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Sample records for zn ni cu

  1. Preparation of high-permeability NiCuZn ferrite.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jun; Yan, Mi

    2005-06-01

    Appropriate addition of CuO/V2O5 and the reduction of the granularity of the raw materials particle decrease the sintering temperature of NiZn ferrite from 1200 degrees C to 930 degrees C. Furthermore, the magnetic properties of the NiZn ferrite prepared at low temperature of 930 degrees C is superior to that of the NiZn ferrite prepared by sintering at high temperature of 1200 degrees C because the microstructure of the NiZn ferrite sintered at 930 degrees C is more uniform and compact than that of the NiZn ferrite sintered at 1200 degrees C. The high permeability of 1700 and relative loss coefficient tandelta/mu(i) of 9.0x10(-6) at 100 kHz was achieved in the (Ni0.17Zn0.63Cu0.20)Fe1.915O4 ferrite.

  2. Preparation of high-permeability NiCuZn ferrite*

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jun; Yan, Mi

    2005-01-01

    Appropriate addition of CuO/V2O5 and the reduction of the granularity of the raw materials particle decrease the sintering temperature of NiZn ferrite from 1200 °C to 930 °C. Furthermore, the magnetic properties of the NiZn ferrite prepared at low temperature of 930 °C is superior to that of the NiZn ferrite prepared by sintering at high temperature of 1200 °C because the microstructure of the NiZn ferrite sintered at 930 °C is more uniform and compact than that of the NiZn ferrite sintered at 1200 °C. The high permeability of 1700 and relative loss coefficient tanδ/μi of 9.0×10−6 at 100 kHz was achieved in the (Ni0.17Zn0.63Cu0.20)Fe1.915O4 ferrite. PMID:15909348

  3. Investigations on Cu2+-substituted Ni-Zn ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amarjeet; Kumar, Vinod

    2016-11-01

    CuxNi(1-x)/2Zn(1-x)/2Fe2O4 (x = 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5) nanoparticles were prepared by chemical co-precipitation method. The developed nanoparticles were characterized for structural properties by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. Peak position in the X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the single spinel phase of the developed particles. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy in mid-IR range showed the presence of characteristic absorption bands corresponding to octahedral and tetrahedral bonds in the spinel structure of prepared samples. Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) measurements showed a considerable weight loss in the developed samples above 700∘C. Frequency dependence of the electrical properties of the developed material pellets was studied in the frequency range of 1 kHz-5 MHz. Temperature dependence of the dielectric constant of Cu0.1Ni0.45Zn0.45Fe2O4 was studied at different temperatures, i.e. at 425, 450 and 475 K, in the frequency range of 1 kHz-5 MHz. It was found that the electrical conductivity decreases with increasing Cu2+ ion content while it increases with the increase in temperature.

  4. Colloidal synthesis of Cu-ZnO and Cu@CuNi-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals with controlled morphologies and multifunctional properties.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Deqian; Gong, Pingyun; Chen, Yuanzhi; Zhang, Qinfu; Xie, Qingshui; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2016-06-02

    Metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals have received extensive attention owing to their multiple functionalities which can find wide technological applications. The utilization of low-cost non-noble metals to construct novel metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals is important and meaningful for their large-scale applications. In this study, a facile solution approach is developed for the synthesis of Cu-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals with well-controlled morphologies, including nanomultipods, core-shell nanoparticles, nanopyramids and core-shell nanowires. In the synthetic strategy, Cu nanocrystals formed in situ serve as seeds for the heterogeneous nucleation and growth of ZnO, and it eventually forms various Cu-ZnO hetero-nanostructures under different reaction conditions. These hybrid nanocrystals possess well-defined and stable heterostructure junctions. The ultraviolet-visible-near infrared spectra reveal morphology-dependent surface plasmon resonance absorption of Cu and the band gap absorption of ZnO. Furthermore, we construct a novel Cu@CuNi-ZnO ternary hetero-nanostructure by incorporating the magnetic metal Ni into the pre-synthesized colloidal Cu nanocrystals. Such hybrid nanocrystals possess a magnetic Cu-Ni intermediate layer between the ZnO shell and the Cu core, and exhibit ferromagnetic/superparamagnetic properties which expand their functionalities. Finally, enhanced photocatalytic activities are observed in the as-prepared non-noble metal-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals. This study not only provides an economical way to prepare high-quality morphology-controlled Cu-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals for potential applications in the fields of photocatalysis and photovoltaic devices, but also opens up new opportunities in designing ternary non-noble metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals with multifunctionalities.

  5. Colloidal synthesis of Cu-ZnO and Cu@CuNi-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals with controlled morphologies and multifunctional properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Deqian; Gong, Pingyun; Chen, Yuanzhi; Zhang, Qinfu; Xie, Qingshui; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2016-06-01

    Metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals have received extensive attention owing to their multiple functionalities which can find wide technological applications. The utilization of low-cost non-noble metals to construct novel metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals is important and meaningful for their large-scale applications. In this study, a facile solution approach is developed for the synthesis of Cu-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals with well-controlled morphologies, including nanomultipods, core-shell nanoparticles, nanopyramids and core-shell nanowires. In the synthetic strategy, Cu nanocrystals formed in situ serve as seeds for the heterogeneous nucleation and growth of ZnO, and it eventually forms various Cu-ZnO hetero-nanostructures under different reaction conditions. These hybrid nanocrystals possess well-defined and stable heterostructure junctions. The ultraviolet-visible-near infrared spectra reveal morphology-dependent surface plasmon resonance absorption of Cu and the band gap absorption of ZnO. Furthermore, we construct a novel Cu@CuNi-ZnO ternary hetero-nanostructure by incorporating the magnetic metal Ni into the pre-synthesized colloidal Cu nanocrystals. Such hybrid nanocrystals possess a magnetic Cu-Ni intermediate layer between the ZnO shell and the Cu core, and exhibit ferromagnetic/superparamagnetic properties which expand their functionalities. Finally, enhanced photocatalytic activities are observed in the as-prepared non-noble metal-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals. This study not only provides an economical way to prepare high-quality morphology-controlled Cu-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals for potential applications in the fields of photocatalysis and photovoltaic devices, but also opens up new opportunities in designing ternary non-noble metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals with multifunctionalities.Metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals have received extensive attention owing to their multiple functionalities which can find wide technological applications

  6. Decreasing Ni, Cu, Cd, and Zn heavy metal magnetite-bentonite nanocomposites and adsorption isotherm study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskandari, M.; Zakeri Khatir, M.; Khodadadi Darban, A.; Meshkini, M.

    2018-04-01

    This present study was conducted to investigate the effect of magnetite-bentonite nanocomposite on heavy metal removal from an effluent. For this purpose, magnetite-bentonite nanocomposite was prepared through the chemical method and characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques, followed by studying the effect of produced nanocomposite on the removal of Ni2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+ heavy metal ions. The results showed that adsorption capacity of magnetite-bentonite nanocomposites for the studied ions is in the order of Zn2+ > Cd2+ > Cu2+ > Ni2+. Adsorption isotherms were drawn for Ni2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+ cations and found that cations adsorption on nanocomposite fit into Langmuir model.

  7. Behaviors of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in soil amended with composts.

    PubMed

    Gusiatin, Zygmunt Mariusz; Kulikowska, Dorota

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated how amendment with sewage sludge compost of different maturation times (3, 6, 12 months) affected metal (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) bioavailability, fractionation and redistribution in highly contaminated sandy clay soil. Metal transformations during long-term soil stabilization (35 months) were determined. In the contaminated soil, Cd, Ni and Zn were predominately in the exchangeable and reducible fractions, Pb in the reducible fraction and Cu in the reducible, exchangeable and oxidizable fractions. All composts decreased the bioavailability of Cd, Ni and Zn for up to 24 months, which indicates that cyclic amendment with compost is necessary. The bioavailability of Pb and Cu was not affected by compost amendment. Based on the reduced partition index (IR), metal stability in amended soil after 35 months of stabilization was in the following order: Cu > Ni = Pb > Zn > Cd. All composts were more effective in decreasing Cd, Ni and Zn bioavailability than in redistributing the metals, and increasing Cu redistribution more than that of Pb. Thus, sewage sludge compost of as little as 3 months maturation can be used for cyclic amendment of multi-metal-contaminated soil.

  8. Effect of Cu2+ substitution on the magnetic properties of co-precipitated Ni-Cu-Zn ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishna, K. S.; Srinivas, Ch.; Tirupanyam, B. V.; Ramesh, P. N.; Meena, S. S.; Potukuchi, D. M.; Sastry, D. L.

    2017-05-01

    Spinel ferrite nanoparticles with chemical equation NixCu0.1Zn0.9-xFe2O4 (x = 0.5, 0.6, 0.7) have been synthsized using co-precipitation method followed by heat treatment at a temperature of 200 °C for 2h. The results of XRD, FE-SEM and VSM studies are reported. XRD patterns confirm the formation of cubic spinel phase of ferrite samples along with small amount of a secondary phase of α-Fe2O3 whose concentration decreases as Ni2+ concentration increases. The crystallite sizes (in the range of 7.5-13.9 nm) increase and the lattice parameter decreases with increase in Ni2+ ion concentration. These values are comparable to those of NiZn ferrite without Cu substitution. It has been observed that there is a considerable reduction in saturation magnetisation (Ms). This and differences in other magnetic parameters are attributed to considerable changes in cation distribution or core shell interactions of NiZn ferrite with 10 mole% Cu substitution in the place of Zn.

  9. Investigation of the martensitic transformation of (Cu-Zn-Ni) shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naat, N. A.; Mohammed, M. A.

    2017-02-01

    (Cu-Zn-Ni) shape memory alloy with different percent have been prepared by using high frequency induction furnace under argon atmosphere. All of the specimens obtained from this alloys were heated in furnace for (15 minutes at 865°C) for homogenization and quenched in iced-water. Comparisons has been made with data obtained via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The metallographic analyses were carried out by using optical microscopy (OM).

  10. Metal carboxylate formation during indoor atmospheric corrosion of Cu, Zn, and Ni

    SciT

    Persson, D.; Leygraf, C.

    Chemical analyses of surface films and corrosion products formed on pure Cu, Zn, Ni, and Ag samples exposed up to 12 months in various mild indoor environments have been performed by infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The analyses reveal metal carboxylates to be the main ingredients on the surface of Cu, Zn, and Ni. Other ions, such as sulfate, chloride, nitrate, and ammonium ions are also present but in smaller amounts.The surface region on Ag contains mainly silver sulfide with smaller amounts of sulfate, ammonium, and chloride ions. The growth of the carboxylate layers, as followed bymore » IRAS, exhibits an initial film formation with a thickness of a few nanometers for all exposure sites investigated. Subsequent growth to thicker layers was observed at sites with higher humidity levels. The unexpectedly high content of metal carboxylates found on Cu, Zn, and Ni may provide insight into possible processes involved in the atmospheric indoor corrosion of these metals.« less

  11. Spatial pattern analysis of Cu, Zn and Ni and their interpretation in the Campania region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrik, Attila; Albanese, Stefano; Jordan, Gyozo; Rolandi, Roberto; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2017-04-01

    The uniquely abundant Campanian topsoil dataset enabled us to perform a spatial pattern analysis on 3 potentially toxic elements of Cu, Zn and Ni. This study is focusing on revealing the spatial texture and distribution of these elements by spatial point pattern and image processing analysis such as lineament density and spatial variability index calculation. The application of these methods on geochemical data provides a new and efficient tool to understand the spatial variation of concentrations and their background/baseline values. The determination and quantification of spatial variability is crucial to understand how fast the change in concentration is in a certain area and what processes might govern the variation. The spatial variability index calculation and image processing analysis including lineament density enables us to delineate homogenous areas and analyse them with respect to lithology and land use. Identification of spatial outliers and their patterns were also investigated by local spatial autocorrelation and image processing analysis including the determination of local minima and maxima points and singularity index analysis. The spatial variability of Cu and Zn reveals the highest zone (Cu: 0.5 MAD, Zn: 0.8-0.9 MAD, Median Deviation Index) along the coast between Campi Flegrei and the Sorrento Peninsula with the vast majority of statistically identified outliers and high-high spatial clustered points. The background/baseline maps of Cu and Zn reveals a moderate to high variability (Cu: 0.3 MAD, Zn: 0.4-0.5 MAD) NW-SE oriented zone including disrupted patches from Bisaccia to Mignano following the alluvial plains of Appenine's rivers. This zone has high abundance of anomaly concentrations identified using singularity analysis and it also has a high density of lineaments. The spatial variability of Ni shows the highest variability zone (0.6-0.7 MAD) around Campi Flegrei where the majority of low outliers are concentrated. The variability of

  12. Do Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn biomagnify in aquatic ecosystems?

    PubMed

    Cardwell, Rick D; Deforest, David K; Brix, Kevin V; Adams, William J

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we sought to assess from a study of the literature whether five in organic metals (viz., cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc) bio magnify in aquatic food webs. We also examined whether accumulated metals were toxic to consumers/predators and whether the essential metals (Cu and Zn and possibly Ni) behaved differently from non-essential ones (Cd and Pb). Biomagnification potential was indexed by the magnitude of single and multiple trophic transfers in food chains. In this analysis, we used three lines of evidence-laboratory empirical, biokinetic modeling, and field studies-to make assessments. Trophic transfer factors, calculatedfrom lab studies, field studies, and biokinetic modeling, were generally congruent.Results indicated that Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn generally do not biomagnify in food chains consisting of primary producers, macro invertebrate consumers, and fish occupying TL 3 and higher. However, bio magnification of Zn (TTFs of 1-2) is possible for circumstances in which dietary Zn concentrations are below those required for metabolism. Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn may biomagnify in specific marine food chains consisting of bivalves, herbivorous gastropods, and barnacles at TL2 and carnivorous gastropods at TL3. There was an inverse relationship between TTF and exposure concentration for Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, a finding that is consistent with previous reviews of bioconcentration factors and bioaccumulation factors for metals. Our analysis also failed to demonstrate a relationship between the magnitude of TTFsand dietary toxicity to consumer organisms. Consequently, we conclude that TTFs for the metals examined are not an inherently useful predictor of potential hazard(i.e., toxic potential) to aquatic organisms. This review identified several uncertainties or data gaps, such as the relatively limited data available for nickel, reliance upon highly structured food chains in laboratory studies compared to the unstructured food webs found in nature, and

  13. Acute Toxicity of Ternary Cd-Cu-Ni and Cd-Ni-Zn Mixtures to Daphnia magna: Dominant Metal Pairs Change along a Concentration Gradient.

    PubMed

    Traudt, Elizabeth M; Ranville, James F; Meyer, Joseph S

    2017-04-18

    Multiple metals are usually present in surface waters, sometimes leading to toxicity that currently is difficult to predict due to potentially non-additive mixture toxicity. Previous toxicity tests with Daphnia magna exposed to binary mixtures of Ni combined with Cd, Cu, or Zn demonstrated that Ni and Zn strongly protect against Cd toxicity, but Cu-Ni toxicity is more than additive, and Ni-Zn toxicity is slightly less than additive. To consider multiple metal-metal interactions, we exposed D. magna neonates to Cd, Cu, Ni, or Zn alone and in ternary Cd-Cu-Ni and Cd-Ni-Zn combinations in standard 48 h lethality tests. In these ternary mixtures, two metals were held constant, while the third metal was varied through a series that ranged from nonlethal to lethal concentrations. In Cd-Cu-Ni mixtures, the toxicity was less than additive, additive, or more than additive, depending on the concentration (or ion activity) of the varied metal and the additivity model (concentration-addition or independent-action) used to predict toxicity. In Cd-Ni-Zn mixtures, the toxicity was less than additive or approximately additive, depending on the concentration (or ion activity) of the varied metal but independent of the additivity model. These results demonstrate that complex interactions of potentially competing toxicity-controlling mechanisms can occur in ternary-metal mixtures but might be predicted by mechanistic bioavailability-based toxicity models.

  14. Magnetic, Electric and Optical Properties of Mg-Substituted Ni-Cu-Zn Ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabbur, S. M.; Ghodake, U. R.; Kambale, Rahul C.; Sartale, S. D.; Chikhale, L. P.; Suryavanshi, S. S.

    2017-10-01

    The Ni0.25- x Mg x Cu0.30Zn0.45Fe2O4 ( x = 0.00 mol, 0.05 mol, 0.10 mol, 0.15 mol, 0.20 mol and 0.25 mol) magnetic oxide system was prepared by a sol-gel auto-combustion method using glycine as a fuel. X-ray diffraction study reveals the formation of pure spinel lattice symmetry along with the presence of a small fraction of unreacted Fe2O3 phase as a secondary phase due to incomplete combustion reaction between fuel and oxidizer. The lattice constant ( a) was found to decrease with the increase of Mg2+ content; the average crystallite size ( D) is observed in the range of 26.78-33.14 nm. At room temperature, all the samples show typical magnetic hysteresis loops with the decrease of magnetic moment ( n B) of Ni-Cu-Zn ferrites with the increase of Mg2+ content. The intrinsic vibrational absorption bands for the tetrahedral and octahedral sites of the spinel structure were confirmed by infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The optical parameters such as refractive index ( η), velocity of IR waves ( v) and jump rates ( J 1, J 2, J) were studied and found to be dependent on the variation of the lattice constant. The Curie temperature ( T c) of Ni-Cu-Zn mixed ferrite was found to decrease with Mg2+ addition. The composition x = 0.15 mol.% with a low dielectric loss tangent of 2% seems to have potential for multilayer chip inductor applications at a wide range of frequencies.

  15. Approach to study of Cu, Ni and Zn content in soil for ecotoxicological risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boluda, R.; Marimon, L.; Gil, C.; Roca-Pérez, L.

    2009-04-01

    Current Spanish legislation on contaminated soils defines contaminated soil as "that whose characteristics have been negatively altered by the presence of dangerous human-derived chemical components whose concentration is such that it is an unacceptable risk for human health or the environment and has been expressly declared as such by legal ruling". Regarding heavy metals, the Spanish Autonomous Communities will promote measures to obtain generic reference values to declare a soil to be contaminated. In the Valencian Community, these reference values still do not exist. So if the protection of ecosystems is considered a priority to declare a soil to be contaminated and to assess the level of risk, emergency toxicity tests and seed growth in land plants are resorted to, or tests with aquatic organisms or other experiments with leached soils obtained by standard procedures are carried out. We studied the toxic effects of calcareous contaminated soils by Cu, Ni and Zn on marine bacterium Vibrio fisheri (MicrotoxR test assay) (1) and on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in plate (germination index) (2) and pot (UNE 77301) (3) experiments for the purpose of establishing the Cu, Ni and Zn concentrations in soil which may lead to toxicity in order to observe, therefore, whether there is any likelihood of these pollutants coming into contact with any receptor and if adverse effects exist for living beings and the environment. The results showed significant differences among the three types of tests done but, in all cases, the concentrations needed to reflect toxicity effect on organisms were around 20 -70 (Cu and Ni) to 1000 (Zn) times higher than the levels of the control soils. The sensitivity order of the bio-assay was: (1) < (3) < (2). We would like to thank Spanish government-MICINN for partial funding and support (MICINN, project CGL2006-09776).

  16. Incorporation of trace elements in Portland cement clinker: Thresholds limits for Cu, Ni, Sn or Zn

    SciT

    Gineys, N., E-mail: nathalie.gineys@mines-douai.fr; EMDouai, LGCgE-MPE-GCE, F-59508 Douai; Aouad, G.

    2011-11-15

    This paper aims at defining precisely, the threshold limits for several trace elements (Cu, Ni, Sn or Zn) which correspond to the maximum amount that could be incorporated into a standard clinker whilst reaching the limit of solid solution of its four major phases (C{sub 3}S, C{sub 2}S, C{sub 3}A and C{sub 4}AF). These threshold limits were investigated through laboratory synthesised clinkers that were mainly studied by X-ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The reference clinker was close to a typical Portland clinker (65% C{sub 3}S, 18% C{sub 2}S, 8% C{sub 3}A and 8% C{sub 4}AF). The threshold limits formore » Cu, Ni, Zn and Sn are quite high with respect to the current contents in clinker and were respectively equal to 0.35, 0.5, 0.7 and 1 wt.%. It appeared that beyond the defined threshold limits, trace elements had different behaviours. Ni was associated with Mg as a magnesium nickel oxide (MgNiO{sub 2}) and Sn reacted with lime to form a calcium stannate (Ca{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}). Cu changed the crystallisation process and affected therefore the formation of C{sub 3}S. Indeed a high content of Cu in clinker led to the decomposition of C{sub 3}S into C{sub 2}S and of free lime. Zn, in turn, affected the formation of C{sub 3}A. Ca{sub 6}Zn{sub 3}Al{sub 4}O{sub 15} was formed whilst a tremendous reduction of C{sub 3}A content was identified. The reactivity of cements made with the clinkers at the threshold limits was followed by calorimetry and compressive strength measurements on cement paste. The results revealed that the doped cements were at least as reactive as the reference cement.« less

  17. Understanding lattice defects to influence ferromagnetic order of ZnO nanoparticles by Ni, Cu, Ce ions

    SciT

    Verma, Kuldeep Chand, E-mail: dkuldeep.physics@gmail.com; Kotnala, R.K., E-mail: rkkotnala@gmail.com

    Future spintronics technologies based on diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) will rely heavily on a sound understanding of the microscopic origins of ferromagnetism in such materials. It remains unclear, however, whether the ferromagnetism in DMS is intrinsic - a precondition for spintronics - or due to dopant clustering. For this, we include a simultaneous doping from transition metal (Ni, Cu) and rare earth (Ce) ions in ZnO nanoparticles that increase the antiferromagnetic ordering to achieve high-T{sub c} ferromagnetism. Rietveld refinement of XRD patterns indicate that the dopant ions in ZnO had a wurtzite structure and the dopants, Ni{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+},more » Ce{sup 3+} ions, are highly influenced the lattice constants to induce lattice defects. The Ni, Cu, Ce ions in ZnO have nanoparticles formation than nanorods was observed in pure sample. FTIR involve some organic groups to induce lattice defects and the metal-oxygen bonding of Zn, Ni, Cu, Ce and O atoms to confirm wurtzite structure. Raman analysis evaluates the crystalline quality, structural disorder and defects in ZnO lattice with doping. Photoluminescence spectra have strong near-band-edge emission and visible emission bands responsible for defects due to oxygen vacancies. The energy band gap is calculated using Tauc relation. Room temperature ferromagnetism has been described due to bound magnetic polarons formation with Ni{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Ce{sup 3+} ions in ZnO via oxygen vacancies. The zero field and field cooling SQUID measurement confirm the strength of antiferromagnetism in ZnO. The field cooling magnetization is studied by Curie-Weiss law that include antiferromagnetic interactions up to low temperature. The XPS spectra have involve +3/+4 oxidation states of Ce ions to influence the observed ferromagnetism. - Graphical abstract: The lattice defects/vacancies attributed by Ni and Ce ions in the wurtzite ZnO structure are responsible in high T{sub c} -ferromagnetism due to long

  18. High temperature dielectric studies of indium-substituted NiCuZn nanoferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Mohd.; Raghasudha, M.; Shah, Jyoti; Shirsath, Sagar E.; Ravinder, D.; Kumar, Shalendra; Meena, Sher Singh; Bhatt, Pramod; Alimuddin; Kumar, Ravi; Kotnala, R. K.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, indium (In3+)-substituted NiCuZn nanostructured ceramic ferrites with a chemical composition of Ni0.5Cu0.25Zn0.25Fe2-xInxO4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) were prepared by chemical synthesis involving sol-gel chemistry. Single phased cubic spinel structure materials were prepared successfully according to X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analyses. The dielectric properties of the prepared ferrites were measured using an LCR HiTester at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 300 °C at different frequencies from 102 Hz to 5 × 106 Hz. The variations in the dielectric parameters ε‧ and (tanδ) with temperature demonstrated the frequency- and temperature-dependent characteristics due to electron hopping between the ions. The materials had low dielectric loss values in the high frequency range at all temperatures, which makes them suitable for high frequency microwave applications. A qualitative explanation is provided for the dependences of the dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent on the frequency, temperature, and composition. Mӧssbauer spectroscopy was employed at room temperature to characterize the magnetic behavior.

  19. Assessment of Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb levels in beach and dune sands from Havana resorts, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Díaz Rizo, Oscar; Buzón González, Fran; Arado López, Juana O

    2015-11-15

    Concentrations of nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in beach and dune sands from thirteen Havana (Cuba) resorts were estimated by X-ray fluorescence analysis. Determined mean metal contents (in mg·kg(-1)) in beach sand samples were 28±12 for Ni, 35±12 for Cu, 31±11 for Zn and 6.0±1.8 for Pb, while for dune sands were 30±15, 38±22, 37±15 and 6.8±2.9, respectively. Metal-to-iron normalization shows moderately severe and severe enrichment by Cu. The comparison with sediment quality guidelines shows that dune sands from various resorts must be considered as heavily polluted by Cu and Ni. Almost in every resort, the Ni and Cu contents exceed their corresponding TEL values and, in some resorts, the Ni PEL value. The comparison with a Havana topsoil study indicates the possible Ni and Cu natural origin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of microstructure and CaO addition on the magnetic and mechanical properties of NiCuZn ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sea-Fue; Hsu, Yung-Fu; Liu, Yi-Xin; Hsieh, Chung-Kai

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the effects of grain size and the addition of CaCO3 on the magnetic and mechanical properties of Ni0.5Cu0.3Zn0.2Fe2O4 ceramics were investigated. The bending strength of the ferrites increased from 66 to 84 MPa as the grain size of the sintered ceramics decreased from 10.25 μm to 7.53 μm, while the change in hardness was insignificant. The addition of various amounts of CaCO3 densified the Ni0.5Cu0.3Zn0.2Fe2O4 ceramics at 1075 °C. In the pure Ni0.5Cu0.3Zn0.2Fe2O4 ceramic, second phase CuO was segregated at the grain boundaries. With the CaCO3 content ≥1.5 wt%, a small amount of discrete plate-like second phase Fe2CaO4 was observed, together with the disappearance of the second phase CuO. The grain size of the Ni0.5Cu0.3Zn0.2Fe2O4 ceramic dropped from 7.80 μm to 4.68 μm, and the grain size distribution widened as the CaCO3 content increased from 0 to 5 wt%. Initially rising to 807 after CaCO3 addition up to 2.0 wt%, due to a reduced grain size, the Vickers hardness began to drop as the CaCO3 content increased. The bending strength grew linearly with the CaCO3 content and reached twice the value for the Ni0.5Cu0.3Zn0.2Fe2O4 ceramic with an addition of 5.0 wt% CaCO3. The initial permeability of the Ni0.5Cu0.3Zn0.2Fe2O4 ceramic decreased substantially from 402 to 103 as the addition of CaCO3 in ferrite increased from 0 to 5 wt%, and the quality factor of the Ni0.5Cu0.3Zn0.2Fe2O4 ceramic was maximized at 95 for 1.0 wt% CaCO3 addition.

  1. Evaluation of structural, morphological and magnetic properties of CuZnNi (CuxZn0.5-xNi0.5Fe2O4) nanocrystalline ferrites for core, switching and MLCI's applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar, Majid Niaz; Khan, Muhammad Azhar; Ahmad, Mukhtar; Nazir, M. S.; Imran, M.; Ali, A.; Sattar, A.; Murtaza, G.

    2017-01-01

    The influence of Cu substitution on the structural and morphological characteristics of Ni-Zn nanocrystalline ferrites have been discussed in this work. The detailed and systematic magnetic characterizations were also done for Cu substituted Ni-Zn nanoferrites. The nanocrystalline ferrites of Cu substituted CuxZn0.5-xNi0.5Fe2O4 ferrites (x=0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5) were synthesized using sol gel self-combustion hybrid method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were used to investigate the properties of Cu substituted nanocrystalline ferrites. Single phase structure of Cu substituted in Ni-Zn nanocrystalline ferrites were investigated for all the samples. Crystallite size, lattice constant and volume of the cell were found to increase by increasing Cu contents in spinel structure. The better morphology with well-organized nanocrystals of Cu-Zn-Ni ferrites at x=0 and 0.5 were observed from both FESEM and TEM analysis. The average grain size was 35-46 nm for all prepared nanocrystalline samples. Magnetic properties such as coercivity, saturation, remanence, magnetic squareness, magneto crystalline anisotropy constant (K) and Bohr magneton were measured from the recorded M-H loops. The magnetic saturation and remanence were increased by the incorporation of Cu contents. However, coercivity follow the Stoner-Wolforth model except for x=0.3 which may be due to the site occupancy and replacement of Cu contents from octahedral site. The squareness ratio confirmed the super paramgnetic behaviour of the Cu substituted in Ni-Zn nanocrystalline ferrites. Furthermore, Cu substituted Ni-Zn nanocrystalline ferrites may be suitable for many industrial and domestic applications such as components of transformers, core, switching, and MLCI's due to variety of the soft magnetic characteristics.

  2. Comparative study of Ni and Cu doped ZnO nanoparticles: Structural and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Shaveta; Thakur, Samita; Sharma, Jyoti; Kumar, Sanjay

    2018-05-01

    Nanoparticles of undoped and doped (0.1 M Ni2+ and Cu2+) ZnO are synthesized using chemical precipitation method. The crystallite size, morphology, chemical bonding and optical properties of as prepared nanoparticles are determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and UV-visible spectra. XRD analysis shows that the prepared samples are single phase and have hexagonal wurtzite structure. The crystallite size of the doped and undoped nanoparticles is determined using Scherrer method. The crystallite size is found to be increased with concentration of nickel and copper. All stretching and vibrational bands are observed at their specific positions through FTIR. The increase in band gap can be attributed to the different chemical nature of dopant and host cation.

  3. Influence of cold isostatic pressing on the magnetic properties of Ni-Zn-Cu ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Trong Trung; Valdez-Nava, Zarel; Lebey, Thierry; Mazaleyrat, Frédéric

    2018-04-01

    In power electronics, there is the need to develop solutions to increase the power density of converters. Interleaved multicellular transformers allow interleaving many switching cells and, as a result, a possible increase in the power density. This converter is often composed of a magnetic core having the function of an intercell transformer (ICT) and, depending on the complexity of the designed architecture, its shape could be extremely complex. The switching frequencies (1-10 MHz) for the new wide band gap semiconductors (SiC, GaN) allow to interleave switching cell at higher frequencies than silicon-based semiconductors (<1 MHz). Intercell transformers must follow this increase in frequency times-fold the number of switching cells. Current applications for ICT transformers use Mn-Zn based materials, but their limit in frequency drive raises the need of higher frequency magnetic materials, such Ni-Zn ferrites. These materials can operate in medium and high power converters up to 10 MHz. We propose to use Ni0,30Zn0,57Cu0,15Fe2O4 ferrite and to compress it by cold isostatic pressing (CIP) into a a green ceramic block and to machine it to obtain the desired ICT of complex shape prior sintering. We compare the magnetic permeability spectra and hysteresis loops the CIP and uniaxially pressed ferrites. The effect of temperature and sintering time as well as high-pressure on properties will be presented in detail. The magnetic properties of the sintered cores are strongly dependent on the microstructure obtained.

  4. Development of two-step process for enhanced biorecovery of Cu-Zn-Ni from computer printed circuit boards.

    PubMed

    Shah, Monal B; Tipre, Devayani R; Purohit, Mamta S; Dave, Shailesh R

    2015-08-01

    Metal pollution due to the huge electronic waste (E-waste) accumulation is widespread across the globe. Extraction of copper, zinc and nickel from computer printed circuit boards (c-PCB) with a two-step bleaching process using ferric sulphate generated by Leptospirillum ferriphilum dominated consortium and the factors influencing the process were investigated in the present study. The studied factors with 10 g/L pulp density showed that pH 2.0 was optimum which resulted in 87.50-97.80% Cu-Zn-Ni extraction. Pre-treatment of PCB powder with acidified distilled water and NaCl solution showed 3.80-7.98% increase in metal extraction corresponding to 94.08% Cu, 99.80% Zn and 97.99% Ni extraction. Particle size of 75 μm for Cu and Zn while 1680 μm for Ni showed 2-folds increase in metal extraction, giving 97.35-99.80% Cu-Zn-Ni extraction in 2-6 days of reaction time. Whereas; 2.76-3.12 folds increase in Cu and Zn extraction was observed with the addition of 0.1% chelating agents. When the studies were carried out with high pulp density, ferric iron concentration of 16.57 g/L was found to be optimum for metal extraction from 75 g/L c-PCB and c-PCB addition in multiple installments resulted in 8.81-26.35% increase in metal extraction compared to single addition. The studied factors can be implemented for the scale-up aimed at faster recovery of multimetals from E-waste and thereby providing a secondary source of metal in an eco-friendly manner. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of γ-rays irradiation on the structural, magnetic, and electrical properties of Mg-Cu-Zn and Ni-Cu-Zn ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assar, S. T.; Abosheiasha, H. F.; El Sayed, A. R.

    2017-01-01

    Nanoparticles of Ni0.35Cu0.15Zn0.5Fe2O4 and Mg0.35Cu0.15Zn0.5Fe2O4, have been synthesized by citrate precursor method. Then some of the prepared samples have been irradiated by γ-rays of 60Co radioactive source at room temperature with doses of 1 Mrad and 2 Mrad, at a dose rate of 0.1 Mrad/h to study the effect of γ-rays irradiation on some structural, magnetic and electrical properties of the samples. The X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer measurements have been used to investigate the samples. The XRD results show that the irradiation has caused a decrease in the crystallite size and the measured density and an increase in the porosity, specific surface area, and microstrain in the case of Ni-Cu-Zn ferrite whereas in the case of Mg-Cu-Zn ferrite the reverse trend has been noticed. The lattice constant of the investigated samples has been increased with the increase of irradiation due to the conversion of Fe3+ (0.67 Å) to Fe2+ (0.76 Å). The magnetization results show an increase in saturation and remnant magnetizations for the two prepared ferrites after γ-rays irradiation. The main reason of this behavior is most probably due to the redistribution of the cations between A and B sites. The cation distribution has been proposed such that the values of theoretical and experimental magnetic moment are identical and increase as the magnetization increases. Moreover, a theoretical estimation of the lattice constant has been calculated on the basis of the proposed cation distribution for each sample and compared with the corresponding experimental values obtained by XRD analysis; where they have been found in a good agreement with each other. This can be considered as another confirmation of the validity of the cation distribution. Moreover, the cation distribution is thought to play an important role in increasing the values of dc conductivity of all samples

  6. Effect of neodymium substitutions on electromagnetic properties in low temperature sintered NiCuZn ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. P.; Tung, M. J.; Ko, W. S.; Wang, Y. P.; Tong, S. Y.; Yang, M. D.

    2015-11-01

    Nd3+ ions substituted Ni0.37Cu0.14Zn0.52Fe2O4 (Nd3+ ions content=0, 0.01, 0.04, 0.6, 1.5 wt%) were prepared by the usual standard ceramic method at 1030 °C sintering temperature, and the composition dependence of the physical and magnetic properties has been investigated. SEM micrographs and EDX analysis revealed that it is no obvious impurities up to Nd3+ ions content wt%=0.04. For higher Nd3+ ions content samples (0.6 and 1.5 wt%), there are two kind of impurities Cu-rich and Nd-rich iron oxide phase. The saturation magnetization of the 0.01 wt% Nd3+ions content sample is higher as result of that the A-B sites distance and YK-angles are shorter and smaller. The saturation magnetization of 0.04-1.5 wt% Nd3+ ion content sample are reduced, since the total magnetic moments of the AB site are decreased. For the 0.6 wt% sample, the Curie temperature increasing is as result of the Cu-rich iron oxide separating out. The maximum enhancements of permeability μ‧ are improved to 11.2% (0.04 wt%) and 29.2% (0.6 wt%) at the 6.7 and 13.8 MHz, respectively. However, it is notice that small amount substitutions of Nd3+ increase the high frequency electromagnetic characteristics, can be applied to NFC technology and WPT technologies.

  7. Preparation, structural, photoluminescence and magnetic studies of Cu doped ZnO nanoparticles co-doped with Ni by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theyvaraju, D.; Muthukumaran, S.

    2015-11-01

    Zn0.96-xNi0.04CuxO nanoparticles have been synthesized by varying different Cu concentrations between 0% and 4% using simple sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the hexagonal structure of the prepared samples. The formation of secondary phases, CuO (111) and Zn (101) at higher Cu content is due un-reacted Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions present in the solution which reduces the interaction between precursor ions and surfaces of ZnO. Well agglomerated and rod-like structure noticed at Cu=4% greatly de-generate and enhanced the particle size. The nominal elemental composition of Zn, Cu, Ni and O was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Even though energy gap was increased (blue-shift) from Cu=0-2% by quantum size effect, the s-d and p-d exchange interactions between the band electrons of ZnO and localized d electrons of Cu and Ni led to decrease (red-shift) the energy gap at Cu=4%. Presence of Zn-Ni-Cu-O bond was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared analysis. Ultraviolet emission by band to band electronic transition and defect related blue emission were discussed by photoluminescence spectra. The observed optical properties concluded that the doping of Cu in the present system is useful to tune the emission wavelength and hence acting as the important candidates for the optoelectronic device applications. Ferromagnetic ordering of Cu=2% sample was enhanced by charge carrier concentration where as the antiferromagnetic interaction between neighboring Cu-Cu ions suppressed the ferromagnetism at higher doping concentrations of Cu.

  8. An experimental and thermodynamic equilibrium investigation of the Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu, Mn and Ni partitioning during sewage sludge incineration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingyong; Fu, Jiewen; Ning, Xun'an; Sun, Shuiyu; Wang, Yujie; Xie, Wuming; Huang, Shaosong; Zhong, Sheng

    2015-09-01

    The effects of different chlorides and operational conditions on the distribution and speciation of six heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu, Mn and Ni) during sludge incineration were investigated using a simulated laboratory tubular-furnace reactor. A thermodynamic equilibrium investigation using the FactSage software was performed to compare the experimental results. The results indicate that the volatility of the target metals was enhanced as the chlorine concentration increased. Inorganic-Cl influenced the volatilization of heavy metals in the order of Pb>Zn>Cr>Cu>Mn>Ni. However, the effects of organic-Cl on the volatility of Mn, Pb and Cu were greater than the effects on Zn, Cr and Ni. With increasing combustion temperature, the presence of organic-Cl (PVC) and inorganic-Cl (NaCl) improved the transfer of Pb and Zn from bottom ash to fly ash or fuse gas. However, the presence of chloride had no obvious influence on Mn, Cu and Ni. Increased retention time could increase the volatilization rate of heavy metals; however, this effect was insignificant. During the incineration process, Pb readily formed PbSiO4 and remained in the bottom ash. Different Pb compounds, primarily the volatile PbCl2, were found in the gas phase after the addition of NaCl; the dominant Pb compounds in the gas phase after the addition of PVC were PbCl2, Pb(ClO4)2 and PbCl2O4. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Synthesis and electrochemical performances of LiNiCuZn oxides as anode and cathode catalyst for low temperature solid oxide fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Jing, Y; Qin, H; Liu, Q; Singh, M; Zhu, B

    2012-06-01

    Low temperature solid oxide fuel cell (LTSOFC, 300-600 degrees C) is developed with advantages compared to conventional SOFC (800-1000 degrees C). The electrodes with good catalytic activity, high electronic and ionic conductivity are required to achieve high power output. In this work, a LiNiCuZn oxides as anode and cathode catalyst is prepared by slurry method. The structure and morphology of the prepared LiNiCuZn oxides are characterized by X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The LiNiCuZn oxides prepared by slurry method are nano Li0.28Ni0.72O, ZnO and CuO compound. The nano-crystallites are congregated to form ball-shape particles with diameter of 800-1000 nm. The LiNiCuZn oxides electrodes exhibits high ion conductivity and low polarization resistance to hydrogen oxidation reaction and oxygen reduction reaction at low temperature. The LTSOFC using the LiNiCuZn oxides electrodes demonstrates good cell performance of 1000 mW cm(-2) when it operates at 470 degrees C. It is considered that nano-composite would be an effective way to develop catalyst for LTSOFC.

  10. Evaluation of the SO(2) and NH(3) gas adsorption properties of CuO/ZnO/Mn(3)O(4) and CuO/ZnO/NiO ternary impregnated activated carbon using combinatorial materials science methods.

    PubMed

    Romero, Jennifer V; Smith, Jock W H; Sullivan, Braden M; Macdonald, Landan; Croll, Lisa M; Dahn, J R

    2013-02-11

    Impregnated activated carbons (IAC) are widely used materials for the removal of toxic gases in personal respiratory protection applications. The combinatorial method has been employed to prepare IACs containing different types of metal oxides in various proportions and evaluate their adsorption performance for low molecular weight gases, such as SO(2) and NH(3), under dry conditions. Among the metal oxides used for the study, Mn(3)O(4) was found to have the highest capacity for retaining SO(2) gas under dry conditions. NiO and ZnO were found to have similar NH(3) adsorption capacities which are higher than the NH(3) capacities observed for the other metal oxide impregnants used in the study. Although Cu- or Zn-based impregnants and their combinations have been extensively studied and used as gas adsorbents, neither Mn(3)O(4) nor NiO have been incorporated in the formulations used. In this study, ternary libraries of IACs with various combinations of CuO/ZnO/Mn(3)O(4) and CuO/ZnO/NiO were studied and evaluated for their adsorption of SO(2) and NH(3) gases. Combinations of CuO, ZnO, and Mn(3)O(4) were found to have the potential to be multigas adsorbents compared to formulations that contain NiO.

  11. Percolation-induced plasmonic state and double negative electromagnetic properties of Ni-Zn Ferrite/Cu granular composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massango, Herieta; Kono, Koji; Tsutaoka, Takanori; Kasagi, Teruhiro; Yamamoto, Shinichiro; Hatakeyama, Kenichi

    2018-05-01

    Complex permeability and permittivity spectra of Ni-Zn Ferrite/Cu hybrid granular composite materials have been studied in the RF to microwave frequency range. The electrical conductivity σ shows insulating properties in the volume fraction of Cu particles below φ = 0.14. A large jump in conductivity was observed between φ = 0.14 and 0.24 indicating that the Cu particles make metallic conduction between this interval. Hence, the percolation threshold φC, was estimated to be 0.14. A percolation-induced low frequency plasmonic state with negative permittivity spectrum was observed from φ = 0.14-0.24. Meanwhile the negative permeability was observed at φ = 0.16, 0.19 and 0.24. Hence the DNG characteristic was realized in these Cu volume content in the frequency range from 105 MHz to 2 GHz.

  12. Distribution of trace metals (Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn) between particulate, colloidal and truly dissolved fractions in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, Andrew J; Vale, Peter; Whelan, Jonathan; Constantino, Carlos; Dotro, Gabriela; Campo, Pablo; Cartmell, Elise

    2017-05-01

    The distribution of Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn between particulate, colloidal and truly dissolved size fractions in wastewater from a trickling filter treatment plant was investigated. Samples of influent, primary effluent, humus effluent, final effluent and sludge holding tank returns were collected and separated into particulate (i.e. > 0.45 μm), colloidal (i.e. 1 kDa to 0.45 μm), and truly dissolved (i.e. < 1 kDa) fractions using membrane filters. In the influent, substantial proportions of Cu (60%), Pb (67%), and Zn (32%) were present in the particulate fraction which was removed in conjunction with suspended particles at the works in subsequent treatment stages. In final effluent, sizeable proportions of Cu (52%), Pb (32%), Ni (44%) and Zn (68%) were found within the colloidal size fraction. Calculated ratios of soluble metal to organic carbon suggest the metal to be adsorbed to or complexed with non-humic macromolecules typically found within the colloidal size range. These findings suggest that technologies capable of removing particles within the colloidal fraction have good potential to enhance metals removal from wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dye-Sensitized Cu2 XSnS4 (X=Zn, Ni, Fe, Co, and Mn) Nanofibers for Efficient Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution.

    PubMed

    Gonce, Mehmet Kerem; Aslan, Emre; Ozel, Faruk; Hatay Patir, Imren

    2016-03-21

    The photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activities of low-cost and noble-metal-free Cu2 XSnS4 (X=Zn, Ni, Fe, Co, and Mn) nanofiber catalysts have been investigated using triethanolamine as an electron donor and eosin Y as a photosensitizer under visible-light irradiation. The rates of hydrogen evolution by Cu2 XSnS4 (X=Zn, Ni, Fe, Co, and Mn) nanofibers have been compared with each other and with that of the noble metal Pt. The hydrogen evolution rates for the nanofibers change in the order Cu2 NiSnS4 >Cu2 FeSnS4 >Cu2 CoSnS4 >Cu2 ZnSnS4 >Cu2 MnSnS4 (2028, 1870, 1926, 1420, and 389 μmol g(-1) h(-1) , respectively). The differences between the hydrogen evolution rates of the nanofibers could be attributed to their energy levels. Moreover, Cu2 NiSnS4, Cu2 FeSnS4 , and Cu2 CoSnS4 nanofibers show higher and more stable photocatalytic hydrogen production rates than that of the noble metal Pt under long-term irradiation with visible light. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Simultaneous determination of Ca, Cu, Ni, Zn and Cd binding strengths with fulvic acid fractions by Schubert's method

    Brown, G.K.; MacCarthy, P.; Leenheer, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The equilibrium binding of Ca2+, Ni2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ with unfractionated Suwannee river fulvic acid (SRFA) and an enhanced metal binding subfraction of SRFA was measured using Schubert's ion-exchange method at pH 6.0 and at an ionic strength (??) of 0.1 (NaNO3). The fractionation and subfractionation were directed towards obtaining an isolate with an elevated metal binding capacity or binding strength as estimated by Cu2+ potentiometry (ISE). Fractions were obtained by stepwise eluting an XAD-8 column loaded with SRFA with water eluents of pH 1.0 to pH 12.0. Subfractions were obtained by loading the fraction eluted from XAD-8 at pH 5.0 onto a silica gel column and eluting with solvents of increasing polarity. Schuberts ion exchange method was rigorously tested by measuring simultaneously the conditional stability constants (K) of citric acid complexed with the five metals at pH 3.5 and 6.0. The logK of SRFA with Ca2+, Ni2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ determined simultaneously at pH 6.0 follow the sequence of Cu2+>Cd2+>Ni2+>Zn2+>Ca2+ while all logK values increased for the enhanced metal binding subfraction and followed a different sequence of Cu2+>Cd2+>Ca2+>Ni2+>Zn2+. Both fulvic acid samples and citric acid exhibited a 1:1 metal to ligand stochiometry under the relatively low metal loading conditions used here. Quantitative 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed increases in aromaticity and ketone content and decreases in aliphatic carbon for the elevated metal binding fraction while the carboxyl carbon, and elemental nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur content did not change. The more polar, elevated metal binding fraction did show a significant increase in molecular weight over the unfractionated SRFA. Copyright (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  15. Valorization of a treated soil via amendments: fractionation and oral bioaccessibility of Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn.

