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Sample records for zn finger protein

  1. Molecular and functional characterization of two drought-induced zinc finger proteins, ZmZnF1 and ZmZnF2 from maize kernels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have isolated two cDNA clones encoding Zinc Finger proteins, designated as ZmZnF1 and ZmZnF2, from water-stressed maize kernels. Sequence analyses indicates that ZmZnF1 is homologous to the A20/AN1-type zinc finger protein and contains the zinc finger motif of Cx2–Cx10–CxCx4Cx2Hx5HxC. Whereas ZmZ...

  2. The Zn finger protein Iguana impacts Hedgehog signaling by promoting ciliogenesis.

    PubMed

    Glazer, Andrew M; Wilkinson, Alex W; Backer, Chelsea B; Lapan, Sylvain W; Gutzman, Jennifer H; Cheeseman, Iain M; Reddien, Peter W

    2010-01-01

    Hedgehog signaling is critical for metazoan development and requires cilia for pathway activity. The gene iguana was discovered in zebrafish as required for Hedgehog signaling, and encodes a novel Zn finger protein. Planarians are flatworms with robust regenerative capacities and utilize epidermal cilia for locomotion. RNA interference of Smed-iguana in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea caused cilia loss and failure to regenerate new cilia, but did not cause defects similar to those observed in hedgehog(RNAi) animals. Smed-iguana gene expression was also similar in pattern to the expression of multiple other ciliogenesis genes, but was not required for expression of these ciliogenesis genes. iguana-defective zebrafish had too few motile cilia in pronephric ducts and in Kupffer's vesicle. Kupffer's vesicle promotes left-right asymmetry and iguana mutant embryos had left-right asymmetry defects. Finally, human Iguana proteins (dZIP1 and dZIP1L) localize to the basal bodies of primary cilia and, together, are required for primary cilia formation. Our results indicate that a critical and broadly conserved function for Iguana is in ciliogenesis and that this function has come to be required for Hedgehog signaling in vertebrates.

  3. Zinc finger proteins in cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Jen, Jayu; Wang, Yi-Ching

    2016-07-13

    Zinc finger proteins are the largest transcription factor family in human genome. The diverse combinations and functions of zinc finger motifs make zinc finger proteins versatile in biological processes, including development, differentiation, metabolism and autophagy. Over the last few decades, increasing evidence reveals the potential roles of zinc finger proteins in cancer progression. However, the underlying mechanisms of zinc finger proteins in cancer progression vary in different cancer types and even in the same cancer type under different types of stress. Here, we discuss general mechanisms of zinc finger proteins in transcription regulation and summarize recent studies on zinc finger proteins in cancer progression. In this review, we also emphasize the importance of further investigations in elucidating the underlying mechanisms of zinc finger proteins in cancer progression.

  4. The multi-zinc finger protein ZNF217 contacts DNA through a two-finger domain.

    PubMed

    Nunez, Noelia; Clifton, Molly M K; Funnell, Alister P W; Artuz, Crisbel; Hallal, Samantha; Quinlan, Kate G R; Font, Josep; Vandevenne, Marylène; Setiyaputra, Surya; Pearson, Richard C M; Mackay, Joel P; Crossley, Merlin

    2011-11-04

    Classical C2H2 zinc finger proteins are among the most abundant transcription factors found in eukaryotes, and the mechanisms through which they recognize their target genes have been extensively investigated. In general, a tandem array of three fingers separated by characteristic TGERP links is required for sequence-specific DNA recognition. Nevertheless, a significant number of zinc finger proteins do not contain a hallmark three-finger array of this type, raising the question of whether and how they contact DNA. We have examined the multi-finger protein ZNF217, which contains eight classical zinc fingers. ZNF217 is implicated as an oncogene and in repressing the E-cadherin gene. We show that two of its zinc fingers, 6 and 7, can mediate contacts with DNA. We examine its putative recognition site in the E-cadherin promoter and demonstrate that this is a suboptimal site. NMR analysis and mutagenesis is used to define the DNA binding surface of ZNF217, and we examine the specificity of the DNA binding activity using fluorescence anisotropy titrations. Finally, sequence analysis reveals that a variety of multi-finger proteins also contain two-finger units, and our data support the idea that these may constitute a distinct subclass of DNA recognition motif.

  5. The Multi-zinc Finger Protein ZNF217 Contacts DNA through a Two-finger Domain*

    PubMed Central

    Nunez, Noelia; Clifton, Molly M. K.; Funnell, Alister P. W.; Artuz, Crisbel; Hallal, Samantha; Quinlan, Kate G. R.; Font, Josep; Vandevenne, Marylène; Setiyaputra, Surya; Pearson, Richard C. M.; Mackay, Joel P.; Crossley, Merlin

    2011-01-01

    Classical C2H2 zinc finger proteins are among the most abundant transcription factors found in eukaryotes, and the mechanisms through which they recognize their target genes have been extensively investigated. In general, a tandem array of three fingers separated by characteristic TGERP links is required for sequence-specific DNA recognition. Nevertheless, a significant number of zinc finger proteins do not contain a hallmark three-finger array of this type, raising the question of whether and how they contact DNA. We have examined the multi-finger protein ZNF217, which contains eight classical zinc fingers. ZNF217 is implicated as an oncogene and in repressing the E-cadherin gene. We show that two of its zinc fingers, 6 and 7, can mediate contacts with DNA. We examine its putative recognition site in the E-cadherin promoter and demonstrate that this is a suboptimal site. NMR analysis and mutagenesis is used to define the DNA binding surface of ZNF217, and we examine the specificity of the DNA binding activity using fluorescence anisotropy titrations. Finally, sequence analysis reveals that a variety of multi-finger proteins also contain two-finger units, and our data support the idea that these may constitute a distinct subclass of DNA recognition motif. PMID:21908891

  6. The SUMO Pathway Promotes Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Proneural Factor Activity via a Direct Effect on the Zn Finger Protein Senseless

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Angela; Huang, Yan Chang; Wang, Pin Yao; Kemp, Sadie E.

    2012-01-01

    During development, proneural transcription factors of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family are required to commit cells to a neural fate. In Drosophila neurogenesis, a key mechanism promoting sense organ precursor (SOP) fate is the synergy between proneural factors and their coactivator Senseless in transcriptional activation of target genes. Here we present evidence that posttranslational modification by SUMO enhances this synergy via an effect on Senseless protein. We show that Senseless is a direct target for SUMO modification and that mutagenesis of a predicted SUMOylation motif in Senseless reduces Senseless/proneural synergy both in vivo and in cell culture. We propose that SUMOylation of Senseless via lysine 509 promotes its synergy with proneural proteins during transcriptional activation and hence regulates an important step in neurogenesis leading to the formation and maturation of the SOPs. PMID:22586269

  7. Senseless, a Zn finger transcription factor, is necessary and sufficient for sensory organ development in Drosophila

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolo, R.; Abbott, L. A.; Bellen, H. J.

    2000-01-01

    The senseless (sens) gene is required for proper development of most cell types of the embryonic and adult peripheral nervous system (PNS) of Drosophila. Sens is a nuclear protein with four Zn fingers that is expressed and required in the sensory organ precursors (SOP) for proper proneural gene expression. Ectopic expression of Sens in many ectodermal cells causes induction of PNS external sensory organ formation and is able to recreate an ectopic proneural field. Hence, sens is both necessary and sufficient for PNS development. Our data indicate that proneural genes activate sens expression. Sens is then in turn required to further activate and maintain proneural gene expression. This feedback mechanism is essential for selective enhancement and maintenance of proneural gene expression in the SOPs.

  8. Keep your fingers off my DNA: protein-protein interactions mediated by C2H2 zinc finger domains.

    PubMed

    Brayer, Kathryn J; Segal, David J

    2008-01-01

    Cys2-His2 (C2H2) zinc finger domains (ZFs) were originally identified as DNA-binding domains, and uncharacterized domains are typically assumed to function in DNA binding. However, a growing body of evidence suggests an important and widespread role for these domains in protein binding. There are even examples of zinc fingers that support both DNA and protein interactions, which can be found in well-known DNA-binding proteins such as Sp1, Zif268, and Ying Yang 1 (YY1). C2H2 protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are proving to be more abundant than previously appreciated, more plastic than their DNA-binding counterparts, and more variable and complex in their interactions surfaces. Here we review the current knowledge of over 100 C2H2 zinc finger-mediated PPIs, focusing on what is known about the binding surface, contributions of individual fingers to the interaction, and function. An accurate understanding of zinc finger biology will likely require greater insights into the potential protein interaction capabilities of C2H2 ZFs.

  9. Light-Inducible Gene Regulation with Engineered Zinc Finger Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Polstein, Lauren R.; Gersbach, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    The coupling of light-inducible protein-protein interactions with gene regulation systems has enabled the control of gene expression with light. In particular, heterodimer protein pairs from plants can be used to engineer a gene regulation system in mammalian cells that is reversible, repeatable, tunable, controllable in a spatiotemporal manner, and targetable to any DNA sequence. This system, Light-Inducible Transcription using Engineered Zinc finger proteins (LITEZ), is based on the blue light-induced interaction of GIGANTEA and the LOV domain of FKF1 that drives the localization of a transcriptional activator to the DNA-binding site of a highly customizable engineered zinc finger protein. This chapter provides methods for modifying LITEZ to target new DNA sequences, engineering a programmable LED array to illuminate cell cultures, and using the modified LITEZ system to achieve spatiotemporal control of transgene expression in mammalian cells. PMID:24718797

  10. C terminal retroviral-type zinc finger domain from the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein is structurally similar to the N-terminal zinc finger domain

    SciTech Connect

    South, T.L.; Blake, P.R.; Hare, D.R.

    Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic and computational methods were employed for the structure determination of an 18-residue peptide with the amino acid sequence of the C-terminal retriviral-type (r.t.) zinc finger domain from the nucleocapsid protein (NCP) of HIV-1 (Zn(HIV1-F2)). Unlike results obtained for the first retroviral-type zinc finger peptide, Zn (HIV1-F1) broad signals indicative of confomational lability were observed in the {sup 1}H NMR spectrum of An(HIV1-F2) at 25 C. The NMR signals narrowed upon cooling to {minus}2 C, enabling complete {sup 1}H NMR signal assignment via standard two-dimensional (2D) NMR methods. Distance restraints obtained from qualitative analysis of 2D nuclear Overhausermore » effect (NOESY) data were sued to generate 30 distance geometry (DG) structures with penalties in the range 0.02-0.03 {angstrom}{sup 2}. All structures were qualitatively consistent with the experimental NOESY spectrum based on comparisons with 2D NOESY back-calculated spectra. These results indicate that the r.t. zinc finger sequences observed in retroviral NCPs, simple plant virus coat proteins, and in a human single-stranded nucleic acid binding protein share a common structural motif.« less

  11. Selective Sensitization of Zinc Finger Protein Oxidation by Reactive Oxygen Species through Arsenic Binding*

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xixi; Cooper, Karen L.; Sun, Xi; Liu, Ke J.; Hudson, Laurie G.

    2015-01-01

    Cysteine oxidation induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) on redox-sensitive targets such as zinc finger proteins plays a critical role in redox signaling and subsequent biological outcomes. We found that arsenic exposure led to oxidation of certain zinc finger proteins based on arsenic interaction with zinc finger motifs. Analysis of zinc finger proteins isolated from arsenic-exposed cells and zinc finger peptides by mass spectrometry demonstrated preferential oxidation of C3H1 and C4 zinc finger configurations. C2H2 zinc finger proteins that do not bind arsenic were not oxidized by arsenic-generated ROS in the cellular environment. The findings suggest that selectivity in arsenic binding to zinc fingers with three or more cysteines defines the target proteins for oxidation by ROS. This represents a novel mechanism of selective protein oxidation and demonstrates how an environmental factor may sensitize certain target proteins for oxidation, thus altering the oxidation profile and redox regulation. PMID:26063799

  12. Multifunctional Nature of the Arenavirus RING Finger Protein Z

    PubMed Central

    Fehling, Sarah Katharina; Lennartz, Frank; Strecker, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Arenaviruses are a family of enveloped negative-stranded RNA viruses that can cause severe human disease ranging from encephalitis symptoms to fulminant hemorrhagic fever. The bi‑segmented RNA genome encodes four polypeptides: the nucleoprotein NP, the surface glycoprotein GP, the polymerase L, and the RING finger protein Z. Although it is the smallest arenavirus protein with a length of 90 to 99 amino acids and a molecular weight of approx. 11 kDa, the Z protein has multiple functions in the viral life cycle including (i) regulation of viral RNA synthesis, (ii) orchestration of viral assembly and budding, (iii) interaction with host cell proteins, and (iv) interferon antagonism. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the structural and functional role of the Z protein in the arenavirus replication cycle. PMID:23202512

  13. ZifBASE: a database of zinc finger proteins and associated resources.

    PubMed

    Jayakanthan, Mannu; Muthukumaran, Jayaraman; Chandrasekar, Sanniyasi; Chawla, Konika; Punetha, Ankita; Sundar, Durai

    2009-09-09

    Information on the occurrence of zinc finger protein motifs in genomes is crucial to the developing field of molecular genome engineering. The knowledge of their target DNA-binding sequences is vital to develop chimeric proteins for targeted genome engineering and site-specific gene correction. There is a need to develop a computational resource of zinc finger proteins (ZFP) to identify the potential binding sites and its location, which reduce the time of in vivo task, and overcome the difficulties in selecting the specific type of zinc finger protein and the target site in the DNA sequence. ZifBASE provides an extensive collection of various natural and engineered ZFP. It uses standard names and a genetic and structural classification scheme to present data retrieved from UniProtKB, GenBank, Protein Data Bank, ModBase, Protein Model Portal and the literature. It also incorporates specialized features of ZFP including finger sequences and positions, number of fingers, physiochemical properties, classes, framework, PubMed citations with links to experimental structures (PDB, if available) and modeled structures of natural zinc finger proteins. ZifBASE provides information on zinc finger proteins (both natural and engineered ones), the number of finger units in each of the zinc finger proteins (with multiple fingers), the synergy between the adjacent fingers and their positions. Additionally, it gives the individual finger sequence and their target DNA site to which it binds for better and clear understanding on the interactions of adjacent fingers. The current version of ZifBASE contains 139 entries of which 89 are engineered ZFPs, containing 3-7F totaling to 296 fingers. There are 50 natural zinc finger protein entries ranging from 2-13F, totaling to 307 fingers. It has sequences and structures from literature, Protein Data Bank, ModBase and Protein Model Portal. The interface is cross linked to other public databases like UniprotKB, PDB, ModBase and Protein Model

  14. Effect of the linkers between the zinc fingers in zinc finger protein 809 on gene silencing and nuclear localization

    SciTech Connect

    Ichida, Yu, E-mail: ichida-y@ncchd.go.jp; Utsunomiya, Yuko; Onodera, Masafumi

    2016-03-18

    Zinc finger protein 809 (ZFP809) belongs to the Kruppel-associated box-containing zinc finger protein (KRAB-ZFP) family and functions in repressing the expression of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV). ZFP809 binds to the primer-binding site (PBS)located downstream of the MoMLV-long terminal repeat (LTR) and induces epigenetic modifications at integration sites, such as repressive histone modifications and de novo DNA methylation. KRAB-ZFPs contain consensus TGEKP linkers between C2H2 zinc fingers. The phosphorylation of threonine residues within linkers leads to the inactivation of zinc finger binding to target sequences. ZFP809 also contains consensus linkers between zinc fingers. However, the function of ZFP809 linkers remainsmore » unknown. In the present study, we constructed ZFP809 proteins containing mutated linkers and examined their ability to silence transgene expression driven by MLV, binding ability to MLV PBS, and cellular localization. The results of the present study revealed that the linkers affected the ability of ZFP809 to silence transgene expression. Furthermore, this effect could be partly attributed to changes in the localization of ZFP809 proteins containing mutated linkers. Further characterization of ZFP809 linkers is required for understanding the functions and features of KRAB-ZFP-containing linkers. - Highlights: • ZFP809 has three consensus linkers between the zinc fingers. • Linkers are required for ZFP809 to silence transgene expression driven by MLV-LTR. • Linkers affect the precise nuclear localization of ZFP809.« less

  15. Protein profile of Lupinus texensis phloem sap exudates: searching for Fe- and Zn-containing proteins.

    PubMed

    Lattanzio, Giuseppe; Andaluz, Sofía; Matros, Andrea; Calvete, Juan José; Kehr, Julia; Abadía, Anunciación; Abadía, Javier; López-Millán, Ana-Flor

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain a comprehensive overview of the phloem sap protein profile of Lupinus texensis, with a special focus on proteins binding Fe and Zn. L. texensis was chosen as model plant given the simplicity to obtain exudates from sieve elements. Protein profiling by 2DE revealed 249 spots, and 54 of them were unambiguously identified by MALDI-MS and ESI-MS/MS. The largest number of identified protein species belongs to protein modification/turnover and general metabolism (19-21%), followed by redox homeostasis (9%) and defense and cell structural components (7%). This protein profile is similar to that reported in other plant species, suggesting that the phloem sap proteome is quite conserved. Staining of 2DE gels for Fe-containing proteins and affinity chromatography experiments revealed the presence of two low molecular weight Fe-binding proteins in phloem sap: a metallothionein-like protein type 2B identified in the Fe-affinity chromatography, and a second protein identified with both Fe staining methods. This protein species had a molecular weight of 13.5 kDa, a pI of 5.6 and 51% homology to a phloem-specific protein from Medicago truncatula. Zinc affinity chromatography revealed four Zn-binding proteins in phloem sap, one belonging to the dehydrin family and three Zn finger proteins. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Role of protein structure and the role of individual fingers in zinc finger protein-DNA recognition: a molecular dynamics simulation study and free energy calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamed, Mazen Y.

    2018-05-01

    Molecular dynamics and MM_GBSA energy calculations on various zinc finger proteins containing three and four fingers bound to their target DNA gave insights into the role of each finger in the DNA binding process as part of the protein structure. The wild type Zif 268 (PDB code: 1AAY) gave a ΔG value of - 76.1 (14) kcal/mol. Zinc fingers ZF1, ZF2 and ZF3 were mutated in one experiment and in another experiment one finger was cut and the rest of the protein was studied for binding. The ΔΔG values for the Zinc Finger protein with both ZF1 and ZF2 mutated was + 80 kcal/mol, while mutating only ZF1 the ΔΔG value was + 52 kcal/mol (relative to the wild type). Cutting ZF3 and studying the protein consisting only of ZF1 linked to ZF2 gave a ΔΔG value of + 68 kcal/mol. Upon cutting ZF1, the resulting ZF2 linked to ZF3 protein gave a ΔΔG value of + 41 kcal/mol. The above results shed light on the importance of each finger in the binding process, especially the role of ZF1 as the anchoring finger followed in importance by ZF2 and ZF3. The energy difference between the binding of the wild type protein Zif268 (1AAY) and that for individual finger binding to DNA according to the formula: ΔΔGlinkers, otherstructuralfactors = ΔGzif268 - (ΔGF1+F2+F3) gave a value = - 44.5 kcal/mol. This stabilization can be attributed to the contribution of linkers and other structural factors in the intact protein in the DNA binding process. DNA binding energies of variant proteins of the wild type Zif268 which differ in their ZF1 amino acid sequence gave evidence of a good relationship between binding energy and recognition and specificity, this finding confirms the reported vital role of ZF1 in the ZF protein scanning and anchoring to the target DNA sequence. The role of hydrogen bonds in both specific and nonspecific amino acid-DNA contacts is discussed in relation to mutations. The binding energies of variant Zinc Finger proteins confirmed the role of ZF1 in the recognition

  17. Role of protein structure and the role of individual fingers in zinc finger protein-DNA recognition: a molecular dynamics simulation study and free energy calculations.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Mazen Y

    2018-05-03

    Molecular dynamics and MM_GBSA energy calculations on various zinc finger proteins containing three and four fingers bound to their target DNA gave insights into the role of each finger in the DNA binding process as part of the protein structure. The wild type Zif 268 (PDB code: 1AAY) gave a ΔG value of - 76.1 (14) kcal/mol. Zinc fingers ZF1, ZF2 and ZF3 were mutated in one experiment and in another experiment one finger was cut and the rest of the protein was studied for binding. The ΔΔG values for the Zinc Finger protein with both ZF1 and ZF2 mutated was + 80 kcal/mol, while mutating only ZF1 the ΔΔG value was + 52 kcal/mol (relative to the wild type). Cutting ZF3 and studying the protein consisting only of ZF1 linked to ZF2 gave a ΔΔG value of + 68 kcal/mol. Upon cutting ZF1, the resulting ZF2 linked to ZF3 protein gave a ΔΔG value of + 41 kcal/mol. The above results shed light on the importance of each finger in the binding process, especially the role of ZF1 as the anchoring finger followed in importance by ZF2 and ZF3. The energy difference between the binding of the wild type protein Zif268 (1AAY) and that for individual finger binding to DNA according to the formula: ΔΔG linkers, otherstructuralfactors  = ΔG zif268  - (ΔG F1+F2+F3 ) gave a value = - 44.5 kcal/mol. This stabilization can be attributed to the contribution of linkers and other structural factors in the intact protein in the DNA binding process. DNA binding energies of variant proteins of the wild type Zif268 which differ in their ZF1 amino acid sequence gave evidence of a good relationship between binding energy and recognition and specificity, this finding confirms the reported vital role of ZF1 in the ZF protein scanning and anchoring to the target DNA sequence. The role of hydrogen bonds in both specific and nonspecific amino acid-DNA contacts is discussed in relation to mutations. The binding energies of variant Zinc Finger proteins confirmed the

  18. Modular synthetic inverters from zinc finger proteins and small RNAs

    DOE PAGES

    Hsia, Justin; Holtz, William J.; Maharbiz, Michel M.; ...

    2016-02-17

    Synthetic zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) can be created to target promoter DNA sequences, repressing transcription. The binding of small RNA (sRNA) to ZFP mRNA creates an ultrasensitive response to generate higher effective Hill coefficients. Here we combined three “off the shelf” ZFPs and three sRNAs to create new modular inverters in E. coli and quantify their behavior using induction fold. We found a general ordering of the effects of the ZFPs and sRNAs on induction fold that mostly held true when combining these parts. We then attempted to construct a ring oscillator using our new inverters. In conclusion, our chosenmore » parts performed insufficiently to create oscillations, but we include future directions for improvement upon our work presented here.« less

  19. Selectivity of arsenite interaction with zinc finger proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Linhong; Chen, Siming; Jia, Liangyuan; Shu, Shi; Zhu, Pingping; Liu, Yangzhong

    2012-08-01

    Arsenic is a carcinogenic element also used for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. The reactivity of proteins to arsenic must be associated with the various biological functions of As. Here, we investigated the selectivity of arsenite to zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) with different zinc binding motifs (C2H2, C3H, and C4). Single ZFP domain proteins were used for the direct comparison of the reactivity of different ZFPs. The binding constants and the reaction rates have been studied quantitatively. Results show that both the binding affinity and reaction rates of single-domain ZFPs follow the trend of C4 > C3H ≫ C2H2. Compared with the C2H2 motif ZFPs, the binding affinities of C3H and C4 motif ZFPs are nearly two orders of magnitude higher and the reaction rates are approximately two-fold higher. The formation of multi-domain ZFPs significantly enhances the reactivity of C2H2 type ZFPs, but has negligible effects on C3H and C4 ZFPs. Consequently, the reactivities of the three types of multi-domain ZFPs are rather similar. The 2D NMR spectra indicate that the As(III)-bound ZFPs are also unfolded, suggesting that arsenic binding interferes with the function of ZFPs.

  20. Separating the Role of Protein Restraints and Local Metal-Site Interaction Chemistry in the Thermodynamics of a Zinc Finger Protein

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Purushottam D.; Asthagiri, D.

    2011-01-01

    We express the effective Hamiltonian of an ion-binding site in a protein as a combination of the Hamiltonian of the ion-bound site in vacuum and the restraints of the protein on the site. The protein restraints are described by the quadratic elastic network model. The Hamiltonian of the ion-bound site in vacuum is approximated as a generalized Hessian around the minimum energy configuration. The resultant of the two quadratic Hamiltonians is cast into a pure quadratic form. In the canonical ensemble, the quadratic nature of the resultant Hamiltonian allows us to express analytically the excess free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of ion binding to the protein. The analytical expressions allow us to separate the roles of the dynamic restraints imposed by the protein on the binding site and the temperature-independent chemical effects in metal-ligand coordination. For the consensus zinc-finger peptide, relative to the aqueous phase, the calculated free energy of exchanging Zn2+ with Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+, and Cd2+ are in agreement with experiments. The predicted excess enthalpy of ion exchange between Zn2+ and Co2+ also agrees with the available experimental estimate. The free energy of applying the protein restraints reveals that relative to Zn2+, the Co2+, and Cd2+-site clusters are more destabilized by the protein restraints. This leads to an experimentally testable hypothesis that a tetrahedral metal binding site with minimal protein restraints will be less selective for Zn2+ over Co2+ and Cd2+ compared to a zinc finger peptide. No appreciable change is expected for Fe2+ and Ni2+. The framework presented here may prove useful in protein engineering to tune metal selectivity. PMID:21943427

  1. A Small Zinc Finger Thylakoid Protein Plays a Role in Maintenance of Photosystem II in Arabidopsis thaliana[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yan; Hall, David A.; Last, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    This work identifies LOW QUANTUM YIELD OF PHOTOSYSTEM II1 (LQY1), a Zn finger protein that shows disulfide isomerase activity, interacts with the photosystem II (PSII) core complex, and may act in repair of photodamaged PSII complexes. Two mutants of an unannotated small Zn finger containing a thylakoid membrane protein of Arabidopsis thaliana (At1g75690; LQY1) were found to have a lower quantum yield of PSII photochemistry and reduced PSII electron transport rate following high-light treatment. The mutants dissipate more excess excitation energy via nonphotochemical pathways than wild type, and they also display elevated accumulation of reactive oxygen species under high light. After high-light treatment, the mutants have less PSII–light-harvesting complex II supercomplex than wild-type plants. Analysis of thylakoid membrane protein complexes showed that wild-type LQY1 protein comigrates with the PSII core monomer and the CP43-less PSII monomer (a marker for ongoing PSII repair and reassembly). PSII repair and reassembly involve the breakage and formation of disulfide bonds among PSII proteins. Interestingly, the recombinant LQY1 protein demonstrates a protein disulfide isomerase activity. LQY1 is more abundant in stroma-exposed thylakoids, where key steps of PSII repair and reassembly take place. The absence of the LQY1 protein accelerates turnover and synthesis of PSII reaction center protein D1. These results suggest that the LQY1 protein may be involved in maintaining PSII activity under high light by regulating repair and reassembly of PSII complexes. PMID:21586683

  2. The Zinc-finger protein ASCIZ regulates B cell development via DYNLL1 and Bim

    PubMed Central

    Jurado, Sabine; Gleeson, Kimberly; O’Donnell, Kristy; Izon, David J.; Walkley, Carl R.; Strasser, Andreas; Tarlinton, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Developing B lymphocytes expressing defective or autoreactive pre-B or B cell receptors (BCRs) are eliminated by programmed cell death, but how the balance between death and survival signals is regulated to prevent immunodeficiency and autoimmunity remains incompletely understood. In this study, we show that absence of the essential ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) substrate Chk2-interacting Zn2+-finger protein (ASCIZ; also known as ATMIN/ZNF822), a protein with dual functions in the DNA damage response and as a transcription factor, leads to progressive cell loss from the pre-B stage onwards and severely diminished splenic B cell numbers in mice. This lymphopenia cannot be suppressed by deletion of p53 or complementation with a prearranged BCR, indicating that it is not caused by impaired DNA damage responses or defective V(D)J recombination. Instead, ASCIZ-deficient B cell precursors contain highly reduced levels of DYNLL1 (dynein light chain 1; LC8), a recently identified transcriptional target of ASCIZ, and normal B cell development can be restored by ectopic Dynll1 expression. Remarkably, the B cell lymphopenia in the absence of ASCIZ can also be fully suppressed by deletion of the proapoptotic DYNLL1 target Bim. Our findings demonstrate a key role for ASCIZ in regulating the survival of developing B cells by activating DYNLL1 expression, which may then modulate Bim-dependent apoptosis. PMID:22891272

  3. Toward rules relating zinc finger protein sequences and DNA binding site preferences.

    PubMed

    Desjarlais, J R; Berg, J M

    1992-08-15

    Zinc finger proteins of the Cys2-His2 type consist of tandem arrays of domains, where each domain appears to contact three adjacent base pairs of DNA through three key residues. We have designed and prepared a series of variants of the central zinc finger within the DNA binding domain of Sp1 by using information from an analysis of a large data base of zinc finger protein sequences. Through systematic variations at two of the three contact positions (underlined), relatively specific recognition of sequences of the form 5'-GGGGN(G or T)GGG-3' has been achieved. These results provide the basis for rules that may develop into a code that will allow the design of zinc finger proteins with preselected DNA site specificity.

  4. Occupancy of a C2-C2 type 'zinc-finger' protein domain by copper. Direct observation by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hutchens, T W; Allen, M H; Li, C M; Yip, T T

    1992-09-07

    The metal ion specificity of most 'zinc-finger' metal binding domains is unknown. The human estrogen receptor protein contains two different C2-C2 type 'zinc-finger' sequences within its DNA-binding domain (ERDBD). Copper inhibits the function of this protein by mechanisms which remain unclear. We have used electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to evaluate directly the 71-residue ERDBD (K180-M250) in the absence and presence of Cu(II) ions. The ERDBD showed a high affinity for Cu and was completely occupied with 4 Cu bound; each Cu ion was evidently bound to only two ligand residues (net loss of only 2 Da per bound Cu). The Cu binding stoichiometry was confirmed by atomic absorption. These results (i) provide the first direct physical evidence for the ability of the estrogen receptor DNA-binding domain to bind Cu and (ii) document a twofold difference in the Zn- and Cu-binding capacity. Differences in the ERDBD domain structure with bound Zn and Cu are predicted. Given the relative intracellular contents of Zn and Cu, our findings demonstrate the need to investigate further the Cu occupancy of this and other zinc-finger domains both in vitro and in vivo.

  5. Identification and preliminary characterization of a protein motif related to the zinc finger.

    PubMed Central

    Lovering, R; Hanson, I M; Borden, K L; Martin, S; O'Reilly, N J; Evan, G I; Rahman, D; Pappin, D J; Trowsdale, J; Freemont, P S

    1993-01-01

    We have identified a protein motif, related to the zinc finger, which defines a newly discovered family of proteins. The motif was found in the sequence of the human RING1 gene, which is proximal to the major histocompatibility complex region on chromosome six. We propose naming this motif the "RING finger" and it is found in 27 proteins, all of which have putative DNA binding functions. We have synthesized a peptide corresponding to the RING1 motif and examined a number of properties, including metal and DNA binding. We provide evidence to support the suggestion that the RING finger motif is the DNA binding domain of this newly defined family of proteins. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 PMID:7681583

  6. A multiscale approach to simulating the conformational properties of unbound multi-C₂H₂ zinc finger proteins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Wade, Rebecca C; Heermann, Dieter W

    2015-09-01

    The conformational properties of unbound multi-Cys2 His2 (mC2H2) zinc finger proteins, in which zinc finger domains are connected by flexible linkers, are studied by a multiscale approach. Three methods on different length scales are utilized. First, atomic detail molecular dynamics simulations of one zinc finger and its adjacent flexible linker confirmed that the zinc finger is more rigid than the flexible linker. Second, the end-to-end distance distributions of mC2H2 zinc finger proteins are computed using an efficient atomistic pivoting algorithm, which only takes excluded volume interactions into consideration. The end-to-end distance distribution gradually changes its profile, from left-tailed to right-tailed, as the number of zinc fingers increases. This is explained by using a worm-like chain model. For proteins of a few zinc fingers, an effective bending constraint favors an extended conformation. Only for proteins containing more than nine zinc fingers, is a somewhat compacted conformation preferred. Third, a mesoscale model is modified to study both the local and the global conformational properties of multi-C2H2 zinc finger proteins. Simulations of the CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), an important mC2H2 zinc finger protein for genome spatial organization, are presented. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Lead inhibition of DNA-binding mechanism of Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger proteins.

    PubMed

    Hanas, J S; Rodgers, J S; Bantle, J A; Cheng, Y G

    1999-11-01

    The association of lead with chromatin in cells suggests that deleterious metal effects may in part be mediated through alterations in gene function. To elucidate if and how lead may alter DNA binding of cysteine-rich zinc finger proteins, lead ions were analyzed for their ability to alter the DNA binding mechanism of the Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger protein transcription factor IIIA (TFIIIA). As assayed by DNase I protection, the interaction of TFIIIA with the 50-bp internal control region of the 5S ribosomal gene was partially inhibited by 5 microM lead ions and completely inhibited by 10 to 20 microM lead ions. Preincubation of free TFIIIA with lead resulted in DNA-binding inhibition, whereas preincubation of a TFIIIA/5S RNA complex with lead did not result in DNA-binding inhibition. Because 5S RNA binds TFIIIA zinc fingers, this result is consistent with an inhibition mechanism via lead binding to zinc fingers. The complete loss of DNase I protection on the 5S gene indicates the mechanism of inhibition minimally involves the N-terminal fingers of TFIIIA. Inhibition was not readily reversible and occurred in the presence of an excess of beta-mercaptoethanol. Inhibition kinetics were fast, progressing to completion in approximately 5 min. Millimolar concentrations of sulfhydryl-specific arsenic ions were not inhibitory for TFIIIA binding. Micromolar concentrations of lead inhibited DNA binding by Sp1, another Cys(2)His(2) finger protein, but not by the nonfinger protein AP2. Inhibition of Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger transcription factors by lead ions at concentrations near those known to have deleterious physiological effects points to new molecular mechanisms for lead toxicity in promoting disease.

  8. Two potato proteins, including a novel RING finger protein (HIP1), interact with the potyviral multifunctional protein HCpro.

    PubMed

    Guo, Deyin; Spetz, Carl; Saarma, Mart; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2003-05-01

    Potyviral helper-component proteinase (HCpro) is a multifunctional protein exerting its cellular functions in interaction with putative host proteins. In this study, cellular protein partners of the HCpro encoded by Potato virus A (PVA) (genus Potyvirus) were screened in a potato leaf cDNA library using a yeast two-hybrid system. Two cellular proteins were obtained that interact specifically with PVA HCpro in yeast and in the two in vitro binding assays used. Both proteins are encoded by single-copy genes in the potato genome. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that one (HIP1) of the two HCpro interactors is a novel RING finger protein. The sequence of the other protein (HIP2) showed no resemblance to the protein sequences available from databanks and has known biological functions.

  9. Proteomic analysis of JAZ interacting proteins under methyl jasmonate treatment in finger millet.

    PubMed

    Sen, Saswati; Kundu, Sangeeta; Dutta, Samir Kr

    2016-11-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway in plants is activated against various developmental processes as well as biotic and abiotic stresses. The Jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) protein family, the key regulator of plant JA signaling pathway, also participates in phytohormone crosstalk. This is the first study revealing the in vivo interactions of finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) JAZ protein (EcJAZ) under methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment. The aim of the study was to explore not only the JA signaling pathway but also the phytohormone signaling crosstalk of finger millet, a highly important future crop. From the MJ-treated finger millet seedlings, the EcJAZ interacting proteins were purified by affinity chromatography with the EcJAZ-matrix. Twenty-one proteins of varying functionalities were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF Mass spectrometry. Apart from the previously identified JAZ binding proteins, most prominently, EcJAZ was found to interact with transcription factors like NAC, GATA and also with Cold responsive protein (COR), etc. that might have extended the range of functionalities of JAZ proteins. Moreover, to evaluate the interactions of EcJAZ in the JA-co-receptor complex, we generated ten in-silico models containing the EcJAZ degron and the COI1-SKP1 of five monocot cereals viz., rice, wheat, maize, Sorghum and Setaria with JA-Ile or coronatine. Our results indicated that the EcJAZ protein of finger millet could act as the signaling hub for the JA and other phytohormone signaling pathways, in response to a diverse set of stressors and developmental cues to provide survival fitness to the plant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. ATM Substrate Chk2-interacting Zn2+ Finger (ASCIZ) Is a Bi-functional Transcriptional Activator and Feedback Sensor in the Regulation of Dynein Light Chain (DYNLL1) Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Jurado, Sabine; Conlan, Lindus A.; Baker, Emma K.; Ng, Jane-Lee; Tenis, Nora; Hoch, Nicolas C.; Gleeson, Kimberly; Smeets, Monique; Izon, David; Heierhorst, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The highly conserved DYNLL1 (LC8) protein was originally discovered as a light chain of the dynein motor complex, but is increasingly emerging as a sequence-specific regulator of protein dimerization with hundreds of targets and wide-ranging cellular functions. Despite its important roles, DYNLL1's own regulation remains poorly understood. Here we identify ASCIZ (ATMIN/ZNF822), an essential Zn2+ finger protein with dual roles in the DNA base damage response and as a developmental transcription factor, as a conserved regulator of Dynll1 gene expression. DYNLL1 levels are reduced by ∼10-fold in the absence of ASCIZ in human, mouse and chicken cells. ASCIZ binds directly to the Dynll1 promoter and regulates its activity in a Zn2+ finger-dependent manner. DYNLL1 protein in turn interacts with ten binding sites in the ASCIZ transcription activation domain, and high DYNLL1 levels inhibit the transcriptional activity of ASCIZ. In addition, DYNLL1 was also required for DNA damage-induced ASCIZ focus formation. The dual ability of ASCIZ to activate Dynll1 gene expression and to sense free DYNLL1 protein levels enables a simple dynamic feedback loop to adjust DYNLL1 levels to cellular needs. The ASCIZ-DYNLL1 feedback loop represents a novel mechanism for auto-regulation of gene expression, where the gene product directly inhibits the transcriptional activator while bound at its own promoter. PMID:22167198

  11. The unique N-terminal zinc finger of synaptotagmin-like protein 4 reveals FYVE structure.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Kazuhide; Nakatani, Arisa; Saito, Kazuki

    2017-12-01

    Synaptotagmin-like protein 4 (Slp4), expressed in human platelets, is associated with dense granule release. Slp4 is comprised of the N-terminal zinc finger, Slp homology domain, and C2 domains. We synthesized a compact construct (the Slp4N peptide) corresponding to the Slp4 N-terminal zinc finger. Herein, we have determined the solution structure of the Slp4N peptide by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Furthermore, experimental, chemical modification of Cys residues revealed that the Slp4N peptide binds two zinc atoms to mediate proper folding. NMR data showed that eight Cys residues coordinate zinc atoms in a cross-brace fashion. The Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool database predicted the structure of Slp4N as a RING finger. However, the actual structure of the Slp4N peptide adopts a unique C 4 C 4 -type FYVE fold and is distinct from a RING fold. To create an artificial RING finger (ARF) with specific ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2)-binding capability, cross-brace structures with eight zinc-ligating residues are needed as the scaffold. The cross-brace structure of the Slp4N peptide could be utilized as the scaffold for the design of ARFs. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  12. Malting process optimization for protein digestibility enhancement in finger millet grain.

    PubMed

    Hejazi, Sara Najdi; Orsat, Valérie

    2016-04-01

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) is a nutritious, gluten-free, and drought resistant cereal containing high amounts of protein, carbohydrate, and minerals. However, bio-availability of these nutrients is restricted due to the presence of an excessive level of anti-nutrient components, mainly phytic acid, tannin, and oxalate. It has been shown that a well-designed malting/germination process can significantly reduce these anti-nutrients and consequently enhance the nutrient availability. In the present study, the effects of two important germination factors, duration and temperature, on the enhancement of in-vitro protein digestibility of finger millet were thoroughly investigated and optimized. Based on a central composite design, the grains were germinated for 24, 36, and 48 h at 22, 26, and 30 °C. For all factor combinations, protein, peptide, phytic acid, tannin, and oxalate contents were evaluated and digestibility was assessed. It was shown that during the malting/germinating process, both temperature and duration factors significantly influenced the investigated quantities. Germination of finger millet for 48 h at 30 °C increased protein digestibility from 74 % (for native grain) up to 91 %. Besides, it notably decreased phytic acid, tannin, and oxalate contents by 45 %, 46 %, and 29 %, respectively. Linear correlations between protein digestibility and these anti-nutrients were observed.

  13. Synthetic Zinc Finger Proteins: The Advent of Targeted Gene Regulation and Genome Modification Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conspectus The understanding of gene regulation and the structure and function of the human genome increased dramatically at the end of the 20th century. Yet the technologies for manipulating the genome have been slower to develop. For instance, the field of gene therapy has been focused on correcting genetic diseases and augmenting tissue repair for more than 40 years. However, with the exception of a few very low efficiency approaches, conventional genetic engineering methods have only been able to add auxiliary genes to cells. This has been a substantial obstacle to the clinical success of gene therapies and has also led to severe unintended consequences in several cases. Therefore, technologies that facilitate the precise modification of cellular genomes have diverse and significant implications in many facets of research and are essential for translating the products of the Genomic Revolution into tangible benefits for medicine and biotechnology. To address this need, in the 1990s, we embarked on a mission to develop technologies for engineering protein–DNA interactions with the aim of creating custom tools capable of targeting any DNA sequence. Our goal has been to allow researchers to reach into genomes to specifically regulate, knock out, or replace any gene. To realize these goals, we initially focused on understanding and manipulating zinc finger proteins. In particular, we sought to create a simple and straightforward method that enables unspecialized laboratories to engineer custom DNA-modifying proteins using only defined modular components, a web-based utility, and standard recombinant DNA technology. Two significant challenges we faced were (i) the development of zinc finger domains that target sequences not recognized by naturally occurring zinc finger proteins and (ii) determining how individual zinc finger domains could be tethered together as polydactyl proteins to recognize unique locations within complex genomes. We and others have since used

  14. Identification of the Zinc Finger Protein ZRANB2 as a Novel Maternal Lipopolysaccharide-binding Protein That Protects Embryos of Zebrafish against Gram-negative Bacterial Infections*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xia; Du, Xiaoyuan; Li, Hongyan; Zhang, Shicui

    2016-01-01

    Zinc finger ZRANB2 proteins are widespread in animals, but their functions and mechanisms remain poorly defined. Here we clearly demonstrate that ZRANB2 is a newly identified LPS-binding protein present abundantly in the eggs/embryos of zebrafish. We also show that recombinant ZRANB2 (rZRANB2) acts as a pattern recognition receptor capable of identifying the bacterial signature molecule LPS as well as binding the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Vibrio anguilarum, and Aeromonas hydrophila and functions as an antibacterial effector molecule capable of directly killing the bacteria. Furthermore, we reveal that N-terminal residues 11–37 consisting of the first ZnF_RBZ domain are indispensable for ZRANB2 antimicrobial activity. Importantly, microinjection of rZRANB2 into early embryos significantly enhanced the resistance of the embryos against pathogenic A. hydrophila challenge, and this enhanced bacterial resistance was markedly reduced by co-injection of anti-ZRANB2 antibody. Moreover, precipitation of ZRANB2 in the embryo extracts by preincubation with anti-ZRANB2 antibody caused a marked decrease in the antibacterial activity of the extracts against the bacteria tested. In addition, the N-terminal peptide Z1/37 or Z11/37 with in vitro antibacterial activity also promoted the resistance of embryos against A. hydrophila, but the peptide Z38/198 without in vitro antibacterial activity did not. Collectively, these results indicate that ZRANB2 is a maternal LPS-binding protein that can protect the early embryos of zebrafish against pathogenic attacks, a novel role ever assigned to ZRANB2 proteins. This work also provides new insights into the immunological function of the zinc finger proteins that are widely distributed in various animals. PMID:26740623

  15. New Protein Mimetics: The Zinc Finger Motif as a Locked-In Tertiary Fold.

    PubMed

    Tuchscherer, Gabriele; Lehmann, Christian; Mathieu, Marc

    1998-11-16

    The principle of a molecular kit is used for the covalent assembly of secondary structure forming peptide blocks to predetermined packing topologies. The resulting locked-in folds (LIFs; depicted schematically) are readily accessible and bypass the intriguing folding problem of linear peptide chains. This strategy allows, for example, mimicking of the essential structural and functional features of zinc finger proteins. © 1998 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Fed. Rep. of Germany.

  16. Early Hematopoietic Zinc Finger Protein Prevents Tumor Cell Recognition by Natural Killer Cells1

    PubMed Central

    La Rocca, Rosanna; Fulciniti, Mariateresa; Lakshmikanth, Tadepally; Mesuraca, Maria; Ali, Talib Hassan; Mazzei, Valerio; Amodio, Nicola; Catalano, Lucio; Rotoli, Bruno; Ouerfelli, Ouathek; Grieco, Michele; Gulletta, Elio; Bond, Heather M.; Morrone, Giovanni; Ferrone, Soldano; Carbone, Ennio

    2009-01-01

    Early hematopoietic zinc finger/zinc finger protein 521 (EHZF/ZNF521) is a novel zinc finger protein expressed in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and is down-regulated during their differentiation. Its transcript is also abundant in some hematopoietic malignancies. Analysis of the changes in the antigenic profile of cells transfected with EHZF cDNA revealed up-regulation of HLA class I cell surface expression. This phenotypic change was associated with an increased level of HLA class I H chain, in absence of detectable changes in the expression of other Ag-processing machinery components. Enhanced resistance of target cells to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity was induced by enforced expression of EHZF in the cervical carcinoma cell line HeLa and in the B lymphoblastoid cell line IM9. Preincubation of transfected cells with HLA class I Ag-specific mAb restored target cell susceptibility to NK cell-mediated lysis, indicating a specific role for HLA class I Ag up-regulation in the NK resistance induced by EHZF. A potential clinical significance of these findings is further suggested by the inverse correlation between EHZF and MHC class I expression levels, and autologous NK susceptibility of freshly explanted multiple myeloma cells. PMID:19342626

  17. The Cytoplasmic Zinc Finger Protein ZPR1 Accumulates in the Nucleolus of Proliferating Cells

    PubMed Central

    Galcheva-Gargova, Zoya; Gangwani, Laxman; Konstantinov, Konstantin N.; Mikrut, Monique; Theroux, Steven J.; Enoch, Tamar; Davis, Roger J.

    1998-01-01

    The zinc finger protein ZPR1 translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus after treatment of cells with mitogens. The function of nuclear ZPR1 has not been defined. Here we demonstrate that ZPR1 accumulates in the nucleolus of proliferating cells. The role of ZPR1 was examined using a gene disruption strategy. Cells lacking ZPR1 are not viable. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that the loss of ZPR1 caused disruption of nucleolar function, including preribosomal RNA expression. These data establish ZPR1 as an essential protein that is required for normal nucleolar function in proliferating cells. PMID:9763455

  18. Multifunctional Involvement of a C2H2 Zinc Finger Protein (PbZfp) in Malaria Transmission, Histone Modification, and Susceptibility to DNA Damage Response

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnan, Anusha M.; Aly, Ahmed S. I.; Aravind, L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In sexually reproducing organisms, meiosis is an essential step responsible for generation of haploid gametes from diploid somatic cells. The quest for understanding regulatory mechanisms of meiotic recombination in Plasmodium led to identification of a gene encoding a protein that contains 11 copies of C2H2 zinc fingers (ZnF). Reverse genetic approaches were used to create Plasmodium berghei parasites either lacking expression of full-length Plasmodium berghei zinc finger protein (PbZfp) (knockout [KO]) or expressing PbZfp lacking C-terminal zinc finger region (truncated [Trunc]). Mice infected with KO parasites survived two times longer (P < 0.0001) than mice infected with wild-type (WT) parasites. In mosquito transmission experiments, the infectivity of KO and Trunc parasites was severely compromised (>95% oocyst reduction). KO parasites revealed a total lack of trimethylation of histone 3 at several lysine residues (K4, K27, and K36) without any effect on acetylation patterns (H3K9, H3K14, and H4K16). Reduced DNA damage and reduced expression of topoisomerase-like Spo11 in the KO parasites with normal Rad51 expression further suggest a functional role for PbZfp during genetic recombination that involves DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation followed by DNA repair. These finding raise the possibility of some convergent similarities of PbZfp functions to functions of mammalian PRDM9, also a C2H2 ZnF protein with histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methyltransferase activity. These functions include the major role played by the latter in binding recombination hotspots in the genome during meiosis and trimethylation of the associated histones and subsequent chromatin recruitment of topoisomerase-like Spo11 to catalyze DNA DSB formation and DMC1/Rad51-mediated DNA repair and homologous recombination. PMID:28851851

  19. Recruitment of mRNA-destabilizing protein TIS11 to stress granules is mediated by its zinc finger domain

    SciTech Connect

    Murata, Tomiyasu; Morita, Noriyoshi; Hikita, Kiyomi

    2005-02-15

    TIS11, a member of the CCCH zinc finger protein family, was found to be distributed throughout cells with a preferential cytoplasmic localization when transiently expressed in COS-7 cells. Upon treatment with heat shock, TIS11 became localized in discrete particles in the cytoplasm of the transfectants. We showed the TIS11-positive particles to be stress granules (SGs), which are known to be formed in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells in response to environmental stresses. By deletion studies using the green fluorescent protein fusion system, we mapped a functional stress granule (SG) localization signal to a region containing two tandem repeats of themore » zinc finger motif of TIS11. Site-directed mutations of Tyr105/Tyr113, Gly109/Gly 114, and Phe119 in the first zinc finger motif diminished the ability of this TIS11 domain to direct SG localization. Importantly, when the zinc-chelating Cys residues in either the first or second zinc finger were mutated to Ala residues, the recruitment of the TIS11 zinc finger region to SG was significantly inhibited by the mutation and was completely abolished by the mutation in both zinc fingers. These results suggest that recruitment of TIS11 to heat shock-induced SG is governed by the tandem zinc finger domains of this protein.« less

  20. The brain finger protein gene (ZNF179), a member of the RING finger family, maps within the Smith-Magenis syndrome region at 17p11.2

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Toshiyuki; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Inazawa, Johji

    1997-03-31

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SAIS) is caused by a microdeletion of 17p11.2 and comprises developmental and growth delay, facial abnormalities, unusual behavior and sleep problems. This phenotype may be due to haploinsufficiency of several contiguous genes. The human brain finger protein gene (ZNF179), a member of the RING finger protein family, has been isolated and mapped to l7p11.2. FISH analyses of metaphase or interphase chromosomes of 6 patients with SMS show that ZNF179 was deleted in one of the 2 homologs (17p11.2), indicating a possible association of the defect of this gene with the pathogenesis of SMS. Furthermore, using a prophase FISHmore » ordering system, we sublocalized ZNF179 proximally to LLGL which lies on the critical region for SMS. 27 refs., 2 figs.« less

  1. Molecular Characterization of abLIM, a Novel Actin-binding and Double Zinc Finger Protein

    PubMed Central

    Roof, Dorothy J.; Hayes, Annmarie; Adamian, Michael; Chishti, Athar H.; Li, Tiansen

    1997-01-01

    Molecules that couple the actin-based cytoskeleton to intracellular signaling pathways are central to the processes of cellular morphogenesis and differentiation. We have characterized a novel protein, the actin-binding LIM (abLIM) protein, which could mediate such interactions between actin filaments and cytoplasmic targets. abLIM protein consists of a COOH-terminal cytoskeletal domain that is fused to an NH2-terminal domain consisting of four double zinc finger motifs. The cytoskeletal domain is ∼50% identical to erythrocyte dematin, an actin-bundling protein of the red cell membrane skeleton, while the zinc finger domains conform to the LIM motif consensus sequence. In vitro expression studies demonstrate that abLIM protein can bind to F-actin through the dematin-like domain. Transcripts corresponding to three distinct isoforms have a widespread tissue distribution. However, a polypeptide corresponding to the full-length isoform is found exclusively in the retina and is enriched in biochemical extracts of retinal rod inner segments. abLIM protein also undergoes extensive phosphorylation in light-adapted retinas in vivo, and its developmental expression in the retina coincides with the elaboration of photoreceptor inner and outer segments. Based on the composite primary structure of abLIM protein, actin-binding capacity, potential regulation via phosphorylation, and isoform expression pattern, we speculate that abLIM may play a general role in bridging the actin-based cytoskeleton with an array of potential LIM protein-binding partners. The developmental time course of abLIM expression in the retina suggests that the retina-specific isoform may have a specialized role in the development or elaboration of photoreceptor inner and outer segments. PMID:9245787

  2. Control of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis by the Promyelocytic Leukemia Zinc Finger Protein

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Siyu; Qian, Jinchun; Shi, Xiaoli; Gao, Tingting; Liang, Tingming

    2014-01-01

    The promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) protein is involved in major biological processes including energy metabolism, although its role remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that hepatic PLZF expression was induced in fasted or diabetic mice. PLZF promoted gluconeogenic gene expression and hepatic glucose output, leading to hyperglycemia. In contrast, hepatic PLZF knockdown improved glucose homeostasis in db/db mice. Mechanistically, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α and the glucocorticoid receptor synergistically activated PLZF expression. We conclude that PLZF is a critical regulator of hepatic gluconeogenesis. PLZF manipulation may benefit the treatment of metabolic diseases associated with gluconeogenesis. PMID:25333514

  3. Viral RNA annealing activities of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid protein require only peptide domains outside the zinc fingers.

    PubMed Central

    De Rocquigny, H; Gabus, C; Vincent, A; Fournié-Zaluski, M C; Roques, B; Darlix, J L

    1992-01-01

    The nucleocapsid (NC) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 consists of a large number of NC protein molecules, probably wrapping the dimeric RNA genome within the virion inner core. NC protein is a gag-encoded product that contains two zinc fingers flanked by basic residues. In human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virions, NCp15 is ultimately processed into NCp7 and p6 proteins. During virion assembly the retroviral NC protein is necessary for core formation and genomic RNA encapsidation, which are essential for virus infectivity. In vitro NCp15 activates viral RNA dimerization, a process most probably linked in vivo to genomic RNA packaging, and replication primer tRNA(Lys,3) annealing to the initiation site of reverse transcription. To characterize the domains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 NC protein necessary for its various functions, the 72-amino acid NCp7 and several derived peptides were synthesized in a pure form. We show here that synthetic NCp7 with or without the two zinc fingers has the RNA annealing activities of NCp15. Further deletions of the N-terminal 12 and C-terminal 8 amino acids, leading to a 27-residue peptide lacking the finger domains, have little or no effect on NC protein activity in vitro. However deletion of short sequences containing basic residues flanking the first finger leads to a complete loss of NC protein activity. It is proposed that the basic residues and the zinc fingers cooperate to select and package the genomic RNA in vivo. Inhibition of the viral RNA binding and annealing activities associated with the basic residues flanking the first zinc finger of NC protein could therefore be used as a model for the design of antiviral agents. Images PMID:1631144

  4. Viral RNA annealing activities of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid protein require only peptide domains outside the zinc fingers.

    PubMed

    De Rocquigny, H; Gabus, C; Vincent, A; Fournié-Zaluski, M C; Roques, B; Darlix, J L

    1992-07-15

    The nucleocapsid (NC) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 consists of a large number of NC protein molecules, probably wrapping the dimeric RNA genome within the virion inner core. NC protein is a gag-encoded product that contains two zinc fingers flanked by basic residues. In human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virions, NCp15 is ultimately processed into NCp7 and p6 proteins. During virion assembly the retroviral NC protein is necessary for core formation and genomic RNA encapsidation, which are essential for virus infectivity. In vitro NCp15 activates viral RNA dimerization, a process most probably linked in vivo to genomic RNA packaging, and replication primer tRNA(Lys,3) annealing to the initiation site of reverse transcription. To characterize the domains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 NC protein necessary for its various functions, the 72-amino acid NCp7 and several derived peptides were synthesized in a pure form. We show here that synthetic NCp7 with or without the two zinc fingers has the RNA annealing activities of NCp15. Further deletions of the N-terminal 12 and C-terminal 8 amino acids, leading to a 27-residue peptide lacking the finger domains, have little or no effect on NC protein activity in vitro. However deletion of short sequences containing basic residues flanking the first finger leads to a complete loss of NC protein activity. It is proposed that the basic residues and the zinc fingers cooperate to select and package the genomic RNA in vivo. Inhibition of the viral RNA binding and annealing activities associated with the basic residues flanking the first zinc finger of NC protein could therefore be used as a model for the design of antiviral agents.

  5. Zinc finger X-chromosomal protein (ZFX) promotes solid agar colony growth of osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Rui; Wang, Jin-cheng; Sun, Mei; Zhang, Xing-yi; Wu, Han

    2012-01-01

    Zinc finger X-chromosomal protein (ZFX) is a member of the zinc finger family of proteins. The importance of ZFX in several cancer types, including prostate cancer, laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, and glioma, has been addressed. However, the role of ZFX in human osteosarcoma remains unknown. Here we investigated the phenotype of ZFX knockdown on cell proliferation and in vitro tumorigenesis using lentivirus-mediated loss-of-function strategy. The results demonstrated that the proliferation and colony formation ability of human osteosarcoma Saos-2 and MG63 cells was impaired by ZFX small interfering RNA (siRNA)-expressing lentivirus. Moreover, loss of ZFX led to G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest and a significant increase of cells in the sub-G1 fraction, indicating that ZFX functions as an oncogene in the malignant proliferation process in osteosarcoma. Furthermore, ZFX siRNA may have an antitumorigenic effect on osteosarcoma cells. Our findings hold important significance for RNA interference-mediated cancer gene therapy for human osteosarcoma.

  6. Development of an optical Zn 2+ probe based on a single fluorescent protein

    DOE PAGES

    Qin, Yan; Sammond, Deanne W.; Braselmann, Esther; ...

    2016-07-28

    Various fluorescent probes have been developed to reveal the biological functions of intracellular labile Zn 2+. Here we present Green Zinc Probe (GZnP), a novel genetically encoded Zn 2+ sensor design based on a single fluorescent protein (single-FP). The GZnP sensor is generated by attaching two zinc fingers (ZF) of the transcription factor Zap1 (ZF1 and ZF2) to the two ends of a circularly permuted green fluorescent protein (cpGFP). Formation of ZF folds induces interaction between the two ZFs, which induces a change in the cpGFP conformation, leading to an increase in fluorescence. A small sensor library is created tomore » include mutations in the ZFs, cpGFP and linkers between ZF and cpGFP to improve signal stability, sensor brightness and dynamic range based on rational protein engineering and computational design by Rosetta. Using a cell-based library screen, we identify sensor GZnP1 which demonstrates a stable maximum signal, decent brightness (QY = 0.42 at apo state), as well as specific and sensitive response to Zn 2+ in HeLa cells (F max/F min = 2.6, K d = 58 pM, pH 7.4). The subcellular localizing sensors mito-GZnP1 (in mitochondria matrix) and Lck-GZnP1 (on plasma membrane) display sensitivity to Zn 2+ (F max/F min = 2.2). In conclusion, this sensor design provides freedom to be used in combination with other optical indicators and optogenetic tools for simultaneous imaging and advancing our understanding of cellular Zn 2+ function.« less

  7. The Electronic Behavior of Zinc-Finger Protein Binding Sites in the Context of the DNA Extended Ladder Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oiwa, Nestor; Cordeiro, Claudette; Heermann, Dieter

    2016-05-01

    Instead of ATCG letter alignments, typically used in bioinformatics, we propose a new alignment method using the probability distribution function of the bottom of the occupied molecular orbital (BOMO), highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied orbital (LUMO). We apply the technique to transcription factors with Cys2His2 zinc fingers. These transcription factors search for binding sites, probing for the electronic patterns at the minor and major DNA groves. The eukaryotic Cys2His2 zinc finger proteins bind to DNA ubiquitously at highly conserved domains. They are responsible for gene regulation and the spatial organization of DNA. To study and understand these zinc finger DNA-protein interactions, we use the extended ladder in the DNA model proposed by Zhu, Rasmussen, Balatsky & Bishop (2007) te{Zhu-2007}. Considering one single spinless electron in each nucleotide π-orbital along a double DNA chain (dDNA), we find a typical pattern for the bottom of BOMO, HOMO and LUMO along the binding sites. We specifically looked at two members of zinc finger protein family: specificity protein 1 (SP1) and early grown response 1 transcription factors (EGR1). When the valence band is filled, we find electrons in the purines along the nucleotide sequence, compatible with the electric charges of the binding amino acids in SP1 and EGR1 zinc finger.

  8. The Zinc-Finger Antiviral Protein ZAP Inhibits LINE and Alu Retrotransposition

    PubMed Central

    Moldovan, John B.; Moran, John V.

    2015-01-01

    Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) is the only active autonomous retrotransposon in the human genome. To investigate the interplay between the L1 retrotransposition machinery and the host cell, we used co-immunoprecipitation in conjunction with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry to identify cellular proteins that interact with the L1 first open reading frame-encoded protein, ORF1p. We identified 39 ORF1p-interacting candidate proteins including the zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP or ZC3HAV1). Here we show that the interaction between ZAP and ORF1p requires RNA and that ZAP overexpression in HeLa cells inhibits the retrotransposition of engineered human L1 and Alu elements, an engineered mouse L1, and an engineered zebrafish LINE-2 element. Consistently, siRNA-mediated depletion of endogenous ZAP in HeLa cells led to a ~2-fold increase in human L1 retrotransposition. Fluorescence microscopy in cultured human cells demonstrated that ZAP co-localizes with L1 RNA, ORF1p, and stress granule associated proteins in cytoplasmic foci. Finally, molecular genetic and biochemical analyses indicate that ZAP reduces the accumulation of full-length L1 RNA and the L1-encoded proteins, yielding mechanistic insight about how ZAP may inhibit L1 retrotransposition. Together, these data suggest that ZAP inhibits the retrotransposition of LINE and Alu elements. PMID:25951186

  9. A zinc finger protein Zfp521 directs neural differentiation and beyond

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Neural induction is largely considered a default process, whereas little is known about intrinsic factors that drive neural differentiation. Kamiya and colleagues now demonstrate that a transcription factor, Zfp521, is capable of directing embryonic stem (ES) cells into neural progenitors. They discovered that Zfp521 transcripts were enriched in early neural lineage of ES cell differentiation. Forced expression of Zfp521 turned ES cells into neural progenitors in culture conditions that would normally inhibit neural differentiation. Zfp521 was expressed in mouse embryos during gastrulation. The protein was shown to associate with a co-activator p300 and directly induce expression of early neural genes. Knockdown of the Zfp521 by shRNA halted cells at the epiblast stage and suppressed neural differentiation. Zfp521 is a nuclear protein with 30 Krüppel-like zinc fingers mediating multiple protein-protein interactions, and regulates transcription in diverse tissues and organs. The protein promotes proliferation, delays differentiation and reduces apoptosis. The findings by Kamiya and colleagues that Zfp521 directs and sustains early neural differentiation now opens up a series of studies to investigate roles of Zfp521 in stem cells and brain development of mice and men. PMID:21539723

  10. Knockout of the CCCH zinc finger protein TcZC3H31 blocks Trypanosoma cruzi differentiation into the infective metacyclic form.

    PubMed

    Alcantara, Monica Visnieski; Kessler, Rafael Luis; Gonçalves, Rosana Elisa Gonçalves; Marliére, Newmar Pinto; Guarneri, Alessandra Aparecida; Picchi, Gisele Fernanda Assine; Fragoso, Stenio Perdigão

    2018-04-01

    In the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi - the causative agent of Chagas disease - gene expression control is mainly post-transcriptional, where RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play a central role, by controlling mRNA stability, distribution and translation. A large variety of RBPs are encoded in the T. cruzi genome, including the CCCH-type zinc finger (CCCH ZnF) protein family, which is characterized by the presence of the C-X 7/8 -C-X 5 -C-X 3 -H (CCCH) motif. In the related parasite T. brucei, CCCH ZnF proteins have been shown to control key differentiation steps in the parasite's life cycle. However, little is known about the CCCH ZnF proteins in T. cruzi. We have worked on the generation of T. cruzi mutants for CCCH ZnF proteins in an effort to shed light on the functions of these proteins in this parasite. Here, we characterize the expression and function of the CCCH ZnF protein TcZC3H31 of T. cruzi. TcZC3H31 is almost exclusively expressed in epimastigotes and metacyclic trypomastigotes, the parasite forms found in the invertebrate host. Importantly, we show that the epimastigote form of the T. cruzi knockout for the TcZC3H31 gene (TcZC3H31 KO) is incapable, both in vitro and in vivo (in infected triatomine insects), to differentiate into the metacyclic trypomastigote form, which is responsible for infection transmission from vectors to humans. The epimastigote forms recovered from the excreta of insects infected with TcZC3H31 KO parasites do not have the typical epimastigote morphology, suggesting that parasites are arrested in a mid-differentiation step. Also, epimastigotes overexpressing TcZC3H31 differentiate into metacyclics more efficiently than wild-type epimastigotes, in vitro. These data suggest that TcZC3H31 is an essential positive regulator of T. cruzi differentiation into the human-infective metacyclic form. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Activation of transcriptional activity of HSE by a novel mouse zinc finger protein ZNFD specifically expressed in testis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fengqin; Wang, Weiping; Lei, Chen; Liu, Qingmei; Qiu, Hao; Muraleedharan, Vinaydhar; Zhou, Bin; Cheng, Hongxia; Huang, Zhongkai; Xu, Weian; Li, Bichun; Wang, Minghua

    2012-04-01

    Zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) that contain multiple cysteine and/or histidine residues perform important roles in various cellular functions, including transcriptional regulation, cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The Cys-Cys-His-His (C(2)H(2)) type of ZFPs are the well-defined members of this super family and are the largest and most complex proteins in eukaryotic genomes. In this study, we identified a novel C(2)H(2) type of zinc finger gene ZNFD from mice which has a 1,002 bp open reading frame and encodes a protein with 333 amino acid residues. The predicted 37.4 kDa protein contains a C(2)H(2) zinc finger domain. ZNFD gene is located on chromosome 18qD1. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the ZNFD gene was specifically expressed in mouse testis but not in other tissues. Subcellular localization analysis demonstrated that ZNFD was localized in the nucleus. Reporter gene assays showed that overexpression of ZNFD in the COS7 cells activates the transcriptional activities of heat shock element (HSE). Overall, these results suggest that ZNFD is a member of the zinc finger transcription factor family and it participates in the transcriptional regulation of HSE. Many heat shock proteins regulated by HSE are involved in testicular development. Therefore, our results suggest that ZNFD may probably participate in the development of mouse testis and function as a transcription activator in HSE-mediated gene expression and signaling pathways.

  12. Engineering and Application of Zinc Finger Proteins and TALEs for Biomedical Research.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moon-Soo; Kini, Anu Ganesh

    2017-08-01

    Engineered DNA-binding domains provide a powerful technology for numerous biomedical studies due to their ability to recognize specific DNA sequences. Zinc fingers (ZF) are one of the most common DNA-binding domains and have been extensively studied for a variety of applications, such as gene regulation, genome engineering and diagnostics. Another novel DNA-binding domain known as a transcriptional activator-like effector (TALE) has been more recently discovered, which has a previously undescribed DNA-binding mode. Due to their modular architecture and flexibility, TALEs have been rapidly developed into artificial gene targeting reagents. Here, we describe the methods used to design these DNA-binding proteins and their key applications in biomedical research.

  13. The alpha subunit of Go interacts with promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein and modulates its functions.

    PubMed

    Won, Jung Hee; Park, Jung Sik; Ju, Hyun Hee; Kim, Soyeon; Suh-Kim, Haeyoung; Ghil, Sung Ho

    2008-05-01

    Heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G proteins) mediate signal transduction generated by neurotransmitters and hormones. Go, a member of the Go/Gi family, is the most abundant heterotrimeric G protein in the brain. Most mechanistic analyses on Go activation demonstrate that its action is mediated by the Gbetagamma dimer; downstream effectors for its alpha subunit (Goalpha) have not been clearly defined. Here, we employ the yeast two-hybrid system to screen for Goalpha-interacting partners in a cDNA library from human fetal brain. The transcription factor promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein (PLZF) specifically bound to Goalpha. Interactions between PLZF and Goalpha were confirmed using in vitro and in vivo affinity binding assays. Activated Goalpha interacted directly with PLZF, and enhanced its function as a transcriptional and cell growth suppressor. Notably, PLZF activity was additionally promoted by the Go/ialpha-coupled cannabinoid receptor (CB) in HL60 cells endogenously expressing CB and PLZF. These results collectively suggest that Goalpha modulates the function of PLZF via direct interactions. Our novel findings provide insights into the diverse cellular roles of Goalpha and its coupled receptor.

  14. Inhibition of avian tumor virus replication by CCCH-type zinc finger antiviral protein

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Mingjun; Ma, Xiaoqian; Cui, Xiyao; Zhou, Jing; Li, Chengui; Huang, Libo; Shang, Yingli; Cheng, Ziqiang

    2017-01-01

    CCCH type zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP) is a host restriction factor that inhibits the replication of a variety of viruses in mammals. However, little is known about its antiviral activity on avian tumor virus. Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), an oncogenic retrovirus, induces myelocytomas and various other tumors in meat and egg type chickens. Here, we identified a chicken ZAP (chZAP) that increased at early stage, and subsequently decreased after infection of ALV-J in DF-1 cells, indicating the inducible feature of the endogenous chZAP. To demonstrate the inhibitory effect on ALV-J replication by chZAP, we expressed exogenous chZAP by lentivirus based vectors in DF-1 cells that infected by ALV-J. The result showed that overexpression of chZAP significantly inhibited ALV-J replication at both mRNA level and protein level. Consequently, knockdown of endogenous chZAP by RNAi facilitated ALV-J replication in DF-1 cells. Further, we demonstrated that chZAP interacts with SU protein (encode by gp85 gene) of ALV-J in cytoplasm. Taken together, our results demonstrated that chZAP inhibits ALV-J by both mRNA and protein pathway and it may shed light on a novel antiviral approach in poultry. PMID:28938603

  15. The Effect of Salts in Promoting Specific and Competitive Interactions between Zinc Finger Proteins and Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gongyu; Yuan, Siming; Zheng, Shihui; Chen, Yuting; Zheng, Zhen; Liu, Yangzhong; Huang, Guangming

    2017-12-01

    Specific protein-metal interactions (PMIs) fulfill essential functions in cells and organic bodies, and activation of these functions in vivo are mostly modulated by the complex environmental factors, including pH value, small biomolecules, and salts. Specifically, the role of salts in promoting specific PMIs and their competition among various metals has remained untapped mainly due to the difficulty to distinguish nonspecific PMIs from specific PMIs by classic spectroscopic techniques. Herein, we report Hofmeister salts differentially promote the specific PMIs by combining nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry and spectroscopic techniques (fluorescence measurement and circular dichroism). Furthermore, to explore the influence of salts in competitive binding between metalloproteins and various metals, we designed a series of competitive experiments and applied to a well-defined model system, the competitive binding of zinc (II) and arsenic (III) to holo-promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML). These experiments not only provided new insights at the molecular scale as complementary to previous NMR and spectroscopic results, but also deduced the relative binding ability between zinc finger proteins and metals at the molecular scale, which avoids the mass spectrometric titration-based determination of binding constants that is frequently affected and often degraded by variable solution conditions including salt contents. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Specific labeling of zinc finger proteins using noncanonical amino acids and copper-free click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sung Hoon; Ferracane, Dean; Katzenellenbogen, John A; Schroeder, Charles M

    2012-09-19

    Zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) play a key role in transcriptional regulation and serve as invaluable tools for gene modification and genetic engineering. Development of efficient strategies for labeling metalloproteins such as ZFPs is essential for understanding and controlling biological processes. In this work, we engineered ZFPs containing cysteine-histidine (Cys2-His2) motifs by metabolic incorporation of the unnatural amino acid azidohomoalanine (AHA), followed by specific protein labeling via click chemistry. We show that cyclooctyne promoted [3 + 2] dipolar cycloaddition with azides, known as copper-free click chemistry, provides rapid and specific labeling of ZFPs at high yields as determined by mass spectrometry analysis. We observe that the DNA-binding activity of ZFPs labeled by conventional copper-mediated click chemistry was completely abolished, whereas ZFPs labeled by copper-free click chemistry retain their sequence-specific DNA-binding activity under native conditions, as determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assays, protein microarrays, and kinetic binding assays based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). Our work provides a general framework to label metalloproteins such as ZFPs by metabolic incorporation of unnatural amino acids followed by copper-free click chemistry.

  17. A FYVE zinc finger domain protein specifically links mRNA transport to endosome trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Pohlmann, Thomas; Baumann, Sebastian; Haag, Carl; Albrecht, Mario; Feldbrügge, Michael

    2015-01-01

    An emerging theme in cellular logistics is the close connection between mRNA and membrane trafficking. A prominent example is the microtubule-dependent transport of mRNAs and associated ribosomes on endosomes. This coordinated process is crucial for correct septin filamentation and efficient growth of polarised cells, such as fungal hyphae. Despite detailed knowledge on the key RNA-binding protein and the molecular motors involved, it is unclear how mRNAs are connected to membranes during transport. Here, we identify a novel factor containing a FYVE zinc finger domain for interaction with endosomal lipids and a new PAM2-like domain required for interaction with the MLLE domain of the key RNA-binding protein. Consistently, loss of this FYVE domain protein leads to specific defects in mRNA, ribosome, and septin transport without affecting general functions of endosomes or their movement. Hence, this is the first endosomal component specific for mRNP trafficking uncovering a new mechanism to couple mRNPs to endosomes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06041.001 PMID:25985087

  18. TRIM25 Enhances the Antiviral Action of Zinc-Finger Antiviral Protein (ZAP)

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Zerlina; Cheung, Pamela; Schneider, William M.; Bozzacco, Leonia; Buehler, Eugen; Takaoka, Akinori; Rice, Charles M.; Felsenfeld, Dan P.; MacDonald, Margaret R.

