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Sample records for zn concentrations increased

  1. Zn uptake, physiological response and stress attenuation in mycorrhizal jack bean growing in soil with increasing Zn concentrations.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Sara A L; Gratão, Priscila L; Schiavinato, Marlene A; Silveira, Adriana P D; Azevedo, Ricardo A; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2009-06-01

    The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation on Canavalia ensiformis growth, nutrient and Zn uptake, and on some physiological parameters in response to increasing soil Zn concentrations was studied. Treatments were applied in seven replicates in a 2 x 4 factorial design, consisting of the inoculation or not with the AMF Glomus etunicatum, and the addition of Zn to soil at the concentrations of 0, 100, 300 and 900 mg kg(-1). AMF inoculation enhanced the accumulation of Zn in tissues and promoted biomass yields and root nodulation. Mycorrhizal plants exhibited relative tolerance to Zn up to 300 mg kg(-1) without exhibiting visual symptoms of toxicity, in contrast to non-mycorrhizal plants which exhibited a significant growth reduction at the same soil Zn concentration. The highest concentration of Zn added to soil was highly toxic to the plants. Leaves of plants grown in high Zn concentration exhibited a Zn-induced proline accumulation and also an increase in soluble amino acid contents; however proline contents were lower in mycorrhizal jack beans. Plants in association or not with the AMF exhibited marked differences in the foliar soluble amino acid profile and composition in response to Zn addition to soil. In general, Zn induced oxidative stress which could be verified by increased lipid peroxidation rates and changes in catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase activities. In summary, G. etunicatum was able to maintain an efficient symbiosis with jack bean plants in moderately contaminated Zn-soils, improving plant performance under those conditions, which is likely to be due to a combination of physiological and nutritional changes caused by the intimate relation between fungus and plant. The enhanced Zn uptake by AMF inoculated jack bean plants might be of interest for phytoremediation purposes.

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhiza alters metal uptake and the physiological response of Coffea arabica seedlings to increasing Zn and Cu concentrations in soil.

    PubMed

    Andrade, S A L; Silveira, A P D; Mazzafera, P

    2010-10-15

    Studies on mycorrhizal symbiosis effects on metal accumulation and plant tolerance are not common in perennial crops under metal stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of mycorrhization on coffee seedlings under Cu and Zn stress. Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) uptake and some biochemical and physiological traits were studied in thirty-week old Coffea arabica seedlings, in response to the inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and to increasing concentrations of Cu or Zn in soil. The experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions in a 2×4 factorial design (inoculation or not with AMF and 0, 50, 150 and 450mgkg(-1) Cu or 0, 100, 300 and 900mgkg(-1) Zn). Non-mycorrhizal plants maintained a hampered and slow growth even in a soil with appropriate phosphorus (P) levels for this crop. As metal levels increased in soil, a greater proportion of the total absorbed metals were retained by roots. Foliar Cu concentrations increased only in non-mycorrhizal plants, reaching a maximum concentration of 30mgkg(-1) at the highest Cu in soil. Mycorrhization prevented the accumulation of Cu in leaves, and mycorrhizal plants showed higher Cu contents in stems, which indicated a differential Cu distribution in AMF-associated or non-associated plants. Zn distribution and concentrations in different plant organs followed a similar pattern independently of mycorrhization. In mycorrhizal plants, only the highest metal concentrations caused a reduction in biomass, leading to significant changes in some biochemical indicators, such as malondialdehyde, proline and amino acid contents in leaves and also in foliar free amino acid composition. Marked differences in these physiological traits were also found due to mycorrhization. In conclusion, AMF protected coffee seedlings against metal toxicity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ultrafiltration of skimmed goat milk increases its nutritional value by concentrating nonfat solids such as proteins, Ca, P, Mg, and Zn.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Montoro, Miriam; Olalla, Manuel; Giménez-Martínez, Rafael; Bergillos-Meca, Triana; Ruiz-López, María Dolores; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Artacho, Reyes; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel

    2015-11-01

    Goat milk has been reported to possess good nutritional and health-promoting properties. Usually, it must be concentrated before fermented products can be obtained. The aim of this study was to compare physicochemical and nutritional variables among raw (RM), skimmed (SM), and ultrafiltration-concentrated skimmed (UFM) goat milk. The density, acidity, ash, protein, casein, whey protein, Ca, P, Mg, and Zn values were significantly higher in UFM than in RM or SM. Dry extract and fat levels were significantly higher in UFM than in SM, and Mg content was significantly higher in UFM than in RM. Ultrafiltration also increased the solubility of Ca and Mg, changing their distribution in the milk. The higher concentrations of minerals and proteins, especially caseins, increase the nutritional value of UFM, which may therefore be more appropriate for goat milk yogurt manufacturing in comparison to RM or SM. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Both heavy metal-amendment of soil and aphid-infestation increase Cd and Zn concentrations in phloem exudates of a metal-hyperaccumulating plant.

    PubMed

    Stolpe, Clemens; Giehren, Franziska; Krämer, Ute; Müller, Caroline

    2017-07-01

    Plants that are able to hyperaccumulate heavy metals show increased concentrations of these metals in their leaf tissue. However, little is known about the concentrations of heavy metals and of organic defence metabolites in the phloem sap of these plants in response to either heavy metal-amendment of the soil or biotic challenges such as aphid-infestation. In this study, we investigated the effects of heavy metal-exposure and of aphid-infestation on phloem exudate composition of the metal hyperaccumulator species Arabidopsis halleri L. O'Kane & Al-Shehbaz (Brassicaceae). The concentrations of elements and of organic defence compounds, namely glucosinolates, were measured in phloem exudates of young and old (mature) leaves of plants challenged either by amendment of the soil with cadmium and zinc and/or by an infestation with the generalist aphid Myzus persicae. Metal-amendment of the soil led to increased concentrations of Cd and Zn, but also of two other elements and one indole glucosinolate, in phloem exudates. This enhanced defence in the phloem sap of heavy metal-hyperaccumulating plants can thus potentially act as effective protection against aphids, as predicted by the elemental defence hypothesis. Aphid-infestation also caused enhanced Cd and Zn concentrations in phloem exudates. This result provides first evidence that metal-hyperaccumulating plants can increase heavy metal concentrations tissue-specifically in response to an attack by phloem-sucking herbivores. Overall, the concentrations of most elements, including the heavy metals, and glucosinolates were higher in phloem exudates of young leaves than in those of old leaves. This defence distribution highlights that the optimal defence theory, which predicts more valuable tissue to be better defended, is applicable for both inorganic and organic defences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of substituting increasing levels of organic Zn for inorganic Zn on performance, hematological and serum biochemical constituents, antioxidant status and immune response in rat.

    PubMed

    Nagalakshmi, D; Sridhar, K; Swain, P S; Reddy, A G

    2016-01-01

    The effect of replacing dietary Zn supplemented from inorganic (ZnCO 3 ) source with organic Zn (Zn methionine; Zn-met) was investigated in 72 rats (98.42 ± 1.483 g) by randomly allotting to 4 diets (6 replicates/diet, 3 rats/replicate). Basal diet was prepared with purified ingredients without Zn. The control diet (AIN-76A) contained 12 ppm of Zn from ZnCO 3 (100-I). In the other diets ZnCO 3 was replaced with Zn-met at the rates of 50 (50I:50O), 75 (25I:75O) or 100% (100-O). Weekly body weight and daily feed intake were recorded for 14 weeks. Blood was collected by retro-orbital puncture on the 70th and 80th day to determine haematological and various serum biochemical constituents, and antioxidant enzyme activities in haemolysate, respectively. Rats were antigenically challenged with sheep RBC on day 73 to assess humoral immune response (HIR), and on day 95 for cell mediated immune response (CMIR) and rats were sacrificed at the end of rearing period to collect liver, muscle, pancreas and kidneys for Zn estimation and oxidative stress markers in liver. The data were analysed using completely randomized design. Weight gain and feed intake, hematological and serum biochemical constituents, Zn content in organs (except liver) were not influenced by replacing ZnCO 3 with Zn-met. Zinc concentrations in the serum and liver were higher (P<0.05) with 50% replacement of ZnCO 3 with Zn-met compared to 0 or 100% replacement. Lower (P<0.05) lipid peroxidation and higher (P<0.05) glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities were observed with 50 and 75% replacement of ZnCO 3 with Zn-met compared to 0 or 100% replacement. Protein carbonyls and reduced glutathione in liver were not affected, while TBARS decreased (P<0.05) with substituting Zn-met (50-100%) for ZnCO 3 . The HIR and CMIR increased with increasing Zn-met supplementation and the highest response was observed with 75-100% replacement of ZnCO 3 with Zn-met. It is concluded that replacement of 50 or

  6. Green Manure Addition to Soil Increases Grain Zinc Concentration in Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Aghili, Forough; Gamper, Hannes A.; Eikenberg, Jost; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H.; Afyuni, Majid; Schulin, Rainer; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower), ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF), and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg−1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg−1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg−1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil)−1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil)−1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs. PMID:24999738

  7. Green manure addition to soil increases grain zinc concentration in bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Aghili, Forough; Gamper, Hannes A; Eikenberg, Jost; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H; Afyuni, Majid; Schulin, Rainer; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower), ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF), and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg-1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg-1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg-1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs.

  8. Resistivity dependence on Zn concentration in semi-insulating (Cd,Zn)Te

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiederle, Michael; Fauler, Alex; Babentsov, Vladimir N.; Franc, Jan; Benz, Klaus Werner

    2003-01-01

    The resistivity dependence on Zn concentration had been investigated in semi-insulating (Cd,Zn)Te crystals grown by the vertical Bridgman method. A coorelation between the zinc concentration and the resistivity distribution could be found. The obtained resistivity was in the interval of 2 ×109-1010 Ω cm as expected from the model of compensation. The main deep compensating levels detected by Photo Induced Current Transient Spectroscopy (PICTS) were at 0.64 +/- 0.02 eV and close the middle of the band gap at 0.80 +/- 0.02 eV.

  9. Intrinsic ferromagnetism in nanocrystalline Mn-doped ZnO depending on Mn concentration.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Munisamy; Tanemura, Masaki; Hihara, Takehiko; Soga, Tetsuo; Jimbo, Takashi

    2011-04-01

    The physical properties of Zn(1-x)Mn(x)O nanoparticles synthesized by thermal decomposition are extensively investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman light scattering and Hysteresis measurements. XRD and XPS spectra reveal the absence of secondary phase in nanocrystalline ZnO doped with 5% or less Mn; and, later confirms that the valance state of Mn to be 2+ for all the samples. Raman spectra exhibit a peak at 660 cm(-1) which we attribute to the intrinsic lattice defects of ZnO with increasing Mn concentration. Overall, our results demonstrate that ferromagnetic properties can be realized while Mn-doped ZnO obtained in the nanocrystalline form.

  10. Effect of surfactant concentration on the ultraviolet sensing properties of ZnO-cellulose nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Karunakar; Nayak, J.

    2018-05-01

    ZnO nanoparticles were grown, on cellulose fiber surfaces, at three different concentrations of hexamethylenetetramine by an aqueous chemical method. A typical ZnO-cellulose nanocomposite showed an enhanced UV sensing activity due to its large surface area. Due to illumination with ultraviolet light, the surface photocurrent of ZnO-cellulose nanocomposite pellet increased from 8.90 × 10‒7 A to 3.18 × 10‒5 A in 15 s. The UV ON to OFF (IUV/IDark) ratio for this sample was 35.73. Hence, an enhancement in the conductivity due to UV illumination shows that our ZnO-cellulose can be used for the fabrication of UV sensors.

  11. Effect of Fe doping concentration on photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanosheets under natural sunlight

    SciTech Connect

    Khokhra, Richa; Kumar, Rajesh, E-mail: rajesh.kumar@juit.ac.in

    2015-05-15

    A facile room temperature, aqueous solution-based chemical method has been adopted for large-scale synthesis of Fe doped ZnO nanosheets. The XRD and SEM results reveal the as-synthesized products well crystalline and accumulated by large amount of interweave nanosheets, respectively. Energy dispersive spectroscopy data confirmed Fe doping of the ZnO nanosheets with a varying Fe concentration. The photoluminescence spectrum reveals a continuous suppression of defect related emissions intensity by increasing the concentration of the Fe ion. A photocatalytic activity using these samples under sunlight irradiation in the mineralization of methylene blue dye was investigated. The photocatalytic activity of Fe doped ZnOmore » nanosheets depends upon the presence of surface oxygen vacancies.« less

  12. In vitro and in vivo physiology of low nanomolar concentrations of Zn2+ in artificial cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Tamano, Haruna; Nishio, Ryusuke; Shakushi, Yukina; Sasaki, Miku; Koike, Yuta; Osawa, Misa; Takeda, Atsushi

    2017-02-17

    Artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF), i.e., brain extracellular medium, which includes Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ , but not other divalent cations such as Zn 2+ , has been used for in vitro and in vivo experiments. The present study deals with the physiological significance of extracellular Zn 2+ in ACSF. Spontaneous presynaptic activity is suppressed in the stratum lucidum of brain slices from young rats bathed in ACSF containing 10 nM ZnCl 2 , indicating that extracellular Zn 2+ modifies hippocampal presynaptic activity. To examine the in vivo action of 10 nM ZnCl 2 on long-term potentiation (LTP), the recording region was perfused using a recording electrode attached to a microdialysis probe. The magnitude of LTP was not modified in young rats by perfusion with ACSF containing 10 nM ZnCl 2 , compared to perfusion with ACSF without Zn 2+ , but attenuated by perfusion with ACSF containing 100 nM ZnCl 2 . Interestingly, the magnitude of LTP was not modified in aged rats even by perfusion with ACSF containing 100 nM ZnCl 2 , but enhanced by perfusion with ACSF containing 10 mM CaEDTA, an extracellular Zn 2+ chelator. The present study indicates that the basal levels of extracellular Zn 2+ , which are in the range of low nanomolar concentrations, are critical for synaptic activity and perhaps increased age-dependently.

  13. In vitro and in vivo physiology of low nanomolar concentrations of Zn2+ in artificial cerebrospinal fluid

    PubMed Central

    Tamano, Haruna; Nishio, Ryusuke; Shakushi, Yukina; Sasaki, Miku; koike, Yuta; Osawa, Misa; Takeda, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    Artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF), i.e., brain extracellular medium, which includes Ca2+ and Mg2+, but not other divalent cations such as Zn2+, has been used for in vitro and in vivo experiments. The present study deals with the physiological significance of extracellular Zn2+ in ACSF. Spontaneous presynaptic activity is suppressed in the stratum lucidum of brain slices from young rats bathed in ACSF containing 10 nM ZnCl2, indicating that extracellular Zn2+ modifies hippocampal presynaptic activity. To examine the in vivo action of 10 nM ZnCl2 on long-term potentiation (LTP), the recording region was perfused using a recording electrode attached to a microdialysis probe. The magnitude of LTP was not modified in young rats by perfusion with ACSF containing 10 nM ZnCl2, compared to perfusion with ACSF without Zn2+, but attenuated by perfusion with ACSF containing 100 nM ZnCl2. Interestingly, the magnitude of LTP was not modified in aged rats even by perfusion with ACSF containing 100 nM ZnCl2, but enhanced by perfusion with ACSF containing 10 mM CaEDTA, an extracellular Zn2+ chelator. The present study indicates that the basal levels of extracellular Zn2+, which are in the range of low nanomolar concentrations, are critical for synaptic activity and perhaps increased age-dependently. PMID:28211543

  14. Understanding corrosion behavior of Mg-Zn-Ca alloys from subcutaneous mouse model: effect of Zn element concentration and plasma electrolytic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yongseok; Tan, Zongqing; Jurey, Chris; Xu, Zhigang; Dong, Zhongyun; Collins, Boyce; Yun, Yeoheung; Sankar, Jagannathan

    2015-03-01

    Mg-Zn-Ca alloys are considered as suitable biodegradable metallic implants because of their biocompatibility and proper physical properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of Zn concentration of Mg-xZn-0.3Ca (x=1, 3 and 5wt.%) alloys and surface modification by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) on corrosion behavior in in vivo environment in terms of microstructure, corrosion rate, types of corrosion, and corrosion product formation. Microstructure analysis of alloys and morphological characterization of corrosion products were conducted using x-ray computed tomography (micro-CT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Elemental composition and crystal structure of corrosion products were determined using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The results show that 1) as-cast Mg-xZn-0.3Ca alloys are composed of Mg matrix and a secondary phase of Ca2Mg6Zn3 formed along grain boundaries, 2) the corrosion rate of Mg-xZn-0.3Ca alloys increases with increasing concentration of Zn in the alloy, 3) corrosion rates of alloys treated by PEO sample are decreased in in vivo environment, and 4) the corrosion products of these alloys after in vivo tests are identified as brucite (Mg(OH)2), hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), and magnesite (MgCO3·3H2O). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Effect of quantum dots CdSe/ZnS's concentration on its fluorescence].

    PubMed

    Jin, Min; Huang, Yu-hua; Luo, Ji-xiang

    2015-02-01

    The authors measured the absorption and the fluorescence spectra of the quantum dots CdSe/ZnS with 4 nm in size at different concentration with the use of the UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence spectrometer. The effect of quantum dots CdSe/ZnS's concentration on its fluorescence was especially studied and its physical mechanism was analyzed. It was observed that the optimal concentration of the quantum dots CdSe/ZnS for fluorescence is 2 micromole x L(-1). When the quantum dot's concentration is over 2 micromol x L(-1), the fluorescence is decreased with the increase in the concentration. While the quantum dot's concentration is less than 2 micromol x L(-1), the fluorescence is decreased with the decrease in the concentration. There are two main reasons: (1) fluorescence quenching and 2) the competition between absorption and fluorescence. When the quantum dot's concentration is over 2 micromol x L(-1), the distance between quantum dots is so close that the fluorescence quenching is induced. The closer the distance between quantum dots is, the more serious the fluorescence quenching is induced. Also, in this case, the absorption is so large that some of the quantum dots can not be excited because the incident light can not pass through the whole sample. As a result, the fluorescence is decreased with the increase in the quantum dot's concentration. As the quantum dot's concentration is below 2 micromol x L(-1), the distance between quantum dots is far enough that no more fluorescence quenching is induced. In this case, the fluorescence is determined by the particle number per unit volume. More particle number per unit volume produces more fluorescence. Therefore, the fluorescence is decreased with the decrease in the quantum dot's concentration.

  16. Highway increases concentrations of toxic metals in giant panda habitat.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ying-Juan; Chen, Yi-Ping; Maltby, Lorraine; Jin, Xue-Lin

    2016-11-01

    The Qinling panda subspecies (Ailuropoda melanoleuca qinlingensis) is highly endangered with fewer than 350 individuals inhabiting the Qinling Mountains. Previous studies have indicated that giant pandas are exposed to heavy metals, and a possible source is vehicle emission. The concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, Hg, and As in soil samples collected from sites along a major highway bisecting the panda's habitat were analyzed to investigate whether the highway was an important source of metal contamination. There were 11 sites along a 30-km stretch of the 108th National Highway, and at each site, soil samples were taken at four distances from the highway (0, 50, 100, and 300 m) and at three soil depths (0, 5, 10 cm). Concentrations of all metals except As exceeded background levels, and concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb, and Cd decreased significantly with increasing distance from the highway. Geo-accumulation index indicated that topsoil next to the highway was moderately contaminated with Pb and Zn, whereas topsoil up to 300 m away from the highway was extremely contaminated with Cd. The potential ecological risk index demonstrated that this area was in a high degree of ecological hazards, which were also due to serious Cd contamination. And, the hazard quotient indicated that Cd, Pb, and Mn especially Cd could pose the health risk to giant pandas. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that the highway was the main source of Cd, Pb, and Zn and also put some influence on Mn. The study has confirmed that traffic does contaminate roadside soils and poses a potential threat to the health of pandas. This should not be ignored when the conservation and management of pandas is considered.

  17. Relating soil solution Zn concentration to diffusive gradients in thin films measurements in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Degryse, Fien; Smolders, Erik; Oliver, Ian; Zhang, Hao

    2003-09-01

    The technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) has been suggested to sample an available fraction of metals in soil. The objectives of this study were to compare DGT measurements with commonly measured fractions of Zn in soil, viz, the soil solution concentration and the total Zn concentration. The DGT technique was used to measure fluxes and interfacial concentrations of Zn in three series of field-contaminated soils collected in transects toward galvanized electricity pylons and in 15 soils amended with ZnCl2 at six rates. The ratio of DGT-measured concentration to pore water concentration of Zn, R, varied between 0.02 and 1.52 (mean 0.29). This ratio decreased with decreasing distribution coefficient, Kd, of Zn in the soil, which is in agreement with the predictions of the DGT-induced fluxes in soils (DIFS) model. The R values predicted with the DIFS model were generally larger than the observed values in the ZnCl2-amended soils at the higher Zn rates. A modification of the DIFS model indicated that saturation of the resin gel was approached in these soils, despite the short deployment times used (2 h). The saturation of the resin with Zn did not occur in the control soils (no Zn salt added) or the field-contaminated soils. Pore water concentration of Zn in these soils was predicted from the DGT-measured concentration and the total Zn content. Predicted values and observations were generally in good agreement. The pore water concentration was more than 5 times underpredicted for the most acid soil (pH = 3) and for six other soils, for which the underprediction was attributed to the presence of colloidal Zn in the soil solution.

  18. The Electrostatic Screening Length in Concentrated Electrolytes Increases with Concentration.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alexander M; Lee, Alpha A; Perkin, Susan

    2016-06-16

    According to classical electrolyte theories interactions in dilute (low ion density) electrolytes decay exponentially with distance, with the Debye screening length the characteristic length scale. This decay length decreases monotonically with increasing ion concentration due to effective screening of charges over short distances. Thus, within the Debye model no long-range forces are expected in concentrated electrolytes. Here we reveal, using experimental detection of the interaction between two planar charged surfaces across a wide range of electrolytes, that beyond the dilute (Debye-Hückel) regime the screening length increases with increasing concentration. The screening lengths for all electrolytes studied-including aqueous NaCl solutions, ionic liquids diluted with propylene carbonate, and pure ionic liquids-collapse onto a single curve when scaled by the dielectric constant. This nonmonotonic variation of the screening length with concentration, and its generality across ionic liquids and aqueous salt solutions, demonstrates an important characteristic of concentrated electrolytes of substantial relevance from biology to energy storage.

  19. Cu-doped ZnO nanorod arrays: the effects of copper precursor and concentration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cu-doped ZnO nanorods have been grown at 90°C for 90 min onto a quartz substrate pre-coated with a ZnO seed layer using a hydrothermal method. The influence of copper (Cu) precursor and concentration on the structural, morphological, and optical properties of ZnO nanorods was investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the nanorods grown are highly crystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure grown along the c-axis. The lattice strain is found to be compressive for all samples, where a minimum compressive strain of −0.114% was obtained when 1 at.% Cu was added from Cu(NO3)2. Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate morphologies and the diameters of the grown nanorods. The morphological properties of the Cu-doped ZnO nanorods were influenced significantly by the presence of Cu impurities. Near-band edge (NBE) and a broad blue-green emission bands at around 378 and 545 nm, respectively, were observed in the photoluminescence spectra for all samples. The transmittance characteristics showed a slight increase in the visible range, where the total transmittance increased from approximately 80% for the nanorods doped with Cu(CH3COO)2 to approximately 90% for the nanorods that were doped with Cu(NO3)2. PMID:24855460

  20. Effect of Cobalt Concentration and Oxygen Vacancy on Magnetism of Co Doped ZnO Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Li, Congli; Che, Ping; Sun, Changyan; Li, Wenjun

    2016-03-01

    Zn(1-x)Co(x)O (x = 0-0.07) single-crystalline nanorods were prepared by a modified microemulsion route. The crystalline structure, morphology, optical, and hysteresis loop at low and room temperature of as-prepared materials were characterized by XRD, TEM, PL spectra, and magnetic measurement respectively. The nanorods are 80-250 nm in diameter and about 3 μm in length. X-ray diffraction data, TEM images confirm that the materials synthesized in optimal conditions are ZnO:Co single crystalline solid solution without any impurities related to Co. The PL spectra show that the ferromagnetic samples exhibit strong Zn interstitials and oxygen vacancy emission indicating defects may stabilize ferromagnetic order in the obtained diluted magnetic semiconductors. Magnetic measurements show that the Zn(1-x)Co(x)O nanorods exist obvious ferromagnetic characteristics with T(c) above 300 K. M(s) and coercivities first increase and then decrease with dopant concentration increasing, reaching the highest for 3% doping level. The structural and magnetic properties of these samples support the hypothesis that the FM of DMS nanorods is due to a defect mediated mechanism instead of cobalt nanoclusters and carrier mediated.

  1. Fenoterol increases erythropoietin concentrations during tocolysis

    PubMed Central

    Gleiter, C H; Schreeb, K H; Goldbach, S; Herzog, S; Cunze, T; Kuhn, W

    1998-01-01

    Aims The present study was carried out to assess the effect of the selective β2- adrenoceptor agonists on erythropoietin (EPO) production. Methods Routine tocolysis with fenoterol (using the regular rate of 2 μg min−1) was used as a clinically easily accessible model. Results EPO concentrations had doubled 24 h after the start of tocolysis (P < 0.001). This increase lasted over the entire observation period of 48 h. Potassium concentrations fell significantly during the first hours of fenoterol infusion. There was no increase of human placenta lactogen during the period of EPO increase. Conclusions The data confirm our earlier results that fenoterol increases EPO concentrations following haemorrhage. In this model it was not necessary to stimulate EPO production prior to pharmacological treatment. PMID:9491829

  2. Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies on ZnCdO thin films with different Cd concentrations grown by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuai; Li, Qingxuan; Ferguson, Ian; Lin, Tao; Wan, Lingyu; Feng, Zhe Chuan; Zhu, Liping; Ye, Zhizhen

    2017-11-01

    A set of Zn1-xCdxO thin films with different Cd concentrations was deposited on quartz substrates by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD). The properties of these films were investigated by variable angle and temperature dependent spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). The experimental Zn1-xCdxO thin films showed a red shift in the absorption edge with increasing Cd contents at room temperature. For ZnCdO films with the similar Cd concentration, it has been found that the film thickness has important effects on the optical constants (n, k). The variations of optical constants (n, k) and the band gap, E0, with temperature (T) in 25 °C-600 °C for a typical Zn0.95Cd0.05O sample were obtained. The E0 vs T relationship is described by a T- quadratic equation.

  3. Effects of 8-mer acidic peptide concentration on the morphology and photoluminescence of synthesized ZnO nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Chung Hee; Tousi, Marzieh; Cheeney, Joseph; Ngo-Duc, Tam-Triet; Zuo, Zheng; Liu, Jianlin; Haberer, Elaine D.

    2015-11-01

    An 8-mer ZnO-binding peptide, VPGAAEHT, was identified using a M13 pVIII phage display library and employed as an additive during aqueous-based ZnO synthesis at 65 °C. Unlike most other well-studied ZnO-binding sequences which are strongly basic (pI > pH 7), the 8-mer peptide was overall acidic (pI < pH 7) in character, including only a single basic residue. The selected peptide strongly influenced ZnO nanostructure formation. Morphology and optical emission properties were found to be dependent on the concentration of peptide additive. Using lower peptide concentrations (<0.1 mM), single crystal hexagonal rods and platelets were produced, and using higher peptide concentrations (≥0.1 mM), polycrystalline layered platelets, yarn-like structures, and microspheres were assembled. Photoluminescence analysis revealed a characteristic ZnO band-edge peak, as well as sub-bandgap emission peaks. Defect-related green emission, typically associated with surface-related oxygen and zinc vacancies, was significantly reduced by the peptide additive, while blue emission, attributable to oxygen and zinc interstitials, emerged with increased peptide concentrations. Peptide-directed synthesis of ZnO materials may be useful for gas sensing and photocatalytic applications in which properly engineered morphology and defect levels have demonstrated enhanced performance.

  4. Low-temperature hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorods: Effects of zinc salt concentration, various solvents and alkaline mineralizers

    SciTech Connect

    Edalati, Khatereh, E-mail: kh_ed834@stu.um.ac.ir; Shakiba, Atefeh; Vahdati-Khaki, Jalil

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • We synthesized ZnO nanorods by a simple hydrothermal process at 60 °C. • Effects of zinc salt concentration, solvent and alkaline mineralizer was studied. • Increasing concentration of zinc salt changed ZnO nucleation system. • NaOH yielded better results in the production of nanorods in both solvents. • Methanol performed better in the formation of nanorods using the two mineralizers. - Abstract: ZnO has been produced using various methods in the solid, gaseous, and liquid states, and the hydrothermal synthesis at low temperatures has been shown to be an environmentally-friendly one. The current work utilizes a low reactionmore » temperature (60 °C) for the simple hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorod morphologies. Furthermore, the effects of zinc salt concentration, solvent type and alkaline mineralizer type on ZnO nanorods synthesis at a low reaction temperature by hydrothermal processing was studied. Obtained samples were analyzed using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Increasing the concentration of the starting zinc salt from 0.02 to 0.2 M changed ZnO nucleation system from the homogeneous to the heterogeneous state. The XRD results confirmed the production hexagonal ZnO nanostructures of with a crystallite size of 40.4 nm. Varying the experimental parameters (mineralizer and solvent) yielded ZnO nanorods with diameters ranging from 90–250 nm and lengths of 1–2 μm.« less

  5. Effects of graphene oxide concentration on optical properties of ZnO/RGO nanocomposites and their application to photocurrent generation

    SciTech Connect

    Azarang, Majid, E-mail: azarangmajid@gmail.com, E-mail: azarang@phys.usb.ac.ir; Department of Physics, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, 98135-674 Zahedan; Shuhaimi, Ahmad

    2014-08-28

    The effects of different concentrations of graphene oxide (GO) on the structure and optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were investigated. The nanocomposites were synthesized via the sol-gel method in a gelatin medium. X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that the GO sheets were reduced and changed to reduced GO (RGO) during the calcination of the nanocomposites at 400 °C. In addition, the XRD patterns of the NPs indicated a hexagonal (wurtzite) structure for all the products. Microscopic studies showed that the NPs were decorated and dispersed on the RGO sheets very well. However, these studies revealedmore » that the RGO concentration had an effect on the crystal growth process for the ZnO NPs. Furthermore, these studies showed that the NPs could be grown with a single crystal quality in an optimum RGO concentration. According to the XRD results that were obtained from pure ZnO NPs, the calcinations temperature was decreased by the RGO. UV–vis and room temperature photoluminescence studies showed that the optical properties of the ZnO/RGO nanocomposite were affected by the RGO concentration. Finally, the obtained ZnO/RGO nanocomposite was used to generate a photocurrent. Observations showed that the photocurrent intensity of the nanocomposite was significantly increased by increasing the RGO, with an optimum RGO concentration.« less

  6. The effect of concentration ratio and type of functional group on synthesis of CNT-ZnO hybrid nanomaterial by an in situ sol-gel process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini Largani, Sekineh; Akbarzadeh Pasha, Mohammad

    2017-12-01

    In this research, MWCNT-ZnO hybrid nanomaterials were synthesized by a simple sol-gel process using Zn(CH3COO)2·2H2O and functionalized MWCNT with carboxyl(COOH) and hydroxyl(OH) groups. Three different mass ratios of MWCNT:ZnO = 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3 were examined. The prepared nanomaterials were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Successful growth of MWCNT-ZnO hybrids for both COOH and OH functional groups and all the three mass ratios were obtained. The ZnO nanoparticles attached on the surfaces of CNTs have rather spherical shapes and hexagonal crystal structure. By increasing the concentration of ZnO, the number and average size of ZnO nanoparticles decorated the body of CNTs in hybrid structures increase. By increasing the ZnO precursor, the distribution of ZnO nanoparticles that appeared on the surface of CNTs becomes more uniform. The SEM observation beside EDX analysis revealed that at the same concentration ratio the amount of ZnO loading on the surface of MWCNT-COOH is more than MWCNT-OH. Moreover, the average size of ZnO nanoparticles attached on the surface of COOH functionalized CNTs is relatively smaller than that of OH functionalized ones.

  7. Pressure induced increase of the exciton phonon interaction in ZnO/(ZnMg)O quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Jarosz, D.; Suchocki, A.; Kozanecki, A.

    2016-03-15

    It is a well-established experimental fact that exciton-phonon coupling is very efficient in ZnO. The intensities of the phonon-replicas in ZnO/(ZnMg)O quantum structures strongly depend on the internal electric field. We performed high-pressure measurements on the single ZnO/(ZnMg)O quantum well. We observed a strong increase of the intensity of the phonon-replicas relative to the zero phonon line. In our opinion this effect is related to pressure induced increase of the strain in quantum structure. As a consequence, an increase of the piezoelectric component of the electric field is observed which leads to an increase of the intensity of the phonon-replicas.

  8. Interactions of Zn(II) Ions with Humic Acids Isolated from Various Type of Soils. Effect of pH, Zn Concentrations and Humic Acids Chemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Boguta, Patrycja; Sokołowska, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was the analysis of the interaction between humic acids (HAs) from different soils and Zn(II) ions at wide concentration ranges and at two different pHs, 5 and 7, by using fluorescence and FTIR spectroscopy, as well as potentiometric measurements. The presence of a few areas of HAs structures responsible for Zn(II) complexing was revealed. Complexation at α-sites (low humified structures of low-molecular weight and aromatic polycondensation) and β-sites (weakly humified structures) was stronger at pH 7 than 5. This trend was not observed for γ-sites (structures with linearly-condensed aromatic rings, unsaturated bonds and large molecular weight). The amount of metal complexed at pH5 and 7 by α and γ-structures increased with a decrease in humification and aromaticity of HAs, contrary to β-areas where complexation increased with increasing content of carboxylic groups. The stability of complexes was higher at pH 7 and was the highest for γ-structures. At pH 5, stability decreased with C/N increase for α-areas and -COOH content increase for β-sites; stability increased with humification decrease for γ-structures. The stability of complexes at α and β-areas at pH 7 decreased with a drop in HAs humification. FTIR spectra at pH 5 revealed that the most-humified HAs tended to cause bidentate bridging coordination, while in the case of the least-humified HAs, Zn caused bidentate bridging coordination at low Zn additions and bidentate chelation at the highest Zn concentrations. Low Zn doses at pH 7 caused formation of unidentate complexes while higher Zn doses caused bidentate bridging. Such processes were noticed for HAs characterized by high oxidation degree and high oxygen functional group content; where these were low, HAs displayed bidentate bridging or even bidentate chelation. To summarize, the above studies have showed significant impact of Zn concentration, pH and some properties of HAs on complexation reactions of humic

  9. Interactions of Zn(II) Ions with Humic Acids Isolated from Various Type of Soils. Effect of pH, Zn Concentrations and Humic Acids Chemical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Boguta, Patrycja; Sokołowska, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was the analysis of the interaction between humic acids (HAs) from different soils and Zn(II) ions at wide concentration ranges and at two different pHs, 5 and 7, by using fluorescence and FTIR spectroscopy, as well as potentiometric measurements. The presence of a few areas of HAs structures responsible for Zn(II) complexing was revealed. Complexation at α-sites (low humified structures of low-molecular weight and aromatic polycondensation) and β-sites (weakly humified structures) was stronger at pH 7 than 5. This trend was not observed for γ-sites (structures with linearly-condensed aromatic rings, unsaturated bonds and large molecular weight). The amount of metal complexed at pH5 and 7 by α and γ-structures increased with a decrease in humification and aromaticity of HAs, contrary to β-areas where complexation increased with increasing content of carboxylic groups. The stability of complexes was higher at pH 7 and was the highest for γ-structures. At pH 5, stability decreased with C/N increase for α-areas and -COOH content increase for β-sites; stability increased with humification decrease for γ-structures. The stability of complexes at α and β-areas at pH 7 decreased with a drop in HAs humification. FTIR spectra at pH 5 revealed that the most-humified HAs tended to cause bidentate bridging coordination, while in the case of the least-humified HAs, Zn caused bidentate bridging coordination at low Zn additions and bidentate chelation at the highest Zn concentrations. Low Zn doses at pH 7 caused formation of unidentate complexes while higher Zn doses caused bidentate bridging. Such processes were noticed for HAs characterized by high oxidation degree and high oxygen functional group content; where these were low, HAs displayed bidentate bridging or even bidentate chelation. To summarize, the above studies have showed significant impact of Zn concentration, pH and some properties of HAs on complexation reactions of humic

  10. Enhanced NH3 gas sensing properties of a QCM sensor by increasing the length of vertically orientated ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minh, Vu Anh; Tuan, Le Anh; Huy, Tran Quang; Hung, Vu Ngoc; Quy, Nguyen Van

    2013-01-01

    Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods were directly synthesised on a gold electrode of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) by a simple low-temperature hydrothermal method for a NH3 gas sensing application. The length of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods was increased to purpose enhancement in the gas sensing response of the sensor. The length of ZnO nanorods increased with an increase in growth time. The growth time of ZnO nanorods was systematically varied in the range of 1-4 h to examine the effect of the length of the ZnO nanorods on the gas sensing properties of the fabricated sensors. The gas sensing properties of sensors with different ZnO nanorods lengths was examined at room temperature for various concentrations of NH3 (50-800 ppm) in synthetic air. Enhancement in gas sensing response by increasing the length of ZnO nanorods was observed.

  11. Effect of Mo and Ti doping concentration on the structural and optical properties of ZnS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naz, Hina; Ali, Rai Nauman; Zhu, Xingqun; Xiang, Bin

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we report the effect of single phase Mo and Ti doping concentration on the structural and optical properties of the ZnS nanoparticles. The structural and optical properties of the as-synthesized samples have been examined by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible near infrared absorption spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. TEM characterizations reveal a variation in the doped ZnS nanoparticle size distribution by utilizing different dopants of Mo and Ti. In absorption spectra, a clear red shift of 14 nm is observed with increasing Mo concentration as compared to pure ZnS nanoparticles, while by increasing Ti doping concentration, blue shift of 14 nm is obtained. Moreover, it demonstrates that the value of energy band gap decreases from 4.03 eV to 3.89 eV in case of Mo doping. However, the value of energy band gap have shown a remarkable increase from 4.11 eV to 4.27 eV with increasing Ti doping concentration. Our results provide a new pathway to understand the effect of Mo and Ti doping concentrations on the structural and optical properties of ZnS nanoparticles as it could be the key to tune the properties for future optoelectronic devices.

  12. The Critical Role of Thioacetamide Concentration in the Formation of ZnO/ZnS Heterostructures by Sol-Gel Process

    PubMed Central

    Kiatkoski Kaminski, Renata Cristina; Caetano, Bruno Leonardo; Magnani, Marina; Meneau, Florian; Rochet, Amélie; Santilli, Celso Valentim; Briois, Valérie; Bourgaux, Claudie

    2018-01-01

    ZnO/ZnS heterostructures have emerged as an attractive approach for tailoring the properties of particles comprising these semiconductors. They can be synthesized using low temperature sol-gel routes. The present work yields insight into the mechanisms involved in the formation of ZnO/ZnS nanostructures. ZnO colloidal suspensions, prepared by hydrolysis and condensation of a Zn acetate precursor solution, were allowed to react with an ethanolic thioacetamide solution (TAA) as sulfur source. The reactions were monitored in situ by Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) and UV-vis spectroscopy, and the final colloidal suspensions were characterized by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The powders extracted at the end of the reactions were analyzed by X-ray Absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Depending on TAA concentration, different nanostructures were revealed. ZnO and ZnS phases were mainly obtained at low and high TAA concentrations, respectively. At intermediate TAA concentrations, we evidenced the formation of ZnO/ZnS heterostructures. ZnS formation could take place via direct crystal growth involving Zn ions remaining in solution and S ions provided by TAA and/or chemical conversion of ZnO to ZnS. The combination of all the characterization techniques was crucial to elucidate the reaction steps and the nature of the final products. PMID:29360735

  13. Increased functional properties and thermal stability of flexible cellulose nanocrystal/ZnO films.

    PubMed

    Lizundia, E; Urruchi, A; Vilas, J L; León, L M

    2016-01-20

    In this work we attempt to improve the functional properties and thermal stability of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) films by means of eco-friendly materials and processes. Mechanically flexible films of closely packed CNCs with concentrations up to 5 wt.% of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles have been prepared by a simple, standard and environmentally friendly method using solely water. Results reveal that ultraviolet light is blocked by 98.5% at 1 wt.% ZnO while good transparency is maintained. A sharp hydrophobicity increase is observed with the addition of ZnO which would enhance the durability of films by decreasing the water diffusion through the material. The thermal degradation activation energy (E) presents an increase of 141%, denoting a high thermal stability of films, which would result beneficial for their potential application in the field of flexible electronics. Mechanical results demonstrate a high structural integrity of CNC/ZnO as a result of the occurring strong cellulosic inter- and intramolecular interactions within the closely packed CNC network. In overall, this work highlights the potential for environmentally friendly processing of sustainable nanostructured functional materials based on cellulose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Tuning the optical properties of ZnO nanorods by variation of precursor concentration through hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Lakshmi; Kar, Asit Kumar

    2018-05-01

    ZnO nanorods with varying precursor concentration have been successfully synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The effect of the precursor concentration on the structural, morphological and optical properties of the resulting nanorods was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), UV-Vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The crystalline structural characterization demonstrated that the synthesized materials crystallize in pure ZnO wurtzite structure without any other secondary phase. SEM micrographs demonstrate nanorod type features in all the samples. In addition, they show that increase of precursor concentration changes the length and diameter of nanorods. The UV-Vis studies show a strong absorption band in UV region at 373 nm attributed to the band-edge absorption of wurtzite hexagonal ZnO, blue shifted relative to its bulk form (380 nm). The PL spectra of obtained nanorods excited at 360 nm present broad visible emission. Moreover, as the visible region (from 510 to 550 nm) is concerned, it is speculated that the increase of the precursor concentration affects strongly the kind of interstitial defects (Oi, Zni and Vo) formed in ZnO nanorods. The luminescence intensity decreases with the increase of precursor concentration.

  15. Er 3+ concentration induced change in electroluminescence excitation mechanism in (Zn,Cd) S phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, P. K.; Nandgave, J. K.; Lawangar-Pawar, R. D.

    1990-11-01

    (Zn 0.4Cd 0.6)S phosphors doped with varying concentrations of Er 3+ have been prepared under the inert atmosphere of argon and the dependence of their EL brightness on voltage is investigated. The EL brightness has been found to be an increasing function of applied a.c.voltage obeying the power law relation B = AVn upto a certain concentration of Er 3+ and the Alfrey-Taylor relation B = B0exp(- b/√ V) beyond that. The change in EL excitation mechanism with Er 3+ concentration has been explained on the basis of change in the number and effectiveness of Mott-Schottky type exhaustion barriers in the phosphors. An attempt has been made to correlate the result with microstructure and electrical characteristics of the phosphors.

  16. Transient increase in Zn2+ in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons causes reversible memory deficit.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Atsushi; Takada, Shunsuke; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Miki; Tamano, Haruna; Ando, Masaki; Oku, Naoto

    2011-01-01

    The translocation of synaptic Zn(2+) to the cytosolic compartment has been studied to understand Zn(2+) neurotoxicity in neurological diseases. However, it is unknown whether the moderate increase in Zn(2+) in the cytosolic compartment affects memory processing in the hippocampus. In the present study, the moderate increase in cytosolic Zn(2+) in the hippocampus was induced with clioquinol (CQ), a zinc ionophore. Zn(2+) delivery by Zn-CQ transiently attenuated CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampal slices prepared 2 h after i.p. injection of Zn-CQ into rats, when intracellular Zn(2+) levels was transiently increased in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer, followed by object recognition memory deficit. Object recognition memory was transiently impaired 30 min after injection of ZnCl(2) into the CA1, but not after injection into the dentate gyrus that did not significantly increase intracellular Zn(2+) in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus. Object recognition memory deficit may be linked to the preferential increase in Zn(2+) and/or the preferential vulnerability to Zn(2+) in CA1 pyramidal neurons. In the case of the cytosolic increase in endogenous Zn(2+) in the CA1 induced by 100 mM KCl, furthermore, object recognition memory was also transiently impaired, while ameliorated by co-injection of CaEDTA to block the increase in cytosolic Zn(2+). The present study indicates that the transient increase in cytosolic Zn(2+) in CA1 pyramidal neurons reversibly impairs object recognition memory.

  17. Transient Increase in Zn2+ in Hippocampal CA1 Pyramidal Neurons Causes Reversible Memory Deficit

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Atsushi; Takada, Shunsuke; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Miki; Tamano, Haruna; Ando, Masaki; Oku, Naoto

    2011-01-01

    The translocation of synaptic Zn2+ to the cytosolic compartment has been studied to understand Zn2+ neurotoxicity in neurological diseases. However, it is unknown whether the moderate increase in Zn2+ in the cytosolic compartment affects memory processing in the hippocampus. In the present study, the moderate increase in cytosolic Zn2+ in the hippocampus was induced with clioquinol (CQ), a zinc ionophore. Zn2+ delivery by Zn-CQ transiently attenuated CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampal slices prepared 2 h after i.p. injection of Zn-CQ into rats, when intracellular Zn2+ levels was transiently increased in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer, followed by object recognition memory deficit. Object recognition memory was transiently impaired 30 min after injection of ZnCl2 into the CA1, but not after injection into the dentate gyrus that did not significantly increase intracellular Zn2+ in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus. Object recognition memory deficit may be linked to the preferential increase in Zn2+ and/or the preferential vulnerability to Zn2+ in CA1 pyramidal neurons. In the case of the cytosolic increase in endogenous Zn2+ in the CA1 induced by 100 mM KCl, furthermore, object recognition memory was also transiently impaired, while ameliorated by co-injection of CaEDTA to block the increase in cytosolic Zn2+. The present study indicates that the transient increase in cytosolic Zn2+ in CA1 pyramidal neurons reversibly impairs object recognition memory. PMID:22163318

  18. Dopant concentration dependent growth of Fe:ZnO nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Sahai, Anshuman; Goswami, Navendu, E-mail: navendugoswami@gmail.com

    2016-05-23

    Systematic investigations of structural properties of 1-10% Fe doped ZnO nanostructure (Fe:ZnO NS) prepared via chemical precipitation method have been reported. Structural properties were probed thoroughly employing scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Morphological transformation of nanostructures (NS) with Fe incorporation is evident in SEM/TEM images. Nanoparticles (NP) obtained with 1% Fe, evolve to nanorods (NR) for 3% Fe; NR transform to nanocones (NC) (for 5% and 7% Fe) and finally NC transform to nanoflakes (NF) at 10% Fe. Morover, primary phase of Zn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}O along withmore » secondary phases of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were also revealed through XRD measurements. Based on collective XRD, SEM, TEM, and EDAX interpretations, a model for morphological evolution of NS was proposed and the pivotal role of Fe dopant was deciphered.« less

  19. Effect of soil and foliar application of zinc on grain zinc and cadmium concentration of wheat genotypes differing in Zn-efficiency

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A two-year field experiment was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of soil and foliar applications of zinc sulfate and soil application of waste rubber ash to increase Zn and decrease cadmium (Cd) concentration in grain of 10 wheat genotypes with different Zn-efficiency. Foliar spray of zi...

  20. Qigong exercise with concentration predicts increased health.

    PubMed

    Jouper, John; Hassmén, Peter; Johansson, Mattias

    2006-01-01

    Regular physical activity has many positive health effects. Despite this, approximately 50% of all adults are not exercising enough to enjoy better health and may, therefore, need an alternative to vigorous physical exercise. Qigong offers a gentle way to exercise the body. A questionnaire sample of 253 participants was collected and correlations with the variable health-now were analyzed. Results showed that health-now was positively correlated with number of completed qigong courses (p < 0.05), with level of concentration (p < 0.01), session-time (p < 0.01), and years of practice (p < 0.05). Among these variables, concentration predicts an increased feeling of health (R(2) = 0.092). Qigong exercise thereby seems to offer a viable alternative to other more vigorous physical activities when wellness is the primary goal. When interpreted using self-determination theory, qigong seems to satisfy needs related to autonomy, competence and relatedness, thereby, primarily attracting individuals who are intrinsically motivated.

  1. Sol concentration effect on ZnO nanofibers photocatalytic activity synthesized by sol-gel dip coating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toubane, M.; Tala-Ighil, R.; Bensouici, F.; Bououdina, M.; Souier, M.; Liu, S.; Cai, W.; Iratni, A.

    2017-03-01

    ZnO thin films were deposited onto glass substrate by sol-gel dip coating method. The initial sol concentrations were varied from 0.2 to 0.5 M. Zinc acetate dihydrate, ethanol and Diethanolamine (DEA) were used as staring material, solvent and stabilizer respectively. The evolution of structural, optical properties and methylene blue (MB) photodegradation of the as-deposited films on sol concentration was investigated. Rietveld refinements of x-ray patterns reveal that all the as-prepared thin films have a Zincite-type structure with grain orientation along to c-axis. The strongest sol concentration is favorable for the highest crystallization quality. However, the high preferred orientation factor (POF) occurs for 0.3 M sol concentration. The field emission scanning electron microscopy observations reveals nanofibrous morphology with different lengths. The nanofibers density increases with increasing sols concentrations until forming a flower-like morphology. The EDS analysis confirms the high purity of the as-deposited ZnO films. It is found that all films present good transparency greater than 95% in the visible range; the optical band gap is slightly reduced with the increase in sol concentration. The photocatalytic degradation is enhanced by 90% with the sol concentration. The K app rate reaction increased with increasing sol concentration. The films stability is found to slightly decrease after the third cycle, especially for 0.5 M sol concentration.

  2. Zn2+-induced changes at the root level account for the increased tolerance of acclimated tobacco plants

    PubMed Central

    Bazihizina, Nadia; Taiti, Cosimo; Marti, Lucia; Rodrigo-Moreno, Ana; Spinelli, Francesco; Giordano, Cristiana; Caparrotta, Stefania; Gori, Massimo; Azzarello, Elisa; Mancuso, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that heavy-metal tolerance can be induced in plants following pre-treatment with non-toxic metal concentrations, but the results are still controversial. In the present study, tobacco plants were exposed to increasing Zn2+ concentrations (up to 250 and/or 500 μM ZnSO4) with or without a 1-week acclimation period with 30 μM ZnSO4. Elevated Zn2+ was highly toxic for plants, and after 3 weeks of treatments there was a marked (≥50%) decline in plant growth in non-acclimated plants. Plant acclimation, on the other hand, increased plant dry mass and leaf area up to 1.6-fold compared with non-acclimated ones. In non-acclimated plants, the addition of 250 μM ZnSO4 led to transient membrane depolarization and stomatal closure within 24h from the addition of the stress; by contrast, the acclimation process was associated with an improved stomatal regulation and a superior ability to maintain a negative root membrane potential, with values on average 37% more negative compared with non-acclimated plants. The different response at the plasma-membrane level between acclimated and non-acclimated plants was associated with an enhanced vacuolar Zn2+ sequestration and up to 2-fold higher expression of the tobacco orthologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana MTP1 gene. Thus, the acclimation process elicited specific detoxification mechanisms in roots that enhanced Zn2+ compartmentalization in vacuoles, thereby improving root membrane functionality and stomatal regulation in leaves following elevated Zn2+ stress. PMID:24928985

  3. Aluminum concentration and substrate temperature in chemical sprayed ZnO:Al thin solid films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozada, Erick Velázquez; Castañeda, L.; Aguilar, E. Austria

    2018-02-01

    The continuous interest in the synthesis and properties study of materials has permitted the development of semiconductor oxides. Zinc oxide (ZnO) with hexagonal wurzite structure is a wide band gap n-type semiconductor and interesting material over a wide range. Chemically sprayed aluminium-doped zinc oxide thin films (ZnO:Al) were deposited on soda-lime glass substrates starting from zinc pentanedionate and aluminium pentanedionate. The influence of both the dopant concentration in the starting solution and the substrate temperature on the composition, morphology, and transport properties of the ZnO:Al thin films were studied. The structure of all the ZnO:Al thin films was polycrystalline, and variation in the preferential growth with the aluminium content in the solution was observed: from an initial (002) growth in films with low Al content, switching to a predominance of (101) planes for heavily dopant regime. The crystallite size was found to decrease with doping concentration and range from 33 to 20 nm. First-order Raman scattering from ZnO:Al, all having the wurtzite structure. The assignments of the E2 mode in ZnO:Al differ from previous investigations. The film composition and the dopant concentration were determined by Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES); these results showed that the films are almost stoichiometric ZnO. The optimum deposition conditions leading to conductive and transparent ZnO:Al thin films were also found. In this way a resistivity of 0.03 Ω-cm with a (002) preferential growth, were obtained in optimized ZnO:Al thin films.

  4. Effect of Zn Concentration on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Al-Mg-Si-Zn Alloys Processed by Gravity Die Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Longfei; Ji, Shouxun; Zhu, Qiang; Wang, Yun; Dong, Xixi; Yang, Wenchao; Midson, Stephen; Kang, Yonglin

    2018-06-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-8.1Mg-2.6Si-(0.08 to 4.62)Zn alloys (in wt pct) have been investigated by the permanent mold casting process. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the τ-Mg32(Al, Zn)49 phase forms when the Zn content is 1.01 wt pct. With higher Zn contents of 2.37 and 3.59 wt pct, the η-MgZn2 and τ-Mg32(Al, Zn)49 phases precipitate in the microstructure, and the η-MgZn2 phase forms when the Zn content is 4.62 wt pct. Metallurgical analysis shows that the η-MgZn2 and τ-Mg32(Al, Zn)49 phases strengthen the Al-8.1Mg-2.6Si-(0.08 to 4.62)Zn alloys. After solutionizing at 510 °C for 180 minutes and aging at 180 °C for 90 minutes, the η'-MgZn2 phase precipitates in the α-Al matrix, which significantly enhances the mechanical properties. Addition of 3.59 wt pct Zn to the Al-8.1Mg-2.6Si alloy with heat treatment increases the yield strength from 96 to 280 MPa, increases the ultimate tensile strength from 267 to 310 MPa, and decreases the elongation from 9.97 to 1.74 pct.

  5. Magnetic phase change in Mn-doped ZnSnAs2 thin films depending on Mn concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchitomi, Naotaka; Hidaka, Shiro; Saito, Shin; Asubar, Joel T.; Toyota, Hideyuki

    2018-04-01

    The relationship between Mn concentration and Curie temperature (TC) is studied for Mn-doped ZnSnAs2 ferromagnetic semiconductors, epitaxially grown on InP substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. In the ferromagnetic phase, Mn distributions in a (Zn,Mn,Sn)As2 thin film with 7.2 cation percent (cat. %) Mn are investigated using three-dimensional atom probe tomography. The results indicate an inhomogeneous distribution which spreads to a relatively high Mn concentration of 9.0 at. % (at. %). In the paramagnetic phase, it is found that the paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition takes place sharply with a TC of 334 K when the Mn doping concentration increases to about 4 cat. % Mn, which corresponds to a magnetic percolation threshold for ferromagnetism in (Zn,Mn,Sn)As2. An effective Curie temperature ⟨TC⟩ is considered to bridge the Curie temperatures obtained experimentally to those calculated theoretically in inhomogeneous magnetic semiconductors. The behavior of magnetism in Mn-doped ZnSnAs2 can be explained by three different phases within the present framework.

  6. Controlling of ZnO nanostructures by solute concentration and its effect on growth, structural and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Yogendra; Rana, Amit Kumar; Bhojane, Prateek; Pusty, Manojit; Bagwe, Vivas; Sen, Somaditya; Shirage, Parasharam M.

    2015-10-01

    ZnO nanostructured films were prepared by a chemical bath deposition method on glass substrates without any assistance of either microwave or high pressure autoclaves. The effect of solute concentration on the pure wurtzite ZnO nanostructure morphologies is studied. The control of the solute concentration helps to control the nanostructure to form nano-needles, and -rods. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies revealed highly c-axis oriented thin films. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirms the modification of the nanostructure dependent on the concentration. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show the single crystalline electron diffraction pattern, indicating high quality nano-material. UV-vis results show the variation in the band gap from 3.20 eV to 3.14 eV with increasing concentration as the nanostructures change from needle- to rod-like. Photoluminescence (PL) data indicate the existence of defects in the nanomaterials emitting light in the yellow-green region, with broad UV and visible spectra. A sharp and strong peak is observed at ˜438 cm-1 by Raman spectroscopy, assigned to the {{{{E}}}2}{{high}} optical mode of ZnO, the characteristic peak for the highly-crystalline wurtzite hexagonal phase. The solute concentration significantly affects the formation of defect states in the nanostructured films, and as a result, it alters the structural and optical properties. Current-voltage characteristics alter with the measurement environment, indicating potential sensor applications.

  7. Effect of Zn(NO3)2 concentration in hydrothermal-electrochemical deposition on morphology and photoelectrochemical properties of ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Ceren; Unal, Ugur

    2016-04-01

    Zn(NO3)2 concentration had been reported to be significantly influential on electrodeposition of ZnO structures. In this work, this issue is revisited using hydrothermal-electrochemical deposition (HED). Seedless, cathodic electrochemical deposition of ZnO films is carried out on ITO electrode at 130 °C in a closed glass reactor with varying Zn(NO3)2 concentration. Regardless of the concentration of Zn2+ precursor (0.001-0.1 M) in the deposition solution, vertically aligned 1-D ZnO nanorods are obtained as opposed to electrodepositions at lower temperatures (70-80 °C). We also report the effects of high bath temperature and pressure on the photoelectrochemical properties of the ZnO films. Manipulation of precursor concentration in the deposition solution allows adjustment of the aspect ratio of the nanorods and the degree of texturation along the c-axis; hence photoinduced current density. HED is shown to provide a single step synthesis route to prepare ZnO rods with desired aspect ratio specific for the desired application just by controlling the precursor concentration.

  8. Zn concentration in esophageal tissue in patients with and without upper gastrointestinal disease

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, R.K.H.; Kadakia, S.C.; Maydonovitch, C.

    1986-03-05

    Measurements of tissue Zn in humans with upper gastrointestinal disease could provide information about underlying pathophysiology but these data have never been obtained. With recent endoscopic methods they obtained 2-6 mg pinch mucosal biopsies of epithelium and lamina propria from proximal (P), middle (M) and distal (D) areas of esophagus under direct vision through a flexible 1 cm endoscope in 35 subjects without gastrointestinal disease (N) and in 35 patients with the following endoscopically proven gastrointestinal pathology: 12 with esophagitis (E), 14 with duodenal ulcer disease (DU) and 9 with gastritis (G). Samples were dried, weighed, digested with HNO/sub 3/,more » dried, resuspended in 3% HNO/sub 3/ and Zn estimated by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Esophageal Zn in N decreased progressively as biopsies extended from P to D (P, 108 +/- 29 ..mu..g/g dry weight, Mean +/- SEM; M, 158 +/- 23; D, 134 +/- 16) but this pattern was generally reversed in patients, with D consistently demonstrating Zn elevated 50-120% above normal. The greatest increase was in G in whom Zn in D was more than twice normal (DU, 290 +/- 76, p < 0.01). These are the first Zn levels obtained from esophagus in living human subjects and indicate (1) a specific pattern of Zn distribution in normal esophagus and (2) a significantly altered pattern in D in several diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract.« less

  9. Increased Pleiotrophin Concentrations in Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jee, Youn Hee; Sadowski, Samira M.; Celi, Francesco S.; Xi, Liqiang; Raffeld, Mark; Sacks, David B.; Remaley, Alan T.; Wellstein, Anton; Kebebew, Electron; Baron, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Background Thyroid nodules are common, and approximately 5% of these nodules are malignant. Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a heparin-binding growth factor which is overexpressed in many cancers. The expression of PTN in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is unknown. Method and Findings 74 subjects (age 47 ± 12 y, 15 males) who had thyroidectomy with a histological diagnosis: 79 benign nodules and 23 PTCs (10 classic, 6 tall cell, 6 follicular variant and 1 undetermined). Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples were obtained ex vivo from surgically excised tissue and assayed for PTN and thyroglobulin (Tg). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on tissue sections. In FNA samples, PTN concentration normalized to Tg was significantly higher in PTC than in benign nodules (16 ± 6 vs 0.3 ± 0.1 ng/mg, p < 0.001). In follicular variant of PTC (n = 6), the PTN/Tg ratio was also higher than in benign nodules (1.3 ± 0.6 vs 0.3 ± 0.1 ng/mg, P < 0.001, respectively). IHC showed cytoplasmic localization of PTN in PTC cells. Conclusion In ex vivo FNA samples, the PTN to thyroglobulin ratio was higher in PTCs, including follicular variant PTC, than in benign thyroid nodules. The findings raise the possibility that measurement of the PTN to Tg ratio may provide useful diagnostic and/or prognostic information in the evaluation of thyroid nodules. PMID:26914549

  10. Increased Pleiotrophin Concentrations in Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jee, Youn Hee; Sadowski, Samira M; Celi, Francesco S; Xi, Liqiang; Raffeld, Mark; Sacks, David B; Remaley, Alan T; Wellstein, Anton; Kebebew, Electron; Baron, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are common, and approximately 5% of these nodules are malignant. Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a heparin-binding growth factor which is overexpressed in many cancers. The expression of PTN in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is unknown. 74 subjects (age 47 ± 12 y, 15 males) who had thyroidectomy with a histological diagnosis: 79 benign nodules and 23 PTCs (10 classic, 6 tall cell, 6 follicular variant and 1 undetermined). Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples were obtained ex vivo from surgically excised tissue and assayed for PTN and thyroglobulin (Tg). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on tissue sections. In FNA samples, PTN concentration normalized to Tg was significantly higher in PTC than in benign nodules (16 ± 6 vs 0.3 ± 0.1 ng/mg, p < 0.001). In follicular variant of PTC (n = 6), the PTN/Tg ratio was also higher than in benign nodules (1.3 ± 0.6 vs 0.3 ± 0.1 ng/mg, P < 0.001, respectively). IHC showed cytoplasmic localization of PTN in PTC cells. In ex vivo FNA samples, the PTN to thyroglobulin ratio was higher in PTCs, including follicular variant PTC, than in benign thyroid nodules. The findings raise the possibility that measurement of the PTN to Tg ratio may provide useful diagnostic and/or prognostic information in the evaluation of thyroid nodules.

  11. AtHMA4 Drives Natural Variation in Leaf Zn Concentration of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zi-Ru; Kuang, Lu; Gao, Yi-Qun; Wang, Ya-Ling; Salt, David E.; Chao, Dai-Yin

    2018-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential element for plant growth and development, and Zn derived from crop plants in the diet is also important for human health. Here, we report that genetic variation in Heavy Metal-ATPase 4 (HMA4) controls natural variation in leaf Zn content. Investigation of the natural variation in leaf Zn content in a world-wide collection of 349 Arabidopsis thaliana wild collected accessions identified two accessions, Van-0 and Fab-2, which accumulate significantly lower Zn when compared with Col-0. Both quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis and bulked segregant analysis (BSA) identified HMA4 as a strong candidate accounting for this variation in leaf Zn concentration. Genetic complementation experiments confirmed this hypothesis. Sequence analysis revealed that a 1-bp deletion in the third exon of HMA4 from Fab-2 is responsible for the lose of function of HMA4 driving the low Zn observed in Fab-2. Unlike in Fab-2 polymorphisms in the promoter region were found to be responsible for the weak function of HMA4 in Van-0. This is supported by both an expression analysis of HMA4 in Van-0 and through a series of T-DNA insertion mutants which generate truncated HMA4 promoters in the Col-0 background. In addition, we also observed that Fab-2, Van-0 and the hma4-2 null mutant in the Col-0 background show enhanced resistance to a combination of high Zn and high Cd in the growth medium, raising the possibility that variation at HMA4 may play a role in environmental adaptation. PMID:29545819

  12. AtHMA4 Drives Natural Variation in Leaf Zn Concentration of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zi-Ru; Kuang, Lu; Gao, Yi-Qun; Wang, Ya-Ling; Salt, David E; Chao, Dai-Yin

    2018-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential element for plant growth and development, and Zn derived from crop plants in the diet is also important for human health. Here, we report that genetic variation in Heavy Metal-ATPase 4 ( HMA4 ) controls natural variation in leaf Zn content. Investigation of the natural variation in leaf Zn content in a world-wide collection of 349 Arabidopsis thaliana wild collected accessions identified two accessions, Van-0 and Fab-2, which accumulate significantly lower Zn when compared with Col-0. Both quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis and bulked segregant analysis (BSA) identified HMA4 as a strong candidate accounting for this variation in leaf Zn concentration. Genetic complementation experiments confirmed this hypothesis. Sequence analysis revealed that a 1-bp deletion in the third exon of HMA4 from Fab-2 is responsible for the lose of function of HMA4 driving the low Zn observed in Fab-2. Unlike in Fab-2 polymorphisms in the promoter region were found to be responsible for the weak function of HMA4 in Van-0. This is supported by both an expression analysis of HMA4 in Van-0 and through a series of T-DNA insertion mutants which generate truncated HMA4 promoters in the Col-0 background. In addition, we also observed that Fab-2, Van-0 and the hma4-2 null mutant in the Col-0 background show enhanced resistance to a combination of high Zn and high Cd in the growth medium, raising the possibility that variation at HMA4 may play a role in environmental adaptation.

  13. Intrauterine Zn Deficiency Favors Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone-Increasing Effects on Thyrotropin Serum Levels and Induces Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Weaned Rats.

    PubMed

    Alcántara-Alonso, Viridiana; Alvarez-Salas, Elena; Matamoros-Trejo, Gilberto; de Gortari, Patricia

    2017-10-18

    Individuals who consume a diet deficient in zinc (Zn-deficient) develop alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis function, i.e., a low metabolic rate and cold insensitivity. Although those disturbances are related to primary hypothyroidism, intrauterine or postnatal Zn-deficient adults have an increased thyrotropin (TSH) concentration, but unchanged thyroid hormone (TH) levels and decreased body weight. This does not support the view that the hypothyroidism develops due to a low Zn intake. In addition, intrauterine or postnatal Zn-deficiency in weaned and adult rats reduces the activity of pyroglutamyl aminopeptidase II (PPII) in the medial-basal hypothalamus (MBH). PPII is an enzyme that degrades thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). This hypothalamic peptide stimulates its receptor in adenohypophysis, thereby increasing TSH release. We analyzed whether earlier low TH is responsible for the high TSH levels reported in adults, or if TRH release is enhanced by Zn deficiency at weaning. Dams were fed a 2 ppm Zn-deficient diet in the period from one week prior to gestation and up to three weeks after delivery. We found a high release of hypothalamic TRH, which along with reduced MBH PPII activity, increased TSH levels in Zn-deficient pups independently of changes in TH concentration. We found that primary hypothyroidism did not develop in intrauterine Zn-deficient weaned rats and we confirmed that metal deficiency enhances TSH levels since early-life, favoring subclinical hypothyroidism development which remains into adulthood.

  14. Concentration dependence of electrical resistivity of binary liquid alloy HgZn: Ab-initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Nalini; Thakur, Anil; Ahluwalia, P. K.

    2013-06-01

    The electrical resistivity of HgZn liquid alloy has been made calculated using Troullier and Martins ab-initio pseudopotential as a function of concentration. Hard sphere diameters of Hg and Zn are obtained through the inter-ionic pair potential have been used to calculate partial structure factors. Considering the liquid alloy to be a ternary mixture Ziman's formula for calculating the resistivity of binary liquid alloys, modified for complex formation, has been used. These results suggest that ab-initio approach for calculating electrical resistivity is quite successful in explaining the electronic transport properties of binary Liquid alloys.

  15. Cross talk between increased intracellular zinc (Zn2+) and accumulation of reactive oxygen species in chemical ischemia.

    PubMed

    Slepchenko, Kira G; Lu, Qiping; Li, Yang V

    2017-10-01

    Both zinc (Zn 2+ ) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to accumulate during hypoxic-ischemic stress and play important roles in pathological processes. To understand the cross talk between the two of them, here we studied Zn 2+ and ROS accumulation by employing fluorescent probes in HeLa cells to further the understanding of the cause and effect relationship of these two important cellular signaling systems during chemical-ischemia, stimulated by oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). We observed two Zn 2+ rises that were divided into four phases in the course of 30 min of OGD. The first Zn 2+ rise was a transient, which was followed by a latent phase during which Zn 2+ levels recovered; however, levels remained above a basal level in most cells. The final phase was the second Zn 2+ rise, which reached a sustained plateau called Zn 2+ overload. Zn 2+ rises were not observed when Zn 2+ was removed by TPEN (a Zn 2+ chelator) or thapsigargin (depleting Zn 2+ from intracellular stores) treatment, indicating that Zn 2+ was from intracellular storage. Damaging mitochondria with FCCP significantly reduced the second Zn 2+ rise, indicating that the mitochondrial Zn 2+ accumulation contributes to Zn 2+ overload. We also detected two OGD-induced ROS rises. Two Zn 2+ rises preceded two ROS rises. Removal of Zn 2+ reduced or delayed OGD- and FCCP-induced ROS generation, indicating that Zn 2+ contributes to mitochondrial ROS generation. There was a Zn 2+ -induced increase in the functional component of NADPH oxidase, p47 phox , thus suggesting that NADPH oxidase may mediate Zn 2+ -induced ROS accumulation. We suggest a new mechanism of cross talk between Zn 2+ and mitochondrial ROS through positive feedback processes that eventually causes excessive free Zn 2+ and ROS accumulations during the course of ischemic stress. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Effects of ZnSO4 and Zn-EDTA broadcast or banded to soil on Zn bioavailability in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Zn fractions in soil.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Aiqing; Yang, Shu; Wang, Bini; Tian, Xiaohong; Zhang, Youlin

    2018-08-01

    Human Zn deficiency is prevalent in developing countries, and staple grains are commonly bio-fortified to increase their Zn contents. We measured Zn content, distribution, and bioavailability in calcareous soil and in wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L.) in Shaanxi Province, China, when either an organic Zn-ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Zn-EDTA) or an inorganic zinc sulfate heptahydrate (ZnSO 4 ·7H 2 O) Zn source was banded below the seedbed or broadcasted into soil. Compared with ZnSO 4 ·7H 2 O, Zn-EDTA fertilization produced higher Zn concentration and uptake in wheat plants. However, Zn bioavailability in grain remained low, with [phytate]/[Zn] ratio >15 and the resulting estimated dietary total absorbed zinc (TAZ) < 3 mg Zn/d. ZnSO 4 banded into soil had little short-term effect on grain Zn concentration but had a high residual effect and promoted the maintenance of a high concentration of the Zn fraction bound to loose organic matter (LOM-Zn) in rhizosphere soil. Both ZnSO 4 and Zn-EDTA were more efficient if uniformly mixed through the soil than if banded to soil. Both ZnSO 4 and Zn-EDTA had limited effects on Zn bioavailability in wheat plants due to the high rate of Zn fixation in this calcareous soil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of valence electron concentration on Laves phases: Structures and phase stability of pseudo-binary MgZn 2-xPd x

    DOE PAGES

    Thimmaiah, Srinivasa; Miller, Gordon J.