    PubMed

    Zagury, Gerald J; Rincon Bello, Jhony A; Guney, Mert

    2016-04-01

    The present study aims to transform a treated soil (TS) into a more desirable resource by modifying physico-chemical properties via amendments while reducing toxic metals' mobility and oral bioaccessibility. A hydrocarbon-contaminated soil submitted to treatment (TS) but still containing elevated concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn has been amended with compost, sand, and Al2(SO4)3 to render it usable for horticulture. Characterization and sequential extraction were performed for TS and four amended mixtures (AM1-4). P and K availability and metal bioaccessibility were investigated in TS and AM2. Amendment improved soil properties for all mixtures and yielded a usable product (AM2 20 % TS, 49 % compost, 30 % sand, 1 % Al2(SO4)3) satisfying regulatory requirements except for Pb content. In particular, AM2 had improved organic matter (OM) and cation exchange capacity (CEC), highly increased P and K availability, and reduced total metal concentrations. Furthermore, amendment decreased metal mobile fraction likely to be plant-available (in mg kg(-1), assumed as soluble/exchangeable + carbonates fractions). For AM2, estimated Pb bioavailability decreased from 1.50 × 10(3) mg kg(-1) (TS) to 238 mg kg(-1) (52.4 % (TS) to 34.2 %). Bioaccessible concentrations of Cu, Ni, and Zn (mg kg(-1)) were lower in AM2 than in TS, but there was no significant decrease for Pb. The results suggest that amendment improved soil by modifying its chemistry, resulting in lower metal mobile fraction (in %, for Cu and Zn) and bioaccessibility (in %, for Cu only). Amending soils having residual metal contamination can be an efficient valorization method, indicating potential for reducing treatment cost and environmental burden by rendering disposal/additional treatment unnecessary. Further studies including plant bioavailability are recommended to confirm results.

  16. Room-temperature synthesis of three-dimensional porous ZnO@CuNi hybrid magnetic layers with photoluminescent and photocatalytic properties

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Miguel; Zhang, Jin; Altube, Ainhoa; García-Lecina, Eva; Roldan, Mònica; Baró, Maria Dolors; Pellicer, Eva; Sort, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A facile synthetic approach to prepare porous ZnO@CuNi hybrid films is presented. Initially, magnetic CuNi porous layers (consisting of phase separated CuNi alloys) are successfully grown by electrodeposition at different current densities using H2 bubbles as a dynamic template to generate the porosity. The porous CuNi alloys serve as parent scaffolds to be subsequently filled with a solution containing ZnO nanoparticles previously synthesized by sol-gel. The dispersed nanoparticles are deposited dropwise onto the CuNi frameworks and the solvent is left to evaporate while the nanoparticles impregnate the interior of the pores, rendering ZnO-coated CuNi 3D porous structures. No thermal annealing is required to obtain the porous films. The synthesized hybrid porous layers exhibit an interesting combination of tunable ferromagnetic and photoluminescent properties. In addition, the aqueous photocatalytic activity of the composite is studied under UV−visible light irradiation for the degradation of Rhodamine B. The proposed method represents a fast and inexpensive approach towards the implementation of devices based on metal-semiconductor porous systems, avoiding the use of post-synthesis heat treatment steps which could cause deleterious oxidation of the metallic counterpart, as well as collapse of the porous structure and loss of the ferromagnetic properties. PMID:27877868

  17. Room-temperature synthesis of three-dimensional porous ZnO@CuNi hybrid magnetic layers with photoluminescent and photocatalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Miguel; Zhang, Jin; Altube, Ainhoa; García-Lecina, Eva; Roldan, Mònica; Baró, Maria Dolors; Pellicer, Eva; Sort, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    A facile synthetic approach to prepare porous ZnO@CuNi hybrid films is presented. Initially, magnetic CuNi porous layers (consisting of phase separated CuNi alloys) are successfully grown by electrodeposition at different current densities using H 2 bubbles as a dynamic template to generate the porosity. The porous CuNi alloys serve as parent scaffolds to be subsequently filled with a solution containing ZnO nanoparticles previously synthesized by sol-gel. The dispersed nanoparticles are deposited dropwise onto the CuNi frameworks and the solvent is left to evaporate while the nanoparticles impregnate the interior of the pores, rendering ZnO-coated CuNi 3D porous structures. No thermal annealing is required to obtain the porous films. The synthesized hybrid porous layers exhibit an interesting combination of tunable ferromagnetic and photoluminescent properties. In addition, the aqueous photocatalytic activity of the composite is studied under UV-visible light irradiation for the degradation of Rhodamine B. The proposed method represents a fast and inexpensive approach towards the implementation of devices based on metal-semiconductor porous systems, avoiding the use of post-synthesis heat treatment steps which could cause deleterious oxidation of the metallic counterpart, as well as collapse of the porous structure and loss of the ferromagnetic properties.

  18. Room-temperature synthesis of three-dimensional porous ZnO@CuNi hybrid magnetic layers with photoluminescent and photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, Miguel; Zhang, Jin; Altube, Ainhoa; García-Lecina, Eva; Roldan, Mònica; Baró, Maria Dolors; Pellicer, Eva; Sort, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    A facile synthetic approach to prepare porous ZnO@CuNi hybrid films is presented. Initially, magnetic CuNi porous layers (consisting of phase separated CuNi alloys) are successfully grown by electrodeposition at different current densities using H2 bubbles as a dynamic template to generate the porosity. The porous CuNi alloys serve as parent scaffolds to be subsequently filled with a solution containing ZnO nanoparticles previously synthesized by sol-gel. The dispersed nanoparticles are deposited dropwise onto the CuNi frameworks and the solvent is left to evaporate while the nanoparticles impregnate the interior of the pores, rendering ZnO-coated CuNi 3D porous structures. No thermal annealing is required to obtain the porous films. The synthesized hybrid porous layers exhibit an interesting combination of tunable ferromagnetic and photoluminescent properties. In addition, the aqueous photocatalytic activity of the composite is studied under UV-visible light irradiation for the degradation of Rhodamine B. The proposed method represents a fast and inexpensive approach towards the implementation of devices based on metal-semiconductor porous systems, avoiding the use of post-synthesis heat treatment steps which could cause deleterious oxidation of the metallic counterpart, as well as collapse of the porous structure and loss of the ferromagnetic properties.

  19. [Effect of heat treatment on the structure of a Cu-Zn-Al-Ni system dental alloy].

    PubMed

    Guastaldi, A C; Adorno, A T; Beatrice, C R; Mondelli, J; Ishikiriama, A; Lacefield, W

    1990-01-01

    This article characterizes the structural phases present in the copper-based metallic alloy system "Cu-Zn-Al-Ni" developed for dental use, and relates those phases to other properties. The characterization was obtained after casting (using the lost wax process), and after heat treatment. In order to obtain better corrosion resistance by changing the microstructure, the castings were submitted to 30, 45 and 60 minutes of heat treatment at the following temperatures: 750 degrees C, 800 degrees C, and 850 degrees C. The various phases were analyzed using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results after heat treatment showed a phase (probably Cu3Al), that could be responsible for the improvement in the alloy's resistance to corrosion as compared to the as-cast structure.

  20. Importance of lithology in defining natural background concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in sedimentary soils, northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gloaguen, Thomas Vincent; Passe, José João

    2017-11-01

    The sedimentary basins of Recôncavo and Tucano, Bahia, represent the most important Brazilian Phanerozoic continental basin system, formed during fracturing of Gondwana. The northern basin of Tucano has a semiarid climate (Bsh) while the southern basin of Recôncavo has a tropical rainforest climate (Af). The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of trace metals in soils derived from various sedimentary rocks and climates. Soils were collected at 30 sites in 5 geological units at 0-20 cm and 60-80 cm deep under native vegetation. Physical and chemical attributes (particle size distribution, pH, Al, exchangeable bases, organic matter) were determined, as well as the pseudo-total concentrations (EPA 3050 b) and the total concentrations (X-ray fluorescence) of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. The concentrations of metals were overall correlated to soil texture, according to lithologic origin. Shales resulted in Vertisols 30.4 (Zn), 27.2 (Ni), 16.9 (Cu), 7.5 (Cr) and 2.5 (Pb) times more concentrated than Arenosols derived from the sandstones. High Cr and Ni values in clay soils from shales were attributed to diffuse contamination by erosion of mafic rocks of the Greenstone Belt River Itapicuru (from 3 km northwest of the study area) during the late Jurassic. Tropical rainforest climate resulted in a slight enrichment of Pb and Cr, and Ni had the higher mobility during soil formation (enrichment factor up to 6.01). In conclusion, the geological environment is a much more controlling factor than pedogenesis in the concentration of metals in sedimentary soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. ZnO nanorod array/CuAlO2 nanofiber heterojunction on Ni substrate: synthesis and photoelectrochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Ding, Juan; Sui, Yongming; Fu, Wuyou; Yang, Haibin; Zhao, Bo; Li, Minghui

    2011-07-22

    A novel ZnO nanorod array (NR)/CuAlO(2) nanofiber (NF) heterojunction nanostructure was grown on a substrate of Ni plates using sol-gel synthesis for the NFs and hydrothermal reaction for the NRs. Compared with a traditional ZnO/CuAlO(2) laminar film nanostructure, the photocurrent of this fibrous network heterojunction is significantly increased. A significant blue-shift of the absorption edge and a favorable forward current to reverse current ratio at applied voltages of -2 to +2 V were observed in this heterojunction with the increase of Zn(2+) ion concentration in the hydrothermal reaction. Furthermore, the photoelectrochemical properties were investigated and the highest photocurrent of 3.1 mA cm(-2) was obtained under AM 1.5 illumination with 100 mW cm(-2) light intensity at 0.71 V (versus Ag/AgCl). This novel 3D fibrous network nanostructure plays an important role in the optoelectronic field and can be extended to other binary or ternary oxide compositions for various applications.

  2. ZnO nanorod array/CuAlO2 nanofiber heterojunction on Ni substrate: synthesis and photoelectrochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Juan; Sui, Yongming; Fu, Wuyou; Yang, Haibin; Zhao, Bo; Li, Minghui

    2011-07-01

    A novel ZnO nanorod array (NR)/CuAlO2 nanofiber (NF) heterojunction nanostructure was grown on a substrate of Ni plates using sol-gel synthesis for the NFs and hydrothermal reaction for the NRs. Compared with a traditional ZnO/CuAlO2 laminar film nanostructure, the photocurrent of this fibrous network heterojunction is significantly increased. A significant blue-shift of the absorption edge and a favorable forward current to reverse current ratio at applied voltages of - 2 to + 2 V were observed in this heterojunction with the increase of Zn2 + ion concentration in the hydrothermal reaction. Furthermore, the photoelectrochemical properties were investigated and the highest photocurrent of 3.1 mA cm - 2 was obtained under AM 1.5 illumination with 100 mW cm - 2 light intensity at 0.71 V (versus Ag/AgCl). This novel 3D fibrous network nanostructure plays an important role in the optoelectronic field and can be extended to other binary or ternary oxide compositions for various applications.

  3. High-strain-rate superplasticity of the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys with Fe and Ni additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotov, A. D.; Mikhaylovskaya, A. V.; Borisov, A. A.; Yakovtseva, O. A.; Portnoy, V. K.

    2017-09-01

    During high-strain-rate superplastic deformation, superplasticity indices, and the microstructure of two Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Zr alloys with additions of nickel and iron, which contain equal volume fractions of eutectic particles of Al3Ni or Al9FeNi, have been compared. It has been shown that the alloys exhibit superplasticity with 300-800% elongations at the strain rates of 1 × 10-2-1 × 10-1 s-1. The differences in the kinetics of alloy recrystallization in the course of heating and deformation at different temperatures and rates of the superplastic deformation, which are related to the various parameters of the particles of the eutectic phases, have been found. At strain rates higher than 4 × 10-2, in the alloy with Fe and Ni, a partially nonrecrystallized structure is retained up to material failure and, in the alloy with Ni, a completely recrystallized structure is formed at rates of up to 1 × 10-1 s-1.

  4. CORRELATION OF THE PARTITIONING OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER FRACTIONS WITH THE DESORPTION OF CD, CU, NI, PB AND ZN FROM 18 DUTCH SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eighteen Dutch soils were extracted in aqueous solutions at varying pH. Extracts were analyzed for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn by ICP-AES. Extract dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was also concentrated onto a macroreticular resin and fractionation into three operationally defined fract...

  5. Using isotopic dilution to assess chemical extraction of labile Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in soils.

    PubMed

    Garforth, J M; Bailey, E H; Tye, A M; Young, S D; Lofts, S

    2016-07-01

    Chemical extractants used to measure labile soil metal must ideally select for and solubilise the labile fraction, with minimal solubilisation of non-labile metal. We assessed four extractants (0.43 M HNO3, 0.43 M CH3COOH, 0.05 M Na2H2EDTA and 1 M CaCl2) against these requirements. For soils contaminated by contrasting sources, we compared isotopically exchangeable Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb (EValue, mg kg(-1)), with the concentrations of metal solubilised by the chemical extractants (MExt, mg kg(-1)). Crucially, we also determined isotopically exchangeable metal in the soil-extractant systems (EExt, mg kg(-1)). Thus 'EExt - EValue' quantifies the concentration of mobilised non-labile metal, while 'EExt - MExt' represents adsorbed labile metal in the presence of the extractant. Extraction with CaCl2 consistently underestimated EValue for Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb, while providing a reasonable estimate of EValue for Cd. In contrast, extraction with HNO3 both consistently mobilised non-labile metal and overestimated the EValue. Extraction with CH3COOH appeared to provide a good estimate of EValue for Cd; however, this was the net outcome of incomplete solubilisation of labile metal, and concurrent mobilisation of non-labile metal by the extractant (MExtEValue). The Na2H2EDTA extractant mobilised some non-labile metal in three of the four soils, but consistently solubilised the entire labile fraction for all soil-metal combinations (MExt ≈ EExt). Comparison of EValue, MExt and EExt provides a rigorous means of assessing the underlying action of soil chemical extraction methods and could be used to refine long-standing soil extraction methodologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Soil Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn sorption and retention models using SVM: Variable selection and competitive model.

    PubMed

    González Costa, J J; Reigosa, M J; Matías, J M; Covelo, E F

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to model the sorption and retention of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in soils. To that extent, the sorption and retention of these metals were studied and the soil characterization was performed separately. Multiple stepwise regression was used to produce multivariate models with linear techniques and with support vector machines, all of which included 15 explanatory variables characterizing soils. When the R-squared values are represented, two different groups are noticed. Cr, Cu and Pb sorption and retention show a higher R-squared; the most explanatory variables being humified organic matter, Al oxides and, in some cases, cation-exchange capacity (CEC). The other group of metals (Cd, Ni and Zn) shows a lower R-squared, and clays are the most explanatory variables, including a percentage of vermiculite and slime. In some cases, quartz, plagioclase or hematite percentages also show some explanatory capacity. Support Vector Machine (SVM) regression shows that the different models are not as regular as in multiple regression in terms of number of variables, the regression for nickel adsorption being the one with the highest number of variables in its optimal model. On the other hand, there are cases where the most explanatory variables are the same for two metals, as it happens with Cd and Cr adsorption. A similar adsorption mechanism is thus postulated. These patterns of the introduction of variables in the model allow us to create explainability sequences. Those which are the most similar to the selectivity sequences obtained by Covelo (2005) are Mn oxides in multiple regression and change capacity in SVM. Among all the variables, the only one that is explanatory for all the metals after applying the maximum parsimony principle is the percentage of sand in the retention process. In the competitive model arising from the aforementioned sequences, the most intense competitiveness for the adsorption and retention of different metals appears between

  7. A Novel Cu-10Zn-1.5Ni-0.34Si Alloy with Excellent Mechanical Property Through Precipitation Hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Wang, Mingpu; Li, Zhou; Dong, Qiyi; Jia, Yanlin; Xiao, Zhu; Zhang, Rui; Yu, Hongchun

    2016-11-01

    A novel Cu-10Zn-1.5Ni-0.34Si alloy was designed to replace the expensive tin-phosphor bronze in this paper. The alloy had better comprehensive mechanical properties than traditional C5191 alloy. The aged Cu-10Zn-1.5Ni-0.34Si alloy had a hardness of 220 HV, electrical conductivity of 28.5% IACS, tensile strength of 650 MPa, yield strength of 575 MPa and elongation of 13%. Ni2Si precipitates formed during aging, and the crystal orientation relationship between matrix and precipitates was: (001)α//(001)δ, and [110]α//[100]δ. Ductile fracture surface with deep cavities was found in the alloy. Solid solution strengthening, deformation strengthening and precipitation strengthening were found to be core strengthening mechanisms in the alloy.

  8. Probing the Structure, Stability and Hydrogen Adsorption of Lithium Functionalized Isoreticular MOF-5 (Fe, Cu, Co, Ni and Zn) by Density Functional Theory

    PubMed Central

    Venkataramanan, Natarajan Sathiyamoorthy; Sahara, Ryoji; Mizuseki, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Li adsorption on isoreticular MOFs with metal Fe, Cu, Co, Ni and Zn was studied using density function theory. Li functionalization shows a considerable structural change associated with a volume change in isoreticular MOF-5 except for the Zn metal center. Hydrogen binding energies on Li functionalized MOFs are seen to be in the range of 0.2 eV, which is the desired value for an ideal reversible storage system. This study has clearly shown that Li doping is possible only in Zn-based MOF-5, which would be better candidate to reversibly store hydrogen. PMID:19468328

  9. Low temperature-fired Ni-Cu-Zn ferrite nanoparticles through auto-combustion method for multilayer chip inductor applications

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ferrite nanoparticles of basic composition Ni0.7-xZnxCu0.3Fe2O4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2, x = 0.05) were synthesized through auto-combustion method and were characterized for structural properties using X-ray diffraction [XRD], scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy [FT-IR]. XRD analysis of the powder samples sintered at 600°C for 4 h showed the cubic spinel structure for ferrites with a narrow size distribution from 28 to 32 nm. FT-IR showed two absorption bands (v1 and v2) that are attributed to the stretching vibration of tetrahedral and octahedral sites. The effect of Zn doping on the electrical properties was studied using dielectric and impedance spectroscopy at room temperature. The dielectric parameters (ε', ε″, tanδ, and σac) show their maximum value for 10% Zn doping. The dielectric constant and loss tangent decrease with increasing frequency of the applied field. The results are explained in the light of dielectric polarization which is similar to the conduction phenomenon. The complex impedance shows that the conduction process in grown nanoparticles takes place predominantly through grain boundary volume. PACS: 75.50.Gg; 78.20; 77.22.Gm. PMID:22316055

  10. Luminescence, magnetic and vibrational properties of novel heterometallic niccolites [(CH3)2NH2][CrIIIMII(HCOO)6] (MII=Zn, Ni, Cu) and [(CH3)2NH2][AlIIIZnII(HCOO)6]:Cr3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mączka, Mirosław; Pietraszko, Adam; Pikul, Adam; Hermanowicz, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    We report synthesis of three novel heterometallic MOFs, [(CH3)2NH2][CrIIIMII(HCOO)6] with M=Zn (DMCrZn), Ni (DMCrNi) and Cu (DMCrCu), crystallizing in the niccolite type structure. We also successfully synthesized [(CH3)2NH2][AlCu(HCOO)6] (DMAlCu) and [(CH3)2NH2][AlZn(HCOO)6] doped with 5.8 mol% of Cr3+ (DMAlZn: Cr). X-ray diffraction shows that DMCrZn, DMCrNi and DMAlZn: Cr3+ crystallize in the trigonal structure (space group P 3 bar1c) while DMCrCu and DMAlCu crystallize in the monoclinic structure (space group C2/c). Magnetic investigation of the chromium-based niccolites reveals no magnetic order in DMCrZn and ferromagnetic order in DMCrNi and DMCrCu below 23 and 11 K, respectively. Optical studies show that DMCrZn and DMAlZn: Cr samples exhibit efficient emission typical for chromium ions located at sites of strong crystal field with the Dq/B values 2.62 and 2.67, respectively. We also discuss role of geometrical parameters in stability of the perovskite and niccolite structures.

  11. Environmentally safe sewage sludge disposal: the impact of liming on the behaviour of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn.

    PubMed

    Scancar, J; Milacic, R; Strazar, M; Burica, O; Bukovec, P

    2001-02-01

    Dewatered sewage sludge containing relatively high total concentrations of Cr (945 micrograms ml-1), Cu (523 micrograms ml-1), Ni (1186 micrograms ml-1) and Zn (2950 micrograms ml-1) was treated with quicklime and sawdust for sludge disinfection and post-stabilisation. The mobility of the heavy metals in the sludge samples was assessed by applying a modified five-step Tessier sequential extraction procedure. Water was added as a first step for estimation of the proportion of the easily soluble metal fractions. To check the precision of the analytical work the concentrations of heavy metals in steps 1-6 of the extraction procedure were summed and compared to the total metal concentrations. The mass balance agreed within +/- 3% for Cd, Cu, Cr, and Zn and within +/- 5% for Ni, Pb, Fe and Mn. Data from the partitioning study indicate that in the lime-treated sludge at a pH of 12 the mobility of Cu and Ni notably increased with the solubilisation of these metals from their organic and/or carbonate and Fe and Mn oxide and hydroxide fractions, respectively. Liming slightly decreased the proportion of other heavy metals in the easily soluble fractions while its impact on the partitioning between other sludge phases was almost insignificant. Due to the increased solubility of Ni and Cu as well as potential Cr oxidation at high pH, liming cannot be recommended for sludge disinfection. Addition of sawdust did not change the heavy metal partitioning.

  12. Investigation of collision-induced dissociation products and structures of gas-phase [ M·GlyGlyHis-H]+ ( M = Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn) complexes.

    PubMed

    Gannamani, Bharathi; Shin, Joong-Won

    2017-02-01

    Collision-induced dissociation is carried out for electrosprayed [Fe·GlyGlyHis-H] + , [Ni·GlyGlyHis-H] + , [Cu·GlyGlyHis-H] + , and [Zn·GlyGlyHis-H] + complexes. [Fe·GlyGlyHis-H] + , [Ni·GlyGlyHis-H] + , and [Zn·GlyGlyHis-H] + yield metal-bound peptide sequence ions and dehydrated ions as primary products, whereas [Cu·GlyGlyHis-H] + generates a more extensive series of metal-bound sequence ions and a product arising from the unusual loss of a formaldehyde moiety; dehydration is significantly suppressed for this complex. Density functional theory calculations show that the copper ion-deprotonated peptide binding energy is substantially higher than those in other complexes, suggesting that there is a correlation between ion-ligand binding energy and their fragmentation behavior.

  13. Effects of SnO2, WO3, and ZrO2 addition on the magnetic and mechanical properties of NiCuZn ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sea-Fue; Yang, Hsiao-Ching; Hsu, Yung-Fu; Hsieh, Chung-Kai

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effects of SnO2, WO3 and ZrO2 addition at levels up to 5 wt% on the magnetic and mechanical properties of Ni0.5Cu0.3Zn0.2Fe2O4 ceramics were investigated. Only Ni0.5Cu0.3Zn0.2Fe2O4 ceramic with a SnO2 addition of ≥3.5 wt% required a densification temperature of 1150 °C, while the others reached maximum densification at 1075 °C. All samples revealed a pure spinel phase and a uniform microstructure, except for the Ni0.5Cu0.3Zn0.2Fe2O4 ceramic with the WO3 addition, which showed an exaggerated grain growth accompanied with a small amount of needle-shaped Cu0.85Zn0.15WO4 second phase. The fracture mode in the pure Ni0.5Cu0.3Zn0.2Fe2O4 ceramic revealed a transgranular phase, as the CuO second phase increased the grain boundary strength; the Ni0.5Cu0.3Zn0.2Fe2O4 ceramics sintered with 5 wt% additives showed an intergranular phase. The Vickers hardness and the bending strength of the Ni0.5Cu0.3Zn0.2Fe2O4 ceramic were 733.6 and 62.0 MPa, respectively. The Vickers hardness of the ferrite with added SnO2 or ZrO2 showed only a slight improvement, while an apparent change (832.7) was observed with the addition of 5.0 wt% WO3. The bending strength of the ferrite was optimized at 75.7 MPa with 2.0 wt% SnO2 and at 90.5 MPa with 3.5 wt% ZrO2, while that of the ferrite sintered with WO3 added dropped gradually from 62.0 to 47.7 MPa as the amount of WO3 was increased from 0 to 5.0 wt% due to the non-uniform microstructure. The pure Ni0.5Cu0.3Zn0.2Fe2O4 ceramic sintered at 1075 °C had an initial permeability of 356.9 and a quality factor of 71.2. The addition of ZrO2 led to a significant increase in the initial permeability (588.4 at 5.0 wt% ZrO2), but a slight decline in the quality factor (56.6 at 5.0 wt% ZrO2).

  14. The effect of solution pH on the electrochemical performance of nanocrystalline metal ferrites MFe2O4 (M=Cu, Zn, and Ni) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsayed, E. M.; Rashad, M. M.; Khalil, H. F. Y.; Ibrahim, I. A.; Hussein, M. R.; El-Sabbah, M. M. B.

    2016-04-01

    Nanocrystalline metal ferrite MFe2O4 (M=Cu, Zn, and Ni) thin films have been synthesized via electrodeposition-anodization process. Electrodeposited (M)Fe2 alloys were obtained from aqueous sulfate bath. The formed alloys were electrochemically oxidized (anodized) in aqueous (1 M KOH) solution, at room temperature, to the corresponding hydroxides. The parameters controlling the current efficiency of the electrodeposition of (M)Fe2 alloys such as the bath composition and the current density were studied and optimized. The anodized (M)Fe2 alloy films were annealed in air at 400 °C for 2 h. The results revealed the formation of three ferrite thin films were formed. The crystallite sizes of the produced films were in the range between 45 and 60 nm. The microstructure of the formed film was ferrite type dependent. The corrosion behavior of ferrite thin films in different pH solutions was investigated using open circuit potential (OCP) and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The open circuit potential indicates that the initial potential E im of ZnFe2O4 thin films remained constant for a short time, then sharply increased in the less negative direction in acidic and alkaline medium compared with Ni and Cu ferrite films. The values of the corrosion current density I corr were higher for the ZnFe2O4 films at pH values of 1 and 12 compared with that of NiFe2O4 and CuFe2O4 which were higher only at pH value 1. The corrosion rate was very low for the three ferrite films when immersion in the neutral medium. The surface morphology recommended that Ni and Cu ferrite films were safely used in neutral and alkaline medium, whereas Zn ferrite film was only used in neutral atmospheres.

  15. Structure and magnetic properties of iron-based soft magnetic composite with Ni-Cu-Zn ferrite-silicone insulation coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wangchang; Wang, Wei; Lv, Junjun; Ying, Yao; Yu, Jing; Zheng, Jingwu; Qiao, Liang; Che, Shenglei

    2018-06-01

    This paper investigates the structure and magnetic properties of Ni-Cu-Zn ferrite-silicone coated iron-based soft magnetic composites (SMCs). Scanning electron microscopy coupled with a energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that the Ni-Cu-Zn ferrite and silicone resin were uniformly coated on the surface of iron powders. By controlling the composition of the coating layer, low total core loss of 97.7 mW/cm3 (eddy current loss of 48 mW/cm3, hysteresis loss of 49.7 mW/cm3, measured at 100 kHz and 0.02 T) and relatively high effective permeability of 72.5 (measured at 100 kHz) were achieved. In addition, the as-prepared SMCs displayed higher electrical resistivity, good magnetic characteristics over a wide range of frequencies (20-200 kHz) and ideal the D-C bias properties (more than 75% at H = 50 Oe). Furthermore, higher elastic modulus and hardness of SMCs, which means that the coating layer has good mechanical properties and is not easily damaged during the pressing process, were obtained in this paper. The results of this work indicate that the Ni-Cu-Zn ferrite-silicone coated SMCs have desirable properties which would make them suitable for application in the fields of the electric-magnetic switching devices, such as inductance coils, transformer cores, synchronous electric motors and resonant inductors.

  16. Al/Cu Dissimilar Friction Stir Welding with Ni, Ti, and Zn Foil as the Interlayer for Flow Control, Enhancing Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Prakash Kumar; Pal, Sukhomay; Pal, Surjya K.

    2017-07-01

    This research investigates the effects of Ni, Ti, and Zn foil as interlayer, inserted between the faying edges of Al and Cu plates, for controlled intermetallic compound (IMC) formation. The weld tensile strength with Ti and Zn as interlayer is superior to Al base metal strength. This is due to controlled flow of IMCs by diffused Ti interlayer and thin, continuous, and uniform IMC formation in the case of Zn interlayer. Improved flexural stress was observed with interlayer. Weld microhardness varied with different interlayers and purely depends on IMCs present at the indentation point, flow of IMCs, and interlayer hardness. Specimens with interlayer failed at the interface of the nugget and thermomechanical-affected zone (TMAZ) with complete and broken three-dimensional (3-D) grains, indicating transgranular fracture. Phase analysis revealed that Al/Cu IMCs are impeded by Ni and Ti interlayer. The minor binary and ternary IMC phases form adjacent to the interlayer due to diffusion of the material with Al/Cu. Line scan and elemental mapping indicate thin, continuous, and uniform IMCs with enhanced weld metallurgical and mechanical properties for the joints with Zn interlayer. Macrostructural analysis revealed IMC flow variations with and without interlayer. Variation in grain size at different zones is also observed for different interlayers.

  17. Effect of Dy3+ substitution on structural and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Ni-Cu-Zn ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabbur, S. M.; Ghodake, U. R.; Nadargi, D. Y.; Kambale, Rahul C.; Suryavanshi, S. S.

    2018-04-01

    Nanocrystalline Ni0.25Cu0.30Zn0.45DyxFe2-xO4 (x = 0.0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1 and 0.125 mol.) ferrimagnetic oxides have been synthesized by sol-gel autocombustion route. X-ray diffraction study reveals the formation of spinel cubic structure with an expansion of the unit cell by Dy addition. Bertaut method was employed to propose the site occupancy i.e. cation distribution for elements at A-tetrahedral and B-octahedral sites of spinel lattice. The intrinsic vibrational absorption bands i.e. υ1 (712-719 cm-1) and υ2 (496-506 cm-1) are observed for tetrahedral and octahedral sites respectively. The microstructural aspect confirms the formation of an average grain size (∼7-99 nm) with presence of expected elements. Magnetization studies reveal that the magnetic moments are no longer linear but exhibit canting effect due to spin frustration. The frequency dispersion spectrum of initial permeability has been explained based on grain size, saturation magnetization and anisotropy constant. Thermal hysteresis curve (initial permeability versus temperature) indicates magnetic disordering to paramagnetic state at Néel temperature (TN). High values of TN show that the present ferrite samples are cation-ordered with d-electrons contributing towards the magnetic interaction at the sublattice.

  18. Pollution of soils (Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn, Cu, Ni) along the ring road of Wrocław (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hołtra, Anna; Zamorska-Wojdyła, Dorota

    2017-11-01

    The concentrations of metallic pollution in soils and plants along the ring road of Wrocław, Poland, have been determined. Environmental samples were collected from the surface layer of the profile within 2-3 m from the edge of the road. The analysis of metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn, Cu and Ni) has been carried out through FAAS and GFAAS methods. The mineralizates of soils and plants were prepared in HNO3, 65% supra pure, using the Microwave Digestion System. The pH and conductivity of the soil solutions were measured to evaluate their active and exchangeable acidity and the salinity of the soils. The index of the enrichment of soils in metals (Wn) and the bioaccumulation coefficient (WB) have been determined. Also, histograms of the frequency of the occurrence of metals in the environmental samples and the Pearson's correlation coefficients were presented. The results of metal concentrations in soils were compared to the geochemical background in uncontaminated soils of Poland. The assessment of the results in the soils was also made relative to the standard, according to the Polish Ministry of Environment Regulation from September 1st, 2016. During the assessment of the bioaccumulation coefficients of metals in plants a reference was made to the content of undesirable substances in feed in agreement with the Polish Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development Regulation from January 23rd, 2007.

  19. Synthesis, morphology and electrical properties of Co2+ substituted NiCuZn ferrites for MLCI applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabbur, S. M.; Waghmare, S. D.; Ghodake, U. R.; Suryavanshi, S. S.

    2018-04-01

    Co2+ is a fast relaxing ion which can enhance microwave properties. This work focuses on the synthesis and analysis of Ni0.25-xCoxCu0.30Zn0.45Fe2O4 (x = 0.00, 0.05, 0.01, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25) ferrites by auto combustion method using glycine as the chelating agent. From X-ray Diffraction (XRD) spectra, the structural parameters are analysed. The lattice parameter (a) decreases due to smaller ionic radius of Co2+ (0.072 nm) which replaces Ni2+ (0.078 nm). Bulk density and porosity measurements show that there are pores and lattice imperfections. The cation distribution of the ferrites based on Neel's two sublattice model is proposed. Transmission Electron Micrographs (TEM) indicate narrow size distribution of spherical shaped nanoparticles. DC electrical resistivity (ρD.C.) is very important factor of low temperature sintered ferrites for MLCI applications. Electroplating of the devices is much affected by electrical resistivity. Maximum DC resistivity (2.89 × 106 Ω-cm) is observed for the sample with x=0.20. The dielectric parameters (ɛ', ɛ″ and tan δ) decrease as the alternating field increases which is due to space charge distribution and hopping mechanism. AC resistivity (ρAC) decreases with frequency, increased concentration of Fe2+ ions induces electron hopping: Fe3+ ↔ Fe2+ at B sites thereby reducing the resistivity. The low dielectric loss factor of 0.07 for x=0.20 ferrite indicates that the sample can be potential candidate for MLCI applications.

  20. A radioluminescent nuclear battery using volumetric configuration: 63Ni solution/ZnS:Cu,Al/InGaP.

    PubMed

    Russo, Johnny; Litz, Marc; Ray, William; Smith, Brenda; Moyers, Richard

    2017-12-01

    Energy dense power sources are critical to the development of compact, remote sensors for terrestrial and space applications. Nuclear batteries using β - -emitting radioisotopes possess energy densities 1000 times greater than chemical batteries. Their power generation is a function of β - flux saturation point relative to the planar (2D) configuration, β - range, and semiconductor converter. An approach to increase power density in a beta-photovoltaic (β-PV) nuclear battery is described. By using volumetric (3D) configuration, the radioisotope, nickel-63 ( 63 Ni) in a chloride solution was integrated in a phosphor film (ZnS:Cu,Al) where the β - energy is converted into optical energy. The optical energy was converted to electrical energy via an indium gallium phosphate (InGaP) photovoltaic (PV) cell, which was optimized for low light illumination and closely matched to radioluminescence (RL) spectrum. With 15mCi of 63 Ni activity, the 3D configuration energy values surpassed 2D configuration results. The highest total power conversion efficiency (η t ) of 3D configuration was 0.289% at 200µm compared 0.0638% for 2D configuration at 50µm. The highest electrical power and η t for the 3D configuration were 3.35 nW e /cm 2 at an activity of 30mCi and 0.289% at an activity of 15mCi, respectively. By using 3D configuration, the interaction space between the radioisotope source and scintillation material increased, allowing for significant electrical energy output, relative to the 2D configuration. These initial results represent a first step to increase nuclear battery power density from microwatts to milliwatts per 1000cm 3 with the implementation of higher energy β - sources. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Distribution of Bioactive Trace Metals (Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn) in the semiarid Kuwait Bay, stressed by natural and anthropogenic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Said, T. F.; Pokavanich, T.; Al-Hashem, A.; Kedila, R.

    2016-02-01

    Kuwait is in the northwestern part of the Arabian Gulf and receives flow from Shatt Al-Arab River as the main fresh water input to the Gulf. Kuwait's waters can be described as eutrophic, euphotic, and highly saline waters. The main objective of the study is to assess spatial and temporal distribution of Cu, Co, Zn, Fe and Ni, nutrients such as nitrate and phosphate, chlorophyll-a and physical variables along transects in Kuwait's Waters. No systematic research on bioactive metals has been studied in the region. Concentration of trace metal in the shallow Kuwait Bay was relatively high and decreased towards the southern water. This is attributed to higher sewage input, domestic and industrial effluents, dust storms and human activities. Cu, Ni, Fe, Zn and Co levels were measured using proven tested methodology i.e., Adsorptive Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry (Ad-CSV) and Flow Injection Analyzer (FIA). Surface seawater samples were collected from 26 stations using clean polyethylene sampling devices from four transects during two seasons in 2015. Average concentrations of Copper, Nickel, Cobalt, Zinc and chlorophyll-a corresponded to 14.99, 22.32, 0.74, 14.56 nM and 3.05µg/L during June 2015. These values indicated lower concentrations compared to previously published values from Kuwait's waters: Cu 48.52, Ni 26.12, Co 4.69, Zn 93.86 nM. Two transects conducted during summer 2015 showed positive relationship between metals (Cu, Co and Ni) and chlorophyll. Strong and apparent correlation was observed between cobalt and chlorophyll-a in Kuwait Bay indicating that these micronutrient are abundant and higher than phytoplankton essential requirements. Recent measured Fe concentration 7.95nM in Kuwait Bay was comparable to values found in similar coastal water. Latest results obtained during the transactional surveys and processes involved in Kuwait's waters will be shown and discussed during the presentation.

  2. Effect on the grain size of single-mode microwave sintered NiCuZn ferrite and zinc titanate dielectric resonator ceramics.

    PubMed

    Sirugudu, Roopas Kiran; Vemuri, Rama Krishna Murthy; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Gopalakrishnan, Anisha; Budaraju, Srinivasa Murty

    2011-01-01

    Microwave sintering of materials significantly depends on dielectric, magnetic and conductive Losses. Samples with high dielectric and magnetic loss such as ferrites could be sintered easily. But low dielectric loss material such as dielectric resonators (paraelectrics) finds difficulty in generation of heat during microwave interaction. Microwave sintering of materials of these two classes helps in understanding the variation in dielectric and magnetic characteristics with respect to the change in grain size. High-energy ball milled Ni0.6Cu0.2Zn0.2Fe1.98O4-delta and ZnTiO3 are sintered in conventional and microwave methods and characterized for respective dielectric and magnetic characteristics. The grain size variation with higher copper content is also observed with conventional and microwave sintering. The grain size in microwave sintered Ni0.6Cu0.2Zn0.2Fe1.98O4-delta is found to be much small and uniform in comparison with conventional sintered sample. However, the grain size of microwave sintered sample is almost equal to that of conventional sintered sample of Ni0.3Cu0.5Zn0.2Fe1.98O4-delta. In contrast to these high dielectric and magnetic loss ferrites, the paraelectric materials are observed to sinter in presence of microwaves. Although microwave sintered zinc titanate sample showed finer and uniform grains with respect to conventional samples, the dielectric characteristics of microwave sintered sample are found to be less than that of conventional sample. Low dielectric constant is attributed to the low density. Smaller grain size is found to be responsible for low quality factor and the presence of small percentage of TiO2 is observed to achieve the temperature stable resonant frequency.

  3. A field method using microcosms to evaluate transfer of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn from sewage sludge amended forest soils to Helix aspersa snails.

    PubMed

    Scheifler, R; Ben Brahim, M; Gomot-de Vaufleury, A; Carnus, J-M; Badot, P-M

    2003-01-01

    Juvenile Helix aspersa snails exposed in field microcosms were used to assess the transfer of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn from forest soils amended with liquid and composted sewage sludge. Zn concentrations and contents were significantly higher in snails exposed to liquid and composted sludge after 5 and 7 weeks of exposure, when compared with control. Trends were less clear for the other metals. Present results show that Zn, among the cocktail of metallic trace elements (MTE) coming from sewage sludge disposal, represents the principal concern for food chain transfer and secondary poisoning risks. The microcosm design used in this experiment was well suited for relatively long-term (about 2 months) active biomonitoring with H. aspersa snails. The snails quickly indicated the variations of MTE concentrations in their immediate environment. Therefore, the present study provides a simple but efficient field tool to evaluate MTE bioavailability and transfer.

  4. Sugar beet factory lime affects the mobilization of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn under dynamic redox conditions in a contaminated floodplain soil.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Sabry M; Rinklebe, Jörg

    2017-01-15

    The impact of sugar beet factory lime (SBFL) on the release dynamics and mobilization of toxic metals (TMs) under dynamic redox conditions in floodplain soils has not been studied up to date. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify the scientific hypothesis that SBFL is able to immobilize Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn under different redox potentials (E H ) in a contaminated floodplain soil. For this purpose, the non-treated contaminated soil (CS) and the same soil treated with SBFL (CS+SBFL) were flooded in the laboratory using a highly sophisticated automated biogeochemical microcosm apparatus. The experiment was conducted stepwise from reducing (-13 mV) to oxidizing (+519 mV) soil conditions. Soil pH decreased under oxic conditions in CS (from 6.9 to 4.0) and in CS+SBFL (from 7.5 to 4.4). The mobilization of Cu, Cr, Pb, and Fe were lower in CS+SBFL than in CS under both reducing/neutral and oxic/acidic conditions. Those results demonstrate that SBFL is able to decrease concentrations of these elements under a wide range of redox and pH conditions. The mobilization of Cd, Co, Mn, Mo, Ni, and Zn were higher in CS+SBFL than in CS under reducing/neutral conditions; however, these concentrations showed an opposite behavior under oxic/acidic conditions and were lower in CS+SBFL than in CS. We conclude that SBFL immobilized Cu, Cr, Pb, and Fe under dynamic redox conditions and immobilized Cd, Co, Mn, Mo, Ni, and Zn under oxic acidic conditions; however, the latter elements were mobilized under reducing neutral conditions in the studied soil. Therefore, the addition of SBFL to acid floodplain soils contaminated with TMs might be an important alternative for ameliorating these soils with view to a sustainable management of these soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Simultaneous removal of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn from stormwater using high-efficiency industrial sorbents: Effect of pH, contact time and humic acid.

    PubMed

    Genç-Fuhrman, Hülya; Mikkelsen, Peter S; Ledin, Anna

    2016-10-01

    The effect of contact time, solution pH, and the presence of humic acid (HA) on the combined removal of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn is investigated in batch tests using alumina, granulated activated carbon (GAC), and bauxsol coated sand (BCS) as sorbents. It is found that the equilibrium time for Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn is about 4h, while no clear equilibrium is observed for As and Cr. It is also found that increasing the pH until pH~8 enhanced Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn removal, but increasing the pH above this point had no major effect. In the cases of As and Cr, higher pH values (i.e. >7) decreased their removal. The presence of both 20 and 100mg/L HA suppressed the heavy metal removal except for Cr, and the suppression was higher at the higher HA concentration. Geochemical simulations suggest that this is due to the formation of dissolved HA-metal complexes preventing effective metal sorption. In the case of Cr, the presence of HA increased the removal when using alumina or BCS, while hindering the removal when using GAC. The findings show that the pH-value of the stormwater to be treated must be in the range of 6-7 in order to achieve removal of the full spectrum of metals. The results also show that natural organic matter may severely influence the removal efficiency, such that, for most metals the removal was reduced to the half, while for Cr it was increased to the double for alumina and BCS. Consequently, a properly working filter set up may not work properly anymore when receiving high loads of natural organic acids during the pollen season in spring or during defoliation in autumn and early winter, and during mixing of runoff with snowmelt having a low pH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biotransfer, bioaccumulation and effects of herbivore dietary Co, Cu, Ni, and Zn on growth and development of the insect predator Podisus maculiventris (Say).

    PubMed

    Cheruiyot, Dorothy J; Boyd, Robert S; Coudron, Thomas A; Cobine, Paul A

    2013-06-01

    Increased metal availability in the environment can be detrimental for the growth and development of all organisms in a food web. In part, this toxicity is due to biotransfer or bioaccumulation of metals between trophic levels. We evaluated the survival, growth, and development of a generalist Hemipteran predator (Podisus maculiventris) when fed herbivorous prey (Spodoptera exigua) reared on artificial diet amended with Cu, Zn, Ni, and Co. Predator nymphs were fed S. exigua larvae raised on diet amended with sublethal (Minimum Sublethal Concentration or MSC) or lethal (Minimum Lethal Concentration or MLC) concentrations of each metal, as well as control diet. We determined if metals were biotransferred or bioaccumulated from the diet to herbivore and predator, as well as if predator growth or survival was affected by herbivore diet. Podisus maculiventris fed herbivores raised on MLC levels of both Cu and Zn took significantly longer to mature to adults, whereas their overall survival was not affected by prey diet metal concentration for any metal. Adult weights were significantly reduced for predators raised on herbivores reared on diets amended with the MLC of Cu and Zn. Copper and Zn were bioaccumulated from diet to herbivore and from herbivore to predator, whereas Ni was biotransferred (although concentrations decreased as trophic level increased). The pattern for Co was more complex, with biotransfer the main outcome. Our results show that availability of metals in a food web can affect growth and development of a hemipteran predator, and that metals are transferred between trophic levels, with metal-specific biotransfer and bioaccumulation outcomes.

  7. K β to K α X-ray intensity ratios and K to L shell vacancy transfer probabilities of Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, L. F. M.; Gudennavar, S. B.; Bubbly, S. G.; Kerur, B. R.

    2015-12-01

    The K to L shell total vacancy transfer probabilities of low Z elements Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn are estimated by measuring the K β to K α intensity ratio adopting the 2π-geometry. The target elements were excited by 32.86 keV barium K-shell X-rays from a weak 137Cs γ-ray source. The emitted K-shell X-rays were detected using a low energy HPGe X-ray detector coupled to a 16 k MCA. The measured intensity ratios and the total vacancy transfer probabilities are compared with theoretical results and others' work, establishing a good agreement.

  8. UV Spectra of Tris(2,2'-bipyridine)-M(II) Complex Ions in Vacuo (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn).

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuang; Smith, James E T; Weber, J Mathias

    2016-11-21

    We present electronic spectra in the π-π* region of a series of tris(bpy)-M(II) complex ions (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) in vacuo for the first time. By applying photodissociation spectroscopy to cryogenically cooled and mass selected [M II (bpy) 3 ] 2+ ions, we obtain the intrinsic spectra of these ions at low temperature without perturbation by solvent interaction or crystal lattice shifts. This allows spectroscopic analysis of these complex ions in greater detail than possible in the condensed phase. We interpret our experimental data by comparison with time-dependent density functional theory.

  9. Geographical and pedological drivers of distribution and risks to soil fauna of seven metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) in British soils.

    PubMed

    Spurgeon, David J; Rowland, Philip; Ainsworth, Gillian; Rothery, Peter; Long, Sara; Black, Helaina I J

    2008-05-01

    Concentrations of seven metals were measured in over 1000 samples as part of an integrated survey. Sixteen metal pairs were significantly positively correlated. Cluster analysis identified two clusters. Metals from the largest (Cr, Cu, Ni, V, Zn), but not the smallest (Cd, Pb) cluster were significantly negatively correlated with spatial location and soil pH and organic matter content. Cd and Pb were not correlated with these parameters, due possibly to the masking effect of recent extensive release. Analysis of trends with soil properties in different habitats indicated that general trends may not necessarily be applicable to all areas. A risk assessment indicated that Zn poses the most widespread direct risk to soil fauna and Cd the least. Any risks associated with high metal concentrations are, however, likely to be greatest in habitats such as arable and horticultural, improved grassland and built up areas where soil metal concentrations are more frequently elevated.

  10. Comparative study of synthesis, structural and magnetic properties of Cu2+ substituted Co-Ni, Co-Zn and Co-Mg nano ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishna, A.; Murali, N.; Margarette, S. J.; Samatha, K.; Veeraiah, V.

    2018-02-01

    Mixed ferrites of the form Co0.5M0.1Cu0.4Fe2O4 (M = Ni, Zn and Mg) have been synthesized using the sol-gel auto combustion technique. Structural analyses are carried out using powder X-ray diffraction to idntify pure ferrite phases. SEM analysis revealed clear crystal morphology with relatively uniform grain sizes with polygonal structures. The FT-IR studies also confirm the bond formation and cation vibrations at low (365-392 cm-1) and high (579-587 cm-1) bands that correspond to the tetrahedral and octahedral sites, respectively. The magnetic properties studied through vibrating sample magnetometer showed that the Ni substituted sample has more magnetic character by exhibiting the highest saturation magnetization.

  11. Effect of Barothermal Treatment on the Structure and the Mechanical Properties of a High-Strength Eutectic Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Ni Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akopyan, T. K.; Padalko, A. G.; Belov, N. A.; Karpova, Zh. A.