    2017-01-01

    The host factor and interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene (ISG) product, zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP), inhibits a number of diverse viruses by usurping and intersecting with multiple cellular pathways. To elucidate its antiviral mechanism, we perform a loss-of-function genome-wide RNAi screen to identify cellular cofactors required for ZAP antiviral activity against the prototype alphavirus, Sindbis virus (SINV). In order to exclude off-target effects, we carry out stringent confirmatory assays to verify the top hits. Important ZAP-liaising partners identified include proteins involved in membrane ion permeability, type I IFN signaling, and post-translational protein modification. The factor contributing most to the antiviral function of ZAP is TRIM25, an E3 ubiquitin and ISG15 ligase. We demonstrate here that TRIM25 interacts with ZAP through the SPRY domain, and TRIM25 mutants lacking the RING or coiled coil domain fail to stimulate ZAP’s antiviral activity, suggesting that both TRIM25 ligase activity and its ability to form oligomers are critical for its cofactor function. TRIM25 increases the modification of both the short and long ZAP isoforms by K48- and K63-linked polyubiquitin, although ubiquitination of ZAP does not directly affect its antiviral activity. However, TRIM25 is critical for ZAP’s ability to inhibit translation of the incoming SINV genome. Taken together, these data uncover TRIM25 as a bona fide ZAP cofactor that leads to increased ZAP modification enhancing its translational inhibition activity. PMID:28060952

  19. TRIM25 Enhances the Antiviral Action of Zinc-Finger Antiviral Protein (ZAP).

    PubMed

    Li, Melody M H; Lau, Zerlina; Cheung, Pamela; Aguilar, Eduardo G; Schneider, William M; Bozzacco, Leonia; Molina, Henrik; Buehler, Eugen; Takaoka, Akinori; Rice, Charles M; Felsenfeld, Dan P; MacDonald, Margaret R

    2017-01-01

    The host factor and interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene (ISG) product, zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP), inhibits a number of diverse viruses by usurping and intersecting with multiple cellular pathways. To elucidate its antiviral mechanism, we perform a loss-of-function genome-wide RNAi screen to identify cellular cofactors required for ZAP antiviral activity against the prototype alphavirus, Sindbis virus (SINV). In order to exclude off-target effects, we carry out stringent confirmatory assays to verify the top hits. Important ZAP-liaising partners identified include proteins involved in membrane ion permeability, type I IFN signaling, and post-translational protein modification. The factor contributing most to the antiviral function of ZAP is TRIM25, an E3 ubiquitin and ISG15 ligase. We demonstrate here that TRIM25 interacts with ZAP through the SPRY domain, and TRIM25 mutants lacking the RING or coiled coil domain fail to stimulate ZAP's antiviral activity, suggesting that both TRIM25 ligase activity and its ability to form oligomers are critical for its cofactor function. TRIM25 increases the modification of both the short and long ZAP isoforms by K48- and K63-linked polyubiquitin, although ubiquitination of ZAP does not directly affect its antiviral activity. However, TRIM25 is critical for ZAP's ability to inhibit translation of the incoming SINV genome. Taken together, these data uncover TRIM25 as a bona fide ZAP cofactor that leads to increased ZAP modification enhancing its translational inhibition activity.

  20. A FYVE zinc finger domain protein specifically links mRNA transport to endosome trafficking.

    PubMed

    Pohlmann, Thomas; Baumann, Sebastian; Haag, Carl; Albrecht, Mario; Feldbrügge, Michael

    2015-05-18

    An emerging theme in cellular logistics is the close connection between mRNA and membrane trafficking. A prominent example is the microtubule-dependent transport of mRNAs and associated ribosomes on endosomes. This coordinated process is crucial for correct septin filamentation and efficient growth of polarised cells, such as fungal hyphae. Despite detailed knowledge on the key RNA-binding protein and the molecular motors involved, it is unclear how mRNAs are connected to membranes during transport. Here, we identify a novel factor containing a FYVE zinc finger domain for interaction with endosomal lipids and a new PAM2-like domain required for interaction with the MLLE domain of the key RNA-binding protein. Consistently, loss of this FYVE domain protein leads to specific defects in mRNA, ribosome, and septin transport without affecting general functions of endosomes or their movement. Hence, this is the first endosomal component specific for mRNP trafficking uncovering a new mechanism to couple mRNPs to endosomes.

  1. Selection for a Zinc-Finger Protein Contributes to Seed Oil Increase during Soybean Domestication.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing-Tian; Lu, Xiang; Song, Qing-Xin; Chen, Hao-Wei; Wei, Wei; Tao, Jian-Jun; Bian, Xiao-Hua; Shen, Ming; Ma, Biao; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Bi, Ying-Dong; Li, Wei; Lai, Yong-Cai; Lam, Sin-Man; Shui, Guang-Hou; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2017-04-01

    Seed oil is a momentous agronomical trait of soybean ( Glycine max ) targeted by domestication in breeding. Although multiple oil-related genes have been uncovered, knowledge of the regulatory mechanism of seed oil biosynthesis is currently limited. We demonstrate that the seed-preferred gene GmZF351 , encoding a tandem CCCH zinc finger protein, is selected during domestication. Further analysis shows that GmZF351 facilitates oil accumulation by directly activating WRINKLED1 , BIOTIN CARBOXYL CARRIER PROTEIN2 , 3-KETOACYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN SYNTHASE III , DIACYLGLYCEROL O-ACYLTRANSFERASE1 , and OLEOSIN2 in transgenic Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) seeds. Overexpression of GmZF351 in transgenic soybean also activates lipid biosynthesis genes, thereby accelerating seed oil accumulation. The ZF351 haplotype from the cultivated soybean group and the wild soybean ( Glycine soja ) subgroup III correlates well with high gene expression level, seed oil contents and promoter activity, suggesting that selection of GmZF351 expression leads to increased seed oil content in cultivated soybean. Our study provides novel insights into the regulatory mechanism for seed oil accumulation, and the manipulation of GmZF351 may have great potential in the improvement of oil production in soybean and other related crops. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Post-Transcriptional Regulation of the Trypanosome Heat Shock Response by a Zinc Finger Protein

    PubMed Central

    Droll, Dorothea; Minia, Igor; Fadda, Abeer; Singh, Aditi; Stewart, Mhairi; Queiroz, Rafael; Clayton, Christine

    2013-01-01

    In most organisms, the heat-shock response involves increased heat-shock gene transcription. In Kinetoplastid protists, however, virtually all control of gene expression is post-transcriptional. Correspondingly, Trypanosoma brucei heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) synthesis after heat shock depends on regulation of HSP70 mRNA turnover. We here show that the T. brucei CCCH zinc finger protein ZC3H11 is a post-transcriptional regulator of trypanosome chaperone mRNAs. ZC3H11 is essential in bloodstream-form trypanosomes and for recovery of insect-form trypanosomes from heat shock. ZC3H11 binds to mRNAs encoding heat-shock protein homologues, with clear specificity for the subset of trypanosome chaperones that is required for protein refolding. In procyclic forms, ZC3H11 was required for stabilisation of target chaperone-encoding mRNAs after heat shock, and the HSP70 mRNA was also decreased upon ZC3H11 depletion in bloodstream forms. Many mRNAs bound to ZC3H11 have a consensus AUU repeat motif in the 3′-untranslated region. ZC3H11 bound preferentially to AUU repeats in vitro, and ZC3H11 regulation of HSP70 mRNA in bloodstream forms depended on its AUU repeat region. Tethering of ZC3H11 to a reporter mRNA increased reporter expression, showing that it is capable of actively stabilizing an mRNA. These results show that expression of trypanosome heat-shock genes is controlled by a specific RNA-protein interaction. They also show that heat-shock-induced chaperone expression in procyclic trypanosome enhances parasite survival at elevated temperatures. PMID:23592996

  3. Zinc finger protein 804A (ZNF804A) and verbal deficits in individuals with autism

    PubMed Central

    Anitha, Ayyappan; Thanseem, Ismail; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Vasu, Mahesh M.; Yamada, Kazuo; Ueki, Takatoshi; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Toyota, Tomoko; Tsuchiya, Kenji J.; Iwata, Yasuhide; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Mori, Norio

    2014-01-01

    Background In a genome-wide association study of autism, zinc finger protein 804A (ZNF804A) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found to be nominally associated in verbally deficient individuals with autism. Zinc finger protein 804A copy number variations (CNVs) have also been observed in individuals with autism. In addition, ZNF804A is known to be involved in theory of mind (ToM) tasks, and ToM deficits are deemed responsible for the communication and social challenges faced by individuals with autism. We hypothesized that ZNF804A could be a risk gene for autism. Methods We examined the genetic association and CNVs of ZNF804A in 841 families in which 1 or more members had autism. We compared the expression of ZNF804A in the postmortem brains of individuals with autism (n = 8) and controls (n = 13). We also assessed in vitro the effect of ZNF804A silencing on the expression of several genes known to be involved in verbal efficiency and social cognition. Results We found that rs7603001 was nominally associated with autism (p = 0.018). The association was stronger (p = 0.008) in the families of individuals with autism who were verbally deficient (n = 761 families). We observed ZNF804A CNVs in 7 verbally deficient boys with autism. In ZNF804A knockdown cells, the expression of synaptosomal-associated protein, 25kDa (SNAP25) was reduced compared with controls (p = 0.009). The expression of ZNF804A (p = 0.009) and SNAP25 (p = 0.009) were reduced in the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) of individuals with autism. There was a strong positive correlation between the expression of ZNF804A and SNAP25 in the ACG (p < 0.001). Limitations Study limitations include our small sample size of postmortem brains. Conclusion Our results suggest that ZNF804A could be a potential candidate gene mediating the intermediate phenotypes associated with verbal traits in individuals with autism. PMID:24866414

  4. Zinc finger protein 804A (ZNF804A) and verbal deficits in individuals with autism.

    PubMed

    Anitha, Ayyappan; Thanseem, Ismail; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Vasu, Mahesh M; Yamada, Kazuo; Ueki, Takatoshi; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Toyota, Tomoko; Tsuchiya, Kenji J; Iwata, Yasuhide; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Mori, Norio

    2014-09-01

    In a genome-wide association study of autism, zinc finger protein 804A (ZNF804A) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found to be nominally associated in verbally deficient individuals with autism. Zinc finger protein 804A copy number variations (CNVs) have also been observed in individuals with autism. In addition, ZNF804A is known to be involved in theory of mind (ToM) tasks, and ToM deficits are deemed responsible for the communication and social challenges faced by individuals with autism. We hypothesized that ZNF804A could be a risk gene for autism. We examined the genetic association and CNVs of ZNF804A in 841 families in which 1 or more members had autism. We compared the expression of ZNF804A in the postmortem brains of individuals with autism (n = 8) and controls (n = 13). We also assessed in vitro the effect of ZNF804A silencing on the expression of several genes known to be involved in verbal efficiency and social cognition. We found that rs7603001 was nominally associated with autism (p = 0.018). The association was stronger (p = 0.008) in the families of individuals with autism who were verbally deficient (n = 761 families). We observed ZNF804A CNVs in 7 verbally deficient boys with autism. In ZNF804A knockdown cells, the expression of synaptosomal-associated protein, 25kDa (SNAP25) was reduced compared with controls (p = 0.009). The expression of ZNF804A (p = 0.009) and SNAP25 (p = 0.009) were reduced in the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) of individuals with autism. There was a strong positive correlation between the expression of ZNF804A and SNAP25 in the ACG (p < 0.001). Study limitations include our small sample size of postmortem brains. Our results suggest that ZNF804A could be a potential candidate gene mediating the intermediate phenotypes associated with verbal traits in individuals with autism.

  5. Zinc-finger protein-targeted gene regulation: Genomewide single-gene specificity

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Siyuan; Guschin, Dmitry; Davalos, Albert; Lee, Ya-Li; Snowden, Andrew W.; Jouvenot, Yann; Zhang, H. Steven; Howes, Katherine; McNamara, Andrew R.; Lai, Albert; Ullman, Chris; Reynolds, Lindsey; Moore, Michael; Isalan, Mark; Berg, Lutz-Peter; Campos, Bradley; Qi, Hong; Spratt, S. Kaye; Case, Casey C.; Pabo, Carl O.; Campisi, Judith; Gregory, Philip D.

    2003-01-01

    Zinc-finger protein transcription factors (ZFP TFs) can be designed to control the expression of any desired target gene, and thus provide potential therapeutic tools for the study and treatment of disease. Here we report that a ZFP TF can repress target gene expression with single-gene specificity within the human genome. A ZFP TF repressor that binds an 18-bp recognition sequence within the promoter of the endogenous CHK2 gene gives a >10-fold reduction in CHK2 mRNA and protein. This level of repression was sufficient to generate a functional phenotype, as demonstrated by the loss of DNA damage-induced CHK2-dependent p53 phosphorylation. We determined the specificity of repression by using DNA microarrays and found that the ZFP TF repressed a single gene (CHK2) within the monitored genome in two different cell types. These data demonstrate the utility of ZFP TFs as precise tools for target validation, and highlight their potential as clinical therapeutics. PMID:14514889

  6. Microfluidic Cold-Finger Device for the Investigation of Ice-Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Haleva, Lotem; Celik, Yeliz; Bar-Dolev, Maya; Pertaya-Braun, Natalya; Kaner, Avigail; Davies, Peter L; Braslavsky, Ido

    2016-09-20

    Ice-binding proteins (IBPs) bind to ice crystals and control their structure, enlargement, and melting, thereby helping their host organisms to avoid injuries associated with ice growth. IBPs are useful in applications where ice growth control is necessary, such as cryopreservation, food storage, and anti-icing. The study of an IBP's mechanism of action is limited by the technological difficulties of in situ observations of molecules at the dynamic interface between ice and water. We describe herein a new, to our knowledge, apparatus designed to generate a controlled temperature gradient in a microfluidic chip, called a microfluidic cold finger (MCF). This device allows growth of a stable ice crystal that can be easily manipulated with or without IBPs in solution. Using the MCF, we show that the fluorescence signal of IBPs conjugated to green fluorescent protein is reduced upon freezing and recovers at melting. This finding strengthens the evidence for irreversible binding of IBPs to their ligand, ice. We also used the MCF to demonstrate the basal-plane affinity of several IBPs, including a recently described IBP from Rhagium inquisitor. Use of the MCF device, along with a temperature-controlled setup, provides a relatively simple and robust technique that can be widely used for further analysis of materials at the ice/water interface. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Role of zinc-finger anti-viral protein in host defense against Sindbis virus

    PubMed Central

    Kozaki, Tatsuya; Takahama, Michihiro; Misawa, Takuma; Matsuura, Yoshiharu; Saitoh, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that type I interferon (IFN) mediates the host protective response to RNA viruses. However, the anti-viral effector molecules involved in this response have not been fully identified. Here, we show that zinc-finger anti-viral protein (ZAP), an IFN-inducible gene, plays a critical role in the elimination of Sindbis virus (SINV) in vitro and in vivo. The loss of ZAP greatly enhances the replication of SINV but does not inhibit type I IFN production in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). ZAP binds and destabilizes SINV RNA, thereby suppressing the replication of SINV. Type I IFN fails to suppress SINV replication in ZAP-deficient MEFs, whereas the ectopic expression of ZAP is sufficient to suppress the replication of SINV in MEFs lacking the expression of type I IFN and the IFN-inducible genes. ZAP-deficient mice are highly susceptible to SINV infection, although they produce sufficient amounts of type I IFN. Therefore, ZAP is an RNA-sensing anti-viral effector molecule that mediates the type-I-IFN-dependent host defense against SINV. PMID:25758257

  8. How a RING finger protein and a steroid hormone control autophagy.

    PubMed

    Lindmo, Karine; Stenmark, Harald

    2006-01-01

    Previous work in our laboratory has indicated that the steroid hormone ecdysone triggers programmed autophagy in the fat body of Drosophila larvae by downregulating the class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. We recently found evidence that Deep orange (Dor), a Drosophila RING finger protein implicated in late-endosomal trafficking, controls ecdysone signaling as well as autolysosome fusion, thus exerting a dual regulation of autophagy. We found that dor mutants are defective in programmed autophagy. The mutant larvae showed impaired upregulation of ecdysone signaling during development, accompanied by a failure to downregulate the PI3K pathway. Downregulation of the PI3K pathway could be restored by feeding the dor mutants with ecdysone. Even though ecdysone signaling and autophagy were impaired in the dor mutants, we detected an accumulation of autophagosomes in dor mutant fat bodies. This could probably be attributed to the failure of autophagosomes to fuse with lysosomes. In this Addendum we review these findings and provide some speculations about how Dor may control both ecdysone signalling and autolysosomal fusion.

  9. Zinc finger protein 598 inhibits cell survival by promoting UV-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiaohong; Gupta, Romi

    2018-01-19

    UV is one of the major causes of DNA damage induced apoptosis. However, cancer cells adopt alternative mechanisms to evade UV-induced apoptosis. To identify factors that protect cancer cells from UV-induced apoptosis, we performed a genome wide short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) screen, which identified Zinc finger protein 598 (ZNF598) as a key regulator of UV-induced apoptosis. Here, we show that UV irradiation transcriptionally upregulates ZNF598 expression. Additionally, ZNF598 knockdown in cancer cells inhibited UV-induced apoptosis. In our study, we observe that ELK1 mRNA level as well as phosphorylated ELK1 levels was up regulated upon UV irradiation, which was necessary for UV irradiation induced upregulation of ZNF598. Cells expressing ELK1 shRNA were also resistant to UV-induced apoptosis, and phenocopy ZNF598 knockdown. Upon further investigation, we found that ZNF598 knockdown inhibits UV-induced apoptotic gene expression, which matches with decrease in percentage of annexin V positive cell. Similarly, ectopic expression of ZNF598 promoted apoptotic gene expression and also increased annexin V positive cells. Collectively, these results demonstrate that ZNF598 is a UV irradiation regulated gene and its loss results in resistance to UV-induced apoptosis.

  10. A Conserved PHD Finger Protein and Endogenous RNAi Modulate Insulin Signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Hoersch, Sebastian; Jensen, Morten B.; Kawli, Trupti; Kennedy, Lisa M.; Chavez, Violeta; Tan, Man-Wah; Lieb, Jason D.; Grishok, Alla

    2011-01-01

    Insulin signaling has a profound effect on longevity and the oxidative stress resistance of animals. Inhibition of insulin signaling results in the activation of DAF-16/FOXO and SKN-1/Nrf transcription factors and increased animal fitness. By studying the biological functions of the endogenous RNA interference factor RDE-4 and conserved PHD zinc finger protein ZFP-1 (AF10), which regulate overlapping sets of genes in Caenorhabditis elegans, we identified an important role for these factors in the negative modulation of transcription of the insulin/PI3 signaling-dependent kinase PDK-1. Consistently, increased expression of pdk-1 in zfp-1 and rde-4 mutants contributed to their reduced lifespan and sensitivity to oxidative stress and pathogens due to the reduction in the expression of DAF-16 and SKN-1 targets. We found that the function of ZFP-1 in modulating pdk-1 transcription was important for the extended lifespan of the age-1(hx546) reduction-of-function PI3 kinase mutant, since the lifespan of the age-1; zfp-1 double mutant strain was significantly shorter compared to age-1(hx546). We further demonstrate that overexpression of ZFP-1 caused an increased resistance to oxidative stress in a DAF-16–dependent manner. Our findings suggest that epigenetic regulation of key upstream signaling components in signal transduction pathways through chromatin and RNAi may have a large impact on the outcome of signaling and expression of numerous downstream genes. PMID:21980302

  11. A conserved PHD finger protein and endogenous RNAi modulate insulin signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Mansisidor, Andres R; Cecere, Germano; Hoersch, Sebastian; Jensen, Morten B; Kawli, Trupti; Kennedy, Lisa M; Chavez, Violeta; Tan, Man-Wah; Lieb, Jason D; Grishok, Alla

    2011-09-01

    Insulin signaling has a profound effect on longevity and the oxidative stress resistance of animals. Inhibition of insulin signaling results in the activation of DAF-16/FOXO and SKN-1/Nrf transcription factors and increased animal fitness. By studying the biological functions of the endogenous RNA interference factor RDE-4 and conserved PHD zinc finger protein ZFP-1 (AF10), which regulate overlapping sets of genes in Caenorhabditis elegans, we identified an important role for these factors in the negative modulation of transcription of the insulin/PI3 signaling-dependent kinase PDK-1. Consistently, increased expression of pdk-1 in zfp-1 and rde-4 mutants contributed to their reduced lifespan and sensitivity to oxidative stress and pathogens due to the reduction in the expression of DAF-16 and SKN-1 targets. We found that the function of ZFP-1 in modulating pdk-1 transcription was important for the extended lifespan of the age-1(hx546) reduction-of-function PI3 kinase mutant, since the lifespan of the age-1; zfp-1 double mutant strain was significantly shorter compared to age-1(hx546). We further demonstrate that overexpression of ZFP-1 caused an increased resistance to oxidative stress in a DAF-16-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that epigenetic regulation of key upstream signaling components in signal transduction pathways through chromatin and RNAi may have a large impact on the outcome of signaling and expression of numerous downstream genes.

  12. Identification of zinc finger transcription factor EGR2 as a novel acetylated protein.

    PubMed

    Noritsugu, Kota; Ito, Akihiro; Nakao, Yoichi; Yoshida, Minoru

    2017-08-05

    EGR2 is a zinc finger transcription factor that regulates myelination in the peripheral nervous system and T cell anergy. The transcriptional activity of EGR2 is known to be regulated by its co-activators and/or co-repressors. Although the activity of transcription factors is generally regulated not only by interactions with co-regulators but also posttranslational modifications including acetylation, little is known about posttranslational modifications of EGR2. Here we show that EGR2 is a novel acetylated protein. Through immunoblotting analyses using an antibody that specifically recognizes the acetylated form of EGR2, CBP and p300 were identified as acetyltransferases, while HDAC6, 10 and SIRT1 were identified as deacetylases of EGR2. Although the NuRD complex containing HDAC1 and HDAC2 is known to associate with EGR2, the present study suggests that acetylation of EGR2 is regulated independently of NuRD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Zinc finger protein 274 regulates imprinted expression of transcripts in Prader-Willi syndrome neurons.

    PubMed

    Langouët, Maéva; Glatt-Deeley, Heather R; Chung, Michael S; Dupont-Thibert, Clémence M; Mathieux, Elodie; Banda, Erin C; Stoddard, Christopher E; Crandall, Leann; Lalande, Marc

    2018-02-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by neonatal hypotonia, developmental delay and hyperphagia/obesity and is caused by the absence of paternal contribution to chromosome 15q11-q13. Using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) models of PWS, we previously discovered an epigenetic complex that is comprised of the zinc-finger protein ZNF274 and the SET domain bifurcated 1 (SETDB1) histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methyltransferase and that silences the maternal alleles at the PWS locus. Here, we have knocked out ZNF274 and rescued the expression of silent maternal alleles in neurons derived from PWS iPSC lines, without affecting DNA methylation at the PWS-Imprinting Center (PWS-IC). This suggests that the ZNF274 complex is a separate imprinting mark that represses maternal PWS gene expression in neurons and is a potential target for future therapeutic applications to rescue the PWS phenotype. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Zinc finger protein rotund deficiency affects development of the thoracic leg in Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chun-Yan; Zha, Xing-Fu; Liu, Hua-Wei; Xia, Qing-You

    2017-06-01

    The insect limb develops from the imaginal disc or larval leg during metamorphosis. The molecular mechanisms involved in the development from the larval to the adult leg are poorly understood. Herein, we cloned the full length of a zinc finger gene rotund from Bombyx mori (Bmrn), which contained a 1419 bp open reading frame, and encoded a 473 amino acid protein. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses demonstrated that Bmrn was expressed at higher levels in the epidermis than in other tissues tested, and it showed a very high expression level during metamorphosis. Knock-down of Bmrn produced defects in the tarsus and pretarsus, including the fusion and reduction of tarsomeres, and the developmental arrest of pretarsus. Our data showed that Bmrn is involved in the formation of the tarsus and pretarsus, whereas its homologous gene in Drosophila has been shown to affect three tarsal segments (t2-t4), suggesting that the remodeling of the leg has involved changes in the patterning of gene regulation during evolution. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. Increased expression of zinc finger protein 267 in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Schnabl, Bernd; Czech, Barbara; Valletta, Daniela; Weiss, Thomas S; Kirovski, Georgi; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocellular lipid accumulation is a hallmark of non-alcoholicfatty liver disease (NAFLD), which encompasses a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and ultimately cirrhosis. Zinc finger protein 267 (ZNF267) belongs to the family of Kruppel-like transcription factors, which regulate diverse biological processes that include development, proliferation, and differentiation. We have previously demonstrated that ZNF267 expression is up-regulated in liver cirrhosis and is further increased in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we analyzed the expression of ZNF267 in tissue specimens of NAFLD patients and found a significant up-regulation compared to normal liver tissue. Noteworthy, ZNF267 mRNA was already significantly increased in steatotic liver tissue without inflammation. In line with this, incubation of primary human hepatocytes with palmitic acid induced a dose-dependent lipid accumulation and corresponding dose-dependent ZNF267 induction in vitro. Furthermore, hepatocellular lipid accumulation induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and also chemically induced ROS formation increased ZNF267 mRNA expression. In summary with previous findings, which revealed ZNF267 as pro-fibrogenic and pro-cancerogenic factor in chronic liver disease, the present study further suggests ZNF267 as promising therapeutic target particularly for NAFLD patients. In addition, it further indicates that hepatic steatosis per se has pathophysiological relevance and should not be considered as benign.

  16. Increased expression of Zinc finger protein 267 in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Schnabl, Bernd; Czech, Barbara; Valletta, Daniela; Weiss, Thomas S; Kirovski, Georgi; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocellular lipid accumulation is a hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which encompasses a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and ultimately cirrhosis. Zinc finger protein 267 (ZNF267) belongs to the family of Kruppel-like transcription factors, which regulate diverse biological processes that include development, proliferation, and differentiation. We have previously demonstrated that ZNF267 expression is up-regulated in liver cirrhosis and is further increased in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we analyzed the expression of ZNF267 in tissue specimens of NAFLD patients and found a significant up-regulation compared to normal liver tissue. Noteworthy, ZNF267 mRNA was already significantly increased in steatotic liver tissue without inflammation. In line with this, incubation of primary human hepatocytes with palmitic acid induced a dose-dependent lipid accumulation and corresponding dose-dependent ZNF267 induction in vitro. Furthermore, hepatocellular lipid accumulation induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and also chemically induced ROS formation increased ZNF267 mRNA expression. In summary with previous findings, which revealed ZNF267 as pro-fibrogenic and pro-cancerogenic factor in chronic liver disease, the present study further suggests ZNF267 as promising therapeutic target particularly for NAFLD patients. In addition, it further indicates that hepatic steatosis per se has pathophysiological relevance and should not be considered as benign. PMID:22076166

  17. Requirement for the Murine Zinc Finger Protein ZFR in Perigastrulation Growth and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Meagher, Madeleine J.; Braun, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    The transition from preimplantation to postimplantation development leads to the initiation of complex cellular differentiation and morphogenetic movements, a dramatic decrease in cell cycle length, and a commensurate increase in the size of the embryo. Accompanying these changes is the need for the transfer of nutrients from the mother to the embryo and the elaboration of sophisticated genetic networks that monitor genomic integrity and the homeostatic control of cellular growth, differentiation, and programmed cell death. To determine the function of the murine zinc finger protein ZFR in these events, we generated mice carrying a null mutation in the gene encoding it. Homozygous mutant embryos form normal-appearing blastocysts that implant and initiate the process of gastrulation. Mutant embryos form mesoderm but they are delayed in their development and fail to form normal anterior embryonic structures. Loss of ZFR function leads to both an increase in programmed cell death and a decrease in mitotic index, especially in the region of the distal tip of the embryonic ectoderm. Mutant embryos also have an apparent reduction in apical vacuoles in the columnar visceral endoderm cells in the extraembryonic region. Together, these cellular phenotypes lead to a dramatic development delay and embryonic death by 8 to 9 days of gestation, which are independent of p53 function. PMID:11283266

  18. Rmt1 catalyzes zinc-finger independent arginine methylation of ribosomal protein Rps2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Lipson, Rebecca S.; Webb, Kristofor J.; Clarke, Steven G., E-mail: clarke@mbi.ucla.edu

    2010-01-22

    Rps2/rpS2 is a well conserved protein of the eukaryotic ribosomal small subunit. Rps2 has previously been shown to contain asymmetric dimethylarginine residues, the addition of which is catalyzed by zinc-finger-containing arginine methyltransferase 3 (Rmt3) in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and protein arginine methyltransferase 3 (PRMT3) in mammalian cells. Here, we demonstrate that despite the lack of a zinc-finger-containing homolog of Rmt3/PRMT3 in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rps2 is partially modified to generate asymmetric dimethylarginine and monomethylarginine residues. We find that this modification of Rps2 is dependent upon the major arginine methyltransferase 1 (Rmt1) in S. cerevisiae. These resultsmore » are suggestive of a role for Rmt1 in modifying the function of Rps2 in a manner distinct from that occurring in S. pombe and mammalian cells.« less

  19. TRIM25 Is Required for the Antiviral Activity of Zinc Finger Antiviral Protein

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiaojiao; Wang, Xinlu; Tu, Fan; Wang, Qin; Fan, Zusen

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP) is a host factor that specifically inhibits the replication of certain viruses by binding to viral mRNAs and repressing the translation and/or promoting the degradation of target mRNA. In addition, ZAP regulates the expression of certain cellular genes. Here, we report that tripartite motif-containing protein 25 (TRIM25), a ubiquitin E3 ligase, is required for the antiviral activity of ZAP. Downregulation of endogenous TRIM25 abolished ZAP's antiviral activity. The E3 ligase activity of TRIM25 is required for this regulation. TRIM25 mediated ZAP ubiquitination, but the ubiquitination of ZAP itself did not seem to be required for its antiviral activity. Downregulation of endogenous ubiquitin or overexpression of the deubiquitinase OTUB1 impaired ZAP's activity. We provide evidence indicating that TRIM25 modulates the target RNA binding activity of ZAP. These results uncover a mechanism by which the antiviral activity of ZAP is regulated. IMPORTANCE ZAP is a host antiviral factor that specifically inhibits the replication of certain viruses, including HIV-1, Sindbis virus, and Ebola virus. ZAP binds directly to target mRNA, and it represses the translation and promotes the degradation of target mRNA. While the mechanisms by which ZAP posttranscriptionally inhibits target RNA expression have been extensively studied, how its antiviral activity is regulated is not very clear. Here, we report that TRIM25, a ubiquitin E3 ligase, is required for the antiviral activity of ZAP. Downregulation of endogenous TRIM25 remarkably abolished ZAP's activity. TRIM25 is required for ZAP optimal binding to target mRNA. These results help us to better understand how the antiviral activity of ZAP is regulated. PMID:28202764

  20. TRIM25 Is Required for the Antiviral Activity of Zinc Finger Antiviral Protein.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaojiao; Wang, Xinlu; Tu, Fan; Wang, Qin; Fan, Zusen; Gao, Guangxia

    2017-05-01

    Zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP) is a host factor that specifically inhibits the replication of certain viruses by binding to viral mRNAs and repressing the translation and/or promoting the degradation of target mRNA. In addition, ZAP regulates the expression of certain cellular genes. Here, we report that tripartite motif-containing protein 25 (TRIM25), a ubiquitin E3 ligase, is required for the antiviral activity of ZAP. Downregulation of endogenous TRIM25 abolished ZAP's antiviral activity. The E3 ligase activity of TRIM25 is required for this regulation. TRIM25 mediated ZAP ubiquitination, but the ubiquitination of ZAP itself did not seem to be required for its antiviral activity. Downregulation of endogenous ubiquitin or overexpression of the deubiquitinase OTUB1 impaired ZAP's activity. We provide evidence indicating that TRIM25 modulates the target RNA binding activity of ZAP. These results uncover a mechanism by which the antiviral activity of ZAP is regulated. IMPORTANCE ZAP is a host antiviral factor that specifically inhibits the replication of certain viruses, including HIV-1, Sindbis virus, and Ebola virus. ZAP binds directly to target mRNA, and it represses the translation and promotes the degradation of target mRNA. While the mechanisms by which ZAP posttranscriptionally inhibits target RNA expression have been extensively studied, how its antiviral activity is regulated is not very clear. Here, we report that TRIM25, a ubiquitin E3 ligase, is required for the antiviral activity of ZAP. Downregulation of endogenous TRIM25 remarkably abolished ZAP's activity. TRIM25 is required for ZAP optimal binding to target mRNA. These results help us to better understand how the antiviral activity of ZAP is regulated. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. Automatic polymerase chain reaction product detection system for food safety monitoring using zinc finger protein fused to luciferase.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Wataru; Kezuka, Aki; Murakami, Yoshiyuki; Lee, Jinhee; Abe, Koichi; Motoki, Hiroaki; Matsuo, Takafumi; Shimura, Nobuaki; Noda, Mamoru; Igimi, Shizunobu; Ikebukuro, Kazunori

    2013-11-01

    An automatic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product detection system for food safety monitoring using zinc finger (ZF) protein fused to luciferase was developed. ZF protein fused to luciferase specifically binds to target double stranded DNA sequence and has luciferase enzymatic activity. Therefore, PCR products that comprise ZF protein recognition sequence can be detected by measuring the luciferase activity of the fusion protein. We previously reported that PCR products from Legionella pneumophila and Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 genomic DNA were detected by Zif268, a natural ZF protein, fused to luciferase. In this study, Zif268-luciferase was applied to detect the presence of Salmonella and coliforms. Moreover, an artificial zinc finger protein (B2) fused to luciferase was constructed for a Norovirus detection system. In the luciferase activity detection assay, several bound/free separation process is required. Therefore, an analyzer that automatically performed the bound/free separation process was developed to detect PCR products using the ZF-luciferase fusion protein. By means of the automatic analyzer with ZF-luciferase fusion protein, target pathogenic genomes were specifically detected in the presence of other pathogenic genomes. Moreover, we succeeded in the detection of 10 copies of E. coli BL21 without extraction of genomic DNA by the automatic analyzer and E. coli was detected with a logarithmic dependency in the range of 1.0×10 to 1.0×10(6) copies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Dynamics of linker residues modulate the nucleic acid binding properties of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein zinc fingers.

    PubMed

    Zargarian, Loussiné; Tisné, Carine; Barraud, Pierre; Xu, Xiaoqian; Morellet, Nelly; René, Brigitte; Mély, Yves; Fossé, Philippe; Mauffret, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) is a small basic protein containing two zinc fingers (ZF) separated by a short linker. It is involved in several steps of the replication cycle and acts as a nucleic acid chaperone protein in facilitating nucleic acid strand transfers occurring during reverse transcription. Recent analysis of three-dimensional structures of NC-nucleic acids complexes established a new property: the unpaired guanines targeted by NC are more often inserted in the C-terminal zinc finger (ZF2) than in the N-terminal zinc finger (ZF1). Although previous NMR dynamic studies were performed with NC, the dynamic behavior of the linker residues connecting the two ZF domains remains unclear. This prompted us to investigate the dynamic behavior of the linker residues. Here, we collected 15N NMR relaxation data and used for the first time data at several fields to probe the protein dynamics. The analysis at two fields allows us to detect a slow motion occurring between the two domains around a hinge located in the linker at the G35 position. However, the amplitude of motion appears limited in our conditions. In addition, we showed that the neighboring linker residues R29, A30, P31, R32, K33 displayed restricted motion and numerous contacts with residues of ZF1. Our results are fully consistent with a model in which the ZF1-linker contacts prevent the ZF1 domain to interact with unpaired guanines, whereas the ZF2 domain is more accessible and competent to interact with unpaired guanines. In contrast, ZF1 with its large hydrophobic plateau is able to destabilize the double-stranded regions adjacent to the guanines bound by ZF2. The linker residues and the internal dynamics of NC regulate therefore the different functions of the two zinc fingers that are required for an optimal chaperone activity.

  3. Dynamics of Linker Residues Modulate the Nucleic Acid Binding Properties of the HIV-1 Nucleocapsid Protein Zinc Fingers

    PubMed Central

    Zargarian, Loussiné; Tisné, Carine; Barraud, Pierre; Xu, Xiaoqian; Morellet, Nelly; René, Brigitte; Mély, Yves; Fossé, Philippe; Mauffret, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) is a small basic protein containing two zinc fingers (ZF) separated by a short linker. It is involved in several steps of the replication cycle and acts as a nucleic acid chaperone protein in facilitating nucleic acid strand transfers occurring during reverse transcription. Recent analysis of three-dimensional structures of NC-nucleic acids complexes established a new property: the unpaired guanines targeted by NC are more often inserted in the C-terminal zinc finger (ZF2) than in the N-terminal zinc finger (ZF1). Although previous NMR dynamic studies were performed with NC, the dynamic behavior of the linker residues connecting the two ZF domains remains unclear. This prompted us to investigate the dynamic behavior of the linker residues. Here, we collected 15N NMR relaxation data and used for the first time data at several fields to probe the protein dynamics. The analysis at two fields allows us to detect a slow motion occurring between the two domains around a hinge located in the linker at the G35 position. However, the amplitude of motion appears limited in our conditions. In addition, we showed that the neighboring linker residues R29, A30, P31, R32, K33 displayed restricted motion and numerous contacts with residues of ZF1. Our results are fully consistent with a model in which the ZF1-linker contacts prevent the ZF1 domain to interact with unpaired guanines, whereas the ZF2 domain is more accessible and competent to interact with unpaired guanines. In contrast, ZF1 with its large hydrophobic plateau is able to destabilize the double-stranded regions adjacent to the guanines bound by ZF2. The linker residues and the internal dynamics of NC regulate therefore the different functions of the two zinc fingers that are required for an optimal chaperone activity. PMID:25029439

  4. Abnormal Behaviors and Developmental Disorder of Hippocampus in Zinc Finger Protein 521 (ZFP521) Mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ohkubo, Nobutaka; Matsubara, Etsuko; Yamanouchi, Jun; Akazawa, Rie; Aoto, Mamoru; Suzuki, Yoji; Sakai, Ikuya; Abe, Takaya; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Seiji; Yasukawa, Masaki; Mitsuda, Noriaki

    2014-01-01

    Zinc finger protein 521 (ZFP521) regulates a number of cellular processes in a wide range of tissues, such as osteoblast formation and adipose commitment and differentiation. In the field of neurobiology, it is reported to be an essential factor for transition of epiblast stem cells into neural progenitors in vitro. However, the role of ZFP521 in the brain in vivo still remains elusive. To elucidate the role of ZFP521 in the mouse brain, we generated mice lacking exon 4 of the ZFP521 gene. The birth ratio of our ZFP521 Δ/Δ mice was consistent with Mendel's laws. Although ZFP521 Δ/Δ pups had no apparent defect in the body and were indistinguishable from ZFP521+/+ and ZFP521 +/Δ littermates at the time of birth, ZFP521 Δ/Δ mice displayed significant weight reduction as they grew, and most of them died before 10 weeks of age. They displayed abnormal behavior, such as hyper-locomotion, lower anxiety and impaired learning, which correspond to the symptoms of schizophrenia. The border of the granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus of the mice was indistinct and granular neurons were reduced in number. Furthermore, Sox1-positive neural progenitor cells in the dentate gyrus and cerebellum were significantly reduced in number. Taken together, these findings indicate that ZFP521 directly or indirectly affects the formation of the neuronal cell layers of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus, and thus ZFP521 Δ/Δ mice displayed schizophrenia-relevant symptoms. ZFP521 Δ/Δ mice may be a useful research tool as an animal model of schizophrenia. PMID:24676388

  5. Zinc-finger protein 418 overexpression protects against cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zirui; Zhu, Zhilin; Xu, Chunli; Teng, Lin; He, Ling; Gu, Chen; Yi, Cai

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigated the effect and mechanism of zinc-finger protein 418 (ZNF418) on cardiac hypertrophy caused by aortic banding (AB), phenylephrine (PE) or angiotensin II (Ang II) in vivo and in vitro. Methods The expression of ZNF418 in hearts of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and AB-induced cardiac hypertrophy mice, as well as in Ang II- or PE-induced hypertrophic primary cardiomyocytes was detected by western blotting. Then, the expression of ZNF418 was up-regulated or down-regulated in AB-induced cardiac hypertrophy mice and Ang II -induced hypertrophic primary cardiomyocytes. The hypertrophic responses and fibrosis were evaluated by echocardiography and histological analysis. The mRNA levels of hypertrophy markers and fibrotic markers were detected by RT-qPCR. Furthermore, the phosphorylation and total levels of c-Jun were measured by western blotting. Results ZNF418 was markedly down-regulated in hearts of cardiac hypertrophy and hypertrophic primary cardiomyocytes. Down-regulated ZNF418 exacerbated the myocyte size and fibrosis, moreover increased the mRNA levels of ANP, BNP, β-MHC, MCIP1.4, collagen 1a, collagen III, MMP-2 and fibronection in hearts of AB-treated ZNF418 knockout mice or Ang II-treated cardiomyocytes with AdshZNF418. Conversely, these hypertrophic responses were reduced in the ZNF418 transgenic (TG) mice treated by AB and the AdZNF418-transfected primary cardiomyocytes treated by Ang II. Additionally, the deficiency of ZNF418 enhanced the phosphorylation level of c-jun, and overexpression of ZNF418 suppressed the phosphorylation level of c-jun in vivo and in vitro. Conclusion ZNF418 maybe attenuate hypertrophic responses by inhibiting the activity of c-jun/AP-1. PMID:29065170

  6. Zinc Finger Transcription Factors Displaced SREBP Proteins as the Major Sterol Regulators during Saccharomycotina Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Sarah L.; Wang, Can; Holland, Linda M.; Brunel, François; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Zavrel, Martin; White, Theodore C.; Wolfe, Kenneth H.; Butler, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    In most eukaryotes, including the majority of fungi, expression of sterol biosynthesis genes is regulated by Sterol-Regulatory Element Binding Proteins (SREBPs), which are basic helix-loop-helix transcription activators. However, in yeasts such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans sterol synthesis is instead regulated by Upc2, an unrelated transcription factor with a Gal4-type zinc finger. The SREBPs in S. cerevisiae (Hms1) and C. albicans (Cph2) have lost a domain, are not major regulators of sterol synthesis, and instead regulate filamentous growth. We report here that rewiring of the sterol regulon, with Upc2 taking over from SREBP, likely occurred in the common ancestor of all Saccharomycotina. Yarrowia lipolytica, a deep-branching species, is the only genome known to contain intact and full-length orthologs of both SREBP (Sre1) and Upc2. Deleting YlUPC2, but not YlSRE1, confers susceptibility to azole drugs. Sterol levels are significantly reduced in the YlUPC2 deletion. RNA-seq analysis shows that hypoxic regulation of sterol synthesis genes in Y. lipolytica is predominantly mediated by Upc2. However, YlSre1 still retains a role in hypoxic regulation; growth of Y. lipolytica in hypoxic conditions is reduced in a Ylupc2 deletion and is abolished in a Ylsre1/Ylupc2 double deletion, and YlSre1 regulates sterol gene expression during hypoxia adaptation. We show that YlSRE1, and to a lesser extent YlUPC2, are required for switching from yeast to filamentous growth in hypoxia. Sre1 appears to have an ancestral role in the regulation of filamentation, which became decoupled from its role in sterol gene regulation by the arrival of Upc2 in the Saccharomycotina. PMID:24453983

  7. Yeast two-hybrid cloning of a novel zinc finger protein that interacts with the multifunctional transcription factor YY1.

    PubMed Central

    Kalenik, J L; Chen, D; Bradley, M E; Chen, S J; Lee, T C

    1997-01-01

    Muscle-restricted transcription of sarcomeric actin genes is negatively controlled by the zinc finger protein YY1, which is down-regulated at the protein level during myogenic differentiation. To identify cellular proteins that might mediate the function/stability of YY1 in muscle cells, we screened an adult human muscle cDNA library using the yeast two-hybrid cloning system. We report the isolation and characterization of a novel protein termed YAF2 (YY1- associated factor 2) that interacts with YY1. The YAF2 cDNA encodes a 180 amino acid basic protein (pI 10.5) containing a single N-terminal C2-X10-C2 zinc finger. Lysine clusters are present that may function as a nuclear localization signal. Domain mapping analysis shows that the first and second zinc fingers of YY1 are targeted for YAF2 protein interaction. In contrast to the down-regulation of YY1, YAF2 message levels increase during in vitro differentiation of both rat skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. YAF2 appears to have a promyogenic regulatory role, since overexpression of YAF2 in C2 myoblasts stimulates myogenic promoter activity normally restricted by YY1. Co-transfection of YY1 reverses the stimulatory effect of YAF2. YAF2 also greatly potentiates proteolytic cleavage of YY1 by the calcium- activated protease m-calpain. The isolation of YAF2 may help in understanding the mechanisms through which inhibitors of myogenic transcription may be antagonized or eliminated by proteolysis during muscle development. PMID:9016636

  8. White collar-1, a central regulator of blue light responses in Neurospora, is a zinc finger protein.

    PubMed Central

    Ballario, P; Vittorioso, P; Magrelli, A; Talora, C; Cabibbo, A; Macino, G

    1996-01-01

    The Neurospora crassa blind mutant white collar-1 (wc-1) is pleiotropically defective in all blue light-induced phenomena, establishing a role for the wc-1 gene product in the signal transduction pathway. We report the cloning of the wc-1 gene isolated by chromosome walking and mutant complementation. The elucidation of the wc-1 gene product provides a key piece of the blue light signal transduction puzzle. The wc-1 gene encodes a 125 kDa protein whose encoded motifs include a single class four, zinc finger DNA binding domain and a glutamine-rich putative transcription activation domain. We demonstrate that the wc-1 zinc finger domain, expressed in Escherichia coli, is able to bind specifically to the promoter of a blue light-regulated gene of Neurospora using an in vitro gel retardation assay. Furthermore, we show that wc-1 gene expression is autoregulated and is transcriptionally induced by blue light irradiation. Images PMID:8612589

  9. A novel zinc-finger protein with a proline-rich domain mediates ABA-regulated seed dormancy in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    He, Yuehui; Gan, Susheng

    2004-01-01

    Seed dormancy is an important developmental process that prevents pre-harvest sprouting in many grains and other seeds. Abscisic acid (ABA), a plant hormone, plays a crucial role in regulating dormancy but the underlying molecular regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. An Arabidopsis zinc-finger gene, MEDIATOR OF ABA-REGULATED DORMANCY 1 ( MARD1 ) was identified and functionally analyzed. MARD1 expression is up-regulated by ABA. A T-DNA insertion in the promoter region downstream of two ABA-responsive elements (ABREs) renders MARD1 unable to respond to ABA. The mard1 seeds are less dormant and germinate in total darkness; their germination is resistant to external ABA at the stage of radicle protrusion. These results suggest that this novel zinc-finger protein with a proline-rich N-terminus is an important downstream component of the ABA signaling pathway that mediates ABA-regulated seed dormancy in Arabidopsis.

  10. Zinc finger protein 139 expression in gastric cancer and its clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Zhao, Qun; Fan, Li-Qiao; Wang, Li-Li; Tan, Bi-Bo; Leng, Yan-Li; Liu, Yu; Wang, Dong

    2014-12-28

    To investigate the expression of zinc finger protein 139 (ZNF139) in gastric cancer (GC), and to analyze its clinical significance. A total of 108 patients who were diagnosed with GC and underwent surgery between January 2005 and March 2007 were enrolled in this study. Gastric tumor specimens and paired tumor-adjacent tissues were collected and paraffin-embedded, and the clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis were recorded. The expression of ZNF139, Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 were determined by immunohistochemistry, and apoptosis was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling. SPSS 13.0 software was used for data processing and analyses, and significance was determined at P < 0.05. The expression of ZNF139 was stronger in tumors than in tumor-adjacent tissues (66.67% vs 44.44%; P < 0.01). Overexpression of ZNF139 correlated with tumor differentiation, invasion depth, clinical stage, lymphatic metastasis, and blood vessel invasion (all Ps < 0.05). Patients with overexpression of ZNF139 had a poorer prognosis (P < 0.01), and overexpression of ZNF139 was an independent factor for the prognosis of GC patients by a Cox survival analysis (P = 0.02). A negative relationship between ZNF139 and the apoptosis index was observed (r = -0.686; P < 0.01). The expression of Bcl-2 in GC was stronger than in tumor-adjacent tissues (66.67% vs 41.67%), whereas the expression levels of Bax and caspase-3 were lower in primary tumors (54.63% and 47.22%, respectively) than in tumor-adjacent tissues (73.15% and 73.15%, respectively) (all Ps < 0.05). The expression of ZNF139 negatively correlated with caspase-3 (r = -0.370; P < 0.01). The expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax were also negatively correlated (r = -0.231; P = 0.02). The expressions of caspase-3 and Bax protein were positively correlated (r = 0.217; P = 0.024). ZNF139 is related to clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis of GC. Furthermore, it is overexpressed and involved

  11. The primary structure of L37--a rat ribosomal protein with a zinc finger-like motif.

    PubMed

    Chan, Y L; Paz, V; Olvera, J; Wool, I G

    1993-04-30

    The amino acid sequence of the rat 60S ribosomal subunit protein L37 was deduced from the sequence of nucleotides in a recombinant cDNA. Ribosomal protein L37 has 96 amino acids, the NH2-terminal methionine is removed after translation of the mRNA, and has a molecular weight of 10,939. Ribosomal protein L37 has a single zinc finger-like motif of the C2-C2 type. Hybridization of the cDNA to digests of nuclear DNA suggests that there are 13 or 14 copies of the L37 gene. The mRNA for the protein is about 500 nucleotides in length. Rat L37 is related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribosomal protein YL35 and to Caenorhabditis elegans L37. We have identified in the data base a DNA sequence that encodes the chicken homolog of rat L37.

  12. Ring finger protein 39 genetic variants associate with HIV-1 plasma viral loads and its replication in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Ju; Chen, Chia-Yen; Jeang, Kuan-Teh; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Jen-Hsien; Hung, Chien-Hui; Tsang, Hsinyi; Lin, Ting-Hsu; Liao, Chiu-Chu; Huang, Shao-Mei; Lin, Cheng-Wen; Ho, Mao-Wang; Chien, Wen-Kuei; Chen, Jin-Hua; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2014-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) exploits host proteins to complete its life cycle. Genome-wide siRNA approaches suggested that host proteins affect HIV-1 replication. However, the results barely overlapped. RING finger protein 39 (RNF39) has been identified from genome-wide association studies. However, its function during HIV-1 replication remains unclear. We investigated the relationship between common RNF39 genetic variants and HIV-1 viral loads. The effect of RNF39 protein knockdown or overexpression on HIV-1 replication was then investigated in different cell lines. Two genetic variants were associated with HIV-1 viral loads. Patients with the ht1-GG/GG haplotype presented lower RNF39 expression levels and lower HIV-1 viral load. RNF39 knockdown inhibited HIV-1 expression. RNF39 protein may be involved in HIV-1 replication as observed in genetic studies on patients with HIV-1 and in in vitro cell cultures.

  13. Small finger protein of avian and murine retroviruses has nucleic acid annealing activity and positions the replication primer tRNA onto genomic RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Prats, A C; Sarih, L; Gabus, C; Litvak, S; Keith, G; Darlix, J L

    1988-01-01

    Retrovirus virions carry a diploid genome associated with a large number of small viral finger protein molecules which are required for encapsidation. Our present results show that finger protein p12 of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) and p10 of murine leukaemia virus (MuLV) positions replication primer tRNA on the replication initiation site (PBS) at the 5' end of the RNA genome. An RSV mutant with a Val-Pro insertion in the finger motif of p12 is able to partially encapsidate genomic RNA but is not infectious because mutated p12 is incapable of positioning the replication primer, tRNATrp. Since all known replication competent retroviruses, and the plant virus CaMV, code for finger proteins analogous to RSV p12 or MuLV p10, the initial stage of reverse transcription in avian, mammalian and human retroviruses and in CaMV is probably controlled in an analogous way. Images PMID:2458920

  14. Small finger protein of avian and murine retroviruses has nucleic acid annealing activity and positions the replication primer tRNA onto genomic RNA.

    PubMed

    Prats, A C; Sarih, L; Gabus, C; Litvak, S; Keith, G; Darlix, J L

    1988-06-01

    Retrovirus virions carry a diploid genome associated with a large number of small viral finger protein molecules which are required for encapsidation. Our present results show that finger protein p12 of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) and p10 of murine leukaemia virus (MuLV) positions replication primer tRNA on the replication initiation site (PBS) at the 5' end of the RNA genome. An RSV mutant with a Val-Pro insertion in the finger motif of p12 is able to partially encapsidate genomic RNA but is not infectious because mutated p12 is incapable of positioning the replication primer, tRNATrp. Since all known replication competent retroviruses, and the plant virus CaMV, code for finger proteins analogous to RSV p12 or MuLV p10, the initial stage of reverse transcription in avian, mammalian and human retroviruses and in CaMV is probably controlled in an analogous way.

  15. ZFPL1, a novel ring finger protein required for cis-Golgi integrity and efficient ER-to-Golgi transport.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chi-Fang; Ghanekar, Yashoda; Frost, Laura; Diao, Aipo; Morrison, Daniel; McKenzie, Eddie; Lowe, Martin

    2008-04-09

    The Golgi apparatus occupies a central position within the secretory pathway, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for its assembly and organization remain poorly understood. We report here the identification of zinc finger protein-like 1 (ZFPL1) as a novel structural component of the Golgi apparatus. ZFPL1 is a conserved and widely expressed integral membrane protein with two predicted zinc fingers at the N-terminus, the second of which is a likely ring domain. ZFPL1 directly interacts with the cis-Golgi matrix protein GM130. Depletion of ZFPL1 results in the accumulation of cis-Golgi matrix proteins in the intermediate compartment (IC) and the tubulation of cis-Golgi and IC membranes. Loss of ZFPL1 function also impairs cis-Golgi assembly following brefeldin A washout and slows the rate of cargo trafficking into the Golgi apparatus. Effects upon Golgi matrix protein localization and cis-Golgi structure can be rescued by wild-type ZFPL1 but not mutants defective in GM130 binding. Together, these data suggest that ZFPL1 has an important function in maintaining the integrity of the cis-Golgi and that it does so through interactions with GM130.

  16. Dissecting CNBP, a zinc-finger protein required for neural crest development, in its structural and functional domains.

    PubMed

    Armas, Pablo; Agüero, Tristán H; Borgognone, Mariana; Aybar, Manuel J; Calcaterra, Nora B

    2008-10-17

    Cellular nucleic-acid-binding protein (CNBP) plays an essential role in forebrain and craniofacial development by controlling cell proliferation and survival to mediate neural crest expansion. CNBP binds to single-stranded nucleic acids and displays nucleic acid chaperone activity in vitro. The CNBP family shows a conserved modular organization of seven Zn knuckles and an arginine-glycine-glycine (RGG) box between the first and second Zn knuckles. The participation of these structural motifs in CNBP biochemical activities has still not been addressed. Here, we describe the generation of CNBP mutants that dissect the protein into regions with structurally and functionally distinct properties. Mutagenesis approaches were followed to generate: (i) an amino acid replacement that disrupted the fifth Zn knuckle; (ii) N-terminal deletions that removed the first Zn knuckle and the RGG box, or the RGG box alone; and (iii) a C-terminal deletion that eliminated the three last Zn knuckles. Mutant proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and used to analyze their biochemical features in vitro, or overexpressed in Xenopus laevis embryos to study their function in vivo during neural crest cell development. We found that the Zn knuckles are required, but not individually essential, for CNBP biochemical activities, whereas the RGG box is essential for RNA-protein binding and nucleic acid chaperone activity. Removal of the RGG box allowed CNBP to preserve a weak single-stranded-DNA-binding capability. A mutant mimicking the natural N-terminal proteolytic CNBP form behaved as the RGG-deleted mutant. By gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments in Xenopus embryos, we confirmed the participation of CNBP in neural crest development, and we demonstrated that the CNBP mutants lacking the N-terminal region or the RGG box alone may act as dominant negatives in vivo. Based on these data, we speculate about the existence of a specific proteolytic mechanism for the

  17. The Zinc-Finger Thylakoid-Membrane Protein FIP Is Involved With Abiotic Stress Response in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Karina L; Rodrigues, Ricardo A O; Silva, Marcos C; Braga, Wiliane G S; Silva-Filho, Marcio C

    2018-01-01

    Many plant genes have their expression modulated by stress conditions. Here, we used Arabidopsis FtsH5 protease, which expression is regulated by light stress, as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen to search for new proteins involved in the stress response. As a result, we found FIP (FtsH5 Interacting Protein), which possesses an amino proximal cleavable transit peptide, a hydrophobic membrane-anchoring region, and a carboxyl proximal C 4 -type zinc-finger domain. In vivo experiments using FIP fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) showed a plastid localization. This finding was corroborated by chloroplast import assays that showed FIP inserted in the thylakoid membrane. FIP expression was down-regulated in plants exposed to high light intensity, oxidative, salt, and osmotic stresses, whereas mutant plants expressing low levels of FIP were more tolerant to these abiotic stresses. Our data shows a new thylakoid-membrane protein involved with abiotic stress response in Arabidopsis thaliana .

  18. Comparison of the Structure and Expression of Odd-Skipped and Two Related Genes That Encode a New Family of Zinc Finger Proteins in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Hart, M. C.; Wang, L.; Coulter, D. E.

    1996-01-01

    The odd-skipped (odd) gene, which was identified on the basis of a pair-rule segmentation phenotype in mutant embryos, is initially expressed in the Drosophila embryo in seven pair-rule stripes, but later exhibits a segment polarity-like pattern for which no phenotypic correlate is apparent. We have molecularly characterized two embryonically expressed odd-cognate genes, sob and bowel (bowl), that encode proteins with highly conserved C(2)H(2) zinc fingers. While the Sob and Bowl proteins each contain five tandem fingers, the Odd protein lacks a fifth (C-terminal) finger and is also less conserved among the four common fingers. Reminiscent of many segmentation gene paralogues, the closely linked odd and sob genes are expressed during embryogenesis in similar striped patterns; in contrast, the less-tightly linked bowl gene is expressed in a distinctly different pattern at the termini of the early embryo. Although our results indicate that odd and sob are more likely than bowl to share overlapping developmental roles, some functional divergence between the Odd and Sob proteins is suggested by the absence of homology outside the zinc fingers, and also by amino acid substitutions in the Odd zinc fingers at positions that appear to be constrained in Sob and Bowl. PMID:8878683

  19. Human ribosomal protein L37 has motifs predicting serine/threonine phosphorylation and a zinc-finger domain.

    PubMed

    Barnard, G F; Staniunas, R J; Puder, M; Steele, G D; Chen, L B

    1994-08-02

    Ribosomal protein L37 mRNA is overexpressed in colon cancer. The nucleotide sequences of human L37 from several tumor and normal, colon and liver cDNA sources were determined to be identical. L37 mRNA was approximately 375 nucleotides long encoding 97 amino acids with M(r) = 11,070, pI = 12.6, multiple potential serine/threonine phosphorylation sites and a zinc-finger domain. The human sequence is compared to other species.

  20. Physical and Functional Interactions of Human Endogenous Retrovirus Proteins Np9 and Rec with the Promyelocytic Leukemia Zinc Finger Protein▿

    PubMed Central

    Denne, Miriam; Sauter, Marlies; Armbruester, Vivienne; Licht, Jonathan D.; Roemer, Klaus; Mueller-Lantzsch, Nikolaus

    2007-01-01

    Only few of the human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) sequences in the human genome can produce proteins. We have previously reported that (i) patients with germ cell tumors often make antibodies against proteins encoded by HERV-K elements, (ii) expression of the HERV-K rec gene in transgenic mice can interfere with germ cell development and induce carcinoma in situ, and (iii) HERV-K np9 transcript is overproduced in many tumors including breast cancers. Here we document that both Np9 and Rec physically and functionally interact with the promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) tumor suppressor, a transcriptional repressor and chromatin remodeler implicated in cancer and the self-renewal of spermatogonial stem cells. Interaction is mediated via two different central and C-terminal domains of Np9 and Rec and the C-terminal zinc fingers of PLZF. One major target of PLZF is the c-myc proto-oncogene. Coexpression of Np9 and Rec with PLZF abrogates the transcriptional repression of the c-myc gene promoter by PLZF and results in c-Myc overproduction, altered expression of c-Myc-regulated genes, and corresponding effects on cell proliferation and survival. Thus, the human endogenous retrovirus proteins Np9 and Rec may act oncogenically by derepressing c-myc through the inhibition of PLZF. PMID:17360752

  1. Genetic Dissection of Photoreceptor Subtype Specification by the Drosophila melanogaster Zinc Finger Proteins Elbow and No ocelli

    PubMed Central

    Wernet, Mathias F.; Meier, Kerstin M.; Baumann-Klausener, Franziska; Dorfman, Ruslan; Weihe, Ulrich; Labhart, Thomas; Desplan, Claude

    2014-01-01

    The elbow/no ocelli (elb/noc) complex of Drosophila melanogaster encodes two paralogs of the evolutionarily conserved NET family of zinc finger proteins. These transcriptional repressors share a conserved domain structure, including a single atypical C2H2 zinc finger. In flies, Elb and Noc are important for the development of legs, eyes and tracheae. Vertebrate NET proteins play an important role in the developing nervous system, and mutations in the homolog ZNF703 human promote luminal breast cancer. However, their interaction with transcriptional regulators is incompletely understood. Here we show that loss of both Elb and Noc causes mis-specification of polarization-sensitive photoreceptors in the ‘dorsal rim area’ (DRA) of the fly retina. This phenotype is identical to the loss of the homeodomain transcription factor Homothorax (Hth)/dMeis. Development of DRA ommatidia and expression of Hth are induced by the Wingless/Wnt pathway. Our data suggest that Elb/Noc genetically interact with Hth, and we identify two conserved domains crucial for this function. Furthermore, we show that Elb/Noc specifically interact with the transcription factor Orthodenticle (Otd)/Otx, a crucial regulator of rhodopsin gene transcription. Interestingly, different Elb/Noc domains are required to antagonize Otd functions in transcriptional activation, versus transcriptional repression. We propose that similar interactions between vertebrate NET proteins and Meis and Otx factors might play a role in development and disease. PMID:24625735

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel RING zinc-finger protein gene up-regulated under in vitro salt stress in cassava.

    PubMed

    dos Reis, Sávio Pinho; Tavares, Liliane de Souza Conceição; Costa, Carinne de Nazaré Monteiro; Brígida, Aílton Borges Santa; de Souza, Cláudia Regina Batista

    2012-06-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the world's most important food crops. It is cultivated mainly in developing countries of tropics, since its root is a major source of calories for low-income people due to its high productivity and resistance to many abiotic and biotic factors. A previous study has identified a partial cDNA sequence coding for a putative RING zinc finger in cassava storage root. The RING zinc finger protein is a specialized type of zinc finger protein found in many organisms. Here, we isolated the full-length cDNA sequence coding for M. esculenta RZF (MeRZF) protein by a combination of 5' and 3' RACE assays. BLAST analysis showed that its deduced amino acid sequence has a high level of similarity to plant proteins of RZF family. MeRZF protein contains a signature sequence motif for a RING zinc finger at its C-terminal region. In addition, this protein showed a histidine residue at the fifth coordination site, likely belonging to the RING-H2 subgroup, as confirmed by our phylogenetic analysis. There is also a transmembrane domain in its N-terminal region. Finally, semi-quantitative RT-PCR assays showed that MeRZF expression is increased in detached leaves treated with sodium chloride. Here, we report the first evidence of a RING zinc finger gene of cassava showing potential role in response to salt stress.

  3. Arabidopsis VARIEGATED 3 encodes a chloroplast-targeted, zinc-finger protein required for chloroplast and palisade cell development.

    PubMed

    Naested, Henrik; Holm, Agnethe; Jenkins, Tom; Nielsen, H Bjørn; Harris, Cassandra A; Beale, Michael H; Andersen, Mathias; Mant, Alexandra; Scheller, Henrik; Camara, Bilal; Mattsson, Ole; Mundy, John

    2004-09-15

    The stable, recessive Arabidopsis variegated 3 (var3) mutant exhibits a variegated phenotype due to somatic areas lacking or containing developmentally retarded chloroplasts and greatly reduced numbers of palisade cells. The VAR3 gene, isolated by transposon tagging, encodes the 85.9 kDa VAR3 protein containing novel repeats and zinc fingers described as protein interaction domains. VAR3 interacts specifically in yeast and in vitro with NCED4, a putative polyene chain or carotenoid dioxygenase, and both VAR3 and NCED4 accumulate in the chloroplast stroma. Metabolic profiling demonstrates that pigment profiles are qualitatively similar in wild type and var3, although var3 accumulates lower levels of chlorophylls and carotenoids. These results indicate that VAR3 is a part of a protein complex required for normal chloroplast and palisade cell development.

  4. Effect of ZnO#ZnS QDs heterojunctures on the stilbenes-plasma proteins interactions.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jianbo; Wang, Feijiu; Liu, Jie; Wang, Litong; Kai, Guoyin; Yu, Xibin

    2011-08-01

    Zero-dimensional nanostructures such as ZnO#ZnS QDs heterojunctures (QDHJs) are green nanoparticles and have gained a tremendous amount of attention. However, very little information is available on the effects of these heterojunctures on the transportation of drugs in blood. Herein, stilbenes were studied for their affinities for common bovine plasma proteins (CBPP) in the presence and absence of QDHJs with different diameters. The affinities of QDHJs for CBPP improved with increasing QDHJs size. QDHJs improved the affinities of resveratrol and polydatin for CBPP by 14.74% to 22.36% and 12.56% to 21.34% depending on the size of QDHJs. The number of binding sites (n) between resveratrol and polydatin for CBPP in the presence of QDHJs were 1.04 ± 0.03 and 1.06 ± 0.04, which were obviously higher than those in the absence of QDHJs (n = 0.89 and 0.92). QDHJs in blood will decrease the free concentration of stilbenes and weaken their pharmacological effects.

  5. The mouse genome displays highly dynamic populations of KRAB-zinc finger protein genes and related genetic units.

    PubMed

    Kauzlaric, Annamaria; Ecco, Gabriela; Cassano, Marco; Duc, Julien; Imbeault, Michael; Trono, Didier

    2017-01-01

    KRAB-containing poly-zinc finger proteins (KZFPs) constitute the largest family of transcription factors encoded by mammalian genomes, and growing evidence indicates that they fulfill functions critical to both embryonic development and maintenance of adult homeostasis. KZFP genes underwent broad and independent waves of expansion in many higher vertebrates lineages, yet comprehensive studies of members harbored by a given species are scarce. Here we present a thorough analysis of KZFP genes and related units in the murine genome. We first identified about twice as many elements than previously annotated as either KZFP genes or pseudogenes, notably by assigning to this family an entity formerly considered as a large group of Satellite repeats. We then could delineate an organization in clusters distributed throughout the genome, with signs of recombination, translocation, duplication and seeding of new sites by retrotransposition of KZFP genes and related genetic units (KZFP/rGUs). Moreover, we harvested evidence indicating that closely related paralogs had evolved through both drifting and shifting of sequences encoding for zinc finger arrays. Finally, we could demonstrate that the KAP1-SETDB1 repressor complex tames the expression of KZFP/rGUs within clusters, yet that the primary targets of this regulation are not the KZFP/rGUs themselves but enhancers contained in neighboring endogenous retroelements and that, underneath, KZFPs conserve highly individualized patterns of expression.

  6. The mouse genome displays highly dynamic populations of KRAB-zinc finger protein genes and related genetic units

    PubMed Central

    Kauzlaric, Annamaria; Ecco, Gabriela; Cassano, Marco; Duc, Julien; Imbeault, Michael; Trono, Didier

    2017-01-01

    KRAB-containing poly-zinc finger proteins (KZFPs) constitute the largest family of transcription factors encoded by mammalian genomes, and growing evidence indicates that they fulfill functions critical to both embryonic development and maintenance of adult homeostasis. KZFP genes underwent broad and independent waves of expansion in many higher vertebrates lineages, yet comprehensive studies of members harbored by a given species are scarce. Here we present a thorough analysis of KZFP genes and related units in the murine genome. We first identified about twice as many elements than previously annotated as either KZFP genes or pseudogenes, notably by assigning to this family an entity formerly considered as a large group of Satellite repeats. We then could delineate an organization in clusters distributed throughout the genome, with signs of recombination, translocation, duplication and seeding of new sites by retrotransposition of KZFP genes and related genetic units (KZFP/rGUs). Moreover, we harvested evidence indicating that closely related paralogs had evolved through both drifting and shifting of sequences encoding for zinc finger arrays. Finally, we could demonstrate that the KAP1-SETDB1 repressor complex tames the expression of KZFP/rGUs within clusters, yet that the primary targets of this regulation are not the KZFP/rGUs themselves but enhancers contained in neighboring endogenous retroelements and that, underneath, KZFPs conserve highly individualized patterns of expression. PMID:28334004

  7. Two short basic sequences surrounding the zinc finger of nucleocapsid protein NCp10 of Moloney murine leukemia virus are critical for RNA annealing activity.

    PubMed

    De Rocquigny, H; Ficheux, D; Gabus, C; Allain, B; Fournie-Zaluski, M C; Darlix, J L; Roques, B P

    1993-02-25

    The 56 amino acid nucleocapsid protein (NCp10) of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus, contains a CysX2CysX4HisX4Cys zinc finger flanked by basic residues. In vitro NCp10 promotes genomic RNA dimerization, a process most probably linked to genomic RNA packaging, and replication primer tRNA(Pro) annealing to the initiation site of reverse transcription. To characterize the amino-acid sequences involved in the various functions of NCp10, we have synthesized by solid phase method the native protein and a series of derived peptides shortened at the N- or C-terminus with or without the zinc finger domain. In the latter case, the two parts of the protein were linked by a Glycine - Glycine spacer. The in vitro studies of these peptides show that nucleic acid annealing activities of NCp10 do not require a zinc finger but are critically dependent on the presence of specific sequences located on each side of the CCHC domain and containing proline and basic residues. Thus, deletion of 11R or 49PRPQT, of the fully active 29 residue peptide 11RQGGERRRSQLDRDGGKKPRGPRGPRPQT53 leads to a complete loss of NCp10 activity. Therefore it is proposed that in NCp10, the zinc finger directs the spatial recognition of the target RNAs by the basic domains surrounding the zinc finger.

  8. Two short basic sequences surrounding the zinc finger of nucleocapsid protein NCp10 of Moloney murine leukemia virus are critical for RNA annealing activity.

    PubMed Central

    De Rocquigny, H; Ficheux, D; Gabus, C; Allain, B; Fournie-Zaluski, M C; Darlix, J L; Roques, B P

    1993-01-01

    The 56 amino acid nucleocapsid protein (NCp10) of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus, contains a CysX2CysX4HisX4Cys zinc finger flanked by basic residues. In vitro NCp10 promotes genomic RNA dimerization, a process most probably linked to genomic RNA packaging, and replication primer tRNA(Pro) annealing to the initiation site of reverse transcription. To characterize the amino-acid sequences involved in the various functions of NCp10, we have synthesized by solid phase method the native protein and a series of derived peptides shortened at the N- or C-terminus with or without the zinc finger domain. In the latter case, the two parts of the protein were linked by a Glycine - Glycine spacer. The in vitro studies of these peptides show that nucleic acid annealing activities of NCp10 do not require a zinc finger but are critically dependent on the presence of specific sequences located on each side of the CCHC domain and containing proline and basic residues. Thus, deletion of 11R or 49PRPQT, of the fully active 29 residue peptide 11RQGGERRRSQLDRDGGKKPRGPRGPRPQT53 leads to a complete loss of NCp10 activity. Therefore it is proposed that in NCp10, the zinc finger directs the spatial recognition of the target RNAs by the basic domains surrounding the zinc finger. Images PMID:8451185

  9. Mallet finger - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Baseball finger - aftercare; Drop finger - aftercare; Avulsion fracture - mallet finger - aftercare ... away from the rest of the bone (avulsion fracture) Mallet finger most often occurs when something hits ...

