spectrometer and surface atoms, molecules, and ions are desorbed with a 213 nm laser. Ions are suppressed by an electric field and the plume of expanding particles is present for many μs, during which it is first illuminated with laser light tuned to ionize only Sr, and then 1-3 μs later, for Rb. We have partially miniaturized the instrument, including Sr lasers, ablation laser, and mass spectrometer, and will soon to start using the instrument for field measurements. Our current prototype can measure the isotope ratio of

  16. Tuning growth cycles of Brassica crops via natural antisense transcripts of BrFLC.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaorong; Zhang, Shaofeng; Bai, Jinjuan; He, Yuke

    2016-03-01

    Several oilseed and vegetable crops of Brassica are biennials that require a prolonged winter cold for flowering, a process called vernalization. FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) is a central repressor of flowering. Here, we report that the overexpression of natural antisense transcripts (NATs) of Brassica rapa FLC (BrFLC) greatly shortens plant growth cycles. In rapid-, medium- and slow-cycling crop types, there are four copies of the BrFLC genes, which show extensive variation in sequences and expression levels. In Bre, a biennial crop type that requires vernalization, five NATs derived from the BrFLC2 locus are rapidly induced under cold conditions, while all four BrFLC genes are gradually down-regulated. The transgenic Bre lines overexpressing a long NAT of BrFLC2 do not require vernalization, resulting in a gradient of shortened growth cycles. Among them, a subset of lines both flower and set seeds as early as Yellow sarson, an annual crop type in which all four BrFLC genes have non-sense mutations and are nonfunctional in flowering repression. Our results demonstrate that the growth cycles of biennial crops of Brassica can be altered by changing the expression levels of BrFLC2 NATs. Thus, BrFLC2 NATs and their transgenic lines are useful for the genetic manipulation of crop growth cycles. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Allele mining in the gene pool of wild Solanum species for homologues of late blight resistance gene RB/Rpi-blb1

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Solanum bulbocastanum comprising a CC-NBS-LRR gene RB/Rpi-blb1 confers broad-spectrum resistance to Phytophthora infestans and is currently employed in potato breeding for durable late blight (LB) resistance. Genomes of several Solanum species were reported to contain RB homologues with confirmed b...

  18. Effect of thermal treatment on Zn nanodisks

    SciTech Connect

    Acuña-Avila, Pedro E., E-mail: pacunaa004@alumno.uaemex.mx; López, Roberto; Vigueras-Santiago, Enrique

    2015-06-15

    Metallic Zn nanodisks with hexagonal morphology were obtained onto glass substrate under vacuum thermal evaporation. A thermal characterization of Zn nanodiks showed a lower oxidation temperature than source powder Zn. Different thermal treatment on Zn nanodisks played an important role on the morphology, crystal size and surface vibrational modes of ZnO. The growth of ZnO nanoneedles started at the edge of metallic zinc hexagonal structures according with SEM images, the higher temperature the longer needles were grown. XRD diffractogram confirmed the wurtzite structure of ZnO with metallic nuclei. A wide band between 530 and 580 cm{sup −1} of Raman scatteringmore » corresponded at surface vibrational modes not observed at higher temperature.« less

  19. Insight into inhibition of the human amyloid beta protein precursor (APP: PDB ID ) using (E)-N-(pyridin-2-ylmethylene)arylamine (LR) models: structure elucidation of a family of ZnX2-LR complexes.