    2017-11-01

    The effect of barothermal treatment by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) on the structure and the properties of castings of a promising high-strength cast aluminum alloy, namely, nikalin ATs6N4 based on the Al‒Zn-Mg-Cu-Ni system, has been studied using two barothermal treatment regimes different in isothermal holding temperature. It is shown that the casting porosity substantially decreases after barothermal treatment; eutectic phase Al3Ni particles are additionally refined during exposure to the barothermal treatment temperature: the higher the HIP temperature, the more substantial the refinement. The improvement of the casting structure after HIP increases their mechanical properties. It is found, in particular, that the plasticity of the alloy in the state of the maximum hardening increases by a factor of more than 8 as compared to the initial state (from 0.82 to 6.9%).

  12. Super-high-affinity binding site for [3H]diazepam in the presence of Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, or Zn2+.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, S; Ogawa, N; Mori, A

    1982-12-01

    Chloride salts of Li+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cr3+, Mn2+, Fe2+, and Fe3+ had no effect on [3H]diazepam binding. Chloride salts of Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ increased [3H]diazepam binding by 34 to 68% in a concentration-dependent fashion. Since these divalent cations potentiated the GABA-enhanced [3H]diazepam binding and the effect of each divalent cation was nearly additive with GABA, these cations probably act at a site different from the GABA recognition site in the benzodiazepine-receptor complex. Scatchard plots of [3H]diazepam binding without an effective divalent cation showed a single class of binding, with a Kd value of 5.3 nM. In the presence of 1 mM Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, or Zn2+, two distinct binding sites were evident with apparent Kd values of 1.0 nM and 5.7 nM. The higher-affinity binding was not detected in the absence of an effective divalent cation and is probably a novel, super-high-affinity binding site.

  13. Investigation of phase stability of novel equiatomic FeCoNiCuZn based-high entropy alloy prepared by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soni, Vinay Kumar; Sanyal, S.; Sinha, S. K.

    2018-05-01

    The present work reports the structural and phase stability analysis of equiatomic FeCoNiCuZn High entropy alloy (HEA) systems prepared by mechanical alloying (MA) method. In this research effort some 1287 alloy combinations were extensively studied to arrive at most favourable combination. FeCoNiCuZn based alloy system was selected on the basis of physiochemical parameters such as enthalpy of mixing (ΔHmix), entropy of mixing (ΔSmix), atomic size difference (ΔX) and valence electron concentration (VEC) such that it fulfils the formation criteria of stable multi component high entropy alloy system. In this context, we have investigated the effect of novel alloying addition in view of microstructure and phase formation aspect. XRD plots of the MA samples shows the formation of stable solid solution with FCC (Face Cantered Cubic) after 20 hr of milling time and no indication of any amorphous or intermetallic phase formation. Our results are in good agreement with calculation and analysis done on the basis of physiochemical parameters during selection of constituent elements of HEA.

  14. Effect of EDTA, EDDS, NTA and citric acid on electrokinetic remediation of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn contaminated dredged marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Song, Yue; Ammami, Mohamed-Tahar; Benamar, Ahmed; Mezazigh, Salim; Wang, Huaqing

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, electrokinetic (EK) remediation method has been widely considered to remove metal pollutants from contaminated dredged sediments. Chelating agents are used as electrolyte solutions to increase metal mobility. This study aims to investigate heavy metal (HM) (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) mobility by assessing the effect of different chelating agents (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) or citric acid (CA)) in enhancing EK remediation efficiency. The results show that, for the same concentration (0.1 mol L(-1)), EDTA is more suitable to enhance removal of Ni (52.8 %), Pb (60.1 %) and Zn (34.9 %). EDDS provides effectiveness to increase Cu removal efficiency (52 %), while EDTA and EDDS have a similar enhancement removal effect on As EK remediation (30.5∼31.3 %). CA is more suitable to enhance Cd removal (40.2 %). Similar Cr removal efficiency was provided by EK remediation tests (35.6∼43.5 %). In the migration of metal-chelate complexes being directed towards the anode, metals are accumulated in the middle sections of the sediment matrix for the tests performed with EDTA, NTA and CA. But, low accumulation of metal contamination in the sediment was observed in the test using EDDS.

  15. Surface monitoring for pitting evolution into uniform corrosion on Cu-Ni-Zn ternary alloy in alkaline chloride solution: ex-situ LCM and in-situ SECM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Decheng; Dong, Chaofang; Zheng, Zhaoran; Mao, Feixiong; Xu, Aoni; Ni, Xiaoqing; Man, Cheng; Yao, Jizheng; Xiao, Kui; Li, Xiaogang

    2018-05-01

    The evolution of the corrosion process on Cu-Ni-Zn alloy in alkaline chloride solution was investigated by in-situ scanning electrochemical microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and ex-situ laser confocal microscopy, and the effects of ambient temperature and polarization time were also discussed. The results demonstrated a higher pitting nucleation rate and lower pit growth rate at low temperature. The ratio of pit depth to mouth diameter decreased with increasing pit volume and temperature, indicating that pits preferentially propagate in the horizontal direction rather than the vertical direction owing to the presence of corrosion products and deposited copper. The surface current was uniform and stabilized at approximately 2.2 nA during the passive stage, whereas the current increased after the pits were formed with the maximum approaching 3 nA. Increasing the temperature led to an increase in porous corrosion products (CuO, Zn(OH)2, and Ni(OH)2) and significantly increased the rate of transition from pitting to uniform corrosion. Dezincification corrosion was detected by energy dispersive spectrometry, and a mechanism for pitting transition into uniform corrosion induced by dezincification at the grain boundaries is proposed.

  16. Preconcentration and solid phase extraction method for the determination of Co, Cu, Ni, Zn and Cd in environmental and biological samples using activated carbon by FAAS.

    PubMed

    Kiran, K; Suresh Kumar, K; Suvardhan, K; Janardhanam, K; Chiranjeevi, P

    2007-08-17

    2-{[1-(2-Hydroxynaphthyl) methylidene] amino} benzoic acid (HNMABA) was synthesized for solid phase extraction (SPE) to the determination of Co, Cu, Ni, Zn and Cd in environmental and biological samples by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS). These metals were sorbed as HNMABA complexes on activated carbon (AC) at the pH range of 5.0+/-0.2 and eluted with 6 ml of 1M HNO3 in acetone. The effects of sample volume, eluent volume and recovery have been investigated to enhance the sensitivity and selectivity of proposed method. The effect of interferences on the sorption of metal ions was studied. The concentration of the metal ions detected after preconcentration was in agreement with the added amount. The detection limits for the metals studied were in the range of 0.75-3.82 microg ml(-1). The proposed system produced satisfactory results for the determination of Co, Cu, Ni, Zn and Cd metals in environmental and biological samples.

  17. Chemical separation and mass spectrometry of Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, and Cu in terrestrial and extraterrestrial materials using thermal ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Akane; Yamashita, Katsuyuki; Makishima, Akio; Nakamura, Eizo

    2009-12-01

    A sequential chemical separation technique for Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, and Cu in terrestrial and extraterrestrial silicate rocks was developed for precise and accurate determination of elemental concentration by the isotope dilution method (ID). The technique uses a combination of cation-anion exchange chromatography and Eichrom nickel specific resin. The method was tested using a variety of matrixes including bulk meteorite (Allende), terrestrial peridotite (JP-1), and basalt (JB-1b). Concentrations of each element was determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) using W filaments and a Si-B-Al type activator for Cr, Fe, Ni, and Zn and a Re filament and silicic acid-H3PO4 activator for Cu. The method can be used to precisely determine the concentrations of these elements in very small silicate samples, including meteorites, geochemical reference samples, and mineral standards for microprobe analysis. Furthermore, the Cr mass spectrometry procedure developed in this study can be extended to determine the isotopic ratios of 53Cr/52Cr and 54Cr/52Cr with precision of approximately 0.05epsilon and approximately 0.10epsilon (1epsilon = 0.01%), respectively, enabling cosmochemical applications such as high precision Mn-Cr chronology and investigation of nucleosynthetic isotopic anomalies in meteorites.

  18. Honeycomb-Ordered Na 3Ni 1.5M 0.5BiO 6 (M = Ni, Cu, Mg, Zn) as High-Voltage Layered Cathodes for Sodium-Ion Batteries

    SciT

    Wang, Peng -Fei; Guo, Yu -Jie; Duan, Hui

    Developing high-voltage layered cathodes for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) has always been a severe challenge. Herein, a new family of honeycomb-layered Na 3Ni 1.5M 0.5BiO 6 (M = Ni, Cu, Mg, Zn) with a monoclinic superstructure has been shown to combine good Na + (de)intercalation activity with a competitive 3.3 V high voltage. By coupling the electrochemical process with ex situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy as well as in situ X-ray diffraction, the charge compensation mechanism and structural evolution of these new cathodes are clearly investigated. Interestingly, both Ni 2+/Ni 3+ and Cu 2+/Cu 3+ participate in the redox reaction upon cycling,more » and the succession of single-phase, two-phase, or three-phase regions upon Na+ extraction/insertion were identified with rather good accuracy. Furthermore, this research strategy could provide insights into the structure–function–property relationships on a new series of honeycomb-ordered materials with the general formula Na 3Ni 1.5M 0.5BiO 6 and also serve as a bridge to guide future design of high-performance cathodes for SIBs.« less

  19. Honeycomb-Ordered Na 3Ni 1.5M 0.5BiO 6 (M = Ni, Cu, Mg, Zn) as High-Voltage Layered Cathodes for Sodium-Ion Batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Peng -Fei; Guo, Yu -Jie; Duan, Hui; ...

    2017-11-01

    Developing high-voltage layered cathodes for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) has always been a severe challenge. Herein, a new family of honeycomb-layered Na 3Ni 1.5M 0.5BiO 6 (M = Ni, Cu, Mg, Zn) with a monoclinic superstructure has been shown to combine good Na + (de)intercalation activity with a competitive 3.3 V high voltage. By coupling the electrochemical process with ex situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy as well as in situ X-ray diffraction, the charge compensation mechanism and structural evolution of these new cathodes are clearly investigated. Interestingly, both Ni 2+/Ni 3+ and Cu 2+/Cu 3+ participate in the redox reaction upon cycling,more » and the succession of single-phase, two-phase, or three-phase regions upon Na+ extraction/insertion were identified with rather good accuracy. Furthermore, this research strategy could provide insights into the structure–function–property relationships on a new series of honeycomb-ordered materials with the general formula Na 3Ni 1.5M 0.5BiO 6 and also serve as a bridge to guide future design of high-performance cathodes for SIBs.« less

  20. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometric investigations of the complexation behavior of macrocyclic thiacrown ethers with bivalent transitional metals (Cu, Co, Ni and Zn).

    PubMed

    Tsybizova, Alexandra; Tarábek, Ján; Buchta, Michal; Holý, Petr; Schröder, Detlef

    2012-10-15

    Heavy metals are both a problem for the environment and an important resource for industry. Their selective extraction by means of organic ligands therefore is an attractive topic. The coordination of three thiacrown ethers to late 3d-metal ions was investigated by a combination of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The mass spectrometric experiments were carried out in an ion trap mass spectrometer with an ESI source. Absolute binding constants were estimated by comparison with data for 18-crown-6/Na(+). EPR spectroscopy was used as a complementary method for investigating the Cu(I) /Cu(II) redox couple. The study found that thiacrown ethers preferentially bind traces of copper even at an excess of other metal ions (Co(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II)). The absolute association constants of the Cu(I) complexes were about 10(8) M(-1), and about two orders of magnitude lower for the other 3d-metal cations. The EPR spectra demonstrated that the reduction from Cu(II) to Cu(I) upon formation of the [(thiacrown)Cu](+) species takes place in solution. ESI-MS demonstrated that the three thiacrown ligands examined had high binding constants as well as good selectivities for copper(I) at low concentrations, and in the presence of other metal ions. By a combination of ESI-MS and EPR spectrometry it was shown that the reduction from Cu(II) to Cu(I) occurred in solution. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Comparison of four methods for bioavailability-based risk assessment of mixtures of Cu, Zn, and Ni in freshwater.

    PubMed

    Van Regenmortel, Tina; Nys, Charlotte; Janssen, Colin R; Lofts, Stephen; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2017-08-01

    Although chemical risk assessment is still mainly conducted on a substance-by-substance basis, organisms in the environment are typically exposed to mixtures of substances. Risk assessment procedures should therefore be adapted to fit these situations. Four mixture risk assessment methodologies were compared for risk estimations of mixtures of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and nickel (Ni). The results showed that use of the log-normal species sensitivity distribution (SSD) instead of the best-fit distribution and sampling species sensitivities independently for each metal instead of using interspecies correlations in metal sensitivity had little impact on risk estimates. Across 4 different monitoring datasets, between 0% and 52% of the target water samples were estimated to be at risk, but only between 0% and 15% of the target water samples were at risk because of the mixture of metals and not any single metal individually. When a natural baseline database was examined, it was estimated that 10% of the target water samples were at risk because of single metals or their mixtures; when the most conservative method was used (concentration addition [CA] applied directly to the SSD, i.e., CA SSD ). However, the issue of metal mixture risk at geochemical baseline concentrations became relatively small (2% of target water samples) when a theoretically more correct method was used (CA applied to individual dose response curves, i.e., CA DRC ). Finally, across the 4 monitoring datasets, the following order of conservatism for the 4 methods was shown (from most to least conservative, with ranges of median margin of safety [MoS] relative to CA SSD ): CA SSD  > CA DRC (MoS = 1.17-1.25) > IA DRC (independent action (IA) applied to individual dose-response curves; MoS = 1.38-1.60) > IA SSD (MoS = 1.48-1.72). Therefore, it is suggested that these 4 methods can be used in a general tiered scheme for the risk assessment of metal mixtures in a regulatory context

  2. Polymorphism of the bivalent metal vanadates MeV 2O 6 ( Me = Mg, Ca, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocała, Krzysztof; Ziółkowski, Jacek

    1987-08-01

    Based on the literature data, our former findings and additional DTA and high-temperature X-ray studies performed for CdV 2O 6, MgV 2O 6, and MnV 2O 6, a consistent scheme of the phase transformations of the MeV 2O 6 ( Me = Mg, Ca, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd) metavanadates is constructed at normal pressure between room temperature and melting points. Three types of structures exist for the considered compounds: brannerite type (B), pseudobrannerite type (P), and NiV 2O 6 type (N). The following phase transformations have been observed: Me = Mg, B → P at 535°C; Me = Mn, B → P at 540°C; Me = Co, N → B at 660°C; Me = Cu, B (with triclinic distortion) → B at 625°C (secondary order); and Me = Cd, B → P at 170°. CaV 2O 6P, NiV 2O 6N, and ZnV 2O 6B exist in unique form in the entire temperature range. P-form seems to be favored by Me of larger ionic radii. N-form seems to appear at a peculiar d-shell structure and small Me size. Preliminary explanation of the dependence of the structure type on Me size is offered. New X-ray data are given for CdV 2O 6B, CdV 2O 6P, MgV 2O 6B, MgV 2O 6P, and MnV 2O 6P.

  3. Different binding modes of Cu and Pb vs. Cd, Ni, and Zn with the trihydroxamate siderophore desferrioxamine B at seawater ionic strength

    SciT

    Schijf, Johan; Christenson, Emily A.; Potter, Kailee J.

    2015-07-01

    The solution speciation in seawater of divalent trace metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) is dominated by strong, ostensibly metal-specific organic ligands that may play important roles in microbial metal acquisition and/or detoxification processes. We compare the effective stabilities of these metal-organic complexes to the stabilities of their complexes with a model siderophore, desferrioxamine B (DFOB). While metal-DFOB complexation has been studied in various dilute but often moderately coordinating media, for the purpose of this investigation we measured the stability constants in a non-coordinating background electrolyte at seawater ionic strength (0.7 M NaClO4). Potentiometric titrations of single metals (M) weremore » performed in the presence of ligand (L) at different M:L molar ratios, whereupon the stability constants of multiple complexes were simultaneously determined by non-linear regression of the titration curves with FITEQL, using the optimal binding mode for each metal. Cadmium, Ni, and Zn, like trivalent Fe, sequentially form a bi-, tetra-, and hexadentate complex with DFOB as pH increases, consistent with their coordination number of 6 and regular octahedral geometry. Copper has a Jahn-Teller-distorted square-bipyramidal geometry whereas the geometry of Pb is cryptic, involving a range of bond lengths. Supported by a thermodynamic argument, our data suggest that this impedes binding of the third hydroxamate group and that the hexadentate Cu-DFOB and Pb-DFOB complex identified in earlier reports may instead be a deprotonated tetradentate complex. Absence of the hexadentate complex promotes the formation of a dinuclear (bidentate-tetradentate) complex, M2HL2+, albeit not for Pb in 0.7 M NaCl, evidently due to extensive complexation with chloride. Stabilities of the hexadentate Ni-DFOB, Zn-DFOB, and the tetradentate Pb-DFOB complex are nearly equal, yet about 2 orders of magnitude higher and 4 orders of magnitude lower than those of the hexadentate Cd

  4. Effect of Sintering Temperature on Magnetic Core-Loss Properties of a NiCuZn Ferrite for High-Frequency Power Converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yi; Ngo, Khai D. T.; Hou, Dongbin; Mu, Mingkai; Mei, Yunhui; Lu, Guo-Quan

    2015-10-01

    In an effort to find a magnetic material for making low-loss magnetic components for high-power-density converters, we investigated the magnetic core-loss characteristics of a commercial NiCuZn ferrite (LSF 50) at 5 MHz as a function of the sintering temperature of the ferrite powder. The ferrite powder was compacted into toroid cores and then sintered at 850°C, 900°C, 950°C, 1000°C, and 1050°C for 2 h. The sintered densities of the cores increased at higher sintering temperatures. The magnetic properties of the sintered cores—complex permeability and core-loss density—were measured. We found that both the real and imaginary parts of the relative permeability increased with sintering temperature. The core-loss results at 5 MHz showed that the cores sintered at 950°C and 1000°C had the lowest core-loss densities, being two to three times lower than that of a commercial NiZn ferrite (4F1) core. Microstructures of the sintered cores were examined by scanning electron microscopy; the grains grew significantly at higher sintering temperatures.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and biological activity of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes of biopolymeric Schiff bases of salicylaldehydes and chitosan.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Eliene Leandro; Barbosa, Hellen Franciane Gonçalves; Dockal, Edward Ralph; Cavalheiro, Éder Tadeu Gomes

    2017-02-01

    Schiff bases have been prepared from biopolymer chitosan and salicylaldehyde, 5-methoxysalicylaldehyde, and 5-nitrosalicylaldehyde. Ligands were synthesized in a 1:1.5mol ratio, and their Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes in a 1:1mol ratio (ligand:metal). Ligands were characterized by 1 H NMR and FTIR, resulting in degrees of substitution from 43.7 to 78.7%. Complexes were characterized using FTIR, electronic spectra, XPRD. The compounds were confirmed by the presence of an imine bond stretching in the 1630-1640cm -1 and νMetal-N and νMetal-O at <600cm -1 . Electronic spectra revealed that both Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexes present a square plane geometry. The crystallinity values were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction. Thermal behavior of all compounds was evaluated by TGA/DTG and DTA curves with mass losses related to dehydration and decomposition, with characteristic events for ligand and complexes. Schiff base complexes presented lower thermal stability and crystallinity than the starting chitosan. Residues were the metallic oxides as confirmed by XPRD, whose amounts were used in the calculation of the percentage of complexed metal ions. Surface morphologies were analyzed with SEM-EDAX. Preliminary cytotoxicity tests were performed using MTT assay with HeLa cells. Despite the differences in solubility, the free bases presented relatively low toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. High-resolution Auger-electron spectroscopy induced by positron annihilation on Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pd, and Au

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugenschmidt, C.; Mayer, J.; Schreckenbach, K.

    2010-04-01

    Positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopy (PAES) enables almost background free, non-destructive surface analysis with high surface selectivity. The Auger-spectrometer at the high intense positron source NEPOMUC now allows to record positron annihilation induced Auger spectra within a short data acquisition time of 10-80 minutes. With a new hemispherical electron energy analyzer and due to the exceptional peak to noise ratio, we succeeded to measure Auger-transitions such as the M2,3V V double peak of nickel with high energy resolution. The relative Auger-electron intensities are obtained by the analysis of the recorded positron annihilation induced Auger spectra for the surfaces of Fe, Ni, Cu, Pd and Au. It is demonstrated, that high-resolution PAES allows to determine experimentally the relative surface core annihilation probability of various atomic levels.

  7. Optical and photoelectrochemical performance study based on n-ZnO nanorod arrays/p-CuAlO2 laminar films/Ni heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Juan; Yang, Haibin; Deng, Weiwen

    2014-06-01

    A novel ZnO nanorod arrays (NRs)/CuAlO2 laminar films heterojunction nanostructure was grown on the substrate of Ni plates using sol-gel synthesis for laminar films and subsequent hydrothermal reaction for nanorod arrays. The surface morphology, structure, optical and photoelectrochemical behaviors of this heterojunction were considered. Two significant absorption peaks of UV-vis spectra and a favorable forward current to reverse current ratio at applied voltage of -0.7 V to +2 V were observed in this heterojunction. Furthermore, the photoelectrochemical property was indicated that the highest photocurrent of 0.67 mA/cm2 was obtained under AM 1.5 illumination (vs Ag/AgCl). This heterojunction will play an important role in the optoelectronic fields and can be extended to other binary or ternary oxide compositions for optoelectronic applications.

  8. K{sub β} to K{sub α} X-ray intensity ratios and K to L shell vacancy transfer probabilities of Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn

    SciT

    Anand, L. F. M.; Gudennavar, S. B., E-mail: shivappa.b.gudennavar@christuniversity.in; Bubbly, S. G.

    The K to L shell total vacancy transfer probabilities of low Z elements Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn are estimated by measuring the K{sub β} to K{sub α} intensity ratio adopting the 2π-geometry. The target elements were excited by 32.86 keV barium K-shell X-rays from a weak {sup 137}Cs γ-ray source. The emitted K-shell X-rays were detected using a low energy HPGe X-ray detector coupled to a 16 k MCA. The measured intensity ratios and the total vacancy transfer probabilities are compared with theoretical results and others’ work, establishing a good agreement.

  9. Relationship between the Cu-spin fluctuation and superconductivity in La2-xSrxCu1-y(Zn, Ni)yO4 (x = 0.15) studied by the μSR and magnetic-susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, T.; Oki, N.; Risdiana; Yairi, S.; Koike, Y.; Watanabe, I.

    2007-09-01

    We have investigated effects of Zn and Ni on the Cu-spin dynamics and superconductivity from the zero-field muon-spin-relaxation (ZF-μSR) and magnetic-susceptibility, χ, measurements for the optimally doped La 2- xSr xCu 1- y(Zn, Ni) yO 4 with x = 0.15, changing y finely up to 0.10. The ZF-μSR measurements have revealed that, in the Zn-substituted case, the magnetic correlation between Cu-spins starts to develop at y = 0.01 with increasing y, followed by the formation of a magnetic order at y = 0.02-0.03. In the Ni-substituted case, on the other hand, the magnetic correlation starts to develop at y = 0.02-0.03. These results indicate that the formation of a magnetic order requires a larger amount of Ni than that of Zn, which is consistent with our previous result for x = 0.13. The χ measurements have revealed that the superconducting volume fraction strongly decreases by a small amount of Zn and its decrease is stronger than that by a small amount of Ni. According to the stripe model, therefore, it is concluded that, even for x = 0.15, the dynamical stripe correlations of spins and holes are pinned and stabilized by Zn and Ni, leading to the formation of the static stripe order and the suppression of superconductivity.

  10. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and biological activities of N4O2 Schiff base ligand and its metal complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Resayes, Saud I.; Shakir, Mohammad; Abbasi, Ambreen; Amin, Kr. Mohammad Yusuf; Lateef, Abdul

    The Schiff base ligand, bis(indoline-2-one)triethylenetetramine (L) obtained from condensation of triethylenetetramine and isatin was used to synthesize the complexes of type, [ML]Cl2 [M = Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)]. L was characterized on the basis of the results of elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR, mass spectroscopic studies. The stoichiometry, bonding and stereochemistries of complexes were ascertained on the basis of results of elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility values, molar conductance and various spectroscopic studies. EPR, UV-vis and magnetic moments revealed an octahedral geometry for complexes. L and its Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes were screened for their antibacterial activity. Analgesic activity of Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes was also tested in rats by tail flick method. Both complexes were found to possess good antibacterial and moderate analgesic activity.

  11. Succulent species differ substantially in their tolerance and phytoextraction potential when grown in the presence of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengjun; Sale, Peter W G; Clark, Gary J; Liu, Wuxing; Doronila, Augustine I; Kolev, Spas D; Tang, Caixian

    2015-12-01

    Plants for the phytoextraction of heavy metals should have the ability to accumulate high concentrations of such metals and exhibit multiple tolerance traits to cope with adverse conditions such as coexistence of multiple heavy metals, high salinity, and drought which are the characteristics of many contaminated soils. This study compared 14 succulent species for their phytoextraction potential of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. There were species variations in metal tolerance and accumulation. Among the 14 succulent species, an Australian native halophyte Carpobrotus rossii exhibited the highest relative growth rate (20.6-26.6 mg plant(-1) day(-1)) and highest tolerance index (78-93%), whilst Sedum "Autumn Joy" had the lowest relative growth rate (8.3-13.6 mg plant(-1) day(-1)), and Crassula multicava showed the lowest tolerance indices (<50%). Carpobrotus rossii and Crassula helmsii showed higher potential for phytoextraction of these heavy metals than other species. These findings suggest that Carpobrotus rossii is a promising candidate for phytoextraction of multiple heavy metals, and the aquatic or semiterrestrial Crassula helmsii is suitable for phytoextraction of Cd and Zn from polluted waters or wetlands.

  12. Speciation of heavy metals Cu, Ni and Zn by modified BCR sequential extraction procedure in sediments from Banten Bay, Banten Province, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestari; Budiyanto, F.; Hindarti, D.

    2018-02-01

    Banten Bay is categorized as a marine area that is busy with marine tourism activities, settlements and also industries. One potential impact of the condition is the occurrence of pollution from both industrial and domestic sources, erosion and sedimentation in the coastal environment. Samples were collected from 25 representative stations in April 2016. Chemical speciation of three heavy metals (Cu, Ni, and Zn) was studied using a modified sequential extraction procedure proposed by the European Standard, Measurements and Testing (SM&T) program, formerly the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR). The aims of this study are to determine geochemical speciation of 4 bounds of metal: acid-soluble, reducible, oxidizable and residual, and to assess their impacts in the sediments of Banten Bay, Indonesia. The result shows that the percentage of Copper (45.90-83.75%), Nickel (18.28-65.66%), and Zinc (30.45-79.51%) were mostly accumulated in residual fraction of the total concentrations. The Risk Assessment Code (RAC) reveals that about 0-7.07% of Copper and 1.11-24.35 % of Zinc at sites exist in exchangeable fraction and therefore, they are in low risk category. While 7.34-34.90 of Ni at sites exists in exchangeable fraction and therefore, it is in medium risk category to aquatic environment.

  13. Partitioning of Dissolved Metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Cd, Zn, Ni, and Pb) into Soluble and Colloidal Fractions in Continental Shelf and Offshore Waters, Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzsimmons, J. N.; Parker, C.; Sherrell, R. M.

    2016-02-01

    The physicochemical speciation of trace metals in seawater influences their cycling as essential micronutrients for microorganisms or as tracers of anthropogenic influences on the marine environment. While chemical speciation affects lability, the size of metal complexes influences their ability to be accessed biologically and also influences their fate in the aggregation pathway to marine particles. In this study, we show that multiple trace metals in shelf and open ocean waters off northern California (IRN-BRU cruise, July 2014) have colloidal-sized components. Colloidal fractions were operationally defined using two ultrafiltration methods: a 0.02 µm Anopore membrane and a 10 kDa ( 0.003 µm) cross flow filtration (CFF) system. Together these two methods distinguished small (0.003 - 0.02 µm) and large (0.02 µm - 0.2 µm) colloids. As has been found previously for seawater in other ocean regimes, dissolved Fe had a broad size distribution with 50% soluble (<10 kDa) complexes and both small and large colloidal species. Dissolved Mn had no measurable colloidal component, consistent with its predicted chemical speciation as free Mn(II). Dissolved Cu, which like Fe is thought to be nearly fully organically bound in seawater, was only 25% colloidal, and these colloids were all small. Surprisingly Cd, Ni, and Pb also showed colloidal components (8-20%, 25-40%, and 10-50%) despite their hypothesized low organic speciation. Zn and Pb were nearly completely sorbed onto the Anopore membrane, making CFF the only viable ultrafiltration method for those elements. Zn suffered incomplete recovery ( 50-75%) through the CFF system but showed 30-85% colloidal contribution; thus, verifying a Zn colloidal phase with these methods is challenging. Conclusions will reveal links between the physical and chemical speciation for these metals and what role these metal colloids might have on trace metal exchange between the ocean margin and offshore waters.

  14. Simultaneous determination of suspended particulate trace metals (Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in seawater with small volume filtration assisted by microwave digestion and flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuka, Seiji; Okamura, Kei; Norisuye, Kazuhiro; Sohrin, Yoshiki

    2007-06-26

    A new technique for the determination of suspended particulate trace metals (P-metals >0.2 microm), such as Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb, in open ocean seawater has been developed by using microwave digestion coupled with flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-ICP-MS). Suspended particulate matter (SPM) was collected from 500 mL of seawater on a Nuclepore filter (0.2 microm) using a closed filtration system. Both the SPM and filter were completely dissolved by microwave digestion. Reagents for the digestion were evaporated using a clean evaporation system, and the metals were redissolved in 0.8 M HNO3. The solution was diluted with buffer solution to give pH 5.0 and the metals were determined by FI-ICP-MS using a chelating adsorbent of 8-hydroxyquinoline immobilized on fluorinated metal alkoxide glass (MAF-8HQ). The procedure blanks with a filter were found to be 0.048+/-0.008, 10.3+/-0.3, 0.27+/-0.05, 3.3+/-1.8, 0.02+/-0.03 and 0.85+/-0.09 ng L(-1) for Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb, respectively (n=14). Detection limits defined as 3 times the standard deviation of the blanks were 0.023, 0.90, 0.14, 5.3, 0.078 and 0.28 ng L(-1) for Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb, respectively. Accuracy was evaluated using certified reference materials of chlorella (NES CRM No. 3) and marine sediment (HISS-1). The method was applied to the determination of vertical distributions for P-Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in the Western North Pacific.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and anti-microbial activity of a novel macrocyclic ligand derived from the reaction of 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid with homopiperazine and its Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soleimani, Esmaiel

    2011-05-01

    The preparation of a novel macrocyclic ligand ( 1), N,N'-diethylhomopiperazinyl,2,6-pyridinedicarboxylate and its Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) complexes are described. The ligand was prepared in EtOH from the reaction of dipotassium salt of 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid with 1,2-dibromoethane in the presence of homopiperazine. Reaction of macrocyclic ligand ( 1) in EtOH with CoCl 2.6H 2O, NiCl 2.6H 2O, CuCl 2.2H 2O, and ZnCl 2·2H 2O yielded the complexes with the general formula [M(L)Cl 2] {where M = Co(II) ( 2), Ni(II) ( 3), Cu(II) ( 4), Zn ( 5), respectively}. The analysis of IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectral data of macrocyclic ligand ( 1) and its Zn(II) complex ( 5) together with their molar conductivity values, and the magnetic moments of the complexes suggest that the macrocyclic ligand ( 1) is bonded to metal(II) ions through two oxygen atoms of ester moiety and the two nitrogen atoms of homopiperazine ring. The electronic spectral data of these complexes in DMSO are in good agreement with the octahedral coordination of M(II) ions. The ligand field parameters for these complexes, i.e. splitting energy and Racah parameter were calculated to be 14,945 and 673 cm -1 for the Co(II) ( 2), 16,260 and 774 cm -1 for the Ni(II) ( 3) complexes respectively. The spliting energy of 17,262 cm -1 was obtained for the Cu(II) complex ( 4).

  16. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, first order nonlinear optical properties and DFT calculations of novel Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes with 1,3-diphenyl-4-phenylazo-5-pyrazolone ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Latif, Samir A.; Mohamed, Adel A.

    2018-02-01

    Novel Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) metal ions with 1,3-diphenyl-4-phenylazo-5-pyrazolone (L) have been prepared and characterized using different analytical and spectroscopic techniques. 1:1 Complexes of Mn(II), Co(II) and Zn(II) are distorted octahedral whereas Ni(II) complex is square planar and Cu(II) is distorted trigonal bipyramid. 1:2 Complexes of Mn(II), Co(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) are distorted trigonal bipyramid whereas Ni(II) complex is distorted tetrahedral. All complexes behave as non-ionic in dimethyl formamide (DMF). The electronic structure and nonlinear optical parameters (NLO) of the complexes were investigated theoretically at the B3LYP/GEN level of theory. Molecular stability and bond strengths have been investigated by applying natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The geometries of the studied complexes are non-planner. DFT calculations have been also carried out to calculate the global properties; hardness (η), global softness (S) and electronegativity (χ). The calculated small energy gap between HOMO and LUMO energies shows that the charge transfer occurs within the complexes. The total static dipole moment (μtot), the mean polarizability (<α>), the anisotropy of the polarizability (Δα) and the mean first-order hyperpolarizability (<β>) were calculated and compared with urea as a reference material. The complexes show implying optical properties.

  17. The influence of prepulse level on the 3p-3s XUV laser output from Ne-like ions of Zn, Cu and Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacPhee, A. G.; Lewis, C. L. S.; Warwick, P. J.; Weaver, I.; Jaeglé, P.; Carillon, A.; Jamelot, G.; Klisnick, A.; Rus, B.; Zeitoun, Ph.; Nantel, M.; Goedkindt, P.; Sebban, S.; Tallents, G. J.; Demir, A.; Holden, M.; Krishnan, J.

    1997-02-01

    We have studied the effect of prepulses in enhancing the efficiency of generating ASE beams in soft X-ray laser plasma amplifiers based on pumping Ne-like ions. Slab targets were irradiated with a weak prepulse followed by a main plasma heating pulse of nanosecond duration. Time-integrated: time and spectrally resolved and time and angularly resolved lasing emissions on the 3p-3s ( J = 0-1) XUV lasing lines of Ne-like Ni, Cu and Zn at wavelengths 232 Å, 221 Å and 212 Å respectively have been monitored. Measurements were made for pre-pulse/main-pulse intensity ratios from 10 -5-10 -1 and for pump delay times of 2 ns and 4.5 ns. Zinc is shown to exhibit a peak in output intensity at ˜ 2 × 10 -3 pre-pulse fraction for a 4.5 ns pump delay, with a main pulse pump intensity of ˜ 1.3 × 10 13W cm -2 on a 20 mm target. The Zn lasing emission had a duration of ˜ 240 ps and this was insensitive to prepulse fraction. The J = 0-1 XUV laser output for nickel and copper increased monotonically with prepulse fraction, with copper targets showing least sensitivity to either prepulse level or prepulse to main pulse delay. Under the conditions of the study, the pre-pulse level was observed to have no significant influence on the output intensity of the 3p-3s ( J = 2-1) lines of any of the elements investigated.

  18. The evaluation of growth and phytoextraction potential of Miscanthus x giganteus and Sida hermaphrodita on soil contaminated simultaneously with Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn.

    PubMed

    Kocoń, Anna; Jurga, Beata

    2017-02-01

    One of the cheapest, environmentally friendly methods for cleaning an environment polluted by heavy metals is phytoextraction. It builds on the uptake of pollutants from the soil by the plants, which are able to grow under conditions of high concentrations of toxic metals. The aim of this work was to assess the possibility of growing and phytoextraction potential of Miscanthus x giganteus and Sida hermaphrodita cultivated on two different soils contaminated with five heavy metals simultaneously: Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. A 3-year microplot experiment with two perennial energy crops, M. x giganteus and S. hermaphrodita, was conducted in the experimental station of IUNG-PIB in Poland (5° 25' N, 21° 58 'E), in the years of 2008-2010. Miscanthus was found more tolerant to concomitant soil contamination with heavy metals and produced almost double biomass than Sida in all three tested years, independent of soil type. Miscanthus collected greater amount of heavy metals (except for cadmium) in the biomass than Sida. Both energy crops absorb high levels of zinc, lower levels of lead, copper, and nickel, and absorbed cadmium at least, generally more metals were taken from the sandy soil, where plants also yielded better. Photosynthesis net rate of Miscanthus was on average 40% higher compared to Sida. Obtained results indicate that M. x giganteus and S. hermaphrodita can successfully be grown on moderately contaminated soil with heavy metals.

  19. Kinetic sorption modelling of Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cr ions to pine bark and blast furnace slag by using batch experiments.

    PubMed

    Nehrenheim, E; Gustafsson, J P

    2008-04-01

    Storm water and landfill leachate can both contain significant amounts of toxic metals such as Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr and Ni. Pine bark and blast furnace slag are both residual waste products that have shown a large potential for metal removal from contaminated water. There are however many variables that must be optimized in order to achieve efficient metal retention. One of these variables is the time of which the solution is in contact with each unit of filter material. Metal sorption was studied in two laboratory experiments to improve the knowledge of the effects of contact time. The results showed that pine bark was generally more efficient than blast furnace slag when the metal concentrations were relatively small, whereas blast furnace slag sorbed most metals to a larger extent at increased metal loads. In addition, sorption to blast furnace slag was found to be faster than metal binding to pine bark. A pseudo-second-order kinetic model was able to describe the data well within 1000 s of reaction time.

  20. Effects of sintering temperature on properties of toroid cores using NiZnCu ferrites for power applications at >1 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junchang; Mei, Yunhui; Liu, Wen; Li, Xin; Hou, Feng; Lu, Guo-Quan

    2018-05-01

    The microstructures, magnetic and electronic performance of NiZnCu ferrites have been investigated at temperature from 850 °C to 1000 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that only single phase with spinel structure existed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed that grain size increased with enhancement of sintering temperature and the most homogeneous, compact microstructure was obtained at 950 °C. Magnetic properties measurements revealed that both complex permeability and saturation magnetization increased with increasing of sintering temperature. The initial permeability was approximately linear within the scope of 850-1000 °C as well as the resonance frequency decreased from 70 MHz to 30 MHz. Power loss density tests demonstrated that the core sintered at 950 °C instead of the one sintered at 1000 °C had the lower power loss density at both 5 mT and 10 mT and the higher inductance under a certain exciting direct current at 1 MHz. Also the inductance of the sample sintered at the higher temperature dropped faster than that at the lower temperature. The results showed that the core sintered at 950 °C had better electrical performance and was suitable for wide usage.

  1. Uraniferous bitumen nodules in the Talvivaara Ni-Zn-Cu-Co deposit (Finland): influence of metamorphism on uranium mineralization in black shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecomte, Andreï; Cathelineau, Michel; Deloule, Etienne; Brouand, Marc; Peiffert, Chantal; Loukola-Ruskeeniemi, Kirsti; Pohjolainen, Esa; Lahtinen, Hannu

    2014-04-01

    In the central part of the Fennoscandian Shield, the Talvivaara Ni-Zn-Cu-Co deposit, hosted by Palaeoproterozoic metamorphosed black schists, contains low uranium concentrations ranging from 10 to 30 ppm. The Talvivaara black schists were deposited 2.0-1.9 Ga ago and underwent subsequent metamorphism during the 1.9-1.79 Ga Svecofennian orogeny. Anhedral uraninite crystals rimmed by bitumen constitute the main host of uranium. U-Pb secondary ion mass spectrometry dating indicates that uraninite crystals were formed between 1,878 ± 17 and 1,871 ± 43 Ma, during peak metamorphism. Rare earth element patterns and high Th content (average 6.38 wt%) in disseminated uraninite crystals indicate that U was concentrated during high temperature metamorphism (>400 °C). The formation of bitumen rims around uraninite may be explained by two distinct scenarios: (a) a transport of U coincident with the migration of hydrocarbons or (b) post-metamorphic formation of bitumen rims, through radiolytic polymerization of gaseous hydrocarbons at the contact with uraninite.

  2. Effects of sintering atmosphere and temperature on structural and magnetic properties of Ni-Cu-Zn ferrite nano-particles: Magnetic enhancement by a reducing atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholizadeh, Ahmad; Jafari, Elahe

    2017-01-01

    In this work, effects of sintering atmosphere and temperature on structural and magnetic properties of Ni0.3Cu0.2Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles prepared by citrate precursor method have been studied. The structural characterization of the samples by X-ray powder diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopy is evidence for formation of a cubic structure with no presence of impurity phase. Calculated values of crystallite size and unit cell parameter show an increase with sintering temperature under different atmospheres. Variation of saturation magnetization with sintering temperature and atmosphere can be attributed to change of three factors: magnetic core size, inversion parameter and the change of Fe3+-ion concentration due to the presence of Fe4+ and Fe2+ ions. The saturation magnetization gradually grows with sintering temperature due to increase of magnetic core size and a maximum 63 emu/g was achieved at 600 °C under carbon monoxide-ambient atmosphere.

  3. Structural, dielectric and gas sensing behavior of Mn substituted spinel MFe2O4 (M=Zn, Cu, Ni, and Co) ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjith Kumar, E.; Siva Prasada Reddy, P.; Sarala Devi, G.; Sathiyaraj, S.

    2016-01-01

    Spinel ferrite (MnZnFe2O4, MnCuFe2O4, MnNiFe2O4 and MnCoFe2O4) nanoparticles have been prepared by evaporation method. The annealing temperature plays an important role on changing particle size of the spinel ferrite nanoparticles was found out by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The role of manganese substitution in the spinel ferrite nanoparticles were also analyzed for different annealing temperature. The substitution of Mn also creates a vital change in dielectric properties have been measured in the frequency range of 100 kHz to 5 MHz. These spinel ferrites are decomposed to α-Fe2O3 after annealing above 550 °C in air. Through the characterization of the prepared powder, the effect of annealing temperature, chemical composition and preparation technique on the microstructure, particle size and dielectric properties of the Mn substituted spinel ferrite nanoparticles are discussed. Furthermore, Conductance response of Mn substituted MFe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles were measured by exposing the materials to reducing gas like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).

  4. Elemental composition study of heavy metal (Ni, Cu, Zn) in riverbank soil by electrokinetic-assisted phytoremediation using XRF and SEM/EDX

    SciT

    Jamari, Suhailly; Embong, Zaidi; Bakar, Ismail

    Electrokinetic (EK)-assisted phytoremediation is one of the methods that have a big potential in enhancing the ability of plant uptake in soils remediation process. This research was conducted to investigate the difference in elemental composition concentration of riverbank soil and the change of pH between pre- and post-phytoremediation under the following condition: 1) control or as-receive sample; 2) Dieffenbachia spp plant with EK system (a pair of EK electrodes connected to a direct current (DC) power supply). After the electrodes were connected to a magnitude of 6V/cm{sup −1} electric field for 4 hours/day, the soil and plant samples were analyzedmore » using and X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRF) and Scanning Electron Microscope / Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM/EDX). The SEM/EDX analysis showed that concentration of elemental composition (Ni, Cu and Zn) in post-phytoremediation plant powder samples had increase while elemental concentrations in the post-phytoremediation soil samples were decreased. XRF analysis presented a variation in soil elemental composition concentration from anode to cathode where the concentration near anode region increased while decreased near the cathode region. A significant changes in soil pH were obtained where the soil pH increase in cathode region while decrease in anode region. The results reveal that the assistance of EK in phytoremediation process has increase the efficiency of plant uptake.« less

  5. Exploring the color of transition metal ions in irregular coordination geometries: new colored inorganic oxides based on the spiroffite structure, Zn(2-x)M(x)Te3O8 (M = Co, Ni, Cu).

    PubMed

    Tamilarasan, S; Sarma, Debajit; Bhattacharjee, S; Waghmare, U V; Natarajan, S; Gopalakrishnan, J

    2013-05-20

    We describe the synthesis, crystal structures, and optical absorption spectra of transition metal-substituted spiroffite derivatives, Zn(2-x)M(x)Te3O8 (M(II) = Co, Ni, Cu; 0 < x ≤ 1.0). The oxides are readily synthesized by solid state reaction of stoichiometric mixtures of the constituent binaries at 620 °C. Reitveld refinement of the crystal structures from powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) data shows that the Zn/MO6 octahedra are strongly distorted, as in the parent Zn2Te3O8 structure, consisting of five relatively short Zn/M(II)-O bonds (1.898-2.236 Å) and one longer Zn/M(II)-O bond (2.356-2.519 Å). We have interpreted the unique colors and the optical absorption/diffuse reflectance spectra of Zn(2-x)M(x)Te3O8 in the visible, in terms of the observed/irregular coordination geometry of the Zn/M(II)-O chromophores. We could not however prepare the fully substituted M2Te3O8 (M(II) = Co, Ni, Cu) by the direct solid state reaction method. Density Functional Theory (DFT) modeling of the electronic structure of both the parent and the transition metal substituted derivatives provides new insights into the bonding and the role of transition metals toward the origin of color in these materials. We believe that transition metal substituted spiroffites Zn(2-x)M(x)Te3O8 reported here suggest new directions for the development of colored inorganic materials/pigments featuring irregular/distorted oxygen coordination polyhedra around transition metal ions.

  6. Structural, spectroscopic and thermal characterization of 2-tert-butylaminomethylpyridine-6-carboxylic acid methylester and its Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and UO(2)(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Gehad G; El-Gamel, Nadia E A

    2005-04-01

    Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and UO(2)(II) complexes with the ligand 2-tert-butylaminomethylpyridine-6-carboxylic acid methylester (HL(2)) have been prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance, magnetic moment, thermal analysis and spectral data. 1:1 M:HL(2) complexes, with the general formula [M(HL(2))X(2)].nH(2)O (where M = Co(II) (X = Cl, n = 0), Ni(II) (X = Cl, n = 3), Cu(II) (grey colour, X = AcO, n = 1), Cu(II) (yellow colour, X = Cl, n = 0) and Zn(II) (X = Br, n = 0). In addition, the Fe(III) and UO(2)(II) complexes of the type 1:2 M:HL(2) and with the formulae [Fe(L(2))(2)]Cl and [UO(2)(HL(2))(2)](NO(3))(2) are prepared. From the IR data, it is seen that HL(2) ligand behaves as a terdentate ligand coordinated to the metal ions via the pyridyl N, carboxylate O and protonated NH group; except the Fe(III) complex, it coordinates via the deprotonated NH group. This is supported by the molar conductance data, which show that all the complexes are non-electrolytes, while the Fe(III) and UO(2)(II) complexes are 1:1 electrolytes. IR and H1-NMR spectral studies suggest a similar behaviour of the Zn(II) complex in solid and solution states. From the solid reflectance spectral data and magnetic moment measurements, the complexes have a trigonal bipyramidal (Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes) and octahedral (Fe(III), UO(2)(II) complexes) geometrical structures. The thermal behaviour of the complexes is studied and the different dynamic parameters are calculated applying Coats-Redfern equation.

  7. E.s.r., magnetic, optical and biological (SOD and antimicrobial) studies of imidazolate bridged Cu II-Zn II and Cu II-Ni II complexes with tris(2-amino ethyl)amine as capping ligand: a plausible model for superoxide dismutase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Nripendra; Shukla, K. K.; Patel, R. N.; Chauhan, U. K.; Shrivastava, R.

    2003-11-01

    X-band e.s.r. and optical absorption spectra of the imidazolate bridged heterobimetallic complexes [(tren)Cu-E-Im-Zn-(tren)](ClO 4) 3 and [(tren)Cu-E-Im-Ni-(tren)](ClO 4) 3, where trentris(2-aminoethyl)amine, E-Im=2-ethylimidazolate ion and the related mononuclear complexes [Cu(tren)](ClO 4) 2 and [(tren)Cu-E-ImH)](ClO 4) 2 have been described. Biological activities (superoxide dismutase and antimicrobial) have also been measured and compared with reported complexes.