  10. A plant EPF-type zinc-finger protein, CaPIF1, involved in defence against pathogens.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sang-Keun; Park, Jeong Mee; Joung, Young Hee; Lee, Sanghyeob; Chung, Eunsook; Kim, Soo-Yong; Yu, Seung Hun; Choi, Doil

    2005-05-01

    SUMMARY To understand better the defence responses of plants to pathogen attack, we challenged hot pepper plants with bacterial pathogens and identified transcription factor-encoding genes whose expression patterns were altered during the subsequent hypersensitive response. One of these genes, CaPIF1 (Capsicum annuum Pathogen-Induced Factor 1), was characterized further. This gene encodes a plant-specific EPF-type protein that contains two Cys(2)/His(2) zinc fingers. CaPIF1 expression was rapidly and specifically induced when pepper plants were challenged with bacterial pathogens to which they are resistant. In contrast, challenge with a pathogen to which the plants are susceptible only generated weak CaPIF1 expression. CaPIF1 expression was also strongly induced in pepper leaves by the exogenous application of ethephon, an ethylene-releasing compound, and salicylic acid, whereas methyl jasmonate had only moderate effects. CaPIF1 localized to the nuclei of onion epidermis when expressed as a CaPIF1-smGFP fusion protein. Transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing CaPIF1 driven by the CaMV 35S promoter showed increased resistance to challenge with a tobacco-specific pathogen or non-host bacterial pathogens. These plants also showed constitutive up-regulation of multiple defence-related genes. Moreover, virus-induced silencing of the CaPIF1 orthologue in Nicotiana benthamiana enhanced susceptibility to the same host or non-host bacterial pathogens. These observations provide evidence that an EPF-type Cys(2)/His(2) zinc-finger protein plays a crucial role in the activation of the pathogen defence response in plants.

  11. Molecular Characterization of the Schistosoma mansoni Zinc Finger Protein SmZF1 as a Transcription Factor

    PubMed Central

    D'Astolfo, Diego S.; Cardoso, Fernanda C.; Rajão, Matheus A.; Mourão, Marina M.; Gava, Elisandra; Oliveira, Sérgio C.; Macedo, Andréa M.; Machado, Carlos R.; Pena, Sérgio D. J.; Kitten, Gregory T.; Franco, Glória R.

    2009-01-01

    Background During its development, the parasite Schistosoma mansoni is exposed to different environments and undergoes many morphological and physiological transformations as a result of profound changes in gene expression. Characterization of proteins involved in the regulation of these processes is of importance for the understanding of schistosome biology. Proteins containing zinc finger motifs usually participate in regulatory processes and are considered the major class of transcription factors in eukaryotes. It has already been shown, by EMSA (Eletrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay), that SmZF1, a S. mansoni zinc finger (ZF) protein, specifically binds both DNA and RNA oligonucleotides. This suggests that this protein might act as a transcription factor in the parasite. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we extended the characterization of SmZF1 by determining its subcellular localization and by verifying its ability to regulate gene transcription. We performed immunohistochemistry assays using adult male and female worms, cercariae and schistosomula to analyze the distribution pattern of SmZF1 and verified that the protein is mainly detected in the cells nuclei of all tested life cycle stages except for adult female worms. Also, SmZF1 was heterologously expressed in mammalian COS-7 cells to produce the recombinant protein YFP-SmZF1, which was mainly detected in the nucleus of the cells by confocal microscopy and Western blot assays. To evaluate the ability of this protein to regulate gene transcription, cells expressing YFP-SmZF1 were tested in a luciferase reporter system. In this system, the luciferase gene is downstream of a minimal promoter, upstream of which a DNA region containing four copies of the SmZF1 putative best binding site (D1-3DNA) was inserted. SmZF1 increased the reporter gene transcription by two fold (p≤0.003) only when its specific binding site was present. Conclusion Taken together, these results strongly support the hypothesis

  12. Improved ethanol production at high temperature by consolidated bioprocessing using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain engineered with artificial zinc finger protein.

    PubMed

    Khatun, M Mahfuza; Yu, Xinshui; Kondo, Akihiko; Bai, Fengwu; Zhao, Xinqing

    2017-12-01

    In this work, the consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae MNII/cocδBEC3 was transformed by an artificial zinc finger protein (AZFP) library to improve its thermal tolerance, and the strain MNII-AZFP with superior growth at 42°C was selected. Improved degradation of acid swollen cellulose by 45.9% led to an increase in ethanol production, when compared to the control strain. Moreover, the fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke stalk (JAS) by MNII-AZFP was shortened by 12h at 42°C with a concomitant improvement in ethanol production. Comparative transcriptomics analysis suggested that the AZFP in the mutant exerted beneficial effect by modulating the expression of multiple functional genes. These results provide a feasible strategy for efficient ethanol production from JAS and other cellulosic biomass through CBP based-fermentation at elevated temperatures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Detection of Protein via ZnO Resonant Raman Scattering Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Guiye; Yang, Guoliang; Wang, Shuang; Liu, Yichun

    2008-03-01

    Detecting protein with high sensitivity and specificity is essential for disease diagnostics, drug screening and other application. Semiconductor nanoparticles show better properties than organic dye molecules when used as markers for optical measurements. We used ZnO nanoparticles as markers for detecting protein in resonant Raman scattering measurements. The highly sensitive detection of proteins was achieved by an antibody-based sandwich assay. A probe for the target protein was constructed by binding the ZnO/Au nanoparticles to a primary antibody by eletrostatic interaction between Au and the antibody. A secondary antibody, which could be specifically recognized by target protein, was attached to a solid surface. The ZnO/Au-antibody probe could specifically recognize and bind to the complex of the target protein and secondary antibody. Our measurements using the resonant Raman scattering signal of ZnO nanoparticles showed good selectivity and sensitivity for the target protein.

  14. Epigenetic regulation of puberty via Zinc finger protein-mediated transcriptional repression

    PubMed Central

    Lomniczi, Alejandro; Wright, Hollis; Castellano, Juan Manuel; Matagne, Valerie; Toro, Carlos A.; Ramaswamy, Suresh; Plant, Tony M.; Ojeda, Sergio R.

    2015-01-01

    In primates, puberty is unleashed by increased GnRH release from the hypothalamus following an interval of juvenile quiescence. GWAS implicates Zinc finger (ZNF) genes in timing human puberty. Here we show that hypothalamic expression of several ZNFs decreased in agonadal male monkeys in association with the pubertal reactivation of gonadotropin secretion. Expression of two of these ZNFs, GATAD1 and ZNF573, also decreases in peripubertal female monkeys. However, only GATAD1 abundance increases when gonadotropin secretion is suppressed during late infancy. Targeted delivery of GATAD1 or ZNF573 to the rat hypothalamus delays puberty by impairing the transition of a transcriptional network from an immature repressive epigenetic configuration to one of activation. GATAD1 represses transcription of two key puberty-related genes, KISS1 and TAC3, directly, and reduces the activating histone mark H3K4me2 at each promoter via recruitment of histone demethylase KDM1A. We conclude that GATAD1 epitomizes a subset of ZNFs involved in epigenetic repression of primate puberty. PMID:26671628

  15. Epigenetic regulation of puberty via Zinc finger protein-mediated transcriptional repression.

    PubMed

    Lomniczi, Alejandro; Wright, Hollis; Castellano, Juan Manuel; Matagne, Valerie; Toro, Carlos A; Ramaswamy, Suresh; Plant, Tony M; Ojeda, Sergio R

    2015-12-16

    In primates, puberty is unleashed by increased GnRH release from the hypothalamus following an interval of juvenile quiescence. GWAS implicates Zinc finger (ZNF) genes in timing human puberty. Here we show that hypothalamic expression of several ZNFs decreased in agonadal male monkeys in association with the pubertal reactivation of gonadotropin secretion. Expression of two of these ZNFs, GATAD1 and ZNF573, also decreases in peripubertal female monkeys. However, only GATAD1 abundance increases when gonadotropin secretion is suppressed during late infancy. Targeted delivery of GATAD1 or ZNF573 to the rat hypothalamus delays puberty by impairing the transition of a transcriptional network from an immature repressive epigenetic configuration to one of activation. GATAD1 represses transcription of two key puberty-related genes, KISS1 and TAC3, directly, and reduces the activating histone mark H3K4me2 at each promoter via recruitment of histone demethylase KDM1A. We conclude that GATAD1 epitomizes a subset of ZNFs involved in epigenetic repression of primate puberty.

  16. Zhx2 (zinc fingers and homeoboxes 2) regulates major urinary protein gene expression in the mouse liver

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jieyun; Creasy, Kate Townsend; Purnell, Justin; Peterson, Martha L.; Spear, Brett T.

    2017-01-01

    The mouse major urinary proteins (Mups) are encoded by a large family of highly related genes clustered on chromosome 4. Mups, synthesized primarily and abundantly in the liver and secreted through the kidneys, exhibit male-biased expression. Mups bind a variety of volatile ligands; these ligands, and Mup proteins themselves, influence numerous behavioral traits. Although urinary Mup protein levels vary between inbred mouse strains, this difference is most pronounced in BALB/cJ mice, which have dramatically low urinary Mup levels; this BALB/cJ trait had been mapped to a locus on chromosome 15. We previously identified Zhx2 (zinc fingers and homeoboxes 2) as a regulator of numerous liver-enriched genes. Zhx2 is located on chromosome 15, and a natural hypomorphic mutation in the BALB/cJ Zhx2 allele dramatically reduces Zhx2 expression. Based on these data, we hypothesized that reduced Zhx2 levels are responsible for lower Mup expression in BALB/cJ mice. Using both transgenic and knock-out mice along with in vitro assays, our data show that Zhx2 binds Mup promoters and is required for high levels of Mup expression in the adult liver. In contrast to previously identified Zhx2 targets that appear to be repressed by Zhx2, Mup genes are positively regulated by Zhx2. These data identify Zhx2 as a novel regulator of Mup expression and indicate that Zhx2 activates as well as represses expression of target genes. PMID:28258223

  17. Specific Labeling of Zinc Finger Proteins using Non-canonical Amino Acids and Copper-free Click Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sung Hoon; Ferracane, Dean; Katzenellenbogen, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) play a key role in transcriptional regulation and serve as invaluable tools for gene modification and genetic engineering. Development of efficient strategies for labeling metalloproteins such as ZFPs is essential for understanding and controlling biological processes. In this work, we engineered ZFPs containing cysteine-histidine (Cys2-His2) motifs by metabolic incorporation of the unnatural amino acid azidohomoalanine (AHA), followed by specific protein labeling via click chemistry. We show that cyclooctyne promoted [3 + 2] dipolar cycloaddition with azides, known as copper-free click chemistry, provides rapid and specific labeling of ZFPs at high yields as determined by mass spectrometry analysis. We observe that the DNA-binding activity of ZFPs labeled by conventional copper-mediated click chemistry was completely abolished, whereas ZFPs labeled by copper-free click chemistry retain their sequence-specific DNA-binding activity under native conditions, as determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assays, protein microarrays and kinetic binding assays based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). Our work provides a general framework to label metalloproteins such as ZFPs by metabolic incorporation of unnatural amino acids followed by copper-free click chemistry. PMID:22871171

  18. Directing an artificial zinc finger protein to new targets by fusion to a non-DNA-binding domain.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wooi F; Burdach, Jon; Funnell, Alister P W; Pearson, Richard C M; Quinlan, Kate G R; Crossley, Merlin

    2016-04-20

    Transcription factors are often regarded as having two separable components: a DNA-binding domain (DBD) and a functional domain (FD), with the DBD thought to determine target gene recognition. While this holds true for DNA bindingin vitro, it appears thatin vivoFDs can also influence genomic targeting. We fused the FD from the well-characterized transcription factor Krüppel-like Factor 3 (KLF3) to an artificial zinc finger (AZF) protein originally designed to target the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A (VEGF-A) gene promoter. We compared genome-wide occupancy of the KLF3FD-AZF fusion to that observed with AZF. AZF bound to theVEGF-Apromoter as predicted, but was also found to occupy approximately 25,000 other sites, a large number of which contained the expected AZF recognition sequence, GCTGGGGGC. Interestingly, addition of the KLF3 FD re-distributes the fusion protein to new sites, with total DNA occupancy detected at around 50,000 sites. A portion of these sites correspond to known KLF3-bound regions, while others contained sequences similar but not identical to the expected AZF recognition sequence. These results show that FDs can influence and may be useful in directing AZF DNA-binding proteins to specific targets and provide insights into how natural transcription factors operate. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. A Homozygous Mutation in a Novel Zinc-Finger Protein, ERIS, Is Responsible for Wolfram Syndrome 2

    PubMed Central

    Amr, Sami ; Heisey, Cindy ; Zhang, Min ; Xia, Xia-Juan ; Shows, Kathryn H. ; Ajlouni, Kamel ; Pandya, Arti ; Satin, Leslie S. ; El-Shanti, Hatem ; Shiang, Rita 

    2007-01-01

    A single missense mutation was identified in a novel, highly conserved zinc-finger gene, ZCD2, in three consanguineous families of Jordanian descent with Wolfram syndrome (WFS). It had been shown that these families did not have mutations in the WFS1 gene (WFS1) but were mapped to the WFS2 locus at 4q22-25. A G→C transversion at nucleotide 109 predicts an amino acid change from glutamic acid to glutamine (E37Q). Although the amino acid is conserved and the mutation is nonsynonymous, the pathogenesis for the disorder is because the mutation also causes aberrant splicing. The mutation was found to disrupt messenger RNA splicing by eliminating exon 2, and it results in the introduction of a premature stop codon. Mutations in WFS1 have also been found to cause low-frequency nonsyndromic hearing loss, progressive hearing loss, and isolated optic atrophy associated with hearing loss. Screening of 377 probands with hearing loss did not identify mutations in the WFS2 gene. The WFS1-encoded protein, Wolframin, is known to localize to the endoplasmic reticulum and plays a role in calcium homeostasis. The ZCD2-encoded protein, ERIS (endoplasmic reticulum intermembrane small protein), is also shown to localize to the endoplasmic reticulum but does not interact directly with Wolframin. Lymphoblastoid cells from affected individuals show a significantly greater rise in intracellular calcium when stimulated with thapsigargin, compared with controls, although no difference was observed in resting concentrations of intracellular calcium. PMID:17846994

  20. The sigma-1 receptor-Zinc finger protein 179 pathway protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell injury

    PubMed Central

    Su, Tzu-Chieh; Lin, Shu-Hui; Lee, Pin-Tse; Yeh, Shiu-Hwa; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsun; Chou, Szu-Yi; Su, Tsung-Ping; Hung, Jan-Jong; Chang, Wen-Chang; Lee, Yi-Chao; Chuang, Jian-Ying

    2017-01-01

    The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have implicated the pathogenesis of several human diseases including neurodegenerative disorders, stroke, and traumatic brain injury, hence protecting neurons against ROS is very important. In this study, we focused on sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R), a chaperone at endoplasmic reticulum, and investigated its protective functions. Using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced ROS accumulation model, we verified that apoptosis-signaling pathways were elicited by H2O2 treatment. However, the Sig-1R agonists, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEAS), reduced the activation of apoptotic pathways significantly. By performing protein-protein interaction assays and shRNA knockdown of Sig-1R, we identified the brain Zinc finger protein 179 (Znf179) as a downstream target of Sig-1R regulation. The neuroprotective effect of Znf179 overexpression was similar to that of DHEAS treatment, and likely mediated by affecting the levels of antioxidant enzymes. We also quantified the levels of peroxiredoxin 3 (Prx3) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) in the hippocampi of wild-type and Znf179 knockout mice, and found both enzymes to be reduced in the knockout versus the wild-type mice. In summary, these results reveal that Znf179 plays a novel role in neuroprotection, and Sig-1R agonists may be therapeutic candidates to prevent ROS-induced damage in neurodegenerative and neurotraumatic diseases. PMID:26792191

  1. Selection for a Zinc-Finger Protein Contributes to Seed Oil Increase during Soybean Domestication1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing-Tian; Lu, Xiang; Song, Qing-Xin; Chen, Hao-Wei; Wei, Wei; Tao, Jian-Jun; Ma, Biao; Bi, Ying-Dong; Li, Wei; Lai, Yong-Cai; Shui, Guang-Hou; Chen, Shou-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Seed oil is a momentous agronomical trait of soybean (Glycine max) targeted by domestication in breeding. Although multiple oil-related genes have been uncovered, knowledge of the regulatory mechanism of seed oil biosynthesis is currently limited. We demonstrate that the seed-preferred gene GmZF351, encoding a tandem CCCH zinc finger protein, is selected during domestication. Further analysis shows that GmZF351 facilitates oil accumulation by directly activating WRINKLED1, BIOTIN CARBOXYL CARRIER PROTEIN2, 3-KETOACYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN SYNTHASE III, DIACYLGLYCEROL O-ACYLTRANSFERASE1, and OLEOSIN2 in transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds. Overexpression of GmZF351 in transgenic soybean also activates lipid biosynthesis genes, thereby accelerating seed oil accumulation. The ZF351 haplotype from the cultivated soybean group and the wild soybean (Glycine soja) subgroup III correlates well with high gene expression level, seed oil contents and promoter activity, suggesting that selection of GmZF351 expression leads to increased seed oil content in cultivated soybean. Our study provides novel insights into the regulatory mechanism for seed oil accumulation, and the manipulation of GmZF351 may have great potential in the improvement of oil production in soybean and other related crops. PMID:28184009

  2. A novel cold-inducible zinc finger protein from soybean, SCOF-1, enhances cold tolerance in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Kim, J C; Lee, S H; Cheong, Y H; Yoo, C M; Lee, S I; Chun, H J; Yun, D J; Hong, J C; Lee, S Y; Lim, C O; Cho, M J

    2001-02-01

    Cold stress on plants induces changes in the transcription of cold response genes. A cDNA clone encoding C2H2-type zinc finger protein, SCOF-1, was isolated from soybean. The transcription of SCOF-1 is specifically induced by low temperature and abscisic acid (ABA) but not by dehydration or high salinity. Constitutive overexpression of SCOF-1 induced cold-regulated (COR) gene expression and enhanced cold tolerance of non-acclimated transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. SCOF-1 localized to the nucleus but did not bind directly to either C-repeat/dehydration (CRT/DRE) or ABA responsive element (ABRE), cis-acting DNA regulatory elements present in COR gene promoters. However, SCOF-1 greatly enhanced the DNA binding activity of SGBF-1, a soybean G-box binding bZIP transcription factor, to ABRE in vitro. SCOF-1 also interacted with SGBF-1 in a yeast two-hybrid system. The SGBF-1 transactivated the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene driven by the ABRE element in Arabidopsis leaf protoplasts. Furthermore, the SCOF-1 enhanced ABRE-dependent gene expression mediated by SGBF-1. These results suggest that SCOF-1 may function as a positive regulator of COR gene expression mediated by ABRE via protein-protein interaction, which in turn enhances cold tolerance of plants.

  3. Development of an electrochemical detection system for measuring DNA methylation levels using methyl CpG-binding protein and glucose dehydrogenase-fused zinc finger protein.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinhee; Yoshida, Wataru; Abe, Koichi; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Wakeda, Hironobu; Hata, Kenichiro; Marquette, Christophe A; Blum, Loïc J; Sode, Koji; Ikebukuro, Kazunori

    2017-07-15

    DNA methylation level at a certain gene region is considered as a new type of biomarker for diagnosis and its miniaturized and rapid detection system is required for diagnosis. Here we have developed a simple electrochemical detection system for DNA methylation using methyl CpG-binding domain (MBD) and a glucose dehydrogenase (GDH)-fused zinc finger protein. This analytical system consists of three steps: (1) methylated DNA collection by MBD, (2) PCR amplification of a target genomic region among collected methylated DNA, and (3) electrochemical detection of the PCR products using a GDH-fused zinc finger protein. With this system, we have successfully measured the methylation levels at the promoter region of the androgen receptor gene in 10 6 copies of genomic DNA extracted from PC3 and TSU-PR1 cancer cell lines. Since no sequence analysis or enzymatic digestion is required for this detection system, DNA methylation levels can be measured within 3h with a simple procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemical-Biological Properties of Zinc Sensors TSQ and Zinquin: Formation of Sensor-Zn-Protein Adducts versus Zn(Sensor)2 Complexes.

    PubMed

    Nowakowski, Andrew B; Meeusen, Jeffrey W; Menden, Heather; Tomasiewicz, Henry; Petering, David H

    2015-12-21

    Fluorescent zinc sensors are the most commonly used tool to study the intracellular mobile zinc status within cellular systems. Previously, we have shown that the quinoline-based sensors Zinquin and 6-methoxy-8-p-toluenesulfonamido-quinoline (TSQ) predominantly form ternary adducts with members of the Zn-proteome. Here, the chemistries of these sensors are further characterized, including how Zn(sensor)2 complexes may react in an intracellular environment. We demonstrate that these sensors are typically used in higher concentrations than needed to obtain maximum signal. Exposing cells to either Zn(Zinquin)2 or Zn(TSQ)2 resulted in efficient cellular uptake and the formation of sensor-Zn-protein adducts as evidenced by both a fluorescence spectral shift toward that of ternary adducts and the localization of the fluorescence signal within the proteome after gel filtration of cellular lysates. Likewise, reacting Zn(sensor)2 with the Zn-proteome from LLC-PK1 cells resulted in the formation of sensor-Zn-protein ternary adducts that could be inhibited by first saturating the Zn- proteome with excess sensor. Further, a native SDS-PAGE analysis of the Zn-proteome reacted with either the sensor or the Zn(sensor)2 complex revealed that both reactions result in the formation of a similar set of sensor-Zn-protein fluorescent products. The results of this experiment also demonstrated that TSQ and Zinquin react with different members of the Zn-proteome. Reactions with the model apo-Zn-protein bovine serum albumin showed that both Zn(TSQ)2 and Zn(Zinquin)2 reacted to form ternary adducts with its apo-Zn-binding site. Moreover, incubating Zn(sensor)2 complexes with non-zinc binding proteins failed to elicit a spectral shift in the fluorescence spectrum, supporting the premise that blue-shifted emission spectra are due to sensor-Zn-protein ternary adducts. It was concluded that Zn(sensors)2 species do not play a significant role in the overall reaction between these sensors and

  5. Smashed fingers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Crushed digits Images Smashed fingers References Brunton LM, Graham TJ, Atkinson RE. Hand injuries. In: Miller MD, ... Review Date 4/18/2017 Updated by: C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder ...

  6. Trigger Finger

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a bent position. People whose work or hobbies require repetitive gripping actions are at higher risk ... developing trigger finger include: Repeated gripping. Occupations and hobbies that involve repetitive hand use and prolonged gripping ...

  7. Characterisation of zinc-binding domains of peroxisomal RING finger proteins using size exclusion chromatography/inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Koellensperger, Gunda; Daubert, Simon; Erdmann, Ralf; Hann, Stephan; Rottensteiner, Hanspeter

    2007-11-01

    We determined the zinc binding stoichiometry of peroxisomal RING finger proteins by measuring sulfur/metal ratios using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry coupled to size exclusion chromatography, a strategy that provides a fast and quantitative overview on the binding of metals in proteins. As a quality control, liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-time of flight-mass spectrometry was used to measure the molar masses of the intact proteins. The RING fingers of Pex2p, Pex10p, and Pex12p showed a stoichiometry of 2.0, 2.1, and 1.2 mol zinc/mol protein, respectively. Thus, Pex2p and Pex10p possess a typical RING domain with two coordinated zinc atoms, whereas that of Pex12p coordinates only a single zinc atom.

  8. Zinc finger protein binding to DNA: an energy perspective using molecular dynamics simulation and free energy calculations on mutants of both zinc finger domains and their specific DNA bases.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Mazen Y; Arya, Gaurav

    2016-05-01

    Energy calculations based on MM-GBSA were employed to study various zinc finger protein (ZF) motifs binding to DNA. Mutants of both the DNA bound to their specific amino acids were studied. Calculated energies gave evidence for a relationship between binding energy and affinity of ZF motifs to their sites on DNA. ΔG values were -15.82(12), -3.66(12), and -12.14(11.6) kcal/mol for finger one, finger two, and finger three, respectively. The mutations in the DNA bases reduced the value of the negative energies of binding (maximum value for ΔΔG = 42Kcal/mol for F1 when GCG mutated to GGG, and ΔΔG = 22 kcal/mol for F2, the loss in total energy of binding originated in the loss in electrostatic energies upon mutation (r = .98). The mutations in key amino acids in the ZF motif in positions-1, 2, 3, and 6 showed reduced binding energies to DNA with correlation coefficients between total free energy and electrostatic was .99 and with Van der Waal was .93. Results agree with experimentally found selectivity which showed that Arginine in position-1 is specific to G, while Aspartic acid (D) in position 2 plays a complicated role in binding. There is a correlation between the MD calculated free energies of binding and those obtained experimentally for prepared ZF motifs bound to triplet bases in other reports (), our results may help in the design of ZF motifs based on the established recognition codes based on energies and contributing energies to the total energy.

  9. A stress-associated protein containing A20/AN1 zing-finger domains expressed in Medicago truncatula seeds.

    PubMed

    Gimeno-Gilles, Christine; Gervais, Marie-Laure; Planchet, Elisabeth; Satour, Pascale; Limami, Anis M; Lelievre, Eric

    2011-03-01

    MtSAP1 (Medicago truncatula stress-associated protein 1) was revealed as a down-regulated gene by suppressive subtractive hybridization between two mRNA populations of embryo axes harvested before and after radicle emergence. MtSAP1 is the first gene encoding a SAP with A20 and AN1 zinc-finger domains characterized in M. truncatula. MtSAP1 protein shares 54% and 62% homology with AtSAP7 (Arabidopsis thaliana) and OsiSAP8 (Oryza sativa) respectively, with in particular a strong homology in the A20 and AN1 conserved domains. MtSAP1 gene expression increased in the embryos during the acquisition of tolerance to desiccation, reached its maximum in dry seed and decreased dramatically during the first hours of imbibition. Abiotic stresses (cold and hypoxia), abscisic acid and desiccation treatments induced MtSAP1 gene expression and protein accumulation in embryo axis, while mild drought stress did not affect significantly its expression. This profile of expression along with the presence of anaerobic response elements and ABRE sequences in the upstream region of the gene is consistent with a role of MtSAP1 in the tolerance of low oxygen availability and desiccation during late stages of seed maturation. Silencing of MtSAP1 by RNA interference (RNAi) showed that the function of the encoded protein is required for adequate accumulation of storage globulin proteins, vicilin and legumin, and for the development of embryos able to achieve successful germination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification and molecular characterization of 48 kDa calcium binding protein as calreticulin from finger millet (Eleusine coracana) using peptide mass fingerprinting and transcript profiling.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manoj; Metwal, Mamta; Kumar, Vandana A; Kumar, Anil

    2016-01-30

    Attempts were made to identify and characterize the calcium binding proteins (CaBPs) in grain filling stages of finger millet using proteomics, bioinformatics and molecular approaches. A distinctly observed blue color band of 48 kDa stained by Stains-all was eluted and analyzed as calreticulin (CRT) using nano liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nano LC-MS). Based on the top hits of peptide mass fingerprinting results, conserved primers were designed for isolation of the CRT gene from finger millet using calreticulin sequences of different cereals. The deduced nucleotide sequence analysis of 600 bp amplicon showed up to 91% similarity with CRT gene(s) of rice and other plant species and designated as EcCRT1. Transcript profiling of EcCRT1 showed different levels of relative expression at different stages of developing spikes. The higher expression of EcCRT1 transcripts and protein were observed in later stages of developing spikes which might be due to greater translational synthesis of EcCRT1 protein during seed maturation in finger millet. Preferentially higher synthesis of this CaBP during later stages of grain filling may be responsible for the sequestration of calcium in endoplasmic reticulum of finger millet grains. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Role for a Zinc Finger Protein (Zfp111) in Transformation of 208F Rat Fibroblasts by Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus Envelope Protein

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Tom; Phung, An; Choe, Kevin; Kim, Jung Woo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The native envelope gene (env) of Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) also acts as an oncogene. To investigate the mechanism of transformation, we performed yeast 2-hybrid screening for cellular proteins that interact with Env. Among several candidates, we identified mouse or rat zinc finger protein 111 (zfp111). The interaction between Env and Zfp111 was confirmed through in vivo coimmunoprecipitation assays. Knockdown of endogenous Zfp111 caused a decrease in cell transformation by JSRV Env, while overexpression of Zfp111 increased overall Env transformation, supporting a role for Zfp111 in Env transformation. Knockdown of Zfp111 had no effect on the growth rate of parental rat 208F cells, while it decreased the proliferation rate of JSRV-transformed 208F cells, suggesting that JSRV-transformed cells became dependent on Zfp111. In addition, Zfp111 preferentially bound to a higher-mobility form of JSRV Env that has not been described previously. The higher-mobility form of Env (P70env) was found exclusively in the nuclear fraction, and size of its polypeptide backbone was the same as that of the cytoplasmic Env polyprotein (Pr80env). The differences in glycosylation between the two versions of Env were characterized. These results identify a novel cellular protein, Zfp111, that binds to the JSRV Env protein, and this binding plays a role in Env transformation. These results indicate that JSRV transformation also involves proteins and interactions in the nucleus. IMPORTANCE The envelope protein (Env) of Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is an oncogene, but its mechanism of cell transformation is still unclear. Here we identified seven candidate cellular proteins that can interact with JSRV Env by yeast two-hybrid screening. This study focused on one of the seven candidates, zinc finger protein 111 (Zfp111). Zfp111 was shown to interact with JSRV Env in cells and to be involved in JSRV transformation. Moreover, coexpression of JSRV Env and Zfp111 led to the

  12. The zinc-finger protein ZFR is critical for Staufen 2 isoform specific nucleocytoplasmic shuttling in neurons.

    PubMed

    Elvira, George; Massie, Bernard; DesGroseillers, Luc

    2006-01-01

    In mammalian neurons, transport and translation of mRNA to individual potentiated synapses is believed to occur via a heterogeneous population of RNA granules. To identify components of Staufen2-containing granules, we used the yeast two-hybrid system. A mouse fetal cDNA library was screened with the N-terminal fragment of Staufen2 as bait. ZFR, a three zinc finger protein, was identified as an interacting protein. Confocal microscopy showed that ZFR, although mainly nuclear, was also found in the somatodendritic compartment of primary hippocampal neurons where it localized as granule-like structures. Co-localization with Staufen2 was observed in several granules. Biochemical analyses (immunoprecipitation, cell fractionation) further confirmed the ZFR/Staufen2 association. ZFR was shown to interact with at least the Staufen2(62) isoform, but not with Staufen1. ZFR also co-fractionated with ribosomes and Staufen2(59) and Staufen2(52) in a sucrose gradient. Interestingly, knockdown expression of ZFR through RNA interference in neurons relocated specifically the Staufen2(62), but not the Staufen2(59), isoform to the nucleus. Our results demonstrate that ZFR is a native component of Staufen2-containing granules and likely plays its role during early steps of RNA transport and localization. They also suggest that one of these roles may be linked to Staufen2(62)-containing RNA granule formation in the nucleus and/or to their nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling.

  13. A novel PHD-finger protein 14/KIF4A complex overexpressed in lung cancer is involved in cell mitosis regulation and tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Huang, Qin; Lou, Jiatao; Zou, Liangjian; Wang, Yiguo; Zhang, Peng; Yang, Guang; Zhang, Junyi; Yu, Lan; Yan, Dai; Zhang, Chenyi; Qiao, Jing; Wang, Shuting; Wang, Sai; Xu, Yongdong; Ji, Hongbin; Chen, Zhengjun; Zhang, Zhe

    2017-03-21

    The plant homeodomain (PHD) finger-containing proteins have been implicated in many human diseases including cancer. In this study, we found that PHF14, a newly identified PHD finger protein, is highly expressed in lung cancer. The high expression level of PHF14 was associated with adenocarcinoma and poor survival in lung cancer patients. Knocking down PHF14 suppressed cancer cell growth and carcinogenesis, while over-expressing PHF14 promoted cell proliferation. During cell division, PHF14 directly bound to and co-localized with KIF4A (a nuclear motor protein involved in lung carcinogenesis) to form a functional complex. Similarly to the effect of KIF4A depletion, silencing PHF14 in several cell lines caused cell mitotic defects, prolonged M phase, and inhibited cell proliferation. What's more, these two proteins had a synergistic effect on cell proliferation and were significantly co-overexpressed in lung cancer tissues. Our data provide new insights into the biological significance of PHD finger proteins and imply that PHF14 may be a potential biomarker for lung cancer.

  14. Nuclear localization of the C2H2 zinc finger protein Msn2p is regulated by stress and protein kinase A activity

    PubMed Central

    Görner, Wolfram; Durchschlag, Erich; Martinez-Pastor, Maria Teresa; Estruch, Francisco; Ammerer, Gustav; Hamilton, Barbara; Ruis, Helmut; Schüller, Christoph

    1998-01-01

    Msn2p and the partially redundant factor Msn4p are key regulators of stress-responsive gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. They are required for the transcription of a number of genes coding for proteins with stress-protective functions. Both Msn2p and Msn4p are Cys2His2 zinc finger proteins and bind to the stress response element (STRE). In vivo footprinting studies show that the occupation of STREs is enhanced in stressed cells and dependent on the presence of Msn2p and Msn4p. Both factors accumulate in the nucleus under stress conditions, such as heat shock, osmotic stress, carbon-source starvation, and in the presence of ethanol or sorbate. Stress-induced nuclear localization was found to be rapid, reversible, and independent of protein synthesis. Nuclear localization of Msn2p and Msn4p was shown to be correlated inversely to cAMP levels and protein kinase A (PKA) activity. A region with significant homologies shared between Msn2p and Msn4p is sufficient to confer stress-regulated localization to a SV40–NLS–GFP fusion protein. Serine to alanine or aspartate substitutions in a conserved PKA consensus site abolished cAMP-driven nuclear export and cytoplasmic localization in unstressed cells. We propose stress and cAMP-regulated intracellular localization of Msn2p to be a key step in STRE-dependent transcription and in the general stress response. PMID:9472026

  15. Zinc finger protein designed to target 2-long terminal repeat junctions interferes with human immunodeficiency virus integration.

    PubMed

    Sakkhachornphop, Supachai; Barbas, Carlos F; Keawvichit, Rassamee; Wongworapat, Kanlaya; Tayapiwatana, Chatchai

    2012-09-01

    Integration of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genome into the host chromosome is a vital step in the HIV life cycle. The highly conserved cytosine-adenine (CA) dinucleotide sequence immediately upstream of the cleavage site is crucial for integrase (IN) activity. As this viral enzyme has an important role early in the HIV-1 replication cycle, interference with the IN substrate has become an attractive strategy for therapeutic intervention. We demonstrated that a designed zinc finger protein (ZFP) fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) targets the 2-long terminal repeat (2-LTR) circle junctions of HIV-1 DNA with nanomolar affinity. We report now that 2LTRZFP-GFP stably transduced into 293T cells interfered with the expression of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G)-pseudotyped lentiviral red fluorescent protein (RFP), as shown by the suppression of RFP expression. We also used a third-generation lentiviral vector and pCEP4 expression vector to deliver the 2LTRZFP-GFP transgene into human T-lymphocytic cells, and a stable cell line for long-term expression studies was selected for HIV-1 challenge. HIV-1 integration and replication were inhibited as measured by Alu-gag real-time PCR and p24 antigen assay. In addition, the molecular activity of 2LTRZFP-GFP was evaluated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The results were confirmed by Alu-gag real-time PCR for integration interference. We suggest that the expression of 2LTRZFP-GFP limited viral integration on intracellular immunization, and that it has potential for use in HIV gene therapy in the future.

  16. Zinc Finger Protein Designed to Target 2-Long Terminal Repeat Junctions Interferes with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Integration

    PubMed Central

    Sakkhachornphop, Supachai; Barbas, Carlos F.; Keawvichit, Rassamee; Wongworapat, Kanlaya

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Integration of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genome into the host chromosome is a vital step in the HIV life cycle. The highly conserved cytosine–adenine (CA) dinucleotide sequence immediately upstream of the cleavage site is crucial for integrase (IN) activity. As this viral enzyme has an important role early in the HIV-1 replication cycle, interference with the IN substrate has become an attractive strategy for therapeutic intervention. We demonstrated that a designed zinc finger protein (ZFP) fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) targets the 2-long terminal repeat (2-LTR) circle junctions of HIV-1 DNA with nanomolar affinity. We report now that 2LTRZFP-GFP stably transduced into 293T cells interfered with the expression of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G)-pseudotyped lentiviral red fluorescent protein (RFP), as shown by the suppression of RFP expression. We also used a third-generation lentiviral vector and pCEP4 expression vector to deliver the 2LTRZFP-GFP transgene into human T-lymphocytic cells, and a stable cell line for long-term expression studies was selected for HIV-1 challenge. HIV-1 integration and replication were inhibited as measured by Alu-gag real-time PCR and p24 antigen assay. In addition, the molecular activity of 2LTRZFP-GFP was evaluated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The results were confirmed by Alu-gag real-time PCR for integration interference. We suggest that the expression of 2LTRZFP-GFP limited viral integration on intracellular immunization, and that it has potential for use in HIV gene therapy in the future. PMID:22429108

  17. Structural basis for lack of ADP-ribosyltransferase activity in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-13/zinc finger antiviral protein.

    PubMed

    Karlberg, Tobias; Klepsch, Mirjam; Thorsell, Ann-Gerd; Andersson, C David; Linusson, Anna; Schüler, Herwig

    2015-03-20

    The mammalian poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family includes ADP-ribosyltransferases with diphtheria toxin homology (ARTD). Most members have mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. PARP13/ARTD13, also called zinc finger antiviral protein, has roles in viral immunity and microRNA-mediated stress responses. PARP13 features a divergent PARP homology domain missing a PARP consensus sequence motif; the domain has enigmatic functions and apparently lacks catalytic activity. We used x-ray crystallography, molecular dynamics simulations, and biochemical analyses to investigate the structural requirements for ADP-ribosyltransferase activity in human PARP13 and two of its functional partners in stress granules: PARP12/ARTD12, and PARP15/BAL3/ARTD7. The crystal structure of the PARP homology domain of PARP13 shows obstruction of the canonical active site, precluding NAD(+) binding. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that this closed cleft conformation is maintained in solution. Introducing consensus side chains in PARP13 did not result in 3-aminobenzamide binding, but in further closure of the site. Three-dimensional alignment of the PARP homology domains of PARP13, PARP12, and PARP15 illustrates placement of PARP13 residues that deviate from the PARP family consensus. Introducing either one of two of these side chains into the corresponding positions in PARP15 abolished PARP15 ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Taken together, our results show that PARP13 lacks the structural requirements for ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Homozygous deficiency of ubiquitin-ligase ring-finger protein RNF168 mimics the radiosensitivity syndrome of ataxia-telangiectasia

    PubMed Central

    Devgan, S S; Sanal, O; Doil, C; Nakamura, K; Nahas, S A; Pettijohn, K; Bartek, J; Lukas, C; Lukas, J; Gatti, R A

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining genomic integrity is critical to avoid life-threatening disorders, such as premature aging, neurodegeneration and cancer. A multiprotein cascade operates at sites of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) to recognize, signal and repair damage. RNF168 (ring-finger nuclear factor) contributes to this emerging pathway of several E3 ubiquitin ligases that perform sequential ubiquitylations on damaged chromosomes, chromatin modifications essential for aggregation of repair complexes at the DSB sites. Here, we report the clinical and cellular phenotypes associated with a newly identified homozygous nonsense mutation in the RNF168 gene of a patient with a syndrome mimicking ataxia-telangiectasia. The mutation eliminated both of RNF168's ubiquitin-binding motifs, thus blocking progression of the ubiquitylation cascade and retention of repair proteins including tumor suppressors 53BP1 and BRCA1 at DSB sites, consistent with the observed defective DNA damage checkpoints/repair and pronounced radiosensitivity. Rapid screening for RNF168 pathway deficiency was achieved by scoring patients' lymphoblastoid cells for irradiation-induced nuclear foci containing 53BP1, a robust assay we propose for future diagnostic applications. The formation of radiation-induced DSB repair foci was rescued by ectopic expression of wild-type RNF168 in patient's cells, further causally linking the RNF168 mutation with the pathology. Clinically, this novel syndrome featured ataxia, telangiectasia, elevated alphafetoprotein, immunodeficiency, microcephaly and pulmonary failure and has implications for the differential diagnosis of autosomal recessive ataxias. PMID:21394101

  19. Enhanced cellulase production from Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 by engineering with an artificial zinc finger protein library.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei; Bai, Fengwu; Zhao, Xinqing

    2016-10-01

    Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 is a well-known cellulase producer, and improvement of its cellulase production is of great interest. An artificial zinc finger protein (AZFP) library is constructed for expression in T. reesei Rut-C30, and a mutant strain T. reesei U3 is selected based on its enhanced cellulase production. The U3 mutant shows a 55% rise in filter paper activity and 8.1-fold increased β-glucosidase activity, when compared to the native strain T. reesei Rut-C30. It is demonstrated that enhanced β-glucosidase activity was due to elevated transcription level of β-glucosidase gene in the U3 mutant. Moreover, significant elevation in transcription levels of several putative Azfp-U3 target genes is detected in the U3 mutant, including genes encoding hypothetical transcription factors and a putative glycoside hydrolase. Furthermore, U3 cellulase shows 115% higher glucose yield from pretreated corn stover, when compared to the cellulase of T. reesei Rut-C30. These results demonstrate that AZFP can be used to improve cellulase production in T. reesei Rut-C30. Our current work offers the establishment of an alternative strategy to develop fungal cell factories for improved production of high value industrial products. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Regulation of hippocampus-dependent memory by the zinc finger protein Zbtb20 in mature CA1 neurons.

    PubMed

    Ren, Anjing; Zhang, Huan; Xie, Zhifang; Ma, Xianhua; Ji, Wenli; He, David Z Z; Yuan, Wenjun; Ding, Yu-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Weiping J

    2012-10-01

    The mammalian hippocampus harbours neural circuitry that is crucial for associative learning and memory. The mechanisms that underlie the development and regulation of this complex circuitry are not fully understood. Our previous study established an essential role for the zinc finger protein Zbtb20 in the specification of CA1 field identity in the developing hippocampus. Here, we show that conditionally deleting Zbtb20 specifically in mature CA1 pyramidal neurons impaired hippocampus-dependent memory formation, without affecting hippocampal architecture or the survival, identity and basal excitatory synaptic activity of CA1 pyramidal neurons. We demonstrate that mature CA1-specific Zbtb20 knockout mice exhibited reductions in long-term potentiation (LTP) and NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated excitatory post-synaptic currents. Furthermore, we show that activity-induced phosphorylation of ERK and CREB is impaired in the hippocampal CA1 of Zbtb20 mutant mice. Collectively, these results indicate that Zbtb20 in mature CA1 plays an important role in LTP and memory by regulating NMDAR activity, and activation of ERK and CREB.

  1. Expression analysis of genes encoding double B-box zinc finger proteins in maize.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenlan; Wang, Jingchao; Sun, Qi; Li, Wencai; Yu, Yanli; Zhao, Meng; Meng, Zhaodong

    2017-11-01

    The B-box proteins play key roles in plant development. The double B-box (DBB) family is one of the subfamily of the B-box family, with two B-box domains and without a CCT domain. In this study, 12 maize double B-box genes (ZmDBBs) were identified through a genome-wide survey. Phylogenetic analysis of DBB proteins from maize, rice, Sorghum bicolor, Arabidopsis, and poplar classified them into five major clades. Gene duplication analysis indicated that segmental duplications made a large contribution to the expansion of ZmDBBs. Furthermore, a large number of cis-acting regulatory elements related to plant development, response to light and phytohormone were identified in the promoter regions of the ZmDBB genes. The expression patterns of the ZmDBB genes in various tissues and different developmental stages demonstrated that ZmDBBs might play essential roles in plant development, and some ZmDBB genes might have unique function in specific developmental stages. In addition, several ZmDBB genes showed diurnal expression pattern. The expression levels of some ZmDBB genes changed significantly under light/dark treatment conditions and phytohormone treatments, implying that they might participate in light signaling pathway and hormone signaling. Our results will provide new information to better understand the complexity of the DBB gene family in maize.

  2. Plant architecture and grain yield are regulated by the novel DHHC-type zinc finger protein genes in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bo; Lin, Jian Zhong; Peng, Dan; Yang, Yuan Zhu; Guo, Ming; Tang, Dong Ying; Tan, Xiaofeng; Liu, Xuan Ming

    2017-01-01

    In many plants, architecture and grain yield are affected by both the environment and genetics. In rice, the tiller is a vital factor impacting plant architecture and regulated by many genes. In this study, we cloned a novel DHHC-type zinc finger protein gene Os02g0819100 and its alternative splice variant OsDHHC1 from the cDNA of rice (Oryza sativa L.), which regulate plant architecture by altering the tiller in rice. The tillers increased by about 40% when this type of DHHC-type zinc finger protein gene was over-expressed in Zhong Hua 11 (ZH11) rice plants. Moreover, the grain yield of transgenic rice increased approximately by 10% compared with wild-type ZH11. These findings provide an important genetic engineering approach for increasing rice yields. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Association of Ring Finger Protein 213 Gene P.R4810k Polymorphism with Intracranial Major Artery Stenosis/Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Yu, Lebao; Ge, Peicong; Ma, Yonggang; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Rong; Wang, Shuo; Zhao, Yuanli; Cao, Yong; Liu, Xingju; Deng, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Jizong

    2018-06-01

    Intracranial major artery stenosis/occlusion (ICASO) is a common cause of ischemic stroke worldwide. A number of studies have assessed the association of the p.R4810K polymorphism in the ring finger protein 213 (RNF213) gene with ICASO, but the results have not been entirely consistent. We conducted a case-control study to estimate the association between the p.R4810K polymorphism and the risk of ICASO in a Chinese population. A total of 124 patients and 230 controls were enrolled. Moreover, a meta-analysis was performed to evaluate this association in the East Asian populations. In our case-control study, the frequencies of the G/A genotype of p.R4810K were significantly higher in the ICASO patients than in the control group (4.03% versus .43%, P = .021, respectively). Moreover, in the meta-analysis, we assessed 7 case-control studies that included 1239 patients and 1377 controls. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) indicated significant association between the p.R4810K polymorphism and the ICASO risk in the dominant model (OR = 9.37, 95% confidence interval: 4.61-19.02, P = .000), the heterozygote comparison (OR = 8.97, 95% CI: 4.41-18.25, P = .000), and the allele comparison (OR = 9.50, 95% confidence interval: 4.71-19.19, P = .000) in the East Asian populations. Subgroup analysis based on ethnicity revealed that the risks in the Japanese and the Korean populations were higher than that in the Chinese population. The p.R4810K polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of ICASO in the East Asian populations. Further studies on the function of the RNF213 protein and the clinical features of this subtype of ICASO are needed. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Zn(II)-Coordinated Quantum Dot-FRET Nanosensors for the Detection of Protein Kinase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Butaek; Park, Ji-In; Lee, Kyung Jin; Lee, Jin-Won; Kim, Tae-Wuk; Kim, Young-Pil

    2015-01-01

    We report a simple detection of protein kinase activity using Zn(II)-mediated fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) between quantum dots (QDs) and dye-tethered peptides. With neither complex chemical ligands nor surface modification of QDs, Zn(II) was the only metal ion that enabled the phosphorylated peptides to be strongly attached on the carboxyl groups of the QD surface via metal coordination, thus leading to a significant FRET efficiency. As a result, protein kinase activity in intermixed solution was efficiently detected by QD-FRET via Zn(II) coordination, especially when the peptide substrate was combined with affinity-based purification. We also found that mono- and di-phosphorylation in the peptide substrate could be discriminated by the Zn(II)-mediated QD-FRET. Our approach is expected to find applications for studying physiological function and signal transduction with respect to protein kinase activity. PMID:26213934

  5. Zn(II)-Coordinated Quantum Dot-FRET Nanosensors for the Detection of Protein Kinase Activity.

    PubMed

    Lim, Butaek; Park, Ji-In; Lee, Kyung Jin; Lee, Jin-Won; Kim, Tae-Wuk; Kim, Young-Pil

    2015-07-23

    We report a simple detection of protein kinase activity using Zn(II)-mediated fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) between quantum dots (QDs) and dye-tethered peptides. With neither complex chemical ligands nor surface modification of QDs, Zn(II) was the only metal ion that enabled the phosphorylated peptides to be strongly attached on the carboxyl groups of the QD surface via metal coordination, thus leading to a significant FRET efficiency. As a result, protein kinase activity in intermixed solution was efficiently detected by QD-FRET via Zn(II) coordination, especially when the peptide substrate was combined with affinity-based purification. We also found that mono- and di-phosphorylation in the peptide substrate could be discriminated by the Zn(II)-mediated QD-FRET. Our approach is expected to find applications for studying physiological function and signal transduction with respect to protein kinase activity.

  6. Ring finger protein 10 is a novel synaptonuclear messenger encoding activation of NMDA receptors in hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Dinamarca, Margarita C; Guzzetti, Francesca; Karpova, Anna; Lim, Dmitry; Mitro, Nico; Musardo, Stefano; Mellone, Manuela; Marcello, Elena; Stanic, Jennifer; Samaddar, Tanmoy; Burguière, Adeline; Caldarelli, Antonio; Genazzani, Armando A; Perroy, Julie; Fagni, Laurent; Canonico, Pier Luigi; Kreutz, Michael R; Gardoni, Fabrizio; Luca, Monica Di

    2016-01-01

    Synapses and nuclei are connected by bidirectional communication mechanisms that enable information transfer encoded by macromolecules. Here, we identified RNF10 as a novel synaptonuclear protein messenger. RNF10 is activated by calcium signals at the postsynaptic compartment and elicits discrete changes at the transcriptional level. RNF10 is enriched at the excitatory synapse where it associates with the GluN2A subunit of NMDA receptors (NMDARs). Activation of synaptic GluN2A-containing NMDARs and induction of long term potentiation (LTP) lead to the translocation of RNF10 from dendritic segments and dendritic spines to the nucleus. In particular, we provide evidence for importin-dependent long-distance transport from synapto-dendritic compartments to the nucleus. Notably, RNF10 silencing prevents the maintenance of LTP as well as LTP-dependent structural modifications of dendritic spines. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12430.001 PMID:26977767

  7. Trigger finger

    MedlinePlus

    ... by: C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Finger Injuries and Disorders ...

  8. Finger Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Bill

    2010-01-01

    The author has been prompted to write this article about finger multiplication for a number of reasons. Firstly there are a number of related articles in past issues of "Mathematics Teaching" ("MT") which have connections to this algorithm. Secondly, very few of his primary teaching students and professional colleagues appear to be aware of the…

  9. Sequences homologous to the human x- and y-borne zinc finger protein genes (ZFX/Y) are autosomal in monotreme mannals

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.M.; Frost, C.; Graves, M.J.A.

    1993-02-01

    The human zinc finger protein genes (ZFX/Y) were identified as a result of a systematic search for the testis-determining factor gene on the human Y chromosome. Although they play no direct role in sex determination, they are of particular interest because they are highly conserved among mammals, birds, and amphibians and because, in eutherian mammals at least, they have active alleles on both the X and the Y chromosomes outside the pseudoautosomal region. We used in situ hybridization to localize the homologues of the zinc finger protein gene to chromosome 1 of the Australian echidna and to an equivalent positionmore » on chromosomes 1 and 2 of the playtpus. The localization to platypus chromosome 1 was confirmed by Southern analysis of a Chinese hamster [times] platypus cell hybrid retaining most of platypus chromosome 1. This localization is consistent with the cytological homology of chromosome 1 between the two species. The zinc finger protein gene homologues were localized to regions of platypus chromosomes 1 and 2 that included a number of other genes situated near ZFX on the short arm of the human X chromosome. These results support the hypothesis that many of the genes located on the short arm of the human X were originally autosomal and have been translocated to the X chromosome since the eutherian-metatherian divergence. 34 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  10. Methylomic Analysis Identifies Frequent DNA Methylation of Zinc Finger Protein 582 (ZNF582) in Cervical Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Su, Po-Hsuan; Chen, Yu-Chih; Liao, Yu-Ping; Wang, Hui-Chen; Yo, Yi-Te; Chao, Tai-Kuang; Huang, Hsuan-Cheng; Lin, Ching-Yu; Chu, Tang-Yuan; Lai, Hung-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite of the trend that the application of DNA methylation as a biomarker for cancer detection is promising, clinically applicable genes are few. Therefore, we looked for novel hypermethylated genes for cervical cancer screening. Methods and Findings At the discovery phase, we analyzed the methylation profiles of human cervical carcinomas and normal cervixes by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation coupled to promoter tiling arrays (MeDIP-on-chip). Methylation-specific PCR (MSP), quantitative MSP and bisulfite sequencing were used to verify the methylation status in cancer tissues and cervical scrapings from patients with different severities. Immunohistochemical staining of a cervical tissue microarray was used to confirm protein expression. We narrowed to three candidate genes: DBC1, PDE8B, and ZNF582; their methylation frequencies in tumors were 93%, 29%, and 100%, respectively. At the pre-validation phase, the methylation frequency of DBC1 and ZNF582 in cervical scraping correlated significantly with disease severity in an independent cohort (n = 330, both P<0.001). For the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (CIN3) and worse, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of ZNF582 was 0.82 (95% confidence interval  = 0.76–0.87). Conclusions Our study shows ZNF582 is frequently methylated in CIN3 and worse lesions, and it is demonstrated as a potential biomarker for the molecular screening of cervical cancer. PMID:22815913

  11. An integrated genomic analysis of Tudor domain-containing proteins identifies PHD finger protein 20-like 1 (PHF20L1) as a candidate oncogene in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Lanxin; Shan, Wenqi; Yang, Zeng-Quan

    2016-02-01

    Tudor domain-containing proteins (TDRDs), which recognize and bind to methyl-lysine/arginine residues on histones and non-histone proteins, play critical roles in regulating chromatin architecture, transcription, genomic stability, and RNA metabolism. Dysregulation of several TDRDs have been observed in various types of cancer. However, neither the genomic landscape nor clinical significance of TDRDs in breast cancer has been explored comprehensively. Here, we performed an integrated genomic and transcriptomic analysis of 41 TDRD genes in breast cancer (TCGA and METABRIC datasets) and identified associations among recurrent copy number alterations, gene expressions, clinicopathological features, and survival of patients. Among seven TDRDs that had the highest frequency (>10%) of gene amplification, the plant homeodomain finger protein 20-like 1 (PHF20L1) was the most commonly amplified (17.62%) TDRD gene in TCGA breast cancers. Different subtypes of breast cancer had different patterns of copy number and expression for each TDRD. Notably, amplification and overexpression of PHF20L1 were more prevalent in aggressive basal-like and Luminal B subtypes and were significantly associated with shorter survival of breast cancer patients. Furthermore, knockdown of PHF20L1 inhibited cell proliferation in PHF20L1-amplified breast cancer cell lines. PHF20L1 protein contains N-terminal Tudor and C-terminal plant homeodomain domains. Detailed characterization of PHF20L1 in breast cancer revealed that the Tudor domain likely plays a critical role in promoting cancer. Mechanistically, PHF20L1 might participate in regulating DNA methylation by stabilizing DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) protein in breast cancer. Thus, our results demonstrated the oncogenic potential of PHF20L1 and its association with poor prognostic parameters in breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Salivary zinc finger protein 510 peptide as a novel biomarker for detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma in early stages.

    PubMed

    Jou, Yu-Jen; Lin, Chia-Der; Lai, Chih-Ho; Tang, Chih-Hsin; Huang, Su-Hua; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Chen, Shih-Yin; Kao, Jung-Yie; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2011-07-15

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most frequent malignancies worldwide. Early diagnosis can mean adequate treatment and increase survival. This study uses ClinProt technique to identify salivary biomarkers for early diagnosis of OSCC. A total of 77 salivary samples from both OSCC patients (n=47) and healthy donors (n=30) were analyzed with MALDI-TOF MS technology. Salivary peptides from OSCC patients were separated, using C8-functionalized magnetic beads. Three signals (2918.57 Da, 5592.64 Da, and 4372.66 Da) distinguished OSCC patients from controls. Among them, unique peptide 2918.57 Da, identified as a 24-mer peptide of zinc finger protein 510 (ZNF510), was found in 0% of saliva from healthy individuals, versus 25.0% and 60% from OSCC patients with T1+T2 and T3+T4 stages, respectively (P<0.001). ELISA analysis with rabbit anti-ZNF510 peptide sera shows a starkly higher 24-mer ZNF510 peptide level in saliva from OSCC patients than that in controls (P<0.001). Also, in immunohistochemical analysis of oral tissues, a significantly higher level of ZNF510 was observed in OSCC tissues than in the OSCC free control tissues. Analysis of areas under receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves in OSCC early (T1+T2) and late stages (T3+T4) shows greater than 0.95. Identifying 24-mer ZNF510 peptide as OSCC-related salivary biomarkers via proteomic approach proved useful in adjunct diagnosis for early detection rather than specific diagnosis marker for progression of OSCC patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Novel Prokaryotic Green Fluorescent Protein Expression System for Testing Gene Editing Tools Activity Like Zinc Finger Nuclease

    PubMed Central

    Sabzehei, Faezeh; Kouhpayeh, Shirin; Dastjerdeh, Mansoureh Shahbazi; Khanahmad, Hossein; Salehi, Rasoul; Naderi, Shamsi; Taghizadeh, Razieh; Rabiei, Parisa; Hejazi, Zahra; Shariati, Laleh

    2017-01-01

    Background: Gene editing technology has created a revolution in the field of genome editing. The three of the most famous tools in gene editing technology are zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), and CRISPR-associated systems. As their predictable nature, it is necessary to assess their efficiency. There are some methods for this purpose, but most of them are time labor and complicated. Here, we introduce a new prokaryotic reporter system, which makes it possible to evaluate the efficiency of gene editing tools faster, cheaper, and simpler than previous methods. Materials and Methods: At first, the target sites of a custom ZFN, which is designed against a segment of ampicillin resistance gene, were cloned on both sides of green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene to construct pPRO-GFP. Then pPRO-GFP was transformed into Escherichia coli TOP10F’ that contains pZFN (contains expression cassette of a ZFN against ampicillin resistant gene), or p15A-KanaR as a negative control. The transformed bacteria were cultured on three separate media that contained ampicillin, kanamycin, and ampicillin + kanamycin; then the resulted colonies were assessed by flow cytometry. Results: The results of flow cytometry showed a significant difference between the case (bacteria contain pZFN) and control (bacteria contain p15A, KanaR) in MFI (Mean Fluorescence Intensity) (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: According to ZFN efficiency, it can bind and cut the target sites, the bilateral cutting can affect the intensity of GFP fluorescence. Our flow cytometry results showed that this ZFN could reduce the intensity of GFP color and colony count of bacteria in media containing amp + kana versus control sample. PMID:29285485

  14. A Novel Prokaryotic Green Fluorescent Protein Expression System for Testing Gene Editing Tools Activity Like Zinc Finger Nuclease.

    PubMed

    Sabzehei, Faezeh; Kouhpayeh, Shirin; Dastjerdeh, Mansoureh Shahbazi; Khanahmad, Hossein; Salehi, Rasoul; Naderi, Shamsi; Taghizadeh, Razieh; Rabiei, Parisa; Hejazi, Zahra; Shariati, Laleh

    2017-01-01

    Gene editing technology has created a revolution in the field of genome editing. The three of the most famous tools in gene editing technology are zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), and CRISPR-associated systems. As their predictable nature, it is necessary to assess their efficiency. There are some methods for this purpose, but most of them are time labor and complicated. Here, we introduce a new prokaryotic reporter system, which makes it possible to evaluate the efficiency of gene editing tools faster, cheaper, and simpler than previous methods. At first, the target sites of a custom ZFN, which is designed against a segment of ampicillin resistance gene, were cloned on both sides of green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene to construct pPRO-GFP. Then pPRO-GFP was transformed into Escherichia coli TOP10F' that contains pZFN (contains expression cassette of a ZFN against ampicillin resistant gene), or p15A-KanaR as a negative control. The transformed bacteria were cultured on three separate media that contained ampicillin, kanamycin, and ampicillin + kanamycin; then the resulted colonies were assessed by flow cytometry. The results of flow cytometry showed a significant difference between the case (bacteria contain pZFN) and control (bacteria contain p15A, KanaR) in MFI (Mean Fluorescence Intensity) ( P < 0.0001). According to ZFN efficiency, it can bind and cut the target sites, the bilateral cutting can affect the intensity of GFP fluorescence. Our flow cytometry results showed that this ZFN could reduce the intensity of GFP color and colony count of bacteria in media containing amp + kana versus control sample.

  15. Functional roles of the pepper RING finger protein gene, CaRING1, in abscisic acid signaling and dehydration tolerance.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chae Woo; Hwang, Byung Kook; Lee, Sung Chul

    2015-09-01

    Plants are constantly exposed to a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses, which include pathogens and conditions of high salinity, low temperature, and drought. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a major plant hormone involved in signal transduction pathways that mediate the defense response of plants to abiotic stress. Previously, we isolated Ring finger protein gene (CaRING1) from pepper (Capsicum annuum), which is associated with resistance to bacterial pathogens, accompanied by hypersensitive cell death. Here, we report a new function of the CaRING1 gene product in the ABA-mediated defense responses of plants to dehydration stress. The expression of the CaRING1 gene was induced in pepper leaves treated with ABA or exposed to dehydration or NaCl. Virus-induced gene silencing of CaRING1 in pepper plants exhibited low degree of ABA-induced stomatal closure and high levels of transpirational water loss in dehydrated leaves. These led to be more vulnerable to dehydration stress in CaRING1-silenced pepper than in the control pepper, accompanied by reduction of ABA-regulated gene expression and low accumulation of ABA and H2O2. In contrast, CaRING1-overexpressing transgenic plants showed enhanced sensitivity to ABA during the seedling growth and establishment. These plants were also more tolerant to dehydration stress than the wild-type plants because of high ABA accumulation, enhanced stomatal closure and increased expression of stress-responsive genes. Together, these results suggest that the CaRING1 acts as positive factor for dehydration tolerance in Arabidopsis by modulating ABA biosynthesis and ABA-mediated stomatal closing and gene expression.

  16. Zinc finger protein 267 is up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma and promotes tumor cell proliferation and migration

    PubMed Central

    Schnabl, Bernd; Valletta, Daniela; Kirovski, Georgi; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Zinc finger protein 267 (ZNF267) belongs to the family of Kruppel-like transcription factors, which regulates diverse biological processes that include development, proliferation, and differentiation. We have previously demonstrated that ZNF267 mRNA is up-regulated in liver cirrhosis, which is the main risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we analyzed the expression of ZNF267 in human HCC cells and tissue specimens and found a significant up-regulation compared to primary human hepatocytes and corresponding non-tumorous liver tissue. Over-expression of the transcription factor Ets-1 further enhanced ZNF267 expression, and reporter gene assays revealed that mutation of the Ets-1 binding site to the ZNF267 promotor markedly inhibited ZNF267 promotor activity. Hypoxic conditions induced Ets-1 in HCC cells via HIF1alpha activation, and hypoxia induced ZNF267 expression while HIF1alpha inhibition significantly reduced both hypoxia-induced as well as basal ZNF267 expression in HCC cells. It is known that hypoxic conditions in tumorous tissues induce the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and ROS have been identified as important factor in the regulation of Ets-1 expression in tumor cells. Here, we found that ROS induction induced and ROS scavenging reduced ZNF267 expression in HCC cells, respectively. Loss and gain of function analysis applying siRNA directed against ZNF267 or transient transfection revealed that ZNF267 promotes proliferation and migration of HCC cells in vitro. These findings indicate Ets-1 and HIF1alpha as critical regulators of basal and hypoxia- or ROS-induced ZNF267 expression in HCC, and further suggest that the pro-tumorigenic effect of these factors is at least in part mediated via increased ZNF267 expression in HCC. Since ZNF267 is already elevated in cirrhosis, ZNF267 appears as promising target for both prevention as well as treatment of HCC in patients with chronic liver disease. PMID:21840307

  17. The Short Form of the Zinc Finger Antiviral Protein Inhibits Influenza A Virus Protein Expression and Is Antagonized by the Virus-Encoded NS1.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qiannan; Wang, Xinlu; Gao, Guangxia

    2017-01-15

    Zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP) is a host factor that specifically inhibits the replication of certain viruses. There are two ZAP isoforms arising from alternative splicing, which differ only at the C termini. It was recently reported that the long isoform (ZAPL) promotes proteasomal degradation of influenza A virus (IAV) proteins PA and PB2 through the C-terminal poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) domain, which is missing in the short form (ZAPS), and that this antiviral activity is antagonized by the viral protein PB1. Here, we report that ZAP inhibits IAV protein expression in a PARP domain-independent manner. Overexpression of ZAPS inhibited the expression of PA, PB2, and neuraminidase (NA), and downregulation of the endogenous ZAPS enhanced their expression. We show that ZAPS inhibited PB2 protein expression by reducing the encoding viral mRNA levels and repressing its translation. However, downregulation of ZAPS only modestly enhanced the early stage of viral replication. We provide evidence showing that the antiviral activity of ZAPS is antagonized by the viral protein NS1. A recombinant IAV carrying an NS1 mutant that lost the ZAPS-antagonizing activity replicated better in ZAPS-deficient cells. We further provide evidence suggesting that NS1 antagonizes ZAPS by inhibiting its binding to target mRNA. These results uncover a distinct mechanism underlying the interactions between ZAP and IAV. ZAP is a host antiviral factor that has been extensively reported to inhibit the replication of certain viruses by repressing the translation and promoting the degradation of the viral mRNAs. There are two ZAP isoforms, ZAPL and ZAPS. ZAPL was recently reported to promote IAV protein degradation through the PARP domain. Whether ZAPS, which lacks the PARP domain, inhibits IAV and the underlying mechanisms remained to be determined. Here, we show that ZAPS posttranscriptionally inhibits IAV protein expression. This antiviral activity of ZAP is antagonized by the viral

  18. Photosensitized singlet oxygen luminescence from the protein matrix of Zn-substituted myoglobin.

    PubMed

    Lepeshkevich, Sergei V; Parkhats, Marina V; Stasheuski, Alexander S; Britikov, Vladimir V; Jarnikova, Ekaterina S; Usanov, Sergey A; Dzhagarov, Boris M

    2014-03-13

    A nanosecond laser near-infrared spectrometer was used to study singlet oxygen ((1)O2) emission in a protein matrix. Myoglobin in which the intact heme is substituted by Zn-protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP) was employed. Every collision of ground state molecular oxygen with ZnPP in the excited triplet state results in (1)O2 generation within the protein matrix. The quantum yield of (1)O2 generation was found to be equal to 0.9 ± 0.1. On the average, six from every 10 (1)O2 molecules succeed in escaping from the protein matrix into the solvent. A kinetic model for (1)O2 generation within the protein matrix and for a subsequent (1)O2 deactivation was introduced and discussed. Rate constants for radiative and nonradiative (1)O2 deactivation within the protein were determined. The first-order radiative rate constant for (1)O2 deactivation within the protein was found to be 8.1 ± 1.3 times larger than the one in aqueous solutions, indicating the strong influence of the protein matrix on the radiative (1)O2 deactivation. Collisions of singlet oxygen with each protein amino acid and ZnPP were assumed to contribute independently to the observed radiative as well as nonradiative rate constants.

  19. Over-Expression of Rififylin, a New RING Finger and FYVE-like Domain-containing Protein, Inhibits Recycling from the Endocytic Recycling Compartment

    PubMed Central

    Coumailleau, Franck; Das, Vincent; Alcover, Andres; Raposo, Graça; Vandormael-Pournin, Sandrine; Le Bras, Stéphanie; Baldacci, Patricia; Dautry-Varsat, Alice; Babinet, Charles; Cohen-Tannoudji, Michel

    2004-01-01

    Endocytosed membrane components are recycled to the cell surface either directly from early/sorting endosomes or after going through the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC). Studying recycling mechanisms is difficult, in part due to the fact that specific tools to inhibit this process are scarce. In this study, we have characterized a novel widely expressed protein, named Rififylin (Rffl) for RING Finger and FYVE-like domain-containing protein, that, when overexpressed in HeLa cells, induced the condensation of transferrin receptor-, Rab5-, and Rab11-positive recycling tubulovesicular membranes in the perinuclear region. Internalized transferrin was able to access these condensed endosomes but its exit from this compartment was delayed. Using deletion mutants, we show that the carboxy-terminal RING finger of Rffl is dispensable for its action. In contrast, the amino-terminal domain of Rffl, which shows similarities with the phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate–binding FYVE finger, is critical for the recruitment of Rffl to recycling endocytic membranes and for the inhibition of recycling, albeit in a manner that is independent of PtdIns(3)-kinase activity. Rffl overexpression represents a novel means to inhibit recycling that will help to understand the mechanisms involved in recycling from the ERC to the plasma membrane. PMID:15229288

  20. Over-expression of Rififylin, a new RING finger and FYVE-like domain-containing protein, inhibits recycling from the endocytic recycling compartment.

    PubMed

    Coumailleau, Franck; Das, Vincent; Alcover, Andres; Raposo, Graça; Vandormael-Pournin, Sandrine; Le Bras, Stéphanie; Baldacci, Patricia; Dautry-Varsat, Alice; Babinet, Charles; Cohen-Tannoudji, Michel

    2004-10-01

    Endocytosed membrane components are recycled to the cell surface either directly from early/sorting endosomes or after going through the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC). Studying recycling mechanisms is difficult, in part due to the fact that specific tools to inhibit this process are scarce. In this study, we have characterized a novel widely expressed protein, named Rififylin (Rffl) for RING Finger and FYVE-like domain-containing protein, that, when overexpressed in HeLa cells, induced the condensation of transferrin receptor-, Rab5-, and Rab11-positive recycling tubulovesicular membranes in the perinuclear region. Internalized transferrin was able to access these condensed endosomes but its exit from this compartment was delayed. Using deletion mutants, we show that the carboxy-terminal RING finger of Rffl is dispensable for its action. In contrast, the amino-terminal domain of Rffl, which shows similarities with the phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate-binding FYVE finger, is critical for the recruitment of Rffl to recycling endocytic membranes and for the inhibition of recycling, albeit in a manner that is independent of PtdIns(3)-kinase activity. Rffl overexpression represents a novel means to inhibit recycling that will help to understand the mechanisms involved in recycling from the ERC to the plasma membrane.

  1. Speckle-type POZ (pox virus and zinc finger protein) protein gene deletion in ovarian cancer: Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of a tissue microarray.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoyu; Yang, Zhu; Zeng, Manman; Liu, Y I; Yang, Xiaotao; Li, Yanan; Li, X U; Yu, Qiubo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the status of speckle-type POZ (pox virus and zinc finger protein) protein (SPOP) gene located on chromosome 17q21 in ovarian cancer (OC). The present study evaluated a tissue microarray, which contained 90 samples of ovarian cancer and 10 samples of normal ovarian tissue, using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH is a method where a SPOP-specific DNA red fluorescence probe was used for the experimental group and a centromere-specific DNA green fluorescence probe for chromosome 17 was used for the control group. The present study demonstrated that a deletion of the SPOP gene was observed in 52.27% (46/88) of the ovarian cancer tissues, but was not identified in normal ovarian tissues. Simultaneously, monosomy 17 was frequently identified in the ovarian cancer tissues, but not in the normal ovarian tissues. Furthermore, the present data revealed that the ovarian cancer histological subtype and grade were significantly associated with a deletion of the SPOP gene, which was assessed by the appearance of monosomy 17 in the ovarian cancer samples; the deletion of the SPOP gene was observed in a large proportion of serous epithelial ovarian cancer (41/61; 67.21%), particularly in grade 3 (31/37; 83.78%). In conclusion, deletion of the SPOP gene on chromosome 17 in ovarian cancer samples, which results from monosomy 17, indicates that the SPOP gene may serve as a tumor suppressor gene in ovarian cancer.

  2. Bioaccessible nutrients and bioactive components from fortified products prepared using finger millet (Eleusine coracana).