    2015-06-03

    A series of pseudo-binary compounds MgZn 2-xPd x (0.15 ≤ x ≤ 1.0) were synthesized and structurally characterized to understand the role of valence electron concentration (vec) on the prototype Laves phase MgZn 2 with Pd-substitution. Three distinctive phase regions were observed with respect to Pd content, all exhibiting fundamental Laves phase structures: 0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.3 (MgNi 2-type, hP24; MgZn 1.80Pd 0.20(2)), 0.4 ≤ x ≤ 0.6 (MgCu 2-type, cF24; MgZn 1.59Pd 0.41(2)), and 0.62 ≤ x ≤ 0.8 (MgZn 2-type, hP12: MgZn 1.37Pd 0.63(2)). Refinements from single-crystal X-ray diffraction indicated nearly statistical distributions of Pd and Znmore » atoms among the majority atom sites in these structures. Interestingly, the MgZn 2-type structure re-emerges in MgZn 2–xPd x at x ≈ 0.7 with the refined composition MgZn 1.37(2)Pd 0.63 and a c/a ratio of 1.59 compared to 1.64 for binary MgZn 2. Electronic structure calculations on a model “MgZn 1.25Pd 0.75” yielded a density of states (DOS) curve showing enhancement of a pseudogap at the Fermi level as a result of electronic stabilization due to the Pd addition. Moreover, integrated crystal orbital Hamilton population values show significant increases of orbital interactions for (Zn,Pd)–(Zn,Pd) atom pairs within the majority atom substructure, i.e., within the Kagomé nets as well as between a Kagomé net and an apical site, from binary MgZn 2 to the ternary “MgZn 1.25Pd 0.75”. Multi-centered bonding is evident from electron localization function plots for “MgZn 1.25Pd 0.75”, an outcome which is in accordance with analysis of other Laves phases.« less

  18. Pressure-induced increase of exciton-LO-phonon coupling in a ZnCdSe/ZnSe quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Z. Z.; Liang, X. X.; Ban, S. L.

    2003-07-01

    The possibility of pressure-induced increase of exciton-LO-phonon coupling in ZnCdSe/ZnSe quantum wells is studied. The ground state binding energies of the heavy hole excitons are calculated using a variational method with consideration of the electron-phonon interaction and the pressure dependence of the parameters. The results show that for quantum wells with intermediate well width, the exciton binding energy and the LO-phonon energy may coincide in the course of pressure increasing, resulting in the increase of exciton-LO-phonon coupling. It is also found that among the pressure-dependent parameters, the influence of the lattice constant is the most important one. The changes of both the effective masses and the dielectric constants have obvious effects on the exciton binding energy, but their influences are counterbalanced.

  19. ZnO nanoparticle incorporated nanostructured metallic titanium for increased mesenchymal stem cell response and antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizabeth, Elmy; Baranwal, Gaurav; Krishnan, Amit G.; Menon, Deepthy; Nair, Manitha

    2014-03-01

    Recent trends in titanium implants are towards the development of nanoscale topographies that mimic the nanoscale properties of bone tissue. Although the nanosurface promotes the integration of osteoblast cells, infection related problems can also occur, leading to implant failure. Therefore it is imperative to reduce bacterial adhesion on an implant surface, either with or without the use of drugs/antibacterial agents. Herein, we have investigated two different aspects of Ti surfaces in inhibiting bacterial adhesion and concurrently promoting mammalian cell adhesion. These include (i) the type of nanoscale topography (Titania nanotube (TNT) and Titania nanoleaf (TNL)) and (ii) the presence of an antibacterial agent like zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnOnp) on Ti nanosurfaces. To address this, periodically arranged TNT (80-120 nm) and non-periodically arranged TNL surfaces were generated by the anodization and hydrothermal techniques respectively, and incorporated with ZnOnp of different concentrations (375 μM, 750 μM, 1.125 mM and 1.5 mM). Interestingly, TNL surfaces decreased the adherence of staphylococcus aureus while increasing the adhesion and viability of human osteosarcoma MG63 cell line and human mesenchymal stem cells, even in the absence of ZnOnp. In contrast, TNT surfaces exhibited an increased bacterial and mammalian cell adhesion. The influence of ZnOnp on these surfaces in altering the bacterial and cell adhesion was found to be concentration dependent, with an optimal range of 375-750 μM. Above 750 μM, although bacterial adhesion was reduced, cellular viability was considerably affected. Thus our study helps us to infer that nanoscale topography by itself or its combination with an optimal concentration of antibacterial ZnOnp would provide a differential cell behavior and thereby a desirable biological response, facilitating the long term success of an implant.

  20. The potentiation effect makes the difference: non-toxic concentrations of ZnO nanoparticles enhance Cu nanoparticle toxicity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Lingxiangyu; Fernández-Cruz, María Luisa; Connolly, Mona; Conde, Estefanía; Fernández, Marta; Schuster, Michael; Navas, José María

    2015-02-01

    Here we examined whether the addition of a non-toxic concentration (6.25 μg/mL) of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs: 19, 35 and 57 nm, respectively) modulates the cytotoxicity of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs, 63 nm in size) in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. The cytotoxic effect of CuNPs on HepG2 cells was markedly enhanced by the ZnONPs, the largest ZnONPs causing the highest increase in toxicity. However, CuNPs cytotoxicity was not affected by co-incubation with medium containing only zinc ions, indicating the increase in toxicity might be attributed to the particle form of ZnONPs. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the presence of CuNPs and ZnONPs inside the cells co-exposed to both types of NP and outflow of cytoplasm through the damaged cell membrane. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) determined an increase in the concentration of zinc and a decrease in that of copper in co-exposed cells. On the basis of these results, we propose that accumulation of large numbers of ZnONPs in the cells alters cellular membranes and the cytotoxicity of CuNPs is increased. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Study of the adsorption of Cd and Zn onto an activated carbon: Influence of pH, cation concentration, and adsorbent concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Seco, A.; Marzal, P.; Gabaldon, C.

    1999-06-01

    The single adsorption of Cd and Zn from aqueous solutions has been investigated on Scharlau Ca 346 granular activated carbon in a wide range of experimental conditions: pH, metal concentration, and carbon concentration. The results showed the efficiency of the activated carbon as sorbent for both metals. Metal removals increase on raising the pH and carbon concentration, and decrease on raising the initial metal concentration. The adsorption processes have been modeled using the surface complex formation (SCF) Triple Layer Model (TLM). The adsorbent TLM parameters were determined. Modeling has been performed assuming a single surface bidentate species or an overallmore » surface species with fractional stoichiometry. The bidentate stoichiometry successfully predicted cadmium and zinc removals in all the experimental conditions. The Freundlich isotherm has been also checked.« less

  2. Intrinsic Carrier Concentration and Electron Effective Mass in Hg(1-x) Zn(x) Te

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sha, Yi-Gao; Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, S. L.

    1997-01-01

    In this work, the intrinsic carrier concentration and electron effective mass in Hg(l-x)Zn(x)Te were numerically calculated. We adopt the procedures similar to those used by Su et. al. for calculating intrinsic carrier concentrations in Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te which solve the exact dispersion relation in Kane model for the calculation of the conduction band electron concentrations and the corresponding electron effective masses. No approximation beyond those inherent in the k centered dot p model was used here.

  3. Exceptionally omnidirectional broadband light harvesting scheme for multi-junction concentrator solar cells achieved via ZnO nanoneedles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Li-Ko; Tian, Wei-Cheng; Lai, Kun-Yu; He-Hau, Jr.

    2016-12-01

    GaInP/GaAs/Ge triple-junction concentrator solar cells with significant efficiency enhancement were demonstrated with antireflective ZnO nanoneedles. The novel nanostructure was attained with a Zn(NO3)2-based solution containing vitamin C. Under one sun AM 1.5G solar spectrum, conversion efficiency of the triple-junction device was improved by 23.7% via broadband improvement in short-circuit currents of 3 sub-cells after the coverage by the nanoneedles with a graded refractive index profile. The efficiency enhancement further went up to 45.8% at 100 suns. The performance boost through the nanoneedles also became increasingly pronounced in the conditions of high incident angles and the cloudy weather, e.g. 220.0% of efficiency enhancement was observed at the incident angle of 60°. These results were attributed to the exceptional broadband omnidirectionality of the antireflective nanoneedles.

  4. Loss of synaptic Zn2+ transporter function increases risk of febrile seizures

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrand, Michael S.; Phillips, A. Marie; Mullen, Saul A.; Adlard, Paul A.; Hardies, Katia; Damiano, John A.; Wimmer, Verena; Bellows, Susannah T.; McMahon, Jacinta M.; Burgess, Rosemary; Hendrickx, Rik; Weckhuysen, Sarah; Suls, Arvid; De Jonghe, Peter; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Petrou, Steven; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Reid, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Febrile seizures (FS) are the most common seizure syndrome and are potentially a prelude to more severe epilepsy. Although zinc (Zn2+) metabolism has previously been implicated in FS, whether or not variation in proteins essential for Zn2+ homeostasis contributes to susceptibility is unknown. Synaptic Zn2+ is co-released with glutamate and modulates neuronal excitability. SLC30A3 encodes the zinc transporter 3 (ZNT3), which is primarily responsible for moving Zn2+ into synaptic vesicles. Here we sequenced SLC30A3 and discovered a rare variant (c.892C > T; p.R298C) enriched in FS populations but absent in population-matched controls. Functional analysis revealed a significant loss-of-function of the mutated protein resulting from a trafficking deficit. Furthermore, mice null for ZnT3 were more sensitive than wild-type to hyperthermia-induced seizures that model FS. Together our data suggest that reduced synaptic Zn2+ increases the risk of FS and more broadly support the idea that impaired synaptic Zn2+ homeostasis can contribute to neuronal hyperexcitability. PMID:26647834

  5. Loss of synaptic Zn2+ transporter function increases risk of febrile seizures.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Michael S; Phillips, A Marie; Mullen, Saul A; Adlard, Paul A; Hardies, Katia; Damiano, John A; Wimmer, Verena; Bellows, Susannah T; McMahon, Jacinta M; Burgess, Rosemary; Hendrickx, Rik; Weckhuysen, Sarah; Suls, Arvid; De Jonghe, Peter; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Petrou, Steven; Berkovic, Samuel F; Reid, Christopher A

    2015-12-09

    Febrile seizures (FS) are the most common seizure syndrome and are potentially a prelude to more severe epilepsy. Although zinc (Zn(2+)) metabolism has previously been implicated in FS, whether or not variation in proteins essential for Zn(2+) homeostasis contributes to susceptibility is unknown. Synaptic Zn(2+) is co-released with glutamate and modulates neuronal excitability. SLC30A3 encodes the zinc transporter 3 (ZNT3), which is primarily responsible for moving Zn(2+) into synaptic vesicles. Here we sequenced SLC30A3 and discovered a rare variant (c.892C > T; p.R298C) enriched in FS populations but absent in population-matched controls. Functional analysis revealed a significant loss-of-function of the mutated protein resulting from a trafficking deficit. Furthermore, mice null for ZnT3 were more sensitive than wild-type to hyperthermia-induced seizures that model FS. Together our data suggest that reduced synaptic Zn(2+) increases the risk of FS and more broadly support the idea that impaired synaptic Zn(2+) homeostasis can contribute to neuronal hyperexcitability.

  6. Comparison of serum Concentration of Se, Pb, Mg, Cu, Zn, between MS patients and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Anahita; Mehrpour, Omid; Nikkhah, Karim; Bayat, Golnaz; Espandani, Mahsa; Golzari, Alireza; Jarahi, Lida; Foroughipour, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is defined as one of the inflammatory autoimmune disorders and is common. Its exact etiology is unclear. There are some evidences on the role of environmental factors in susceptible genetics. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible role of Selenium, Zinc, Copper, Lead and Magnesium metals in Multiple Sclerosis patients. Methods In the present analytical cross-sectional study, 56 individuals including 26 patients and 30 healthy controls were enrolled in the evaluation. The serum level of Se, Zn, Cu, Pb were quantified in graphite furnace conditions and flame conditions by utilizing an atomic absorption Perkin Elmer spectrophotometer 3030. The serum levels of Mg were measured by auto analyzer 1500 BT. The mean level of minerals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Mg, Se) in serum samples were compared in both cases and controls. The mean level of minerals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Mg, Se) in serum samples were compared in both cases and controls by using independent-samples t-test for normal distribution and Mann-Whitney U test as a non-parametric test. All statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS 11.0. Results As well as the Zn, Cu, and Se, there was no significant difference between MS patients and healthy individuals in Pb concentrations (p-value = 0.11, 0.14, 0.32, 0.20 respectively) but the level of Mg was significantly different (p= 0.001). Conclusion All serum concentrations of Zn, Pb, Se, Cu in both groups were in normal ranges and there was no difference in MS patients compared with the healthy group who were matched in genetics. Blood level of Mg was significantly lower in MS patients. But it should be noted that even with the low level of serum magnesium in MS patients, this value is still in the normal range. PMID:27757186

  7. Triple-mixture of Zn, Mn, and Fe increases bioaccumulation and causes oxidative stress in freshwater neotropical fish.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Luciana Fernandes; Santos, Caroline; Risso, Wagner Ezequiel; Dos Reis Martinez, Claudia Bueno

    2018-06-01

    Metal bioaccumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers were determined in Prochilodus lineatus to understand the effects of short-term exposure to a triple-mixture of Zn, Mn, and Fe. Three independent tests were carried out, in which fish were exposed to 3 concentrations of Zn (0.18, 1.0, and 5.0 mg L -1 ), Mn (0.1, 0.5, and 5.0 mg L -1 ), and in the mix test to Fe (5.0 mg L -1 ) and a mixture of Zn (1.0 mg L -1 ) + Mn (0.5 mg L -1 ), with and without Fe. After exposure for 96 h, tissues were removed for metal bioaccumulation analysis and oxidative stress biomarkers were determined in liver, along with DNA damage in blood cells. Our results revealed that Zn and Mn were bioaccumulated in fish tissues after exposure to 5.0 mg L -1 , whereas Fe only bioaccumulated in muscle and gills after mixture exposure. Results indicated that 1 metal interfered with the other's bioaccumulation. In P. lineatus, 5 mg L -1 of both Mn and Fe were toxic, because damage was observed (lipid peroxidation [LPO] in liver and DNA damage in blood cells), whereas Zn induced liver responses (metallothionein [MT] and reduced glutathione [GSH] increases) to prevent damage. In terms of bioaccumulation and alterations of oxidative stress biomarkers, we showed that Zn, Mn, and Fe triple-mixture enhances individual metal toxicity in Neotropical fish P. lineatus. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:1749-1756. © 2018 SETAC. © 2018 SETAC.

  8. Effect of Co doping concentration on structural properties and optical parameters of Co-doped ZnO thin films by sol-gel dip-coating method.

    PubMed

    Nam, Giwoong; Yoon, Hyunsik; Kim, Byunggu; Lee, Dong-Yul; Kim, Jong Su; Leem, Jae-Young

    2014-11-01

    The structural and optical properties of Co-doped ZnO thin films prepared by a sol-gel dip-coating method were investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the thin films were grown with a c-axis preferred orientation. The position of the (002) peak was almost the same in all samples, irrespective of the Co concentration. It is thus clear that Co doping had little effect on the position of the (002) peak. To confirm that Co2+ was substituted for Zn2+ in the wurtzite structure, optical measurements were conducted at room temperature by a UV-visible spectrometer. Three absorption peaks are apparent in the Co-doped ZnO thin films that do not appear for the undoped ZnO thin film. As the Co concentration was increased, absorption related to characteristic Co2+ transitions increased because three absorption band intensities and the area underneath the absorption wells between 500 and 700 nm increased with increasing Co concentration. The optical band gap and static dielectric constant decreased and the Urbach energy and extinction coefficient increased with increasing Co concentration.

  9. Effects of subtoxic concentrations of TiO{sub 2} and ZnO nanoparticles on human lymphocytes, dendritic cells and exosome production

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson-Willman, Britta; Gehrmann, Ulf; Cansu, Zekiye

    Metal oxide nanoparticles are widely used in the paint and coating industry as well as in cosmetics, but the knowledge of their possible interactions with the immune system is very limited. Our aims were to investigate if commercially available TiO{sub 2} and ZnO nanoparticles may affect different human immune cells and their production of exosomes, nano-sized vesicles that have a role in cell to cell communication. We found that the TiO{sub 2} or ZnO nanoparticles at concentrations from 1 to 100 μg/mL did not affect the viability of primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In contrast, monocyte-derived dendritic cellsmore » (MDDC) reacted with a dose dependent increase in cell death and caspase activity to ZnO but not to TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. Non-toxic exposure, 10 μg/mL, to TiO{sub 2} and ZnO nanoparticles did not significantly alter the phenotype of MDDC. Interestingly, ZnO but not TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles induced a down regulation of FcγRIII (CD16) expression on NK-cells in the PBMC population, suggesting that subtoxic concentrations of ZnO nanoparticles might have an effect on FcγR-mediated immune responses. The phenotype and size of exosomes produced by PBMC or MDDC exposed to the nanoparticles were similar to that of exosomes harvested from control cultures. TiO{sub 2} or ZnO nanoparticles could not be detected within or associated to exosomes as analyzed with TEM. We conclude that TiO{sub 2} and ZnO nanoparticles differently affect immune cells and that evaluations of nanoparticles should be performed even at subtoxic concentrations on different primary human immune cells when investigating potential effects on immune functions. -- Highlights: ► ZnO nanoparticles induce cell death of MDDC but not of PBMC. ► ZnO nanoparticles induce caspase activation and DNA fragmentation in MDDC. ► TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles are taken up by MDDC but have no effect on their phenotype. ► ZnO nanoparticles induce a significant reduction of CD16

  10. Increased free Zn2+ correlates induction of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum stress via altered expression levels of Zn2+ -transporters in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Olgar, Yusuf; Durak, Aysegul; Tuncay, Erkan; Bitirim, Ceylan Verda; Ozcinar, Evren; Inan, Mustafa Bahadir; Tokcaer-Keskin, Zeynep; Akcali, Kamil Can; Akar, Ahmet Ruchan; Turan, Belma

    2018-03-01

    Zn 2+ -homoeostasis including free Zn 2+ ([Zn 2+ ] i ) is regulated through Zn 2+ -transporters and their comprehensive understanding may be important due to their contributions to cardiac dysfunction. Herein, we aimed to examine a possible role of Zn 2+ -transporters in the development of heart failure (HF) via induction of ER stress. We first showed localizations of ZIP8, ZIP14 and ZnT8 to both sarcolemma and S(E)R in ventricular cardiomyocytes (H9c2 cells) using confocal together with calculated Pearson's coefficients. The expressions of ZIP14 and ZnT8 were significantly increased with decreased ZIP8 level in HF. Moreover, [Zn 2+ ] i was significantly high in doxorubicin-treated H9c2 cells compared to their controls. We found elevated levels of ER stress markers, GRP78 and CHOP/Gadd153, confirming the existence of ER stress. Furthermore, we measured markedly increased total PKC and PKCα expression and PKCα-phosphorylation in HF. A PKC inhibition induced significant decrease in expressions of these ER stress markers compared to controls. Interestingly, direct increase in [Zn 2+ ] i using zinc-ionophore induced significant increase in these markers. On the other hand, when we induced ER stress directly with tunicamycin, we could not observe any effect on expression levels of these Zn 2+ transporters. Additionally, increased [Zn 2+ ] i could induce marked activation of PKCα. Moreover, we observed marked decrease in [Zn 2+ ] i under PKC inhibition in H9c2 cells. Overall, our present data suggest possible role of Zn 2+ transporters on an intersection pathway with increased [Zn 2+ ] i and PKCα activation and induction of HF, most probably via development of ER stress. Therefore, our present data provide novel information how a well-controlled [Zn 2+ ] i via Zn 2+ transporters and PKCα can be important therapeutic approach in prevention/treatment of HF. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and

  11. Hierarchical porous ZnO microflowers with ultra-high ethanol gas-sensing at low concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Liming; Yue, He; Li, Haiying; Liu, Li; Li, Yu; Du, Liting; Duan, Haojie; Klyui, N. I.

    2018-05-01

    Hierarchical porous and non-porous ZnO microflowers have been successfully fabricated by hydrothermal method. Their crystal structure, morphology and gas-sensing properties were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical gas sensing intelligent analysis system (CGS). Compared with hierarchical non-porous ZnO microflowers, hierarchical porous ZnO microflowers exhibited ultra-high sensitivity with 50 ppm ethanol at 260 °C and the response is 110, which is 1.8 times higher than that of non-porous ZnO microflowers. Moreover, the lowest concentration limit of hierarchical porous ZnO microflowers (non-porous ZnO microflowers) to ethanol is 0.1 (1) ppm, the response value is 1.6 (1).

  12. Concentration specific and tunable photoresponse of bismuth vanadate functionalized hexagonal ZnO nanocrystals based photoanodes for photoelectrochemical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sonal; Ruhela, Aakansha; Rani, Sanju; Khanuja, Manika; Sharma, Rishabh

    2018-02-01

    In the present work, dual layer BiVO4/ZnO photoanode is instigated for photo-electrochemical (PEC) water splitting applications. Two different photocatalytic layers ZnO and BiVO4, reduces charge carrier recombination and charge transfer resistance at photoanode/electrolyte junction. The concentration-specific, tunable and without 'spike and overshoot' features, photocurrent density response is originated by varying BiVO4 concentration in the BiVO4/ZnO photoanode. The crystal structure of ZnO (hexagonal wurtzite structure) and BiVO4 (monoclinic scheelite structure) is confirmed by X-ray diffraction studies. The band gap of BiVO4/ZnO was estimated to be ca. 2.42 eV through Kubler-Munk function F(R∞) using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Electrochemical behavior of samples was analyzed with photocurrent measurements, electrochemical impedance, Mott-Schottky plots, bulk separation efficiency and surface transfer efficiency. The maximum photocurrent density of BiVO4/ZnO photoanode was found to be 2.3 times higher than pristine ZnO sample.0.038 M BiVO4/ZnO exhibited the highest separation efficiency of 72% and surface transfer efficiency of 64.7% at +1.23 V vs. RHE. Mott-Schottky study revealed the maximum charge carrier density in the same sample.

  13. Model for thickness dependence of mobility and concentration in highly conductive ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Look, D. C.; Leedy, K. D.; Kiefer, A.; Claflin, B.; Itagaki, N.; Matsushima, K.; Suhariadi, I.

    2013-03-01

    The dependences of the 294-K and 10-K mobility μ and volume carrier concentration n on thickness (d = 25 - 147 nm) were examined in Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layers grown in Ar ambient at 200 °C on quartz-glass substrates. Two AZO layers were grown at each thickness, one with and one without a 20-nm-thick ZnON buffer layer grown at 300 °C in Ar/N2 ambient. Plots of the 10-K sheet concentration ns vs d for buffered (B) and unbuffered (UB) samples give straight lines of similar slope, n = 8.36 x 1020 and 8.32 x 1020 cm-3, but different x-axis intercepts, δd = -4 and +13 nm, respectively. Thus, the electrical thicknesses are d - δd = d + 4 and d - 13 nm, respectively. Plots of ns vs d at 294 K produced substantially the same results. Plots of μ vs d can be well fitted with the equation μ(d) = μ(infinity symbol)/[1 + d*/(d-δd)], where d* is the thickness for which μ(infinity symbol) is reduced by a factor 2. For the B and UB samples, d* = 7 and 23 nm, respectively, showing the efficacy of the ZnON buffer. Finally, from n and μ(infinity symbol) we can use degenerate electron scattering theory to calculate bulk donor and acceptor concentrations of 1.23 x 1021 cm-3 and 1.95 x 1020 cm-3, respectively, and Drude theory to predict a plasmonic resonance at1.34 μm. The latter is confirmed by reflectance measurements.

  14. Effect of Solution Concentration on Magnetic Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe₂O₄ Nanoparticles and Their Adsorption Behavior of Neutral Red.

    PubMed

    Li, Shasha; Liu, Qifeng; Lu, Rongzhu; Wu, Xiaoyang; Chen, Jian

    2018-07-01

    Magnetic Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles were prepared via the methanol combustion process, the morphology, chemical composition, microstructure and magnetic properties of them were investigated by SEM, EDX, TEM, XRD, VSM, and BET. The experimental data revealed that the solution concentration was a key factor to the Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles, with the solution concentration of ferric nitrate decreasing from 3.37 to 1.12 mol/L, the saturation magnetization decreased from 69.3 Am2/kg to 37.2 Am2/kg, and the average crystalline size of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles decreased from 32 to 25 nm. While, with the solution concentration of ferric nitrate decreasing from 1.12 to 0.56 mol/L, the saturation magnetization increased from 37.2 Am2/kg to 104.6 Am2/kg, and the average crystalline size increased from 25 to 44 nm. The adsorption behavior of neutral red (NR) onto magnetic Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles was investigated by UV spectroscopy at room temperature; the adsorption kinetics data related to the adsorption of NR from aqueous solutions were in good agreement with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model in a range of initial concentration of 50-300 mg/L. By comparison of the Langmuir and Freundlich models for adsorption isotherm of NR, the Langmuir model (correlation coefficient R2 = 0.9918) could be used to evaluate the adsorption isotherm of NR onto magnetic Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles at room temperature, which suggested that the adsorption of NR onto magnetic Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles was monolayer, and the adsorption energy was constant.

  15. Nanostructured GdxZn1-xO thin films by nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique: Role of doping concentration on the structural and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariappan, R.; Ponnuswamy, V.; Suresh, P.; Suresh, R.; Ragavendar, M.

    2013-07-01

    Nanostructured GdxZn1-xO thin films with different Gd concentration from 0% to 10% deposited at 400 °C using the NSP technique. The films were characterized by structural, surface and optical properties, respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the Gd doped ZnO films have lattice parameters a = 3.2497 Å and c = 5.2018 Å with hexagonal structure and preferential orientation along (0 0 2) plane. The estimated values compare well with the standard values. When film thickness increases from 222 to 240 nm a high visible region transmittance (>70%) is observed. The optical band gap energy, optical constants (n and k), complex dielectric constants (ɛr and ɛi) and optical conductivities (σr and σi) were calculated from optical transmittance data. The optical band gap energy is 3.2 eV for pure ZnO film and 3.6 eV for Gd0.1Zn0.9O film. The PL studies confirm the presence of a strong UV emission peak at 399 nm. Besides, the UV emission of ZnO films decreases with the increase of Gd doping concentration correspondingly the ultra-violet emission is replaced by blue and green emissions.

  16. Hypothyroidism leads to increased dopamine receptor sensitivity and concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, A.D.; Overstreet, D.H.; Crocker, J.M.

    1986-06-01

    Rats treated with iodine-131 were confirmed to be hypothyroid by their reduced baseline core body temperatures, reduced serum thyroxine concentrations and elevated serum thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations. When hypothyroid rats were compared to euthyroid controls they were more sensitive to the effects of apomorphine (1.0 mumol/kg) on stereotypy, operant responding and body temperature and showed a smaller reduction in locomotor activity after injection of haloperidol (0.25 mumol/kg). Receptor binding studies on striatal homogenates indicated that hypothyroid rats had increased concentrations of D2 dopamine receptors but there was no change in the affinity. It is concluded that hypothyroidism increases dopamine receptormore » sensitivity by increasing receptor concentration.« less

  17. Relation of pH and other soil variables to concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Se in earthworms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Hensler, G.L.; Moore, J.

    1987-01-01

    Various soil treatments (clay, composted peat, superphosphate, sulfur, calcium carbonate, calcium chloride, zinc chloride, selenous acid) were added to experimental field plots to test the effect of different soil variables on the concentrations of 5 elements in earthworms (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Se). Concentrations of the 5 elements were related to 9 soil variables (soil Pb, soil Cu, soil Zn, pH, organic matter, P, K, Mg, and Ca) with linear multiple regression. Lead concentrations in earthworms were positively correlated with soil Pb and soil organic matter, and negatively correlated with soil pH and soil Mg, with an R2 of 64%. Se concentrations were higher in earthworms from plots amended with Se, and Zn concentrations were higher in earthworms from plots amended with Zn. However, none of the other soil variables had important effects on the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd and Se in earthworms. Although some significant statistical relations were demonstrated, the values of r2 of all relations (> 20%) were so low that they had little predictive value.

  18. Increased erythropoietin concentration after repeated apneas in humans.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Robert; Richardson, Matt; Schagatay, Erika

    2008-03-01

    Hypoxia-induced increases in red blood cell production have been found in both altitude-adapted populations and acclimatized lowlanders. This process is mediated by erythropoietin (EPO) released mainly by the hypoxic kidney. We have previously observed high hemoglobin concentrations in elite breath-hold divers and our aim was to investigate whether apnea-induced hypoxia could increase EPO concentration. Ten healthy volunteers performed 15 maximal duration apneas, divided into three series of five apneas, each series separated by 10 min of rest. Apneas within series were separated by 2 min and preceded by 1 min of hyperventilation to increase apnea duration and arterial oxygen desaturation. When EPO concentration after serial apneas was compared to baseline values, an average maximum increase of 24% was found (P < 0.01). No changes in EPO concentration were observed during a control day without apnea, eliminating possible effects of a diurnal rhythm or blood loss. We therefore conclude that serial apneas increase circulating EPO concentration in humans.

  19. MCS precipitation and downburst intensity response to increased aerosol concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavner, M.; Cotton, W. R.; van den Heever, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) are important contributors to rainfall in the High Plains of the United States as well as producers of severe weather such as hail, tornados and straight-line wind events known as derechos. Past studies have shown that changes in aerosol concentrations serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) alter the MCS hydrometeor characteristics which in turn modify precipitation yield, downdraft velocity, cold-pool strength, storm propagation and the potential for severe weather to occur. In this study, the sensitivity of MCS precipitation characteristics and convective downburst velocities associated with a derecho to changes in CCN concentrations were examined by simulating a case study using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). The case study of the 8 May 2009 "Super-Derecho" MCS was chosen since it produced a swath of widespread wind damage in association with an embedded large-scale bow echo, over a broad region from the High Plains of western Kansas to the foothills of the Appalachians. The sensitivity of the storm to changes in CCN concentrations was examined by conducting a set of three simulations which differed in the initial aerosol concentration based on output from the 3D chemical transport model, GEOS-Chem. Results from this study indicate that while increasing CCN concentrations led to an increase in precipitation rates, the changes to the derecho strength were not linear. A moderate increase in aerosol concentration reduced the derecho strength, while the simulation with the highest aerosol concentrations increased the derecho intensity. These changes are attributed to the impact of enhanced CCN concentration on the production of convective downbursts. An analysis of aerosol loading impacts on these MCS features will be presented.

  20. Ferromagnetic mechanism of (Co, Cu)-codoped ZnO films with different Co concentrations investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Huan; Du, Xiaosong; Xu, Ming

    2016-05-01

    Cobalt/copper-codoped ZnO nanoparticles, synthesized with different Co concentrations by a sol-gel method using ethanol as solvent, were studied via XPS. Hexagonal wurtzite structure was found in all samples, with no evidence of any secondary phase. The average crystallite size of the samples was around 20-30 nm, altered significantly with increasing Co concentration. Copper ions and Cobalt ions are indeed substituted into the ZnO lattice at the Zn2+ site, as shown by XRD and XPS. Further studies showed dramatic changes of Cu valence from +2 to +1 as the Co concentration level exceeds 1%, accompanied by a blue-shift of the optical bandgap from 3.01 to 3.13 eV. Ferromagnetism of the Co-doped Zn0.95Cu0.05O thin films was observed and found to be tunable - a phenomenon associated with the valence state of the Cu ions and the existence of some defects like oxygen vacancies in the films.

  1. Removal of Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) by hematite nanoparticles: effect of sorbent concentration, pH, temperature, and exhaustion.

    PubMed

    Shipley, Heather J; Engates, Karen E; Grover, Valerie A

    2013-03-01

    Nanoparticles offer the potential to improve environmental treatment technologies due to their unique properties. Adsorption of metal ions (Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II), Zn(II)) to nanohematite was examined as a function of sorbent concentration, pH, temperature, and exhaustion. Adsorption experiments were conducted with 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 g/L nanoparticles in a pH 8 solution and in spiked San Antonio tap water. The adsorption data showed the ability of nanohematite to remove Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn species from solution with adsorption increasing as the nanoparticle concentration increased. At 0.5 g/L nanohematite, 100 % Pb species adsorbed, 94 % Cd species adsorbed, 89 % Cu species adsorbed and 100 % Zn species adsorbed. Adsorption kinetics for all metals tested was described by a pseudo second-order rate equation with lead having the fastest rate of adsorption. The effect of temperature on adsorption showed that Pb(II), Cu(II), and Cd(II) underwent an endothermic reaction, while Zn(II) underwent an exothermic reaction. The nanoparticles were able to simultaneously remove multiple metals species (Zn, Cd, Pb, and Cu) from both a pH 8 solution and spiked San Antonio tap water. Exhaustion experiments showed that at pH 8, exhaustion did not occur for the nanoparticles but adsorption does decrease for Cd, Cu, and Zn species but not Pb species. The strong adsorption coupled with the ability to simultaneously remove multiple metal ions offers a potential remediation method for the removal of metals from water.

  2. The optoelectronic properties and role of Cu concentration on the structural and electrical properties of Cu doped ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omri, K.; Bettaibi, A.; Khirouni, K.; El Mir, L.

    2018-05-01

    In the current study, we synthesized a Cu-doped ZnO (CZO) nanoparticles material using a sol-gel method with different doping concentrations of Cu (0, 2, 3 and 4 at.%). The control of the Cu concentration on structural, electrical and optical properties of CZO nanoparticles was investigated in detail. The XRD analysis of the CZO nanoparticles reveals the formation of ZnO hexagonal wurtzite structure for all samples which confirm the incorporation of Cu2+ ions into the ZnO lattice by substitution. Furthermore, CZO nanoparticles showed a small red shift of absorption band with the incorporation of Cu from 0 to 4 at.%; i.e. a decreased band gap value from 3.34 eV to 3.27 eV with increasing of Cu doping content. The frequency dispersion of the electric conductivity were studied using the Jonscher universal power law, according to relation σ(ω) = σDC + A ωs(T). Alternative current conductivity increases with increasing Cu content in spite of the decrease the activation energy with copper loading. It was found that the conductivity reached its maximum value for critical Cu concentration of 3 at.%. The frequency relaxation phenomenon was also investigated and all results were discussed in term of the copper doping concentration.

  3. Concentrations, spatial distribution, and risk assessment of soil heavy metals in a Zn-Pb mine district in southern China.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jianying; Zhang, Hailong; Li, Xiangping; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Gaosheng

    2016-07-01

    China is one of the largest producers and consumers of lead and zinc in the world. Lead and zinc mining and smelting can release hazardous heavy metals such as Cd, Pb, Zn, and As into soils, exerting health risks to human by chronic exposure. The concentrations of Cd, Zn, Pb, and As in soil samples collected from a Pb-Zn mining area with exploitation history of 60 years were investigated. Health risks of the heavy metals in soil were evaluated using US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) recommended method. A geo-statistical technique (Kriging) was used for the interpolation of heavy metals pollution and Hazard Index (HI). The results indicated that the long-term Pb/Zn mining activities caused the serious pollution in the local soil. The concentrations of Cd, As, Pb, and Zn in topsoil were 40.3 ± 6.3, 103.7 ± 37.3, 3518.4 ± 896.1, and 10,413 ± 2973.2 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. The spatial distribution of the four metals possessed similar patterns, with higher concentrations around Aayiken (AYK), Maseka (MSK), and Kuangshan (KS) area and more rapidly dropped concentrations at upwind direction than those at downwind direction. The main pollutions of Cd and Zn were found in the upper 60 cm, the Pb was found in the upper 40 cm, and the As was in the upper 20 cm. The mobility of metals in soil profile of study area was classed as Cd > Zn ≫ Pb > As. Results indicated that there was a higher health risk (child higher than adult) in the study area. Pb contributed to the highest Hazard Quotient (57.0 ~ 73.9 %) for the Hazard Index.

  4. Anomalous metal concentrations in soil and till at the Ballinalack Zn-Pb deposit, Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalveram, Ann-Kristin; McClenaghan, Seán H.; Kamber, Balz S.

    2017-04-01

    Metals such as zinc, iron, arsenic and lead are commonly found in low concentrations within soils. These signatures may occur as a result of natural dispersion from metal-bearing geological formations and (or) from anthropogenic sources. Prior to investigating any high or anomalous concentrations of metals in the surficial environment, it is important to reconcile potential sources of metals and verify whether element anomalies are in response to buried mineralization. Here we show how to distinguish true elevated concentrations from naturally occurring variations within a soil system. The research area is situated above the limestone-hosted Ballinalack Zn-Pb deposit in the central Irish Midlands. To investigate the pedogenesis and its related geochemical signature, top of the till and the BC soil horizon were sampled. Although the area can be described as pasture land, it does not preclude previous anthropogenic influences from former agricultural use and local small scale peat harvesting. For the soil BC horizon as well as in the top of the till, aqua regia-digestible element concentrations vary significantly and locally reach anomalous levels: Zn (median: 104 ppm; range: 27 - 13150 ppm), Pb (median: 16 ppm; range: 2 - 6430 ppm), As (median: 7.7 ppm; range: 1.4 - 362 ppm), Ag (median: 0.12 ppm; range: 0.04 - 19.9 ppm), Ba (median: 40 ppm; range: 10 - 1230 ppm), Cd (median: 1.5 ppm; range: 0.2 - 68 ppm), Co (median: 7.3 ppm; range: 0.5 - 22 ppm), Ni (median: 37 ppm; range: 3 - 134 ppm), Fe (median: 17900 ppm; range: 5000 - 52300 ppm), Ga (median: 2.4 ppm; range: 0.3 - 7.6 ppm), Sb (median: 1.2 ppm; range: 0.1 - 197 ppm) and Tl (median: 0.3 ppm; range: 0.02 - 8.6 ppm). Comparison with background levels from the area and grouped according to underlying geology, enrichment factor calculations (against Nb and Zr) indicate an elemental response to metalliferous-bearing bedrock. These results confirm that soil anomalies of Zn, Pb, As, Ag, Ba, Cd, Ni, Sb and Tl, are

  5. Environmentally relevant concentrations of nitrate increase plasma testosterone concentrations in female American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Heather J; Edwards, Thea M; McCoy, Jessica; Cruze, Lori; Guillette, Louis J

    2016-11-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant that is contributing to the degradation of freshwater, estuarine, and coastal ecosystems worldwide. The effects of environmental nitrate, a principal form of nitrogen, on the health of aquatic life is of increasing concern. We exposed female American alligators to three concentrations of nitrate (0.7, 10 and 100mg/L NO 3 -N) for a duration of five weeks and five months from hatch. We assessed growth, plasma sex steroid and thyroid hormone concentrations, and transcription levels of key genes involved in steroidogenesis (StAR, 3β-HSD, and P450 scc ) and hepatic clearance (Cyp1a, Cyp3a). Exposure to 100mg/L NO 3 -N for both five weeks and five months resulted in significantly increased plasma testosterone (T) concentrations compared with alligators in the reference treatment. No differences in 17β-estradiol, progesterone, or thyroid hormones were observed, nor were there differences in alligator weight or the mRNA abundance of steroidogenic or hepatic genes. Plasma and urinary nitrate concentrations increased with increasing nitrate treatment levels, although relative plasma concentrations of nitrate were significantly lower in five month, versus five week old animals, possibly due to improved kidney function in older animals. These results indicate that environmentally relevant concentrations of nitrate can increase circulating concentrations of T in young female alligators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The global consequences of increasing tropospheric ozone concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Jack

    1989-01-01

    Recent analyses of long term records of tropospheric ozone measurements in the Northern Hemisphere suggest that it is increasing at a rate of 1 to 2 percent per year. Because of this, it is argued that the amount of atmospheric warming due to increasing tropospheric ozone is comparable to, or possibly even greater than, the amount of warming due to the increase of carbon dioxide. Unlike all other climatically important trace gases, ozone is toxic, and increases in its concentration will result in serious environmental damage, as well as impairment of human health.

  7. Increased blood carboxyhaemoglobin concentrations in inflammatory pulmonary diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, H; Yamaya, M; Yanai, M; Ohrui, T; Sasaki, H

    2002-01-01

    Background: Exhaled carbon monoxide has been reported to increase in inflammatory pulmonary diseases and to be correlated with blood carboxyhaemoglobin (Hb-CO) concentration. A study was undertaken to determine whether arterial blood Hb-CO increases in patients with inflammatory pulmonary diseases. Methods: The Hb-CO concentration in arterial blood was measured with a spectrophotometer in 34 normal control subjects, 24 patients with bronchial asthma, 52 patients with pneumonia, and 21 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Results: The mean (SE) Hb-CO concentrations in patients with bronchial asthma during exacerbations (n=24, 1.05 (0.05)%), with pneumonia at the onset of illness (n=52, 1.08 (0.06)%), and with IPF (n=21, 1.03 (0.09)%) were significantly higher than those in control subjects (n=34, 0.60 (0.07)%) (mean difference 0.45% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.23 to 0.67), p<0.01 in patients with bronchial asthma, mean difference 0.48% (95% CI 0.35 to 0.60), p<0.0001 in patients with pneumonia, and mean difference 0.43% (95% CI 0.26 to 0.61) p<0.001 in patients with IPF). In 20 patients with bronchial asthma the Hb-CO concentration decreased after 3 weeks of treatment with oral glucocorticoids (p<0.001). In 20 patients with pneumonia the Hb-CO concentration had decreased after 3 weeks when patients showed evidence of clinical improvement (p<0.001). The values of C-reactive protein (CRP), an acute phase protein, correlated with Hb-CO concentrations in patients with pneumonia (r=0.74, p<0.0001) and in those with IPF (r=0.46, p<0.01). In patients with bronchial asthma changes in Hb-CO concentrations were significantly correlated with those in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) after 3 weeks (r=0.67, p<0.01). Exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were correlated with Hb-CO concentrations (n=33, r=0.80, p<0.0001). Conclusions: Hb-CO concentrations are increased in inflammatory pulmonary diseases including bronchial asthma, pneumonia, and

  8. Increased serum concentrations of adiponectin in canine hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Mazaki-Tovi, Michal; Abood, Sarah K; Kol, Amir; Farkas, Amnon; Schenck, Patricia A

    2015-02-01

    Serum concentrations of adiponectin were compared between sex-matched hypothyroid (n = 18) and euthyroid (n = 18) client-owned dogs with comparable ages and body condition scores (BCS). Concentrations of adiponectin (mean; 95% confidence interval) were significantly (P < 0.01) higher in hypothyroid (17.2 µg/mL; 12.1-20.5 µg/mL) than healthy (8.0 µg/mL; 5.6-11.4 µg/mL) dogs following adjustment for potential confounders (BCS, age and sex). Serum concentrations of adiponectin were significantly negatively associated with concentrations of total thyroxine (P <0.05) and positively correlated with concentrations of cholesterol (r = 0.6, P <0.01) in hypothyroid dogs. In conclusion, this study demonstrated increased serum concentrations of adiponectin in dogs with hypothyroidism. Suggestive of the presence of resistance to adiponectin that could have contributed to development of hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance in these dogs or alternatively, could be a consequence of these metabolic alterations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Increased serum leptin and insulin concentrations in canine hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Mazaki-Tovi, Michal; Feuermann, Yonatan; Segev, Gilad; Klement, Eyal; Yas-Natan, Einat; Farkas, Amnon; Kol, Amir; Shamay, Avi

    2010-01-01

    Serum concentrations of leptin and insulin were compared between gender-matched hypothyroid (n=25) and healthy (n=25) client-owned dogs within comparable age and body condition score (BCS) ranges. Fasted blood samples were collected from each dog and analysed for glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, leptin and insulin concentrations. Leptin and insulin concentrations were significantly higher in the hypothyroid compared to normal dogs (P=0.006 and P=0.001, respectively) following adjustment for potential confounders. A nearly significant (P=0.051) interaction with BCS was found in the association between hypothyroidism and leptin. Leptin concentrations were significantly higher in hypothyroid dogs compared to normal dogs, in separate analyses for BCS 6 (P=0.036) and 7 (P=0.049). There was no significant difference in glucose concentration between the hypothyroid and normal groups (P=0.84) following adjustment for BCS. This study showed that canine hypothyroidism is associated with increased serum leptin and insulin concentrations, neither of which may be attributed to obesity alone. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of the dopant concentration on structural, optical and photovoltaic properties of Cu-doped ZnS nanocrystals based bulk heterojunction hybrid solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabeen, Uzma; Adhikari, Tham; Shah, Syed Mujtaba; Pathak, Dinesh; Wagner, Tomas; Nunzi, Jean-Michel

    2017-06-01

    Zinc sulphide (ZnS) and Cu-doped ZnS nanoparticles were synthesized by the wet chemical method. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible, fluorescence, fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectrometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Scanning electron microscopy supplemented with EDAX was employed to observe the morphology and chemical composition of the un-doped and doped samples. A significant blue shift of the absorption band with respect to the un-doped zinc sulphide was sighted by increasing the Cu concentration in the doped sample with decreasing the size of nanoparticles. Consequently, the band gap was tuned from 3.13 to 3.49 eV due to quantum confinement. The green emission arises from the recombination between the shallow donor level (sulfur vacancy) and the t2 level of Cu2+. However, the fluorescence emission spectrum of the undoped ZnS nanoparticles was deconvoluted into two bands, which are centered at 419 and 468 nm. XRD analysis showed that the nanomaterials were in cubic crystalline state. XRD peaks show that there were no massive crystalline distortions in the crystal lattice when the Cu concentration (0.05-0.1 M) was increased in the ZnS lattice. However, in the case of Cu-doped samples (0.15-0.2 M), the XRD pattern showed an additional peak at 37° due to incomplete substitution occurring during the experimental reaction step. A comparative study of surfaces of undoped and Cu-doped ZnS nanoparticles were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The synthesized nanomaterial in combination with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) was used in the fabrication of solar cells. The devices with ZnS nanoparticles showed an efficiency of 0.31%. The overall power conversion efficiency of the solar cells at 0.1 M Cu content in doped ZnS nanoparticles was found to be 1.6 times higher than the

  11. Plasma procalcitonin concentrations are increased in dogs with sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Goggs, Robert; Milloway, Matthew; Troia, Roberta; Giunti, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    Sepsis, the life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection, is difficult to identify and to prognosticate for. In people with sepsis, procalcitonin (PCT) measurement aids diagnosis, enables therapeutic monitoring and improves prognostic accuracy. This study used a commercial canine PCT assay to measure plasma PCT concentrations in dogs with gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV) syndrome and in dogs with sepsis. It was hypothesised that dogs with GDV syndrome and with sepsis have greater plasma PCT concentrations than healthy dogs and that dogs with sepsis have greater PCT concentrations than dogs with GDV syndrome. Before analysing canine plasma samples, the ability of the assay to identify canine PCT, in addition to assay imprecision and the lower limit of detection were established. The assay had low imprecision with coefficients of variation ≤4.5 per cent. The lower limit of detection was 3.4 pg/ml. Plasma PCT concentrations were measured in 20 dogs with sepsis, in 32 dogs with GDV syndrome and in 52 healthy dogs. Median (IQR) PCT concentration in dogs with sepsis 78.7 pg/ml (39.1–164.7) was significantly greater than in healthy dogs 49.8 pg/ml (36.2–63.7) (P=0.019), but there were no significant differences between PCT concentrations in dogs with GDV syndrome and controls (P=0.072) or between dogs with sepsis and GDV syndrome (P=1.000). Dogs with sepsis have significantly increased plasma PCT concentrations compared with healthy dogs, although considerable overlap between these populations was identified. Future investigations should confirm this finding in other populations and evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of PCT in dogs with sepsis. PMID:29682292

  12. Increased metal concentrations in exhaled breath condensate of industrial welders.

    PubMed

    Hoffmeyer, Frank; Weiss, Tobias; Lehnert, Martin; Pesch, Beate; Berresheim, Hans; Henry, Jana; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Broding, Horst Christoph; Bünger, Jürgen; Harth, Volker; Brüning, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    It was the aim of this study to evaluate the effect of different devices on the metal concentration in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and to prove whether working conditions in different welding companies result in diverse composition of metallic elements. The influence of two collection devices (ECoScreen, ECoScreen2) on detection of metallic elements in EBC was evaluated in 24 control subjects. Properties of ECoScreen and a frequent use can alter EBC metal content due to contamination from metallic components. ECoScreen2 turned out to be favourable for metal assessment. Concentrations of iron, nickel and chromium in EBC sampled with ECoScreen2 were compared between non-exposed controls and industrial welders. Metal concentrations in EBC were higher in 36 welders recruited from three companies. Exposure to welding fumes could be demonstrated predominantly for increased iron concentrations. Concentrations of iron and nickel differed by working conditions, but chromium could not be detected in EBC.

  13. Influence of Y doping concentration on the properties of nanostructured MxZn1-xO (M=Y) thin film deposited by nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariappan, R.; Ponnuswamy, V.; Chandra Bose, A.; Suresh, R.; Ragavendar, M.

    2014-09-01

    Yttrium doped Zinc Oxide (YxZn1-xO) thin films deposited at a substrate temperature 400 °C. The effect of substrate temperature on the structural, surface morphology, compositional, optical and electrical properties of YxZn1-xO thin films was studied. X-ray diffraction studies show that all films are polycrystalline in nature with hexagonal crystal structure having highly textured (002) plane parallel to the surface of the substrate. The structural parameters, such as lattice constants (a and c), crystallite size (D), dislocation density (δ), microstrain (σ) and texture coefficient were calculated for different yttrium doping concentrations (x). High resolution scanning electron microscopy measurements reveal that the surface morphology of the films change from platelet like grains to hexagonal structure with grain size increase due to the yttrium doping. Energy dispersive spectroscopy confirms the presence of Y, Zn and O elements in the films prepared. Optical studies showed that all samples have a strong optical transmittance higher than 70% in the visible range. A slight shift of the absorption edge towards the large wavelengths was observed as the Y doping concentration increased. This result shows that the band gap is slightly decreased from 3.10 to 2.05 eV with increase of the yttrium doping concentrations (up to 7.5%) and then slightly increased. Room temperature PL measurements were done and the band-to-band emission energies of films were determined and reported. The complex impedance of the 10%Y doped ZnO film shows two distinguished semicircles and the diameter of the arcs got decreased in diameter as the temperature increases from 70 to 175 °C.

  14. Anaerobic degradation of increased phenol concentrations in batch assays.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Benjamin; Krebs, Maria; Andert, Janet

    2015-12-01

    Phenol is a wastewater contaminant depicting an environmental hazard. It can be found in effluents from various industrial processes and becomes even more common as a waste by-product of biomass-based bioenergy concepts. Because of its toxicity to anaerobic microorganisms, it can be recalcitrant during biogas production and anaerobic wastewater treatment. This study tested increased phenol loads (100 to 5000 mg L(-1)) as the sole carbon source in a semi-continuous mesophilic anaerobic adaption experiment using an unadapted microbial community from a standard biogas plant. Phenol was completely degraded at starting concentrations of up to 2000 mg L(-1). At 5000 mg L(-1), complete inhibition of the anaerobic community was observed. Lag times were reduced down to less than a day treating 2000 mg L(-1) after 16 weeks of adaption to gradually increased phenol concentrations. Specific degradation rates increased consecutively up to 7.02 mg gVS (-1) day(-1) at 2000 mg L(-1). This concentration was completely degraded within less than 12 days. The microbial community composition was assessed using 16S rRNA gene-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. In the bacterial community, no clear shift was visible. Clostridia were with the highest relative abundance of 27 %, the most prominent bacterial class. T-RFs representing Clostridia, Anaerolinaceae, Flavobacteria, and Bacteroidea appeared at similar relative abundance level throughout the experiment. The archaeal community, however, changed from a Methanosarcinales-dominated community (57%) to a community with a nearly even distribution of Methanobacteriales (21%) and Methanosarcinales (34%) with increasing starting phenol concentration.

  15. Increase in tiagabine serum concentration with coadministration of gemfibrozil.

    PubMed

    Burstein, Aaron H; Boudreau, Eilis A; Theodore, William H

    2009-02-01

    To report a case of possible acute tiagabine toxicity secondary to administration of gemfibrozil. A 39-year-old male was taking tiagabine 16 mg orally 3 times per day and carbamazepine 500 mg orally twice per day for complex partial seizures secondary to mesial temporal sclerosis. He was found to have type IV hypertriglyceridemia and was prescribed gemfibrozil. Because he reported severe confusion and altered consciousness shortly after a single 600-mg dose of gemfibrozil, he was admitted for controlled challenge with that drug. A single 300-mg dose of gemfibrozil resulted in lightheadedness and led to a 59% and 75% increase in total tiagabine serum concentrations at 2 and 5 hours, respectively, without significant change in baseline carbamazepine concentrations. This is the first report of an interaction between the widely used antihyperlipidemic drug gemfibrozil and tiagabine. Since tiagabine, which was originally developed as an antiepileptic medication, is now being used widely for a variety of other indications such as anxiety and depression, there is an increased risk for clinically significant interactions with gemfibrozil. Increased total and unbound tiagabine concentrations following a single 300-mg dose of gemfibrozil and reproduction of clinical symptoms with gemfibrozil rechallenge suggests the toxicity our patient experienced was due to a pharmacokinetic drug interaction. Use of the Horn Drug Interaction Probability Scale showed a probable interaction between gemfibrozil and tiagabine.

  16. Dealing with the increased radon concentration in thermally retrofitted buildings.

    PubMed

    Jiránek, M; Kačmaříková, V

    2014-07-01

    The influence of energy-saving measures on indoor radon concentration has been studied on the basis of a family house made of clinker concrete wall panels containing from 1000 up to 4000 Bq kg(-1) of 226Ra. Thermal retrofitting based on installing external thermal insulation composite system on the building envelope and replacing existing windows by new ones decreased the annual energy need for heating 2.8 times, but also reduced the ventilation rate to values<0.1 h(-1). As a consequence, the 1-y average indoor radon concentration values increased 3.4 times from 337 to 1117 Bq m(-3). The additional risk of lung cancer in the thermally retrofitted house increased to a value that is 125 % higher than before conversion. Methods for dealing with this enhanced risk by increasing the ventilation rate are discussed. Recovery of investments and the energy consequences of increased ventilation are studied in a long-term perspective. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Effect of Synthesis Temperature and NaOH Concentration on Microstructural and Magnetic Properties of Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siregar, N.; Indrayana, I. P. T.; Suharyadi, E.; Kato, T.; Iwata, S.

    2017-05-01

    Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized through coprecipitation method by varying NaOH concentrations from 0.5 M to 6 M and synthesis temperatures from 30 to 120 °C. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern indicates samples consisting of multiphase structures such as spinel of Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4, α-MnO2, ZnO, λ-MnO2, and γ-Fe2O3. The crystallite size of Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 is in the range of 14.1 to 26.7 nm. The Transmission electron microscope (TEM) image shows that sample was agglomerate. The hysteresis loops confirm that nanoparticles are soft magnetic materials with low coercivity (H c) in the range of 45.9 to 68.5 Oe. Those values increased relatively with increasing particles size. For NaOH concentration variation, the maximum magnetization of the sample increased from 10.4 emu/g to 11.6 emu/g with increasing ferrite content. Meanwhile, the maximum magnetization increased from 7.9 to 15.7 emu/g for samples with various synthesis temperature. The highest coercivity of 68.5 Oe was attained for a sample of 6 M NaOH under 90 °C. The highest magnetization of 15.7 emu/g was achieved for a sample of 1.5 M NaOH under 120 °C caused by the maximum crystallinity of sample.

  18. Growth of Aeromonas species on increasing concentrations of sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Delamare, A P; Costa, S O; Da Silveira, M M; Echeverrigaray, S

    2000-01-01

    The growth of 16 strains of Aeromonas, representing 12 species of the genera, were examined at different salt levels (0-1.71 M NaCl). All the strains grew on media with 0.34 M NaCl, and nine on media with 0.68 M. Two strains, Aer. enteropelogenes and Aer. trota, were able to grow on media with 0.85 M and 1.02 M NaCl, respectively. Comparison of the growth curves of Aer. hydrophila ATCC7966 and Aer. trota ATCC 49657 on four concentrations of NaCl (0.08, 0.34, 0.68 and 1.02 M) confirm the high tolerance of Aer. trota, and indicate that high concentrations of salt increase the lag time and decrease the maximum growth rate. However, both strains were able to grow, slowly, in at least 0.68 M NaCl, a sodium chloride concentration currently used as food preservative.

  19. Sensitivity of Four Cyanobacterial Isolates from Tropical Freshwaters to Environmentally Realistic Concentrations of Cr(6+), Cd(2+) and Zn(2.).

    PubMed

    Munagamage, Thilini; Rathnayake, I V N; Pathiratne, A; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2016-06-01

    Sensitivity of four tropical cyanobacteria viz. Coelosphaerium sp., Synechococcus sp., Oscillatoria sp. and Chroococcus sp. to environmentally relevant concentrations of Cr(6+), Cd(2+) and Zn(2+)was assessed based on fluorescence change as a proxy for growth reduction. At 24 h exposure, the growth reduction inthe cyanobacteria followed the order: Zn(2+) < Cr(6+) ≤ Cd(2+). Of the four cyanobacteria, Synechococcus was the most sensitive for Cr(6+), where as Chroococcus was the most sensitive for Cd(2+)and Zn(2+). Sensitivity was gradually decreased by 96 h implying the acquisition of tolerance by cyanobacteria to heavy metal ions with prolonged exposure.

  20. ZnO Nanoparticles Treatment Induces Apoptosis by Increasing Intracellular ROS Levels in LTEP-a-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Caixia; Hu, Xiaoke; Gao, Yan; Ji, Yinglu

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the wide use of novel nanoparticles (NPs) such as zinc oxide (ZnO) in all aspects of life, toxicological research on ZnO NPs is receiving increasing attention in these days. In this study, the toxicity of ZnO NPs in a human pulmonary adenocarcinoma cell line LTEP-a-2 was tested in vitro. Log-phase cells were exposed to different levels of ZnO NPs for hours, followed by colorimetric cell viability assay using tetrazolium salt and cell survival rate assay using trypan blue dye. Cell morphological changes were observed by Giemsa staining and light microscopy. Apoptosis was detected by using fluorescence microscopy and caspase-3 activity assay. Both intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were examined by a microplate-reader method. Results showed that ZnO NPs (≥ 0.01 μg/mL) significantly inhibited proliferation (P < 0.05) and induced substantial apoptosis in LTEP-a-2 cells after 4 h of exposure. The intracellular ROS level rose up to 30-40% corresponding to significant depletion (approximately 70-80%) in GSH content in LTEP-a-2 cells (P < 0.05), suggesting that ZnO NPs induced apoptosis mainly through increased ROS production. This study elucidates the toxicological mechanism of ZnO NPs in human pulmonary adenocarcinoma cells and provides reference data for application of nanomaterials in the environment.

  1. Zn concentration in plasma and gastric fluid in patients with upper gastrointestinal disease

    SciTech Connect

    Kadakia, S.C.; Wong, R.H.K.; Maydonovitch, C.

    1986-03-05

    Very few data are available about Zn in gastrointestinal fluids in humans. To obtain data in one such fluid Zn was measured in plasma and gastric fluid, obtained by direct visual aspiration through an endoscope placed into the gastric fundus, in 36 subjects with normal gastrointestinal mucosa (N) and in 36 patients with the following upper gastrointestinal pathology confirmed by endoscopy: 13 with esophagitis (E), 9 with gastritis (G) and 14 with duodenal ulcer disease (DU). Plasma and gastric fluid Zn were estimated by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Mean plasma Zn was significantly lower than normal in patients with Emore » (N, 87 +/- 2 ..mu..g/dl, M +/- SEM; E, 75 +/- 4, p < 0.01) but plasma values were similar to normal in the other patient groups (G, 89 +/- 4; DU, 87 +/- 2). Mean gastric fluid zinc in G was significantly higher than in normal subjects (G, 664 +/- 159 ..mu..g/L; N, 360 +/- 43, p < 0.02) but not significantly different from normal in patients with DU or E (DU, 402 +/- 76; E, 307 +/- 55). Mean gastric fluid Zn in women with DU was approximately 45% higher than in men with DU, although it was 17% lower in normal women than in normal men. Compared to other normal tissues gastric fluid Zn is about 1/3 that in serum and about 3 times that in saliva. These results indicate that Zn in plasma and gastric fluid is altered in some upper gastrointestinal diseases.« less

  2. Analysis of heavy metals (Pb and Zn) concentration in sediment of Blanakan fish ponds, Subang, West Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiriawan, A.; Takarina, N. D.; Pin, T. G.

    2017-07-01

    Blanakan fish ponds receive water resource from Kali Malang and Blanakan rivers. Industrial and domestic activities along the river can cause pollution, especially heavy metals. Zinc (Zn) is an essential element that needed by an organism, while Lead (Pb) is a nonessential element that is not needed. Discharge of waste water from industries and anthropogenic activities continuously not only pollute the water but also the sediment and biota live on it. This research was aimed to know the heavy metals content in the sediment of Blanakan fish ponds. Sediment samples were taken on July and August 2016 at three locations. Heavy metals were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) Shimadzu 6300. The result of Lead (Pb) measurement showed that Fish Pond 1 had higher average concentration compared Fish Pond 2 and Fish Pond 3 which was 0.55 ppm. Standard for Lead (Pb) in sediment according to Ontario Sediment Standards (2008) is 31 ppm. Based on Zinc (Zn) measurement, it was known that average of Zinc (Zn) concentration also higher on Fish Pond 1 compared to Fish Pond 2 and 3 which was 1.93 ppm. According to Ontario Sediment Standards (2008), a standard for Zinc (Zn) in sediment is 120 ppm. This indicated that heavy metals in the sediment of fish ponds were below standards. Statistical analysis using t-test showed that there was no significant difference of heavy metals content among fish ponds.

  3. Group Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Increases Smoke Toxicant Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Ramôa, Carolina P.; Shihadeh, Alan; Salman, Rola

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Waterpipe tobacco smoking is a global health concern. Laboratory research has focused on individual waterpipe users while group use is common. This study examined user toxicant exposure and smoke toxicant yield associated with individual and group waterpipe smoking. Methods: Twenty-two pairs of waterpipe smokers used a waterpipe individually and as a dyad. Before and after smoking, blood was sampled and expired carbon monoxide (CO) measured; puff topography was recorded throughout. One participant from each pair was selected randomly and their plasma nicotine and expired air CO concentrations were compared when smoking alone to when smoking as part of a dyad. Recorded puff topography was used to machine-produce smoke that was analyzed for toxicant content. Results: There was no difference in mean plasma nicotine concentration when an individual smoked as part of a dyad (mean = 14.9ng/ml; standard error of the mean [ SEM ] = 3.0) compared to when smoking alone (mean = 10.0ng/ml; SEM = 1.5). An individual smoking as part of as a dyad had, on average, lower CO (mean = 15.8 ppm; SEM = 2.0) compared to when smoking alone (mean= 21.3 ppm; SEM = 2.7). When two participants smoked as a dyad they took, on average, more puffs (mean = 109.8; SEM = 7.6) than a singleton smoker (mean = 77.7; SEM = 8.1) and a shorter interpuff interval (IPI; dyad mean = 23.8 seconds; SEM = 1.9; singleton mean = 40.8 seconds; SEM = 4.8). Higher concentrations of several toxicants were observed in dyad-produced smoke. Discussion: Dyad smoking may increase smoke toxicant content, likely due to the dyad’s shorter IPIs and greater puff number. More work is needed to understand if group waterpipe smoking alters the health risks of waterpipe tobacco smoking. Implications: This study is the first to measure toxicants in smoke generated from a waterpipe when used by a dyad. Relative to smoke generated by a singleton, dyad smoke had higher concentration of some toxicants. These

  4. Group Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Increases Smoke Toxicant Concentration.

    PubMed

    Ramôa, Carolina P; Shihadeh, Alan; Salman, Rola; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking is a global health concern. Laboratory research has focused on individual waterpipe users while group use is common. This study examined user toxicant exposure and smoke toxicant yield associated with individual and group waterpipe smoking. Twenty-two pairs of waterpipe smokers used a waterpipe individually and as a dyad. Before and after smoking, blood was sampled and expired carbon monoxide (CO) measured; puff topography was recorded throughout. One participant from each pair was selected randomly and their plasma nicotine and expired air CO concentrations were compared when smoking alone to when smoking as part of a dyad. Recorded puff topography was used to machine-produce smoke that was analyzed for toxicant content. There was no difference in mean plasma nicotine concentration when an individual smoked as part of a dyad (mean = 14.9 ng/ml; standard error of the mean [SEM] = 3.0) compared to when smoking alone (mean = 10.0 ng/ml; SEM = 1.5). An individual smoking as part of as a dyad had, on average, lower CO (mean = 15.8 ppm; SEM = 2.0) compared to when smoking alone (mean= 21.3 ppm; SEM = 2.7). When two participants smoked as a dyad they took, on average, more puffs (mean = 109.8; SEM = 7.6) than a singleton smoker (mean = 77.7; SEM = 8.1) and a shorter interpuff interval (IPI; dyad mean = 23.8 seconds; SEM = 1.9; singleton mean = 40.8 seconds; SEM = 4.8). Higher concentrations of several toxicants were observed in dyad-produced smoke. Dyad smoking may increase smoke toxicant content, likely due to the dyad's shorter IPIs and greater puff number. More work is needed to understand if group waterpipe smoking alters the health risks of waterpipe tobacco smoking. This study is the first to measure toxicants in smoke generated from a waterpipe when used by a dyad. Relative to smoke generated by a singleton, dyad smoke had higher concentration of some toxicants. These differences may be attributed to differences in puffing behavior

  5. Influences of traffic on Pb, Cu and Zn concentrations in roadside soils of an urban park in Dublin, Ireland.

    PubMed

    Dao, Ligang; Morrison, Liam; Zhang, Hongxuan; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2014-06-01

    Soils in the vicinity of roads are recipients of contaminants from traffic emissions. In order to obtain a better understanding of the impacts of traffic on soils, a total of 225 surface soil samples were collected from an urban park (Phoenix Park, Dublin, Ireland) in a grid system. Metal (Pb, Cu and Zn) concentrations were determined using a portable X-ray fluorescence analyzer. Strong spatial variations for the concentrations of Pb, Cu and Zn were observed. The spatial distribution maps created using geographical information system techniques revealed elevated metal concentrations close to the main traffic route in the park. The relationships between the accumulation of Pb, Cu and Zn in the roadside soils and the distance from the road were well fitted with an exponential model. Elevated metal concentrations from traffic pollution extended to a distance of approximately 40 m from the roadside. The results of this study provide useful information for the management of urban parks particularly in relation to policies aimed at reducing the impact of traffic related pollution on soils.

  6. Critical increase in Na-doping facilitates acceptor band movements that yields ~180 meV shallow hole conduction in ZnO bulk crystals

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Narendra S.; Yim, Haena; Choi, Ji-Won

    2017-01-01

    Stable p-type conduction in ZnO has been a long time obstacle in utilizing its full potential such as in opto-electronic devices. We designed a unique experimental set-up in the laboratory for high Na-doping by thermal diffusion in the bulk ZnO single crystals. SIMS measurement shows that Na concentration increases by 3 orders of magnitude, to ~3 × 1020 cm−3 as doping temperature increases to 1200 °C. Electronic infrared absorption was measured for Na-acceptors. Absorption bands were observed near (0.20–0.24) eV. Absorption bands blue shifted by 0.04 eV when doped at 1200 °C giving rise to shallow acceptor level. NaZn band movements as a function of doping temperature are also seen in Photoluminescence emission (PL), Photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and UV-Vis transmission measurements. Variable temperature Hall measurements show stable p-type conduction with hole binding energy ~0.18 eV in ZnO samples that were Na-doped at 1200 °C. PMID:28272444

  7. Enhanced photoluminescence properties of Al doped ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. X.; Ding, J. J.

    2018-01-01

    Al doped ZnO films are fabricated by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. In general, visible emission is related to various defects in ZnO films. However, too much defects will cause light emission quench. So it is still a controversial issue to control appropriate defect concentrations. In this paper, based on our previous results, appropriate Al doping concentration is chosen to introduce more both interstitial Zn and O vacancy defects, which is responsible for main visible emission of ZnO films. A strong emission band located at 405 nm and a long tail peak is observed in the samples. As Al is doped in ZnO films, the intensity of emission peaks increases. Zn interstitial might increase with the increasing Al3+ substitute because ZnO was a self-assembled oxide compound. So Zn interstitial defect concentration in Al doped ZnO films will increase greatly, which results in the intensity of emission peaks increases.

  8. High potential of Mn-doped ZnS nanoparticles with different dopant concentrations as novel MRI contrast agents: synthesis and in vitro relaxivity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahanbin, Tania; Gaceur, Meriem; Gros-Dagnac, Hélène; Benderbous, Soraya; Merah, Souad Ammar

    2015-06-01

    Over several decades, metal-doped quantum dots (QDs) with core-shell structure have been studied as dual probes: fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) probes (Dixit et al., Mater Lett 63(30):2669-2671, 2009). However, metal-doped nanoparticles, in which the majority of metal ions are close to the surface, can affect their efficacy as MRI contrast agents (CAs). In this context, herein the high potential of synthesized Mn-doped ZnS QDs via polyol method as imaging probe is demonstrated. The mean diameters of QDs were measured via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Optical and magnetic properties of MnZnS nanoparticles were characterized using fluorescence spectroscopy and super quanducting interference devices magnetometer and electron paramagnetic resonance system, respectively. T1- and T2-weighted images of nanoparticles in aqueous solution were acquired from spin-echo sequences at 3 T. From TEM images and XRD spectra of the prepared nanoparticles, it is observed that the average diameter of particles does not significantly change with Mn dopant content ( 1.6-1.9 nm). All three samples exhibit broad blue emission under UV light excitation. According to the MRI studies, MnZnS nanoparticles generate strong T1 contrast enhancement (bright T1-weighted images) at the low concentration (<0.1 mM). The MnZnS nanoparticles exhibit the high longitudinal ( r 1) relaxivity that increases from 20.34 to 75.5 mM-1 s-1 with the Mn dopant contents varying between 10 and 30 %. Strong signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high r 1 with {r2 }/{r_{1 }} ≈ 1 can demonstrate the high potential of the synthesized Mn:ZnS nanoparticles, which can serve as an effective T1 CA.

  9. Improved yield and Zn accumulation for rice grain by Zn fertilization and optimized water management.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-yan; Wei, Yan-yan; Dong, Lan-xue; Lu, Ling-li; Feng, Ying; Zhang, Jie; Pan, Feng-shan; Yang, Xiao-e

    2014-04-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency and water scarcity are major challenges in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under an intensive rice production system. This study aims to investigate the impact of water-saving management and different Zn fertilization source (ZnSO4 and Zn-EDTA) regimes on grain yield and Zn accumulation in rice grain. Different water managements, continuous flooding (CF), and alternate wetting and drying (AWD) were applied during the rice growing season. Compared with CF, the AWD regime significantly increased grain yield and Zn concentrations in both brown rice and polished rice. Grain yield of genotypes (Nipponbare and Jiaxing27), on the average, was increased by 11.4%, and grain Zn concentration by 3.9% when compared with those under a CF regime. Zn fertilization significantly increased Zn density in polished rice, with a more pronounced effect of ZnSO4 being observed as compared with Zn-EDTA, especially under an AWD regime. Decreased phytic acid content and molar ratio of phytic acid to Zn were also noted in rice grains with Zn fertilization. The above results demonstrated that water management of AWD combined with ZnSO4 fertilization was an effective agricultural practice to elevate grain yield and increase Zn accumulation and bioavailability in rice grains.