  8. Doping effect on the structural properties of Cu1-x(Ni, Zn, Al and Fe)xO samples (0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, J. B.; Araujo, R. M.; Pedra, P. P.; Meneses, C. T.; Duque, J. G. S.; dos S. Rezende, M. V.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the effect of insertion of transition metal, TM (=Ni, Zn, Al and Fe), ions in Cu1-xTMxO samples (0Ni and Zn-doped samples show a small amount of spurious phases for concentrations above x=0.05. Based on these results, a defect disorder study for using atomistic computational simulations which is based on the lattice energy minimization technique is employed to predict the location of the dopant ions in the structure. In agreement with XRD data, our computational results indicate that the trivalent (Al and Fe ions) are more favorable to be incorporated into CuO matrix than the divalent (Ni and Zn ions).

  9. Radionuclides (40K, 232Th and 238U) and Heavy Metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As and Pb) Distribution Assessment at Renggam Landfill, Simpang Renggam, Johor, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidi, E.; FahrulRazi, MJ; Azhar, ATS; Hazreek, ZAM; Shakila, A.; Norshuhaila, MS; Omeje, M.

    2017-08-01

    The assessment of radioactivity levels and the distribution of heavy metals in soil samples at CEP Farm landfill, Renggam in Johor State was to determine the activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides and heavy metal concentrations of this landfill. The background radiation was monitored to estimate the exposure level. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in soil samples were determined using HPGe gamma ray spectroscopy whereas the heavy metal concentration was measured using X-RF analysis. The mean exposure rate at the landfill site was 36.2±2.4 μR hr-1 and the annual effective dose rate at the landfill site was 3.19 ± 0.22 mSv yr-1. However, residential area has lower mean exposure dose rate of about 16.33±0.72 μR hr-1 and has an annual effective dose rate of 1.43±0.06 mSv yr-1 compared to landfill sites. The mean activity concentration of 40K, 238U and 232Th at landfill site were 239.95±15.89 Bq kg-1, 20.90±2.49 Bq kg-1 and 40.61±4.59 Bq kg-1, respectively. For heavy metal compositions, Cr, Ni and Cu have mean concentration of 232±10 ppm, 23±2 ppm, and 46±19 ppm, respectively. Whereas, Zn has concentration of 64±9 ppm and concentration of 12±1 ppm and 71±2 ppm was estimated for As and Pb respectively. The higher activity concentration of 40K down the slope through leaching process whereas the higher activity level of 238U content at the landfill site may be attributed to the soil disruption to local equilibrium.

  10. Bioavailability of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni and Cr in the sediments of the Tessa River: A mining area in the North-West Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebei, Abdelaziz; Helali, Mohamed Amine; Oueslati, Walid; Abdelmalek-Babbou, Chiraz; Chaabani, Fredj

    2018-01-01

    Tessa River is seen as one of the important rivers in Tunisia. Its catchment is known for its agricultural and mining activities, especially the Bougrine and Fedj Lahdhoum mines. Eighteen (18) surface sediments and five (5) water samples were collected from the Tessa River, near these two mining sites. Sediments are essentially sandy (>80%), the most important mineral is quartz (20-73%), then calcite (41%) and dolomites (4%). Heavy metal contents are relatively high near the mining sites, 356 μg g-1 for Pb, 3000 μg g-1 for Zn, and 5 μg g-1 for Cd. These values are lower downstream due to watercourse dilution effects. Other heavy metals: Cu, Ni and Cr, are low, and values are relatively constant in all the studied samples, even near the mining sites. The metals originate from natural sources and not from mining activities. This trend is confirmed by the enrichment factor (EF) where EFNi, EFCu and EFCr are lower or equal to 1, unlike EFPb, EFZn or EFCd where values are much higher (>20). Chemical speciation of these metals does not show any spatial variation. Except for cadmium which is bound to the residual fraction and in the carbonates; all other heavy metals are bound to the five sediment chemical fractions: the residual fraction (>52%), followed by the oxyhydroxides fraction (21%) and carbonates (16%), and finally bound to the organic matter and to the exchangeable fraction (<10%). The bioavailable fraction of the studied heavy metals exceeds 45%, which present risk of toxicity.

  11. Bioaccumulation of metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in suspended cultures of blue mussels exposed to different environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maar, Marie; Larsen, Martin Mørk; Tørring, Ditte; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf

    2018-02-01

    Farming of suspended mussels is important for generating high protein food and animal feed or for removing nutrients in eutrophic systems. However, the harvested mussels must not be severely contaminated by pollutants posing a potential health risk for the consumers. The present study estimated the bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc in suspended blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) in the Limfjorden, Denmark, based on observations and modelling. Modelling was used to assess the suitability of suspended blue mussels as animal feed and food products at sea water metal concentrations corresponding to Good Ecological Status (GES) in the European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD) and in future climate change scenarios (higher metal concentrations and higher temperatures). For this purpose, GES is interpreted as good chemical status for the metals using the Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) defined in the WFD priority substance daughter directives. Observations showed that suspended mussels were healthy with respect to metal pollution and generally less polluted than benthic mussels due to the smaller contact with the contaminated sediment. The model results showed that the WFD targets for Cd, Ni and Pb are not protective with respect to marine mussel production and probably should be reduced for marine waters. Climate changes may increase the metal contamination of mussels, but not to any critical level at the relatively unpolluted study sites. In conclusion, WFD targets should be revised to assure that the corresponding body burdens of metals in mussels are below the safety limits according to the EU Directives and the Norwegian classification for animal feed and food production.

  12. A comparison of the properties of polyurethane immobilised Sphagnum moss, seaweed, sunflower waste and maize for the biosorption of Cu, Pb, Zn and Ni in continuous flow packed columns.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Banks, Charles

    2006-02-01

    The biosorption of Cu, Pb, Zn and Ni from a mixed solution of the metals was investigated in continuous flow packed columns containing polyurethane immobilised biomass. The characteristics and biosorption properties of Sphagnum moss, the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum, waste biomass from the preparation of sunflower oil, and whole plant maize were compared. All the biomass types showed a preference for the sequestration of Pb followed by Cu, with Ni and Zn having roughly equal affinity. With continuous metal loading to the column there was an initial binding of all metals and then a displacement of the lower affinity metals by those with a high affinity. This led to a chromatographic effect in the column with breakthrough concentrations for low-affinity metals higher than the concentration in the feed. A similar phenomenon was found on desorption using acidic solutions where low-affinity metals were desorbed preferentially. The results also indicated that despite competitive displacement of one metal species by another the biomass appeared to succeed in retaining some low-affinity metal species indicating that there may be selective sites present with different affinity characteristics. When using a multi-metal solution with Cu, Pb, Zn and Ni at equal 10 mgl(-1) concentrations as column influent, the total quantities of metal sequestered were: seaweed, 117.3 mg g(-1); sunflower waste, 33.2 mg g(-1); Sphagnum moss, 32.5 mg g(-1); and maize, 2.3 mg g(-1). The use of an acid base potentiometric titration showed a relationship between the number of acid functional groups and biosorption capacity, although this was not proportional for the biomass types studied. It can, however, be used in conjunction with a simple classification of metals into high and low-affinity bands to make a preliminary assessment of a biosorption system.

  13. Characterisation of a Zn / Ni Plating Bath

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-03

    accelerated corrosion in the first stages which is then slowed down by its own product of corrosion, Zn(OH)212. Zinc hydroxide dehydrates in time to form ZnO ... Electrochemistry , 1991, 21, 642 [5] – Alfantasi, A.M., A study on the synthesis, characterization ans properties of pulse-plated ultrafine- grained Zn-Ni alloy

  14. The 3D Distribution of Dissolved and Colloidal Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb in the Western Antarctic Peninsula Shelf Region; Implications for Natural Fe Fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrell, R. M.; Fitzsimmons, J. N.; Roccanova, J.; Schofield, O.; Meredith, M. P.

    2016-02-01

    The Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) shelf region is is a natural Fe fertilization zone where primary production exceeds that of the adjacent open Southern Ocean. Until recently, however, distributions of Fe and of other bioactive metals were completely lacking for the WAP, and the sources and delivery mechanisms of Fe to the euphotic zone were only speculated upon. We have previously presented surface water (2m) dissolved (dTM, <0.2µm) and particulate (pTM, >0.45µm) distributions for Fe and a suite of other bioactive metals over the WAP shelf, covering the Palmer LTER sampling grid for Jan. 2010, 2011 and 2012. We now report the first complete 3D distribution of dissolved and colloidal Fe (and Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb) over the LTER grid in Jan. 2015, allowing assessment of dFe size speciation, sources and transport pathways in this dynamic shelf system. Dissolved metals were analyzed by automated offline preconcentration (seaFAST-pico, ESI) followed by sector-field ICP-MS. We confirm previous findings of low ( 0.1nM) dFe in surface waters on the mid-outer shelf in the northern portion of the grid, and now find that concentrations at this level or below persist through the euphotic zone. However, dFe increases rapidly with depth, with low surface values underlain by substantially higher concentrations even at 50m. Inner shelf surface waters are generally substantially > 0.1nM, suggesting Fe replete conditions in this region. Vertical profiles reveal that dFe generally increases with depth, much moreso in the inner shelf (dFe up to 5.0nM) than the outer shelf. A general N-S gradient in dFe is also evident, with concentrations higher in the southern WAP, especially in Marguerite Bay. In addition, shelf stations often show a dFe maximum suggesting remineralization from sinking biogenic particles. These findings for dFe and for the other metals, will be used to help unravel the biogeochemical workings of natural Fe fertilization in this region.

  15. Direct identification and analysis of heavy metals in solution (Hg, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni) by use of in situ electrochemical X-ray fluorescence.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Glen D; Newton, Mark E; Macpherson, Julie V

    2015-01-01

    The development and application of a new methodology, in situ electrochemical X-ray fluorescence (EC-XRF), is described that enables direct identification and quantification of heavy metals in solution. A freestanding film of boron-doped diamond serves as both an X-ray window and the electrode material. The electrode is biased at a suitable driving potential to electroplate metals from solution onto the electrode surface. Simultaneously, X-rays that pass through the back side of the electrode interrogate the time-dependent electrodeposition process by virtue of the XRF signals, which are unique to each metal. In this way it is possible to unambiguously identify which metals are in solution and relate the XRF signal intensity to a concentration of metal species in solution. To increase detection sensitivity and reduce detection times, solution is flown over the electrode surface by use of a wall-jet configuration. Initial studies focused on the in situ detection of Pb(2+), where concentration detection limits of 99 nM were established in this proof-of-concept study (although significantly lower values are anticipated with system refinement). This is more than 3 orders of magnitude lower than that achievable by XRF alone in a flowing solution (0.68 mM). In situ EC-XRF measurements were also carried out on a multimetal solution containing Hg(2+), Pb(2+), Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+), and Fe(3+) (all at 10 μM concentration). Identification of five of these metals was possible in one simple measurement. In contrast, while anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) also revealed five peaks, peak identification was not straightforward, requiring further experiments and prior knowledge of the metals in solution. Time-dependent EC-XRF nucleation data for the five metals, recorded simultaneously, demonstrated similar deposition rates. Studies are now underway to lower detection limits and provide a quantitative understanding of EC-XRF responses in real, multimetal solutions. Finally, the

  16. The Effect of (Ag, Ni, Zn)-Addition on the Thermoelectric Properties of Copper Aluminate

    PubMed Central

    Yanagiya, Shun-ichi; Van Nong, Ngo; Xu, Jianxiao; Pryds, Nini

    2010-01-01

    Polycrystalline bulk copper aluminate Cu1-x-yAgxByAlO2 with B = Ni or Zn were prepared by spark plasma sintering and subsequent thermal treatment. The influence of partial substitution of Ag, Ni and Zn for Cu-sites in CuAlO2 on the high temperature thermoelectric properties has been studied. The addition of Ag and Zn was found to enhance the formation of CuAlO2 phase and to increase the electrical conductivity. The addition of Ag or Ag and Ni on the other hand decreases the electrical conductivity. The highest power factor of 1.26 × 10-4 W/mK2 was obtained for the addition of Ag and Zn at 1,060 K, indicating a significant improvement compared with the non-doped CuAlO2 sample.

  17. H2 gas sensing properties of a ZnO/CuO and ZnO/CuO/Cu2O Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ababii, N.; Postica, V.; Hoppe, M.; Adelung, R.; Lupan, O.; Railean, S.; Pauporté, T.; Viana, B.

    2017-03-01

    The most important parameters of gas sensors are sensitivity and especially high selectivity to specific chemical species. To improve these parameters we developed sensor structures based on layered semiconducting oxides, namely CuO/Cu2O, CuO:Zn/Cu2O:Zn, NiO/ZnO. In this work, the ZnO/CuxO (where x = 1, 2) bi-layer heterostructure were grown via a simple synthesis from chemical solution (SCS) at relatively low temperatures (< 95 °C), representing a combination of layered n-type and p-type semiconducting oxides which are widely used as sensing material for gas sensors. The main advantages of the developed device structures are given by simplicity of the synthesis and technological cost-efficiency. Structural investigations showed high crystallinity of synthesized layers confirming the presence of zinc oxide nanostructures on the surface of the copper oxide film deposited on glass substrate. Structural changes in morphology of grown nanostructures induced by post-grown thermal annealing were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations, and were studied in detail. The influence of thermal annealing type on the optical properties was also investigated. As an example of practical applications, the ZnO/CuxO bi-layer heterojunctions and ZnO/CuO/Cu2O three-layered structures were integrated into sensor structures and were tested to different types of reducing gases at different operating temperatures (OPT), showing promising results for fabrication of selective gas sensors.

  18. Measurements of labile Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn levels at a northeastern Brazilian coastal area under the influence of oil production with diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT).

    PubMed

    de Souza, João M; Menegário, Amauri A; de Araújo Júnior, Marcus A G; Francioni, Eleine

    2014-12-01

    In this work, the ability of the diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT) was evaluated for monitoring the concentrations, and estimating the availability, of metals at a northeastern Brazilian coastal area under the influence of oil production. Three sites with an average distance between 0m (EM-1), 100 m (EM-2), and 1,000 m (EM-3) of a submarine outfall-I (Guamaré-RN, Brazil) and another site (GA-1) with an average distance of 12,000 m east of Outfall I, near the city of Galinhos, were studied. DGT units were deployed at the same sites in three campaigns from July, 2010 to June, 2011. Effects on the accuracy of analytical results regarding the deployment time, gel porosity, and thickness were evaluated. There was no difference between the measurements obtained with two sets of DGT devices, those assembled with open or restrictive pore gel, respectively, showing that organic metallic species are not present near the submarine outlet. After 21 day deployments in a region (near Submarine Outfall I) that receives produced waters that have been treated, there was evidence of biofilm formation on DGT membranes. However, it was demonstrated that the biofilm interference with DGT measurements was negligible. Data found in this work show that total concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn in seawater samples collected at sites GA-1 and EM-1 in two campaigns were below 0.33, 1.67, 0.47, 0.70, 2.86 ng mL(-1) respectively. For the first time, labile levels of Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn in an area under the influence of oil production were determined. DGT measurements allowed the verification of the effects of temporal variation on levels of Zn and Ni. There were no effects of spatial variations on levels of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn at the four studied sites, suggesting no contamination of these metals at the northeastern Brazilian coastal area investigated in this work. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Synthesis, investigation and spectroscopic characterization of piroxicam ternary complexes of Fe(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) with glycine and DL-phenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Gehad G; El-Gamel, Nadia E A

    2004-11-01

    The ternary piroxicam (Pir; 4-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(2-pyridyl)-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide 1,1-dioxide) complexes of Fe(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) with various amino acids (AA) such as glycine (Gly) or DL-phenylalanine (PhA) were prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance, IR, UV-Vis, magnetic moment, diffuse reflectance and X-ray powder diffraction. The UV-Vis spectra of Pir and the effect of metal chelation on the different interligand transitions are discussed in detailed manner. IR and UV-Vis spectra confirm that Pir behaves as a neutral bidentate ligand coordinated to the metal ions via the pyridine-N and carbonyl group of the amide moiety. Gly molecule acted as a uninegatively monodentate ligand and coordinate to the metal ions through its carboxylic group, in addition PhA acted as a uninegatively bidentate ligand and coordinate to the metal ions through its carboxylic and amino groups. All the chelates have octahedral geometrical structures while Cu(II)- and Zn(II)-ternary chelates with PhA have square planar geometrical structures. The molar conductance data reveal that most of these chelates are non electrolytes, while Fe(III)-Pir-Gly, Co(II)-, Ni(II)-, Cu(II)- and Zn(II)-Pir-PhA chelates were 1:1 electrolytes. X-ray powder diffraction is used as a new tool to estimate the crystallinity of chelates as well as to elucidate their geometrical structures.

  20. Synthesis, investigation and spectroscopic characterization of piroxicam ternary complexes of Fe(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) with glycine and DL-phenylalanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Gehad G.; El-Gamel, Nadia E. A.

    2004-11-01

    The ternary piroxicam (Pir; 4-hydroxy-2-methyl- N-(2-pyridyl)-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide 1,1-dioxide) complexes of Fe(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) with various amino acids (AA) such as glycine (Gly) or DL-phenylalanine (PhA) were prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance, IR, UV-Vis, magnetic moment, diffuse reflectance and X-ray powder diffraction. The UV-Vis spectra of Pir and the effect of metal chelation on the different interligand transitions are discussed in detailed manner. IR and UV-Vis spectra confirm that Pir behaves as a neutral bidentate ligand coordinated to the metal ions via the pyridine- N and carbonyl group of the amide moiety. Gly molecule acted as a uninegatively monodentate ligand and coordinate to the metal ions through its carboxylic group, in addition PhA acted as a uninegatively bidentate ligand and coordinate to the metal ions through its carboxylic and amino groups. All the chelates have octahedral geometrical structures while Cu(II)- and Zn(II)-ternary chelates with PhA have square planar geometrical structures. The molar conductance data reveal that most of these chelates are non electrolytes, while Fe(III)-Pir-Gly, Co(II)-, Ni(II)-, Cu(II)- and Zn(II)-Pir-PhA cheletes were 1:1 electrolytes. X-ray powder diffraction is used as a new tool to estimate the crystallinity of chelates as well as to elucidate their geometrical structures.

  1. The influence of metal speciation in combustion waste on the efficiency of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni and Cr bioleaching in a mixed culture of sulfur-oxidizing and biosurfactant-producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Karwowska, Ewa; Wojtkowska, Małgorzata; Andrzejewska, Dorota

    2015-12-15

    Metal leachability from ash and combustion slag is related to the physico-chemical properties, including their speciation in the waste. Metals speciation is an important factor that influences the efficiency of metal bioleaching from combustion wastes in a mixed culture of acidophilic and biosurfactant-producing bacteria. It was observed that individual metals tended to occur in different fractions, which reflects their susceptibility to bioleaching. Cr and Ni were readily removed from wastes when present with a high fraction bound to carbonates. Cd and Pb where not effectively bioleached when present in high amounts in a fraction bound to organic matter. The best bioleaching results were obtained for power plant slag, which had a high metal content in the exchangeable, bound to carbonates and bound to Fe and Mg oxides fractions- the metal recovery percentage for Zn, Cu and Ni from this waste exceeded 90%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Porous framework of T{sub 2}[Fe(CN){sub 6}].xH{sub 2}O with T=Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and H{sub 2} storage

    SciT

    Avila, M.; Reguera, L.; Rodriguez-Hernandez, J.

    2008-11-15

    The materials under study were prepared from aqueous solutions of ferrocyanic acid and salts of the involved transition metals and their crystal structure solved and refined from X-ray powder diffraction data. Complementary information from thermogravimetric, infrared and Moessbauer data was also used for the structural study. Three different crystal structures were found: hexagonal (P-3) for Zn with the zinc atom coordinated to three N ends of CN groups plus a water molecule, cubic (Pm-3m) for Ni and Cu, and monoclinic (P2{sub 1}/m) for Co. For Ni and Cu the obtained solids have an open channel framework related to 50% ofmore » vacancies for the building unit, [Fe(CN){sub 6}]. In the as-synthesized material the framework free volume is occupied by coordinated and hydrogen-bonded water molecules. These of hexacyanoferrates (II) have received certain attention as prototype of materials for the hydrogen storage. In the anhydrous phase of Ni and Cu, 50% of the metal (T) coordination sites, located at the cavities surface, will be available to interact with the hydrogen molecule. However, when the crystal waters are removed the porous frameworks collapse as it is suggested by H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} adsorption data. For Co, a structure of stacked layers was found where the cobalt atoms have both tetrahedral and octahedral coordination. The layers remain together through a network of hydrogen-bonding interactions between coordinated and weakly bonded water molecules. No H{sub 2} adsorption was observed in the anhydrous phase of Co. For Zn, the porous framework remains stable on the water removal but with a system of narrow channels and a small available volume, also inaccessible to H{sub 2}. - Graphical abstract: Structure of stacked layers for CO{sub 2}[Fe(CN){sub 6}].xH{sub 2}O.« less

  3. Quaternary M{sub 0.25}Cu{sub 0.25}Mg{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M = Ni, Zn, Co, Mn) ferrite oxides: Synthesis, characterization and magnetic properties

    SciT

    Ciocarlan, Radu George; Laboratory of Adsorption and Catalysis, Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerpen; Pui, Aurel, E-mail: aurel@uaic.ro

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Superparamagnetic quaternary nanoferrite (M{sub 0.25}Cu{sub 0.25}Mg{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4,} where M = Mn, Zn, Co, Ni) were obtained. • C, O, H and metals were observed by XPS analysis. • Phases purity were confirmed by XRD diffraction and crystallite size (3–10 nm) were determind. - Abstract: We report the synthesis of M{sub 0.25}Cu{sub 0.25}Mg{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (where M = Mn, Zn, Co, Ni) nanoparticles using the coprecipitation method in the presence of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as the in-situ surfactant. The crystalline structure and surface morphology were examined by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopymore » (SEM) and it was established that the average diameter of the magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is in the range of 3–10 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) show that the MNPs are activated by the hydrophilic groups of the surfactant, which coat them and enhance their stability. The vibrating sample magnetometry measurements show the superparamagnetic behavior of the nanoparticles. Due to their small crystallite size, which implies large surface area, and their functionalization with organic groups, the obtained nanoparticles could have medical and catalytic applications.« less

  4. Fe (III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of schiff bases based-on glycine and phenylalanine: Synthesis, magnetic/thermal properties and antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevgi, Fatih; Bagkesici, Ugur; Kursunlu, Ahmed Nuri; Guler, Ersin

    2018-02-01

    Zinc (II), copper (II), nickel (II), cobalt (II) and iron (III) complexes of Schiff bases (LG, LP) derived from 2-hydroxynaphthaldehyde with glycine and phenylalanine were reported and characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, elemental analyses, melting point, FT-IR, magnetic susceptibility and thermal analyses (TGA). TGA data show that iron and cobalt include to the coordinated water and metal:ligand ratio is 1:2 while the complex stoichiometry for Ni (II), Cu (II) and Zn (II) complexes is 1:1. As expected, Ni (II) and Zn (II) complexes are diamagnetic; Cu (II), Co (II) and Fe (III) complexes are paramagnetic character due to a strong ligand of LG and LP. The LG, LP and their metal complexes were screened for their antimicrobial activities against five Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis) and three Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and one fungi (Candida albicans) by using broth microdilution techniques. The activity data show that ligands and their metal complexes exhibited moderate to good activity against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi.

  5. Adsorption of Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Ni(II), Fe(II), and As(V) on bacterially produced metal sulfides.

    PubMed

    Jong, Tony; Parry, David L

    2004-07-01

    The adsorption of Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Ni(II), Fe(II) and As(V) onto bacterially produced metal sulfide (BPMS) material was investigated using a batch equilibrium method. It was found that the sulfide material had adsorptive properties comparable with those of other adsorbents with respect to the specific uptake of a range of metals and, the levels to which dissolved metal concentrations in solution can be reduced. The percentage of adsorption increased with increasing pH and adsorbent dose, but decreased with increasing initial dissolved metal concentration. The pH of the solution was the most important parameter controlling adsorption of Cd(II), Cu(II), Fe(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), and As(V) by BPMS. The adsorption data were successfully modeled using the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Desorption experiments showed that the reversibility of adsorption was low, suggesting high-affinity adsorption governed by chemisorption. The mechanism of adsorption for the divalent metals was thought to be the formation of strong, inner-sphere complexes involving surface hydroxyl groups. However, the mechanism for the adsorption of As(V) by BPMS appears to be distinct from that of surface hydroxyl exchange. These results have important implications to the management of metal sulfide sludge produced by bacterial sulfate reduction.

  6. Zn(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) complexes of tridentate asymmetrical Schiff base ligands: Synthesis, characterization, properties and biological activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, Mustafa; Koçak, Nuriye; Erdenay, Damla; Arslan, Uğur

    2013-02-01

    New asymmetrical tridentate Schiff base ligands were synthesized using 1,2-phenylenediamine, 4-methyl-1,2-phenylenediamine, 2-hydroxy-1-napthaldehyde, 9-anthracenecarboxaldehyde. Schiff base ligands and their metal complexes were synthesised and characterized by using FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, UV-Vis, XRD, ESR, elemental analysis and fluorescence studies. The antimicrobial activity of the ligands and their metal complexes were studied against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, S. aureus ATCC 25923, Streptococcus mutans RSHM 676, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. The determination of the antibacterial activity was done using the broth microdilution methods. In general, it has been determined that the studied compounds have MIC values similar to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It has been found that Ni, Pb, Zn derivatives of HL1A and ZnL2A has lower MIC values than ampicillin for P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 strain.

  7. Coordinatively Unsaturated Metal-Organic Frameworks M3(btc)2 (M = Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn) Catalyzing the Oxidation of CO by N2O: Insight from DFT Calculations.

    PubMed

    Ketrat, Sombat; Maihom, Thana; Wannakao, Sippakorn; Probst, Michael; Nokbin, Somkiat; Limtrakul, Jumras

    2017-11-20

    The oxidation of CO by N 2 O over metal-organic framework (MOF) M 3 (btc) 2 (M = Fe, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn) catalysts that contain coordinatively unsaturated sites has been investigated by means of density functional theory calculations. The reaction proceeds in two steps. First, the N-O bond of N 2 O is broken to form a metal oxo intermediate. Second, a CO molecule reacts with the oxygen atom of the metal oxo site, forming one C-O bond of CO 2 . The first step is a rate-determining step for both Cu 3 (btc) 2 and Fe 3 (btc) 2 , where it requires the highest activation energy (67.3 and 19.6 kcal/mol, respectively). The lower value for the iron compound compared to the copper one can be explained by the larger amount of electron density transferred from the catalytic site to the antibonding of N 2 O molecules. This, in turn, is due to the smaller gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the MOF and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO)  of N 2 O for Fe 3 (btc) 2 compared to Cu 3 (btc) 2 . The results indicate the important role of charge transfer for the N-O bond breaking in N 2 O. We computationally screened other MOF M 3 (btc) 2 (M = Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn) compounds in this respect and show some relationships between the activation energy and orbital properties like HOMO energies and the spin densities of the metals at the active sites of the MOFs.

  8. Partitioning of V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Ag, Sn, Sb, W, Au, Pb, and Bi between sulfide phases and hydrous basanite melt at upper mantle conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuan; Audétat, Andreas

    2012-11-01

    The partitioning of 15 major to trace metals between monosulfide solid solution (MSS), sulfide liquid (SL) and mafic silicate melt (SM) was determined in piston-cylinder experiments performed at 1175-1300 °C, 1.5-3.0 GPa and oxygen fugacities ranging from 3.1 log units below to 1.0 log units above the quartz-fayalite-magnetite fO2 buffer, which conditions are representative of partial melting in the upper mantle in different tectonic settings. The silicate melt was produced by partial melting of a natural, amphibole-rich mantle source rock, resulting in hydrous (˜5 wt% H2O) basanitic melts similar to low-degree partial melts of metasomatized mantle, whereas the major element composition of the starting sulfide (˜52 wt% Fe; 39 wt% S; 7 wt% Ni; 2 wt% Cu) was similar to the average composition of sulfides in this environment. SL/SM partition coefficients are high (≥100) for Au, Ni, Cu, Ag, Bi, intermediate (1-100) for Co, Pb, Sn, Sb (±As, Mo), and low (≤1) for the remaining elements. MSS/SM partition coefficients are generally lower than SL/SM partition coefficients and are high (≥100) for Ni, Cu, Au, intermediate (1-100) for Co, Ag (±Bi, Mo), and low (≤1) for the remaining elements. Most sulfide-silicate melt partition coefficients vary as a function of fO2, with Mo, Bi, As (±W) varying by a factor >10 over the investigated fO2 range, Sb, Ag, Sn (±V) varying by a factor of 3-10, and Pb, Cu, Ni, Co, Au, Zn, Mn varying by a factor of 3-10. The partitioning data were used to model the behavior of Cu, Au, Ag, and Bi during partial melting of upper mantle and during fractional crystallization of primitive MORB and arc magmas. Sulfide phase relationships and comparison of the modeling results with reported Cu, Au, Ag, and Bi concentrations from MORB and arc magmas suggest that: (i) MSS is the dominant sulfide in the source region of arc magmas, and thus that Au/Cu ratios in the silicate melt and residual sulfides may decrease with increasing degree of

  9. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity response to environmentally relevant complex metal mixture (Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd) accumulated in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Part I: importance of exposure time and tissue dependence.

    PubMed

    Stankevičiūtė, Milda; Sauliutė, Gintarė; Svecevičius, Gintaras; Kazlauskienė, Nijolė; Baršienė, Janina

    2017-10-01

    Health impact of metal mixture at environment realistic concentrations are difficult to predict especially for long-term effects where cause-and-effect relationships may not be directly obvious. This study was aimed to evaluate metal mixture (Zn-0.1, Cu-0.01, Ni-0.01, Cr-0.01, Pb-0.005 and Cd-0.005 mg/L, respectively for 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days at concentrations accepted for the inland waters in EU) genotoxicity (micronuclei, nuclear buds, nuclear buds on filament), cytotoxicity (8-shaped nuclei, fragmented-apoptotic erythrocytes), bioaccumulation, steady-state and the reference level of geno-cytotoxicity in hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon tissues. Metals accumulated mostly in gills and kidneys, to the lesser extent in the muscle. Uptake of metals from an entire mixture in the fish for 14 days is sufficient to reach steady-state Cr, Pb concentrations in all tissues; Zn, Cu-in kidneys and muscle, Ni-in liver, kidneys, muscle and Cd-in muscle. Treatment with metal mixture significantly increased summed genotoxicity levels at 7 days of exposure in peripheral blood and liver erythrocytes, at 14 days of exposure in gills and kidney erythrocytes. Significant elevation of cytotoxicity was detected after 2 and 14 days of exposure in gills erythrocytes and after 28 days-in peripheral blood erythrocytes. The amount of Cu, Cr, Pb and Cd accumulated in tissues was dependent upon duration of exposure; nuclear buds, 8-shaped nuclei frequencies also were dependent upon duration of exposure. This study indicates that metals at low levels when existing in mixture causes significant geno-cytotoxicity responses and metals bioaccumulation in salmon.

  10. Cation Distribution and Local Configuration of Fe 2+ Ions in Structurally Nonequivalent Lattice Sites of Heterometallic Fe(II)/ M(II) ( M = Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) Diaquadiformato Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devillers, M.; Ladrière, J.

    1993-03-01

    57Fe Mössbauer investigations are carried out on a wide series of heterometallic diaquadiformato Fe(II)/ M(II) complexes with M = Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn to provide a local picture of the coordination environment of the 57Fe 2+ ions as a function of (i) the nature of the host cation and (ii) the relative amounts of both metals in the matrix (between 50 and 0.25 at.% Fe). Information is obtained on the quantitative distribution of both metals between the two structurally nonequivalent lattice sites and on the local geometry around the dopant atom in each crystal site. In the mixed Fe-Cu complexes. Fe 2+ ions are preferentially incorporated in the tetrahydrated site; in Cu-rich Fe xCu 1- x(HCO 2) 2· 2H 2O, the 57Fe 2+ ions located in the hexaformato-coordinated site are surrounded by an axially compressed octahedron of formate ligands which contrasts with the elongated configuration observed in the pure iron compound and in the other mixed systems. Semiquantitative estimations of the tetragonal field splitting and of the extent of metal-ligand interactions are proposed from the temperature dependence of the quadrupole splitting values.

  11. Structural and magnetic properties of Ni-Zn and Ni-Zn-Co ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyazev, A. V.; Zakharchuk, I.; Lähderanta, E.; Baidakov, K. V.; Knyazeva, S. S.; Ladenkov, I. V.

    2017-08-01

    Ni-Zn and Ni-Zn-Co ferrite powders with nominal compositions Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 and Ni0.5Zn0.3Co0.2Fe2O4 were prepared by the solid-state reaction synthesis with periodic regrinding during the calcination at 1073 K. The structure of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 and Ni0.5Zn0.3Co0.2Fe2O4 was refined assuming space group F d-3m. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the average sizes of the crystalline ferrite particles are 130-630 nm for Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 and 140-350 nm for Ni0.5Zn0.3Co0.2Fe2O4. The room temperature saturation magnetizations are 59.7 emu/g for Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 and 57.1 emu/g for Ni0.5Zn0.3Co0.2Fe2O4. The coercivity of the samples is found to be much larger than that of bulk ferrites and increases with Co introduction. The Curie temperature tends to increase upon Zn substitution by Co, as well. The temperature dependences of magnetization measured using zero-field cooled and field cooled protocols exhibit large spin frustration and spin-glass-like behavior.

  12. Nanostructure investigation of magnetic nanomaterial Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.3}Cu{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} synthesized by sol-gel method

    SciT

    Pransisco, Prengki, E-mail: prengkipransisco@gmail.com; Badan Lingkungan Hidup Derah Kabupaten Empat Lawang South of Sumatera; Shafie, Afza, E-mail: afza@petronas.com.my

    2015-07-22

    Magnetic nanomaterial Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.3}Cu{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was successfully prepared by using sol-gel method. Heat treatment on material is always giving defect on properties of material. This paper investigates the effect of heat treatment on nanostructure of magnetic nanomaterial Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.3}Cu{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. According to thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) that after 600°C there is no more weight loss detected and it was decided as minimum calcination temperature. Intensity, crystallite size, structure, lattice parameter and d-spacing of the material were investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD). High resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) was used to examine nanostructure, nanosize,more » shape and distribution particle of magnetic material Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.3}Cu{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and variable pressure field emission scanning electron microscope (VP-FESEM) was used to investigate the surface morphology and topography of the material. The XRD result shows single-phase cubic spinel structure with average crystallite size in the range of 25.6-95.9 nm, the value of the intensity of the material was increased with increasing temperature, and followed by lattice parameter was increased with increasing calcination temperature, value of d-spacing was relatively decreased with accompanied increasing temperature. From HRTEM result the distribution of particles was tend to be agglomerates with particle size of 7.8-17.68 nm. VP-FESEM result shows that grain size of the material increases with increasing calcination temperature and the surface morphology shows that the material is in hexagonal shape and it was also proved by mapping result which showing the presence each of constituents inside the compound.« less

  13. An ICP-MS procedure to determine Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in oceanic waters using in-line flow-injection with solid-phase extraction for preconcentration.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Jeanette E; Watson, Roslyn J; Butler, Edward C V

    2013-10-15

    An automated procedure including both in-line preconcentration and multi-element determination by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) has been developed for the determination of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in open-ocean samples. The method relies on flow injection of the sample through a minicolumn of chelating (iminodiacetate) sorbent to preconcentrate the trace metals, while simultaneously eliminating the major cations and anions of seawater. The effectiveness of this step is tested and reliability in results are secured with a rigorous process of quality assurance comprising 36 calibration and reference samples in a run for analysis of 24 oceanic seawaters in a 6-h program. The in-line configuration and procedures presented minimise analyst operations and exposure to contamination. Seawater samples are used for calibration providing a true matrix match. The continuous automated pH measurement registers that chelation occurs within a selected narrow pH range and monitors the consistency of the entire analytical sequence. The eluent (0.8M HNO3) is sufficiently strong to elute the six metals in 39 s at a flow rate of 2.0 mL/min, while being compatible for prolonged use with the mass spectrometer. Throughput is one sample of 7 mL every 6 min. Detection limits were Co 3.2 pM, Ni 23 pM, Cu 46 pM, Zn 71 pM, Cd 2.7 pM and Pb 1.5 pM with coefficients of variation ranging from 3.4% to 8.6% (n=14) and linearity of calibration established beyond the observed concentration range of each trace metal in ocean waters. Recoveries were Co 96.7%, Ni 102%, Cu 102%, Zn 98.1%, Cd 92.2% and Pb 97.6%. The method has been used to analyse ~800 samples from three voyages in the Southern Ocean and Tasman Sea. It has the potential to be extended to other trace elements in ocean waters. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Interatomic interactions in M2(C8H4O4)2C6H12N2 (M = Zn, Cu, Co, Ni) metal-organic framework polymers: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, QTAIM and ELF study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlova, S. G.; Ryzhikov, M. R.; Samsonenko, D. G.; Kalinkin, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    Interatomic interactions in M2(C8H4O4)2C6H12N2 (M = Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) metal-organic framework polymers have been studied with the methods of quantum chemistry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Interactions of C6H12N2 molecules and C8H4O42- anions with metal atoms are shown to be of closed-shell type. C6H12N2 molecules are positively charged, the value of the charge slightly depends on the type of the metal atoms. Msbnd M interactions are described as "intermediate interactions" with some covalence contribution which reaches maximum for the interactions between cobalt atoms. The obtained quantum-chemical data agree with those obtained from photoelectron spectroscopy measurements.

  15. Analysis of molecular structure, spectroscopic properties (FT-IR, micro-Raman and UV-vis) and quantum chemical calculations of free and ligand 2-thiopheneglyoxylic acid in metal halides (Cd, Co, Cu, Ni and Zn).

    PubMed

    Gökce, Halil; Bahçeli, Semiha

    2013-12-01

    In this study, molecular geometries, experimental vibrational wavenumbers, electronic properties and quantum chemical calculations of 2-thiopheneglyoxylic acid molecule, (C6H4O3S), and its metal halides (Cd, Co, Cu, Ni and Zn) which are used as pharmacologic agents have been investigated experimentally by FT-IR, micro-Raman and UV-visible spectroscopies and elemental analysis. Meanwhile the vibrational calculations were verified by DFT/B3LYP method with 6-311++G(d,p) and LANL2DZ basis sets in the ground state, for free TPGA molecule and its metal halide complexes, respectively, for the first time. The calculated fundamental vibrational frequencies for the title compounds are in a good agreement with the experimental data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Soil solution dynamics of Cu and Zn in a Cu- and Zn-polluted soil as influenced by gamma-irradiation and Cu-Zn interaction.

    PubMed

    Luo, Y M; Yan, W D; Christie, P

    2001-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study soil solution dynamics of Cu and Zn in a Cu/Zn-polluted soil as influenced by gamma-irradiation and Cu-Zn interaction. A slightly acid sandy loam was amended with Cu and Zn (as nitrates) either singly or in combination (100 mg Cu and 150 mg Zn kg(-1) soil) and was then gamma-irradiated (10 kGy). Unamended and unirradiated controls were included, and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Forrester) was grown for 50 days. Soil solution samples obtained using soil moisture samplers immediately before transplantation and every ten days thereafter were used directly for determination of Cu, Zn, pH and absorbance at 360 nm (A360). Cu and Zn concentrations in the solution of metal-polluted soil changed with time and were affected by gamma-irradiation and metal interaction. gamma-Irradiation raised soil solution Cu substantially but generally decreased soil solution Zn. These trends were consistent with increased dissolved organic matter (A360) and solution pH after gamma-irradiation. Combined addition of Cu and Zn usually gave higher soil solution concentrations of Cu or Zn compared with single addition of Cu or Zn in gamma-irradiated and non-irradiated soils, indicating an interaction between Cu and Zn. Cu would have been organically complexed and consequently maintained a relatively high concentration in the soil solution under higher pH conditions. Zn tends to occur mainly as free ion forms in the soil solution and is therefore sensitive to changes in pH. The extent to which gamma-irradiation and metal interaction affected solubility and bioavailability of Cu and Zn was a function of time during plant growth. Studies on soil solution metal dynamics provide very useful information for understanding metal mobility and bioavailability.

  17. Ordered mesoporous MFe(2)O(4) (M = Co, Cu, Mg, Ni, Zn) thin films with nanocrystalline walls, uniform 16 nm diameter pores and high thermal stability: template-directed synthesis and characterization of redox active trevorite.

    PubMed

    Haetge, Jan; Suchomski, Christian; Brezesinski, Torsten

    2010-12-20

    In this paper, we report on ordered mesoporous NiFe(2)O(4) thin films synthesized via co-assembly of hydrated ferric nitrate and nickel chloride with an amphiphilic diblock copolymer, referred to as KLE. We establish that the NiFe(2)O(4) samples are highly crystalline after calcination at 600 °C, and that the conversion of the amorphous inorganic framework comes at little cost to the ordering of the high quality cubic network of pores averaging 16 nm in diameter. We further show that the synthesis method employed in this work can be readily extended to other ferrites, such as CoFe(2)O(4), CuFe(2)O(4), MgFe(2)O(4), and ZnFe(2)O(4), which could pave the way for innovative device design. While this article focuses on the self-assembly and characterization of these materials using various state-of-the-art techniques, including electron microscopy, grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), as well as UV-vis and Raman spectroscopy, we also examine the electrochemical properties and show the benefits of combining a continuous mesoporosity with nanocrystalline films. KLE-templated NiFe(2)O(4) electrodes exhibit reasonable levels of lithium ion storage at short charging times which stem from facile pseudocapacitance.

  18. Electrodeposition of Zn and Cu-Zn alloy from ZnO/CuO precursors in deep eutectic solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xueliang; Zou, Xingli; Lu, Xionggang; Lu, Changyuan; Cheng, Hongwei; Xu, Qian; Zhou, Zhongfu

    2016-11-01

    The electrodeposition of Zn and Cu-Zn alloy has been investigated in choline chloride (ChCl)/urea (1:2 molar ratio) based deep eutectic solvent (DES). Cyclic voltammetry study demonstrates that the reduction of Zn(II) to Zn is a diffusion-controlled quasi-reversible, one-step, two electrons transfer process. Chronoamperometric investigation indicates that the electrodeposition of Zn on a Cu electrode typically involves three-dimensional instantaneous nucleation with diffusion-controlled growth process. Micro/nanostructured Zn films can be obtained by controlling the electrodeposition potential and temperature. The electrodeposited Zn crystals preferentially orient parallel to the (101) plane. The Zn films electrodeposited under more positive potentials and low temperatures exhibit improved corrosion resistance in 3 wt% NaCl solution. In addition, Cu-Zn alloy films have also been electrodeposited directly from CuO-ZnO precursors in ChCl/urea-based DES. The XRD analysis indicates that the phase composition of the electrodeposited Cu-Zn alloy depends on the electrodeposition potential.

  19. Primary fragmentation pathways of gas phase [M(uracil-H)(uracil)]+ complexes (M=Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Fe, Mn, Cd, Pd , Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, and Pb): loss of uracil versus HNCO.

    PubMed

    Ali, Osama Y; Randell, Nicholas M; Fridgen, Travis D

    2012-04-23

    Complexes formed between metal dications, the conjugate base of uracil, and uracil are investigated by sustained off-resonance irradiation collision-induced dissociation (SORI-CID) in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer. Positive-ion electrospray spectra show that [M(Ura-H)(Ura)](+) (M=Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Fe, Mn, Cd, Pd, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, or Pb) is the most abundant ion even at low concentrations of uracil. SORI-CID experiments show that the main primary decomposition pathway for all [M(Ura-H)(Ura)](+) , except where M=Ca, Sr, Ba, or Pb, is the loss of HNCO. Under the same SORI-CID conditions, when M is Ca, Sr, Ba, or Pb, [M(Ura-H)(Ura)](+) are shown to lose a molecule of uracil. Similar results were observed under infrared multiple-photon dissociation excitation conditions, except that [Ca(Ura-H)(Ura)](+) was found to lose HNCO as the primary fragmentation product. The binding energies between neutral uracil and [M(Ura-H)](+) (M=Zn, Cu, Ni, Fe, Cd, Pd ,Mg, Ca, Sr Ba, or Pb) are calculated by means of electronic-structure calculations. The differences in the uracil binding energies between complexes which lose uracil and those which lose HNCO are consistent with the experimentally observed differences in fragmentation pathways. A size dependence in the binding energies suggests that the interaction between uracil and [M(Ura-H)](+) is ion-dipole complexation and the experimental evidence presented supports this. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of tridentate ONO donor Schiff base ligand: Synthesis, characterization, thermal, non-isothermal kinetics and DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusmariya, Brajendra S.; Mishra, A. P.

    2017-02-01

    We report here four mononuclear Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) coordination compounds of general formula [M(L)2] {L = dcp; M = CoII, CuII & ZnII} and [M(L)(H2O)]·H2O {L = dcp; M = NiII} derived from tridentate 2,4-dichloro-6-{[(3-chloro-2-hydroxy-5-nitrophenyl)imino]methyl}phenol (dcp) ligand. These compounds were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, uv-vis, 1H NMR, molar conductance, magnetic moment, thermal, PXRD and SEM-EDX. The Powder X-ray Diffraction patterns and SEM analyses showed the crystalline nature of synthesized compounds. The peak broadening was explained in terms of crystallite size and the lattice strain using Scherrer and Williamson-Hall method. Thermogravimetric analysis was performed to determine the thermal stability of synthesized compounds under nitrogen atmosphere up to 820 K at 10 Kmin-1 heating rate. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of thermal decomposition were calculated using Coats-Redfern (C-R), Piloyan-Novikova (P-N) and Horowitz-Metzger (H-M) methods assuming first order degradation. The calculated optical band gap values of complexes were found to be in semiconducting range. To support the experimental findings, and derive some fruitful information viz. frequency calculations, HOMO-LUMO, energy gap (ΔE), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), spin density, absorption spectra etc.; theoretical calculations by means of DFT and TD-DFT at B3LYP level were incorporated.

  1. Effect of pulsed and continuous ultrasound on structural and magnetic properties of nano-sized Ni0.4Cu0.2Zn0.4Fe2O4 ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassen, Harzali; Adel, Megriche; Arbi, Mgaidi

    2018-03-01

    Ultrasound-assisted co-precipitation has been used to prepare nano-sized Ni0.4Cu0.2Zn0.4Fe2O4 ferrite. Continuous (C-US) and pulsed (P-US) ultrasound modes are used at constant frequency = 20 kHz, reaction time = 2 h and pulse durations of 10 s on and 10 s off. All experiments were conducted at two temperatures 90 and 100°C. Samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform spectroscopy (FT-IR), N2 adsorption isotherms at 77 k analysis (BET), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) techniques. A nanocrystalline single-phase with particle size in the range 12-18 nm is obtained in both modes: continuous and pulsed ultrasound mode. FT-IR measurements show two absorption bands assigned to the tetrahedral and octahedral vibrations (ν1 and ν2) characteristics of cubic spinel ferrite. The specific surface area (S BET) is in the range of 110-140 m2 g-1 and an average pore size between 5.5 and 6.5 nm. The lowest values are obtained in pulsed mode. Finally, this work shows that the magnetic properties are affected by the ultrasound conditions, without affecting the particle shape. The saturation magnetization (Ms) values obtained for all samples are comparable. In P-US mode, the saturation magnetization (Ms) increases as temperature increases. Moreover, P-US mode opens a new avenue for synthesis of NiCuZn ferrites.