    PubMed

    Oghbaei, Morteza; Prakash, Jamuna

    2012-08-30

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana), a staple food in semi-arid parts of the world, is a rich source of nutrients and bioactive components comparable to rice and wheat but with higher fibre content. Unprocessed and processed finger millet (whole flour (WFM), sieved flour (SFM), wafers and vermicelli with altered matrices (added Fe or Zn or reduced fibre)) were analysed for chemical composition, bioaccessible Fe, Zn and Ca, in vitro digestible starch (IVSD) and protein (IVPD) and bioactive components (polyphenols and flavonoids). WFM and SFM flours differed significantly in their composition. Sieving decreased the content of both nutrients and antinutrients in WFM but increased their digestibility/bioaccessibility. WFM products with Zn and Fe showed highest IVPD, whereas SFM products with Fe showed highest IVSD. Products with externally added Fe and Zn showed maximum bioaccessibility of Fe and Zn respectively. WFM had the highest levels of total polyphenols and flavonoids, 4.18 and 15.85 g kg⁻¹ respectively; however, bioaccessibility was highest in SFM vermicelli. The availability of nutrients and bioactive components was influenced by both processing methods and compositional alterations of the food matrix in finger millet products, and bioaccessibility of all constituents was higher in vermicelli (wet matrix) than in wafers (dry matrix). Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Identification and characterization of finger millet OPAQUE2 transcription factor gene under different nitrogen inputs for understanding their role during accumulation of prolamin seed storage protein.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Vikram Singh; Kumar, Lallan; Gupta, Supriya; Jaiswal, J P; Pandey, Dinesh; Kumar, Anil

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we report the isolation and characterization of the mRNA encoding OPAQUE2 (O2) like TF of finger millet (FM) ( Eleusine coracana) ( EcO2 ). Full-length EcO2 mRNA was isolated using conserved primers designed by aligning O2 mRNAs of different cereals followed by 3' and 5' RACE (Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends). The assembled full-length EcO2 mRNA was found to contain an ORF of 1248-nt coding the 416 amino acids O2 protein. Domain analysis revealed the presence of the BLZ and bZIP-C domains which is a characteristic feature of O2 proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of EcO2 protein with other bZIP proteins identified using finger millet transcriptome data and O2 proteins of other cereals showed that EcO2 shared high sequence similarity with barley BLZ1 protein. Transcripts of EcO2 were detected in root, stem, leaves, and seed development stages. Furthermore, to investigate nitrogen responsiveness and the role of EcO2 in regulating seed storage protein gene expression, the expression profiles of EcO2 along with an α-prolamin gene were studied during the seed development stages of two FM genotypes (GE-3885 and GE-1437) differing in grain protein content (13.8 and 6.2%, respectively) grown under increasing nitrogen inputs. Compared to GE-1437, the EcO2 was relatively highly expressed during the S2 stage of seed development which further increased as nitrogen input was increased. The Ecα - prolamin gene was strongly induced in the high protein genotype (GE-3885) at all nitrogen inputs. These results indicate the presence of nitrogen responsiveness regulatory elements which might play an important role in accumulating protein in FM genotypes through modulating EcO2 expression by sensing plant nitrogen status.

  4. Nitrogen doped microporous carbon by ZnCl2 activation of protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Praveen; Vijayan, Sujith; Prabhakaran, K.

    2017-09-01

    ZnCl2 activation of protein containing biomass has been studied for the preparation of N-doped activated carbon (NDC) using powdered dry fish as a source of protein. Nearly 52% increase in the yield of NDC is observed by activation with ZnCl2 due to an increase in the thermal stability of Zn2+-fish protein complex compared to the protein alone. The NDCs obtained are characterized by XRD, IR, XPS, Raman spectroscopy, SEM, TEM, elemental analysis and N2 adsorption-desorption studies. The activation at 550 °C produces NDC with the highest surface area and total pore volume of 1001 m2 g-1 and 0.719 cm3 g-1, respectively, at a ZnCl2 to fish powder weight ratio of 3. A maximum micropore volume of 0.273 cm3 g-1 is obtained at a ZnCl2 to fish powder weight ratio of 1:1. The N-content (12.4-5.2 wt%) decreases with an increase in activation temperature and ZnCl2 to fish powder weight ratio. The NDC obtained by activation at 550 °C at a ZnCl2 to fish powder weight ratio of 1:1 shows the maximum CO2 adsorption capacity of 2.4 and 3.73 mmol g-1 at 25 and 0 °C, respectively, at 1 atmosphere. The CO2 adsorption on the NDC shows excellent cyclic stability and high selectivity over nitrogen gas.

  5. The PR/SET Domain Zinc Finger Protein Prdm4 Regulates Gene Expression in Embryonic Stem Cells but Plays a Nonessential Role in the Developing Mouse Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Bogani, Debora; Morgan, Marc A. J.; Nelson, Andrew C.; Costello, Ita; McGouran, Joanna F.; Kessler, Benedikt M.

    2013-01-01

    Prdm4 is a highly conserved member of the Prdm family of PR/SET domain zinc finger proteins. Many well-studied Prdm family members play critical roles in development and display striking loss-of-function phenotypes. Prdm4 functional contributions have yet to be characterized. Here, we describe its widespread expression in the early embryo and adult tissues. We demonstrate that DNA binding is exclusively mediated by the Prdm4 zinc finger domain, and we characterize its tripartite consensus sequence via SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) and ChIP-seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing) experiments. In embryonic stem cells (ESCs), Prdm4 regulates key pluripotency and differentiation pathways. Two independent strategies, namely, targeted deletion of the zinc finger domain and generation of a EUCOMM LacZ reporter allele, resulted in functional null alleles. However, homozygous mutant embryos develop normally and adults are healthy and fertile. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that Prdm4 functions redundantly with other transcriptional partners to cooperatively regulate gene expression in the embryo and adult animal. PMID:23918801

  6. Zinc finger protein 267 is up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma and promotes tumor cell proliferation and migration.

    PubMed

    Schnabl, Bernd; Valletta, Daniela; Kirovski, Georgi; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2011-12-01

    Zinc finger protein 267 (ZNF267) belongs to the family of Kruppel-like transcription factors, which regulates diverse biological processes that include development, proliferation, and differentiation. We have previously demonstrated that ZNF267 mRNA is up-regulated in liver cirrhosis, which is the main risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we analyzed the expression of ZNF267 in human HCC cells and tissue specimens and found a significant up-regulation compared to primary human hepatocytes and corresponding non-tumorous liver tissue. Over-expression of the transcription factor Ets-1 further enhanced ZNF267 expression, and reporter gene assays revealed that mutation of the Ets-1 binding site to the ZNF267 promotor markedly inhibited ZNF267 promotor activity. Hypoxic conditions induced Ets-1 in HCC cells via HIF1alpha activation, and hypoxia induced ZNF267 expression while HIF1alpha inhibition significantly reduced both hypoxia-induced as well as basal ZNF267 expression in HCC cells. It is known that hypoxic conditions in tumorous tissues induce the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and ROS have been identified as important factor in the regulation of Ets-1 expression in tumor cells. Here, we found that ROS induction induced and ROS scavenging reduced ZNF267 expression in HCC cells, respectively. Loss and gain of function analysis applying siRNA directed against ZNF267 or transient transfection revealed that ZNF267 promotes proliferation and migration of HCC cells in vitro. These findings indicate Ets-1 and HIF1alpha as critical regulators of basal and hypoxia- or ROS-induced ZNF267 expression in HCC, and further suggest that the pro-tumorigenic effect of these factors is at least in part mediated via increased ZNF267 expression in HCC. Since ZNF267 is already elevated in cirrhosis, ZNF267 appears as promising target for both prevention as well as treatment of HCC in patients with chronic liver disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All

  7. Purifying Properly Folded Cysteine-rich, Zinc Finger Containing Recombinant Proteins for Structural Drug Targeting Studies: the CH1 Domain of p300 as a Case Example

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong Joon; Kaluz, Stefan; Mehta, Anil; Weinert, Emily; Rivera, Shannon; Van Meir, Erwin G.

    2017-01-01

    The transcription factor Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF) complexes with the coactivator p300, activating the hypoxia response pathway and allowing tumors to grow. The CH1 and CAD domains of each respective protein form the interface between p300 and HIF. Small molecule compounds are in development that target and inhibit HIF/p300 complex formation, with the goal of reducing tumor growth. High resolution NMR spectroscopy is necessary to study ligand interaction with p300-CH1, and purifying high quantities of properly folded p300-CH1 is needed for pursuing structural and biophysical studies. p300-CH1 has 3 zinc fingers and 9 cysteine residues, posing challenges associated with reagent compatibility and protein oxidation. A protocol has been developed to overcome such issues by incorporating zinc during expression and streamlining the purification time, resulting in a high yield of optimally folded protein (120 mg per 4 L expression media) that is suitable for structural NMR studies. The structural integrity of the final recombinant p300-CH1 has been verified to be optimal using onedimensional 1H NMR spectroscopy and circular dichroism. This protocol is applicable for the purification of other zinc finger containing proteins. PMID:28966947

  8. A Family of Zinc Finger Proteins Is Required forChromosome-specific Pairing and Synapsis during Meiosis in C.elegans

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Carolyn M.; Dernburg, Abby F.

    2006-06-07

    Homologous chromosome pairing and synapsis are prerequisitefor accurate chromosome segregation during meiosis. Here, we show that afamily of four related C2H2 zinc-finger proteins plays a central role inthese events in C. elegans. These proteins are encoded within a tandemgene cluster. In addition to the X-specific HIM-8 protein, threeadditional paralogs collectively mediate the behavior of the fiveautosomes. Each chromosome relies on a specific member of the family topair and synapse with its homolog. These "ZIM" proteins concentrate atspecial regions called meiotic pairing centers on the correspondingchromosomes. These sites are dispersed along the nuclear envelope duringearly meiotic prophase, suggesting a role analogousmore » to thetelomere-mediated meiotic bouquet in other organisms. To gain insightinto the evolution of these components, wecharacterized homologs in C.briggsae and C. remanei, which revealed changes in copy number of thisgene family within the nematode lineage.« less

  9. Functional markers based molecular characterization and cloning of resistance gene analogs encoding NBS-LRR disease resistance proteins in finger millet (Eleusine coracana).

    PubMed

    Panwar, Preety; Jha, Anand Kumar; Pandey, P K; Gupta, Arun K; Kumar, Anil

    2011-06-01

    Magnaporthe grisea, the blast fungus is one of the main pathological threats to finger millet crop worldwide. A systematic search for the blast resistance gene analogs was carried out, using functional molecular markers. Three-fourths of the recognition-dependent disease resistance genes (R-genes) identified in plants encodes nucleotide binding site (NBS) leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins. NBS-LRR homologs have only been isolated on a limited scale from Eleusine coracana. Genomic DNA sequences sharing homology with NBS region of resistance gene analogs were isolated and characterized from resistant genotypes of finger millet using PCR based approach with primers designed from conserved regions of NBS domain. Attempts were made to identify molecular markers linked to the resistance gene and to differentiate the resistant bulk from the susceptible bulk. A total of 9 NBS-LRR and 11 EST-SSR markers generated 75.6 and 73.5% polymorphism respectively amongst 73 finger millet genotypes. NBS-5, NBS-9, NBS-3 and EST-SSR-04 markers showed a clear polymorphism which differentiated resistant genotypes from susceptible genotypes. By comparing the banding pattern of different resistant and susceptible genotypes, five DNA amplifications of NBS and EST-SSR primers (NBS-05(504,) NBS-09(711), NBS-07(688), NBS-03(509) and EST-SSR-04(241)) were identified as markers for the blast resistance in resistant genotypes. Principal coordinate plot and UPGMA analysis formed similar groups of the genotypes and placed most of the resistant genotypes together showing a high level of genetic relatedness and the susceptible genotypes were placed in different groups on the basis of differential disease score. Our results provided a clue for the cloning of finger millet blast resistance gene analogs which not only facilitate the process of plant breeding but also molecular characterization of blast resistance gene analogs from Eleusine coracana.

  10. Robotic hand and fingers

    SciTech Connect

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Dullea, Kevin J.

    Technologies pertaining to a robotic hand are described herein. The robotic hand includes one or more fingers releasably attached to a robotic hand frame. The fingers can abduct and adduct as well as flex and tense. The fingers are releasably attached to the frame by magnets that allow for the fingers to detach from the frame when excess force is applied to the fingers.

  11. BrRZFP1 a Brassica rapa C3HC4-type RING zinc finger protein involved in cold, salt and dehydration stress.

    PubMed

    Jung, Y J; Lee, I H; Nou, I S; Lee, K D; Rashotte, A M; Kang, K K

    2013-03-01

    C3HC4-type RING zinc finger proteins are known to be essential in the regulation of plant processes, including responses to abiotic stress. Here, we identify, clone and examine the first C3HC4-type RING zinc finger protein (BrRZFP1) from Brassica rapa under stress conditions. Phylogenetic analysis of BrRZFP1 revealed strong sequence similarity to C3HC4-type zinc finger proteins from Arabidopsis that are induced by abiotic stresses. Diverse environmental stresses, including salt and cold, were found to induce BrRZFP1 transcripts greater than eightfold in B. rapa. Additional strong induction was shown of the stress hormone abscisic acid, together suggesting that BrRZFP1 could play a role as a general stress modulator. Similar profiles of induction for each of these stresses was found in both root and shoot tissues, although at much higher levels in roots. Constitutive expression of BrRZFP1 in Nicotiana tabacum was conducted to further analyse how changes in gene expression levels would affect plant stress responses. BrRZFP1 overexpression conferred increased tolerance to cold, salt and dehydration stresses. This was observed in several assays examining growth status throughout development, including increased germination, fresh weight and length of shoots and roots, as well as enhanced chlorophyll retention. These results suggest that the transcription factor BrRZFP1 is an important determinant of stress response in plants and that changes in its expression level in plants could increase stress tolerance. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. The tail of the ParG DNA segregation protein remodels ParF polymers and enhances ATP hydrolysis via an arginine finger-like motif

    PubMed Central

    Barillà, Daniela; Carmelo, Emma; Hayes, Finbarr

    2007-01-01

    The ParF protein of plasmid TP228 belongs to the ubiquitous superfamily of ParA ATPases that drive DNA segregation in bacteria. ATP-bound ParF polymerizes into multistranded filaments. The partner protein ParG is dimeric, consisting of C-termini that interweave into a ribbon–helix–helix domain contacting the centromeric DNA and unstructured N-termini. ParG stimulates ATP hydrolysis by ParF ≈30-fold. Here, we establish that the mobile tails of ParG are crucial for this enhancement and that arginine R19 within the tail is absolutely required for activation of ParF nucleotide hydrolysis. R19 is part of an arginine finger-like loop in ParG that is predicted to intercalate into the ParF nucleotide-binding pocket thereby promoting ATP hydrolysis. Significantly, mutations of R19 abrogated DNA segregation in vivo, proving that intracellular stimulation of ATP hydrolysis by ParG is a key regulatory process for partitioning. Furthermore, ParG bundles ParF-ATP filaments as well as promoting nucleotide-independent polymerization. The N-terminal flexible tail is required for both activities, because N-terminal ΔParG polypeptides are defective in both functions. Strikingly, the critical arginine finger-like residue R19 is dispensable for ParG-mediated remodeling of ParF polymers, revealing that the ParG N-terminal tail possesses two separable activities in the interplay with ParF: a catalytic function during ATP hydrolysis and a mechanical role in modulation of polymerization. We speculate that activation of nucleotide hydrolysis via an arginine finger loop may be a conserved, regulatory mechanism of ParA family members and their partner proteins, including ParA-ParB and Soj-Spo0J that mediate DNA segregation and MinD-MinE that determine septum localization. PMID:17261809

  13. The tail of the ParG DNA segregation protein remodels ParF polymers and enhances ATP hydrolysis via an arginine finger-like motif.

    PubMed

    Barillà, Daniela; Carmelo, Emma; Hayes, Finbarr

    2007-02-06

    The ParF protein of plasmid TP228 belongs to the ubiquitous superfamily of ParA ATPases that drive DNA segregation in bacteria. ATP-bound ParF polymerizes into multistranded filaments. The partner protein ParG is dimeric, consisting of C-termini that interweave into a ribbon-helix-helix domain contacting the centromeric DNA and unstructured N-termini. ParG stimulates ATP hydrolysis by ParF approximately 30-fold. Here, we establish that the mobile tails of ParG are crucial for this enhancement and that arginine R19 within the tail is absolutely required for activation of ParF nucleotide hydrolysis. R19 is part of an arginine finger-like loop in ParG that is predicted to intercalate into the ParF nucleotide-binding pocket thereby promoting ATP hydrolysis. Significantly, mutations of R19 abrogated DNA segregation in vivo, proving that intracellular stimulation of ATP hydrolysis by ParG is a key regulatory process for partitioning. Furthermore, ParG bundles ParF-ATP filaments as well as promoting nucleotide-independent polymerization. The N-terminal flexible tail is required for both activities, because N-terminal DeltaParG polypeptides are defective in both functions. Strikingly, the critical arginine finger-like residue R19 is dispensable for ParG-mediated remodeling of ParF polymers, revealing that the ParG N-terminal tail possesses two separable activities in the interplay with ParF: a catalytic function during ATP hydrolysis and a mechanical role in modulation of polymerization. We speculate that activation of nucleotide hydrolysis via an arginine finger loop may be a conserved, regulatory mechanism of ParA family members and their partner proteins, including ParA-ParB and Soj-Spo0J that mediate DNA segregation and MinD-MinE that determine septum localization.

  14. Development and molecular characterization of genic molecular markers for grain protein and calcium content in finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.).

    PubMed

    Nirgude, M; Babu, B Kalyana; Shambhavi, Y; Singh, U M; Upadhyaya, H D; Kumar, Anil

    2014-03-01

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn), holds immense agricultural and economic importance for its high nutraceuticals quality. Finger millets seeds are rich source of calcium and its proteins are good source of essential amino acids. In the present study, we developed 36 EST-SSR primers for the opaque2 modifiers and 20 anchored-SSR primers for calcium transporters and calmodulin for analysis of the genetic diversity of 103 finger millet genotypes for grain protein and calcium contents. Out of the 36 opaque2 modifiers primers, 15 were found polymorphic and were used for the diversity analysis. The highest PIC value was observed with the primer FMO2E33 (0.26), while the lowest was observed FMO2E27 (0.023) with an average value of 0.17. The gene diversity was highest for the primer FMO2E33 (0.33), however it was lowest for FMO2E27 (0.024) at average value of 0.29. The percentage polymorphism shown by opaque2 modifiers primers was 68.23%. The diversity analysis by calcium transporters and calmodulin based anchored SSR loci revealed that the highest PIC was observed with the primer FMCA8 (0.30) and the lowest was observed for FMCA5 (0.023) with an average value of 0.18. The highest gene diversity was observed for primer FMCA8 (0.37), while lowest for FMCA5 (0.024) at an average of 0.21. The opaque2 modifiers specific EST-SSRs could able to differentiate the finger millet genotypes into high, medium and low protein containing genotypes. However, calcium dependent candidate gene based EST-SSRs could broadly differentiate the genotypes based on the calcium content with a few exceptions. A significant negative correlation between calcium and protein content was observed. The present study resulted in identification of highly polymorphic primers (FMO2E30, FMO2E33, FMO2-18 and FMO2-14) based on the parameters such as percentage of polymorphism, PIC values, gene diversity and number of alleles.

  15. Trigger Finger (Stenosing Tenosynovitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trigger Finger Find a hand surgeon near you. Videos Trigger Finger Animation Trigger Finger Close Popup Close ... or "in." Also, avoid using media types like "video," "article," and "picture." Tip 4: Your results can ...

  16. MECHANISM OF PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE INHIBITION IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS (HAEC) EXPOSED TO ZN2+

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of studies have implicated zinc in the toxicity of ambient particulate matter (PM) inhalation. We previously showed that exposure to Zn2+ inhibits protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity and leads to activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling in ...

  17. NbCZF1, a Novel C2H2-Type Zinc Finger Protein, as a New Regulator of SsCut-Induced Plant Immunity in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huajian; Zhao, Tongyao; Zhuang, Peitong; Song, Zhiqiang; Du, Hui; Tang, Zhaozhao; Gao, Zhimou

    2016-12-01

    SsCut, which functions as an elicitor, can induce plant immunity. In this study, we utilized Nicotiana benthamiana and virus-induced gene silencing to decrease the expression of > 2,500 genes individually. Using this forward genetics approach, several genes were identified that, when silenced, compromised SsCut-triggered cell death based on a cell death assay. A C 2 H 2 -type zinc finger gene was isolated from N. benthamiana Sequence analysis indicated that the gene encodes a 27 kDa protein with 253 amino acids containing two typical C 2 H 2 -type zinc finger domains; this gene was named NbCZF1 We found that SsCut-induced cell death could be inhibited by virus-induced gene silencing of NbCZF1 in N. benthamiana In addition, SsCut induces stomatal closure, accompanied by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by NADPH oxidases and nitric oxide (NO) production. NbCZF1-silenced plants showed impaired SsCut-induced stomatal closure, decreased SsCut-induced production of ROS and NO in guard cells and reduced SsCut-induced resistance against Phytophthora nicotianae Taken together, these results demonstrate that the NbCZF1-ROS-NO pathway mediates multiple SsCut-triggered responses, including stomatal closure, hypersensitive responses and defense-related gene expression. This is the first report describing the function of a C 2 H 2 -type zinc finger protein in N. benthamiana. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Decorin is a Zn(2+) Metalloprotein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Vivian W.-C.; LaBrenz, Steven R.; Rosenberg, Lawrence C.; McQuillan, David; Hoeoek, Magnus

    1998-01-01

    Decorin is ubiquitously distributed in the extracellular matrix of mammals and a member of the proteoglycan family characterized by a core protein dominated by Leucine Rich Repeat motifs. We here demonstrate that decorin extracted from bovine tissues under denaturing conditions or produced in recombinant "native" form by cultured mammalian cells, has a high affinity for Zn(2+). Binding of Zn(2+) to decorin is demonstrated by Zn(2+) chelating chromatography and equilibrium dialyses. The Zn(2+) binding sites are localized to the N-terminal domain of the core protein that contains 4 Cys residues in the spacing reminiscent of a Zn finger. A recombinant 41 amino acid long peptide representing the N-terminal domain of decorin has full Zn(2+) binding activity and binds two Zn(2+) ions with an average K(D) of 3 x 10(exp -7) M. Biglycan, a proteoglycan that is structurally closely related to decorin contains a similar high affinity Zn(2+) binding segment, whereas the structurally more distantly related proteoglycans, epiphycan and osteoglycin, did not bind Zn(2+) with high affinity.

  19. Transcriptional repression mediated by the KRAB domain of the human C2H2 zinc finger protein Kox1/ZNF10 does not require histone deacetylation.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, P; Koczan, D; Thiesen, H J

    2001-04-01

    The KRAB domain of human Kox1, a member of the KRAB C2H2 zinc finger family, confers strong transcriptional repressor activities even to remote promoter positions. Here, HDAC inhibitors were used to demonstrate that histone deacetylation is not required for mediating transcriptional repression of KRAB zinc finger proteins. Two reporter systems with either stably integrated or transiently transfected templates, both under control of strong viral promoters, were analyzed. Under all circumstances, HDAC inhibition did not alter the repression potential of the KRAB domain. In case of the stably integrated luciferase reporter gene system, neither expression levels of the KRAB fusion protein nor complex formation with its putative co-repressor TIF1beta were significantly changed. Furthermore, the TIF1beta/KRAB complex was devoid of mSin3A and HDAC1. In the transient transfection system, the transcriptional repression induced by TIF1beta and HP1alpha was not diminished by HDAC inhibitors, whereas the repressory activity of TIF1alpha was significantly affected. Thus, KRAB, TIF1beta and HP1alpha are likely to be functionally linked. In conclusion, HDAC activity is not essential for the strong transcriptional repressor activity mediated by the KRAB domain of Kox1 in particular and, presumably, by KRAB domains in general. This feature might be helpful in identifying and characterizing target genes under the control of

  20. Zinc finger protein 521 antagonizes early B-cell factor 1 and modulates the B-lymphoid differentiation of primary hematopoietic progenitors.

    PubMed

    Mega, Tiziana; Lupia, Michela; Amodio, Nicola; Horton, Sarah J; Mesuraca, Maria; Pelaggi, Daniela; Agosti, Valter; Grieco, Michele; Chiarella, Emanuela; Spina, Raffaella; Moore, Malcolm A S; Schuringa, Jan Jacob; Bond, Heather M; Morrone, Giovanni

    2011-07-01

    Zinc finger protein 521 (EHZF/ZNF521) is a multi-functional transcription co-factor containing 30 zinc fingers and an amino-terminal motif that binds to the nucleosome remodelling and histone deacetylase (NuRD) complex. ZNF521 is believed to be a relevant player in the regulation of the homeostasis of the hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell compartment, however the underlying molecular mechanisms are still largely unknown. Here, we show that this protein plays an important role in the control of B-cell development by inhibiting the activity of early B-cell factor-1 (EBF1), a master factor in B-lineage specification. In particular, our data demonstrate that: (1) ZNF521 binds to EBF1 via its carboxyl-terminal portion and this interaction is required for EBF1 inhibition; (2) NuRD complex recruitment by ZNF521 is not essential for the inhibition of transactivation of EBF1-dependent promoters; (3) ZNF521 represses EBF1 target genes in a human B-lymphoid molecular context; and (4) RNAi-mediated silencing of ZNF521/Zfp521 in primary human and murine hematopoietic progenitors strongly enhances the generation of B-lymphocytes in vitro. Taken together, our data indicate that ZNF521 can antagonize B-cell development and lend support to the notion that it may contribute to conserve the multipotency of primitive lympho-myeloid progenitors by preventing or delaying their EBF1-driven commitment toward the B-cell lineage.

  1. Regulation of trichome development in tobacco by JcZFP8, a C2H2 zinc finger protein gene from Jatropha curcas L.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaodong; Gu, Yuxi; Dai, Tingwei; Wu, Yang; Wu, Peng; Xu, Ying; Chen, Fang

    2018-06-05

    Trichomes are epidermal outgrowths of plant tissues that can secrete or store large quantities of secondary metabolites, which contribute to plant defense responses against stress. The use of bioengineering methods for regulating the development of trichomes and metabolism is a widely researched topic. In the present study, we demonstrate that JcZFP8, a C2H2 zinc finger protein gene from Jatropha curcas L., can regulate trichome development in transgenic tobacco. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we performed transcriptome profiling of overexpression JcZFP8 transgenic plants and wild-type tobacco. Based on the analysis of differentially expressed genes, we determined that genes of the plant hormone signal transduction pathway was significantly enriched, suggesting that these pathways were modulated in the transgenic plants. In addition, the transcript levels of the known trichome-related genes in Arabidopsis were not significantly changed, whereas CycB2 and MYB genes were differentially expressed in the transgenic plants. Despite tobacco and Arabidopsis have different types of trichomes, all the pathways were associated with C2H2 zinc finger protein genes. Our findings help us to understand the regulation of multicellular trichome formation and suggest a new metabolic engineering method for the improvement of plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Fabrication of ZnS nanoparticle chains on a protein template

    PubMed Central

    Hulleman, J.; Kim, S. M.; Tumkur, T.; Rochet, J.-C.; Stach, E.; Stanciu, L.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we have exploited the properties of a fibrillar protein for the template synthesis of zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticle chains. The diameter of the ZnS nanoparticle chains was tuned in range of ~30 to ~165 nm by varying the process variables. The nanoparticle chains were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, UV–Visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The effect of incubation temperature on the morphology of the nanoparticle chains was also studied. PMID:21804765

  3. Mechanisms of inhibition of zinc-finger transcription factors by selenium compounds ebselen and selenite.

    PubMed

    Larabee, Jason L; Hocker, James R; Hanas, Jay S

    2009-03-01

    The anti-inflammatory selenium compounds, ebselen (2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3[2H]-one) and selenite, were found to alter the DNA binding mechanisms and structures of cysteine-rich zinc-finger transcription factors. As assayed by DNase I protection, DNA binding by TFIIIA (transcription factor IIIA, prototypical Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger protein), was inhibited by micromolar amounts of ebselen. In a gel shift assay, ebselen inhibited the Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger-containing DNA binding domain (DBD) of the NF-kappaB mediated transcription factor Sp1. Ebselen also inhibited DNA binding by the p50 subunit of the pro-inflammatory Cys-containing NF-kappaB transcription factor. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was utilized to elucidate mechanisms of chemical interaction between ebselen and a zinc-bound Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger polypeptide modeled after the third finger of Sp1 (Sp1-3). Exposing Sp1-3 to micromolar amounts of ebselen resulted in Zn(2+) release from this peptide and the formation of a disulfide bond by oxidation of zinc finger SH groups, the likely mechanism for DNA binding inhibition. Selenite was shown by ESI-MS to also eject zinc from Sp1-3 as well as induce disulfide bond formation through SH oxidation. The selenite-dependent inhibition/oxidation mechanism differed from that of ebselen by inducing the formation of a stable selenotrisulfide bond. Selenite-induced selenotrisulfide formation was dependent upon the structure of the Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger as alteration in the finger structure enhanced this reaction as well as selenite-dependent zinc release. Ebselen and selenite-dependent inhibition/oxidation of Cys-rich zinc finger proteins, with concomitant release of zinc and finger structural changes, points to mechanisms at the atomic and protein level for selenium-induced alterations in Cys-rich proteins, and possible amelioration of certain inflammatory, neurodegenerative, and oncogenic responses.

  4. The conserved transmembrane RING finger protein PLR-1 downregulates Wnt signaling by reducing Frizzled, Ror and Ryk cell-surface levels in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Moffat, Laura L.; Robinson, Ryan E.; Bakoulis, Anastasia; Clark, Scott G.

    2014-01-01

    Wnts control a wide range of essential developmental processes, including cell fate specification, axon guidance and anteroposterior neuronal polarization. We identified a conserved transmembrane RING finger protein, PLR-1, that governs the response to Wnts by lowering cell-surface levels of the Frizzled family of Wnt receptors in Caenorhabditis elegans. Loss of PLR-1 activity in the neuron AVG causes its anteroposterior polarity to be symmetric or reversed because signaling by the Wnts CWN-1 and CWN-2 are inappropriately activated, whereas ectopic PLR-1 expression blocks Wnt signaling and target gene expression. Frizzleds are enriched at the cell surface; however, when PLR-1 and Frizzled are co-expressed, Frizzled is not detected at the surface but instead is colocalized with PLR-1 in endosomes. The Frizzled cysteine-rich domain (CRD) and invariant second intracellular loop lysine are crucial for PLR-1 downregulation. The PLR-1 RING finger and protease-associated (PA) domain are essential for activity. In a Frizzled-dependent manner, PLR-1 reduces surface levels of the Wnt receptors CAM-1/Ror and LIN-18/Ryk. PLR-1 is a homolog of the mammalian transmembrane E3 ubiquitin ligases RNF43 and ZNRF3, which control Frizzled surface levels in an R-spondin-sensitive manner. We propose that PLR-1 downregulates Wnt receptor surface levels via lysine ubiquitylation of Frizzled to coordinate spatial and temporal responses to Wnts during neuronal development. PMID:24401370

  5. An A20/AN1-type zinc finger protein modulates gibberellins and abscisic acid contents and increases sensitivity to abiotic stress in rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Lan, Hongxia; Shao, Qiaolin; Wang, Ruqin; Chen, Hui; Tang, Haijuan; Zhang, Hongsheng; Huang, Ji

    2016-01-01

    The plant hormones gibberellins (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) play important roles in plant development and stress responses. Here we report a novel A20/AN1-type zinc finger protein ZFP185 involved in GA and ABA signaling in the regulation of growth and stress response. ZFP185 was constitutively expressed in various rice tissues. Overexpression of ZFP185 in rice results in a semi-dwarfism phenotype, reduced cell size, and the decrease of endogenous GA3 content. By contrast, higher GA3 content was observed in RNAi plants. The application of exogenous GA3 can fully rescue the semi-dwarfism phenotype of ZFP185 overexpressing plants, suggesting the negative role of ZFP185 in GA biosynthesis. Besides GA, overexpression of ZFP185 decreased ABA content and expression of several ABA biosynthesis-related genes. Moreover, it was found that ZFP185, unlike previously known A20/AN1-type zinc finger genes, increases sensitivity to drought, cold, and salt stresses, implying the negative role of ZFP185 in stress tolerance. ZFP185 was localized in the cytoplasm and lacked transcriptional activation potential. Our study suggests that ZFP185 regulates plant growth and stress responses by affecting GA and ABA biosynthesis in rice. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The role of ZFP580, a novel zinc finger protein, in TGF-mediated cytoprotection against chemical hypoxia-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiac myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Shi-Yun; Meng, Xiang-Yan; Xu, Zhong-Wei; Zhang, Wen-Cheng; Jin, Xiao-Han; Chen, Xi; Zhou, Xin; Li, Yu-Ming; Xu, Rui-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Zing finger protein 580 (ZFP580) is a novel Cys2-His2 zinc-finger transcription factor that has an anti-apoptotic role in myocardial cells. It is involved in the endothelial transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) signal transduction pathway as a mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (Smad)2 binding partner. The aim of the present study was to determine the involvement of ZFP580 in TGF-β1-mediated cytoprotection against chemical hypoxia-induced apoptosis, using H9c2 cardiac myocytes. Hypoxia was chemically induced in H9c2 myocardial cells by exposure to cobalt chloride (CoCl2). In response to hypoxia, cell viability was decreased, whereas the expression levels of hypoxia inducible factor-1α and ZFP580 were increased. Pretreatment with TGF-β1 attenuated CoCl2-induced cell apoptosis and upregulated ZFP580 protein expression; however, these effects could be suppressed by SB431542, an inhibitor of TGF-β type I receptor and Smad2/3 phosphorylation. Furthermore, suppression of ZFP580 expression by RNA interference reduced the anti-apoptotic effects of TGF-β1 and thus increased CoCl2-induced apoptosis. B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2-associated X protein/Bcl-2 ratio, reactive oxygen species generation and caspase-3 activation were also increased following ZFP580 inactivation. In conclusion, these results indicate that ZFP580 is a component of the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway, and is involved in the protective effects of TGF-β1 against chemical hypoxia-induced cell apoptosis, through inhibition of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. PMID:28259939

  7. Discovery of a novel oocyte-specific Krüppel-associated box domain-containing zinc finger protein required for early embryogenesis in cattle.

    PubMed

    Hand, Jacqelyn M; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Lei; Koganti, Prasanthi P; Mastrantoni, Kristen; Rajput, Sandeep K; Ashry, Mohamed; Smith, George W; Yao, Jianbo

    2017-04-01

    Zinc finger (ZNF) transcription factors interact with DNA through zinc finger motifs and play important roles in a variety of cellular functions including cell growth, proliferation, development, apoptosis, and intracellular signal transduction. One-third of ZNF proteins in metazoans contain a highly conserved N-terminal motif known as the Krüppel-associated box (KRAB) domain, which acts as a potent, DNA-binding dependent transcriptional repression module. Analysis of RNA-Seq data generated from a bovine oocyte cDNA library identified a novel transcript, which encodes a KRAB-containing ZNF transcription factor (named ZNFO). Characterization of ZNFO mRNA expression revealed that it is exclusively expressed in bovine oocytes and early embryos. A GFP reporter assay demonstrated that ZNFO protein localizes specifically to the nucleus, supporting its role in transcriptional regulation. To test the role of ZNFO in early embryonic development, zygotes were generated by in vitro maturation and fertilization of oocytes, and injected with small interfering RNA (siRNA) designed to knockdown ZNFO. Cleavage rates were not affected by ZNFO siRNA injection. However, embryonic development to 8- to 16-cell stage and blastocyst stage was significantly reduced relative to the uninjected and negative control siRNA-injected embryos. Further, interaction of ZNFO with the highly conserved co-factor, KRAB-associated protein-1 (KAP1), was demonstrated, and evidence supporting transcriptional repression by ZNFO was demonstrated using a GAL4-luciferase reporter system. Results of described studies demonstrate that ZNFO is a maternally-derived oocyte-specific nuclear factor required for early embryonic development in cattle, presumably functioning by repressing transcription. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Zinc Finger Proteins Mxr1p and Repressor of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase (ROP) Have the Same DNA Binding Specificity but Regulate Methanol Metabolism Antagonistically in Pichia pastoris*

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nallani Vijay; Rangarajan, Pundi N.

    2012-01-01

    The methanol-inducible alcohol oxidase I (AOXI) promoter of the methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris, is used widely for the production of recombinant proteins. AOXI transcription is regulated by the zinc finger protein Mxr1p (methanol expression regulator 1). ROP (repressor of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, PEPCK) is a methanol- and biotin starvation-inducible zinc finger protein that acts as a negative regulator of PEPCK in P. pastoris cultured in biotin-deficient, glucose-ammonium medium. The function of ROP during methanol metabolism is not known. In this study, we demonstrate that ROP represses methanol-inducible expression of AOXI when P. pastoris is cultured in a nutrient-rich medium containing yeast extract, peptone, and methanol (YPM). Deletion of the gene encoding ROP results in enhanced expression of AOXI and growth promotion whereas overexpression of ROP results in repression of AOXI and growth retardation of P. pastoris cultured in YPM medium. Surprisingly, deletion or overexpression of ROP has no effect on AOXI gene expression and growth of P. pastoris cultured in a minimal medium containing yeast nitrogen base and methanol (YNBM). Subcellular localization studies indicate that ROP translocates from cytosol to nucleus of cells cultured in YPM but not YNBM. In vitro DNA binding studies indicate that AOXI promoter sequences containing 5′ CYCCNY 3′ motifs serve as binding sites for Mxr1p as well as ROP. Thus, Mxr1p and ROP exhibit the same DNA binding specificity but regulate methanol metabolism antagonistically in P. pastoris. This is the first report on the identification of a transcriptional repressor of methanol metabolism in any yeast species. PMID:22888024

  9. Ring finger protein 145 (RNF145) is a ubiquitin ligase for sterol-induced degradation of HMG-CoA reductase.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lu-Yi; Jiang, Wei; Tian, Na; Xiong, Yan-Ni; Liu, Jie; Wei, Jian; Wu, Kai-Yue; Luo, Jie; Shi, Xiong-Jie; Song, Bao-Liang

    2018-03-16

    Cholesterol biosynthesis is tightly regulated in the cell. For example, high sterol concentrations can stimulate degradation of the rate-limiting cholesterol biosynthetic enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase, HMGCR). HMGCR is broken down by the endoplasmic reticulum membrane-associated protein complexes consisting of insulin-induced genes (Insigs) and the E3 ubiquitin ligase gp78. Here we found that HMGCR degradation is partially blunted in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells lacking gp78 ( gp78 -KO). To identify other ubiquitin ligase(s) that may function together with gp78 in triggering HMGCR degradation, we performed a small-scale short hairpin RNA-based screening targeting endoplasmic reticulum-localized E3s. We found that knockdown of both ring finger protein 145 ( Rnf145 ) and gp78 genes abrogates sterol-induced degradation of HMGCR in CHO cells. We also observed that RNF145 interacts with Insig-1 and -2 proteins and ubiquitinates HMGCR. Moreover, the tetrapeptide sequence YLYF in the sterol-sensing domain and the Cys-537 residue in the RING finger domain were essential for RNF145 binding to Insigs and RNF145 E3 activity, respectively. Of note, amino acid substitutions in the YLYF or of Cys-537 completely abolished RNF145-mediated HMGCR degradation. In summary, our study reveals that RNF145, along with gp78, promotes HMGCR degradation in response to elevated sterol levels and identifies residues essential for RNF145 function. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Direct Comparison of Manganese Detoxification/Efflux Proteins and Molecular Characterization of ZnT10 Protein as a Manganese Transporter*

    PubMed Central

    Nishito, Yukina; Tsuji, Natsuko; Fujishiro, Hitomi; Takeda, Taka-aki; Yamazaki, Tomohiro; Teranishi, Fumie; Okazaki, Fumiko; Matsunaga, Ayu; Tuschl, Karin; Rao, Rajini; Kono, Satoshi; Miyajima, Hiroaki; Narita, Hiroshi; Himeno, Seiichiro; Kambe, Taiho

    2016-01-01

    Manganese homeostasis involves coordinated regulation of specific proteins involved in manganese influx and efflux. However, the proteins that are involved in detoxification/efflux have not been completely resolved nor has the basis by which they select their metal substrate. Here, we compared six proteins, which were reported to be involved in manganese detoxification/efflux, by evaluating their ability to reduce manganese toxicity in chicken DT40 cells, finding that human ZnT10 (hZnT10) was the most significant contributor. A domain swapping and substitution analysis between hZnT10 and the zinc-specific transporter hZnT1 showed that residue Asn43, which corresponds to the His residue constituting the potential intramembranous zinc coordination site in other ZnT transporters, is necessary to impart hZnT10's unique manganese mobilization activity; residues Cys52 and Leu242 in transmembrane domains II and V play a subtler role in controlling the metal specificity of hZnT10. Interestingly, the His → Asn reversion mutant in hZnT1 conferred manganese transport activity and loss of zinc transport activity. These results provide important information about manganese detoxification/efflux mechanisms in vertebrate cells as well as the molecular characterization of hZnT10 as a manganese transporter. PMID:27226609

  11. Sequoia, a tramtrack-related zinc finger protein, functions as a pan-neural regulator for dendrite and axon morphogenesis in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Brenman, J E; Gao, F B; Jan, L Y; Jan, Y N

    2001-11-01

    Morphological complexity of neurons contributes to their functional complexity. How neurons generate different dendritic patterns is not known. We identified the sequoia mutant from a previous screen for dendrite mutants. Here we report that Sequoia is a pan-neural nuclear protein containing two putative zinc fingers homologous to the DNA binding domain of Tramtrack. sequoia mutants affect the cell fate decision of a small subset of neurons but have global effects on axon and dendrite morphologies of most and possibly all neurons. In support of sequoia as a specific regulator of neuronal morphogenesis, microarray experiments indicate that sequoia may regulate downstream genes that are important for executing neurite development rather than altering a variety of molecules that specify cell fates.

  12. Activating human genes with zinc finger proteins, transcription activator-like effectors and CRISPR/Cas9 for gene therapy and regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Gersbach, Charles A; Perez-Pinera, Pablo

    2014-08-01

    New technologies have recently been developed to control the expression of human genes in their native genomic context by engineering synthetic transcription factors that can be targeted to any DNA sequence. The ability to precisely regulate any gene as it occurs naturally in the genome provides a means to address a variety of diseases and disorders. This approach also circumvents some of the traditional challenges of gene therapy. In this editorial, we review the technologies that have enabled targeted human gene activation, including the engineering of transcription factors based on zinc finger proteins, transcription activator-like effectors and the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Additionally, we highlight examples in which these methods have been developed for therapeutic applications and discuss challenges and opportunities.

  13. Zinc finger protein 219-like (ZNF219L) and Sox9a regulate synuclein-γ2 (sncgb) expression in the developing notochord of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Lien, Huang-Wei; Yang, Chung-Hsiang; Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Liao, Yung-Feng; Han, Yu-San; Huang, Chang-Jen

    2013-12-13

    Zebrafish synuclein-γ2 (sncgb) has been reported to be expressed specifically in the notochord. However, the mechanism by which the sncgb gene promoter is regulated has not been described. In this paper, we demonstrate that Zinc finger protein 219-like (ZNF219L) and sox9a are involved in the regulation of sncgb gene expression. Furthermore, we observed that over-expression of both ZNF219L and Sox9a resulted in increased sncgb expression. In addition, ZNF219L is physically associated with Sox9a, and simultaneous morpholino knockdown of znf219L and sox9a caused a synergistic decrease of sncgb expression in the notochord. Taken together, our results reveal that coordination of ZNF219L with Sox9a is involved in the regulation of notochord-specific expression of sncgb. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Structural insight into arginine methylation by the mouse protein arginine methyltransferase 7: a zinc finger freezes the mimic of the dimeric state into a single active site.

    PubMed

    Cura, Vincent; Troffer-Charlier, Nathalie; Wurtz, Jean Marie; Bonnefond, Luc; Cavarelli, Jean

    2014-09-01

    Protein arginine methyltransferase 7 (PRMT7) is a type III arginine methyltransferase which has been implicated in several biological processes such as transcriptional regulation, DNA damage repair, RNA splicing, cell differentiation and metastasis. PRMT7 is a unique but less characterized member of the family of PRMTs. The crystal structure of full-length PRMT7 from Mus musculus refined at 1.7 Å resolution is described. The PRMT7 structure is composed of two catalytic modules in tandem forming a pseudo-dimer and contains only one AdoHcy molecule bound to the N-terminal module. The high-resolution crystal structure presented here revealed several structural features showing that the second active site is frozen in an inactive state by a conserved zinc finger located at the junction between the two PRMT modules and by the collapse of two degenerated AdoMet-binding loops.

  15. MHY1 Encodes a C2H2-Type Zinc Finger Protein That Promotes Dimorphic Transition in the Yeast Yarrowia lipolytica

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, Cleofe A. R.; Rachubinski, Richard A.

    1999-01-01

    The yeast-to-hypha morphological transition (dimorphism) is typical of many pathogenic fungi. Dimorphism has been attributed to changes in temperature and nutritional status and is believed to constitute a mechanism of response to adverse conditions. We have isolated and characterized a gene, MHY1, whose transcription is dramatically increased during the yeast-to-hypha transition in Yarrowia lipolytica. Deletion of MHY1 is viable and has no effect on mating, but it does result in a complete inability of cells to undergo mycelial growth. MHY1 encodes a C2H2-type zinc finger protein, Mhy1p, which can bind putative cis-acting DNA stress response elements, suggesting that Mhy1p may act as a transcription factor. Interestingly, Mhy1p tagged with a hemagglutinin epitope was concentrated in the nuclei of actively growing cells found at the hyphal tip. PMID:10322005

  16. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae zinc finger proteins Msn2p and Msn4p are required for transcriptional induction through the stress response element (STRE).

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Pastor, M T; Marchler, G; Schüller, C; Marchler-Bauer, A; Ruis, H; Estruch, F

    1996-01-01

    The MSN2 and MSN4 genes encode homologous and functionally redundant Cys2His2 zinc finger proteins. A disruption of both MSN2 and MSN4 genes results in a higher sensitivity to different stresses, including carbon source starvation, heat shock and severe osmotic and oxidative stresses. We show that MSN2 and MSN4 are required for activation of several yeast genes such as CTT1, DDR2 and HSP12, whose induction is mediated through stress-response elements (STREs). Msn2p and Msn4p are important factors for the stress-induced activation of STRE dependent promoters and bind specifically to STRE-containing oligonucleotides. Our results suggest that MSN2 and MSN4 encode a DNA-binding component of the stress responsive system and it is likely that they act as positive transcription factors. Images PMID:8641288

  17. Zinc finger transcription factor CASZ1 interacts with histones, DNA repair proteins and recruits NuRD complex to regulate gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhihui; Lam, Norris; Thiele, Carol J

    2015-09-29

    The zinc finger transcription factor CASZ1 has been found to control neural fate-determination in flies, regulate murine and frog cardiac development, control murine retinal cell progenitor expansion and function as a tumor suppressor gene in humans. However, the molecular mechanism by which CASZ1 regulates gene transcription to exert these diverse biological functions has not been described. Here we identify co-factors that are recruited by CASZ1b to regulate gene transcription using co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) and mass spectrometry assays. We find that CASZ1b binds to the nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase (NuRD) complex, histones and DNA repair proteins. Mutagenesis of the CASZ1b protein assay demonstrates that the N-terminus of CASZ1b is required for NuRD binding, and a poly(ADP-ribose) binding motif in the CASZ1b protein is required for histone H3 and DNA repair proteins binding. The N-terminus of CASZ1b fused to an artificial DNA-binding domain (GAL4DBD) causes a significant repression of transcription (5xUAS-luciferase assay), which could be blocked by treatment with an HDAC inhibitor. Realtime PCR results show that the transcriptional activity of CASZ1b mutants that abrogate NuRD or histone H3/DNA binding is significantly decreased. This indicates a model in which CASZ1b binds to chromatin and recruits NuRD complexes to orchestrate epigenetic-mediated transcriptional programs.

  18. Identification and Analysis of Mot3, a Zinc Finger Protein That Binds to the Retrotransposon Ty Long Terminal Repeat (δ) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Madison, Jon M.; Dudley, Aimée M.; Winston, Fred

    1998-01-01

    Spt3 and Mot1 are two transcription factors of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that are thought to act in a related fashion to control the function of TATA-binding protein (TBP). Current models suggest that while Spt3 and Mot1 do not directly interact, they do function in a related fashion to stabilize the TBP-TATA interaction at particular promoters. Consistent with this model, certain combinations of spt3 and mot1 mutations are inviable. To identify additional proteins related to Spt3 and Mot1 functions, we screened for high-copy-number suppressors of the mot1 spt3 inviability. This screen identified a previously unstudied gene, MOT3, that encodes a zinc finger protein. We show that Mot3 binds in vitro to three sites within the retrotransposon Ty long terminal repeat (δ) sequence. One of these sites is immediately 5′ of the δ TATA region. Although a mot3 null mutation causes no strong phenotypes, it does cause some mild phenotypes, including a very modest increase in Ty mRNA levels, partial suppression of transcriptional defects caused by a mot1 mutation, and partial suppression of an spt3 mutation. These results, in conjunction with those of an independent study of Mot3 (A. Grishin, M. Rothenberg, M. A. Downs, and K. J. Blumer, Genetics, in press), suggest that this protein plays a varied role in gene expression that may be largely redundant with other factors. PMID:9528759

  19. Zinc Finger Independent Genome-Wide Binding of Sp2 Potentiates Recruitment of Histone-Fold Protein Nf-y Distinguishing It from Sp1 and Sp3

    PubMed Central

    Finkernagel, Florian; Stiewe, Thorsten; Nist, Andrea; Suske, Guntram

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors are grouped into families based on sequence similarity within functional domains, particularly DNA-binding domains. The Specificity proteins Sp1, Sp2 and Sp3 are paradigmatic of closely related transcription factors. They share amino-terminal glutamine-rich regions and a conserved carboxy-terminal zinc finger domain that can bind to GC rich motifs in vitro. All three Sp proteins are ubiquitously expressed; yet they carry out unique functions in vivo raising the question of how specificity is achieved. Crucially, it is unknown whether they bind to distinct genomic sites and, if so, how binding site selection is accomplished. In this study, we have examined the genomic binding patterns of Sp1, Sp2 and Sp3 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts by ChIP-seq. Sp1 and Sp3 essentially occupy the same promoters and localize to GC boxes. The genomic binding pattern of Sp2 is different; Sp2 primarily localizes at CCAAT motifs. Consistently, re-expression of Sp2 and Sp3 mutants in corresponding knockout MEFs revealed strikingly different modes of genomic binding site selection. Most significantly, while the zinc fingers dictate genomic binding of Sp3, they are completely dispensable for binding of Sp2. Instead, the glutamine-rich amino-terminal region is sufficient for recruitment of Sp2 to its target promoters in vivo. We have identified the trimeric histone-fold CCAAT box binding transcription factor Nf-y as the major partner for Sp2-chromatin interaction. Nf-y is critical for recruitment of Sp2 to co-occupied regulatory elements. Equally, Sp2 potentiates binding of Nf-y to shared sites indicating the existence of an extensive Sp2-Nf-y interaction network. Our results unveil strikingly different recruitment mechanisms of Sp1/Sp2/Sp3 transcription factor members uncovering an unexpected layer of complexity in their binding to chromatin in vivo. PMID:25793500

  20. The multi zinc-finger protein Trps1 acts as a regulator of histone deacetylation during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Wuelling, Manuela; Pasdziernik, Markus; Moll, Carina N; Thiesen, Andrea M; Schneider, Sabine; Johannes, Christian; Vortkamp, Andrea

    2013-07-15

    TRPS1, the gene mutated in human "Tricho-Rhino-Phalangeal syndrome," encodes a multi zinc-finger nuclear regulator of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Here, we have identified a new function of Trps1 in controlling mitotic progression in chondrocytes. Loss of Trps1 in mice leads to an increased proportion of cells arrested in mitosis and, subsequently, to chromosome segregation defects. Searching for the molecular basis of the defect, we found that Trps1 acts as regulator of histone deacetylation. Trps1 interacts with two histone deacetylases, Hdac1 and Hdac4, thereby increasing their activity. Loss of Trps1 results in histone H3 hyperacetylation, which is maintained during mitosis. Consequently, chromatin condensation and binding of HP1 is impaired, and Trps1-deficient chondrocytes accumulate in prometaphase. Overexpression of Hdac4 rescues the mitotic defect of Trps1-deficient chondrocytes, identifying Trps1 as an important regulator of chromatin deacetylation during mitosis in chondrocytes. Our data provide the first evidence that the control of mitosis can be linked to the regulation of chondrocyte differentiation by epigenetic consequences of altered Hdac activity.

  1. Role of the His-Cys finger of Moloney murine leukemia virus integrase protein in integration and disintegration.

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, C B; Roth, M J

    1993-01-01

    Retroviral integrases mediate site-specific endonuclease and transesterification reactions in the absence of exogenous energy. The basis for the sequence specificity in these integrase-viral DNA recognition processes is unknown. Structural analogs of the disintegration substrate were made to analyze the disintegration reaction mechanism for the Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) integrase (IN). Modifications in the target DNA portion of the disintegration substrate decreased enzymatic activity, while substitution of the highly conserved CA in the viral long terminal repeat portion had no effect on activity. The role of the His-Cys finger region in catalysis was addressed by N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) modification of the cysteine residues of M-MuLV IN as well as by mutations. Both integration activities, 3' processing, and strand transfer, were completely inhibited by NEM modification of M-MuLV IN, while disintegration activity was only partially sensitive. However, structural analogs of the disintegration substrates that were modified in the target DNA and had the conserved CA removed were not active with NEM-treated M-MuLV IN. In addition, mutants made in the His-Cys region of M-MuLV IN were examined and found to also be completely blocked in integration but not disintegration activity. These data suggest that the domains of M-MuLV IN that are required for the forward integration reaction substrate differ from those required for the reverse disintegration reaction substrate. Images PMID:8350412

  2. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ras/cAMP pathway controls post-diauxic shift element-dependent transcription through the zinc finger protein Gis1

    PubMed Central

    Pedruzzi, Ivo; Bürckert, Niels; Egger, Pascal; De Virgilio, Claudio

    2000-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein kinase Rim15 was identified previously as a component of the Ras/cAMP pathway acting immediately downstream of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK) to control a broad range of adaptations in response to nutrient limitation. Here, we show that the zinc finger protein Gis1 acts as a dosage-dependent suppressor of the rim15Δ defect in nutrient limitation-induced transcriptional derepression of SSA3. Loss of Gis1 results in a defect in transcriptional derepression upon nutrient limitation of various genes that are negatively regulated by the Ras/cAMP pathway (e.g. SSA3, HSP12 and HSP26). Tests of epistasis as well as transcriptional analyses of Gis1-dependent expression indicate that Gis1 acts in this pathway downstream of Rim15 to mediate transcription from the previously identified post-diauxic shift (PDS) element. Accordingly, deletion of GIS1 partially suppresses, and overexpression of GIS1 exacerbates the growth defect of mutant cells that are compromised for cAPK activity. Moreover, PDS element-driven expression, which is negatively regulated by the Ras/cAMP pathway and which is induced upon nutrient limitation, is almost entirely dependent on the presence of Gis1. PMID:10835355

  3. Modulation of Caenorhabditis elegans transcription factor activity by HIM-8 and the related Zinc-Finger ZIM proteins.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongliu; Nelms, Brian L; Sleiman, Sama F; Chamberlin, Helen M; Hanna-Rose, Wendy

    2007-10-01

    The previously reported negative regulatory activity of HIM-8 on the Sox protein EGL-13 is shared by the HIM-8-related ZIM proteins. Furthermore, mutation of HIM-8 can modulate the effects of substitution mutations in the DNA-binding domains of at least four other transcription factors, suggesting broad regulatory activity by HIM-8.

  4. Ring finger protein 43 associates with gastric cancer progression and attenuates the stemness of gastric cancer stem-like cells via the Wnt-β/catenin signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yunhe; Cai, Aizhen; Xi, Hongqing; Li, Jiyang; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanmei; Zhang, Kecheng; Cui, Jianxin; Wu, Xiaosong; Wei, Bo; Chen, Lin

    2017-04-26

    Ring finger protein 43 (RNF43) is a member of the transmembrane E3 ubiquitin ligase family that was originally found in stem cells and plays important roles in tumor formation and progression. Our previous study indicated that RNF43 might be a tumor suppressor protein in gastric cancer. Given its antagonistic relationship with leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5), one of the gastric cancer stem cell markers, investigation of the potential role of RNF43 in gastric stem cancer cells is necessary. Immunohistochemistry staining, western blot analysis, and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were used to determine the mRNA and protein expression level of RNF43 and other Wnt pathway factors. Gastric cancer stem-like cells were obtained from gastric cancer tumor and cell lines by tumorsphere culture. The adeno-associated virus system was used to upregulate RNF43 expression in cancer cells. Functional experiments including tumorsphere formation, chemotherapy resistance, surface marker detection, and tumor xenograft assay were performed to measure stem-like properties in gastric cancer stem-like cells after RNF43 overexpression. RNF43 loss was significantly associated with TNM stage, distant metastasis, and Lauren classification, and predicted worse prognosis in gastric cancer patients. RNF43 expression was even lower in tumorspheres derived from tumor tissues or cell lines compared with adherent cancer cells and normal gastric cells. Overexpression of RNF43 in gastric cancer cells impaired their stem-like properties, including sphere formation ability, chemoresistance in vitro, and tumorigenicity in vivo. Moreover, Wnt pathway-related proteins were decreased in RNF43-overexpressing cells, while Wnt pathway activators could reverse the trend to some extent. Our findings indicated that RNF43 might not only participate in gastric cancer progression, but also attenuate the stemness of gastric cancer stem-like cells through

  5. The structural role of the zinc ion can be dispensable in prokaryotic zinc-finger domains

    PubMed Central

    Baglivo, Ilaria; Russo, Luigi; Esposito, Sabrina; Malgieri, Gaetano; Renda, Mario; Salluzzo, Antonio; Di Blasio, Benedetto; Isernia, Carla; Fattorusso, Roberto; Pedone, Paolo V.

    2009-01-01

    The recent characterization of the prokaryotic Cys2His2 zinc-finger domain, identified in Ros protein from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, has demonstrated that, although possessing a similar zinc coordination sphere, this domain is structurally very different from its eukaryotic counterpart. A search in the databases has identified ≈300 homologues with a high sequence identity to the Ros protein, including the amino acids that form the extensive hydrophobic core in Ros. Surprisingly, the Cys2His2 zinc coordination sphere is generally poorly conserved in the Ros homologues, raising the question of whether the zinc ion is always preserved in these proteins. Here, we present a functional and structural study of a point mutant of Ros protein, Ros56–142C82D, in which the second coordinating cysteine is replaced by an aspartate, 5 previously-uncharacterized representative Ros homologues from Mesorhizobium loti, and 2 mutants of the homologues. Our results indicate that the prokaryotic zinc-finger domain, which in Ros protein tetrahedrally coordinates Zn(II) through the typical Cys2His2 coordination, in Ros homologues can either exploit a CysAspHis2 coordination sphere, previously never described in DNA binding zinc finger domains to our knowledge, or lose the metal, while still preserving the DNA-binding activity. We demonstrate that this class of prokaryotic zinc-finger domains is structurally very adaptable, and surprisingly single mutations can transform a zinc-binding domain into a nonzinc-binding domain and vice versa, without affecting the DNA-binding ability. In light of our findings an evolutionary link between the prokaryotic and eukaryotic zinc-finger domains, based on bacteria-to-eukaryota horizontal gene transfer, is discussed. PMID:19369210

  6. Poliovirus-associated protein kinase: Destabilization of the virus capsid and stimulation of the phosphorylation reaction by Zn sup 2+

    SciTech Connect

    Ratka, M.; Lackmann, M.; Ueckermann, C.

    1989-09-01

    The previously described poliovirus-associated protein kinase activity phosphorylates viral proteins VP0 and VP2 as well as exogenous proteins in the presence of Mg{sup 2+}. In this paper, the effect of Zn{sup 2+} on the phosphorylation reaction and the stability of the poliovirus capsid has been studied in detail and compared to that of Mg{sup 2+}. In the presence of Zn{sup 2+}, phosphorylation of capsid proteins VP2 and VP4 is significantly higher while phosphorylation of VP0 and exogenous phosphate acceptor proteins is not detected. The results indicate the activation of more than one virus-associated protein kinase by Zn{sup 2+}. The ion-dependentmore » behavior of the enzyme activities is observed independently of whether the virus was obtained from HeLa or green monkey kidney cells. The poliovirus capsid is destabilized by Zn{sup 2+}. This alteration of the poliovirus capsid structure is a prerequisite for effective phosphorylation of viral capsid proteins. The increased level of phosphorylation of viral capsid proteins results in further destabilization of the viral capsid. As a result of the conformational changes, poliovirus-associated protein kinase activities dissociate from the virus particle. The authors suggest that the destabilizing effect of phosphorylation on the viral capsid plays a role in uncoating of poliovirus.« less

  7. The RING finger/B-box factor TAM-1 and a retinoblastoma-like protein LIN-35 modulate context-dependent gene silencing in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, J; Liu, J; Kostas, S A; Chang, C; Sternberg, P W; Fire, A

    1999-11-15

    Context-dependent gene silencing is used by many organisms to stably modulate gene activity for large chromosomal regions. We have used tandem array transgenes as a model substrate in a screen for Caenorhabditis elegans mutants that affect context-dependent gene silencing in somatic tissues. This screen yielded multiple alleles of a previously uncharacterized gene, designated tam-1 (for tandem-array-modifier). Loss-of-function mutations in tam-1 led to a dramatic reduction in the activity of numerous highly repeated transgenes. These effects were apparently context dependent, as nonrepetitive transgenes retained activity in a tam-1 mutant background. In addition to the dramatic alterations in transgene activity, tam-1 mutants showed modest alterations in expression of a subset of endogenous cellular genes. These effects include genetic interactions that place tam-1 into a group called the class B synMuv genes (for a Synthetic Multivulva phenotype); this family plays a negative role in the regulation of RAS pathway activity in C. elegans. Loss-of-function mutants in other members of the class-B synMuv family, including lin-35, which encodes a protein similar to the tumor suppressor Rb, exhibit a hypersilencing in somatic transgenes similar to that of tam-1 mutants. Molecular analysis reveals that tam-1 encodes a broadly expressed nuclear protein with RING finger and B-box motifs.

  8. A C2H2-type zinc finger protein, SGR5, is involved in early events of gravitropism in Arabidopsis inflorescence stems.

    PubMed

    Morita, Miyo T; Sakaguchi, Keitaro; Kiyose, Shin-Ichiro; Taira, Kensuke; Kato, Takehide; Nakamura, Moritaka; Tasaka, Masao

    2006-08-01

    Plants can sense the direction of gravity and change the growth orientation of their organs. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of gravity perception and the signal transduction of gravitropism, we have characterized a number of shoot gravitropism (sgr) mutants of Arabidopsis. The sgr5-1 mutant shows reduced gravitropism in the inflorescence stem but its root and hypocotyl have normal gravitropism. SGR5 encodes a zinc finger protein with a coiled-coil motif. The SGR5-GFP fusion protein is localized in the nucleus of Arabidopsis protoplasts, suggesting that SGR5 may act as a transcription factor. Analysis of GUS expression under the control of the SGR5 promoter revealed that SGR5 is mainly expressed in the endodermis, the gravity-sensing tissue in inflorescence stems. Furthermore, the observation that endodermis-specific expression of SGR5 using the SCR promoter in the sgr5-1 mutant restores shoot gravitropism indicates that it could function in the gravity-sensing endodermal cell layer. In contrast to other sgr mutants reported previously, almost all amyloplasts in the endodermal cells of the sgr5-1 mutant sedimented in the direction of gravity. Taken together, our results suggest that SGR5 may be involved in an early event in shoot gravitropism such as gravity perception and/or a signaling process subsequent to amyloplast sedimentation as a putative transcription factor in gravity-perceptive cells.

  9. Arabidopsis JACKDAW and MAGPIE zinc finger proteins delimit asymmetric cell division and stabilize tissue boundaries by restricting SHORT-ROOT action

    PubMed Central

    Welch, David; Hassan, Hala; Blilou, Ikram; Immink, Richard; Heidstra, Renze; Scheres, Ben

    2007-01-01

    In the Arabidopsis root, the SHORT-ROOT transcription factor moves outward to the ground tissue from its site of transcription in the stele and is required for the specification of the endodermis and the stem cell organizing quiescent center cells. In addition, SHORT-ROOT and the downstream transcription factor SCARECROW control an oriented cell division in ground tissue stem cell daughters. Here, we show that the JACKDAW and MAGPIE genes, which encode members of a plant-specific family of zinc finger proteins, act in a SHR-dependent feed-forward loop to regulate the range of action of SHORT-ROOT and SCARECROW. JACKDAW expression is initiated independent of SHORT-ROOT and regulates the SCARECROW expression domain outside the stele, while MAGPIE expression depends on SHORT-ROOT and SCARECROW. We provide evidence that JACKDAW and MAGPIE regulate tissue boundaries and asymmetric cell division and can control SHORT-ROOT and SCARECROW activity in a transcriptional and protein interaction network. PMID:17785527

  10. The KRAS Promoter Responds to Myc-associated Zinc Finger and Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase 1 Proteins, Which Recognize a Critical Quadruplex-forming GA-element*

    PubMed Central

    Cogoi, Susanna; Paramasivam, Manikandan; Membrino, Alexandro; Yokoyama, Kazunari K.; Xodo, Luigi E.

    2010-01-01

    The murine KRAS promoter contains a G-rich nuclease hypersensitive element (GA-element) upstream of the transcription start site that is essential for transcription. Pulldown and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate that this GA-element is bound by the Myc-associated zinc finger (MAZ) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) proteins. These proteins are crucial for transcription, because when they are knocked down by short hairpin RNA, transcription is down-regulated. This is also the case when the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation activity of PARP-1 is inhibited by 3,4-dihydro-5-[4-(1-piperidinyl) butoxyl]-1(2H) isoquinolinone. We found that MAZ specifically binds to the duplex and quadruplex conformations of the GA-element, whereas PARP-1 shows specificity only for the G-quadruplex. On the basis of fluorescence resonance energy transfer melting and polymerase stop assays we saw that MAZ stabilizes the KRAS quadruplex. When the capacity of folding in the GA-element is abrogated by specific G → T or G → A point mutations, KRAS transcription is down-regulated. Conversely, guanidine-modified phthalocyanines, which specifically interact with and stabilize the KRAS G-quadruplex, push the promoter activity up to more than double. Collectively, our data support a transcription mechanism for murine KRAS that involves MAZ, PARP-1 and duplex-quadruplex conformational changes in the promoter GA-element. PMID:20457603

  11. MCP-1 causes cardiomyoblast death via autophagy resulting from ER stress caused by oxidative stress generated by inducing a novel zinc-finger protein, MCPIP.

    PubMed

    Younce, Craig W; Kolattukudy, Pappachan E

    2010-01-27

    MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein-1) plays a critical role in the development of heart failure that is known to involve apoptosis. How MCP-1 contributes to cell death involved in the development of heart disease is not understood. In the present study we show that MCP-1 causes death in cardiac myoblasts, H9c2 cells, by inducing oxidative stress which causes ER stress leading to autophagy via a novel zinc-finger protein, MCPIP (MCP-1-induced protein). MCPIP expression caused cell death, and knockdown of MCPIP attenuated MCP-1-induced cell death. It caused induction of iNOS (inducible NO synthase), translocation of the NADPH oxidase subunit phox47 from the cytoplasm to the membrane, production of ROS (reactive oxygen species), and induction of ER (endoplasmic reticulum) stress markers HSP40 (heat-shock protein 40), PDI (protein disulfide-isomerase), GRP78 (guanine-nucleotide-releasing protein 78) and IRE1alpha (inositol-requiring enzyme 1alpha). It also caused autophagy, as indicated by beclin-1 induction, cleavage of LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3) and autophagolysosome formation, and apoptosis, as indicated by caspase 3 activation and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling) assay. Inhibitors of oxidative stress, including CeO2 nanoparticles, inhibited ROS formation, ER stress, autophagy and cell death. Specific inhibitors of ER stress inhibited autophagy and cell death as did knockdown of the ER stress signalling protein IRE1. Knockdown of beclin-1 and autophagy inhibitors prevented cell death. This cell death involved caspase 2 and caspase 12, as specific inhibitors of these caspases prevented MCPIP-induced cell death. Microarray analysis showed that MCPIP expression caused induction of a variety of genes known to be involved in cell death. MCPIP caused activation of JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) and p38 and induction of p53 and PUMA (p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis). Taken together, these

  12. The DnaJ-Like Zinc-Finger Protein HCF222 Is Required for Thylakoid Membrane Biogenesis in Plants.

    PubMed

    Hartings, Stephanie; Paradies, Susanne; Karnuth, Bianca; Eisfeld, Sabrina; Mehsing, Jasmin; Wolff, Christian; Levey, Tatjana; Westhoff, Peter; Meierhoff, Karin

    2017-07-01

    To understand the biogenesis of the thylakoid membrane in higher plants and to identify auxiliary proteins required to build up this highly complex membrane system, we have characterized the allelic nuclear mutants high chlorophyll fluorescence222-1 ( hcf222-1 ) and hcf222-2 and isolated the causal gene by map-based cloning. In the ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutant hcf222-1 , the accumulation of the cytochrome b 6 f (Cytb6f) complex was reduced to 30% compared with the wild type. Other thylakoid membrane complexes accumulated to normal levels. The T-DNA knockout mutant hcf222-2 showed a more severe defect with respect to thylakoid membrane proteins and accumulated only 10% of the Cytb6f complex, accompanied by a reduction in photosystem II, the photosystem II light-harvesting complex, and photosystem I. HCF222 encodes a protein of 99 amino acids in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) that has similarities to the cysteine-rich zinc-binding domain of DnaJ chaperones. The insulin precipitation assay demonstrated that HCF222 has disulfide reductase activity in vitro. The protein is conserved in higher plants and bryophytes but absent in algae and cyanobacteria. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that a fraction of HCF222-green fluorescent protein was detectable in the endoplasmic reticulum but that it also could be recognized in chloroplasts. A fusion construct of HCF222 containing a plastid transit peptide targets the protein into chloroplasts and was able to complement the mutational defect. These findings indicate that the chloroplast-targeted HCF222 is indispensable for the maturation and/or assembly of the Cytb6f complex and is very likely involved in thiol-disulfide biochemistry at the thylakoid membrane. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  13. The electrostatic role of the Zn-Cys2His2 complex in binding of operator DNA with transcription factors: mouse EGR-1 from the Cys2His2 family.

    PubMed

    Chirgadze, Y N; Boshkova, E A; Polozov, R V; Sivozhelezov, V S; Dzyabchenko, A V; Kuzminsky, M B; Stepanenko, V A; Ivanov, V V

    2018-01-07

    The mouse factor Zif268, known also as early growth response protein EGR-1, is a classical representative for the Cys2His2 transcription factor family. It is required for binding the RNA polymerase with operator dsDNA to initialize the transcription process. We have shown that only in this family of total six Zn-finger protein families the Zn complex plays a significant role in the protein-DNA binding. Electrostatic feature of this complex in the binding of factor Zif268 from Mus musculus with operator DNA has been considered. The factor consists of three similar Zn-finger units which bind with triplets of coding DNA. Essential contacts of the factor with the DNA phosphates are formed by three conservative His residues, one in each finger. We describe here the results of calculations of the electrostatic potentials for the Zn-Cys2His2 complex, Zn-finger unit 1, and the whole transcription factor. The potential of Zif268 has a positive area on the factor surface, and it corresponds exactly to the binding sites of each of Zn-finger units. The main part of these areas is determined by conservative His residues, which form contacts with the DNA phosphate groups. Our result shows that the electrostatic positive potential of this histidine residue is enhanced due to the Zn complex. The other contacts of the Zn-finger with DNA are related to nucleotide bases, and they are responsible for the sequence-specific binding with DNA. This result may be extended to all other members of the Cys2His2 transcription factor family.

  14. Comparative functional analysis of wheat (Triticum aestivum) zinc finger-containing glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins in response to abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tao; Gu, Lili; Choi, Min Ji; Kim, Ryeo Jin; Suh, Mi Chung; Kang, Hunseung

    2014-01-01

    Although the functional roles of zinc finger-containing glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins (RZs) have been characterized in several plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa), the physiological functions of RZs in wheat (Triticum aestivum) remain largely unknown. Here, the functional roles of the three wheat RZ family members, named TaRZ1, TaRZ2, and TaRZ3, were investigated using transgenic Arabidopsis plants under various abiotic stress conditions. Expression of TaRZs was markedly regulated by salt, dehydration, or cold stress. The TaRZ1 and TaRZ3 proteins were localized to the nucleus, whereas the TaRZ2 protein was localized to the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, and cytoplasm. Germination of all three TaRZ-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis seeds was retarded compared with that of wild-type seeds under salt stress conditions, whereas germination of TaRZ2- or TaRZ3-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis seeds was retarded under dehydration stress conditions. Seedling growth of TaRZ1-expressing transgenic plants was severely inhibited under cold or salt stress conditions, and seedling growth of TaRZ2-expressing plants was inhibited under salt stress conditions. By contrast, expression of TaRZ3 did not affect seedling growth of transgenic plants under any of the stress conditions. In addition, expression of TaRZ2 conferred freeze tolerance in Arabidopsis. Taken together, these results suggest that different TaRZ family members play various roles in seed germination, seedling growth, and freeze tolerance in plants under abiotic stress.