  10. Different valence Sn doping - A simple way to detect oxygen concentration variation of ZnO quantum dots synthesized under ultrasonic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weimin; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Qitu; Wang, Lixi; Song, Bo; Wu, Fan; Wong, C P

    2017-09-01

    An ultrasonic method is employed to synthesize the Sn doped Zn 0.95 Sn 0.05 O quantum dots with green light emission. Sn 2+ and Sn 4+ ions are used to create different optical defects inside Zn 0.95 Sn 0.05 O quantum dots and the changing trend of oxygen concentration under different ultrasonic irradiation power are investigated. The photoluminescence spectra are employed to characterize the optical defects of Zn 0.95 Sn 0.05 O quantum dots. The UV-vis spectra are used to study the band gap of Zn 0.95 Sn 0.05 O quantum dots, which is influenced by their sizes. The results indicate that ultrasonic power would influence the size of Zn 0.95 Sn 0.05 O quantum dots as well as the type and quantity of defects in ZnO quantum dots. Changing trends in size of Sn 2+ and Sn 4+ doped Zn 0.95 Sn 0.05 O quantum dots are quite similar with each other, while the changing trends in optical defects types and concentration of Sn 2+ and Sn 4+ doped Zn 0.95 Sn 0.05 O quantum dots are different. The difference of the optical defects concentration changing between Sn 2+ doped Zn 0.95 Sn 0.05 O quantum dots (V O defects) and Sn 4+ doped Zn 0.95 Sn 0.05 O quantum dots (O Zn and O i defects) shows that the formation process of ZnO under ultrasonic irradiation wiped oxygen out. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mechanistic study of the electrodeposition of nanoporous self-assembled ZnO/Eosin Y hybrid thin films: effect of eosin concentration.

    PubMed

    Goux, Aurélie; Pauporté, Thierry; Yoshida, Tsukasa; Lincot, Daniel

    2006-12-05

    ZnO films prepared by one-step electrodeposition in the presence of dissolved eosin molecules present an internal nanoporous hybrid structure resulting from self-assembling processes occurring in solution between ZnO and eosin components. This study aims to better understand the underlying growth mechanism, which is still unexplained. The films were deposited by cathodic electrodeposition from an oxygen-saturated aqueous zinc chloride solution. The effects of the addition of 10 to 100 micromol.L(-1) eosin Y, as a sodium salt, on the growth rate and film properties, were systematically studied while all other parameters remained constant (concentrations of zinc salt and supporting electrolyte, applied potential of -1.4 V versus the mercurous sulfate electrode (MSE), temperature of 70 degrees C, rotating disk electrode at 300 rotations per min, and a glass-coated tin oxide electrode). It is shown that the addition of eosin provokes the formation of a nanoporous "cauliflower" structure whose nodule size and composition depend on the eosin concentration in the bath. The growth rate of the hybrid films increases markedly with the eosin concentration. The ZnO and eosin contents of the films are determined for each concentration by chemical analysis. Comparing with thickness determinations, it is shown that the total porosity increases up to 60-65% in volume fraction toward an eosin concentration of 100 micromol.L(-1). The empty pore volume fraction increases up to about 30% at an eosin concentration of about 20 micromol.L(-1) and then decreases. These correlations have been precisely established for the first time. It is shown that the global composition is fixed by the relative rate of deposition for zinc oxide, which is constant, and for the relative rate of eosin inclusion, which is proportional to the concentration in solution. This is explained on the basis of different steps in the growth mechanism, in particular, a diffusion effect limitation for both oxygen and

  12. Improved passive treatment of high Zn and Mn concentrations using caustic magnesia (MgO): particle size effects.

    PubMed

    Rötting, Tobias S; Ayora, Carlos; Carrera, Jesus

    2008-12-15

    High concentrations of divalent metals such as Zn, Mn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cd, Co, etc. are not removed satisfactorily in conventional (calcite- or organic matter-based) passive treatment systems. Caustic magnesia ("MgO") has been used successfully as an alternative alkaline material to remove these metals almost completely from water, but columns with coarse-grained MgO lost reactivity or permeability due to the accumulation of precipitates when only a small portion of the reagent had been spent. In the present study, MgO was mixed with wood chips to overcome these problems. Two columns with different MgO grain sizes were used to treat Zn- and Mn-rich water during one year. Performance was compared by measuring depth profiles of chemical parameters and hydraulic conductivity. The column containing 25% (v/v) of MgO with median particle size of about 3 mm displayed low reactivity and poor metal retention. In contrast, the column containing only 12.5% (v/v) of MgO with median particle size of 0.15 mm depleted Zn and Mn below detection limit throughout the study and had a good hydraulic performance. 95% of the applied MgO was consumed in the zone where Zn and Mn accumulated. The fine alkaline grains can dissolve almost completely before the growing layer of precipitates passivates them, whereas clogging is prevented by the large pores of the coarse inert matrix (wood chips). A reactive transport model corroborated the hypotheses that Zn(II) was removed due to its low solubility at pH near 10 achieved by MgO dissolution, whereas Mn(II) was removed due to rapid oxidation to Mn(III) at this pH and subsequent precipitation. The model also confirmed that the small size and large specific surface area of the MgO particles are the key factor to achieve a sufficiently fast dissolution.

  13. High carrier concentration ZnO nanowire arrays for binder-free conductive support of supercapacitors electrodes by Al doping.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xin; Sun, Yihui; Yan, Xiaoqin; Sun, Xu; Zhang, Guangjie; Zhang, Qian; Jiang, Yaru; Gao, Wenchao; Zhang, Yue

    2016-12-15

    Doping semiconductor nanowires (NWs) for altering their electrical and optical properties is a critical strategy for tailoring the performance of nanodevices. Here, we prepared in situ Al-doped ZnO nanowire arrays by using continuous flow injection (CFI) hydrothermal method to promote the conductivity. This reasonable method offers highly stable precursor concentration for doping that effectively avoid the appearance of the low conductivity ZnO nanosheets. Benefit from this, three orders of magnitude rise of the carrier concentration from 10 16 cm -3 to 10 19 cm -3 can be achieved compared with the common hydrothermal (CH) mothed in Mott-Schottky measurement. Possible effect of Al-doping was discussed by first-principle theory. On this basis, Al-doped ZnO nanowire arrays was developed as a binder-free conductive support for supercapacitor electrodes and high capacitance was triggered. It is owing to the dramatically decreased transfer resistance induced by the growing free-moving electrons and holes. Our results have a profound significance not merely in the controlled synthesis of other doping nanomaterials by co-precipitation method but also in the application of binder-free energy materials or other materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Serum concentration of Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, Zn and Cu in patients with essential arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Uza, G; Pavel, O; Kovacs, A; Uza, D; Vlaicu, R

    1984-01-01

    Serum concentration of Na, K, Ca, Mg and inorganic phosphate as well as serum levels of Zn and Cu were determined in control subjects and in patients with essential arterial hypertension (EAH) divided according to the stage of the disease. No significant differences were found between the serum mean levels of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Zn and Cu in controls and in patients with EAH. A significant decrease of the serum Zn was noted in the third stage of EAH. A number of cases with hypomagnesemia and/or hypopotassemia probably caused by a long term uncontrolled therapy was also detected. The concentration of inorganic phosphate was significantly lower in patients with EAH associated with overweight than in hypertensive patients with normal body weight and in controls. It is considered that a sustained study of the complex interrelationship between electrolyte interaction and the functional aspects of the arterial wall could still contribute to a better understanding of pathogenic aspects of EAH and of its complications including those subsequent to modern diuretic therapy.

  15. Dissolution behavior of Cu, Fe and Zn from gold sulfide concentrate during pre-oxidation using ozone in neutral media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniawan, Mubarok, M. Zaki

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this work was to observe the dissolution behaviour of Cu, Fe and Zn from gold sulfide concentrate during preoxidation with ozone as the oxidant and distillation water as the media. The preoxidation experiments were carried out in five-necked reactor with variations of retention time, percent solid, particle size and oxygen dosage injected to ozone generator. The retention time was varied at 6 hours, 8 hours, 12 hours and 24 hours. The percent solid was varied at 10%, 20% and 30% while the particle size was varied at P80 -75 mesh dan P80 -20 mesh. The dosage of oxygen injection to ozone generator was varried at 1 liter per minute and 2 liter per minute. The ozone gas was produced by using ozone generator type OZ-03 and injected to the slurry by using Mazzei injector. The soluble Cu, Fe and Zn were measured by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). The concentrates were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), mineragraphy, fire assay and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP). Fire assay, ICP and XRD were used to analyse the residues and froth. The solubilition of metals (Cu, Fe and Zn) was obtained through the formation of sulphate ion and H+ which decreased the pH, released a number of heat and then was continued by the formation of elemental sulphur (S°). The interaction of particles and gas yielded the formation of froth. The highest dissolution percentage of Cu, Fe and Zn was achieved through 24 hours oxidation at 20% (w/w), P80 -20 mesh and one liter per minute of oxygen injection dosage by 83.016%, 24.7303% and 91.6808%, respectively.

  16. Serum Concentration of Zinc, Copper, Selenium, Manganese, and Cu/Zn Ratio in Children and Adolescents with Myopia.

    PubMed

    Fedor, Monika; Socha, Katarzyna; Urban, Beata; Soroczyńska, Jolanta; Matyskiela, Monika; Borawska, Maria H; Bakunowicz-Łazarczyk, Alina

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was the assessment of the serum concentration of antioxidant microelements-zinc, copper, selenium, manganese, and Cu/Zn ratio in children and adolescents with myopia. Eighty-three children were examined (mean age 14.36 ± 2.49 years) with myopia. The control group was 38 persons (mean age 12.89 ± 3.84 years). Each patient had complete eye examination. The serum concentration of zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Cu/Zn ratio, which is the indicator of the oxidative stress, was also calculated. The average serum concentration of zinc in myopic patients was significantly lower (0.865 ± 0.221 mg L -1 ) in comparison to the control group (1.054 ± 0.174 mg L -1 ). There was significantly higher Cu/Zn ratio in myopic patients (1.196 ± 0.452) in comparison to that in the control group (0.992 ± 0.203). The average serum concentration of selenium in the study group was significantly lower (40.23 ± 12.07 μg L -1 ) compared with that in the control group (46.00 ± 12.25 μg L -1 ). There were no essential differences between serum concentration of copper and manganese in the study group and the control group. Low serum concentration of zinc and selenium in myopic children may imply an association between insufficiency of these antioxidant microelements and the development of the myopia and could be the indication for zinc and selenium supplementation in the prevention of myopia. Significantly, higher Cu/Zn ratio in the study group can suggest the relationship between myopia and oxidative stress.

  17. Concentrations of Zn, Mn, Cu and Cd in different tissues of perch (Perca fluviatilis) and in perch intestinal parasite (Acanthocephalus lucii) from the stream near Prague (Czech Republic)

    SciTech Connect

    Jankovska, Ivana, E-mail: jankovska@af.czu.cz; Miholova, Daniela; Lukesova, Daniela

    2012-01-15

    We monitored concentrations of Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn in acantocephalan parasites (Acanthocephalus lucii) and its final host (Perca fluviatilis). The concentrations in parasites were found to be significantly higher than those found in the muscle, gonads and liver of fish host. The bioaccumulation factor values were 194, 24.4, 2.2 and 4.7 for Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn, respectively. This suggests a benefit for the host due to the high accumulation of toxic cadmium.

  18. Synthesis, Surface Modification and Optical Properties of Thioglycolic Acid-Capped ZnS Quantum Dots for Starch Recognition at Ultralow Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayebi, Mahnoush; Tavakkoli Yaraki, Mohammad; Ahmadieh, Mahnaz; Mogharei, Azadeh; Tahriri, Mohammadreza; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2016-11-01

    In this research, water-soluble thioglycolic acid-capped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) are synthesized by the chemical precipitation method. The prepared QDs are characterized using x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Results revealed that ZnS QDs have a 2.73 nm crystallite size, cubic zinc blende structure, and spherical morphology with a diameter less than 10 nm. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy is performed to determine the presence of low concentrations of starch. Four emission peaks are observed at 348 nm, 387 nm, 422 nm, and 486 nm and their intensities are quenched by increasing concentration of starch. PL intensity variations in the studied concentrations range (0-100 ppm) are best described by a Michaelis-Menten model. The Michaelis constant ( K m) for immobilized α-amylase in this system is about 101.07 ppm. This implies a great tendency for the enzyme to hydrolyze the starch as substrate. Finally, the limit of detection is found to be about 6.64 ppm.

  19. The Role of ZnO Particle Size, Shape and Concentration on Liquid Crystal Order and Current-Voltage Properties for Potential Photovoltaic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Miranda, Luz J.; Branch, Janelle; Thompson, Robert; Taylor, Jefferson W.; Salamanca-Riba, Lourdes

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the role order plays in the transfer of charges in ZnO nanoparticle - octylcyanobiphenyl (8CB) liquid crystal system for photovoltaic applications as well as the role the nominally 7x5x5nm^3 or 20x5x5nm^3 ZnO nanoparticles play in improving that order. Our results for the 5nm nanoparticles show an improvement in the alignment of the liquid crystal with increasing weight percentage of ZnO nanoparticles^1. Our results for the 7x5x5 nm^3 sample show that the current is larger than the current obtained for the 5 nm samples. We find that order is improved for concentrations close to 35% wt ZnO for both the 7x5x5 nm^3 and 20x5x5 nm^3. We have analyzed the X-ray scans for both the 7x5x5 and the 20x5x5 nm^3 samples. The signal corresponding to the liquid crystal aligned parallel to the substrate is much smaller than the peak corresponding to the liquid crystal aligned approximately at 70 with respect to the substrate for the 7x5x5 nm^3 sample whereas this same peak is comparable or more intense for the 20x5x5 nm^3 sample. 1. L. J. Mart'inez-Miranda, Kaitlin M. Traister, Iriselies Mel'endez-Rodr'iguez, and Lourdes Salamanca-Riba, Appl. Phys. Letts, 97, 223301 (2010).

  20. Effect of Straw Amendment on Soil Zn Availability and Ageing of Exogenous Water-Soluble Zn Applied to Calcareous Soil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanlong; Cui, Juan; Tian, Xiaohong; Zhao, Aiqing; Li, Meng; Wang, Shaoxia; Li, Xiushaung; Jia, Zhou; Liu, Ke

    2017-01-01

    Organic matter plays a key role in availability and transformation of soil Zn (zinc), which greatly controls Zn concentrations in cereal grains and human Zn nutrition level. Accordingly, soils homogenized with the wheat straw (0, 12 g straw kg-1) and Zn fertilizer (0, 7 mg Zn kg-1) were buried and incubated in the field over 210 days to explore the response of soil Zn availability and the ageing of exogenous Zn to straw addition. Results indicated that adding straw alone scarcely affected soil DTPA-Zn concentration and Zn fractions because of the low Zn concentration of wheat straw and the high soil pH, and large clay and calcium carbonate contents. However, adding exogenous Zn plus straw increased the DTPA-Zn abundance by about 5-fold and had the similar results to adding exogenous Zn alone, corresponding to the increased Zn fraction loosely bounded to organic matter, which had a more dominant presence in Zn reaction than soil other constituents such as carbonate and minerals in calcareous soil. The higher relative amount of ineffective Zn (~50%) after water soluble Zn addition also occurred, and at the days of 120-165 and 180-210when the natural temperature and rainfall changed mildly, the ageing process of exogenous Zn over time was well evaluated by the diffusion equation, respectively. Consequently, combining crop residues with exogenous water soluble Zn application is promising strategy to maximize the availability of Zn in calcareous soil, but the higher ageing rate of Zn caused by the higher Zn mobility should be considered.

  1. Increased Saliva Cotinine Concentrations in Smokers during Rapid Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaura, Raymond; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined association between saliva cotinine levels and weight loss in nine obese female smokers during participation in protein-sparing modified fast. A significant weight loss was noted at three and six months, yet cotinine level increased significantly during this time. Results suggest that smoking-related health risks may increase during…

  2. Influence of Thermal Annealing on Free Carrier Concentration in (GaN) 1–x(ZnO) x Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Huafeng; Sklute, Elizabeth C.; Lehuta, Keith A.

    It has been previously demonstrated that the efficiency of (GaN) 1–x(ZnO) x semiconductors for solar water splitting can be improved by thermal annealing, though the origin of this improvement was not resolved. In the present work, it is shown that annealing reduces the free carrier (electron) concentration of (GaN) 1–x(ZnO) x. The time-, temperature-, and atmosphere-dependent changes were followed through two simple techniques: indirect diffuse reflectance measurements from 0.5 to 3.0 eV which show very high sensitivity to the free carrier response at the lowest energies and EPR measurements which directly probe the number of unpaired electrons. For the thermalmore » annealing of investigated compositions, it is found that temperatures of 250 °C and below do not measurably change the free carrier concentration, a gradual reduction of the free carrier concentration occurs over a time period of many hours at 350 °C, and the complete elimination of free carriers happens within an hour at 550 °C. These changes are driven by an oxidative process which is effectively suppressed under actively reducing atmospheres (H 2, NH 3) but which can still occur under nominally inert gases (N 2, Ar). Surprisingly, it is found that the N 2 gas released during thermal oxidation of (GaN) 1–x(ZnO) x samples remains trapped within the solid matrix and is not expelled until temperatures of about 900 °C, a result directly confirmed through neutron pair-distribution fuction (PDF) measurements which show a new peak at the 1.1 Å bond length of molecular nitrogen after annealing. Preliminary comparative photoelectrochemical (PEC) measurements of the influence of free carrier concentration on photoactivity for water oxidation were carried out for a sample with x = 0.64. Samples annealed to eliminate free carriers exhibited no photoactivity for water oxidation, while a complex dependence on carrier concentration was observed for samples with intermediate free carrier concentrations

  3. Influence of Thermal Annealing on Free Carrier Concentration in (GaN) 1–x(ZnO) x Semiconductors

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Huafeng; Sklute, Elizabeth C.; Lehuta, Keith A.; ...

    2017-09-13

    It has been previously demonstrated that the efficiency of (GaN) 1–x(ZnO) x semiconductors for solar water splitting can be improved by thermal annealing, though the origin of this improvement was not resolved. In the present work, it is shown that annealing reduces the free carrier (electron) concentration of (GaN) 1–x(ZnO) x. The time-, temperature-, and atmosphere-dependent changes were followed through two simple techniques: indirect diffuse reflectance measurements from 0.5 to 3.0 eV which show very high sensitivity to the free carrier response at the lowest energies and EPR measurements which directly probe the number of unpaired electrons. For the thermalmore » annealing of investigated compositions, it is found that temperatures of 250 °C and below do not measurably change the free carrier concentration, a gradual reduction of the free carrier concentration occurs over a time period of many hours at 350 °C, and the complete elimination of free carriers happens within an hour at 550 °C. These changes are driven by an oxidative process which is effectively suppressed under actively reducing atmospheres (H 2, NH 3) but which can still occur under nominally inert gases (N 2, Ar). Surprisingly, it is found that the N 2 gas released during thermal oxidation of (GaN) 1–x(ZnO) x samples remains trapped within the solid matrix and is not expelled until temperatures of about 900 °C, a result directly confirmed through neutron pair-distribution fuction (PDF) measurements which show a new peak at the 1.1 Å bond length of molecular nitrogen after annealing. Preliminary comparative photoelectrochemical (PEC) measurements of the influence of free carrier concentration on photoactivity for water oxidation were carried out for a sample with x = 0.64. Samples annealed to eliminate free carriers exhibited no photoactivity for water oxidation, while a complex dependence on carrier concentration was observed for samples with intermediate free carrier concentrations

  4. Importance of lithology in defining natural background concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in sedimentary soils, northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gloaguen, Thomas Vincent; Passe, José João

    2017-11-01

    The sedimentary basins of Recôncavo and Tucano, Bahia, represent the most important Brazilian Phanerozoic continental basin system, formed during fracturing of Gondwana. The northern basin of Tucano has a semiarid climate (Bsh) while the southern basin of Recôncavo has a tropical rainforest climate (Af). The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of trace metals in soils derived from various sedimentary rocks and climates. Soils were collected at 30 sites in 5 geological units at 0-20 cm and 60-80 cm deep under native vegetation. Physical and chemical attributes (particle size distribution, pH, Al, exchangeable bases, organic matter) were determined, as well as the pseudo-total concentrations (EPA 3050 b) and the total concentrations (X-ray fluorescence) of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. The concentrations of metals were overall correlated to soil texture, according to lithologic origin. Shales resulted in Vertisols 30.4 (Zn), 27.2 (Ni), 16.9 (Cu), 7.5 (Cr) and 2.5 (Pb) times more concentrated than Arenosols derived from the sandstones. High Cr and Ni values in clay soils from shales were attributed to diffuse contamination by erosion of mafic rocks of the Greenstone Belt River Itapicuru (from 3 km northwest of the study area) during the late Jurassic. Tropical rainforest climate resulted in a slight enrichment of Pb and Cr, and Ni had the higher mobility during soil formation (enrichment factor up to 6.01). In conclusion, the geological environment is a much more controlling factor than pedogenesis in the concentration of metals in sedimentary soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Calculation of point defect concentration in Cu2ZnSnS4: Insights into the high-temperature equilibrium and quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosyak, V.; Postnikov, A. V.; Scragg, J.; Scarpulla, M. A.; Platzer-Björkman, C.

    2017-07-01

    Herein, we study the native point defect equilibrium in Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) by applying a statistical thermodynamic model. The stable chemical-potential space (SCPS) of CZTS at an elevated temperature was estimated directly, on the basis of deviations from stoichiometry calculated for the different combinations of chemical potential of the components. We show that the SCPS is narrow due to high concentration of (" separators="|VCu --ZnC u + ) complex which is dominant over other complexes and isolated defects. The CZTS was found to have p-type conductivity for both stoichiometric and Cu-poor/Zn-rich composition. It is established that the reason for this is that the majority of donor-like ZnC u + antisites are involved in the formation of (" separators="|VCu --ZnC u + ) complex making CuZ n - dominant and providing p-type conductivity even for Cu-poor/Zn-rich composition. However, our calculation reveals that the hole concentration is almost insensitive to the variation of the chemical composition within the composition region of the single-phase CZTS due to nearly constant concentration of dominant charged defects. The calculations for the full equilibrium and quenching indicate that hole concentration is strongly dependent on the annealing temperature and decreases substantially after the drastic cooling. This means that the precise control of annealing temperature and post-annealing cooling rate are critical for tuning the electrical properties of CZTS.

  6. Acute Toxicity of Ternary Cd-Cu-Ni and Cd-Ni-Zn Mixtures to Daphnia magna: Dominant Metal Pairs Change along a Concentration Gradient.

    PubMed

    Traudt, Elizabeth M; Ranville, James F; Meyer, Joseph S

    2017-04-18

    Multiple metals are usually present in surface waters, sometimes leading to toxicity that currently is difficult to predict due to potentially non-additive mixture toxicity. Previous toxicity tests with Daphnia magna exposed to binary mixtures of Ni combined with Cd, Cu, or Zn demonstrated that Ni and Zn strongly protect against Cd toxicity, but Cu-Ni toxicity is more than additive, and Ni-Zn toxicity is slightly less than additive. To consider multiple metal-metal interactions, we exposed D. magna neonates to Cd, Cu, Ni, or Zn alone and in ternary Cd-Cu-Ni and Cd-Ni-Zn combinations in standard 48 h lethality tests. In these ternary mixtures, two metals were held constant, while the third metal was varied through a series that ranged from nonlethal to lethal concentrations. In Cd-Cu-Ni mixtures, the toxicity was less than additive, additive, or more than additive, depending on the concentration (or ion activity) of the varied metal and the additivity model (concentration-addition or independent-action) used to predict toxicity. In Cd-Ni-Zn mixtures, the toxicity was less than additive or approximately additive, depending on the concentration (or ion activity) of the varied metal but independent of the additivity model. These results demonstrate that complex interactions of potentially competing toxicity-controlling mechanisms can occur in ternary-metal mixtures but might be predicted by mechanistic bioavailability-based toxicity models.

  7. Nonlinear regional warming with increasing CO2 concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, Peter; Lowe, Jason A.; Andrews, Timothy; Wiltshire, Andrew; Chadwick, Robin; Ridley, Jeff K.; Menary, Matthew B.; Bouttes, Nathaelle; Dufresne, Jean Louis; Gregory, Jonathan M.; Schaller, Nathalie; Shiogama, Hideo

    2015-02-01

    When considering adaptation measures and global climate mitigation goals, stakeholders need regional-scale climate projections, including the range of plausible warming rates. To assist these stakeholders, it is important to understand whether some locations may see disproportionately high or low warming from additional forcing above targets such as 2 K (ref. ). There is a need to narrow uncertainty in this nonlinear warming, which requires understanding how climate changes as forcings increase from medium to high levels. However, quantifying and understanding regional nonlinear processes is challenging. Here we show that regional-scale warming can be strongly superlinear to successive CO2 doublings, using five different climate models. Ensemble-mean warming is superlinear over most land locations. Further, the inter-model spread tends to be amplified at higher forcing levels, as nonlinearities grow--especially when considering changes per kelvin of global warming. Regional nonlinearities in surface warming arise from nonlinearities in global-mean radiative balance, the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, surface snow/ice cover and evapotranspiration. For robust adaptation and mitigation advice, therefore, potentially avoidable climate change (the difference between business-as-usual and mitigation scenarios) and unavoidable climate change (change under strong mitigation scenarios) may need different analysis methods.

  8. Increased osteoblast and decreased Staphylococcus epidermidis functions on nanophase ZnO and TiO2.

    PubMed

    Colon, Gabriel; Ward, Brian C; Webster, Thomas J

    2006-09-01

    Many engineers and surgeons trace implant failure to poor osseointegration (or the bonding of an orthopedic implant to juxtaposed bone) and/or bacteria infection. By using novel nanotopographies, researchers have shown that nanostructured ceramics, carbon fibers, polymers, metals, and composites enhance osteoblast adhesion and calcium/phosphate mineral deposition. However, the function of bacteria on materials with nanostructured surfaces remains largely uninvestigated. This is despite the fact that during normal surgical insertion of an orthopedic implant, bacteria from the patient's own skin and/or mucosa enters the wound site. These bacteria (namely, Staphylococcus epidermidis) irreversibly adhere to an implant surface while various physiological stresses induce alterations in the bacterial growth rate leading to biofilm formation. Because of their integral role in determining the success of orthopedic implants, the objective of this in vitro study was to examine the functions of (i) S. epidermidis and (ii) osteoblasts (or bone-forming cells) on ZnO and titania (TiO(2)), which possess nanostructured compared to microstructured surface features. ZnO is a well-known antimicrobial agent and TiO(2) readily forms on titanium once implanted. Results of this study provided the first evidence of decreased S. epidermidis adhesion on ZnO and TiO(2) with nanostructured when compared with microstructured surface features. Moreover, compared with microphase formulations, results of this study showed increased osteoblast adhesion, alkaline phosphatase activity, and calcium mineral deposition on nanophase ZnO and TiO(2). In this manner, this study suggests that nanophase ZnO and TiO(2) may reduce S. epidermidis adhesion and increase osteoblast functions necessary to promote the efficacy of orthopedic implants.

  9. Simultaneous increase in strength and ductility by decreasing interface energy between Zn and Al phases in cast Al-Zn-Cu alloy.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung Zeon; Choi, Eun-Ae; Park, Hyun Woong; Lim, Sung Hwan; Lee, Jehyun; Ahn, Jee Hyuk; Hwang, Nong-Moon; Kim, Kwangho

    2017-09-22

    Cast-Al alloys that include a high amount of the second element in their matrix have comparatively high strength but low ductility because of the high volume fraction of strengthening phases or undesirable inclusions. Al-Zn alloys that have more than 30 wt% Zn have a tensile strength below 300 MPa, with elongation under 5% in the as-cast state. However, we found that after substitution of 2% Zn by Cu, the tensile strength of as-cast Al-Zn-Cu alloys was 25% higher and ductility was four times higher than for the corresponding Al-35% Zn alloy. Additionally, for the Al-43% Zn alloy with 2% Cu after 1 h solution treatment at 400 °C and water quenching, the tensile strength unexpectedly reached values close to 600 MPa. For the Al-33% Zn alloy with 2% Cu, the tensile strength was 500 MPa with 8% ductility. The unusual trends of the mechanical properties of Al-Zn alloys with Cu addition observed during processing from casting to the subsequent solution treatment were attributed to the precipitation of Zn in the Al matrix. The interface energy between the Zn particles and the Al matrix decreased when using a solution of Cu in Zn.

  10. Practice on improving fattening local cattle production in Vietnam by increasing crude protein level in concentrate and concentrate level.

    PubMed

    Van Dung, Dinh; Ba, Nguyen Xuan; Van, Nguyen Huu; Phung, Le Dinh; Ngoan, Le Duc; Cuong, Vu Chi; Yao, Wen

    2013-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of crude protein (CP) level in concentrate (experiment 1) and concentrate level (experiment 2) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen (N) retention, ruminal pH and NH3-N concentration and average daily gain (ADG) of Vietnamese local fattening cattle. Animals (24 cattle, initial live weight (LW) 150.3 ± 11.8 kg in experiment 1 and 145.1 ± 9.8 kg in experiment 2) were allotted based on LW to one of four treatments in a randomised complete block design. In experiment 1, concentrate with four levels of CP (10, 13, 16 and 19 %) was fed at 1.5 % of LW. In experiment 2, concentrate was fed at 1.0, 1.4, 1.8 and 2.2 % of LW. In both experiments, roughage was 5 kg/day native grass and ad libitum rice straw (fresh basis). Results showed that the CP level in concentrate significantly affected dry matter (DM) intake (P < 0.05), N retention, ADG and ruminal NH3-N concentration (P < 0.01), but it had no significant effect on DM, organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) digestibility (P > 0.05), whereas CP digestibility increased (P < 0.001) along with the CP level. DM intake, N retention and ADG increased (P < 0.001) linearly with concentrate intake. DM and CP digestibility were not significantly affected by concentrate intake (P > 0.05). OM digestibility and NH3-N concentration increased linearly (P < 0.05), whereas NDF digestibility and ruminal pH declined linearly with increased concentrate consumption (P < 0.01). These results indicate that 16 % CP in concentrate and feeding concentrate at the rate of 2.2 % of LW are recommendable for fattening local cattle in Vietnam.

  11. Increased concentrations of potassium in heartwood of trees in response to groundwater contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Yanosky, Thomas M.; Siegel, Frederic R.

    1992-03-01

    The wood of tuliptrees ( Liriodendron tulipifera L.) growing above groundwater contamination from a hazardous-waste landfill in Maryland contained elevated concentrations of potassium (K). The groundwater contamination also contained elevated concentrations of dissolved K, as well as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chloride (Cl), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and organic solvents. The dissolved K is derived from disposed smoke munitions. The excess K in the tuliptrees is concentrated in the heartwood, the part of the xylem most depleted in K in trees growing outside of the contamination. These data show that the uptake and translocation of K by tuliptrees can be strongly influenced by the availability of K in groundwater contamination and suggest the utility of this species as an areal indicator of groundwater contamination.

  12. Increased concentrations of potassium in heartwood of trees in response to groundwater contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, D.A.; Yanosky, T.M.; Siegel, F.R.

    1992-01-01

    The wood of tuliptrees (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) growing above groundwater contamination from a hazardous-waste landfill in Maryland contained elevated concentrations of potassium (K). The groundwater contamination also contained elevated concentrations of dissolved K, as well as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chloride (Cl), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and organic solvents. The dissolved K is derived from disposed smoke munitions. The excess K in the tuliptrees is concentrated in the heartwood, the part of the xylem most depleted in K in trees growing outside of the contamination. These data show that the uptake and translocation of K by tuliptrees can be strongly influenced by the availability of K in groundwater contamination and suggest the utility of this species as an areal indicator of groundwater contamination. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  13. Effects of the carrier concentration on polarity determination in Ga-doped ZnO films by hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Huaping; Makino, Hisao; Kobata, Masaaki; Nomoto, Junichi; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2018-03-01

    Core level (CL) and valence band (VB) spectra of heavily Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films with carrier concentrations (Ne) ranging from 1.8 × 1020 to 1.0 × 1021 cm-3 were measured by high-resolution Al Kα (hν = 1486.6 eV) x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Cr Kα (hν = 5414.7 eV) hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES). The CL spectra of the GZO films measured by XPS had little dependence on Ne. In contrast, clear differences in asymmetric broadening were observed in the HAXPES spectra owing to the large probing depth. The asymmetry in the Zn 2p3/2 and O 1s HAXPES spectra is mainly attributed to the energy loss of the conduction electron plasmon caused by the high Ne of the GZO films. Similar asymmetry was also observed in the VB spectra of these GZO films. It was found that such asymmetry plays a crucial role in the determination of crystal polarity. With increasing Ne, the intensity of the sub-peak at a binding energy Eb of about 5 eV in the VB spectrum decreased and the sub-peak became indistinguishable. We clarified the limitation of the criterion using the sub-peak and proposed an alternative method for polarity determination.

  14. Improved Friction and Wear of M50 Steel Composites Incorporated with ZnO as a Solid Lubricant with Different Concentrations Under Different Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essa, F. A.; Zhang, Qiaoxin; Huang, Xingjiu; Ibrahim, Ahmed Mohamed Mahmoud; Ali, Mohamed Kamal Ahmed; Abdelkareem, Mohamed A. A.; Elagouz, Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    This experimental study explores improving the tribological behavior of M50 steel using ZnO as a solid lubricant with different concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 wt.%. Tribological tests were conducted using pin-on-disk tribometer under different loads of 3, 6, 9, and 12 N and constant sliding speed of 0.2 m s-1 in air. XRD, EPMA, FESEM, EDS mapping, and XPS tests were performed to understand the major mechanisms leading to improve the tribological and mechanical properties of M50 composites. Results showed that the best tribological and mechanical properties were obtained at 20.0 wt.% of ZnO. Friction coefficient and wear rate were reduced by 52.909 and 70%, respectively, due to the formation of tribo-films on the worn surfaces. Furthermore, the hardness of M50 composites increased by 27.86%. Our study provides results with suggestions to overcome the challenges facing the technology when using M50 matrix composites in mechanical applications.

  15. Assessment of metal concentrations (Cu, Zn, and Pb) in seawater, sediment and biota samples in the coastal area of Eastern Black Sea, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Baltas, Hasan; Sirin, Murat; Dalgic, Goktug; Bayrak, Esra Yilmaz; Akdeniz, Aysel

    2017-09-15

    This study investigated the contents of Cu, Zn and Pb in seawater, sediment, different shell sizes of mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and sea snail (Rapana venosa) samples collected from four different provinces of the Eastern Black Sea Region. With the exception of Zn, all the metal concentration values measured in the sea snail were observed to be higher than those of mussels in all stations. While the correlation between mussels and sea snail according to metal concentrations was found to be positive (p˂0.05), this relation was not observed between the other parameters, such as the shell sizes, salinity and pH (p˃0.05). Although the mean concentration values of Cu, Zn, and Pb for mussel and sea snail are significantly above the tolerable levels, the estimated daily intake values for mussel were below the daily intake recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimental whole-lake increase of dissolved organic carbon concentration produces unexpected increase in crustacean zooplankton density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, Patrick T.; Craig, Nicola; Solomon, Christopher T.; Weidel, Brian C.; Zwart, Jacob A.; Jones, Stuart E.

    2016-01-01

    The observed pattern of lake browning, or increased terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, across the northern hemisphere has amplified the importance of understanding how consumer productivity varies with DOC concentration. Results from comparative studies suggest these increased DOC concentrations may reduce crustacean zooplankton productivity due to reductions in resource quality and volume of suitable habitat. Although these spatial comparisons provide an expectation for the response of zooplankton productivity as DOC concentration increases, we still have an incomplete understanding of how zooplankton respond to temporal increases in DOC concentration within a single system. As such, we used a whole-lake manipulation, in which DOC concentration was increased from 8 to 11 mg L−1 in one basin of a manipulated lake, to test the hypothesis that crustacean zooplankton production should subsequently decrease. In contrast to the spatially derived expectation of sharp DOC-mediated decline, we observed a small increase in zooplankton densities in response to our experimental increase in DOC concentration of the treatment basin. This was due to significant increases in gross primary production and resource quality (lower seston carbon-to-phosphorus ratio; C:P). These results demonstrate that temporal changes in lake characteristics due to increased DOC may impact zooplankton in ways that differ from those observed in spatial surveys. We also identified significant interannual variability across our study region, which highlights potential difficulty in detecting temporal responses of organism abundances to gradual environmental change (e.g., browning).

  17. Chemical composition and Zn bioavailability of the soil solution extracted from Zn amended variable charge soils.

    PubMed

    Zampella, Mariavittoria; Adamo, Paola

    2010-01-01

    A study on variable charge soils (volcanic Italian and podzolic Scottish soils) was performed to investigate the influence of soil properties on the chemical composition of soil solution. Zinc speciation, bioavailability and toxicity in the soil solution were examined. The soils were spiked with increasing amounts of Zn (0, 100, 200, 400 and 1000 mg/kg) and the soil solutions were extracted using rhizon soil moisture samplers. The pH, total organic carbon (TOC), base cations, anions, total Zn and free Zn2+ in soil solution were analysed. A rapid bioassay with the luminescent bacterium Escherichia coli HB101 pUCD607 was performed to assess Zn toxicity. The influence of soil type and Zn treatments on the chemical composition of soil solution and on Zn toxicity was considered and discussed. Different trends of total and free Zn concentrations, base cations desorption and luminescence of E. coli HB101 pUCD607 were observed. The soil solution extracted from the volcanic soils had very low total and free Zn concentrations and showed specific Zn2+/Ca2+ exchange. The soil solution from the podzolic soil had much higher total and free Zn concentrations and showed no evidence of specific Zn2+/Ca2+ exchange. In comparison with the subalkaline volcanic soils, the acidic podzol showed enhanced levels of toxic free Zn2+ and consequently stronger effects on E. coli viability.

  18. Structural, magnetic and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures converted from ZnS nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Prayas Chandra; Ghosh, Surajit; Srivastava, P.C., E-mail: pcsrivastava50@gmail.com

    Graphical abstract: The phase conversion of ZnS to highly crystalline hexagonal ZnO was done by heat treatment. - Highlights: • Phase change of cubic ZnS to hexagonal ZnO via heat treatment. • Band gap was found to decrease with increasing calcinations temperature. • ZnO samples have higher magnetic moment than ZnS. • Blocking Temperature of the samples is well above room temperature. • Maximum negative%MR with saturation value ∼38% was found for sample calcined at 600° C. - Abstract: The present work concentrates on the synthesis of cubic ZnS and hexagonal ZnO semiconducting nanoparticle from same precursor via co-precipitation method.more » The phase conversion of ZnS to highly crystalline hexagonal ZnO was done by heat treatment. From the analysis of influence of calcination temperature on the structural, optical and vibrational properties of the samples, an optimum temperature was found for the total conversion of ZnS nanoparticles to ZnO. Role of quantum confinement due to finite size is evident from the blue shift of the fundamental absorption in UV–vis spectra only in the ZnS nanoparticles. The semiconducting nature of the prepared samples is confirmed from the UV–vis, PL study and transport study. From the magnetic and transport studies, pure ZnO phase was found to be more prone to magnetic field.« less

  19. The mitochondrial toxin, 3-nitropropionic acid, induces extracellular Zn2+ accumulation in rat hippocampus slices.

    PubMed

    Wei, Guo; Hough, Christopher J; Sarvey, John M

    2004-11-11

    3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA), a suicide inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH; complex II), has been used to provide useful experimental models of Huntington's disease (HD) and "chemical hypoxia" in rodents. The trace ion Zn2+ has been shown to cause neurodegeneration. Employing real-time Newport Green fluorescence imaging of extracellular Zn2+, we found that 3-NPA (10-100 microM) caused a concentration-dependent increase in the concentration of extracellular Zn2+ ([Zn2+]o) in acute rat hippocampus slices. This increase in [Zn2+]o was abolished by 10 mM CaEDTA. The increase of [Zn2+]o was also accompanied by a rapid increase of cytoplasmic-free Zn2+ concentration ([Zn2+]i). The induction of Zn2+ release by 3-MPA in hippocampus slices points to a potential mechanism by which 3-NPA might induce neurodegeneration.

  20. Effect of Mo-doping concentration on the physical behaviour of sprayed ZnO layers

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, T. Sreenivasulu; Reddy, M. Vasudeva; Reddy, K. T. Ramakrishna, E-mail: ktrkreddy@gmail.com

    2015-06-24

    Mo-doped zinc oxide layers (MZO) have been prepared on cleaned glass substrates by chemical spray pyrolysis technique by varying Mo-doping concentration in the range, 0 – 5 at. %. The X-ray diffraction studies revealed that all the as prepared layers were polycrystalline in nature and exhibited wurtzite structure. The layers prepared with lower Mo-doping concentration (<2 at. %) were preferably oriented along the (100) plane, whereas in the case of higher Mo-doping concentration (>2 at. %), the films showed the (002) plane as the dominant peak. The optical analysis indicated that all the layers had an average optical transmittance ofmore » 80% in the visible region and the evaluated band gap varied in the range, 3.28 - 3.50 eV.« less

  1. Examining Two Sets of Introgression Lines in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Reveals Favorable Alleles that Improve Grain Zn and Fe Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xia; Cheng, Li-Rui; Xu, Jian-Long; Shi, Yu-Min; Li, Zhi-Kang

    2015-01-01

    In the modern world, the grain mineral concentration (GMC) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) not only includes important micronutrient elements such as iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn), but it also includes toxic heavy metal elements, especially cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). To date, the genetic mechanisms underlying the regulation of GMC, especially the genetic background and G × E effects of GMC, remain largely unknown. In this study, we adopted two sets of backcross introgression lines (BILs) derived from IR75862 (a Zn-dense rice variety) as the donor parent and two elite indica varieties, Ce258 and Zhongguangxiang1, as recurrent parents to detect QTL affecting GMC traits including Fe, Zn, Cd and Pb concentrations in two environments. We detected a total of 22 loci responsible for GMC traits, which are distributed on all 12 rice chromosomes except 5, 9 and 10. Six genetic overlap (GO) regions affecting multiple elements were found, in which most donor alleles had synergistic effects on GMC. Some toxic heavy metal-independent loci (such as qFe1, qFe2 and qZn12) and some regions that have opposite genetic effects on micronutrient (Fe and Zn) and heavy metal element (Pb) concentrations (such as GO-IV) may be useful for marker-assisted biofortification breeding in rice. We discuss three important points affecting biofortification breeding efforts in rice, including correlations between different GMC traits, the genetic background effect and the G × E effect. PMID:26161553

  2. Quantifying charge carrier concentration in ZnO thin films by Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Maragliano, C.; Lilliu, S.; Dahlem, M. S.; Chiesa, M.; Souier, T.; Stefancich, M.

    2014-01-01

    In the last years there has been a renewed interest for zinc oxide semiconductor, mainly triggered by its prospects in optoelectronic applications. In particular, zinc oxide thin films are being widely used for photovoltaic applications, in which the determination of the electrical conductivity is of great importance. Being an intrinsically doped material, the quantification of its doping concentration has always been challenging. Here we show how to probe the charge carrier density of zinc oxide thin films by Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy, a technique that allows measuring the contact potential difference between the tip and the sample surface with high spatial resolution. A simple electronic energy model is used for correlating the contact potential difference with the doping concentration in the material. Limitations of this technique are discussed in details and some experimental solutions are proposed. Two-dimensional doping concentration images acquired on radio frequency-sputtered intrinsic zinc oxide thin films with different thickness and deposited under different conditions are reported. We show that results inferred with this technique are in accordance with carrier concentration expected for zinc oxide thin films deposited under different conditions and obtained from resistivity and mobility measurements. PMID:24569599

  3. Caenorhabditis elegans chronically exposed to a Mn/Zn ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate fungicide show mitochondrial Complex I inhibition and increased reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Denise C; Todt, Callie E; Orfield, Sarah E; Denney, Rachel D; Snapp, Isaac B; Negga, Rekek; Montgomery, Kara M; Bailey, Andrew C; Pressley, Aireal S; Traynor, Wendy L; Fitsanakis, Vanessa A

    2016-09-01

    Reports have linked human exposure to Mn/Zn ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate (Mn/Zn-EBDC) fungicides with multiple pathologies, from dermatitis to central nervous system dysfunction. Although members of this family of agrochemicals have been available for over 50 years, their mechanism of toxicity in humans is still unclear. Since mitochondrial inhibition and oxidative stress are implicated in a wide variety of diseases, we hypothesized that Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) exposed to a commercially-available formulation of an Mn/Zn-EBDC-containing fungicide (Manzate; MZ) would also show these endpoints. Thus, worms were treated chronically (24h) with various MZ concentrations and assayed for reduced mitochondrial function and increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxygen consumption studies suggested Complex I inhibition in all treatment groups compared to controls ( ** p<0.01). In order to verify these findings, assays specific for Complex II or Complex IV activity were also completed. Data analysis from these studies indicated that neither complex was adversely affected by MZ treatment. Additional data from ATP assays indicated a statistically significant decrease ( *** p<0.001) in ATP levels in all treatment groups when compared to control worms. Further studies were completed to determine if exposure of C. elegans to MZ also resulted in increased ROS concentrations. Studies demonstrated that hydrogen peroxide, but not superoxide or hydroxyl radical, levels were statistically significantly increased (*p<0.05). Since hydrogen peroxide is known to up-regulate glutathione-S-transferase (GST), we used a GST:green fluorescent protein transgenic worm strain to test this hypothesis. Results from these studies indicated a statistically significant increase ( *** p<0.001) in green pixel number following MZ exposure. Taken together, these data indicate that C. elegans treated with MZ concentrations to which humans are exposed show mitochondrial Complex I

  4. Effects of sulfurization time and H{sub 2}S concentration on electrical properties of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} films prepared by sol–gel method

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Bo; Cheng, Shuying, E-mail: sycheng@fzu.edu.cn; Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovolatic Science and Engineering, Changzhou 213164

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) films were prepared by sol–gel method following sulfurization. • The sulfurization time and H{sub 2}S concentration have the effects on the electrical properties. • The tin loss is increased with the increasing of the sulfurization time. • The secondary phases like ZnS make the electrical properties worse. • The CZTS films sulfurized at 5% H{sub 2}S for 90 min had the best electrical properties. - Abstract: Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films have been successfully deposited by a sol–gel method and sulfurization process. The properties of the films were investigated by varying sulfurization timemore » and H{sub 2}S concentration. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectra analyses revealed the formation of CZTS films with a tetragonal type kesterite structure. With increasing the sulfurization time and H{sub 2}S concentration, the intensity of the kesterite (1 1 2) peak became sharper. The stoichiometric ratios of the CZTS films were different from the precursors, which was due to Sn loss during the sulfurization process. The electrical resistivity and mobility of the films increased while the carrier concentration decreased with increasing the sulfurization time. The CZTS thin films sulfurized at 5% H{sub 2}S concentration for 90 min had the best opto-electrical properties with E{sub g} of 1.41 eV, resistivity of 3.64 Ω cm, carrier concentration of 1.11 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3} and mobility of 1.54 cm{sup 2}/(V s) at room temperature for PV application.« less

  5. The Extracellular Zn2+ Concentration Surrounding Excited Neurons Is High Enough to Bind Amyloid-β Revealed by a Nanowire Transistor.

    PubMed

    Anand, Ankur; Chi, Chih-Hung; Banerjee, Subhasree; Chou, Ming-Yi; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Pan, Chien-Yuan; Chen, Yit-Tsong

    2018-06-01

    The Zn 2+ stored in the secretory vesicles of glutamatergic neurons is coreleased with glutamate upon stimulation, resulting in the elevation of extracellular Zn 2+ concentration (CZn2+ex). This elevation of CZn2+ex regulates the neurotransmission and facilitates the fibrilization of amyloid-β (Aβ). However, the exact CZn2+ex surrounding neurons under (patho)physiological conditions is not clear and the connection between CZn2+ex and the Aβ fibrilization remains obscure. Here, a silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (SiNW-FET) with the Zn 2+ -sensitive fluorophore, FluoZin-3 (FZ-3), to quantify the CZn2+ex in real time is modified. This FZ-3/SiNW-FET device has a dissociation constant of ≈12 × 10 -9 m against Zn 2+ . By placing a coverslip seeded with cultured embryonic cortical neurons atop an FZ-3/SiNW-FET, the CZn2+ex elevated to ≈110 × 10 -9 m upon stimulation with α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA). Blockers against the AMPA receptor or exocytosis greatly suppress this elevation, indicating that the Zn 2+ stored in the synaptic vesicles is the major source responsible for this elevation of CZn2+ex. In addition, a SiNW-FET modified with Aβ could bind Zn 2+ with a dissociation constant of ≈633 × 10 -9 m and respond to the Zn 2+ released from AMPA-stimulated neurons. Therefore, the CZn2+ex can reach a level high enough to bind Aβ and the Zn 2+ homeostasis can be a therapeutic strategy to prevent neurodegeneration. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in clams and sediments from an impacted estuary by the oil industry in the southwestern Gulf of Mexico: concentrations and bioaccumulation factors.

    PubMed

    Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Spanopoulos-Zarco, P; Páez-Osuna, F

    2009-12-01

    With the objective of estimating the temporal variation and bioavailability of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in Coatzacoalcos estuary, the biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF) were calculated. For this purpose, surficial sediments and clams from 14 selected sites were collected during three climatic seasons. In surficial sediments, highest levels of Cd and Cu were measured during the rainy season near to the industrial area of Minatitlan, while highest concentrations of Pb and Zn were registered during the windy season in sediments collected near to the industrial area of Coatzacoalcos. Considering all the sampling seasons and bivalve species, average metal concentrations followed the order Zn > Cu > Cd > Pb. BSAF ranged from 0.01 (Pb) in Corbicula fluminea during the hot season to 25.1 (Cd) in Polymesoda caroliniana during the windy season. BSAF of Cd, Cu and Zn were higher during the windy season; in the case of Pb, the dry season was the time when such figure was more elevated. It can be stated that Polymesoda caroliniana is a net accumulator of Cd and Zn and a weak accumulator of Pb for the studied estuary.

  7. Broiler responses to increasing selenium supplementation using Zn-L-selenomethionine with special attention to breast myopathies.

    PubMed

    Cemin, H S; Vieira, S L; Stefanello, C; Kindlein, L; Ferreira, T Z; Fireman, A K

    2018-05-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate growth performance, carcass and breast yields, and the occurrence and severity of white striping (WS) and wooden breast (WB) myopathies of broilers fed diets supplemented with increasing dietary levels of an organic source of selenium (Zn-L-SeMet). Broilers were fed 6 treatments with 12 replications of 26 birds in a 4-phase feeding program from 1 to 42 days. Corn-soy-based diets were supplemented with 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 ppm of Zn-L-SeMet. At 42 d, 6 birds were randomly selected from each pen (n = 72) and processed for carcass and breast yields. Breast fillets were scored for WS and WB at 42 days. Increasing Zn-L-SeMet led to quadratic responses (P < 0.05) for FCR from 1 to 7 d, BWG from 22 to 35 d, and for both responses from 8 to 21 d and 36 to 42 d, as well as in the overall period of 42 days. Carcass and breast yields presented a quadratic improvement (P < 0.01) with increasing Zn-L-SeMet supplementation and Se requirements were estimated at 0.85 and 0.86 ppm, respectively. In the overall period, estimates of Se requirements were 0.64 ppm for BWG and 0.67 ppm for FCR. White striping and WB scores presented quadratic increases (P < 0.01), and maximum scores were observed at 0.68 and 0.67 ppm, respectively. Broilers fed diets formulated without Se supplementation had a higher percentage of normal fillets compared to other Se supplementation levels (quadratic, P < 0.05). In conclusion, increasing Se supplementation to reach maximum growth performance led to higher degrees of severity of WS and WB. Selenium requirements determined in the present study were significantly higher than the present commercial recommendations.

  8. Mineral composition of durum wheat grain and pasta under increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

    PubMed

    Beleggia, Romina; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Miglietta, Franco; Cattivelli, Luigi; Menga, Valeria; Nigro, Franca; Pecchioni, Nicola; Fares, Clara

    2018-03-01

    The concentrations of 10 minerals were investigated in the grain of 12 durum wheat genotypes grown under free air CO 2 enrichment conditions, and in four of their derived pasta samples, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Compared to ambient CO 2 (400ppm; AMB), under elevated CO 2 (570ppm; ELE), the micro-element and macro-element contents showed strong and significant decreases in the grain: Mn, -28.3%; Fe, -26.7%; Zn, -21.9%; Mg, -22.7%; Mo, -40.4%; K, -22.4%; and Ca, -19.5%. These variations defined the 12 genotypes as sensitive or non-sensitive to ELE. The pasta samples under AMB and ELE showed decreased mineral contents compared to the grain. Nevertheless, the contributions of the pasta to the recommended daily allowances remained relevant, also for the micro-elements under ELE conditions (range, from 18% of the recommended daily allowance for Zn, to 70% for Mn and Mo). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Structural, surface wettability and antibacterial properties of HPMC-ZnO nanocomposite

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, B. Lakshmeesha; Asha, S.; Madhukumar, R.

    The developed hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)/Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocomposite films were examined for structural property and surface wettability using X-ray diffraction and contact angle measurement. Antibacterial activity of these films was evaluated as a function of ZnO concentration. The microstructuralline parameters ( and (g in %)) decreased with increasing concentration of ZnO nanoparticles and there was increase in hydrophilicity. Addition of ZnO nanoparticles in films resulted in antimicrobial activity against tested microorganisms.

  10. Data on metals (Zn, Al, Sr, and Co) and metalloid (As) concentration levels of ballast water in commercial ships entering Bushehr port, along the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Farshid; Dobaradaran, Sina; Hayati, Abdolreza; Khorsand, Maryam; Keshtkar, Mozhgan

    2016-12-01

    In this article, we determined the concentration levels of metals including Zn, Al, Sr, and Co and metalloid of As of ballast water in commercial ships entering Bushehr port, along the Persian Gulf. Ballast water samples were taken from commercial ships entering Bushehr port from 34 ports around the world during 15 February and 25 August 2016. The concentration levels of metals and metalloid were determined by using a graphite furnace absorption spectrometer (AAS).

  11. Increasing the effective energy barrier promoted by the change of a counteranion in a Zn-Dy-Zn SMM: slow relaxation via the second excited state.

    PubMed

    Oyarzabal, I; Ruiz, J; Ruiz, E; Aravena, D; Seco, J M; Colacio, E

    2015-08-11

    The trinuclear complex [ZnCl(μ-L)Dy(μ-L)ClZn]PF6 exhibits a single-molecule magnetic behaviour under zero field with a relatively large effective energy barrier of 186 cm(-1). Ab initio calculations reveal that the relaxation of the magnetization is symmetry-driven (the Dy(III) ion possesses a C2 symmetry) and occurs via the second excited state.

  12. Cytosolic increased labile Zn2+ contributes to arrhythmogenic action potentials in left ventricular cardiomyocytes through protein thiol oxidation and cellular ATP depletion.

    PubMed

    Degirmenci, Sinan; Olgar, Yusuf; Durak, Aysegul; Tuncay, Erkan; Turan, Belma

    2018-07-01

    Intracellular labile (free) Zn 2+ -level ([Zn 2+ ] i ) is low and increases markedly under pathophysiological conditions in cardiomyocytes. High [Zn 2+ ] i is associated with alterations in excitability and ionic-conductances while exact mechanisms are not clarified yet. Therefore, we examined the elevated-[Zn 2+ ] i on some sarcolemmal ionic-mechanisms, which can mediate cardiomyocyte dysfunction. High-[Zn 2+ ] i induced significant changes in action potential (AP) parameters, including depolarization in resting membrane-potential and prolongations in AP-repolarizing phases. We detected also the time-dependent effects such as induction of spontaneous APs at the time of ≥ 3 min following [Zn 2+ ] i increases, a manner of cellular ATP dependent and reversible with disulfide-reducing agent dithiothreitol, DTT. High-[Zn 2+ ] i induced inhibitions in voltage-dependent K + -channel currents, such as transient outward K + -currents, I to , steady-state currents, I ss and inward-rectifier K + -currents, I K1 , reversible with DTT seemed to be responsible from the prolongations in APs. We, for the first time, demonstrated that lowering cellular ATP level induced significant decreaeses in both I ss and I K1 , while no effect on I to . However, the increased-[Zn 2+ ] i could induce marked activation in ATP-sensitive K + -channel currents, I KATP , depending on low cellular ATP and thiol-oxidation levels of these channels. The mRNA levels of Kv4.3, Kv1.4 and Kv2.1 were depressed markedly with increased-[Zn 2+ ] i with no change in mRNA level of Kv4.2, while the mRNA level of I KATP subunit, SUR2A was increased significantly with increased-[Zn 2+ ] i , being reversible with DTT. Overall we demonstrated that high-[Zn 2+ ] i, even if nanomolar levels, alters cardiac function via prolonged APs of cardiomyocytes, at most, due to inhibitions in voltage-dependent K + -currents, although activation of I KATP is playing cardioprotective role, through some biochemical changes in

  13. ZnO Functionalization of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes for Methane Sensing at Single Parts Per Million Concentration Levels

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a novel atomic layer deposition (ALD) based ZnO functionalization of surface pre-treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for highly sensitive methane chemoresistive sensors. The temperature optimization of the ALD process leads to enhanced ZnO nanopart...

  14. Assessments of serum copper and zinc concentration, and the Cu/Zn ratio determination in patients with multidrug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Bahi, Gnogbo Alexis; Boyvin, Lydie; Méité, Souleymane; M'Boh, Gervais Melaine; Yeo, Kadjowely; N'Guessan, Kouassi Raymond; Bidié, Alain Dit Philippe; Djaman, Allico Joseph

    2017-04-11

    In Côte d'Ivoire, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a serious public health problem with a prevalence estimated at 2.5% in 2006. Zinc and copper are essential Trace element needed to strengthen the immune system and also useful in the fight against tuberculosis. The Cu / Zn ratio is a good indicator of oxidative stress. The principal aim of this study was to evaluate the serum concentration of some trace element and determine the Cu / Zn ratio in patients with multidrug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis (MDR-TB) before and after second line treatment of TB. Blood samples were obtained from 100 MDR-TB patients after confirmation of their status through the microscopic and molecular diagnosis of resistance to Isoniazid and Rifampicin by GeneXpert. The concentration level of zinc and copper were determined using flame air / acetylene atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) Type Varian Spectr AA-20 Victoria, Australlia. A significant decrease in zinc levels (P < 0.05) and an increased Cu / Zn ratio (P < 0.05) was observed in MDR-TB patients compared to controls TB free. During treatment a significant reduction in Cu / Zn ratio (P < 0.05) was observed compared to the initial result. The decrease in serum zinc level and the high Cu / Zn ratio could explain the immune system dysfunction and the high level of oxidative stress in patients with MDR-TB. Therefore the evaluation of the zinc and copper status could represent essential parameters in monitoring of TB second line treatment for better treatment management.

  15. Sub-toxic concentrations of nano-ZnO and nano-TiO2 suppress neurite outgrowth in differentiated PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Irie, Tomohiko; Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Kaoru; Usami, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    Nanomaterials have been extensively used in our daily life, and may also induce health effects and toxicity. Nanomaterials can translocate from the outside to internal organs, including the brain. For example, both nano-ZnO and nano-TiO 2 translocate into the brain via the olfactory pathway in rodents, possibly leading to toxic effects on the brain. Although the effects of nano-ZnO and nano-TiO 2 on neuronal viability or neuronal excitability have been studied, no work has focused on how these nanomaterials affect neuronal differentiation and development. In this study, we investigated the effects of nano-ZnO and nano-TiO 2 on neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells, a useful model system for neuronal differentiation. Surprisingly, the number, length, and branching of differentiated PC12 neurites were significantly suppressed by the 7-day exposure to nano-ZnO (in the range of 1.0 × 10 -4 to 1.0 × 10 -1 µg/mL), at which the cell viability was not affected. The number and length were also significantly inhibited by the 7-day exposure to nano-TiO 2 (1.0 × 10 -3 to 1.0 µg/mL), which did not have cytotoxic effects. These results demonstrate that the neurite outgrowth in differentiated PC12 cells was suppressed by sub-cytotoxic concentrations of nano-ZnO or nano-TiO 2 .

  16. Increasing Selenium and Yellow Pigment Concentrations in Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L.) Grain with Foliar Application of Selenite.

    PubMed

    Ning, Na; Yuan, Xiang-Yang; Dong, Shu-Qi; Wen, Yin-Yuan; Gao, Zhen-Pan; Guo, Mei-Jun; Guo, Ping-Yi

    2016-03-01

    Although addition of selenium (Se) is known to increase Se in crops, it is unclear whether exogenous Se is linked to nutritional and functional components in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.). In this study, we examined the potential of increasing Se and yellow pigment (YP) in foxtail millet grain by foliar application of Se. Field experiments were conducted during the growing season of foxtail millet in 2013 and 2014 to assess the effects of foliar spray of sodium selenite (10-210 g Se ha(-1)) on the yield, Se uptake and accumulation, total YP, and microminerals in the grain. Average grain yields with Se application were 5.60 and 4.53 t ha(-1) in the 2 years, showing no significant differences from the unfertilized control. However, grain Se concentration increased linearly with Se application rate, by 8.92 and 6.09 μg kg(-1) in the 2 years with application of 1 g Se ha(-1) (maximum grain recovery rates of Se fertilizer, 52 and 28 %). Likewise, total grain YP concentration markedly increased by 0.038 and 0.031 mg kg(-1) in the 2 years with application of 1 g Se ha(-1). Grain Mn, Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations were not significantly affected by Se application. This study indicated that foliar application of Se effectively and reliably increased the concentrations of Se and YP in foxtail millet grain without affecting the yield or mineral micronutrient concentrations. Thus, foliar-applied selenite has a significant potential to increase the concentrations of selenium and YP (putative lutein (Shen, J Cereal Sci 61:86-93, 2015; Abdel-Aal, Cereal Chem 79:455-457, 2002; Abdel-Aal, J Agric Food Chem 55:787-794, 2007)) of foxtail millet and, thus, the health benefits of this crop.

  17. The effects of Nd2O3 concentration in the laser emission of TeO2-ZnO glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, L. M.; Anjos, V.; Bell, M. J. V.; Ramos, C. A. R.; Kassab, L. R. P.; Doualan, D. J. L.; Camy, P.; Moncorgé, R.

    2016-08-01

    The present work reports the modification introduced by different Nd2O3 concentration on optical properties and the laser operation of Nd3+ doped (TeO2-ZnO) bulk tellurite glass. The spectroscopic data are analyzed within the Judd Ofelt formalism framework and the results are compared to the fluorescence lifetime and emission measurements to derive values for the quantum efficiency and the stimulated emission cross section of the considered 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 infrared laser transition around 1062.5 nm. Continuous-wave laser action is achieved with this bulk tellurite glass by pumping the sample inside a standard plan-concave mirror laser cavity with different output couplers. It is possible to observe coherent emission only for the lower concentration (0.5%(wt.) of Nd2 O3). Also laser action could only be observed for this sample with threshold pump power of 73 mW associated with a laser slope efficiency of 8% for an output coupler transmission of 4% indicating that TeO2-ZnO are potential materials for laser action. The results presented in this work together with those previously reported with higher concentration (1.0% (wt) of Nd2O3) determine the adequate Nd2O3 concentration for laser action and guide the correct experimental procedure for TeO2-ZnO glasses preparation.

  18. Impedance spectroscopy of undoped and Cr-doped ZnO gas sensors under different oxygen concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hardan, N.; Abdullah, M. J.; Aziz, A. Abdul

    2011-08-01

    Thin films of undoped and chromium (Cr)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) were synthesized by RF reactive co-sputtering for oxygen gas sensing applications. The prepared films showed a highly c-axis oriented phase with a dominant (0 0 2) peak appeared at a Bragg angle of around 34.13 °, which was lower than that of the standard reference of ZnO powder (34.42 °). The peak shifted to a slightly higher angle with Cr doping. The operating temperature of the ZnO gas sensor was around 350 °C, which shifted to around 250 °C with Cr-doping. The response of the sensor to oxygen gas was enhanced by doping ZnO with 1 at.% Cr. Impedance spectroscopy analysis showed that the resistance due to grain boundaries significantly contributed to the characteristics of the gas sensor.

  19. Contribution of Co2+ in increasing chlorophyll a concentration of Nannochloropsis salina in controlled Conwy medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hala, Y.; Taba, P.; Suryati, E.; Kasih, P.; Firman, N. F.

    2018-03-01

    A research in determining the contribution of Co2+ on the increase of chlorophyll a concentration of Nannochloropsis salina has been caried out. The cultivation of N. salina was conducted in the Conwy medium with a salinity of 5%o and 25%o and various Co2+ concentration (2, 4, and 8 ppm). In this research, Co2+ was exposed early in the cultivation of N. salina. The growth of N. salina was observed daily by counting the number of populations using a haemocytometer while the chlorophyll a concentration was determined by a Uv-Vis spectrophotometer. The results showed that the growth of N. salina in the control was higher than that in the medium containing Co2+. The optimum growth time was achieved on 15th days (5%) and 8th days (25%). In the cultivation medium with a salinity of 5%, Co2+ with a concentration of 2 ppm increased the chlorophyll a level while Co2+ with concentrations of 4 and 8 ppm decreased it. In the medium of cultivation with a salinity of 25%, the increase in chlorophyll a level was observed at Co2+ concentrations of 2 and 4 ppm whereas the decrease in chlorophyl a level was given at a concentration of 8 ppm. It can be concluded that at low concentrations, Co2+ increased the concentration of chlorophyll a in N. salina.

  20. Effect of concentration and irradiation on the optical and structural properties of ZnO thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeoye Victor, Babalola

    2017-12-01

    This study involves the preparation of ZnO thin films by spray pyrolysis and to investigate the effect of concentration of the film and irradiation on ZnO thin film deposited by spray pyrolysis method deposited at 350 ± 5 °C. The precursor for zinc oxide was produced from zinc acetate (Zn(CH3COO))2. The samples were annealed at 500 °C for 6 h and irradiated using 137Cs 90.998 mCi radiation. They were then characterised using ultra violet-visible spectrophotometry, X-ray Diffractometry (XRD) with Cu-Kα radiation to determine the structure of the film, Four-point probe for electrical properties and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) were used for the composition of the film. XRD diffraction peaks observed for 0.05 M ZnO were (1 0 0), (0 0 2), (1 0 1) and (1 1 0) planes for the annealed and irradiated annealed ZnO films with no preferential orientation. The as-deposited films have low peaks belonging to (1 0 0), (0 0 2), (1 0 1), (1 1 0) plane and other peaks such as (1 1 2), (2 0 0) and (2 0 1). The results are explained with regard to the irradiation damage introduced to the samples. The as-deposited, annealed and irradiated-annealed films are highly transparent in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum with an average percent transmittance values of 85% and present a sharp ultraviolet cut-off at approximately 380 nm for the ZnO thin film.

  1. Using Synchrotron-Based Approaches To Examine the Foliar Application of ZnSO4 and ZnO Nanoparticles for Field-Grown Winter Wheat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Teng; Sun, Hongda; Lv, Zhiyuan; Cui, Lili; Mao, Hui; Kopittke, Peter M

    2018-03-21

    The effects of foliar-applied ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and ZnSO 4 on the winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) grain yield and grain quality were studied under field conditions, with the distribution and speciation of Zn within the grain examined using synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Although neither of the two Zn compounds improved the grain yield or quality, both increased the grain Zn concentration (average increments were 5 and 10 mg/kg for ZnSO 4 and ZnO NP treatments, respectively). Across all treatments, this Zn was mainly located within the aleurone layer and crease of the grain, although the application of ZnO NPs also slightly increased Zn within the endosperm. This Zn within the grain was found to be present as Zn phosphate, regardless of the form in which Zn was applied. These results indicate that the foliar application of ZnO NPs appears to be a promising approach for Zn biofortification, as required to improve human health.

  2. Effects of Zn, macronutrients, and their interactions through foliar applications on winter wheat grain nutritional quality.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaoxia; Li, Meng; Liu, Ke; Tian, Xiaohong; Li, Shuo; Chen, Yanlong; Jia, Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Although application of Zn combined with macronutrients (K, P, and N) can be used to fortify wheat grain with Zn, little is known about their interactions when foliar application is employed or the influences of common soil fertility management practices (e.g. N and straw management) on their efficiency. Therefore, the effects of foliar-applied Zn and N, P, or K on grain nutritional quality (especially Zn) were investigated in wheat grown under different soil N rates at two sites with (Sanyuan) or without (Yangling) employing straw return. A 4-year-long field experiment was also conducted to evaluate the environmental stability of the foliar formulations. Across 6 site-years, foliar Zn application alone or combined with N, P, or K fertilizers resulted in 95.7%, 101%, 67.9% and 121% increases in grain Zn concentration, respectively. In terms of increasing grain Zn concentration, foliar-applied Zn positively interacted with N (at Sanyuan) and K (at Yangling), but negatively interacted with P at any condition tested, suggesting depressive effects of foliarly-applied P on physiological availability of Zn. Although these interaction effects were the major factor that governing the efficiency of foliar-applied Zn combined with N, P, or K on grain Zn concentration, the magnitude of the increase/decrease in grain Zn (-3.96~5.71 mg kg-1) due to these interactions was much less than the average increases following Zn+K (31.3), Zn+P (18.7), and Zn+N (26.5 mg kg-1) treatments relative to that observed in foliar Zn-only treatment. The combined foliar application of Zn with N, P, or K did not cause any adverse impact on grain yield and other nutritional quality and in some cases slightly increased grain yield and macronutrient concentrations. Grain phytic acid:Zn molar ratios were respectively 52.0%, 53.1%, 43.4% and 63.5% lower in the foliar Zn, Zn+N, Zn+P and Zn+K treatments than in the control treatment. These effects were consistent over four years and across three soil N

  3. Effects of Zn, macronutrients, and their interactions through foliar applications on winter wheat grain nutritional quality

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ke; Tian, Xiaohong; Li, Shuo; Chen, Yanlong; Jia, Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Although application of Zn combined with macronutrients (K, P, and N) can be used to fortify wheat grain with Zn, little is known about their interactions when foliar application is employed or the influences of common soil fertility management practices (e.g. N and straw management) on their efficiency. Therefore, the effects of foliar-applied Zn and N, P, or K on grain nutritional quality (especially Zn) were investigated in wheat grown under different soil N rates at two sites with (Sanyuan) or without (Yangling) employing straw return. A 4-year-long field experiment was also conducted to evaluate the environmental stability of the foliar formulations. Across 6 site-years, foliar Zn application alone or combined with N, P, or K fertilizers resulted in 95.7%, 101%, 67.9% and 121% increases in grain Zn concentration, respectively. In terms of increasing grain Zn concentration, foliar-applied Zn positively interacted with N (at Sanyuan) and K (at Yangling), but negatively interacted with P at any condition tested, suggesting depressive effects of foliarly-applied P on physiological availability of Zn. Although these interaction effects were the major factor that governing the efficiency of foliar-applied Zn combined with N, P, or K on grain Zn concentration, the magnitude of the increase/decrease in grain Zn (–3.96~5.71 mg kg-1) due to these interactions was much less than the average increases following Zn+K (31.3), Zn+P (18.7), and Zn+N (26.5 mg kg-1) treatments relative to that observed in foliar Zn-only treatment. The combined foliar application of Zn with N, P, or K did not cause any adverse impact on grain yield and other nutritional quality and in some cases slightly increased grain yield and macronutrient concentrations. Grain phytic acid:Zn molar ratios were respectively 52.0%, 53.1%, 43.4% and 63.5% lower in the foliar Zn, Zn+N, Zn+P and Zn+K treatments than in the control treatment. These effects were consistent over four years and across three soil N

  4. Modification of nitrifying biofilm into nitritating one by combination of increased free ammonia concentrations, lowered HRT and dissolved oxygen concentration.