  2. Transport and {Tc} anomalies around x = 0.22 in La{sub 2{minus}x}Sr{sub x}Cu{sub 1{minus}y}M{sub y}O{sub 4} (M = Zn, Ga, Ni): Possibility of charge and/or spin ordering

    SciT

    Koike, Y.; Kakinuma, N.; Aoyama, M.

    1999-12-01

    Transport and {Tc} anomalies around x = 0.22 in La{sub 2{minus}x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} have been studied through the partial substitution of Zn, Ga and Ni for Cu. It has been found that the value of x where the anomalies occur shifts to lower x values through the Zn substitution, while it shifts to larger x values through the Ga substitution, and it disappears through the Ni substitution. There is a possibility that an order of holes and/or spins, such as the so-called stripe order, is formed or fluctuates around x = 0.22 in La{sub 2{minus}x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4}.

  3. Spinel, YbFe2O4, and Yb2Fe3O7 types of structure for compounds in the In2O3 and Sc2O3-A2O3-BO systems (A: Fe, Ga, or Al; B: Mg, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, or Zn) at temperatures over 1000C

    SciT

    Kimizuka, N.; Mohri, T.

    In the Sc2O3-Ga2O3-CuO, Sc2O3-Ga2O3-ZnO, and Sc2O3-Al2O3-CuO systems, ScGaCuO4, ScGaZnO4, and ScAlCuO4 with the YbFe2O4-type structure and Sc2Ga2CuO7 with the Yb2Fe3O7-type structure were obtained. In the In2O3-A2O3-BO systems (A: Fe, Ga, or Al; B: Mg, Mn, Fe, Ni, or Zn), InGaFeO4, InGaNiO4, and InFeT MgO4 with the spinel structure, InGaZnO4, InGaMgO4, and InAl-CuO4 with the YbFe2O4-type structure, and In2Ga2MnO7 and In2Ga2ZnO7 with the Yb2Fe3O7-type structure were obtained. InGaMnO4 and InFe2O4 had both the YbFe2O4-type and spinel-type structures. The revised classification for the crystal structures of AB2O4 compounds is presented, based upon the coordination numbers of constituent A and B cations. 5more » references, 2 tables.« less

  4. Surface Segregation in Cu-Ni Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Good, Brian; Bozzolo, Guillermo; Ferrante, John

    1993-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation is used to calculate the composition profiles of surface segregation of Cu-Ni alloys. The method of Bozzolo, Ferrante, and Smith is used to compute the energetics of these systems as a function of temperature, crystal face, and bulk concentration. The predictions are compared with other theoretical and experimental results.

  5. The effect of Ti-B on stabilization of Cu-Zn-Al martensite

    SciT

    Stipcich, M.; Romero, R.

    1998-10-05

    The application of shape memory effect in devices requires, in many cases, stable and reliable transformation temperatures. However, as a consequence of diffusional processes, in Cu-based shape memory alloys, reverse transformation temperature significantly rises after aging at temperatures above room temperature. This generally unwanted behavior is usually referred to as the stabilization of martensite. Numerous investigations have been carried out on this subject as reviewed by Ahlers and Chandrasekaran et al. Within the Cu-based alloys the Cu-Zn-Al are claimed to be more prone to stabilization than Cu-Al-Ni on aging. It has been proposed that in the Cu-Zn-Al the stabilization ismore » due to the interchange of Cu and Zn atoms assisted by vacancies, changing, consequently, the long range order inherited from the {beta} phase. In the present work, the authors investigate the stabilization behavior of polycrystalline samples of stress induced Cu-Zn-Al and Cu-Zn-Al-B martensite.« less

  6. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Cu doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Nasir; Singh, Budhi; Khan, Zaheer Ahmed; Ghosh, Subhasis

    2018-05-01

    We report the room temperature ferromagnetism in 2% Cu doped ZnO films grown by RF magnetron sputtering in different argon and oxygen partial pressure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to ascertain the oxidation states of Cu in ZnO. The presence of defects within Cu-doped ZnO films can be revealed by electron paramagnetic resonance. It has been observed that saturated magnetic moment increase as we increase the zinc vacancies during deposition.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous and hollow-mesoporous MxFe3-xO4 (M=Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) microspheres for microwave-triggered controllable drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ping; Cui, Bin; Bu, Yumei; Yang, Zhenfeng; Wang, Yaoyu

    2017-12-01

    Spinel ferrites can be used in magnetic targeting and microwave heating and can therefore be used for targeted and controllable drug delivery. We used the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-assisted solvothermal method to synthesize a series of spinel ferrites (MxFe3-xO4, M=Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) with a mesoporous or hollow-mesoporous structure suitable for direct drug loading and the particle diameters ranging from 200 to 350 nm. We investigated the effects of M2+ cation on the morphology and properties of these products by analyzing their transmission electron microscopy images, mesoporous properties, magnetic properties, and microwave responses. We chose hollow-mesoporous MxFe3-xO4 (M=Fe, Co, Zn) nanoparticles, which had better overall properties, for the drug VP16 (etoposide) loading and microwave-controlled release. The CoxFe3-xO4 and Fe3O4 particles trapped 61.5 and 64.8%, respectively, of the VP16, which were higher than that (60.4%) of ZnxFe3-xO4. Controllable drug release by these simple magnetic nanocarriers can be achieved by microwave irradiation, and VP16-loaded CoxFe3-xO4 released the most VP16 molecules (more than 50% after 1 h and 69.1% after 6 h) under microwave irradiation. Our results confirm the favorable drug loading and microwave-controlled delivery by these ferrites, and lay a theoretical foundation to promote clinical application of the targeted controllable drug delivery system. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. Influence of hot isostatic pressing on the structure and properties of an innovative low-alloy high-strength aluminum cast alloy based on the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Ni-Fe system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akopyan, T. K.; Padalko, A. G.; Belov, N. A.

    2015-11-01

    Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is applied for treatment of castings of innovative low-ally high-strength aluminum alloy, nikalin ATs6N0.5Zh based on the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Ni-Fe system. The influence of HIP on the structure and properties of castings is studied by means of three regimes of barometric treatment with different temperatures of isometric holding: t 1 = 505 ± 2°C, p 1 = 100 MPa, τ1 = 3 h (HIP1); t 2 = 525 ± 2°C, p 2 = 100 MPa, τ2 = 3 h (HIP2); and t 3 = 545 ± 2°C, p 3 = 100 MPa, τ3 = 3 h (HIP3). It is established that high-temperature HIP leads to actually complete elimination of porosity and additional improvement of the morphology of second phases. Improved structure after HIP provides improvement properties, especially of plasticity. In particular, after heat treatment according of regime HIP2 + T4 (T4 is natural aging), the alloy plasticity is improved by about two times in comparison with the initial state (from ~6 to 12%). While applying regime HIP3 + T6 (T6 is artificial aging for reaching the maximum strength), the plasticity has improved by more than three times in comparison with the initial state, as after treatment according to regimes HIP1 + T6 and HIP2 + T6 (from ~1.2 to ~5.0%), which are characterized by a lower HIP temperature.

  9. Chitosan film loaded with silver nanoparticles-sorbent for solid phase extraction of Al(III), Cd(II), Cu(II), Co(II), Fe(III), Ni(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II).

    PubMed

    Djerahov, Lubomir; Vasileva, Penka; Karadjova, Irina; Kurakalva, Rama Mohan; Aradhi, Keshav Krishna

    2016-08-20

    The present study describes the ecofriendly method for the preparation of chitosan film loaded with silver nanoparticles (CS-AgNPs) and application of this film as efficient sorbent for separation and enrichment of Al(III), Cd(II), Cu(II), Co(II), Fe(III), Ni(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II). The stable CS-AgNPs colloid was prepared by dispersing the AgNPs sol in chitosan solution at appropriate ratio and further used to obtain a cast film with very good stability under storage and good mechanical strength for easy handling in aqueous medium. The incorporation of AgNPs in the structure of CS film and interaction between the polymer matrix and nanoparticles were confirmed by UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy. The homogeneously embedded AgNPs (average diameter 29nm, TEM analysis) were clearly observed throughout the film by SEM. The CS-AgNPs nanocomposite film shows high sorption activity toward trace metals under optimized chemical conditions. The results suggest that the CS-AgNPs nanocomposite film can be feasibly used as a novel sorbent material for solid-phase extraction of metal pollutants from surface waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Composition, Characterization and Antibacterial activity of Mn(II), Co(II),Ni(II), Cu(II) Zn(II) and Cd(II) mixed ligand complexes Schiff base derived from Trimethoprim with 8-Hydroxy quinoline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Numan, Ahmed T.; Atiyah, Eman M.; Al-Shemary, Rehab K.; Ulrazzaq, Sahira S. Abd

    2018-05-01

    New Schiff base ligand 2-((4-amino-5-(3, 4, 5-trimethoxybenzyl) pyrimidin-2-ylimino) (phenyl)methyl)benzoic acid] = [HL] was synthesized using microwave irradiation trimethoprim and 2-benzoyl benzoic acid. Mixed ligand complexes of Mn((II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) are reacted in ethanol with Schiff base ligand [HL] and 8-hydroxyquinoline [HQ] then reacted with metal salts in ethanol as a solvent in (1:1:1) ratio. The ligand [HL] is characterized by FTIR, UV-Vis, melting point, elemental microanalysis (C.H.N), 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and mass spectra. The mixed ligand complexes are characterized by infrared spectra, electronic spectra, (C.H.N), melting point, atomic absorption, molar conductance and magnetic moment measurements. These measurements indicate that the ligand [HL] coordinates with metal (II) ion in a tridentate manner through the oxygen and nitrogen atoms of the ligand, octahedral structures are suggested for these complexes. Antibacterial activity of the ligands [HL], [HQ] and their complexes are studied against (gram positive) and (gram negative) bacteria.

  11. The utilization of modified BCR three-step sequential extraction procedure for the fractionation of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in soil reference materials of different origins.

    PubMed

    Zemberyová, Mária; Barteková, Jana; Hagarová, Ingrid

    2006-12-15

    A modified three-step sequential extraction procedure for the fractionation of heavy metals, proposed by the Commission of the European Communities Bureau of Reference (BCR) has been applied to the Slovak reference materials of soils (soil orthic luvisols, soil rendzina and soil eutric cambisol), which represent pedologically different types of soils in Slovakia. Analyses were carried out by flame or electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS or ETAAS). The fractions extracted were: exchangeable (extraction step 1), reducible-iron/manganese oxides (extraction step 2), oxidizable-organic matter and sulfides (extraction step 3). The sum of the element contents in the three fractions plus aqua-regia extractable content of the residue was compared to the aqua-regia extractable content of the elements in the origin soils. The accuracy obtained by comparing the determined contents of the elements with certified values, using BCR CRM 701, certified for the extractable contents (mass fractions) of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in sediment following a modified BCR-three step sequential extraction procedure, was found to be satisfactory.

  12. Influence of Al3+ substitution on the electrical resistivity and dielectric behavior of Ni0.25Cu0.20Zn0.55AlxFe2-xO4 ferrites synthesized by solid state reaction technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, K. R.; Chowdhury, F.-U.-Z.; Khan, M. N. I.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the effect of Al3+ substitution on the electrical and dielectric properties of Ni0.25Cu0.20Zn0.55AlxFe2-xO4 ferrites with x = 0.0, 0.05. 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20, synthesized by solid state reaction has been reported. Using two probe method, the DC resistivity has been investigated in the temperature range from 30 °C to 300 °C. Activation energy was calculated from the Arrhenius plot. The electrical conduction is explained on the basis of the hopping mechanism. The frequency dependent dielectric properties of these spinel ferrites have been studied at room temperature by measuring AC resistivity, conductivity (σac), dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent (tan δ) in the frequency range between 1 kHz and 120 MHz. The study of dielectric properties showed that the dielectric constant and dielectric loss increased with increasing non-magnetic Al ions. The dependence of dielectric constant with frequency has been explained by Maxwell-Wagner interfacial polarization. Cole-Cole plots show semicircular arc(s) for the samples, and equivalent RC circuits have been proposed to clarify the phenomena involved therein. The analysis of complex impedance spectroscopy has been used to distinguish between the grain and grain boundary contribution to the total resistance.

  13. Synthesis, spectroscopic, molecular structure, antioxidant, antimicrobial and antitumor behavior of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of O2N type tridentate chromone-2-carboxaldehyde Schiff's base ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammar, Reda A.; Alaghaz, Abdel-Nasser M. A.; Zayed, Mohamed E.; Al-Bedair, Lamia A.

    2017-08-01

    Tridentate Schiff's base (HL) ligand was synthesized via condensation of salicylaldehyde and 3-hydroxypyridin-2-yliminomethyl-4H-chromen-4-one and their corresponding Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes have been synthesized. The isolated solid complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance, spectral (IR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR), magnetic moment, EPR, and thermal measurements. The IR spectra showed that HL was coordinated to the metal ions in tridentate manner with O2N donor sites of the azomethine N, deprotonated phenolic-OH and carbonyl-O. The activation of thermodynamic parameters are calculated using Coast-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger (HM). The octahedral geometry of the complexes is confirmed using DFT method from DMOL3 calculations, UV-Vis and magnetic moment measurements, ESR and ligand field parameters. Antioxidant activities have also been performed for all the compounds. The investigated ligand and metal complexes were screened for their in-vitro antimicrobial activities against different types of fungal and bacterial strains. The resulting data assert on the inspected compounds as a highly promising bactericides and fungicides. The antitumor activities of all inspected compounds were evaluated towards human liver Carcinoma (HepG2) cell line.

  14. Effect on the structural, DC resistivity and magnetic properties of Zr and Cu co-SubstitutedNi0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4using sol-gel auto-combustion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalaiah, K.; Vijaya Babu, K.; Chandra mouli, K.; Subba Rao, P. S. V.

    2018-04-01

    The Zr and Cu co-substituted Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles have been synthesized by the sol-gel auto combustion method. The XRD patterns confirmed single phase cubic spinel structure for present ferrite systems. The substitution of co-dopants in the spinel structure initially decreases the lattice parameter from x = 0.00 to 0.08 and thereafter increases and the same tendency reflecting in cell volume. The DC resistivity was initially increased later followed the decreasing trend; however the drift mobility of all ferrite samples appears to be in opposite phenomenon to DC resistivity. The saturation magnetization and net magnetic moments of all ferrite samples are decreasing with increasing dopant concentration. The coercive field and Y-K angles are increased with dopant concentration. The initial permeability of all samples is decreased with increasing dopant concentration. The Q-Factor for all samples shows the narrow frequency band with increasing frequency.

  15. The role of annealing temperature and bio template (egg white) on the structural, morphological and magnetic properties of manganese substituted MFe2O4 (M=Zn, Cu, Ni, Co) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjith Kumar, E.; Jayaprakash, R.; Kumar, Sanjay

    2014-02-01

    Manganese substituted ferrites (ZnFe2O4, CuFe2O4, NiFe2O4 and CoFe2O4) have been prepared in the bio template medium by using a simple evaporation method. The annealing temperature plays an important position on changing particle size and morphology of the mixed ferrite nanoparticles were found out by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy methods. The role of manganese substitution in the mixed ferrite nanoparticles were also analyzed for different annealing temperature. The substitution of Mn also creates a vital change in magnetic properties which is studied by using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). These spinel ferrites are decomposed to α-Fe2O3 after annealing above 550 °C in air. However, α-Fe2O3 phase was slowly vanished after ferrites annealing above 900 °C. The effect of this secondary phase on the structural change and magnetic properties of the mixed ferrite nanoparticles is discussed.

  16. Crystal growth of incommensurate members of 2H-hexagonal perovskite related oxides: Ba{sub 4}M{sub z}Pt{sub 3−z}O{sub 9} (M=Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mg, Pt)

    SciT

    Ferreira, Timothy; Morrison, Gregory; Yeon, Jeongho

    2016-04-15

    Millimeter sized crystals of six oxides of approximate composition Ba{sub 4}M{sub z}Pt{sub 3-z}O{sub 9} (M=Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mg, Pt) were grown from molten K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} fluxes and found to crystallize in a 2H hexagonal perovskite-related structure type. The compositions of these incommensurate structures, which belong to the A{sub 3n+3m}A′{sub n}B{sub 3m+n}O{sub 9m+6n} family of 2H hexagonal perovskite related oxides, were characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The specific synthetic considerations, crystal growth conditions, and magnetic susceptibility measurements are discussed. - Graphical abstract: SEM image and average commensurate unit cell of Ba{sub 4}Pt{sub 3}O{submore » 9.} - Highlights: • Single crystals of the series Ba{sub 4}A′{sub z}Pt{sub 3-z}O{sub 9} were grown via a molten carbonate flux. • Ba{sub 4}Pt{sub 3}O{sub 9} and all substitutional variants are incommensurate, composite structures. • All compounds have an approximate stoichiometry of Ba{sub 4}A′Pt{sub 2}O{sub 9.}.« less

  17. Syntheses, spectroscopic and thermal analyses of cyanide bridged heteronuclear polymeric complexes: [M(L)2Ni(CN)4]n (Ldbnd N-methylethylenediamine or N-ethylethylenediamine; Mdbnd Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) or Cd(II))

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaağaç, Dursun; Kürkçüoğlu, Güneş Süheyla

    2016-02-01

    Polymeric tetracyanonickelate(II) complexes of the type [M(L)2Ni(CN)4]n (Ldbnd N-methylethylenediamine (men) or N-ethylethylenediamine (neen); Mdbnd Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) or Cd(II)) have been prepared and characterized by FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, thermal and elemental analysis techniques. Additionally, FT-IR and Raman spectral analyses of men and neen have experimentally and theoretically investigated in the range of 4000-250 cm-1. The corresponding vibration assignments of men and neen are performed by using B3LYP density functional theory (DFT) method together with 6-31 G(d) basis set. The spectral features of the complexes suggest that the coordination environment of the M(II) ions are surrounded by the two symmetry related men and neen ligands and the two symmetry related N atom of cyanide groups, whereas the Ni(II) atoms are coordinated with a square-planar to four C atoms of the cyanide groups. Polymeric structures of the complexes consist of one dimensional alternative chains of [M(L)2]2+ and [Ni(CN)4]2- moieties. The thermal decompositions in the temperature range 30-700 °C of the complexes were investigated in the static air atmosphere.

  18. Ni-P/Zn-Ni compositionally modulated multilayer coatings - Part 2: Corrosion and protection mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahadormanesh, Behrouz; Ghorbani, Mohammad

    2018-06-01

    The Ni-P/Zn-Ni compositionally modulated multilayer coatings CMMCs were electrodeposited from a single bath by switching the deposition current density. The corrosion resistance of the deposits was studied and compared with that of monolayers of Ni-P and Zn-Ni alloys via Tafel polarization, EIS and salt spray tests. Characterization of corrosion products by means of EDS and XRD revealed more details from the corrosion mechanism of the monolayers and multilayers. The corrosion current density of Ni-P/Zn-Ni CMMCs were around one tenth of Zn-Ni monolayer. The CMMC with incomplete layers performed lower polarization resistance and higher corrosion current density compared to the CMMC with complete layers. The electrical circuit that was proposed for modeling the corrosion process based on the EIS spectrum, proved that layering reduces the porosity and consequently improves the barrier properties. Although, layering of Zn-Ni layers with Ni-P deposits increased the time to red rust in salt spray test, the time for white rust formation decreased. The corrosion mechanism of both Zn-Ni and Ni-P (containing small amount of Zn) was preferential dissolution of Zn and the corrosion products were comprised of mainly Zn hydroxychloride and Zn hydroxycarbonate. Also, Ni and P did not take part in the corrosion products. Based on the electrochemical character of the layers and the morphology of the corroded surface, the corrosion mechanism of multilayers was discussed.

  19. Solid Liquid Interdiffusion Bonding of Zn4Sb3 Thermoelectric Material with Cu Electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y. C.; Lee, K. T.; Hwang, J. D.; Chu, H. S.; Hsu, C. C.; Chen, S. C.; Chuang, T. H.

    2016-10-01

    The ZnSb intermetallic compound may have thermoelectric applications because it is low in cost and environmentally friendly. In this study, a Zn4Sb3 thermoelectric element coated with a Ni barrier layer and a Ag reaction layer was bonded with a Ag-coated Cu electrode using a Ag/Sn/Ag solid-liquid interdiffusion bonding process. The results indicated that a Ni5Zn21 intermetallic phase formed easily at the Zn4Sb3/Ni interface, leading to sound adhesion. In addition, Sn film was found to react completely with the Ag layer to form a Ag3Sn intermetallic layer having a melting point of 480°C. The resulting Zn4Sb3 thermoelectric module can be applied at the optimized operation temperature (400°C) of Zn4Sb3 material as a thermoelectric element. The bonding strengths ranged from 14.9 MPa to 25.0 MPa, and shear tests revealed that the Zn4Sb3/Cu-joints fractured through the interior of the thermoelectric elements.

  20. Theoretical study of the magnetic behavior of hexanuclear Cu(II) and Ni(II) polysiloxanolato complexes.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Eliseo; Cano, Joan; Alvarez, Santiago; Caneschi, Andrea; Gatteschi, Dante

    2003-06-04

    A theoretical density functional study of the exchange coupling in hexanuclear polysiloxanolato-bridged complexes of Cu(II) and Ni(II) is presented. By calculating the energies of three different spin configurations, we can obtain estimates of the first-, second-, and third-neighbor exchange coupling constants. The study has been carried out for the complete structures of the Cu pristine cluster and of the chloroenclathrated Ni complex as well as for the hypotethical pristine Ni compound and for magnetically dinuclear analogues M(2)Zn(4) (M = Cu, Ni).

  1. Study on the formation of graphene by ion implantation on Cu, Ni and CuNi alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Janghyuk; Kim, Hong-Yeol; Jeon, Jeong Heum; An, Sungjoo; Hong, Jongwon; Kim, Jihyun

    2018-09-01

    This study identifies the details for direct synthesis of graphene by carbon ion implantation on Cu, Ni and CuNi alloy. Firstly, diffusion and concentration of carbon atoms in Cu and Ni are estimated separately. The concentrations of carbon atoms near the surfaces of Cu and Ni after carbon ion implantation and subsequent thermal annealing were correlated with the number of atoms and with the coverage or thickness of graphene. Systematic experiments showed that the Cu has higher carbon diffusivity and graphene coverage than Ni but higher temperatures and longer annealing times are required to synthesize graphene, similar to those in chemical vapor deposition method. The CuNi system shows better graphene coverage and quality than that on a single metal catalyst even after a short annealing time, as it has larger carbon diffusivity and lower carbon solubility than Ni and shows lower activation energy than Cu.

  2. Stable Cu and Zn isotope ratios as tracers of sources and transport of Cu and Zn in contaminated soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigalke, Moritz; Weyer, Stefan; Kobza, Jozef; Wilcke, Wolfgang

    2010-12-01

    Copper and Zn metals are produced in large quantities for different applications. During Cu production, large amounts of Cu and Zn can be released to the environment. Therefore, the surroundings of Cu smelters are frequently metal-polluted. We determined Cu and Zn concentrations and Cu and Zn stable isotope ratios (δ 65Cu, δ 66Zn) in three soils at distances of 1.1, 3.8, and 5.3 km from a Slovak Cu smelter and in smelter wastes (slag, sludge, ash) to trace sources and transport of Cu and Zn in soils. Stable isotope ratios were measured by multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) in total digests. Soils were heavily contaminated with concentrations up to 8087 μg g -1 Cu and 2084 μg g -1 Zn in the organic horizons. The δ 65Cu values varied little (-0.12‰ to 0.36‰) in soils and most wastes and therefore no source identification was possible. In soils, Cu became isotopically lighter with increasing depth down to 0.4 m, likely because of equilibrium reactions between dissolved and adsorbed Cu species during transport of smelter-derived Cu through the soil. The δ 66Zn IRMM values were isotopically lighter in ash (-0.41‰) and organic horizons (-0.85‰ to -0.47‰) than in bedrock (-0.28‰) and slag (0.18‰) likely mainly because of kinetic fractionation during evaporation and thus allowed for separation of smelter-Zn from native Zn in soil. In particular in the organic horizons large variations in δ 66Zn values occur, probably caused by biogeochemical fractionation in the soil-plant system. In the mineral horizons, Zn isotopes showed only minor shifts to heavier δ 66Zn values with depth mainly because of the mixing of smelter-derived Zn and native Zn in the soils. In contrast to Cu, Zn isotope fractionation between dissolved and adsorbed species was probably only a minor driver in producing the observed variations in δ 66Zn values. Our results demonstrate that metal stable isotope ratios may serve as tracer of sources

  3. Dinuclear complexes containing linear M-F-M [M = Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II)] bridges: trends in structures, antiferromagnetic superexchange interactions, and spectroscopic properties.

    PubMed

    Reger, Daniel L; Pascui, Andrea E; Smith, Mark D; Jezierska, Julia; Ozarowski, Andrew

    2012-11-05

    The reaction of M(BF(4))(2)·xH(2)O, where M is Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), and Cd(II), with the new ditopic ligand m-bis[bis(3,5-dimethyl-1-pyrazolyl)methyl]benzene (L(m)*) leads to the formation of monofluoride-bridged dinuclear metallacycles of the formula [M(2)(μ-F)(μ-L(m)*)(2)](BF(4))(3). The analogous manganese(II) species, [Mn(2)(μ-F)(μ-L(m)*)(2)](ClO(4))(3), was isolated starting with Mn(ClO(4))(2)·6H(2)O using NaBF(4) as the source of the bridging fluoride. In all of these complexes, the geometry around the metal centers is trigonal bipyramidal, and the fluoride bridges are linear. The (1)H, (13)C, and (19)F NMR spectra of the zinc(II) and cadmium(II) compounds and the (113)Cd NMR of the cadmium(II) compound indicate that the metallacycles retain their structure in acetonitrile and acetone solution. The compounds with M = Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) are antiferromagnetically coupled, although the magnitude of the coupling increases dramatically with the metal as one moves to the right across the periodic table: Mn(II) (-6.7 cm(-1)) < Fe(II) (-16.3 cm(-1)) < Co(II) (-24.1 cm(-1)) < Ni(II) (-39.0 cm(-1)) ≪ Cu(II) (-322 cm(-1)). High-field EPR spectra of the copper(II) complexes were interpreted using the coupled-spin Hamiltonian with g(x) = 2.150, g(y) = 2.329, g(z) = 2.010, D = 0.173 cm(-1), and E = 0.089 cm(-1). Interpretation of the EPR spectra of the iron(II) and manganese(II) complexes required the spin Hamiltonian using the noncoupled spin operators of two metal ions. The values g(x) = 2.26, g(y) = 2.29, g(z) = 1.99, J = -16.0 cm(-1), D(1) = -9.89 cm(-1), and D(12) = -0.065 cm(-1) were obtained for the iron(II) complex and g(x) = g(y) = g(z) = 2.00, D(1) = -0.3254 cm(-1), E(1) = -0.0153, J = -6.7 cm(-1), and D(12) = 0.0302 cm(-1) were found for the manganese(II) complex. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the exchange integrals and the zero-field splitting on manganese(II) and iron(II) ions were performed

  4. Synthesis, characterization, nucleic acid interactions and photoluminescent properties of methaniminium hydrazone Schiff base and its Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sennappan, M.; Murali Krishna, P.; Hosamani, Amar A.; Hari Krishna, R.

    2018-07-01

    An environmental benign and efficient reaction was carried out via amine exchange and condensation reaction in water and methanol mixture (3:1) and absence of catalyst between 1-[3-(2-hydroxy benzylidene)amine)phenyl]ethanone and benzhydrazide yields methaniminium hydrazone Schiff base in high yield. The prepared ligand was structurally characterized by using single crystal XRD, elemental analysis and spectroscopy (UV-Vis, FT-IR, LC-MS and NMR) techniques. The crystal data indicates the ligand crystallizes in orthorhombic system with Pna21 space group. Further, the ligand was used in synthesis of mononuclear Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes and were characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic moment and spectroscopy (UV-Vis, FT-IR and ESR) studies. The spectral data showed that ligand is coordinated to the metal ion through azomethine nitrogen and methaniminium nitrogen. The DNA binding absorption titrations reveals that, ligand, L and its metal complexes, 1-6 are avid binders to CT- DNA. The apparent binding constant values of compounds are in the order of 106 M-1. The nuclease activity of ligand, L and its metal complexes, 1-6 were investigated by gel electrophoresis method using pUC18 DNA. The photoluminescent properties of the methaniminium hydrazone ligand, L and its various metal complexes, 1-6 were investigated. The emission spectra of both ligand (L) and metal complexes (1-6) exhibits emission in the range of blue to red.

  5. Chemical Synthesis of ZnS:Cu Nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodo, Bhaskarjyoti; Kalita, P. K.

    2010-10-01

    ZnS thin films are synthesized through chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique from aqueous solution of ZnSO4 and thiourea mixing in equal volume and equimolar ratio. A 1% CuSO4 solution is mixed with the ZnSO4 solution for doping before the final chemical reaction. SEM image shows the formation of mainly nanosheets, teeth and comb like structures. Absorption studies show red shift of enhanced band gap on Cu doping. Photoluminescence of ZnS:Cu reveals the enhancement of blue luminescence at 468 nm and low intensity green emission at 493 nm which is attributed to more Cu2+ lying in the interstices. XRD shows that the prepared ZnS nanophosphors possess cubic zinc blende structures.

  6. Reactions in Electrodeposited Cu/Sn and Cu/Ni/Sn Nanoscale Multilayers for Interconnects

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Pay Ying; Haseeb, A. S. M. A.; Mannan, Samjid Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Miniaturization of electronic devices has led to the development of 3D IC packages which require ultra-small-scale interconnections. Such small interconnects can be completely converted into Cu-Sn based intermetallic compounds (IMCs) after reflow. In an effort to improve IMC based interconnects, an attempt is made to add Ni to Cu-Sn-based IMCs. Multilayer interconnects consisting of stacks of Cu/Sn/Cu/Sn/Cu or Cu/Ni/Sn/Ni/Sn/Cu/Ni/Sn/Ni/Cu with Ni = 35 nm, 70 nm, and 150 nm were electrodeposited sequentially using copper pyrophosphate, tin methanesulfonic, and nickel Watts baths, respectively. These multilayer interconnects were investigated under room temperature aging conditions and for solid-liquid reactions, where the samples were subjected to 250 °C reflow for 60 s and also 300 °C for 3600 s. The progress of the reaction in the multilayers was monitored by using X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscope, and Energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. FIB-milled samples were also prepared for investigation under room temperature aging conditions. Results show that by inserting a 70 nanometres thick Ni layer between copper and tin, premature reaction between Cu and Sn at room temperature can be avoided. During short reflow, the addition of Ni suppresses formation of Cu3Sn IMC. With increasing Ni thickness, Cu consumption is decreased and Ni starts acting as a barrier layer. On the other hand, during long reflow, two types of IMC were found in the Cu/Ni/Sn samples which are the (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 and (Cu,Ni)3Sn, respectively. Details of the reaction sequence and mechanisms are discussed. PMID:28773552

  7. Structure and mechanism of Cu- and Ni-substituted analogs of metallo-β-lactamase L1

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhenxin; Spadafora, Lauren J.; Hajdin, Christine E.; Bennett, Brian; Crowder, Michael W.

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to further probe metal binding to metallo-β-lactamase L1 (mβl L1), Cu- (Cu-L1) and Ni-substituted (Ni-L1) L1 were prepared and characterized by kinetic and spectroscopic studies. Cu-L1 bound 1.7 equivalents of Cu and small amounts of Zn(II) and Fe. The EPR spectrum of Cu-L1 exhibited two overlapping, axial signals, indicative of type 2 sites with distinct affinities for Cu(II). Both signals indicated multiple nitrogen ligands. Despite the expected proximity of the Cu(II) ions, however, only indirect evidence was found for spin-spin coupling. Cu-L1 exhibited higher kcat (96 s−1) and Km (224 μM) values, as compared to the values of dinuclear Zn(II)-containing L1, when nitrocefin was used as substrate. The Ni-L1 bound 1 equivalent of Ni and 0.3 equivalents of Zn(II). Ni-L1 was EPR-silent, suggesting that the oxidation state of nickel was +2; this suggestion was confirmed by 1H NMR spectra, which showed relatively sharp proton resonances. Stopped-flow kinetic studies showed that ZnNi-L1 stabilized significant amounts of the nitrocefin-derived intermediate and that the decay of intermediate is rate-limiting. 1H NMR spectra demonstrate that Ni(II) binds in the Zn2 site and that the ring-opened product coordinates Ni(II). Both Cu-L1 and ZnNi-L1 hydrolyze cephalosporins and carbapenems, but not penicillins, suggesting that the Zn2 site modulates substrate preference in mβ1 L1. These studies demonstrate that the Zn2 site in L1 is very flexible and can accommodate a number of different transition metal ions; this flexibility could possibly offer an organism that produces L1 an evolutionary advantage when challenged with β-lactam containing antibiotics. PMID:19228020

  8. Synthesis, spectral characterization, structural investigation and antimicrobial studies of mononuclear Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes of a new potentially hexadentate N2O4 Schiff base ligand derived from salicylaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keypour, Hassan; Shayesteh, Maryam; Rezaeivala, Majid; Chalabian, Firoozeh; Elerman, Yalcin; Buyukgungor, Orhan

    2013-01-01

    A new potentially hexadentate N2O4 Schiff base ligand, H2L derived from condensation reaction of an aromatic diamine and salicylaldehyde, and its metal complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, IR, UV-Vis, EI-MS, 1H and 13C NMR spectra, as well as conductance measurements. It has been originated that the Schiff base ligand with Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) ions form mononuclear complexes on 1:1 (metal:ligand) stoichiometry. The conductivity data confirm the non-electrolytic nature of the complexes. Also the crystal structures of the complexes [ZnL] and [CoL] have also been determined by using X-ray crystallographic technique. The Zn(II) and Co(II) complexes show a tetrahedral configuration. Electronic absorption spectra of the Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexes suggest a square-planar geometry around the central metal ion. The synthesized compounds have antibacterial activity against the three Gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis and Listeria monocytogenes and also against the three Gram-negative bacteria: Salmonella paraB, Citrobacter freundii and Enterobacter aerogenes. The results showed that in some cases the antibacterial activity of complexes were more than nalidixic acid and amoxicillin as standards.

  9. Molecule-based magnets formed by bimetallic three-dimensional oxalate networks and chiral tris(bipyridyl) complex cations. The series [ZII(bpy)3][ClO4][MIICrIII(ox)3] (ZII = Ru, Fe, Co, and Ni; MII = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn; ox = oxalate dianion).

    PubMed

    Coronado, E; Galán-Mascarós, J R; Gómez-García, C J; Martínez-Agudo, J M

    2001-01-01

    The synthesis, structure, and physical properties of the series of molecular magnets formulated as [ZII(bpy)3][ClO4][MIICrIII(ox)3] (ZII = Ru, Fe, Co, and Ni; MII = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn; ox = oxalate dianion) are presented. All the compounds are isostructural to the [Ru(bpy)3][ClO4][MnCr(ox)3] member whose structure (cubic space group P4(1)32 with a = 15.506(2) A, Z = 4) consists of a three-dimensional bimetallic network formed by alternating MII and CrIII ions connected by oxalate anions. The identical chirality (lambda in the solved crystal) of all the metallic centers determines the 3D chiral structure adopted by these compounds. The anionic 3D sublattice leaves some holes where the chiral [Z(bpy)3]2+ and ClO4- counterions are located. These compounds behave as soft ferromagnets with ordering temperatures up to 6.6 K and coercive fields up to 8 mT.

  10. Glassy behavior of diluted Cu-Zn ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhter, Shahida; Hakim, M. A.; Hoque, S. M.; Mathieu, R.; Nordblad, P.

    2018-04-01

    The magnetic behavior of Zn substituted Cu-Zn spinel ferrites having chemical formula Cu1-xZnxFe2O4 (x = 0.7, 0.8, 0.9 and 1.0) has been studied by SQUID magnetometry, by means of magnetic hysteresis, field-cooled (FC) and zero-field-cooled (ZFC) magnetization, memory effect and low field ac susceptibility measurements. These measurements suggest that the ferrimagnetic phase of the x ≤ 0.8 samples is gradually turned into a spin glass (x ≥ 0.9). The compound with x = 0.9 exhibits the typical dynamical behavior of spin glasses, with indication of aging, rejuvenation and memory effects. The evolution of the magnetic properties of Cu-Zn spinel ferrites with substitution of Zn for Cu is discussed.

  11. Growth Behavior of Intermetallic Compounds at SnAgCu/Ni and Cu Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Lihua; Huang, Jihua; Zhang, Hua; Zhao, Xingke; Wang, Haitao; Cheng, Donghai

    2010-02-01

    The growth behavior of reaction-formed intermetallic compounds (IMCs) at Sn3.5Ag0.5Cu/Ni and Cu interfaces under thermal-shear cycling conditions was investigated. The results show that the morphology of (Cu x Ni1- x )6Sn5 and Cu6Sn5 IMCs formed both at Sn3.5Ag0.5Cu/Ni and Cu interfaces gradually changed from scallop-like to chunk-like, and different IMC thicknesses developed with increasing thermal-shear cycling time. Furthermore, Cu6Sn5 IMC growth rate at the Sn3.5Ag0.5Cu/Cu interface was higher than that of (Cu x Ni1- x )6Sn5 IMC under thermal-shear cycling. Compared to isothermal aging, thermal-shear cycling led to only one Cu6Sn5 layer at the interface between SnAgCu solder and Cu substrate after 720 cycles. Moreover, Ag3Sn IMC was dispersed uniformly in the solder after reflow. The planar Ag3Sn formed near the interface changed remarkably and merged together to large platelets with increasing cycles. The mechanism of formation of Cu6Sn5, (Cu x Ni1- x )6Sn5 and Ag3Sn IMCs during thermal-shear cycling process was investigated.

  12. Behavioural and biochemical responses to metals tested alone or in mixture (Cd-Cu-Ni-Pb-Zn) in Gammarus fossarum: From a multi-biomarker approach to modelling metal mixture toxicity.

    PubMed

    Lebrun, Jérémie D; Uher, Emmanuelle; Fechner, Lise C

    2017-12-01

    Metals are usually present as mixtures at low concentrations in aquatic ecosystems. However, the toxicity and sub-lethal effects of metal mixtures on organisms are still poorly addressed in environmental risk assessment. Here we investigated the biochemical and behavioural responses of Gammarus fossarum to Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn tested individually or in mixture (M2X) at concentrations twice the levels of environmental quality standards (EQSs) from the European Water Framework Directive. The same metal mixture was also tested with concentrations equivalent to EQSs (M1X), thus in a regulatory context, as EQSs are proposed to protect aquatic biota. For each exposure condition, mortality, locomotion, respiration and enzymatic activities involved in digestive metabolism and moult were monitored over a 120h exposure period. Multi-metric variations were summarized by the integrated biomarker response index (IBR). Mono-metallic exposures shed light on biological alterations occurring at environmental exposure levels in gammarids and depending on the considered metal and gender. As regards mixtures, biomarkers were altered for both M2X and M1X. However, no additive or synergistic effect of metals was observed comparing to mono-metallic exposures. Indeed, bioaccumulation data highlighted competitive interactions between metals in M2X, decreasing subsequently their internalisation and toxicity. IBR values indicated that the health of gammarids was more impacted by M1X than M2X, because of reduced competitions and enhanced uptakes of metals for the mixture at lower, EQS-like concentrations. Models using bioconcentration data obtained from mono-metallic exposures generated successful predictions of global toxicity both for M1X and M2X. We conclude that sub-lethal effects of mixtures identified by the multi-biomarker approach can lead to disturbances in population dynamics of gammarids. Although IBR-based models offer promising lines of enquiry to predict metal mixture toxicity

  13. Systematic study of electronic and magnetic properties for Cu{sub 12–x}TM{sub x}Sb{sub 4}S{sub 13} (TM = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Zn) tetrahedrite

    SciT

    Suekuni, K., E-mail: ksuekuni@hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Tomizawa, Y.; Ozaki, T.

    2014-04-14

    Substitution effects of 3d transition metal (TM) impurities on electronic and magnetic properties for Cu{sub 12}Sb{sub 4}S{sub 13} tetrahedrite are investigated by the combination of low-temperature experiments and first-principles electronic-structure calculations. The electrical resistivity for the cubic phase of Cu{sub 12}Sb{sub 4}S{sub 13} exhibits metallic behavior due to an electron-deficient character of the compound. Whereas that for 0.5 ≤ x ≤ 2.0 of Cu{sub 12−x}Ni{sub x}Sb{sub 4}S{sub 13} exhibits semiconducting behavior. The substituted Ni for Cu is in the divalent ionic state with a spin magnetic moment and creates impurity bands just above the Fermi level at the top of the valence band. Therefore,more » the semiconducting behavior of the electrical resistivity is attributed to the thermal excitation of electrons from the valence band to the impurity band. The substitution effect of TM on the electronic structure and the valency of TM for Cu{sub 11.0}TM{sub 1.0}Sb{sub 4}S{sub 13} are systematically studied by the calculation. The substituted Mn, Fe, and Co for Cu are found to be in the ionic states with the spin magnetic moments due to the large exchange splitting of the 3d bands between the minority- and majority-spin states.« less

  14. Evidences for Cu and Zn Isotope Fractionation in Sediments and Particulate Suspended Matter of the Scheldt Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, J.; Mattielli, N.; de Jong, J.; Chou, L.

    2004-05-01

    Recent developments in MC-ICP-MS technology allow high precision measurements of heavy stable isotopes, such as Cu and Zn isotopes, which have been shown to undergo biotic or abiotic fractionation (1). Application of Zn isotopes to the study of aquatic ecosystems has already shown some interesting perspectives in their potential use as biogeochemical tracers in deep ocean carbonates (2) or Fe-Mn nodules (3). However, until now no investigation of possible Cu and Zn isotopic fractionation has been carried out within estuaries that are important pathways for hydrological and geochemical cycling of metals. Cu and Zn isotope geochemistry has been studied in sandy to loamy surface sediments (top 20 cm) and in suspended particulate matter (SPM) along a transect in a strong tidal estuary, the Scheldt estuary situated in Belgium and the Netherlands (November 2002). Further to separation of Cu, Fe and Zn by one step ion-exchange chromatography, Cu and Zn isotopic ratios are measured with a "Nu-Plasma" MC-ICP-MS. Instrumental mass bias is corrected using reference materials (Zn JMC, Cu NIST SRM 976 and Ga JMC standard) by simultaneous standard-sample bracketing and external normalization (500 ppb Zn doping for Cu isotopic analyses in static mode and 250 ppb Ga doping for Zn isotopic analyses in dynamic mode), together with a Ni correction. These methods lead to long-term reproducibility (2σ at 95 % confidence level) of ± 0.07 per mil for δ 66Zn (n=100 over 7 analysis sessions) and ± 0.06 per mil for δ 65Cu (n=120 over 8 analysis sessions) for 500 ppb of reference material. Average beam intensities are 6 V/ppm. Precise and reproducible results are obtained for concentration as low as 100 ppb for Cu and Zn. Expected Cu and Zn enrichment in SPM (120 ppm and 1200 ppm respectively) and sediments (being 6 to 10 times lower than SPM) in the upper estuary and progressive decrease in metal content by mixing downstream of the maximum turbidity zone (MTZ, around 5 psu) are

  15. Ni-P/Zn-Ni compositionally modulated multilayer coatings - Part 1: Electrodeposition and growth mechanism, composition, morphology, roughness and structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahadormanesh, Behrouz; Ghorbani, Mohammad

    2018-06-01

    The Ni-P/Zn-Ni compositionally modulated multilayer coatings CMMCs were electrodeposited from a single bath by switching the cathodic current density. The composition, surface morphology, roughness, layers growth pattern as well as the phase structure of deposits were extensively studied via SEM, EDS, AFM and XRD analysis. Effects of bath ingredients on the electrodeposition behavior were analyzed through cathodic linear sweep voltammetry. Although the concentration of Zn2+ in bath was 13 times higher than Ni2+, the Zn-Ni deposition potential was much nearer to Ni deposition potential rather than that of Zn. Addition of NaH2PO2 to the Ni deposition bath considerably raised the current density and shifted the crystallization potential of Ni to more nobble values. Codeposition of P with Zn-Ni alloy lead to crack formation in the monolayer that was deposited in 60 mA/cm2. However, the cracks were not observed in the Zn-Ni layers of multilayers. Zn-Ni layers in CMMCs exhibited a three-dimensional pattern of growth while that of Ni-P layers was two-dimensional. Also, the Ni-P deposits tends to fill the discontinuities in Zn-Ni layers and performed leveling properties and lowered the surface roughness of Zn-Ni layers and CMMCs. Structural analysis demonstrated that Ni-P layers were amorphous and the Zn-Ni layers exhibited crystallite phase of Zn11Ni2. Thus, the Ni-P/Zn-Ni CMMCs comprised of alternate layers of amorphous Ni-P and nanocrystalline Zn Ni.

  16. Effects of swift heavy ion irradiation on structural, optical and photocatalytic properties of ZnO–CuO nanocomposites prepared by carbothermal evaporation method

    PubMed Central

    Kuriakose, Sini; Avasthi, D K

    2015-01-01

    Summary ZnO–CuO nanocomposite thin films were prepared by carbothermal evaporation of ZnO and Cu, combined with annealing. The effects of 90 MeV Ni7+ ion irradiation on the structural and optical properties of ZnO–CuO nanocomposites were studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), UV–visible absorption spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. XRD studies showed the presence of ZnO and CuO nanostructures in the nanocomposites. FESEM images revealed the presence of nanosheets and nanorods in the nanocomposites. The photocatalytic activity of ZnO–CuO nanocomposites was evaluated on the basis of degradation of methylene blue (MB) and methyl orange (MO) dyes under sun light irradiation and it was observed that swift heavy ion irradiation results in significant enhancement in the photocatalytic efficiency of ZnO–CuO nanocomposites towards degradation of MB and MO dyes. The possible mechanism for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of ZnO–CuO nanocomposites is proposed. We attribute the observed enhanced photocatalytic activity of ZnO–CuO nanocomposites to the combined effects of improved sun light utilization and suppression of the recombination of photogenerated charge carriers in ZnO–CuO nanocomposites. PMID:25977864

  17. Synthesis, spectroscopic and DNA binding ability of CoII, NiII, CuII and ZnII complexes of Schiff base ligand (E)-1-(((1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)methylimino)methyl)naphthalen-2-ol. X-ray crystal structure determination of cobalt (II) complex.

    PubMed

    Yarkandi, Naeema H; El-Ghamry, Hoda A; Gaber, Mohamed

    2017-06-01

    A novel Schiff base ligand, (E)-1-(((1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)methylimino)methyl)naphthalen-2-ol (HL), has been designed and synthesized in addition to its metal chelates [Co(L) 2 ]·l2H 2 O, [Ni(L)Cl·(H 2 O) 2 ].5H 2 O, [Cu(L)Cl] and [Zn(L)(CH 3 COO)]. The structures of the isolated compounds have been confirmed and identified by means of different spectral and physicochemical techniques including CHN analysis, 1 H & 13 C NMR, mass spectral analysis, molar conductivity measurement, UV-Vis, infrared, magnetic moment in addition to TGA technique. The infrared spectral results ascertained that the ligand acts as monobasic tridentate binding to the metal centers via deprotonated hydroxyl oxygen, azomethine and imidazole nitrogen atoms. The UV-Vis, magnetic susceptibility and molar conductivity data implied octahedral geometry for Co(II) & Ni(II) complexes, tetrahedral for Zn(II) complex and square planar for Cu(II) complex. X-ray structural analysis of Co(II) complex 1 has been reported and discussed. Moreover, the type of interaction between the ligand & its complexes towards salmon sperm DNA (SS-DNA) has been examined by the measurement of absorption spectra and viscosity which confirmed that the ligand and its complexes interact with DNA via intercalation interaction as concluded from the values of binding constants (K b ). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cyclotron production of 61Cu using natural Zn & enriched 64Zn targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asad, A. H.; Smith, S. V.; Chan, S.; Jeffery, C. M.; Morandeau, L.; Price, R. I.