  15. The C2H2 zinc-finger protein SlZF3 regulates AsA synthesis and salt tolerance by interacting with CSN5B.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Chu, Zhuannan; Luo, Jinying; Zhou, Yuhong; Cai, Yujing; Lu, Yongen; Xia, Junhui; Kuang, Hanhui; Ye, Zhibiao; Ouyang, Bo

    2018-06-01

    Abiotic stresses are a major cause of crop loss. Ascorbic acid (AsA) promotes stress tolerance by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS), which accumulate when plants experience abiotic stress. Although the biosynthesis and metabolism of AsA are well established, the genes that regulate these pathways remain largely unexplored. Here, we report on a novel regulatory gene from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) named SlZF3 that encodes a Cys2/His2-type zinc-finger protein with an EAR repression domain. The expression of SlZF3 was rapidly induced by NaCl treatments. The overexpression of SlZF3 significantly increased the levels of AsA in tomato and Arabidopsis. Consequently, the AsA-mediated ROS-scavenging capacity of the SlZF3-overexpressing plants was increased, which enhanced the salt tolerance of these plants. Protein-protein interaction assays demonstrated that SlZF3 directly binds CSN5B, a key component of the COP9 signalosome. This interaction inhibited the binding of CSN5B to VTC1, a GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase that contributes to AsA biosynthesis. We found that the EAR domain promoted the stability of SlZF3 but was not required for the interaction between SlZF3 and CSN5B. Our findings indicate that SlZF3 simultaneously promotes the accumulation of AsA and enhances plant salt-stress tolerance. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. RING finger and WD repeat domain 3 (RFWD3) associates with replication protein A (RPA) and facilitates RPA-mediated DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shangfeng; Chu, Jessica; Yucer, Nur; Leng, Mei; Wang, Shih-Ya; Chen, Benjamin P C; Hittelman, Walter N; Wang, Yi

    2011-06-24

    DNA damage response is crucial for maintaining genomic integrity and preventing cancer by coordinating the activation of checkpoints and the repair of damaged DNA. Central to DNA damage response are the two checkpoint kinases ATM and ATR that phosphorylate a wide range of substrates. RING finger and WD repeat domain 3 (RFWD3) was initially identified as a substrate of ATM/ATR from a proteomic screen. Subsequent studies showed that RFWD3 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that ubiquitinates p53 in vitro and positively regulates p53 levels in response to DNA damage. We report here that RFWD3 associates with replication protein A (RPA), a single-stranded DNA-binding protein that plays essential roles in DNA replication, recombination, and repair. Binding of RPA to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), which is generated by DNA damage and repair, is essential for the recruitment of DNA repair factors to damaged sites and the activation of checkpoint signaling. We show that RFWD3 is physically associated with RPA and rapidly localizes to sites of DNA damage in a RPA-dependent manner. In vitro experiments suggest that the C terminus of RFWD3, which encompass the coiled-coil domain and the WD40 domain, is necessary for binding to RPA. Furthermore, DNA damage-induced phosphorylation of RPA and RFWD3 is dependent upon each other. Consequently, loss of RFWD3 results in the persistent foci of DNA damage marker γH2AX and the repair protein Rad51 in damaged cells. These findings suggest that RFWD3 is recruited to sites of DNA damage and facilitates RPA-mediated DNA damage signaling and repair.

  17. A genetic method for sex determination in Ovis spp. by interruption of the zinc finger protein, Y-linked (ZFY) gene on the Y chromosome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong Sheng; Du, Ying Chun; Sun, Li Rong; Wang, Xu Hai; Liu, Shuai Bing; Xi, Ji Feng; Li, Chao Cheng; Ying, Rui Wen; Jiang, Song; Wang, Xiang Zu; Shen, Hong; Jia, Bin

    2018-03-06

    The mammalian Y chromosome plays a critical role in spermatogenesis. However, the exact functions of each gene on the Y chromosome have not been completely elucidated, due, in part, to difficulties in gene targeting analysis of the Y chromosome. The zinc finger protein, Y-linked (ZFY) gene was first proposed to be a sex determination factor, although its function in spermatogenesis has recently been elucidated. Nevertheless, ZFY gene targeting analysis has not been performed to date. In the present study, RNA interference (RNAi) was used to generate ZFY-interrupted Hu sheep by injecting short hairpin RNA (shRNA) into round spermatids. The resulting spermatozoa exhibited abnormal sperm morphology, including spermatozoa without tails and others with head and tail abnormalities. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that ZFY mRNA expression was decreased significantly in Hu sheep with interrupted ZFY compared with wild-type Hu sheep. The sex ratio of lambs also exhibited a bias towards females. Together, the experimental strategy and findings of the present study reveal that ZFY also functions in spermatogenesis in Hu sheep and facilitate the use of RNAi in the control of sex in Hu sheep.

  18. The PHD Finger Protein MMD1/DUET Ensures the Progression of Male Meiotic Chromosome Condensation and Directly Regulates the Expression of the Condensin Gene CAP-D3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Niu, Baixiao; Huang, Jiyue; Wang, Hongkuan; Yang, Xiaohui; Dong, Aiwu; Makaroff, Christopher; Ma, Hong; Wang, Yingxiang

    2016-08-01

    Chromosome condensation, a process mediated by the condensin complex, is essential for proper chromosome segregation during cell division. Unlike rapid mitotic chromosome condensation, meiotic chromosome condensation occurs over a relatively long prophase I and is unusually complex due to the coordination with chromosome axis formation and homolog interaction. The molecular mechanisms that regulate meiotic chromosome condensation progression from prophase I to metaphase I are unclear. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana meiotic PHD-finger protein MMD1/DUET is required for progressive compaction of prophase I chromosomes to metaphase I bivalents. The MMD1 PHD domain is required for its function in chromosome condensation and binds to methylated histone tails. Transcriptome analysis and qRT-PCR showed that several condensin genes exhibit significantly reduced expression in mmd1 meiocytes. Furthermore, MMD1 specifically binds to the promoter region of the condensin subunit gene CAP-D3 to enhance its expression. Moreover, cap-d3 mutants exhibit similar chromosome condensation defects, revealing an MMD1-dependent mechanism for regulating meiotic chromosome condensation, which functions in part by promoting condensin gene expression. Together, these discoveries provide strong evidence that the histone reader MMD1/DUET defines an important step for regulating the progression of meiotic prophase I chromosome condensation. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  19. A map of human PRDM9 binding provides evidence for novel behaviors of PRDM9 and other zinc-finger proteins in meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Nudrat; Bitoun, Emmanuelle; Tumian, Afidalina; Imbeault, Michael; Chapman, J Ross; Aricescu, A Radu

    2017-01-01

    PRDM9 binding localizes almost all meiotic recombination sites in humans and mice. However, most PRDM9-bound loci do not become recombination hotspots. To explore factors that affect binding and subsequent recombination outcomes, we mapped human PRDM9 binding sites in a transfected human cell line and measured PRDM9-induced histone modifications. These data reveal varied DNA-binding modalities of PRDM9. We also find that human PRDM9 frequently binds promoters, despite their low recombination rates, and it can activate expression of a small number of genes including CTCFL and VCX. Furthermore, we identify specific sequence motifs that predict consistent, localized meiotic recombination suppression around a subset of PRDM9 binding sites. These motifs strongly associate with KRAB-ZNF protein binding, TRIM28 recruitment, and specific histone modifications. Finally, we demonstrate that, in addition to binding DNA, PRDM9's zinc fingers also mediate its multimerization, and we show that a pair of highly diverged alleles preferentially form homo-multimers. PMID:29072575

  20. Ubiquitin-specific Protease 11 (USP11) Deubiquitinates Hybrid Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO)-Ubiquitin Chains to Counteract RING Finger Protein 4 (RNF4)*

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, Ivo A.; Schimmel, Joost; Eifler, Karolin; Olsen, Jesper V.; Vertegaal, Alfred C. O.

    2015-01-01

    Ring finger protein 4 (RNF4) is a SUMO-targeted ubiquitin E3 ligase with a pivotal function in the DNA damage response (DDR). SUMO interaction motifs (SIMs) in the N-terminal part of RNF4 tightly bind to SUMO polymers, and RNF4 can ubiquitinate these polymers in vitro. Using a proteomic approach, we identified the deubiquitinating enzyme ubiquitin-specific protease 11 (USP11), a known DDR-component, as a functional interactor of RNF4. USP11 can deubiquitinate hybrid SUMO-ubiquitin chains to counteract RNF4. SUMO-enriched nuclear bodies are stabilized by USP11, which functions downstream of RNF4 as a counterbalancing factor. In response to DNA damage induced by methyl methanesulfonate, USP11 could counteract RNF4 to inhibit the dissolution of nuclear bodies. Thus, we provide novel insight into cross-talk between ubiquitin and SUMO and uncover USP11 and RNF4 as a balanced SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase/protease pair with a role in the DDR. PMID:25969536

  1. OsDOG, a gibberellin-induced A20/AN1 zinc-finger protein, negatively regulates gibberellin-mediated cell elongation in rice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaju; Xu, Yunyuan; Xiao, Jun; Ma, Qibin; Li, Dan; Xue, Zhen; Chong, Kang

    2011-07-01

    The A20/AN1 zinc-finger proteins (ZFPs) play pivotal roles in animal immune responses and plant stress responses. From previous gibberellin (GA) microarray data and A20/AN1 ZFP family member association, we chose Oryza sativa dwarf rice with overexpression of gibberellin-induced gene (OsDOG) to examine its function in the GA pathway. OsDOG was induced by gibberellic acid (GA(3)) and repressed by the GA-synthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol. Different transgenic lines with constitutive expression of OsDOG showed dwarf phenotypes due to deficiency of cell elongation. Additional GA(1) and real-time PCR quantitative assay analyses confirmed that the decrease of GA(1) in the overexpression lines resulted from reduced expression of GA3ox2 and enhanced expression of GA2ox1 and GA2ox3. Adding exogenous GA rescued the constitutive expression phenotypes of the transgenic lines. OsDOG has a novel function in regulating GA homeostasis and in negative maintenance of plant cell elongation in rice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. The binding of histone deacetylases and the integrity of zinc finger-like motifs of the E7 protein are essential for the life cycle of human papillomavirus type 31.

    PubMed

    Longworth, Michelle S; Laimins, Laimonis A

    2004-04-01

    The E7 oncoprotein of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) binds to and alters the action of cell cycle regulatory proteins such as members of the retinoblastoma (Rb) family of proteins as well as the histone deacetylases (HDACs). To examine the significance of the binding of E7 to HDACs in the viral life cycle, a mutational analysis of the E7 open reading frame was performed in the context of the complete HPV type 31 (HPV-31) genome. Human foreskin keratinocytes were transfected with wild-type HPV-31 genomes or HPV-31 genomes containing mutations in HDAC binding sequences as well as in the C-terminal zinc finger-like domain, and stable cell lines were isolated. All mutant genomes, except those with E7 mutations in the HDAC binding site, were found to be stably maintained extrachromosomally at an early passage following transfection. Upon further passage in culture, genomes containing mutations to the Rb binding domain as well as the zinc finger-like region quickly lost the ability to maintain episomal genomes. Genomes containing mutations abolishing E7 binding to HDACs or to Rb or mutations to the zinc finger-like motifs failed to extend the life span of transfected keratinocytes and caused cells to arrest at the same time as the untransfected keratinocytes. When induced to differentiate by suspension in methylcellulose, cells maintaining genomes with mutations in the Rb binding domain or the zinc finger-like motifs were impaired in their abilities to activate late viral functions. This study demonstrates that the interaction of E7 with HDACs and the integrity of the zinc finger-like motifs are essential for extending the life span of keratinocytes and for stable maintenance of viral genomes.

  3. Gold nanoparticle-embedded silk protein-ZnO nanorod hybrids for flexible bio-photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogurla, Narendar; Kundu, Subhas C.; Ray, Samit K.

    2017-04-01

    Silk protein has been used as a biopolymer substrate for flexible photonic devices. Here, we demonstrate ZnO nanorod array hybrid photodetectors on Au nanoparticle-embedded silk protein for flexible optoelectronics. Hybrid samples exhibit optical absorption at the band edge of ZnO as well as plasmonic energy due to Au nanoparticles, making them attractive for selective UV and visible wavelength detection. The device prepared on Au-silk protein shows a much lower dark current and a higher photo to dark-current ratio of ∼105 as compared to the control sample without Au nanoparticles. The hybrid device also exhibits a higher specific detectivity due to higher responsivity arising from the photo-generated hole trapping by Au nanoparticles. Sharp pulses in the transient photocurrent have been observed in devices prepared on glass and Au-silk protein substrates due to the light induced pyroelectric effect of ZnO, enabling the demonstration of self-powered photodetectors at zero bias. Flexible hybrid detectors have been demonstrated on Au-silk/polyethylene terephthalate substrates, exhibiting characteristics similar to those fabricated on rigid glass substrates. A study of the performance of photodetectors with different bending angles indicates very good mechanical stability of silk protein based flexible devices. This novel concept of ZnO nanorod array photodetectors on a natural silk protein platform provides an opportunity to realize integrated flexible and self-powered bio-photonic devices for medical applications in near future.

  4. Riplet/RNF135, a RING finger protein, ubiquitinates RIG-I to promote interferon-beta induction during the early phase of viral infection.

    PubMed

    Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Misako; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu; Seya, Tsukasa

    2009-01-09

    RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene-I), a cytoplasmic RNA helicase, interacts with IPS-1/MAVS/Cardif/VISA, a protein on the outer membrane of mitochondria, to signal the presence of virus-derived RNA and induce type I interferon production. Activation of RIG-I requires the ubiquitin ligase, TRIM25, which mediates lysine 63-linked polyubiquitination of the RIG-I N-terminal CARD-like region. However, how this modification proceeds for activation of IPS-1 by RIG-I remains unclear. Here we identify an alternative factor, Riplet/RNF135, that promotes RIG-I activation independent of TRIM25. The Riplet/RNF135 protein consists of an N-terminal RING finger domain, C-terminal SPRY and PRY motifs, and shows sequence similarity to TRIM25. Immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated that the C-terminal helicase and repressor domains of RIG-I interact with the Riplet/RNF135 C-terminal region, whereas the CARD-like region of RIG-I is dispensable for this interaction. Riplet/RNF135 promotes lysine 63-linked polyubiquitination of the C-terminal region of RIG-I, modification of which differs from the N-terminal ubiquitination by TRIM25. Overexpression and knockdown analyses revealed that Riplet/RNF135 promotes RIG-I-mediated interferon-beta promoter activation and inhibits propagation of the negative-strand RNA virus, vesicular stomatitis virus. Our data suggest that Riplet/RNF135 is a novel factor of the RIG-I pathway that is involved in the evoking of human innate immunity against RNA virus infection, and activates RIG-I through ubiquitination of its C-terminal region. We infer that a variety of RIG-I-ubiquitinating molecular complexes sustain RIG-I activation to modulate RNA virus replication in the cytoplasm.

  5. The Novel Zinc Finger Protein dASCIZ Regulates Mitosis in Drosophila via an Essential Role in Dynein Light-Chain Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zaytseva, Olga; Tenis, Nora; Mitchell, Naomi; Kanno, Shin-ichiro; Yasui, Akira; Heierhorst, Jörg; Quinn, Leonie M

    2014-01-01

    The essential zinc finger protein ASCIZ (also known as ATMIN, ZNF822) plays critical roles during lung organogenesis and B cell development in mice, where it regulates the expression of dynein light chain (DYNLL1/LC8), but its functions in other species including invertebrates are largely unknown. Here we report the identification of the Drosophila ortholog of ASCIZ (dASCIZ) and show that loss of dASCIZ function leads to pronounced mitotic delays with centrosome and spindle positioning defects during development, reminiscent of impaired dynein motor functions. Interestingly, similar mitotic and developmental defects were observed upon knockdown of the DYNLL/LC8-type dynein light chain Cutup (Ctp), and dASCIZ loss-of-function phenotypes could be suppressed by ectopic Ctp expression. Consistent with a genetic function of dASCIZ upstream of Ctp, we show that loss of dASCIZ led to reduced endogenous Ctp mRNA and protein levels and dramatically reduced Ctp–LacZ reporter gene activity in vivo, indicating that dASCIZ regulates development and mitosis as a Ctp transcription factor. We speculate that the more severe mitotic defects in the absence of ASCIZ in flies compared to mice may be due to redundancy with a second, ASCIZ-independent, Dynll2 gene in mammals in contrast to a single Ctp gene in Drosophila. Altogether, our data demonstrate that ASCIZ is an evolutionary highly conserved transcriptional regulator of dynein light-chain levels and a novel regulator of mitosis in flies. PMID:24336747

  6. Interactions of aqueous amino acids and proteins with the (110) surface of ZnS in molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrocki, Grzegorz; Cieplak, Marek

    2014-03-07

    The growing usage of nanoparticles of zinc sulfide as quantum dots and biosensors calls for a theoretical assessment of interactions of ZnS with biomolecules. We employ the molecular-dynamics-based umbrella sampling method to determine potentials of mean force for 20 single amino acids near the ZnS (110) surface in aqueous solutions. We find that five amino acids do not bind at all and the binding energy of the remaining amino acids does not exceed 4.3 kJ/mol. Such energies are comparable to those found for ZnO (and to hydrogen bonds in proteins) but the nature of the specificity is different. Cysteine canmore » bind with ZnS in a covalent way, e.g., by forming the disulfide bond with S in the solid. If this effect is included within a model incorporating the Morse potential, then the potential well becomes much deeper—the binding energy is close to 98 kJ/mol. We then consider tryptophan cage, a protein of 20 residues, and characterize its events of adsorption to ZnS. We demonstrate the relevance of interactions between the amino acids in the selection of optimal adsorbed conformations and recognize the key role of cysteine in generation of lasting adsorption. We show that ZnS is more hydrophobic than ZnO and that the density profile of water is quite different than that forming near ZnO—it has only a minor articulation into layers. Furthermore, the first layer of water is disordered and mobile.« less

  7. Bioaccessibility of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Zn, and crude protein in beef, pork and chicken after thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Eveline A; Oliveira, Aline F; França, Celia J; Souza, Gilberto B; Nogueira, Ana Rita A

    2018-02-01

    The bioaccessibility of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Zn, and crude protein was evaluated after submitting beef, pork, and chicken to five different thermal treatments. The bioaccessibility of crude protein and metals were simulated by using in vitro enzymatic digestion with a gastric fluid solution and dialysability approach. Inductively coupled plasma optical spectrometry was used to quantify the dialyzable fraction and the total mineral content after microwave-assisted digestion. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry quantified Cu in chicken dialyzable fraction. The increase of temperature and heat exposure period decreased the protein bioaccessibility. Considering the total and dialyzable fraction, beef is an important source of Cu, Fe, Mg, and Zn to the human diet. The results of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy indicated physical changes in the treated samples related to protein denaturation, which was probably responsible for the decreased bioaccessibility of minerals and protein, mainly at higher temperatures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Interpreting the adsorption of serum albumin and lactoglobulin onto ZnS nanopaticles: effect of conformational rigidity of the proteins.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Jiban; Saha, Bedabrata; Das, Gopal

    2014-02-15

    The work we have undertaken is to investigate the adsorption of two different proteins (BSA and BLG) having near same IEP and differing in their conformational flexibility, onto the surface of ZnS nanoparticles (ZnS NPs). BSA and BLG both have an IEP value around pH~5. BSA is more prone to conformational deformation and considered "soft" while BLG holds the conformational rigidity and considered as "hard" protein. To ascertain the differences in surface coverage and conformation of the protein onto ZnS surface (PZC ~ 3.7), we have evaluated the adsorption profile at pH 7, where the entire surface behaves negatively. An integrated approach was taken by incorporating zeta (ζ) potential, fluorescence and CD for analyzing the adsorption process. In both systems, an increase in protein surface coverage was observed with the increase in free protein concentration in the solution and ζ values approaching that of native protein at high surface coverage. An alteration in the tertiary structure was observed for both BSA and BLG. The CD spectra analysis reveals that the secondary structure of the BSA was more deviated from the native protein structure, accommodating the increased adsorption value. For BLG no such prominent structural alteration was observed. These findings help us to understand better, how adjustment of the protein adsorption amount can be achieved onto the surface of nanoparticles having like charges. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Protein-directed synthesis of Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots: a dual-channel biosensor for two proteins.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peng; Zhao, Ting; Tian, Yunfei; Wu, Lan; Hou, Xiandeng

    2013-06-03

    Proteins typically have nanoscale dimensions and multiple binding sites with inorganic ions, which facilitates the templated synthesis of nanoparticles to yield nanoparticle-protein hybrids with tailored functionality, water solubility, and tunable frameworks with well-defined structure. In this work, we report a protein-templated synthesis of Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) by exploring bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the template. The obtained Mn-doped ZnS QDs give phosphorescence emission centered at 590 nm, with a decay time of about 1.9 ms. A dual-channel sensing system for two different proteins was developed through integration of the optical responses (phosphorescence emission and resonant light scattering (RLS)) of Mn-doped ZnS QDs and recognition of them by surface BSA phosphorescent sensing of trypsin and RLS sensing of lysozyme. Trypsin can digest BSA and remove BSA from the surface of Mn-doped ZnS QDs, thus quenching the phosphorescence of QDs, whereas lysozyme can assemble with BSA to lead to aggregation of QDs and enhanced RLS intensity. The detection limits for trypsin and lysozyme were 40 and 3 nM, respectively. The selectivity of the respective channel for trypsin and lysozyme was evaluated with a series of other proteins. Unlike other protein sensors based on nanobioconjugates, the proposed dual-channel sensor employs only one type of QDs but can detect two different proteins. Further, we found the RLS of QDs can also be useful for studying the BSA-lysozyme binding stoichiometry, which has not been reported in the literature. These successful biosensor applications clearly demonstrate that BSA not only serves as a template for growth of Mn-doped ZnS QDs, but also impacts the QDs for selective recognition of analyte proteins. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Stress-Responsive Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Interact with the EAR Motif of a Poplar Zinc Finger Protein and Mediate Its Degradation through the 26S Proteasome1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hamel, Louis-Philippe; Benchabane, Meriem; Nicole, Marie-Claude; Major, Ian T.; Morency, Marie-Josée; Pelletier, Gervais; Beaudoin, Nathalie; Sheen, Jen; Séguin, Armand

    2011-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) contribute to the establishment of plant disease resistance by regulating downstream signaling components, including transcription factors. In this study, we identified MAPK-interacting proteins, and among the newly discovered candidates was a Cys-2/His-2-type zinc finger protein named PtiZFP1. This putative transcription factor belongs to a family of transcriptional repressors that rely on an ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif for their repression activity. Amino acids located within this repression motif were also found to be essential for MAPK binding. Close examination of the primary protein sequence revealed a functional bipartite MAPK docking site that partially overlaps with the EAR motif. Transient expression assays in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) protoplasts suggest that MAPKs promote PtiZFP1 degradation through the 26S proteasome. Since features of the MAPK docking site are conserved among other EAR repressors, our study suggests a novel mode of defense mechanism regulation involving stress-responsive MAPKs and EAR repressors. PMID:21873571

  11. Revisiting and re-engineering the classical zinc finger peptide: consensus peptide-1 (CP-1).

    PubMed

    Besold, Angelique N; Widger, Leland R; Namuswe, Frances; Michalek, Jamie L; Michel, Sarah L J; Goldberg, David P

    2016-04-01

    Zinc plays key structural and catalytic roles in biology. Structural zinc sites are often referred to as zinc finger (ZF) sites, and the classical ZF contains a Cys2His2 motif that is involved in coordinating Zn(II). An optimized Cys2His2 ZF, named consensus peptide 1 (CP-1), was identified more than 20 years ago using a limited set of sequenced proteins. We have reexamined the CP-1 sequence, using our current, much larger database of sequenced proteins that have been identified from high-throughput sequencing methods, and found the sequence to be largely unchanged. The CCHH ligand set of CP-1 was then altered to a CAHH motif to impart hydrolytic activity. This ligand set mimics the His2Cys ligand set of peptide deformylase (PDF), a hydrolytically active M(II)-centered (M = Zn or Fe) protein. The resultant peptide [CP-1(CAHH)] was evaluated for its ability to coordinate Zn(II) and Co(II) ions, adopt secondary structure, and promote hydrolysis. CP-1(CAHH) was found to coordinate Co(II) and Zn(II) and a pentacoordinate geometry for Co(II)-CP-1(CAHH) was implicated from UV-vis data. This suggests a His2Cys(H2O)2 environment at the metal center. The Zn(II)-bound CP-1(CAHH) was shown to adopt partial secondary structure by 1-D (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Both Zn(II)-CP-1(CAHH) and Co(II)-CP-1(CAHH) show good hydrolytic activity toward the test substrate 4-nitrophenyl acetate, exhibiting faster rates than most active synthetic Zn(II) complexes.

  12. Functional and Structural Insights of the Zinc-Finger HIT protein family members Involved in Box C/D snoRNP Biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bragantini, Benoit; Tiotiu, Decebal; Rothé, Benjamin; Saliou, Jean-Michel; Marty, Hélène; Cianférani, Sarah; Charpentier, Bruno; Quinternet, Marc; Manival, Xavier

    2016-06-05

    Zf–HIT family members share the zf–HIT domain (ZHD), which is characterized by a fold in “treble-clef” through interleaved CCCC and CCHC ZnF motifs that both bind a zinc atom. Six proteins containing ZHD are present in human and three in yeast proteome, all belonging to multimodular RNA/protein complexes involved in gene regulation, chromatin remodeling, and snoRNP assembly. An interesting characteristic of the cellular complexes that ensure these functions is the presence of the RuvBL1/2/Rvb1/2 ATPases closely linked with zf–HIT proteins. Human ZNHIT6/BCD1 and its counterpart in yeast Bcd1p were previously characterized as assembly factors of the box C/D snoRNPs. Our data reveal that the ZHD of Bcd1p is necessary but not sufficient for yeast growth and that the motif has no direct RNA-binding capacity but helps Bcd1p maintain the box C/D snoRNAs level in steady state. However, we demonstrated that Bcd1p interacts nonspecifically with RNAs depending on their length. Interestingly, the ZHD of Bcd1p is functionally interchangeable with that of Hit1p, another box C/D snoRNP assembly factor belonging to the zf–HIT family. This prompted us to use NMR to solve the 3D structures of ZHD from yeast Bcd1p and Hit1p to highlight the structural similarity in the zf–HIT family. We identified structural features associated with the requirement of Hit1p and Bcd1p ZHD for cell growth and box C/D snoRNA stability under heat stress. Altogether, our data suggest an important role of ZHD could be to maintain functional folding to the rest of the protein, especially under heat stress conditions.

  13. Tuberculate fruit gene Tu encodes a C2 H2 zinc finger protein that is required for the warty fruit phenotype in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuqin; Zhang, Weiwei; He, Huanle; Nie, Jingtao; Bie, Beibei; Zhao, Junlong; Ren, Guoliang; Li, Yue; Zhang, Dabing; Pan, Junsong; Cai, Run

    2014-06-01

    Cucumber fruits that have tubercules and spines (trichomes) are known to possess a warty (Wty) phenotype. In this study, the tuberculate fruit gene Tu was identified by map-based cloning, and was found to encode a transcription factor (TF) with a single C2 H2 zinc finger domain. Tu was identified in all 38 Wty lines examined, and was completely absent from all 56 non-warty (nWty) lines. Cucumber plants transgenic for Tu (TCP) revealed that Tu was required for the Wty fruit phenotype. Subcellular localization showed that the fusion protein GFP-Tu was localized mainly to the nucleus. Based on analyses of semi-quantitative and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and mRNA in situ hybridization, we found that Tu was expressed specifically in fruit spine cells during development of fruit tubercules. Moreover, cytokinin (CTK) content measurements and cytological observations in Wty and nWty fruits revealed that the Wty fruit phenotype correlated with high endogenous CTK concentrations. As a result of further analyses on the transcriptomic profile of the nWty fruit epidermis and TCP fruit warts, expression of CTK-associated genes, and hormone content in nWty fruit epidermis, Wty fruit warts and epidermis, and TCP fruit warts and epidermis, we found that Tu probably promoted CTK biosynthesis in fruit warts. Here we show that Tu could not be expressed in the glabrous and tubercule-free mutant line gl that contained Tu, this result that futher confirmed the epistatic effect of the trichome (spine) gene Gl over Tu. Taken together, these data led us to propose a genetic pathway for the Wty fruit trait that could guide future mechanistic studies. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The ER-bound RING finger protein 5 (RNF5/RMA1) causes degenerative myopathy in transgenic mice and is deregulated in inclusion body myositis.

    PubMed

    Delaunay, Agnès; Bromberg, Kenneth D; Hayashi, Yukiko; Mirabella, Massimiliano; Burch, Denise; Kirkwood, Brian; Serra, Carlo; Malicdan, May C; Mizisin, Andrew P; Morosetti, Roberta; Broccolini, Aldobrando; Guo, Ling T; Jones, Stephen N; Lira, Sergio A; Puri, Pier Lorenzo; Shelton, G Diane; Ronai, Ze'ev

    2008-02-13

    Growing evidence supports the importance of ubiquitin ligases in the pathogenesis of muscular disorders, although underlying mechanisms remain largely elusive. Here we show that the expression of RNF5 (aka RMA1), an ER-anchored RING finger E3 ligase implicated in muscle organization and in recognition and processing of malfolded proteins, is elevated and mislocalized to cytoplasmic aggregates in biopsies from patients suffering from sporadic-Inclusion Body Myositis (sIBM). Consistent with these findings, an animal model for hereditary IBM (hIBM), but not their control littermates, revealed deregulated expression of RNF5. Further studies for the role of RNF5 in the pathogenesis of s-IBM and more generally in muscle physiology were performed using RNF5 transgenic and KO animals. Transgenic mice carrying inducible expression of RNF5, under control of beta-actin or muscle specific promoter, exhibit an early onset of muscle wasting, muscle degeneration and extensive fiber regeneration. Prolonged expression of RNF5 in the muscle also results in the formation of fibers containing congophilic material, blue-rimmed vacuoles and inclusion bodies. These phenotypes were associated with altered expression and activity of ER chaperones, characteristic of myodegenerative diseases such as s-IBM. Conversely, muscle regeneration and induction of ER stress markers were delayed in RNF5 KO mice subjected to cardiotoxin treatment. While supporting a role for RNF5 Tg mice as model for s-IBM, our study also establishes the importance of RNF5 in muscle physiology and its deregulation in ER stress associated muscular disorders.

  15. The ER-Bound RING Finger Protein 5 (RNF5/RMA1) Causes Degenerative Myopathy in Transgenic Mice and Is Deregulated in Inclusion Body Myositis

    PubMed Central

    Delaunay, Agnès; Bromberg, Kenneth D.; Hayashi, Yukiko; Mirabella, Massimiliano; Burch, Denise; Kirkwood, Brian; Serra, Carlo; Malicdan, May C.; Mizisin, Andrew P.; Morosetti, Roberta; Broccolini, Aldobrando; Guo, Ling T.; Jones, Stephen N.; Lira, Sergio A.; Puri, Pier Lorenzo; Shelton, G. Diane; Ronai, Ze'ev

    2008-01-01

    Growing evidence supports the importance of ubiquitin ligases in the pathogenesis of muscular disorders, although underlying mechanisms remain largely elusive. Here we show that the expression of RNF5 (aka RMA1), an ER-anchored RING finger E3 ligase implicated in muscle organization and in recognition and processing of malfolded proteins, is elevated and mislocalized to cytoplasmic aggregates in biopsies from patients suffering from sporadic-Inclusion Body Myositis (sIBM). Consistent with these findings, an animal model for hereditary IBM (hIBM), but not their control littermates, revealed deregulated expression of RNF5. Further studies for the role of RNF5 in the pathogenesis of s-IBM and more generally in muscle physiology were performed using RNF5 transgenic and KO animals. Transgenic mice carrying inducible expression of RNF5, under control of β-actin or muscle specific promoter, exhibit an early onset of muscle wasting, muscle degeneration and extensive fiber regeneration. Prolonged expression of RNF5 in the muscle also results in the formation of fibers containing congophilic material, blue-rimmed vacuoles and inclusion bodies. These phenotypes were associated with altered expression and activity of ER chaperones, characteristic of myodegenerative diseases such as s-IBM. Conversely, muscle regeneration and induction of ER stress markers were delayed in RNF5 KO mice subjected to cardiotoxin treatment. While supporting a role for RNF5 Tg mice as model for s-IBM, our study also establishes the importance of RNF5 in muscle physiology and its deregulation in ER stress associated muscular disorders. PMID:18270596

  16. TaCHP: a wheat zinc finger protein gene down-regulated by abscisic acid and salinity stress plays a positive role in stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Li, Cuiling; Lv, Jian; Zhao, Xin; Ai, Xinghui; Zhu, Xinlei; Wang, Mengcheng; Zhao, Shuangyi; Xia, Guangmin

    2010-09-01

    The plant response to abiotic stresses involves both abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent and ABA-independent signaling pathways. Here we describe TaCHP, a CHP-rich (for cysteine, histidine, and proline rich) zinc finger protein family gene extracted from bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), is differentially expressed during abiotic stress between the salinity-sensitive cultivar Jinan 177 and its tolerant somatic hybrid introgression cultivar Shanrong No.3. TaCHP expressed in the roots of seedlings at the three-leaf stage, and the transcript localized within the cells of the root tip cortex and meristem. TaCHP transcript abundance was higher in Shanrong No.3 than in Jinan 177, but was reduced by the imposition of salinity or drought stress, as well as by the exogenous supply of ABA. When JN17, a salinity hypersensitive wheat cultivar, was engineered to overexpress TaCHP, its performance in the face of salinity stress was improved, and the ectopic expression of TaCHP in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) also improved the ability of salt tolerance. The expression level of a number of stress reporter genes (AtCBF3, AtDREB2A, AtABI2, and AtABI1) was raised in the transgenic lines in the presence of salinity stress, while that of AtMYB15, AtABA2, and AtAAO3 was reduced in its absence. The presence in the upstream region of the TaCHP open reading frame of the cis-elements ABRE, MYBRS, and MYCRS suggests that it is a component of the ABA-dependent and -independent signaling pathways involved in the plant response to abiotic stress. We suggest that TaCHP enhances stress tolerance via the promotion of CBF3 and DREB2A expression.

  17. The discovery of zinc fingers and their development for practical applications in gene regulation and genome manipulation.

    PubMed

    Klug, Aaron

    2010-02-01

    A long-standing goal of molecular biologists has been to construct DNA-binding proteins for the control of gene expression. The classical Cys2His2 (C2H2) zinc finger design is ideally suited for such purposes. Discriminating between closely related DNA sequences both in vitro and in vivo, this naturally occurring design was adopted for engineering zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) to target genes specifically. Zinc fingers were discovered in 1985, arising from the interpretation of our biochemical studies on the interaction of the Xenopus protein transcription factor IIIA (TFIIIA) with 5S RNA. Subsequent structural studies revealed its three-dimensional structure and its interaction with DNA. Each finger constitutes a self-contained domain stabilized by a zinc (Zn) ion ligated to a pair of cysteines and a pair of histidines and also by an inner structural hydrophobic core. This discovery showed not only a new protein fold but also a novel principle of DNA recognition. Whereas other DNA-binding proteins generally make use of the 2-fold symmetry of the double helix, functioning as homo- or heterodimers, zinc fingers can be linked linearly in tandem to recognize nucleic acid sequences of varying lengths. This modular design offers a large number of combinatorial possibilities for the specific recognition of DNA (or RNA). It is therefore not surprising that the zinc finger is found widespread in nature, including 3% of the genes of the human genome. The zinc finger design can be used to construct DNA-binding proteins for specific intervention in gene expression. By fusing selected zinc finger peptides to repression or activation domains, genes can be selectively switched off or on by targeting the peptide to the desired gene target. It was also suggested that by combining an appropriate zinc finger peptide with other effector or functional domains, e.g. from nucleases or integrases to form chimaeric proteins, genomes could be modified or manipulated. The first example of the

  18. XAS Characterization of the Zn Site of Non-structural Protein 3 (NS3) from Hepatitis C Virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascone, I.; Nobili, G.; Benfatto, M.; Congiu-Castellano, A.

    2007-02-01

    XANES spectra of non structural protein 3 (NS3) have been calculated using 4 Zn coordination models from three crystallographic structures in the Protein Data Base (PDB): 1DY9, subunit B, 1CU1 subunit A and B, and 1JXP subunit B. Results indicate that XANES is an appropriate tool to distinguish among them. Experimental XANES spectra have been simulated refining crystallographic data. The model obtained by XAS is compared with the PDB models.

  19. Multiple Fingers - One Gestalt.

    PubMed

    Lezkan, Alexandra; Manuel, Steven G; Colgate, J Edward; Klatzky, Roberta L; Peshkin, Michael A; Drewing, Knut

    2016-01-01

    The Gestalt theory of perception offered principles by which distributed visual sensations are combined into a structured experience ("Gestalt"). We demonstrate conditions whereby haptic sensations at two fingertips are integrated in the perception of a single object. When virtual bumps were presented simultaneously to the right hand's thumb and index finger during lateral arm movements, participants reported perceiving a single bump. A discrimination task measured the bump's perceived location and perceptual reliability (assessed by differential thresholds) for four finger configurations, which varied in their adherence to the Gestalt principles of proximity (small versus large finger separation) and synchrony (virtual spring to link movements of the two fingers versus no spring). According to models of integration, reliability should increase with the degree to which multi-finger cues integrate into a unified percept. Differential thresholds were smaller in the virtual-spring condition (synchrony) than when fingers were unlinked. Additionally, in the condition with reduced synchrony, greater proximity led to lower differential thresholds. Thus, with greater adherence to Gestalt principles, thresholds approached values predicted for optimal integration. We conclude that the Gestalt principles of synchrony and proximity apply to haptic perception of surface properties and that these principles can interact to promote multi-finger integration.

  20. Plasma-assisted quadruple-channel optosensing of proteins and cells with Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Li, Chenghui; Wu, Peng; Hou, Xiandeng

    2016-02-21

    Information extraction from nano-bio-systems is crucial for understanding their inner molecular level interactions and can help in the development of multidimensional/multimodal sensing devices to realize novel or expanded functionalities. The intrinsic fluorescence (IF) of proteins has long been considered as an effective tool for studying protein structures and dynamics, but not for protein recognition analysis partially because it generally contributes to the fluorescence background in bioanalysis. Here we explored the use of IF as the fourth channel optical input for a multidimensional optosensing device, together with the triple-channel optical output of Mn-doped ZnS QDs (fluorescence from ZnS host, phosphorescence from Mn(2+) dopant, and Rayleigh light scattering from the QDs), to dramatically improve the protein recognition and discrimination resolution. To further increase the cross-reactivity of the multidimensional optosensing device, plasma modification of proteins was explored to enhance the IF difference as well as their interactions with Mn-doped ZnS QDs. Such a sensor device was demonstrated for highly discriminative and precise identification of proteins in human serum and urine samples, and for cancer and normal cells as well.

  1. The hematopoietic tumor suppressor interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) is upregulated by the antimetabolite cytarabine in leukemic cells involving the zinc finger protein ZNF224, acting as a cofactor of the Wilms' tumor gene 1 (WT1) protein.

    PubMed

    Montano, Giorgia; Ullmark, Tove; Jernmark-Nilsson, Helena; Sodaro, Gaetano; Drott, Kristina; Costanzo, Paola; Vidovic, Karina; Gullberg, Urban

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor interferon regulatory factor-8 (IRF8) is highly expressed in myeloid progenitors, while most myeloid leukemias show low or absent expression. Loss of IRF8 in mice leads to a myeloproliferative disorder, indicating a tumor-suppressive role of IRF8. The Wilms tumor gene 1 (WT1) protein represses the IRF8-promoter. The zinc finger protein ZNF224 can act as a transcriptional co-factor of WT1 and potentiate the cytotoxic response to the cytostatic drug cytarabine. We hypothesized that cytarabine upregulates IRF8 and that transcriptional control of IRF8 involves WT1 and ZNF224. Treatment of leukemic K562 cells with cytarabine upregulated IRF8 protein and mRNA, which was correlated to increased expression of ZNF224. Knock down of ZNF224 with shRNA suppressed both basal and cytarabine-induced IRF8 expression. While ZNF224 alone did not affect IRF8 promoter activity, ZNF224 partially reversed the suppressive effect of WT1 on the IRF8 promoter, as judged by luciferase reporter experiments. Coprecipitation revealed nuclear binding of WT1 and ZNF224, and by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments it was demonstrated that WT1 recruits ZNF224 to the IRF8 promoter. We conclude that cytarabine-induced upregulation of the IRF8 in leukemic cells involves increased levels of ZNF224, which can counteract the repressive activity of WT1 on the IRF8-promoter. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. HTLV-1 Tax Stimulates Ubiquitin E3 Ligase, Ring Finger Protein 8, to Assemble Lysine 63-Linked Polyubiquitin Chains for TAK1 and IKK Activation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yik-Khuan; Zhi, Huijun; Bowlin, Tara; Dorjbal, Batsukh; Philip, Subha; Zahoor, Muhammad Atif; Shih, Hsiu-Ming; Semmes, Oliver John; Schaefer, Brian; Glover, J N Mark; Giam, Chou-Zen

    2015-08-01

    Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) trans-activator/oncoprotein, Tax, impacts a multitude of cellular processes, including I-κB kinase (IKK)/NF-κB signaling, DNA damage repair, and mitosis. These activities of Tax have been implicated in the development of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) in HTLV-1-infected individuals, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. IKK and its upstream kinase, TGFβ-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), contain ubiquitin-binding subunits, NEMO and TAB2/3 respectively, which interact with K63-linked polyubiquitin (K63-pUb) chains. Recruitment to K63-pUb allows cross auto-phosphorylation and activation of TAK1 to occur, followed by TAK1-catalyzed IKK phosphorylation and activation. Using cytosolic extracts of HeLa and Jurkat T cells supplemented with purified proteins we have identified ubiquitin E3 ligase, ring finger protein 8 (RNF8), and E2 conjugating enzymes, Ubc13:Uev1A and Ubc13:Uev2, to be the cellular factors utilized by Tax for TAK1 and IKK activation. In vitro, the combination of Tax and RNF8 greatly stimulated TAK1, IKK, IκBα and JNK phosphorylation. In vivo, RNF8 over-expression augmented while RNF8 ablation drastically reduced canonical NF-κB activation by Tax. Activation of the non-canonical NF-κB pathway by Tax, however, is unaffected by the loss of RNF8. Using purified components, we further demonstrated biochemically that Tax greatly stimulated RNF8 and Ubc13:Uev1A/Uev2 to assemble long K63-pUb chains. Finally, co-transfection of Tax with increasing amounts of RNF8 greatly induced K63-pUb assembly in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, Tax targets RNF8 and Ubc13:Uev1A/Uev2 to promote the assembly of K63-pUb chains, which signal the activation of TAK1 and multiple downstream kinases including IKK and JNK. Because of the roles RNF8 and K63-pUb chains play in DNA damage repair and cytokinesis, this mechanism may also explain the genomic instability of HTLV-1-transformed T cells and ATL cells.

  3. HTLV-1 Tax Stimulates Ubiquitin E3 Ligase, Ring Finger Protein 8, to Assemble Lysine 63-Linked Polyubiquitin Chains for TAK1 and IKK Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Yik-Khuan; Zhi, Huijun; Bowlin, Tara; Dorjbal, Batsukh; Philip, Subha; Zahoor, Muhammad Atif; Shih, Hsiu-Ming; Semmes, Oliver John; Schaefer, Brian; Glover, J. N. Mark; Giam, Chou-Zen

    2015-01-01

    Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) trans-activator/oncoprotein, Tax, impacts a multitude of cellular processes, including I-κB kinase (IKK)/NF-κB signaling, DNA damage repair, and mitosis. These activities of Tax have been implicated in the development of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) in HTLV-1-infected individuals, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. IKK and its upstream kinase, TGFβ-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), contain ubiquitin-binding subunits, NEMO and TAB2/3 respectively, which interact with K63-linked polyubiquitin (K63-pUb) chains. Recruitment to K63-pUb allows cross auto-phosphorylation and activation of TAK1 to occur, followed by TAK1-catalyzed IKK phosphorylation and activation. Using cytosolic extracts of HeLa and Jurkat T cells supplemented with purified proteins we have identified ubiquitin E3 ligase, ring finger protein 8 (RNF8), and E2 conjugating enzymes, Ubc13:Uev1A and Ubc13:Uev2, to be the cellular factors utilized by Tax for TAK1 and IKK activation. In vitro, the combination of Tax and RNF8 greatly stimulated TAK1, IKK, IκBα and JNK phosphorylation. In vivo, RNF8 over-expression augmented while RNF8 ablation drastically reduced canonical NF-κB activation by Tax. Activation of the non-canonical NF-κB pathway by Tax, however, is unaffected by the loss of RNF8. Using purified components, we further demonstrated biochemically that Tax greatly stimulated RNF8 and Ubc13:Uev1A/Uev2 to assemble long K63-pUb chains. Finally, co-transfection of Tax with increasing amounts of RNF8 greatly induced K63-pUb assembly in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, Tax targets RNF8 and Ubc13:Uev1A/Uev2 to promote the assembly of K63-pUb chains, which signal the activation of TAK1 and multiple downstream kinases including IKK and JNK. Because of the roles RNF8 and K63-pUb chains play in DNA damage repair and cytokinesis, this mechanism may also explain the genomic instability of HTLV-1-transformed T cells and ATL cells. PMID:26285145

  4. Interdependence of free zinc changes and protein complex assembly - insights into zinc signal regulation.

    PubMed

    Kocyła, Anna; Adamczyk, Justyna; Krężel, Artur

    2018-01-24

    Cellular zinc (Zn(ii)) is bound with proteins that are part of the proteomes of all domains of life. It is mostly utilized as a catalytic or structural protein cofactor, which results in a vast number of binding architectures. The Zn(ii) ion is also important for the formation of transient protein complexes with a Zn(ii)-dependent quaternary structure that is formed upon cellular zinc signals. The mechanisms by which proteins associate with and dissociate from Zn(ii) and the connection with cellular Zn(ii) changes remain incompletely understood. In this study, we aimed to examine how zinc protein domains with various Zn(ii)-binding architectures are formed under free Zn(ii) concentration changes and how formation of the Zn(ii)-dependent assemblies is related to the protein concentration and reactivity. To accomplish these goals we chose four zinc domains with different Zn(ii)-to-protein binding stoichiometries: classical zinc finger (ZnP), LIM domain (Zn 2 P), zinc hook (ZnP 2 ) and zinc clasp (ZnP 1 P 2 ) folds. Our research demonstrated a lack of changes in the saturation level of intraprotein zinc binding sites, despite various peptide concentrations, while homo- and heterodimers indicated a concentration-dependent tendency. In other words, at a certain free Zn(ii) concentration, the fraction of a formed dimeric complex increases or decreases with subunit concentration changes. Secondly, even small or local changes in free Zn(ii) may significantly affect protein saturation depending on its architecture, function and subcellular concentration. In our paper, we indicate the importance of interdependence of free Zn(ii) availability and protein subunit concentrations for cellular zinc signal regulation.

  5. Cytochrome c conjugated to ZnO-MAA nanoparticles: the study of interaction and influence on protein structure.

    PubMed

    Simšíková, Michaela; Antalík, Marián; Kaňuchová, Mária; Skvarla, Jiří

    2013-08-01

    Nanoparticle-protein conjugates have potential for numerous applications due to the combination of the properties of both components. In this paper we studied the conjugation of horse heart cytochrome c with ZnO nanoparticles modified by mercaptoacetic acid (MAA) which may be a material with great potential in anticancer therapy as a consequence of synergic effect of both components. Cyt c adsorption to the ZnO-MAA NPs surface was studied by UV-vis spectroscopy and by a dynamic light scattering in various pH. The results indicate that the optimal pH for the association of protein with modified nanoparticles is in range 5.8-8.5 where 90-96% of cytochrome c was assembled on ZnO-MAA nanoparticles. The interaction of proteins with nanoparticles often results in denaturation or loss of protein function. Our observations from UV-vis spectroscopy and circular dichroism performed preserved protein structure after the interaction with modified nanoparticles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The C3H-type zinc finger protein GDS1/C3H42 is a nuclear-speckle-localized protein that is essential for normal growth and development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Won; Jeon, Su Jeong; Hwang, Sung Min; Hong, Jong Chan; Bahk, Jeong Dong

    2016-09-01

    Eukaryotic C3H-type zinc finger proteins (Znfs) comprise a large family of regulatory proteins involved in many aspects of plant stress response, growth and development. However, compared to mammalian, only a few plant Znfs have been functionally characterized. Here, T-DNA inserted gds1 (growth, development and splicing 1) mutant, displayed abnormal growth throughout the lifecycle owing to the reduction of cell size and number. Inverse PCR analysis revealed that the abnormal growth was caused by the disruption of At3g47120, which encodes a C3H42 protein belonging to the C-X7-C-X5-C-X3-H class of the Znf family. GDS1 was ubiquitously transcribed, but shows high levels of expression in young seedling and unexpanded new leaves. In gds1, the transcripts of many growth- and development-related genes were down-regulated, and the auxin response was dramatically reduced. A fluorescence-based assay revealed that the GDS1 protein was localized to the nucleus, prominently in the speckle compartments. Its arginine/serine dipeptide-rich-like (RS-like) domain was essential for nuclear localization. In addition, the SR1, SRm102 and U1-70K components of the U1 spliceosome interacted with GDS1 in the nuclear speckle compartments. Taken together, these suggest that GDS1, a nuclear-speckle-associated Znf, might play a significant role in splicing during plant growth and development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tendon Driven Finger Actuation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Reich, David M. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Askew, Scott R. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Valvo, Michael C. (Inventor); Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); hide

    2013-01-01

    A humanoid robot includes a robotic hand having at least one finger. An actuation system for the robotic finger includes an actuator assembly which is supported by the robot and is spaced apart from the finger. A tendon extends from the actuator assembly to the at least one finger and ends in a tendon terminator. The actuator assembly is operable to actuate the tendon to move the tendon terminator and, thus, the finger.

  8. Rapid detection of protein phosphatase activity using Zn(II)-coordinated gold nanosensors based on His-tagged phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Oh; Kim, Eun-Ji; Lim, Butaek; Kim, Tae-Wuk; Kim, Young-Pil

    2015-01-20

    We report a rapid colorimetric assay to detect protein phosphatase (PP) activity based on the controlled assembly and disassembly of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) via Zn(II)-specific coordination in the presence of His6-tagged phosphopeptides. Among divalent metal ions including Ni(II), Cu(II), Co(II), Mg(II), Mn(II), and Zn(II), only Zn(II) triggered a strong association between phosphopeptides with hexahistidine at a single end and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA)-modified AuNPs (21.3 nm in core diameter), leading to the self-assembly of AuNPs and consequently changes in color of the AuNP solution. In contrast, unphosphorylated peptides and His6-deficient phosphopeptides did not change the color of the AuNP solution. As a result, protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) activity and its inhibition were easily quantified with high sensitivity by determining the extinction ratio (E520/E700) of colloidal AuNPs. Most importantly, this method was capable of detecting protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity in immunoprecipitated plant extracts. Because PPs play pivotal roles in mediating diverse signal transduction pathways as primary effectors of protein dephosphorylation, we anticipate that our method will be applied as a rapid format method to analyze the activities of various PPs and their inhibition.

  9. Role of Su(Hw) zinc finger 10 and interaction with CP190 and Mod(mdg4) proteins in recruiting the Su(Hw) complex to chromatin sites in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Melnikova, Larisa; Kostyuchenko, Margarita; Parshikov, Alexander; Georgiev, Pavel; Golovnin, Anton

    2018-01-01

    Su(Hw) belongs to the class of proteins that organize chromosome architecture and boundaries/insulators between regulatory domains. This protein contains a cluster of 12 zinc finger domains most of which are responsible for binding to three different modules in the consensus site. Su(Hw) forms a complex with CP190 and Mod(mdg4)-67.2 proteins that binds to well-known Drosophila insulators. To understand how Su(Hw) performs its activities and binds to specific sites in chromatin, we have examined the previously described su(Hw)f mutation that disrupts the 10th zinc finger (ZF10) responsible for Su(Hw) binding to the upstream module. The results have shown that Su(Hw)f loses the ability to interact with CP190 in the absence of DNA. In contrast, complete deletion of ZF10 does not prevent the interaction between Su(Hw)Δ10 and CP190. Having studied insulator complex formation in different mutant backgrounds, we conclude that both association with CP190 and Mod(mdg4)-67.2 partners and proper organization of DNA binding site are essential for the efficient recruitment of the Su(Hw) complex to chromatin insulators.

  10. Investigation of Cu-, Zn- and Fe-containing human brain proteins using isotopic-enriched tracers by LA-ICP-MS and MALDI-FT-ICR-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, J. Susanne; Zoriy, Miroslav; Pickhardt, Carola; Przybylski, Michael; Becker, J. Sabine

    2005-04-01

    Identification of metal-containing proteins and determination of Cu, Fe, Zn concentration in very small protein volumes is of increasing importance in protein research. Proteins containing metal ions were analyzed directly and simultaneously in separated protein spots in two-dimensional gels (2D gels) by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) as an element mass spectrometric technique. In order to study the formation of proteins containing Cu, Zn and Fe in a human brain sample, isotopic-enriched tracers (54Fe, 65Cu and 67Zn) were doped to two-dimensional gels of separated Alzheimer-diseased brain proteins after two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis. The protein spots were screened systematically by LA-ICP-MS with respect to these metal ion intensities. 54Fe/56Fe, 65Cu/63Cu and 67Zn/64Zn isotope ratios in metal-containing proteins were measured directly by LA-ICP-MS. The isotope ratio measurements obtained by LA-ICP-MS indicate certain protein spots with a natural isotope composition of Cu, Zn and/or Fe. These proteins already contained the metal investigated in the original proteins and are stable enough to survive the reducing conditions during gel electrophoresis. On the other hand, proteins with a changed isotope ratio of metals in comparison to the isotope ratio in nature demonstrate the accumulation of tracers within the protein complexes during the tracer experiments in 2D gels. The identification of singular protein spots from Alzheimer-diseased brain separated by 2D gel electrophoresis was attempted by biopolymer mass spectrometry using MALDI-FTICR-MS after excision from the 2D gel and tryptic digestion.

  11. A C2HC zinc finger is essential for the RING-E2 interaction of the ubiquitin ligase RNF125

    PubMed Central

    Bijlmakers, Marie-José; Teixeira, João M. C.; Boer, Roeland; Mayzel, Maxim; Puig-Sàrries, Pilar; Karlsson, Göran; Coll, Miquel; Pons, Miquel; Crosas, Bernat

    2016-01-01

    The activity of RING ubiquitin ligases (E3s) depends on an interaction between the RING domain and ubiquitin conjugating enzymes (E2), but posttranslational events or additional structural elements, yet largely undefined, are frequently required to enhance or regulate activity. Here, we show for the ubiquitin ligase RNF125 that, in addition to the RING domain, a C2HC Zn finger (ZnF) is crucial for activity, and a short linker sequence (Li2120-128) enhances activity. The contribution of these regions was first shown with truncated proteins, and the essential role of the ZnF was confirmed with mutations at the Zn chelating Cys residues. Using NMR, we established that the C2HC ZnF/Li2120-128 region is crucial for binding of the RING domain to the E2 UbcH5a. The partial X-ray structure of RNF125 revealed the presence of extensive intramolecular interactions between the RING and C2HC ZnF. A mutation at one of the contact residues in the C2HC ZnF, a highly conserved M112, resulted in the loss of ubiquitin ligase activity. Thus, we identified the structural basis for an essential role of the C2HC ZnF and conclude that this domain stabilizes the RING domain, and is therefore required for binding of RNF125 to an E2. PMID:27411375

  12. Serum Proteins Enhance Dispersion Stability and Influence the Cytotoxicity and Dosimetry of ZnO Nanoparticles in Suspension and Adherent Cancer Cell Models.

    PubMed

    Anders, Catherine B; Chess, Jordan J; Wingett, Denise G; Punnoose, Alex

    2015-12-01

    Agglomeration and sedimentation of nanoparticles (NPs) within biological solutions is a major limitation in their use in many downstream applications. It has been proposed that serum proteins associate with the NP surface to form a protein corona that limits agglomeration and sedimentation. Here, we investigate the effect of fetal bovine serum (FBS) proteins on the dispersion stability, dosimetry, and NP-induced cytotoxicity of cationic zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) synthesized via forced hydrolysis with a core size of 10 nm. Two different in vitro cell culture models, suspension and adherent, were evaluated by comparing a phosphate buffered saline (PBS) nZnO dispersion (nZnO/PBS) and an FBS-stabilized PBS nZnO dispersion (nZnO - FBS/PBS). Surface interactions of FBS on nZnO were analyzed via spectroscopic and optical techniques. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the adsorption of negatively charged protein components on the cationic nZnO surface through the disappearance of surfaced-adsorbed carboxyl functional groups and the subsequent detection of vibrational modes associated with the protein backbone of FBS-associated proteins. Further confirmation of these interactions was noted in the isoelectric point shift of the nZnO from the characteristic pH of 9.5 to a pH of 6.1. In nZnO - FBS/PBS dispersions, the FBS reduced agglomeration and sedimentation behaviors to impart long-term improvements (>24 h) to the nZnO dispersion stability. Furthermore, mathematical dosimetry models indicate that nZnO - FBS/PBS dispersions had consistent NP deposition patterns over time unlike unstable nZnO/PBS dispersions. In suspension cell models, the stable nZnO - FBS/PBS dispersion resulted in a ~33 % increase in the NP-induced cytotoxicity for both Jurkat leukemic and Hut-78 lymphoma cancer cells. In contrast, the nZnO - FBS/PBS dispersion resulted in 49 and 71 % reductions in the cytotoxicity observed towards the adherent breast (T-47D) and prostate

  13. Serum Proteins Enhance Dispersion Stability and Influence the Cytotoxicity and Dosimetry of ZnO Nanoparticles in Suspension and Adherent Cancer Cell Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, Catherine B.; Chess, Jordan J.; Wingett, Denise G.; Punnoose, Alex

    2015-11-01

    Agglomeration and sedimentation of nanoparticles (NPs) within biological solutions is a major limitation in their use in many downstream applications. It has been proposed that serum proteins associate with the NP surface to form a protein corona that limits agglomeration and sedimentation. Here, we investigate the effect of fetal bovine serum (FBS) proteins on the dispersion stability, dosimetry, and NP-induced cytotoxicity of cationic zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) synthesized via forced hydrolysis with a core size of 10 nm. Two different in vitro cell culture models, suspension and adherent, were evaluated by comparing a phosphate buffered saline (PBS) nZnO dispersion (nZnO/PBS) and an FBS-stabilized PBS nZnO dispersion (nZnO - FBS/PBS). Surface interactions of FBS on nZnO were analyzed via spectroscopic and optical techniques. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the adsorption of negatively charged protein components on the cationic nZnO surface through the disappearance of surfaced-adsorbed carboxyl functional groups and the subsequent detection of vibrational modes associated with the protein backbone of FBS-associated proteins. Further confirmation of these interactions was noted in the isoelectric point shift of the nZnO from the characteristic pH of 9.5 to a pH of 6.1. In nZnO - FBS/PBS dispersions, the FBS reduced agglomeration and sedimentation behaviors to impart long-term improvements (>24 h) to the nZnO dispersion stability. Furthermore, mathematical dosimetry models indicate that nZnO - FBS/PBS dispersions had consistent NP deposition patterns over time unlike unstable nZnO/PBS dispersions. In suspension cell models, the stable nZnO - FBS/PBS dispersion resulted in a ~33 % increase in the NP-induced cytotoxicity for both Jurkat leukemic and Hut-78 lymphoma cancer cells. In contrast, the nZnO - FBS/PBS dispersion resulted in 49 and 71 % reductions in the cytotoxicity observed towards the adherent breast (T-47D) and prostate

  14. Multi-fingered robotic hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, Carl F. (Inventor); Salisbury, Kenneth, Jr. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A robotic hand is presented having a plurality of fingers, each having a plurality of joints pivotally connected one to the other. Actuators are connected at one end to an actuating and control mechanism mounted remotely from the hand and at the other end to the joints of the fingers for manipulating the fingers and passing externally of the robot manipulating arm in between the hand and the actuating and control mechanism. The fingers include pulleys to route the actuators within the fingers. Cable tension sensing structure mounted on a portion of the hand are disclosed, as is covering of the tip of each finger with a resilient and pliable friction enhancing surface.

  15. VpRFP1, a novel C4C4-type RING finger protein gene from Chinese wild Vitis pseudoreticulata, functions as a transcriptional activator in defence response of grapevine

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yihe; Xu, Weirong; Wang, Shengyi; Xu, Yan; Li, Hui'e; Wang, Yuejin; Li, Shuxiu

    2011-01-01

    RING finger proteins comprise a large family and play important roles in regulation of growth and development, hormone signalling, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. In this study, the identification and functional characterization of a C4C4-type RING finger protein gene from the Chinese wild grapevine Vitis pseudoreticulata (designated VpRFP1) are reported. VpRFP1 was initially identified as an expressed sequence tag (EST) from a cDNA library constructed from leaves of V. pseudoreticulata inoculated with the grapevine powdery mildew Uncinula necator. Sequence analysis of the deduced VpRFP1 protein based on the full-length cDNA revealed an N-terminal nuclear localization signal (NLS) and a C-terminal C4C4-type RING finger motif with the consensus sequence Cys-X2-Cys-X13-Cys-X1-Cys-X4-Cys-X2-Cys-X10-Cys-X2-Cys. Upon inoculation with U. necator, expression of VpRFP1 was rapidly induced to higher levels in mildew-resistant V. pseudoreticulata plants. In contrast, expression of VpRFP1 was down-regulated in mildew-susceptible V. vinifera plants. Western blotting using an antibody raised against VpRFP1 showed that VpRFP1 was also induced to higher levels in V. pseudoreticulata plants at 12–48 hours post-inoculation (hpi). However, there was only slight increase in VpRFP in V. vinifera plants in the same time frame, even though a more significant increase was observed at 96–144 hpi in these plants. Results from transactivation assays in yeast showed that the RING finger motif of VpRFP1 exhibited some activity of transcriptional activation; however, no activity was seen with the full-length VpRFP1. Overexpression of VpRFP1 in Arabidopsis plants was found to enhance resistance to Arabidopsis powdery mildew Golovinomyces cichoracearum, which seemed to be correlated with increased transcript levels of AtPR1 and AtPR2 in the pathogen-infected tissues. In addition, the Arabidopsis transgenic lines showed enhanced resistance to a virulent bacterial

  16. Finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn].

    PubMed

    Ceasar, Stanislaus Antony; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2015-01-01

    Millets are the primary food source for millions of people in tropical regions of the world supplying mineral nutrition and protein. In this chapter, we describe an optimized protocol for the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of finger millet variety GPU 45. Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 harboring plasmid pCAMBIA1301 which contains hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph) as selectable marker gene and β-glucuronidase (GUS) as reporter gene has been used. This protocol utilizes the shoot apex explants for the somatic embryogenesis and regeneration of finger millet after the transformation by Agrobacterium. Desiccation of explants during cocultivation helps for the better recovery of transgenic plants. This protocol is very useful for the efficient production of transgenic plants in finger millet through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

  17. DPL-1 DP, LIN-35 Rb and EFL-1 E2F act with the MCD-1 zinc-finger protein to promote programmed cell death in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Reddien, Peter W; Andersen, Erik C; Huang, Michael C; Horvitz, H Robert

    2007-04-01

    The genes egl-1, ced-9, ced-4, and ced-3 play major roles in programmed cell death in Caenorhabditis elegans. To identify genes that have more subtle activities, we sought mutations that confer strong cell-death defects in a genetically sensitized mutant background. Specifically, we screened for mutations that enhance the cell-death defects caused by a partial loss-of-function allele of the ced-3 caspase gene. We identified mutations in two genes not previously known to affect cell death, dpl-1 and mcd-1 (modifier of cell death). dpl-1 encodes the C. elegans homolog of DP, the human E2F-heterodimerization partner. By testing genes known to interact with dpl-1, we identified roles in cell death for four additional genes: efl-1 E2F, lin-35 Rb, lin-37 Mip40, and lin-52 dLin52. mcd-1 encodes a novel protein that contains one zinc finger and that is synthetically required with lin-35 Rb for animal viability. dpl-1 and mcd-1 act with efl-1 E2F and lin-35 Rb to promote programmed cell death and do so by regulating the killing process rather than by affecting the decision between survival and death. We propose that the DPL-1 DP, MCD-1 zinc finger, EFL-1 E2F, LIN-35 Rb, LIN-37 Mip40, and LIN-52 dLin52 proteins act together in transcriptional regulation to promote programmed cell death.

  18. Finger Lakes LPG

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Finger Lakes LPG Storage, LLC; Two Brush Creek Blvd, Suite 200; Kansas City; Missouri 64112 (Applicant) has applied to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the provisions of the Safe Drinking Water Act, 42 U.S.C. 300f et. seq (the Act), for

  19. X-Ray Exam: Finger

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Finger KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: Finger What's in this article? What ... Have Questions Print What It Is A finger X-ray is a safe and painless test that ...

  20. Genome-wide analysis of the Zn(II)2Cys6 zinc cluster-encoding gene family in Aspergillus flavus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Proteins with a Zn(II)2Cys6 domain, Cys-X2-Cys-X6-Cys-X5-12-Cys-X2-Cys-X6-9-Cys (hereafter, referred to as the C6 domain), form a subclass of zinc finger proteins found exclusively in fungi and yeast. Genome sequence databases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans have provided an overvie...

  1. A Zn(II)2Cys6 DNA binding protein regulates the sirodesmin PL biosynthetic gene cluster in Leptosphaeria maculans

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Ellen M.; Gardiner, Donald M.; Keller, Nancy P.; Howlett, Barbara J.

    2008-01-01

    A gene, sirZ, encoding a Zn(II)2Cys6 DNA binding protein is present in a cluster of genes responsible for the biosynthesis of the epipolythiodioxopiperazine (ETP) toxin, sirodesmin PL in the ascomycete plant pathogen, Leptosphaeria maculans. RNA-mediated silencing of sirZ gives rise to transformants that produce only residual amounts of sirodesmin PL and display a decrease in the transcription of several sirodesmin PL biosynthetic genes. This indicates that SirZ is a major regulator of this gene cluster. Proteins similar to SirZ are encoded in the gliotoxin biosynthetic gene cluster of Aspergillus fumigatus (gliZ) and in an ETP-like cluster in Penicillium lilacinoechinulatum (PlgliZ). Despite its high level of sequence similarity to gliZ, PlgliZ is unable to complement the gliotoxin-deficiency of a mutant of gliZ in A. fumigatus. Putative binding sites for these regulatory proteins in the promoters of genes in these clusters were predicted using bioinformatic analysis. These sites are similar to those commonly bound by other proteins with Zn(II)2Cys6 DNA binding domains. PMID:18023597

  2. The Polyadenosine RNA-binding Protein, Zinc Finger Cys3His Protein 14 (ZC3H14), Regulates the Pre-mRNA Processing of a Key ATP Synthase Subunit mRNA*

    PubMed Central

    Wigington, Callie P.; Morris, Kevin J.; Newman, Laura E.; Corbett, Anita H.

    2016-01-01

    Polyadenosine RNA-binding proteins (Pabs) regulate multiple steps in gene expression. This protein family includes the well studied Pabs, PABPN1 and PABPC1, as well as the newly characterized Pab, zinc finger CCCH-type containing protein 14 (ZC3H14). Mutations in ZC3H14 are linked to a form of intellectual disability. To probe the function of ZC3H14, we performed a transcriptome-wide analysis of cells depleted of either ZC3H14 or the control Pab, PABPN1. Depletion of PABPN1 affected ∼17% of expressed transcripts, whereas ZC3H14 affected only ∼1% of expressed transcripts. To assess the function of ZC3H14 in modulating target mRNAs, we selected the gene encoding the ATP synthase F0 subunit C (ATP5G1) transcript. Knockdown of ZC3H14 significantly reduced ATP5G1 steady-state mRNA levels. Consistent with results suggesting that ATP5G1 turnover increases upon depletion of ZC3H14, double knockdown of ZC3H14 and the nonsense-mediated decay factor, UPF1, rescues ATP5G1 transcript levels. Furthermore, fractionation reveals an increase in the amount of ATP5G1 pre-mRNA that reaches the cytoplasm when ZC3H14 is depleted and that ZC3H14 binds to ATP5G1 pre-mRNA in the nucleus. These data support a role for ZC3H14 in ensuring proper nuclear processing and retention of ATP5G1 pre-mRNA. Consistent with the observation that ATP5G1 is a rate-limiting component for ATP synthase activity, knockdown of ZC3H14 decreases cellular ATP levels and causes mitochondrial fragmentation. These data suggest that ZC3H14 modulates pre-mRNA processing of select mRNA transcripts and plays a critical role in regulating cellular energy levels, observations that have broad implications for proper neuronal function. PMID:27563065

  3. Studies on Bacterial Proteins Corona Interaction with Saponin Imprinted ZnO Nanohoneycombs and Their Toxic Responses.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepali; Ashaduzzaman, Md; Golabi, Mohsen; Shriwastav, Amritanshu; Bisetty, Krishna; Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2015-11-04

    Molecular imprinting generates robust, efficient, and highly mesoporous surfaces for biointeractions. Mechanistic interfacial interaction between the surface of core substrate and protein corona is crucial to understand the substantial microbial toxic responses at a nanoscale. In this study, we have focused on the mechanistic interactions between synthesized saponin imprinted zinc oxide nanohoneycombs (SIZnO NHs), average size 80-125 nm, surface area 20.27 m(2)/g, average pore density 0.23 pore/nm and number-average pore size 3.74 nm and proteins corona of bacteria. The produced SIZnO NHs as potential antifungal and antibacterial agents have been studied on Sclerotium rolfsii (S. rolfsii), Pythium debarynum (P. debarynum) and Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), respectively. SIZnO NHs exhibited the highest antibacterial (∼50%) and antifungal (∼40%) activity against Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli) and fungus (P. debarynum), respectively at concentration of 0.1 mol. Scanning electron spectroscopy (SEM) observation showed that the ZnO NHs ruptured the cell wall of bacteria and internalized into the cell. The molecular docking studies were carried out using binding proteins present in the gram negative bacteria (lipopolysaccharide and lipocalin Blc) and gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcal Protein A, SpA). It was envisaged that the proteins present in the bacterial cell wall were found to interact and adsorb on the surface of SIZnO NHs thereby blocking the active sites of the proteins used for cell wall synthesis. The binding affinity and interaction energies were higher in the case of binding proteins present in gram negative bacteria as compared to that of gram positive bacteria. In addition, a kinetic mathematical model (KMM) was developed in MATLAB to predict the internalization in the bacterial cellular uptake of the ZnO NHs for better understanding of their controlled toxicity. The results obtained from KMM exhibited a good

  4. Robotic Finger Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Linn, Douglas M. (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Askew, Scott R. (Inventor); Valvo, Michael C. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A robotic hand includes a finger with first, second, and third phalanges. A first joint rotatably connects the first phalange to a base structure. A second joint rotatably connects the first phalange to the second phalange. A third joint rotatably connects the third phalange to the second phalange. The second joint and the third joint are kinematically linked such that the position of the third phalange with respect to the second phalange is determined by the position of the second phalange with respect to the first phalange.

  5. Robotic Finger Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Askew, Scott R. (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Platt, Robert J., Jr. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Valvo, Michael C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A robotic hand includes a finger with first, second, and third phalanges. A first joint rotatably connects the first phalange to a base structure. A second joint rotatably connects the first phalange to the second phalange. A third joint rotatably connects the third phalange to the second phalange. The second joint and the third joint are kinematically linked such that the position of the third phalange with respect to the second phalange is determined by the position of the second phalange with respect to the first phalange.

  6. Finger Forces in Clarinet Playing

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Alex; Goebl, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Clarinettists close and open multiple tone holes to alter the pitch of the tones. Their fingering technique must be fast, precise, and coordinated with the tongue articulation. In this empirical study, finger force profiles and tongue techniques of clarinet students (N = 17) and professional clarinettists (N = 6) were investigated under controlled performance conditions. First, in an expressive-performance task, eight selected excerpts from the first Weber Concerto were performed. These excerpts were chosen to fit in a 2 × 2 × 2 design (register: low–high; tempo: slow–fast, dynamics: soft–loud). There was an additional condition controlled by the experimenter, which determined the expression levels (low–high) of the performers. Second, a technical-exercise task, an isochronous 23-tone melody was designed that required different effectors to produce the sequence (finger-only, tongue-only, combined tongue-finger actions). The melody was performed in three tempo conditions (slow, medium, fast) in a synchronization-continuation paradigm. Participants played on a sensor-equipped Viennese clarinet, which tracked finger forces and reed oscillations simultaneously. From the data, average finger force (Fmean) and peak force (Fmax) were calculated. The overall finger forces were low (Fmean = 1.17 N, Fmax = 3.05 N) compared to those on other musical instruments (e.g., guitar). Participants applied the largest finger forces during the high expression level performance conditions (Fmean = 1.21 N). For the technical exercise task, timing and articulation information were extracted from the reed signal. Here, the timing precision of the fingers deteriorated the timing precision of the tongue for combined tongue-finger actions, especially for faster tempi. Although individual finger force profiles were overlapping, the group of professional players applied less finger force overall (Fmean = 0.54 N). Such sensor instruments provide useful insights into player

  7. Identification and Structure-Activity Relationship of HDAC6 Zinc-Finger Ubiquitin Binding Domain Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ferreira de Freitas, Renato; Harding, Rachel J; Franzoni, Ivan; Ravichandran, Mani; Mann, Mandeep K; Ouyang, Hui; Lautens, Mark; Santhakumar, Vijayaratnam; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Schapira, Matthieu

    2018-05-24

    HDAC6 plays a central role in the recruitment of protein aggregates for lysosomal degradation and is a promising target for combination therapy with proteasome inhibitors in multiple myeloma. Pharmacologically displacing ubiquitin from the zinc-finger ubiquitin-binding domain (ZnF-UBD) of HDAC6 is an underexplored alternative to catalytic inhibition. Here, we present the discovery of an HDAC6 ZnF-UBD-focused chemical series and its progression from virtual screening hits to low micromolar inhibitors. A carboxylate mimicking the C-terminal extremity of ubiquitin, and an extended aromatic system stacking with W1182 and R1155, are necessary for activity. One of the compounds induced a conformational remodeling of the binding site where the primary binding pocket opens up onto a ligand-able secondary pocket that may be exploited to increase potency. The preliminary structure-activity relationship accompanied by nine crystal structures should enable further optimization into a chemical probe to investigate the merit of targeting the ZnF-UBD of HDAC6 in multiple myeloma and other diseases.