    PubMed

    Basu Baul, Tushar S; Kundu, Sajal; Singh, Palwinder; Shaveta; Guedes da Silva, M Fátima C

    2015-02-07

    The amyloid beta precursor protein (APP) and its neurotoxic cleavage product amyloid beta (Aβ) are a cause of Alzheimer's disease and appear essential for neuronal development and cell homeostasis. Proteolytic processing of APP is influenced by metal ions and protein ligands, however the structural and functional mechanism of APP regulation is not known so far. In this context, molecular modeling studies were performed to understand the molecular behavior of (E)-N-(pyridin-2-ylmethylene)arylamines (LR) with an E2 domain of the APP in its complex with zinc (APP; PDB ID: ). Docking results indeed confirmed that the LR interacts with Zn in the binding site of the protein between two α-helical chains. In view of these findings, LR was further investigated for complexation reactions with Zn(2+) in order to establish the structural models in solution and in the solid state. Five new Zn(2+) complexes of compositions viz. [Zn(Br)2(L2-Me)] (), [Zn(Br)2(L2-OMe)] (), [Zn(i)2(L2-OMe)] (), [Zn(NO3)2(L2-OMe)(H2O)] () and [Zn(L4-Me)2(H2O)2](NO3)2 () were synthesized and their structures were ascertained by microanalysis, IR and (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The zinc atom in complex exhibits a distorted tetrahedral geometry while the crystal structures of complexes and show distorted square pyramidal geometries. The zinc cation in and has an octahedral coordination environment, but in the zinc coordination geometry is less distorted. The Zn(ii) cations take part in one ( and ) or two () 5-membered metallacycles imposed by the NN or NNO chelation modes of LR. The significant intermolecular ππ interactions are also discussed.

  20. First-principles study on the bulk and (1 1 1) surface half-metallicity of KS and RbS in CsCl structure

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Lei; Lei, Gang; Gao, Qiang

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Spin-polarized total and atomic DOS at S-(1 1 1) terminated slab and bulk in CsCl-type RbS. - Highlights: • The half metallic properties of CsCl-type RbS and KS have been studied. • The RbS's and KS's (1 1 1) slabs have been investigated. • Surface energy of RbS's and KS's (1 1 1) slabs are calculated. - Abstract: The electronic and magnetic properties of RbS and KS in CsCl structure have been investigated by using the full-potential local-orbital minimum-basis method. Calculating the relation between the total energies and lattice parameters for RbS and KS, we find out thatmore » the equilibrium lattice parameters are 4.02 Å and 3.84 Å for RbS and KS, respectively. According to our calculations in generalized gradient approximation approximation, both RbS and KS are half-metallic ferromagnets with the magnetic moments of 1 μ{sub B} per formula unit, and band gap of 4.287 eV for RbS and 4.395 eV for KS. We also have studied the electronic and magnetic properties of (1 1 1) surfaces of RbS and KS, and have found out that the half-metallicity of their bulk is preserved in all of those surfaces. Finally, through the calculations of formation energy of RbS and KS, it is found that their thin films are stable in the equilibrium conditions, and the Rb-terminated (1 1 1) slab of RbS and the K-terminated (1 1 1) slab of KS are more stable than their S-terminated (1 1 1) slabs. All of the above properties lead the compounds of RbS and KS in CsCl structure to be promising candidates for spintronic applications.« less

  1. Airborne Measurements of BrO and the Sum of HOBr and Br2 over the Tropical West Pacific from 1 to 15 Km During the CONvective TRansport of Active Species in the Tropics (CONTRAST) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Dexian; Huey, L. Gregory; Tanner, David J.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Anderson, Daniel C.; Wales, Pamela A.; Pan, Laura L.; Atlas, Elliot L.; Hornbrook, Rebecca S.; Apel, Eric C.; hide

    2016-01-01

    A chemical ionization mass spectrometer was used to measure BrO and HOBr + Br2 over the Tropical West Pacific Ocean within the altitude range of 1 to 15 km, during the CONvective TRansport of Active Species in the Tropics (CONTRAST) campaign in 2014. Isolated episodes of elevated BrO (up to 6.6 pptv) and/or HOBr + Br2 (up to 7.3 pptv) were observed in the tropical free troposphere (TFT) and were associated with biomass burning. However, most of the time we did not observe significant BrO or HOBr + Br2 in the TFT and the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) above our limits of detection (LOD). The 1 min average LOD for BrO ranged from 0.6 to 1.6 pptv and for HOBr + Br2 ranged from 1.3 to 3.5 pptv. During one flight, BrO observations from the TTL to the extratropical lowermost stratosphere were used to infer a profile of inorganic bromine (Br(sub y)). Based on this profile, we estimated the product gas injection of bromine species into the stratosphere to be 2 pptv. Analysis of Br(sub y) partitioning further indicates that BrO levels are likely very low in the TFT environment and that future studies should target the measurement of HBr or atomic Br.