    PubMed

    Zekker, Ivar; Rikmann, Ergo; Tenno, Toomas; Menert, Anne; Lemmiksoo, Vallo; Saluste, Alar; Tenno, Taavo; Tomingas, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Nitrifying biomass on ring-shaped carriers was modified to nitritating one in a relatively short period of time (37 days) by limiting the air supply, changing the aeration regime, shortening the hydraulic retention time and increasing free ammonia (FA) concentration in the moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR). The most efficient strategy for the development and maintenance of nitritating biofilm was found to be the inhibition of nitrifying activity by higher FA concentrations (up to 6.5 mg/L) in the process. Reject water from sludge treatment from the Tallinn Wastewater Treatment Plant was used as substrate in the MBBR. The performance of high-surfaced biocarriers taken from the nitritating activity MBBR was further studied in batch tests to investigate nitritation and nitrification kinetics with various FA concentrations and temperatures. The maximum nitrite accumulation ratio (96.6%) expressed as the percentage of NO2(-)-N/NOx(-)-N was achieved for FA concentration of 70 mg/L at 36 degrees C. Under the same conditions the specific nitrite oxidation rate achieved was 30 times lower than the specific nitrite formation rate. It was demonstrated that in the biofilm system, inhibition by FA combined with the optimization of the main control parameters is a good strategy to achieve nitritating activity and suppress nitrification.

  5. Phosphorus reduces the zinc concentration in cereals pot-grown on calcareous Vertisols from southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Antonio Rafael; Del Campillo, María Carmen; Torrent, José

    2017-08-01

    Zinc deficiency, a major problem in crops grown on soils low in available Zn, is even more important in phosphorus-rich soils. This work aimed to elucidate the effects of soil P and Zn levels, and of fertilizer application, on yield and Zn concentration in cereal grains. Wheat and barley were successively pot-grown on 20 calcareous Vertisols low in available Zn and ranging widely in available P. Grain yield in the plants grown on the native soils was positively correlated with Olsen P but not with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Zn except for wheat on P-rich soils. Grain Zn concentration was negatively correlated with Olsen P. Grain Zn uptake differed little among soils. Application of P to the soils increased grain yield insignificantly and P concentration significantly; however, it reduced grain Zn concentration (particularly at low Olsen P values). Applying Zn alone only increased grain Zn concentration, whereas applying P and Zn in combination increased yield and grain Zn concentration at low and high Olsen P values, respectively. Applying P alone to plants grown on calcareous Vertisols low in available P and Zn may in practice reduce grain Zn concentrations while not increasing grain yield significantly. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Room temperature synthesis of Mn2+ doped ZnS d-dots and observation of tunable dual emission: Effects of doping concentration, temperature, and ultraviolet light illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kole, A. K.; Tiwary, C. S.; Kumbhakar, P.

    2013-03-01

    Mn2+ doped (0-50.0 molar %) ZnS d-dots have been synthesized in water medium by using an environment friendly low cost chemical technique. Tunable dual emission in UV and yellow-orange regions is achieved by tailoring the Mn2+ doping concentration in the host ZnS nanocrystal. The optimum doping concentration for achieving efficient photoluminescence (PL) emission is determined to be ˜1.10 (at. %) corresponding to 40.0 (molar %) of Mn2+ doping concentration used during synthesis. The mechanism of charge transfer from the host to the dopant leading to the intensity modulated tunable (594-610 nm) yellow-orange PL emission is straightforwardly understood as no capping agent is used. The temperature dependent PL emission measurements are carried out, viz., in 1.10 at. % Mn2+ doped sample and the experimental results are explained by using a theoretical PL emission model. It is found that the ratio of non-radiative to radiative recombination rates is temperature dependent and this phenomenon has not been reported, so far, in Mn2+ doped ZnS system. The colour tuning of the emitted light from the samples are evident from the calculated chromaticity coordinates. UV light irradiation for 150 min in 40.0 (molar %) Mn2+ doped sample shows an enhancement of 33% in PL emission intensity.

  7. Investigation of microstructure, electrical and photoluminescence behaviour of Ni-doped Zn0.96Mn0.04O nanoparticles: Effect of Ni concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajakarthikeyan, R. K.; Muthukumaran, S.

    2017-07-01

    ZnO, Zn0.96Mn0.04O and Ni-doped Zn0.96Mn0.04O nanoparticles with different Ni concentrations (0%, 2% and 4%) have been synthesized successfully by sol-gel method. The effects of Ni doping on the structural and optical properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The XRD pattern confirmed the existence of single phase wurtzite-like hexagonal structure throughout the Ni concentrations without any additional phases. The substitution of Ni created the lattice distortion due to the disparity of ionic radius between Zn and Ni which reduced the crystallite size. The microscopic images showed that the size of ZnO nanoparticles reduced by Ni-doping while the shape remains almost spherical/hexagonal type. The electrical conductivity found to be maximum at Ni = 2% due to the availability of more charge carriers generated by Ni. The decrease of electrical conductivity at higher doping (Ni = 4%) is due to the fact that the generation of more defects. The enhanced band gap from 3.73 eV (Ni = 0%) to 3.79 eV (Ni = 4%) by the addition of Ni explained by Burstein-Moss effect. The change in infra-red (IR) intensity and full width at half maximum (FWHM) corresponding to the frequency around defect states were caused by the difference in the bond lengths that occurs when Ni ion replaces Zn ion. The observed blue band emission from 474 nm to 481 nm is due to a radiative transition of an electron from the deep donar level of Zni to an acceptor level of neutral VZn and the origin of green band may be due to oxygen vacancies and intrinsic defects. The tuning of the band gap and the visible emission bands by Ni doping concluded that Ni-doped Zn0.96Mn0.04O is suitable for various nano-photo-electronics applications.

  8. The increased concentration of health plan markets can benefit consumers through lower hospital prices.

    PubMed

    Melnick, Glenn A; Shen, Yu-Chu; Wu, Vivian Yaling

    2011-09-01

    The long-term trend of consolidation among US health plans has raised providers' concerns that the concentration of health plan markets can depress their prices. Although our study confirmed that, it also revealed a more complex picture. First, we found that 64 percent of hospitals operate in markets where health plans are not very concentrated, and only 7 percent are in markets that are dominated by a few health plans. Second, we found that in most markets, hospital market concentration exceeds health plan concentration. Third, our study confirmed earlier studies showing that greater hospital market concentration leads to higher hospital prices. Fourth, we found that hospital prices in the most concentrated health plan markets are approximately 12 percent lower than in more competitive health plan markets. Overall, our results show that more concentrated health plan markets can counteract the price-increasing effects of concentrated hospital markets, and that-contrary to conventional wisdom-increased health plan concentration benefits consumers through lower hospital prices as long as health plan markets remain competitive. Our findings also suggest that consumers would benefit from policies that maintained competition in hospital markets or that would restore competition to hospital markets that are uncompetitive.

  9. Low-level laser as a device for increase of drug concentration in the kidney

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koultchavenia, Ekaterina V.

    2001-01-01

    In the West Siberia every tenth tuberculous patient has an extra pulmonary lesion. Urogenital tuberculosis cases are in the first place in occurrence among extra pulmonary forms. Complicated and widespread lesions of kidney are prevailing. The high concentration of anti-tuberculous drugs in the lesion locus is one of the most important component in the success treatment of tuberculosis, including nephrotyberculosis. We put the aim to increase the isoniazid concentration in tuberculous kidney by low-level laser therapy. It was proved that the laser therapy at the expense of improving of the blood microcirculation ensures to increase drug concentration in the lesion locus in 9 times.

  10. A moderate increase in dietary zinc reduces DNA strand breaks in leukocytes and alters plasma proteins without changing plasma zinc concentrations123

    PubMed Central

    Zyba, Sarah J; Killilea, David W; Holland, Tai C; Kim, Elijah; Moy, Adrian; Sutherland, Barbara; Shigenaga, Mark K

    2017-01-01

    Background: Food fortification has been recommended to improve a population’s micronutrient status. Biofortification techniques modestly elevate the zinc content of cereals, but few studies have reported a positive impact on functional indicators of zinc status. Objective: We determined the impact of a modest increase in dietary zinc that was similar to that provided by biofortification programs on whole-body and cellular indicators of zinc status. Design: Eighteen men participated in a 6-wk controlled consumption study of a low-zinc, rice-based diet. The diet contained 6 mg Zn/d for 2 wk and was followed by 10 mg Zn/d for 4 wk. To reduce zinc absorption, phytate was added to the diet during the initial period. Indicators of zinc homeostasis, including total absorbed zinc (TAZ), the exchangeable zinc pool (EZP), plasma and cellular zinc concentrations, zinc transporter gene expression, and other metabolic indicators (i.e., DNA damage, inflammation, and oxidative stress), were measured before and after each dietary-zinc period. Results: TAZ increased with increased dietary zinc, but plasma zinc concentrations and EZP size were unchanged. Erythrocyte and leukocyte zinc concentrations and zinc transporter expressions were not altered. However, leukocyte DNA strand breaks decreased with increased dietary zinc, and the level of proteins involved in DNA repair and antioxidant and immune functions were restored after the dietary-zinc increase. Conclusions: A moderate 4-mg/d increase in dietary zinc, similar to that which would be expected from zinc-biofortified crops, improves zinc absorption but does not alter plasma zinc. The repair of DNA strand breaks improves, as do serum protein concentrations that are associated with the DNA repair process. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02861352. PMID:28003206

  11. Correlative and multivariate analysis of increased radon concentration in underground laboratory.

    PubMed

    Maletić, Dimitrije M; Udovičić, Vladimir I; Banjanac, Radomir M; Joković, Dejan R; Dragić, Aleksandar L; Veselinović, Nikola B; Filipović, Jelena

    2014-11-01

    The results of analysis using correlative and multivariate methods, as developed for data analysis in high-energy physics and implemented in the Toolkit for Multivariate Analysis software package, of the relations of the variation of increased radon concentration with climate variables in shallow underground laboratory is presented. Multivariate regression analysis identified a number of multivariate methods which can give a good evaluation of increased radon concentrations based on climate variables. The use of the multivariate regression methods will enable the investigation of the relations of specific climate variable with increased radon concentrations by analysis of regression methods resulting in 'mapped' underlying functional behaviour of radon concentrations depending on a wide spectrum of climate variables. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Falsely increased plasma lactate concentration due to ethylene glycol poisoning in 2 dogs.

    PubMed

    Hopper, Kate; Epstein, Steven E

    2013-01-01

    To describe false increases in plasma lactate concentration measured on point-of-care analyzers in 2 dogs with ethylene glycol (EG) intoxication. Two dogs presenting with EG intoxication had extreme increases of plasma lactate concentrations recorded on a point-of-care machine. Laboratory analysis by spectrophotometry of lactate concentration determined these lactate measurements to be erroneous. False increases in plasma lactate concentration were demonstrated in 2 out of 3 point-of-care machines tested. Glycolate, a toxic metabolite of EG, can interfere with the measurement of plasma lactate by some analyzers and this may delay the correct diagnosis of EG toxicity if not recognized. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  13. Heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn) concentrations in seven fish species in relation to fish size and location along the Yangtze River.

    PubMed

    Yi, Yu-Jun; Zhang, Shang-Hong

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the regulation of the accumulation of heavy metals in the aquatic environment and different fish species. Water and fish samples were collected from upper to lower reaches of the Yangtze River. The heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn) concentrations in the muscle tissue of seven fishes were measured. Additionally, the relationships between heavy metal concentrations in fish tissue and fish size (length and weight), condition factor, water layer distribution, and trophic level were investigated. Metal concentrations (milligrams per kilogram wet weight) were found to be distributed differently among different fish species. The highest concentrations of Cu (1.22 mg/kg) and Zn (7.55 mg/kg) were measured in Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, the highest concentrations of Cd (0.115 mg/kg) and Hg (0.0304 mg/kg) were measured in Silurus asotus, and the highest concentrations of Pb (0.811 mg/kg) and Cr (0.239 mg/kg) were measured in Carassius auratus and Cyprinus carpio. A positive relationship was found between fish size and metal level in most cases. The variance of the relationships may be the result of differences in habitat, swimming behavior, and metabolic activity. In this study, fishes living in the lower water layer and river bottom had higher metals concentrations than in upper and middle layers. Benthic carnivorous and euryphagous fish had higher metals concentrations than phytoplankton and herbivorous fish. Generally, fish caught from the lower reach had higher metals concentrations than those from the upper reach. Cadmium and lead concentrations in several fishes exceeded the permissible food consumption limits, this should be considered to be an important warning signal.

  14. Emissions from an International Airport Increase Particle Number Concentrations 4-fold at 10 km Downwind

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We measured the spatial pattern of particle number (PN) concentrations downwind from the Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) with an instrumented vehicle that enabled us to cover larger areas than allowed by traditional stationary measurements. LAX emissions adversely impacted air quality much farther than reported in previous airport studies. We measured at least a 2-fold increase in PN concentrations over unimpacted baseline PN concentrations during most hours of the day in an area of about 60 km2 that extended to 16 km (10 miles) downwind and a 4- to 5-fold increase to 8–10 km (5–6 miles) downwind. Locations of maximum PN concentrations were aligned to eastern, downwind jet trajectories during prevailing westerly winds and to 8 km downwind concentrations exceeded 75 000 particles/cm3, more than the average freeway PN concentration in Los Angeles. During infrequent northerly winds, the impact area remained large but shifted to south of the airport. The freeway length that would cause an impact equivalent to that measured in this study (i.e., PN concentration increases weighted by the area impacted) was estimated to be 280–790 km. The total freeway length in Los Angeles is 1500 km. These results suggest that airport emissions are a major source of PN in Los Angeles that are of the same general magnitude as the entire urban freeway network. They also indicate that the air quality impact areas of major airports may have been seriously underestimated. PMID:24871496

  15. Emissions from an international airport increase particle number concentrations 4-fold at 10 km downwind.

    PubMed

    Hudda, Neelakshi; Gould, Tim; Hartin, Kris; Larson, Timothy V; Fruin, Scott A

    2014-06-17

    We measured the spatial pattern of particle number (PN) concentrations downwind from the Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) with an instrumented vehicle that enabled us to cover larger areas than allowed by traditional stationary measurements. LAX emissions adversely impacted air quality much farther than reported in previous airport studies. We measured at least a 2-fold increase in PN concentrations over unimpacted baseline PN concentrations during most hours of the day in an area of about 60 km(2) that extended to 16 km (10 miles) downwind and a 4- to 5-fold increase to 8-10 km (5-6 miles) downwind. Locations of maximum PN concentrations were aligned to eastern, downwind jet trajectories during prevailing westerly winds and to 8 km downwind concentrations exceeded 75 000 particles/cm(3), more than the average freeway PN concentration in Los Angeles. During infrequent northerly winds, the impact area remained large but shifted to south of the airport. The freeway length that would cause an impact equivalent to that measured in this study (i.e., PN concentration increases weighted by the area impacted) was estimated to be 280-790 km. The total freeway length in Los Angeles is 1500 km. These results suggest that airport emissions are a major source of PN in Los Angeles that are of the same general magnitude as the entire urban freeway network. They also indicate that the air quality impact areas of major airports may have been seriously underestimated.

  16. Endogenous flow of amino acids in the avian ileum as influenced by increasing dietary peptide concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Velmurugu; Morel, Patrick C H; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Thomas, Donald V

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish whether feeding broiler chickens with diets containing increasing dietary peptide concentrations would cause increases in ileal endogenous amino acid flow. The flow of N and most amino acids increased quadratically (P < 0.05 to 0.001) with increasing dietary concentrations of peptides. The exceptions were the flow of threonine, serine, glycine, tyrosine and cystine, which increased linearly (P < 0.001) with dietary peptide levels. Another notable exception to the general trend was the flow of proline, which was significantly higher (P < 0.01) in birds fed the protein-free diet. The amino acid profile of endogenous protein, expressed as proportion of crude protein, indicated that the ratios of threonine, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, leucine, histidine, arginine and cystine were influenced (P < 0.05) with increasing dietary peptide concentrations. In general, compared with the protein-free diet, the ratios of threonine and arginine in endogenous protein were lower (P < 0.05) and those of glutamic acid, glycine and histidine were greater (P < 0.05) in diets with high concentrations of peptides. The ratio of proline was found to decrease (P < 0.05) with increasing dietary peptide concentrations. These changes in the amino acid profile of endogenous protein are probably reflective of changes in the output of one or more of the components of endogenous protein. Overall, the present results demonstrated that increasing dietary peptide concentrations increased the flow of endogenous amino acid flow at the terminal ileum of broiler chickens in a dose-dependent manner and also caused changes in the composition of endogenous protein. The observed changes in endogenous amino flow will influence the maintenance requirements for amino acids and also have implications for the calculation of true digestibility coefficient of feedstuffs.

  17. Determination of Acceptor Concentration, Depletion Width, Donor Level Movement and Sensitivity Factor of ZnO on Diamond Heterojunction under UV Illumination

    PubMed Central

    Saw, Kim Guan; Tneh, Sau Siong; Yam, Fong Kwong; Ng, Sha Shiong; Hassan, Zainuriah

    2014-01-01

    The concentration of acceptor carriers, depletion width, magnitude of donor level movement as well as the sensitivity factor are determined from the UV response of a heterojunction consisting of ZnO on type IIb diamond. From the comparison of the I-V measurements in dark condition and under UV illumination we show that the acceptor concentration (∼1017 cm−3) can be estimated from p-n junction properties. The depletion width of the heterojunction is calculated and is shown to extend farther into the ZnO region in dark condition. Under UV illumination, the depletion width shrinks but penetrates both materials equally. The ultraviolet illumination causes the donor level to move closer to the conduction band by about 50 meV suggesting that band bending is reduced to allow more electrons to flow from the intrinsically n-type ZnO. The sensitivity factor of the device calculated from the change of threshold voltages, the ratio of dark and photocurrents and identity factor is consistent with experimental data. PMID:24586707

  18. Determination of free Zn2+ concentration in synthetic and natural samples with AGNES (Absence of Gradients and Nernstian Equilibrium Stripping) and DMT (Donnan Membrane Technique).

    PubMed

    Chito, Diana; Weng, Liping; Galceran, Josep; Companys, Encarnació; Puy, Jaume; van Riemsdijk, Willem H; van Leeuwen, Herman P

    2012-04-01

    The determination of free Zn(2+) ion concentration is a key in the study of environmental systems like river water and soils, due to its impact on bioavailability and toxicity. AGNES (Absence of Gradients and Nernstian Equilibrium Stripping) and DMT (Donnan Membrane Technique) are emerging techniques suited for the determination of free heavy metal concentrations, especially in the case of Zn(2+), given that there is no commercial Ion Selective Electrode. In this work, both techniques have been applied to synthetic samples (containing Zn and NTA) and natural samples (Rhine river water and soils), showing good agreement. pH fluctuations in DMT and N(2)/CO(2) purging system used in AGNES did not affect considerably the measurements done in Rhine river water and soil samples. Results of DMT in situ of Rhine river water are comparable to those of AGNES in the lab. The comparison of this work provides a cross-validation for both techniques. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Storage in high-barrier pouches increases the sulforaphane concentration in broccoli florets.

    PubMed

    Makino, Yoshio; Nishimura, Yuto; Oshita, Seiichi; Mizosoe, Takaharu; Akihiro, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    Sulforaphane is a phytochemical that is usually found in cruciferous vegetables and is known to have a depressive effect on gastric cancer. Preliminary investigations showed that the sulforaphane concentration in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) florets increased under anoxia. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the effect of different atmospheric conditions on the sulforaphane concentration in broccoli and also tested whether there are concurrent effects on the concentration of ethanol, which is an unfavorable byproduct of fermentation. The sulforaphane concentration in broccoli florets was significantly elevated by 1.9- to 2.8-fold after 2 d of storage under hypoxia at ca. 0% O2 and ca. 24% CO2 at 20°C, whereas no such increase was observed following storage under normoxia at ca. 0% O2 without CO2 at 20°C. Furthermore, after 2 d, the sulforaphane concentration under hypoxia was 1.6- to 2.3-fold higher than that under normoxia. These results suggest that storage under hypoxia with high CO2 levels can elevate the sulforaphane concentration in broccoli florets. However, the elevated sulforaphane concentration could not be maintained beyond 2 d. There was no significant difference in the concentration of ethanol between florets that were stored under hypoxia with/without CO2 or normoxia at 2 d. However, the ethanol concentrations inside the pouches significantly increased between 2 d and 7 d. These findings indicate that the quality of broccoli florets can be improved through storage under hypoxia with high CO2 levels at 20°C for 2 d.

  20. Storage in high-barrier pouches increases the sulforaphane concentration in broccoli florets

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Yuto; Oshita, Seiichi; Mizosoe, Takaharu; Akihiro, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    Sulforaphane is a phytochemical that is usually found in cruciferous vegetables and is known to have a depressive effect on gastric cancer. Preliminary investigations showed that the sulforaphane concentration in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) florets increased under anoxia. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the effect of different atmospheric conditions on the sulforaphane concentration in broccoli and also tested whether there are concurrent effects on the concentration of ethanol, which is an unfavorable byproduct of fermentation. The sulforaphane concentration in broccoli florets was significantly elevated by 1.9- to 2.8-fold after 2 d of storage under hypoxia at ca. 0% O2 and ca. 24% CO2 at 20°C, whereas no such increase was observed following storage under normoxia at ca. 0% O2 without CO2 at 20°C. Furthermore, after 2 d, the sulforaphane concentration under hypoxia was 1.6- to 2.3-fold higher than that under normoxia. These results suggest that storage under hypoxia with high CO2 levels can elevate the sulforaphane concentration in broccoli florets. However, the elevated sulforaphane concentration could not be maintained beyond 2 d. There was no significant difference in the concentration of ethanol between florets that were stored under hypoxia with/without CO2 or normoxia at 2 d. However, the ethanol concentrations inside the pouches significantly increased between 2 d and 7 d. These findings indicate that the quality of broccoli florets can be improved through storage under hypoxia with high CO2 levels at 20°C for 2 d. PMID:29466374

  1. The potential impact on atmospheric ozone and temperature of increasing trace gas concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brasseur, G.; Derudder, A.

    1987-01-01

    The response of the atmosphere to emissions of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other chlorocarbons, and to increasing concentrations of other radiatively active trace gases such as CO2, CH4, and N2O is calculated by a coupled chemical-radiative transport one-dimensional model. It is shown that significant reductions in the ozone concentration and in the temperature are expected in the upper stratosphere as a result of increasing concentrations of active chlorine produced by photodecomposition of the CFCs. The ozone content is expected to increase in the troposphere, as a consequence of increasing concentrations of methane and nitrogen oxides. Due to enhanced greenhouse effects, the Earth's surface should warm up by several degrees. The amplitude and even the sign of future changes in the ozone column are difficult to predict as they are strongly scenario-dependent. An early detection system to prevent noticeable ozone changes as a result of increasing concentrations of source gases should thus be based on a continuous monitoring of the ozone amount in the upper stratosphere rather than on measurements of the ozone column only. Measurements of NOx, Clx, and HOx are also required for unambiguous trend detection and interpretation.

  2. Decreased dromotropic response to verapamil despite pronounced increased drug concentration in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Mayo, P R; Skeith, K; Russell, A S; Jamali, F

    2000-12-01

    Inflammation reduces hepatic clearance of many drugs with unknown therapeutic consequences. This study was carried out to examine the effect of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of verapamil. Eight RA patients were age- and sex-matched with eight healthy volunteers. The disease severity was assessed, and ECG, blood pressure and verapamil enantiomers concentrations were measured for 12 h post 80 mg oral verapamil. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and nitrite (NO2-) were measured in predose samples. IL-6 and NO2- concentrations were significantly increased in parallel with disease severity. Oral clearance of both S- and R-verapamil was significantly decreased by RA. While the unbound fraction of S- and R-verapamil decreased by 5 and 7-fold, respectively, the unbound AUC remained unchanged for the more potent enantiomer, S-verapamil. AUC of norverapamil enantiomers was increased 2-3-fold. Despite elevated serum drug concentrations in RA, the potential to prolong the PR-interval was significantly reduced by one fold and the effect on the heart rate and blood pressure did not increase. RA results in increased verapamil concentrations due likely to changes in protein binding, decreased clearance and/or altered hepatic blood flow. A significant decrease in dromotropic effect, despite increased serum drug concentrations, may be attributed to receptor down regulation caused by pro-inflammatory cytokines and/or NO.

  3. Increased serum concentrations of soluble ST2 predict mortality after burn injury.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Stefan; Dieplinger, Benjamin; Werba, Gregor; Nickl, Stefanie; Roth, Georg A; Krenn, Claus G; Mueller, Thomas; Ankersmit, Hendrik J; Haider, Thomas

    2018-06-27

    Large burn injuries induce a systemic response in affected patients. Soluble ST2 (sST2) acts as a decoy receptor for interleukin-33 (IL-33) and has immunosuppressive effects. sST2 has been described previously as a prognostic serum marker. Our aim was to evaluate serum concentrations of sST2 and IL-33 after thermal injury and elucidate whether sST2 is associated with mortality in these patients. We included 32 burn patients (total body surface area [TBSA] >10%) admitted to our burn intensive care unit and compared them to eight healthy probands. Serum concentrations of sST2 and IL-33 were measured serially using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The mean TBSA was 32.5%±19.6%. Six patients (18.8%) died during the hospital stay. Serum analyses showed significantly increased concentrations of sST2 and reduced concentrations of IL-33 in burn patients compared to healthy controls. In our study cohort, higher serum concentrations of sST2 were a strong independent predictor of mortality. Burn injuries cause an increment of sST2 serum concentrations with a concomitant reduction of IL-33. Higher concentrations of sST2 are associated with increased in-hospital mortality in burn patients.

  4. Increased nutrient concentrations in Lake Erie tributaries influenced by greenhouse agriculture.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Timothy J; Wellen, Christopher; Stammler, Katie L; Mundle, Scott O C

    2018-08-15

    Greenhouse production of vegetables is a growing global trade. While greenhouses are typically captured under regulations aimed at farmland, they may also function as a point source of effluent. In this study, the cumulative impacts greenhouse effluents have on riverine macronutrient and trace metal concentrations were examined. Water samples were collected Bi-weekly for five years from 14 rivers in agriculturally dominated watersheds in southwestern Ontario. Nine of the watersheds contained greenhouses with their boundaries. Greenhouse influenced rivers had significantly higher concentrations of macronutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) and trace metals (copper, molybdenum, and zinc). Concentrations within greenhouse influenced rivers appeared to decrease over the 5-year study while concentrations within non-greenhouse influenced river remained constant. The different temporal pattern between river types was attributed to increased precipitation during the study period. Increases in precipitation diluted concentrations in greenhouse influenced rivers; however, non-influenced river runoff proportionally increased nutrient mobility and flow, stabilizing the observed concentrations of non-point sources. Understanding the dynamic nature of environmental releases of point and non-point sources of nutrients and trace metals in mixed agricultural systems using riverine water chemistry is complicated by changes in climatic conditions, highlighting the need for long-term monitoring of nutrients, river flows and weather data in assessing these agricultural sectors. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of soil organic matter content and pH on the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles to Folsomia candida.

    PubMed

    Waalewijn-Kool, Pauline L; Rupp, Svenja; Lofts, Stephen; Svendsen, Claus; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2014-10-01

    Organic matter (OM) and pH may influence nanoparticle fate and effects in soil. This study investigated the influence of soil organic matter content and pH on the toxicity of ZnO-NP and ZnCl2 to Folsomia candida in four natural soils, having between 2.37% and 14.7% OM and [Formula: see text] levels between 5.0 and 6.8. Porewater Zn concentrations were much lower in ZnO-NP than in ZnCl2 spiked soils, resulting in higher Freundlich sorption constants for ZnO-NP. For ZnCl2 the porewater Zn concentrations were significantly higher in less organic soils, while for ZnO-NP the highest soluble Zn level (23mgZn/l) was measured in the most organic soil, which had the lowest pH. Free Zn(2+) ion concentrations were higher for ZnCl2 than for ZnO-NP and were greatly dependent on pH (pHpw) and dissolved organic carbon content of the pore water. The 28-d EC50 values for the effect of ZnCl2 on the reproduction of F. candida increased with increasing OM content from 356 to 1592mgZn/kg d.w. For ZnO-NP no correlation between EC50 values and OM content was found and EC50 values ranged from 1695 in the most organic soil to 4446mgZn/kg d.w. in the higher pH soil. When based on porewater and free Zn(2+) concentrations, EC50 values were higher for ZnCl2 than for ZnO-NP, and consistently decreased with increasing pHpw. This study shows that ZnO-NP toxicity is dependent on soil properties, but is mainly driven by soil pH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The cytochrome P4503A4 inhibitor clarithromycin increases the plasma concentrations and effects of repaglinide.

    PubMed

    Niemi, M; Neuvonen, P J; Kivistö, K T

    2001-07-01

    Our objective was to study the effects of the macrolide antibiotic clarithromycin on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of repaglinide, a novel short-acting antidiabetic drug. In a randomized, double-blind, 2-phase crossover study, 9 healthy volunteers were treated for 4 days with 250 mg oral clarithromycin or placebo twice daily. On day 5 they received a single dose of 250 mg clarithromycin or placebo, and 1 hour later a single dose of 0.25 mg repaglinide was given orally. Plasma repaglinide, serum insulin, and blood glucose concentrations were measured up to 7 hours. Clarithromycin increased the mean total area under the concentration-time curve of repaglinide by 40% (P <.0001) and the peak plasma concentration by 67% (P <.005) compared with placebo. The mean elimination half-life of repaglinide was prolonged from 1.4 to 1.7 hours (P <.05) by clarithromycin. Clarithromycin increased the mean incremental area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 3 hours of serum insulin by 51% (P <.05) and the maximum increase in the serum insulin concentration by 61% (P <.01) compared with placebo. No statistically significant differences were found in the blood glucose concentrations between the placebo and clarithromycin phases. Even low doses of the cytochrome P4503A4 (CYP3A4) inhibitor clarithromycin increase the plasma concentrations and effects of repaglinide. Concomitant use of clarithromycin or other potent inhibitors of CYP3A4 with repaglinide may enhance its blood glucose-lowering effect and increase the risk of hypoglycemia.

  7. Sorption, dissolution and pH determine the long-term equilibration and toxicity of coated and uncoated ZnO nanoparticles in soil.

    PubMed

    Waalewijn-Kool, Pauline L; Diez Ortiz, Maria; van Straalen, Nico M; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2013-07-01

    To assess the effect of long-term dissolution on bioavailability and toxicity, triethoxyoctylsilane coated and uncoated zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NP), non-nano ZnO and ZnCl2 were equilibrated in natural soil for up to twelve months. Zn concentrations in pore water increased with time for all ZnO forms but peaked at intermediate concentrations of ZnO-NP and non-nano ZnO, while for coated ZnO-NP such a clear peak only was seen after 12 months. Dose-related increases in soil pH may explain decreased soluble Zn levels due to fixation of Zn released from ZnO at higher soil concentrations. At T = 0 uncoated ZnO-NP and non-nano ZnO were equally toxic to the springtail Folsomia candida, but not as toxic as coated ZnO-NP, and ZnCl2 being most toxic. After three months equilibration toxicity to F. candida was already reduced for all Zn forms, except for coated ZnO-NP which showed reduced toxicity only after 12 months equilibration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Acute physical exercise increases homocysteine concentrations in young trained male subjects].

    PubMed

    Maroto-Sánchez, Beatriz; Valtueña, Jara; Albers, Ulrike; Benito, Pedro J; González-Gross, Marcela

    2013-01-01

    High levels of homocysteine (Hcy) have been identified as a cardiovascular risk factor. Regarding physical exercise, the results are contradictory. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of maximal intensity exercise and submaximal constant exercise on total serum homocysteine concentrations (tHcy) and other related parameters. Ten physically active male subjects (mean age: 23.51 ± 1.84), performed two treadmill tests, a maximal test and a stable submaximal test at an intensity of 65% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Serum concentrations of tHcy, Folate, Vitamin B12 and creatinine were analysed before and after each test. Significant increase in serum tHcy concentrations after the maximal (p < 0.05) and submaximal (p < 0.01) tests were observed. Folate and vitamin B12 concentrations also increased significantly after both tests (p < 0.05). Creatinine levels increased only after the maximal test (p < 0.001). A statistically significant inverse relationship was found between folate and tHcy concentrations (p < 0.05) at all the measurement points. THcy levels increased significantly after acute exercise in both maximum and submaximal intensity exercises. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. Zn(2+)-dependence of the synergistic increase in rat thymocyte cell lethality caused by simultaneous application of 4,5-dichloro-2-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT) and H2O2.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Shohei; Fukunaga, Eri; Ohtani, Hana; Oyama, Yasuo

    2015-09-01

    4,5-Dichloro-2-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT) is an antifouling agent that is an alternative to organotins such as tributyltin (TBT). Because DCOIT decreases catalase activity, it may increase the susceptibility of cells to oxidative stress. We examined the effects of DCOIT on rat thymocytes suffering from oxidative stress induced by H2O2. The simultaneous application of DCOIT and H2O2 induced a synergistic increase in cell lethality that was completely suppressed by chelating intracellular Zn(2+). Intracellular Zn(2+) concentration was increased by DCOIT at concentrations ranging from 0.1 μM to 3 μM. Although the increase in cell lethality produced by DCOIT alone was less than that produced by TBT alone, a synergistic increase was not induced by the combination of TBT and H2O2. Therefore, these results suggest that DCOIT increases vulnerability to oxidative stress and is more cytotoxic than TBT when oxidative stress is induced by H2O2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Soil solution dynamics of Cu and Zn in a Cu- and Zn-polluted soil as influenced by gamma-irradiation and Cu-Zn interaction.

    PubMed

    Luo, Y M; Yan, W D; Christie, P

    2001-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study soil solution dynamics of Cu and Zn in a Cu/Zn-polluted soil as influenced by gamma-irradiation and Cu-Zn interaction. A slightly acid sandy loam was amended with Cu and Zn (as nitrates) either singly or in combination (100 mg Cu and 150 mg Zn kg(-1) soil) and was then gamma-irradiated (10 kGy). Unamended and unirradiated controls were included, and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Forrester) was grown for 50 days. Soil solution samples obtained using soil moisture samplers immediately before transplantation and every ten days thereafter were used directly for determination of Cu, Zn, pH and absorbance at 360 nm (A360). Cu and Zn concentrations in the solution of metal-polluted soil changed with time and were affected by gamma-irradiation and metal interaction. gamma-Irradiation raised soil solution Cu substantially but generally decreased soil solution Zn. These trends were consistent with increased dissolved organic matter (A360) and solution pH after gamma-irradiation. Combined addition of Cu and Zn usually gave higher soil solution concentrations of Cu or Zn compared with single addition of Cu or Zn in gamma-irradiated and non-irradiated soils, indicating an interaction between Cu and Zn. Cu would have been organically complexed and consequently maintained a relatively high concentration in the soil solution under higher pH conditions. Zn tends to occur mainly as free ion forms in the soil solution and is therefore sensitive to changes in pH. The extent to which gamma-irradiation and metal interaction affected solubility and bioavailability of Cu and Zn was a function of time during plant growth. Studies on soil solution metal dynamics provide very useful information for understanding metal mobility and bioavailability.

  11. Peripartum cardiomyopathy is associated with increased uric acid concentrations: A population based study.

    PubMed

    Sagy, Iftach; Salman, Amjad Abu; Kezerle, Louise; Erez, Offer; Yoel, Idan; Barski, Leonid

    Peri-partum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a clinical heart failure that usually develops during the final stage of pregnancy or the first months following delivery. High maternal serum uric acid concentrations have been previous associated with heart failure and preeclampsia. 1) To explored the clinical characteristics of PPCM patients; and 2) to determine the association between maternal serum uric acid concentrations and PPCM. This is a retrospective population based case control study. Cases and controls were matched 1:4 (for gestational age, medical history of cardiac conditions and creatinine); conditional logistic regression was used to identify clinical parameters that were associated with PPCM. The prevalence of peripartum cardiomyopathy at our institution was 1-3832 deliveries (42/160,964). In a matched multivariate analysis high maternal serum uric acid concentrations were associated with PPCM (O.R 1.336, 95% C.I 1.003-1.778). Uric acid concentrations were higher within the Non-Jewish patients and mothers of male infant with PPCM in compare to those without PPCM (p value 0.003 and 0.01 respectively). PPCM patients had increased maternal serum uric acid concentrations. This observation aligns with previous report regarding the increased uric acid concentration in women with preeclampsia and congestive heart failure, suggestive of a common underlying mechanism that mediates the myocardial damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Surface characteristics of anodized and hydrothermally treated titatnium with an increasing concentration of calcium ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Il Song; Bae, Tae Sung; Seol, Kyeong Won

    2006-10-01

    Titanium is widely used as an implant material due to its good mechanical properties and the excellent biocompatibility of the oxide film on the surface. To modify the unstable oxide surface of pure titanium, plasma electrolytic oxidation was applied in this study. The electrolyte used for anodizing was a mixture of GP (glycerophosphate disodium salt) and CA (calcium acetate). In addition, a hydrothermal treatment was performed to precipitate a calcium phosphate crystal on the titanium oxide layer for bioactivity. The effect of the CA concentration of the electrolyte on the surface of titanium was investigated, with CA concentrations at 0.1 M, 0.2 M, and 0.3 M. A high concentration of CA results in a low breakdown voltage; hence many large micropores were formed on the anodized surface. Moreover, the size of the HA crystals was more minute in proportion to the increasing concentration of CA. The crystal phase of titanium dioxide was mainly anatase, and a rutile phase was also observed. As the size and/or amount of HA crystals increased, the surface roughness increased. However, the surface roughness could be decreased by fully and uniformly covering the surface with HA crystals. The corrosion resistance in the saline solution was increased by anodic spark oxidation. In addition, it was slightly increased by a hydrothermal treatment. It is considered that a more stable and thicker titanium oxide layer is formed by anodic oxidation and a hydrothermal treatment.

  13. Identification of a Hemolysis Threshold That Increases Plasma and Serum Zinc Concentration.

    PubMed

    Killilea, David W; Rohner, Fabian; Ghosh, Shibani; Otoo, Gloria E; Smith, Lauren; Siekmann, Jonathan H; King, Janet C

    2017-06-01

    Background: Plasma or serum zinc concentration (PZC or SZC) is the primary measure of zinc status, but accurate sampling requires controlling for hemolysis to prevent leakage of zinc from erythrocytes. It is not established how much hemolysis can occur without changing PZC/SZC concentrations. Objective: This study determines a guideline for the level of hemolysis that can significantly elevate PZC/SZC. Methods: The effect of hemolysis on PZC/SZC was estimated by using standard hematologic variables and mineral content. The calculated hemolysis threshold was then compared with results from an in vitro study and a population survey. Hemolysis was assessed by hemoglobin and iron concentrations, direct spectrophotometry, and visual assessment of the plasma or serum. Zinc and iron concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. Results: A 5% increase in PZC/SZC was calculated to result from the lysis of 1.15% of the erythrocytes in whole blood, corresponding to ∼1 g hemoglobin/L added into the plasma or serum. Similarly, the addition of simulated hemolysate to control plasma in vitro caused a 5% increase in PZC when hemoglobin concentrations reached 1.18 ± 0.10 g/L. In addition, serum samples from a population nutritional survey were scored for hemolysis and analyzed for changes in SZC; samples with hemolysis in the range of 1-2.5 g hemoglobin/L showed an estimated increase in SZC of 6% compared with nonhemolyzed samples. Each approach indicated that a 5% increase in PZC/SZC occurs at ∼1 g hemoglobin/L in plasma or serum. This concentration of hemoglobin can be readily identified directly by chemical hemoglobin assays or indirectly by direct spectrophotometry or matching to a color scale. Conclusions: A threshold of 1 g hemoglobin/L is recommended for PZC/SZC measurements to avoid increases in zinc caused by hemolysis. The use of this threshold may improve zinc assessment for monitoring zinc status and nutritional interventions.

  14. Association between increased serum thyrotropin concentration and the oldest old: what do we know?

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Glaucia Cruzes; Cendoroglo, Maysa Seabra; Araújo, Lara Miguel Quirino; Almada, Clineu de Mello

    2015-01-01

    To assess studies that evaluate the relation between serum thyrotropin concentration, very old subjects, and their events. We searched the PubMed, SciELO, and LILACS databases for articles published between 2004 and 2012. Our search was restricted to studies involving humans aged 65 years or older, and written in English, Spanish, or Portuguese. Studies that evaluated the association between elevated serum thyrotropin concentration among elderly subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism were chosen since at least in part they included a subpopulation of individuals aged 80 years and above. Thirteen studies were selected. No significant increase in risk of cardiovascular events, coronary heart disease, or total mortality was observed. Elevated thyrotropin concentration was associated with longevity. More randomized controlled trials are required to better define the potential benefits of elevated thyrotropin concentration in this oldest old population, hormone replacement, and longevity. PMID:25807244

  15. Short term effects of increasing dietary salt concentrations on urine composition in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Paßlack, N; Burmeier, H; Brenten, T; Neumann, K; Zentek, J

    2014-09-01

    High dietary salt (NaCl) concentrations are assumed to be beneficial in preventing the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths in cats, since increased water intake and urine volume have been observed subsequent to intake. In human beings, dietary NaCl restriction is recommended for the prevention of CaOx urolith formation, since high NaCl intake is associated with increased urinary Ca excretion. The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of dietary NaCl in the formation of CaOx uroliths in cats. Eight cats received four diets that differed in Na and Cl concentrations (0.38-1.43% Na and 0.56-2.52% Cl dry matter, DM). Each feeding period consisted of a 21 day adaptation period, followed by a 7 day sampling period for urine collection. Higher dietary NaCl concentrations were associated with increased urine volume and renal Na excretion. Urinary Ca concentration was constant, but renal Ca excretion increased from 0.62 to 1.05 mg/kg bodyweight (BW)/day with higher dietary NaCl concentrations (P ≤ 0.05). Urinary oxalate (Ox), citrate, P and K concentrations decreased when NaCl intake was high (P ≤ 0.05), and urinary pH was low in all groups (6.33-6.45; P > 0.05). Relative supersaturation of CaOx in the urine was unaffected by dietary NaCl concentrations. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated several beneficial effects of high dietary NaCl intake over a relatively short time period. In particular, urinary Ca concentration remained unchanged because of increased urine volume. Decreased urinary Ox concentrations might help to prevent the formation of CaOx uroliths, but this should be verified in future studies in diseased or predisposed cats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Carboxylate metabolism in sugar beet plants grown with excess Zn.

    PubMed

    Sagardoy, R; Morales, F; Rellán-Álvarez, R; Abadía, A; Abadía, J; López-Millán, A F

    2011-05-01

    The effects of Zn excess on carboxylate metabolism were investigated in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) plants grown hydroponically in a growth chamber. Root extracts of plants grown with 50 or 100μM Zn in the nutrient solution showed increases in several enzymatic activities related to organic acid metabolism, including citrate synthase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, when compared to activities in control root extracts. Root citric and malic acid concentrations increased in plants grown with 100μM Zn, but not in plants grown with 50μM Zn. In the xylem sap, plants grown with 50 and 100μM Zn showed increases in the concentrations of citrate and malate compared to the controls. Leaves of plants grown with 50 or 100μM Zn showed increases in the concentrations of citric and malic acid and in the activities of citrate synthase and fumarase. Leaf isocitrate dehydrogenase increased only in plants grown with 50μM Zn when compared to the controls. In plants grown with 300μM Zn, the only enzyme showing activity increases in root extracts was citrate synthase, whereas the activities of other enzymes decreased compared to the controls, and root citrate concentrations increased. In the 300μM Zn-grown plants, the xylem concentrations of citric and malic acids were higher than those of controls, whereas in leaf extracts the activity of fumarase increased markedly, and the leaf citric acid concentration was higher than in the controls. Based on our data, a metabolic model of the carboxylate metabolism in sugar beet plants grown under Zn excess is proposed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of increasing bromide concentration on toxicity in treated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Sawade, Emma; Fabris, Rolando; Humpage, Andrew; Drikas, Mary

    2016-04-01

    Research is increasingly indicating the potential chronic health effects of brominated disinfection by-products (DBPs). This is likely to increase with elevated bromide concentrations resulting from the impacts of climate change, projected to include extended periods of drought and the sudden onset of water quality changes. This will demand more rigorous monitoring throughout distribution systems and improved water quality management at water treatment plants (WTPs). In this work the impact of increased bromide concentration on formation of DBPs following conventional treatment and chlorination was assessed for two water sources. Bioanalytical tests were utilised to determine cytotoxicity of the water post disinfection. Coagulation was shown to significantly reduce the cytotoxicity of the water, indicating that removal of natural organic matter DBP precursors continues to be an important factor in drinking water treatment. Most toxic species appear to form within the first half hour following disinfectant addition. Increasing bromide concentration across the two waters was shown to increase the formation of trihalomethanes and shifted the haloacetic acid species distribution from chlorinated to those with greater bromine substitution. This correlated with increasing cytotoxicity. This work demonstrates the challenges faced by WTPs and the possible effects increasing levels of bromide in source waters could have on public health.

  18. Increased ultrafine particles and carbon monoxide concentrations are associated with asthma exacerbation among urban children.

    PubMed

    Evans, Kristin A; Halterman, Jill S; Hopke, Philip K; Fagnano, Maria; Rich, David Q

    2014-02-01

    Increased air pollutant concentrations have been linked to several asthma-related outcomes in children, including respiratory symptoms, medication use, and hospital visits. However, few studies have examined effects of ultrafine particles in a pediatric population. Our primary objective was to examine the effects of ambient concentrations of ultrafine particles on asthma exacerbation among urban children and determine whether consistent treatment with inhaled corticosteroids could attenuate these effects. We also explored the relationship between asthma exacerbation and ambient concentrations of accumulation mode particles, fine particles (≤2.5 micrograms [μm]; PM2.5), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone. We hypothesized that increased 1-7 day concentrations of ultrafine particles and other pollutants would be associated with increases in the relative odds of an asthma exacerbation, but that this increase in risk would be attenuated among children receiving school-based corticosteroid therapy. We conducted a pilot study using data from 3 to 10 year-old children participating in the School-Based Asthma Therapy trial. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression, we estimated the relative odds of a pediatric asthma visit treated with prednisone (n=96 visits among 74 children) associated with increased pollutant concentrations in the previous 7 days. We re-ran these analyses separately for children receiving medications through the school-based intervention and children in a usual care control group. Interquartile range increases in ultrafine particles and carbon monoxide concentrations in the previous 7 days were associated with increases in the relative odds of a pediatric asthma visit, with the largest increases observed for 4-day mean ultrafine particles (interquartile range=2088p/cm(3); OR=1.27; 95% CI=0.90-1.79) and 7-day mean carbon monoxide (interquartile range=0.17ppm; OR=1.63; 95% CI=1.03-2.59). Relative odds

  19. Increased ultrafine particles and carbon monoxide concentrations are associated with asthma exacerbation among urban children

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Kristin A.; Halterman, Jill S.; Hopke, Philip K.; Fagnano, Maria; Rich, David Q.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Increased air pollutant concentrations have been linked to several asthma-related outcomes in children, including respiratory symptoms, medication use, and hospital visits. However, few studies have examined effects of ultrafine particles in a pediatric population. Our primary objective was to examine the effects of ambient concentrations of ultrafine particles on asthma exacerbation among urban children and determine whether consistent treatment with inhaled corticosteroids could attenuate these effects. We also explored the relationship between asthma exacerbation and ambient concentrations of accumulation mode particles, fine particles (≤ 2.5 micrograms [μm]; PM2.5), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone. We hypothesized that increased 1 to 7 day concentrations of ultrafine particles and other pollutants would be associated with increases in the relative odds of an asthma exacerbation, but that this increase in risk would be attenuated among children receiving school-based corticosteroid therapy. Methods We conducted a pilot study using data from 3–10 year-old children participating in the School-Based Asthma Therapy trial. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression, we estimated the relative odds of a pediatric asthma visit treated with prednisone (n=96 visits among 74 children) associated with increased pollutant concentrations in the previous 7 days. We re-ran these analyses separately for children receiving medications through the school-based intervention and children in a usual care control group. Results Interquartile range increases in ultrafine particles and carbon monoxide concentrations in the previous 7 days were associated with increases in the relative odds of a pediatric asthma visit, with the largest increases observed for 4-day mean ultrafine particles (interquartile range=2088 p/cm3; OR=1.27; 95% CI=0.90–1.79) and 7-day mean carbon monoxide (interquartile range=0.17 ppm; OR=1.63; 95

  20. Ethanol increases HSP70 concentrations in honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Hranitz, John M; Abramson, Charles I; Carter, Richard P

    2010-05-01

    Previous research on the honeybee ethanol model established how acute ethanol exposure altered function at different levels of organization: behavior and learning, ecology, and physiology. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether ethanol doses that affect honeybee behavior also induce a significant stress response, measured by heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) concentrations, in honeybee brain tissues. Experiment 1 examined how pretreatment handling influenced brain HSP70 concentrations in three pretreatment groups of bees; immediately after being collected, after being harnessed and fed, and after 22-24h in a harness. HSP70 concentrations did not differ among pretreatment groups within replicates, although we observed significantly different HSP70 concentrations between the two replicates. Experiment 2 investigated the relationship between ethanol dose and brain HSP70 concentrations. Bees were placed in seven experimental groups, the three pretreatment groups as in Experiment 1 and four ethanol-fed groups. Bees in ethanol treatments were fed 1.5M sucrose (control) and 1.5M sucrose-ethanol solutions containing 2.5, 5, and 10% ethanol, allowed to sit for 4h, and dissected brains were assayed for HSP70. We observed ethanol-induced increases in honeybee brain HSP70 concentrations from the control group through the 5% ethanol group. Only bees in the 5% ethanol group had HSP70 concentrations significantly higher than the control group. The inverted U-shaped ethanol dose-HSP70 concentration response curve indicated that ingestion of 2.5% ethanol and 5% ethanol stimulated the stress response, whereas ingestion of 10% ethanol inhibited the stress response. Doses that show maximum HSP70 concentration (5% ethanol) or HSP70 inhibition (10% ethanol) correspond to those (> or =5% ethanol) that also impaired honeybees in previous studies. We conclude that acute ethanol intoxication by solutions containing > or =5% ethanol causes significant ethanol-induced stress in brain

  1. Rising ozone concentrations decrease soybean evapotranspiration and water use efficiency while increasing canopy temperature

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We investigated the effects of increasing [O3] on soybean canopy scale fluxes of heat and water vapor as well as water use efficiency (WUE) at the Soybean Free Air Concentration Enrichment (SoyFACE) facility. Micrometeorological measurements were made to determine the net radiation (Rn) sensible hea...

  2. Structural rearrangement of mesostructured silica nanoparticles incorporated with ZnO catalyst and its photoactivity: Effect of alkaline aqueous electrolyte concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jusoh, N. W. C.; Jalil, A. A.; Triwahyono, S.; Karim, A. H.; Salleh, N. F.; Annuar, N. H. R.; Jaafar, N. F.; Firmansyah, M. L.; Mukti, R. R.; Ali, M. W.

    2015-03-01

    ZnO-incorporated mesostructured silica nanoparticles (MSN) catalysts (ZM) were prepared by the introduction of Zn ions into the framework of MSN via a simple electrochemical system in the presence of various concentrations of NH4OH aqueous solution. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts were studied by XRD, 29Si MAS NMR, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, FE-SEM, TEM, FTIR, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Characterization results demonstrated that the alkaline aqueous electrolyte simply generated abundant silanol groups on the surface of the catalysts as a consequence of desilication to form the hierarchical-like structure of the MSN. Subsequent restructuring of the silica network by the creation of oxygen vacancies and formation of Si-O-Zn during the electrolysis, as well as formation of new Si-O-Si bonds during calcination seemed to be the main factors that enhanced the catalytic performance of photodecolorization of methyl orange. A ZM prepared in the presence of 1.0 M NH4OH (ZM-1.0) was determined to be the most effective catalyst. The catalyst displays a higher first-order kinetics rate of 3.87 × 10-1 h-1 than unsupported ZnO (1.13 × 10-1 h-1) that prepared under the same conditions in the absence of MSN. The experiment on effect of scavengers showed that hydroxyl radicals generated from the three main sources; reduced O2 at the conduction band, decomposed water at the valence band and irradiated H2O2 in the solution, are key factors that influenced the reaction. It is also noted that the recycled ZM-1.0 catalyst maintained its activity up to five runs without serious catalyst deactivation.

  3. Cu2ZnGeS4 thin films deposited by thermal evaporation: the impact of Ge concentration on physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courel, Maykel; Sanchez, T. G.; Mathews, N. R.; Mathew, X.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, the processing of Cu2ZnGeS4 (CZGS) thin films by a thermal evaporation technique starting from CuS, GeS and ZnS precursors, and post-deposition thermal processing, is discussed. Batches of films with GeS layers of varying thicknesses are deposited in order to study the role of Ge concentration on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of CZGS films. The formation of the CZGS compound with a tetragonal phase and a kesterite structure is confirmed for all samples using XRD and Raman studies. An improvement in crystallite size for Ge-poor films is also observed in the XRD analysis, which is in good agreement with the grain size observed in the cross section SEM image. Furthermore, it is found that the band-gap of CZGS film can be tailored in the range of 2.0-2.23 eV by varying Ge concentration. A comprehensive electrical characterization is also performed which demonstrates that slightly Ge-poor samples are described by the lowest grain boundary defect densities and the highest photosensitivity and mobility values. A study of the work function of CZGS samples with different Ge concentrations is also presented. Finally, a theoretical evaluation is presented, considering, under ideal conditions, the possible impact of these films on device performance. Based on the characterization results, it is concluded that Ge-poor CZGS samples deposited by thermal evaporation present better physical properties for device applications.

  4. Beaver Ponds Increase Methylmercury and Nutrients Concentrations in Canadian Shield Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, V.; Amyot, M.; Carignan, R.

    2007-12-01

    Beaver populations and the number of beaver dams are currently increasing in many Canadian regions. Since natural and anthropogenic impoundments have historically been identified as sources of the potent neurotoxin methylmercury (MeHg), beaver dams could also increase MeHg levels in streams. During summer 2006, we collected water samples upstream and downstream from twenty beaver dams of the Laurentians, located on the Canadian Shield. Samples were analysed for total Hg, MeHg and other chemical variables including DOC, TP, TDP, TN, and major ions. Significant increases of nutrients (DOC, TP, TDP, TN) and ammonium concentrations and depletions of oxygen, nitrate and sulphate concentrations between inlet and outlet show that beaver ponds provide environmental conditions that can favour methylation of inorganic mercury. Heterogeneity of the ratio MeHg/THg at the outlet among our sites was well explained by the estimated age of the impoundment, with methylation capacity of beaver ponds decreasing with age. Further, the geographic location of beaver ponds influenced water chemistry at the outlet, as we observed a dichotomy between northern and southern sites; these differences were based mainly on forest composition. On average, beaver impoundments increased MeHg concentrations by 5.7 fold, total Hg concentrations by 1.6 fold and nutrients concentrations by 2-3 fold. Overall, our results suggest that beaver dams may considerably increase MeHg and nutrients levels in downstream ecosystems. The impact of beavers on the cycling of contaminants and nutrients in boreal watersheds should therefore be considered in the management of their populations.

  5. Notable increases in nutrient concentrations in a shallow lake during seasonal ice growth.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yang; Changyou, Li; Leppäranta, Matti; Xiaonghong, Shi; Shengnan, Zhao; Chengfu, Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Nutrients may be eliminated from ice when liquid water is freezing, resulting in enhanced concentrations in the unfrozen water. The nutrients diluted from the ice may contribute to accumulated concentrations in sediment during winter and an increased risk of algae blooms during the following spring and summer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of ice cover on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations in the water and sediment of a shallow lake, through an examination of Ulansuhai Lake, northern China, from the period of open water to ice season in 2011-2013. The N and P concentrations were between two and five times higher, and between two and eight times higher, than in unfrozen lakes, respectively. As the ice thickness grew, contents of total N and total P showed C-shaped profiles in the ice, and were lower in the middle layer and higher in the bottom and surface layers. Most of the nutrients were released from the ice to liquid water. The results confirm that ice can cause the nutrient concentrations in water and sediment during winter to increase dramatically, thereby significantly impacting on processes in the water environment of shallow lakes.

  6. Cutaneous interstitial nitric oxide concentration does not increase during heat stress in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandall, C. G.; MacLean, D. A.

    2001-01-01

    Inhibition of cutaneous nitric oxide (NO) synthase reduces the magnitude of cutaneous vasodilation during whole body heating in humans. However, this observation is insufficient to conclude that NO concentration increases in the skin during a heat stress. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that whole body heating increases cutaneous interstitial NO concentration. This was accomplished by placing 2 microdialysis membranes in the forearm dermal space of 12 subjects. Both membranes were perfused with lactated Ringer solutions at a rate of 2 microl/min. In both normothermia and during whole body heating via a water perfused suit, dialysate from these membranes were obtained and analyzed for NO using the chemiluminescence technique. In six of these subjects, after the heat stress, the membranes were perfused with a 1 M solution of acetylcholine to stimulate NO release. Dialysate from these trials was also assayed to quantify cutaneous interstitial NO concentration. Whole body heating increased skin temperature from 34.6 +/- 0.2 to 38.8 +/- 0.2 degrees C (P < 0.05), which increased sublingual temperature (36.4 +/- 0.1 to 37.6 +/- 0.1 degrees C; P < 0.05), heart rate (63 +/- 5 to 93 +/- 5 beats/min; P < 0.05), and skin blood flow over the membranes (21 +/- 4 to 88 +/- 10 perfusion units; P < 0.05). NO concentration in the dialysate did not increase significantly during of the heat stress (7.6 +/- 0.7 to 8.6 +/- 0.8 microM; P > 0.05). After the heat stress, administration of acetylcholine in the perfusate significantly increased skin blood flow (128 +/- 6 perfusion units) relative to both normothermic and heat stress values and significantly increased NO concentration in the dialysate (15.8 +/- 2.4 microM). These data suggest that whole body heating does not increase cutaneous interstitial NO concentration in forearm skin. Rather, NO may serve in a permissive role in facilitating the effects of an unknown neurotransmitter, leading to cutaneous vasodilation

  7. Increasing atmospheric humidity and CO 2 concentration alleviate forest mortality risk

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yanlan; Parolari, Anthony J.; Kumar, Mukesh

    Climate-induced forest mortality is being increasingly observed throughout the globe. Alarmingly, it is expected to exacerbate under climate change due to shifting precipitation patterns and rising air temperature. However, the impact of concomitant changes in atmospheric humidity and CO 2 concentration through their influence on stomatal kinetics remains a subject of debate and inquiry. By using a dynamic soil–plant–atmosphere model, mortality risks associated with hydraulic failure and stomatal closure for 13 temperate and tropical forest biomes across the globe are analyzed. The mortality risk is evaluated in response to both individual and combined changes in precipitation amounts and their seasonalmore » distribution, mean air temperature, specific humidity, and atmospheric CO 2 concentration. Model results show that the risk is predicted to significantly increase due to changes in precipitation and air temperature regime for the period 2050–2069. However, this increase may largely get alleviated by concurrent increases in atmospheric specific humidity and CO 2 concentration. The increase in mortality risk is expected to be higher for needleleaf forests than for broadleaf forests, as a result of disparity in hydraulic traits. These findings will further facilitate decisions about intervention and management of different forest types under changing climate.« less

  8. Increasing atmospheric humidity and CO 2 concentration alleviate forest mortality risk

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yanlan; Parolari, Anthony J.; Kumar, Mukesh; ...

    2017-08-28

    Climate-induced forest mortality is being increasingly observed throughout the globe. Alarmingly, it is expected to exacerbate under climate change due to shifting precipitation patterns and rising air temperature. However, the impact of concomitant changes in atmospheric humidity and CO 2 concentration through their influence on stomatal kinetics remains a subject of debate and inquiry. By using a dynamic soil–plant–atmosphere model, mortality risks associated with hydraulic failure and stomatal closure for 13 temperate and tropical forest biomes across the globe are analyzed. The mortality risk is evaluated in response to both individual and combined changes in precipitation amounts and their seasonalmore » distribution, mean air temperature, specific humidity, and atmospheric CO 2 concentration. Model results show that the risk is predicted to significantly increase due to changes in precipitation and air temperature regime for the period 2050–2069. However, this increase may largely get alleviated by concurrent increases in atmospheric specific humidity and CO 2 concentration. The increase in mortality risk is expected to be higher for needleleaf forests than for broadleaf forests, as a result of disparity in hydraulic traits. These findings will further facilitate decisions about intervention and management of different forest types under changing climate.« less

  9. Less-studied TCE: are their environmental concentrations increasing due to their use in new technologies?

    PubMed

    Filella, M; Rodríguez-Murillo, J C

    2017-09-01

    The possible environmental impact of the recent increase in use of a group of technology-critical elements (Nb, Ta, Ga, In, Ge and Te) is analysed by reviewing published concentration profiles in environmental archives (ice cores, ombrotrophic peat bogs, freshwater sediments and moss surveys) and evaluating temporal trends in surface waters. No increase has so far been recorded. The low potential direct emissions of these elements, resulting from their absolute low production levels, make it unlikely that the increasing use of these elements in modern technology has any noticeable effect on their environmental concentrations on a global scale. This holds particularly true for those of these elements that are probably emitted in relatively high amounts from other human activities (i.e., coal combustion and non-ferrous smelting), such as In, the most studied element of the group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of increasing Helicobacter pylori ammonia production by urea infusion on plasma gastrin concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Chittajallu, R S; Neithercut, W D; Macdonald, A M; McColl, K E

    1991-01-01

    It has been proposed that the hypergastrinaemia in subjects with Helicobacter pylori infection is caused by the action of the ammonia produced by the organism's urease activity on the antral G cells. To investigate this hypothesis we examined the effect on plasma gastrin of increasing the bacterium's ammonia production by infusing urea intragastrically to eight H pylori positive duodenal ulcer patients. After a 60 minute control intragastric infusion of dextrose solution at 2 ml/minute, a similar infusion containing urea (50 mmol/l) was continued for four hours. During the urea infusion, the median gastric juice urea concentration rose from 1.1 mmol/l (range 0.3-1.6) to 15.5 mmol/l (range 7.9-21.3) and this resulted in an increase in the ammonium concentration from 2.3 mmol/l (range 1.3-5.9) to 6.1 mmol/l (range 4.2-11.9) (p less than 0.01). This appreciable rise in ammonia production did not result in any change in the plasma gastrin concentration. The experiment was repeated one month after eradication of H pylori, at which time the median basal gastrin was 20 ng/l (range 15-25), significantly less than the value before eradication (30 ng/l range 15-60) (p less than 0.05). On this occasion, the gastric juice ammonium concentration was considerably reduced at 0.4 mmol/l (range 0.1-0.9) and the urea infusion did not raise the ammonium concentration or change the plasma gastrin concentration. In conclusion, augmenting H pylori ammonia production does not cause any early change in plasma gastrin. PMID:1991633

  11. Waterborne Zn influenced Zn uptake and lipid metabolism in two intestinal regions of juvenile goby Synechogobius hasta.

    PubMed

    Ling, Shi-Cheng; Luo, Zhi; Chen, Guang-Hui; Zhang, Dian-Guang; Liu, Xu

    2018-02-01

    The present study explored the influence of Zn addition in the water on Zn transport and lipid metabolism of two intestinal regions in goby Synechogobius hasta. Zn contents in water were 0.004 (control), 0.181 and 0.361mg Zn L -1 , respectively. The experiment lasted for 28 days. TG and Zn contents, mRNA contents of genes of Zn transport and lipid metabolism, and enzyme activity from anterior and mid-intestine tissues were analyzed. In anterior intestine, Zn addition in the water increased Zn contents, and mRNA concentrations of ZIP4, ZIP5, ATGL, PPARα, ZNF202 and KLF7, decreased TG contents, 6PGD and G6PD activities, and mRNA contents of 6PGD, G6PD, FAS, PPARγ, ICDH and KLF4. In mid-intestine tissue, the highest Zn and TG contents were observed for 0.18mg Zn/l group, in parallel with the highest expressions of ZnT1, ZIP4, ZIP5, 6PGD, FAS, ICDH, PPARγ, PPARα, ZNF202, KLF4 and KLF7, and with the highest FAS, 6PGD and G6PD activities. Thus, in the anterior intestine, Zn addition increased lipolysis and decreased lipogenesis, and accordingly reduced TG content. However, the highest mid-intestinal TG content in 0.18mg Zn/l group was due to the up-regulated lipogenesis. Although lipolysis was also increased, the incremental lipid synthesis was enough to compensate for lipid degradation, which led TG accumulation. Our results, for the first time, show an anterior/mid functional regionalization of the intestine in lipid metabolism and Zn transport of S. hasta following Zn exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermodynamic balance of photosynthesis and transpiration at increasing CO2 concentrations and rapid light fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Marín, Dolores; Martín, Mercedes; Serrot, Patricia H; Sabater, Bartolomé

    2014-02-01

    Experimental and theoretical flux models have been developed to reveal the influence of sun flecks and increasing CO2 concentrations on the energy and entropy balances of the leaf. The rapid and wide range of fluctuations in light intensity under field conditions were simulated in a climatic gas exchange chamber and we determined the energy and entropy balance of the leaf based on radiation and gas exchange measurements. It was estimated that the energy of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) accounts for half of transpiration, which is the main factor responsible for the exportation of the entropy generated in photosynthesis (Sg) out of the leaf in order to maintain functional the photosynthetic machinery. Although the response of net photosynthetic production to increasing concentrations of CO2 under fluctuating light is similar to that under continuous light, rates of transpiration respond slowly to changes of light intensity and are barely affected by the concentration of CO2 in the range of 260-495 ppm, in which net photosynthesis increases by more than 100%. The analysis of the results confirms that future increases of CO2 will improve the efficiency of the conversion of radiant energy into biomass, but will not reduce the contribution of plant transpiration to the leaf thermal balance. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Moderate exercise increases endotoxin concentration in hypoxia but not in normoxia: A controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Machado, Paola; Caris, Aline; Santos, Samile; Silva, Edgar; Oyama, Lila; Tufik, Sergio; Santos, Ronaldo

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxia and high altitudes affect various organs, which impairs important physiological functions, such as a disruption of the intestinal barrier mediated by increased translocation of bacteria and increased circulating endotoxin levels. Physical exercise can alter endotoxin concentration in normoxia. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of moderate exercise on endotoxin concentration in normobaric hypoxia. Nine healthy male volunteers exercised on a treadmill for 60 minutes at an intensity of 50% VO2peak in normoxic or hypoxic conditions (4200 m). Blood was collected at rest, immediately after exercise and 1 hour after exercise to evaluate serum endotoxin levels. Under hypoxic exercise conditions, SaO2% saturation was lower after exercise compared with resting levels (P < 0.05) and returned to the resting level during recovery in normoxia (P < 0.05). Endotoxin concentration increased after exercise in hypoxia (P < 0.05); it remained high 1 hour after exercise in hypoxia compared with normoxia (P < 0.05) and was higher after exercise and recovery compared with resting levels (P < 0.05). HR was higher during exercise in relation basal in both conditions (P < 0.05) and RPR increase after 60 minutes in comparison to 20 minutes in hypoxia (P < 0.05). Moderate exercise performed in hypoxia equivalent to 4200 m increased endotoxin plasma concentration after exercise. One hour of rest in normoxic conditions was insufficient for the recovery of circulating endotoxins.

  14. Increased concentrations of bone sialoprotein in joint fluid after knee injury.

    PubMed Central

    Lohmander, L S; Saxne, T; Heinegård, D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To detect evidence for localised changes in bone matrix metabolism after joint trauma and in post-traumatic osteoarthritis by quantification of bone sialoprotein in joint fluid and serum after knee injury in a cross sectional study. METHODS: Samples of knee joint fluid and serum were obtained from volunteers with normal knees (n = 19), patients with rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament isolated or combined with tear of a meniscus (n = 114), and patients with isolated meniscus lesions (n = 80). Concentrations of bone sialoprotein were determined by ELISA. Concentrations of other markers of joint tissue metabolism in these samples were determined in previous investigations. RESULTS: The median concentrations of bone sialoprotein in joint fluid from healthy volunteers was 122 ng ml-1 (range 41 to 183). Concentrations of bone sialoprotein were increased in both injury groups compared with the reference group (median for cruciate ligament injury 146 ng ml-1, range 72 to 339; median for meniscus injury 166 ng ml-1, range 75 to 376). After injury, bone sialoprotein increased quickly and remained increased for six months. Bone sialoprotein in joint fluid was increased only in samples from joints with normal or nearly normal (fibrillated) cartilage, and was within reference range in joints with radiographic signs of osteoarthritis. Bone sialoprotein concentrations in joints with cruciate ligament injury were positively correlated with levels of aggrecan and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein fragments, and with levels of stromelysin-1 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1. The ratios between the concentrations of bone sialoprotein in joint fluid and serum were > 1 in the majority of the cruciate ligament injury cases. CONCLUSIONS: The release of significant amounts of bone sialoprotein into joint fluid in connection with acute joint trauma may be associated with injury to, and active remodelling of, the cartilage-bone interface and subchondral bone

  15. Increase in Lead Concentration in the Drinking Water of an Animal Care Facility.

    PubMed

    Davidowitz, Bradley; Boehm, Kirk; Banovetz, Sandra; Binkley, Neil

    1998-01-01

    We report here the unexpected detection, and subsequent correction, of a problem that resulted in an increase in lead concentration in the drinking water of an animal research facility. At the initiation of a study, analysis of a water sample obtained from the drinking spout of an animal cage revealed a lead concentration nearly twice the Environmental Protection Agency's maximum acceptable concentration. Because the municipal water supply routinely had been tested and found to be free of lead, it was assumed that this contamination was within the animal care facility. It was hypothesized that the brass fitting connecting the drinking spout to a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe was the source of contamination. Water samples were obtained hourly from 0700 to 1600 hours before and after replacement of the brass fitting with a PVC fitting. After this change, lead concentrations in all samples were within acceptable limits. Although blood lead concentrations were undetectable in 47 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) housed in the facility, subclinical lead toxicosis could have resulted and potentially complicated studies in which these monkeys were used. We recommend that the water supply of research facilities be monitored periodically.

  16. Safflower oil consumption does not increase plasma conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in humans.

    PubMed

    Herbel, B K; McGuire, M K; McGuire, M A; Shultz, T D

    1998-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid (LA) with conjugated double bonds. CLA has anticarcinogenic properties and has been identified in human tissues, dairy products, meats, and certain vegetable oils. A variety of animal products are good sources of CLA, but plant oils contain much less. However, plant oils are a rich source of LA, which may be isomerized to CLA by intestinal microorganisms in humans. To investigate the effect of triacylglycerol-esterified LA consumption on plasma concentrations of esterified CLA in total lipids, a dietary intervention (6 wk) was conducted with six men and six women. During the intervention period a salad dressing containing 21 g safflower oil providing 16 g LA/d was added to the subjects' daily diets. Three-day diet records and fasting blood were obtained initially and during dietary and postdietary intervention periods. Although LA intake increased significantly during the dietary intervention, plasma CLA concentrations were not affected. Plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower after addition of safflower oil to the diet. In summary, consumption of triacylglycerol-esterified LA in safflower oil did not increase plasma concentrations of esterified CLA in total lipids.