  8. Two-Dimensional Fluorescence Difference Spectroscopy of ZnO and Mg Composites in the Detection of Physiological Protein and RNA Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Amanda; Wu, Xiaotong; Wang, Jianjie; Brodeur, Amanda; Thomas, Rintu; Thakkar, Ravindra; Hadi, Halena; Glaspell, Garry P.; Duszynski, Molly; Wanekaya, Adam; DeLong, Robert K.

    2017-01-01

    Two-dimensional fluorescence difference spectroscopy (2-D FDS) was used to determine the unique spectral signatures of zinc oxide (ZnO), magnesium oxide (MgO), and 5% magnesium zinc oxide nanocomposite (5% Mg/ZnO) and was then used to demonstrate the change in spectral signature that occurs when physiologically important proteins, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and ribonuclease A (RNase A), interact with ZnO nanoparticles (NPs). When RNase A is bound to 5% Mg/ZnO, the intensity is quenched, while the intensity is magnified and a significant shift is seen when torula yeast RNA (TYRNA) is bound to RNase A and 5% Mg/ZnO. The intensity of 5% Mg/ZnO is quenched also when thrombin and thrombin aptamer are bound to the nanocomposite. These data indicate that RNA–protein interaction can occur unimpeded on the surface of NPs, which was confirmed by gel electrophoresis, and importantly that the change in fluorescence excitation, emission, and intensity shown by 2-D FDS may indicate specificity of biomolecular interactions. PMID:29244716

  9. Hidradenocarcinoma of the finger.

    PubMed

    Nazerali, Rahim S; Tan, Cynthia; Fung, Maxwell A; Chen, Steven L; Wong, Michael S

    2013-04-01

    Hidradenocarcinoma is a rare adnexal neoplasm representing the malignant counterpart of hidradenoma derived from eccrine sweat glands. Misdiagnosis of this disease is common due to the wide variety of histological patterns and rarity of this malignancy. We report an 87-year-old man presenting with a rare case of biopsy-proven hidradenocarcinoma of the finger. There is no standard care of treatment of hidradenocarcinoma, especially of those tumors in rare locations such as the fingers, given its rarity, variable tumor behavior and histology. Although limited treatment strategies exist, detailed data including TNM, location, histologic type and grade, and patient age should be gathered for optimal treatment strategy. The literature supports a 3-fold approach to these malignancies involving margin-free resection, sentinel lymph node biopsy to evaluate possible metastasis, and long-term follow-up given high risk of recurrence. Our treatment strategy involved a 4-fold, multidisciplinary approach involving reconstruction to optimize tumor-free remission and hand function.

  10. Biochemical and structural characterization of a novel family of cystathionine beta-synthase domain proteins fused to a Zn ribbon-like domain.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, Michael; Sanders, Stephen A; Singer, Alex; Zhang, Rongguang; Brown, Greg; Binkowski, Andrew; Xu, Linda; Lukin, Jonathan A; Murzin, Alexey G; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Edwards, Aled M; Savchenko, Alexei V; Yakunin, Alexander F

    2008-01-04

    We have identified a novel family of proteins, in which the N-terminal cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) domain is fused to the C-terminal Zn ribbon domain. Four proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified: TA0289 from Thermoplasma acidophilum, TV1335 from Thermoplasma volcanium, PF1953 from Pyrococcus furiosus, and PH0267 from Pyrococcus horikoshii. The purified proteins had a red/purple color in solution and an absorption spectrum typical of rubredoxins (Rds). Metal analysis of purified proteins revealed the presence of several metals, with iron and zinc being the most abundant metals (2-67% of iron and 12-74% of zinc). Crystal structures of both mercury- and iron-bound TA0289 (1.5-2.0 A resolution) revealed a dimeric protein whose intersubunit contacts are formed exclusively by the alpha-helices of two cystathionine beta-synthase subdomains, whereas the C-terminal domain has a classical Zn ribbon planar architecture. All proteins were reversibly reduced by chemical reductants (ascorbate or dithionite) or by the general Rd reductase NorW from E. coli in the presence of NADH. Reduced TA0289 was found to be capable of transferring electrons to cytochrome C from horse heart. Likewise, the purified Zn ribbon protein KTI11 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae had a purple color in solution and an Rd-like absorption spectrum, contained both iron and zinc, and was reduced by the Rd reductase NorW from E. coli. Thus, recombinant Zn ribbon domains from archaea and yeast demonstrate an Rd-like electron carrier activity in vitro. We suggest that, in vivo, some Zn ribbon domains might also bind iron and therefore possess an electron carrier activity, adding another physiological role to this large family of important proteins.

  11. Differences in finger localisation performance of patients with finger agnosia.

    PubMed

    Anema, Helen A; Kessels, Roy P C; de Haan, Edward H F; Kappelle, L Jaap; Leijten, Frans S; van Zandvoort, Martine J E; Dijkerman, H Chris

    2008-09-17

    Several neuropsychological studies have suggested parallel processing of somatosensory input when localising a tactile stimulus on one's own by pointing towards it (body schema) and when localising this touched location by pointing to it on a map of a hand (body image). Usually these reports describe patients with impaired detection, but intact sensorimotor localisation. This study examined three patients with a lesion of the angular gyrus with intact somatosensory processing, but with selectively disturbed finger identification (finger agnosia). These patients performed normally when pointing towards the touched finger on their own hand but failed to indicate this finger on a drawing of a hand or to name it. Similar defects in the perception of other body parts were not observed. The findings provide converging evidence for the dissociation between body image and body schema and, more importantly, reveal for the first time that this distinction is also present in higher-order cognitive processes selectively for the fingers.

  12. Finger vein recognition based on finger crease location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhiying; Ding, Shumeng; Yin, Jing

    2016-07-01

    Finger vein recognition technology has significant advantages over other methods in terms of accuracy, uniqueness, and stability, and it has wide promising applications in the field of biometric recognition. We propose using finger creases to locate and extract an object region. Then we use linear fitting to overcome the problem of finger rotation in the plane. The method of modular adaptive histogram equalization (MAHE) is presented to enhance image contrast and reduce computational cost. To extract the finger vein features, we use a fusion method, which can obtain clear and distinguishable vein patterns under different conditions. We used the Hausdorff average distance algorithm to examine the recognition performance of the system. The experimental results demonstrate that MAHE can better balance the recognition accuracy and the expenditure of time compared with three other methods. Our resulting equal error rate throughout the total procedure was 3.268% in a database of 153 finger vein images.

  13. ExpandplusCrystal Structures of Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase-1 (PARP-1) Zinc Fingers Bound to DNA

    SciTech Connect

    M Langelier; J Planck; S Roy

    2011-12-31

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) has two homologous zinc finger domains, Zn1 and Zn2, that bind to a variety of DNA structures to stimulate poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis activity and to mediate PARP-1 interaction with chromatin. The structural basis for interaction with DNA is unknown, which limits our understanding of PARP-1 regulation and involvement in DNA repair and transcription. Here, we have determined crystal structures for the individual Zn1 and Zn2 domains in complex with a DNA double strand break, providing the first views of PARP-1 zinc fingers bound to DNA. The Zn1-DNA and Zn2-DNA structures establish a novel, bipartite mode of sequence-independent DNAmore » interaction that engages a continuous region of the phosphodiester backbone and the hydrophobic faces of exposed nucleotide bases. Biochemical and cell biological analysis indicate that the Zn1 and Zn2 domains perform distinct functions. The Zn2 domain exhibits high binding affinity to DNA compared with the Zn1 domain. However, the Zn1 domain is essential for DNA-dependent PARP-1 activity in vitro and in vivo, whereas the Zn2 domain is not strictly required. Structural differences between the Zn1-DNA and Zn2-DNA complexes, combined with mutational and structural analysis, indicate that a specialized region of the Zn1 domain is re-configured through the hydrophobic interaction with exposed nucleotide bases to initiate PARP-1 activation.« less

  14. Diversity of Prdm9 Zinc Finger Array in Wild Mice Unravels New Facets of the Evolutionary Turnover of this Coding Minisatellite

    PubMed Central

    Buard, Jérôme; Rivals, Eric; Dunoyer de Segonzac, Denis; Garres, Charlotte; Caminade, Pierre; de Massy, Bernard; Boursot, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    In humans and mice, meiotic recombination events cluster into narrow hotspots whose genomic positions are defined by the PRDM9 protein via its DNA binding domain constituted of an array of zinc fingers (ZnFs). High polymorphism and rapid divergence of the Prdm9 gene ZnF domain appear to involve positive selection at DNA-recognition amino-acid positions, but the nature of the underlying evolutionary pressures remains a puzzle. Here we explore the variability of the Prdm9 ZnF array in wild mice, and uncovered a high allelic diversity of both ZnF copy number and identity with the caracterization of 113 alleles. We analyze features of the diversity of ZnF identity which is mostly due to non-synonymous changes at codons −1, 3 and 6 of each ZnF, corresponding to amino-acids involved in DNA binding. Using methods adapted to the minisatellite structure of the ZnF array, we infer a phylogenetic tree of these alleles. We find the sister species Mus spicilegus and M. macedonicus as well as the three house mouse (Mus musculus) subspecies to be polyphyletic. However some sublineages have expanded independently in Mus musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus, the latter further showing phylogeographic substructure. Compared to random genomic regions and non-coding minisatellites, none of these patterns appears exceptional. In silico prediction of DNA binding sites for each allele, overlap of their alignments to the genome and relative coverage of the different families of interspersed repeated elements suggest a large diversity between PRDM9 variants with a potential for highly divergent distributions of recombination events in the genome with little correlation to evolutionary distance. By compiling PRDM9 ZnF protein sequences in Primates, Muridae and Equids, we find different diversity patterns among the three amino-acids most critical for the DNA-recognition function, suggesting different diversification timescales. PMID:24454780

  15. The ability of GAP1IP4BP to function as a Rap1 GTPase-activating protein (GAP) requires its Ras GAP-related domain and an arginine finger rather than an asparagine thumb.

    PubMed

    Kupzig, Sabine; Bouyoucef-Cherchalli, Dalila; Yarwood, Sam; Sessions, Richard; Cullen, Peter J

    2009-07-01

    GAP1(IP4BP) is a member of the GAP1 family of Ras GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) that includes GAP1(m), CAPRI, and RASAL. Composed of a central Ras GAP-related domain (RasGRD), surrounded by amino-terminal C2 domains and a carboxy-terminal PH/Btk domain, these proteins, with the notable exception of GAP1(m), possess an unexpected arginine finger-dependent GAP activity on the Ras-related protein Rap1 (S. Kupzig, D. Deaconescu, D. Bouyoucef, S. A. Walker, Q. Liu, C. L. Polte, O. Daumke, T. Ishizaki, P. J. Lockyer, A. Wittinghofer, and P. J. Cullen, J. Biol. Chem. 281:9891-9900, 2006). Here, we have examined the mechanism through which GAP1(IP4BP) can function as a Rap1 GAP. We show that deletion of domains on either side of the RasGRD, while not affecting Ras GAP activity, do dramatically perturb Rap1 GAP activity. By utilizing GAP1(IP4BP)/GAP1(m) chimeras, we establish that although the C2 and PH/Btk domains are required to stabilize the RasGRD, it is this domain which contains the catalytic machinery required for Rap1 GAP activity. Finally, a key residue in Rap1-specific GAPs is a catalytic asparagine, the so-called asparagine thumb. By generating a molecular model describing the predicted Rap1-binding site in the RasGRD of GAP1(IP4BP), we show that mutagenesis of individual asparagine or glutamine residues that lie in close proximity to the predicted binding site has no detectable effect on the in vivo Rap1 GAP activity of GAP1(IP4BP). In contrast, we present evidence consistent with a model in which the RasGRD of GAP1(IP4BP) functions to stabilize the switch II region of Rap1, allowing stabilization of the transition state during GTP hydrolysis initiated by the arginine finger.

  16. Competition between anisotropic viscous fingers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecelerowicz, M.; Budek, A.; Szymczak, P.

    2014-09-01

    We consider viscous fingers created by injection of low viscosity fluid into the network of capillaries initially filled with a more viscous fluid (motor oil). Due to the anisotropy of the system and its geometry, such a setup promotes the formation of long-and-thin fingers which then grow and compete for the available flow, interacting through the pressure field. The interaction between the fingers is analyzed using the branched growth formalism of Halsey and Leibig (Phys. Rev. A 46, 7723, 1992) using a number of simple, analytically tractable models. It is shown that as soon as the fingers are allowed to capture the flow from one another, the fixed point appears in the phase space, corresponding to the asymptotic state in which the growth of one of the fingers in hindered by the other. The properties of phase space flows in such systems are shown to be remarkably insensitive to the details of the dynamics.

  17. Surgery for trigger finger.

    PubMed

    Fiorini, Haroldo Junior; Tamaoki, Marcel Jun; Lenza, Mário; Gomes Dos Santos, Joao Baptista; Faloppa, Flávio; Belloti, Joao Carlos

    2018-02-20

    Trigger finger is a common clinical disorder, characterised by pain and catching as the patient flexes and extends digits because of disproportion between the diameter of flexor tendons and the A1 pulley. The treatment approach may include non-surgical or surgical treatments. Currently there is no consensus about the best surgical treatment approach (open, percutaneous or endoscopic approaches). To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different methods of surgical treatment for trigger finger (open, percutaneous or endoscopic approaches) in adults at any stage of the disease. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and LILACS up to August 2017. We included randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that assessed adults with trigger finger and compared any type of surgical treatment with each other or with any other non-surgical intervention. The major outcomes were the resolution of trigger finger, pain, hand function, participant-reported treatment success or satisfaction, recurrence of triggering, adverse events and neurovascular injury. Two review authors independently selected the trial reports, extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias. Measures of treatment effect for dichotomous outcomes calculated risk ratios (RRs), and mean differences (MDs) or standardised mean differences (SMD) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). When possible, the data were pooled into meta-analysis using the random-effects model. GRADE was used to assess the quality of evidence for each outcome. Fourteen trials were included, totalling 1260 participants, with 1361 trigger fingers. The age of participants included in the studies ranged from 16 to 88 years; and the majority of participants were women (approximately 70%). The average duration of symptoms ranged from three to 15 months, and the follow-up after the procedure ranged from eight weeks to 23 months.The studies reported nine types of comparisons: open surgery versus steroid injections (two

  18. The DnaJ-Like Zinc-Finger Protein HCF222 Is Required for Thylakoid Membrane Biogenesis in Plants1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hartings, Stephanie; Paradies, Susanne; Karnuth, Bianca; Eisfeld, Sabrina; Mehsing, Jasmin; Wolff, Christian; Levey, Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    To understand the biogenesis of the thylakoid membrane in higher plants and to identify auxiliary proteins required to build up this highly complex membrane system, we have characterized the allelic nuclear mutants high chlorophyll fluorescence222-1 (hcf222-1) and hcf222-2 and isolated the causal gene by map-based cloning. In the ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutant hcf222-1, the accumulation of the cytochrome b6f (Cytb6f) complex was reduced to 30% compared with the wild type. Other thylakoid membrane complexes accumulated to normal levels. The T-DNA knockout mutant hcf222-2 showed a more severe defect with respect to thylakoid membrane proteins and accumulated only 10% of the Cytb6f complex, accompanied by a reduction in photosystem II, the photosystem II light-harvesting complex, and photosystem I. HCF222 encodes a protein of 99 amino acids in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that has similarities to the cysteine-rich zinc-binding domain of DnaJ chaperones. The insulin precipitation assay demonstrated that HCF222 has disulfide reductase activity in vitro. The protein is conserved in higher plants and bryophytes but absent in algae and cyanobacteria. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that a fraction of HCF222-green fluorescent protein was detectable in the endoplasmic reticulum but that it also could be recognized in chloroplasts. A fusion construct of HCF222 containing a plastid transit peptide targets the protein into chloroplasts and was able to complement the mutational defect. These findings indicate that the chloroplast-targeted HCF222 is indispensable for the maturation and/or assembly of the Cytb6f complex and is very likely involved in thiol-disulfide biochemistry at the thylakoid membrane. PMID:28572458

  19. Protein functionalization of ZnO nanostructure exhibits selective and enhanced toxicity to breast cancer cells through oxidative stress-based cell death mechanism.

    PubMed

    Mahanta, Sailendra; Prathap, S; Ban, Deependra Kumar; Paul, Subhankar

    2017-08-01

    Zinc oxide nanostructure (ZnONS) was chemically synthesized and functionalized (FZnONS BLA ) with a small protein bovine α-lactalbumin (BLA) by chemical cross-linking methods. Both nano-structures were characterized using various techniques such as electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), UV-Vis spectroscopy, FT-IR, photo-luminescence and X-ray diffraction. Electron microscopy and DLS analysis revealed their (ZnONS and FZnONS BLA ) average size of 200nm and 450nm, respectively. When cytotoxicity of both the nanostructures were assessed in breast cancer cells MCF-7 and MDAMB231 by MTT assay and PI/Annexin V staining (FACS), FZnONS BLA demonstrated higher cell death than ZnONS primarily due to generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our experimental results also suggested that such enhanced toxicity was due to the lethal structural variant of BLA in FZnONS BLA as well as higher cellular uptake than ZnONS by cancer cells. The death kinetics study with time in cancer cells further proved that FZnONS BLA caused toxicity much faster than ZnONS, thus suggested a strong role of lethal variant of BLA in FZnONS BLA as a cytotoxic agent in cancer cells. Furthermore, FZnONS BLA demonstrated excellent cytocompatibility (normal cells) and hemocompatibility compared to ZnONS. Hence, considering the biodegradable nature of ZnO nonmaterial, our results demonstrated that BLA functionalized ZnONS could be used to develop a suitable therapeutic strategy in cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Finger-Circumference-Measuring Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Suy

    1995-01-01

    Easy-to-use device quickly measures circumference of finger (including thumb) on human hand. Includes polytetrafluoroethylene band 1/8 in. wide, bent into loop and attached to tab that slides on scale graduated in millimeters. Sliding tab preloaded with constant-force tension spring, which pulls tab toward closure of loop. Designed to facilitate measurements at various points along fingers to obtain data for studies of volumetric changes of fingers in microgravity. Also used in normal Earth gravity studies of growth and in assessment of diseases like arthritis.

  1. Nano-channels in the spider fang for the transport of Zn ions to cross-link His-rich proteins pre-deposited in the cuticle matrix.

    PubMed

    Politi, Yael; Pippel, Eckhard; Licuco-Massouh, Ana C J; Bertinetti, Luca; Blumtritt, Horst; Barth, Friedrich G; Fratzl, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We identify the presence of multiple vascular channels within the spider fang. These channels seem to serve the transport of zinc to the tip of the fang to cross-link the protein matrix by binding to histidine residues. According to amino acid and elemental analysis of fangs extracted shortly after ecdysis, His-rich proteins are deposited before Zn is incorporated into the cuticle. Microscopic and spectroscopic investigations in the electron microscope and synchrotron radiation experiments suggest that Zn ions are transported through these channels in a liable (yet unidentified) form, and then form stable complexes upon His binding. The resulting cross-linking through the Zn-His complexes is conferring hardness to the fang. Our observations of nano-channels serving the Zn-transport within the His-rich protein matrix of the fibre reinforced spider fang may also support recent bio-inspired attempts to design artificial polymeric vascular materials for self-healing and in-situ curing. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Structural Insight Into Histone Recognition by the ING PHD Fingers

    PubMed Central

    Champagne, Karen S.; Kutateladze, Tatiana G.

    2009-01-01

    The Inhibitor of Growth (ING) tumor suppressors are implicated in oncogenesis, control of DNA damage repair, cellular senescence and apoptosis. All members of the ING family contain unique amino-terminal regions and a carboxy-terminal plant homeodomain (PHD) finger. While the amino-terminal domains associate with a number of protein effectors including distinct components of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes, the PHD finger binds strongly and specifically to histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 4 (H3K4me3). In this review we describe the molecular mechanism of H3K4me3 recognition by the ING1-5 PHD fingers, analyze the determinants of the histone specificity and compare the biological activities and structures within subsets of PHD fingers. The atomic-resolution structures of the ING PHD fingers in complex with a H3K4me3 peptide reveal that the histone tail is bound in a large and deep binding site encompassing nearly one-third of the protein surface. An extensive network of intermolecular hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic and cation-π contacts, and complementary surface interactions coordinate the first six residues of the H3K4me3 peptide. The trimethylated Lys4 occupies an elongated groove, formed by the highly conserved aromatic and hydrophobic residues of the PHD finger, whereas the adjacent groove accommodates Arg2. The two grooves are connected by a narrow channel, the small size of which defines the PHD finger’s specificity, excluding interactions with other modified histone peptides. Binding of the ING PHD fingers to H3K4me3 plays a critical role in regulating chromatin acetylation. The ING proteins function as tethering molecules that physically link the HDAC and HAT enzymatic complexes to chromatin. In this review we also highlight progress recently made in understanding the molecular basis underlying biological and tumorigenic activities of the ING tumor suppressors. PMID:19442115

  3. The Arabidopsis tandem CCCH zinc finger proteins AtTZF4, 5 and 6 are involved in light-, abscisic acid- and gibberellic acid-mediated regulation of seed germination.

    PubMed

    Bogamuwa, Srimathi; Jang, Jyan-Chyun

    2013-08-01

    Tandem CCCH zinc finger proteins (TZFs) are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression in animals and yeast. Genetic studies indicate that plant TZFs are involved in hormone-mediated developmental and environmental responses. We have demonstrated previously that Arabidopsis AtTZF1 can localize to processing bodies (PBs) and stress granules (SGs), and affects abscisic acid (ABA)- and gibberellic acid (GA)-mediated growth, stress and gene expression responses. Here we show that AtTZF4, 5 and 6 are specifically expressed in seeds. Consistent with the observation that their expression levels decline during seed imbibition, AtTZF4, 5 and 6 are up-regulated by ABA and down-regulated by GA. Mutant analyses indicate that AtTZF4, 5 and 6 act as positive regulators for ABA- and negative regulators for light- and GA-mediated seed germination responses. Results of gene expression analysis indicate that AtTZF4, 5 and 6 affect seed germination by controlling genes critical for ABA and GA response. Furthermore, AtTZF4, 5 and 6 can co-localize with both PB and SG markers in Arabidopsis cells. Specifically, AtTZF6 can be assembled into PBs and SGs in embryos with the induction of stress hormone methyl jasmonate under the control of native AtTZF6 promoter. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The PHD Finger Protein MMD1/DUET Ensures the Progression of Male Meiotic Chromosome Condensation and Directly Regulates the Expression of the Condensin Gene CAP-D3[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Niu, Baixiao; Huang, Jiyue; Wang, Hongkuan; Yang, Xiaohui; Dong, Aiwu

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome condensation, a process mediated by the condensin complex, is essential for proper chromosome segregation during cell division. Unlike rapid mitotic chromosome condensation, meiotic chromosome condensation occurs over a relatively long prophase I and is unusually complex due to the coordination with chromosome axis formation and homolog interaction. The molecular mechanisms that regulate meiotic chromosome condensation progression from prophase I to metaphase I are unclear. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana meiotic PHD-finger protein MMD1/DUET is required for progressive compaction of prophase I chromosomes to metaphase I bivalents. The MMD1 PHD domain is required for its function in chromosome condensation and binds to methylated histone tails. Transcriptome analysis and qRT-PCR showed that several condensin genes exhibit significantly reduced expression in mmd1 meiocytes. Furthermore, MMD1 specifically binds to the promoter region of the condensin subunit gene CAP-D3 to enhance its expression. Moreover, cap-d3 mutants exhibit similar chromosome condensation defects, revealing an MMD1-dependent mechanism for regulating meiotic chromosome condensation, which functions in part by promoting condensin gene expression. Together, these discoveries provide strong evidence that the histone reader MMD1/DUET defines an important step for regulating the progression of meiotic prophase I chromosome condensation. PMID:27385818

  5. Neural correlates of finger gnosis.

    PubMed

    Rusconi, Elena; Tamè, Luigi; Furlan, Michele; Haggard, Patrick; Demarchi, Gianpaolo; Adriani, Michela; Ferrari, Paolo; Braun, Christoph; Schwarzbach, Jens

    2014-07-02

    Neuropsychological studies have described patients with a selective impairment of finger identification in association with posterior parietal lesions. However, evidence of the role of these areas in finger gnosis from studies of the healthy human brain is still scarce. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the brain network engaged in a novel finger gnosis task, the intermanual in-between task (IIBT), in healthy participants. Several brain regions exhibited a stronger blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) response in IIBT than in a control task that did not explicitly rely on finger gnosis but used identical stimuli and motor responses as the IIBT. The IIBT involved stronger signal in the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL), bilateral precuneus (PCN), bilateral premotor cortex, and left inferior frontal gyrus. In all regions, stimulation of nonhomologous fingers of the two hands elicited higher BOLD signal than stimulation of homologous fingers. Only in the left anteromedial IPL (a-mIPL) and left PCN did signal strength decrease parametrically from nonhomology, through partial homology, to total homology with stimulation delivered synchronously to the two hands. With asynchronous stimulation, the signal was stronger in the left a-mIPL than in any other region, possibly indicating retention of task-relevant information. We suggest that the left PCN may contribute a supporting visuospatial representation via its functional connection to the right PCN. The a-mIPL may instead provide the core substrate of an explicit bilateral body structure representation for the fingers that when disrupted can produce the typical symptoms of finger agnosia. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/339012-12$15.00/0.

  6. Finger-Jointed Wood Products.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    these melamines do not have the same Urea resins are generally marketed adhesives does not always develop resistance to weathering as do in liquid form...OF durable, colorless glueline is required. been developed for use in RF curing. FINGER JOINTS MelamineUrea Resins IN STRUCTURAL Melamine - urea resins ...finger duced either by dry blending urea and moplastic, softening if temperature is joints, strength is expressed as a melamine resins or by blending

  7. The ANGULATA7 gene encodes a DnaJ-like zinc finger-domain protein involved in chloroplast function and leaf development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Nortes, Tamara; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Ponce, María Rosa; Candela, Héctor; Micol, José Luis

    2017-03-01

    The characterization of mutants with altered leaf shape and pigmentation has previously allowed the identification of nuclear genes that encode plastid-localized proteins that perform essential functions in leaf growth and development. A large-scale screen previously allowed us to isolate ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutants with small rosettes and pale green leaves with prominent marginal teeth, which were assigned to a phenotypic class that we dubbed Angulata. The molecular characterization of the 12 genes assigned to this phenotypic class should help us to advance our understanding of the still poorly understood relationship between chloroplast biogenesis and leaf morphogenesis. In this article, we report the phenotypic and molecular characterization of the angulata7-1 (anu7-1) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, which we found to be a hypomorphic allele of the EMB2737 gene, which was previously known only for its embryonic-lethal mutations. ANU7 encodes a plant-specific protein that contains a domain similar to the central cysteine-rich domain of DnaJ proteins. The observed genetic interaction of anu7-1 with a loss-of-function allele of GENOMES UNCOUPLED1 suggests that the anu7-1 mutation triggers a retrograde signal that leads to changes in the expression of many genes that normally function in the chloroplasts. Many such genes are expressed at higher levels in anu7-1 rosettes, with a significant overrepresentation of those required for the expression of plastid genome genes. Like in other mutants with altered expression of plastid-encoded genes, we found that anu7-1 exhibits defects in the arrangement of thylakoidal membranes, which appear locally unappressed. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Bio-industrial waste silk fibroin protein and carbon nanotube induced carbonized growth of one dimensional ZnO based bio-nanosheets and their enhanced optoelectronic properties.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Adhimoorthy; Huang, Bohr-Ran; Kathiravan, Deepa

    2018-06-01

    High performance UV/visible photodetectors are successfully fabricated from ZnO/fibroin protein-carbon nanotube (ZFPCNT) composites using a simple hydrothermal method. The as-fabricated ZnO nanorods (ZnO NRs) and ZFPCNT nanostructures were measured under different light illuminations. The measurements showed the UV-light photoresponse of the as-fabricated ZFPCNT nanostructures (55,555) to be approximately 26454% higher than that of the as-prepared ZnO NRs (210). This photodetector can sense photons with energies considerably smaller (2.75 eV) than the band gap of ZnO (3.22 eV). It was observed that the finest distribution of fibroin and CNT into 1D ZnO resulted in rapid electron transportation and hole recombination via carbon/nitrogen dopants from the ZFPCNT. Carbon dopants create new energy levels on the conduction band of the ZFPCNT, which reduces the barrier height to allow for charge carrier transportation under light illumination. Moreover, the nitrogen dopants increase the adsorptivity and amount of oxygen vacancies in the ZFPCNT so that it exhibits fast response/recovery times both in the dark and under light illumination. The selectivity of UV light among the other types of illumination can be ascribed to the deep-level energy traps (ET) of the ZFPCNT. These significant features of ZFPCNT lead to the excellent optical properties and creation of new pathways for the production of low-cost semiconductors and bio-waste protein based UV/visible photodetectors. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. OsLOL1, a C2C2-type zinc finger protein, interacts with OsbZIP58 to promote seed germination through the modulation of gibberellin biosynthesis in Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiahe; Zhu, Chuanfeng; Pang, Jinhuan; Zhang, Xiangrong; Yang, Chunlin; Xia, Guixian; Tian, Yingchuan; He, Chaozu

    2014-12-01

    Seed germination is a key developmental process in the plant life cycle that is influenced by various environmental cues and phytohormones through gene expression and a series of metabolism pathways. In the present study, we investigated a C2C2-type finger protein, OsLOL1, which promotes gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis and affects seed germination in Oryza sativa (rice). We used OsLOL1 antisense and sense transgenic lines to explore OsLOL1 functions. Seed germination timing in antisense plants was restored to wild type when exogenous GA3 was applied. The reduced expression of the GA biosynthesis gene OsKO2 and the accumulation of ent-kaurene were observed during germination in antisense plants. Based on yeast two-hybrid and firefly luciferase complementation analyses, OsLOL1 interacted with the basic leucine zipper protein OsbZIP58. The results from electrophoretic mobility shift and dual-luciferase reporter assays showed that OsbZIP58 binds the G-box cis-element of the OsKO2 promoter and activates LUC reporter gene expression, and that interaction between OsLOL1 and OsbZIP58 activates OsKO2 gene expression. In addition, OsLOL1 decreased SOD1 gene expression and accelerated programmed cell death (PCD) in the aleurone layer of rice grains. These findings demonstrate that the interaction between OsLOL1 and OsbZIP58 influences GA biosynthesis through the activation of OsKO2 via OsbZIP58, thereby stimulating aleurone PCD and seed germination. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Influence of EDC/NHS coupling chemistry on stability and cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles modified with proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keleştemur, Seda; Altunbek, Mine; Culha, Mustafa

    2017-05-01

    The toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) is a growing concern due to its increasing use in several products including sunscreens, paints, pigments and ceramics for its antibacterial, antifungal, anti-corrosive and UV filtering properties. The toxicity of ZnO NPs is mostly attributed to the Zn2+ release causing an increase in the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. The surface modification with a biocompatible ligand or a polymer can be a good strategy to reduce dissolution based toxicity. In two previous studies, the conflicting results with EDC/NHS coupling chemistry for ZnO NPs were reported. In this study, the same surface modification strategy with an emphasis on the stability of ZnO NPs is clarified. First, the density of -OH groups on the ZnO NPs is increased with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment, and then a silica coating on the ZnO NPs (Si-ZnO) surface is performed. Finally, a covalent attachment of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on three different concentrations of ZnO-Si is carried out by EDC/NHS coupling chemistry. ZnO NPs have a very high dissolution rate under acidic conditions of EDC/NHS coupling chemistry as determined from the ICP-MS analysis. In addition, the amount of ZnO NPs in coupling reaction has an important effect on the dissolution rate of Zn2+ and dependently BSA attached on the ZnO NP surfaces. Finally, the cytotoxicity of the BSA modified Si-ZnO NPs on human lung cancer (A549) and human skin fibroblast (HSF) is evaluated. Although an increased association of BSA modified ZnO NPs with cells was observed, the modification significantly decreased their cytotoxicity. This can be explained with the decreased active surface area of ZnO NPs with the surface modification. However, an increase in the mitochondrial depolarization and ROS production was observed depending on the amount of BSA coverage.

  11. Metal binding mediated conformational change of XPA protein: a potential cytotoxic mechanism of nickel in the nucleotide excision repair

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jianping; Hu, Ziheng; Zhang, Yan; Gou, Xiaojun; Mu, Ying; Wang, Lirong; Xie, Xiang-Qun

    2017-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a pivotal life process for repairing DNA nucleotide mismatch caused by chemicals, metal ions, radiation, and other factors. As the initiation step of NER, the xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A protein (XPA) recognizes damaged DNA molecules, and recruits the replication protein A (RPA), another important player in the NER process. The stability of the Zn2+-chelated Zn-finger domain of XPA center core portion (i.e., XPA98–210) is the foundation of its biological functionality, while the displacement of the Zn2+ by toxic metal ions (such as Ni2+, a known human carcinogen and allergen) may impair the effectiveness of NER and hence elevate the chance of carcinogenesis. In this study, we first calculated the force field parameters for the bonded model in the metal center of the XPA98–210 system, showing that the calculated results, including charges, bonds, angles etc., are congruent with previously reported results measured by spectrometry experiments and quantum chemistry computation. Then, comparative molecular dynamics simulations using these parameters revealed the changes in the conformation and motion mode of XPA98–210 Zn-finger after the substitution of Zn2+ by Ni2+. The results showed that Ni2+ dramatically disrupted the relative positions of the four Cys residues in the Zn-finger structure, forcing them to collapse from a tetrahedron into an almost planar structure. Finally, we acquired the binding mode of XPA98–210 with its ligands RPA70N and DNA based on molecular docking and structural alignment. We found that XPA98–210’s Zn-finger domain primarily binds to a V-shaped cleft in RPA70N, while the cationic band in its C-terminal subdomain participates in the recognition of damaged DNA. In addition, this article sheds light on the multi-component interaction pattern among XPA, DNA, and other NER-related proteins (i.e., RPA70N, RPA70A, RPA70B, RPA70C, RPA32, and RPA14) based on previously reported

  12. BnLATE, a Cys2/His2-Type Zinc-Finger Protein, Enhances Silique Shattering Resistance by Negatively Regulating Lignin Accumulation in the Silique Walls of Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Zhangsheng; Huang, Yi; Zhang, Lida; Wang, Xinfa; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2017-01-01

    Silique shattering resistance is one of the most important agricultural traits in oil crop breeding. Seed shedding from siliques prior to and during harvest causes devastating losses in oilseed yield. Lignin biosynthesis in the silique walls is thought to affect silique-shattering resistance in oil crops. Here, we identified and characterized B. napus LATE FLOWERING (BnLATE), which encodes a Cys2/His2-type zinc-finger protein. Heterologous expression of BnLATE under the double enhanced CaMV 35S promoter (D35S) in wild-type Arabidopsis plants resulted in a marked decrease in lignification in the replum, valve layer (carpel) and dehiscence zone. pBnLATE::GUS activity was strong in the yellowing silique walls of transgenic lines. Furthermore, the expression pattern of BnLATE and the lignin content gradient in the silique walls at 48 days after pollination (DAP) of 73290, a B. napus silique shattering-resistant line, are similar to those in transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing BnLATE. Transcriptome sequencing of the silique walls revealed that genes encoding peroxidases, which polymerize monolignols and lignin in the phenylpropanoid pathway, were down-regulated at least two-fold change in the D35S::BnLATE transgenic lines. pBnLATE::BnLATE transgenic lines were further used to identify the function of BnLATE, and the results showed that lignification in the carpel and dehiscence zone of yellowing silique also remarkably decreased compared with the wild-type control, the silique shattering-resistance and expression pattern of peroxidase genes are very similar to results with D35S::BnLATE. These results suggest that BnLATE is a negative regulator of lignin biosynthesis in the yellowing silique walls, and promotes silique-shattering resistance in B. napus through restraining the polymerization of monolignols and lignin. PMID:28081140

  13. Conformational heterogeneity in the C-terminal zinc fingers of human MTF-1: an NMR and zinc-binding study.

    PubMed

    Giedroc, D P; Chen, X; Pennella, M A; LiWang, A C

    2001-11-09

    The human metalloregulatory transcription factor, metal-response element (MRE)-binding transcription factor-1 (MTF-1), contains six TFIIIA-type Cys(2)-His(2) motifs, each of which was projected to form well-structured betabetaalpha domains upon Zn(II) binding. In this report, the structure and backbone dynamics of a fragment containing the unusual C-terminal fingers F4-F6 has been investigated. (15)N heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) spectra of uniformly (15)N-labeled hMTF-zf46 show that Zn(II) induces the folding of hMTF-zf46. Analysis of the secondary structure of Zn(3) hMTF-zf46 determined by (13)Calpha chemical shift indexing and the magnitude of (3)J(Halpha-HN) clearly reveal that zinc fingers F4 and F6 adopt typical betabetaalpha structures. An analysis of the heteronuclear backbone (15)N relaxation dynamics behavior is consistent with this picture and further reveals independent tumbling of the finger domains in solution. Titration of apo-MTF-zf46 with Zn(II) reveals that the F4 domain binds Zn(II) significantly more tightly than do the other two finger domains. In contrast to fingers F4 and F6, the betabetaalpha fold of finger F5 is unstable and only partially populated at substoichiometric Zn(II); a slight molar excess of zinc results in severe conformational exchange broadening of all F5 NH cross-peaks. Finally, although Cd(II) binds to apo-hMTF-zf46 as revealed by intense S(-)-->Cd(II) absorption, a non-native structure results; addition of stoichiometric Zn(II) to the Cd(II) complex results in quantitative refolding of the betabetaalpha structure in F4 and F6. The functional implications of these results are discussed.

  14. Mesofluidic controlled robotic or prosthetic finger

    DOEpatents

    Lind, Randall F; Jansen, John F; Love, Lonnie J

    2013-11-19

    A mesofluidic powered robotic and/or prosthetic finger joint includes a first finger section having at least one mesofluidic actuator in fluid communication with a first actuator, a second mesofluidic actuator in fluid communication with a second actuator and a second prosthetic finger section pivotally connected to the first finger section by a joint pivot, wherein the first actuator pivotally cooperates with the second finger to provide a first mechanical advantage relative to the joint point and wherein the second actuator pivotally cooperates with the second finger section to provide a second mechanical advantage relative to the joint point.

  15. An arginine-rich motif of ring finger protein 4 (RNF4) oversees the recruitment and degradation of the phosphorylated and SUMOylated Krüppel-associated box domain-associated protein 1 (KAP1)/TRIM28 protein during genotoxic stress.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ching-Ying; Li, Xu; Kong, Xiang-Qian; Luo, Cheng; Chang, Che-Chang; Chung, Yiyin; Shih, Hsiu-Ming; Li, Keqin Kathy; Ann, David K

    2014-07-25

    Krüppel-associated box domain-associated protein 1 (KAP1) is a universal transcriptional corepressor that undergoes multiple posttranslational modifications (PTMs), including SUMOylation and Ser-824 phosphorylation. However, the functional interplay of KAP1 PTMs in regulating KAP1 turnover during DNA damage response remains unclear. To decipher the role and cross-talk of multiple KAP1 PTMs, we show here that DNA double strand break-induced KAP1 Ser-824 phosphorylation promoted the recruitment of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-targeted ubiquitin E3 ligase, ring finger protein 4 (RNF4), and subsequent RNF4-mediated, SUMO-dependent degradation. Besides the SUMO interacting motif (SIM), a previously unrecognized, but evolutionarily conserved, arginine-rich motif (ARM) in RNF4 acts as a novel recognition motif for selective target recruitment. Results from combined mutagenesis and computational modeling studies suggest that RNF4 utilizes concerted bimodular recognition, namely SIM for Lys-676 SUMOylation and ARM for Ser(P)-824 of simultaneously phosphorylated and SUMOylated KAP1 (Ser(P)-824-SUMO-KAP1). Furthermore, we proved that arginines 73 and 74 within the ARM of RNF4 are required for efficient recruitment to KAP1 or accelerated degradation of promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) under stress. In parallel, results of bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays validated the role of the ARM in recognizing Ser(P)-824 in living cells. Taken together, we establish that the ARM is required for RNF4 to efficiently target Ser(P)-824-SUMO-KAP1, conferring ubiquitin Lys-48-mediated proteasomal degradation in the context of double strand breaks. The conservation of such a motif may possibly explain the requirement for timely substrate selectivity determination among a myriad of SUMOylated proteins under stress conditions. Thus, the ARM dynamically regulates the SIM-dependent recruitment of targets to RNF4, which could be critical to dynamically fine-tune the

  16. An Arginine-rich Motif of Ring Finger Protein 4 (RNF4) Oversees the Recruitment and Degradation of the Phosphorylated and SUMOylated Krüppel-associated Box Domain-associated Protein 1 (KAP1)/TRIM28 Protein during Genotoxic Stress*

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Ching-Ying; Li, Xu; Kong, Xiang-Qian; Luo, Cheng; Chang, Che-Chang; Chung, Yiyin; Shih, Hsiu-Ming; Li, Keqin Kathy; Ann, David K.

    2014-01-01

    Krüppel-associated box domain-associated protein 1 (KAP1) is a universal transcriptional corepressor that undergoes multiple posttranslational modifications (PTMs), including SUMOylation and Ser-824 phosphorylation. However, the functional interplay of KAP1 PTMs in regulating KAP1 turnover during DNA damage response remains unclear. To decipher the role and cross-talk of multiple KAP1 PTMs, we show here that DNA double strand break-induced KAP1 Ser-824 phosphorylation promoted the recruitment of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-targeted ubiquitin E3 ligase, ring finger protein 4 (RNF4), and subsequent RNF4-mediated, SUMO-dependent degradation. Besides the SUMO interacting motif (SIM), a previously unrecognized, but evolutionarily conserved, arginine-rich motif (ARM) in RNF4 acts as a novel recognition motif for selective target recruitment. Results from combined mutagenesis and computational modeling studies suggest that RNF4 utilizes concerted bimodular recognition, namely SIM for Lys-676 SUMOylation and ARM for Ser(P)-824 of simultaneously phosphorylated and SUMOylated KAP1 (Ser(P)-824-SUMO-KAP1). Furthermore, we proved that arginines 73 and 74 within the ARM of RNF4 are required for efficient recruitment to KAP1 or accelerated degradation of promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) under stress. In parallel, results of bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays validated the role of the ARM in recognizing Ser(P)-824 in living cells. Taken together, we establish that the ARM is required for RNF4 to efficiently target Ser(P)-824-SUMO-KAP1, conferring ubiquitin Lys-48-mediated proteasomal degradation in the context of double strand breaks. The conservation of such a motif may possibly explain the requirement for timely substrate selectivity determination among a myriad of SUMOylated proteins under stress conditions. Thus, the ARM dynamically regulates the SIM-dependent recruitment of targets to RNF4, which could be critical to dynamically fine-tune the

  17. The plant homeodomain fingers of fission yeast Msc1 exhibit E3 ubiquitin ligase activity.

    PubMed

    Dul, Barbara E; Walworth, Nancy C

    2007-06-22

    The DNA damage checkpoint pathway governs how cells regulate cell cycle progression in response to DNA damage. A screen for suppressors of a fission yeast chk1 mutant defective in the checkpoint pathway identified a novel Schizosaccharomyces pombe protein, Msc1. Msc1 contains 3 plant homeodomain (PHD) finger motifs, characteristically defined by a C4HC3 consensus similar to RING finger domains. PHD finger domains in viral proteins and in the cellular protein kinase MEKK1 (mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase kinase 1) have been implicated as ubiquitin E3 protein ligases that affect protein stability. The close structural relationship of PHD fingers to RING fingers suggests that other PHD domain-containing proteins might share this activity. We show that each of the three PHD fingers of Msc1 can act as ubiquitin E3 ligases, reporting for the first time that PHD fingers from a nuclear protein exhibit E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. The function of the PHD fingers of Msc1 is needed to rescue the DNA damage sensitivity of a chk1Delta strain. Msc1 co-precipitates Rhp6, the S. pombe homologue of the human ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc2. Strikingly, deletion of msc1 confers complete suppression of the slow growth phenotype, UV and hydroxyurea sensitivities of an rhp6 deletion strain and restores deficient histone H3 methylation observed in the rhp6Delta mutant. We speculate that the target of the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of Msc1 is likely to be a chromatin-associated protein.

  18. EMG finger movement classification based on ANFIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caesarendra, W.; Tjahjowidodo, T.; Nico, Y.; Wahyudati, S.; Nurhasanah, L.

    2018-04-01

    An increase number of people suffering from stroke has impact to the rapid development of finger hand exoskeleton to enable an automatic physical therapy. Prior to the development of finger exoskeleton, a research topic yet important i.e. machine learning of finger gestures classification is conducted. This paper presents a study on EMG signal classification of 5 finger gestures as a preliminary study toward the finger exoskeleton design and development in Indonesia. The EMG signals of 5 finger gestures were acquired using Myo EMG sensor. The EMG signal features were extracted and reduced using PCA. The ANFIS based learning is used to classify reduced features of 5 finger gestures. The result shows that the classification of finger gestures is less than the classification of 7 hand gestures.

  19. Finger posture modulates structural body representations

    PubMed Central

    Tamè, Luigi; Dransfield, Elanah; Quettier, Thomas; Longo, Matthew R.

    2017-01-01

    Patients with lesions of the left posterior parietal cortex commonly fail in identifying their fingers, a condition known as finger agnosia, yet are relatively unimpaired in sensation and skilled action. Such dissociations have traditionally been interpreted as evidence that structural body representations (BSR), such as the body structural description, are distinct from sensorimotor representations, such as the body schema. We investigated whether performance on tasks commonly used to assess finger agnosia is modulated by changes in hand posture. We used the ‘in between’ test in which participants estimate the number of unstimulated fingers between two touched fingers or a localization task in which participants judge which two fingers were stimulated. Across blocks, the fingers were placed in three levels of splay. Judged finger numerosity was analysed, in Exp. 1 by direct report and in Exp. 2 as the actual number of fingers between the fingers named. In both experiments, judgments were greater when non-adjacent stimulated fingers were positioned far apart compared to when they were close together or touching, whereas judgements were unaltered when adjacent fingers were stimulated. This demonstrates that BSRs are not fixed, but are modulated by the real-time physical distances between body parts. PMID:28223685

  20. [When doors slam, fingers jam!].

    PubMed

    Claudet, I; Toubal, K; Carnet, C; Rekhroukh, H; Zelmat, B; Debuisson, C; Cahuzac, J-P

    2007-08-01

    Epidemiological analysis in a universitary paediatric emergency unit of children admitted after accidental injuries resulting from fingers crushed in a door. Prospective, descriptive cohort study from September 6th, 2004 to July 1st, 2005 included all children admitted for finger injuries crushed in a non-automatic door. included accidents due to automatic doors, toy's or refrigerator doors, families who refused to participate to the study or families who had left the waiting area before medical examination. Collected data were patient and family characteristics, accident characteristics and its management. Three hundred and forty children affected by 427 digital lesions were included. The mean age was 5.5+/-3.8 years (range 4 months - 15.5 years). Male/female ratio was equal to 1.2: 1. Fifty-eight percent of patients belonged to families composed of 3 or more siblings. Ninety-three per cent of families came to hospital within the first 2 hours after the accident (mean delay 99+/-162 min, median range 54 minutes). Location of the accident was: domestic (62%, at home (64%)), at school (17%). Locations within the home were: the bedroom (33%), bathroom and toilets (21%). An adult was present in 75% of cases and responsible for the trauma in 25% of accidents, another child in 44%. The finger or fingers were trapped on the hinge side in 57% of patients. No specific safeguard devices were used by 94% of families. Among victims, 20% had several crushed digits; left and right hand were injured with an equal frequency. The commonest involved digits were: the middle finger (29%), the ring finger (23%). The nail plate was damaged in 60% of digital lesions, associated with a wound (50%), a distal phalanx fracture (P3) (12%). Six children had a partial or complete amputation of P3, 2 children a lesion of the extensor tendon, 1 child had a rupture of the external lateral ligament. Three percent of children required an admission to the paediatric orthopaedic surgery unit. Post

  1. Dual role of Zn2+ in maintaining structural integrity and suppressing deacetylase activity of SIRT1.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Feng, Yu; Zhou, Yinqiu; Zhu, Weiliang; Shen, Xu; Chen, Kaixian; Jiang, Hualiang; Liu, Dongxiang

    2010-02-01

    Zn(2+) directly participates in catalysis of histone deacetylase (HDAC) Classes I, II, IV enzymes while its role in HDAC Class III activity is not well established. Herein we investigated the effects of Zn(2+) on the deacetylase activity of sirtuin 1 (silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1, SIRT1). We found that the inherent Zn(2+) at the zinc-finger motif of SIRT1 is essential for the structural integrity and the deacetylase activity of SIRT1, whereas the exogenous Zn(2+) strongly inhibits the deacetylase activity with an IC(50) of 0.82muM for Zn(Gly)(2). SIRT1 activity suppressed by the exogenous Zn(2+) can be fully recovered by the metal chelator EDTA but not by the activator resveratrol. We also identified Zn(2+) as a noncompetitive inhibitor for the substrates of NAD(+) and the acetyl peptide P53-AMC. The 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid (ANS) fluorescence titration experiments and site-directed mutagenesis study suggested that the exogenous Zn(2+) binds to SIRT1 but not at the zinc-finger motif. These results indicate that Zn(2+) plays a dual role in SIRT1 activity. Inherent Zn(2+) at the zinc-finger motif is structurally related and essential for SIRT1 activity. On the other hand, Zn(2+) may also bind to another site different from the zinc-finger motif or the binding sites for the substrates or resveratrol and act as a potent inhibitor of SIRT1.

  2. Optimization for Guitar Fingering on Single Notes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Masaru; Hayashida, Takumi

    This paper presents an optimization method for guitar fingering. The fingering is to determine a unique combination of string, fret and finger corresponding to the note. The method aims to generate the best fingering pattern for guitar robots rather than beginners. Furthermore, it can be applied to any musical score on single notes. A fingering action can be decomposed into three motions, that is, a motion of press string, release string and move fretting hand. The cost for moving the hand is estimated on the basis of Manhattan distance which is the sum of distances along fret and string directions. The objective is to minimize the total fingering costs, subject to fret, string and finger constraints. As a sequence of notes on the score forms a line on time series, the optimization for guitar fingering can be resolved into a multistage decision problem. Dynamic programming is exceedingly effective to solve such a problem. A level concept is introduced into rendering states so as to make multiple DP solutions lead a unique one among the DP backward processes. For example, if two fingerings have the same value of cost at different states on a stage, then the low position would be taken precedence over the high position, and the index finger would be over the middle finger.

  3. Impact of Finger Type in Fingerprint Authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gafurov, Davrondzhon; Bours, Patrick; Yang, Bian; Busch, Christoph

    Nowadays fingerprint verification system is the most widespread and accepted biometric technology that explores various features of the human fingers for this purpose. In general, every normal person has 10 fingers with different size. Although it is claimed that recognition performance with little fingers can be less accurate compared to other finger types, to our best knowledge, this has not been investigated yet. This paper presents our study on the topic of influence of the finger type into fingerprint recognition performance. For analysis we employ two fingerprint verification software packages (one public and one commercial). We conduct test on GUC100 multi sensor fingerprint database which contains fingerprint images of all 10 fingers from 100 subjects. Our analysis indeed confirms that performance with small fingers is less accurate than performance with the others fingers of the hand. It also appears that best performance is being obtained with thumb or index fingers. For example, performance deterioration from the best finger (i.e. index or thumb) to the worst fingers (i.e. small ones) can be in the range of 184%-1352%.

  4. Evaluation of Novel Design Strategies for Developing Zinc Finger Nucleases Tools for Treating Human Diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Bach, Christian; Sherman, William; Pallis, Jani

    Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) are associated with cell death and apoptosis by binding at countless undesired locations. This cytotoxicity is associated with the binding ability of engineered zinc finger domains to bind dissimilar DNA sequences with high affinity. In general, binding preferences of transcription factors are associated with significant degenerated diversity and complexity which convolutes the design and engineering of precise DNA binding domains. Evolutionary success of natural zinc finger proteins, however, evinces that nature created specific evolutionary traits and strategies, such as modularity and rank-specific recognition to cope with binding complexity that are critical for creating clinical viable toolsmore » to precisely modify the human genome. Our findings indicate preservation of general modularity and significant alteration of the rank-specific binding preferences of the three-finger binding domain of transcription factor SP1 when exchanging amino acids in the 2nd finger.« less

  5. Sequence Discrimination by Alternatively Spliced Isoforms of a DNA Binding Zinc Finger Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogos, Joseph A.; Hsu, Tien; Bolton, Jesse; Kafatos, Fotis C.

    1992-09-01

    Two major developmentally regulated isoforms of the Drosophila chorion transcription factor CF2 differ by an extra zinc finger within the DNA binding domain. The preferred DNA binding sites were determined and are distinguished by an internal duplication of TAT in the site recognized by the isoform with the extra finger. The results are consistent with modular interactions between zinc fingers and trinucleotides and also suggest rules for recognition of AT-rich DNA sites by zinc finger proteins. The results show how modular finger interactions with trinucleotides can be used, in conjunction with alternative splicing, to alter the binding specificity and increase the spectrum of sites recognized by a DNA binding domain. Thus, CF2 may potentially regulate distinct sets of target genes during development.

  6. Luciferase-Zinc-Finger System for the Rapid Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chu; Xu, Qing; Ge, Yue; Jiang, Ling; Huang, He

    2017-08-09

    Rapid and reliable detection of pathogenic bacteria is crucial for food safety control. Here, we present a novel luciferase-zinc finger system for the detection of pathogens that offers rapid and specific profiling. The system, which uses a zinc-finger protein domain to probe zinc finger recognition sites, was designed to bind the amplified conserved regions of 16S rDNA, and the obtained products were detected using a modified luciferase. The luciferase-zinc finger system not only maintained luciferase activity but also allowed the specific detection of different bacterial species, with a sensitivity as low as 10 copies and a linear range from 10 to 10 4 copies per microliter of the specific PCR product. Moreover, the system is robust and rapid, enabling the simultaneous detection of 6 species of bacteria in artificially contaminated samples with excellent accuracy. Thus, we envision that our luciferase-zinc finger system will have far-reaching applications.

  7. Evaluation of Novel Design Strategies for Developing Zinc Finger Nucleases Tools for Treating Human Diseases

    DOE PAGES

    Bach, Christian; Sherman, William; Pallis, Jani; ...

    2014-01-01

    Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) are associated with cell death and apoptosis by binding at countless undesired locations. This cytotoxicity is associated with the binding ability of engineered zinc finger domains to bind dissimilar DNA sequences with high affinity. In general, binding preferences of transcription factors are associated with significant degenerated diversity and complexity which convolutes the design and engineering of precise DNA binding domains. Evolutionary success of natural zinc finger proteins, however, evinces that nature created specific evolutionary traits and strategies, such as modularity and rank-specific recognition to cope with binding complexity that are critical for creating clinical viable toolsmore » to precisely modify the human genome. Our findings indicate preservation of general modularity and significant alteration of the rank-specific binding preferences of the three-finger binding domain of transcription factor SP1 when exchanging amino acids in the 2nd finger.« less

  8. Particle-induced viscous fingering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungyon

    2017-11-01

    An inclusion of non-colloidal particles in a Newtonian liquid can fundamentally change the interfacial dynamics and even cause interfacial instabilities. In this talk, we report a particle-induced fingering instability when a mixture of particles and viscous oil is injected radially into a Hele-Shaw cell. Our experimental results show that the onset and characteristics of fingering are most directly affected by the particle volume fraction but also depend on the ratio of the particle diameter to gap size. In particular, the formation of a particle band is observed on the interface only when the particle diameter is comparable to the channel gap thickness. This work demonstrates the complex coupling between suspensions and fluid-fluid interfaces and has broad relevance in suspension processing, particle self-assembly, and oil recovery processes. The physical mechanism behind the instability and a quantitative model are also discussed.

  9. Integration of tactile input across fingers in a patient with finger agnosia.

    PubMed

    Anema, Helen A; Overvliet, Krista E; Smeets, Jeroen B J; Brenner, Eli; Dijkerman, H Chris

    2011-01-01

    Finger agnosia has been described as an inability to explicitly individuate between the fingers, which is possibly due to fused neural representations of these fingers. Hence, are patients with finger agnosia unable to keep tactile information perceived over several fingers separate? Here, we tested a finger agnosic patient (GO) on two tasks that measured the ability to keep tactile information simultaneously perceived by individual fingers separate. In experiment 1 GO performed a haptic search task, in which a target (the absence of a protruded line) needed to be identified among distracters (protruded lines). The lines were presented simultaneously to the fingertips of both hands. Similarly to the controls, her reaction time decreased when her fingers were aligned as compared to when her fingers were stretched and in an unaligned position. This suggests that she can keep tactile input from different fingers separate. In experiment two, GO was required to judge the position of a target tactile stimulus to the index finger, relatively to a reference tactile stimulus to the middle finger, both in fingers uncrossed and crossed position. GO was able to indicate the relative position of the target stimulus as well as healthy controls, which indicates that she was able to keep tactile information perceived by two neighbouring fingers separate. Interestingly, GO performed better as compared to the healthy controls in the finger crossed condition. Together, these results suggest the GO is able to implicitly distinguish between tactile information perceived by multiple fingers. We therefore conclude that finger agnosia is not caused by minor disruptions of low-level somatosensory processing. These findings further underpin the idea of a selective impaired higher order body representation restricted to the fingers as underlying cause of finger agnosia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ultrafiltration of skimmed goat milk increases its nutritional value by concentrating nonfat solids such as proteins, Ca, P, Mg, and Zn.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Montoro, Miriam; Olalla, Manuel; Giménez-Martínez, Rafael; Bergillos-Meca, Triana; Ruiz-López, María Dolores; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Artacho, Reyes; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel

    2015-11-01

    Goat milk has been reported to possess good nutritional and health-promoting properties. Usually, it must be concentrated before fermented products can be obtained. The aim of this study was to compare physicochemical and nutritional variables among raw (RM), skimmed (SM), and ultrafiltration-concentrated skimmed (UFM) goat milk. The density, acidity, ash, protein, casein, whey protein, Ca, P, Mg, and Zn values were significantly higher in UFM than in RM or SM. Dry extract and fat levels were significantly higher in UFM than in SM, and Mg content was significantly higher in UFM than in RM. Ultrafiltration also increased the solubility of Ca and Mg, changing their distribution in the milk. The higher concentrations of minerals and proteins, especially caseins, increase the nutritional value of UFM, which may therefore be more appropriate for goat milk yogurt manufacturing in comparison to RM or SM. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Viscous Fingering in Deformable Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Jian Hui; MacMinn, Chris

    2017-11-01

    Viscous fingering is a classical hydrodynamic instability that occurs when an invading fluid is injected into a porous medium or a Hele-Shaw cell that contains a more viscous defending fluid. Recent work has shown that viscous fingering in a Hele-Shaw cell is supressed when the flow cell is deformable. However, the mechanism of suppression relies on a net volumetric expansion of the flow area. Here, we study flow in a novel Hele-Shaw cell consisting of a rigid bottom plate and a flexible top plate that deforms in a way that is volume-conserving. In other words, fluid injection into the flow cell leads to a local expansion of the flow area (outward displacement of the flexible surface) that must be coupled to non-local contraction (inward displacement of the flexible surface). We explore the impact of this volumetric confinement on steady viscous flow and on viscous fingering. We would like to thank EPSRC for the funding for this work.

  12. Insight into inhibition of the human amyloid beta protein precursor (APP: PDB ID ) using (E)-N-(pyridin-2-ylmethylene)arylamine (LR) models: structure elucidation of a family of ZnX2-LR complexes.

    PubMed

    Basu Baul, Tushar S; Kundu, Sajal; Singh, Palwinder; Shaveta; Guedes da Silva, M Fátima C

    2015-02-07

    The amyloid beta precursor protein (APP) and its neurotoxic cleavage product amyloid beta (Aβ) are a cause of Alzheimer's disease and appear essential for neuronal development and cell homeostasis. Proteolytic processing of APP is influenced by metal ions and protein ligands, however the structural and functional mechanism of APP regulation is not known so far. In this context, molecular modeling studies were performed to understand the molecular behavior of (E)-N-(pyridin-2-ylmethylene)arylamines (LR) with an E2 domain of the APP in its complex with zinc (APP; PDB ID: ). Docking results indeed confirmed that the LR interacts with Zn in the binding site of the protein between two α-helical chains. In view of these findings, LR was further investigated for complexation reactions with Zn(2+) in order to establish the structural models in solution and in the solid state. Five new Zn(2+) complexes of compositions viz. [Zn(Br)2(L2-Me)] (), [Zn(Br)2(L2-OMe)] (), [Zn(i)2(L2-OMe)] (), [Zn(NO3)2(L2-OMe)(H2O)] () and [Zn(L4-Me)2(H2O)2](NO3)2 () were synthesized and their structures were ascertained by microanalysis, IR and (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The zinc atom in complex exhibits a distorted tetrahedral geometry while the crystal structures of complexes and show distorted square pyramidal geometries. The zinc cation in and has an octahedral coordination environment, but in the zinc coordination geometry is less distorted. The Zn(ii) cations take part in one ( and ) or two () 5-membered metallacycles imposed by the NN or NNO chelation modes of LR. The significant intermolecular ππ interactions are also discussed.

  13. Photophysical study of the interaction between ZnO nanoparticles and globular protein bovine serum albumin in solution and in a layer-by-layer self-assembled film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansda, Chaitali; Maiti, Pradip; Singha, Tanmoy; Pal, Manisha; Hussain, Syed Arshad; Paul, Sharmistha; Paul, Pabitra Kumar

    2018-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the spectroscopic properties of the water-soluble globular protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) while interacting with zinc oxide (ZnO) semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) in aqueous medium and in a ZnO/BSA layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembled film fabricated on poly (acrylic acid) (PAA)-coated quartz or a Si substrate via electrostatic interactions. BSA formed a ground state complex due to its interaction with ZnO NPs, which was confirmed by ultraviolet-visible absorption, and steady state and time-resolved fluorescence emission spectroscopic techniques. However, due to its interaction with ZnO, the photophysical properties of BSA depend significantly on the concentration of ZnO NPs in the mixed solution. The quenching of the fluorescence intensity of BSA in the presence of ZnO NPs was due to the interaction between ZnO and BSA, and the formation of their stable ground state complex, as well as energy transfer from the excited BSA to ZnO NPs in the complex nano-bioconjugated species. Multilayer growth of the ZnO/BSA LbL self-assembled film on the quartz substrate was confirmed by monitoring the characteristic absorption band of BSA (280 nm), where the nature of the film growth depends on the number of bilayers deposited on the quartz substrate. BSA formed a well-ordered molecular network-type morphology due to its adsorption onto the surface of the ZnO nanostructure in the backbone of the PAA-coated Si substrate in the LbL film according to atomic force microscopic study. The as-synthesized ZnO NPs were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and dynamic light scattering techniques.

  14. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Combined with Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory Elucidates Differential Substitution Pathways of Au(I) and Au(III) with Zinc Fingers.

    PubMed

    Abbehausen, Camilla; de Paiva, Raphael Enoque Ferraz; Bjornsson, Ragnar; Gomes, Saulo Quintana; Du, Zhifeng; Corbi, Pedro Paulo; Lima, Frederico Alves; Farrell, Nicholas

    2018-01-02

    A combination of two elements' (Au, Zn) X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) allowed the elucidation of differential substitution pathways of Au(I) and Au(III) compounds reacting with biologically relevant zinc fingers (ZnFs). Gold L 3 -edge XAS probed the interaction of gold and the C-terminal Cys 2 HisCys finger of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein NCp7, and the Cys 2 His 2 human transcription factor Sp1. The use of model compounds helped assign oxidation states and the identity of the gold-bound ligands. The computational studies accurately reproduced the experimental XAS spectra and allowed the proposition of structural models for the interaction products at early time points. The direct electrophilic attack on the ZnF by the highly thiophilic Au(I) resulted in a linear P-Au-Cys coordination sphere after zinc ejection whereas for the Sp1, loss of PEt 3 results in linear Cys-Au-Cys or Cys-Au-His arrangements. Reactions with Au(III) compounds, on the other hand, showed multiple binding modes. Prompt reaction between [AuCl(dien)] 2+ and [Au(dien)(DMAP)] 3+ with Sp1 showed a partially reduced Au center and a final linear His-Au-His coordination. Differently, in the presence of NCp7, [AuCl(dien)] 2+ readily reduces to Au(I) and changes from square-planar to linear geometry with Cys-Au-His coordination, while [Au(dien)(DMAP)] 3+ initially maintains its Au(III) oxidation state and square-planar geometry and the same first coordination sphere. The latter is the first observation of a "noncovalent" interaction of a Au(III) complex with a zinc finger and confirms early hypotheses that stabilization of Au(III) occurs with N-donor ligands. Modification of the zinc coordination sphere, suggesting full or partial zinc ejection, is observed in all cases, and for [Au(dien)(DMAP)] 3+ this represents a novel mechanism for nucleocapsid inactivation. The combination of XAS and TD-DFT presents the first direct experimental

  15. Shelf-life extension of refrigerated sea bass slices wrapped with fish protein isolate/fish skin gelatin-ZnO nanocomposite film incorporated with basil leaf essential oil.

    PubMed

    Arfat, Yasir Ali; Benjakul, Soottawat; Vongkamjan, Kitiya; Sumpavapol, Punnanee; Yarnpakdee, Suthasinee

    2015-10-01

    Microbiological, chemical and sensory changes of sea bass slices wrapped with fish protein isolate (FPI)/fish skin gelatin (FSG) films incorporated with 3 % ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONP) (w/w, based on protein content) and 100 % basil leaf essential oil (BEO) (w/w, based on protein content) during storage of 12 days at 4 °C were investigated. Sea bass slices wrapped with FPI/FSG-ZnONP-BEO film had the lowest growth of psychrophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria and spoilage microorganisms including Pseudomonas , H2S-producing bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae throughout storage of 12 days in comparison with those wrapped with FPI/FSG-BEO, FPI/FSG-ZnONP, FPI/FSG film, polypropylene film (PP film) and the control (without wrapping), respectively (P < 0.05). Lowered increases in pH, total volatile base, peroxide value and TBARS value were found in FPI/FSG-ZnO-BEO film wrapped samples, compared with others (P < 0.05). Sensory evaluation revealed that shelf-life of sea bass slices was longest for samples wrapped with FPI/FSG-ZnONP-BEO film (12 days), as compared to the control (6 days) (P < 0.05).

  16. A novel zinc finger protein 219-like (ZNF219L) is involved in the regulation of collagen type 2 alpha 1a (col2a1a) gene expression in zebrafish notochord.

    PubMed

    Lien, Huang-Wei; Yang, Chung-Hsiang; Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Hung, Chin-Chun; Liao, Wei-Hao; Hwang, Pung-Pung; Han, Yu-San; Huang, Chang-Jen

    2013-01-01

    The notochord is required for body plan patterning in vertebrates, and defects in notochord development during embryogenesis can lead to diseases affecting the adult. It is therefore important to elucidate the gene regulatory mechanism underlying notochord formation. In this study, we cloned the zebrafish zinc finger 219-like (ZNF219L) based on mammalian ZNF219, which contains nine C2H2-type zinc finger domains. Through whole-mount in situ hybridization, we found that znf219L mRNA is mainly expressed in the zebrafish midbrain-hindbrain boundary, hindbrain, and notochord during development. The znf219L morpholino knockdown caused partial abnormal notochord phenotype and reduced expression of endogenous col2a1a in the notochord specifically. In addition, ZNF219L could recognize binding sites with GGGGG motifs and trigger augmented activity of the col2a1a promoter in a luciferase assay. Furthermore, in vitro binding experiments revealed that ZNF219L recognizes the GGGGG motifs in the promoter region of the zebrafish col2a1a gene through its sixth and ninth zinc finger domains. Taken together, our results reveal that ZNF219L is involved in regulating the expression of col2a1a in zebrafish notochord specifically.

  17. A Novel Zinc Finger Protein 219-like (ZNF219L) is Involved in the Regulation of Collagen Type 2 Alpha 1a (col2a1a) Gene Expression in Zebrafish Notochord

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Huang-Wei; Yang, Chung-Hsiang; Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Hung, Chin-Chun; Liao, Wei-Hao; Hwang, Pung-Pung; Han, Yu-San; Huang, Chang-Jen

    2013-01-01

    The notochord is required for body plan patterning in vertebrates, and defects in notochord development during embryogenesis can lead to diseases affecting the adult. It is therefore important to elucidate the gene regulatory mechanism underlying notochord formation. In this study, we cloned the zebrafish zinc finger 219-like (ZNF219L) based on mammalian ZNF219, which contains nine C2H2-type zinc finger domains. Through whole-mount in situ hybridization, we found that znf219L mRNA is mainly expressed in the zebrafish midbrain-hindbrain boundary, hindbrain, and notochord during development. The znf219L morpholino knockdown caused partial abnormal notochord phenotype and reduced expression of endogenous col2a1a in the notochord specifically. In addition, ZNF219L could recognize binding sites with GGGGG motifs and trigger augmented activity of the col2a1a promoter in a luciferase assay. Furthermore, in vitro binding experiments revealed that ZNF219L recognizes the GGGGG motifs in the promoter region of the zebrafish col2a1a gene through its sixth and ninth zinc finger domains. Taken together, our results reveal that ZNF219L is involved in regulating the expression of col2a1a in zebrafish notochord specifically. PMID:24155663

  18. Instrumented Glove Measures Positions Of Fingers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Glove instrumented with flat membrane potentiometers to obtain crude measurements of relative positions of fingers. Resistance of each potentiometer varies with position of associated finger; translator circuit connected to each potentiometer converts analog reading to 1 of 10 digital levels. Digitized outputs from all fingers fed to indicating, recording, and/or data-processing equipment. Gloves and circuits intended for use in biomedical research, training in critical manual tasks, and other specialized applications.

  19. Prosthetic Hand With Two Gripping Fingers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, William E.; Belcher, Jewell B.; Vest, Thomas W.; Carden, James R.

    1993-01-01

    Prosthetic hand developed for amputee who retains significant portion of forearm. Outer end of device is end effector including two fingers, one moved by rotating remaining part of forearm about its longitudinal axis. Main body of end effector is end member supporting fingers, roller bearing assembly, and rack-and-pinion mechanism. Advantage of rack-and-pinion mechanism enables user to open or close gap between fingers with precision and force.

  20. Metallochaperone for Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (CCS) protein but not mRNA is higher in organs from copper-deficient mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Prohaska, Joseph R; Broderius, Margaret; Brokate, Bruce

    2003-09-15

    Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is an abundant metalloenzyme important in scavenging superoxide ions. Cu-deficient rats and mice have lower SOD1 activity and protein, possibly because apo-SOD1 is degraded faster than holo-SOD1. SOD1 interacts with and requires its metallochaperone CCS for donating copper. We produced dietary Cu deficiency in rodents to determine if the reduction in SOD1 was related to the level of its specific metallochaperone CCS. CCS levels determined by immunoblot were 2- to 3-fold higher in liver, heart, kidney, and brain from male Cu-deficient rats and mice under a variety of conditions. CCS was also higher in livers of Cu-deficient dams. Interestingly, CCS levels in brain of Cu-deficient mice were also higher even though SOD1 activity and protein were not altered, suggesting that the rise in CCS is correlated with altered Cu status rather than a direct result of lower SOD1. A DNA probe specific for rat CCS detected a single transcript by Northern blot hybridization with liver RNA. CCS mRNA levels in mouse and rat liver were not altered by dietary treatment. These results suggest a posttranscriptional mechanism for higher CCS protein when Cu is limiting in the cell, perhaps due to slower protein turnover. Elevation in CCS level is one of the most dramatic alterations in Cu binding proteins accompanying Cu deficiency and may be useful to assess Cu status.