  2. The carcinogenicity of 1-methyl-3(p-bromophenyl)-1-nitrosourea (Br-MPNU).

    PubMed

    Warzok, R; Martin, J; Mendel, J; Thust, R; Schwarz, H

    1983-01-01

    In long-term experiments with Hooded rats the carcinogenic potential of 1-methyl-3(p-bromophenyl)-1-nitrosourea (Br-MPNU) could be demonstrated for the first time. Br-MPNU is formed also endogenously after combined administration of 1-methyl-3(p-bromophenyl)-urea (Br-MPU) and sodium nitrite. After repeated intragastric administration of 0.33 mmol Br-MPU and 0.73 mmol NaNO2 per kg b.w. papillomas and carcinomas of the forestomach developed in 83%. After repeated administration of 0.28 mmol Br-MPNU per kg b.w. these neoplasms were observed in 88%. The comparison of results obtained in similar experiments with 1-methyl-3-phenyl-1-nitrosourea shows that bromine substitution led to a reduction of the carcinogenic activity. The present paper is part of a complex program studying the interrelationships between structure, physico-chemical properties, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of nitrosoureas.

  3. Kinetics of the Br2-CH3CHO Photochemical Chain Reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicovich, J. M.; Shackelford, C. J.; Wine, P. H.

    1997-01-01

    Time-resolved resonance fluorescence spectroscopy was employed in conjunction with laser flash photolysis of Br2 to study the kinetics of the two elementary steps in the photochemical chain reaction nBr2 + nCH3CHO + hv yields nCH3CBrO + nHBr. In the temperature range 255-400 K, the rate coefficient for the reaction Br((sup 2)P(sub 3/2)) + CH3CHO yields CH3CO + HBr is given by the Arrhenius expression k(sub 6)(T) = (1.51 +/- 0.20) x 10(exp -11) exp(-(364 +/- 41)/T)cu cm/(molecule.s). At 298 K, the reaction CH3CO + Br2 yields CH3CBrO + Br proceeds at a near gas kinetic rate, k(sub 7)(298 K) = (1.08 +/- 0.38) x 10(exp -10)cu cm/(molecule.s).

  4. The personal and scientific feud between Ernst Brücke and Josef Hyrtl.

    PubMed

    Wiest, Gerald; Baloh, Robert W

    2006-06-01

    To describe the events surrounding the personal and professional feud between Josef Hyrtl and Ernst Brücke and its impact on early investigations into the function of the semicircular canals of the inner ear. Published data in scientific journals and news media, documents at the Vienna Institute for the History of Medicine, published personal letters, and an interview with Brücke's great-grandson, Dr. Thomas Brücke. Although Hyrtl was instrumental in recruiting Brücke to the University of Vienna, the two professors soon became embroiled in a feud that persisted throughout their academic careers. The difference in approach of these two giants in their field is well illustrated by their views on the function of the semicircular canals of the inner ear. Based on their shape, Hyrtl concluded that they were important for directional hearing, whereas based on animal experiments, Brücke concluded that they were sense organs for equilibrium.

  5. Ground-state hyperfine splitting for Rb, Cs, Fr, Ba+, and Ra+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginges, J. S. M.; Volotka, A. V.; Fritzsche, S.