  17. Sublethal detergent concentrations increase metabolization of recalcitrant polyphosphonates by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.

    PubMed

    Forlani, Giuseppe; Bertazzini, Michele; Giberti, Samuele; Wieczorek, Dorota; Kafarski, Paweł; Lipok, Jacek

    2013-05-01

    As a consequence of increasing industrial applications, thousand tons of polyphosphonates are introduced every year into the environment. The inherent stability of the C-P bond results in a prolonged half-life. Moreover, low uptake rates limit further their microbial metabolization. To assess whether low detergent concentrations were able to increase polyphosphonate utilization by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, tolerance limits to the exposure to various detergents were determined by measuring the growth rate in the presence of graded levels below the critical micellar concentration. Then, the amount of hexamethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(methylphosphonic acid) that is metabolized in the absence or in the presence of sublethal detergent concentrations was quantified by (31)P NMR analysis on either P-starved or P-fed cyanobacterial cultures. The strain tolerated the presence of detergents in the order: nonionic > anionic > cationic. When added to the culture medium at the highest concentrations showing no detrimental effects upon cell viability, detergents either improved or decreased polyphosphonate utilization, the anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate being the most beneficial. Metabolization was not lower in P-fed cells--a result that strengthens the possibility of using, in the future, this strain for bioremediation purposes.

  18. Fatal fentanyl patch misuse in a hospitalized patient with a postmortem increase in fentanyl blood concentration.

    PubMed

    Moore, Philip W; Palmer, Robert B; Donovan, Joseph Ward

    2015-01-01

    Opioid-related mortality happens, even in healthcare settings. We describe serial postmortem fentanyl blood concentrations in a hospital inpatient who fatally abused transdermal fentanyl. This is a single-patient case report. A 42-year-old man with lymphoma was started on transdermal fentanyl therapy while hospitalized for chronic abdominal pain. The patient was last seen awake 1.3 h prior to being found apneic and cyanotic. During the resuscitation attempt, a small square-shaped film was removed from the patient's oropharynx. Femoral blood was collected 0.5 and 2 h postmortem, and the measured fentanyl concentration increased from 1.6 to 14 ng/mL. Study limitations include potential laboratory or collection errors and missing data. (i) Providers must be vigilant for signs of fentanyl patch abuse. (ii) Postmortem blood concentrations are not static postmortem, likely secondary to decreasing pH, increased aqueous solubility, and tissue redistribution, and are therefore unlikely to accurately represent antemortem blood concentrations. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Novel approach to synthesis and characterization of POT/ZnO nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Shama; Khan, Hana; Khan, Zubair MSH; Kumar, Shabir Ahmad; Rahman, Raja Saifu; Zulfequar, M.

    2018-05-01

    The novel insitu polymerization method has been used to synthesis poly o-toluidine/Zinc Oxide (POT/ZnO) nanocomposites with varying weight percentages (5, 10, 15, 20) of ZnO in polymer matrix. The structural properties of synthesized polymer has been discussed with XRD and SEM techniques and found that the crystallinity of the material increases with ZnO doping. Electrical conductivity of the compressed pellets of nanocomposites is depends on the concentration of ZnO in POT and found to increase upto five orders. The indirect bandgap of nanocomposites decreases with increasing ZnO.

  20. Identification of a Hemolysis Threshold That Increases Plasma and Serum Zinc Concentration123

    PubMed Central

    Otoo, Gloria E; Smith, Lauren; Siekmann, Jonathan H

    2017-01-01

    Background: Plasma or serum zinc concentration (PZC or SZC) is the primary measure of zinc status, but accurate sampling requires controlling for hemolysis to prevent leakage of zinc from erythrocytes. It is not established how much hemolysis can occur without changing PZC/SZC concentrations. Objective: This study determines a guideline for the level of hemolysis that can significantly elevate PZC/SZC. Methods: The effect of hemolysis on PZC/SZC was estimated by using standard hematologic variables and mineral content. The calculated hemolysis threshold was then compared with results from an in vitro study and a population survey. Hemolysis was assessed by hemoglobin and iron concentrations, direct spectrophotometry, and visual assessment of the plasma or serum. Zinc and iron concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. Results: A 5% increase in PZC/SZC was calculated to result from the lysis of 1.15% of the erythrocytes in whole blood, corresponding to ∼1 g hemoglobin/L added into the plasma or serum. Similarly, the addition of simulated hemolysate to control plasma in vitro caused a 5% increase in PZC when hemoglobin concentrations reached 1.18 ± 0.10 g/L. In addition, serum samples from a population nutritional survey were scored for hemolysis and analyzed for changes in SZC; samples with hemolysis in the range of 1–2.5 g hemoglobin/L showed an estimated increase in SZC of 6% compared with nonhemolyzed samples. Each approach indicated that a 5% increase in PZC/SZC occurs at ∼1 g hemoglobin/L in plasma or serum. This concentration of hemoglobin can be readily identified directly by chemical hemoglobin assays or indirectly by direct spectrophotometry or matching to a color scale. Conclusions: A threshold of 1 g hemoglobin/L is recommended for PZC/SZC measurements to avoid increases in zinc caused by hemolysis. The use of this threshold may improve zinc assessment for monitoring zinc status and nutritional interventions. PMID

  1. Effects of Zinc Glycinate on Productive and Reproductive Performance, Zinc Concentration and Antioxidant Status in Broiler Breeders.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Wang, Yong-Xia; Xiao, Xue; Wang, Jiang-Shui; Wang, Qian; Li, Kai-Xuan; Guo, Tian-Yu; Zhan, Xiu-An

    2017-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of zinc glycinate (Zn-Gly) supplementation as an alternative for zinc sulphate (ZnSO 4 ) on productive and reproductive performance, zinc (Zn) concentration and antioxidant status in broiler breeders. Six hundred 39-week-old Lingnan Yellow broiler breeders were randomly assigned to 6 groups consisting of 4 replicates with 25 birds each. Breeders were fed a basal diet (control group, 24 mg Zn/kg diet), basal diet supplemented with 80 mg Zn/kg diet from ZnSO 4 or basal diet supplemented with 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg Zn/kg diet from Zn-Gly. The experiment lasted for 8 weeks after a 4-week pre-test with the basal diet, respectively. Results showed that Zn supplementation, regardless of sources, improved (P < 0.05) the feed conversion ratio (kilogram of feed/kilogram of egg) and decreased broken egg rate, and elevated (P < 0.05) the qualified chick rate. Compared with the ZnSO 4 group, the 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly group significantly increased (P < 0.05) average egg weight, fertility, hatchability and qualified chick rate, whereas it decreased (P < 0.05) broken egg rate. The Zn concentrations in liver and muscle were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly group than that in ZnSO 4 group. Compared with ZnSO 4 group, 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly group significantly elevated (P < 0.05) the mRNA abundances of metallothionein (MT) and copper-zinc superoxide (Cu-Zn SOD), as well as the Cu-Zn SOD activity and MT concentration in liver. Moreover, the 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly group had higher (P < 0.05) serum T-SOD and Cu-Zn SOD activities than that in the ZnSO 4 group. This study indicated that supplementation of Zn in basal diet improved productive and reproductive performance, Zn concentration and antioxidant status in broiler breeders, and the 80 mg Zn/kg from Zn-Gly was the optimum choice for broiler breeders compared with other levels of Zn from Zn-Gly and 80 mg/kg Zn from ZnSO 4 .

  2. Increased Isoprenoid Quinone Concentration Modulates Membrane Fluidity in Listeria monocytogenes at Low Growth Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Seel, Waldemar; Flegler, Alexander; Zunabovic-Pichler, Marija; Lipski, André

    2018-07-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food pathogen capable of growing at a broad temperature range from 50°C to refrigerator temperatures. A key requirement for bacterial activity and growth at low temperatures is the ability to adjust the membrane lipid composition to maintain cytoplasmic membrane fluidity. In this study, we confirmed earlier findings that the extents of fatty acid profile adaptation differed between L. monocytogenes strains. We were able to demonstrate for isolates from food that growth rates at low temperatures and resistance to freeze-thaw stress were not impaired by a lower adaptive response of the fatty acid composition. This indicated the presence of a second adaptation mechanism besides temperature-regulated fatty acid synthesis. For strains that showed weaker adaptive responses in their fatty acid profiles to low growth temperature, we could demonstrate a significantly higher concentration of isoprenoid quinones. Three strains even showed a higher quinone concentration after growth at 6°C than at 37°C, which is contradictory to the reduced respiratory activity at lower growth temperatures. Analyses of the membrane fluidity in vivo by measuring generalized polarization and anisotropy revealed modulation of the transition phase. Strains with increased quinone concentrations showed an expanded membrane transition phase in contrast to strains with pronounced adaptations of fatty acid profiles. The correlation between quinone concentration and membrane transition phase expansion was confirmed by suppression of quinone synthesis. A reduced quinone concentration resulted in a narrower transition phase. Expansion of the phase transition zone by increasing the concentration of non-fatty acid membrane lipids is discussed as an additional mechanism improving adaptation to temperature shifts for L. monocytogenes strains. IMPORTANCE Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen with an outstanding temperature range for growth. The ability for growth at

  3. Increased concentration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus sp. in small animals exposed to aerospace environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guthrie, R. K.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of increased concentrations of PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS in the total bacterial flora of small animals exposed to simulated spacecraft environments were evaluated. Tests to detect changes in infectivity, effects of antibiotic treatments, immune responses to bacterial antigens, and effectiveness of immune responses in the experimental environment were conducted. The most significant results appear to be the differences in immune responses at simulated altitudes and the production of infection in the presence of a specific antibody.

  4. Influence of Dopants in ZnO Films on Defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Cheng-Xiao; Weng, Hui-Min; Zhang, Yang; Ma, Xing-Ping; Ye, Bang-Jiao

    2008-12-01

    The influence of dopants in ZnO films on defects is investigated by slow positron annihilation technique. The results show S that parameters meet SAl > Sun > SAg for Al-doped ZnO films, undoped and Ag-doped ZnO films. Zinc vacancies are found in all ZnO films with different dopants. According to S parameter and the same defect type, it can be induced that the zinc vacancy concentration is the highest in the Al-doped ZnO film, and it is the least in the Ag-doped ZnO film. When Al atoms are doped in the ZnO films grown on silicon substrates, Zn vacancies increase as compared to the undoped and Ag-doped ZnO films. The dopant concentration could determine the position of Fermi level in materials, while defect formation energy of zinc vacancy strongly depends on the position of Fermi level, so its concentration varies with dopant element and dopant concentration.

  5. The Increasing Concentrations of Atmospheric CO2: How Much, When and Why?

    DOE Data Explorer

    Marland, Gregg [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Boden, Tom [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2009-01-01

    There is now a sense that the world community has achieved a broad consensus that: 1.) the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) is increasing, 2.) this increase is due largely to the combustion of fossil fuels, and 3.) this increase is likely to lead to changes in the global climate. This consensus is sufficiently strong that virtually all countries are involved in trying to achieve a functioning agreement on how to confront, and mitigate, these changes in climate. This paper reviews the first two of these components in a quantitative way. We look at the data on the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide and on the magnitude of fossil-fuel combustion, and we examine the trends in both. We review the extent to which cause and effect can be demonstrated between the trends in fossil-fuel burning and the trends in atmospheric CO2 concentration. Finally, we look at scenarios for the future use of fossil fuels and what these portend for the future of atmospheric chemistry. Along the way we examine how and where fossil fuels are used on the Earth and some of the issues that are raised by any effort to reduce fossil-fuel use.

  6. Rapid increase of ozone concentrations in Xi'an, China: Anthropogenically or naturally?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J.; Li, G.; Junji, C.

    2017-12-01

    The air quality in the Guanzhong basin, China has deteriorated recently caused by growing industries, city expansions, and increasing transportation activity. We report here a substantial increasing trend of ozone (O3) concentrations in Xi'an, the largest city of the basin, and the average observed O3 concentration in the afternoon during summertime has increased by 39% from 2013 to 2016. There are two main possible reasons for the rapid O3 increase. Motor vehicle has been reported to increase by 35% in Xi'an, which enhances the O3 precursors emissions to facilitate the O3 formation. In addition, the surface solar radiation at the meteorological site in Xi'an has been observed to intensify by 30%, which increases the photolysis rates to expedite the O3 production. A persistent high O3 episode from 16 to 22 June 2016 in Xi'an has been simulated using the WRF-CHEM model to evaluate the contribution of the transportation emission and solar radiation enhancement on the O3 trend. The model generally performs reasonably well in simulating the temporal variation and spatial distribution of near-surface O3 and NO2 concentrations against measurements in Xi'an. Sensitivity studies have revealed that the enhancement of transportation emissions and the solar radiation explains about 70% of the O3 trend from 2013 to 2016. Considering that large amounts of biogenic emissions are released over the Qinling Mountains on the south of Xi'an, which can be delivered to Xi'an under favorable meteorological conditions, enhancing O3 formation. Therefore, future studies need to be performed to evaluate impacts of the solar radiation enhancement on the biogenic emissions and further the O3 formation in Xi'an.

  7. Increase in dust storm related PM10 concentrations: A time series analysis of 2001-2015.

    PubMed

    Krasnov, Helena; Katra, Itzhak; Friger, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Over the last decades, changes in dust storms characteristics have been observed in different parts of the world. The changing frequency of dust storms in the southeastern Mediterranean has led to growing concern regarding atmospheric PM10 levels. A classic time series additive model was used in order to describe and evaluate the changes in PM10 concentrations during dust storm days in different cities in Israel, which is located at the margins of the global dust belt. The analysis revealed variations in the number of dust events and PM10 concentrations during 2001-2015. A significant increase in PM10 concentrations was identified since 2009 in the arid city of Beer Sheva, southern Israel. Average PM10 concentrations during dust days before 2009 were 406, 312, and 364 μg m(-3) (median 337, 269,302) for Beer Sheva, Rehovot (central Israel) and Modi'in (eastern Israel), respectively. After 2009 the average concentrations in these cities during dust storms were 536, 466, and 428 μg m(-3) (median 382, 335, 338), respectively. Regression analysis revealed associations between PM10 variations and seasonality, wind speed, as well as relative humidity. The trends and periodicity are stronger in the southern part of Israel, where higher PM10 concentrations are found. Since 2009 dust events became more extreme with much higher daily and hourly levels. The findings demonstrate that in the arid area variations of dust storms can be quantified easier through PM10 levels over a relatively short time scale of several years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Kinetic control on Zn isotope signatures recorded in marine diatoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köbberich, Michael; Vance, Derek

    2017-08-01

    Marine diatoms dominate the oceanic cycle of the essential micronutrient zinc (Zn). The stable isotopes of zinc and other metals are increasingly used to understand trace metal micronutrient cycling in the oceans. One clear feature of the early isotope data is the heavy Zn isotope signature of the average oceanic dissolved pool relative to the inputs, potentially driven by uptake of light isotopes into phytoplankton cells and export to sediments. However, despite the fact that diatoms strip Zn from surface waters across the Antarctic polar front in the Southern Ocean, the local upper ocean is not isotopically heavy. Here we use culturing experiments to quantify the extent of Zn isotope fractionation by diatoms and to elucidate the mechanisms driving it. We have cultured two different open-ocean diatom species (T. oceanica and Chaetoceros sp.) in a series of experiments at constant medium Zn concentration but at bioavailable medium Fe ranging from limiting to replete. We find that T. oceanica can maintain high growth rates and Zn uptake rates over the full range of bioavailable iron (Fe) investigated, and that the Zn taken up has a δ66Zn that is unfractionated relative to that of the bioavailable free Zn in the medium. The studied representative of the genus Chaetoceros, on the other hand, shows more significantly reduced Zn uptake rates at low Fe and records more variable biomass δ66Zn signatures, of up to 0.85‰ heavier than the medium. We interpret the preferential uptake of heavy isotopes at extremely low Zn uptake rates as potentially due to either of the following two mechanisms. First, the release of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), at low Fe levels, may preferentially scavenge heavy Zn isotopes. Second, the Zn uptake rate may be slow enough to establish pseudo-equilibrium conditions at the transporter site, with heavy Zn isotopes forming more stable surface complexes. Thus we find that, in our experiments, Fe-limitation exerts a key control that

  9. Increased concentrations of plasma IL-18 in patients with hepatic dysfunction after hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Shibata, M; Hirota, M; Nozawa, F; Okabe, A; Kurimoto, M; Ogawa, M

    2000-10-01

    We investigated the dynamic aspects of circulatory IL-18 and other inflammatory cytokines in patients who underwent a hepatectomy. In patients with post-operative hepatic dysfunction, plasma concentrations of these cytokines increased, reflecting severe surgical trauma. IL-6, IL-10 and IFN-gamma increased in the early phase, while IL-18 increased in the later phase after 1 week. Interestingly, the increase in the plasma IL-18 concentration was correlated with that in serum bilirubin levels in hepatectomized patients. Hence, the decrease in the hepatic metabolism of IL-18 may cause the plasma accumulation of IL-18. This mechanism was confirmed using rat experiments. Intravenously administered human IL-18 was excreted into bile. Furthermore, the plasma clearance of human IL-18 was prolonged in bile duct-ligated rats. These results suggest that IL-18 is metabolized in the liver and excreted into bile, and an increase in plasma IL-18 in patients with hepatic dysfunction reflects the decreased metabolism in the liver. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  10. An encapsulated fruit and vegetable juice concentrate increases skin microcirculation in healthy women.

    PubMed

    De Spirt, S; Sies, H; Tronnier, H; Heinrich, U

    2012-01-01

    Microcirculation in the dermis of the skin is important for nutrient delivery to this tissue. In this study, the effects of a micronutrient concentrate (Juice Plus+®; 'active group'), composed primarily of fruit and vegetable juice powder, on skin microcirculation and structure were compared to placebo. This 12-week study had a monocentric, double-blind placebo and randomized controlled design with two treatment groups consisting of 26 healthy middle-aged women each. The 'oxygen to see' device was used to evaluate microcirculation. Skin density and thickness were measured using ultrasound. Measurements for skin hydration (Corneometer®), transepidermal water loss and serum analysis for carotenoids and α-tocopherol were also performed. By 12 weeks, microcirculation of the superficial plexus increased by 39%. Furthermore, skin hydration increased by 9% while skin thickness increased by 6% and skin density by 16% in the active group. In the placebo group, microcirculation decreased, and a slight increase in skin density was observed. Ingestion of a fruit- and vegetable-based concentrate increases microcirculation of the skin at 12 weeks of intervention and positively affects skin hydration, density and thickness. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Structural, Optical, and Photocatalytic Properties of Quasi-One-Dimensional Nanocrystalline ZnO, ZnOC:nC Composites, and C-doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalaeva, E. V.; Gyrdasova, O. I.; Krasilnikov, V. N.; Melkozerova, M. A.; Baklanova, I. V.; Buldakova, L. Yu.

    Various thermolysis rotes of zinc glicolate complexes are considered for the synthesis of quasi-one-dimensional nanostructured aggregates ZnO and Zn-O-C used as photocatalysts. Structural features of quasi-one-dimensional aggregates Zn-O-C and ZnO are investigated in detail. Transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy methods demonstrate that the aggregates Zn-O-C have either composite structure (ZnO crystallites in amorphous carbon matrix) or a C-doped ZnO single-phase structure depending on heat treatment conditions, and that all the aggregates exhibit as a rule a tubular morphology, a nanocrystalline structure with a high specific surface area, and a high concentration of singly charged oxygen vacancies. The mechanism of the nanocrystalline structure formation is discussed and the effect of thermolysis condition on the formation of the textured structure of aggregates is investigated. The results of examination of the photocatalytic and optical absorption properties of the synthesized aggregates are presented. The photocatalytic activity for the hydroquinone oxidation reaction under ultraviolet and visible light increases in the series: the reference ZnO powder, quasi-one-dimensional ZnO, quasi-one-dimensional aggregates C-doped ZnO, and this tendency correlates with the reduction of the optical gap width. As a result of our studies, we have arrived at an important conclusion that thermal treatment of ZnO:nC composites allows a C-doped ZnO with high catalytic activity. This increasing photoactivity of C-doped ZnO aggregates is attributed to the optimal specific surface area and electron-energy spectrum restructuring to be produced owing to the presence of singly charged oxygen vacancies and carbon dissolved in the ZnO lattice.

  12. Root colonization by symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increases sesquiterpenic acid concentrations in Valeriana officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Nell, Monika; Wawrosch, Christoph; Steinkellner, Siegrid; Vierheilig, Horst; Kopp, Brigitte; Lössl, Andreas; Franz, Chlodwig; Novak, Johannes; Zitterl-Eglseer, Karin

    2010-03-01

    In some medicinal plants a specific plant-fungus association, known as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, increases the levels of secondary plant metabolites and/or plant growth. In this study, the effects of three different AM treatments on biomass and sesquiterpenic acid concentrations in two IN VITRO propagated genotypes of valerian ( VALERIANA OFFICINALIS L., Valerianaceae) were investigated. Valerenic, acetoxyvalerenic and hydroxyvalerenic acid levels were analyzed in the rhizome and in two root fractions. Two of the AM treatments significantly increased the levels of sesquiterpenic acids in the underground parts of valerian. These treatments, however, influenced the biomass of rhizomes and roots negatively. Therefore this observed increase was not accompanied by an increase in yield of sesquiterpenic acids per plant. Furthermore, one of the two genotypes had remarkably high hydroxyvalerenic acid contents and can be regarded as a hydroxyvalerenic acid chemotype. Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

  13. Increasing butyrate concentration in the distal colon by accelerating intestinal transit

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, S; Heaton, K

    1997-01-01

    Background—Populations at low risk of colonic cancer consume large amounts of fibre and starch and pass acid, bulky stools. One short chain fatty acid (SCFA), butyrate, is the colon's main energy source and inhibits malignant transformation in vitro. 
Aim—To test the hypothesis that altering colonic transit rate alters colonic pH and the SCFA content of the stools. 
Patients—Thirteen healthy adults recruited by advertisement. 
Methods—Volunteers consumed, in turn, wheat bran, senna and loperamide, each for nine days with a two week washout period between study periods, dietary intake being unchanged. Before, and in the last four days of each intervention, whole gut transit time (WGTT), defaecation frequency, stool form, stool β-glucuronidase activity, stool pH, stool SCFA concentrations and intracolonic pH (using a radiotelemetry capsule for continuous monitoring) were assessed. 
Results—WGTT decreased, stool output and frequency increased with wheat bran and senna, vice versa with loperamide. The pH was similar in the distal colon and stool. Distal colonic pH fell with wheat bran and senna and tended to increase with loperamide. Faecal SCFA concentrations, including butyrate, increased with senna and fell with loperamide. With wheat bran the changes were non-significant, possibly because of the short duration of the study. Baseline WGTT correlated with faecal SCFA concentration (r=−0.511, p=0.001), with faecal butyrate (r=−0.577, p<0.001) and with distal colonic pH (r=0.359, p=0.029). 
Conclusion—Bowel transit rate is a determinant of stool SCFA concentration including butyrate and distal colonic pH. This may explain the inter-relations between colonic cancer, dietary fibre intake, stool output, and stool pH. 

 Keywords: bowel cancer; colonic pH; fibre; intestinal transit; pH; short chain fatty acids PMID:9301506

  14. Bioactive nitric oxide concentration does not increase during reactive hyperemia in human skin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J L; Pergola, P E; Roman, L J; Kellogg, D L

    2004-02-01

    This study examined whether nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the cutaneous response to reactive hyperemia (RH) in the human forearm. We enrolled seven healthy volunteers. NO concentrations were monitored using a NO selective amperometric electrode (ISO-NOP200, World Precision Instruments) inserted into the skin of the forearm. Laser-Doppler flowmetry (Moor Instruments) was used for monitoring skin blood flow (SkBF) at the same site. SkBF and NO levels were monitored and recorded continuously throughout the experiment. An intradermal microdialysis probe was inserted adjacent to the NO electrode for drug delivery. Data collection began 140 min after the NO electrodes and microdialysis probes were inserted. RH was achieved by the inflation of a blood pressure cuff to 25 mmHg above systolic pressure for 7 min after which the pressure in the cuff was abruptly released. Acetylcholine (ACh) was given by microdialysis probe at the end of RH study to verify the ability of the electrode system to detect changes in the NO concentration. SkBF and NO data before RH and immediately, 2, 5, 7, and 10 min after cuff deflation were used for analysis. SkBF increased immediately after release of the occlusion (P < 0.0001) and remained elevated for 2 min. No significant NO changes occurred with the increases in LDF. ACh induced increases in both SkBF and NO (P < 0.000 and P < 0.037, respectively). We conclude that RH increases SkBF by mechanisms that do not require a measurable increase in NO concentrations.

  15. Increasing leaf temperature reduces the suppression of isoprene emission by elevated CO₂ concentration.

    PubMed

    Potosnak, Mark J; Lestourgeon, Lauren; Nunez, Othon

    2014-05-15

    Including algorithms to account for the suppression of isoprene emission by elevated CO2 concentration affects estimates of global isoprene emission for future climate change scenarios. In this study, leaf-level measurements of isoprene emission were made to determine the short-term interactive effect of leaf temperature and CO2 concentration. For both greenhouse plants and plants grown under field conditions, the suppression of isoprene emission was reduced by increasing leaf temperature. For each of the four different tree species investigated, aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), cottonwood (Populus deltoides W. Bartram ex Marshall), red oak (Quercus rubra L.), and tundra dwarf willow (Salix pulchra Cham.), the suppression of isoprene by elevated CO2 was eliminated at increased temperature, and the maximum temperature where suppression was observed ranged from 25 to 35°C. Hypotheses proposed to explain the short-term suppression of isoprene emission by increased CO2 concentration were tested against this observation. Hypotheses related to cofactors in the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway were consistent with reduced suppression at elevated leaf temperature. Also, reduced solubility of CO2 with increased temperature can explain the reduced suppression for the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase competition hypothesis. Some global models of isoprene emission include the short-term suppression effect, and should be modified to include the observed interaction. If these results are consistent at longer timescales, there are implications for predicting future global isoprene emission budgets and the reduced suppression at increased temperature could explain some of the variable responses observed in long-term CO2 exposure experiments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mutation increasing β-carotene concentrations does not adversely affect concentrations of essential mineral elements in pepper fruit

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Jacqueline A.; Penchev, Emil A.; Nielen, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin and mineral deficiencies are prevalent in human populations throughout the world. Vitamin A deficiency affects hundreds of millions of pre-school age children in low income countries. Fruits of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) can be a major dietary source of precursors to Vitamin A biosynthesis, such as β-carotene. Recently, pepper breeding programs have introduced the orange-fruited (of) trait of the mutant variety Oranzheva kapiya, which is associated with high fruit β-carotene concentrations, to the mutant variety Albena. In this manuscript, concentrations of β-carotene and mineral elements (magnesium, phosphorus, sulphur, potassium, zinc, calcium, manganese, iron and copper) were compared in fruit from P31, a red-fruited genotype derived from the variety Albena, and M38, a genotype developed by transferring the orange-fruited mutation (of) into Albena. It was observed that fruit from M38 plants had greater β-carotene concentration at both commercial and botanical maturity (4.9 and 52.7 mg / kg fresh weight, respectively) than fruit from P31 plants (2.3 and 30.1 mg / kg fresh weight, respectively). The mutation producing high β-carotene concentrations in pepper fruits had no detrimental effect on the concentrations of mineral elements required for human nutrition. PMID:28207797

  17. Mutation increasing β-carotene concentrations does not adversely affect concentrations of essential mineral elements in pepper fruit.

    PubMed

    Tomlekova, Nasya B; White, Philip J; Thompson, Jacqueline A; Penchev, Emil A; Nielen, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin and mineral deficiencies are prevalent in human populations throughout the world. Vitamin A deficiency affects hundreds of millions of pre-school age children in low income countries. Fruits of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) can be a major dietary source of precursors to Vitamin A biosynthesis, such as β-carotene. Recently, pepper breeding programs have introduced the orange-fruited (of) trait of the mutant variety Oranzheva kapiya, which is associated with high fruit β-carotene concentrations, to the mutant variety Albena. In this manuscript, concentrations of β-carotene and mineral elements (magnesium, phosphorus, sulphur, potassium, zinc, calcium, manganese, iron and copper) were compared in fruit from P31, a red-fruited genotype derived from the variety Albena, and M38, a genotype developed by transferring the orange-fruited mutation (of) into Albena. It was observed that fruit from M38 plants had greater β-carotene concentration at both commercial and botanical maturity (4.9 and 52.7 mg / kg fresh weight, respectively) than fruit from P31 plants (2.3 and 30.1 mg / kg fresh weight, respectively). The mutation producing high β-carotene concentrations in pepper fruits had no detrimental effect on the concentrations of mineral elements required for human nutrition.

  18. Formation of a low-crystalline Zn-silicate in a stream in SW Sardinia, Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wanty, Richard B.; De Giudici, G.; Onnis, P.; Rutherford, D.; Kimball, B.A.; Podda, F.; Cidu, R.; Lattanzi, P.; Medas, D.

    2013-01-01

    n southwestern Sardinia, Italy, the Rio Naracauli drains a catchment that includes several abandoned mines. The drainage from the mines and associated waste rocks has led to extreme concentrations of dissolved Zn, but because of the near-neutral pH, concentrations of other metals remain low. In the reach from approximately 2300 to 3000 m downstream from the headwaters area, an amorphous Zn-silicate precipitates from the water. In this reach, concentrations of both Zn and silica remain nearly constant, but the loads (measured in mass/time) of both increase, suggesting that new Zn and silica are supplied to the stream, likely from emerging groundwater. Zinc isotope signatures of the solid are heavier than the dissolved Zn by about 0.5 permil in 66/64Zn, suggesting that an extracellular biologically mediated adsorption process may be involved in the formation of the Zn-silicate.

  19. D-tagatose, a stereoisomer of D-fructose, increases blood uric acid concentration.

    PubMed

    Buemann, B; Toubro, S; Holst, J J; Rehfeld, J F; Bibby, B M; Astrup, A

    2000-08-01

    D-Fructose has been found to increase uric acid production by accelerating the degradation of purine nucleotides, probably due to hepatocellular depletion of inorganic phosphate (Pi) by an accumulation of ketohexose-1-phosphate. The hyperuricemic effect of D-tagatose, a stereoisomer of D-fructose, may be greater than that of D-fructose, as the subsequent degradation of D-tagatose-1-phosphate is slower than the degradation of D-fructose-1-phosphate. We tested the effect of 30 g oral D-tagatose versus D-fructose on plasma uric acid and other metabolic parameters in 8 male subjects by a double-blind crossover design. Both the peak concentration and 4-hour area under the curve (AUC) of serum uric acid were significantly higher after D-tagatose compared with either 30 g D-fructose or plain water. The decline in serum Pi concentration was greater at 50 minutes after D-tagatose versus D-fructose. The thermogenic and lactacidemic responses to D-tagatose were blunted compared with D-fructose. D-Tagatose attenuated the glycemic and insulinemic responses to a meal that was consumed 255 minutes after its administration. Moreover, both fructose and D-tagatose increased plasma concentrations of cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The metabolic effects of D-tagatose occurred despite its putative poor absorption.

  20. Short-Term Molecular Acclimation Processes of Legume Nodules to Increased External Oxygen Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Avenhaus, Ulrike; Cabeza, Ricardo A.; Liese, Rebecca; Lingner, Annika; Dittert, Klaus; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Pommerenke, Claudia; Schulze, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogenase is an oxygen labile enzyme. Microaerobic conditions within the infected zone of nodules are maintained primarily by an oxygen diffusion barrier (ODB) located in the nodule cortex. Flexibility of the ODB is important for the acclimation processes of nodules in response to changes in external oxygen concentration. The hypothesis of the present study was that there are additional molecular mechanisms involved. Nodule activity of Medicago truncatula plants were continuously monitored during a change from 21 to 25 or 30% oxygen around root nodules by measuring nodule H2 evolution. Within about 2 min of the increase in oxygen concentration, a steep decline in nitrogenase activity occurred. A quick recovery commenced about 8 min later. A qPCR-based analysis of the expression of genes for nitrogenase components showed a tendency toward upregulation during the recovery. The recovery resulted in a new constant activity after about 30 min, corresponding to approximately 90% of the pre-treatment level. An RNAseq-based comparative transcriptome profiling of nodules at that point in time revealed that genes for nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides, defensins, leghaemoglobin and chalcone and stilbene synthase were significantly upregulated when considered as a gene family. A gene for a nicotianamine synthase-like protein (Medtr1g084050) showed a strong increase in count number. The gene appears to be of importance for nodule functioning, as evidenced by its consistently high expression in nodules and a strong reaction to various environmental cues that influence nodule activity. A Tnt1-mutant that carries an insert in the coding sequence (cds) of that gene showed reduced nitrogen fixation and less efficient acclimation to an increased external oxygen concentration. It was concluded that sudden increases in oxygen concentration around nodules destroy nitrogenase, which is quickly counteracted by an increased neoformation of the enzyme. This reaction might be

  1. Short-Term Molecular Acclimation Processes of Legume Nodules to Increased External Oxygen Concentration.

    PubMed

    Avenhaus, Ulrike; Cabeza, Ricardo A; Liese, Rebecca; Lingner, Annika; Dittert, Klaus; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Pommerenke, Claudia; Schulze, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogenase is an oxygen labile enzyme. Microaerobic conditions within the infected zone of nodules are maintained primarily by an oxygen diffusion barrier (ODB) located in the nodule cortex. Flexibility of the ODB is important for the acclimation processes of nodules in response to changes in external oxygen concentration. The hypothesis of the present study was that there are additional molecular mechanisms involved. Nodule activity of Medicago truncatula plants were continuously monitored during a change from 21 to 25 or 30% oxygen around root nodules by measuring nodule H2 evolution. Within about 2 min of the increase in oxygen concentration, a steep decline in nitrogenase activity occurred. A quick recovery commenced about 8 min later. A qPCR-based analysis of the expression of genes for nitrogenase components showed a tendency toward upregulation during the recovery. The recovery resulted in a new constant activity after about 30 min, corresponding to approximately 90% of the pre-treatment level. An RNAseq-based comparative transcriptome profiling of nodules at that point in time revealed that genes for nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides, defensins, leghaemoglobin and chalcone and stilbene synthase were significantly upregulated when considered as a gene family. A gene for a nicotianamine synthase-like protein (Medtr1g084050) showed a strong increase in count number. The gene appears to be of importance for nodule functioning, as evidenced by its consistently high expression in nodules and a strong reaction to various environmental cues that influence nodule activity. A Tnt1-mutant that carries an insert in the coding sequence (cds) of that gene showed reduced nitrogen fixation and less efficient acclimation to an increased external oxygen concentration. It was concluded that sudden increases in oxygen concentration around nodules destroy nitrogenase, which is quickly counteracted by an increased neoformation of the enzyme. This reaction might be

  2. The increased concentration of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in red blood cells of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Przybylski, J; Skotnicka-Fedorowicz, B; Lisiecka, A; Siński, M; Abramczyk, P

    1997-12-01

    It has been recognised that high haemoglobin oxygen capacity is essential for the development of high blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. In the present study we have found increased concentration of 2,3 diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) in red blood cells of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) of Okamoto-Aoki strain. As 2,3-DPG is the major factor decreasing haemoglobin affinity to oxygen, our finding suggests that at given value of pO2 oxygen delivery to the tissue of SHR would be increased. Therefore increased concentration of 2,3-DPG in red blood cells of SHR would be of the pathophysiological meaning by promoting autoregulatory increase in total vascular resistance in this strain of rats. The mechanism responsible for enhanced synthesis of 2,3-DPG in SHR remains unclear. Intracellular alkalosis due to either hypocapnia and/or an enhanced activity of Na+/H+ antiporter occurring in SHR are the most plausible explanations for the above finding.

  3. Effects of increased inspired oxygen concentration on tissue oxygenation: theoretical considerations.

    PubMed

    Lumb, Andrew B; Nair, Sindhu

    2010-03-01

    Breathing increased fractional oxygen concentration (FiO2) is recommended for the treatment of tissue ischaemia. The theoretical benefits of increasing FiO2 on tissue oxygenation were evaluated using standard physiological equations. Assuming constant oxygen consumption by tissues throughout the length of a capillary, the oxygen content at 20 arbitrary points along a capillary was calculated. Using mathematical representations of the haemoglobin dissociation curve and an iterative approach to include the dissolved oxygen component of oxygen content, the oxygen partial pressure (PO2) profile along a capillary was estimated. High FiO2 concentrations cause large increases in PO2 at the arteriolar end of capillaries but these large PO2 values, caused by the extra dissolved oxygen, rapidly decline along the capillary. At the venular end of the capillary (the area of tissue most likely to be hypoxic), breathing oxygen causes only a modest improvement in PO2. Increasing FiO2 to treat tissue hypoxia has clear benefits, but a multimodal approach to management is required.

  4. Prevalence of increased canine pancreas-specific lipase concentrations in young dogs with parvovirus enteritis.

    PubMed

    Kalli, Irida V; Adamama-Moraitou, Katerina K; Patsika, Michael N; Pardali, Dimitra; Steiner, Jörg M; Suchodolski, Jan S; Menexes, George; Brellou, Georgia D; Rallis, Timoleon S

    2017-03-01

    Pancreatic abnormalities during canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis have not been studied prospectively. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic significance of canine serum pancreas-specific lipase (Spec cPL) concentration in dogs with CPV enteritis for the presence of acute pancreatitis (AP). Puppies with naturally occurring CPV enteritis were recruited and prospectively allocated into 2 groups according to normal or increased serum Spec cPL concentration. Clinical signs, laboratory findings, and pancreas-associated variables were compared between groups, and the impact of possible AP on disease course, duration of hospitalization, and outcome was assessed. Serum Spec cPL concentration in 35 puppies was above the upper limit of the RI in 17/35 (48.6%) dogs (Group A) and within the RI in 18 dogs (Group B). An increased serum lipase activity was present in 29/35 (82.9%) dogs, and Group A dogs had a higher serum lipase activity than Group B (P = .006). Serum Spec cPL in Group A dogs was positively correlated with serum lipase activity at the day of presentation (r = .667; P = .003) and day of discharge (r = .628; P = .007). No statistically significant difference was found between groups (P = .233) for the presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) (6/17 or 35.3% dogs Group A, and 8/18 or 44.4% dogs Group B), the disease course, duration of hospitalization, or outcome between groups. Increased serum Spec cPL is relatively common in dogs with CPV enteritis. However, such increases do not seem to correlate with the outcome of disease. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  5. Heavy metal (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, Se) concentrations in muscle and bone of four commercial fish caught in the central Adriatic Sea, Italy.

    PubMed

    Perugini, Monia; Visciano, Pierina; Manera, Maurizio; Zaccaroni, Annalisa; Olivieri, Vincenzo; Amorena, Michele

    2014-04-01

    Heavy metal (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Hg and Se) concentrations in the muscle and bone of four fish species (Mullus barbatus, Merluccius merluccius, Micromesistius poutassou, and Scomber scombrus) from the central Adriatic Sea were measured and the relationships between fish size (length and weight) and metal concentrations in the tissues were investigated. Samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrophotometry with automatic dual viewing. In the muscle, results of linear regression analysis showed that, except for mercury, significant relationships between metal concentrations and fish size were negative. Only mercury levels were positively correlated with Atlantic mackerel size (p < 0.05). No significant variations of heavy metal concentrations were observed in muscles of the examined species, but a significant difference (p < 0.01) was found for As, Cd, Pb, and Se concentrations in bone. All the investigated metals showed higher values in the muscle than in bone, except for lead and zinc. Regarding cadmium, lead, and mercury maximum levels, set for the edible portion by European legislation, several samples exceeded these values, confirming the heavy metal presence in species caught near the Jabuka Pit.

  6. Increased serum phosphate concentrations in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease treated with diuretics.

    PubMed

    Caravaca, Francisco; García-Pino, Guadalupe; Martínez-Gallardo, Rocío; Ferreira-Morong, Flavio; Luna, Enrique; Alvarado, Raúl; Ruiz-Donoso, Enrique; Chávez, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Serum phosphate concentrations usually show great variability in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (ACKD) not on dialysis. Diuretics treatment can have an influence over the severity of mineral-bone metabolism alterations related to ACKD, but their effect on serum phosphate levels is less known. This study aims to determine whether diuretics are independently associated with serum phosphate levels, and to investigate the mechanisms by which diuretics may affect phosphate metabolism. 429 Caucasian patients with CKD not on dialysis were included in this cross-sectional study. In addition to conventional serum biochemical measures, the following parameters of renal phosphate excretion were assessed: 24-hours urinary phosphate excretion, tubular maximum phosphate reabsorption (TmP), and fractional excretion of phosphate (FEP). 58% of patients were on treatment with diuretics. Patients on diuretics showed significantly higher mean serum phosphate concentration (4.78 ± 1.23 vs. 4.24 ± 1.04 mg/dl; P<.0001), and higher TmP per GFR (2.77 ± 0.72 vs. 2.43 ± 0.78 mg/dl; P<.0001) than those not treated with diuretics. By multivariate linear and logistic regression, significant associations between diuretics and serum phosphate concentrations or hyperphosphataemia remained after adjustment for potential confounding variables. In patients with the highest phosphate load adjusted to kidney function, those treated with diuretics showed significantly lower FEP than those untreated with diuretics. Treatment with diuretics is associated with increased serum phosphate concentrations in patients with ACKD. Diuretics may indirectly interfere with the maximum renal compensatory capacity to excrete phosphate. Diuretics should be considered in the studies linking the relationship between serum phosphate concentrations and cardiovascular alterations in patients with CKD.

  7. Aerobic Biofilms Grown from Athabasca Watershed Sediments Are Inhibited by Increasing Concentrations of Bituminous Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, John R.; Sanschagrin, Sylvie; Roy, Julie L.; Swerhone, George D. W.; Korber, Darren R.; Greer, Charles W.

    2013-01-01

    Sediments from the Athabasca River and its tributaries naturally contain bitumen at various concentrations, but the impacts of this variation on the ecology of the river are unknown. Here, we used controlled rotating biofilm reactors in which we recirculated diluted sediments containing various concentrations of bituminous compounds taken from the Athabasca River and three tributaries. Biofilms exposed to sediments having low and high concentrations of bituminous compounds were compared. The latter were 29% thinner, had a different extracellular polysaccharide composition, 67% less bacterial biomass per μm2, 68% less cyanobacterial biomass per μm2, 64% less algal biomass per μm2, 13% fewer protozoa per cm2, were 21% less productive, and had a 33% reduced content in chlorophyll a per mm2 and a 20% reduction in the expression of photosynthetic genes, but they had a 23% increase in the expression of aromatic hydrocarbon degradation genes. Within the Bacteria, differences in community composition were also observed, with relatively more Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria and less Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes in biofilms exposed to high concentrations of bituminous compounds. Altogether, our results suggest that biofilms that develop in the presence of higher concentrations of bituminous compounds are less productive and have lower biomass, linked to a decrease in the activities and abundance of photosynthetic organisms likely due to inhibitory effects. However, within this general inhibition, some specific microbial taxa and functional genes are stimulated because they are less sensitive to the inhibitory effects of bituminous compounds or can degrade and utilize some bitumen-associated compounds. PMID:24056457

  8. Agronomic Approach of Zinc Biofortification Can Increase Zinc Bioavailability in Wheat Flour and thereby Reduce Zinc Deficiency in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dunyi; Liu, Yumin; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Xinping; Zou, Chunqin

    2017-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a common disorder of humans in developing countries. The effect of Zn biofortification (via application of six rates of Zn fertilizer to soil) on Zn bioavailability in wheat grain and flour and its impacts on human health was evaluated. Zn bioavailability was estimated with a trivariate model that included Zn homeostasis in the human intestine. As the rate of Zn fertilization increased, the Zn concentration increased in all flour fractions, but the percentages of Zn in standard flour (25%) and bran (75%) relative to total grain Zn were constant. Phytic acid (PA) concentrations in grain and flours were unaffected by Zn biofortification. Zn bioavailability and the health impact, as indicated by disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) saved, increased with the Zn application rate and were greater in standard and refined flour than in whole grain and coarse flour. The biofortified standard and refined flour obtained with application of 50 kg/ha ZnSO4·7H2O met the health requirement (3 mg of Zn obtained from 300 g of wheat flour) and reduced DALYs by >20%. Although Zn biofortification increased Zn bioavailability in standard and refined flour, it did not reduce the bioavailability of iron, manganese, or copper in wheat flour. PMID:28481273

  9. Agronomic Approach of Zinc Biofortification Can Increase Zinc Bioavailability in Wheat Flour and thereby Reduce Zinc Deficiency in Humans.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dunyi; Liu, Yumin; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Xinping; Zou, Chunqin

    2017-05-06

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a common disorder of humans in developing countries. The effect of Zn biofortification (via application of six rates of Zn fertilizer to soil) on Zn bioavailability in wheat grain and flour and its impacts on human health was evaluated. Zn bioavailability was estimated with a trivariate model that included Zn homeostasis in the human intestine. As the rate of Zn fertilization increased, the Zn concentration increased in all flour fractions, but the percentages of Zn in standard flour (25%) and bran (75%) relative to total grain Zn were constant. Phytic acid (PA) concentrations in grain and flours were unaffected by Zn biofortification. Zn bioavailability and the health impact, as indicated by disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) saved, increased with the Zn application rate and were greater in standard and refined flour than in whole grain and coarse flour. The biofortified standard and refined flour obtained with application of 50 kg/ha ZnSO₄·7H₂O met the health requirement (3 mg of Zn obtained from 300 g of wheat flour) and reduced DALYs by >20%. Although Zn biofortification increased Zn bioavailability in standard and refined flour, it did not reduce the bioavailability of iron, manganese, or copper in wheat flour.

  10. Zn-Mn alloy coatings from acidic chloride bath: Effect of deposition conditions on the Zn-Mn electrodeposition-morphological and structural characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loukil, N.; Feki, M.

    2017-07-01

    Zn-Mn alloy electrodeposition on steel electrode in chloride bath was investigated using cyclic voltammetric, chronopotentiometric and chronoamperometric techniques. Cyclic voltammetries (CV) reveal a deep understanding of electrochemical behaviors of each metal Zn, Mn, proton discharge and Zn-Mn co-deposition. The electrochemical results show that with increasing Mn2+ ions concentration in the electrolytic bath, Mn2+ reduction occurs at lower over-potential leading to an enhancement of Mn content into the Zn-Mn deposits. A dimensionless graph model was used to analyze the effect of Mn2+ ions concentration on Zn-Mn nucleation process. It was found that the nucleation process is not extremely affected by Mn2+ concentration. Nevertheless, it significantly depends on the applied potential. Several parameters such as Mn2+ ions concentration, current density and stirring were investigated with regard to the Mn content into the final Zn-Mn coatings. It was found that the Mn content increases with increasing the applied current density jimp and Mn2+ ions concentration in the electrolytic bath. However, stirring of the solution decreases the Mn content in the Zn-Mn coatings. The phase structure and surface morphology of Zn-Mn deposits are characterized by means of X-ray diffraction analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), respectively. The Zn-Mn deposited at low current density is tri-phasic and consisting of η-Zn, ζ-MnZn13 and hexagonal close packed ε-Zn-Mn. An increase in current density leads to a transition from crystalline to amorphous structure, arising from the hydroxide inclusions in the Zn-Mn coating at high current density.

  11. Nanoparticle Self-Assembled Grain Like Curcumin Conjugated ZnO: Curcumin Conjugation Enhances Removal of Perylene, Fluoranthene, and Chrysene by ZnO

    PubMed Central

    Moussawi, Rasha N.; Patra, Digambara

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin conjugated ZnO, referred as Zn(cur)O, nanostructures have been successfully synthesized, these sub-micro grain-like structures are actually self-assemblies of individual needle-shaped nanoparticles. The nanostructures as synthesized possess the wurtzite hexagonal crystal structure of ZnO and exhibit very good crystalline quality. FT-Raman and TGA analysis establish that Zn(cur)O is different from curcumin anchored ZnO (ZnO@cur), which is prepared by physically adsorbing curcumin on ZnO surfaces. Chemically Zn(cur)O is more stable than ZnO@cur. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy indicates Zn(cur)O have more impurities compared to ZnO@cur. The solid-state photoluminescence of Zn(cur)O has been investigated, which demonstrates that increase of curcumin concentration in Zn(cur)O suppresses visible emission of ZnO prepared through the same method, this implies filling ZnO defects by curcumin. However, at excitation wavelength 425 nm the emission is dominated by fluorescence from curcumin. The study reveals that Zn(cur)O can remove to a far extent high concentrations of perylene, fluoranthene, and chrysene faster than ZnO. The removal depends on the extent of curcumin conjugation and is found to be faster for PAHs having smaller number of aromatic rings, particularly, it is exceptional for fluoranthene with 93% removal after 10 minutes in the present conditions. The high rate of removal is related to photo-degradation and a mechanism has been proposed. PMID:27080002

  12. A highly concentrated diet increases biogas production and the agronomic value of young bull's manure.

    PubMed

    Mendonça Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de; Lucas, Jorge de; Mendonça Costa, Luiz Antonio de; Orrico, Ana Carolina Amorim

    2016-02-01

    The increasing demand for animal protein has driven significant changes in cattle breeding systems, mainly in feedlots, with the use of young bulls fed on diets richer in concentrate (C) than in forage (F). These changes are likely to affect animal manure, demanding re-evaluation of the biogas production per kg of TS and VS added, as well as of its agronomic value as a biofertilizer, after anaerobic digestion. Here, we determined the biogas production and agronomic value (i.e., the macronutrient concentration in the final biofertilizer) of the manure of young bulls fed on diets with more (80% C+20% F; 'HighC' diet) or less (65% C+35% F; 'LowC' diet) concentrate, evaluating the effects of temperature (25, 35, and 40°C) and the use of an inoculum, during anaerobic digestion. A total of 24 benchtop reactors were used, operating in a semi-continuous system, with a 40-day hydraulic retention time (HRT). The manure from animals given the HighC diet had the greatest potential for biogas production, when digested with the use of an inoculum and at 35 or 40°C (0.6326 and 0.6207m(3)biogas/kg volatile solids, or VS, respectively). We observed the highest levels of the macronutrients N, P, and K in the biofertilizer from the manure of animals given HighC. Our results show that the manure of young bulls achieves its highest potential for biogas production and agronomic value when animals are fed diets richer in concentrate, and that biogas production increases if digestion is performed at higher temperatures, and with the use of an inoculum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Increased Platelet Concentration does not Improve Functional Graft Healing in Bio-Enhanced ACL Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Braden C.; Proffen, Benedikt L.; Vavken, Patrick; Shalvoy, Matthew R.; Machan, Jason T.; Murray, Martha M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The use of an extra-cellular matrix scaffold (ECM) combined with platelets to enhance healing of an ACL graft (“bio-enhanced ACL reconstruction”) has shown promise in animal models. However, the effects of platelet concentration on graft healing remains unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine if increasing the platelet concentration in the ECM scaffold would; 1) improve the graft biomechanical properties, and 2) decrease cartilage damage after surgery. Methods Fifty-five adolescent minipigs were randomized to 5 treatment groups; untreated ACL transection (n=10), conventional ACL reconstruction (n=15), and bio-enhanced ACL reconstruction using 1X (n=10), 3X (n=10) or 5X (n=10) platelet-rich plasma. The graft biomechanical properties, anteroposterior (AP) knee laxity, graft histology and macroscopic cartilage integrity were measured at 15 weeks. Results The mean linear stiffness of the bio-enhanced ACL reconstruction procedure using the 1X preparation was significantly greater than traditional reconstruction while the 3X and 5X preparations were not. The failure loads of all the ACL reconstructed groups were equivalent but significantly greater than untreated ACL transection. There were no significant differences in the ligament maturity index or AP laxity between reconstructed knees. Macroscopic cartilage damage was relatively minor, though significantly less when the ECM-platelet composite was used. Conclusions Only the 1X platelet concentration improved healing over traditional ACL reconstruction. Increasing the platelet concentration from 1X to 5X in the ECM scaffold did not further improve the graft mechanical properties. The use of an ECM-platelet composite decreased the amount of cartilage damage seen after ACL surgery. PMID:24633008

  14. Increased platelet concentration does not improve functional graft healing in bio-enhanced ACL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Braden C; Proffen, Benedikt L; Vavken, Patrick; Shalvoy, Matthew R; Machan, Jason T; Murray, Martha M

    2015-04-01

    The use of an extracellular matrix scaffold (ECM) combined with platelets to enhance healing of an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft ("bio-enhanced ACL reconstruction") has shown promise in animal models. However, the effects of platelet concentration on graft healing remain unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine whether increasing the platelet concentration in the ECM scaffold would (1) improve the graft biomechanical properties and (2) decrease cartilage damage after surgery. Fifty-five adolescent minipigs were randomized to five treatment groups: untreated ACL transection (n = 10), conventional ACL reconstruction (n = 15) and bio-enhanced ACL reconstruction using 1× (n = 10), 3× (n = 10) or 5× (n = 10) platelet-rich plasma. The graft biomechanical properties, anteroposterior (AP) knee laxity, graft histology and macroscopic cartilage integrity were measured at 15 weeks. The mean linear stiffness of the bio-enhanced ACL reconstruction procedure using the 1× preparation was significantly greater than traditional reconstruction, while the 3× and 5× preparations were not. The failure loads of all the ACL-reconstructed groups were equivalent but significantly greater than untreated ACL transection. There were no significant differences in the Ligament Maturity Index or AP laxity between reconstructed knees. Macroscopic cartilage damage was relatively minor, though significantly less when the ECM-platelet composite was used. Only the 1× platelet concentration improved healing over traditional ACL reconstruction. Increasing the platelet concentration from 1× to 5× in the ECM scaffold did not further improve the graft mechanical properties. The use of an ECM-platelet composite decreased the amount of cartilage damage seen after ACL surgery.

  15. Rhabdomyolysis and Artifactual Increase in Plasma Bicarbonate Concentration in an Amazon Parrot (Amazona species).

    PubMed

    Leissinger, Mary K; Johnson, James G; Tully, Thomas N; Gaunt, Stephen D

    2017-09-01

    A 7-year-old male Amazon parrot housed outdoors presented with acute collapse, marked lethargy, and open-mouth breathing. The patient had stiffness of the pectoral muscles, and petechiation and ecchymosis noted around the eyes and beneath the mandible. Laboratory data revealed markedly increased aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase activity consistent with rhabdomyolysis, as well as markedly increased plasma bicarbonate concentration. Marked clinical improvement and resolution of laboratory abnormalities occurred with fluid therapy, administration of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication, and husbandry modifications, including indoor housing and dietary alteration. A spurious increase in bicarbonate measurement as documented in equine and bovine cases of rhabdomyolysis also occurred in this avian patient and must be considered for accurate interpretation of acid-base status in exotic species presenting with consistent clinical signs.

  16. Rapid Adjustments Cause Weak Surface Temperature Response to Increased Black Carbon Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stjern, Camilla Weum; Samset, Bjørn Hallvard; Myhre, Gunnar; Forster, Piers M.; Hodnebrog, Øivind; Andrews, Timothy; Boucher, Olivier; Faluvegi, Gregory; Iversen, Trond; Kasoar, Matthew; Kharin, Viatcheslav; Kirkevâg, Alf; Lamarque, Jean-François; Olivié, Dirk; Richardson, Thomas; Shawki, Dilshad; Shindell, Drew; Smith, Christopher J.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Voulgarakis, Apostolos

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the climate response to increased concentrations of black carbon (BC), as part of the Precipitation Driver Response Model Intercomparison Project (PDRMIP). A tenfold increase in BC is simulated by nine global coupled-climate models, producing a model median effective radiative forcing of 0.82 (ranging from 0.41 to 2.91) W m-2, and a warming of 0.67 (0.16 to 1.66) K globally and 1.24 (0.26 to 4.31) K in the Arctic. A strong positive instantaneous radiative forcing (median of 2.10 W m-2 based on five of the models) is countered by negative rapid adjustments (-0.64 W m-2 for the same five models), which dampen the total surface temperature signal. Unlike other drivers of climate change, the response of temperature and cloud profiles to the BC forcing is dominated by rapid adjustments. Low-level cloud amounts increase for all models, while higher-level clouds are diminished. The rapid temperature response is particularly strong above 400 hPa, where increased atmospheric stabilization and reduced cloud cover contrast the response pattern of the other drivers. In conclusion, we find that this substantial increase in BC concentrations does have considerable impacts on important aspects of the climate system. However, some of these effects tend to offset one another, leaving a relatively small median global warming of 0.47 K per W m-2—about 20% lower than the response to a doubling of CO2. Translating the tenfold increase in BC to the present-day impact of anthropogenic BC (given the emissions used in this work) would leave a warming of merely 0.07 K.

  17. Facilitated citrate-dependent iron translocation increases rice endosperm iron and zinc concentrations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting-Ying; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Bhullar, Navreet K

    2018-05-01

    Iron deficiency affects one third of the world population. Most iron biofortification strategies have focused on genes involved in iron uptake and storage but facilitating internal long-distance iron translocation has been understudied for increasing grain iron concentrations. Citrate is a primary iron chelator, and the transporter FERRIC REDUCTASE DEFECTIVE 3 (FRD3) loads citrate into the xylem. We have expressed AtFRD3 in combination with AtNAS1 (NICOTIANAMINE SYNTHASE 1) and PvFER (FERRITIN) or with PvFER alone to facilitate long-distance iron transport together with efficient iron uptake and storage in the rice endosperm. The citrate and iron concentrations in the xylem sap of transgenic plants increased two-fold compared to control plants. Iron and zinc levels increased significantly in polished and unpolished rice grains to more than 70% of the recommended estimated average requirement (EAR) for iron and 140% of the recommended EAR for zinc in polished rice grains. Furthermore, the transformed lines showed normal phenotypic growth, were tolerant to iron deficiency and aluminum toxicity, and had grain cadmium levels similar to control plants. Together, our results demonstrate that deploying FRD for iron biofortification has no obvious anti-nutritive effects and should be considered as an effective strategy for reducing human iron deficiency anemia. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Increase of radiocarbon concentration in tree rings from Kujawy (SE Poland) around AD 774-775

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakowski, Andrzej Z.; Krąpiec, Marek; Huels, Mathias; Pawlyta, Jacek; Dreves, Alexander; Meadows, John

    2015-10-01

    Evidence of a rapid increase in atmospheric radiocarbon (14C) content in AD 774-775 was presented by Miyake et al. (2012), who observed an increase of about 12‰ in the 14C content in annual tree rings from Japanese cedar. Usoskin et al. (2013) report a similar 14C spike in German oak, and attribute it to exceptional solar activity. If this phenomenon is global in character, such rapid changes in 14C concentration may affect the accuracy of calibrated dates, as the existing calibration curve is composed mainly of decadal samples. Single-year samples of dendro-chronologically dated tree rings of deciduous oak (Quercus robur) from Kujawy, a village near Krakow (SE Poland), spanning the years AD 765-796, were collected and their 14C content was measured using the AMS system in the Leibniz Laboratory. The results clearly show a rapid increase of 9.2 ± 2.1‰ in the 14C concentration in tree rings between AD 774 and AD 775, with maximum Δ14C = 4.1 ± 2.3‰ noted in AD 776.

  19. Changes in soil solution Zn and pH and uptake of Zn by arbuscular mycorrhizal red clover in Zn-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Christie, P

    2001-01-01

    Red clover plants inoculated with Glomus mosseae were grown in a sterile pasture soil containing 50 mg Zn kg(-1) in 'Plexiglas' (acrylic) containers with nylon net partitions (30 microm mesh) designed to separate the soil into a central root zone and two outer zones for hyphal growth with no root penetration. Two porous plastic soil moisture samplers were installed in each pot, one in the root compartment and the other in one of the hyphal compartments. The soil in the outer compartments was amended with one of the four application rates of Zn (as ZnSO4) ranging from 0 to 1000 mg kg(-1). Non-mycorrhizal controls were included, and there were five replicates of each treatment in a randomised block in a glasshouse. Uninoculated plants received supplementary P to avoid yield limitation due to low soil P status. Plants grew in the central compartment for nine weeks. Soil moisture samples were collected 4, 24 and 62 days after sowing to monitor changes in the Zn concentration and pH of the soil solution. At harvest, the mean mycorrhizal infection rate of inoculated plants ranged from 29% to 34% of total root length and was little affected by Zn application. Root and shoot yields were not affected by mycorrhizal infection. Plant Zn concentration and uptake were lower in mycorrhizal plants than non-mycorrhizal controls, and this effect was more pronounced with increasing Zn application rate to the soil. Soil solution Zn concentrations were lower and pH values were higher in mycorrhizal treatments than non-mycorrhizal controls and the mycorrhiza effect was more pronounced at higher Zn application rates. The protective effect of mycorrhiza against plant Zn uptake may have been associated with changes in Zn solubility mediated by changes in the soil solution pH, or by immobilisation of Zn in the extraradical mycelium.

  20. Increased passive stiffness promotes diastolic dysfunction despite improved Ca2+ handling during left ventricular concentric hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Røe, Åsmund T.; Aronsen, Jan Magnus; Skårdal, Kristine; Hamdani, Nazha; Linke, Wolfgang A.; Danielsen, Håvard E.; Sejersted, Ole M.; Sjaastad, Ivar; Louch, William E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aims Concentric hypertrophy following pressure-overload is linked to preserved systolic function but impaired diastolic function, and is an important substrate for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. While increased passive stiffness of the myocardium is a suggested mechanism underlying diastolic dysfunction in these hearts, the contribution of active diastolic Ca2+ cycling in cardiomyocytes remains unclear. In this study, we sought to dissect contributions of passive and active mechanisms to diastolic dysfunction in the concentrically hypertrophied heart following pressure-overload. Methods and results Rats were subjected to aortic banding (AB), and experiments were performed 6 weeks after surgery using sham-operated rats as controls. In vivo ejection fraction and fractional shortening were normal, confirming preservation of systolic function. Left ventricular concentric hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction following AB were indicated by thickening of the ventricular wall, reduced peak early diastolic tissue velocity, and higher E/e’ values. Slowed relaxation was also observed in left ventricular muscle strips isolated from AB hearts, during both isometric and isotonic stimulation, and accompanied by increases in passive tension, viscosity, and extracellular collagen. An altered titin phosphorylation profile was observed with hypophosphorylation of the phosphosites S4080 and S3991 sites within the N2Bus, and S12884 within the PEVK region. Increased titin-based stiffness was confirmed by salt-extraction experiments. In contrast, isolated, unloaded cardiomyocytes exhibited accelerated relaxation in AB compared to sham, and less contracture at high pacing frequencies. Parallel enhancement of diastolic Ca2+ handling was observed, with augmented NCX and SERCA2 activity and lowered resting cytosolic [Ca2+]. Conclusion In the hypertrophied heart with preserved systolic function, in vivo diastolic dysfunction develops as cardiac fibrosis and

  1. Association of Low Serum Concentration of Bilirubin with Increased Risk of Coronary Artery Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    g AD-A276 272... 08/17/93 Association of Low Serum Concentration of Bilirubin IN-House with Increased Risk of Coronary Artery Disease PE 62202F...as possible risk factors for angiographicaiiy documenLed coronary artery disease (CAD). The studies involved a "training" set of 619 men for whom...complete data on all risk factors considered were available, and a "test" set of 258 men for whom some risk factor data were not available. In both study

  2. Increase in forest water-use efficiency as atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations rise.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Trevor F; Hollinger, David Y; Bohrer, Gil; Dragoni, Danilo; Munger, J William; Schmid, Hans Peter; Richardson, Andrew D

    2013-07-18

    Terrestrial plants remove CO2 from the atmosphere through photosynthesis, a process that is accompanied by the loss of water vapour from leaves. The ratio of water loss to carbon gain, or water-use efficiency, is a key characteristic of ecosystem function that is central to the global cycles of water, energy and carbon. Here we analyse direct, long-term measurements of whole-ecosystem carbon and water exchange. We find a substantial increase in water-use efficiency in temperate and boreal forests of the Northern Hemisphere over the past two decades. We systematically assess various competing hypotheses to explain this trend, and find that the observed increase is most consistent with a strong CO2 fertilization effect. The results suggest a partial closure of stomata-small pores on the leaf surface that regulate gas exchange-to maintain a near-constant concentration of CO2 inside the leaf even under continually increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. The observed increase in forest water-use efficiency is larger than that predicted by existing theory and 13 terrestrial biosphere models. The increase is associated with trends of increasing ecosystem-level photosynthesis and net carbon uptake, and decreasing evapotranspiration. Our findings suggest a shift in the carbon- and water-based economics of terrestrial vegetation, which may require a reassessment of the role of stomatal control in regulating interactions between forests and climate change, and a re-evaluation of coupled vegetation-climate models.

  3. Increasing serotonin concentrations alter calcium and energy metabolism in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Laporta, Jimena; Moore, Spencer A E; Weaver, Samantha R; Cronick, Callyssa M; Olsen, Megan; Prichard, Austin P; Schnell, Brian P; Crenshaw, Thomas D; Peñagaricano, Francisco; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Hernandez, Laura L

    2015-07-01

    A 4×4 Latin square design in which varied doses (0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/kg) of 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP, a serotonin precursor) were intravenously infused into late-lactation, non-pregnant Holstein dairy cows was used to determine the effects of serotonin on calcium and energy metabolism. Infusion periods lasted 4 days, with a 5-day washout between periods. Cows were infused at a constant rate for 1 h each day. Blood was collected pre- and 5, 10, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min post-infusion, urine was collected pre- and post-infusion, and milk was collected daily. All of the 5-HTP doses increased systemic serotonin as compared to the 0 mg/kg dose, and the 1.0 and 1.5 mg/kg doses increased circulating glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and decreased beta-hydroxybutyrate (βHBA) concentrations. Treatment of cows with either 1.0 or 1.5 mg/kg 5-HTP doses decreased urine calcium elimination, and the 1.5 mg/kg dose increased milk calcium concentrations. No differences were detected in the heart rates, respiration rates, or body temperatures of the cows; however, manure scores and defecation frequency were affected. Indeed, cows that received 5-HTP defecated more, and the consistency of their manure was softer. Treatment of late-lactation dairy cows with 5-HTP improved energy metabolism, decreased loss of calcium into urine, and increased calcium secretion into milk. Further research should target the effects of increasing serotonin during the transition period to determine any benefits for post-parturient calcium and glucose metabolism. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  4. Climatic warming increases winter wheat yield but reduces grain nitrogen concentration in east China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yunlu; Zheng, Chengyan; Chen, Jin; Chen, Changqing; Deng, Aixing; Song, Zhenwei; Zhang, Baoming; Zhang, Weijian

    2014-01-01

    Climatic warming is often predicted to reduce wheat yield and grain quality in China. However, direct evidence is still lacking. We conducted a three-year experiment with a Free Air Temperature Increase (FATI) facility to examine the responses of winter wheat growth and plant N accumulation to a moderate temperature increase of 1.5°C predicted to prevail by 2050 in East China. Three warming treatments (AW: all-day warming; DW: daytime warming; NW: nighttime warming) were applied for an entire growth period. Consistent warming effects on wheat plant were recorded across the experimental years. An increase of ca. 1.5°C in daily, daytime and nighttime mean temperatures shortened the length of pre-anthesis period averagely by 12.7, 8.3 and 10.7 d (P<0.05), respectively, but had no significant impact on the length of the post-anthesis period. Warming did not significantly alter the aboveground biomass production, but the grain yield was 16.3, 18.1 and 19.6% (P<0.05) higher in the AW, DW and NW plots than the non-warmed plot, respectively. Warming also significantly increased plant N uptake and total biomass N accumulation. However, warming significantly reduced grain N concentrations while increased N concentrations in the leaves and stems. Together, our results demonstrate differential impacts of warming on the depositions of grain starch and protein, highlighting the needs to further understand the mechanisms that underlie warming impacts on plant C and N metabolism in wheat.

  5. Increase The Sugar Concentration of The Solution Sugar by Reverse Osmotic Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redjeki, S.; Hapsari, N.; Iriani

    2018-01-01

    Sugar is one of the basic needs of people and food and drink industry. As technology advances and the demand for efficient usage of sugar rises, crystal sugar is seen as less advantageous than liquid sugar. If sugar is always dissolved in water before use, then it will be more efficient and practical for consumers to use sugar in liquid form than in crystal form. Other than that, liquid sugar is also attractive to consumers because it is economical, hygienic, instantly soluble in hot and cold water, fresher and longer-lasting, able to thicken and enrich the texture of foods and drinks, and functions as sweetener, syrup, and flavor enhancer. Liquid sugar is also more beneficial for sugar producers because of simpler production process, cheaper production cost, and similar yield with no extra cost. In sugar production, separation process is found in most of its stages and therefore the use of membrane technology for separating solute and water content has a good potential. In this research, water content reduction of sugar solution was done in order to increase the sugar concentration of the solution. The parameters of this research were 4%, 5%, and 6% starting concentration of sugar solution; 20, 40, and 60 minutes of process time; and 85 and 60 PSI ΔP. The best result was acquired on 4% starting concentration, 60 PSI ΔP, and 60 minutes process time.

  6. Increased palmitate intake: higher acylcarnitine concentrations without impaired progression of β-oxidation1[S

    PubMed Central

    Kien, C. Lawrence; Matthews, Dwight E.; Poynter, Matthew E.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Fukagawa, Naomi K.; Crain, Karen I.; Ebenstein, David B.; Tarleton, Emily K.; Stevens, Robert D.; Koves, Timothy R.; Muoio, Deborah M.

    2015-01-01

    Palmitic acid (PA) is associated with higher blood concentrations of medium-chain acylcarnitines (MCACs), and we hypothesized that PA may inhibit progression of FA β-oxidation. Using a cross-over design, 17 adults were fed high PA (HPA) and low PA/high oleic acid (HOA) diets, each for 3 weeks. The [1-13C]PA and [13-13C]PA tracers were administered with food in random order with each diet, and we assessed PA oxidation (PA OX) and serum AC concentration to determine whether a higher PA intake promoted incomplete PA OX. Dietary PA was completely oxidized during the HOA diet, but only about 40% was oxidized during the HPA diet. The [13-13C]PA/[1-13C]PA ratio of PA OX had an approximate value of 1.0 for either diet, but the ratio of the serum concentrations of MCACs to long-chain ACs (LCACs) was significantly higher during the HPA diet. Thus, direct measurement of PA OX did not confirm that the HPA diet caused incomplete PA OX, despite the modest, but statistically significant, increase in the ratio of MCACs to LCACs in blood. PMID:26156077

  7. Increased palmitate intake: higher acylcarnitine concentrations without impaired progression of β-oxidation.

    PubMed

    Kien, C Lawrence; Matthews, Dwight E; Poynter, Matthew E; Bunn, Janice Y; Fukagawa, Naomi K; Crain, Karen I; Ebenstein, David B; Tarleton, Emily K; Stevens, Robert D; Koves, Timothy R; Muoio, Deborah M

    2015-09-01

    Palmitic acid (PA) is associated with higher blood concentrations of medium-chain acylcarnitines (MCACs), and we hypothesized that PA may inhibit progression of FA β-oxidation. Using a cross-over design, 17 adults were fed high PA (HPA) and low PA/high oleic acid (HOA) diets, each for 3 weeks. The [1-(13)C]PA and [13-(13)C]PA tracers were administered with food in random order with each diet, and we assessed PA oxidation (PA OX) and serum AC concentration to determine whether a higher PA intake promoted incomplete PA OX. Dietary PA was completely oxidized during the HOA diet, but only about 40% was oxidized during the HPA diet. The [13-(13)C]PA/[1-(13)C]PA ratio of PA OX had an approximate value of 1.0 for either diet, but the ratio of the serum concentrations of MCACs to long-chain ACs (LCACs) was significantly higher during the HPA diet. Thus, direct measurement of PA OX did not confirm that the HPA diet caused incomplete PA OX, despite the modest, but statistically significant, increase in the ratio of MCACs to LCACs in blood. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Mechanical ventilation increases substance P concentration in the vagus, sympathetic, and phrenic nerves.