  1. Binding of the Zn2+ ion to ferric uptake regulation protein from E. coli and the competition with Fe2+ binding: a molecular modeling study of the effect on DNA binding and conformational changes of Fur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabour, Salih; Hamed, Mazen Y.

    2009-04-01

    The three dimensional structure of Ferric uptake regulation protein dimer from E. coli, determined by molecular modeling, was docked on a DNA fragment (iron box) and Zn2+ ions were added in two steps. The first step involved the binding of one Zn2+ ion to what is known as the zinc site which consists of the residues Cys 92, Cys 95, Asp 137, Asp141, Arg139, Glu 140, His 145 and His 143 with an average metal-Nitrogen distance of 2.5 Å and metal-oxygen distance of 3.1-3.2 Å. The second Zn2+ ion is bound to the iron activating site formed from the residues Ile 50, His 71, Asn 72, Gly 97, Asp 105 and Ala 109. The binding of the second Zn2+ ion strengthened the binding of the first ion as indicated by the shortening of the zinc-residue distances. Fe2+, when added to the complex consisting of 2Zn2+/Fur dimer/DNA, replaced the Zn2+ ion in the zinc site and when a second Fe2+ was added, it replaced the second zinc ion in the iron activating site. The binding of both zinc and iron ions induced a similar change in Fur conformations, but shifted residues closer to DNA in a different manner. This is discussed along with a possible role for the Zn2+ ion in the Fur dimer binding of DNA in its repressor activity.

  2. Electrokinetic Control of Viscous Fingering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzadeh, Mohammad; Bazant, Martin Z.

    2017-10-01

    We present a theory of the interfacial stability of two immiscible electrolytes under the coupled action of pressure gradients and electric fields in a Hele-Shaw cell or porous medium. Mathematically, our theory describes a phenomenon of "vector Laplacian growth," in which the interface moves in response to the gradient of a vector-valued potential function through a generalized mobility tensor. Physically, we extend the classical Saffman-Taylor problem to electrolytes by incorporating electrokinetic (EK) phenomena. A surprising prediction is that viscous fingering can be controlled by varying the injection ratio of electric current to flow rate. Beyond a critical injection ratio, stability depends only upon the relative direction of flow and current, regardless of the viscosity ratio. Possible applications include porous materials processing, electrically enhanced oil recovery, and EK remediation of contaminated soils.

  3. Fingering instability of Bingham fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghadge, Shilpa; Myers, Tim

    2005-11-01

    Contact line instabilities have been extensively studied and many useful results obtained for industrial applications. Our research in this area is to explore these instabilities for non-Newtonian fluids which has wide scope in geological, biological as well as industrial areas. In this talk, we will present an analysis of fingering instability near a contact line of the thin sheet of fluid flowing down on a moderately inclined plane. This instability has been well studied for Newtonian fluids. We explore the effect of a yield strength of the fluid on this instability. We have conveniently assumed the presence of the precussor film of small thickness ahead of the fluid film to avoid some mathematical singularities. Using a lubrication-type approximation, we perform a linear stability analysis of a straight contact line. We will show comparison with some experimental results using suspensions of kaolin in silicone oil as a yield strength fluid.

  4. Differing Dynamics of Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Coordination: Two-finger and Four-Finger Tapping Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Kentaro; Furuyama, Nobuhiro; Inamura, Tetsunari

    2015-01-01

    Finger-tapping experiments were conducted to examine whether the dynamics of intrapersonal and interpersonal coordination systems can be described equally by the Haken—Kelso—Bunz model, which describes inter-limb coordination dynamics. This article reports the results of finger-tapping experiments conducted in both systems. Two within-subject factors were investigated: the phase mode and the number of fingers. In the intrapersonal experiment (Experiment 1), the participants were asked to tap, paced by a gradually hastening auditory metronome, looking at their fingers moving, using the index finger in the two finger condition, or the index and middle finger in the four-finger condition. In the interpersonal experiment (Experiment 2), pairs of participants performed the task while each participant used the outside hand, tapping with the index finger in the two finger condition, or the index and middle finger in the four-finger condition. Some results did not agree with the HKB model predictions. First, from Experiment 1, no significant difference was observed in the movement stability between the in-phase and anti-phase modes in the two finger condition. Second, from Experiment 2, no significant difference was found in the movement stability between the in-phase and anti-phase mode in the four-finger condition. From these findings, different coordination dynamics were inferred between intrapersonal and interpersonal coordination systems against prediction from the previous studies. Results were discussed according to differences between intrapersonal and interpersonal coordination systems in the availability of perceptual information and the complexity in the interaction between limbs derived from a nested structure. PMID:26070119

  5. Finger wear detection for production line battery tester

    DOEpatents

    Depiante, E.V.

    1997-11-18

    A method is described for detecting wear in a battery tester probe. The method includes providing a battery tester unit having at least one tester finger, generating a tester signal using the tester fingers and battery tester unit with the signal characteristic of the electrochemical condition of the battery and the tester finger, applying wavelet transformation to the tester signal including computing a mother wavelet to produce finger wear indicator signals, analyzing the signals to create a finger wear index, comparing the wear index for the tester finger with the index for a new tester finger and generating a tester finger signal change signal to indicate achieving a threshold wear change. 9 figs.

  6. Finger wear detection for production line battery tester

    DOEpatents

    Depiante, Eduardo V.

    1997-01-01

    A method for detecting wear in a battery tester probe. The method includes providing a battery tester unit having at least one tester finger, generating a tester signal using the tester fingers and battery tester unit with the signal characteristic of the electrochemical condition of the battery and the tester finger, applying wavelet transformation to the tester signal including computing a mother wavelet to produce finger wear indicator signals, analyzing the signals to create a finger wear index, comparing the wear index for the tester finger with the index for a new tester finger and generating a tester finger signal change signal to indicate achieving a threshold wear change.

  7. In vitro selection of zinc fingers with altered DNA-binding specificity.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, A C; Kim, S H; Wells, J A

    1994-05-17

    We have used random mutagenesis and phage display to alter the DNA-binding specificity of Zif268, a transcription factor that contains three zinc finger domains. Four residues in the helix of finger 1 of Zif268 that potentially mediate DNA binding were identified from an X-ray structure of the Zif268-DNA complex. A library was constructed in which these residues were randomly mutated and the Zif268 variants were fused to a truncated version of the gene III coat protein on the surface of M13 filamentous phage particles. The phage displayed the mutant proteins in a monovalent fashion and were sorted by repeated binding and elution from affinity matrices containing different DNA sequences. When the matrix contained the natural nine base pair operator sequence 5'-GCG-TGG-GCG-3', native-like zinc fingers were isolated. New finger 1 variants were found by sorting with two different operators in which the singly modified triplets, GTG and TCG, replaced the native finger 1 triplet, GCG. Overall, the selected finger 1 variants contained a preponderance of polar residues at the four sites. Interestingly, the net charge of the four residues in any selected finger never derived more that one unit from neutrality despite the fact that about half the variants contained three or four charged residues over the four sites. Measurements of the dissociation constants for two of these purified finger 1 variants by gel-shift assay showed their specificities to vary over a 10-fold range, with the greatest affinity being for the DNA binding site for which they were sorted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. A SELDI-TOF approach to ecotoxicology: comparative profiling of low molecular weight proteins from a marine diatom exposed to CdSe/ZnS quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Scebba, Francesca; Tognotti, Danika; Presciuttini, Gianluca; Gabellieri, Edi; Cioni, Patrizia; Angeloni, Debora; Basso, Barbara; Morelli, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs), namely semiconductor nanocrystals, due to their particular optical and electronic properties, have growing applications in device technology, biotechnology and biomedical fields. Nevertheless, the possible threat to human health and the environment have attracted increasing attention as the production and applications of QDs increases rapidly while standard evaluation of safety lags. In the present study we performed proteomic analyses, by means of 2D gel electrophoresis and Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). We aimed to identify potential biomarkers of exposure to CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. The marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum exposed to 2.5nM QDs was used as a model system. Both 2DE and SELDI showed the presence of differentially expressed proteins. By Principal Component Analysis (PCA) we were able to show that the differentially expressed proteins can discriminate between exposed and not exposed cells. Furthermore, a protein profile specific for exposed cells was obtained by SELDI analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first example of the application of SELDI technology to the analysis of microorganisms used as biological sentinel model of marine environmental pollution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Amyloidosis on the fingers (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Amyloidosis refers to the extracellular deposition of a protein called amyloid. This protein deposition can affect multiple ... other conditions. In this picture, we see how amyloidosis can affect the skin as nodular deposits on ...

  10. Cloning and characterization of a novel zinc finger gene in Xp11.2

    SciTech Connect

    Derry, J.M.J.; Jess, U.; Francke, U.

    1995-11-20

    During a systematic search for open reading frames in chromosome band Xp11.2, a novel gene (ZNF157) that encodes a putative 506-amino-acid protein with the sequence characteristics of a zinc-finger-containing transcription factor was isolated. ZNF157 is encoded by four exons distributed over >20 kb of genomic DNA. The second and third exons contain sequences similar to those of the previously described KRAB-A and KRAB-B domains, motifs that have been shown to mediate transcriptional repression in other members of the protein family. A fourth exon contains 12 zinc finger DNA binding motifs and finger linking regions characteristic of ZNF proteins of themore » Krueppel family. ZNF157 maps to the telomeric end of a cluster of ZNF genes that includes ZNF21, ZNF41, and ZNF81. 19 refs., 2 figs.« less

  11. More efficient swimming by spreading your fingers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Water, Willem; van Houwelingen, Josje; Willemsen, Dennis; Breugem, Wim Paul; Westerweel, Jerry; Delfos, Rene; Grift, Ernst Jan

    2016-11-01

    A tantalizing question in free-style swimming is whether the stroke efficiency during the pull phase depends on spreading the fingers. It is a subtle effect-not more than a few percent-but it could make a big difference in a race. We measure the drag of arm models with increasing finger spreading in a wind tunnel and compare forces and moments to the results of immersed boundary simulations. Virtual arms were used in the simulations and their 3D-printed real versions in the experiment. We find an optimal finger spreading, accompanied by a marked increase of coherent vortex shedding. A simple actuator disk model explains this optimum.

  12. Finger blood flow in Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Elkington, E. J.

    1968-01-01

    1. Finger blood flow was estimated, by strain-gauge plethysmography, before and during a 1 hr immersion in ice water, on twenty-five men throughout a year at Wilkes, Antarctica. A total of 121 satisfactory immersions were made. 2. Blood flow before and during immersion decreased significantly in the colder months of the year, and the increase caused by cold-induced vasodilatation (CIVD) became less as the year progressed. The time of onset, blood flow at onset, and frequency of the cycles of CIVD showed no significant relation to the coldness of the weather (as measured by mean monthly wind chill) or the time in months. Comparisons of blood flow before and after five field trips (average duration 42 days), on which cold exposure was more severe than at Wilkes station, gave similar results. 3. The results suggest that vasoconstrictor tone increased. This interpretation agrees with previous work on general acclimatization in Antarctica, but contrasts with work elsewhere on local acclimatization of the hands. PMID:5684034

  13. Freezing temperature of finger skin.

    PubMed

    Wilson, O; Goldman, R F; Molnar, G W

    1976-10-01

    In 45 subjects, 154 frostnips of the finger were induced by cooling in air at -15 degrees C with various wind speeds. The mean supercooled skin temperature at which frostnip appeared was -9.4 degrees C. The mean skin temperature rise due to heat of fusion at ice crystallization was 5.3 degrees C. The skin temperature rose to what was termed the apparent freezing point. The relation of this point to the supercooled skin temperature was analyzed for the three wind speeds used. An apparent freezing point for a condition of no supercooling was calculated, estimating the highest temperature at which skin freezes at a given wind speed. The validity of the obtained differences in apparent freezing point was tested by an analysis of covariance. Although not statistically significant, the data suggest that the apparent freezing point with no supercooling decreases with increasing wind velocity. The highest calculated apparent freezing point at -15 degrees C and 6.8 m/s was 1.2 degrees C lower than the true freezing point for skin previously determined in brine, which is a statistically significant difference.

  14. Aesthetic finger prosthesis with silicone biomaterial

    PubMed Central

    Raghu, K M; Gururaju, C R; Sundaresh, K J; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    The fabrication of finger prosthesis is as much an art as it is science. The ideally constructed prosthesis must duplicate the missing structures so precisely that patients can appear in public without fear of attracting unwanted attraction. A 65-years-old patient reported with loss of his right index finger up to the second phalanx and wanted to get it replaced. An impression of the amputated finger and donor were made. A wax pattern of the prosthesis was fabricated using the donor impression; a trial was performed and flasked. Medical grade silicone was intrinsically stained to match the skin tone, following which it was packed, processed and finished. This clinical report describes a method of attaining retention by selective scoring of the master cast of partially amputated finger to enhance the vacuum effect at par with the proportional distribution of the positive forces on the tissues exerted by the prosthesis. PMID:23975917

  15. Two-finger (TF) SPUDT cells.

    PubMed

    Martin, Guenter; Biryukov, Sergey V; Schmidt, Hagen; Steiner, Bernd; Wall, Bert

    2011-03-01

    SPUDT cells including two fingers are only known thus far for so-called NSPUDT directions. In that case, usual solid-finger cells are used. The purpose of the present paper is to find SPUDT cell types consisting of two fingers only for pure mode directions. Two-finger (TF) cells for pure mode directions on substrates like 128°YX LiNbO(3) and YZ LiNbO(3) were found by means of an optimization procedure. The forward direction of a TF-cell SPUDT on 128°YX LiNbO(3) was determined experimentally. The properties of the new cells are compared with those of conventional SPUDT cells. The reflectivity of TF cells on 128°YX LiNbO(3) turns out to be two to three times larger than that of distributed acoustic reflection transducer (DART) and Hanma-Hunsinger cells at the same metal layer thickness.

  16. The artificial zinc finger coding gene 'Jazz' binds the utrophin promoter and activates transcription.

    PubMed

    Corbi, N; Libri, V; Fanciulli, M; Tinsley, J M; Davies, K E; Passananti, C

    2000-06-01

    Up-regulation of utrophin gene expression is recognized as a plausible therapeutic approach in the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). We have designed and engineered new zinc finger-based transcription factors capable of binding and activating transcription from the promoter of the dystrophin-related gene, utrophin. Using the recognition 'code' that proposes specific rules between zinc finger primary structure and potential DNA binding sites, we engineered a new gene named 'Jazz' that encodes for a three-zinc finger peptide. Jazz belongs to the Cys2-His2 zinc finger type and was engineered to target the nine base pair DNA sequence: 5'-GCT-GCT-GCG-3', present in the promoter region of both the human and mouse utrophin gene. The entire zinc finger alpha-helix region, containing the amino acid positions that are crucial for DNA binding, was specifically chosen on the basis of the contacts more frequently represented in the available list of the 'code'. Here we demonstrate that Jazz protein binds specifically to the double-stranded DNA target, with a dissociation constant of about 32 nM. Band shift and super-shift experiments confirmed the high affinity and specificity of Jazz protein for its DNA target. Moreover, we show that chimeric proteins, named Gal4-Jazz and Sp1-Jazz, are able to drive the transcription of a test gene from the human utrophin promoter.

  17. Finger Lake Region, NY State, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This view of the central portion of upstate New York, centers on the Finger Lakes. The large city on the shore of Lake Ontario, is Rochester. Although the city, being a business, educational and technical center, has no heavy industry, the outline of the city shows fairly well in the snow, but not as well as the outlines of industrial cities elsewhere in the world. The Finger Lakes are large linear lakes carved out by glaciers during the last ice age.

  18. Bioconjugates of luminescent CdSe-ZnS quantum dots with an engineered two-domain protein G for use in fluoroimmunoassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Phan T.; Goldman, Ellen R.; Mattoussi, Hedi M.; Anderson, George P.; Mauro, J. Matthew

    2001-06-01

    Colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) seem suitable for labeling certain biomolecules for use in fluorescent tagging applications, such as fluoro-immunoassays. Compared to organic dye labels, Qds are resistant to photo-degradation, and these luminescent nanoparticles have size-dependent emission spectra spanning a wide range of wavelengths in the visible and near IR. We previously described an electrostatic self-assembly approach for conjugating highly luminescent colloidal CdSe-ZnS core-shell Qds with engineered two-domain recombinant proteins. Here we describe the application of this approach to prepare QD conjugates with the (Beta) 2 immunoglobin G (IgG) binding domain of streptococcal protein G (PG) appended with a basic lucine zipper attachment domain (PG-zb). We also demonstrate that the QD/PG conjugates retain their ability to bind IgG antibodies, and that a specific antibody coupled to QD via the PG functional domain efficiently binds its antigen. These preliminary results indicate that electrostatically self-assembled QD/PG-zb/IgG bioconjugates can be used in fluoro-immunoassays.

  19. Mg-Al and Zn-Al Layered Double Hydroxides Promote Dynamic Expression of Marker Genes in Osteogenic Differentiation by Modulating Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ha Ram; da Costa Fernandes, Célio Junior; da Silva, Rodrigo Augusto; Constantino, Vera Regina Leopoldo; Koh, Ivan Hong Jun; Zambuzzi, Willian F

    2018-02-01

    The effect of LDH samples comprised of chloride anions intercalated between positive layers of magnesium/aluminum (Mg-Al LDH) or zinc/aluminum (Zn-Al LDH) chemical composition on pre-osteoblast performance is investigated. Non-cytotoxic concentrations of both LDHs modulated pre-osteoblast adhesion by triggering cytoskeleton rearrangement dependent on recruiting of Cofilin, which is modulated by the inhibition of the Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A), culminating in osteoblast differentiation with a significant increase of osteogenic marker genes. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bone sialoprotein (BSP) are significantly up-modulated by both LDHs; however, Mg-Al LDH nanomaterial promoted even more significance than both experimental controls, while the phosphorylations of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs)- extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) significantly increased. MAPK signaling is necessary to activate Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) gene. Concomitantly, it is also investigated whether challenged osteoblasts are able to modulate osteoclastogenesis by investigating both osteoprotegerin (OPG) and Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-ligand (RANKL) in this model; a dynamic reprogramming of both these genes is found, suggesting LDHs in modulating osteoclastogenesis. These results suggest that LDHs interfere in bone remodeling, and they can be considered as nanomaterials in graft-based bone healing or drug-delivery materials for bone disorders. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. New Finger Biometric Method Using Near Infrared Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eui Chul; Jung, Hyunwoo; Kim, Daeyeoul

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new finger biometric method. Infrared finger images are first captured, and then feature extraction is performed using a modified Gaussian high-pass filter through binarization, local binary pattern (LBP), and local derivative pattern (LDP) methods. Infrared finger images include the multimodal features of finger veins and finger geometries. Instead of extracting each feature using different methods, the modified Gaussian high-pass filter is fully convolved. Therefore, the extracted binary patterns of finger images include the multimodal features of veins and finger geometries. Experimental results show that the proposed method has an error rate of 0.13%. PMID:22163741

  1. Scattering Removal for Finger-Vein Image Restoration

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jinfeng; Zhang, Ben; Shi, Yihua

    2012-01-01

    Finger-vein recognition has received increased attention recently. However, the finger-vein images are always captured in poor quality. This certainly makes finger-vein feature representation unreliable, and further impairs the accuracy of finger-vein recognition. In this paper, we first give an analysis of the intrinsic factors causing finger-vein image degradation, and then propose a simple but effective image restoration method based on scattering removal. To give a proper description of finger-vein image degradation, a biological optical model (BOM) specific to finger-vein imaging is proposed according to the principle of light propagation in biological tissues. Based on BOM, the light scattering component is sensibly estimated and properly removed for finger-vein image restoration. Finally, experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is powerful in enhancing the finger-vein image contrast and in improving the finger-vein image matching accuracy. PMID:22737028

  2. Concentration of selenium, zinc, copper, Cu/Zn ratio, total antioxidant status and c-reactive protein in the serum of patients with psoriasis treated by narrow-band ultraviolet B phototherapy: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wacewicz, Marta; Socha, Katarzyna; Soroczyńska, Jolanta; Niczyporuk, Marek; Aleksiejczuk, Piotr; Ostrowska, Jolanta; Borawska, Maria H

    2017-12-01

    Psoriasis is a common, an inflammatory skin disease. Trace elements may play an active role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. The aim of this study was to estimate the concentration of selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and Cu/Zn ratio as well as total antioxidant status (TAS) and c-reactive protein (CRP) in the serum of patients with psoriasis. In this case-control study sixty patients with psoriasis and fifty-eight healthy people were examined. Serum levels of Se, Zn and Cu were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Cu/Zn ratio was calculated. TAS was measured spectrophotometrically. CRP was analyzed by immunoturbidimetric method. Clinical activity of psoriasis was evaluated using Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI). Serum concentration of Se in patients with psoriasis (71.89±16.90μg/L) was lower as compared to the control group (79.42±18.97μg/L) and after NB-UVB. Cu level of patients was higher (1.151±0.320mg/L) as compared to controls (1.038±0.336mg/L), but Zn level did not differ. We observed higher Cu/Zn ratio (p<0.05) in examined patients than in the control group and after NB-UVB. We found decrease TAS before and after NB-UVB. CRP levels was found to be normal range. A significant correlation coefficient between CRP and Cu/Zn was observed. The study showed some disturbances in the serum levels of trace elements and TAS in psoriatic patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  3. Finger tapping ability in healthy elderly and young adults.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Tomoko; Fukuoka, Yoshiyuki

    2010-03-01

    The maximum isometric force production capacity of the fingers decreases with age. However, little information is available on age-related changes in dynamic motor capacity of individual fingers. The purpose of this study was to compare the dynamic motor function of individual fingers between elderly and young adults using rapid single-finger and double-finger tapping. Fourteen elderly and 14 young adults performed maximum frequency tapping by the index, middle, ring, or little finger (single-finger tapping) and with alternate movements of the index-middle, middle-ring, or ring-little finger-pair (double-finger tapping). The maximum pinch force between the thumb and each finger, tactile sensitivity of each fingertip, and time taken to complete a pegboard test were also measured. Compared with young subjects, the older subjects had significantly slower tapping rates in all fingers and finger-pairs in the tapping tasks. The age-related decline was also observed in the tactile sensitivities of all fingers and in the pegboard test. However, there was no group difference in the pinch force of any finger. The tapping rate of each finger did not correlate with the pinch force or tactile sensitivity for the corresponding finger in the elderly subjects. Maximum rate of finger tapping was lower in the elderly adults compared with the young adults. The decline of finger tapping ability in elderly adults seems to be less affected by their maximum force production capacities of the fingers as well as tactile sensitivities at the tips of the fingers.

  4. Design and preliminary evaluation of the FINGER rehabilitation robot: controlling challenge and quantifying finger individuation during musical computer game play

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper describes the design and preliminary testing of FINGER (Finger Individuating Grasp Exercise Robot), a device for assisting in finger rehabilitation after neurologic injury. We developed FINGER to assist stroke patients in moving their fingers individually in a naturalistic curling motion while playing a game similar to Guitar Hero®a. The goal was to make FINGER capable of assisting with motions where precise timing is important. Methods FINGER consists of a pair of stacked single degree-of-freedom 8-bar mechanisms, one for the index and one for the middle finger. Each 8-bar mechanism was designed to control the angle and position of the proximal phalanx and the position of the middle phalanx. Target positions for the mechanism optimization were determined from trajectory data collected from 7 healthy subjects using color-based motion capture. The resulting robotic device was built to accommodate multiple finger sizes and finger-to-finger widths. For initial evaluation, we asked individuals with a stroke (n = 16) and without impairment (n = 4) to play a game similar to Guitar Hero® while connected to FINGER. Results Precision design, low friction bearings, and separate high speed linear actuators allowed FINGER to individually actuate the fingers with a high bandwidth of control (−3 dB at approximately 8 Hz). During the tests, we were able to modulate the subject’s success rate at the game by automatically adjusting the controller gains of FINGER. We also used FINGER to measure subjects’ effort and finger individuation while playing the game. Conclusions Test results demonstrate the ability of FINGER to motivate subjects with an engaging game environment that challenges individuated control of the fingers, automatically control assistance levels, and quantify finger individuation after stroke. PMID:24495432

  5. Design and preliminary evaluation of the FINGER rehabilitation robot: controlling challenge and quantifying finger individuation during musical computer game play.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Hossein; Rowe, Justin B; Gardner, David; Chan, Vicki; Gray, Kyle; Bower, Curtis; Reinkensmeyer, David J; Wolbrecht, Eric T

    2014-02-04

    This paper describes the design and preliminary testing of FINGER (Finger Individuating Grasp Exercise Robot), a device for assisting in finger rehabilitation after neurologic injury. We developed FINGER to assist stroke patients in moving their fingers individually in a naturalistic curling motion while playing a game similar to Guitar Hero. The goal was to make FINGER capable of assisting with motions where precise timing is important. FINGER consists of a pair of stacked single degree-of-freedom 8-bar mechanisms, one for the index and one for the middle finger. Each 8-bar mechanism was designed to control the angle and position of the proximal phalanx and the position of the middle phalanx. Target positions for the mechanism optimization were determined from trajectory data collected from 7 healthy subjects using color-based motion capture. The resulting robotic device was built to accommodate multiple finger sizes and finger-to-finger widths. For initial evaluation, we asked individuals with a stroke (n = 16) and without impairment (n = 4) to play a game similar to Guitar Hero while connected to FINGER. Precision design, low friction bearings, and separate high speed linear actuators allowed FINGER to individually actuate the fingers with a high bandwidth of control (-3 dB at approximately 8 Hz). During the tests, we were able to modulate the subject's success rate at the game by automatically adjusting the controller gains of FINGER. We also used FINGER to measure subjects' effort and finger individuation while playing the game. Test results demonstrate the ability of FINGER to motivate subjects with an engaging game environment that challenges individuated control of the fingers, automatically control assistance levels, and quantify finger individuation after stroke.

  6. Quantifying Parkinson's disease finger-tapping severity by extracting and synthesizing finger motion properties.

    PubMed

    Sano, Yuko; Kandori, Akihiko; Shima, Keisuke; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Tsuji, Toshio; Noda, Masafumi; Higashikawa, Fumiko; Yokoe, Masaru; Sakoda, Saburo

    2016-06-01

    We propose a novel index of Parkinson's disease (PD) finger-tapping severity, called "PDFTsi," for quantifying the severity of symptoms related to the finger tapping of PD patients with high accuracy. To validate the efficacy of PDFTsi, the finger-tapping movements of normal controls and PD patients were measured by using magnetic sensors, and 21 characteristics were extracted from the finger-tapping waveforms. To distinguish motor deterioration due to PD from that due to aging, the aging effect on finger tapping was removed from these characteristics. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the age-normalized characteristics, and principal components that represented the motion properties of finger tapping were calculated. Multiple linear regression (MLR) with stepwise variable selection was applied to the principal components, and PDFTsi was calculated. The calculated PDFTsi indicates that PDFTsi has a high estimation ability, namely a mean square error of 0.45. The estimation ability of PDFTsi is higher than that of the alternative method, MLR with stepwise regression selection without PCA, namely a mean square error of 1.30. This result suggests that PDFTsi can quantify PD finger-tapping severity accurately. Furthermore, the result of interpreting a model for calculating PDFTsi indicated that motion wideness and rhythm disorder are important for estimating PD finger-tapping severity.

  7. Ultrafast High-Resolution Mass Spectrometric Finger Pore Imaging in Latent Finger Prints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsner, Christian; Abel, Bernd

    2014-11-01

    Latent finger prints (LFPs) are deposits of sweat components in ridge and groove patterns, left after human fingers contact with a surface. Being important targets in biometry and forensic investigations they contain more information than topological patterns. With laser desorption mass spectrometry imaging (LD-MSI) we record `three-dimensional' finger prints with additional chemical information as the third dimension. Here we show the potential of fast finger pore imaging (FPI) in latent finger prints employing LD-MSI without a classical matrix in a high- spatial resolution mode. Thin films of gold rapidly sputtered on top of the sample are used for desorption. FPI employing an optical image for rapid spatial orientation and guiding of the desorption laser enables the rapid analysis of individual finger pores, and the chemical composition of their excretions. With this approach we rapidly detect metabolites, drugs, and characteristic excretions from the inside of the human organism by a minimally-invasive strategy, and distinguish them from chemicals in contact with fingers without any labeling. The fast finger pore imaging, analysis, and screening approach opens the door for a vast number of novel applications in such different fields as forensics, doping and medication control, therapy, as well as rapid profiling of individuals.

  8. The alteration of mRNA expression of SOD and GPX genes, and proteins in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) under stress of NaCl and/or ZnO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Alharby, Hesham F; Metwali, Ehab M R; Fuller, Michael P; Aldhebiani, Amal Y

    2016-11-01

    Five cultivars of tomato having different levels of salt stress tolerance were exposed to different treatments of NaCl (0, 3 and 6 g L -1 ) and ZnO-NPs (0, 15 and 30 mg L -1 ). Treatments with NaCl at both 3 and 6 g L -1 suppressed the mRNA levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) genes in all cultivars while plants treated with ZnO-NPs in the presence of NaCl, showed increments in the mRNA expression levels. This indicated that ZnO-NPs had a positive response on plant metabolism under salt stress. Superior expression levels of mRNA were observed in the salt tolerant cultivars, Sandpoint and Edkawy while the lowest level was detected in the salt sensitive cultivar, Anna Aasa. SDS-PAGE showed clear differences in patterns of protein expression among the cultivars. A negative protein marker for salt sensitivity and ZnO-NPs was detected in cv. Anna Aasa at a molecular weight of 19.162 kDa, while the tolerant cultivar Edkawy had two positive markers at molecular weights of 74.991 and 79.735 kDa.

  9. Proteomic Profiling of the Interactions of Cd/Zn in the Roots of Dwarf Polish Wheat (Triticum polonicum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Xiaolu; Wang, Chao; Wang, Ruijiao; Peng, Fan; Xiao, Xue; Zeng, Jian; Fan, Xing; Kang, Houyang; Sha, Lina; Zhang, Haiqin; Zhou, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    Cd and Zn have been shown to interact antagonistically or synergistically in various plants. In the present study of dwarf polish wheat (DPW)roots, Cd uptake was inhibited by Zn, and Zn uptake was inhibited by Cd, suggesting that Cd and Zn interact antagonistically in this plant. A study of proteomic changes showed that Cd, Zn, and Cd+Zn stresses altered the expression of 206, 303, and 190 proteins respectively. Among these, 53 proteins were altered significantly in response to all these stresses (Cd, Zn, and Cd+Zn), whereas 58, 131, and 47 proteins were altered in response to individual stresses (Cd, Zn, and Cd+Zn, respectively). Sixty-one differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were induced in response to both Cd and Zn stresses; 33 proteins were induced in response to both Cd and Cd+Zn stresses; and 57 proteins were induced in response to both Zn and Cd+Zn stresses. These results indicate that Cd and Zn induce differential molecular responses, which result in differing interactions of Cd/Zn. A number of proteins that mainly participate in oxidation-reduction and GSH, SAM, and sucrose metabolisms were induced in response to Cd stress, but not Cd+Zn stress. This result indicates that these proteins participate in Zn inhibition of Cd uptake and ultimately cause Zn detoxification of Cd. Meanwhile, a number of proteins that mainly participate in sucrose and organic acid metabolisms and oxidation-reduction were induced in response to Zn stress but not Cd+Zn stress. This result indicates that these proteins participate in Cd inhibition of Zn uptake and ultimately cause the Cd detoxification of Zn. Other proteins induced in response to Cd, Zn, or Cd+Zn stress, participate in ribosome biogenesis, DNA metabolism, and protein folding/modification and may also participate in the differential defense mechanisms. PMID:27683584

  10. Viscous fingering with partially miscible fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiaojing; Cueto-Felgueroso, Luis; Juanes, Ruben

    2017-10-01

    Viscous fingering—the fluid-mechanical instability that takes place when a low-viscosity fluid displaces a high-viscosity fluid—has traditionally been studied under either fully miscible or fully immiscible fluid systems. Here we study the impact of partial miscibility (a common occurrence in practice) on the fingering dynamics. Through a careful design of the thermodynamic free energy of a binary mixture, we develop a phase-field model of fluid-fluid displacements in a Hele-Shaw cell for the general case in which the two fluids have limited (but nonzero) solubility into one another. We show, by means of high-resolution numerical simulations, that partial miscibility exerts a powerful control on the degree of fingering: fluid dissolution hinders fingering while fluid exsolution enhances fingering. We also show that, as a result of the interplay between compositional exchange and the hydrodynamic pattern-forming process, stronger fingering promotes the system to approach thermodynamic equilibrium more quickly.

  11. Prediction of fingering in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi; Feyen, Jan; Elrick, David E.

    1998-09-01

    Immiscible displacement, involving two fluids in a porous medium, can be unstable and fingered under certain conditions. In this paper, the original linear instability criterion of Chuoke et al. [1959] is generalized, considering wettability of two immiscible fluids to the porous medium. This is then used to predict 24 specific flow and porous medium conditions for the onset of wetting front instability in the subsurface. Wetting front instability is shown to be a function of the driving fluid wettability to the medium, differences in density and viscosity of the fluids, the magnitude of the interfacial tension, and the direction of flow with respect to gravity. Scenarios of water and nonaqueous-phase liquid infiltration into the vadose zone are examined to predict preferential flow and contamination of groundwater. The mechanisms of finger formation, propagation, and persistence in the vadose zone are reviewed, and the existing equations for calculating the size, the number and velocity of fingers are simplified for field applications. The analyses indicate that fingers initiate and propagate according to spatial and temporal distribution of the dynamic breakthrough (water- or air-entry) pressures in the porous medium. The predicted finger size and velocity are in close agreement with the experimental results.

  12. Perceiving fingers in single-digit arithmetic problems.

    PubMed

    Berteletti, Ilaria; Booth, James R

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate in children the neural underpinnings of finger representation and finger movement involved in single-digit arithmetic problems. Evidence suggests that finger representation and finger-based strategies play an important role in learning and understanding arithmetic. Because different operations rely on different networks, we compared activation for subtraction and multiplication problems in independently localized finger somatosensory and motor areas and tested whether activation was related to skill. Brain activations from children between 8 and 13 years of age revealed that only subtraction problems significantly activated finger motor areas, suggesting reliance on finger-based strategies. In addition, larger subtraction problems yielded greater somatosensory activation than smaller problems, suggesting a greater reliance on finger representation for larger numerical values. Interestingly, better performance in subtraction problems was associated with lower activation in the finger somatosensory area. Our results support the importance of fine-grained finger representation in arithmetical skill and are the first neurological evidence for a functional role of the somatosensory finger area in proficient arithmetical problem solving, in particular for those problems requiring quantity manipulation. From an educational perspective, these results encourage investigating whether different finger-based strategies facilitate arithmetical understanding and encourage educational practices aiming at integrating finger representation and finger-based strategies as a tool for instilling stronger numerical sense.

  13. Finger Interdependence: Linking the Kinetic and Kinematic Variables

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Wook; Shim, Jae Kun; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the dependence between voluntary motion of a finger and pressing forces produced by the tips of other fingers of the hand. Subjects moved one of the fingers (task finger) of the right hand trying to follow a cyclic, ramp-like flexion-extension template at different frequencies. The other fingers (slave fingers) were restricted from moving; their flexion forces were recorded and analyzed. Index finger motion caused the smallest force production by the slave fingers. Larger forces were produced by the neighbors of the task finger; these forces showed strong modulation over the range of motion of the task finger. The enslaved forces were higher during the flexion phase of the movement cycle as compared to the extension phase. The index of enslaving expressed in N/rad was higher when the task finger moved through the more flexed postures. The dependence of enslaving on both range and direction of task finger motion poses problems for methods of analysis of finger coordination based on an assumption of universal matrices of finger inter-dependence. PMID:18255182

  14. Perceiving fingers in single-digit arithmetic problems

    PubMed Central

    Berteletti, Ilaria; Booth, James R.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate in children the neural underpinnings of finger representation and finger movement involved in single-digit arithmetic problems. Evidence suggests that finger representation and finger-based strategies play an important role in learning and understanding arithmetic. Because different operations rely on different networks, we compared activation for subtraction and multiplication problems in independently localized finger somatosensory and motor areas and tested whether activation was related to skill. Brain activations from children between 8 and 13 years of age revealed that only subtraction problems significantly activated finger motor areas, suggesting reliance on finger-based strategies. In addition, larger subtraction problems yielded greater somatosensory activation than smaller problems, suggesting a greater reliance on finger representation for larger numerical values. Interestingly, better performance in subtraction problems was associated with lower activation in the finger somatosensory area. Our results support the importance of fine-grained finger representation in arithmetical skill and are the first neurological evidence for a functional role of the somatosensory finger area in proficient arithmetical problem solving, in particular for those problems requiring quantity manipulation. From an educational perspective, these results encourage investigating whether different finger-based strategies facilitate arithmetical understanding and encourage educational practices aiming at integrating finger representation and finger-based strategies as a tool for instilling stronger numerical sense. PMID:25852582

  15. Thermosynechococcus elongatus DpsA binds Zn(II) at a unique three histidine-containing ferroxidase center and utilizes O2 as iron oxidant with very high efficiency, unlike the typical Dps proteins.

    PubMed

    Alaleona, Flaminia; Franceschini, Stefano; Ceci, Pierpaolo; Ilari, Andrea; Chiancone, Emilia

    2010-02-01

    The cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus is one the few bacteria to possess two Dps proteins, DpsA-Te and Dps-Te. The present characterization of DpsA-Te reveals unusual structural and functional features that differentiate it from Dps-Te and the other known Dps proteins. Notably, two Zn(II) are bound at the ferroxidase center, owing to the unique substitution of a metal ligand at the A-site (His78 in place of the canonical aspartate) and to the presence of a histidine (His164) in place of a hydrophobic residue at a metal-coordinating distance in the B-site. Only the latter Zn(II) is displaced by incoming iron, such that Zn(II)-Fe(III) complexes are formed upon oxidation, as indicated by absorbance and atomic emission spectroscopy data. In contrast to the typical behavior of Dps proteins, where Fe(II) oxidation by H(2)O(2) is about 100-fold faster than by O(2), in DpsA-Te the ferroxidation efficiency of O(2) is very high and resembles that of H(2)O(2). Oxygraphic experiments show that two Fe(II) are required to reduce O(2), and that H(2)O(2) is not released into solution at the end of the reaction. On this basis, a reaction mechanism is proposed that also takes into account the formation of Zn(II)-Fe(III) complexes. The physiological significance of the DpsA-Te behavior is discussed in the framework of a possible localization of the protein at the thylakoid membranes, where photosynthesis takes place, with the consequent increased formation of reactive oxygen species.

  16. Finger forces in fastball baseball pitching.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Obata, Satoshi; Nasu, Daiki; Kadota, Koji; Matsuo, Tomoyuki; Fleisig, Glenn S

    2017-08-01

    Forces imparted by the fingers onto a baseball are the final, critical aspects for pitching, however these forces have not been quantified previously as no biomechanical technology was available. In this study, an instrumented baseball was developed for direct measurement of ball reaction force by individual fingers and used to provide fundamental information on the forces during a fastball pitch. A tri-axial force transducer with a cable having an easily-detachable connector were installed in an official baseball. Data were collected from 11 pitchers who placed the fingertip of their index, middle, ring, or thumb on the transducer, and threw four-seam fastballs to a target cage from a flat mound. For the index and middle fingers, resultant ball reaction force exhibited a bimodal pattern with initial and second peaks at 38-39ms and 6-7ms before ball release, and their amplitudes were around 97N each. The ring finger and thumb produced single-peak forces of approximately 50 and 83N, respectively. Shear forces for the index and middle fingers formed distinct peak at 4-5ms before release, and the peaks summed to 102N; a kinetic source for backspin on the ball. An additional experiment with submaximal pitching effort showed a linear relationship of peak forces with ball velocity. The peak ball reaction force for fastballs exceeded 80% of maximum finger strength measured, suggesting that strengthening of the distal muscles is important both for enhancing performance and for avoiding injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Thermoregulatory control of finger blood flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenger, C. B.; Roberts, M. F.; Nadel, E. R.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.

    1975-01-01

    In the present experiment, exercise was used to vary internal temperature and ambient air heat control was used to vary skin temperature. Finger temperature was fixed at about 35.7 C. Esophageal temperature was measured with a thermocouple at the level of the left atrium, and mean skin temperature was calculated from a weighted mean of thermocouple temperatures at different skin sites. Finger blood flow was measured by electrocapacitance plethysmography. An equation in these quantities is given which accounts for the data garnered.

  18. Fluctuation of biological rhythm in finger tapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshinaga, H.; Miyazima, S.; Mitake, S.

    2000-06-01

    By analyzing biological rhythms obtained from finger tapping, we have investigated the differences of two biological rhythms between healthy and handicapped persons caused by Parkinson, brain infraction, car accident and so on. In this study, we have observed the motion of handedness of all subjects and obtained a slope a which characterizes a power-law relation between frequency and amplitude of finger-tapping rhythm. From our results, we have estimated that the slope a=0.06 is a rough criterion in order to distinguish healthy and handicapped persons.

  19. Interaction of finger enslaving and error compensation in multiple finger force production.

    PubMed

    Martin, Joel R; Latash, Mark L; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have documented two patterns of finger interaction during multi-finger pressing tasks, enslaving and error compensation, which do not agree with each other. Enslaving is characterized by positive correlation between instructed (master) and non-instructed (slave) finger(s) while error compensation can be described as a pattern of negative correlation between master and slave fingers. We hypothesize that pattern of finger interaction, enslaving or compensation depends on the initial force level and the magnitude of the targeted force change. Subjects were instructed to press with four fingers (I index, M middle, R ring, and L little) from a specified initial force to target forces following a ramp target line. Force-force relations between master and each of three slave fingers were analyzed during the ramp phase of trials by calculating correlation coefficients within each master-slave pair and then two-factor ANOVA was performed to determine effect of initial force and force increase on the correlation coefficients. It was found that, as initial force increased, the value of the correlation coefficient decreased and in some cases became negative, i.e. the enslaving transformed into error compensation. Force increase magnitude had a smaller effect on the correlation coefficients. The observations support the hypothesis that the pattern of inter-finger interaction--enslaving or compensation--depends on the initial force level and, to a smaller degree, on the targeted magnitude of the force increase. They suggest that the controller views tasks with higher steady-state forces and smaller force changes as implying a requirement to avoid large changes in the total force.

  20. Polyacrylamide Gel-Contained Zinc Finger Peptide as the "Lock" and Zinc Ions as the "Key" for Construction of Ultrasensitive Prostate-Specific Antigen SERS Immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Xie, Linglin; Yang, Xia; He, Yi; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin

    2018-05-02

    In this work, we adopted polyacrylamide gel-contained zinc finger peptide (PZF) as a "lock" of Raman signal and zinc ions (Zn 2+ ) as a sensitive "key", which was converted from target-captured ZnO NPs, to achieve the measurement of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Owing to the lock effect from PZF, the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) tag toluidine blue (TB) connected on Ag NP-coating silica wafer was sheltered leading to low Raman response. Meanwhile, target PSA can specifically connect with antibody 2-coupled ZnO nanocomplexes (ZnO@Au@Ab 2 ) and antibody 1-coupled magnetic (CoFe 2 O 4 @Au@Ab 1 ) nanocomposite through sandwich immunoassay. In the presence of HCl, the ZnO NPs would convert into Zn 2+ to open the PZF because Zn 2+ can specifically react with zinc finger peptide to destroy the PZF structure forming abundant pores. In this way, Zn 2+ could act as the key of Raman signal to open the PZF structure obtaining a strong Raman signal of TB. The proposed SERS sensor can have a quantitative detection of PSA within the range of 1 pg mL -1 to 10 ng mL -1 with a detection limit of 0.65 pg mL -1 . The interaction between zinc finger peptide and Zn 2+ was firstly applied in SERS sensor for the sensitive detection of PSA. These results demonstrated that the new designed SERS biosensor could be a promising tool in biomarker diagnosis.

  1. [Treatment of trigger finger with located needle knife].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi-Feng; Yang, Jiang; Xi, Sheng-Hua

    2016-07-25

    To investigate the clinical effects of located needle knife in the treatment of trigger finger. The clinical data of 133 patients(145 fingers) with trigger finger underwent treatment with located needle knife from September 2010 to March 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 37 males(40 fingers) and 96 females (105 fingers), aged from 18 to 71 years old with a mean of 51.8 years. Course of disease was from 1 to 19 months with an average of 8.2 months. Affected fingers included 82 thumbs, 12 index fingers, 11 middle fingers, 36 ring fingers, and 4 little fingers. According to the standard of Quinnell grade, 42 fingers were grade III, 92 fingers were grade IV, and 11 fingers were grade V. Firstly the double pipe gab was put into the distal edge of hypertrophic tendon sheath, then small knife needle was used to release the sheath proximally along the tendon line direction. The informations of wound healing and nerve injury, postoperative finger function, finger pain at 6 months were observed. The operation time was from 8 to 25 min with an average of 9.8 min. All the patients were followed up from 6 to 26 months with an average of 12.5 months. No complications such as the wound inflammation and seepage, vascular or nerve injuries were found. According to the standard of Quinnell grade, 123 fingers got excellent results, 15 good, 7 poor. It's a good choice to treat trigger finger with located needle knife in advantage of minimal invasion, simple safe operation, and it should be promoted in clinic.

  2. Targeting Ligandable Pockets on Plant Homeodomain (PHD) Zinc Finger Domains by a Fragment-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Plant homeodomain (PHD) zinc fingers are histone reader domains that are often associated with human diseases. Despite this, they constitute a poorly targeted class of readers, suggesting low ligandability. Here, we describe a successful fragment-based campaign targeting PHD fingers from the proteins BAZ2A and BAZ2B as model systems. We validated a pool of in silico fragments both biophysically and structurally and solved the first crystal structures of PHD zinc fingers in complex with fragments bound to an anchoring pocket at the histone binding site. The best-validated hits were found to displace a histone H3 tail peptide in competition assays. This work identifies new chemical scaffolds that provide suitable starting points for future ligand optimization using structure-guided approaches. The demonstrated ligandability of the PHD reader domains could pave the way for the development of chemical probes to drug this family of epigenetic readers. PMID:29529862

  3. Targeting Ligandable Pockets on Plant Homeodomain (PHD) Zinc Finger Domains by a Fragment-Based Approach.

    PubMed

    Amato, Anastasia; Lucas, Xavier; Bortoluzzi, Alessio; Wright, David; Ciulli, Alessio

    2018-04-20

    Plant homeodomain (PHD) zinc fingers are histone reader domains that are often associated with human diseases. Despite this, they constitute a poorly targeted class of readers, suggesting low ligandability. Here, we describe a successful fragment-based campaign targeting PHD fingers from the proteins BAZ2A and BAZ2B as model systems. We validated a pool of in silico fragments both biophysically and structurally and solved the first crystal structures of PHD zinc fingers in complex with fragments bound to an anchoring pocket at the histone binding site. The best-validated hits were found to displace a histone H3 tail peptide in competition assays. This work identifies new chemical scaffolds that provide suitable starting points for future ligand optimization using structure-guided approaches. The demonstrated ligandability of the PHD reader domains could pave the way for the development of chemical probes to drug this family of epigenetic readers.

  4. Zinc finger point mutations within the WT1 gene in Wilms tumor patients.

    PubMed Central

    Little, M H; Prosser, J; Condie, A; Smith, P J; Van Heyningen, V; Hastie, N D

    1992-01-01

    A proposed Wilms tumor gene, WT1, which encodes a zinc finger protein, has previously been isolated from human chromosome 11p13. Chemical mismatch cleavage analysis was used to identify point mutations in the zinc finger region of this gene in a series of 32 Wilms tumors. Two exonic single base changes were detected. In zinc finger 3 of a bilateral Wilms tumor patient, a constitutional de novo C----T base change was found changing an arginine to a stop codon. One tumor from this patient showed allele loss leading to 11p hemizygosity of the abnormal allele. In zinc finger 2 of a sporadic Wilms tumor patient, a C----T base change resulted in an arginine to cysteine amino acid change. To our knowledge, a WT1 gene missense mutation has not been detected previously in a Wilms tumor. By comparison with a recent NMR and x-ray crystallographic analysis of an analogous zinc finger gene, early growth response gene 1 (EGR1), this amino acid change in WT1 occurs at a residue predicted to be critical for DNA binding capacity and site specificity. The detection of one nonsense point mutation and one missense WT1 gene point mutation adds to the accumulating evidence implicating this gene in a proportion of Wilms tumor patients. Images PMID:1317572

  5. Insights using the molecular model of Lipoxygenase from Finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.)).

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Apoorv; Avashthi, Himanshu; Jha, Richa; Srivastava, Ambuj; Kumar Garg, Vijay; Wasudev Ramteke, Pramod; Kumar, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Lipoxygenase-1 (LOX-1) protein provides defense against pests and pathogens and its presence have been positively correlated with plant resistance against pathogens. Linoleate is a known substrate of lipoxygenase and it induces necrosis leading to the accumulation of isoflavonoid phytoalexins in plant leaves. Therefore, it is of interest to study the structural features of LOX-1 from Finger millet. However, the structure ofLOX-1 from Finger millet is not yet known. A homology model of LOX-1 from Finger millet is described. Domain architecture study suggested the presence of two domains namely PLAT (Phospho Lipid Acyl Transferase) and lipoxygenase. Molecular docking models of linoleate with lipoxygenase from finger millet, rice and sorghum are reported. The features of docked models showed that finger millet have higher pathogen resistance in comparison to other cereal crops. This data is useful for the molecular cloning of fulllength LOX-1 gene for validating its role in improving plant defense against pathogen infection and for various other biological processes.

  6. Compact Tactile Sensors for Robot Fingers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Toby B.; Lussy, David; Gaudiano, Frank; Hulse, Aaron; Diftler, Myron A.; Rodriguez, Dagoberto; Bielski, Paul; Butzer, Melisa

    2004-01-01

    Compact transducer arrays that measure spatial distributions of force or pressure have been demonstrated as prototypes of tactile sensors to be mounted on fingers and palms of dexterous robot hands. The pressure- or force-distribution feedback provided by these sensors is essential for the further development and implementation of robot-control capabilities for humanlike grasping and manipulation.

  7. Fingers Make a Comeback in Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Andree

    1978-01-01

    Describes a new idea in finger-counting developed by 31 year old Hang Young Pai, a Korean teacher living in New York. It is called Chisanbop and it comes from a more advanced hand-calculation system used in the Orient in conjunction with the abacus. It is applicable for both elementary students and for more advanced mathematical applications, such…

  8. Repair of webbed fingers or toes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Updated by: C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Finger Injuries and Disorders Read more Toe Injuries ...

  9. Viscous fingering of HCI through gastric mucin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskar, K. Ramakrishnan; Garik, Peter; Turner, Bradley S.; Bradley, James Douglas; Bansil, Rama; Stanley, H. Eugene; Lamont, J. Thomas

    1992-12-01

    THE HCI in the mammalian stomach is concentrated enough to digest the stomach itself, yet the gastric epithelium remains undamaged. One protective factor is gastric mucus, which forms a protective layer over the surface epithelium1-4 and acts as a diffusion barrier5,6 Bicarbonate ions secreted by the gastric epithelium7 are trapped in the mucus gel, establishing a gradient from pH 1-2 at the lumen to pH 6-7 at the cell surface8-10. How does HCI, secreted at the base of gastric glands by parietal cells, traverse the mucus layer without acidifying it? Here we demonstrate that injection of HCI through solutions of pig gastric mucin produces viscous fingering patterns11-18 dependent on pH, mucin concentration and acid flow rate. Above pH 4, discrete fingers are observed, whereas below pH 4, HCI neither penetrates the mucin solution nor forms fingers. Our in vitro results suggest that HCI secreted by the gastric gland can penetrate the mucus gel layer (pH 5-7) through narrow fingers, whereas HC1 in the lumen (pH 2) is prevented from diffusing back to the epithelium by the high viscosity of gastric mucus gel on the luminal side.

  10. PN 2017-24: Finger Lakes LPG

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Finger Lakes LPG Storage, LLC; Two Brush Creek Blvd, Suite 200; Kansas City; Missouri 64112 (Applicant) has applied to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the provisions of the Safe Drinking Water Act, 42 U.S.C. 300f et. seq (the Act), for

  11. Activity patterns of extrinsic finger flexors and extensors during movements of instructed and non-instructed fingers.

    PubMed

    van Beek, Nathalie; Stegeman, Dick F; van den Noort, Josien C; H E J Veeger, DirkJan; Maas, Huub

    2018-02-01

    The fingers of the human hand cannot be controlled fully independently. This phenomenon may have a neurological as well as a mechanical basis. Despite previous studies, the neuromechanics of finger movements are not fully understood. The aims of this study were (1) to assess the activation and coactivation patterns of finger specific flexor and extensor muscle regions during instructed single finger flexion and (2) to determine the relationship between enslaved finger movements and respective finger muscle activation. In 9 healthy subjects (age 22-29), muscle activation was assessed during single finger flexion using a 90 surface electromyography electrode grid placed over the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and the extensor digitorum (ED). We found (1) no significant differences in muscle activation timing between fingers, (2) considerable muscle activity in flexor and extensor regions associated with the non-instructed fingers and (3) no correlation between the muscle activations and corresponding movement of non-instructed fingers. A clear disparity was found between the movement pattern of the non-instructed fingers and the activity pattern of the corresponding muscle regions. This suggests that mechanical factors, such as intertendinous and myofascial connections, may also affect finger movement independency and need to be taken into consideration when studying finger movement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cytosolic increased labile Zn2+ contributes to arrhythmogenic action potentials in left ventricular cardiomyocytes through protein thiol oxidation and cellular ATP depletion.

    PubMed

    Degirmenci, Sinan; Olgar, Yusuf; Durak, Aysegul; Tuncay, Erkan; Turan, Belma

    2018-07-01

    Intracellular labile (free) Zn 2+ -level ([Zn 2+ ] i ) is low and increases markedly under pathophysiological conditions in cardiomyocytes. High [Zn 2+ ] i is associated with alterations in excitability and ionic-conductances while exact mechanisms are not clarified yet. Therefore, we examined the elevated-[Zn 2+ ] i on some sarcolemmal ionic-mechanisms, which can mediate cardiomyocyte dysfunction. High-[Zn 2+ ] i induced significant changes in action potential (AP) parameters, including depolarization in resting membrane-potential and prolongations in AP-repolarizing phases. We detected also the time-dependent effects such as induction of spontaneous APs at the time of ≥ 3 min following [Zn 2+ ] i increases, a manner of cellular ATP dependent and reversible with disulfide-reducing agent dithiothreitol, DTT. High-[Zn 2+ ] i induced inhibitions in voltage-dependent K + -channel currents, such as transient outward K + -currents, I to , steady-state currents, I ss and inward-rectifier K + -currents, I K1 , reversible with DTT seemed to be responsible from the prolongations in APs. We, for the first time, demonstrated that lowering cellular ATP level induced significant decreaeses in both I ss and I K1 , while no effect on I to . However, the increased-[Zn 2+ ] i could induce marked activation in ATP-sensitive K + -channel currents, I KATP , depending on low cellular ATP and thiol-oxidation levels of these channels. The mRNA levels of Kv4.3, Kv1.4 and Kv2.1 were depressed markedly with increased-[Zn 2+ ] i with no change in mRNA level of Kv4.2, while the mRNA level of I KATP subunit, SUR2A was increased significantly with increased-[Zn 2+ ] i , being reversible with DTT. Overall we demonstrated that high-[Zn 2+ ] i, even if nanomolar levels, alters cardiac function via prolonged APs of cardiomyocytes, at most, due to inhibitions in voltage-dependent K + -currents, although activation of I KATP is playing cardioprotective role, through some biochemical changes in

  13. Multi-Finger Interaction and Synergies in Finger Flexion and Extension Force Production

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jaebum; Xu, Dayuan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to discover finger interaction indices during single-finger ramp tasks and multi-finger coordination during a steady state force production in two directions, flexion, and extension. Furthermore, the indices of anticipatory adjustment of elemental variables (i.e., finger forces) prior to a quick pulse force production were quantified. It is currently unknown whether the organization and anticipatory modulation of stability properties are affected by force directions and strengths of in multi-finger actions. We expected to observe a smaller finger independency and larger indices of multi-finger coordination during extension than during flexion due to both neural and peripheral differences between the finger flexion and extension actions. We also examined the indices of the anticipatory adjustment between different force direction conditions. The anticipatory adjustment could be a neural process, which may be affected by the properties of the muscles and by the direction of the motions. The maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force was larger for flexion than for extension, which confirmed the fact that the strength of finger flexor muscles (e.g., flexor digitorum profundus) was larger than that of finger extensor (e.g., extensor digitorum). The analysis within the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis was used to quantify the motor synergy of elemental variables by decomposing two sources of variances across repetitive trials, which identifies the variances in the uncontrolled manifold (VUCM) and that are orthogonal to the UCM (VORT). The presence of motor synergy and its strength were quantified by the relative amount of VUCM and VORT. The strength of motor synergies at the steady state was larger in the extension condition, which suggests that the stability property (i.e., multi-finger synergies) may be a direction specific quantity. However, the results for the existence of anticipatory adjustment; however, no difference between the

  14. Robot-Assisted Guitar Hero for Finger Rehabilitation after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Hossein; Rowe, Justin B.; Gardner, David; Chan, Vicky; Reinkensmeyer, David J.; Wolbrecht, Eric T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and testing of a robotic device for finger therapy after stroke: FINGER (Finger Individuating Grasp Exercise Robot). FINGER makes use of stacked single degree-of-freedom mechanisms to assist subjects in moving individual fingers in a naturalistic grasping pattern through much of their full range of motion. The device has a high bandwidth of control (−3dB at approximately 8 Hz) and is backdriveable. These characteristics make it capable of assisting in grasping tasks that require precise timing. We therefore used FINGER to assist individuals with a stroke (n = 8) and without impairment (n = 4) in playing a game similar to Guitar Hero©. The subjects attempted to move their fingers to target positions at times specified by notes that were graphically streamed to popular music. We show here that by automatically adjusting the robot gains, it is possible to use FINGER to modulate the subject’s success rate at the game, across a range of impairment levels. Modulating success rates did not alter the stroke subject’s effort, although the unimpaired subjects exerted more force when they were made less successful. We also present a novel measure of finger individuation that can be assessed as individuals play Guitar Hero with FINGER. The results demonstrate the ability of FINGER to provide controlled levels of assistance during an engaging computer game, and to quantify finger individuation after stroke. PMID:23366783

  15. 21 CFR 888.3230 - Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3230 Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device intended...

  16. 21 CFR 888.3230 - Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3230 Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device intended...

  17. 21 CFR 888.3230 - Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3230 Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device intended...

  18. 21 CFR 888.3230 - Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3230 Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device intended...

  19. 21 CFR 888.3230 - Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3230 Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device intended...

  20. Studying the effect of graphene-ZnO nanocomposites on polymerase chain reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Vinay, E-mail: winn201@gmail.com; Rajaura, Rajveer; Sharma, Preetam Kumar

    An emerging area of research is improving the efficiency of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by using nanoparticles. With graphene nano-flakes showing promising results, in this paper we report the effect of Graphene-ZnO nanocomposites on Polymerase Chain reaction (PCR) efficiency. G-ZnO nanocomposites were efficiently synthesized via in situ chemical method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image confirms the formation of nanocomposites. ZnO nanoparticles of size range ~20-30 nm are uniformly attached on the graphene sheets. No amplification during PCR indicates inhibitory activity of G-ZnO nanocomposites which points the fingers at ZnO moiety of the G-ZnO compositemore » for no amplification during our PCR reaction. Further work should concentrate on finding out the main inhibitory mechanism involved in inhibition of PCR using G-ZnO composites.« less

  1. Structural basis of molecular recognition of helical histone H3 tail by PHD finger domains.

    PubMed

    Bortoluzzi, Alessio; Amato, Anastasia; Lucas, Xavier; Blank, Manuel; Ciulli, Alessio

    2017-05-04

    The plant homeodomain (PHD) fingers are among the largest family of epigenetic domains, first characterized as readers of methylated H3K4. Readout of histone post-translational modifications by PHDs has been the subject of intense investigation; however, less is known about the recognition of secondary structure features within the histone tail itself. We solved the crystal structure of the PHD finger of the bromodomain adjacent to zinc finger 2A [BAZ2A, also known as TIP5 (TTF-I/interacting protein 5)] in complex with unmodified N-terminal histone H3 tail. The peptide is bound in a helical folded-back conformation after K4, induced by an acidic patch on the protein surface that prevents peptide binding in an extended conformation. Structural bioinformatics analyses identify a conserved Asp/Glu residue that we name 'acidic wall', found to be mutually exclusive with the conserved Trp for K4Me recognition. Neutralization or inversion of the charges at the acidic wall patch in BAZ2A, and homologous BAZ2B, weakened H3 binding. We identify simple mutations on H3 that strikingly enhance or reduce binding, as a result of their stabilization or destabilization of H3 helicity. Our work unravels the structural basis for binding of the helical H3 tail by PHD fingers and suggests that molecular recognition of secondary structure motifs within histone tails could represent an additional layer of regulation in epigenetic processes. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. A rapid, generally applicable method to engineer zinc fingers illustrated by targeting the HIV-1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Isalan, M; Klug, A; Choo, Y

    2001-07-01

    DNA-binding domains with predetermined sequence specificity are engineered by selection of zinc finger modules using phage display, allowing the construction of customized transcription factors. Despite remarkable progress in this field, the available protein-engineering methods are deficient in many respects, thus hampering the applicability of the technique. Here we present a rapid and convenient method that can be used to design zinc finger proteins against a variety of DNA-binding sites. This is based on a pair of pre-made zinc finger phage-display libraries, which are used in parallel to select two DNA-binding domains each of which recognizes given 5 base pair sequences, and whose products are recombined to produce a single protein that recognizes a composite (9 base pair) site of predefined sequence. Engineering using this system can be completed in less than two weeks and yields proteins that bind sequence-specifically to DNA with Kd values in the nanomolar range. To illustrate the technique, we have selected seven different proteins to bind various regions of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) promoter.

  3. Variable and Asymmetric Range of Enslaving: Fingers Can Act Independently over Small Range of Flexion

    PubMed Central

    van den Noort, Josien C.; van Beek, Nathalie; van der Kraan, Thomas; Veeger, DirkJan H. E. J.; Stegeman, Dick F.; Veltink, Peter H.; Maas, Huub

    2016-01-01

    The variability in the numerous tasks in which we use our hands is very large. However, independent movement control of individual fingers is limited. To assess the extent of finger independency during full-range finger flexion including all finger joints, we studied enslaving (movement in non-instructed fingers) and range of independent finger movement through the whole finger flexion trajectory in single and multi-finger movement tasks. Thirteen young healthy subjects performed single- and multi-finger movement tasks under two conditions: active flexion through the full range of movement with all fingers free to move and active flexion while the non-instructed finger(s) were restrained. Finger kinematics were measured using inertial sensors (PowerGlove), to assess enslaving and range of independent finger movement. Although all fingers showed enslaving movement to some extent, highest enslaving was found in adjacent fingers. Enslaving effects in ring and little finger were increased with movement of additional, non-adjacent fingers. The middle finger was the only finger affected by restriction in movement of non-instructed fingers. Each finger showed a range of independent movement before the non-instructed fingers started to move, which was largest for the index finger. The start of enslaving was asymmetrical for adjacent fingers. Little finger enslaving movement was affected by multi-finger movement. We conclude that no finger can move independently through the full range of finger flexion, although some degree of full independence is present for smaller movements. This range of independent movement is asymmetric and variable between fingers and between subjects. The presented results provide insight into the role of finger independency for different types of tasks and populations. PMID:27992598

  4. Arabidopsis thaliana VOZ (Vascular plant One-Zinc finger) transcription factors are required for proper regulation of flowering time

    PubMed Central

    Celesnik, Helena; Ali, Gul S.; Robison, Faith M.; Reddy, Anireddy S. N.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Transition to flowering in plants is tightly controlled by environmental cues, which regulate the photoperiod and vernalization pathways, and endogenous signals, which mediate the autonomous and gibberellin pathways. In this work, we investigated the role of two Zn2+-finger transcription factors, the paralogues AtVOZ1 and AtVOZ2, in Arabidopsis thaliana flowering. Single atvoz1-1 and atvoz2-1 mutants showed no significant phenotypes as compared to wild type. However, atvoz1-1 atvoz2-1 double mutant plants exhibited several phenotypes characteristic of flowering-time mutants. The double mutant displayed a severe delay in flowering, together with additional pleiotropic phenotypes. Late flowering correlated with elevated expression of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), which encodes a potent floral repressor, and decreased expression of its target, the floral promoter FD. Vernalization rescued delayed flowering of atvoz1-1 atvoz2-1 and reversed elevated FLC levels. Accumulation of FLC transcripts in atvoz1-1 atvoz2-1 correlated with increased expression of several FLC activators, including components of the PAF1 and SWR1 chromatin-modifying complexes. Additionally, AtVOZs were shown to bind the promoter of MOS3/SAR3 and directly regulate expression of this nuclear pore protein, which is known to participate in the regulation of flowering time, suggesting that AtVOZs exert at least some of their flowering regulation by influencing the nuclear pore function. Complementation of atvoz1-1 atvoz2-1 with AtVOZ2 reversed all double mutant phenotypes, confirming that the observed morphological and molecular changes arise from the absence of functional AtVOZ proteins, and validating the functional redundancy between AtVOZ1 and AtVOZ2. PMID:23616927

  5. Crossover from capillary fingering to viscous fingering in a rough fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, R.; Chen, Y.; Wu, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    Controlled by the competition between capillary and viscous forces, the displacement patterns of one fluid displacing another more viscous one exhibit capillary fingering, viscous fingering, and the crossover between the two. Although extensive studies have investigated viscous and capillary fingerings in porous and fractured media, a few studies focused on the crossover in rough fractures, and how viscous and capillary forces affect the crossover remains unclear. Using a transparent fracture visualization system, we studied how the competition impacts the crossover in a horizontal rough fracture. Drainage experiments of water displacing oil were conducted at seven flow rates (capillary number log10Ca ranging from -7.07 to -3.07) and four viscosity ratios (M = 1/1000, 1/500, 1/100 and 1/50). We consistently observed lower invading fluid saturations in the crossover zone. In addition, we proposed a phase diagram for the displacement patterns in a rough fracture that is consistent with similar studies in porous media. Based on real-time imaging and statistical analysis of the invasion morphology, we showed that the competition between the capillary and viscous forces is responsible for the saturation reduction in the crossover zone. In this zone, finger propagation toward the outlet (characteristic of viscous fingering) as well as void-filling in the transverse and backward directions (characteristic of capillary fingering), are both suppressed. Therefore, the invading fluid tends to occupy larger apertures with higher characteristic front velocity, promoting void-filling toward the outlet with thinner finger growth and resulting in a larger volume of defending fluid left behind.

  6. Analysis of prosody in finger braille using electromyography.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Manabi; Nishida, Masafumi; Horiuchi, Yasuo; Ichikawa, Akira

    2006-01-01

    Finger braille is one of the communication methods for the deaf blind. The interpreter types braille codes on the fingers of deaf blind. Finger braille seems to be the most suitable medium for real-time communication by its speed and accuracy of transmitting characters. We hypothesize that the prosody information exists in the time structure and strength of finger braille typing. Prosody is the paralinguistic information that has functions to transmit the sentence structure, prominence, emotions and other form of information in real time communication. In this study, we measured the surface electromyography (sEMG) of finger movement to analyze the typing strength of finger braille. We found that the typing strength increases at the beginning of a phrase and a prominent phrase. The result shows the possibility that the prosody in the typing strength of finger braille can be applied to create an interpreter system for the deafblind.

  7. Finger vein recognition with personalized feature selection.

    PubMed

    Xi, Xiaoming; Yang, Gongping; Yin, Yilong; Meng, Xianjing

    2013-08-22

    Finger veins are a promising biometric pattern for personalized identification in terms of their advantages over existing biometrics. Based on the spatial pyramid representation and the combination of more effective information such as gray, texture and shape, this paper proposes a simple but powerful feature, called Pyramid Histograms of Gray, Texture and Orientation Gradients (PHGTOG). For a finger vein image, PHGTOG can reflect the global spatial layout and local details of gray, texture and shape. To further improve the recognition performance and reduce the computational complexity, we select a personalized subset of features from PHGTOG for each subject by using the sparse weight vector, which is trained by using LASSO and called PFS-PHGTOG. We conduct extensive experiments to demonstrate the promise of the PHGTOG and PFS-PHGTOG, experimental results on our databases show that PHGTOG outperforms the other existing features. Moreover, PFS-PHGTOG can further boost the performance in comparison with PHGTOG.

  8. Finger Vein Recognition with Personalized Feature Selection

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Xiaoming; Yang, Gongping; Yin, Yilong; Meng, Xianjing

    2013-01-01

    Finger veins are a promising biometric pattern for personalized identification in terms of their advantages over existing biometrics. Based on the spatial pyramid representation and the combination of more effective information such as gray, texture and shape, this paper proposes a simple but powerful feature, called Pyramid Histograms of Gray, Texture and Orientation Gradients (PHGTOG). For a finger vein image, PHGTOG can reflect the global spatial layout and local details of gray, texture and shape. To further improve the recognition performance and reduce the computational complexity, we select a personalized subset of features from PHGTOG for each subject by using the sparse weight vector, which is trained by using LASSO and called PFS-PHGTOG. We conduct extensive experiments to demonstrate the promise of the PHGTOG and PFS-PHGTOG, experimental results on our databases show that PHGTOG outperforms the other existing features. Moreover, PFS-PHGTOG can further boost the performance in comparison with PHGTOG. PMID:23974154

  9. Fingering instabilities in bacterial community phototaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vps, Ritwika; Man Wah Chau, Rosanna; Casey Huang, Kerwyn; Gopinathan, Ajay

    Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 is a phototactic cyanobacterium that moves directionally in response to a light source. During phototaxis, these bacterial communities show emergent spatial organisation resulting in the formation of finger-like projections at the propagating front. In this study, we propose an analytical model that elucidates the underlying physical mechanisms which give rise to these spatial patterns. We describe the migrating front during phototaxis as a one-dimensional curve by considering the effects of phototactic bias, diffusion and surface tension. By considering the propagating front as composed of perturbations to a flat solution and using linear stability analysis, we predict a critical bias above which the finger-like projections appear as instabilities. We also predict the wavelengths of the fastest growing mode and the critical mode above which the instabilities disappear. We validate our predictions through comparisons to experimental data obtained by analysing images of phototaxis in Synechocystis communities. Our model also predicts the observed loss of instabilities in taxd1 mutants (cells with inactive TaxD1, an important photoreceptor in finger formation), by considering diffusion in mutually perpendicular directions and a lower, negative bias.

  10. Multi-finger Prehension: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the available experimental evidence on what people do when they grasp an object with several digits and then manipulate it. In addition to the Introduction, the paper includes three parts each addressing a specific aspect of multi-finger prehension. Part II discusses manipulation forces, i.e. the resultant force and moment of force exerted on the object, and the digits contribution to such force production. Part III deals with internal forces defined as forces that cancel each other and do not disturb object equilibrium. The role of the internal forces in maintaining the object stability is discussed with respect to such issues as slip prevention, tilt prevention and resistance to perturbations. Part IV is devoted to the motor control of prehension. It covers such topics as prehension synergies, chain effects, the principle of superposition, inter-finger connection matrices and reconstruction of neural commands, mechanical advantage of the fingers, and the simultaneous digit adjustment to several mutually reinforcing or conflicting demands. PMID:18782719

  11. Visual Foraging With Fingers and Eye Gaze

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Ian M.; Smith, Irene J.; Chetverikov, Andrey; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2016-01-01

    A popular model of the function of selective visual attention involves search where a single target is to be found among distractors. For many scenarios, a more realistic model involves search for multiple targets of various types, since natural tasks typically do not involve a single target. Here we present results from a novel multiple-target foraging paradigm. We compare finger foraging where observers cancel a set of predesignated targets by tapping them, to gaze foraging where observers cancel items by fixating them for 100 ms. During finger foraging, for most observers, there was a large difference between foraging based on a single feature, where observers switch easily between target types, and foraging based on a conjunction of features where observers tended to stick to one target type. The pattern was notably different during gaze foraging where these condition differences were smaller. Two conclusions follow: (a) The fact that a sizeable number of observers (in particular during gaze foraging) had little trouble switching between different target types raises challenges for many prominent theoretical accounts of visual attention and working memory. (b) While caveats must be noted for the comparison of gaze and finger foraging, the results suggest that selection mechanisms for gaze and pointing have different operational constraints. PMID:27433323

  12. Fusarium verticillioides from finger millet in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Amgad A; Esele, J P; Logrieco, Antonio; Ritieni, Alberto; Leslie, John F

    2012-01-01

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) is a subsistence crop grown in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Indian Sub-continent. Fusarium species occurring on this crop have not been reported. Approximately 13% of the Fusarium isolates recovered from finger millet growing at three different locations in eastern Uganda belong to Fusarium verticillioides, and could produce up to 18,600 µg/g of total fumonisins when cultured under laboratory conditions. These strains are all genetically unique, based on AFLP analyses, and form fertile perithecia when crossed with the standard mating type tester strains for this species. All but one of the strains is female-fertile and mating-type segregates 13:20 Mat-1:Mat-2. Three new sequences of the gene encoding translation elongation factor 1-α were found within the population. These results indicate a potential health risk for infants who consume finger millet gruel as a weaning food, and are consistent with the hypothesis that F. verticillioides originated in Africa and not in the Americas, despite its widespread association with maize grown almost anywhere worldwide.