    2017-12-01

    We have systematically investigated the ground-state hyperfine structure for alkali-metal atoms 87Rb,133Cs, and 211Fr and alkali-metal-like ions +135Ba and +225Ra, which are of particular interest for parity violation studies. The quantum electrodynamic one-loop radiative corrections have been rigorously evaluated within an extended Furry picture employing core-Hartree and Kohn-Sham atomic potentials. Moreover, the effect of the nuclear magnetization distribution on the hyperfine structure intervals has been studied in detail and its uncertainty has been estimated. Finally, the theoretical description of the hyperfine structure has been completed with full many-body calculations performed in the all-orders correlation potential method.

  6. Molecular spectroscopy for producing ultracold ground-state NaRb molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dajun; Guo, Mingyang; Zhu, Bing; Lu, Bo; Ye, Xin; Wang, Fudong; Vexiau, Romain; Bouloufa-Maafa, Nadia; Quéméner, Goulven; Dulieu, Olivier

    2016-05-01

    Recently, we have successfully created an ultracold sample of absolute ground-state NaRb molecules by two-photon Raman transfer of weakly bound Feshbach molecules. Here we will present the detailed spectroscopic investigations on both the excited and the rovibrational ground states for finding the two-photon path. For the excited state, we focus on the A1Σ+ /b3 Π singlet and triplet admixture. We discovered an anomalously strong coupling between the Ω =0+ and 0- components which renders efficient population transfer possible. In the ground state, the pure nuclear hyperfine levels have been clearly resolved, which allows us to create molecules in the absolute ground state directly with Raman transfer. This work is jointly supported by Agence Nationale de la Recherche (#ANR-13- IS04-0004-01) and Hong Kong Research Grant Council (#A-CUHK403/13) through the COPOMOL project.

  7. Evaluation of Brucella abortus strain RB51 and strain 19 in pronghorn antelope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elzer, P.H.; Smith, J.; Roffe, T.; Kreeger, T.; Edwards, J.; Davis, D.

    2002-01-01

    Free-roaming elk and bison in the Greater Yellowstone Area remain the only wildlife reservoirs for Brucella abortus in the United States, and the large number of animals and a lack of holding facilities make it unreasonable to individually vaccinate each animal. Therefore, oral delivery is being proposed as a possible option to vaccinate these wild ungulates. One of the main problems associated with oral vaccination is the potential exposure of nontarget species to the vaccines. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two Brucella vaccines, strain 19 (S19) and the rough strain RB51 (SRB51), in pregnant pronghorn antelope. We conclude that S19 and SRB51 rarely colonize maternal and fetal tissues of pregnant pronghorn and were not associated with fetal death. Oral delivery of either vaccine at this dose appears to be nonhazardous to pregnant pronghorn.

  8. Low temperature phase of the trigonal RbIn(MoO4)2 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapart, W.; Zapart, M. B.; Schranz, W.; Reinecker, M.

    2013-02-01

    The present article is devoted to a new low-temperature phase transition found at about T pt = 84 K in the layered RbIn(MoO4)2 crystal. This phase transition is well proved by dynamical mechanical analysis through anomalies in the temperature behaviour of both real and imaginary parts of the Young's modulus. From the polarizing microscope observations it was found that below T pt the ferroelastic phase disappears. This transition has also been seen through strong changes in the shape of the electron paramagnetic resonance lines. EPR studies, performed in the liquid nitrogen temperature, yield evidence of strong rebuilding of the crystal unit cell in comparison with that of the high temperature paraelastic phase.

  9. Continuous all-optical deceleration of molecular beams and demonstration with Rb atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Xueping; Jayich, Andrew; Campbell, Wesley

    2017-04-01

    Ultracold samples of molecules are desirable for a variety of applications, such as many-body physics, precision measurement and quantum information science. However, the pursuit of ultracold molecules has achieved limited success: spontaneous emission into many different dark states makes it hard to optically decelerate molecules to trappable speed. We propose to address this problem with a general optical deceleration technique that exploits a pump-dump pulse pair from a mode-locked laser. A molecular beam is first excited by a counter-propagating ``pump'' pulse. The molecular beam is then driven back to the initial ground state by a co-propagating ``dump'' pulse via stimulated emission. The delay between the pump and dump pulse is set to be shorter than the excited state lifetimes in order to limit decays to dark states. We report progress benchmarking this stimulated force by accelerating a cold sample of neutral Rb atoms.