    PubMed

    Balzamo, E; Joanny, P; Steinberg, J G; Oliver, C; Jammes, Y

    1996-01-01

    Substance P (SP), a neurotransmitter localized to primary sensory neurons, is found in the vagus nerve, nodose ganglion, sympathetic chain, and phrenic nerve in various animal species. However, the changes in endogeneous SP concentration under various circumstances that involve the participation of cardiorespiratory afferent nerves are still unexplored. In the present study, attention was focused on the variations in SP content measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in respiratory afferent nerves (vagus nerve, cervical sympathetic chain, phrenic nerve) and respiratory muscles (diaphragm, intercostal muscles) during positive inspiratory pressure (PIP) breathing alone or PIP with an expiratory threshold load (ETL) in rabbits. SP was found in all sampled structures in spontaneously breathing control animals, prevailing in the nodose ganglion. Left-versus right-sided differences were noticed in nerves. As compared with that in control animals, the SP concentration was markedly higher in vagal and sympathetic nervous structures during PIP or PIP with ETL, and also in the phrenic nerve during ETL breathing. The SP content did not vary in respiratory muscles. These observations suggest that two very common circumstances of mechanical ventilation are associated with an increased SP concentration in nervous structures participating in the control of breathing.

  9. Cobicistat Significantly Increases Tacrolimus Serum Concentrations in a Renal Transplant Recipient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhe; Kane, Brenna M; Petty, Lindsay A; Josephson, Michelle A; Sutor, Jozefa; Pursell, Kenneth J

    2016-06-01

    Cobicistat is a pharmacokinetic booster in several fixed-dose combination products for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. As a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A enzymes, significant drug-drug interactions are expected between cobicistat and medications that are metabolized primarily through the CYP3A pathway, including calcineurin inhibitors (e.g., tacrolimus and cyclosporine). We describe a case of tacrolimus toxicity due to supratherapeutic tacrolimus concentrations when Stribild (elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) was initiated for newly diagnosed HIV infection in a 50-year-old renal transplant recipient who was previously receiving a stable tacrolimus regimen. Drug-drug interaction via CYP3A inhibition was acknowledged, and weekly labs were ordered to allow for close monitoring of renal function and tacrolimus serum concentrations as recommended by Stribild prescribing information. The patient reported headache, insomnia, stomachache, and decreased urine output within 1 week of starting Stribild and was found to have acute kidney injury (serum creatinine [S cr ]concentration increasing from 1.5-2.3 mg/dl) and a serum tacrolimus concentration of 111.2 ng/ml at 1 week follow-up (goal trough level 4-6 ng/ml). Both tacrolimus and Stribild were withheld. In 15 days, the patient's tacrolimus serum concentration returned to goal. In the interim, he required twice/week clinic visits for laboratory assessments and an emergency department visit for management of hyperkalemia (potassium 6.5 mEq/L). Triumeq (abacavir, dolutegravir, and lamivudine) was started about 4 weeks later after S cr returned to baseline, and his tacrolimus serum trough concentrations subsequently remained stable. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing the extent, significance, and onset of cobicistat and tacrolimus drug-drug interaction in clinical practice. As more fixed-dose combination products

  10. Nanomaterial containing wall paints can increase radon concentration in houses located in radon prone areas.

    PubMed

    Haghani, M; Mortazavi, S M J; Faghihi, R; Mehdizadeh, S; Moradgholi, J; Darvish, L; Fathi-Pour, E; Ansari, L; Ghanbar-Pour, M R

    2013-09-01

    Nowadays, extensive technological advancements have made it possible to use nanopaints which show exciting properties. In IR Iran excessive radon levels (up to 3700 Bq m-3) have been reported in homes located in radon prone areas. Over the past decades, concerns have been raised about the risk posed by residential radon exposure. This study aims at investigating the effect of using nanomaterial containing wall paints on radon concentration in homes. Two wooden model houses were used in this study. Soil samples from Ramsar high background radiation areas were used for simulating the situation of a typical house in radon-prone areas. Conventional water-soluble wall paint was used for painting the walls of the 1st house model; while the 2nd house model was painted with the same wall paint with montmorillonitenanoclay. Three days after sealing the house models, radon level was measured by using a portable radon survey meter. The mean radon level inside the 1st house model (conventional paint) was 515.3 ± 17.8 Bq/m(3) while the mean radon concentration in the 2nd house model (nano-painted house model) was 570.8 ± 18.5 Bq/m(3). The difference between these means was statistically significant (P<0.001). To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first investigation on the effect of nano-material containing wall paints on indoor radon concentrations.  It can be concluded that nano-material-containing wall paints should not be used in houses with wooden walls located in radon prone areas. Although the mechanism of this effect is not clearly known, decreased porosity in nano-paints might be a key factor in increasing the radon concentration in homes.

  11. Nanomaterial Containing Wall Paints Can Increase Radon Concentration in Houses Located in Radon Prone Areas

    PubMed Central

    Haghani, M.; Mortazavi, S. M. J.; Faghihi, R.; Mehdizadeh, S.; Moradgholi, J.; Darvish, L.; Fathi-Pour, E.; Ansari, L.; Ghanbar-pour, M. R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, extensive technological advancements have made it possible to use nanopaints which show exciting properties. In IR Iran excessive radon levels (up to 3700 Bq m–3) have been reported in homes located in radon prone areas. Over the past decades, concerns have been raised about the risk posed by residential radon exposure. Objective: This study aims at investigating the effect of using nanomaterial containing wall paints on radon concentration in homes. Methods: Two wooden model houses were used in this study. Soil samples from Ramsar high background radiation areas were used for simulating the situation of a typical house in radon-prone areas. Conventional water-soluble wall paint was used for painting the walls of the 1st house model; while the 2nd house model was painted with the same wall paint with montmorillonitenanoclay. Results: Three days after sealing the house models, radon level was measured by using a portable radon survey meter. The mean radon level inside the 1st house model (conventional paint) was 515.3 ± 17.8 Bq/m3 while the mean radon concentration in the 2nd house model (nano-painted house model) was 570.8 ± 18.5 Bq/m3. The difference between these means was statistically significant (P<0.001). Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first investigation on the effect of nano-material containing wall paints on indoor radon concentrations.  It can be concluded that nano-material-containing wall paints should not be used in houses with wooden walls located in radon prone areas. Although the mechanism of this effect is not clearly known, decreased porosity in nano-paints might be a key factor in increasing the radon concentration in homes. PMID:25505754

  12. Increased Serum and Urinary Oxytocin Concentrations after Nasal Administration in Beagle Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Temesi, Andrea; Thuróczy, Julianna; Balogh, Lajos; Miklósi, Ádám

    2017-01-01

    In recent years more and more studies have revealed the effect of extraneous oxytocin on the social behavior of dogs. The distribution of administered oxytocin in different physiologically relevant compartments is important because this knowledge forms the basis for the timing of behavior tests after the administration. Most behavioral studies rely on the non-invasive intranasal application of oxytocin. The aim of this study was to determine the time course of intranasal administered oxytocin secretion into blood and urine and also establish a connection between intranasal received oxytocin and urinary cortisol in dogs. In our experiment, four dogs received three puffs, 12 IU intranasal oxytocin treatment, two dogs received three puffs intranasal placebo treatment. Blood and urine samples were collected immediately prior to the administration then regularly during 4 h. After nasal oxytocin application, the serum oxytocin concentration increased, reached a maximum 15 min after the treatment and then rapidly returned to baseline levels 45 min later. The peak urinary oxytocin concentration occurred between 45 and 60 min after administration and returned to baseline levels slowly. We found considerable differences among individuals in the secretion of oxytocin in both the serum and the urinary oxytocin concentration measurements. Our results confirm that intranasally administered oxytocin passes into the blood stream. The time course of intranasally administered oxytocin secretion is similar to the time course of intravenously administered oxytocin secretion, and the peak values are also similar in both the serum and the urinary oxytocin concentration measurements, although there are large individual differences. PMID:28929104

  13. The CYP2C8 inhibitor trimethoprim increases the plasma concentrations of repaglinide in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Niemi, Mikko; Kajosaari, Lauri I; Neuvonen, Mikko; Backman, Janne T; Neuvonen, Pertti J

    2004-01-01

    Aims Our aim was to investigate the effect of the CYP2C8 inhibitor trimethoprim on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antidiabetic drug repaglinide, and to examine the influence of the former on the metabolism of the latter in vitro. Methods In a randomized, double-blind, crossover study with two phases, nine healthy volunteers took 160 mg trimethoprim or placebo orally twice daily for 3 days. On day 3, 1 h after the last dose of trimethoprim or placebo, they ingested a single 0.25 mg dose of repaglinide. Plasma repaglinide and blood glucose concentrations were measured for up to 7 h post-dose. In addition, the effect of trimethoprim on the metabolism of repaglinide by human liver microsomes was investigated. Results Trimethoprim raised the AUC(0,∞) and Cmax of repaglinide by 61% (range, 30–117%; P = 0.0008) and 41% (P = 0.005), respectively, and prolonged the t½ of repaglinide from 0.9 to 1.1 h (P = 0.001). Trimethoprim had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of its aromatic amine metabolite (M1), but decreased the M1 : repaglinide AUC(0,∞) ratio by 38% (P = 0.0005). No effect of trimethoprim on the blood glucose-lowering effect of repaglinide was detectable. In vitro, trimethoprim inhibited the metabolism of (220 nm) repaglinide in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusions Trimethoprim raised the plasma concentrations of repaglinide probably by inhibiting its CYP2C8-mediated biotransformation. Although the interaction did not significantly enhance the effect of repaglinide on blood glucose concentration at the drug doses used, the possibility of an increased risk of hypoglycaemia should be considered during concomitant use of trimethoprim and repaglinide in patients with diabetes. PMID:15025742

  14. Intraileal casein infusion increases plasma concentrations of amino acids in humans: A randomized cross over trial.

    PubMed

    Ripken, Dina; van Avesaat, Mark; Troost, Freddy J; Masclee, Ad A; Witkamp, Renger F; Hendriks, Henk F

    2017-02-01

    Activation of the ileal brake by casein induces satiety signals and reduces energy intake. However, adverse effects of intraileal casein administration have not been studied before. These adverse effects may include impaired amino acid digestion, absorption and immune activation. To investigate the effects of intraileal infusion of native casein on plasma amino acid appearance, immune activation and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. A randomized single-blind cross over study was performed in 13 healthy subjects (6 male; mean age 26 ± 2.9 years; mean body mass index 22.8 ± 0.4 kg/m -2 ), who were intubated with a naso-ileal feeding catheter. Thirty minutes after intake of a standardized breakfast, participants received an ileal infusion, containing either control (C) consisting of saline, a low-dose (17.2 kcal) casein (LP) or a high-dose (51.7 kcal) of casein (HP) over a period of 90 min. Blood samples were collected for analysis of amino acids (AAs), C-reactive protein (CRP), pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxylipins at regular intervals. Furthermore, GI symptom questionnaires were collected before, during and after ileal infusion. None of the subjects reported any GI symptoms before, during or after ileal infusion of C, LP and HP. Plasma concentrations of all AAs analyzed were significantly increased after infusion of HP as compared to C (p < 0.001), and most AAs were increased after infusion of LP (p < 0.001). In total, 12.49 ± 1.73 and 3.18 ± 0.87 g AAs were found in plasma after intraileal infusion of HP and LP, corresponding to 93 ± 13% (HP) and 72 ± 20% (LP) of AAs infused as casein, respectively. Ileal casein infusion did not affect plasma concentrations of CRP, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α. Infusion of HP resulted in a decreased concentration of 11,12-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid whereas none of the other oxylipins analyzed were affected. A single intraileal infusion of native casein results in a concentration and time dependent

  15. Inflammaging and Frailty Status Do Not Result in an Increased Extracellular Vesicle Concentration in Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Alberro, Ainhoa; Sáenz-Cuesta, Matías; Muñoz-Culla, Maider; Mateo-Abad, Maider; Gonzalez, Esperanza; Carrasco-Garcia, Estefania; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J.; Matheu, Ander; Vergara, Itziar; Otaegui, David

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as key players for intercellular communication. In the case of inflammation, several studies have reported that EV levels are increased in circulation during inflammatory episodes. Based on this, we investigated whether aging results in elevated EV number, as a basal proinflammatory status termed “inflammaging” has been described in aged individuals. Moreover, we also hypothesized that frailty and dependence conditions of the elderly could affect EV concentration in plasma. Results showed that inflammaging, frailty or dependence status do not result in EV increase, at least in the total number of EVs in circulation. These results open a new perspective for investigating the role of EVs in human aging and in the inflammaging process. PMID:27447627

  16. Inflammaging and Frailty Status Do Not Result in an Increased Extracellular Vesicle Concentration in Circulation.

    PubMed

    Alberro, Ainhoa; Sáenz-Cuesta, Matías; Muñoz-Culla, Maider; Mateo-Abad, Maider; Gonzalez, Esperanza; Carrasco-Garcia, Estefania; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J; Matheu, Ander; Vergara, Itziar; Otaegui, David

    2016-07-20

    In the last decades extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as key players for intercellular communication. In the case of inflammation, several studies have reported that EV levels are increased in circulation during inflammatory episodes. Based on this, we investigated whether aging results in elevated EV number, as a basal proinflammatory status termed "inflammaging" has been described in aged individuals. Moreover, we also hypothesized that frailty and dependence conditions of the elderly could affect EV concentration in plasma. Results showed that inflammaging, frailty or dependence status do not result in EV increase, at least in the total number of EVs in circulation. These results open a new perspective for investigating the role of EVs in human aging and in the inflammaging process.

  17. Effects of increasing size and changing europium activator concentration in KCaI3 scintillator crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, Adam C.; Zhuravleva, Mariya; Wu, Yuntao; Stand, Luis; Loyd, Matthew; Gokhale, Sasmit; Koschan, Merry; Melcher, Charles L.

    2016-09-01

    KCaI3:Eu crystals have been identified as very promising for use in spectroscopic detector applications related to nuclear nonproliferation and domestic security efforts. Initial studies have shown for small crystals a few mm3 in size with 3% europium dopant concentration, a high light yield of >70,000 ph/MeV and energy resolution of ≈3% at 662 keV is attainable which is comparable with the highest performance scintillators discovered. In this work, single crystals of KCaI3 with a range of Eu2+ doping between 0 and 5 at% substituting for Ca2+ were grown at 22 mm diameter and their performance for gamma-ray spectroscopy studied. Comparisons among crystals approximately Ø22 mm×22 mm (8.4 cm3 or ≈0.5 in3) provide a more accurate understanding of how scintillation performance changes with Eu doping and increased crystal size. KCaI3 in the undoped form is shown to be a highly efficient intrinsic scintillator with a defect-related emission at 404 nm which coexists with the Eu2+ 5d-4f emission in low dopant concentrations and is completely re-absorbed in more heavily doped crystals. For larger crystals, effects from self-absorption due to Eu activation become more evident by a near doubling of decay time for 0.5 in3 crystals as the activator is increased from 0.5 to 5.0 at% Eu. Comparisons of pulse-height spectra obtained for Ø22 mm×22 mm cylinders with varying Eu concentration suggests best performance is achieved using lower Eu additions closer to 0.5-1.0 at%. Using a modified crystal packaging featuring an offset reflector geometry, 0.5 in3 crystals of KCaI3:Eu can attain under 4% energy resolution at 662 keV.

  18. Increased concentration of iodide in airway secretions is associated with reduced respiratory syncytial virus disease severity.

    PubMed

    Derscheid, Rachel J; van Geelen, Albert; Berkebile, Abigail R; Gallup, Jack M; Hostetter, Shannon J; Banfi, Botond; McCray, Paul B; Ackermann, Mark R

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies have revealed that the human and nonrodent mammalian airway mucosa contains an oxidative host defense system. This three-component system consists of the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-producing enzymes dual oxidase (Duox)1 and Duox2, thiocyanate (SCN(-)), and secreted lactoperoxidase (LPO). The LPO-catalyzed reaction between H2O2 and SCN(-) yields the bactericidal hypothiocyanite (OSCN(-)) in airway surface liquid (ASL). Although SCN(-) is the physiological substrate of LPO, the Duox/LPO/halide system can generate hypoiodous acid when the iodide (I(-)) concentration is elevated in ASL. Because hypoiodous acid, but not OSCN(-), inactivates respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in cell culture, we used a lamb model of RSV to test whether potassium iodide (KI) could enhance this system in vivo. Newborn lambs received KI by intragastric gavage or were left untreated before intratracheal inoculation of RSV. KI treatment led to a 10-fold increase in ASL I(-) concentration, and this I(-) concentration was approximately 30-fold higher than that measured in the serum. Also, expiratory effort, gross lung lesions, and pulmonary expression of an RSV antigen and IL-8 were reduced in the KI-treated lambs as compared with nontreated control lambs. Inhibition of LPO activity significantly increased lesions, RSV mRNA, and antigen. Similar experiments in 3-week-old lambs demonstrated that KI administration was associated with reduced gross lesions, decreased RSV titers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and reduced RSV antigen expression. Overall, these data indicate that high-dose KI supplementation can be used in vivo to lessen the severity of RSV infections, potentially through the augmentation of mucosal oxidative defenses.

  19. Increased Nutrient Sensitivity and Plasma Concentrations of Enteral Hormones during Duodenal Nutrient Infusion in Functional Dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Bharucha, Adil E.; Camilleri, Michael; Burton, Duane D.; Thieke, Shannon L.; Feuerhak, Kelly J.; Basu, Ananda; Zinsmeister, Alan R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Functional dyspepsia is predominantly attributed to gastric sensorimotor dysfunctions. The contribution of intestinal chemosensitivity to symptoms is not understood. We evaluated symptoms and plasma hormones during enteral nutrient infusion and the association with impaired glucose tolerance and quality-of-life (QOL) scores in functional dyspepsia vs health. Design Enteral hormonal responses and symptoms were measured during isocaloric and isovolumic dextrose and lipid infusions into the duodenum in 30 patients with functional dyspepsia (n=27) or nausea and vomiting (n=3) and 35 healthy controls. Infusions were administered in randomized order over 120 minutes each, with a 120-minute washout. Cholecystokinin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, glucagonlike peptide 1 (GLP1), and peptide YY were measured during infusions. Results Moderate or more severe symptoms during lipid (4 controls vs 14 patients) and dextrose (1 control vs 12 patients) infusions were more prevalent in patients than controls (P≤.01), associated with higher dyspepsia symptom score (P=.01), worse QOL (P=.01), and greater plasma hormone concentrations (eg, GLP1 during lipid infusion). Moderate or more severe symptoms during enteral infusion explained 18%, and depression score explained 21%, of interpatient variation in QOL. Eight patients had impaired glucose tolerance, associated with greater plasma GLP1 and peptide YY concentrations during dextrose and lipid infusions, respectively. Conclusions Increased sensitivity to enteral dextrose and lipid infusions was associated with greater plasma enteral hormone concentrations, more severe daily symptoms, and worse QOL in functional dyspepsia. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that enteral hormones mediate increased intestinal sensitivity to nutrients in functional dyspepsia. PMID:25403365

  20. Increase in local protein concentration by field-inversion gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Henghang; Low, Teck Yew; Freeby, Steve; Paulus, Aran; Ramnarayanan, Kalpana; Cheng, Chung-Pui Paul; Leung, Hon-Chiu Eastwood

    2007-09-26

    Proteins that migrate through cross-linked polyacrylamide gels (PAGs) under the influence of a constant electric field experience negative factors, such as diffusion and non-specific trapping in the gel matrix. These negative factors reduce protein concentrations within a defined gel volume with increasing migration distance and, therefore, decrease protein separation efficiency. Enhancement of protein separation efficiency was investigated by implementing pulsed field-inversion gel electrophoresis (FIGE). Separation of model protein species and large protein complexes was compared between FIGE and constant field electrophoresis (CFE) in different percentages of PAGs. Band intensities of proteins in FIGE with appropriate ratios of forward and backward pulse times were superior to CFE despite longer running times. These results revealed an increase in band intensity per defined gel volume. A biphasic protein relative mobility shift was observed in percentages of PAGs up to 14%. However, the effect of FIGE on protein separation was stochastic at higher PAG percentage. Rat liver lysates subjected to FIGE in the second-dimension separation of two-dimensional polyarcylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE) showed a 20% increase in the number of discernible spots compared with CFE. Nine common spots from both FIGE and CFE were selected for peptide sequencing by mass spectrometry (MS), which revealed higher final ion scores of all nine protein spots from FIGE. Native protein complexes ranging from 800 kDa to larger than 2000 kDa became apparent using FIGE compared with CFE. The present investigation suggests that FIGE under appropriate conditions improves protein separation efficiency during PAGE as a result of increased local protein concentration. FIGE can be implemented with minimal additional instrumentation in any laboratory setting. Despite the tradeoff of longer running times, FIGE can be a powerful protein separation tool.

  1. Engineering of band gap states of amorphous SiZnSnO semiconductor as a function of Si doping concentration.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun Young; Heo, Keun; Cho, Kyung-Sang; Hwang, Sung Woo; Kim, Sangsig; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2016-11-04

    We investigated the band gap of SiZnSnO (SZTO) with different Si contents. Band gap engineering of SZTO is explained by the evolution of the electronic structure, such as changes in the band edge states and band gap. Using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), it was verified that Si atoms can modify the band gap of SZTO thin films. Carrier generation originating from oxygen vacancies can modify the band-gap states of oxide films with the addition of Si. Since it is not easy to directly derive changes in the band gap states of amorphous oxide semiconductors, no reports of the relationship between the Fermi energy level of oxide semiconductor and the device stability of oxide thin film transistors (TFTs) have been presented. The addition of Si can reduce the total density of trap states and change the band-gap properties. When 0.5 wt% Si was used to fabricate SZTO TFTs, they showed superior stability under negative bias temperature stress. We derived the band gap and Fermi energy level directly using data from UPS, Kelvin probe, and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy analyses.

  2. Engineering of band gap states of amorphous SiZnSnO semiconductor as a function of Si doping concentration

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jun Young; Heo, Keun; Cho, Kyung-Sang; Hwang, Sung Woo; Kim, Sangsig; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the band gap of SiZnSnO (SZTO) with different Si contents. Band gap engineering of SZTO is explained by the evolution of the electronic structure, such as changes in the band edge states and band gap. Using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), it was verified that Si atoms can modify the band gap of SZTO thin films. Carrier generation originating from oxygen vacancies can modify the band-gap states of oxide films with the addition of Si. Since it is not easy to directly derive changes in the band gap states of amorphous oxide semiconductors, no reports of the relationship between the Fermi energy level of oxide semiconductor and the device stability of oxide thin film transistors (TFTs) have been presented. The addition of Si can reduce the total density of trap states and change the band-gap properties. When 0.5 wt% Si was used to fabricate SZTO TFTs, they showed superior stability under negative bias temperature stress. We derived the band gap and Fermi energy level directly using data from UPS, Kelvin probe, and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy analyses. PMID:27812035

  3. Effect of Mg doping in ZnO buffer layer on ZnO thin film devices for electronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, Pushpa; Chakrabarti, P.

    2016-05-01

    Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films have been grown on p-silicon (Si) substrate using magnesium doped ZnO (Mg: ZnO) buffer layer by radio-frequency (RF) sputtering method. In this paper, we have optimized the concentration of Mg (0-5 atomic percent (at. %)) ZnO buffer layer to examine its effect on ZnO thin film based devices for electronic and optoelectronic applications. The crystalline nature, morphology and topography of the surface of the thin film have been characterized. The optical as well as electrical properties of the active ZnO film can be tailored by varying the concentration of Mg in the buffer layer. The crystallite size in the active ZnO thin film was found to increase with the Mg concentration in the buffer layer in the range of 0-3 at. % and subsequently decrease with increasing Mg atom concentration in the ZnO. The same was verified by the surface morphology and topography studies carried out with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic electron microscopy (AFM) respectively. The reflectance in the visible region was measured to be less than 80% and found to decrease with increase in Mg concentration from 0 to 3 at. % in the buffer region. The optical bandgap was initially found to increase from 3.02 eV to 3.74 eV by increasing the Mg content from 0 to 3 at. % but subsequently decreases and drops down to 3.43 eV for a concentration of 5 at. %. The study of an Au:Pd/ZnO Schottky diode reveals that for optimum doping of the buffer layer the device exhibits superior rectifying behavior. The barrier height, ideality factor, rectification ratio, reverse saturation current and series resistance of the Schottky diode were extracted from the measured current voltage (I-V) characteristics.

  4. Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia in rat increases doublecortin concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Brégère, Catherine; Fisch, Urs; Sailer, Martin H; Lieb, Wolfgang S; Chicha, Laurie; Goepfert, Fabienne; Kremer, Thomas; Guzman, Raphael

    2017-07-01

    Doublecortin (DCX) is a microtubule-associated protein widely used as an indicator of neurogenesis in immunohistochemical analyses of the postmortem adult brain. A recent study reported that DCX can be quantified in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from healthy rats between postnatal day 0 (P0) and P30. However, it is currently unclear whether the concentration of DCX in the CSF (CSF-DCX) may represent a measure of endogenous neurogenesis. To address this question, this study examined the impact of a neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury, known to induce neurogenesis, on CSF-DCX. HI was elicited at P7 in Sprague-Dawley rat neonates, and CSF was collected serially from the cisterna magna at P5 and P10, or at P10 and P15. A sandwich immunoassay was used to measure CSF-DCX. Brains from P10 neonates were analyzed immunohistochemically for neurogenesis and cell death markers. Mean CSF-DCX was significantly higher in HI- than in sham-exposed animals, at both P10 and P15. In the HI group at P10, CSF-DCX and stroke severity correlated positively. DCX immunoreactivity was increased in the ipsilateral neurogenic niches from the P10 HI brains in comparison with that of shams. The number of proliferative DCX-positive cells was higher in the ipsilateral hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) than in the HI contralateral or sham SGZ. Thus, neonatal HI brain injury disrupts the developmental time-course of DCX levels in the CSF. Our data suggest that the increased concentration of DCX in the CSF after neonatal HI is the result of both cellular injury and increased neurogenesis. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Microwave synthesis and photocatalytic activities of ZnO bipods with different aspect ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Fazhe; Zhao, Zengdian; Qiao, Xueliang, E-mail: xuelqiao@163.com

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • We synthesized linked ZnO nanorods by a facile microwave method. • The effect of reaction parameters on ZnO was investigated. • ZnO bipods with different aspect ratios were prepared. • The photocatalytic performance of ZnO bipods was evaluated. - Abstract: Linked ZnO nanorods have been successfully prepared via a facile microwave method without any post-synthesis treatment. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicated the precursor had completely transformed into the pure ZnO crystal. The images of field emitting scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed that linked ZnO nanorods consisted predominantly of ZnO bipods. The formationmore » process of the ZnO bipods was clearly discussed. ZnO bipods with different aspect ratios have been obtained by tuning the concentrations of reagents and microwave power. Moreover, the photocatalytic performance of ZnO bipods with different aspect ratios for degradation of methylene blue was systematically evaluated. The results of photocatalytic experiments showed that the photocatalytic activity increased with the aspect ratios of ZnO bipods increased. The reason is that ZnO bipods with larger aspect ratio have higher surface area, which can absorb more MB molecules to react with ·OH radicals.« less

  6. Effect of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles on thermal conductivity and mechanical properties of natural rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suntako, R.

    2018-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is widely used in rubber industry as a cure activator for rubber vulcanization. In this work, comparison of cure characteristic, mechanical properties, thermal conductivity and volume swell testing in oil no.1 and oil no.3 between natural rubber (NR) filled synthesized ZnO nanoparticles (sZnO) by precipitation method and NR filled conventional ZnO (cZnO). The particle size of sZnO is 41.50 nm and specific area of 27.92 m2/g, the particle size of cZnO is 312.92 nm and specific surface area of 1.35 m2/g. It has been found that NR filled sZnO not only improves rubber mechanical properties, volume swell testing but also improves thermal conductivity and better than NR filled cZnO. Thermal conductivity of NR filled sZnO increases by 10.34%, 12.90% and 20.00%, respectively when compared with NR filled cZnO in same loading content (various concentrations of ZnO at 5, 8 and 10 parts per hundred parts of rubber). This is due to small particle size and large specific surface area of sZnO which lead to an increase in crosslinking in rubber chain and enhance heat transfer performance.

  7. Increasing phosphorus concentration in the extraradical hyphae of Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198 leads to a concomitant increase in metal minerals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Jiang, Caiyun; Zhou, Jiachao; Declerck, Stéphane; Tian, Changyan; Feng, Gu

    2016-11-01

    Plants associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) acquire phosphorus via roots and extraradical hyphae. How soil P level affects P accumulation within hyphae and how P in hyphae influences the accumulation of metal minerals remains little explored. A bi-compartmented in vitro cultivation system separating a root compartment (RC), containing a Ri T-DNA transformed carrot root associated to the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198, from a hyphal compartment (HC), containing only the extraradical hyphae, was used. The HC contained a liquid growth medium (i.e., the modified Strullu-Romand medium containing P in the form of KH 2 PO 4 ) without (0 μM) or adjusted to 35, 100, and 700 μM of KH 2 PO 4 . The accumulation of P and metal minerals (Ca, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Cu, Mn) within extraradical hyphae and AMF-colonized roots, and the expression of the phosphate transporter gene GintPT were assessed. The expression of GintPT in the extraradical hyphae did not differ in absence of KH 2 PO 4 or in presence of 35 and 100 μM KH 2 PO 4 in the HC but was markedly reduced in presence of 700 μM KH 2 PO 4 . Hyphal P concentration was significantly lowest in absence of KH 2 PO 4 , intermediate at 35 and 100 μM KH 2 PO 4 and significantly highest in presence of 700 μM KH 2 PO 4 in the HC. The concentrations of K, Mg, and Na were positively associated with the concentration of P in the extraradical hyphae developing in the HC. Similarly, P concentration in extraradical hyphae in the HC was related to P concentration in the growth medium and influenced the concentration of K, Mg, and Na. The accumulation of the metal mineral K, Mg, and Na in the extraradical hyphae developing in the HC was possibly related to their function in neutralizing the negative charges of PolyP accumulated in the hyphae.

  8. Photoluminescence spectra of n-ZnO/p-GaN:(Er + Zn) and p-AlGaN:(Er + Zn) heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Mezdrogina, M. M., E-mail: margaret.m@mail.ioffe.ru; Krivolapchuk, V. V., E-mail: vlad.krivol@mail.ioffe.ru; Feoktistov, N. A.

    2008-07-15

    Luminescence intensity of heterostructures based on n-ZnO/p-GaN:(Er + Zn) and n-ZnO/AlGaN:(Er + Zn) is higher by more than an order of magnitude than the corresponding intensity of separate n-ZnO, p-GaN:(Er + Zn), and AlGaN:(Er + Zn) layers. Most likely, this phenomenon is due to the effective tunneling recombination of charge carriers caused by a decrease in the concentration of the nonradiative recombination centers located between the n-ZnO/p-GaN:(Er + Zn) and n-ZnO/AlGaN:(Er + Zn) layers.

  9. Scale dependence of the mechanics of active gels with increasing motor concentration.

    PubMed

    Sonn-Segev, Adar; Bernheim-Groswasser, Anne; Roichman, Yael

    2017-10-18

    Actin is a protein that plays an essential role in maintaining the mechanical integrity of cells. In response to strong external stresses, it can assemble into large bundles, but it grows into a fine branched network to induce cell motion. In some cases, the self-organization of actin fibers and networks involves the action of bipolar filaments of the molecular motor myosin. Such self-organization processes mediated by large myosin bipolar filaments have been studied extensively in vitro. Here we create active gels, composed of single actin filaments and small myosin bipolar filaments. The active steady state in these gels persists long enough to enable the characterization of their mechanical properties using one and two point microrheology. We study the effect of myosin concentration on the mechanical properties of this model system for active matter, for two different motor assembly sizes. In contrast to previous studies of networks with large motor assemblies, we find that the fluctuations of tracer particles embedded in the network decrease in amplitude as motor concentration increases. Nonetheless, we show that myosin motors stiffen the actin networks, in accordance with bulk rheology measurements of networks containing larger motor assemblies. This implies that such stiffening is of universal nature and may be relevant to a wider range of cytoskeleton-based structures.

  10. Global warming preceded by increasing carbon dioxide concentrations during the last deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Shakun, Jeremy D; Clark, Peter U; He, Feng; Marcott, Shaun A; Mix, Alan C; Liu, Zhengyu; Otto-Bliesner, Bette; Schmittner, Andreas; Bard, Edouard

    2012-04-04

    The covariation of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) concentration and temperature in Antarctic ice-core records suggests a close link between CO(2) and climate during the Pleistocene ice ages. The role and relative importance of CO(2) in producing these climate changes remains unclear, however, in part because the ice-core deuterium record reflects local rather than global temperature. Here we construct a record of global surface temperature from 80 proxy records and show that temperature is correlated with and generally lags CO(2) during the last (that is, the most recent) deglaciation. Differences between the respective temperature changes of the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere parallel variations in the strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation recorded in marine sediments. These observations, together with transient global climate model simulations, support the conclusion that an antiphased hemispheric temperature response to ocean circulation changes superimposed on globally in-phase warming driven by increasing CO(2) concentrations is an explanation for much of the temperature change at the end of the most recent ice age.

  11. Amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O Powder with High Gas Selectivity towards Wide Range Concentration of C₂H₅OH.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongxiang; Jiang, Wei; Zhu, Lianfeng; Yao, Youwei

    2017-05-24

    Amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) powder was prepared by typical solution-based process and post-annealing process. The sample was used as sensor for detecting C₂H₅OH, H₂, and CO. Gas-sensing performance was found to be highly sensitive to C₂H₅OH gas in a wide range of concentration (0.5-1250 ppm) with the response of 2.0 towards 0.5 ppm and 89.2 towards 1250 ppm. Obvious difference of response towards C₂H₅OH, H₂, and CO was found that the response e.g., was 33.20, 6.64, and 2.84 respectively at the concentration of 200 ppm. The response time and recovery time of was 32 s and 14 s respectively towards 200 ppm concentration of C₂H₅OH gas under heating voltage of 6.5 V.

  12. Cholecalciferol supplementation of heifer diets increases beef vitamin D concentration and improves beef tenderness.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Sarah K; O'Doherty, John V; Rajauria, Gaurav; Clarke, Louise C; Cashman, Kevin D; Hayes, Aoife; O'Grady, Michael N; Kerry, Joseph P; Kelly, Alan K

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of cholecalciferol (vitamin D₃) supplementation on beef vitamin D activity, beef tenderness and sensory attributes. Thirty heifers were randomly allocated to one of three finishing dietary treatments [(T1) basal diet+0IU vitamin D₃; (T2) basal diet+2000IU vitamin D₃; and (T3) basal diet+4000IU vitamin D₃] for a 30day period pre-slaughter. Vitamin D₃ supplementation linearly increased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D₃ (25-OH-D 3 ) concentrations (R 2 =0.48), Longissimus thoracis (LT) total vitamin D activity (R 2 =0.78) as well as individually vitamin D₃ (R 2 =0.84) and 25-OH-D₃ (R 2 =0.75). The highest vitamin D₃ inclusion diet (T3) had a 42% increase (P<0.001) in LT vitamin D activity compared to the intermediate diet (T2) and a 145% increase over the lowest level diet (T1). Vitamin D₃ supplementation decreased LT shear (P<0.05) force values after 14days chilling. Sensory parameters were not affected (P>0.05). In conclusion, through short-term vitamin D₃ supplementation of cattle diets, beef vitamin D activity can successfully be enhanced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Low concentrations of copper in drinking water increase AP-1 binding in the brain.

    PubMed

    Lung, Shyang; Li, Huihui; Bondy, Stephen C; Campbell, Arezoo

    2015-12-01

    Copper (Cu) in trace amounts is essential for biological organisms. However, dysregulation of the redox-active metal has been implicated in different neurological disorders such as Wilson's, Menkes', Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's diseases. Since many households use Cu tubing in the plumbing system, and corrosion causes the metal to leach into the drinking water, there may be adverse effects on the central nervous system connected with low-level chronic exposure. The present study demonstrates that treatment with a biologically relevant concentration of Cu for 3 months significantly increases activation of the redox-modulated transcription factor AP-1 in mouse brains. This was independent of an upstream kinase indicated in AP-1 activation. Another redox-active transcription factor, NF-κB, was not significantly modified by the Cu exposure. These results indicate that the effect of Cu on AP-1 is unique and may involve direct modulation of DNA binding. © The Author(s) 2012.

  14. Thrombospondin-1 and Angiotensin II Inhibit Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase through an Increase in Intracellular Calcium Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Saumya; Mazzalupo, Stacy; Boitano, Scott; Montfort, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Nitric Oxide (NO) regulates cardiovascular hemostasis by binding to soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), leading to cGMP production, reduced cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and vasorelaxation. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), a secreted matricellular protein, was recently discovered to inhibit NO signaling and sGC activity. Inhibition of sGC requires binding to cell-surface receptor CD47. Here, we show that a TSP-1 C-terminal fragment (E3CaG1) readily inhibits sGC in Jurkat T cells, and that inhibition requires an increase in [Ca2+]i. Using flow cytometry, we show that E3CaG1 binds directly to CD47 on the surface of Jurkat T cells. Using digital imaging microscopy on live cells, we further show that E3CaG1 binding results in a substantial increase in [Ca2+]i, up to 300 nM. Addition of angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor known to increase [Ca2+]i, also strongly inhibits sGC activity. sGC isolated from calcium-treated cells or from cell-free lysates supplemented with Ca2+ remains inhibited, while addition of kinase inhibitor staurosporine prevents inhibition, indicating inhibition is likely due to phosphorylation. Inhibition is through an increase in Km for GTP, which rises to 834 µM for the NO-stimulated protein, a 13-fold increase over the uninhibited protein. Compounds YC-1 and BAY 41-2272, allosteric stimulators of sGC that are of interest for treating hypertension, overcome E3CaG1-mediated inhibition of NO-ligated sGC. Taken together, these data suggest that sGC not only lowers [Ca2+]i in response to NO, inducing vasodilation, but is also inhibited by high [Ca2+]i, providing a fine balance between signals for vasodilation and vasoconstriction. PMID:21823650

  15. Recombinant factor concentrates may increase inhibitor development: a single centre cohort study.

    PubMed

    Strauss, T; Lubetsky, A; Ravid, B; Bashari, D; Luboshitz, J; Lalezari, S; Misgav, M; Martinowitz, U; Kenet, G

    2011-07-01

    Recent reports have raised concerns regarding potential risk factors for inhibitor development. In Israel, all haemophilia patients (n = 479) are followed by the National Hemophilia Center. Most children are neonatally exposed to factor concentrate (due to circumcision performed at the age of 8 days). The impact of early exposure and recombinant FVIII products (rFVIII) administration (approved in Israel since 1996) upon inhibitor occurrence in our cohort of haemophilia A (HA) patients was analysed. Two hundred ninety-two consecutive paediatric cases with a first symptomatic onset of HA were enrolled and followed over a median time of 7 years [min-max: 9 months to 17 years]. Study endpoint was inhibitor development against factor VIII. In addition, the treatment regimens applied, i.e. bolus administration or 'continuous infusion' and the family history of inhibitor development were investigated. During the follow-up period 31/292 children (10.6%) developed high titre inhibitors. Inhibitors occurred in 14/43 (32.5%) HA patients neonatally exposed to rFVIII, as compared to 22/249 previously treated with Plasma Derived (PD) products (8.8%). The odds ratio for inhibitor formation in rFVIII treated HA patients was 3.43 (95% CI: 1.36-8.65). Transient inhibitor evolved among 2/43 paediatric HA patients, only among those treated with rFVIII. The risk of inhibitor detection significantly increased among HA children treated by continuous infusion (P = 0.025). Our experience shows that the risk of inhibitor formation may be increased by early exposure to recombinant concentrates. The multiple variables affecting inhibitor incidence deserve further attention by larger prospective studies. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Increasing in-stream nitrogen concentrations under different bioenergy crop management practices in central Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jomaa, Seifeddine; Thraen, Daniela; Rode, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Understanding how nitrogen fluxes respond to changes in land use and agriculture practices is crucial for improving instream water quality prediction. In central Germany, expansion of bioenergy crops such as maize and rape for ethanol production during the last decade led to increasing of fertilizer application rates. To examine the effect of these changes, surface water quality of a drinking water reservoir catchment was investigated for more than 30 years. The Weida catchment (99.5 km2) is part of the Elbe river basin and has a share of 67% agricultural land use with significant changes in agricultural practices within the investigation period. For the period 2004-2012, the share of maize and rape has been increased by 52% and 20%, respectively, for enhancing bioenergy production. To achieve our gaols, the semi-distributed hydrological water quality HYPE (Hydrological Predictions for the Environment) model was calibrated for discharge and inorganic nitrogen concentrations (IN) during the period 1997-2000.The model was validated successfully (with lowest performance of NSE = 0.78 and PBIAS = 3.74% for discharge) for three different periods 1983-1987, 1989-1996 and 2000-2003, which are charaterized by different fertilizer application rates. Results showed that the HYPE model reproduced reasonably well discharge and IN daily loads (with lowest NSE = 0.64 for IN-load). In addition, the HYPE model was evaluated successfully to predict the discharge and IN concentrations for the period 2004-2012, where detailed input data in terms of crops management (field-specific survey) have been considered. Land use and crop rotations scenarios, with high hypothetical percentage of acceptance by the farmers, revealed that continuous conversion of agricultural land into bioenergy crops, will most likely, lead to an enrichment of in-stream nitrogen, especially after spring storms.

  17. Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and increases plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Engler, Mary B; Engler, Marguerite M; Chen, Chung Y; Malloy, Mary J; Browne, Amanda; Chiu, Elisa Y; Kwak, Ho-Kyung; Milbury, Paul; Paul, Steven M; Blumberg, Jeffrey; Mietus-Snyder, Michele L

    2004-06-01

    Dark chocolate derived from the plant (Theobroma cacao) is a rich source of flavonoids. Cardioprotective effects including antioxidant properties, inhibition of platelet activity, and activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase have been ascribed to the cocoa flavonoids. To investigate the effects of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate on endothelial function, measures of oxidative stress, blood lipids, and blood pressure in healthy adult subjects. The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design conducted over a 2 week period in 21 healthy adult subjects. Subjects were randomly assigned to daily intake of high-flavonoid (213 mg procyanidins, 46 mg epicatechin) or low-flavonoid dark chocolate bars (46 g, 1.6 oz). High-flavonoid chocolate consumption improved endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery (mean change = 1.3 +/- 0.7%) as compared to low-flavonoid chocolate consumption (mean change = -0.96 +/- 0.5%) (p = 0.024). No significant differences were noted in the resistance to LDL oxidation, total antioxidant capacity, 8-isoprostanes, blood pressure, lipid parameters, body weight or body mass index (BMI) between the two groups. Plasma epicatechin concentrations were markedly increased at 2 weeks in the high-flavonoid group (204.4 +/- 18.5 nmol/L, p < or = 0.001) but not in the low-flavonoid group (17.5 +/- 9 nmol/L, p = 0.99). Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and is associated with an increase in plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults. No changes in oxidative stress measures, lipid profiles, blood pressure, body weight or BMI were seen.

  18. Muscarinic agonists and ATP increase the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in chick cochlear hair cells.

    PubMed

    Shigemoto, T; Ohmori, H

    1990-01-01

    1. Cholinergic muscarinic agonists applied by the pressure puff method increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration in Fura-2-loaded hair cells. The Ca2+ response outlasted the agonist application. 2. The Ca2+ response induced by acetylcholine (ACh) was ACh dose dependent with a KD of 200 microM. Desensitization was negligible, and almost identical Ca2+ responses were observed when two ACh puffs were separated by 150 s. The response was blocked by d-tubocurarine (dTC). The KD of dTC blocking was 500 microM when 100 microM-ACh induced the Ca2+ response. 3. The amplitude of the ACh-induced Ca2+ responses were potentiated to 3 times the control by incubation with calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP; 0.1-1 microM). CGRP did not affect the resting Ca2+ concentration. Glycine (100 microM) potentiated the ACh response to 1.4 times the control, and also increased the resting Ca2+ concentration slightly. 4. The ACh-induced Ca2+ response was suppressed by atropine. It was induced in Ca2(+)-free extracellular medium, and in Ca2(+)-free medium desensitization to a second ACh stimulation was significant. The amplitude of the second Ca2+ response was 44% of the first when two ACh puffs were separated by 117 s in Ca2+ free medium. 5. Muscarine and carbamylcholine induced similar Ca2+ responses, with KD values of 130 microM for muscarine and 340 microM for carbamylcholine. Desensitization of Ca2+ responses was negligible in both agonists. 6. ATP co-exists with ACh in some presynaptic nerve terminals (Burnstock, 1981). Puff-applied ATP (100 microM) generated a Ca2+ response with a rapid rising phase and a following slow phase. In Ca2(+)-free medium the rapid phase disappeared and only the slow phase was observed. The rapid phase is due to the influx of Ca2+ ions and the slow phase is due to a release of Ca2+ ions from an intracellular reservoir. Under voltage clamp ATP induced a fast inward current and a following slow outward current. 7. Nicotine, adenosine, glycine, GABA

  19. Does the increase in ambient CO2 concentration elevate allergy risks posed by oak pollen?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyu Rang; Oh, Jae-Won; Woo, Su-Young; Seo, Yun Am; Choi, Young-Jin; Kim, Hyun Seok; Lee, Wi Young; Kim, Baek-Jo

    2018-05-01

    Oak pollen is a major respiratory allergen in Korea, and the distribution of oak trees is expected to increase by ecological succession and climate change. One of the drivers of climate change is increasing CO2, which is also known to amplify the allergy risk of weed pollen by inducing elevated allergenic protein content. However, the impact of CO2 concentration on tree pollen is not clearly understood due to the experimental difficulties in carrying out extended CO2 treatment. To study the response of pollen production of sawtooth oak trees (Quercus acutissima) to elevated levels of ambient CO2, three open-top chambers at the National Institute of Forest Science in Suwon, Korea were utilized with daytime (8 am-6 pm) CO2 concentrations of ambient (× 1.0, 400 ppm), × 1.4 ( 560 ppm), and × 1.8 ( 720 ppm) treatments. Each chamber had three sawtooth oak trees planted in September 2009. One or two trees per chamber matured to bloom in 2016. Five to six catkins were selected per tree and polyethylene bags were attached to collect pollen grains. The total number of catkins per tree was counted and the number and weight of pollen grains per catkin were measured. Oak allergen—Que a 1 (Allergon Co., Uppsala, Sweden)—was extracted and purified to make an ELISA kit by which the antigen levels in the pollen samples were quantified. Total pollen counts per tree of the × 1.4 and × 1.8 treatments showed significant increase of 353 and 1299%, respectively, from the × 1.0 treatment (p < 0.001). Allergenic protein contents at the × 1.4 and × 1.8 treatments also showed significant increase of 12 and 11%, respectively (p = 0.011). The × 1.8 treatment induced significant difference from the × 1.0 treatment in terms of pollen production and allergenic protein content, whereas the × 1.4 treatment showed mixed significance. In summary, the oak trees under the elevated CO2 levels, which are expected in the changing climate, produced significantly higher amount of pollen and

  20. Adipose-Derived Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins Plasma Concentrations Are Increased in Breast Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Guaita-Esteruelas, Sandra; Saavedra-García, Paula; Bosquet, Alba; Borràs, Joan; Girona, Josefa; Amiliano, Kepa; Rodríguez-Balada, Marta; Heras, Mercedes; Masana, Luís; Gumà, Josep

    2017-11-01

    Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that could play a role in tumor progression via its secreted adipokines. The role of adipose-derived fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) 4 and FABP5 in breast cancer is presently under study, but their circulating levels in this pathology are poorly known. We analyzed the blood concentrations of FABP4 and FABP5 in breast cancer patients to determine whether there is an association between them and breast cancer. We studied 294 women in the oncology department with a family history of breast cancer; 198 of the women had breast cancer, and 96 were healthy controls. The levels of FABP4, FABP5, lipid profile, standard biochemical parameter, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were determined. We analyzed the association of FABP4 and FABP5 with breast cancer, while adjusting for demographic, anthropometric, and biochemical parameters. Breast cancer patients had a 24.8% ( p  < .0001) and 11.4% ( p  < .05) higher blood concentration of FABP4 and FABP5, respectively. Fatty acid-binding protein 4 was positively associated with age, body mass index (BMI), FABP5, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDLc), non-high-density lipoprote in cholesterol (non-HDLc), Apolipoprotein B 100 (ApoB100), triglycerides, glycerol, glucose, and hsCRP ( p  < .05), and was negatively associated with HDLc ( p  < .005) in breast cancer patients. Fatty acid-binding protein 5 was positively associated with BMI, FABP4, VLDLc, triglycerides, glycerol, and hsCRP ( p  < .05), and was negatively associated with HDLc and Apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI) ( p  < .05) in breast cancer patients. Using a logistic regression analysis and adjusting for age, BMI, hsCRP, non-HDLc, and triglycerides, FABP4 was independently associated with breast cancer (odds ratio [OR]: 1.091 [95% CI: 1.037-1.149]). Moreover, total cholesterol, VLDLc, non-HDLc, ApoB100, triglycerides, and hsCRP were significantly increased in breast cancer patients ( p

  1. Human eosinophils are direct targets to nanoparticles: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) delay apoptosis and increase the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-8.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luis Rafael; Girard, Denis

    2016-09-30

    Zinc oxide NPs (ZnO) have been recently proposed as novel candidates for the treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases. Paradoxically, recent data suggested that ZnO could cause eosinophilic airway inflammation in rodents. Despite the above observations, there are currently no studies reporting direct interaction between a given NP and human eosinophils themselves. In this study, freshly isolated human eosinophils were incubated with ZnO and several cellular functions were studied. We found that ZnO delay human eosinophil apoptosis, partially by inhibiting caspases and by preventing caspase-4 and Bcl-xL degradation. ZnO do not induce production of reactive oxygen species but increase de novo protein synthesis. In addition, ZnO were found to increase the production of the proinflammatory IL-1β and IL-8 cytokines. Using a pharmacological approach, we demonstrated that inhibition of caspase-1 reversed the ability of ZnO to induce IL-1β and IL-8 production, whereas inhibition of caspase-4 only reversed that of IL-8. Our results indicate the necessity of conducting studies to determine the potential of using NP as nanotherapies, particularly in diseases in which eosinophils may be involved. We conclude that, indeed, human eosinophils represent potential new direct targets to NPs, ZnO in the present case. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Aspirin increases susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to metronidazole by augmenting endocellular concentrations of antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Wei-Hong; Tian, Yu; Gao, Wen; Li, Jiang

    2009-02-28

    To investigate the mechanisms of aspirin increasing the susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) to metronidazole. H pylori reference strain 26695 and two metronidazole-resistant isolates of H pylori were included in this study. Strains were incubated in Brucella broth with or without aspirin (1 mmol/L). The rdxA gene of H pylori was amplified by PCR and sequenced. The permeability of H pylori to antimicrobials was determined by analyzing the endocellular radioactivity of the cells after incubated with [7-(3)H]-tetracycline. The outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of H pylori 26695 were depurated and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The expression of 5 porins (hopA, hopB, hopC, hopD and hopE) and the putative RND efflux system (hefABC) of H pylori were analyzed using real-time quantitative PCR. The mutations in rdxA gene did not change in metronidazole resistant isolates treated with aspirin. The radioactivity of H pylori increased when treated with aspirin, indicating that aspirin improved the permeability of the outer membrane of H pylori. However, the expression of two OMP bands between 55 kDa and 72 kDa altered in the presence of aspirin. The expression of the mRNA of hopA, hopB, hopC, hopD, hopE and hefA, hefB, hefC of H pylori did not change when treated with aspirin. Although aspirin increases the susceptibility of H pylori to metronidazole, it has no effect on the mutations of rdxA gene of H pylori. Aspirin increases endocellular concentrations of antimicrobials probably by altering the OMP expression.

  3. Aspirin increases susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to metronidazole by augmenting endocellular concentrations of antimicrobials

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Wei-Hong; Tian, Yu; Gao, Wen; Li, Jiang

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the mechanisms of aspirin increasing the susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) to metronidazole. METHODS: H pylori reference strain 26 695 and two metronidazole-resistant isolates of H pylori were included in this study. Strains were incubated in Brucella broth with or without aspirin (1 mmol/L). The rdxA gene of H pylori was amplified by PCR and sequenced. The permeability of H pylori to antimicrobials was determined by analyzing the endocellular radioactivity of the cells after incubated with [7-3H]-tetracycline. The outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of H pylori 26 695 were depurated and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The expression of 5 porins (hopA, hopB, hopC, hopD and hopE) and the putative RND efflux system (hefABC) of H pylori were analyzed using real-time quantitative PCR. RESULTS: The mutations in rdxA gene did not change in metronidazole resistant isolates treated with aspirin. The radioactivity of H pylori increased when treated with aspirin, indicating that aspirin improved the permeability of the outer membrane of H pylori. However, the expression of two OMP bands between 55 kDa and 72 kDa altered in the presence of aspirin. The expression of the mRNA of hopA, hopB, hopC, hopD, hopE and hefA, hefB, hefC of H pylori did not change when treated with aspirin. CONCLUSION: Although aspirin increases the susceptibility of H pylori to metronidazole, it has no effect on the mutations of rdxA gene of H pylori. Aspirin increases endocellular concentrations of antimicrobials probably by altering the OMP expression. PMID:19248190

  4. Correlation between emission property and concentration of Sn2+ center in the SnO-ZnO-P2O5 glass.

    PubMed

    Masai, Hirokazu; Tanimoto, Toshiro; Fujiwara, Takumi; Matsumoto, Syuji; Tokuda, Yomei; Yoko, Toshinobu

    2012-12-03

    The authors report on the correlation between the photoluminescence (PL) property and the SnO amount in SnO-ZnO-P2O5 (SZP) glass. In the PL excitation (PLE) spectra of the SZP glass containing Sn2+ emission center, two S1 states, one of which is strongly affected by SnO amount, are assumed to exist. The PLE band closely correlates with the optical band edge originating from Sn2+ species, and they both largely red-shifts with increasing amount of SnO. The emission decay time of the SZP glass decreased with increasing amount of SnO and the internal quantum efficiencies of the SZP glasses containing 1~5 mol% of SnO are comparable to that of MgWO4. It is expected that the composition-dependent S1 state (the lower energy excitation band) governs the quantum efficiency of the SZP glasses.

  5. Cholinergic agonists increase intracellular calcium concentration in frog vestibular hair cells.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, M; Devau, G; Lehouelleur, J; Sans, A

    1994-11-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is usually considered to be the neurotransmitter of the efferent vestibular system. The nature and the localization of cholinergic receptors have been investigated on frog isolated vestibular hair cells (VHCs), by measuring variations of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i), using calcium sensitive dye fura-2. Focal iontophoretic ACh (1 M, 300 nA.40 ms) application induced a rapid increase in [Ca2+]i, reaching a peak in 20 s and representing about 5-fold the resting level (from 61 +/- 6 to 320 +/- 26 nM). Applications of muscarinic agonists as methacholine and carbachol induced weaker calcium responses (from 78 +/- 25 to 238 +/- 53 nM) than the one obtained with ACh applications. These muscarinic agonists were efficient only in precise zones. Desensitization of muscarinic receptors to successive stimulations was significant. Perfusion of nicotine or 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenyl-piperazinium (DMPP), a nicotinic agonist, induced an increase in [Ca2+]i only in some cells (4/28 with DMPP). These results indicated the presence of cholinergic receptors on frog VHCs: muscarinic receptors were more responsive than nicotinic receptors. Presence of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors in the membrane of VHCs could indicate different modulations of VHCs activity mediated by [Ca2+]i and involving an efferent control which represents a central regulation of the vestibular afferent message.

  6. Cholinergic agonists increase intracellular calcium concentration in guinea pig vestibular hair cells.

    PubMed

    Han, W; Zhang, S; Han, D; Jiang, S; Yang, W

    2001-07-01

    To better understand the cholinergic receptors in vestibular hair cells (VHC) and their subtypes, and to investigate the effects of cholinergic agonists on intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in guinea pig VHCs. VHCs were isolated from guinea pig crista ampullaris by enzymatic and mechanical methods. The effect of cholinergic agonists on [Ca2+]i was examined using laser scanning confocal microscopy and the Ca2+ sensitive dye Fluo-3. The results showed that the addition of acetylcholine (ACh) and carbachol (CCh), muscamic and nicotinic agonists, induced [Ca2+]i increases in all the VHCs, whereas acetylcholine bromide (ACh-Br), a nicotinic agonist, induced the [Ca2+]i increase in only a small percentage of VHCs. The ACh or CCh-induced Ca2+ response could be partially suppressed by atropine. In the presence of 0.1 mmol/L atropine, the amplitudes of ACh or CCh-induced [Ca2+]i responses became significantly smaller than those in atropine free medium (P < 0.01). The results suggest the existence of cholinergic receptors in guinea pig VHCs. It is the muscamic agonists rather than nicontic receptors that dominate [Ca2+]i variation. Atropine can suppress muscamic agonist-induced Ca2+ responses.

  7. Recent negative life events increase hair cortisol concentrations in patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Staufenbiel, Sabine M; Koenders, Manja A; Giltay, Erik J; Elzinga, Bernet M; Manenschijn, Laura; Hoencamp, Erik; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C; Spijker, Anne T

    2014-12-01

    Life events induce stress, which is considered to negatively impact the course of disease in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), its effects being predominantly mediated by cortisol. Cortisol in scalp hair has been identified as a biomarker for assessing long-term cortisol levels, and allows clarifying the relation between life events, hair cortisol concentrations (HCC), and clinical course over time. In 71 BD patients, we analyzed the proximal 3 cm of hair, reflecting 3 months of cortisol production, and investigated the association between HCC, the number of life events, the amount of social support, and mood in the 3 months prior to the hair assessment and between HCC and mood in the subsequent 3 months. Although the total number of life events was not associated with HCC (p > 0.05), the number of negative life events was associated with increased HCC (r(2)( )= 0.04, p = 0.02). Social support showed an inverse association with HCC in patients reporting negative life events (r(2)( )= 0.07, p = 0.03). HCC and mood were not associated in the 3 months prior to hair sampling or in the subsequent 3 months. This study indicates that patients who experienced recent negative life events have increased hair cortisol levels, which seem to be attenuated by social support.

  8. Diquafosol Tetrasodium Increases the Concentration of Mucin-like Substances in Tears of Healthy Human Subjects.

    PubMed

    Shigeyasu, Chika; Hirano, Shinichiro; Akune, Yoko; Yamada, Masakazu

    2015-09-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of topical application of diquafosol tetrasodium on proteins and mucin-like substances from tears of clinically healthy subjects. Tears were collected from both the eyes of 10 healthy volunteers. Diquafosol tetrasodium solution (3%) was applied once to the right eye and 0.9% sodium chloride solution (saline) once to the left eye. Tear samples were collected by Schirmer test strips before application and 5, 15, 30 and 60 min after application. Sialic acid, a marker of mucin-like substances, and major tear proteins including secretory IgA, lactoferrin, lipocalin-1, and lysozyme were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Levels of total protein, sIgA and lysozyme were transiently decreased in both groups but returned to baseline levels within 15 min after application. The concentration of lactoferrin and lipocalin-1 did not change significantly in both groups. Sialic acid in tears was significantly decreased 5 min after saline application, but significantly increased 5 min after diquafosol application. No significant difference in sialic acid was seen after 15 min in both groups. Topical application of saline and diquafosol resulted in transient decrease of tear proteins possibly due to wash out or dilution effects. In contrast, diquafosol application significantly increased sialic acid, although the effect was transient. This suggests diquafosol stimulates the secretion of mucins from ocular tissues of healthy human subjects.

  9. Increases in both acute and chronic temperature potentiate tocotrienol concentrations in wild barley at 'Evolution Canyon'.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu; Lansky, Ephraim; Traber, Maret; Nevo, Eviatar

    2013-09-01

    Biosynthesis of tocols (vitamin E isoforms) is linked to response to temperature in plants. 'Evolution Canyon', an ecogeographical microcosm extending over an average of 200 meters (range 100-400) wide area in the Carmel Mountains of northern Israel, has been suggested as a model for studying global warming. Both domestic (Hordeum vulgare) and wild (Hordeum spontaneum) barley compared with wheat, oat, corn, rice, and rye show high tocotrienol/tocopherol ratios. Therefore, we hypothesized that tocol distribution might change in response to global warming. α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol, and α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocotrienol concentrations were measured in wild barley (H. spontaneum) seeds harvested from the xeric (African) and mesic (European) slopes of Evolution Canyon over a six-year period from 2005-2011. Additionally, we examined seeds from areas contiguous to and distant from the part of the Canyon severely burned during the Carmel Fire of December 2010. Increased α-tocotrienol (p<0.01) was correlated with 1) temperature increases, 2) to the hotter 'African' slope in contrast to the cooler 'European' slope, and 3) to propinquity to the fire. The study illustrates the role of α-tocotrienol in both chronic and acute temperature adaptation in wild barley and suggests future research into thermoregulatory mechanisms in plants. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  10. Estimating Potential Increased Bladder Cancer Risk Due to Increased Bromide Concentrations in Sources of Disinfected Drinking Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public water systems are increasingly facing higher bromide levels in their source waters from anthropogenic contamination through coal-fired power plants, conventional oil and gas extraction, and hydraulic fracturing. Climate change is likely to exacerbate this in coming years. ...

  11. Estimating Potential Increased Bladder Cancer Risk Due to Increased Bromide Concentrations in Sources of Disinfected Drinking Waters - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public water systems are increasingly facing higher bromide levels in their source waters from anthropogenic contamination through coal-fired powerplants, conventional oil and gas extraction, and hydraulic fracturing. Climate change is likely to exacerbate this in coming years. W...

  12. Two-dimensional electron gases in MgZnO/ZnO and ZnO/MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures grown by dual ion beam sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rohit; Arif Khan, Md; Sharma, Pankaj; Than Htay, Myo; Kranti, Abhinav; Mukherjee, Shaibal

    2018-04-01

    This work reports on the formation of high-density (~1013-1014 cm-2) two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in ZnO-based heterostructures, grown by a dual ion beam sputtering system. We probe 2DEG in bilayer MgZnO/ZnO and capped ZnO/MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures utilizing MgZnO barrier layers with varying thickness and Mg content. The effect of the ZnO cap layer thickness on the ZnO/MgZnO/ZnO heterostructure is also studied. Hall measurements demonstrate that the addition of a 5 nm ZnO cap layer results in an enhancement of the 2DEG density by about 1.5 times compared to 1.11 × 1014 cm-2 for the uncapped bilayer heterostructure with the same 30 nm barrier thickness and 30 at.% Mg composition in the barrier layer. From the low-temperature Hall measurement, the sheet carrier concentration and mobility are both found to be independent of the temperature. The capacitance-voltage measurement suggests a carrier density of ~1020 cm-3, confined in 2DEG at the MgZnO/ZnO heterointerface. The results presented are significant for the optimization of 2DEG for the eventual realization of cost-effective and large-area MgZnO/ZnO-based high-electron-mobility transistors.

  13. A cascadable circular concentrator with parallel compressed structure for increasing the energy density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Nai-Lun; Chen, Yi-Yung; Hsieh, Wei-Che; Whang, Allen Jong-Woei

    2012-02-01

    Due to the energy crisis, the principle of green energy gains popularity. This leads the increasing interest in renewable energy such as solar energy. Thus, how to collect the sunlight for indoor illumination becomes our ultimate target. With the environmental awareness increasing, we use the nature light as the light source. Then we start to devote the development of solar collecting system. The Natural Light Guiding System includes three parts, collecting, transmitting and lighting part. The idea of our solar collecting system design is a concept for combining the buildings with a combination of collecting modules. Therefore, we can use it anyplace where the sunlight can directly impinges on buildings with collecting elements. In the meantime, while collecting the sunlight with high efficiency, we can transmit the sunlight into indoor through shorter distance zone by light pipe where we needs the light. We proposed a novel design including disk-type collective lens module. With the design, we can let the incident light and exit light be parallel and compressed. By the parallel and compressed design, we make every output light become compressed in the proposed optical structure. In this way, we can increase the ratio about light compression, get the better efficiency and let the energy distribution more uniform for indoor illumination. By the definition of "KPI" as an performance index about light density as following: lm/(mm)2, the simulation results show that the proposed Concentrator is 40,000,000 KPI much better than the 800,000 KPI measured from the traditional ones.

  14. Predictors and outcomes of increases in creatine phosphokinase concentrations or rhabdomyolysis risk during statin treatment

    PubMed Central

    van Staa, Tjeerd P; Carr, Daniel F; O’Meara, Helen; McCann, Gerry; Pirmohamed, Munir

    2014-01-01

    Aim The aim was to evaluate clinical risk factors associated with myotoxicity in statin users. Methods This was a cohort study of patients prescribed a statin in UK primary care practices contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Outcomes of interest were creatine phosphokinase (CPK) concentrations and clinical records of rhabdomyolysis. Results The cohort comprised 641 703 statin users. Simvastatin was most frequently prescribed (66.3%), followed by atorvastatin (24.4%). CPK was measured in 127 209 patients: 81.4% within normal range and 0.7% above increased odds ratio (OR) of rhabdomyolysis compared with controls (OR 3.71, 95% CI 1.18, 11.61) and >four times ULN CPK compared with normal CPK (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.01, 1.60). Rosuvastatin users had higher risk of >four times ULN CPK (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.22, 2.15) as did patients with larger daily doses of other statin types. A recent clinical record of myalgia was associated with an increased OR of >four times ULN CPK (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.37, 2.18). In patients who were rechallenged to statins and had repeat CPK measurements after >four times ULN CPK abnormalities, 54.8% of the repeat CPK values were within normal range, 32.1% between one to three times and 13.0% >four times ULN. Conclusions The frequencies of substantive CPK increases and rhabdomyolysis during statin treatment were low, with highest risks seen in those on large daily doses or interacting drugs and on rosuvastatin. CPK measurements appeared to have been done in a haphazard manner and better guidance is needed. PMID:24602118

  15. Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} nanoflakes prepared by one step microwave irradiation technique: Effect of Cu concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Kandare, S. P.; Dhole, S. D.; Bhoraskar, V. N.

    Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) nanoflakes were synthesized in one step by microwave irradiation method. Controlling the secondary phases in Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide (CZTS) material is critical, but it is necessary to control secondary phases in order to achieve the high efficiency solar cells made from CZTS. In the recent years, CZTS has shown its growing importance in thin film photovoltaic application because of its favorable optical and electrical properties. In this work, a systematic study has been carried out by properly controlling the copper concentration to get the pure phase of CZTS. X-ray diffraction shows the CZTS kesterite structure.more » Optical band gap estimated from UV-Visible spectroscopy was around 1.37eV. Systematic Raman study reveals the suppression of Cu{sub 2}S peak with variation in copper concentration which otherwise was not clear from XRD and UV-visible data.« less

  16. Sodium doping in ZnO crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmar, N. S.; Lynn, K. G.

    2015-01-01

    ZnO bulk single crystals were doped with sodium by thermal diffusion. Positron annihilations spectroscopy confirms the filling of zinc vacancies, to >6 μm deep in the bulk. Secondary-ion mass spectrometry measurement shows the diffusion of sodium up to 8 μm with concentration (1-3.5) × 1017 cm-3. Broad photoluminescence excitation peak at 3.1 eV, with onset appearance at 3.15 eV in Na:ZnO, is attributed to an electronic transition from a NaZn level at ˜(220-270) meV to the conduction band. Resistivity in Na doped ZnO crystals increases up to (4-5) orders of magnitude at room temperature.

  17. Concentration of selenium, zinc, copper, Cu/Zn ratio, total antioxidant status and c-reactive protein in the serum of patients with psoriasis treated by narrow-band ultraviolet B phototherapy: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wacewicz, Marta; Socha, Katarzyna; Soroczyńska, Jolanta; Niczyporuk, Marek; Aleksiejczuk, Piotr; Ostrowska, Jolanta; Borawska, Maria H

    2017-12-01

    Psoriasis is a common, an inflammatory skin disease. Trace elements may play an active role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. The aim of this study was to estimate the concentration of selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and Cu/Zn ratio as well as total antioxidant status (TAS) and c-reactive protein (CRP) in the serum of patients with psoriasis. In this case-control study sixty patients with psoriasis and fifty-eight healthy people were examined. Serum levels of Se, Zn and Cu were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Cu/Zn ratio was calculated. TAS was measured spectrophotometrically. CRP was analyzed by immunoturbidimetric method. Clinical activity of psoriasis was evaluated using Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI). Serum concentration of Se in patients with psoriasis (71.89±16.90μg/L) was lower as compared to the control group (79.42±18.97μg/L) and after NB-UVB. Cu level of patients was higher (1.151±0.320mg/L) as compared to controls (1.038±0.336mg/L), but Zn level did not differ. We observed higher Cu/Zn ratio (p<0.05) in examined patients than in the control group and after NB-UVB. We found decrease TAS before and after NB-UVB. CRP levels was found to be normal range. A significant correlation coefficient between CRP and Cu/Zn was observed. The study showed some disturbances in the serum levels of trace elements and TAS in psoriatic patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  18. Temperature- and frequency-dependent dielectric behaviors of insulator/semiconductor (Al2O3/ZnO) nanolaminates with various ZnO thicknesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jin; Bi, Xiaofang

    2016-07-01

    Al2O3/ZnO nanolaminates (NLs) with various ZnO sublayer thicknesses were prepared by atomic layer deposition. The Al2O3 sublayers are characterized as amorphous and the ZnO sublayers have an oriented polycrystalline structure. As the ZnO thickness decreases to a certain value, each NL exhibits a critical temperature at which its dielectric constant starts to rise quickly. Moreover, this temperature increases as the ZnO thickness is decreased further. On the other hand, the permittivity demonstrates a large value of several hundred at a frequency  ⩽1000 Hz, followed by a steplike decrease at a higher frequency. The change in the cut-off frequency with ZnO thickness is characterized by a hook function. It is revealed that the Coulomb confinement effect becomes predominant in the dielectric behaviors of the NLs with very thin ZnO. As the ZnO thickness decreases to about the same as or even smaller than the Bohr radius of ZnO, a great change in the carrier concentration and effective mass of ZnO is induced, which is shown to be responsible for the peculiar dielectric behaviors of Al2O3/ZnO with very thin ZnO. These findings provide insight into the prevailing mechanisms to optimize the dielectric properties of semiconductor/insulator laminates with nanoscale sublayer thickness.