  13. Distractor objects affect fingers' angular distances but not fingers' shaping during grasping.

    PubMed

    Ansuini, Caterina; Tognin, Veronica; Turella, Luca; Castiello, Umberto

    2007-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether and how hand shaping was affected by the presence of a distractor object adjacent to the to-be-grasped object. Twenty subjects were requested to reach towards and grasp a 'convex' or a 'concave' object in the presence or absence of a distractor object either of the same or different shape than the target object. Flexion/extension at the metacarpal-phalangeal (MCP) and proximal interphalangeal joints of all digits, and abduction angle between digits were measured by resistive sensors embedded in a glove. The results indicate robust interference effects at the level of reach duration and the extent of fingers' abduction angles together with changes at the level of a single joint for the thumb. No distractor effects on individual fingers' joints except for the MCP of the middle and little fingers were found. These findings suggest that the presence of distractor object affects hand shaping in terms of fingers' abduction angles, but not at the level of 'shape dependent' fingers' angular excursions. Furthermore, they support the importance of the thumb for the guidance of selective reach-to-grasp movements. We discuss these results in the context of current theories proposed to explain the object selection processes underlying the control of hand action.

  14. Localized frustration and binding-induced conformational change in recognition of 5S RNA by TFIIIA zinc finger.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cheng; Li, Wenfei; Wang, Wei

    2013-12-19

    Protein TFIIIA is composed of nine tandemly arranged Cys2His2 zinc fingers. It can bind either to the 5S RNA gene as a transcription factor or to the 5S RNA transcript as a chaperone. Although structural and biochemical data provided valuable information on the recognition between the TFIIIIA and the 5S DNA/RNA, the involved conformational motions and energetic factors contributing to the binding affinity and specificity remain unclear. In this work, we conducted MD simulations and MM/GBSA calculations to investigate the binding-induced conformational changes in the recognition of the 5S RNA by the central three zinc fingers of TFIIIA and the energetic factors that influence the binding affinity and specificity at an atomistic level. Our results revealed drastic interdomain conformational changes between these three zinc fingers, involving the exposure/burial of several crucial DNA/RNA binding residues, which can be related to the competition between DNA and RNA for the binding of TFIIIA. We also showed that the specific recognition between finger 4/finger 6 and the 5S RNA introduces frustrations to the nonspecific interactions between finger 5 and the 5S RNA, which may be important to achieve optimal binding affinity and specificity.

  15. Genome-Wide Survey and Expression Profiling of CCCH-Zinc Finger Family Reveals a Functional Module in Macrophage Activation

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jian; Song, Wenjun; Tromp, Gail; Kolattukudy, Pappachan E.; Fu, Mingui

    2008-01-01

    Previously, we have identified a novel CCCH zinc finger protein family as negative regulators of macrophage activation. To gain an overall insight into the entire CCCH zinc finger gene family and to evaluate their potential role in macrophage activation, here we performed a genome-wide survey of CCCH zinc finger genes in mouse and human. Totally 58 CCCH zinc finger genes in mouse and 55 in human were identified and most of them have not been reported previously. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the mouse CCCH family was divided into 6 groups. Meanwhile, we employed quantitative real-time PCR to profile their tissue expression patterns in adult mice. Clustering analysis showed that most of CCCH genes were broadly expressed in all of tissues examined with various levels. Interestingly, several CCCH genes Mbnl3, Zfp36l2, Zfp36, Zc3h12a, Zc3h12d, Zc3h7a and Leng9 were enriched in macrophage-related organs such as thymus, spleen, lung, intestine and adipose. Consistently, a comprehensive assessment of changes in expression of the 58 members of the mouse CCCH family during macrophage activation also revealed that these CCCH zinc finger genes were associated with the activation of bone marrow-derived macrophages by lipopolysaccharide. Taken together, this study not only identified a functional module of CCCH zinc finger genes in the regulation of macrophage activation but also provided the framework for future studies to dissect the function of this emerging gene family. PMID:18682727

  16. The zinc fingers of the Small Optic Lobes (SOL) calpain bind polyubiquitin.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Margaret H; Qiu, Alvin; Zha, Congyao; Farah, Carole A; Mahdid, Yacine; Ferguson, Larissa; Sossin, Wayne S

    2018-05-28

    The Small Optic Lobes (SOL) calpain is a highly conserved member of the calpain family expressed in the nervous system. A dominant negative form of the SOL calpain inhibited consolidation of one form of synaptic plasticity, non-associative facilitation, in sensory-motor neuronal cultures in Aplysia, presumably by inhibiting cleavage of protein kinase Cs (PKCs) into constitutively active protein kinase Ms (PKMs) (Hu et al, 2017a). SOL calpains have a conserved set of 5-6 N-terminal zinc fingers. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that these zinc fingers could bind to ubiquitin. In this study, we show that both the Aplysia and mouse SOL calpain (also known as Calpain 15) zinc fingers bind ubiquitinated proteins, and we confirm that Aplysia SOL binds poly- but not mono or di-ubiquitin. No specific zinc finger is required for polyubiquitin binding. Neither polyubiquitin nor calcium was sufficient to induce purified Aplysia SOL calpain to autolyse or to cleave the atypical PKC to PKM in vitro. In Aplysia, overexpression of the atypical PKC in sensory neurons leads to an activity-dependent cleavage event and an increase in nuclear ubiquitin staining. Activity-dependent cleavage is partially blocked by a dominant negative SOL calpain, but not by a dominant negative classical calpain. The cleaved PKM was stabilized by the dominant negative classical calpain and destabilized by a dominant negative form of the PKM stabilizing proteinKIdney/BRAin protein(KIBRA). These studies provide new insight into SOL calpain's function and regulation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Speed invariance of independent control of finger movements in pianists

    PubMed Central

    Soechting, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Independent control of finger movements characterizes skilled motor behaviors such as tool use and musical performance. The purpose of the present study was to identify the effect of movement frequency (tempo) on individuated finger movements in piano playing. Joint motion at the digits was recorded while 5 expert pianists were playing 30 excerpts from musical pieces with different fingering and key locations either at a predetermined normal tempo or as fast as possible. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis using an expectation-maximization algorithm determined three distinct patterns of finger movement coordination for a keypress with each of the index, middle, ring, and little fingers at each of the two tempi. The finger kinematics of each coordination pattern was overall similar across the tempi. Tone sequences assigned into each cluster were also similar for both tempi. A linear regression analysis determined no apparent difference in the amount of movement covariation between the striking and nonstriking fingers at both metacarpo-phalangeal and proximal-interphalangeal joints across the two tempi, which indicated no effect of tempo on independent finger movements in piano playing. In addition, the standard deviation of interkeystroke interval across strokes did not differ between the two tempi, indicating maintenance of rhythmic accuracy of keystrokes. Strong temporal constraints on finger movements during piano playing may underlie the maintained independent control of fingers over a wider range of tempi, a feature being likely to be specific to skilled pianists. PMID:22815403

  18. Does finger training increase young children's numerical performance?

    PubMed

    Gracia-Bafalluy, Maria; Noël, Marie-Pascale

    2008-04-01

    Butterworth (1999) suggested that fingers are important in representing numerosities. Furthermore, scores on a finger gnosis test are a better predictor of numerical performance up to 3 years later than intellectual measures (Marinthe et al., 2001; Noël, 2005). We hypothesised that training in finger differentiation would increase finger gnosis and might also improve numerical performance. Accordingly, 47 first-grade children were selected and divided into 3 groups: children with poor finger gnosis who followed the finger-differentiation training programme (G1), a control-intervention who were trained in story comprehension (G2), and a group with high finger gnosis scores who just continued with normal school lessons (G3). The finger training consisted of 2 weekly sessions of half an hour each, for 8 weeks. Before the training period, children in G3 performed better in finger gnosis and enumeration than children in the two other groups. After the training period this pattern remained for the children in G2 and G3, but the children in G1 were significantly better than those in G2 at finger gnosis, representation of numerosities with fingers, and quantification tasks; they also tended to be better at the processing of Arabic digits. These results indicate that improving finger gnosis in young children is possible and that it can provide a useful support to learning mathematics. Such an approach could be particularly appropriate for children with a developmental Gerstmann syndrome. Theoretically, these results are important because they suggest a functional link between finger gnosis and number skills.

  19. Visualizing and quantifying the crossover from capillary fingering to viscous fingering in a rough fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Feng; Fang, Shu; Wu, Dong-Sheng; Hu, Ran

    2017-09-01

    Immiscible fluid-fluid displacement in permeable media is important in many subsurface processes, including enhanced oil recovery and geological CO2 sequestration. Controlled by capillary and viscous forces, displacement patterns of one fluid displacing another more viscous one exhibit capillary and viscous fingering, and crossover between the two. Although extensive studies investigated viscous and capillary fingering in porous media, a few studies focused on the crossover in rough fractures, and how viscous and capillary forces affect the crossover remains unclear. Using a transparent fracture-visualization system, we studied how the two forces impact the crossover in a horizontal rough fracture. Drainage experiments of water displacing oil were conducted at seven flow rates (capillary number log10Ca ranging from -7.07 to -3.07) and four viscosity ratios (M=1/1000,1/500,1/100 and 1/50). We consistently observed lower invading fluid saturations in the crossover zone. We also proposed a phase diagram for the displacement patterns in a rough fracture that is consistent with similar studies in porous media. Based on real-time imaging and statistical analysis of the invasion morphology, we showed that the competition between capillary and viscous forces is responsible for the saturation reduction in the crossover zone. In this zone, finger propagation toward the outlet (characteristic of viscous fingering) as well as void-filling in the transverse/backward directions (characteristic of capillary fingering), are both suppressed. Therefore, the invading fluid tends to occupy larger apertures with higher characteristic front velocity, promoting void-filling toward the outlet with thinner finger growth and resulting in a larger volume of defending fluid left behind.

  20. Convergent solid-phase and solution approaches in the synthesis of the cysteine-rich Mdm2 RING finger domain.

    PubMed

    Vasileiou, Zoe; Barlos, Kostas; Gatos, Dimitrios

    2009-12-01

    The RING finger domain of the Mdm2, located at the C-terminus of the protein, is necessary for regulation of p53, a tumor suppressor protein. The 48-residues long Mdm2 peptide is an important target for studying its interaction with small anticancer drug candidates. For the chemical synthesis of the Mdm2 RING finger domain, the fragment condensation on solid-phase and the fragment condensation in solution were studied. The latter method was performed using either protected or free peptides at the C-terminus as the amino component. Best results were achieved using solution condensation where the N-component was applied with the C-terminal carboxyl group left unprotected. The developed method is well suited for large-scale synthesis of Mdm2 RING finger domain, combining the advantages of both solid-phase and solution synthesis. (c) 2009 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Combined EXAFS and DFT Structure Calculations Provide Structural Insights into the 1:1 Multi-Histidine Complexes of CuII, CuI and ZnII with the Tandem Octarepeats of the Mammalian Prion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Pushie, M. Jake; Nienaber, Kurt H.; McDonald, Alex; Millhauser, Glenn L.; George, Graham N.

    2014-01-01

    The metal coordinating properties of the prion protein (PrP) have been the subject of intense focus and debate since the first reports of copper interaction with PrP just before the turn of the century. The picture of metal coordination to PrP has been improved and refined over the past decade, and yet the structural details of the various metal coordination modes have not been fully elucidated in some cases. Herein we employ X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy as well as extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy to structurally characterize the dominant 1:1 coordination modes for CuII, CuI and ZnII with an N-terminal fragment of PrP. The PrP fragment constitutes four tandem repeats representative of the mammalian octarepeat domain, designated OR4, which is also the most studied PrP fragment for metal interactions, making our findings applicable to a large body of previous work. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations provide additional structural and thermodynamic data, and candidate structures are used to inform EXAFS data analysis. The optimized geometries from DFT calculations are used to identify potential coordination complexes for multi-histidine coordination of CuII, CuI and ZnII in an aqueous medium, modeled using 4-methylimidazole to represent the histidine side chain. Through a combination of in silico coordination chemistry as well as rigorous EXAFS curve fitting, using full multiple scattering on candidate structures from DFT calculations, we have characterized the predominant coordination modes for the 1:1 complexes of CuII, CuI and ZnII with the OR4 peptide at pH 7.4 at atomic resolution, which are best represented as a square planar [CuII(His)4]2+, digonal [CuI(His)2]+ and tetrahedral [ZnII(His)3(OH2)]2+, respectively. PMID:25042361

  2. The Role of Vision in the Development of Finger-Number Interactions: Finger-Counting and Finger-Montring in Blind Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crollen, Virginie; Mahe, Rachel; Collignon, Olivier; Seron, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that the use of the fingers may play a functional role in the development of a mature counting system. However, the role of developmental vision in the elaboration of a finger numeral representation remains unexplored. In the current study, 14 congenitally blind children and 14 matched sighted controls undertook…

  3. Surface coatings of ZnO nanoparticles mitigate differentially a host of transcriptional, protein and signalling responses in primary human olfactory cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Inhaled nanoparticles have been reported in some instances to translocate from the nostril to the olfactory bulb in exposed rats. In close proximity to the olfactory bulb is the olfactory mucosa, within which resides a niche of multipotent cells. Cells isolated from this area may provide a relevant in vitro system to investigate potential effects of workplace exposure to inhaled zinc oxide nanoparticles. Methods Four types of commercially-available zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles, two coated and two uncoated, were examined for their effects on primary human cells cultured from the olfactory mucosa. Human olfactory neurosphere-derived (hONS) cells from healthy adult donors were analyzed for modulation of cytokine levels, activation of intracellular signalling pathways, changes in gene-expression patterns across the whole genome, and compromised cellular function over a 24 h period following exposure to the nanoparticles suspended in cell culture medium. Results ZnO nanoparticle toxicity in hONS cells was mediated through a battery of mechanisms largely related to cell stress, inflammatory response and apoptosis, but not activation of mechanisms that repair damaged DNA. Surface coatings on the ZnO nanoparticles mitigated these cellular responses to varying degrees. Conclusions The results indicate that care should be taken in the workplace to minimize generation of, and exposure to, aerosols of uncoated ZnO nanoparticles, given the adverse responses reported here using multipotent cells derived from the olfactory mucosa. PMID:24144420

  4. Finger agnosia and cognitive deficits in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Davis, Andrew S; Trotter, Jeffrey S; Hertza, Jeremy; Bell, Christopher D; Dean, Raymond S

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the presence of finger agnosia in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to determine if level of finger agnosia was related to cognitive impairment. Finger agnosia is a sensitive measure of cerebral impairment and is associated with neurofunctional areas implicated in AD. Using a standardized and norm-referenced approach, results indicated that patients with AD evidenced significantly decreased performance on tests of bilateral finger agnosia compared with healthy age-matched controls. Finger agnosia was predictive of cognitive dysfunction on four of seven domains, including: Crystallized Language, Fluid Processing, Associative Learning, and Processing Speed. Results suggest that measures of finger agnosia, a short and simple test, may be useful in the early detection of AD.

  5. Torque Control of Underactuated Tendon-driven Robotic Fingers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Wampler, Charles W. (Inventor); Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A robotic system includes a robot having a total number of degrees of freedom (DOF) equal to at least n, an underactuated tendon-driven finger driven by n tendons and n DOF, the finger having at least two joints, being characterized by an asymmetrical joint radius in one embodiment. A controller is in communication with the robot, and controls actuation of the tendon-driven finger using force control. Operating the finger with force control on the tendons, rather than position control, eliminates the unconstrained slack-space that would have otherwise existed. The controller may utilize the asymmetrical joint radii to independently command joint torques. A method of controlling the finger includes commanding either independent or parameterized joint torques to the controller to actuate the fingers via force control on the tendons.

  6. Erosion waves: Transverse instabilities and fingering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloggi, F.; Lanuza, J.; Andreotti, B.; Clément, E.

    2006-09-01

    Two laboratory scale experiments of dry and underwater avalanches of non-cohesive granular materials are investigated. We trigger solitary waves and study the conditions under which the front is transversally stable. We show the existence of a linear instability followed by a coarsening dynamics and finally the onset of a fingering pattern. Due to the different operating conditions, both experiments strongly differ by the spatial and time scales involved. Nevertheless, the quantitative agreement between the stability diagram, the wavelengths selected and the avalanche morphology suggest a common scenario for an erosion/deposition process.

  7. Finger Injuries in Football and Rugby.

    PubMed

    Elzinga, Kate E; Chung, Kevin C

    2017-02-01

    Football and rugby athletes are at increased risk of finger injuries given the full-contact nature of these sports. Some players may return to play early with protective taping, splinting, and casting. Others require a longer rehabilitation period and prolonged time away from the field. The treating hand surgeon must weigh the benefits of early return to play for the current season and future playing career against the risks of reinjury and long-term morbidity, including post-traumatic arthritis and decreased range of motion and strength. Each player must be comprehensively assessed and managed with an individualized treatment plan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of the POZ zinc finger transcription factor FBI-1 in human and murine adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Laudes, Matthias; Christodoulides, Constantinos; Sewter, Ciaran; Rochford, Justin J; Considine, Robert V; Sethi, Jaswinder K; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; O'Rahilly, Stephen

    2004-03-19

    Poxvirus zinc finger (POZ) zinc finger domain transcription factors have been shown to play a role in the control of growth arrest and differentiation in several types of mesenchymal cells but not, as yet, adipocytes. We found that a POZ domain protein, factor that binds to inducer of short transcripts-1 (FBI-1), was induced during both murine and human preadipocyte differentiation with maximal expression levels seen at days 2-4. FBI-1 mRNA was expressed in human adipose tissue with the highest levels found in samples from morbidly obese subjects. Murine cell lines constitutively expressing FBI-1 showed evidence for accelerated adipogenesis with earlier induction of markers of differentiation and enhanced lipid accumulation, suggesting that FBI-1 may be an active participant in the differentiation process. Consistent with the properties of this family of proteins in other cell systems, 3T3L1 cells stably overexpressing FBI-1 showed reduced DNA synthesis and reduced expression of cyclin A, cyclin-dependent kinase 2, and p107, proteins known to be involved in the regulation of mitotic clonal expansion. In addition, FBI-1 reduced the transcriptional activity of the cyclin A promoter. Thus, FBI-1, a POZ zinc finger transcription factor, is induced during the early phases of human and murine preadipocyte differentiation where it may contribute to adipogenesis through influencing the switch from cellular proliferation to terminal differentiation.

  9. Role of the POZ Zinc Finger Transcription Factor FBI-1 in Human and Murine Adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Laudes, Matthias; Christodoulides, Constantinos; Sewter, Ciaran; Rochford, Justin J.; Considine, Robert V.; Sethi, Jaswinder K.; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; O’Rahilly, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Poxvirus zinc finger (POZ) zinc finger domain transcription factors have been shown to play a role in the control of growth arrest and differentiation in several types of mesenchymal cells but not, as yet, adipocytes. We found that a POZ domain protein, factor that binds to inducer of short transcripts-1 (FBI-1), was induced during both murine and human preadipocyte differentiation with maximal expression levels seen at days 2–4. FBI-1 mRNA was expressed in human adipose tissue with the highest levels found in samples from morbidly obese subjects. Murine cell lines constitutively expressing FBI-1 showed evidence for accelerated adipogenesis with earlier induction of markers of differentiation and enhanced lipid accumulation, suggesting that FBI-1 may be an active participant in the differentiation process. Consistent with the properties of this family of proteins in other cell systems, 3T3L1 cells stably overexpressing FBI-1 showed reduced DNA synthesis and reduced expression of cyclin A, cyclin-dependent kinase 2, and p107, proteins known to be involved in the regulation of mitotic clonal expansion. In addition, FBI-1 reduced the transcriptional activity of the cyclin A promoter. Thus, FBI-1, a POZ zinc finger transcription factor, is induced during the early phases of human and murine preadipocyte differentiation where it may contribute to adipogenesis through influencing the switch from cellular proliferation to terminal differentiation. PMID:14701838

  10. Vertical Finger Displacement Is Reduced in Index Finger Tapping During Repeated Bout Rate Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Mora-Jensen, Mark Holten; Madeleine, Pascal; Hansen, Ernst Albin

    2017-10-01

    The present study analyzed (a) whether a recently reported phenomenon of repeated bout rate enhancement in finger tapping (i.e., a cumulating increase in freely chosen finger tapping frequency following submaximal muscle activation in the form of externally unloaded voluntary tapping) could be replicated and (b) the hypotheses that the faster tapping was accompanied by changed vertical displacement of the fingertip and changed peak force during tapping. Right-handed, healthy, and recreationally active individuals (n = 24) performed two 3-min index finger tapping bouts at freely chosen tapping frequency, separated by 10-min rest. The recently reported phenomenon of repeated bout rate enhancement was replicated. The faster tapping (8.8 ± 18.7 taps/min, corresponding to 6.0 ± 11.0%, p = .033) was accompanied by reduced vertical displacement (1.6 ± 2.9 mm, corresponding to 6.3 ± 14.9%, p = .012) of the fingertip. Concurrently, peak force was unchanged. The present study points at separate control mechanisms governing kinematics and kinetics during finger tapping.

  11. Extrinsic versus intrinsic hand muscle dominance in finger flexion.

    PubMed

    Al-Sukaini, A; Singh, H P; Dias, J J

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to identify the patterns of dominance of extrinsic or intrinsic muscles in finger flexion during initiation of finger curl and mid-finger flexion. We recorded 82 hands of healthy individuals (18-74 years) while flexing their fingers and tracked the finger joint angles of the little finger using video motion tracking. A total of 57 hands (69.5%) were classified as extrinsic dominant, where the finger flexion was initiated and maintained at proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joints. A total of 25 (30.5%) were classified as intrinsic dominant, where the finger flexion was initiated and maintained at the metacarpophalangeal joint. The distribution of age, sex, dominance, handedness and body mass index was similar in the two groups. This knowledge may allow clinicians to develop more efficient rehabilitation regimes, since intrinsic dominant individuals would not initiate extrinsic muscle contraction till later in finger flexion, and might therefore be allowed limited early active motion. For extrinsic dominant individuals, by contrast, initial contraction of extrinsic muscles would place increased stress on the tendon repair site if early motion were permitted. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Finger-Vein Verification Based on Multi-Features Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Huafeng; Qin, Lan; Xue, Lian; He, Xiping; Yu, Chengbo; Liang, Xinyuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new scheme to improve the performance of finger-vein identification systems. Firstly, a vein pattern extraction method to extract the finger-vein shape and orientation features is proposed. Secondly, to accommodate the potential local and global variations at the same time, a region-based matching scheme is investigated by employing the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) matching method. Finally, the finger-vein shape, orientation and SIFT features are combined to further enhance the performance. The experimental results on databases of 426 and 170 fingers demonstrate the consistent superiority of the proposed approach. PMID:24196433

  13. Numerical Simulations and an Experimental Investigation of a Finger Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Minel; Pierson, Hazel; Li, H.; Dong, Dingeng

    2006-01-01

    Besides sealing, the other main goal of a successful finger seal design is to exhibit appropriate compliance to outside forces. The ability of the seal to ride or float along the rotor without rubbing or excessive heating is essential to the successful operation of the seal. The compliance of the finger must only occur in the radial plane; The seal needs to be as sturdy as possible in the axial direction. The compliant finger that moves radially outward with rotor growth and motion has to be able to ride the rotor back down as the rotor diameter recovers or the rotor moves "away". Thus there is an optimum stiffness for the finger.

  14. EPR spectroscopic investigation of psoriatic finger nails.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Kouichi; Minakawa, Satoko; Sawamura, Daisuke

    2013-11-01

    Nail lesions are common features of psoriasis and found in almost half of the patients. However, there is no feasible spectroscopic method evaluating changes and severity of nail psoriasis. EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) might be feasible for evaluating nail conditions in the patients of psoriasis. Finger nails of five cases with nail psoriasis, (three females and two males) were examined. Nail samples were subjected to the EPR assay. The small piece of the finger nail (1.5 × 5 mm(2)) was incubated in ~50 μM 5-DSA (5-doxylstearic acid) aqueous solutions for about 60 min at 37°C. After rinsing and wiping off the excess 5-DSA solution, the nail samples were measured by EPR. EPR spectra were analyzed using the intensity ratio (Fast/Slow) of the two motions at the peaks of the lower magnetic field. We observed two distinguishable sites on the basis of the EPR results. In addition, the modern EPR calculation was performed to analyze the spectra obtained. The nail psoriasis-related region is 2~3 times higher than that of the control. The present EPR results show that there are two distinguishable sites in the nail. In the case of nail psoriasis, the fragile components are 2~3 times more than those of the control. Thus, the EPR method is thought to be a novel and reliable method of evaluating the nail psoriasis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Finger-Powered Electro-Digital-Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Peng, Cheng; Ju, Y Sungtaek

    2017-01-01

    Portable microfluidic devices are promising for point-of-care (POC) diagnosis and bio- and environmental surveillance in resource-constrained or non-laboratory environments. Lateral-flow devices, some built off paper or strings, have been widely developed but the fixed layouts of their underlying wicking/microchannel structures limit their flexibility and present challenges in implementing multistep reactions. Digital microfluidics can circumvent these difficulties by addressing discrete droplets individually. Existing approaches to digital microfluidics, however, often require bulky power supplies/batteries and high voltage circuits. We present a scheme to drive digital microfluidic devices by converting mechanical energy of human fingers to electrical energy using an array of piezoelectric elements. We describe the integration our scheme into two promising digital microfluidics platforms: one based on the electro-wetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) phenomenon and the other on the electrophoretic control of droplet (EPD). Basic operations of droplet manipulations, such as droplet transport, merging and splitting, are demonstrated using the finger-powered digital-microfluidics.

  16. Teleoperation of Robonaut Using Finger Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Champoux, Rachel G.; Luo, Victor

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of new finger tracking systems, the idea of a more expressive and intuitive user interface is being explored and implemented. One practical application for this new kind of interface is that of teleoperating a robot. For humanoid robots, a finger tracking interface is required due to the level of complexity in a human-like hand, where a joystick isn't accurate. Moreover, for some tasks, using one's own hands allows the user to communicate their intentions more effectively than other input. The purpose of this project was to develop a natural user interface for someone to teleoperate a robot that is elsewhere. Specifically, this was designed to control Robonaut on the international space station to do tasks too dangerous and/or too trivial for human astronauts. This interface was developed by integrating and modifying 3Gear's software, which includes a library of gestures and the ability to track hands. The end result is an interface in which the user can manipulate objects in real time in the user interface. then, the information is relayed to a simulator, the stand in for Robonaut, at a slight delay.

  17. Rehabilitation for bilateral amputation of fingers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Stapanian, Adrienne M.P.; Staley, Keith E.

    2010-01-01

    We describe reconstructive surgeries, therapy, prostheses, and adaptations for a patient who experienced bilateral amputation of all five fingers of both hands through the proximal phalanges in January 1992. The patient made considerable progress in the use of his hands in the 10 mo after amputation, including nearly a 120% increase in the active range of flexion of metacarpophalangeal joints. In late 1992 and early 1993, the patient had "on-top plasty" surgeries, in which the index finger remnants were transferred onto the thumb stumps, performed on both hands. The increased web space and functional pinch resulting from these procedures made many tasks much easier. The patient and occupational therapists set challenging goals at all times. Moreover, the patient was actively involved in the design and fabrication of all prostheses and adaptations or he developed them himself. Although he was discharged from occupational therapy in 1997, the patient continues to actively find new solutions for prehension and grip strength 18 yr after amputation.

  18. Lipid Gymnastics: Tethers and Fingers in membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayebi, Lobat; Miller, Gregory; Parikh, Atul

    2009-03-01

    A significant body of evidence now links local mesoscopic structure (e.g., shape and composition) of the cell membrane with its function; the mechanisms by which cellular membranes adopt the specific shapes remain poorly understood. Among all the different structures adopted by cellular membranes, the tubular shape is one of the most surprising one. While their formation is typically attributed to the reorganization of membrane cytoskeleton, many exceptions exist. We report the instantaneous formation of tubular membrane mesophases following the hydration under specific thermal conditions. The shapes emerge in a bimodal way where we have two distinct diameter ranges for tubes, ˜20μm and ˜1μm, namely fat fingers and narrow tethers. We study the roughening of hydrated drops of 3 lipids in 3 different spontaneous curvatures at various temp. and ionic strength to figure out the dominant effect in selection of tethers and fingers. Dynamics of the tubes are of particular interest where we observe four distinct steps of birth, coiling, uncoiling and retraction with different lifetime on different thermal condition. These dynamics appear to reflect interplay between membrane elasticity, surface adhesion, and thermal or hydrodynamic gradient.

  19. Oxidation-Mediated Fingering in Liquid Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaker, Collin B.; Hight, David C.; O'Regan, John D.; Dickey, Michael D.; Daniels, Karen E.

    2017-10-01

    We identify and characterize a new class of fingering instabilities in liquid metals; these instabilities are unexpected due to the large interfacial tension of metals. Electrochemical oxidation lowers the effective interfacial tension of a gallium-based liquid metal alloy to values approaching zero, thereby inducing drastic shape changes, including the formation of fractals. The measured fractal dimension (D =1.3 ±0.05 ) places the instability in a different universality class than other fingering instabilities. By characterizing changes in morphology and dynamics as a function of droplet volume and applied electric potential, we identify the three main forces involved in this process: interfacial tension, gravity, and oxidative stress. Importantly, we find that electrochemical oxidation can generate compressive interfacial forces that oppose the tensile forces at a liquid interface. The surface oxide layer ultimately provides a physical and electrochemical barrier that halts the instabilities at larger positive potentials. Controlling the competition between interfacial tension and oxidative (compressive) stresses at the interface is important for the development of reconfigurable electronic, electromagnetic, and optical devices that take advantage of the metallic properties of liquid metals.

  20. Fractal Viscous Fingering in Fracture Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, E.; Sams, W.; Ferer, M.; Smith, D. H.

    2007-12-01

    We have used two very different physical models and computer codes to study miscible injection of a low- viscosity fluid into a simple fracture network, where it displaces a much-more viscous "defending" fluid through "rock" that is otherwise impermeable. The one code (NETfLow) is a standard pore level model, originally intended to treat laboratory-scale experiments; it assumes negligible mixing of the two fluids. The other code (NFFLOW) was written to treat reservoir-scale engineering problems; It explicitly treats the flow through the fractures and allows for significant mixing of the fluids at the interface. Both codes treat the fractures as parallel plates, of different effective apertures. Results are presented for the composition profiles from both codes. Independent of the degree of fluid-mixing, the profiles from both models have a functional form identical to that for fractal viscous fingering (i.e., diffusion limited aggregation, DLA). The two codes that solve the equations for different models gave similar results; together they suggest that the injection of a low-viscosity fluid into large- scale fracture networks may be much more significantly affected by fractal fingering than previously illustrated.

  1. A stress-associated protein, AtSAP13, from Arabidopsis thaliana provides tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Anirudha; Tomar, Parul; Vaine, Evan; Abdullah, Hesham; Hazen, Samuel; Dhankher, Om Parkash

    2018-05-01

    Members of Stress-Associated Protein (SAP) family in plants have been shown to impart tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses, however, their mode of action in providing tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses is largely unknown. There are 14 SAP genes in Arabidopsis thaliana containing A20, AN1, and Cys2-His2 zinc finger domains. AtSAP13, a member of the SAP family, carries two AN1 zinc finger domains and an additional Cys2-His2 domain. AtSAP13 transcripts showed upregulation in response to Cd, ABA, and salt stresses. AtSAP13 overexpression lines showed strong tolerance to toxic metals (AsIII, Cd, and Zn), drought, and salt stress. Further, transgenic lines accumulated significantly higher amounts of Zn, but less As and Cd accumulation in shoots and roots. AtSAP13 promoter-GUS fusion studies showed GUS expression predominantly in the vascular tissue, hydathodes, and the apical meristem and region of root maturation and elongation as well as the root hairs. At the subcellular level, the AtSAP13-eGFP fusion protein was found to localize in both nucleus and cytoplasm. Through yeast one-hybrid assay, we identified several AP2/EREBP family transcription factors that interacted with the AtSAP13 promoter. AtSAP13 and its homologues will be highly useful for developing climate resilient crops. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Transcriptome wide identification and characterization of starch branching enzyme in finger millet.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Rajhans; Tiwari, Apoorv; Garg, Vijay Kumar; Gupta, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    Starch-branching enzymes (SBEs) are one of the four major enzyme classes involved in starch biosynthesis in plants and play an important role in determining the structure and physical properties of starch granules. Multiple SBEs are involved in starch biosynthesis in plants. Finger millet is calcium rich important serial crop belongs to grass family and the transcriptome data of developing spikes is available on NCBI. In this study it was try to find out the gene sequence of starch branching enzyme and annotate the sequence and submit the sequence for further use. Rice SBE sequence was taken as reference and for characterization of the sequence different in silico tools were used. Four domains were found in the finger millet Starch branching enzyme like alpha amylase catalytic domain from 925 to2172 with E value 0, N-terminal Early set domain from 634 to 915 with E value 1.62 e-42, Alpha amylase, C-terminal all-beta domain from 2224 to 2511 with E value 5.80e-24 and 1,4-alpha-glucan-branching enzyme from 421 to 2517 with E value 0. Major binding interactions with the GLC (alpha-d-glucose), CA (calcium ion), GOL (glycerol), TRS (2-amino-2-hydroxymethylpropane- 1, 3-diol), MG (magnesium ion) and FLC (citrate anion) are fond with different residues. It was found in the phylogenetic study of the finger millet SBE with the 6 species of grass family that two clusters were form A and B. In cluster A, finger millet showed closeness with Oryzasativa and Setariaitalica, Sorghum bicolour and Zea mays while cluster B was formed with Triticumaestivum and Brachypodium distachyon. The nucleotide sequence of Finger millet SBE was submitted to NCBI with the accession no KY648913 and protein structure of SBE of finger millet was also submitted in PMDB with the PMDB id - PM0080938. This research presents a comparative overview of Finger millet SBE and includes their properties, structural and functional characteristics, and recent developments on their post-translational regulation.

  3. Finger movement at birth in brachial plexus birth palsy

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Rahul K; Benyahia, Mohamed; Somasundaram, Chandra

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether the finger movement at birth is a better predictor of the brachial plexus birth injury. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study reviewing pre-surgical records of 87 patients with residual obstetric brachial plexus palsy in study 1. Posterior subluxation of the humeral head (PHHA), and glenoid retroversion were measured from computed tomography or Magnetic resonance imaging, and correlated with the finger movement at birth. The study 2 consisted of 141 obstetric brachial plexus injury patients, who underwent primary surgeries and/or secondary surgery at the Texas Nerve and Paralysis Institute. Information regarding finger movement was obtained from the patient’s parent or guardian during the initial evaluation. RESULTS: Among 87 patients, 9 (10.3%) patients who lacked finger movement at birth had a PHHA > 40%, and glenoid retroversion < -12°, whereas only 1 patient (1.1%) with finger movement had a PHHA > 40%, and retroversion < -8° in study 1. The improvement in glenohumeral deformity (PHHA, 31.8% ± 14.3%; and glenoid retroversion 22.0° ± 15.0°) was significantly higher in patients, who have not had any primary surgeries and had finger movement at birth (group 1), when compared to those patients, who had primary surgeries (nerve and muscle surgeries), and lacked finger movement at birth (group 2), (PHHA 10.7% ± 15.8%; Version -8.0° ± 8.4°, P = 0.005 and P = 0.030, respectively) in study 2. No finger movement at birth was observed in 55% of the patients in this study group. CONCLUSION: Posterior subluxation and glenoid retroversion measurements indicated significantly severe shoulder deformities in children with finger movement at birth, in comparison with those lacked finger movement. However, the improvement after triangle tilt surgery was higher in patients who had finger movement at birth. PMID:23362472

  4. Conformational Analysis on structural perturbations of the zinc finger NEMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godwin, Ryan; Salsbury, Freddie; Salsbury Group Team

    2014-03-01

    The NEMO (NF-kB Essential Modulator) Zinc Finger protein (2jvx) is a functional Ubiquitin-binding domain, and plays a role in signaling pathways for immune/inflammatory responses, apoptosis, and oncogenesis [Cordier et al., 2008]. Characterized by 3 cysteines and 1 histidine residue at the active site, the biologically occurring, bound zinc configuration is a stable structural motif. Perturbations of the zinc binding residues suggest conformational changes in the 423-atom protein characterized via analysis of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. Structural perturbations include simulations with and without a zinc ion and with and without de-protonated cysteines, resulting in four distinct configurations. Simulations of various time scales show consistent results, yet the longest, GPU driven, microsecond runs show more drastic structural and dynamic fluctuations when compared to shorter duration time-scales. The last cysteine residue (26 of 28) and the helix on which it resides exhibit a secondary, locally unfolded conformation in addition to its normal bound conformation. Combined analytics elucidate how the presence of zinc and/or protonated cysteines impact the dynamics and energetic fluctuations of NEMO. Comprehensive Cancer Center of Wake Forest University Computational Biosciences shared resource supported by NCI CCSG P30CA012197.

  5. Binding Site Configurations Probe the Structure and Dynamics of the Zinc Finger of NEMO (NF-κB Essential Modulator).

    PubMed

    Godwin, Ryan C; Melvin, Ryan L; Gmeiner, William H; Salsbury, Freddie R

    2017-01-31

    Zinc-finger proteins are regulators of critical signaling pathways for various cellular functions, including apoptosis and oncogenesis. Here, we investigate how binding site protonation states and zinc coordination influence protein structure, dynamics, and ultimately function, as these pivotal regulatory proteins are increasingly important for protein engineering and therapeutic discovery. To better understand the thermodynamics and dynamics of the zinc finger of NEMO (NF-κB essential modulator), as well as the role of zinc, we present results of 20 μs molecular dynamics trajectories, 5 μs for each of four active site configurations. Consistent with experimental evidence, the zinc ion is essential for mechanical stabilization of the functional, folded conformation. Hydrogen bond motifs are unique for deprotonated configurations yet overlap in protonated cases. Correlated motions and principal component analysis corroborate the similarity of the protonated configurations and highlight unique relationships of the zinc-bound configuration. We hypothesize a potential mechanism for zinc binding from results of the thiol configurations. The deprotonated, zinc-bound configuration alone predominantly maintains its tertiary structure throughout all 5 μs and alludes rare conformations potentially important for (im)proper zinc-finger-related protein-protein or protein-DNA interactions.

  6. Robust finger vein ROI localization based on flexible segmentation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yu; Xie, Shan Juan; Yoon, Sook; Yang, Jucheng; Park, Dong Sun

    2013-10-24

    Finger veins have been proved to be an effective biometric for personal identification in the recent years. However, finger vein images are easily affected by influences such as image translation, orientation, scale, scattering, finger structure, complicated background, uneven illumination, and collection posture. All these factors may contribute to inaccurate region of interest (ROI) definition, and so degrade the performance of finger vein identification system. To improve this problem, in this paper, we propose a finger vein ROI localization method that has high effectiveness and robustness against the above factors. The proposed method consists of a set of steps to localize ROIs accurately, namely segmentation, orientation correction, and ROI detection. Accurate finger region segmentation and correct calculated orientation can support each other to produce higher accuracy in localizing ROIs. Extensive experiments have been performed on the finger vein image database, MMCBNU_6000, to verify the robustness of the proposed method. The proposed method shows the segmentation accuracy of 100%. Furthermore, the average processing time of the proposed method is 22 ms for an acquired image, which satisfies the criterion of a real-time finger vein identification system.

  7. Rediscovering Ruth Faison Shaw and Her Finger-Painting Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Veronica

    2005-01-01

    Ruth Faison Shaw was an art educator who developed a nontraditional educational perspective of teaching and a different vision about children's art. As such, she is considered by some to be the initiator of finger-painting in America (The History of Art Education Timeline 1930-1939, 2002.) Shaw developed the technique of finger-painting and a…

  8. Automated Finger Spelling by Highly Realistic 3D Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamo-Villani, Nicoletta; Beni, Gerardo

    2004-01-01

    We present the design of a new 3D animation tool for self-teaching (signing and reading) finger spelling the first basic component in learning any sign language. We have designed a highly realistic hand with natural animation of the finger motions. Smoothness of motion (in real time) is achieved via programmable blending of animation segments. The…

  9. Number magnitude to finger mapping is disembodied and topological.

    PubMed

    Plaisier, Myrthe A; Smeets, Jeroen B J

    2011-03-01

    It has been shown that humans associate fingers with numbers because finger counting strategies interact with numerical judgements. At the same time, there is evidence that there is a relation between number magnitude and space as small to large numbers seem to be represented from left to right. In the present study, we investigated whether number magnitude to finger mapping is embodied (related to the order of fingers on the hand) or disembodied (spatial). We let healthy human volunteers name random numbers between 1 and 30, while simultaneously tapping a random finger. Either the hands were placed directly next to each other, 30 cm apart, or the hands were crossed such that the left hand was on the right side of the body mid-line. The results show that naming a smaller number than the previous one was associated with tapping a finger to the left of the previously tapped finger. This shows that there is a spatial (disembodied) mapping between number magnitude and fingers. Furthermore, we show that this mapping is topological rather than metrically scaled.

  10. Robust Finger Vein ROI Localization Based on Flexible Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yu; Xie, Shan Juan; Yoon, Sook; Yang, Jucheng; Park, Dong Sun

    2013-01-01

    Finger veins have been proved to be an effective biometric for personal identification in the recent years. However, finger vein images are easily affected by influences such as image translation, orientation, scale, scattering, finger structure, complicated background, uneven illumination, and collection posture. All these factors may contribute to inaccurate region of interest (ROI) definition, and so degrade the performance of finger vein identification system. To improve this problem, in this paper, we propose a finger vein ROI localization method that has high effectiveness and robustness against the above factors. The proposed method consists of a set of steps to localize ROIs accurately, namely segmentation, orientation correction, and ROI detection. Accurate finger region segmentation and correct calculated orientation can support each other to produce higher accuracy in localizing ROIs. Extensive experiments have been performed on the finger vein image database, MMCBNU_6000, to verify the robustness of the proposed method. The proposed method shows the segmentation accuracy of 100%. Furthermore, the average processing time of the proposed method is 22 ms for an acquired image, which satisfies the criterion of a real-time finger vein identification system. PMID:24284769

  11. Finger vein extraction using gradient normalization and principal curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Joon Hwan; Song, Wonseok; Kim, Taejeong; Lee, Seung-Rae; Kim, Hee Chan

    2009-02-01

    Finger vein authentication is a personal identification technology using finger vein images acquired by infrared imaging. It is one of the newest technologies in biometrics. Its main advantage over other biometrics is the low risk of forgery or theft, due to the fact that finger veins are not normally visible to others. Extracting finger vein patterns from infrared images is the most difficult part in finger vein authentication. Uneven illumination, varying tissues and bones, and changes in the physical conditions and the blood flow make the thickness and brightness of the same vein different in each acquisition. Accordingly, extracting finger veins at their accurate positions regardless of their thickness and brightness is necessary for accurate personal identification. For this purpose, we propose a new finger vein extraction method which is composed of gradient normalization, principal curvature calculation, and binarization. As local brightness variation has little effect on the curvature and as gradient normalization makes the curvature fairly uniform at vein pixels, our method effectively extracts finger vein patterns regardless of the vein thickness or brightness. In our experiment, the proposed method showed notable improvement as compared with the existing methods.

  12. Population Structure and Diversity in Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana) Germplasm.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A genotypic analysis of 79 finger millet accessions (E. coracana subsp. coracana) from 11 African and 5 Asian countries, plus 14 wild E. coracana subsp. africana lines collected in Uganda and Kenya was conducted with 45 SSR markers distributed across the finger millet genome. Phylogenetic and popula...

  13. Evaluation of finger plate and flat plate connection design.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-01-01

    This project investigates the cause(s) of premature deterioration of MoDOT finger plate and flat plate expansion devices : under high traffic volumes and then uses that information to design new Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) : finger plate...

  14. Finger impedance evaluation by means of hand exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Fiorilla, Angelo Emanuele; Nori, Francesco; Masia, Lorenzo; Sandini, Giulio

    2011-12-01

    Modulation of arm mechanical impedance is a fundamental aspect for interaction with the external environment and its regulation is essential for stability preservation during manipulation. Even though past research on human arm movements has suggested that models of human finger impedance would benefit the study of neural control mechanisms and the design of novel hand prostheses, relatively few studies have focused on finger and hand impedance. This article touches on the two main aspects of this research topic: first it introduces a mechanical refinement of a device that can be used to effectively measure finger impedance during manipulation tasks; then, it describes a pilot study aimed at identifying the inertia of the finger and the viscous and elastic properties of finger muscles. The proposed wearable exoskeleton, which has been designed to measure finger posture and impedance modulation while leaving the palm free, is capable of applying fast displacements while monitoring the interaction forces between the human finger and the robotic links. Moreover, due to the relatively small inertia of the fingers, it allows us to meet some stringent specifications, performing relatively large displacements (~45°) before the stretch reflex intervenes (~25 ms). The results of measurements on five subjects show that inertia, damping, and stiffness can be effectively identified and that the parameters obtained are comparable with values from previous studies.

  15. 21 CFR 890.5410 - Powered finger exerciser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered finger exerciser. 890.5410 Section 890.5410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5410 Powered finger...

  16. 21 CFR 890.5410 - Powered finger exerciser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Powered finger exerciser. 890.5410 Section 890.5410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5410 Powered finger...

  17. 21 CFR 890.5410 - Powered finger exerciser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Powered finger exerciser. 890.5410 Section 890.5410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5410 Powered finger...

  18. 21 CFR 890.5410 - Powered finger exerciser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Powered finger exerciser. 890.5410 Section 890.5410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5410 Powered finger...

  19. 21 CFR 890.5410 - Powered finger exerciser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Powered finger exerciser. 890.5410 Section 890.5410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5410 Powered finger...

  20. Evaluation of the nutritional characteristics of a finger millet based complementary food.

    PubMed

    Mbithi-Mwikya, Stephen; Van Camp, John; Mamiro, Peter R S; Ooghe, Wilfried; Kolsteren, Patrick; Huyghebaert, Andre

    2002-05-08

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana), kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), peanuts (Arachis hypogoea), and mango (Mangifera indica) were processed separately and then combined, on the basis of their amino acid scores and energy content, into a complementary food for children of weaning age. The finger millet and kidney beans were processed by germination, autoclaving, and lactic acid fermentation. A mixture containing, on a dry matter basis, 65.2, 19.1, 8.0, and 7.7% of the processed finger millet, kidney beans, peanuts, and mango, respectively, gave a composite protein with an in vitro protein digestibility of 90.2% and an amino acid chemical score of 0.84. This mixture had an energy density of 16.3 kJ.g(-1) of dry matter and a decreased antinutrient content and showed a measurable improvement in the in vitro extractability for calcium, iron, and zinc. A 33% (w/v) pap made from a mix of the processed ingredients had an energy density of 5.4 kJ.g(-1) of pap, which is sufficient to meet the energy requirements of well-nourished children of 6-24 months of age at three servings a day and at the FAO average breast-feeding frequency.

  1. Dangers of neglect: partially embedded ring upon a finger.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anand; Edwards, Huw; Lidder, Surjit; Mestha, Prabhakar

    2013-05-09

    Digital swelling is a common presentation in clinical practice. Patients presenting with swollen fingers to the emergency department will often have rings on their finger, which can be removed using a variety of simple non-operative techniques or by cutting the ring off and thus avoiding any long-term consequences. Very rarely, when there is a delay in presentation of these patients, serious consequences may proceed, including finger ischaemia, infection, tendon attrition or ultimately the need for surgical amputation. We present an unusual case of patient with psychiatric illness who presented late with a ring that had embedded upon the volar aspect of the index finger. The difficulties faced by the emergency care practitioners in such circumstances, the consequences of rings acting as a tourniquet and strategies for removal of rings on swollen fingers are highlighted.

  2. Development of a CPM Machine for Injured Fingers.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yili; Zhang, Fuxiang; Ma, Xin; Meng, Qinggang

    2005-01-01

    Human fingers are easy to be injured. A CPM machine is a mechanism based on the rehabilitation theory of continuous passive motion (CPM). To develop a CPM machine for the clinic application in the rehabilitation of injured fingers is a significant task. Therefore, based on the theories of evidence based medicine (EBM) and CPM, we've developed a set of biomimetic mechanism after modeling the motions of fingers and analyzing its kinematics and dynamics analysis. We also design an embedded operating system based on ARM (a kind of 32-bit RISC microprocessor). The equipment can achieve the precise control of moving scope of fingers, finger's force and speed. It can serves as a rational checking method and a way of assessment for functional rehabilitation of human hands. Now, the first prototype has been finished and will start the clinical testing in Harbin Medical University shortly.

  3. A finger exoskeleton for rehabilitation and brain image study.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhenjin; Sugano, Shigeki; Iwata, Hiroyasu

    2013-06-01

    This paper introduces the design, fabrication and evaluation of the second generation prototype of a magnetic resonance compatible finger rehabilitation robot. It can not only be used as a finger rehabilitation training tool after a stroke, but also to study the brain's recovery process during the rehabilitation therapy (ReT). The mechanical design of the current generation has overcome the disadvantage in the previous version[13], which can't provide precise finger trajectories during flexion and extension motion varying with different finger joints' torques. In addition, in order to study the brain activation under different training strategies, three control modes have been developed, compared to only one control mode in the last prototype. The current prototype, like the last version, uses an ultrasonic motor as its actuator to enable the patient to do extension and flexion rehabilitation exercises in two degrees of freedom (DOF) for each finger. Finally, experiments have been carried out to evaluate the performances of this device.

  4. Manipulation of viscous fingering in a radially tapered cell geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongrand, Grégoire; Tsai, Peichun Amy

    2018-06-01

    When a more mobile fluid displaces another immiscible one in a porous medium, viscous fingering propagates with a partial sweep, which hinders oil recovery and soil remedy. We experimentally investigate the feasibility of tuning such fingering propagation in a nonuniform narrow passage with a radial injection, which is widely used in various applications. We show that a radially converging cell can suppress the common viscous fingering observed in a uniform passage, and a full sweep of the displaced fluid is then achieved. The injection flow rate Q can be further exploited to manipulate the viscous fingering instability. For a fixed gap gradient α , our experimental results show a full sweep at a small Q but partial displacement with fingering at a sufficient Q . Finally, by varying α , we identify and characterize the variation of the critical threshold between stable and unstable displacements. Our experimental results reveal good agreement with theoretical predictions by a linear stability analysis.

  5. Finger Injuries in Football and Rugby

    PubMed Central

    Elzinga, Kate E.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Football and rugby athletes are at increased risk of finger injuries given the full contact nature of these sports. Depending on the injury and the position played, some players may return to play early with protective taping, splinting, and casting. Other injuries, particularly in players requiring the full use of their hand for their position, require a longer rehabilitation period and prolonged time away from the field. The treating hand surgeon must carefully weigh the benefits of early return to play for the athlete’s current season and future playing career against the risks of re-injury and long-term morbidity, including post-traumatic arthritis and decreased range of motion and strength. Each player must be comprehensively assessed and managed with an individualized treatment plan. PMID:27886831

  6. Innervated boomerang flap for finger pulp reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Liang; Chiou, Tai-Fung

    2007-11-01

    The boomerang flap originates from the dorsolateral aspect of the proximal phalanx of an adjacent digit and is supplied by the retrograde blood flow through the vascular arcades between the dorsal and palmar digital arteries. To provide sensation of the boomerang flap for finger pulp reconstruction, the dorsal sensory branch of the proper digital nerve and the superficial sensory branch of the corresponding radial or ulnar nerve are included within the skin flap. After transfer of the flap to the injured site, epineural neurorrhaphies are done between the digital nerves of the pulp and the sensory branches of the flap. We used this sensory flap in five patients, with more than 1 year follow-up, and all patients achieved measurable two-points discrimination. The boomerang flap not only preserves the proper palmar digital artery but also provides an extended and innervated skin paddle. It seems to be an alternative choice for one-stage reconstruction of major pulp defect.

  7. Mechanics of finger-tip electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yewang; Li, Rui; Cheng, Huanyu; Ying, Ming; Bonifas, Andrew P.; Hwang, Keh-Chih; Rogers, John A.; Huang, Yonggang

    2013-10-01

    Tactile sensors and electrotactile stimulators can provide important links between humans and virtual environments, through the sensation of touch. Soft materials, such as low modulus silicones, are attractive as platforms and support matrices for arrays sensors and actuators that laminate directly onto the fingertips. Analytic models for the mechanics of three dimensional, form-fitting finger cuffs based on such designs are presented here, along with quantitative validation using the finite element method. The results indicate that the maximum strains in the silicone and the embedded devices are inversely proportional to the square root of radius of curvature of the cuff. These and other findings can be useful in formulating designs for these and related classes of body-worn, three dimensional devices.

  8. Phytochelatin Synthesis Promotes Leaf Zn Accumulation of Arabidopsis thaliana Plants Grown in Soil with Adequate Zn Supply and is Essential for Survival on Zn-Contaminated Soil.

    PubMed

    Kühnlenz, Tanja; Hofmann, Christian; Uraguchi, Shimpei; Schmidt, Holger; Schempp, Stefanie; Weber, Michael; Lahner, Brett; Salt, David E; Clemens, Stephan

    2016-11-01

    Phytochelatin (PC) synthesis is essential for the detoxification of non-essential metals such as cadmium (Cd). In vitro experiments with Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings had indicated a contribution to zinc (Zn) tolerance as well. We addressed the physiological role of PC synthesis in Zn homeostasis of plants under more natural conditions. Growth responses, PC accumulation and leaf ionomes of wild-type and AtPCS1 mutant plants cultivated in different soils representing adequate Zn supply, Zn deficiency and Zn excess were analyzed. Growth on Zn-contaminated soil triggers PC synthesis and is strongly impaired in PC-deficient mutants. In fact, the contribution of AtPCS1 to tolerating Zn excess is comparable with that of the major Zn tolerance factor MTP1. For plants supplied with a normal level of Zn, a significant reduction in leaf Zn accumulation of AtPCS1 mutants was detected. In contrast, AtPCS1 mutants grown under Zn-limited conditions showed wild-type levels of Zn accumulation, suggesting the operation of distinct Zn translocation pathways. Contrasting phenotypes of the tested AtPCS1 mutant alleles upon growth in Zn- or Cd-contaminated soil indicated differential activation of PC synthesis by these metals. Experiments with truncated versions identified a part of the AtPCS1 protein required for the activation by Zn but not by Cd. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Finger vein verification system based on sparse representation.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yang; Liu, Zhi; Zhang, Haixia; Zhang, Hong

    2012-09-01

    Finger vein verification is a promising biometric pattern for personal identification in terms of security and convenience. The recognition performance of this technology heavily relies on the quality of finger vein images and on the recognition algorithm. To achieve efficient recognition performance, a special finger vein imaging device is developed, and a finger vein recognition method based on sparse representation is proposed. The motivation for the proposed method is that finger vein images exhibit a sparse property. In the proposed system, the regions of interest (ROIs) in the finger vein images are segmented and enhanced. Sparse representation and sparsity preserving projection on ROIs are performed to obtain the features. Finally, the features are measured for recognition. An equal error rate of 0.017% was achieved based on the finger vein image database, which contains images that were captured by using the near-IR imaging device that was developed in this study. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is faster and more robust than previous methods.

  10. Management of the Stiff Finger: Evidence and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guang; McGlinn, Evan P.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    SYNOPSIS The term “stiff finger” refers to a reduction in the range of motion in the finger, and it is a condition that has many different causes and involves a number of different structures. Almost all injuries of the fingers and some diseases can cause finger stiffness. Hand surgeons often face difficulty treating stiff fingers that are affected by irreversible soft tissues fibrosis. Stiff fingers can be divided into flexion and extension deformities. They can also be sub-classified into four categories according to the involved tissues extending from the skin to the joint capsule. Prevention of stiff fingers by judicious mobilization of the joints is prudent to avoid more complicated treatment after established stiffness occurs. Static progressive and dynamic splints have been considered as effective non-operative interventions to treat stiff fingers. Most authors believe force of joint distraction and time duration of stretching are two important factors to consider while applying a splint or cast. We also introduce the concepts of capsulotomy and collateral ligament release and other soft tissue release of the MCP and PIP joint in this article. Future outcomes research is vital to assessing the effectiveness of these surgical procedures and guiding postoperative treatment recommendations. PMID:24996467

  11. Response to reflected-force feedback to fingers in teleoperations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, P. H.; Iatridis, J. C.; Thakor, N. V.

    1989-01-01

    Reflected-force feedback is an important aspect of teleoperations. The objective is to determine the ability of the human operator to respond to that force. Telerobotics operation is simulated by computer control of a motor-driven device with capabilities for programmable force feedback and force measurement. A computer-controlled motor drive is developed that provides forces against the fingers as well as (angular) position control. A load cell moves in a circular arc as it is pushed by a finger and measures reaction forces on the finger. The force exerted by the finger on the load cell and the angular position are digitized and recorded as a function of time by the computer. Flexure forces of the index, long and ring fingers of the human hand in opposition to the motor driven load cell are investigated. Results of the following experiments are presented: (1) Exertion of maximum finger force as a function of angle; (2) Exertion of target finger force against a computer controlled force; and (3) Test of the ability to move to a target force against a force that is a function of position. Averaged over ten individuals, the maximum force that could be exerted by the index or long finger is about 50 Newtons, while that of the ring finger is about 40 Newtons. From the tests of the ability of a subject to exert a target force, it was concluded that reflected-force feedback can be achieved with the direct kinesthetic perception of force without the use of tactile or visual clues.

  12. A hierarchical classification method for finger knuckle print recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Tao; Yang, Gongping; Yang, Lu

    2014-12-01

    Finger knuckle print has recently been seen as an effective biometric technique. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical classification method for finger knuckle print recognition, which is rooted in traditional score-level fusion methods. In the proposed method, we firstly take Gabor feature as the basic feature for finger knuckle print recognition and then a new decision rule is defined based on the predefined threshold. Finally, the minor feature speeded-up robust feature is conducted for these users, who cannot be recognized by the basic feature. Extensive experiments are performed to evaluate the proposed method, and experimental results show that it can achieve a promising performance.

  13. Surface electromyogram for the control of anthropomorphic teleoperator fingers.

    PubMed

    Gupta, V; Reddy, N P

    1996-01-01

    Growing importance of telesurgery has led to the need for the development of synergistic control of anthropomorphic teleoperators. Synergistic systems can be developed using direct biological control. The purpose of this study was to develop techniques for direct biocontrol of anthropomorphic teleoperators using surface electromyogram (EMG). A computer model of a two finger teleoperator was developed and controlled using surface EMG from the flexor digitorum superficialis during flexion-extension of the index finger. The results of the study revealed a linear relationship between the RMS EMG and the flexion-extension of the finger model. Therefore, surface EMG can be used as a direct biocontrol for teleoperators and in VR applications.

  14. Energy harvesting from mouse click of robot finger using piezoelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Youngsu; Hong, Jin; Lee, Jaemin; Park, Jung-Min; Kim, Keehoon

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of energy harvesting from the mouse click motion using a piezoelectric energy transducer. Specifically, we use a robotic finger to realize repeatable mouse click motion. The robotic finger wears a glove with a pocket for including the piezoelectric material as an energy transducer. We propose a model for the energy harvesting system through the inverse kinematic framework of parallel joints in the finger and the electromechanical coupling equations of the piezoelectric material. Experiments are performed to elucidate the effect of the load resistance and the mouse click motion on energy harvesting.

  15. Finger rafting: a generic instability of floating elastic sheets.

    PubMed

    Vella, Dominic; Wettlaufer, J S

    2007-02-23

    Colliding ice floes are often observed to form a series of interlocking fingers. We show that this striking phenomenon is not a result of some peculiar property of ice but rather a general and robust mechanical phenomenon reproducible in the laboratory with other floating materials. We determine the theoretical relationship between the width of the resulting fingers and the material's mechanical properties and present experimental results along with field observations to support the theory. The generality of this "finger rafting" suggests that analogous processes may be responsible for creating the large-scale structures observed at the boundaries between Earth's convergent tectonic plates.

  16. Expression of four phosphate transporter genes from Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) in response to mycorrhizal colonization and Pi stress.

    PubMed

    Pudake, Ramesh Namdeo; Mehta, Chandra Mohan; Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Sharma, Suvigya; Varma, Ajit; Sharma, Anil Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a vital nutrient for plant growth and development, and is absorbed in cells with the help of membrane-spanning inorganic phosphate transporter (Pht) protein. Symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) also helps in transporting P from the soil to plant and Pht proteins play an important role in it. To understand this phenomenon in Finger Mille plant, we have cloned four Pht genes from Finger millet, which shares the homology with Pht1 protein family of cereals. Expression pattern analysis during the AM infection indicated that EcPT4 gene was AM specific, and its expression was higher in roots where AM colonization percentage was high. The expression level of EcPT1-4 gene under the phosphorous (Pi) stress in seedlings was found to be consistent with its role in acquisition of phosphorus. Homology study of the EcPt proteins with Pht proteins of cereals shows close relationship. The findings of the study indicate that Pht1 family genes from finger millet can serve to be an important resource for the better understanding of phosphorus use efficiency.

  17. Effect of mechanical forces on finger nail curvature: an analysis of the effect of occupation on finger nails.

    PubMed

    Sano, Hitomi; Shionoya, Kaori; Ogawa, Rei

    2014-04-01

    We studied the relationship between mechanical force and nail curvature. The effect of different frequencies and strengths of mechanical force on nail curvature was assessed. In Study 1, 63 carpenters and 63 office workers were enrolled, and the configurations of their thumb nails were assessed by measuring the curve index (defined as nail height/width) and pinch strength. In Study 2, nail curvature and pinch strength of jazz bassists, who characteristically do not use the right fourth and fifth fingers but use the left fifth finger a lot, were compared. In Study 3, the thumb nail curvature and pinch strength of the dominant and nondominant sides of the 126 participants from Study 1 were compared. Study 1: Carpenters had a significantly lower mean thumb nail curve index and higher mean pinch strength. Study 2: The nails of the unused right fourth and fifth fingers were much more curved than the nails of the frequently used left fourth and fifth fingers. The pinch strength of the right fifth finger was much weaker than the pinch strength of the left fifth finger. Study 3: The dominant side had a significantly lower nail curve index and higher pinch strength. The frequency and strength of mechanical forces on finger nails significantly affect nail appearance. © 2014 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A radiopharmaceutical for pancreatic exocrine functional diagnosis: 62Zn-EDDA metabolism in pancreas.

    PubMed

    Fujibayashi, Y; Saji, H; Kawai, K; Unuma, Y; Miyata, S; Okuno, T; Hosotani, R; Inoue, K; Adachi, H; Horiuchi, K

    1986-01-01

    The metabolic pathway of radioactive 62Zn-EDDA (ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid), in the exocrine pancreas was studied with respect to that of endogenous Zn. In pancreatic duct cannulated dog, the secretion of intravenously injected exogenous 62Zn into pancreatic juice increased under the stimulation of CCK-PZ (pancreatic protein secretion stimulating hormone), which closely correlated to endogenous Zn. Moreover, in pancreatic juice, 62Zn as well as endogenous Zn was selectively bound to Zn-metalloenzymes, carboxypeptidase A and B. These results demonstrated the close correlation between the endogenous and the exogenously-administered Zn (62Zn-EDDA), as well as the high availability of 62Zn-EDDA as a marker of pancreatic function for the follow up of carboxypeptidase metabolism.

  19. Motif discovery with data mining in 3D protein structure databases: discovery, validation and prediction of the U-shape zinc binding ("Huf-Zinc") motif.

    PubMed

    Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Gao, He; Han, Hao; Baeten, Lies; Schymkowitz, Joost; Rousseau, Frederic; Zhang, Louxin; Eisenhaber, Frank

    2013-02-01

    Data mining in protein databases, derivatives from more fundamental protein 3D structure and sequence databases, has considerable unearthed potential for the discovery of sequence motif--structural motif--function relationships as the finding of the U-shape (Huf-Zinc) motif, originally a small student's project, exemplifies. The metal ion zinc is critically involved in universal biological processes, ranging from protein-DNA complexes and transcription regulation to enzymatic catalysis and metabolic pathways. Proteins have evolved a series of motifs to specifically recognize and bind zinc ions. Many of these, so called zinc fingers, are structurally independent globular domains with discontinuous binding motifs made up of residues mostly far apart in sequence. Through a systematic approach starting from the BRIX structure fragment database, we discovered that there exists another predictable subset of zinc-binding motifs that not only have a conserved continuous sequence pattern but also share a characteristic local conformation, despite being included in totally different overall folds. While this does not allow general prediction of all Zn binding motifs, a HMM-based web server, Huf-Zinc, is available for prediction of these novel, as well as conventional, zinc finger motifs in protein sequences. The Huf-Zinc webserver can be freely accessed through this URL (http://mendel.bii.a-star.edu.sg/METHODS/hufzinc/).

  20. The fibrous flexor sheaths of the fingers.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, M M; Amis, A A

    1988-01-01

    The structure of the digital fibrous flexor sheath was examined by dissection and histology. The presence of a specific system of named fibrous tissue bands, forming annular and cruciate pulleys, was noted confirming details which are well established in the surgical literature although not detailed by the anatomical texts. These pulleys were linked by thin parts of the sheath. When the inner aspect of the sheath was examined, it was found that it was not a continuous smooth surface, as depicted in both anatomical and surgical texts. The thin parts of the sheath often overlapped the free edges of the pulleys before attaching to their superficial aspects, so that the pulleys possessed free edges within the sheath. Forty eight cadaveric fingers were examined in order to determine the frequency of occurrence and sizes of these overlaps. The largest and most frequent overlap was found at the distal end of the A2 pulley (which attaches to the proximal phalanx). Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 (cont.) Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:3417546

  1. Examiner's finger-mounted fetal tissue oximetry.

    PubMed

    Kanayama, Naohiro; Niwayama, Masatsugu

    2014-06-01

    The best way to assess fetal condition is to observe the oxygen status of the fetus (as well as to assess the condition of infants, children, and adults). Previously, several fetal oximeters have been developed; however, no instrument has been utilized in clinical practice because of the low-capturing rate of the fetal oxygen saturation. To overcome the problem, we developed a doctor's finger-mounted fetal tissue oximeter, whose sensor volume is one hundredth of the conventional one. Additionally, we prepared transparent gloves. The calculation algorithm of the hemoglobin concentration was derived from the light propagation analysis based on the transport theory. We measured neonatal and fetal oxygen saturation (StO₂) with the new tissue oximeter. Neonatal StO₂ was measured at any position of the head regardless of amount of hair. Neonatal StO₂ was found to be around 77%. Fetal StO₂ was detected in every position of the fetal head during labor regardless of the presence of labor pain. Fetal StO₂ without labor pain was around 70% in the first stage of labor and around 60% in the second stage of labor. We concluded that our new concept of fetal tissue oximetry would be useful for detecting fetal StO₂ in any condition of the fetus.

  2. Control of viscous fingering by nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabet, Nasser; Hassanzadeh, Hassan; Abedi, Jalal

    2017-12-01

    A substantial viscosity increase by the addition of a low dose of nanoparticles to the base fluids can well influence the dynamics of viscous fingering. There is a lack of detailed theoretical studies that address the effect of the presence of nanoparticles on unstable miscible displacements. In this study, the impact of nonreactive nanoparticle presence on the stability and subsequent mixing of an originally unstable binary system is examined using linear stability analysis (LSA) and pseudospectral-based direct numerical simulations (DNS). We have parametrized the role of both nondepositing and depositing nanoparticles on the stability of miscible displacements using the developed static and dynamic parametric analyses. Our results show that nanoparticles have the potential to weaken the instabilities of an originally unstable system. Our LSA and DNS results also reveal that nondepositing nanoparticles can be used to fully stabilize an originally unstable front while depositing particles may act as temporary stabilizers whose influence diminishes in the course of time. In addition, we explain the existing inconsistencies concerning the effect of the nanoparticle diffusion coefficient on the dynamics of the system. This study provides a basis for further research on the application of nanoparticles for control of viscosity-driven instabilities.

  3. Examiner's finger-mounted fetal tissue oximetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanayama, Naohiro; Niwayama, Masatsugu

    2014-06-01

    The best way to assess fetal condition is to observe the oxygen status of the fetus (as well as to assess the condition of infants, children, and adults). Previously, several fetal oximeters have been developed; however, no instrument has been utilized in clinical practice because of the low-capturing rate of the fetal oxygen saturation. To overcome the problem, we developed a doctor's finger-mounted fetal tissue oximeter, whose sensor volume is one hundredth of the conventional one. Additionally, we prepared transparent gloves. The calculation algorithm of the hemoglobin concentration was derived from the light propagation analysis based on the transport theory. We measured neonatal and fetal oxygen saturation (StO2) with the new tissue oximeter. Neonatal StO was measured at any position of the head regardless of amount of hair. Neonatal StO was found to be around 77%. Fetal StO was detected in every position of the fetal head during labor regardless of the presence of labor pain. Fetal StO without labor pain was around 70% in the first stage of labor and around 60% in the second stage of labor. We concluded that our new concept of fetal tissue oximetry would be useful for detecting fetal StO in any condition of the fetus.

  4. Finger Length Ratios in Serbian Transsexuals

    PubMed Central

    Vujović, Svetlana; Popović, Srdjan; Mrvošević Marojević, Ljiljana; Ivović, Miomira; Tančić-Gajić, Milina; Stojanović, Miloš; Marina, Ljiljana V.; Barać, Marija; Barać, Branko; Kovačević, Milena; Duišin, Dragana; Barišić, Jasmina; Djordjević, Miroslav L.; Micić, Dragan

    2014-01-01

    Atypical prenatal hormone exposure could be a factor in the development of transsexualism. There is evidence that the 2nd and 4th digit ratio (2D : 4D) associates negatively with prenatal testosterone and positively with estrogens. The aim was to assess the difference in 2D : 4D between female to male transsexuals (FMT) and male to female transsexuals (MFT) and controls. We examined 42 MFT, 38 FMT, and 45 control males and 48 control females. Precise measurements were made by X-rays at the ventral surface of both hands from the basal crease of the digit to the tip using vernier calliper. Control male and female patients had larger 2D : 4D of the right hand when compared to the left hand. Control male's left hand ratio was lower than in control female's left hand. There was no difference in 2D : 4D between MFT and control males. MFT showed similar 2D : 4D of the right hand with control women indicating possible influencing factor in embryogenesis and consequently finger length changes. FMT showed the lowest 2D : 4D of the left hand when compared to the control males and females. Results of our study go in favour of the biological aetiology of transsexualism. PMID:24982993

  5. Differing roles for zinc fingers in DNA recognition: Structure of a six-finger transcription factor IIIA complex

    PubMed Central

    Nolte, Robert T.; Conlin, Rachel M.; Harrison, Stephen C.; Brown, Raymond S.

    1998-01-01

    The crystal structure of the six NH2-terminal zinc fingers of Xenopus laevis transcription factor IIIA (TFIIIA) bound with 31 bp of the 5S rRNA gene promoter has been determined at 3.1 Å resolution. Individual zinc fingers are positioned differently in the major groove and across the minor groove of DNA to span the entire length of the duplex. These results show how TFIIIA can recognize several separated DNA sequences by using fewer fingers than necessary for continuous winding in the major groove. PMID:9501194

  6. Modulation of mitochondrial function by endogenous Zn2+ pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sensi, Stefano L.; Ton-That, Dien; Sullivan, Patrick G.; Jonas, Elizabeth A.; Gee, Kyle R.; Kaczmarek, Leonard K.; Weiss, John H.

    2003-05-01

    Recent evidence suggests that intracellular Zn2+ accumulation contributes to the neuronal injury that occurs in epilepsy or ischemia in certain brain regions, including hippocampus, amygdala, and cortex. Although most attention has been given to the vesicular Zn2+ that is released into the synaptic space and may gain entry to postsynaptic neurons, recent studies have highlighted pools of intracellular Zn2+ that are mobilized in response to stimulation. One such Zn2+ pool is likely bound to cytosolic proteins, like metallothioneins. Applying imaging techniques to cultured cortical neurons, this study provides novel evidence for the presence of a mitochondrial pool distinct from the cytosolic protein or ligand-bound pool. These pools can be pharmacologically mobilized largely independently of each other, with Zn2+ release from one resulting in apparent net Zn2+ transfer to the other. Further studies found evidence for complex and potent effects of Zn2+ on isolated brain mitochondria. Submicromolar levels, comparable to those that might occur on strong mobili