  10. The Rolls Royce Allison RB580 turbofan - Matching the market requirement for regional transport

    SciTech Connect

    Sadler, J.H.R.; Peacock, N.J.; Snyder, L.

    1989-01-01

    The RB580 high bypass turbofan engine has a thrust growth capability to 10,000 lb and has been optimized for efficient operation in regional markets involving 50-70 seat airliners with higher-than-turboprop cruise speeds. The two-spool engine configuration achieves an overall pressure ratio of 24 and features a single-stage wide-chord fan for high efficiency/low noise operation. The highly modular design of the configuration facilitates maintenance and repair; a dual-redundant full-authority digital electronic control system is incorporated. An SFC reduction of the order of 10 percent at cruise thrust is achieved, relative to current engines of comparable thrust class.

  11. Luna 16 - Some Li, K, Rb, Sr, Ba, rare-earth, Zr, and Hf concentrations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpotts, J. A.; Schnetzler, C. C.; Schuhmann, S.; Thomas , H. H.; Bottino, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    Concentrations of Li, K, Rb, Sr, Na, rare-earths, Zr and Hf have been determined for some Luna 16 core materials by mass-spectrometric isotope-dilution. Two regolith fines samples from different depths in the core, and four rock-chips, including both igneous rocks and breccias, have similar trace-element concentrations. The Luna 16 materials have general lunar trace-element characteristics but differ from other returned lunar samples in a manner that suggests the presence of excess feldspar. Unless the Luna 16 igneous rocks are fused soils, they appear to represent either partial plagioclase cumulates or the least differentiated igneous material yet returned from the moon. The similarity in trace-element concentrations of the igneous rocks and the fines would then suggest largely local derivation of the Luna 16 regolith.

  12. Ultra-narrow EIA spectra of 85Rb atom in a degenerate Zeeman multiplet system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Hafeez Ur; Qureshi, Muhammad Mohsin; Noh, Heung-Ryoul; Kim, Jin-Tae

    2015-05-01

    Ultra-narrow EIA spectral features of thermal 85Rb atom with respect to coupling Rabi frequencies in a degenerate Zeeman multiplet system have been unraveled in the cases of same (σ+ -σ+ , π ∥ π) and orthogonal (σ+ -σ- , π ⊥ π)polarization configurations. The EIA signals with subnatural linewidth of ~ 100 kHz even in the cases of same circular and linear polarizations of coupling and probe laser have been obtained for the first time theoretically and experimentally. In weak coupling power limit of orthogonal polarization configurations, time-dependent transfer of coherence plays major role in the splitting of the EIA spectra while in strong coupling power, Mollow triplet-like mechanism due to strong power bring into broad split feature. The experimental ultra-narrow EIA features using one laser combined with an AOM match well with simulated spectra obtained by using generalized time-dependent optical Bloch equations.

  13. Ferromagnetic Peierls insulator state in A Mg4Mn6O15(A =K ,Rb ,Cs )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Sugimoto, K.; Ohta, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Sato, H.

    2018-04-01

    Using the density-functional-theory-based electronic structure calculations, we study the electronic state of recently discovered mixed-valent manganese oxides A Mg4Mn6O15(A =K ,Rb ,Cs ) , which are fully spin-polarized ferromagnetic insulators with a cubic crystal structure. We show that the system may be described as a three-dimensional arrangement of the one-dimensional chains of a 2 p orbital of O and a 3 d orbital of Mn running along the three axes of the cubic lattice. We thereby argue that in the ground state the chains are fully spin polarized due to the double-exchange mechanism and are distorted by the Peierls mechanism to make the system insulating.