  19. The effects of feeding increasing concentrations of corn oil on energy metabolism and nutrient balance in finishing beef steers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of added fat source is common in high-concentrate finishing diets. The objective of our experiment was to determine if feeding increasing concentrations of added dietary corn oil would decrease enteric methane production, increase the ME:DE ratio, and improve retained energy in finishing be...

  20. The effects of feeding increasing concentrations of corn oil on energy metabolism and nutrient balance in finishing beef steers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of added fat source is common in high-concentrate finishing diets. The objective of our experiment was to determine if feeding increasing concentrations of added dietary corn oil would decrease enteric methane production, increase the ME:DE ratio, and improve recovered energy (RE) in finish...

  1. Zn-biofortification enhanced nitrogen metabolism and photorespiration process in green leafy vegetable Lactuca sativa L.

    PubMed

    Barrameda-Medina, Yurena; Lentini, Marco; Esposito, Sergio; Ruiz, Juan M; Blasco, Begoña

    2017-04-01

    Excessive rates of nitrogen (N) fertilizers may result in elevated concentrations of nitrate (NO 3 - ) in plants. Considering that many programs of biofortification with trace elements are being performed, it has become important to study how the application of these elements affects plant physiology and, particularly, N utilization in leaf crops. The main objective of the present study was to determine whether the NO 3 - accumulation and the nitrogen use efficiency was affected by the application of different doses of Zn in Lactuca sativa plants. Zn doses in the range 80-100 µmol L -1 produced an increase in Zn concentration provoking a decrease of NO 3 - concentration and increase of the nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, as well as the photorespiration processes. As result, we observed an increase in reduced N, total N concentration and N utilization efficiency. Consequently, at a dose of 80 µmol L -1 of Zn, the amino acid concentration increased significantly. Adequate Zn fertilization is an important critical player in lettuce, especially at a dose of 80 µmol L -1 of Zn, because it could result in an increase in the Zn concentration, a reduction of NO 3 - levels and an increase the concentration of essential amino acids, with all of them having beneficial properties for the human diet. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Phytotoxic and genotoxic effects of ZnO nanoparticles on garlic (Allium sativum L.): a morphological study.

    PubMed

    Shaymurat, Talgar; Gu, Jianxiu; Xu, Changshan; Yang, Zhikun; Zhao, Qing; Liu, Yuxue; Liu, Yichun

    2012-05-01

    The effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on the root growth, root apical meristem mitosis and mitotic aberrations of garlic (Allium sativum L.) were investigated. ZnO NPs caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of root length. When treated with 50 mg/L ZnO NPs for 24 h, the root growth of garlic was completely blocked. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) was estimated to be 15 mg/L. The mitosis index was also decreased in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. ZnO NPs also induced several kinds of mitotic aberrations, mainly consisted of chromosome stickiness, bridges, breakages and laggings. The total percentage of abnormal cells increased with the increase of ZnO NPs concentration and the prolongation of treatment time. The investigation provided new information for the possible genotoxic effects of ZnO NPs on plants.

  3. Increased Hair Cortisol Concentrations and BMI in Patients With Pituitary-Adrenal Disease on Hydrocortisone Replacement.

    PubMed

    Staufenbiel, Sabine M; Andela, Cornelie D; Manenschijn, Laura; Pereira, Alberto M; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C; Biermasz, Nienke R

    2015-06-01

    Intrinsic imperfections and lack of reliable biomarkers preclude optimal individual dosing of hydrocortisone replacement in adrenal insufficiency (AI). However, the clinical relevance of optimal dosing is exemplified by frequently occurring side effects of overreplacement and the dangers of underreplacement. Cortisol in scalp hair has been identified as a retrospective biomarker for long-term cortisol exposure. We compared hair cortisol concentrations (CORT(hair)) of patients with primary or secondary AI on replacement therapy with those of patient controls with a pituitary disease without AI (PCs) and of healthy controls (HCs). In this cross-sectional study, hair samples and anthropometric data were collected in 132 AI patients (52 males), 42 PCs (11 males), and 195 HCs (90 males). The proximal 3 cm of hair were used. CORT(hair) were measured using an ELISA. CORT(hair) were higher in AI patients than in HCs and PCs (P < .001), and hydrocortisone dose correlated with CORT(hair) (P = .04). Male AI patients demonstrated higher CORT(hair) than female patients (P < .001). AI patients had higher body mass index (BMI) than HCs (P < .001), and BMI correlated with CORT(hair) in the whole sample (P < .001). Physiological hydrocortisone replacement is associated with increased CORT(hair). The association between CORT(hair) and BMI could suggest a mild overtreatment that may lead to adverse anthropomorphic side effects, especially in males. CORT(hair) measurements may be a promising additional tool to monitor cumulative hydrocortisone replacement in AI.

  4. Cortical M1 Receptor Concentration Increases Without a Concomitant Change in Function in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Overk, Cassia R.; Felder, Christian C.; Tu, Yuan; Schober, Doug A.; Bales, Kelly R.; Wuu, Joanne; Mufson, Elliott J.

    2010-01-01

    Although the M1 muscarinic receptor is a potential therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease (AD) based on its wide spread distribution in brain and its association with learning and memory processes, whether its receptor response is altered during the onset of AD remains unclear. A novel [35S]GTPγS binding/immunocapture assay was employed to evaluated changes in M1 receptor function in cortical tissue samples harvested from people who had no cognitive impairment (NCI), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or AD. M1- function was stable across clinical groups. However, [3H]-oxotremorine-M radioligand binding studies revealed that the concentration of M1 cortical receptors increased significantly between the NCI and AD groups. Although M1 receptor function did not correlate with cognitive function based upon mini-mental status examination (MMSE) or global cognitive score (GCS), functional activity was negatively correlated with the severity of neuropathology determined by Braak staging and NIA-Reagan criteria for AD. Since M1 agonists have the potential to modify the pathologic hallmarks of AD, as well as deficits in cognitive function in animal models of this disease, the present findings provide additional support for targeting the M1 receptor as a potential therapeutic for AD. PMID:20347961

  5. Incomplete development of human spermatozoa is associated with increased creatine phosphokinase concentration and abnormal head morphology.

    PubMed

    Huszar, G; Vigue, L

    1993-03-01

    Our previous creatine phosphokinase (CK) activity studies in human sperm revealed differences among men and among sperm populations within the same specimen. Samples with low sperm concentrations, high incidence of abnormal sperm morphology, and diminished fertility had higher per sperm CK activity. In the present work, we demonstrated, with 14C-FDNB covalent CK active site modification and with direct CK immunocytochemistry, that the higher CK activity is related to an increased content of CK and of other proteins in sperm. Also, sperm heads with higher CK content were significantly larger and rounder and showed a higher incidence of amorph configuration. We suggest that these biochemical and morphological irregularities are related and are due to a failure of spermatogenesis, more specifically, to a higher retention of cytoplasm, which in normal sperm development is lost to the Sertoli cells as residual bodies. Thus higher CK activity and larger or irregular head size in human sperm signify cellular immaturity and a failure to complete spermatogenesis.

  6. Low maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration increases the risk of severe and mild preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Baca, Katharyn M; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Platt, Robert W; Bodnar, Lisa M

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this case-cohort study was to evaluate the relationship between maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration and preeclampsia overall and by severity. From an eligible cohort of 12,861 women who had serum banked from aneuploidy screening in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania from 1999 to 2010, we randomly sampled a subcohort of 2327 pregnancies and all remaining preeclampsia cases (n = 650 cases). Preeclampsia (defined as new-onset hypertension and proteinuria) and its mild and severe forms were identified using ICD-9 codes. Maternal serum collected at 20 weeks or less gestation was measured for 25(OH)D. We used log-binomial regression with restricted cubic splines to estimate the association between 25(OH)D and preeclampsia after adjusting for confounders. Approximately 21% of the randomly selected sample had 25(OH)D less than 50 nmol per L. We found that the adjusted risk of preeclampsia declined as serum 25(OH)D increased to 50 nmol per L and then plateaued (test of nonlinearity P < .05). The adjusted preeclampsia risk ratios (95% confidence intervals) for 25(OH)D less than 25 nmol per L, 25 to 49.9 nmol per L, and 50 to 74.9 nmol per L were 2.4 (1.2-4.8), 1.1 (0.69-1.7), and 1.3 (0.89-1.8), respectively, compared with those with 25(OH)D 75 nmol per L and over. Similar associations were observed with severe and mild preeclampsia. Vitamin D deficiency increases risks of severe and mild forms of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative study of Zn deficiency in L. sativa and B. oleracea plants: NH4(+) assimilation and nitrogen derived protective compounds.

    PubMed

    Navarro-León, Eloy; Barrameda-Medina, Yurena; Lentini, Marco; Esposito, Sergio; Ruiz, Juan M; Blasco, Begoña

    2016-07-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem in agricultural crops of many world regions. N metabolism plays an essential role in plants and changes in their availability and their metabolism could seriously affect crop productivity. The main objective of the present work was to perform a comparative analysis of different strategies against Zn deficiency between two plant species of great agronomic interest such as Lactuca sativa cv. Phillipus and Brassica oleracea cv. Bronco. For this, both species were grown in hydroponic culture with different Zn doses: 10μM Zn as control and 0.01μM Zn as deficiency treatment. Zn deficiency treatment decreased foliar Zn concentration, although in greater extent in B. oleracea plants, and caused similar biomass reduction in both species. Zn deficiency negatively affected NO3(-) reduction and NH4(+) assimilation and enhanced photorespiration in both species. Pro and GB concentrations were reduced in L. sativa but they were increased in B. oleracea. Finally, the AAs profile changed in both species, highlighting a great increase in glycine (Gly) concentration in L. sativa plants. We conclude that L. sativa would be more suitable than B. oleracea for growing in soils with low availability of Zn since it is able to accumulate a higher Zn concentration in leaves with similar biomass reduction. However, B. oleracea is able to accumulate N derived protective compounds to cope with Zn deficiency stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Structural, morphological, optical and biological properties of pure ZnO and agar/zinc oxide nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Magesh, G; Bhoopathi, G; Nithya, N; Arun, A P; Ranjith Kumar, E

    2018-05-26

    In this work, ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by in situ chemical precipitation method in the presence of Agar biopolymer. The influence of Agar concentrations on the structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnO have been investigated. The XRD pattern of Pure ZnO and Agar/ZnO nanocomposites indicates the hexagonal wurtzite phase of ZnO. The crystallite size of pure ZnO and Agar/ZnO nanocomposites was found to be in the range of 35.5 to 19.73 nm. Pure ZnO and Agar/ZnO nanocomposites showed nanospheroid and nanopaddy shaped morphology from FESEM studies. The interplanar distance observed from the HRTEM image confirms the plane of the prepared material. The elemental composition of the samples were characterized by EDX. The optical properties of Pure ZnO and Agar/ZnO nanocomposites were characterized by UV, FTIR and PL. The band gap of Agar/ZnO nanocomposites were varied with the Agar concentration. Oxygen vacancy induced photoluminescence of ZnO are observed and its intensity is found to be increased linearly with the Agar concentration. The antibacterial activity of ZnO and Agar/ZnO nanocomposites was evaluated by disc diffusion method against Gram-positive (B.subtilis) and Gram-negative (P. aeruginosa) bacteria. The cytotoxicity of Agar/ZnO nanocomposites was studied against Normal (L929) and Breast cancer cell line (MB231). The result of this investigation reveals that the Agar/ZnO nanocomposites deliver a dose dependent toxicity in normal and cancer cell line. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Treatment with Parkinsonia aculeata combats insulin resistance-induced oxidative stress through the increase in PPARγ/CuZn-SOD axis expression in diet-induced obesity mice.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Tiago Gomes; Oliveira, Alexandre Gabarra; Vecina, Juliana Falcato; Marin, Rodrigo Miguel; Franco, Eryvelton Souza; Abdalla Saad, Mario J; de Sousa Maia, Maria Bernadete

    2016-08-01

    Parkinsonia aculeata L. (Caesalpiniaceae) is a traditional ethnomedicine and has been used for the empiric treatment of hyperglycemia, without scientific background. Mechanistic analyses at molecular level from the antioxidant mechanism observed by P. aculeata are required. Herein the effects of the treatment by hydroethanolic extract partitioned with ethyl acetate of P. aculeata aerial parts (HEPa/EtOAc) in mice fed a high-fat diet that share many obesity phenotypes with humans were evaluated. The animals were treated orally with HEPa/EtOAc (125 and 250 mg/kg/day) and pioglitazone (5 mg/kg/day), for 16 days. After the treatment, HEPa/EtOAc reduced fasting serum glucose and insulin levels, as well as homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance. In addition, an improvement in glucose intolerance was also observed. Indeed, a reduction in the circulating levels of TNF-α and IL-6 was also observed. Furthermore, at molecular level, it was demonstrated that the HEPa/EtOAc treatment was able to improve these physiological parameters, through the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) per si, as well as the enhancement of antioxidant mechanism by an increase in PPARγ/Cu(2+), Zn(2+)-superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) axis expression in liver and adipose tissue. In sum, P. aculeata is effective to improve insulin resistance in a mouse model of obesity and this effect seems to involve the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms through the increase in PPARγ/CuZn-SOD axis expression.

  10. Increased chemerin concentrations in fetuses of obese mothers and correlation with maternal insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Barker, Gillian; Lim, Ratana; Rice, Gregory E; Lappas, Martha

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on (i) the circulating concentrations of chemerin in cord and maternal plasma, and (ii) gene expression and release of chemerin from human placenta and adipose tissue. Chemerin concentrations were measured in maternal and cord plasma from 62 normal glucose tolerant women (NGT) and 69 women with GDM at the time of term elective Caesarean section. Placenta and adipose tissue expression and release of chemerin was measured from 22 NGT and 22 GDM women. There was no effect of maternal obesity or GDM on maternal chemerin concentrations. Chemerin concentrations were significantly higher in cord plasma from women with maternal obesity. Cord chemerin concentrations in NGT women negatively correlated with the concentrations of maternal insulin sensitivity. There was no effect of GDM on maternal and cord chemerin concentrations, and on the release of chemerin from placenta and adipose tissue. At the time of term Caesarean section, preexisting maternal obesity, and its associated insulin resistance, is associated with higher cord plasma chemerin concentrations.

  11. Bond length variation in Zn substituted NiO studied from extended X-ray absorption fine structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. D.; Poswal, A. K.; Kamal, C.; Rajput, Parasmani; Chakrabarti, Aparna; Jha, S. N.; Ganguli, Tapas

    2017-06-01

    Bond length behavior for Zn substituted NiO is determined through extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements performed at ambient conditions. We report bond length value of 2.11±0.01 Å for Zn-O of rock salt (RS) symmetry, when Zn is doped in RS NiO. Bond length for Zn substituted NiO RS ternary solid solutions shows relaxed behavior for Zn-O bond, while it shows un-relaxed behavior for Ni-O bond. These observations are further supported by first-principles calculations. It is also inferred that Zn sublattice remains nearly unchanged with increase in lattice parameter. On the other hand, Ni sublattice dilates for Zn compositions up to 20% to accommodate increase in the lattice parameter. However, for Zn compositions more than 20%, it does not further dilate. It has been attributed to the large disorder that is incorporated in the system at and beyond 20% of Zn incorporation in the cubic RS lattice of ternary solid solutions. For these large percentages of Zn incorporation, the Ni and the Zn atoms re-arrange themselves microscopically about the same nominal bond length rather than systematically increase in magnitude to minimize the energy of the system. This results in an increase in the Debye-Waller factor with increase in the Zn concentration rather than a systematic increase in the bond lengths.

  12. Consumption of canned citrus fruit meals increases human plasma β-cryptoxanthin concentration, whereas lycopene and β-carotene concentrations did not change in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chenghao H; Gertz, Erik R; Cai, Yimeng; Burri, Betty J

    2016-07-01

    Several studies suggest that β-cryptoxanthin has a greater plasma response from its common food sources than other carotenoids such as β-carotene and lycopene. The hypothesis of this study is that changes in plasma β-cryptoxanthin concentrations will be greater than changes in plasma β-carotene or lycopene concentrations even if these carotenoids are fed in a similar food matrix, such as citrus fruit. We tested this hypothesis by measuring changes in plasma concentrations of β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and β-carotene after feeding measured amounts of canned tangerines and pink grapefruit to healthy nonsmoking adult humans. Volunteers served as their own controls and received both citrus fruit treatments randomly. In the first study, 8 subjects ate single meals of 234-304g of tangerines or 60-540g of pink grapefruit. The second study compared changes in plasma carotenoid concentration caused by feeding 234g of tangerines or 540g of pink grapefruit to 11 subjects. Blood was collected 5 times within 24hours after each citrus meal. Carotenoid concentrations were analyzed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Plasma β-cryptoxanthin concentrations increased within 5hours and then stabilized, remaining high throughout the 24hours measured. Plasma concentrations of lycopene and β-carotene did not change. These results show that β-cryptoxanthin concentrations increased after a citrus fruit meal, but lycopene and β-carotene concentrations did not change after a similar citrus fruit meal. These results support our hypothesis that changes in plasma β-cryptoxanthin are greater than changes in plasma lycopene or β-carotene, even when these carotenoids are fed in a similar food matrix. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Increases Blood Ethanol Concentration Duration After Both Acute and Chronic Administration.

    PubMed

    Simon, Liz; Siggins, Robert; Winsauer, Peter; Brashear, Meghan; Ferguson, Tekeda; Mercante, Don; Song, Kejing; Vande Stouwe, Curtis; Nelson, Steve; Bagby, Gregory; Amedee, Angela; Molina, Patricia E

    2018-02-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a frequent comorbidity among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Alcohol consumption is a significant predictor of nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), as well as worsening immunological and virological indicators among PLWHA. Clinical studies indicate that higher viral loads increase sensitivity to alcohol in PLWHA. The factors that influence alcohol kinetics after HIV infection and initiation of ART are not well understood, limiting the information upon which interventions can be designed to ameliorate the impact of alcohol misuse on this vulnerable patient population. To better understand the relationship between viral load and alcohol kinetics, we measured changes in doses of intragastric ethanol administration to achieve target blood ethanol concentration (BEC) in a rhesus macaque model of chronic binge alcohol (CBA) administration and acute changes following a single acute binge dose of alcohol (ABA) pre- and post-simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection, and following ART initiation. Our results from CBA (14 months)-administered SIV-infected male macaques showed that, following ART initiation, macaques required higher doses of alcohol to achieve a target peak BEC compared with non-ART-treated SIV-infected macaques. In animals given ABA, we found prolonged duration of elevated BEC and decreased elimination rate of alcohol that was not corrected following 7 weeks of ART. These findings suggest that binge drinking associated with AUD could negatively interact with HIV infection and enhance disease progression. These findings further support the need for implementation of behavioral or therapeutic interventions to decrease alcohol consumption to improve the quality of life in PLWHA.

  14. Permanent atrial fibrillation in heart failure patients as another condition with increased reverse triiodothyronine concentration.

    PubMed

    Jakowczuk, Maciej; Zalas, Dominika; Owecki, Maciej

    2016-09-01

    To fully investigate the thyroid hormonal function in patients with the most common arrhythmia - atrial fibrillation. 120 patients (aged 55-85 yrs) with symptoms of congestive heart failure exacerbation and no other concomitant disorders (inclusion criteria: normal cardiac troponin T at admission and 12 hours after, normal renal, hepatic and respiratory function; exclusion criteria: inflammatory state, history of myocardial infarction). Depending on the presence of permanent atrial fibrillation (PAF), patients were divided into two groups: PAF (34 females, 26 males) and regular sinus heart rhythm (43 females, 17 males), the groups did not differ in terms of heart rate, blood pressure, presence of overt/subclinical thyroid dysfunction, and medical therapy used. In all subjects thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, reverse triiodothyronine were measured; echocardiography was performed. PAF group showed higher FT4 and rT3 (1.41 vs. 1.27 ng/dl, p=0.0007; 0.61 vs. 0.32 ng/ml, p<0.0001, respectively). With ROC curve analysis the biochemical thyroid related factor of the highest prognostic value for PAF occurrence (with the highest sensitivity and specificity: 77% and 72%, respectively) was rT3 with the cut-off of above 0.3 ng/ml. Also, a positive correlation between rT3 levels and left ventricular posterior wall diameter was observed (Spearman's correlation coefficient 0.33, p=0.0093). PAF is another condition where an increase in rT3 is observed. rT3 concentration above 0.3 ng/ml may be a novel biochemical sign associated with the presence of PAF in patients with chronic heart failure.

  15. Sleep extension increases IGF-I concentrations before and during sleep deprivation in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Chennaoui, Mounir; Arnal, Pierrick J; Drogou, Catherine; Sauvet, Fabien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle

    2016-09-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to suppress circulating trophic factors such as insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This experiment examined the effect of an intervention involving 6 nights of extended sleep before total sleep deprivation on this catabolic profile. In a randomized crossover design, 14 young men (age range: 26-37 years) were either in an extended (EXT; time in bed: 2100-0700 h) or habitual (HAB: 2230-0700 h) sleep condition, followed by 3 days in the laboratory with blood sampling at baseline (B), after 24 h of sleep deprivation (24h-SD), and after 1 night of recovery sleep (R). In the EXT condition compared with the HAB condition, free IGF-I levels were significantly higher at B, 24h-SD, and R (P < 0.001), and those of total IGF-I at B and 24h-SD (P < 0.05). EXT did not influence growth hormone, IGF binding protein 3, BDNF, insulin, and glucose levels. The only effect of 24 h of sleep deprivation was for insulin levels, which were significantly higher after R compared with B. In a healthy adult, additional sleep over 1 week increased blood concentrations of the anabolic factor IGF-I before and during 24 h of sleep deprivation and after the subsequent recovery night without effects on BDNF. With further research, these findings may prove to be important in guiding effective lifestyle modifications to limit physical or cognitive deficits associated with IGF-I decrease with age.

  16. Artificial sweeteners versus regular mixers increase breath alcohol concentrations in male and female social drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Marczinski, Cecile A.; Stamates, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Limited research suggests that alcohol consumed with an artificially sweetened mixer (e.g., diet soft drink) results in higher breath alcohol concentrations (BrACs) compared to the same amount of alcohol consumed with a similar beverage containing sugar. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of this effect in both male and female social drinkers and to determine if there are measureable objective and subjective differences when alcohol is consumed with an artificially-sweetened versus sugar-sweetened mixer. Methods Participants (n = 16) of equal gender attended three sessions where they received one of 3 doses (1.97 ml/kg vodka mixed with 3.94 ml/kg Squirt, 1.97 ml/kg vodka mixed with 3.94 ml/kg diet Squirt, and a placebo beverage) in random order. BrACs were recorded, as was self-reported ratings of subjective intoxication, fatigue, impairment and willingness to drive. Objective performance was assessed using a cued go/no-go reaction time task. Results BrACs were significantly higher in the alcohol + diet beverage condition compared with the alcohol + regular beverage condition. The mean peak BrAC was .091 g/210 L in the alcohol + diet condition compared to .077 g/210 L in the alcohol + regular condition. Cued go/no-go task performance indicated the greatest impairment for the alcohol + diet beverage condition. Subjective measures indicated that participants appeared unaware of any differences in the two alcohol conditions, given that no significant differences in subjective ratings were observed for the two alcohol conditions. No gender differences were observed for BrACs, objective and subjective measures. Conclusions Mixing alcohol with a diet soft drink resulted in elevated BrACs, as compared to the same amount of alcohol mixed with a sugar sweetened beverage. Individuals were unaware of these differences, a factor that may increase the safety risks associated with drinking alcohol. PMID:23216417

  17. Does multigenerational exposure to hormetic concentrations of imidacloprid precondition aphids for increased insecticide tolerance?

    PubMed

    Rix, Rachel R; Cutler, G Christopher

    2018-02-01

    Hormetic preconditioning, whereby exposure to mild stress primes an organism to better tolerate subsequent stress, is well documented. It is unknown if exposure to hormetic concentrations of insecticide can trans-generationally prime insects to better tolerate insecticide exposure, or whether exposure to hormetic concentrations of insecticide can induce mutations in genes responsible for insecticide resistance. Using the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and the insecticide imidacloprid as a model, we examined if exposure to mildly toxic and hormetic concentrations of imidacloprid reduced aphid susceptibility to insecticides across four generations, and whether such exposures induced mutations in the imidacloprid binding site in post-synaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Chronic, multigenerational exposure of aphids to hormetic concentrations of imidacloprid primed offspring to better survive exposure to certain concentrations of imidacloprid, but not exposure to spirotetramat, an insecticide with a different mode of action. Exposure to hormetic and mildly toxic concentrations of imidacloprid did not result in mutations in any of the examined nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits. Our findings demonstrate that exposure to hormetic concentrations of insecticide can prime insects to better withstand subsequent chemical stress, but this is dependent upon the insecticide exposure scenario, and may be subtle over generations. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Stable Cu and Zn isotope ratios as tracers of sources and transport of Cu and Zn in contaminated soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigalke, Moritz; Weyer, Stefan; Kobza, Jozef; Wilcke, Wolfgang

    2010-12-01

    Copper and Zn metals are produced in large quantities for different applications. During Cu production, large amounts of Cu and Zn can be released to the environment. Therefore, the surroundings of Cu smelters are frequently metal-polluted. We determined Cu and Zn concentrations and Cu and Zn stable isotope ratios (δ 65Cu, δ 66Zn) in three soils at distances of 1.1, 3.8, and 5.3 km from a Slovak Cu smelter and in smelter wastes (slag, sludge, ash) to trace sources and transport of Cu and Zn in soils. Stable isotope ratios were measured by multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) in total digests. Soils were heavily contaminated with concentrations up to 8087 μg g -1 Cu and 2084 μg g -1 Zn in the organic horizons. The δ 65Cu values varied little (-0.12‰ to 0.36‰) in soils and most wastes and therefore no source identification was possible. In soils, Cu became isotopically lighter with increasing depth down to 0.4 m, likely because of equilibrium reactions between dissolved and adsorbed Cu species during transport of smelter-derived Cu through the soil. The δ 66Zn IRMM values were isotopically lighter in ash (-0.41‰) and organic horizons (-0.85‰ to -0.47‰) than in bedrock (-0.28‰) and slag (0.18‰) likely mainly because of kinetic fractionation during evaporation and thus allowed for separation of smelter-Zn from native Zn in soil. In particular in the organic horizons large variations in δ 66Zn values occur, probably caused by biogeochemical fractionation in the soil-plant system. In the mineral horizons, Zn isotopes showed only minor shifts to heavier δ 66Zn values with depth mainly because of the mixing of smelter-derived Zn and native Zn in the soils. In contrast to Cu, Zn isotope fractionation between dissolved and adsorbed species was probably only a minor driver in producing the observed variations in δ 66Zn values. Our results demonstrate that metal stable isotope ratios may serve as tracer of sources

  19. Divalent metal (Ca, Cd, Mn, Zn) uptake and interactions in the aquatic insect Hydropsyche sparna.

    PubMed

    Poteat, Monica D; Díaz-Jaramillo, Mauricio; Buchwalter, David B

    2012-05-01

    Despite their ecological importance and prevalent use as ecological indicators, the trace element physiology of aquatic insects remains poorly studied. Understanding divalent metal transport processes at the water-insect interface is important because these metals may be essential (e.g. Ca), essential and potentially toxic (e.g. Zn) or non-essential and toxic (e.g. Cd). We measured accumulation kinetics of Zn and Cd across dissolved concentrations ranging 4 orders of magnitude and examined interactions with Ca and Mn in the caddisfly Hydropsyche sparna. Here, we provide evidence for at least two transport systems for both Zn and Cd, the first of which operates at concentrations below 0.8 μmol l(-1) (and is fully saturable for Zn). We observed no signs of saturation of a second lower affinity transport system at concentrations up to 8.9 μmol l(-1) Cd and 15.3 μmol l(-1) Zn. In competition studies at 0.6 μmol l(-1) Zn and Cd, the presence of Cd slowed Zn accumulation by 35% while Cd was unaffected by Zn. At extreme concentrations (listed above), Cd accumulation was unaffected by the presence of Zn whereas Zn accumulation rates were reduced by 58%. Increasing Ca from 31.1 μmol l(-1) to 1.35 mmol l(-1) resulted in only modest decreases in Cd and Zn uptake. Mn decreased adsorption of Cd and Zn to the integument but not internalization. The L-type Ca(2+) channel blockers verapamil and nifedipine and the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor carboxyeosin had no influence on Ca, Cd or Zn accumulation rates, while Ruthenium Red, a Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor, significantly decreased the accumulation of all three in a concentration-dependent manner.

  20. Functional behaviour of polypropylene/ZnO soluble starch nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandramouleeswaran, Subramani; Mhaske, S. T.; Kathe, A. A.; Varadarajan, P. V.; Prasad, Virendra; Vigneshwaran, Nadanathangam

    2007-09-01

    ZnO-polypropylene nanocomposites (nano-PP) were prepared using nanoparticles of ZnO stabilized by soluble starch (nano-ZnO) as filler in PP by the melt mixing process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and other spectroscopic analysis—ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and photoluminescence—revealed the presence and characteristics of nano-ZnO in the composites. The presence of ZnO imparts whiteness, while starch increased the yellowing of polymers. The nanocomposites were analyzed for changes in optical, mechanical, electrical and rheological properties, as influenced by the increasing concentration of nano-ZnO. The mechanical properties were marginally increased and the dielectric strength of the nano-PP increased to a notable level. By monitoring the evolution of the carbonyl absorption bands from FTIR analysis, the efficacy of nano-ZnO in the reduction of photo-degradation due to UV irradiation was demonstrated. The excellent antibacterial activity exhibited by nano-ZnO impregnated PP against two human pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae, makes it a suitable candidate for food packaging applications.

  1. Rapid increases in mercury concentrations in the eggs of mallards fed methylmercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, Gary H.; Hoffman, David J.; Klimstra, Jon D.; Stebbins, Katherine R.

    2009-01-01

    To determine how quickly breeding birds would have to feed in a mercury-contaminated area before harmful concentrations of mercury, as methylmercury, built up in their eggs, we fed female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) a control diet or diets containing 0.5, 1, 2, 4, or 8 μg/g mercury (on what was close to a dry weight basis) as methylmercury chloride for 23 d. After 18 d on their respective mercury diets, the eggs of mallards fed 0.5, 1, 2, 4, or 8 μg/g mercury contained 97.8, 86.0, 89.9, 88.9, and 85.9%, respectively, of the peak concentrations reached after 23 d. Depending on the dietary concentration of mercury, no more than approximately a week may be required for harmful concentrations (0.5–0.8 μg/g, wet weight) to be excreted into eggs.

  2. Al-doped ZnO seed layer-dependent crystallographic control of ZnO nanorods by using electrochemical deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Hyo-Soo; Choi, Nak-Jung; Kim, Kyoung-Bo

    Highlights: • Polar and semipolar ZnO NRs were successfully achieved by hydrothermal synthesis. • Semipolar and polar ZnO NRs were grown on ZnO and AZO/m-sapphire, respectively. • Al % of AZO/m-sapphire enhanced the lateral growth rate of polar ZnO NRs. - Abstract: We investigated the effect of an Al-doped ZnO film on the crystallographic direction of ZnO nanorods (NRs) using electrochemical deposition. From high-solution X-ray diffraction measurements, the crystallographic plane of ZnO NRs grown on (1 0 0) ZnO/m-plane sapphire was (1 0 1). The surface grain size of the (100) Al-doped ZnO (AZO) film decreased with increasing Al contentmore » in the ZnO seed layer, implying that the Al dopant accelerated the three-dimensional (3D) growth of the AZO film. In addition, it was found that with increasing Al doping concentration of the AZO seed layer, the crystal orientation of the ZnO NRs grown on the AZO seed layer changed from [1 0 1] to [0 0 1]. With increasing Al content of the nonpolar (1 0 0) AZO seed layer, the small surface grains with a few crystallographic planes of the AZO film changed from semipolar (1 0 1) ZnO NRs to polar (0 0 1) ZnO NRs due to the increase of the vertical [0 0 1] growth rate of the ZnO NRs owing to excellent electrical properties.« less

  3. Atomic layer deposition of Al-incorporated Zn(O,S) thin films with tunable electrical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Helen Hejin; Jayaraman, Ashwin; Heasley, Rachel; Yang, Chuanxi; Hartle, Lauren; Mankad, Ravin; Haight, Richard; Mitzi, David B.; Gunawan, Oki; Gordon, Roy G.

    2014-11-01

    Zinc oxysulfide, Zn(O,S), films grown by atomic layer deposition were incorporated with aluminum to adjust the carrier concentration. The electron carrier concentration increased up to one order of magnitude from 1019 to 1020 cm-3 with aluminum incorporation and sulfur content in the range of 0 ≤ S/(Zn+Al) ≤ 0.16. However, the carrier concentration decreased by five orders of magnitude from 1019 to 1014 cm-3 for S/(Zn+Al) = 0.34 and decreased even further when S/(Zn+Al) > 0.34. Such tunable electrical properties are potentially useful for graded buffer layers in thin-film photovoltaic applications.

  4. Increased short circuit current in organic photovoltaic using high-surface area electrode based on ZnO nanowires decorated with CdTe quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Aga, R S; Gunther, D; Ueda, A; Pan, Z; Collins, W E; Mu, R; Singer, K D

    2009-11-18

    A photosensitized high-surface area transparent electrode has been employed to increase the short circuit current of a photovoltaic device with a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and (6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as the active layer. This is achieved by directly growing ZnO nanowires on indium tin oxide (ITO) film via a physical vapor method. The nanowire surface is then decorated with CdTe quantum dots by pulsed electron-beam deposition (PED). The nanowires alone provided a 20-fold increase in the short circuit current under visible light illumination. This was further increased by a factor of approximately 1.5 by the photosensitization effect of CdTe, which has an optical absorption of up to 820 nm.

  5. Treatment of X-Linked Hypophosphatemia with Calcitriol and Phosphate Increases Circulating Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Imel, Erik A.; DiMeglio, Linda A.; Hui, Siu L.; Carpenter, Thomas O.; Econs, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: X-Linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is characterized by renal phosphate wasting, with inappropriately low or normal serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations causing rickets and osteomalacia. Mutations in PHEX result in increased fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) expression, elevating circulating FGF23 concentrations. Treating XLH with phosphate and calcitriol may further increase FGF23 concentrations, based on in vitro and in vivo models. Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate whether current standard XLH therapies increase circulating FGF23 concentrations. Design and Setting: We conducted a prospective observational study of XLH subjects during routine clinical management at two tertiary referral centers. Patients: The study included 10 XLH patients (seven children, three adults; age, 2–30 yr) initiating therapy and five XLH patients (age, 18–41 yr) electing not to undergo therapy. Intervention(s): Oral calcitriol and phosphate were administered. Main Outcome Measures: We measured circulating intact FGF23 concentrations. Results: Baseline circulating FGF23 concentrations were elevated in 14 of 15 subjects, increasing after treatment in most subjects. Follow-up was 14.4 ± 11.7 months (treatment cohort) and 25 ± 32 months (nontreatment cohort). FGF23 concentrations increased 132.7 ± 202.4% from pretreatment to peak during therapy but did not change significantly over time in the nontreatment cohort. FGF23 concentrations were related to phosphate doses (P = 0.04) and nonsignificantly to calcitriol doses (P = 0.06). Conclusions: Treating XLH with phosphate and calcitriol was associated with concurrent increases in circulating FGF23 concentrations, which may diminish therapeutic effect or contribute to complications of therapy. Because it is unknown whether the degree of FGF23 elevation correlates with disease severity in XLH, further study is needed to determine whether adjusting therapy to minimize effects on FGF23 concentration is

  6. Increased cell-free DNA concentrations in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Chol; Kim, Jin K; Kim, Je H; Jung, Ki H; Cho, Kyung J; Lee, Chang K; Lee, Seung G

    2008-12-01

    Blood concentrations of cell-free DNA, which is considered to be released during apoptosis, are elevated under some pathological conditions such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. The association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and cell-free DNA concentrations has not been reported so far. The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between OSA and plasma DNA concentrations. A case-control study was conducted using a total of 164 men aged 39-67 years, who were free of coronary heart disease and cancer. Laboratory-based overnight polysomnography was performed for all participants. On the basis of polysomnography, patients with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) = 5-30 events/h were defined as having mild-moderate OSA (n = 33) and those with >30 events/h were defined as having severe OSA (n = 49). All 82 controls had AHI < 5 events/h. Plasma DNA concentrations from all participants were analyzed for the beta-globin gene using fluorescence-based real-time polymerase chain reaction. Patients with severe OSA had significantly higher plasma DNA concentrations than persons with mild-moderate OSA and those without OSA (P < 0.05). AHI was significantly associated with body mass index (P < 0.001), hypertension (P < 0.001), and plasma DNA concentration (P < 0.05). After taking into account hypertension and other potential risk factors, persons with high plasma DNA concentrations (>8 microg/L) had approximately fourfold higher odds of OSA than those with low DNA levels. Further data are warranted to confirm the association for men and to evaluate the association for women.

  7. ZnO for solar cell and thermoelectric applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chuanle; Ghods, Amirhossein; Yunghans, Kelcy L.; Saravade, Vishal G.; Patel, Paresh V.; Jiang, Xiaodong; Kucukgok, Bahadir; Lu, Na; Ferguson, Ian

    2017-03-01

    ZnO-based materials show promise in energy harvesting applications, such as piezoelectric, photovoltaic and thermoelectric. In this work, ZnO-based vertical Schottky barrier solar cells were fabricated by MOCVD de- position of ZnO thin films on ITO back ohmic contact, while Ag served as the top Schottky contact. Various rapid thermal annealing conditions were studied to modify the carrier density and crystal quality. Greater than 200 nm thick ZnO films formed polycrystalline crystal structure, and were used to demonstrate Schottky solar cells. I-V characterizations of the devices showed photovoltaic performance, but but need further development. This is the first demonstration of vertical Schottky barrier solar cell based on wide bandgap ZnO film. Thin film and bulk ZnO grown by MOCVD or melt growth were also investigated in regards to their room- temperature thermoelectric properties. The Seebeck coefficient of bulk ZnO was found to be much larger than that of thin film ZnO at room temperature due to the higher crystal quality in bulk materials. The Seebeck coefficients decrease while the carrier concentration increases due to the crystal defects caused by the charge carriers. The co-doped bulk Zn0:96Ga0:02Al0:02O showed enhanced power factors, lower thermal conductivities and promising ZT values in the whole temperature range (300-1300 K).

  8. Charge carrier dynamics investigation of CuInS2 quantum dots films using injected charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage (i-CELIV): the role of ZnS Shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Ke; Sui, Ning; Zhang, Liquan; Wang, Yinghui; Liu, Qinghui; Tan, Mingrui; Zhou, Qiang; Zhang, Hanzhuang

    2016-12-01

    The role of ZnS shell on the photo-physical properties within CuInS2/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) is carefully studied in optoelectronic devices. Linearly increasing voltage technique has been employed to investigate the charge carrier dynamics of both CuInS2 and CuInS2/ZnS QDs films. This study shows that charge carriers follow a similar behavior of monomolecular recombination in this film, with their charge transfer rate correlates to the increase of applied voltage. It turns out that the ZnS shell could affect the carrier diffusion process through depressing the trapping states and would build up a potential barrier.

  9. Feeding Preference and Sub-chronic Effects of ZnO Nanomaterials in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera carnica).

    PubMed

    Glavan, Gordana; Milivojević, Tamara; Božič, Janko; Sepčić, Kristina; Drobne, Damjana

    2017-04-01

    The extensive production of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterials (NMs) may result in high environmental zinc burdens. Honeybees need to have special concern due to their crucial role in pollination. Our previous study indicated that low concentrations of ZnO NMs, corresponding to 0.8 mg Zn/mL, have a neurotoxic potential for honeybees after a 10-day oral exposure. Present study was designed to investigate the effect of a short, dietary exposure of honeybees to ZnO NMs at concentrations 0.8-8 mg Zn/mL on consumption rate, food preference, and two enzymatic biomarkers-a stress-related glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the neurotoxicity biomarker acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Consumption rate showed a tendency toward a decrease feeding with the increasing concentrations of ZnO NMs. None of Zn NMs concentrations caused alterations in mortality rate and in the activities of brain GST and AChE. To investigate if there is an avoidance response against Zn presence in food, 24-h two-choice tests were performed with control sucrose diet versus sucrose suspensions with different concentrations of ZnO NMs added. We demonstrated that honeybees prefer ZnO NMs ZnO NMs containing suspensions, even at highest Zn concentrations tested, compared with the control diet. This indicates that they might be able to perceive the presence of ZnO NMs in sucrose solution. Because honeybees feed frequently the preference towards ZnO NMs might have a high impact on their survival when exposed to these NMs.

  10. PKU: high plasma phenylalanine concentrations are associated with increased prevalence of mood swings.

    PubMed

    Anjema, Karen; van Rijn, Margreet; Verkerk, Paul H; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Heiner-Fokkema, M Rebecca; van Spronsen, Francjan J

    2011-11-01

    In phenylketonuria, knowledge about the relation between behavior and plasma phenylalanine is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine whether high phenylalanine is associated with disturbed behavior noticed by the patient and or close environment (parents or partners). 48 early treated PKU patients (median age 8.5, range 0-35 years) participated (median phenylalanine concentration in total sample 277 (range 89-1171) μmol/l; and in patients <12 years 238 (range 89-521) μmol/l). After sending blood samples, patients or close environment were interviewed with a standardized questionnaire whether they noticed hyperactivity, annoying behavior, mood swings and introvert or extravert behavior. The interviewer as well as the respondents were blinded with regard to the phenylalanine concentration. Patients reported less deviant behavior compared to close environment. Mood swings were positively associated with phenylalanine concentrations in the total group (P=0.039) and patients <12 years (P=0.042). The relationships between temporary high phenylalanine concentrations and hyperactivity, annoying behavior, introvert and extravert behavior were not statistically significant. there is a positive association between phenylalanine concentrations and mood swings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Increased plasma proline concentrations are associated with sarcopenia in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Yusuke; Imaizumi, Akira; Hakamada, Tomomi; Abe, Yasuko; Kaneko, Eiji; Takahashi, Soiciro; Shimokado, Kentaro

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose Metabolome analyses have shown that plasma amino acid profiles reflect various pathological conditions, such as cancer and diabetes mellitus. It remains unclear, however, whether plasma amino acid profiles change in patients with sarcopenia. This study therefore aimed to investigate whether sarcopenia-specific changes occur in plasma amino acid profiles. Methods A total of 153 community-dwelling and seven institutionalized elderly individuals (56 men, 104 women; mean age, 77.7±7.0 years) were recruited for this cross-sectional analysis. We performed a comprehensive geriatric assessment, which included an evaluation of hand grip strength, gait speed, muscle mass and blood chemistry, including the concentration of 18 amino acids. Results Twenty-eight of the 160 participants met the criteria for sarcopenia established by the Asian Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Univariate analysis revealed associations between the presence of sarcopenia and a higher plasma concentration of proline and glutamine, lower concentrations of histidine and tryptophan. Multivariable analysis revealed that a higher concentration of proline was the only variable independently associated with sarcopenia. Conclusions The plasma concentration of proline may be useful for understanding the underlying pathophysiology of sarcopenia. PMID:28934309

  12. Increased plasma proline concentrations are associated with sarcopenia in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Toyoshima, Kenji; Nakamura, Marie; Adachi, Yusuke; Imaizumi, Akira; Hakamada, Tomomi; Abe, Yasuko; Kaneko, Eiji; Takahashi, Soiciro; Shimokado, Kentaro

    2017-01-01

    Metabolome analyses have shown that plasma amino acid profiles reflect various pathological conditions, such as cancer and diabetes mellitus. It remains unclear, however, whether plasma amino acid profiles change in patients with sarcopenia. This study therefore aimed to investigate whether sarcopenia-specific changes occur in plasma amino acid profiles. A total of 153 community-dwelling and seven institutionalized elderly individuals (56 men, 104 women; mean age, 77.7±7.0 years) were recruited for this cross-sectional analysis. We performed a comprehensive geriatric assessment, which included an evaluation of hand grip strength, gait speed, muscle mass and blood chemistry, including the concentration of 18 amino acids. Twenty-eight of the 160 participants met the criteria for sarcopenia established by the Asian Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Univariate analysis revealed associations between the presence of sarcopenia and a higher plasma concentration of proline and glutamine, lower concentrations of histidine and tryptophan. Multivariable analysis revealed that a higher concentration of proline was the only variable independently associated with sarcopenia. The plasma concentration of proline may be useful for understanding the underlying pathophysiology of sarcopenia.

  13. International Airport Impacts to Air Quality: Size and Related Properties of Large Increases in Ultrafine Particle Number Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Hudda, N; Fruin, S A

    2016-04-05

    We measured particle size distributions and spatial patterns of particle number (PN) and particle surface area concentrations downwind from the Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) where large increases (over local background) in PN concentrations routinely extended 18 km downwind. These elevations were mostly comprised of ultrafine particles smaller than 40 nm. For a given downwind distance, the greatest increases in PN concentrations, along with the smallest mean sizes, were detected at locations under the landing jet trajectories. The smaller size of particles in the impacted area, as compared to the ambient urban aerosol, increased calculated lung deposition fractions to 0.7-0.8 from 0.5-0.7. A diffusion charging instrument (DiSCMini), that simulates alveolar lung deposition, measured a fivefold increase in alveolar-lung deposited surface area concentrations 2-3 km downwind from the airport (over local background), decreasing steadily to a twofold increase 18 km downwind. These ratios (elevated lung-deposited surface area over background) were lower than the corresponding ratios for elevated PN concentrations, which decreased from tenfold to twofold over the same distance, but the spatial patterns of elevated concentrations were similar. It appears that PN concentration can serve as a nonlinear proxy for lung deposited surface area downwind of major airports.

  14. Increases in aerosol concentrations over eastern China due to the decadal-scale weakening of the East Asian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianlei; Liao, Hong; Li, Jianping

    2012-05-01

    China has been experiencing increased concentrations of aerosols, commonly attributed to the large increases in emissions associated with the rapid economic development. We show by using a chemical transport model driven by the assimilated meteorological fields that the observed decadal-scale weakening of the East Asian summer monsoon also contributed to the increases in aerosols in China. We find that the simulated aerosol concentrations have strong negative correlations with the strength of the East Asian Summer monsoon. Accounting for sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, and organic carbon aerosols, the summer surface-layer PM2.5 concentration averaged over eastern China (110°-125°E, 20°-45°N) can be 17.7% higher in the weakest monsoon years than in the strongest monsoon years. The weakening of the East Asian Summer monsoon increases aerosol concentrations mainly by the changes in atmospheric circulation (the convergence of air pollutants) in eastern China.

  15. Increased concentrations of soluble CD40 ligand platelet in patients with primary antiphospholipidic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Galicia López, Aida; Olguín Ortega, Lourdes; Saavedra, Miguel A; Méndez Cruz, René; Jimenez Flores, Rafael; García de la Peña, Maximiliano

    2013-01-01

    To determine the concentrations of sCD40L in patients with PAPS, and establish its association with the number of thrombosis. We included patients with PAPS and healthy controls of the same age and sex. For analysis, patients with PAPS were divided into 2 groups: 1) patients with 1 thrombosis, and 2) patients with >1 thrombosis. Soluble CD40L concentrations were determined by ELISA method. sCD40L concentrations were significantly higher in patients with PAPS compared with the controls (9.72 ng ± 11.23 ng/ml vs. 4.69 ± 4.04 ng/ml) (P=.04) There was no association between serum levels of sCD40L and the number of thrombosis (1 thrombosis: 9.81 ± 9.87 ng/ml vs 9.63 ± 12.75 ng/ml in ≥ 1thrombosis (P=.13). In women with pregnancy and abortions, (13 patients) concentrations of sCD40L were higher than in those patients without a history of abortion (26 patients) but without statically significant difference (12.11 ± 16.46 ng/ml vs. 8.80 ± 8.61 ng/ml) (P=.33). There was no correlation between levels of sCD40L and the total number of thrombosis. Patients with PAPS have higher concentrations of sCD40L compared with healthy subjects, although this is not associated with a greater number of thrombosis. Among patients with PAPS, there is a tendency to higher concentrations of sCD40L in women with pregnancy and history of abortion. Since the platelet is the main cellular source of sCD40L, is possible that this pathway plays a pathogenic role in patients with PAPS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Fast synthesize ZnO quantum dots via ultrasonic method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weimin; Zhang, Bing; Ding, Nan; Ding, Wenhao; Wang, Lixi; Yu, Mingxun; Zhang, Qitu

    2016-05-01

    Green emission ZnO quantum dots were synthesized by an ultrasonic sol-gel method. The ZnO quantum dots were synthesized in various ultrasonic temperature and time. Photoluminescence properties of these ZnO quantum dots were measured. Time-resolved photoluminescence decay spectra were also taken to discover the change of defects amount during the reaction. Both ultrasonic temperature and time could affect the type and amount of defects in ZnO quantum dots. Total defects of ZnO quantum dots decreased with the increasing of ultrasonic temperature and time. The dangling bonds defects disappeared faster than the optical defects. Types of optical defects first changed from oxygen interstitial defects to oxygen vacancy and zinc interstitial defects. Then transformed back to oxygen interstitial defects again. The sizes of ZnO quantum dots would be controlled by both ultrasonic temperature and time as well. That is, with the increasing of ultrasonic temperature and time, the sizes of ZnO quantum dots first decreased then increased. Moreover, concentrated raw materials solution brought larger sizes and more optical defects of ZnO quantum dots. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of aging on ZnO and nitrogen doped P-Type ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Sayanee; Bhunia, S.

    2012-06-01

    The withholding of p-type conductivity in as-prepared and 3% nitrogen (N) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) even after 2 months of preparation was systematically studied. The films were grown on glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at 350 °C under different conditions, viz. under vacuum and at oxygen (O) ambience using 2000 laser pulses. In O ambience for as-prepared ZnO the carrier concentration reduces and mobility increases with increasing number of laser shots. The resistivity of as-prepared and 3% N-doped ZnO is found to increase with reduction in hole concentration after 60 days of aging while maintaining its p-type conductivity irrespective of growth condition. AFM and electrical properties showed aging effect on the doped and undoped samples. For as-prepared ZnO, with time, O migration makes the film high resistive by reducing free electron concentrations. But for N-doped p-type ZnO, O-migration, metastable N and hydrogen atom present in the source induced instability in structure makes it less conducting p-type.

  18. Dissolved and labile concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the South Fork Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho: Comparisons among chemical equilibrium models and implications for biotic ligand models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balistrieri, L.S.; Blank, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    In order to evaluate thermodynamic speciation calculations inherent in biotic ligand models, the speciation of dissolved Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in aquatic systems influenced by historical mining activities is examined using equilibrium computer models and the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique. Several metal/organic-matter complexation models, including WHAM VI, NICA-Donnan, and Stockholm Humic model (SHM), are used in combination with inorganic speciation models to calculate the thermodynamic speciation of dissolved metals and concentrations of metal associated with biotic ligands (e.g., fish gills). Maximum dynamic metal concentrations, determined from total dissolved metal concentrations and thermodynamic speciation calculations, are compared with labile metal concentrations measured by DGT to assess which metal/organic-matter complexation model best describes metal speciation and, thereby, biotic ligand speciation, in the studied systems. Results indicate that the choice of model that defines metal/organic-matter interactions does not affect calculated concentrations of Cd and Zn associated with biotic ligands for geochemical conditions in the study area, whereas concentrations of Cu and Pb associated with biotic ligands depend on whether the speciation calculations use WHAM VI, NICA-Donnan, or SHM. Agreement between labile metal concentrations and dynamic metal concentrations occurs when WHAM VI is used to calculate Cu speciation and SHM is used to calculate Pb speciation. Additional work in systems that contain wide ranges in concentrations of multiple metals should incorporate analytical speciation methods, such as DGT, to constrain the speciation component of biotic ligand models. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. The influence of hydrous Mn–Zn oxides on diel cycling of Zn in an alkaline stream draining abandoned mine lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shope, Christopher L.; Xie, Ying; Gammons, Christopher H.

    2006-01-01

    Many mining-impacted streams in western Montana with pH near or above neutrality display large (up to 500%) diel cycles in dissolved Zn concentrations. The streams in question typically contain boulders coated with a thin biofilm, as well as black mineral crusts composed of hydrous Mn–Zn oxides. Laboratory mesocosm experiments simulating diel behavior in High Ore Creek (one of the Montana streams with particularly high Zn concentrations) show that the Zn cycles are not caused by 24-h changes in streamflow or hyporheic exchange, but rather to reversible in-stream processes that are driven by the solar cycle and its attendant influence on pH and water temperature (T). Laboratory experiments using natural Mn–Zn precipitates from the creek show that the mobilities of Zn and Mn increase nearly an order of magnitude for each unit decrease in pH, and decrease 2.4-fold for an increase in T from 5 to 20 °C. The response of dissolved metal concentration to small changes in either pH or T was rapid and reversible, and dissolved Zn concentrations were roughly an order of magnitude higher than Mn. These observations are best explained by sorption of Zn2+ and Mn2+ onto the secondary Mn–Zn oxide surfaces. From the T-dependence of residual metal concentrations in solution, approximate adsorption enthalpies of +50 kJ/mol (Zn) and +46 kJ/mol (Mn) were obtained, which are within the range of enthalpy values reported in the literature for sorption of divalent metal cations onto hydrous metal oxides. Using the derived pH- and T-dependencies from the experiments, good agreement is shown between predicted and observed diel Zn cycles for several historical data sets collected from High Ore Creek.

  20. Effect of increased systemic concentrations of urea nitrogen in crossbred heifers on in vitro fertilization (IVF)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Elevated levels of dietary N and hence systemic concentrations of urea-N have been shown to have a deleterious effect on reproductive processes. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding pubertal crossbred heifers diets with moderate (M-N; 64.8% corn silage, 30.0% alfalfa h...

  1. Comparative evaluation of impact of Zn and ZnO nanoparticles on brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae: effects of particle size and solubility on toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ates, Mehmet; Daniels, James; Arslan, Zikri; Farah, Ibrahim O; Rivera, Hilsamar Félix

    2013-01-01

    Brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae were exposed to different sizes of zinc (Zn) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) to evaluate their toxicity in marine aquatic ecosystems. Acute exposure was conducted in seawater with 10, 50 and 100 mg L(-1) concentrations of the NPs for 24 h and 96 h. Phase contrast microscope images confirmed the accumulation of the NPs inside the guts. Artemia were unable to eliminate the ingested particles, which was thought to be due to the formation of massive particles in the guts. Although the suspensions of the NPs did not exhibit any significant acute toxicity within 24 h, mortalities increased remarkably in 96 h and escalated with increasing concentration of NP suspension to 42% for Zn NPs (40-60 nm) (LC50∼ 100 mg L(-1)) and to about 34% for ZnO NPs (10-30 nm) (LC50 > 100 mg L(-1)). The suspensions of Zn NPs were more toxic to Artemia than those of ZnO NPs under comparable regimes. This effect was attributed to higher Zn(2+) levels (ca. up to 8.9 mg L(-1)) released to the medium from Zn NPs in comparison to that measured in the suspensions of ZnO NPs (ca. 5.5 mg L(-1)). In addition, the size of the nanopowders appeared to contribute to the observed toxicities. Although the suspensions possessed aggregates of comparable sizes, smaller Zn NPs (40-60 nm) were relatively more toxic than larger Zn NPs (80-100 nm). Likewise, the suspensions of 10-30 nm ZnO NPs caused higher toxicity than those of 200 nm ZnO NPs. Lipid peroxidation levels were substantially higher in 96 h (p < 0.05), indicating that the toxic effects were due to the oxidative stress.

  2. Structural, chemical and optical evaluation of Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by an aqueous solution method

    SciTech Connect

    Iribarren, A., E-mail: augusto@imre.oc.uh.cu; Hernández-Rodríguez, E.; Maqueira, L.

    Highlights: • Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles obtained by chemical synthesis. • Substitutional or interstitial Cu into ZnO lead specific structural, chemical, and optical changes. • Incorporation efficiency of Cu atoms in ZnO as a function of the Cu concentration in the precursor dissolution. - Abstract: In this work a study of ZnO and Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles obtained by chemical synthesis in aqueous media was carried out. Structural analysis gave the dominant presence of wurtzite ZnO phase forming a solid solution Zn{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}O. For high Cu doping CuO phase is also present. For low Cu concentration the lattice shrinks due tomore » Cu atoms substitute Zn atoms. For high Cu concentration the lattice enlarges due to predominance of interstitial Cu. From elemental analysis we determined and analyzed the incorporation efficiency of Cu atoms in Zn{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}O as a function of the Cu concentration in the precursor dissolution. Combining structural and chemical results we described the Cu/Zn precursor concentrations r{sub w} in which the solid solution of Cu in ZnO is predominant. In the region located at r{sub w} ≈ 0.2–0.3 it is no longer valid. For Cu/Zn precursor concentration r{sub w} > 0.3 interstitial Cu dominates, and some amount of copper oxide appears. As the Cu concentration increases, the effective size of nanoparticles decreases. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements of the Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles were carried out and analyzed.« less

  3. Hydroxyapatite coatings containing Zn and Si on Ti-6Al-4Valloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, In-Jo; Choe, Han-Cheol

    2018-02-01

    In this study, hydroxyapatite coatings containing Zn and Si on Ti-6Al-4Valloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation were researched using various experimental instruments. The pore size is depended on the electrolyte concentration and the particle size and number of pore increase on surface part and pore part. In the case of Zn/Si sample, pore size was larger than that of Zn samples. The maximum size of pores decreased and minimum size of pores increased up to 10Zn/Si and Zn and Si affect the formation of pore shapes. As Zn ion concentration increases, the size of the particle tends to increase, the number of particles on the surface part is reduced, whereas the size of the particles and the number of particles on pore part increased. Zn is mainly detected at pore part, and Si is mainly detected at surface part. The crystallite size of anatase increased as the Zn ion concentration, whereas, in the case of Si ion added, crystallite size of anatase decreased.

  4. PP/EPDM-blends by dynamic vulcanization: Influence of increasing peroxide concentration on mechanical, morphological and rheological characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patermann, S.; Altstädt, V.

    2014-05-01

    Thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) combine the elastic properties of thermoset cross-linked rubbers with the melt processability of thermoplastics. The most representative examples of this class are the TPVs based on polypropylene (PP) and ethylene-propylenediene terpolymer rubber (EPDM). The PP/EPDM blends were produced by dynamic vulcanization in a continuous extrusion process. The influence of different peroxide concentrations was studied with regard to cross-link density, compression set, tensile strength/elongation at break and morphology. With increasing peroxide concentration, the cross-link density increases, leading to a reduction of the compression set by 50 %. The cross-linked blends show smaller dispersed EPDM particles than the uncured one. With a peroxide concentration between 0.2 and 0.6 % a maximum in tensile strength and elongation at break was found and with increasing peroxide concentration, the complex viscosity of the TPVs decreases. Compared to batch processes, the results show nearly the same trends.

  5. The effect of increasing honey concentration on the properties of the honey/polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Sarhan, Wessam A; Azzazy, Hassan M E; El-Sherbiny, Ibrahim M

    2016-10-01

    The effect of increasing honey concentrations from 10% to 30% within the Honey (H)/polyvinyl alcohol (P)/chitosan (CS) nanofibers was investigated. Changes in the electrospun nanofiber diameters, crystallinity, thermal behavior, porosity and antibacterial activity have been assessed using SEM, XRD, DSC, TGA, mercury porosimeter and viable cell count technique. The HPCS nanofibers were cross-linked and tested for their swelling abilities and degradation behavior. The mean diameter of HPCS nanofibers increased from 284±97nm to 464±185nm upon increasing the honey concentration from 10% to 30%. Irrespective the honey concentrations, the nanofibers have demonstrated enhanced porosity. Increasing the honey concentration resulted in a reduction in the swelling of the 1h cross-linked HPCS nanofibers containing 10% and 30% H from 520% to 100%; respectively. Degradation after 30days was reduced in the 3h cross-linked HPCS nanofibers compared to the non-crosslinked HPCS nanofibers. Enhanced antibacterial activity was achieved against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli upon increasing the honey concentration. Changing the honey concentration and the extent of nanofiber crosslinking can be used to adjust different parameters of the HPCS nanofibers to suit their applications in wound healing and tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Detection of autoantibodies and increased concentrations of interleukins in plasma from patients with Tourette's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-hang; Zheng, Yi; He, Fan; Yang, Jian-hong; Li, Wen-biao; Wang, Min-ling; Cui, De-yan; Chen, Ying

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess levels of autoantibodies and cytokines in patients with Tourette's syndrome (TS, n = 40) and healthy control individuals (n = 40). Plasma interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-17, and soluble gp130 concentrations were significantly higher in the TS group compared with the control group (P < 0.001); whereas the soluble IL-6 receptor concentration was significantly decreased in the TS group compared with the control group (P < 0.001). Significantly more patients in the TS group were positive for antibrain and antinuclear antibodies, and antistreptolysin compared with the control group (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that immune activity is altered in patients with TS.

  7. Leaching of Zinc Sulfide by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: Bacterial Oxidation of the Sulfur Product Layer Increases the Rate of Zinc Sulfide Dissolution at High Concentrations of Ferrous Ions

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, T. A.; Crundwell, F. K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports the results of leaching experiments conducted with and without Thiobacillus ferrooxidans at the same conditions in solution. The extent of leaching of ZnS with bacteria is significantly higher than that without bacteria at high concentrations of ferrous ions. A porous layer of elemental sulfur is present on the surfaces of the chemically leached particles, while no sulfur is present on the surfaces of the bacterially leached particles. The analysis of the data using the shrinking-core model shows that the chemical leaching of ZnS is limited by the diffusion of ferrous ions through the sulfur product layer at high concentrations of ferrous ions. The analysis of the data shows that diffusion through the product layer does not limit the rate of dissolution when bacteria are present. This suggests that the action of T. ferrooxidans in oxidizing the sulfur formed on the particle surface is to remove the barrier to diffusion by ferrous ions. PMID:10583978

  8. Genetic control of soybean seed oil: II. QTL and genes that increase oil concentration without decreasing protein or with increased seed yield.

    PubMed

    Eskandari, Mehrzad; Cober, Elroy R; Rajcan, Istvan

    2013-06-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] seed oil is the primary global source of edible oil and a major renewable and sustainable feedstock for biodiesel production. Therefore, increasing the relative oil concentration in soybean is desirable; however, that goal is complex due to the quantitative nature of the oil concentration trait and possible effects on major agronomic traits such as seed yield or protein concentration. The objectives of the present study were to study the relationship between seed oil concentration and important agronomic and seed quality traits, including seed yield, 100-seed weight, protein concentration, plant height, and days to maturity, and to identify oil quantitative trait loci (QTL) that are co-localized with the traits evaluated. A population of 203 F4:6 recombinant inbred lines, derived from a cross between moderately high oil soybean genotypes OAC Wallace and OAC Glencoe, was developed and grown across multiple environments in Ontario, Canada, in 2009 and 2010. Among the 11 QTL associated with seed oil concentration in the population, which were detected using either single-factor ANOVA or multiple QTL mapping methods, the number of QTL that were co-localized with other important traits QTL were six for protein concentration, four for seed yield, two for 100-seed weight, one for days to maturity, and one for plant height. The oil-beneficial allele of the QTL tagged by marker Sat_020 was positively associated with seed protein concentration. The oil favorable alleles of markers Satt001 and GmDGAT2B were positively correlated with seed yield. In addition, significant two-way epistatic interactions, where one of the interacting markers was solely associated with seed oil concentration, were identified for the selected traits in this study. The number of significant epistatic interactions was seven for yield, four for days to maturity, two for 100-seed weight, one for protein concentration, and one for plant height. The identified molecular

  9. Epitaxial growth and chemical vapor transport of ZnTe by closed-tube method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, H.; Nishio, M.; Arizumi, T.

    1981-04-01

    The epitaxial growth of ZnTe in a ZnTe- I2 system by a closed tube method is investigated by varying the charged iodine concentration ( MI2) or the temperature difference ( ΔT) between the high and low temperature zones. The transport rate is a function of MI2 and ΔT and has a minimum value increasing monotonically at higher and lower iodine concentration, and it increases with increasing ΔT. This experimental result can be explained well by thermodynamical calculations. The growth rate of ZnTe has the same tendency as the transport rate. The surface morphology of epitaxial layer on (110)ZnTe is not sinificantly affected by MI2 but becomes smoother with increasing temperature. The surface morphology and the growth rate of ZnTe layers also depend upon the orientation of substrate. The epitaxial layer can be obtained at temperature as low as 623°C.

  10. Serum concentration of interleukin-6 is increased both in active and remission stages of pemphigus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Narbutt, Joanna; Lukamowicz, Jolanta; Bogaczewicz, Jarosław; Sysa-Jedrzejowska, Anna; Torzecka, Jolanta Dorota; Lesiak, Aleksandra

    2008-01-01

    As most studies on pemphigus vulgaris (PV) pathogenesis concern its active stage, we aimed to evaluate the serum concentration of TNF-alpha, IL-1, and IL-6 in PV patients in clinical remission. The study group consisted of sera from 19 PV patients in active stage and from 24 patients in clinical remission. 19 sera taken from healthy subjects served as the controls. Serum IL-6 concentrations in PV active and PV remission group were significantly higher when compared to the controls (P < .05). In patients in active stage of PV, a significant correlation between serum IL-1 and IL-6 concentrations was found (r(P) = 0.46; P < .05). We also found a negative correlation between TNF-alpha level and pemphigus antibodies titer in the patients from the remission group (r(S) = -0.47303; P < .02). Our data suggest that IL-6 and TNF-alpha may be involved in maintaining immunological disturbances in remission stage of PV.

  11. Serum Concentration of Interleukin-6 Is Increased Both in Active and Remission Stages of Pemphigus Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Narbutt, Joanna; Lukamowicz, Jolanta; Bogaczewicz, Jarosław; Sysa-Jedrzejowska, Anna; Torzecka, Jolanta Dorota; Lesiak, Aleksandra

    2008-01-01

    As most studies on pemphigus vulgaris (PV) pathogenesis concern its active stage, we aimed to evaluate the serum concentration of TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6 in PV patients in clinical remission. The study group consisted of sera from 19 PV patients in active stage and from 24 patients in clinical remission. 19 sera taken from healthy subjects served as the controls. Serum IL-6 concentrations in PV active and PV remission group were significantly higher when compared to the controls (P < .05). In patients in active stage of PV, a significant correlation between serum IL-1 and IL-6 concentrations was found (r P = 0.46; P < .05). We also found a negative correlation between TNF-α level and pemphigus antibodies titer in the patients from the remission group (r S = −0.47303; P < .02). Our data suggest that IL-6 and TNF-α may be involved in maintaining immunological disturbances in remission stage of PV. PMID:18584045

  12. Reproducible increased Mg incorporation and large hole concentration in GaN using metal modulated epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnham, Shawn D.; Namkoong, Gon; Look, David C.; Clafin, Bruce; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2008-07-01

    The metal modulated epitaxy (MME) growth technique is reported as a reliable approach to obtain reproducible large hole concentrations in Mg-doped GaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on c-plane sapphire substrates. An extremely Ga-rich flux was used, and modulated with the Mg source according to the MME growth technique. The shutter modulation approach of the MME technique allows optimal Mg surface coverage to build between MME cycles and Mg to incorporate at efficient levels in GaN films. The maximum sustained concentration of Mg obtained in GaN films using the MME technique was above 7×1020cm-3, leading to a hole concentration as high as 4.5×1018cm-3 at room temperature, with a mobility of 1.1cm2V-1s-1 and a resistivity of 1.3Ωcm. At 580K, the corresponding values were 2.6×1019cm-3, 1.2cm2V-1s-1, and 0.21Ωcm, respectively. Even under strong white light, the sample remained p-type with little change in the electrical parameters.

  13. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in soft tissue of oyster (Saccostrea cucullata) collected from the Lengeh Port coast, Persian Gulf, Iran: a comparison with the permissible limits for public health.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Behnam; Riyahi Bakhtiari, Alireza; Shirneshan, Golshan

    2013-12-01

    This study examines concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the soft tissue of Saccostrea cucullata in the intertidal zones of Lengeh Port, Persian Gulf, Iran, to survey whether heavy metals are within the acceptable limits for public health? The results revealed that the average metal concentrations (μg/g dry weight) ranged from 10.28 to 12.03 for Cd, 294.10 to 345.80 for Cu, 20.64 to 58.23 for Pb and 735.60 to 760.40 for Zn in the soft tissue of oysters. From the human public health point of view, comparison between the mean concentrations of the metals in the soft tissue of oyster and global guidelines clearly indicates that nearly in all cases concentrations are higher than the permissible amounts for human consumption. In addition, levels of Zn, Pb and Cu were well below their recommended oral maximum residue level (MRLs), whereas levels of Cd were observed two times higher. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Interplay between hopping and band transport in high-mobility disordered semiconductors at large carrier concentrations: The case of the amorphous oxide InGaZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishchuk, I. I.; Kadashchuk, A.; Bhoolokam, A.; de Jamblinne de Meux, A.; Pourtois, G.; Gavrilyuk, M. M.; Köhler, A.; Bässler, H.; Heremans, P.; Genoe, J.

    2016-05-01

    We suggest an analytic theory based on the effective medium approximation (EMA) which is able to describe charge-carrier transport in a disordered semiconductor with a significant degree of degeneration realized at high carrier concentrations, especially relevant in some thin-film transistors (TFTs), when the Fermi level is very close to the conduction-band edge. The EMA model is based on special averaging of the Fermi-Dirac carrier distributions using a suitably normalized cumulative density-of-state distribution that includes both delocalized states and the localized states. The principal advantage of the present model is its ability to describe universally effective drift and Hall mobility in heterogeneous materials as a function of disorder, temperature, and carrier concentration within the same theoretical formalism. It also bridges a gap between hopping and bandlike transport in an energetically heterogeneous system. The key assumption of the model is that the charge carriers move through delocalized states and that, in addition to the tail of the localized states, the disorder can give rise to spatial energy variation of the transport-band edge being described by a Gaussian distribution. It can explain a puzzling observation of activated and carrier-concentration-dependent Hall mobility in a disordered system featuring an ideal Hall effect. The present model has been successfully applied to describe experimental results on the charge transport measured in an amorphous oxide semiconductor, In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO). In particular, the model reproduces well both the conventional Meyer-Neldel (MN) compensation behavior for the charge-carrier mobility and inverse-MN effect for the conductivity observed in the same a-IGZO TFT. The model was further supported by ab initio calculations revealing that the amorphization of IGZO gives rise to variation of the conduction-band edge rather than to the creation of localized states. The obtained changes agree with the one we

  15. Functional Pattern of Increasing Concentrations of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Spiral Ganglion: Implications for Research on Cochlear Implants.