    2012-12-01

    Copper-61 (61Cu) shares with 64Cu certain advantages for PET diagnostic imaging, but has a shorter half-life (3.4hr vs. 12.7hr) and a greater probability of positron production per disintegration (61% vs. 17.9%). One important application is for in vivo imaging of hypoxic tissue. In this study 61Cu was produced using the 64Zn(p,α)61Cu reaction on natural Zn or enriched 64Zn targets. The enriched 64Zn (99.82%) was electroplated onto high purity gold or silver foils or onto thin Al discs. A typical target bombardment used 30μA; at 11.7, 14.5 or 17.6MeV over 30-60min. The 61Cu (radiochemical purity of >95%) was separated using a combination of cation and anion exchange columns. The 64Zn target material was recovered after each run, for re-use. In a direct comparison with enriched 64Zn-target results, 61Cu production using the cheaper natZn target proved to be an effective alternative.

  19. Corrosion and wear properties of Zn-Ni and Zn-Ni-Al2O3 multilayer electrodeposited coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shourgeshty, M.; Aliofkhazraei, M.; Karimzadeh, A.; Poursalehi, R.

    2017-09-01

    Zn-Ni and Zn-Ni-Al2O3 multilayer coatings with 32, 128, and 512 layers were electroplated on a low carbon steel substrate by pulse electrodeposition under alternative changes in the duty cycle between 20% and 90% and a constant frequency of 250 Hz. Corrosion behavior was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and wear behavior of the coatings was evaluated by a pin on disk test. The results showed that the corrosion resistance of coatings was improved by increasing the number of layers (the decrease in layer thickness) as well as the presence of alumina nanoparticles. The lowest corrosion current density corresponds to Zn-Ni-Al2O3 with 512 layers equal to 3.74 µA cm-2. Increasing the number of layers in the same total thickness and the presence of alumina nanoparticles within the coating also leads to the improvement in wear resistance of the samples. The coefficient of friction decreased with increasing number of layers and the lowest coefficient of friction (0.517) corresponds to Zn-Ni-Al2O3 coating with 512 layers. Wear mechanism of Zn-Ni coatings with a different number of layers is adhesive while in the Zn-Ni-Al2O3 coatings wear mechanism is a combination of adhesive and abrasive wear, where by increasing the number of the layers to 512 abrasive wear mechanism becomes dominant.

  20. Infrared spectroscopic study of SO₄²⁻ ions included in M'₂M''(SeO₄)₂⋅6H₂O (Me'=K, NH₄⁺; M''=Mg, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) and NH₄⁺ ions included in K₂M(XO₄)₂⋅6H₂O (X=S, Se; M''=Mg, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn).

    PubMed

    Marinova, D; Karadjova, V; Stoilova, D

    2015-01-05

    Infrared spectra of Tutton compounds, M'₂M''(SeO₄)₂⋅6H₂O (M'=K, NH₄⁺; M''=Mg, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn; X=S, Se), as well as those of SO₄²⁻ guest ions included in selenate host lattices and of NH4(+) guest ions included in potassium host lattices are presented and discussed in the regions of ν₃ and ν₁ of SO₄²⁻ guest ions, ν₄ of NH₄⁺ guest ions and water librations. The SO₄²⁻ guest ions matrix-isolated in selenate matrices (approximately 2 mol%) exhibit three bands corresponding to ν₃ and one band corresponding to ν₁ in good agreement with the low site symmetry C₁ of the host selenate ions. When the larger SO₄²⁻ ions are replaced by the smaller SO₄²⁻ ions the mean values of the asymmetric stretching modes ν₃ of the included SO₄²⁻ ions are slightly shifted to lower frequencies as compared to those of the same ions in the neat sulfate compounds due to the smaller repulsion potential of the selenate matrices (larger unit-cell volumes of the selenates). It has been established that the extent of energetic distortion of the sulfate ions matrix-isolated in the ammonium selenates as deduced from the values of Δν₃ and Δν₃/νc is stronger than that of the same ions matrix-isolated in the potassium selenates due to the formation of hydrogen bonds between the SO₄²⁻ guest ions with both the water molecules in the host compounds and the NH₄⁺ host ions (for example, Δν₃ of the sulfate guest ions have values of 30 and 51 cm(-1) in the nickel potassium and ammonium compounds, and 33 and 49 cm(-1) in the zinc potassium and ammonium compounds, respectively). The infrared spectra of ammonium doped potassium sulfate matrices show three bands corresponding to Δν₄ of the included ammonium ions in agreement with the low site symmetry C₁ of the host potassium ions. However, the inclusion of ammonium ions in selenate matrices (with exception of the magnesium compound) leads to the appearance of four bands

  1. Infrared spectroscopic study of SO42- ions included in M‧2M‧‧(SeO4)2ṡ6H2O (Me‧ = K, NH4+; M‧‧ = Mg, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) and NH4+ ions included in K2M(XO4)2ṡ6H2O (X = S, Se; M‧‧ = Mg, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinova, D.; Karadjova, V.; Stoilova, D.

    2015-01-01

    Infrared spectra of Tutton compounds, M‧2M‧‧(XO4)2ṡ6H2O (M‧ = K, NH4+; M‧‧ = Mg, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn; X = S, Se), as well as those of SO42- guest ions included in selenate host lattices and of NH4+ guest ions included in potassium host lattices are presented and discussed in the regions of ν3 and ν1 of SO42- guest ions, ν4 of NH4+ guest ions and water librations. The SO42- guest ions matrix-isolated in selenate matrices (approximately 2 mol%) exhibit three bands corresponding to ν3 and one band corresponding to ν1 in good agreement with the low site symmetry C1 of the host selenate ions. When the larger SeO42- ions are replaced by the smaller SO42- ions the mean values of the asymmetric stretching modes νbar3 of the included SO42- ions are slightly shifted to lower frequencies as compared to those of the same ions in the neat sulfate compounds due to the smaller repulsion potential of the selenate matrices (larger unit-cell volumes of the selenates). It has been established that the extent of energetic distortion of the sulfate ions matrix-isolated in the ammonium selenates as deduced from the values of Δν3 and Δν3/νc is stronger than that of the same ions matrix-isolated in the potassium selenates due to the formation of hydrogen bonds between the SO42- guest ions with both the water molecules in the host compounds and the NH4+ host ions (for example, Δν3 of the sulfate guest ions have values of 30 and 51 cm-1 in the nickel potassium and ammonium compounds, and 33 and 49 cm-1 in the zinc potassium and ammonium compounds, respectively). The infrared spectra of ammonium doped potassium sulfate matrices show three bands corresponding to Δν4 of the included ammonium ions in agreement with the low site symmetry C1 of the host potassium ions. However, the inclusion of ammonium ions in selenate matrices (with exception of the magnesium compound) leads to the appearance of four bands in the region of ν4. At that stage of our knowledge we assume

  2. Understanding the Cu-Zn brass alloys using a short-range-order cluster model: significance of specific compositions of industrial alloys

    PubMed Central

    Hong, H. L.; Wang, Q.; Dong, C.; Liaw, Peter K.

    2014-01-01

    Metallic alloys show complex chemistries that are not yet understood so far. It has been widely accepted that behind the composition selection lies a short-range-order mechanism for solid solutions. The present paper addresses this fundamental question by examining the face-centered-cubic Cu-Zn α-brasses. A new structural approach, the cluster-plus-glue-atom model, is introduced, which suits specifically for the description of short-range-order structures in disordered systems. Two types of formulas are pointed out, [Zn-Cu12]Zn1~6 and [Zn-Cu12](Zn,Cu)6, which explain the α-brasses listed in the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) specifications. In these formulas, the bracketed parts represent the 1st-neighbor cluster, and each cluster is matched with one to six 2nd-neighbor Zn atoms or with six mixed (Zn,Cu) atoms. Such a cluster-based formulism describes the 1st- and 2nd-neighbor local atomic units where the solute and solvent interactions are ideally satisfied. The Cu-Ni industrial alloys are also explained, thus proving the universality of the cluster-formula approach in understanding the alloy selections. The revelation of the composition formulas for the Cu-(Zn,Ni) industrial alloys points to the common existence of simple composition rules behind seemingly complex chemistries of industrial alloys, thus offering a fundamental and practical method towards composition interpretations of all kinds of alloys. PMID:25399835

  3. Interaction of intermetallic compound formation in Cu/SnAgCu/NiAu sandwich solder joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yanghua; Lu, Chuanyan; Chang, Junling; Xie, Xiaoming

    2006-05-01

    The interaction between Cu/solder interface and solder/Ni interface at a Cu/SnAgCu/NiAu sandwich solder joint with various surface finishes and solder heights was investigated. The interfacial microstructure and composition of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) were characterized by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The phase structure of IMC was identified by x-ray diffraction (XRD). It is found that ternary (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 IMCs form at both interfaces. The composition, thickness, and morphology of the ternary IMCs depend not only on the interface itself, but also on the opposite interface. That is to say, strong coupling effects exist between the two interfaces. Lattice parameters of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 shrink with increasing Ni content, in agreement with Vegard’s law. The mechanism of ternary IMC formation and interface coupling effects are discussed in this paper.

  4. Cyclotron production of {sup 61}Cu using natural Zn and enriched {sup 64}Zn targets

    SciT

    Asad, A. H.; Smith, S. V.; Chan, S.

    2012-12-19

    Copper-61 ({sup 61}Cu) shares with {sup 64}Cu certain advantages for PET diagnostic imaging, but has a shorter half-life (3.4hr vs. 12.7hr) and a greater probability of positron production per disintegration (61% vs. 17.9%). One important application is for in vivo imaging of hypoxic tissue. In this study {sup 61}Cu was produced using the {sup 64}Zn(p,{alpha}){sup 61}Cu reaction on natural Zn or enriched {sup 64}Zn targets. The enriched {sup 64}Zn (99.82%) was electroplated onto high purity gold or silver foils or onto thin Al discs. A typical target bombardment used 30{mu}A; at 11.7, 14.5 or 17.6MeV over 30-60min. The {sup 61}Cumore » (radiochemical purity of >95%) was separated using a combination of cation and anion exchange columns. The {sup 64}Zn target material was recovered after each run, for re-use. In a direct comparison with enriched {sup 64}Zn-target results, {sup 61}Cu production using the cheaper {sup nat}Zn target proved to be an effective alternative.« less

  5. Ni(ii)/Cu(ii)/Zn(ii) 5,5-diethylbarbiturate complexes with 1,10-phenanthroline and 2,2'-dipyridylamine: synthesis, structures, DNA/BSA binding, nuclease activity, molecular docking, cellular uptake, cytotoxicity and the mode of cell death.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Veysel T; Icsel, Ceyda; Suyunova, Feruza; Aygun, Muhittin; Aztopal, Nazlihan; Ulukaya, Engin

    2016-06-21

    New 5,5-diethylbarbiturate (barb) complexes of Ni(ii), Cu(ii) and Zn(ii) with 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and 2,2'-dipyridylamine (dpya), namely [Ni(phen-κN,N')3]Cl(barb)·7H2O (), [Cu(barb-κN)(barb-κ(2)N,O)(phen-κN,N')]·H2O (), [Cu(barb-κN)2(phen-κN,N')] (), [Zn(barb-κN)2(phen-κN,N')]·H2O (), [Ni(barb-κ(2)N,O)(dpya-κN,N')2]Cl·2H2O (), [Cu(barb-κ(2)N,O)2(dpya-κN,N')]·2H2O () and [Zn(barb-κN)2(dpya-κN,N')] (), were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, UV-vis, FT-IR and ESI-MS. The structures of the complexes were determined by X-ray crystallography. Notably, and were fluorescent in MeOH : H2O at rt. The interaction of the complexes with fish sperm (FS) DNA and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated in detail by various techniques. The complexes exhibited groove binding along with a partial intercalative interaction with DNA, while the hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions played a major role in binding to BSA. It is noteworthy that exhibited the highest affinity towards DNA and BSA. Enzyme inhibition assay showed that show a preference for both A/T and G/C rich sequences in pUC19 DNA, while and display a binding specificity to the G/C and A/T rich regions, respectively. These findings were further supported by molecular docking. The cellular uptake studies suggested that was deposited mostly in the membrane fraction of the cells. Among the present complexes, exhibited a very strong cytotoxic effect on A549, MCF-7, HT-29 and DU-145 cancer cells, being more potent than cisplatin. Moreover, induces cell death through the apoptotic mode obtained by flow cytometry.

  6. Physical Characterization of Cu-Ni-P Thin Films aiming at Cu/Cu-Ni-P Thermocouples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomachevski, F.; Sparvoli, M.; dos Santos Filho, S. G.

    2015-03-01

    Cu-Ni-P thin films have a high-thermoelectric power, which allows the fabrication of very sensitive heat-flux sensors based on planar technology. In this work, (100) silicon surfaces were pre-activated in a diluted hydrofluoric acid solution containing PdCl2. Following, Cu-Ni-P thin films were chemically deposited using an alkaline chemical bath containing 15 g/l NiSO4.6H2O; 0.2 g/l CuSO4.5H2O; 15 g/l Na2HPO2.H2O and 60 g/l Na3C6H5O7.2H2O at temperature of 80 °C where NH4OH was added until pH was 8.0. It was noteworthy that the stoichiometric percentages of Ni and Cu vary substantially for immersion times in the range of 1 to 3 min and they become almost stable at 50% and 35%, respectively, when the immersion time is higher than 3 min. In addition, the percentage of P remains almost constant around 1718 % for all the immersion times studied. On the other hand, the sheet resistance also varies substantially for immersion times in the range of 1 to 3 min. Based on the surface morphology, smaller grains with size in the range of 0.02 to 0.1 μm are initially grown on the silicon surface and exposed regions of silicon without deposits are also observed for immersion times in the range of 1 to 3min. Therefore, the discontinuities and non uniformities of the films are promoting, respectively, the observed behaviours of sheet resistance and stoichiometry.

  7. Antibacterial activity of trimetal (CuZnFe) oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Alzahrani, Khalid E; Niazy, Abdurahman A; Alswieleh, Abdullah M; Wahab, Rizwan; El-Toni, Ahmed M; Alghamdi, Hamdan S

    2018-01-01

    The increasing resistance of pathogenic bacteria to antibiotics is a challenging worldwide health problem that has led to the search for new and more efficient antibacterial agents. Nanotechnology has proven to be an effective tool for the fight against bacteria. In this paper, we present the synthesis and traits of trimetal (CuZnFe) oxide nanoparticles (NPs) using X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. We evaluated the antibacterial activity of these NPs against gram-negative Escherichia coli and gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis and then compared it to that of their pure single-metal oxide components CuO and ZnO. Our study showed that the antibacterial activity of the trimetal oxide NPs was greater against E . coli than against E . faecalis . Overall, the antimicrobial effect of trimetal NPs is between those of pure ZnO and CuO nanoparticles, which may mean that their cytotoxicity is also between that of pure ZnO and CuO NPs, making them potential antibiotics. However, the cytotoxicity of trimetal NPs to mammalian cells needs to be verified. The combination of three metal oxide NPs (ZnO, CuO, and Fe 2 O 3 ) in one multimetal (CuZnFe) oxide NPs will enhance the therapeutic strategy against a wide range of microbial infections. Bacteria are unlikely to develop resistance against this new NP because bacteria must go through a series of mutations to become resistant to the trimetal oxide NP. Therefore, this NP can combat existing and emerging bacterial infections.

  8. Solvothermal synthesis, characterization and optical properties of ZnO, ZnO-MgO and ZnO-NiO, mixed oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslani, Alireza; Arefi, Mohammad Reza; Babapoor, Aziz; Amiri, Asghar; Beyki-Shuraki, Khalil

    2011-03-01

    ZnO-MgO and ZnO-NiO mixed oxides nanoparticles were produced from a solution containing Zinc acetate, Mg and Ni nitrate by Solvothermal method. The calcination process of the ZnO-MgO and ZnO-NiO composites nanoparticles brought forth polycrystalline two-phase ZnO-MgO and ZnO-NiO nanoparticles of 40-80 nm in diameters. ZnO, MgO and NiO were crystallized into würtzite and rock salt structures, respectively. The optical properties of ZnO-MgO and ZnO-NiO nanoparticles were obtained by solid state UV and solid state florescent. The XRD, SEM and Raman spectroscopies of these nanoparticles were analyzed.

  9. Facile synthesis of Cu/tetrapod-like ZnO whisker compounds with enhanced photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong; Liu, Huarong; Fan, Ximei

    2017-09-01

    Cu/tetrapod-like ZnO whisker (T-ZnOw) compounds were successfully synthesized using N2H4 \\cdot H2O as a reducing agent by a simple reduction method without any insert gas at room temperature. The crystal phase composition and morphology of the as-prepared samples were investigated by XRD, SEM and FESEM tests. The photocatalytic property of the as-prepared samples was detected by the degradation of methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution under UV irradiation. It can be found that Cu nanoparticles (CuNPs) dispersed on the surface of T-ZnOw increased with the increasing of Cu/Zn molar ratios (Cu/Zn MRs), and an octahedral structure of CuNPs was obtained when the sample was prepared with less than and equal to 7.30% Cu/Zn MR, but tended to a spherical or nanorod structure of CuNPs densely arranged on the surface of T-ZnOw, which is prepared by Cu/Zn MRs up to 22.00%. All the compounds exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity in decomposing of MO than T-ZnOw, the photocatalytic property of the samples increased with the increasing of Cu/Zn MRs up to 7.30%, while it decreases when further increasing the Cu/Zn MRs. The Schottky barrier of the Cu/T-ZnOw compound can effectively capture photoinduced electrons from the interface and enhanced the photocatalytic property of T-ZnOw.

  10. Abundant defects and defect clusters in kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shiyou; Wang, Lin-Wang; Walsh, Aron; Gong, Xin-Gao; Wei, Su-Huai

    2013-03-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4 are drawing intensive attention as the light-absorber materials in thin-film solar cells. A large variety of intrinsic defects can be formed in these quaternary semiconductors, which have important influence on their optical and electrical properties, and hence their photovoltaic performance. We will present our first-principles calculation study on a series of intrinsic defects and defect clusters in Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4, and discuss: (i) strong phase-competition between the kesterites and the coexisting secondary compounds; (ii) the dominant CuZn antisites and Cu vacancies which determine the intrinsic p-type conductivity, and their dependence on the elemental ratios; (iii) the high population of charge-compensated defect clusters (like VCu + ZnCu and 2CuZn + SnZn) and their contribution to non-stoichiometry ; (iv) the deep-level defects which act as recombination centers. Based on the calculation, we will explain the experimental observation that Cu poor and Zn rich conditions give the highest solar cell efficiency, as well as suggesting an efficiency limitation in Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 cells with high S composition. Supported by NSF of China, JCAP: a U.S. DOE Energy Innovation Hub, Royal Society of U.K. and EPSRC, and U.S. DOE.

  11. Modified Ni-Cu catalysts for ethanol steam reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, M.; Mihet, M.; Almasan, V.; Borodi, G.; Katona, G.; Muresan, L.; Lazar, M. D.

    2013-11-01

    Three Ni-Cu catalysts, having different Cu content, supported on γ-alumina were synthesized by wet co-impregnation method, characterized and tested in the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction. The catalysts were characterized for determination of: total surface area and porosity (N2 adsorption - desorption using BET and Dollimer Heal methods), Ni surface area (hydrogen chemisorption), crystallinity and Ni crystallites size (X-Ray Diffraction), type of catalytic active centers (Hydrogen Temperature Programmed Reduction). Total surface area and Ni crystallites size are not significantly influenced by the addition of Cu, while Ni surface area is drastically diminished by increasing of Cu concentration. Steam reforming experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure, temperature range 150-350°C, and ethanol - water molar ration of 1 at 30, using Ar as carrier gas. Ethanol conversion and hydrogen production increase by the addition of Cu. At 350°C there is a direct connection between hydrogen production and Cu concentration. Catalysts deactivation in 24h time on stream was studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) on used catalysts. Coke deposition was observed at all studied temperatures; at 150°C amorphous carbon was evidenced, while at 350°C crystalline, filamentous carbon is formed.

  12. Tuning the emission of aqueous Cu:ZnSe quantum dots to yellow light window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunlei; Hu, Zhiyang; Xu, Shuhong; Wang, Yanbin; Zhao, Zengxia; Wang, Zhuyuan; Cui, Yiping

    2015-07-01

    Synthesis of internally doped Cu:ZnSe QDs in an aqueous solution still suffers from narrow tunable emissions from the blue to green light window. In this work, we extended the emission window of aqueous Cu:ZnSe QDs to the yellow light window. Our results show that high solution pH, multiple injections of Zn precursors, and nucleation doping strategy are three key factors for preparing yellow emitted Cu:ZnSe QDs. All these factors can depress the reactivity of CuSe nuclei and Zn monomers, promoting ZnSe growth outside CuSe nuclei rather than form ZnSe nuclei separately. With increased ZnSe QD size, the conduction band and nearby trap state energy levels shift to higher energy sites, causing Cu:ZnSe QDs to have a much longer emission.

  13. Outstanding features of Cu-doped ZnS nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawfik, Wael Z.; Farghali, A. A.; Moneim, Ahmed; Imam, N. G.; El-Dek, S. I.

    2018-05-01

    ZnS and their Cu-doped nanoclusters (NCs) were synthesized successfully using the wet chemical route with different Cu content. The crystalline structure was investigated using x-ray powder diffraction which assured the single-phase formation in cubic symmetry. High-resolution transmission electron microscope indicated the microstructure of NCs with a size ranging from 2–4 nm. A butterfly hysteresis (M-H) loop was observed at room temperature with large values of coercivity for the Cu content of x = 0.05. Photoluminescence emission spectra were recorded from 500–615 nm for pure and Cu-doped ZnS NCs at a 350 nm excitation wavelength. The sample exhibited green fluorescence bands peaking at 535, 544, 552.5, 558.2, and 560.6 nm, which confirmed the characteristic feature of Zn2+ as luminescent centers in the lattice. The additional yellow and orange emissions are due to defect levels or/and impurity centers. The dielectric constant as well as the conductivity values increased with increasing Cu content.

  14. Geologic cross sections showing the concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn in acid-insoluble residues of Paleozoic rocks within the Doniphan/Eleven Point Ranger District of the Mark Twain National Forest, Missouri, USA

    Lee, Lopaka; Goldhaber, Martin B.

    2002-01-01

    This report is a product of a U.S. Geological Survey investigation that is focused on characterizing the potential environmental impacts of lead-zinc mining within the Doniphan/Eleven Point ranger district of the Mark Twain national forest. The elemental concentrations of iron (Fe), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in acidinsoluble residues are shown for boreholes along two geologic cross sections within Doniphan/Elevan Point ranger district (Figure 1). The purpose of this report is to characterize, in a general sense, the distribution of economically and environmentally important elements within the rocks and aquifers of the Doniphan/Eleven Point ranger district

  15. Mass attenuation coefficients in the range 3.8⩽E⩽11 keV, K fluorescence yield and Kβ/Kα relative X-ray emission rate for Ti, V, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn measured with a tunable monochromatic X-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ménesguen, Y.; Lépy, M.-C.

    2010-08-01

    This work presents new measurements of mass attenuation coefficients in the range 3.8⩽E⩽11 keV, K-absorption jump-ratios, Kα and Kβ fluorescence yields for Ti, V, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn. We use the experimental facility SOLEX, a tunable monochromatic X-ray source combined with an energy-dispersive high-purity germanium detector. The results are compared with theoretical values as well as with other experimental data and show a relatively good agreement. However, the derived K-jump-ratios appear larger than those widely used in the XCOM database. The Kα and Kβ fluorescence yields and the corresponding relative emission rates Kβ/Kα are also derived, which was made possible by the use of energy-dispersive detectors with good spectral resolution.

  16. First-principles study of defect formation in a photovoltaic semiconductor Cu2ZnGeSe4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishihara, Hironori; Maeda, Tsuyoshi; Wada, Takahiro

    2018-02-01

    The formation energies of neutral Cu, Zn, Ge, and Se vacancies in kesterite-type Cu2ZnGeSe4 were evaluated by first-principles pseudopotential calculations using plane-wave basis functions. The calculations were performed at typical points in Cu-(Zn1/2Ge1/2)-Se and Cu3Se2-ZnSe-GeSe2 pseudoternary phase diagrams for Cu2ZnGeSe4. The results were compared with those for Cu2ZnSnSe4, Cu2ZnGeS4, and Cu2ZnSnS4 calculated using the same version of the CASTEP program code. The results indicate that Cu vacancies are easily formed in Cu2ZnGeSe4 under the Cu-poor condition as in the above compounds and CuInSe2, suggesting that Cu2ZnGeSe4 is also a preferable p-type absorber material for thin-film solar cells. The formation energies of possible antisite defects, such as CuZn and CuGe, and of possible complex defects, such as CuZn+ZnCu, were also calculated and compared within the above materials. The antisite defect of CuZn, which has the smallest formation energy within the possible defects, is concluded to be the most hardly formed in Cu2ZnGeSe4 among the compounds.

  17. β-Decay Half-Lives of Co76,77, Ni79,80, and Cu81: Experimental Indication of a Doubly Magic Ni78

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Z. Y.; Nishimura, S.; Lorusso, G.; Browne, F.; Doornenbal, P.; Gey, G.; Jung, H.-S.; Li, Z.; Niikura, M.; Söderström, P.-A.; Sumikama, T.; Taprogge, J.; Vajta, Zs.; Watanabe, H.; Wu, J.; Yagi, A.; Yoshinaga, K.; Baba, H.; Franchoo, S.; Isobe, T.; John, P. R.; Kojouharov, I.; Kubono, S.; Kurz, N.; Matea, I.; Matsui, K.; Mengoni, D.; Morfouace, P.; Napoli, D. R.; Naqvi, F.; Nishibata, H.; Odahara, A.; Şahin, E.; Sakurai, H.; Schaffner, H.; Stefan, I. G.; Suzuki, D.; Taniuchi, R.; Werner, V.

    2014-07-01

    The half-lives of 20 neutron-rich nuclei with Z =27-30 have been measured at the RIBF, including five new half-lives of Co76(21.7-4.9+6.5 ms), Co77(13.0-4.3+7.2 ms), Ni79(43.0-7.5+8.6 ms), Ni80(23.9-17.2+26.0 ms), and Cu81(73.2±6.8 ms). In addition, the half-lives of Co73-75, Ni74-78, Cu78-80, and Zn80-82 were determined with higher precision than previous works. Based on these new results, a systematic study of the β-decay half-lives has been carried out, which suggests a sizable magicity for both the proton number Z =28 and the neutron number N=50 in Ni78.

  18. Simultaneous adsorption and degradation of Zn(2+) and Cu (2+) from wastewaters using nanoscale zero-valent iron impregnated with clays.

    PubMed

    Shi, Li-Na; Zhou, Yan; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2013-06-01

    Clays such as kaolin, bentonite and zeolite were evaluated as support material for nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) to simultaneously remove Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) from aqueous solution. Of the three supported nZVIs, bentonite-supported nZVI (B-nZVI) was most effective in the simultaneous removal of Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) from a aqueous solution containing a 100 mg/l of Cu(2+) and Zn(2+), where 92.9 % Cu(2+) and 58.3 % Zn(2+) were removed. Scanning electronic microscope (SEM) revealed that the aggregation of nZVI decreased as the proportion of bentonite increased due to the good dispersion of nZVI, while energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) demonstrated the deposition of copper and zinc on B-nZVI after B-nZVI reacted with Cu(2+) and Zn(2+). A kinetics study indicated that removing Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) with B-nZVI accorded with the pseudo first-order model. These suggest that simultaneous adsorption of Cu(2+)and Zn(2+) on bentonite and the degradation of Cu(2+)and Zn(2+) by nZVI on the bentonite. However, Cu(2+) removal by B-nZVI was reduced rather than adsorption, while Zn(2+) removal was main adsorption. Finally, Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Ni(2+), Pb(2+) and total Cr from various wastewaters were removed by B-nZVI, and reusability of B-nZVI with different treatment was tested, which demonstrates that B-nZVI is a potential material for the removal of heavy metals from wastewaters.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamgadge, Y. S.; Gedam, P. P.; Ganorkar, R. P.; Mahure, M. A.; Pahurkar, V. G.; Muley, G. G.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we present synthesis of L-valine assisted surface modification of Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) using chemical precipitation method. Samples were calcined at 500oC for 2h. Uncalcined and calcined samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy. Ni doped ZnO NPs with average particle size of 8 nm have been successfully obtained using L-valine as surface modifying agent. Increase in the particle size was observed after the calcination. XRD and TEM studies confirmed the purity, surface morphology and hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure of ZnO NPs. UV-vis spectroscopy indicated the blue shift of excitons absorption wavelength and surface modification by L-valine.

  20. Effects of limited cu supply on soldering reactions between SnAgCu and Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, C. E.; Lin, Y. W.; Yang, S. C.; Kao, C. R.; Jiang, D. S.

    2006-05-01

    The volume difference between the various types of solder joints in electronic devices can be enormous. For example, the volume difference between a 760-µm ball grid array solder joint and a 75-µm flip-chip solder joint is as high as 1000 times. Such a big difference in volume produces a pronounced solder volume effect. This volume effect on the soldering reactions between the Sn3AgxCu (x=0.4, 0.5, or 0.6 wt.%) solders and Ni was investigated. Three different sizes of solder spheres (300, 500, and 760 µm in diameter) were soldered onto Ni soldering pads. Both the Cu concentration and the solder volume had a strong effect on the type of the reaction products formed. In addition, (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 massively spalled from the interface under certain conditions, including smaller joints and those with lower Cu concentration. We attributed the massive spalling of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 to the decrease of the available Cu in the solders. The results of this study suggest that Cu-rich SnAgCu solders can be used to prevent this massive spalling.

  1. Interfacial Phenomena in Al/Al, Al/Cu, and Cu/Cu Joints Soldered Using an Al-Zn Alloy with Ag or Cu Additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pstruś, Janusz; Gancarz, Tomasz

    2014-05-01

    The studies of soldered joints were carried out in systems: Al/solder/Al, Al/solder/Cu, Cu/solder/Cu, where the solder was (Al-Zn)EUT, (Al-Zn)EUT with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 at.% of Ag and (Al-Zn)EUT with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 at.% of Cu addition. Brazing was performed at 500 °C for 3 min. The EDS analysis indicated that the composition of the layers starting from the Cu pad was CuZn, Cu5Zn8, and CuZn4, respectively. Wetting tests were performed at 500 °C for 3, 8, 15, and 30 min, respectively. Thickness of the layers and their kinetics of growth were measured based on the SEM micrographs. The formation of interlayers was not observed from the side of Al pads. On the contrary, dissolution of the Al substrate and migration of Al-rich particles into the bulk of the solder were observed.

  2. Electron paramagnetic resonance in Cu-doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchheit, R.; Acosta-Humánez, F.; Almanza, O.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, ZnO and Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles (Zn1-xCuxO, x = 3%), with a calcination temperature of 500∘C were synthesized using the sol-gel method. The particles were analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) at X-band, measurement in a temperature range from 90 K to room temperature. AAS confirmed a good correspondence between the experimental doping concentration and the theoretical value. XRD reveals the presence of ZnO phase in hexagonal wurtzite structure and a nanoparticle size for the samples synthesized. EPR spectroscopy shows the presence of point defects in both samples with g-values of g = 1.959 for shallow donors and g = 2.004 for ionized vacancies. It is important when these materials are required have been used as catalysts, as suggested that it is not necessary prepare them at higher temperature. A simulation of the Cu EPR signal using an anisotropic spin Hamiltonian was performed and showed good coincidence with the experimental spectra. It was shown that Cu2+ ions enter interstitial octahedral sites of orthorhombic symmetry in the wurtzite crystal structure. Temperature dependence of the EPR linewidth and signal intensity shows a paramagnetic behavior of the sample in the measurement range. A Néel temperature TN = 78 ± 19 K was determined.

  3. Novel dimeric interface and electrostatic recognition in bacterial Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Yves; Redford, Susan M.; Steinman, Howard M.; Lepock, James R.; Tainer, John A.; Getzoff, Elizabeth D.

    1996-01-01

    Eukaryotic Cu,Zn superoxide dismutases (CuZnSODs) are antioxidant enzymes remarkable for their unusually stable β-barrel fold and dimer assembly, diffusion-limited catalysis, and electrostatic guidance of their free radical substrate. Point mutations of CuZnSOD cause the fatal human neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We determined and analyzed the first crystallographic structure (to our knowledge) for CuZnSOD from a prokaryote, Photobacterium leiognathi, a luminescent symbiont of Leiognathid fish. This structure, exemplifying prokaryotic CuZnSODs, shares the active-site ligand geometry and the topology of the Greek key β-barrel common to the eukaryotic CuZnSODs. However, the β-barrel elements recruited to form the dimer interface, the strategy used to forge the channel for electrostatic recognition of superoxide radical, and the connectivity of the intrasubunit disulfide bond in P. leiognathi CuZnSOD are discrete and strikingly dissimilar from those highly conserved in eukaryotic CuZnSODs. This new CuZnSOD structure broadens our understanding of structural features necessary and sufficient for CuZnSOD activity, highlights a hitherto unrecognized adaptability of the Greek key β-barrel building block in evolution, and reveals that prokaryotic and eukaryotic enzymes diverged from one primordial CuZnSOD and then converged to distinct dimeric enzymes with electrostatic substrate guidance. PMID:8917495

  4. Ti(Ni,Cu) pseudobinary compounds as efficient negative electrodes for Ni-MH batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emami, Hoda; Cuevas, Fermin; Latroche, Michel

    2014-11-01

    The effect of Ni by Cu substitution on the structural, solid-gas and electrochemical hydrogenation properties of TiNi has been investigated. Pseudo-binary TiNi1-xCux (x ≤ 0.5) compounds have been synthesized by induction melting. They crystallize in B2 structure above 350 K and either in B19‧ (x < 0.1) or B19 (0.2 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) at room temperature (RT). For all compounds, Pressure-Composition Isotherms at 423 K exhibit a single slopping plateau pressure within the range 10-3-1 MPa of hydrogen pressure revealing a metal to hydride transformation. Both the hydrogenation capacity and the hydride stability decrease with Cu-content. The hydrided pseudobinary compounds crystallize in the tetragonal S.G. I4/mmm structure as for TiNi hydride. The electrochemical discharge capacity increases with Cu content from 150 mAh g-1 for TiNi up to 300 mAh g-1 for TiNi0.8Cu0.2 and then decreases again for larger Cu amounts. Electrochemical isotherms and in-situ neutron diffraction measurements at RT demonstrate that such a capacity increase results from a metal to hydride phase transformation in which the hydride phase is destabilized by Cu substitution. The TiNi0.8Cu0.2 compound exhibits interesting cycling stability for 30 cycles and good high-rate capability at D/2 rate. This compound has promising electrochemical properties as compared to commercial LaNi5-type alloys with the advantage of being rare-earth metal free.

  5. Structure of Cu/Ni Nanowires Obtained by Matrix Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhigalina, O. M.; Doludenko, I. M.; Khmelenin, D. N.; Zagorskiy, D. L.; Bedin, S. A.; Ivanov, I. M.

    2018-05-01

    The structure of layered Cu/Ni nanowires obtained by template synthesis in 100-nm channels of track membranes has been investigated by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The phase composition and main structural features of individual nanowires are determined. It is shown that nanowires consist of alternating Ni ( Fm3m) and Cu ( Fm3m) layers with grains up to 100 nm in size. It is found that nanowires contain also copper oxide crystallites up to 20 nm in size. The elemental composition of individual layers and their mutual arrangement are determined.

  6. High Pressure Properties of a Ba-Cu-Zn-P Clathrate-I

    DOE PAGES

    Dolyniuk, Juli -Anna; Kovnir, Kirill

    2016-08-12

    Here, the high pressure properties of the novel tetrel-free clathrate, Ba 8Cu 13.1Zn 3.3P 29.6, were investigated using synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction. The pressure was applied using a diamond anvil cell. No structural transitions or decomposition were detected in the studied pressure range of 0.1–7 GPa. The calculated bulk modulus for Ba 8Cu 13.1Zn 3.3P 29.6 using a third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state is 65(6) GPa at 300 K. This bulk modulus is comparable to the bulk moduli of Ge- and Sn-based clathrates, like A 8Ga 16Ge 30 (A = Sr, Ba) and Sn 19.3Cu 4.7P 22I 8, but lowermore » than those for the transition metal-containing silicon-based clathrates, Ba 8 T xSi46–x, T = Ni, Cu; 3 ≤ x ≤ 5.« less

  7. Active sites for CO 2 hydrogenation to methanol on Cu/ZnO catalysts

    SciT

    Kattel, Shyam; Ramírez, Pedro J.; Chen, Jingguang G.

    The active sites over commercial copper/zinc oxide/aluminum oxide (Cu/ZnO/Al 2O 3) catalysts for carbon dioxide (CO 2) hydrogenation to methanol, the Zn-Cu bimetallic sites or ZnO-Cu interfacial sites, have recently been the subject of intense debate. Here, we report a direct comparison between the activity of ZnCu and ZnO/Cu model catalysts for methanol synthesis. By combining x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, density functional theory, and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, we can identify and characterize the reactivity of each catalyst. Both experimental and theoretical results agree that ZnCu undergoes surface oxidation under the reaction conditions so that surface Zn transforms into ZnO andmore » allows ZnCu to reach the activity of ZnO/Cu with the same Zn coverage. These results highlight a synergy of Cu and ZnO at the interface that facilitates methanol synthesis via formate intermediates.« less

  8. Active sites for CO 2 hydrogenation to methanol on Cu/ZnO catalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Kattel, Shyam; Ramírez, Pedro J.; Chen, Jingguang G.; ...

    2017-03-23

    The active sites over commercial copper/zinc oxide/aluminum oxide (Cu/ZnO/Al 2O 3) catalysts for carbon dioxide (CO 2) hydrogenation to methanol, the Zn-Cu bimetallic sites or ZnO-Cu interfacial sites, have recently been the subject of intense debate. Here, we report a direct comparison between the activity of ZnCu and ZnO/Cu model catalysts for methanol synthesis. By combining x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, density functional theory, and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, we can identify and characterize the reactivity of each catalyst. Both experimental and theoretical results agree that ZnCu undergoes surface oxidation under the reaction conditions so that surface Zn transforms into ZnO andmore » allows ZnCu to reach the activity of ZnO/Cu with the same Zn coverage. These results highlight a synergy of Cu and ZnO at the interface that facilitates methanol synthesis via formate intermediates.« less

  9. A secondary, coplanar design Ni/MCM-41/Zn microbattery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meskon, S. R.; Othman, R.; Ani, M. H.

    2018-01-01

    A secondary Ni/Zn microbattery (∼200 µm thick) has been developed in a coplanar electrode configuration. The cell is essentially of a circular shape (∼30 mm in diameter) consisting of a fine circular ring (cathode) and a circle (anode) split apart (~800 µm). Unlike the stacking cell architecture, coplanar configuration offers simple design, ease of fabrication and eventually cost saving. The use of MCM-41 mesoporous silica as the membrane separator cum electrolyte reservoir enables the successful implementation of coplanar configuration. The fabrication of Ni/Zn microbattery first begins with electrodeposition of zinc (Zn) and nickel hydroxide (Ni(OH)2) thin films onto patterned FR4 printed circuit board, followed by deposition of zinc oxide (ZnO) slurry onto the zinc active layer, and finally ends by multiple drop-coating procedures of MCM-41 from its precursor solution at ambient temperature. Once a potassium hydroxide (6 M KOH)/MCM-41 electrolyte-separator mixture is incorporated, the cell is sealed with an acrylic sheet and epoxy adhesive. The fabricated microbatteries were capable to sustain around 130 deep charge-discharge cycles. When rated at 0.1 mA, the energy density of the microbattery was around 3.82 Wh l-1 which is suitable for low rate applications and storage for micro energy harvesters such as piezoelectric generators.

  10. Cryoprotective role of organic Zn and Cu supplementation in goats (Capra hircus) diet.

    PubMed

    Arangasamy, Arunachalam; Krishnaiah, Mayasula Venkata; Manohar, Narasimhaiah; Selvaraju, Sellappan; Rani, Guvvala Pushpa; Soren, Nira Manik; Reddy, Ippala Janardhan; Ravindra, Janivara Parameshwaraiah

    2018-04-01

    The current study focused on cryopreservation and assessment of characters of post-thaw semen of indigenous Osmanabadi bucks maintained with standard diet, supplemented with different concentrations of organic zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) or in combination, for a period of 180 days. The different doses of organic Zn and Cu were fed per kg DM basis, Zn groups (low: Zn20, medium: Zn40 and high: Zn60), Cu groups: (low: Cu12.5, medium: Cu25 and high: Cu37.5) and combination of Zn + Cu groups (low: Zn20 + Cu12.5, medium: Zn40 + Cu25 and high: Zn60 + Cu37.5) respectively. The control group bucks were maintained mainly on the basal diet without any additional mineral supplementation. Two hundred and forty (240) semen samples were collected from 40 bucks aged 11 months, through electro ejaculator method, processed and analysed for sperm quality parameters both at pre freeze and post-thaw stage. The semen samples were diluted in Tris egg yolk extender, cooled and equilibrated for 4 h at 5 °C, cryopreserved using programmable freezer (PLANER Kryo 360-1.7) and stored at -196 °C. The organic trace minerals (Zn, Cu and Zn + Cu) protected the spermatozoa against the cryoinjury and maintained higher post-thaw semen parameters except in high Zn group. Additional feeding of organic Cu and Zn to bucks had a protective role and resulted in higher sperm liveability, plasma membrane and acrosome integrities, motility and velocity and reduced oxidative stress in supplemented goats (P < 0.05). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Electrical properties of Al-, Cu-, Zn- rice husk charcoal junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahonog, L. A.; Tapia, A. K. G.

    2017-04-01

    Rice husk in the Philippines is considered as an agricultural waste. In order to utilize the material, one common technique is to carbonize these rice husks to produce charcoal briquettes. These materials are porous in nature exhibiting electrical properties from carbon structures. In this study, rice husk charcoals (RHC) were deposited on different metal substrates (Al, Cu, Zn) via a simple solution casting method. The deposited RHC on metal substrates was observed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The films were characterized using two-point probe technique and the I-V curves were plotted. Al-RHC films appear to deviate from an ohmic behaviour while Zn-RHC and Cu-RHC showed diode-like behaviours.

  12. An Ultrastable and High-Performance Flexible Fiber-Shaped Ni-Zn Battery based on a Ni-NiO Heterostructured Nanosheet Cathode.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yinxiang; Meng, Yue; Lai, Zhengzhe; Zhang, Xiyue; Yu, Minghao; Fang, Pingping; Wu, Mingmei; Tong, Yexiang; Lu, Xihong

    2017-11-01

    Currently, the main bottleneck for the widespread application of Ni-Zn batteries is their poor cycling stability as a result of the irreversibility of the Ni-based cathode and dendrite formation of the Zn anode during the charging-discharging processes. Herein, a highly rechargeable, flexible, fiber-shaped Ni-Zn battery with impressive electrochemical performance is rationally demonstrated by employing Ni-NiO heterostructured nanosheets as the cathode. Benefiting from the improved conductivity and enhanced electroactivity of the Ni-NiO heterojunction nanosheet cathode, the as-fabricated fiber-shaped Ni-NiO//Zn battery displays high capacity and admirable rate capability. More importantly, this Ni-NiO//Zn battery shows unprecedented cyclic durability both in aqueous (96.6% capacity retention after 10 000 cycles) and polymer (almost no capacity attenuation after 10 000 cycles at 22.2 A g -1 ) electrolytes. Moreover, a peak energy density of 6.6 µWh cm -2 , together with a remarkable power density of 20.2 mW cm -2 , is achieved by the flexible quasi-solid-state fiber-shaped Ni-NiO//Zn battery, outperforming most reported fiber-shaped energy-storage devices. Such a novel concept of a fiber-shaped Ni-Zn battery with impressive stability will greatly enrich the flexible energy-storage technologies for future portable/wearable electronic applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Chemical fractionation of Cu and Zn in stormwater, roadway dust and stormwater pond sediments

    Camponelli, Kimberly M.; Lev, Steven M.; Snodgrass, Joel W.; Landa, Edward R.; Casey, Ryan E.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the chemical fractionation of Cu and Zn from source to deposition in a stormwater system. Cu and Zn concentrations and chemical fractionation were determined for roadway dust, roadway runoff and pond sediments. Stormwater Cu and Zn concentrations were used to generate cumulative frequency distributions to characterize potential exposure to pond-dwelling organisms. Dissolved stormwater Zn exceeded USEPA acute and chronic water quality criteria in approximately 20% of storm samples and 20% of the storm duration sampled. Dissolved Cu exceeded the previously published chronic criterion in 75% of storm samples and duration and exceeded the acute criterion in 45% of samples and duration. The majority of sediment Cu (92–98%) occurred in the most recalcitrant phase, suggesting low bioavailability; Zn was substantially more available (39–62% recalcitrant). Most sediment concentrations for Cu and Zn exceeded published threshold effect concentrations and Zn often exceeded probable effect concentrations in surface sediments.

  14. Cu-Doped ZnO Thin Films Grown by Co-deposition Using Pulsed Laser Deposition for ZnO and Radio Frequency Sputtering for Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hyun Wook; Son, Jong Yeog

    2018-05-01

    Cu-doped ZnO (CZO) thin films were fabricated on single-crystalline (0001) Al2O3 substrates by co-deposition using pulsed laser deposition for ZnO and radio frequency sputtering for Cu. CZO thin films with 0-20% molar concentrations are obtained by adjusting the deposition rates of ZnO and Cu. The CZO thin films exhibit room temperature ferromagnetism, and CZO with 5% Cu molar concentration has maximum remanent magnetization, which is consistent with theoretical results.

  15. ZnO/Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 solar cells prepared by vapor phase Zn doping

    DOEpatents

    Ramanathan, Kannan; Hasoon, Falah S.; Asher, Sarah E.; Dolan, James; Keane, James C.

    2007-02-20

    A process for making a thin film ZnO/Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 solar cell without depositing a buffer layer and by Zn doping from a vapor phase, comprising: depositing Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 layer on a metal back contact deposited on a glass substrate; heating the Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 layer on the metal back contact on the glass substrate to a temperature range between about 100.degree. C. to about 250.degree. C.; subjecting the heated layer of Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 to an evaporant species from a Zn compound; and sputter depositing ZnO on the Zn compound evaporant species treated layer of Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2.

  16. Homogeneous (Cu, Ni)6Sn5 intermetallic compound joints rapidly formed in asymmetrical Ni/Sn/Cu system using ultrasound-induced transient liquid phase soldering process.