  14. Detection and severity classification of extracardiac interference in {sup 82}Rb PET myocardial perfusion imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, Elizabeth J., E-mail: eorton@physics.carleton.ca; Kemp, Robert A. de; Glenn Wells, R.

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is used for diagnosis and prognosis of coronary artery disease. When MPI studies are performed with positron emission tomography (PET) and the radioactive tracer rubidium-82 chloride ({sup 82}Rb), a small but non-negligible fraction of studies (∼10%) suffer from extracardiac interference: high levels of tracer uptake in structures adjacent to the heart which mask the true cardiac tracer uptake. At present, there are no clinically available options for automated detection or correction of this problem. This work presents an algorithm that detects and classifies the severity of extracardiac interference in {sup 82}Rb PET MPI images andmore » reports the accuracy and failure rate of the method. Methods: A set of 200 {sup 82}Rb PET MPI images were reviewed by a trained nuclear cardiologist and interference severity reported on a four-class scale, from absent to severe. An automated algorithm was developed that compares uptake at the external border of the myocardium to three thresholds, separating the four interference severity classes. A minimum area of interference was required, and the search region was limited to that facing the stomach wall and spleen. Maximizing concordance (Cohen’s Kappa) and minimizing failure rate for the set of 200 clinician-read images were used to find the optimal population-based constants defining search limit and minimum area parameters and the thresholds for the algorithm. Tenfold stratified cross-validation was used to find optimal thresholds and report accuracy measures (sensitivity, specificity, and Kappa). Results: The algorithm was capable of detecting interference with a mean [95% confidence interval] sensitivity/specificity/Kappa of 0.97 [0.94, 1.00]/0.82 [0.66, 0.98]/0.79 [0.65, 0.92], and a failure rate of 1.0% ± 0.2%. The four-class overall Kappa was 0.72 [0.64, 0.81]. Separation of mild versus moderate-or-greater interference was performed with good accuracy (sensitivity

  15. Theoretical description of transverse measurements of polarization in optically-pumped Rb vapor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreiling, Joan; Tupa, Dale; Norrgard, Eric; Gay, Timothy

    2012-06-01

    In optical pumping of alkali-metal vapors, the polarization of the atoms is typically determined by probing along the entire length of the pumping beam, resulting in an averaged value of polarization over the length of the cell. Such measurements do not give any information about spatial variations of the polarization along the pump beam axis. Using a D1 probe beam oriented perpendicular to the pumping beam, we have demonstrated a heuristic method for determining the polarization along the pump beam's axis. Adapting a previously developed theory [1], we provide an analysis of the experiment which explains why this method works. The model includes the effects of Rb density, buffer gas pressure, and pump detuning. [4pt] [1] E.B. Norrgard, D. Tupa, J.M. Dreiling, and T.J. Gay, Phys. Rev. A 82, 033408 (2010).

  16. C 1Σ+ , A 1Σ+ , and b 3Π0+ states of LiRb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, I. C.; Blasing, D. B.; Chen, Y. P.; Elliott, D. S.

    2016-12-01

    We present the first spectroscopic studies of the C 1Σ+ electronic state and the A 1Σ+ -b 3Π0+ complex in 7Li-85Rb. Using resonantly enhanced, two-photon ionization, we observed v =7 , 9, 12, 13, and 26-45 of the C 1Σ+ state. We augment the REMPI data with a form of depletion spectra in regions of dense spectral lines. The A 1Σ+ -b 3Π0+ complex was observed with depletion spectroscopy, depleting to vibrational levels v =0 →29 of the A 1Σ+ state and v =8 →18 of the b 3Π0+ state. For all three series, we determine the term energy and vibrational constants. Finally, we outline several possible future projects based on the data presented here.