    PubMed

    Ramku, Emina; Ramku, Refik; Spanca, Dugagjin; Zhjeqi, Valbona

    2017-04-15

    As previously various studies have suggested application of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may be considered as a promising future therapy for hearing deficits, in particular for the improvement of cochlear neurone loss during cochlear implantation. The present study's aim was to establish the upper threshold of the concentration of BDNF in Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice spiral ganglion outgrowth. Spiral ganglion explants were prepared from post-natal day 4 (p4) (NMRI) mice of both sexes under the approval and guidelines of the regional council of Hearing Research Institute Tubingen. Spiral ganglion explants were cultured at postnatal days 4 in the presence of different concentrations of BDNF as described under methods. We chose an age of postnatal day (P4) and concentrations of BDNF 0; 6; 12.5; 25 and 50 ƞg/ml. Averaged neurite outgrowth is measured in 4 different cultures that were treated with different concentrations. Results show that with increasing concentrations of BDNF, the neurite density increases. The present finding show evidence that BDNF has a clear incremental effect on the number of neurites of spiral ganglia in the prehearing organ, but less on the neurite length. The upper threshold of exogenous BNDF concentration on spiral ganglion explant is 25 ƞg/ml. This means that concentration beyond this level has no further incremental impact. Therefore our suggestion for hydrogel concentration in NMRA mice in future research should be 25 ƞg/ml.

  16. Zinc deficiency in field-grown pecan trees: changes in leaf nutrient concentrations and structure.

    PubMed

    Ojeda-Barrios, Dámaris; Abadía, Javier; Lombardini, Leonardo; Abadía, Anunciación; Vázquez, Saúl

    2012-06-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a typical nutritional disorder in pecan trees [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] grown under field conditions in calcareous soils in North America, including northern Mexico and south-western United States. The aim of this study was to assess the morphological and nutritional changes in pecan leaves affected by Zn deficiency as well as the Zn distribution within leaves. Zinc deficiency led to decreases in leaf chlorophyll concentrations, leaf area and trunk cross-sectional area. Zinc deficiency increased significantly the leaf concentrations of K and Ca, and decreased the leaf concentrations of Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu. All nutrient values found in Zn-deficient leaves were within the sufficiency ranges, with the only exception of Zn, which was approximately 44, 11 and 9 µg g(-1) dry weight in Zn-sufficient, moderately and markedly Zn-deficient leaves, respectively. Zinc deficiency led to decreases in leaf thickness, mainly due to a reduction in the thickness of the palisade parenchyma, as well as to increases in stomatal density and size. The localisation of Zn was determined using the fluorophore Zinpyr-1 and ratio-imaging technique. Zinc was mainly localised in the palisade mesophyll area in Zn-sufficient leaves, whereas no signal could be obtained in Zn-deficient leaves. The effects of Zn deficiency on the leaf characteristics of pecan trees include not only decreases in leaf chlorophyll and Zn concentrations, but also a reduction in the thickness of the palisade parenchyma, an increase in stomatal density and pore size and the practical disappearance of Zn leaf pools. These characteristics must be taken into account to design strategies to correct Zn deficiency in pecan tree in the field. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Chronic treatment with lithium, but not sodium valproate, increases cortical N-acetyl-aspartate concentrations in euthymic bipolar patients.

    PubMed

    Silverstone, Peter H; Wu, Ren H; O'Donnell, Tina; Ulrich, Michele; Asghar, Sheila J; Hanstock, Christopher C

    2003-03-01

    Previous studies have found that treatment with lithium over a 4-week period may increase the concentration of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) in both bipolar patients and controls. In view of other findings indicating that NAA concentrations may be a good marker for neuronal viability and/or functioning, it has been further suggested that some of the long term benefits of lithium may therefore be due to actions to improve these neuronal properties. The aim of the present study was to utilize H magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( H MRS) to further examine the effects of both lithium and sodium valproate upon NAA concentrations in treated euthymic bipolar patients. In the first part of the study, healthy controls (n =18) were compared with euthymic bipolar patients (type I and type II) who were taking either lithium (n =14) or sodium valproate (n =11), and NAA : creatine ratios were determined. In the second part, we examined a separate group of euthymic bipolar disorder patients taking sodium valproate (n =9) and compared these to age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n =11), and we quantified the exact concentrations of NAA using an external solution. The results from the first part of the study showed that bipolar patients chronically treated with lithium had a significant increase in NAA concentrations but, in contrast, there were no significant increases in the sodium valproate-treated patients compared to controls. The second part of the study also found no effects of sodium valproate on NAA concentrations. These findings are the first to compare NAA concentrations in euthymic bipolar patients being treated with lithium or sodium valproate. The results support suggestions that longer-term administration of lithium to bipolar patients may increase NAA concentrations. However, the study suggests that chronic administration of sodium valproate to patients does not lead to similar changes in NAA concentrations. These findings suggest that sodium valproate and lithium may

  18. Ketamine coadministration attenuates morphine tolerance and leads to increased brain concentrations of both drugs in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Lilius, T O; Jokinen, V; Neuvonen, M S; Niemi, M; Kalso, E A; Rauhala, P V

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The effects of ketamine in attenuating morphine tolerance have been suggested to result from a pharmacodynamic interaction. We studied whether ketamine might increase brain morphine concentrations in acute coadministration, in morphine tolerance and morphine withdrawal. Experimental Approach Morphine minipumps (6 mg·day–1) induced tolerance during 5 days in Sprague–Dawley rats, after which s.c. ketamine (10 mg·kg–1) was administered. Tail flick, hot plate and rotarod tests were used for behavioural testing. Serum levels and whole tissue brain and liver concentrations of morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide, ketamine and norketamine were measured using HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry. Key Results In morphine-naïve rats, ketamine caused no antinociception whereas in morphine-tolerant rats there was significant antinociception (57% maximum possible effect in the tail flick test 90 min after administration) lasting up to 150 min. In the brain of morphine-tolerant ketamine-treated rats, the morphine, ketamine and norketamine concentrations were 2.1-, 1.4- and 3.4-fold, respectively, compared with the rats treated with morphine or ketamine only. In the liver of morphine-tolerant ketamine-treated rats, ketamine concentration was sixfold compared with morphine-naïve rats. After a 2 day morphine withdrawal period, smaller but parallel concentration changes were observed. In acute coadministration, ketamine increased the brain morphine concentration by 20%, but no increase in ketamine concentrations or increased antinociception was observed. Conclusions and Implications The ability of ketamine to induce antinociception in rats made tolerant to morphine may also be due to increased brain concentrations of morphine, ketamine and norketamine. The relevance of these findings needs to be assessed in humans. PMID:25297798

  19. Boron doped ZnO embedded into reduced graphene oxide for electrochemical supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alver, Ü.; Tanrıverdi, A.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, reduced graphene oxide/boron doped zinc oxide (RGO/ZnO:B) composites were fabricated by a hydrothermal process and their electrochemical properties were investigated as a function of dopant concentration. First, boron doped ZnO (ZnO:B) particles was fabricated with different boron concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20 wt%) and then ZnO:B particles were embedded into RGO sheets. The physical properties of sensitized composites were characterized by XRD and SEM. Characterization indicated that the ZnO:B particles with plate-like structure in the composite were dispersed on graphene sheets. The electrochemical properties of the RGO/ZnO:B composite were investigated through cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements in a 6 M KOH electrolyte. Electrochemical measurements show that the specific capacitance values of RGO/ZnO:B electrodes increase with increasing boron concentration. RGO/ZnO:B composite electrodes (20 wt% B) display the specific capacitance as high as 230.50 F/g at 5 mV/s, which is almost five times higher than that of RGO/ZnO (52.71 F/g).

  20. Mechanisms of chronic waterborne Zn toxicity in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Muyssen, Brita T A; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C; Janssen, Colin R

    2006-05-25

    In order to gain better insights in the integrated response of Daphnia magna following chronic zinc exposure, several physiological parameters were measured in a time-dependent manner. D. magna juveniles were exposed for 21 days to dissolved Zn concentrations up to 340 microg/L. Next to standard endpoints such as mortality, growth and reproduction the following sub-lethal endpoints were measured: filtration and ingestion rate, respiration rate, energy reserves, internal Zn and total Ca concentrations in the organisms. Organisms exposed to 80 microg/L generally performed better than the Zn deprived control organisms. The former were used to elucidate the effects of higher Zn concentrations on the endpoints mentioned above. After 1 week, only 7% of the organisms exposed to 340 microg/L survived. Body Zn contents of these organisms were 281 +/- 76 microg g dry weight and a 37% decrease of the Ca contents was observed. This suggests a competitive effect of Zn on Ca uptake. Filtration rate (-51%), individual weight (-58%) and energy reserves (-35%) also exhibited a decreasing trend as a function of increasing Zn exposure concentrations. During the second and third exposure week an overall repair process was observed. In the surviving organisms mortality and reproduction were only slightly affected. This can be explained by (over)compensation reactions at lower levels of biological organisation: Ca contents (+24%) and filtration rate (+90%) increased as a function of the exposure concentration while respiration rate decreased (-29%) resulting in energy reserves remaining constant as a function of Zn exposure. It is hypothesized that a disturbed Ca balance is probably the first cause for zinc toxicity effects in D. magna.

  1. Donor impurity incorporation during layer growth of Zn II-VI semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    The maximum halogen donor concentration in Zn II-VI semiconductors during layer growth is studied using a standard model from statistical mechanics. Here the driving force for incorporation is an increase in entropy upon mixing of the donor impurity into the available anion lattice sites in the host binary. A formation energy opposes this increase and thus equilibrium is attained at some maximum concentration. Considering the halogen donor impurities within the Zn II-VI binary semiconductors ZnO, ZnS, ZnSe and ZnTe, a heat of reaction obtained from reported diatomic bond strengths is shown to be directly proportional to the log of maximum donor concentration. The formation energy can then be estimated and an expression for maximum donor concentration derived. Values for the maximum donor concentration with each of the halogen impurities, within the Zn II-VI compounds, are computed. This model predicts that the halogens will serve as electron donors in these compounds in order of increasing effectiveness as: F, Br, I, Cl. Finally, this result is taken to be equivalent to an alternative model where donor concentration depends upon impurity diffusion and the conduction band energy shift due to a depletion region at the growing crystal's surface. From this, we are able to estimate the diffusion activation energy for each of the impurities mentioned above. Comparisons are made with reported values and relevant conclusions presented.

  2. Utilizing Diffuse Reflection to Increase the Efficiency of Luminescent Solar Concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowser, Seth; Weible, Seth; Solomon, Joel; Schrecengost, Jonathan; Wittmershaus, Bruce

    A luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) consists of a high index solid plate containing a fluorescent material that converts sunlight into fluorescence. Utilizing total internal reflection, the LSC collects and concentrates the fluorescence at the plate's edges where it is converted into electricity via photovoltaic solar cells. The lower production costs of LSCs make them an attractive alternative to photovoltaic solar cells. To optimize an LSC's efficiency, a white diffusive surface (background) is positioned behind it. The background allows sunlight transmitted in the first pass to be reflected back through the LSC providing a second chance for absorption. Our research examines how the LSC's performance is affected by changing the distance between the white background and the LSC. An automated linear motion apparatus was engineered to precisely measure this distance and the LSC's electrical current, simultaneously. LSC plates, with and without the presence of fluorescent material and in an isolated environment, showed a maximum current at a distance greater than zero. Further experimentation has proved that the optimal distance results from the background's optical properties and how the reflected light enters the LSC. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number NSF-ECCS-1306157.

  3. Circulating adiponectin concentrations are increased by dietary resistant starch and correlate with serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentrations and kidney function in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Koh, Gar Yee; Derscheid, Rachel; Fuller, Kelly N Z; Valentine, Rudy J; Leow, Shu En; Reed, Leah; Wisecup, Emily; Schalinske, Kevin L; Rowling, Matthew J

    2016-04-01

    We previously reported that dietary resistant starch (RS) type 2 prevented proteinuria and promoted vitamin D balance in type 2 diabetic (T2D) rats. Here, our primary objective was to identify potential mechanisms that could explain our earlier observations. We hypothesized that RS could promote adiponectin secretion and regulate the renin-angiotensin system activity in the kidney. Lean Zucker rats (n = 5) were fed control diet; Zucker diabetic fatty rats (n = 5/group) were fed either an AIN-93G control diet (DC) or AIN-93G diet containing either 10% RS or 20% RS (HRS) for 6 weeks. Resistant starch had no impact on blood glucose concentrations and hemoglobin A1c percentage, yet circulating adiponectin was 77% higher in HRS-fed rats, compared to DC rats. Adiponectin concentrations strongly correlated with serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (r = 0.815; P < .001) and urinary creatinine concentrations (r = 0.818; P < .001) and inversely correlated with proteinuria (r = -0.583; P = .02). Serum angiotensin II concentrations were 44% lower, and expression of the angiotensin II receptor, type 1, was attenuated in RS-fed rats. Moreover, we observed a 14-fold increase in messenger RNA expression of nephrin, which is required for functioning of the renal filtration barrier, in HRS rats. The HRS, but not 10% RS diet, increased circulating 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentrations and attenuated urinary loss of vitamin D metabolites in Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Taken together, we provide evidence that vitamin D balance in the presence of hyperglycemia is strongly associated with serum adiponectin levels and reduced renal renin-angiotensin system signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Deployment of a Secondary Concentrator to Increase the Intercept Factor of a Dish with Large Slope Errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortabasi, U.; Gray, E.; Ogallagher, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    The testing of a hyperbolic trumpet non-imaging secondary concentrator with a parabolic dish having slope errors of about 10 mrad is reported. The trumpet, which has a concentration ratio of 2.1, increased the flux through a 141-mm focal aperture by 72%, with an efficiency of 96%, thus demonstrating its potential for use in tandem with cheap dishes having relatively large slope errors.

  5. Compound heterozygous mutations in SLC30A2/ZnT2 results in low milk zinc concentrations: a novel mechanism for zinc deficiency in a breast-fed infant.

    PubMed

    Itsumura, Naoya; Inamo, Yasuji; Okazaki, Fumiko; Teranishi, Fumie; Narita, Hiroshi; Kambe, Taiho; Kodama, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    Zinc concentrations in breast milk are considerably higher than those of the maternal serum, to meet the infant's requirements for normal growth and development. Thus, effective mechanisms ensuring secretion of large amounts of zinc into the milk operate in mammary epithelial cells during lactation. ZnT2 was recently found to play an essential role in the secretion of zinc into milk. Heterozygous mutations of human ZnT2 (hZnT2), including H54R and G87R, in mothers result in low (>75% reduction) secretion of zinc into the breast milk, and infants fed on the milk develop transient neonatal zinc deficiency. We identified two novel missense mutations in the SLC30A2/ZnT2 gene in a Japanese mother with low milk zinc concentrations (>90% reduction) whose infant developed severe zinc deficiency; a T to C transition (c.454T>C) at exon 4, which substitutes a tryptophan residue with an arginine residue (W152R), and a C to T transition (c.887C>T) at exon 7, which substitutes a serine residue with a leucine residue (S296L). Biochemical characterization using zinc-sensitive DT40 cells indicated that the W152R mutation abolished the abilities to transport zinc and to form a dimer complex, indicating a loss-of-function mutation. The S296L mutation retained both abilities but was extremely destabilized. The two mutations were found on different alleles, indicating that the genotype of the mother with low milk zinc was compound heterozygous. These results show novel compound heterozygous mutations in the SLC30A2/ZnT2 gene causing zinc deficiency in a breast-fed infant.

  6. Compound Heterozygous Mutations in SLC30A2/ZnT2 Results in Low Milk Zinc Concentrations: A Novel Mechanism for Zinc Deficiency in a Breast-Fed Infant

    PubMed Central

    Itsumura, Naoya; Inamo, Yasuji; Okazaki, Fumiko; Teranishi, Fumie; Narita, Hiroshi; Kambe, Taiho; Kodama, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    Zinc concentrations in breast milk are considerably higher than those of the maternal serum, to meet the infant's requirements for normal growth and development. Thus, effective mechanisms ensuring secretion of large amounts of zinc into the milk operate in mammary epithelial cells during lactation. ZnT2 was recently found to play an essential role in the secretion of zinc into milk. Heterozygous mutations of human ZnT2 (hZnT2), including H54R and G87R, in mothers result in low (>75% reduction) secretion of zinc into the breast milk, and infants fed on the milk develop transient neonatal zinc deficiency. We identified two novel missense mutations in the SLC30A2/ZnT2 gene in a Japanese mother with low milk zinc concentrations (>90% reduction) whose infant developed severe zinc deficiency; a T to C transition (c.454T>C) at exon 4, which substitutes a tryptophan residue with an arginine residue (W152R), and a C to T transition (c.887C>T) at exon 7, which substitutes a serine residue with a leucine residue (S296L). Biochemical characterization using zinc-sensitive DT40 cells indicated that the W152R mutation abolished the abilities to transport zinc and to form a dimer complex, indicating a loss-of-function mutation. The S296L mutation retained both abilities but was extremely destabilized. The two mutations were found on different alleles, indicating that the genotype of the mother with low milk zinc was compound heterozygous. These results show novel compound heterozygous mutations in the SLC30A2/ZnT2 gene causing zinc deficiency in a breast-fed infant. PMID:23741301

  7. Circulating soluble LIGHT/TNFSF14 is increased and associated with IL-8 concentration in chronic spontaneous urticaria.

    PubMed

    Kasperska-Zając, Alicja; Damasiewicz-Bodzek, Aleksandra; Grzanka, Ryszard; Skrzypulec-Frankel, Agnieszka; Bieniek, Katarzyna; Sikora-Żydek, Agnieszka; Jochem, Jerzy

    2018-01-01

    LIGHT (homologous to lymphotoxins, exhibiting inducible expression, and competing with herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoprotein D for herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM), a receptor expressed by T lymphocytes) has been involved in various autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. LIGHT induces the expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8), which is up-regulated in chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). To determine circulating soluble LIGHT concentration and its relationship with IL-8 concentration in patients with CSU. Concentrations of LIGHT, IL-8, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were determined in plasma or serum of CSU patients by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. LIGHT plasma concentration was significantly higher in moderate-severe CSU patients as compared with the healthy subjects, but not with mild CSU patients. There were significant correlations between increased LIGHT and IL-8 concentrations, but not with increased CRP in CSU patients. Enhanced plasma concentrations of soluble LIGHT and its association with IL-8 concentration suggest the role of LIGHT in systemic inflammatory activation in CSU patients. We hypothesize that LIGHT-mediated immune-inflammatory response plays a role in severe phenotypes of the disease.

  8. Increasing platelet concentrations in leukocyte-reduced platelet-rich plasma decrease collagen gene synthesis in tendons.

    PubMed

    Boswell, Stacie G; Schnabel, Lauren V; Mohammed, Hussni O; Sundman, Emily A; Minas, Tom; Fortier, Lisa A

    2014-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is used for the treatment of tendinopathy. There are numerous PRP preparations, and the optimal combination of platelets and leukocytes is not known. Within leukocyte-reduced PRP (lrPRP), there is a plateau effect of platelet concentration, with increasing platelet concentrations being detrimental to extracellular matrix synthesis. Controlled laboratory study. Different formulations of lrPRP with respect to the platelet:leukocyte ratio were generated from venous blood of 8 horses. Explants of the superficial digital flexor tendon were cultured in lrPRP products for 96 hours. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) concentrations were determined in the media by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Gene expression in tendon tissue for collagen type I and III (COL1A1 and COL3A1, respectively), matrix metalloproteinase-3 and -13 (MMP-3 and MMP-13, respectively), cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), and IL-1β was determined. Data were divided into 3 groups of lrPRP based on the ratio of platelets:leukocytes and evaluated to determine the effect of platelet concentration. Complete blood counts verified leukocyte reduction and platelet enrichment in all PRP preparations. In the lrPRP preparation, the anabolic growth factors PDGF-BB and TGF-β1 were increased with increasing platelet concentrations, and the catabolic cytokine IL-1β was decreased with increasing platelet concentrations. Increasing the platelet concentration resulted in a significant reduction in COL1A1 and COL3A1 synthesis in tendons. Increasing the platelet concentration within lrPRP preparations results in the delivery of more anabolic growth factors and less proinflammatory cytokines, but the biological effect on tendons is diminished metabolism as indicated by a decrease in the synthesis of both COL1A1 and COL3A1. Together, this information suggests that

  9. CONNECTION BETWEEN THE INCREASED FIBRINOGEN CONCENTRATION IN DOGS WITH RADIATION SICKNESS AND THE FIBRINOGENASE ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Gordeeva, K.V.

    1963-11-01

    A study was made of the concentration of blood plasma fibrinogen in relation to the changes of fibrinogenase activity. Dogs with radiation sickness (severe, moderately severe, and mild) served as experimental animals. A rise of the blood plasma fibrinogen content was observed in dogs with severe and moderately severe radiation sickness. This phenomenon is especially pronounced at the height of radiation sickness. The activity of fibrinogenase in severe radiation sickness was considerably decreased at the initial period and at the height of the disease. The rise of fibrinogen content in severe and moderately severe radiation sickness should be regarded asmore » an adaptive reaction directed to control hemorrhages, not as the sequence of raduced fibrinogenase activity. (auth)« less

  10. The effect of increased ozone concentrations in the air on selected aspects of rat reproduction.

    PubMed

    Jedlińska-Krakowska, M; Gizejewski, Z; Dietrich, G J; Jakubowski, K; Glogowski, J; Penkowski, A

    2006-01-01

    Five-month-old male rates were exposed to 0.5 ppm ozone for 50 days, 5 hours a day. A week before the completion of ozone exposure, a biological test was performed to determine the fertilization rate and the survival rate of newborns in both ozone-exposed and control animals. After 50 days, the rats were sacrificed with an overdose of halotane, and testes were collected to assess the morphology and motility of spermatozoa. Neither the morphology of spermatozoa nor motility parameters determined by the CASA (computer-assisted sperm analysis) system showed statistically significant differences between ozone-exposed and control males. The number of successful matings and the survival rate of newborns per litter within one year postpartum were also similar in both groups. However, sperm concentration was by 17% lower in ozone-exposed rats, compared with the control animals.

  11. Effects of substitutional Li on the ferromagnetic response of Li co-doped ZnO:Co nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Awan, Saif Ullah; Hasanain, S K; Bertino, Massimo F; Jaffari, G Hassnain

    2013-04-17

    Li co-doped ZnO:Co (Zn0.96-yCo0.04LiyO , y ≤ 0.1) nanoparticles were synthesized by the sol-gel technique and the correlation between the structural, electronic and magnetic properties was investigated. All the samples show a single phase hexagonal (wurtzite) ZnO structure and no secondary phases were detected. Variational trends in lattice parameters suggest the incorporation of Li in the ZnO:Co system in both substitutional and interstitial sites. Detailed electronic studies have been performed by high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to determine the states of Zn, O, Co and Li. It was determined that Co substitutes at Zn sites (CoZn) while the O vacancy and Zn defects did not show much variation with increasing Li concentration. Deconvolution of the Li XPS peak showed a clear non-monotonic trend in the variation of the substitutional Li (LiZn) and interstitial Li (Lii) defects with increasing Li concentration in the particles. The magnetization study of the samples showed that the variation of the moment closely followed the trend of variation of the LiZn defects. The data are interpreted in terms of substitutional Li acting as a hole dopant and optimizing the conditions for ferromagnetism in Co-doped ZnO. Interstitial Li is not seen to be playing this role.

  12. The magnetic and adsorption properties of ZnO1-xSx nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiyun; Liu, Guixian; Cao, Yanqiang; Chen, Jing; Shen, Kai; Kumar, Ashwini; Xu, Mingxiang; Li, Qi; Xu, Qingyu

    2017-10-11

    Sulfur is easy to be incorporated into ZnO nanoparticles by the solution-combustion method. Herein, the magnetic and adsorption properties of a series of ZnO 1-x S x (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2) nanoparticles were systematically investigated. The X-ray diffraction patterns show that the as-prepared ZnO 1-x S x nanoparticles have the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO with a low sulfur content that gradually transforms into the zinc blende structure of ZnS when the x value is greater than 0.1. PL spectra show several bands due to different transitions, which have been explained by the recombination of free excitons or defect-induced transitions. The introduction of sulfur not only modifies the bandgap of ZnO, but also impacts the concentration of Zn vacancies. The as-prepared ZnO shows weak room-temperature ferromagnetism, and the incorporation of sulfur improves the ferromagnetism owing to the increased concentration of Zn vacancies, which may be stabilized by the doped sulfur ions. The adsorption capability of ZnO 1-x S x nanoparticles has been significantly improved, and the process can be well described by the pseudo-first-order kinetic model and the Freundlich isotherm model. The mechanism has been confirmed to be due to the active sulfate groups existing in zinc oxysulfide nanoparticles.

  13. Sleep restriction is associated with increased morning plasma leptin concentrations, especially in women.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Norah S; Banks, Siobhan; Dinges, David F

    2010-07-01

    We evaluated the effects of sleep restriction on leptin levels in a large, diverse sample of healthy participants, while allowing free access to food. Prospective experimental design. After 2 nights of baseline sleep, 136 participants (49% women, 56% African Americans) received 5 consecutive nights of 4 hours time in bed (TIB). Additionally, one subset of participants received 2 additional nights of either further sleep restriction (n = 27) or increased sleep opportunity (n = 37). Control participants (n = 9) received 10 hr TIB on all study nights. Plasma leptin was measured between 10:30 a.m. and 12:00 noon following baseline sleep, after the initial sleep-restriction period, and after 2 nights of further sleep restriction or recovery sleep. Leptin levels increased significantly among sleep-restricted participants after 5 nights of 4 hr TIB (Z = -8.43, p < .001). Increases were significantly greater among women compared to men (Z = -4.77, p < .001) and among participants with higher body mass index (BMI) compared to those with lower (Z = -2.09, p = .036), though participants in all categories (sex, race/ethnicity, BMI, and age) demonstrated significant increases. There was also a significant effect of allowed TIB on leptin levels following the 2 additional nights of sleep restriction (p < .001). Participants in the control condition showed no significant changes in leptin levels. These findings suggest that sleep restriction with ad libitum access to food significantly increases morning plasma leptin levels, particularly among women.

  14. Long-term effect of ZnO nanoparticles on waste activated sludge anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Mu, Hui; Chen, Yinguang

    2011-11-01

    The increasing use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) raises concerns about their environmental impacts, but the potential effect of ZnO NPs on sludge anaerobic digestion remains unknown. In this paper, long-term exposure experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of ZnO NPs on methane production during waste activated sludge (WAS) anaerobic digestion. The presence of 1 mg/g-TSS of ZnO NPs did not affect methane production, but 30 and 150 mg/g-TSS of ZnO NPs induced 18.3% and 75.1% of inhibition respectively, which showed that the impact of ZnO NPs on methane production was dosage dependant. Then, the mechanisms of ZnO NPs affecting sludge anaerobic digestion were investigated. It was found that the toxic effect of ZnO NPs on methane production was mainly due to the release of Zn(2+) from ZnO NPs, which may cause the inhibitory effects on the hydrolysis and methanation steps of sludge anaerobic digestion. Further investigations with enzyme and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays indicated that higher concentration of ZnO NPs decreased the activities of protease and coenzyme F(420), and the abundance of methanogenesis Archaea. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Modeling Caspian Sea water level oscillations under different scenarios of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.

    PubMed

    Roshan, Gholamreza; Moghbel, Masumeh; Grab, Stefan

    2012-12-12

    The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978) has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in the coastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was simulated. Variations in environmental parameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, atmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for both past (1951-2006) and future (2025-2100) time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software (version 5.3). The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site) has increased by ca. 0.17°C per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21). The Caspian Sea water level has increased by ca. +36cm per decade (r=0.82) between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64°C and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm) over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin, temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78°C and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm) by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels project future water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively.

  16. Modeling Caspian Sea water level oscillations under different scenarios of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978) has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in the coastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was simulated. Variations in environmental parameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, atmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for both past (1951-2006) and future (2025-2100) time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software (version 5.3). The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site) has increased by ca. 0.17°C per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21). The Caspian Sea water level has increased by ca. +36cm per decade (r=0.82) between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64°C and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm) over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin, temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78°C and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm) by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels project future water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively. PMID:23369617

  17. Mineral water administration may increase kidney elimination of urea, creatinine and folic acid in a concentration-dependent fashion.

    PubMed

    Calomino, Francesco; Di Paolo, Nicola; Nicolai, Giulia; Miglio, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    In a previous experimental study we showed that the administration of a large water load in a short time increases the urinary flow and the transport capacity in the excretory tract of the rabbit ureter. In human subjects drinking a water load of 25 ml/kg(BW) in 30 minutes, diuresis, creatinine and urea clearance increase more than in those drinking the same load in 24 hours. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible correlations between percent reduction and baseline values of serum urea, creatinine, folic acid, and magnesium in humans. 20 volunteers were divided in two groups. Subjects in group 1 received a water load of 25 ml/kg(BW) in 24 hours followed by the same load in 30 minutes. Subjects in group 2 received the same water load but in inverse order. Before and after each water administration, the following variables were measured and compared: diuresis, serum urea, creatinine, folic acid and magnesium concentration, and urea and creatinine clearance. Serum urea and folic acid concentration decreased up to 40% after administration of the water load in 24 hours. Serum creatinine concentration decreased up to 20% after administration of the water load in 30 minutes. The concentration drop of these metabolites increased with increasing baseline metabolite concentrations.

  18. Kinetics of Zn sorption-desorption using a thin disk flow method

    SciTech Connect

    Hinz, C.; Selim, H.M.

    1999-02-01

    In this study the authors investigated the kinetics of Zn sorption and desorption using a short column or thin disk method. The method is based on continuous flow through a thin soil layer where the effluent was collected using a fraction collector. Two soils were used: a Windsor soil and Mahan soil. Breakthrough results (BTCs) for different flow velocities indicated that Zn sorption is instantaneous and equilibrium retention is dominant when a pulse of Zn with a concentration of 2.62 [times] 10[sup [minus]5] M is applied. However, based on flow interruption, time-dependent Zn sorption-desorption processes were most pronounced when themore » applied Zn pulse concentration was two orders of magnitude lower. This confirms earlier findings of concentration-dependent kinetics from batch experiments on Windsor soil. The removal of organic matter and iron oxide, based on peroxide and peroxide/dithionite-treatments, resulted in doubling and quadrupling Zn retention, respectively, compared with the untreated Windsor soil. Differences between the untreated, peroxide-, and peroxide/dithionite-treated Windsor soils were most pronounced at low input Zn concentrations, suggesting that more specific sites became available as a result of the different treatments. At high input Zn concentrations, increases of specific sites may not be significant. For the treated soil, stronger sorption and desorption kinetic behavior was exhibited compared with the untreated soil. Diffusion into soil minerals or surface-controlled reactions may cause such behavior.« less

  19. The organic anion transport inhibitor probenecid increases brain concentrations of the NKCC1 inhibitor bumetanide.

    PubMed

    Töllner, Kathrin; Brandt, Claudia; Römermann, Kerstin; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2015-01-05

    Bumetanide is increasingly being used for experimental treatment of brain disorders, including neonatal seizures, epilepsy, and autism, because the neuronal Na-K-Cl cotransporter NKCC1, which is inhibited by bumetanide, is implicated in the pathophysiology of such disorders. However, use of bumetanide for treatment of brain disorders is associated with problems, including poor brain penetration and systemic adverse effects such as diuresis, hypokalemic alkalosis, and hearing loss. The poor brain penetration is thought to be related to its high ionization rate and plasma protein binding, which restrict brain entry by passive diffusion, but more recently brain efflux transporters have been involved, too. Multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4), organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3) and organic anion transporting polypeptide 2 (OATP2) were suggested to mediate bumetanide brain efflux, but direct proof is lacking. Because MRP4, OAT3, and OATP2 can be inhibited by probenecid, we studied whether this drug alters brain levels of bumetanide in mice. Probenecid (50 mg/kg) significantly increased brain levels of bumetanide up to 3-fold; however, it also increased its plasma levels, so that the brain:plasma ratio (~0.015-0.02) was not altered. Probenecid markedly increased the plasma half-life of bumetanide, indicating reduced elimination of bumetanide most likely by inhibition of OAT-mediated transport of bumetanide in the kidney. However, the diuretic activity of bumetanide was not reduced by probenecid. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the clinically available drug probenecid can be used to increase brain levels of bumetanide and decrease its elimination, which could have therapeutic potential in the treatment of brain disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Oral contraceptives increase insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 concentration in women with polycystic ovarian disease.

    PubMed

    Suikkari, A M; Tiitinen, A; Stenman, U H; Seppälä, M; Laatikainen, T

    1991-05-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) stimulates ovarian androgen production. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) inhibits IGF actions in vitro. To investigate the effect of oral contraceptive (OC) pills, given for 3 months, on serum gonadotropin, androgen, IGF-I, and IGFBP-1 concentrations, and glucose tolerance in seven women with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) and in five healthy control subjects. Seven women with PCOD and five healthy control subjects. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed before and after treatment with OC. After treatment with OC, serum luteinizing hormone, androstenedione, and free testosterone levels decreased, and sex hormone-binding globulin concentration increased in the women with PCOD as well as in the control subjects. The cumulative response of serum insulin to OGTT was larger in the women with PCOD than in the control subjects both before and after treatment. Serum IGF-I concentration, which was unchanged during OGTT, decreased from basal level of 326 +/- 70 micrograms/L to 199 +/- 28 micrograms/L after treatment with OC in the women with PCOD, whereas no change was found in the control subjects (from 235 +/- 11 micrograms/L to 226 +/- 11 micrograms/L). Treatment with OC caused an increase of the mean basal IGFBP-1 concentration from 24 +/- 7 micrograms/L to 73 +/- 14 micrograms/L in the women with PCOD. This increase was constant during the OGTT. In the control subjects, treatment with OC did not result in any significant change in IGFBP-1 concentrations (from 44 +/- 11 micrograms/L to 61 +/- 9 micrograms/L). The combination of decreased total IGF-I concentration and increased IGFBP-1 concentration induced by OC may decrease ovarian androgen production in PCOD.

  1. Syntheses of nicotinamide riboside and derivatives: effective agents for increasing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide concentrations in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tianle; Chan, Noel Yan-Ki; Sauve, Anthony A

    2007-12-27

    A new two-step methodology achieves stereoselective synthesis of beta-nicotinamide riboside and a series of related amide, ester, and acid nucleosides. Compounds were prepared through a triacetylated-nicotinate ester nucleoside, via coupling of either ethylnicotinate or phenylnicotinate with 1,2,3,5-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-ribofuranose. Nicotinamide riboside, nicotinic acid riboside, O-ethylnicotinate riboside, O-methylnicotinate riboside, and several N-alkyl derivatives increased NAD+ concentrations from 1.2-2.7-fold in several mammalian cell lines. These findings establish bioavailability and potent effects of these nucleosides in stimulating the increase of NAD+ concentrations in mammalian cells.

  2. Influence of Co doping on combined photocatalytic and antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandan, M.; Dinesh, S.; Krishnakumar, N.; Balamurugan, K.

    2016-11-01

    The present work aims to investigate the structural, optical, photocatalyst and antibacterial properties of bare and cobalt doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) with different concentrations Zn1-x Co x O (x = 0, 0.03, 0.06 and 0.09) synthesized by co-precipitation method. The XRD patterns confirmed that all samples of cobalt doped ZnO nanostructures revealed the formation of single phase having hexagonal wurtzite structure with crystallite size in the range of 31-41 nm. Further, the decreasing trend in lattice parameters and grain sizes were also seen with increasing doping concentrations which confirms the incorporation of Co ions into the ZnO lattice. This result was further supported by the FT-IR data. HR-TEM images demonstrated the distinct hexagonal like morphology with small agglomeration. The UV-visible absorption spectra exhibits red shift with increase in Co doping concentration in ZnO while corresponding bandgap energy of cobalt doped ZnO NPs decreased with increased Co doping concentration. PL spectra showed a weak UV and visible emission band which may be ascribed to the reduction in oxygen vacancy and defects by cobalt doping. XPS and EDX spectral results confirm the composition and the purity of Co doped ZnO NPs. Furthermore, the Co doped ZnO NPs were found to exhibit lesser photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl green dye under UV light illumination in comparison with the bare ZnO NPs. Moreover, anti-bacterial studies reveals that the Co doped ZnO NPs possess more antibacterial effect against gram positive Basillus subtills and gram negative Klebsiella pneumoniae bacterial strains than the bare ZnO NPs.

  3. Delocalization of π electrons and trapping action of ZnO nanoparticles in PPY matrix for hybrid solar cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rajinder; Choudhary, Ram Bilash; Kandulna, Rohit

    2018-03-01

    Polypyrrole (PPY)-Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanocomposites with varying concentration of ZnO (1:1-1:4) were prepared via in-situ polymerization technique by using pyrrole monomer in the presence of ammonium persulphate (APS) as oxidant. Globular morphology of PPY and sheet like structure of ZnO was examined using FESEM and EDAX. FTIR showed the presence of vibration modes in fingerprint region (1500 cm-1-500 cm-1) for metal oxides confirming the presence and interaction of ZnO with the polymer matrix in nanocomposites. Amorphous nature of PPY and hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO was confirmed using XRD with average crystallite size within 20 nm-30 nm. PANI-ZnO (1:1) exhibited blue shift in comparison to PPY (neat) and optimized optical band gap ∼ 1.81 eV. The effect of carrier concentration was investigated using electrochemical analyzer and maximum current was recorded for PANI-ZnO (1:1). The highest conductance was calculated for PANI-ZnO (1:1) ∼ 7.3242 × 10-3 S using current -voltage characteristics. Thermal stability was found to be increasing with the increase in ZnO concentration PANI-ZnO nanocomposite.

  4. Positron annihilation spectroscopy in doped p-type ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Sayanee; Sanyal, D.

    2011-07-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy has been used to investigate the vacancy type defect of the Li and N doped ZnO. The mono-vacancies, shallow -vacancies and open volume defects have been found in both the Li and N doped ZnO. The mono-vacancies, shallow-vacancies and open volume defects increase in N-doped ZnO as the size of N is quite high compared to Li. Positron annihilation study showed that the doping above 1-3% Li and 3-4% N in ZnO are not required in order to achieve low resistivity, high hole concentration and good mobility.

  5. Efficient radical cation stabilization of PANI-ZnO and PANI-ZnO-GO composites and its optical activity

    SciTech Connect

    Mathavan, T., E-mail: tjmathavan@gmail.com; Divya, A.; Benial, A. Milton Franklin

    2016-05-23

    Polyaniline (PANI) and its composites PANI-ZnO (Zinc oxide) and PANI-ZnO-GO (Graphene oxide) were successfully constructed. These materials were characterized by electron spin resonance (ESR) technique and ultraviolet visible spectrometry. The parameters such as line width, g-factor and spin concentration were deduced from ESR spectra, from the results the radical cation stabilization of PANI, PANI-ZnO and PANI-ZnO-GO composites were compared by the polaron and bipolaron formation. The absorption features obtained in the UV absorption spectra reveal the band gap of these modified PANI composites and also predicted the information of increasing and decreasing features of signal intensity and spin concentration.

  6. Efficient radical cation stabilization of PANI-ZnO and PANI-ZnO-GO composites and its optical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathavan, T.; Divya, A.; Archana, J.; Ramasubbu, A.; Benial, A. Milton Franklin; Jothirajan, M. A.

    2016-05-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) and its composites PANI-ZnO (Zinc oxide) and PANI-ZnO-GO (Graphene oxide) were successfully constructed. These materials were characterized by electron spin resonance (ESR) technique and ultraviolet visible spectrometry. The parameters such as line width, g-factor and spin concentration were deduced from ESR spectra, from the results the radical cation stabilization of PANI, PANI-ZnO and PANI-ZnO-GO composites were compared by the polaron and bipolaron formation. The absorption features obtained in the UV absorption spectra reveal the band gap of these modified PANI composites and also predicted the information of increasing and decreasing features of signal intensity and spin concentration.

  7. Short-term nutritional treatments grazing legumes or feeding concentrates increase prolificacy in Corriedale ewes.

    PubMed

    Viñoles, C; Meikle, A; Martin, G B

    2009-07-01

    We tested whether short periods of increased nutrition will improve ovulation rate and prolificacy, irrespective of the method used to synchronise the cycles of the ewes. In Experiment 1, we used 138 Corriedale ewes to evaluate two factors: synchronization treatment (sponges versus a single injection of prostaglandin) and type of pasture (native versus improved with Lotus corniculatus). Ewes were mated at the end of the grazing period and prolificacy was evaluated at lambing. Grazing Lotus corniculatus for 12 days tended to increase the number of twin lambs born (P=0.09). The percentage of ewes showing oestrus during a 9-day period was similar among synchronization treatments. Animals in Experiments 2 (n=282) and 3 (n=288) were allocated to a control group or a group fed a supplement of corn grain and soybean meal for 7 days. Ewes received 2 prostaglandin injections and the supplement was fed from Days 11 to 17 after the second prostaglandin. Ovulation rate was measured in 65 (Experiment 2) and 61 (Experiment 3) ewes that were confirmed to have consumed the supplement and showed oestrus in a 4-day period. The supplement increased ovulation rate by 14% in both experiments (P<0.05). We conclude that Corriedale ewes can respond with increases in prolificacy to a 12-day period grazing Lotus corniculatus and in ovulation rate to 7 days feeding with a supplement rich in energy and protein. Moreover, in these studies, prostaglandin was as effective as sponges for synchronising oestrus, an important factor in future decisions about hormonal management of fertility.

  8. Are Sunflower chlorotic mottle virus infection symptoms modulated by early increases in leaf sugar concentration?

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Marianela; Taleisnik, Edith; Lenardon, Sergio; Lascano, Ramiro

    2010-09-15

    Symptom development in a susceptible sunflower line inoculated with Sunflower chlorotic mottle virus (SuCMoV) was followed in the second pair of leaves at different post-inoculation times: before symptom expression (BS), at early (ES) and late (LS) symptom expression. Sugar and starch increases and photoinhibition were observed as early effects BS, and were maintained or enhanced later on, however, chlorophyll loss was detected only at LS. Photoinhibition correlated with a drastic decrease in D1 protein level. The progress of infection was accompanied by decreasing levels of apoplastic reactive oxygen species (ROS). In infected leaves, higher antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; ascorbate peroxidase, APX; glutathione reductase, GR) were observed from BS. The purpose of this work was to evaluate whether the early increases in carbohydrate accumulation may participate in SuCMoV symptom expression. Similar effects on photoinhibition, apoplastic ROS generation and antioxidant activity were generated when healthy leaves were treated with sugars. These results suggest that photoinhibitory processes and lower apoplastic superoxide levels induced by SuCMoV infection may be modulated by sugar increases. Copyright 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of PdZn film on the performance of green light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ja-Yeon; Kwon, Min-Ki; Cho, Chu Young; Lee, Sang-Jun; Park, Seong-Ju; Kim, Sunwoon; Kim, Je Won; Kim, Yong Chun

    2008-08-01

    PdZn was used to improve the electrical properties of p-GaN annealed at low activation temperature for high efficiency green light-emitting diodes (LEDs). A hole concentration of p-GaN annealed at 600 °C with PdZn was almost 28 times higher than that of p-GaN annealed at 800 °C without PdZn. SIMS analysis showed that hydrogen concentration in p-GaN annealed with PdZn is decreased compared to that without using PdZn because the PdZn enhances hydrogen desorption from the Mg-doped p-GaN film at low temperature. The green MQW LED annealed at 600 °C using PdZn showed improved electrical characteristic and optical output power compared to that annealed at 800 °C without using PdZn. These results are attributed to the increase of hole concentration of p-GaN due to removal of hydrogen in p-GaN by PdZn and the decrease in thermal damage of MQW at low activation temperature.

  10. Increasing precision of turbidity-based suspended sediment concentration and load estimates.

    PubMed

    Jastram, John D; Zipper, Carl E; Zelazny, Lucian W; Hyer, Kenneth E

    2010-01-01

    Turbidity is an effective tool for estimating and monitoring suspended sediments in aquatic systems. Turbidity can be measured in situ remotely and at fine temporal scales as a surrogate for suspended sediment concentration (SSC), providing opportunity for a more complete record of SSC than is possible with physical sampling approaches. However, there is variability in turbidity-based SSC estimates and in sediment loadings calculated from those estimates. This study investigated the potential to improve turbidity-based SSC, and by extension the resulting sediment loading estimates, by incorporating hydrologic variables that can be monitored remotely and continuously (typically 15-min intervals) into the SSC estimation procedure. On the Roanoke River in southwestern Virginia, hydrologic stage, turbidity, and other water-quality parameters were monitored with in situ instrumentation; suspended sediments were sampled manually during elevated turbidity events; samples were analyzed for SSC and physical properties including particle-size distribution and organic C content; and rainfall was quantified by geologic source area. The study identified physical properties of the suspended-sediment samples that contribute to SSC estimation variance and hydrologic variables that explained variability of those physical properties. Results indicated that the inclusion of any of the measured physical properties in turbidity-based SSC estimation models reduces unexplained variance. Further, the use of hydrologic variables to represent these physical properties, along with turbidity, resulted in a model, relying solely on data collected remotely and continuously, that estimated SSC with less variance than a conventional turbidity-based univariate model, allowing a more precise estimate of sediment loading, Modeling results are consistent with known mechanisms governing sediment transport in hydrologic systems.

  11. Increased serum concentration of immune cell derived microparticles in polymyositis/dermatomyositis.

    PubMed

    Baka, Zsuzsanna; Senolt, Ladislav; Vencovsky, Jiri; Mann, Herman; Simon, Piroska Sebestyén; Kittel, Agnes; Buzás, Edit; Nagy, György

    2010-02-16

    Microparticles are recently recognized players of intercellular communication. They are involved in signal transduction, cell activation and apoptosis. Their importance is also suggested in autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic sclerosis. We investigated the role of microparticles in polymyositis/dermatomyositis, a group of rare autoimmune diseases, characterized by specific skin lesions and muscle weakness. The plasma concentration of monocyte and lymphocyte derived microparticles of 20 patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis and 20 healthy controls were determined by flow cytometry. The structure of microparticles was visualized by electron microscopy. Significantly elevated numbers of monocyte (CD14 positive), T-lymphocyte (CD3 positive) and B-lymphocyte (CD19 positive) derived microparticles were found in the plasma samples of polymyositis/dermatomyositis patients, compared to healthy controls (p=0.001, 0.01 and 0.006, respectively). Furthermore, the plasma levels of monocyte and B-lymphocyte derived microparticles correlated with the manual muscle strength test (r=0.497, p=0.027; r=0.508, p=0.023; respectively). Patients with anti-Jo-1 antibody and lung involvement had significantly higher numbers of T- and B-lymphocyte and monocyte derived MPs (p=0.006, 0.012 and 0.007, respectively, for anti-Jo-1; p=0.013, 0.016 and 0.025, respectively, for lung involvement). After ultracentrifugation, CK activity could be detected only in traces in the resuspended pellet containing microparticles of healthy and diseased individuals. The electron microscopy revealed slightly different microparticles in the samples of patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis. These results suggest that immune cell derived microparticles may contribute to the inflammatory process in polymyositis/dermatomyositis, however, CK-positive, possibly muscle derived microparticles do not seem to be present in the blood of patients with polymyositis

  12. Optical and electrical properties of copper-incorporated ZnS films applicable as solar cell absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrabian, M.; Esteki, Z.; Shokrvash, H.; Kavei, G.

    2016-10-01

    Un-doped and Cu-doped ZnS (ZnS:Cu) thin films were synthesized by Successive Ion Layer Absorption and Reaction (SILAR) method. The UV-visible absorption studies have been used to calculate the band gap values of the fabricated ZnS:Cu thin films. It was observed that by increasing the concentration of Cu2+ ions, the Fermi level moves toward the edge of the valence band of ZnS. Photoluminescence spectra of un-doped and Cu-doped ZnS thin films was recorded under 355 nm. The emission spectrum of samples has a blue emission band at 436 nm. The peak positions of the luminescence showed a red shift as the Cu2+ ion concentration was increased, which indicates that the acceptor level (of Cu2+) is getting close to the valence band of ZnS.

  13. Effect of Surfactant on the Morphology of ZnO/Al:ZnO Nanostructures and Their Ethanol Sensing Applications at Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitra, M.; Uthayarani, K.; Rajasekaran, N.; Neelakandeswari, N.; Girija, E. K.; Padiyan, D. Pathinettam

    2016-11-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) and aluminum (Al) doped ZnO nanostructures with and without surfactant have been successfully prepared via sol-gel route. The effect of the surfactant glyoxalic acid and various concentration of Al on the structural property of ZnO was analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The morphology of the samples was recorded using field emission scanning electron microscopy. The uniform distribution of ZnO nanostructures with hexagonal facets is facilitated by the surfactant and the grain growth is further inhibited by the increase in concentration of Al. The ethanol (0-300ppm) sensing characteristics of the as-prepared samples were systematically investigated at room temperature. Surfactant-assisted ZnO/Al:ZnO nanostructures show higher sensitivity of 94% at room temperature than ZnO/Al:ZnO nanostructures without surfactant. Faster response at 68s and recovery at 50s is also achieved by the samples. The surfactant-assisted ZnO nanostructures exhibit sharp selective detection towards ethanol when compared to the samples without surfactant. The enhanced ethanol sensing property may be ascribed to the larger surface area which is due to uniform and smaller crystallite size of the surfactant-assisted sample.

  14. Adrenal Demedullation and Oxygen Supplementation Independently Increase Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Concentrations in Fetal Sheep With Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Macko, Antoni R.; Yates, Dustin T.; Chen, Xiaochuan; Shelton, Leslie A.; Kelly, Amy C.; Davis, Melissa A.; Camacho, Leticia E.; Anderson, Miranda J.

    2016-01-01

    In pregnancies complicated by placental insufficiency and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), fetal glucose and oxygen concentrations are reduced, whereas plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations are elevated throughout the final third of gestation. Here we study the effects of chronic hypoxemia and hypercatecholaminemia on β-cell function in fetal sheep with placental insufficiency-induced IUGR that is produced by maternal hyperthermia. IUGR and control fetuses underwent a sham (intact) or bilateral adrenal demedullation (AD) surgical procedure at 0.65 gestation. As expected, AD-IUGR fetuses had lower norepinephrine concentrations than intact-IUGR fetuses despite being hypoxemic and hypoglycemic. Placental insufficiency reduced fetal weights, but the severity of IUGR was less with AD. Although basal plasma insulin concentrations were lower in intact-IUGR and AD-IUGR fetuses compared with intact-controls, glucose-stimulated insulin concentrations were greater in AD-IUGR fetuses compared with intact-IUGR fetuses. Interestingly, AD-controls had lower glucose- and arginine-stimulated insulin concentrations than intact-controls, but AD-IUGR and AD-control insulin responses were not different. To investigate chronic hypoxemia in the IUGR fetus, arterial oxygen tension was increased to normal levels by increasing the maternal inspired oxygen fraction. Oxygenation of IUGR fetuses enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin concentrations 3.3-fold in intact-IUGR and 1.7-fold in AD-IUGR fetuses but did not lower norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations. Together these findings show that chronic hypoxemia and hypercatecholaminemia have distinct but complementary roles in the suppression of β-cell responsiveness in IUGR fetuses. PMID:26937714

  15. Higher thyrotropin concentration is associated with increased incidence of colorectal cancer in older men.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yi X; Alfonso, Helman; Chubb, Stephen Anthony Paul; Fegan, Peter Gerard; Hankey, Graeme J; Golledge, Jonathan; Flicker, Leon; Yeap, Bu B

    2017-02-01

    Thyroid hormones regulate cellular survival and metabolism; however, their association with cancer incidence and death has not been well explored. Our aim was to examine the relationship between thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) with cancer incidence (all cancers, prostate, colorectal and lung cancer). Associations with cancer-related deaths were also explored. A prospective cohort study involving community-dwelling men aged 70-89 years. Thyroid hormones were measured in 3836 men between 2001 and 2004. Competing risks analyses were used to perform longitudinal analyses with results expressed as subhazard ratios (SHR). Outcomes were ascertained through electronic linkage until 20 June 2013. Mean age was 77·0 ± 3·6 years. A total of 864 men developed cancers, and 506 experienced cancer-related deaths. A total of 340, 136 and 119 men developed prostate, colorectal and lung cancers, respectively. After adjustments, there were no associations between TSH and incidence of all cancers, prostate or lung cancer. Higher TSH was associated with increased colorectal cancer incidence (SHR = 1·19, 95% CI 1·00-1·42; P = 0·048 for every 1 SD increase in log TSH). This association was strengthened after excluding the first year of follow-up (SHR = 1·23, 95% CI 1·02-1·48, P = 0·028). FT4 was not associated with incidence of all cancers, prostate, colorectal or lung cancer. Thyroid hormones were not associated with cancer-related deaths. In community-dwelling older men, FT4 was not associated with cancer incidence. Higher TSH is independently associated with increased incidence of colorectal cancer. Further investigation is warranted to determine whether a causal relationship exists. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Increase in serum albumin concentration is associated with prediabetes development and progression to overt diabetes independently of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jun, Ji Eun; Lee, Seung-Eun; Lee, You-Bin; Jee, Jae Hwan; Bae, Ji Cheol; Jin, Sang-Man; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Lee, Moon-Kyu; Kim, Jae Hyeon

    2017-01-01

    Serum albumin concentration is associated with both type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS). We sought to investigate whether baseline serum albumin and change in serum albumin could be independent risk factors for prediabetes in subjects without MetS. We further examined the effect of serum albumin on progression to overt diabetes in subjects who developed prediabetes. Among 10,792 participants without diabetes and MetS who consecutively underwent yearly health check-ups over six years, 9,807 subjects without incident MetS were enrolled in this longitudinal retrospective study. The risk of developing prediabetes (impared fasting glucose or hemoglobin A1c) was analyzed according to baseline and percent change in serum albumin concentration using Cox regression analysis. Serial changes in serum albumin concentration were measured from baseline to one year before prediabetes diagnosis, and then from the time of prediabetes diagnosis to progression to overt diabetes or final follow-up. A total of 4,398 incident cases of prediabetes developed during 35,807 person-years (median 3.8 years). The hazard ratio for incident prediabetes decreased as percent change in serum albumin concentration (quartiles and per 1%) increased in a crude and fully adjusted model. However, baseline serum albumin concentration itself was not associated with prediabetic risk. Serum albumin levels kept increasing until the end of follow-up in prediabetic subjects who returned to normal glycemic status, whereas these measures did not change in prediabetic subjects who developed type 2 diabetes. Serum albumin concentration measured at the end of follow-up was the highest in the regression group, compared to the stationary (p = 0.014) or progression groups (p = 0.009). Increase in serum albumin concentration might protect against early glycemic deterioration and progression to type 2 diabetes even in subjects without MetS.

  17. Increase in serum albumin concentration is associated with prediabetes development and progression to overt diabetes independently of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Ji Eun; Lee, Seung-Eun; Lee, You-Bin; Jee, Jae Hwan; Bae, Ji Cheol; Jin, Sang-Man; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Lee, Moon-Kyu

    2017-01-01

    Aim Serum albumin concentration is associated with both type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS). We sought to investigate whether baseline serum albumin and change in serum albumin could be independent risk factors for prediabetes in subjects without MetS. We further examined the effect of serum albumin on progression to overt diabetes in subjects who developed prediabetes. Methods Among 10,792 participants without diabetes and MetS who consecutively underwent yearly health check-ups over six years, 9,807 subjects without incident MetS were enrolled in this longitudinal retrospective study. The risk of developing prediabetes (impared fasting glucose or hemoglobin A1c) was analyzed according to baseline and percent change in serum albumin concentration using Cox regression analysis. Serial changes in serum albumin concentration were measured from baseline to one year before prediabetes diagnosis, and then from the time of prediabetes diagnosis to progression to overt diabetes or final follow-up. Results A total of 4,398 incident cases of prediabetes developed during 35,807 person-years (median 3.8 years). The hazard ratio for incident prediabetes decreased as percent change in serum albumin concentration (quartiles and per 1%) increased in a crude and fully adjusted model. However, baseline serum albumin concentration itself was not associated with prediabetic risk. Serum albumin levels kept increasing until the end of follow-up in prediabetic subjects who returned to normal glycemic status, whereas these measures did not change in prediabetic subjects who developed type 2 diabetes. Serum albumin concentration measured at the end of follow-up was the highest in the regression group, compared to the stationary (p = 0.014) or progression groups (p = 0.009). Conclusions Increase in serum albumin concentration might protect against early glycemic deterioration and progression to type 2 diabetes even in subjects without MetS. PMID:28430803

  18. Bioavailability of Zn in ZnO nanoparticle-spiked soil and the implications to maize plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xueqin; Wang, Fayuan; Shi, Zhaoyong; Tong, Ruijian; Shi, Xiaojun

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about the relationships between Zn bioavailability in ZnO nanoparticle (NP)-spiked soil and the implications to crops. The present pot culture experiment studied Zn bioavailability in soil spiked with different doses of ZnO NPs, using the diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) extraction method, as well as the toxicity and Zn accumulation in maize plants. Results showed that ZnO NPs exerted dose-dependent effects on maize growth and nutrition, photosynthetic pigments, and root activity (dehydrogenase), ranging from stimulatory (100-200 mg/kg) through to neutral (400 mg/kg) and toxic effect (800-3200 mg/kg). Both Zn concentration in shoots and roots correlated positively ( P < 0.01) with ZnO NPs dose and soil DTPA-extractable Zn concentration. The BCF of Zn in shoots and roots ranged from 1.02 to 3.83 when ZnO NPs were added. In most cases, the toxic effects on plants elicited by ZnO NPs were overall similar to those caused by bulk ZnO and soluble Zn (ZnSO4) at the same doses, irrespective of some significant differences suggesting a higher toxicity of ZnO NPs. Oxidative stress in plants via superoxide free radical production was induced by ZnO NPs at 800 mg/kg and above, and was more severe than the same doses of bulk ZnO and ZnSO4. Although significantly lower compared to bulk ZnO and ZnSO4, at least 16 % of the Zn from ZnO NPs was converted into DTPA-extractable (bioavailable) forms. The dissolved Zn2+ from ZnO NPs may make a dominant contribution to their phytotoxicity. Although low amounts of ZnO NPs exhibited some beneficial effects, the accumulation of Zn from ZnO NPs into maize tissues could pose potential health risks for both plants and human.

  19. Crystallisation of Ba1-xSrxZn2Si2O7 from BaO/SrO/ZnO/SiO2 glass with different ZrO2 and TiO2 concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladislavova, Liliya; Kracker, Michael; Zscheckel, Tilman; Thieme, Christian; Rüssel, Christian

    2018-04-01

    The effect of different nucleation agents such as ZrO2 and TiO2 was investigated for a first time with respect to their crystallisation behaviour in the glass system BaO-SrO-ZnO-SiO2. In all studied glasses, a Ba1-xSrxZn2Si2O7 (0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.9) solid solution crystallized. This phase was first described in 2015 to possess a similar structure as the high temperature phase of BaZn2Si2O7 and a thermal expansion close to zero or even negative. It may find applications e.g. as cook panels, telescope mirrors, and furnace windows. Kinetic parameters of the crystallisation process were determined by supplying different heating rates in a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The results were evaluated using the equations of Ozawa and Kissinger with respect to the activation energies. Furthermore, the Ozawa method was used for the determination of Avrami parameters, which provides further information on the nucleation and crystallisation processes. Scanning electron microscopy including electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was used to characterise the microstructure, to determine the crystallite size and the crystal orientation. For the characterisation of the occurring crystalline phases, X-ray diffraction was used.

  20. Effects of ZnO nanoparticles on wastewater biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiong; Wu, Rui; Chen, Yinguang

    2011-04-01

    With the increasing utilization of nanomaterials, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have been reported to induce adverse effects on human health and aquatic organisms. However, the potential impacts of ZnO NPs on wastewater nitrogen and phosphorus removal with an activated sludge process are unknown. In this paper, short-term exposure experiments were conducted to determine whether ZnO NPs caused adverse impacts on biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal in the unacclimated anaerobic-low dissolved oxygen sequencing batch reactor. Compared with the absence of ZnO NPs, the presence of 10 and 50 mg/L of ZnO NPs decreased total nitrogen removal efficiencies from 81.5% to 75.6% and 70.8%, respectively. The corresponding effluent phosphorus concentrations increased from nondetectable to 10.3 and 16.5 mg/L, respectively, which were higher than the influent phosphorus (9.8 mg/L), suggesting that higher concentration of ZnO NPs induced the loss of normal phosphorus removal. It was found that the inhibition of nitrogen and phosphorus removal induced by higher concentrations of ZnO NPs was due to the release of zinc ions from ZnO NPs dissolution and increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which caused inhibitory effect on polyphosphate-accumulating organisms and decreased nitrate reductase, exopolyphosphatase, and polyphosphate kinase activities.

  1. Effects of Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) on growth and physiological characteristics of green algae, Cladophora.

    PubMed

    Cao, De-ju; Xie, Pan-pan; Deng, Juan-wei; Zhang, Hui-min; Ma, Ru-xiao; Liu, Cheng; Liu, Ren-jing; Liang, Yue-gan; Li, Hao; Shi, Xiao-dong

    2015-11-01

    Effects of various concentrations of Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) (0.0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 mg/L) on the growth, malondialdehyde (MDA), the intracellular calcium, and physiological characteristics of green algae, Cladophora, were investigated. Low Zn(2+) concentrations accelerated the growth of Cladophora, whereas Zn(2+) concentration increases to 0.25 mg/L inhibited its growth. Cu(2+) greatly influences Cladophora growth. The photosynthesis of Cladophora decreased under Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) stress. Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) treatment affected the content of total soluble sugar in Cladophora and has small increases in its protein content. Zn(2+) induced the intracellular calcium release, and copper induced the intracellular calcium increases in Cladophora. Exposure to Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) induces MDA in Cladophora. The stress concent of Cu(2+) was strictly correlated with the total soluble sugar content, Chla+Chlb, and MDA in Cladophora, and the stress concent of Zn(2+) was strictly correlated with the relative growth rate (RGR) and MDA of Cladophora.

  2. Is improved lane keeping during cognitive load caused by increased physical arousal or gaze concentration toward the road center?

    PubMed

    Li, Penghui; Markkula, Gustav; Li, Yibing; Merat, Natasha

    2018-08-01

    Driver distraction is one of the main causes of motor-vehicle accidents. However, the impact on traffic safety of tasks that impose cognitive (non-visual) distraction remains debated. One particularly intriguing finding is that cognitive load seems to improve lane keeping performance, most often quantified as reduced standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP). The main competing hypotheses, supported by current empirical evidence, suggest that cognitive load improves lane keeping via either increased physical arousal, or higher gaze concentration toward the road center, but views are mixed regarding if, and how, these possible mediators influence lane keeping performance. Hence, a simulator study was conducted, with participants driving on a straight city road section whilst completing a cognitive task at different levels of difficulty. In line with previous studies, cognitive load led to increased physical arousal, higher gaze concentration toward the road center, and higher levels of micro-steering activity, accompanied by improved lane keeping performance. More importantly, during the high cognitive task, both physical arousal and gaze concentration changed earlier in time than micro-steering activity, which in turn changed earlier than lane keeping performance. In addition, our results did not show a significant correlation between gaze concentration and physical arousal on the level of individual task recordings. Based on these findings, various multilevel models for micro-steering activity and lane keeping performance were conducted and compared, and the results suggest that all of the mechanisms proposed by existing hypotheses could be simultaneously involved. In other words, it is suggested that cognitive load leads to: (i) an increase in arousal, causing increased micro-steering activity, which in turn improves lane keeping performance, and (ii) an increase in gaze concentration, causing lane keeping improvement through both (a) further increased micro

  3. Prenatal lipid-based nutrient supplements increase cord leptin concentration in pregnant women from rural Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Huybregts, Lieven; Roberfroid, Dominique; Lanou, Hermann; Meda, Nicolas; Taes, Youri; Valea, Innocent; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Kolsteren, Patrick; Van Camp, John

    2013-05-01

    In developing countries, prenatal lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) were shown to increase birth size; however, the mechanism of this effect remains unknown. Cord blood hormone concentrations are strongly associated with birth size. Therefore, we hypothesize that LNSs increase birth size through a change in the endocrine regulation of fetal development. We compared the effect of daily prenatal LNSs with multiple micronutrient tablets on cord blood hormone concentrations using a randomized, controlled design including 197 pregnant women from rural Burkina Faso. Insulin-like growth factors (IGF) I and II, their binding proteins IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3, leptin, cortisol, and insulin were quantified in cord sera using immunoassays. LNS was associated with higher cord blood leptin mainly in primigravidae (+57%; P = 0.02) and women from the highest tertile of BMI at study inclusion (+41%; P = 0.02). We did not find any significant LNS effects on other measured cord hormones. The observed increase in cord leptin was associated with a significantly higher birth weight. Cord sera from small-for-gestational age newborns had lower median IGF-I (-9 μg/L; P = 0.003), IGF-II (-79 μg/L; P = 0.003), IGFBP-3 (-0.7 μg/L; P = 0.007), and leptin (-1.0 μg/L; P = 0.016) concentrations but higher median cortisol (+18 μg/L; P = 0.037) concentrations compared with normally grown newborns. Prenatal LNS resulted in increased cord leptin concentrations in primigravidae and mothers with higher BMI at study inclusion. The elevated leptin concentrations could point toward a higher neonatal fat mass.

  4. Infrasound increases intracellular calcium concentration and induces apoptosis in hippocampi of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaohui; Gong, Li; Li, Xiaofang; Ye, Lin; Wang, Bin; Liu, Jing; Qiu, Jianyong; Jiao, Huiduo; Zhang, Wendong; Chen, Jingzao; Wang, Jiuping

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we determined the effect of infrasonic exposure on apoptosis and intracellular free Ca²⁺ ([Ca²⁺]i) levels in the hippocampus of adult rats. Adult rats were randomly divided into the control and infrasound exposure groups. For infrasound treatment, animals received infrasonic exposure at 90 (8 Hz) or 130 dB (8 Hz) for 2 h per day. Hippocampi were dissected, and isolated hippocampal neurons were cultured. The [Ca²⁺]i levels in hippocampal neurons from adult rat brains were determined by Fluo-3/AM staining with a confocal microscope system on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 following infrasonic exposure. Apoptosis was evaluated by Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide double staining. Positive cells were sorted and analyzed by flow cytometry. Elevated [Ca²⁺]i levels were observed on days 14 and 21 after rats received daily treatment with 90 or 130 dB sound pressure level (SPL) infrasonic exposure (p<0.01 vs. control). The highest levels of [Ca²⁺]i were detected in the 130 dB SPL infrasonic exposure group. Meanwhile, apoptosis in hippocampal neurons was found to increase on day 7 following 90 dB SPL infrasound exposure, and significantly increased on day 14. Upon 130 dB infrasound treatment, apoptosis was first observed on day 14, whereas the number of apoptotic cells gradually decreased thereafter. Additionally, a marked correlation between cell apoptosis and [Ca²⁺]i levels was found on day 14 and 21 following daily treatment with 90 and 130 dB SPL, respectively. These results demonstrate that a period of infrasonic exposure induced apoptosis and upregulated [Ca²⁺]i levels in hippocampal neurons, suggesting that infrasound may cause damage to the central nervous system (CNS) through the Ca²⁺‑mediated apoptotic pathway in hippocampal neurons.

  5. Inhalation of diesel engine exhaust increases bone mineral concentrations in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, N; Nakamura, T

    1996-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether diesel engine exhaust affects bone metabolism in growing rats. The rats were assigned to three groups: those exposed to total diesel engine exhaust with 5.63 mg/m3 particulate matter, 4.10 ppm nitrogen dioxide, 8.10 ppm nitrogen monoxide; those exposed to filtered exhaust without particulate matter; and those exposed to clean air. Dosing experiments were performed for 3 months beginning at birth (6 h/day for 5 days/week). Bone mineral content (BMC) values in lumbar vertebral bone were significantly increased in both groups exposed to diesel exhaust (P < 0.01) compared to that of rats exposed to clean air. Bone mineral density (BMD) values were also significantly increased in both exposed groups, total exhaust (P < 0.01) and filtered exhaust (P < 0.001), compared to that of rats exposed to clean air. BMD values in the mid-femur were also significantly greater in animals exposed to diesel exhaust, total exhaust (P < 0.05), and filtered exhaust (P < 0.01), compared to that of those exposed to clean air. Urinary excretion of deoxypyridinolines, a biochemical marker for bone resorption, was significantly reduced in animals exposed to total diesel exhaust and filtered exhaust (P < 0.001, P < 0.01) compared to control. There was also a significant difference between the two exposure groups of diesel exhaust (P < 0.05). Since these effects were not inhibited by filtration, the gaseous phase of the exhaust was considered more responsible than particulate matter for reducing bone resorption.

  6. Frequency of laboratory measurement and hyperkalaemia in hospitalised patients using serum potassium concentration increasing drugs.

    PubMed

    Uijtendaal, Esther V; Zwart-van Rijkom, Jeannette E F; van Solinge, Wouter W; Egberts, Toine C G

    2011-09-01

    Although, drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between potassium-increasing drugs (PIDs) are known risk factors for developing hyperkalaemia, not much is known about their risk and management strategies during hospitalisation. This study examines the frequency of serum potassium measurements and hyperkalaemia in hospitalised patients, based on the use of one or more PIDs, and the determinants thereof. Adult patients hospitalised in the University Medical Centre Utrecht between 2006 and 2008 were included in this cross-sectional study. The frequency of serum potassium measurements and of hyperkalaemia were compared between patients using only one PID at a time (monotherapy group) and patients using two or more PIDs concomitantly (interaction group). The determinants studied were renal failure, diabetes mellitus, use of diuretics, type of DDI, start of the PIDs within the hospital versus continued home medication and medical speciality. Serum potassium was measured more frequently in the interaction group than in the monotherapy group [67 vs. 56%; relative risk (RR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-1.24] and the risk of hyperkalaemia was also increased in the interaction group (9.9 vs. 5.9%, RR 1.7, 95% CI 1.3-2.1). The combination of potassium-sparing diuretics plus a potassium supplement, start of the PID within the hospital and hospitalisation in non-internal medicine departments was associated with higher relative risk estimates for hyperkalaemia. Among our patient cohort, even when physicians received a direct pop-up to monitor serum potassium levels when prescribing two PIDs concomitantly, serum potassium levels were not measured in 33% of patients, and 10% of patients developed hyperkalaemia. Improved management strategies and/or clinical decision-support systems are needed to decrease the frequency of hyperkalaemia following DDIs.

  7. Nitrogen fertilisation increases biogenic amines and amino acid concentrations in Vitis vinifera var. Riesling musts and wines.

    PubMed

    Smit, Inga; Pfliehinger, Marco; Binner, Antonie; Großmann, Manfred; Horst, Walter J; Löhnertz, Otmar

    2014-08-01

    Wines rich in biogenic amines can cause adverse health effects to the consumer. Being nitrogen-containing substances, the amount of amines in wines might be strongly influenced by the rate of nitrogen fertiliser application during grape production. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilisation in the vineyard on the formation of biogenic amines in musts and wines. In a field experiment which compared unfertilised and fertilised (60 and 150 kg N ha(-1)) vines over two separate years, the total amine concentrations in must and wine increased. The latter was due to an increase of individual amines such as ethylamine, histamine, isopentylamine, phenylethylamine and spermidine in the musts and wines with the nitrogen application. Furthermore, the fermentation process increased the concentration of histamine and ethylamine in most of the treatments, while spermidine, spermine and isopentylamine concentrations generally decreased. Throughout both vintages, the concentrations of tyramine and histamine of the investigated musts and wines never reached detrimental levels to the health of non-allergenic people. Nitrogen fertilisation has a significant effect on amines formation in musts and wines. Furthermore, during fermentation, ethylamine and histamine increased while other amines were presumably serving as N sources during fermentation. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Effect of enzyme concentration, addition of water and incubation time on increase in yield of starch from potato.

    PubMed<