    PubMed

    Li, Z L; Dong, H J; Song, X G; Zhao, H Y; Tian, H; Liu, J H; Feng, J C; Yan, J C

    2018-04-01

    Homogeneous (Cu, Ni) 6 Sn 5 intermetallic compound (IMC) joints were rapidly formed in asymmetrical Ni/Sn/Cu system by an ultrasound-induced transient liquid phase (TLP) soldering process. In the traditional TLP soldering process, the intermetallic joints formed in Ni/Sn/Cu system consisted of major (Cu, Ni) 6 Sn 5 and minor Cu 3 Sn IMCs, and the grain morphology of (Cu, Ni) 6 Sn 5 IMCs subsequently exhibited fine rounded, needlelike and coarse rounded shapes from the Ni side to the Cu side, which was highly in accordance with the Ni concentration gradient across the joints. However, in the ultrasound-induced TLP soldering process, the intermetallic joints formed in Ni/Sn/Cu system only consisted of the (Cu, Ni) 6 Sn 5 IMCs which exhibited an uniform grain morphology of rounded shape with a remarkably narrowed Ni concentration gradient. The ultrasound-induced homogeneous intermetallic joints exhibited higher shear strength (61.6 MPa) than the traditional heterogeneous intermetallic joints (49.8 MPa). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Study on catalytic properties and carbon deposition of Ni-Cu/SBA-15 for cyclohexane dehydrogenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Zhijun; Liu, Huayan; Lu, Hanfeng; Zhang, Zekai; Chen, Yinfei

    2017-11-01

    A series of Ni-Cu supported on SBA-15 were prepared by impregnation, and used as catalysts in cyclohexane dehydrogenation for hydrogen production. The results indicated that the addition of Cu into Ni changes the crystal structure of metal Ni, and forms Ni-Cu alloy. Thus, Cu improves the reduction properties of Ni. Conversely, Ni stables and disperses metal Cu. With the space limitation of the ordered channels and high surface area of SBA-15, the bimetallic Ni-Cu/SBA-15 catalysts expose large amounts of selective active sites composed uniformly with Ni and Cu. Therefore, they present not only excellent catalytic performance for cyclohexane dehydrogenation, but also low coke formation. The in-situ DRIFT studies have shown the vinyl species, indicating the existence of alkenes in the reactive intermediates. Additionally, the strong absorption of benzene on the metal could induce benzene was dehydrogenated further to carbon.

  18. Magnetic and crystallographic properties of ZrM 2-δZn 20+δ (M=Cr–Cu)

    DOE PAGES

    Svanidze, E.; II, M. Kindy; Georgen, C.; ...

    2016-04-29

    Single crystals of the cubic Laves ternaries ZrM 2-δZn 20+δ (M=Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and Cu, 0 ≤ δ ≤ 1) have been synthesized in this paper using a self-flux method. The magnetic properties of these compounds were compared with structurally similar cubic binaries ZrM 2 (M=Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and Cu). A transition from local to itinerant moment magnetism was observed for M=Fe and M=Mn, while all other ternaries exhibit weakly para- or diamagnetic behavior. The local-to-itinerant crossover can be explained by a nearly two-fold increase of the M–M bond length d M–M in ZrM 2-δZn 20+δ compounds, asmore » compared with the ZrM 2 binaries. Additionally, we report two new compounds in this series ZrCrZn 21 and ZrCu 2Zn 20. Finally, analysis of crystallographic and magnetic trends in these materials will aid in understanding of magnetism in general and 3d intermetallics in particular.« less

  19. Non-chromate Passivation for LHE ZnNi

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    control of coatings and processes. Development of an alternative methodology that is simple, repeatable, non -destructive, and capable of scanning across...FINAL REPORT Non -chromate Passivation for LHE ZnNi SERDP Project WP-2527 JANUARY 2017 Matt O’Keefe Missouri S&T...valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From

  20. Complete transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles in ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Here, we present evidence on complete transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles, which are among the most heavily studied metal oxide particles, during 24 h in vitro toxicological testing with human T-lymphocytes. Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy results revealed that Zn speciation profiles of 30 nm and 80 nm ZnO nanoparticles, and ZnSO4- exposed cells were almost identical with the prevailing species being Zn-cysteine. This suggests that ZnO nanoparticles are rapidly transformed during a standard in vitro toxicological assay, and are sequestered intracellularly, analogously to soluble Zn. Complete transformation of ZnO in the test conditions was further supported by almost identical Zn spectra in medium to which ZnO nanoparticles or ZnSO4 was added. Likewise, Cu XANES spectra for CuO and CuSO4-exposed cells and cell culture media were similar. These results together with our observation on similar toxicological profiles of ZnO and soluble Zn, and CuO and soluble Cu, underline the importance of dissolution and subsequent transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles during toxicological testing and provide evidence that the nano-specific effect of ZnO and CuO nanoparticulates is negligible in this system. We strongly suggest to account for this aspect when interpreting the toxicological results of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles. Although a number of studies have discussed the transformation of nanoparticles during

  1. Electronic structure, magnetic and structural properties of Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles

    SciT

    Kumar, Shalendra, E-mail: shailuphy@gmail.com; Vats, Prashant; Gautam, S.

    Highlights: • XRD, and HR-TEM results show the single phase nature of Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles. • dc magnetization results indicate the RT-FM in Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles. • Ni L{sub 3,2} edge NEXAFS spectra infer that Ni ions are in +2 valence state. • O K edge NEXAFS spectra show that O vacancy increases with Ni doping in ZnO. - Abstract: We report structural, magnetic and electronic structural properties of Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by auto-combustion method. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), near edge X-ray absorption finemore » structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, and dc magnetization measurements. The XRD and HR-TEM results indicate that Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles have single phase nature with wurtzite lattice and exclude the presence of secondary phase. NEXAFS measurements performed at Ni L{sub 3,2}-edges indicates that Ni ions are in +2 valence state and exclude the presence of Ni metal clusters. O K-edge NEXAFS spectra indicate an increase in oxygen vacancies with Ni-doping, while Zn L{sub 3,2}-edge show the absence of Zn-vacancies. The magnetization measurements performed at room temperature shows that pure and Ni doped ZnO exhibits ferromagnetic behavior.« less

  2. The effect of stoichiometry on Cu-Zn ordering kinetics in Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudisch, Katharina; Davydova, Alexandra; Platzer-Björkman, Charlotte; Scragg, Jonathan

    2018-04-01

    Cu-Zn disorder in Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) may be responsible for the large open circuit voltage deficit in CZTS based solar cells. In this study, it was investigated how composition-dependent defect complexes influence the order-disorder transition. A combinatorial CZTS thin film sample was produced with a cation composition gradient across the sample area. The graded sample was exposed to various temperature treatments and the degree of order was analyzed with resonant Raman spectroscopy for various compositions ranging from E- and A-type to B-, F-, and C-type CZTS. We observe that the composition has no influence on the critical temperature of the order-disorder transition, but strongly affects the activation energy. Reduced activation energy is achieved with compositions with Cu/Sn > 2 or Cu/Sn < 1.8 suggesting an acceleration of the cation ordering in the presence of vacancies or interstitials. This is rationalized with reference to the effect of point defects on exchange mechanisms. The implications for reducing disorder in CZTS thin films are discussed in light of the new findings.

  3. The Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films solar cells synthesized by electrodeposition route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ji; Ma, Tuteng; Wei, Ming; Liu, Weifeng; Jiang, Guoshun; Zhu, Changfei

    2012-06-01

    An electrodeposition route for preparing Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films for thin film solar cell absorber layers is demonstrated. The Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films are prepared by co-electrodeposition Cu-Zn-Sn metallic precursor and subsequently annealing in element selenium atmosphere. The structure, composition and optical properties of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectrometry, energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy. The Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin film with high crystalline quality was obtained, the band gap and absorption coefficient were 1.0 eV and 10-4 cm-1, which is quite suitable for solar cells fabrication. A solar cell with the structure of ZnO:Al/i-ZnO/CdS/Cu2ZnSnSe4/Mo/glass was fabricated and achieved an conversion efficiency of 1.7%.

  4. Electrodeposition of CuZn Alloys from the Non-Cyanide Alkaline Baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Minggang; Wei, Guoying; Hu, Shuangshuang; Xu, Shuhan; Yang, Yejiong; Miao, Qinfang

    2015-10-01

    Effect of copper sulfate on CuZn alloys electroplating from non-cyanide baths are investigated by different electrochemical methods. Cyclic voltammetry and current transient measurements are used to characterize the CuZn alloys electroplating system in order to analyze the nucleation and growth mechanism. The reduction of Cu and CuZn alloy on sheet iron substrates shows an instantaneous nucleation process. However, the reduction of Zn on sheet iron substrates shows a progressive nucleation process. The structure and surface morphology of CuZn alloys are analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The morphology of CuZn alloys obtained with 50 g L-1 copper sulfate presents a smooth and compact deposit and the size of crystal particle is uniform.

  5. Understanding the Cu-Zn brass alloys using a short-range-order cluster model: Significance of specific compositions of industrial alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Hong, H. L.; Wang, Q.; Dong, C.; ...

    2014-11-17

    Metallic alloys show complex chemistries that are not yet understood so far. It has been widely accepted that behind the composition selection lies a short-range-order mechanism for solid solutions. The present paper addresses this fundamental question by examining the face-centered-cubic Cu-Zn α-brasses. A new structural approach, the cluster-plus-glue-atom model, is introduced, which suits specifically for the description of short-range-order structures in disordered systems. Two types of formulas are pointed out, [Zn-Cu 12]Zn 1~6 and [Zn-Cu 12](Zn,Cu) 6, which explain the α-brasses listed in the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) specifications. In these formulas, the bracketed parts represent themore » 1 st-neighbor cluster, and each cluster is matched with one to six 2 nd-neighbor Zn atoms or with six mixed (Zn,Cu) atoms. Such a cluster-based formulism describes the 1 st- and 2 nd-neighbor local atomic units where the solute and solvent interactions are ideally satisfied. The Cu-Ni industrial alloys are also explained, thus proving the universality of the cluster-formula approach in understanding the alloy selections. As a result, the revelation of the composition formulas for the Cu-(Zn,Ni) industrial alloys points to the common existence of simple composition rules behind seemingly complex chemistries of industrial alloys, thus offering a fundamental and practical method towards composition interpretations of all kinds of alloys.« less

  6. Field dependence of TB in NiO and (Ni, Zn)O Nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Yung; Peck, M.; Skomski, R.; Zhang, R.; Kharel, P.; Allison, M.; Sellmyer, D.; Langell, M.

    2011-03-01

    Size dependence of magnetic properties of rocksalt NiO and Zn substituted NiO nanoparticles are investigated. Nanoparticle diameters are determined from 8 to 30 nm by XRD and AFM. Uncompensated spins at the nanoparticle surface contribute to superparametism at low temperatures and their blocking temperatures increase with stronger applied field. The field induced spin canting of the antiferromagnetic sublattices is a bulk effect and studied by the substitution of Zn with transition metal. Nanoparticles start exhibiting bulk magnetic behavior with size greater than 18 nm. Magnetization rotation of uncompensated spins under the magnetic field is mainly due to nanoscale size effect. The anisotropy of the nanoparticle is about four times larger than that of the bulk NiO. This research is supported by the NSF (CHE-1012366 and Nebraska MRSEC Grant DMR-0820521), the DOE Grant DE-FG02-04ER46152 (P. K. and D. J. S.) and NCMN.

  7. Preparation, optical and non-linear optical power limiting properties of Cu, CuNi nanowires

    SciT

    Udayabhaskar, R.; Karthikeyan, B., E-mail: bkarthik@nitt.edu; Ollakkan, Muhamed Shafi

    2014-01-06

    Metallic nanowires show excellent Plasmon absorption which is tunable based on its aspect ratio and alloying nature. We prepared Cu and CuNi metallic nanowires and studied its optical and nonlinear optical behavior. Optical properties of nanowires are theoretically explained using Gans theory. Nonlinear optical behavior is studied using a single beam open aperture z-scan method with the use of 5 ns Nd: YAG laser. Optical limiting is found to arise from two-photon absorption.

  8. Preparation, optical and non-linear optical power limiting properties of Cu, CuNi nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udayabhaskar, R.; Ollakkan, Muhamed Shafi; Karthikeyan, B.

    2014-01-01

    Metallic nanowires show excellent Plasmon absorption which is tunable based on its aspect ratio and alloying nature. We prepared Cu and CuNi metallic nanowires and studied its optical and nonlinear optical behavior. Optical properties of nanowires are theoretically explained using Gans theory. Nonlinear optical behavior is studied using a single beam open aperture z-scan method with the use of 5 ns Nd: YAG laser. Optical limiting is found to arise from two-photon absorption.

  9. Detection of Cu2Zn5SnSe8 and Cu2Zn6SnSe9 phases in co-evaporated Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin-films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Torsten; Marques, Miguel A. L.; Botti, Silvana; Mousel, Marina; Redinger, Alex; Siebentritt, Susanne; Cojocaru-Mirédin, Oana; Raabe, Dierk; Choi, Pyuck-Pa

    2015-10-01

    Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin-films for photovoltaic applications are investigated using combined atom probe tomography and ab initio density functional theory. The atom probe studies reveal nano-sized grains of Cu2Zn5SnSe8 and Cu2Zn6SnSe9 composition, which cannot be assigned to any known phase reported in the literature. Both phases are considered to be metastable, as density functional theory calculations yield positive energy differences with respect to the decomposition into Cu2ZnSnSe4 and ZnSe. Among the conceivable crystal structures for both phases, a distorted zinc-blende structure shows the lowest energy, which is a few tens of meV below the energy of a wurtzite structure. A band gap of 1.1 eV is calculated for both the Cu2Zn5SnSe8 and Cu2Zn6SnSe9 phases. Possible effects of these phases on solar cell performance are discussed.

  10. Study of Substitution of Zn FOR Cu in YBa2Cu3O7 System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, P. K.; Samariya, A.; Dhawan, M. S.; Singhal, R. K.

    The polycrystalline YBa2(Cu1-XZnX)3O7-δ samples (x=0.0 to 0.06) were synthesized and studied using X Ray diffraction, titration, resistivity, magnetization and X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results show that O2 stoichiometry (δ) changes on Zn substitution which affects their normal state resistivity as well as the TC. Zn also induces local magnetic moment as evidenced from magnetization results. A combination of change in O2 stoichiometry and magnetic pair breaking is found to be responsible for a rapid suppression of superconductivity.

  11. Compositional ratio effect on the surface characteristics of CuZn thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ahrom; Park, Juyun; Kang, Yujin; Lee, Seokhee; Kang, Yong-Cheol

    2018-05-01

    CuZn thin films were fabricated by RF co-sputtering method on p-type Si(100) wafer with various RF powers applied on metallic Cu and Zn targets. This paper aimed to determine the morphological, chemical, and electrical properties of the deposited CuZn thin films by utilizing a surface profiler, atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), UV photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), and a 4-point probe. The thickness of the thin films was fixed at 200 ± 8 nm and the roughness of the thin films containing Cu was smaller than pure Zn thin films. XRD studies confirmed that the preferred phase changed, and this tendency is dependent on the ratio of Cu to Zn. AES spectra indicate that the obtained thin films consisted of Cu and Zn. The high resolution XPS spectra indicate that as the content of Cu increased, the intensities of Zn2+ decreased. The work function of CuZn thin films increased from 4.87 to 5.36 eV. The conductivity of CuZn alloy thin films was higher than pure metallic thin films.

  12. Elastocaloric effect in CuAlZn and CuAlMn shape memory alloys under compression

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Suxin; Wang, Yi; Pillsbury, Thomas E.; Hada, Yoshiharu; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Fujimoto, Kenjiro; Hwang, Yunho; Radermacher, Reinhard; Cui, Jun; Yuki, Yoji; Toyotake, Koutaro; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the elastocaloric effect of two Cu-based shape memory alloys: Cu68Al16Zn16 (CuAlZn) and Cu73Al15Mn12 (CuAlMn), under compression at ambient temperature. The compression tests were conducted at two different rates to approach isothermal and adiabatic conditions. Upon unloading at a strain rate of 0.1 s−1 (adiabatic condition) from 4% strain, the highest adiabatic temperature changes (ΔTad) of 4.0 K for CuAlZn and 3.9 K for CuAlMn were obtained. The maximum stress and hysteresis at each strain were compared. The stress at the maximum recoverable strain of 4.0% for CuAlMn was 120 MPa, which is 70% smaller than that of CuAlZn. A smaller hysteresis for the CuAlMn alloy was also obtained, about 70% less compared with the CuAlZn alloy. The latent heat, determined by differential scanning calorimetry, was 4.3 J g−1 for the CuAlZn alloy and 5.0 J g−1 for the CuAlMn alloy. Potential coefficients of performance (COPmat) for these two alloys were calculated based on their physical properties of measured latent heat and hysteresis, and a COPmat of approximately 13.3 for CuAlMn was obtained. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials’. PMID:27402936

  13. Effects of CuZnAl Particles on Properties and Microstructure of Sn-58Bi Solder

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Zhang, Liang; Liu, Zhi-quan; Zhong, Su Juan; Ma, Jia; Bao, Li

    2017-01-01

    With the purpose of improving the properties of the Sn-58Bi lead-free solder, micro-CuZnAl particles ranging from 0 to 0.4 wt % were added into the low temperature eutectic Sn-58Bi lead-free solder. After the experimental testing of micro-CuZnAl particles on the properties and microstructure of the Sn-58Bi solders, it was found that the wettability of the Sn-58Bi solders was obviously improved with addition of CuZnAl particles. When the addition of CuZnAl particles was 0.2 wt %, the wettability of the Sn-58Bi solder performed best. At the same time, excessive addition of CuZnAl particles led to poor wettability. However, the results showed that CuZnAl particles changed the melting point of the Sn-58Bi solder slightly. The microstructure of the Sn-58Bi solder was refined by adding CuZnAl particles. When the content of CuZnAl addition was between 0.1 and 0.2 wt %, the refinement was great. In addition, the interfacial IMC layer between new composite solder and Cu substrate was thinner than that between the Sn-58Bi solder and Cu substrate. PMID:28772917

  14. Persistence of the Z =28 Shell Gap Around 78Ni: First Spectroscopy of 79Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivier, L.; Franchoo, S.; Niikura, M.; Vajta, Z.; Sohler, D.; Doornenbal, P.; Obertelli, A.; Tsunoda, Y.; Otsuka, T.; Authelet, G.; Baba, H.; Calvet, D.; Château, F.; Corsi, A.; Delbart, A.; Gheller, J.-M.; Gillibert, A.; Isobe, T.; Lapoux, V.; Matsushita, M.; Momiyama, S.; Motobayashi, T.; Otsu, H.; Péron, C.; Peyaud, A.; Pollacco, E. C.; Roussé, J.-Y.; Sakurai, H.; Santamaria, C.; Sasano, M.; Shiga, Y.; Takeuchi, S.; Taniuchi, R.; Uesaka, T.; Wang, H.; Yoneda, K.; Browne, F.; Chung, L. X.; Dombradi, Z.; Flavigny, F.; Giacoppo, F.; Gottardo, A.; Hadyńska-Klek, K.; Korkulu, Z.; Koyama, S.; Kubota, Y.; Lee, J.; Lettmann, M.; Louchart, C.; Lozeva, R.; Matsui, K.; Miyazaki, T.; Nishimura, S.; Ogata, K.; Ota, S.; Patel, Z.; Sahin, E.; Shand, C.; Söderström, P.-A.; Stefan, I.; Steppenbeck, D.; Sumikama, T.; Suzuki, D.; Werner, V.; Wu, J.; Xu, Z.

    2017-11-01

    In-beam γ -ray spectroscopy of 79Cu is performed at the Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory of RIKEN. The nucleus of interest is produced through proton knockout from a 80Zn beam at 270 MeV /nucleon . The level scheme up to 4.6 MeV is established for the first time and the results are compared to Monte Carlo shell-model calculations. We do not observe significant knockout feeding to the excited states below 2.2 MeV, which indicates that the Z =28 gap at N =50 remains large. The results show that the 79Cu nucleus can be described in terms of a valence proton outside a 78Ni core, implying the magic character of the latter.

  15. Magnetic properties of Ni-Cu-Mn ferrite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roumaih, Kh.

    2011-10-01

    Three groups according to the substitution of Cu 2+ and Mn 3+ in the system Ni 1-xCu xFe 2-yMn yO 4 ferrite with x = 0.2, 0.5, 0.8, and y varying from 0.0 to 1.0 in steps of 0.25 are prepared by solid state reactions. The phases of the Ni 1-xCu xFe 2-yMn yO 4 ferrite have been confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results demonstrate that all of the synthesized materials are spinel with cubic unit cell and the lattice constant increased with increases of the Cu and Mn ions for all samples. The hyperfine interaction was studied by the Mössbauer spectroscopy at room temperature for all samples. The spectra of all samples show two well-resolved Zeeman patterns corresponding to A- and B-sites. The hyperfine field decreases with increasing Cu and Mn ions concentration. The Curie temperature, TC, was calculated from the temperature dependence of magnetization curves. The hysteresis curve recorded at room temperature shows that the samples are ferrimagnetic materials. The cation distribution was estimated from the results of Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetic measurements.

  16. Switching mechanism transition induced by annealing treatment in nonvolatile Cu/ZnO/Cu/ZnO/Pt resistive memory: From carrier trapping/detrapping to electrochemical metallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y. C.; Pan, F.; Zeng, F.; Liu, M.

    2009-12-01

    ZnO/Cu/ZnO trilayer films sandwiched between Cu and Pt electrodes were prepared for nonvolatile resistive memory applications. These structures show resistance switching under electrical bias both before and after a rapid thermal annealing (RTA) treatment, while it is found that the resistive switching effects in the two cases exhibit distinct characteristics. Compared with the as-fabricated device, the memory cell after RTA demonstrates remarkable device parameter improvements including lower threshold voltages, lower write current, and higher Roff/Ron ratio. A high-voltage forming process is avoided in the annealed device as well. Furthermore, the RTA treatment has triggered a switching mechanism transition from a carrier trapping/detrapping type to an electrochemical-redox-reaction-controlled conductive filament formation/rupture process, as indicated by different features in current-voltage characteristics. Both scanning electron microscopy observations and Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiles reveal that the Cu charge trapping layer in ZnO/Cu/ZnO disperses uniformly into the storage medium after RTA, while x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses demonstrate that the Cu atoms have lost electrons to become Cu2+ ions after dispersion. The above experimental facts indicate that the altered status of Cu in the ZnO/Cu/ZnO trilayer films during RTA treatment should be responsible for the switching mechanism transition. This study is envisioned to open the door for understanding the interrelation between different mechanisms that currently exist in the field of resistive memories.

  17. Low-cost and facile synthesis of Ni(OH)2/ZnO nanostructures for high-sensitivity glucose detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strano, V.; Mirabella, S.

    2018-01-01

    An efficient electrode for non-enzymatic glucose detection is produced with low-cost techniques on a Cu wire. ZnO nanorods (NRs) were grown on a Cu wire by chemical bath deposition and were used as the substrate for pulsed electrodeposition of nanostructured Ni(OH)2 flakes. The effect of the electrodeposition potential on the final morphology and electrochemical behavior of the Ni(OH)2/ZnO/Cu structures is reported. ZnO NRs resulted to be well dressed by Ni(OH)2 flakes and were tested as glucose sensing electrodes in 0.1 M NaOH solution, showing high sensitivities (up to 3 mA mM-1 cm-2) and long-term stability. The presence of ZnO NRs was shown to improve the performance of the glucose sensor in terms of electrochemical stability over the time and sensitivity compared to Ni(OH)2/Cu sample. The reported data demonstrate a simple, versatile and low-cost fabrication approach for effective glucose sensing system within a urban mines framework.

  18. ZnCuInS/ZnSe/ZnS quantum dot-based downconversion light-emitting diodes and their thermal effect

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Wenyan; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Dan; ...

    2015-08-13

    The quantum dot-based light-emitting diodes (QD-LEDs) were fabricated using blue GaN chips and red-, yellow-, and green-emitting ZnCuInS/ZnSe/ZnS QDs. The power efficiencies were measured as 14.0 lm/W for red, 47.1 lm/W for yellow, and 62.4 lm/W for green LEDs at 2.6 V. The temperature effect of ZnCuInS/ZnSe/ZnS QDs on these LEDs was investigated using CIE chromaticity coordinates, spectral wavelength, full width at half-maximum (FWHM) and power efficiencies (PE). The thermal quenching induced by the increased surface temperature of the device was confirmed to be one of the important factors to decrease power efficiencies while the CIE chromaticity coordinates changed littlemore » due to the low emission temperature coefficients of 0.022, 0.050 and 0.068 nm/°C for red-, yellow- and green-emitting ZnCuInS/ZnSe/ZnS QDs. Lastly this indicates that ZnCuInS/ZnSe/ZnS QDs are more suitable for down-conversion LEDs compared to CdSe QDs.« less

  19. μSR investigation of a new diluted magnetic semiconductor Li(Zn,Mn,Cu)As with Mn and Cu codoping at the same Zn sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, S. L.; Zhao, Y.; Man, H. Y.; Ding, C.; Gong, X.; Zhi, G. X.; Fu, L. C.; Gu, Y. L.; Frandsen, B. A.; Liu, L.; Cheung, S. C.; Munsie, T. J.; Wilson, M. N.; Cai, Y. P.; Luke, G. M.; Uemura, Y. J.; Ning, F. L.

    2016-09-01

    We report the successful synthesis and characterization of a new type I-II-V bulk form diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) Li(Zn,Mn,Cu)As, in which charge and spin doping are decoupled via (Cu,Zn) and (Mn,Zn) substitution at the same Zn sites. Ferromagnetic transition temperature up to  ˜33 K has been observed with a coercive field  ˜40 Oe for the 12.5% doping level. μSR measurements confirmed that the magnetic volume fraction reaches nearly 100% at 2 K, and the mechanism responsible for the ferromagnetic interaction in this system is the same as other bulk form DMSs.

  20. Access to Formally Ni(I) States in a Heterobimetallic NiZn System

    PubMed Central

    Uyeda, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Heterobimetallic NiZn complexes featuring metal centers in distinct coordination environments have been synthesized using diimine-dioxime ligands as binucleating scaffolds. A tetramethylfuran-containing ligand derivative enables a stable one-electron-reduced S = 1/2 species to be accessed using Cp2Co as a chemical reductant. The resulting pseudo-square planar complex exhibits spectroscopic and crystallographic characteristics of a ligand-centered radical bound to a Ni(II) center. Upon coordination of a π-acidic ligand such as PPh3, however, a five-coordinate Ni(I) metalloradical is formed. The electronic structures of these reduced species provide insight into the subtle effects of ligand structure on the potential and reversibility of the NiII/I couple for complexes of redox-active tetraazamacrocycles. PMID:25614786

  1. Quantifying point defects in Cu 2 ZnSn(S,Se) 4 thin films using resonant x-ray diffraction

    DOE PAGES

    Stone, Kevin H.; Christensen, Steven T.; Harvey, Steven P.; ...

    2016-10-17

    Cu 2ZnSn(S,Se)4 is an interesting, earth abundant photovoltaic material, but has suffered from low open circuit voltage. To better understand the film structure, we have measured resonant x-ray diffraction across the Cu and Zn K-edges for the device quality thin films of Cu 2ZnSnS4 (8.6% efficiency) and Cu 2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (3.5% efficiency). This approach allows for the confirmation of the underlying kesterite structure and quantification of the concentration of point defects and vacancies on the Cu, Zn, and Sn sublattices. Rietveld refinement of powder diffraction data collected at multiple energies is used to determine that there exists a high level ofmore » Cu Zn and Zn Cu defects on the 2c and 2d Wyckoff positions. We observe a significantly lower concentration of Zn Sn defects and Cu or Zn vacancies.« less

  2. Synthesis and performance of Zn-Ni-P thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soare, V.; Burada, M.; Constantin, I.; Ghita, M.; Constantin, V.; Miculescu, F.; Popescu, A. M.

    2015-03-01

    The electroplating of Zn-Ni-P thin film alloys from a sulfate bath containing phosphoric and phosphorous acid was investigated. The bath composition and the deposition parameters were optimized through Hull cell experiments, and the optimum experimental conditions were determined (pH = 2, temperature = 298-313 K, zinc sulfate concentration = 30 g·L-1, EDTA concentration = 15 g·L-1, and current density, = ,1.0-2.0 A·dm-2). The SEM analysis of the coating deposited from the optimum bath revealed fine-grained deposits of the alloy in the presence of EDTA. Optical microscopy analysis indicated an electrodeposited thin film with uniform thickness and good adhesion to the steel substrate. The good adherence of the coatings was also demonstrated by the scratch tests that were performed, with a maximum determined value of 25 N for the critical load. Corrosion resistance tests revealed good protection of the steel substrate by the obtained Zn-Ni-P coatings, with values up to 85.89% for samples with Ni contents higher than 76%. The surface analysis of the thin film samples before and after corrosion was performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Project support by the Partnership Romanian Research Program (PNCDI2), CORZIFILM Project nr.72-221/2008-2011 and “EU (ERDF) and Romanian Government” that allowed for acquisition of the research infrastructure under POS-CEEO 2.2.1 project INFRANANOCHEM-Nr.19/01.03.2009.

  3. Facile synthesis and photocatalytic activity of bi-phase dispersible Cu-ZnO hybrid nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao; Liu, HongLing; Zhang, WenXing; Li, XueMei; Fang, Ning; Wang, XianHong; Wu, JunHua

    2015-04-01

    Bi-phase dispersible Cu-ZnO hybrid nanoparticles were synthesized by one-pot non-aqueous nanoemulsion with the use of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEO-PPO-PEO) as the surfactant. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) show high crystallinity of the Cu-ZnO hybrid nanoparticles and an average particle size of ~19.4 nm. The ultraviolet-visible light absorbance spectrometry (UV-vis) and photoluminescence spectrophotometry (PL) demonstrate well dispersibility and excellent optical performance of Cu-ZnO hybrid nanoparticles both in organic and aqueous solvent. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirms Cu1+ and Cu2+ in ZnO. The observation using Sudan red (III) as probe molecule reveals that the Cu-ZnO hybrid nanoparticles possess enhanced photocatalytic activity and stability which are promising for potential applications in photocatalysis.

  4. Intermixing in Cu/Ni multilayers induced by cold rolling

    SciT

    Wang, Z.; Perepezko, J. H., E-mail: perepezk@engr.wisc.edu; Larson, D.

    2015-04-28

    Repeated cold rolling was performed on multilayers of Cu60/Ni40 and Cu40/Ni60 foil arrays to study the details of driven atomic scale interfacial mixing. With increasing deformation, there is a significant layer refinement down to the nm level that leads to the formation of a solid solution phase from the elemental end members. Intriguingly, the composition of the solid solution is revealed by an oscillation in the composition profile across the multilayers, which is different from the smoothly varying profile due to thermally activated diffusion. During the reaction, Cu mixed into Ni preferentially compared to Ni mixing into Cu, which ismore » also in contrast to the thermal diffusion behavior. This is confirmed by observations from X-ray diffraction, electron energy loss spectrum and atom probe tomography. The diffusion coefficient induced by cold rolling is estimated as 1.7 × 10{sup −17} m{sup 2}/s, which cannot be attributed to any thermal effect. The effective temperature due to the deformation induced mixing is estimated as 1093 K and an intrinsic diffusivity d{sub b}, which quantifies the tendency towards equilibrium in the absence of thermal diffusion, is estimated as 6.38 × 10{sup −18} m{sup 2}/s. The fraction of the solid solution phase formed is illustrated by examining the layer thickness distribution and is described by using an error function representation. The evolution of mixing in the solid solution phase is described by a simplified sinusoid model, in which the amplitude decays with increased deformation level. The promoted diffusion coefficient could be related to the effective temperature concept, but the establishment of an oscillation in the composition profile is a characteristic behavior that develops due to deformation.« less

  5. Anomalous fast diffusion in Cu-NiFe nanolaminates.

    SciT

    Jankowski, Alan F.

    2017-09-01

    For this work, the decomposition of the one-dimensional composition wave in Cu-NiFe nanolaminate structures is examined using x-ray diffraction to assess the kinetics of phase decomposition. The anomalously high diffusivity value found for long-term aging at room temperature is attributed to the inherent nanostructure that features paths for short-circuit diffusion in nanolaminates as attributed to interlayer grain boundaries.

  6. Interplay of Cu and oxygen vacancy in optical transitions and screening of excitons in ZnO:Cu films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darma, Yudi; Seng Herng, Tun; Marlina, Resti; Fauziah, Resti; Ding, Jun; Rusydi, Andrivo

    2014-02-01

    We study room temperature optics and electronic structures of ZnO:Cu films as a function of Cu concentration using a combination of spectroscopic ellipsometry, photoluminescence, and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy. Mid-gap optical states, interband transitions, and excitons are observed and distinguishable. We argue that the mid-gap states are originated from interactions of Cu and oxygen vacancy (Vo). They are located below conduction band (Zn4s) and above valence band (O2p) promoting strong green emission and narrowing optical band gap. Excitonic states are screened and its intensities decrease upon Cu doping. Our results show the importance of Cu and Vo driving the electronic structures and optical transitions in ZnO:Cu films.

  7. Carbon tolerance of Ni-Cu and Ni-Cu/YSZ sub-μm sized SOFC thin film model systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götsch, Thomas; Schachinger, Thomas; Stöger-Pollach, Michael; Kaindl, Reinhard; Penner, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Thin films of YSZ, unsupported Ni-Cu 1:1 alloy phases and YSZ-supported Ni-Cu 1:1 alloy solutions have been reproducibly prepared by magnetron sputter deposition on Si wafers and NaCl(001) single crystal facets at two selected substrate temperatures of 298 K and 873 K. Subsequently, the layer properties of the resulting sub-μm thick thin films as well as the tendency towards carbon deposition following treatment in pure methane at 1073 K has been tested comparatively. Well-crystallized structures of cubic YSZ, cubic NiCu and cubic NiCu/YSZ have been obtained following deposition at 873 K on both substrates. Carbon is deposited on all samples following the trend Ni-Cu (1:1) = Ni-Cu (1:1)/YSZ > pure YSZ, indicating that at least the 1:1 composition of layered Ni-Cu alloy phases is not able to suppress the carbon deposition completely, rendering it unfavorable for usage as anode component in sub-μm sized fuel cells. It is shown that surfaces with a high Cu/Ni ratio nevertheless prohibit any carbon deposition.

  8. A Stable Plasmonic Cu@Cu2 O/ZnO Heterojunction for Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Generation.

    PubMed

    Lou, Yongbing; Zhang, Yake; Cheng, Lin; Chen, Jinxi; Zhao, Yixin

    2018-05-09

    The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect has been widely utilized in photocatalysis, but most reported LSPR materials are based on noble metals of gold or silver with high chemical stability. Plasmonic copper nanoparticles that exhibit an LSPR absorbance at 600 nm are promising for many applications, such as photocatalysis. Unfortunately, plasmonic copper nanoparticles are affected by serious surface oxidation in air. Herein, a novel lollipop-shaped Cu@Cu 2 O/ZnO heterojunction nanostructure was designed, for the first time, to stabilize the plasmonic Cu core by decorating Cu@Cu 2 O core-shell structures with ZnO nanorods. This Cu@Cu 2 O/ZnO nanostructure exhibited significantly enhanced stability than that of regular Cu@Cu 2 O, which accounted for the remarkably enhanced photocatalytic H 2 evolution rate through water splitting, relative to pristine ZnO nanorods, over an extended wavelength range due to the plasmonic Cu core. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Transverse excitations in liquid Fe, Cu and Zn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, S.; Inui, M.; Kajihara, Y.; Tsutsui, S.; Baron, A. Q. R.

    2015-05-01

    Transverse acoustic (TA) excitation modes were observed in inelastic x-ray scattering spectra of liquid Fe, Cu and Zn. From the analysis of current correlation functions, we concluded that TA excitation modes can experimentally be detected through the quasi-TA branches in the longitudinal current correlation spectra in these liquid metals. The microscopic elastic constants are estimated and a characteristic difference from macroscopic polycrystalline value was found in Poisson's ratio of liquid Fe, which shows an extremely softer value of ∼0.38 compared with the macroscopic value of ∼0.275. The lifetime of the TA modes were determined to be ∼0.45 ps for liquid Fe and Cu and ∼0.55 ps for liquid Zn, reflecting different interatomic correlations between liquid transition metals and non-transition metals. The propagation length of the TA modes are ∼0.85 nm in all of liquid metals, corresponding to the size of icosahedral or similar size of cages formed instantaneously in these liquid metals.

  10. Effect of calcination temperature on microstructure and magnetic properties of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.25}Cu{sub 0.25} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel method

    SciT

    Pransisco, Prengki, E-mail: prengkipransisco@gmail.com, E-mail: afza@petronas.com.my; Shafie, Afza, E-mail: prengkipransisco@gmail.com, E-mail: afza@petronas.com.my; Guan, Beh Hoe, E-mail: beh.hoeguan@petronas.com.my

    2014-10-24

    This paper examines the effect of calcination process on the structural and magnetic properties material nanostructure composite of Ni{sub 0Ð}œ‡{sub 5}Zn{sub 0Ð}œ‡{sub 25}Cu{sub 0.25} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrites. The samples were successfully prepared by sol-gel method at different calcination temperature, which are 600°C, 700°C, 800°C and 900°C. Morphological investigation, average crystallite size and microstructure of the material were examined by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The effects of calcination temperature on the magnetic properties were calculated by using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The XRD resultmore » shows single-phase cubic spinel structure with interval average size 5.9-38 nm, and grain size microstructure of the material was increasing with temperature increases. The highest magnetization saturation was reached at a temperature 800°C with value 53.89 emu/g, and the value coercive force (Hc) was inversely with the grain size.« less

  11. Synthesis, Characterization, and Bioactivity of Schiff Bases and Their Cd2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, and Ni2+ Complexes Derived from Chloroacetophenone Isomers with S-Benzyldithiocarbazate and the X-Ray Crystal Structure of S-Benzyl-β-N-(4-chlorophenyl)methylenedithiocarbazate

    PubMed Central

    Break, Mohammed Khaled bin; Tahir, M. Ibrahim M.; Crouse, Karen A.; Khoo, Teng-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Two bidentate Schiff base ligands having nitrogen sulphur donor sequence were derived from the condensation of S-benzyldithiocarbazate (SBDTC) with 2-chloroacetophenone and 4-chloroacetophenone to give S-benzyl-β-N-(2-chlorophenyl)methylenedithiocarbazate (NS2) and S-benzyl-β-N-(4-chlorophenyl)methylenedithiocarbazate (NS4) isomers. Each of the ligands was then chelated with Cd2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, and Ni2+. The compounds were characterized via IR spectroscopy and melting point while the structure of NS4 was revealed via X-ray crystallography. Finally, the compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity to investigate the effect that is brought by the introduction of the chlorine atom to the benzene ring. X-ray crystallographic analysis showed that the structure of NS4 is planar with a phenyl ring that is nearly perpendicular to the rest of the molecules. The qualitative antimicrobial assay results showed that NS4 and its complexes lacked antifungal activity while Gram-positive bacteria were generally inhibited more strongly than Gram-negative bacteria. Furthermore, NS4 metal complexes were inhibited more strongly than the ligand while the opposite was seen with NS2 ligand and its complexes due to the partial solubility in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). It was concluded that generally NS2 derivatives have higher bioactivity than that of NS4 derivatives and that the Cd complexes of both ligands have pronounced activity specifically on K. rhizophila. PMID:24319401

  12. (Zn,H)-codoped copper oxide nanoparticles via pulsed laser ablation on Cu-Zn alloy in water

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Nanosized (5 to 10 nm) amorphous and crystalline nanocondensates, i.e., metallic α-phase of Zn-Cu alloy in face-centered cubic structure and (Zn,H)-codoped cuprite (Cu2O) with high-pressure-favored close-packed sublattice, were formed by pulsed laser ablation on bulk Cu65Zn35 in water and characterized by X-ray/electron diffractions and optical spectroscopy. The as-fabricated hybrid nanocondensates are darkish and showed photoluminescence in the whole visible region. Further dwelling of such nanocondensates in water caused progressive formation of a rice-like assembly of (Zn,H)-codoped tenorite (CuO) nanoparticles with (001), (100), and {111} preferred orientations, (111) tilt boundary, yellowish color, and minimum bandgap narrowing down to ca. 2.7 eV for potential photocatalytic applications. PMID:22647312

  13. Structural, chemical and optical evaluation of Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by an aqueous solution method

    SciT

    Iribarren, A., E-mail: augusto@imre.oc.uh.cu; Hernández-Rodríguez, E.; Maqueira, L.

    Highlights: • Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles obtained by chemical synthesis. • Substitutional or interstitial Cu into ZnO lead specific structural, chemical, and optical changes. • Incorporation efficiency of Cu atoms in ZnO as a function of the Cu concentration in the precursor dissolution. - Abstract: In this work a study of ZnO and Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles obtained by chemical synthesis in aqueous media was carried out. Structural analysis gave the dominant presence of wurtzite ZnO phase forming a solid solution Zn{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}O. For high Cu doping CuO phase is also present. For low Cu concentration the lattice shrinks due tomore » Cu atoms substitute Zn atoms. For high Cu concentration the lattice enlarges due to predominance of interstitial Cu. From elemental analysis we determined and analyzed the incorporation efficiency of Cu atoms in Zn{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}O as a function of the Cu concentration in the precursor dissolution. Combining structural and chemical results we described the Cu/Zn precursor concentrations r{sub w} in which the solid solution of Cu in ZnO is predominant. In the region located at r{sub w} ≈ 0.2–0.3 it is no longer valid. For Cu/Zn precursor concentration r{sub w} > 0.3 interstitial Cu dominates, and some amount of copper oxide appears. As the Cu concentration increases, the effective size of nanoparticles decreases. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements of the Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles were carried out and analyzed.« less

  14. Optimization of Cu-Zn Massive Sulphide Flotation by Selective Reagents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltani, F.; Koleini, S. M. J.; Abdollahy, M.

    2014-10-01

    Selective floatation of base metal sulphide minerals can be achieved by using selective reagents. Sequential floatation of chalcopyrite-sphalerite from Taknar (Iran) massive sulphide ore with 3.5 % Zn and 1.26 % Cu was studied. D-optimal design of response surface methodology was used. Four mixed collector types (Aer238 + SIPX, Aero3477 + SIPX, TC1000 + SIPX and X231 + SIPX), two depressant systems (CuCN-ZnSO4 and dextrin-ZnSO4), pH and ZnSO4 dosage were considered as operational factors in the first stage of flotation. Different conditions of pH, CuSO4 dosage and SIPX dosage were studied for sphalerite flotation from first stage tailings. Aero238 + SIPX induced better selectivity for chalcopyrite against pyrite and sphalerite. Dextrin-ZnSO4 was as effective as CuCN-ZnSO4 in sphalerite-pyrite depression. Under optimum conditions, Cu recovery, Zn recovery and pyrite content in Cu concentrate were 88.99, 33.49 and 1.34 % by using Aero238 + SIPX as mixed collector, CuCN-ZnSO4 as depressant system, at ZnSO4 dosage of 200 g/t and pH 10.54. When CuCN was used at the first stage, CuSO4 consumption increased and Zn recovery decreased during the second stage. Maximum Zn recovery was 72.19 % by using 343.66 g/t of CuSO4, 22.22 g/t of SIPX and pH 9.99 at the second stage.

  15. The microstructure and magnetic properties of Cu/CuO/Ni core/multi-shell nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Feng; Shi, Jie; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Hao, Shijie; Liu, Yinong; Feng, Chun; Cui, Lishan

    2018-04-01

    Multifunctional metal/oxide/metal core/multi-shell nanowire arrays were prepared mostly by physical or chemical vapor deposition. In our study, the Cu/CuO/Ni core/multi-shell nanowire arrays were prepared by AAO template-electrodeposition and oxidation processes. The Cu/Ni core/shell nanowire arrays were prepared by AAO template-electrodeposition method. The microstructure and chemical compositions of the core/multi-shell nanowires and core/shell nanowires have been characterized using transmission electron microscopy with HADDF-STEM and X-ray diffraction. Magnetization measurements revealed that the Cu/CuO/Ni and Cu/Ni nanowire arrays have high coercivity and remanence ratio.

  16. Contrasting the material chemistry of Cu 2ZnSnSe 4 and Cu 2ZnSnS (4-x)Se x

    DOE PAGES

    Aguiar, Jeffery A.; Patel, Maulik; Aoki, Toshihiro; ...

    2016-02-02

    Earth-abundant sustainable inorganic thin-film solar cells, independent of precious elements, pivot on a marginal material phase space targeting specific compounds. Advanced materials characterization efforts are necessary to expose the roles of microstructure, chemistry, and interfaces. Here, the earth-abundant solar cell device, Cu 2ZnSnS (4-x)Se x, is reported, which shows a high abundance of secondary phases compared to similarly grown Cu 2ZnSnSe 4.

  17. Structural and elemental characterization of high efficiency Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kejia; Shin, Byungha; Reuter, Kathleen B.; Todorov, Teodor; Mitzi, David B.; Guha, Supratik

    2011-01-01

    We have carried out detailed microstructural studies of phase separation and grain boundary composition in Cu2ZnSnS4 based solar cells. The absorber layer was fabricated by thermal evaporation followed by post high temperature annealing on hot plate. We show that inter-reactions between the bottom molybdenum and the Cu2ZnSnS4, besides triggering the formation of interfacial MoSx, results in the out-diffusion of Cu from the Cu2ZnSnS4 layer. Phase separation of Cu2ZnSnS4 into ZnS and a Cu-Sn-S compound is observed at the molybdenum-Cu2ZnSnS4 interface, perhaps as a result of the compositional out-diffusion. Additionally, grain boundaries within the thermally evaporated absorber layer are found to be either Cu-rich or at the expected bulk composition. Such interfacial compound formation and grain boundary chemistry likely contributes to the lower than expected open circuit voltages observed for the Cu2ZnSnS4 devices.

  18. Comment on "Active sites for CO2 hydrogenation to methanol on Cu/ZnO catalysts".

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Junji; Fujitani, Tadahiro; Kuld, Sebastian; Helveg, Stig; Chorkendorff, Ib; Sehested, Jens

    2017-09-01

    Kattel et al (Reports, 24 March 2017, p. 1296) report that a zinc on copper (Zn/Cu) surface undergoes oxidation to zinc oxide/copper (ZnO/Cu) during carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) hydrogenation to methanol and conclude that the Cu-ZnO interface is the active site for methanol synthesis. Similar experiments conducted two decades ago by Fujitani and Nakamura et al demonstrated that Zn is attached to formate rather than being fully oxidized. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Effect of Cu Alloying on S Poisoning of Ni Surfaces and Nanoparticle Morphologies Using Ab-Initio Thermodynamics Calculations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Su; Kim, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yeong-Cheol

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the effect of Cu alloying on S poisoning of Ni surfaces and nanoparticle morphologies using ab-initio thermodynamics calculations. Based on the Cu segregation energy and the S adsorption energy, the surface energy and nanoparticle morphology of pure Ni, pure Cu, and NiCu alloys were evaluated as functions of the chemical potential of S and the surface orientations of (100), (110), and (111). The constructed nanoparticle morphology was varied as a function of chemical potential of S. We find that the Cu added to Ni for NiCu alloys is strongly segregated into the top surface, and increases the S tolerance of the NiCu nanoparticles.

  20. Cooperative cytotoxic activity of Zn and Cu in bovine serum albumin-conjugated ZnS/CuS nano-composites in PC12 cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hua-Jie; Yu, Xue-Hong; Wang, Cai-Feng; Cao, Ying

    2013-11-01

    Series of self-assembled and mono-dispersed bovine serum albumin (BSA)-conjugated ZnS/CuS nano-composites with different Zn/Cu ratios had been successfully synthesized by a combination method of the biomimetic synthesis and ion-exchange strategy under the gentle conditions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy observation, Fourier transform infrared spectra and zeta potential analysis demonstrated that BSA-conjugated ZnS/CuS nano-composites with well dispersity had the hierarchical structure and BSA was a key factor to control the morphology and surface electro-negativity of final products. The real-time monitoring by atomic absorption spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction revealed that the Zn/Cu ratio of nano-composites could be controlled by adjusting the ion-exchange time. In addition, the metabolic and morphological assays indicated that the metabolic proliferation and spread of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells could be inhibited by nano-composites, with the high anti-cancer activity at a low concentration (4 ppm). What were more important, Zn and Cu in nano-composites exhibited a positive cooperativity at inhibiting cancer cell functions. The microscope observation and biochemical marker analysis clearly revealed that the nano-composites-included lipid peroxidation and disintegration of membrane led to the death of PC12 cells. Summarily, the present study substantiated the potential of BSA-conjugated ZnS/CuS nano-composites as anti-cancer drug.