  17. Role of different types of subsystems in a doubly driven Λ system in 87Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Kanhaiya

    2013-04-01

    The well-known Λ system using two ground-state hyperfine levels, Fg=1 and Fg=2 of 5S1/2, and one hyperfine level, Fe=2 of excited state of 5P3/2 of 87Rb, has been recently studied using two counterpropagating control lasers [Sapam Ranjita Chanu, Kanhaiya Pandey, and Vasant Natarajan, Europhys. Lett.EULEEJ0295-507510.1209/0295-5075/98/44009 98, 44009 (2012)]. The experiment shows conversion of electromagnetically induced transparency into electromagnetically induced absorption because the doubly driven Λ system forms various subsystems. We here present a detailed theoretical study of the different possible subsystems created by this configuration. We also explore the possibility of tuning the strength of individual subsystems by changing the polarization of the control lasers.

  18. High-resolution internal state control of ultracold 23Na87Rb molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Mingyang; Ye, Xin; He, Junyu; Quéméner, Goulven; Wang, Dajun

    2018-02-01

    We report the full internal state control of ultracold 23Na87Rb molecules, including vibrational, rotational, and hyperfine degrees of freedom. Starting from a sample of weakly bound Feshbach molecules, we realize the creation of molecules in single hyperfine levels of both the rovibrational ground and excited states with a high-efficiency and high-resolution stimulated Raman adiabatic passage. This capability brings broad possibilities for investigating ultracold polar molecules with different chemical reactivities and interactions with a single molecular species. Moreover, starting from the rovibrational and hyperfine ground state, we achieve rotational and hyperfine control with one- and two-photon microwave spectroscopy to reach levels not accessible by the stimulated Raman transfer. The combination of these two techniques results in complete control over the internal state of ultracold polar molecules, which paves the way to study state-dependent molecular collisions and state-controlled chemical reactions.

  19. Ab-initio investigation of Rb substitution in KTP single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoohestani, Marzieh; Arab, Ali; Hashemifar, S. Javad; Sadeghi, Hossein

    2018-01-01

    The effects of rubidium doping on the structural, electronic, and optical properties of KTiOPO4 (KTP) are investigated in the framework of density functional theory. The equilibrium structural parameters of KTP and RbTiOPO4 (RTP) are calculated within the local density and Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE), Wu-Cohen, and PBEsol formulation of generalized gradient approximations. We discuss that PBEsol predicts better equilibrium parameters for the KTP alloy. In addition, the variation of lattice constants and Ti-O-Ti bond angles are evaluated as a function of rubidium concentration. The modern modified Becke-Johnson functional is applied for more accurate band gap determination in the pure and alloyed KTP/RTP compounds. The phenomenological pseudoinversion parameter is calculated for a qualitative understanding of the effect of impurity on a non-linear optical response of KTP. We also analyze the behavior of the dielectric function, dispersive refractive indices, and birefringence of KTP/RTP alloys.

  20. Rb vapor-cell clock demonstration with a frequency-doubled telecom laser.

    PubMed

    Almat, Nil; Pellaton, Matthieu; Moreno, William; Gruet, Florian; Affolderbach, Christoph; Mileti, Gaetano

    2018-06-01

    We employ a recently developed laser system, based on a low-noise telecom laser emitting around 1.56 μm, to evaluate its impact on the performance of an Rb vapor-cell clock in a continuous-wave double-resonance scheme. The achieved short-term clock instability below 2.5·10 -13 ·τ -1/2 demonstrates, for the first time, the suitability of a frequency-doubled telecom laser for this specific application. We measure and study quantitatively the impact of laser amplitude and frequency noises and of the ac Stark shift, which limit the clock frequency stability on short timescales. We also report on the detailed noise budgets and demonstrate experimentally that, under certain conditions, the short-term stability of the clock operated with the low-noise telecom laser is improved by a factor of three compared to clock operation using the direct 780-nm laser.