  1. Role of Cu layer thickness on the magnetic anisotropy of pulsed electrodeposited Ni/Cu/Ni tri-layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanapal, K.; Prabhu, D.; Gopalan, R.; Narayanan, V.; Stephen, A.

    2017-07-01

    The Ni/Cu/Ni tri-layer film with different thickness of Cu layer was deposited using pulsed electrodeposition method. The XRD pattern of all the films show the formation of fcc structure of nickel and copper. This shows the orientated growth in the (2 2 0) plane of the layered films as calculated from the relative intensity ratio. The layer formation in the films were observed from cross sectional view using FE-SEM and confirms the decrease in Cu layer thickness with decreasing deposition time. The magnetic anisotropy behaviour was measured using VSM with two different orientations of layered film. This shows that increasing anisotropy energy with decreasing Cu layer thickness and a maximum of  -5.13  ×  104 J m-3 is observed for copper deposited for 1 min. From the K eff.t versus t plot, development of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in the layered system is predicted below 0.38 µm copper layer thickness.

  2. Effect of Cu-Dopant on the Structural, Magnetic and Electrical Properties of ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryanto, D.; Kurniawan, C.; Subhan, A.; Sudiro, T.; Sebayang, P.; Ginting, M.; Siregar, S. M. K.; Nasruddin, M. N.

    2017-05-01

    Zn1- x Cu x O (x = 0, 2, 3, and 4 at.%) was synthesized by using solid-state reaction technique. The ZnO and CuO powders were mixed and then milled by using high-speed shaker mill. The influence of Cu dopants on the structure, magnetic, and electrical properties was investigated by using XRD, VSM, and I-V and C-V measurements. The XRD analysis showed that the Zn1- x Cu x O had hexagonal wurtzite polycrystalline. The diffraction intensity decreased and the peak position shifted directly to a higher 2θ angle with increasing the dopant concentration. Furthermore, the lattice parameters decreased when the ZnO was doped with x = 0.04, which indicated that the crystal structure changed. The increase of Cu dopants was believed to affect the magnetic and electrical properties of ZnO.

  3. Reaction pathways of furfural, furfuryl alcohol and 2-methylfuran on Cu(111) and NiCu bimetallic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Ke; Wan, Weiming; Chen, Jingguang G.

    2016-10-01

    Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) is an important reaction for converting biomass-derived furfural to value-added 2-methylfuran, which is a promising fuel additive. In this work, the HDO of furfural to produce 2-methylfuran occurred on the NiCu bimetallic surfaces prepared on either Ni(111) or Cu(111). The reaction pathways of furfural were investigated on Cu(111) and Ni/Cu(111) surfaces using density functional theory (DFT) calculations, temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) experiments. These studies provided mechanistic insights into the effects of bimetallic formation on enhancing the HDO activity. Specifically, furfural weakly adsorbed on Cu(111), while it strongly adsorbed on Ni/Cu(111) through an η2(C,O) configuration, which led to the HDO of furfural on Ni/Cu(111). The ability to dissociate H2 on Ni/Cu(111) is also an important factor for enhancing the HDO activity over Cu(111).

  4. Reaction pathways of furfural, furfuryl alcohol and 2-methylfuran on Cu(111) and NiCu bimetallic surfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Xiong, Ke; Wan, Weiming; Chen, Jingguang G.

    2016-02-23

    Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) is an important reaction for converting biomass-derived furfural to value-added 2-methylfuran, which is a promising fuel additive. In this work, the HDO of furfural to produce 2-methylfuran occurred on the NiCu bimetallic surfaces prepared on either Ni(111) or Cu(111). The reaction pathways of furfural were investigated on Cu(111) and Ni/Cu(111) surfaces using density functional theory (DFT) calculations, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) experiments. These studies provided mechanistic insights into the effects of bimetallic formation on enhancing the HDO activity. Specifically, furfural weakly adsorbed on Cu(111), while it strongly adsorbed on Ni/Cu(111)more » through an η 2(C,O) configuration which led to the HDO of furfural on Ni/Cu(111). Lastly, the ability to dissociate H 2 on Ni/Cu(111) is also an important factor for enhancing the HDO activity over Cu(111).« less

  5. Solution Combustion Synthesis of Ni/NiO/ZnO Nanocomposites for Photodegradation of Methylene Blue Under Ultraviolet Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biglari, Z.; Masoudpanah, S. M.; Alamolhoda, S.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, Ni/NiO/ZnO nanocomposites were synthesized by the one-pot solution combustion synthesis method. Phase evolution investigated by the x-ray diffraction method showed that the ZnO and NiO contents can be tuned by addition of a zinc precursor. The microstructure characterized by electron microscopy exhibited granular morphology with a particle size of 1.1 μm decreasing to 90 nm as a function of the amounts of ZnO and NiO phases. Specific surface area determined by N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms increased from 1.4 m2/g to 25.6 m2/g with the increase of oxide phases. However, the saturation magnetization decreased from 51.3 emu/g to 25.9 emu/g in the presence of antiferromagnetic NiO and nonmagnetic ZnO phases. Photodegradation of methylene blue under ultraviolet light exhibited the maximum efficiency in the sample containing 16.25 wt.% of ZnO and 21.25 wt.% of NiO, and may be due to the synergic effect between ZnO and NiO.

  6. Cation distribution of Ni-Zn-Mn ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvatheeswara Rao, B.; Dhanalakshmi, B.; Ramesh, S.; Subba Rao, P. S. V.

    2018-06-01

    Mn substituted Ni-Zn ferrite nanoparticles, Ni0.4Zn0.6-xMnxFe2O4 (x = 0.00-0.25 in steps of 0.05), using metal nitrates were prepared by sol-gel autocombustion in citric acid matrix. The samples were examined by X-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometer techniques. Rietveld structural refinements using the XRD data were performed on the samples to consolidate various structural parameters like phase (spinel), crystallite size (24.86-37.43 nm), lattice constant (8.3764-8.4089 Å) etc and also to determine cation distributions based on profile matching and integrated intensity ratios. Saturation magnetization values (37.18-68.40 emu/g) were extracted from the measured M-H loops of these nanoparticles to estimate their magnetic moments. Experimental and calculated magnetic moments and lattice constants were used to confirm the derived cation distributions from Rietveld analysis. The results of these ferrite nanoparticles are discussed in terms of the compositional modifications, particle sizes and the corresponding cation distributions as a result of Mn substitutions.

  7. Thermochemistry of paddle wheel MOFs: Cu-HKUST-1 and Zn-HKUST-1.

    PubMed

    Bhunia, Manas K; Hughes, James T; Fettinger, James C; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2013-06-25

    Metal-organic framework (MOF) porosity relies upon robust metal-organic bonds to retain structural rigidity upon solvent removal. Both the as-synthesized and activated Cu and Zn polymorphs of HKUST-1 were studied by room temperature acid solution calorimetry. Their enthalpies of formation from dense assemblages (metal oxide (ZnO or CuO), trimesic acid (TMA), and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF)) were calculated from the calorimetric data. The enthalpy of formation (ΔHf) of the as-synthesized Cu-HKUST-H2O ([Cu3TMA2·3H2O]·5DMF) is -52.70 ± 0.34 kJ per mole of Cu. The ΔHf for Zn-HKUST-DMF ([Zn3TMA2·3DMF]·2DMF) is -54.22 ± 0.57 kJ per mole of Zn. The desolvated Cu-HKUST-dg [Cu3TMA2] has a ΔHf of 16.66 ± 0.51 kJ/mol per mole Cu. The ΔHf for Zn-HKUST-amorph [Zn3TMA2·2DMF] is -3.57 ± 0.21 kJ per mole of Zn. Solvent stabilizes the Cu-HKUST-H2O by -69.4 kJ per mole of Cu and Zn-HKUST-DMF by at least -50.7 kJ per mole of Zn. Such strong chemisorption of solvent is similar in magnitude to the strongly exothermic binding at low coverage for chemisorbed H2O on transition metal oxide nanoparticle surfaces. The strongly exothermic solvent-framework interaction suggests that solvent can play a critical role in obtaining a specific secondary building unit (SBU) topology.

  8. Ligational behaviour of lomefloxacin drug towards Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Th(IV) and UO(2)(VI) ions: synthesis, structural characterization and biological activity studies.

    PubMed

    Abd el-Halim, Hanan F; Mohamed, Gehad G; el-Dessouky, Maher M I; Mahmoud, Walaa H

    2011-11-01

    Nine new mononuclear Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Th(IV) and UO(2)(VI) complexes of lomefloxacin drug were synthesized. The structures of these complexes were elucidated by elemental analyses, IR, XRD, UV-vis, (1)H NMR as well as conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements and thermal analyses. The dissociation constants of lomefloxacin and stability constants of its binary complexes have been determined spectrophotometrically in aqueous solution at 25±1°C and at 0.1 M KNO(3) ionic strength. The discussion of the outcome data of the prepared complexes indicate that the lomefloxacin ligand behaves as a neutral bidentate ligand through OO coordination sites and coordinated to the metal ions via the carbonyl oxygen and protonated carboxylic oxygen with 1:1 (metal:ligand) stoichiometry for all complexes. The molar conductance measurements proved that the complexes are electrolytes. The powder XRD study reflects the crystalline nature for the investigated ligand and its complexes except Mn(II), Zn(II) and UO(2)(II). The geometrical structures of these complexes are found to be octahedral. The thermal behaviour of these chelates is studied where the hydrated complexes lose water molecules of hydration in the first steps followed by decomposition of the anions, coordinated water and ligand molecules in the subsequent steps. The activation thermodynamic parameters are calculated using Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger methods. A comparative study of the inhibition zones of the ligand and its metal complexes indicates that metal complexes exhibit higher antibacterial effect against one or more bacterial species than the free LFX ligand. The antifungal and anticancer activities were also tested. The antifungal effect of almost metal complexes is higher than the free ligand. LFX, [Co(LFX)(H(2)O)(4)]·Cl(2) and [Zn(LFX)(H(2)O)(4)]·Cl(2) were found to be very active with IC50 values 14, 11.2 and 43.1, respectively. While, other

  9. Structural, electrical, optical and magnetic properties of NiO/ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sushmitha, V.; Maragatham, V.; Raj, P. Deepak; Sridharan, M.

    2018-02-01

    Nickel oxide/Zinc oxide (NiO/ZnO) thin films have been deposited onto thoroughly cleaned glass substrates by reactive direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering technique and subsequently annealed at 300 °C for 3 h in vacuum. The NiO/ZnO thin films were then studied for their structural, optical and electrical properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of ZnO and NiO showed the diffraction planes corresponding to hexagonal and cubic phase respectively. The optical properties showed that with the increase in the deposition time of NiO the energy band gap varied between 3.1 to 3.24 eV. Hence, by changing the deposition time of NiO the tuning of band gap and conductivity were achieved. The magnetic studies revealed the diamagnetic nature of the NiO/ZnO thin films.

  10. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Cu and Cu-Zn Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaolong

    Strength and ductility are two crucial mechanical properties of structural materials, which, unfortunately, are often mutually exclusive based on the conventional design of microstructures and their deformation physics. This is also true in most nanostructured (NS) metals and alloys although they exhibit record-high strength. However, the disappointingly inadequate ductility becomes the major roadblock to their practical utilities due to the threat of catastrophic failure in load-bearing applications. Therefore, simultaneous improvement of strength and ductility or a well-defined trade-off between these two properties, i.e. increasing either of them without significant loss of the other, in NS materials has garnered extensive efforts from the research community. A few strategies have been explored to handle this long-standing challenge with promise. In this dissertation work, two of those strategies, deformation twins and laminate/gradient structures are specified with particular interests in NS Cu and Cu-Zn alloys. The author believes the observation and the revealed underlying mechanism are fundamental and therefore shed lights on their universal application to other metallic material systems. Deformation twins have been frequently observed in ultra-fined grained (UFG) and NS face-centered cubic (FCC) metals and alloys, which is closely related to the better strengthening and strain hardening in mechanical performance. Previous findings even show that there exist an optimum grain size range within nano scale, where the deformation twins are of most frequency, i.e. most stable in pure FCC metals. However, such grain-size dependent twinning phenomenon is still unclear in FCC alloys. We report, for the first time in systematic experiments, the observed optimum grain sizes for deformation twins in NS Cu-Zn alloys slightly increase with increasing Zn content. Our results indicate that alloying changes the relationship between the stacking-fault and twin-fault energy

  11. Vibronic spectra of Cu(2+) in ZnTe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Su, C.-H.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Szofran, F. R.

    1992-01-01

    Infrared-absorption spectra of substitutional Cu(2+) ions in ZnTe have been measured at 4.6 K. Several distinct absorption peaks are observed between 800 and 2000/cm. Absorption peaks at 1002 and 1069/cm are identified as zero-phonon lines arising from 2T2-2E transitions. Between 1069 and 2000/cm, several sets of sharp absorption lines are seen to recur regularly at an interval of 210/cm, corresponding to the LO phonon energy. Within each set distinct vibronic sidebands that cannot be identified with critical-point energies of TA, LA, TO or LO phonon modes are observed. A dynamic Jahn-Teller effect, involving coupling between a single-phonon mode and the electronic states of the 2E level, is proposed to account for the observed spectra.

  12. Optical absorption and thermal stability study of Cu doped NiO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varunkumar, K.; Ethiraj, Anita Sagadevan; Kechiantz, Ara

    2018-05-01

    This work reports variation of Cu doping concentration in NiO nanoparticles (NiO:Cu NPs) synthesized via chemical co-precipitation from solution by using NiCl2.6H2O as precursor, CuSO4.5H2O as dopant and NaOH as surfactant. We studied optical and thermal stability of prepared NiO:Cu NPs by UV-Vis absorbance, Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (DRS), Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), and Thermo Gravimetric/Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TGA/DSC) analyses. Optical absorption data of NiO:Cu NPs indicated strong absorption peaks shifted towards blue with respect to the peak of undoped NiO NPs due to quantum confinement effect. The bandgap estimated via Tauc plot first increased from 3.32eV (undoped NiO NPs) to 3.37 eV (8 at % of Cu in NiO NPs) and further increase of Cu doping to 10 at% reduced the bandgap to 3.35 eV. Such behavior of the bandgap clearly indicates that the size of NiO NPs first reduces with Cu doping up to 8 at % and then increases with further Cu doping to 10 at %. This behavior of reduction in particle size with increased doping can be attributed to the dislocation density and microstrain developed in NiO:Cu NPs. Thermal stability analysis demonstrated that in addition undoped NiO NPs, all NiO:Cu nanoparticle samples exhibited good thermal stability.

  13. Cu-Ni-Fe anodes having improved microstructure

    DOEpatents

    Bergsma, S. Craig; Brown, Craig W.

    2004-04-20

    A method of producing aluminum in a low temperature electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten electrolyte having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell containing the electrolyte. A non-consumable anode and cathode is disposed in the electrolyte, the anode comprised of Cu--Ni--Fe alloys having single metallurgical phase. Electric current is passed from the anode, through the electrolyte to the cathode thereby depositing aluminum on the cathode, and molten aluminum is collected from the cathode.

  14. Low-field spin dynamics of Cr7Ni and Cr7Ni-Cu -Cr 7Ni molecular rings as detected by μ SR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, S.; Arosio, P.; Bordonali, L.; Adelnia, F.; Mariani, M.; Garlatti, E.; Baines, C.; Amato, A.; Sabareesh, K. P. V.; Timco, G.; Winpenny, R. E. P.; Blundell, S. J.; Lascialfari, A.

    2017-11-01

    Muon spin rotation measurements were used to investigate the spin dynamics of heterometallic Cr7Ni and Cr7Ni -Cu-Cr7Ni molecular clusters. In Cr7Ni the magnetic ions are arranged in a quasiplanar ring and interact via an antiferromagnetic exchange coupling constant J , while Cr7Ni -Cu-Cr7Ni is composed of two Cr7Ni linked by a bridging moiety containing one Cu ion, that induces an inter-ring ferromagnetic interaction J'≪J . The longitudinal muon relaxation rate λ collected at low magnetic fields μ0H <0.15 Tesla, shows that the two systems present differences in spin dynamics vs temperature. While both samples exhibit a main peak in the muon relaxation rate vs temperature, at T ˜10 K for Cr7Ni and T ˜8 K for Cr7Ni -Cu-Cr7Ni , the two compounds have distinct additional features: Cr7Ni shows a shoulder in λ (T ) for T <8 K, while Cr7Ni -Cu-Cr7Ni shows a flattening of λ (T ) for T <2 K down to temperatures as low as T =20 mK. The main peak of both systems is explained by a Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound (BPP)-like heuristic fitting model that takes into account of a distribution of electronic spin characteristic times for T >5 K, while the shoulder presented by Cr7Ni can be reproduced by a BPP function that incorporates a single electronic characteristic time theoretically predicted to dominate for T <5 K. The flattening of λ (T ) in Cr7Ni -Cu-Cr7Ni occurring at very low temperature can be tentatively attributed to field-dependent quantum effects and/or to an inelastic term in the spectral density of the electronic spin fluctuations.

  15. Structural and magnetic properties of yttrium and lanthanum-doped Ni-Co and Ni-Co-Zn spinel ferrites

    SciT

    Stergiou, Charalampos, E-mail: stergiou@cperi.certh.gr; Litsardakis, George, E-mail: lits@eng.auth.gr

    2014-11-05

    Rare earth doping of Co-rich spinel ferrites is investigated through the preparation of two groups of polycrystalline Ni-Co and Ni-Co-Zn ferrites, where Fe is partly substituted by Y and La. The characterization of the sintered ferrites by means of X-ray powder diffraction and Rietveld profile analysis, indicates the subtle expansion of the spinel unit cell and the cation redistribution in the doped ferrites in order to accommodate the incorporation of Y and La in the lattice. The impurity traces, detected only in the Ni-Co-Zn group, is ascribed to the Zn population in the tetrahedral A-sites impeding the cation transfer. Moreover,more » the examined microstructure of the doped Ni-Co samples comprises enlarged and more homogeneous grains, whereas grain growth is moderated in the doped Ni-Co-Zn ferrites. The discussed characteristics of the crystal and magnetic structure along with the morphological aspects define the impact of Y and La doping on the static magnetic properties of Ni-Co and Ni-Co-Zn ferrites, saturation magnetization MS and coercivity HC, which were extracted from the respective hysteresis loops.« less

  16. The case for metamorphic base metal mineralization: pyrite chemical, Cu and S isotope data from the Cu-Zn deposit at Kupferberg in Bavaria, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhn, S.; Frimmel, H. E.; Debaille, V.; Pašava, J.; Kuulmann, L.; Debouge, W.

    2017-12-01

    The stratiform Cu-Zn sulfide deposit at Kupferberg in Germany represents Bavaria's largest historic base metal producer. The deposit is hosted by Early Paleozoic volcano-sedimentary strata at the margin of a high-grade allochthonous metamorphic complex. The present paper reports on the first Cu and S isotope data as well as trace element analyses of pyrite from this unusual deposit. The new data point to syn-orogenic mineralization that was driven by metamorphic fluids during nappe emplacement. Primary Cu ore occurs as texturally late chalcopyrite within stratiform laminated pyrite in black shale in two different tectonostratigraphic units of very low and low metamorphic grade, respectively, that were juxtaposed during the Variscan orogeny. Trace element contents of different pyrite types suggest the presence of at least one hydrothermal pyrite generation (mean Co/Ni = 35), with the other pyrite types being syn-sedimentary/early diagenetic (mean Co/Ni = 3.7). Copper isotope analyses yielded a narrow δ65Cu range of -0.26 to 0.36‰ for all ore types suggesting a hypogene origin for the principal chalcopyrite mineralization. The ore lenses in the two different tectonostratigraphic units differ with regard to their δ34S values, but little difference exists between poorly and strongly mineralized domains within a given locality. A genetic model is proposed in which syn-sedimentary/early diagenetic pyrite with subordinate chalcopyrite and sphalerite formed in black shale beds in the two different stratigraphic units, followed by late-tectonic strata-internal, hydrothermal mobilization of Fe, Cu, and Zn during syn-orogenic thrusting, which concentrated especially Cu to ore grade. In agreement with this model, Cu distribution in stream sediments in this region shows distinct enrichments bound to the margin of the allochthonous complex. Thus, Kupferberg can be considered a rare example of a syn-orogenic Cu deposit with the Cu probably being derived from syn

  17. Electronic and optical properties of Cu2XSnS4 (X = Be, Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, and Ni) and the impact of native defect pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rongzhen; Persson, Clas

    2017-05-01

    Reducing or controlling cation disorder in Cu2ZnSnS4 is a major challenge, mainly due to low formation energies of the anti-site pair ( CuZn - + ZnCu +) and the compensated Cu vacancy ( VCu - + ZnCu +). We study the electronic and optical properties of Cu2XSnS4 (CXTS, with X = Be, Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, and Ni) and the impact of defect pairs, by employing the first-principles method within the density functional theory. The calculations indicate that these compounds can be grown in either the kesterite or stannite tetragonal phase, except Cu2CaSnS4 which seems to be unstable also in its trigonal phase. In the tetragonal phase, all six compounds have rather similar electronic band structures, suitable band-gap energies Eg for photovoltaic applications, as well as good absorption coefficients α(ω). However, the formation of the defect pairs ( C u X + X Cu) and ( V Cu + X Cu) is an issue for these compounds, especially considering the anti-site pair which has formation energy in the order of ˜0.3 eV. The ( C u X + X Cu) pair narrows the energy gap by typically ΔEg ≈ 0.1-0.3 eV, but for Cu2NiSnS4, the complex yields localized in-gap states. Due to the low formation energy of ( C u X + X Cu), we conclude that it is difficult to avoid disordering from the high concentration of anti-site pairs. The defect concentration in Cu2BeSnS4 is however expected to be significantly lower (as much as ˜104 times at typical device operating temperature) compared to the other compounds, which is partly explained by larger relaxation effects in Cu2BeSnS4 as the two anti-site atoms have different sizes. The disadvantage is that the stronger relaxation has a stronger impact on the band-gap narrowing. Therefore, instead of trying to reduce the anti-site pairs, we suggest that one shall try to compensate ( C u X + X Cu) with ( V Cu + X Cu) or other defects in order to stabilize the gap energy.

  18. Effects of Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) on growth and physiological characteristics of green algae, Cladophora.

    PubMed

    Cao, De-ju; Xie, Pan-pan; Deng, Juan-wei; Zhang, Hui-min; Ma, Ru-xiao; Liu, Cheng; Liu, Ren-jing; Liang, Yue-gan; Li, Hao; Shi, Xiao-dong

    2015-11-01

    Effects of various concentrations of Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) (0.0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 mg/L) on the growth, malondialdehyde (MDA), the intracellular calcium, and physiological characteristics of green algae, Cladophora, were investigated. Low Zn(2+) concentrations accelerated the growth of Cladophora, whereas Zn(2+) concentration increases to 0.25 mg/L inhibited its growth. Cu(2+) greatly influences Cladophora growth. The photosynthesis of Cladophora decreased under Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) stress. Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) treatment affected the content of total soluble sugar in Cladophora and has small increases in its protein content. Zn(2+) induced the intracellular calcium release, and copper induced the intracellular calcium increases in Cladophora. Exposure to Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) induces MDA in Cladophora. The stress concent of Cu(2+) was strictly correlated with the total soluble sugar content, Chla+Chlb, and MDA in Cladophora, and the stress concent of Zn(2+) was strictly correlated with the relative growth rate (RGR) and MDA of Cladophora.

  19. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of magnetically separable hexagonal Ni/ZnO nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senapati, Samarpita; Srivastava, Suneel K.; Singh, Shiv B.

    2012-09-01

    The hexagonal zinc oxide coated nickel (Ni/ZnO) nanostructure photocatalyst has successfully been prepared by the reduction of nickel chloride hexahydrate using hydrazine hydrate through the solvothermal process at 140 °C followed by surface modification of the product by the reflux method at 110 °C for 1 h. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern showed that the `as prepared' sample consists of face centered cubic Ni and hexagonal wurtzite ZnO without any traces of impurity. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images confirmed the formation of nickel nanoparticles under solvothermal conditions. These nickel nanoparticles, when subjected to reflux, formed the hexagonal zinc oxide coated nickel nanostructure. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, photoluminescence (PL) and Raman studies also confirmed the presence of zinc oxide in the hybrid nanostructure. The growth mechanism for the development of the hexagonal zinc oxide coated nickel (Ni/ZnO) nanostructure has also been proposed. The appearance of the hysteresis loop, in the as-prepared Ni/ZnO hybrid nanostructure, demonstrated its ferromagnetic character at room temperature. The hexagonal Ni/ZnO nanostructure also acts as an efficient photocatalyst in the degradation of methylene blue under ultraviolet light irradiation. It is observed that the catalytic efficiency of the hybrid nanocatalyst is better compared to pure zinc oxide. Most importantly, the Ni/ZnO catalyst could also be easily separated, simply by applying an external magnetic field, and reused.The hexagonal zinc oxide coated nickel (Ni/ZnO) nanostructure photocatalyst has successfully been prepared by the reduction of nickel chloride hexahydrate using hydrazine hydrate through the solvothermal process at 140 °C followed by surface modification of the product by the reflux method at 110 °C for 1 h. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern showed that the `as prepared' sample consists of face

  20. Tracing contamination sources in soils with Cu and Zn isotopic ratios.

    PubMed

    Fekiacova, Z; Cornu, S; Pichat, S

    2015-06-01

    Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are naturally present and ubiquitous in soils and are important micronutrients. Human activities contribute to the input of these metals to soils in different chemical forms, which can sometimes reach a toxic level for soil organisms and plants. Isotopic signatures could be used to trace sources of anthropogenic Cu and Zn pollution. The aim of this paper is to determine whether it is possible to identify (i) Cu and Zn contamination in soils and their sources, on the basis of their isotopic signatures, and (ii) situations that are a priori favorable or not for tracing Cu and Zn pollution using the isotopic approach. Therefore, we compiled data from the literature on Cu and Zn isotopes in soils, rocks and pollutants and added to this database the results of our own research. As only a few studies have dealt with agricultural contamination, we also studied a soil toposequence from Brittany, France, that experienced spreading of pig slurry for tens of years. In the surface horizons of the natural soils, the δ(65)Cu values vary from -0.15 to 0.44‰ and the δ(66)Zn from -0.03 to 0.43‰. Furthermore, vertical variations along soil profiles range from -0.95 to 0.44‰ for δ(65)Cu and from -0.53 to 0.64‰ for δ(66)Zn values. We concluded that pedogenetic processes can produce isotopic fractionation, yet, it is not always discernible and can be overprinted by an exogenous isotopic signature. Furthermore, some contaminants are enriched in heavy Cu or in light Zn compared to the rock or soil, but no generalization can be made. The anthropogenic inputs can be identified based on stable Cu and Zn isotope ratios if the isotope ratios of the sources are different from those of the soil, which needs to be tested for each individual case. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ultrasonic soldering of Cu alloy using Ni-foam/Sn composite interlayer.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yong; Wang, Qiwei; Wang, Ling; Zeng, Xian; Li, Mingyu; Wang, Ziqi; Zhang, Xingyi; Zhu, Xiaomeng

    2018-07-01

    In this study, Cu alloy joints were fabricated with a Ni-foam reinforced Sn-based composite solder with the assistance of ultrasonic vibration. Effects of ultrasonic soldering time on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Cu/Ni-Sn/Cu joints were investigated. Results showed that exceptional metallurgic bonding could be acquired with the assistance of ultrasonic vibration using a self-developed Ni-foam/Sn composite solder. For joint soldered for 5 s, a (Cu,Ni) 6 Sn 5 intermetallic compound (IMC) layer was formed on the Cu substrate surface, Ni skeletons distributed randomly in the soldering seam and a serrated (Ni,Cu) 3 Sn 4 IMC layer was formed on the Ni skeleton surface. Increasing the soldering time to 20 s, the (Ni,Cu) 3 Sn 4 IMC layer grew significantly and exhibited a loose porous structure on the Ni skeleton surface. Further increase the soldering time to 30 s, Ni skeletons were largely dissolved in the Sn base solder, and micro-sized (Ni,Cu) 3 Sn 4 particles were formed and dispersed homogeneously in the soldering seam. The formation of (Ni,Cu) 3 Sn 4 particles was mainly ascribed to acoustic cavitations induced erosion and grain refining effects. The joint soldered for 30 s exhibited the highest shear strength of 64.9 ± 3.3 MPa, and the shearing failure mainly occurred at the soldering seam/Cu substrate interface. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-range effect of ion irradiation on Cu surface segregation in a Cu sbnd Ni system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Tang, Guangze; Ma, Xinxin; Russell, F. Michael; Cao, Xingzhong; Wang, Baoyi; Zhang, Peng

    2011-05-01

    Ni films were deposited on one side of single crystal Cu substrate discs of 1.0 and 1.5 mm thickness. These discs were irradiated on the Cu side with argon ions. Evidence for enhanced Cu segregation at the Ni surface was found for both thicknesses. This effect decreased with increasing distance between the diffusion zone and the irradiated surface. Slow positron annihilation results indicate lower vacancy-like defects at the subsurface layer after Ar irradiation on the other surface of Cu disks. Such long-range effect is here interpreted on the basis of a particular type of mobile discrete breather called quodon.

  3. Adaptive composites with embedded NiTiCu wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balta-Neumann, J. Antonio; Michaud, Veronique J.; Parlinska, Magdelena; Gotthardt, Rolf; Manson, Jan-Anders E.

    2001-07-01

    Adaptive composites have been produced by embedding prestrained shape memory alloy (SMA) wires into an epoxy matrix, reinforced with aramid fibers. These materials demonstrate attractive effects such as shape change or a shift in the vibration frequency upon activation. When heated above their transformation temperature, the wires' strain recovery is confined, and recovery stresses are generated. As a result, if the wires are placed along the neutral axis of a composite beam, a shift in resonance vibration frequency can be observed. To optimize the design of such composites, the matrix - SMA wire interfacial shear strength has been analyzed with the pull out testing technique. It is shown that the nature of the wire surface influences the interfacial shear strength, and that satisfactory results are obtained for SMA wires with a thin oxide layer. Composite samples consisting of two different types of pre- strained NiTiCu wires embedded in either pure epoxy matrix or Kevlar-epoxy matrix were produced. The recovery force and vibration response of composites were measured in a clamped-clamped configuration, to assess the effect of wire type and volume fraction. The results are highly reproducible in all cases with a narrow hysteresis loop, which makes NiTiCu wires good candidates for adaptive composites. The recovery forces increase with the volume fraction of the embedded wires, are higher when the wires are embedded in a low CTE matrix and, at a given temperature, are higher when the wire transformation temperature is lower.

  4. Cu-Al-Ni-SMA-Based High-Damping Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Gabriel A.; Barrado, Mariano; San Juan, Jose; Nó, María Luisa

    2009-08-01

    Recently, absorption of vibration energy by mechanical damping has attracted much attention in several fields such as vibration reduction in aircraft and automotive industries, nanoscale vibration isolations in high-precision electronics, building protection in civil engineering, etc. Typically, the most used high-damping materials are based on polymers due to their viscoelastic behavior. However, polymeric materials usually show a low elastic modulus and are not stable at relatively low temperatures (≈323 K). Therefore, alternative materials for damping applications are needed. In particular, shape memory alloys (SMAs), which intrinsically present high-damping capacity thanks to the dissipative hysteretic movement of interfaces under external stresses, are very good candidates for high-damping applications. A completely new approach was applied to produce high-damping composites with relatively high stiffness. Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy powders were embedded with metallic matrices of pure In, a In-10wt.%Sn alloy and In-Sn eutectic alloy. The production methodology is described. The composite microstructures and damping properties were characterized. A good particle distribution of the Cu-Al-Ni particles in the matrices was observed. The composites exhibit very high damping capacities in relatively wide temperature ranges. The methodology introduced provides versatility to control the temperature of maximum damping by adjusting the shape memory alloy composition.

  5. Mesoporous ZnS–NiS Nanocomposites for Nonenzymatic Electrochemical Glucose Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chengzhen; Cheng, Cheng; Zhao, Junhong; Wang, Zhangtao; Wu, Haipeng; Gu, Kaiyue; Du, Weimin; Pang, Huan

    2015-01-01

    Mesoporous ZnS–NiS composites are prepared via ion- exchange reactions using ZnS as the precursor. The prepared mesoporous ZnS–NiS composite materials have large surface areas (137.9 m2 g−1) compared with the ZnS precursor. More importantly, the application of these mesoporous ZnS–NiS composites as nonenzymatic glucose sensors was successfully explored. Electrochemical sensors based on mesoporous ZnS–NiS composites exhibit a high selectivity and a low detection limit (0.125 μm) toward the oxidation of glucose, which can mainly be attributed to the morphological characteristics of the mesoporous structure with high specific surface area and a rational composition of the two constituents. In addition, the mesoporous ZnS–NiS composites coated on the surface of electrodes can be used to modify the mass transport regime, and this alteration can, in favorable circumstances, facilitate the amperometric discrimination between species. These results suggest that such mesoporous ZnS–NiS composites are promising materials for nonenzymatic glucose sensors. PMID:25861568

  6. Cation distribution in NiZn-ferrite films determined using x-ray absorption fine structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, V. G.; Koon, N. C.; Williams, C. M.; Zhang, Q.; Abe, M.

    1996-04-01

    We have applied extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy to study the cation distribution in a series of spin-sprayed NiZn-ferrite films, Ni0.15ZnyFe2.85-yO4 (y=0.16, 0.23, 0.40, 0.60). The Ni, Zn, and Fe EXAFS were collected from each sample and analyzed to Fourier transforms. Samples of Ni-ferrite, Zn-ferrite, and magnetite were similarly studied as empirical standards. These standards, together with EXAFS data generated from the theoretical EXAFS FEFF codes, allowed the correlation of features in the Fourier transforms with specific lattice sites in the spinel unit cell. We find that the Ni ions reside mostly on the octahedral (B) sites whereas the Zn ions are predominantly on the tetrahedral (A) sites. The Fe ions reside on both A and B sites in a ratio determined by the ratio of Zn/Fe. The addition of Zn displaces a larger fraction of Fe cations onto the B sites serving to increase the net magnetization. The fraction of A site Ni ions is measured to increase peaking at ≊25% for y=0.6. At higher Zn concentrations (y≥0.5) the lattice experiences local distortions around the Zn sites causing a decrease in the superexchange resulting in a decrease in the net magnetization.

  7. Role of Ni doping on transport properties of ZnO thin films

    SciT

    Dar, Tanveer Ahmad, E-mail: tanveerphysics@gmail.com; Agrawal, Arpana; Sen, Pratima

    2015-06-24

    Nickel doped (Ni=0.05) and undoped Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films have been prepared by Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The structural analysis of the films was done by X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies which reveal absence of any secondary phase in the prepared samples. UV transmission spectra show that Ni doping reduces the transparency of the films. X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) also shows the presence of metallic Ni along with +2 oxidation state in the sample. Low temperature magneto transport properties of the ZnO and NiZnO films are also discussed in view of Khosla fisher model. Ni doping in ZnO resultsmore » in decrease in magnitude of negative MR.« less

  8. The effect of Mn/Ni on thermodynamic properties of critical nucleus in Fe-Cu-Mn (Ni) ternary alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Boyan; Zhang, Lei; Li, Chengliang; ...

    2018-04-18

    The aging- or radiation-induced hardening of Cu/Mn/Ni precipitates in Fe alloys is one of property degradation mechanisms in structural materials in nuclear reactors. Experiments show that aging or radiation leads the formation of Cu-rich precipitates, and the addition of Mn or Ni elements enhances the precipitation kinetics. In this study, the phase-field model coupled with the constrained string method have been applied to investigate the thermodynamic properties of critical nuclei such as the minimum energy path of Cu/Mn/Ni precipitation in Fe-Cu-Mn and Fe-Cu-Ni ternary alloys. The chemical free energies used in the model are taken from CALPHAD. The simulation resultsmore » show that the formation of Cu/Mn/Ni clusters needs to overcome an energy barrier, and the precipitate has a Core-Shell structure. The thermodynamic properties of the critical nucleus are influenced by temperature and Cu/Mn/Ni overall concentrations, which are in accordance with the simulation results as well as the experimental observations.« less

  9. The effect of Mn/Ni on thermodynamic properties of critical nucleus in Fe-Cu-Mn (Ni) ternary alloys

    SciT

    Li, Boyan; Zhang, Lei; Li, Chengliang

    The aging- or radiation-induced hardening of Cu/Mn/Ni precipitates in Fe alloys is one of property degradation mechanisms in structural materials in nuclear reactors. Experiments show that aging or radiation leads the formation of Cu-rich precipitates, and the addition of Mn or Ni elements enhances the precipitation kinetics. In this study, the phase-field model coupled with the constrained string method have been applied to investigate the thermodynamic properties of critical nuclei such as the minimum energy path of Cu/Mn/Ni precipitation in Fe-Cu-Mn and Fe-Cu-Ni ternary alloys. The chemical free energies used in the model are taken from CALPHAD. The simulation resultsmore » show that the formation of Cu/Mn/Ni clusters needs to overcome an energy barrier, and the precipitate has a Core-Shell structure. The thermodynamic properties of the critical nucleus are influenced by temperature and Cu/Mn/Ni overall concentrations, which are in accordance with the simulation results as well as the experimental observations.« less

  10. Pharmacologically significant complexes of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) of novel Schiff base ligand, (E)-N-(furan-2-yl methylene) quinolin-8-amine: Synthesis, spectral, XRD, SEM, antimicrobial, antioxidant and in vitro cytotoxic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakir, M.; Hanif, Summaiya; Sherwani, Mohd. Asif; Mohammad, Owais; Al-Resayes, Saud I.

    2015-07-01

    A novel series of metal complexes of the types, [ML2(H2O)2]Cl2 and [ML2]Cl2 [M = Mn(II), 1; Co(II), 2; Ni(II), 3; Cu(II), 4; and Zn(II), 5] were synthesized by the interaction of ligand, L (E)-N-(furan-2-yl methylene) quinolin-8-amine, derived from the condensation of 2-furaldehyde and 8-aminoquinoline. The synthesized ligand and its metal complexes were characterized on the basis of results obtained from elemental analysis, ESI-MS, XRD, SEM, TGA/DTA, FT-IR, UV-Vis, magnetic moment and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic studies. EPR parameters were recorded in case of complex 4. The comparative in-vitro antimicrobial activities against various pathogens with reference to known antibiotics and antioxidant activity against standard control at variable concentrations revealed that the metal complexes show enhanced antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities in general as compared to free ligand. However, the complexes 1 and 5 have shown best antioxidant activity among all the metal complexes. Furthermore, comparative in-vitro antiproliferative activity on ligand and its metal chelates performed on MDA-MB-231 (breast carcinoma), KCL22 (blood lymphoid carcinoma), HeLa (cervical carcinoma) cell lines and normal cells (PBMC) revealed that metal chelates show moderate to good activity as compared to ligand where as complex 1 seems to be the most promising one possessing a broad spectrum of activity against all the selected cancer cell lines with IC50 < 2.10 μM.

  11. Electronic Topological Transitions in CuNiMnAl and CuNiMnSn under pressure from first principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rambabu, P.; Kanchana, V.

    2018-06-01

    A detailed study on quaternary ordered full Heusler alloys CuNiMnAl and CuNiMnSn at ambient and under different compressions is presented using first principles electronic structure calculations. Both the compounds are found to possess ferromagnetic nature at ambient with magnetic moment of Mn being 3.14 μB and 3.35 μB respectively in CuNiMnAl and CuNiMnSn. The total magnetic moment for both the compounds is found to decrease under compression. Fermi surface (FS) topology change is observed in both compounds under pressure at V/V0 = 0.90, further leading to Electronic Topological Transitions (ETTs) and is evidenced by the anomalies visualized in density of states and elastic constants under compression.

  12. In situ spectroscopic characterization of Ni 1-xZn x/ZnO catalysts and their selectivity for acetylene semihydrogenation in excess ethylene

    SciT

    Spanjers, Charles S.; Sim, Richard S.; Sturgis, Nicholas P.

    2015-10-30

    The structures of ZnO-supported Ni catalysts were explored with in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy, temperature-programmed reduction, X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. Calcination of nickel nitrate on a nanoparticulate ZnO support at 450 °C results in the formation of Zn-doped NiO (ca. N₀̣̣₈₅ Zn₀̣̣₁₅O) nanoparticles with the rock salt crystal structure. Subsequent in situ reduction monitored by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) at the Ni K edge reveals a direct transformation of the Zn-doped NiO nanoparticles to a face-centered cubic alloy, Ni 1-xZn x, at ~400 °C with x increasingmore » with increasing temperature. Both in situ XANES and ex situ HRTEM provide evidence for intermetallic β₁-NiZn formation at ~550 °C. In comparison to a Ni/SiO₂ catalyst, Ni/ZnO necessitates a higher temperature for the reduction of Ni II to Ni⁰, which highlights the strong interaction between Ni and the ZnO support. The catalytic activity for acetylene removal from an ethylene feed stream is decreased by a factor of 20 on Ni/ZnO in comparison to Ni/SiO₂. The decrease in catalytic activity of Ni/ZnO is accompanied by a reduced absolute selectivity to ethylene. H–D exchange measurements demonstrate a reduced ability of Ni/ZnO to dissociate hydrogen in comparison to Ni/SiO₂.These results of the catalytic experiments suggest that the catalytic properties are controlled, in part, by the zinc oxide support and stress the importance of reporting absolute ethylene selectivity for the catalytic semihydrogenation of acetylene in excess ethylene.« less

  13. Structures and unimolecular chemistry of M(Pro2-H)(+) (M = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) by IRMPD spectroscopy, SORI-CID, and theoretical studies.

    PubMed

    Jami-Alahmadi, Yasaman; Fridgen, Travis D

    2016-01-21

    M(Pro2-H)(+) complexes were electrosprayed and isolated in an FTICR cell where their unimolecular chemistries and structures were explored using SORI-CID and IRMPD spectroscopy. These experiments were augmented by computational methods such as electronic structure, simulated annealing, and atoms in molecules (AIM) calculations. The unimolecular chemistries of the larger metal cation (Ca(2+), Sr(2+) and Ba(2+)) complexes predominantly involve loss of neutral proline whereas the complexes involving the smaller Mg(2+) and transition metal dications tend to lose small neutral molecules such as water and carbon dioxide. Interestingly, all complexes involving transition metal dications except for Cu(Pro2-H)(+) lose H2 upon collisional or IRMPD activation. IRMPD spectroscopy shows that the intact proline in the transition metal complexes and Cu(Pro2-H)(+) is predominantly canonical (charge solvated) while for the Ca(2+), Sr(2+), and Ba(2+) complexes, proline is in its zwitterionic form. The IRMPD spectra for both Mg(Pro2-H)(+) and Mn(Pro2-H)(+) are concluded to have contributions from both charge-solvated and canonical structures.

  14. Rapid synthesis of Co, Ni co-doped ZnO nanoparticles: Optical and electrochemical properties

    SciT

    Romeiro, Fernanda C.; Marinho, Juliane Z.; Lemos, Samantha C.S.

    We report for the first time a rapid preparation of Zn{sub 1−2x}Co{sub x}Ni{sub x}O nanoparticles via a versatile and environmentally friendly route, microwave-assisted hydrothermal (MAH) method. The Co, Ni co-doped ZnO nanoparticles present an effect on photoluminescence and electrochemical properties, exhibiting excellent electrocatalytic performance compared to undoped ZnO sample. Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements indicated the reduction of the green–orange–red visible emission region after adding Co and Ni ions, revealing the formation of alternative pathways for the generated recombination. The presence of these metallic ions into ZnO creates different defects, contributing to a local structural disorder, as revealed by Raman spectra. Electrochemicalmore » experiments revealed that the electrocatalytic oxidation of dopamine on ZnO attached to multi-walled carbon nanotubes improved significantly in the Co, Ni co-doped ZnO samples when compared to pure ZnO. - Graphical abstract: Rapid synthesis of Co, Ni co-doped ZnO nanoparticles: optical and electrochemical properties. Co, Ni co-doped ZnO hexagonal nanoparticles with optical and electrocatalytic properties were successfully prepared for the first time using a microwave hydrothermal method at mild conditions. - Highlights: • Co{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} into ZnO lattice obtained a mild and environmentally friendly process. • The heating method strongly influences in the growth and shape of the particles. • Short-range defects generated by the ions insertion affects the photoluminescence. • Doped ZnO nanoparticles improve the electrocatalytic properties of pure oxide.« less

  15. Cu0-loaded SBA-15@ZnO with improved electrical properties and affinity towards hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouazizi, N.; Louhichi, S.; Ouargli, R.; Bargougui, R.; Vieillard, J.; Derf, F. Le; Azzouz, A.

    2017-05-01

    A core-shell material was prepared using SBA-15 crystallites as cores for the growth of a ZnO shell, followed by Cu0 dispersion. The resulting Cu/SBA-15@ZnO nanostructure displayed higher specific surface area (SSA) and higher number of smaller pores as compared to the starting materials. Dispersion of fine Cu0NPs induced a compaction of the host matrice and a marked decay of the hydrophilic character, explained in terms of the involvement of terminal hydroxyl groups in competitive sbnd HO:Cu interaction at the expense of H-bridges with water. Heating at 400-450 °C seems to trigger ZnO dehydroxylation with possible self-polycondensation and/or the formation of Si-O-Zn bridges. This is an additional explanation of the significant SSA increase and decrease in the average pore diameter. Both ZnO and Cu0NP incorporation induced shifts in the UV-vis absorption band towards higher wavelengths, indicating a decrease in the optical band gap energy and an improvement of the conductance properties. As compared to ZnO, Cu0NPs produced stronger improvement of the conductance, which was found to increase with higher frequencies. Cu/SBA-15@ZnO also displayed higher affinity towards hydrogen as compared to SBA-15@ZnO and SBA-15 at ambient conditions. These outstanding properties combined to an appreciable thermal stability are worth to be prone to deeper investigations, because they can open promising prospects for Cu/SBA-15@ZnO as sensor, electrode material, electrocatalyst and/or hydrogen capture matrice.

  16. Interfacial reactions and compound formation of Sn-Ag-Cu solders by mechanical alloying on electroless Ni-P/Cu under bump metallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Szu-Tsung; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2005-08-01

    Electroless Ni-P under bump metallization (UBM) has been widely used in electronic interconnections due to the good diffusion barrier between Cu and solder. In this study, the mechanical alloying (MA) process was applied to produce the SnAgCu lead-free solder pastes. Solder joints after annealing at 240°C for 15 min were employed to investigate the evolution of interfacial reaction between electroless Ni-P/Cu UBM and SnAgCu solder with various Cu concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 1.0 wt.%. After detailed quantitative analysis with an electron probe microanalyzer, the effect of Cu content on the formation of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) at SnAgCu solder/electroless Ni-P interface was evaluated. When the Cu concentration in the solder was 0.2 wt.%, only one (Ni, Cu)3Sn4 layer was observed at the solder/electroless Ni-P interface. As the Cu content increased to 0.5 wt.%, (Cu, Ni)6Sn5 formed along with (Ni, Cu)3Sn4. However, only one (Cu, Ni)6Sn5 layer was revealed, if the Cu content was up to 1 wt.%. With the aid of microstructure evolution, quantitative analysis, and elemental distribution by x-ray color mapping, the presence of the Ni-Sn-P phase and P-rich layer was evidenced.

  17. Solder/Substrate Interfacial Reactions in the Sn-Cu-Ni Interconnection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H.; Vuorinen, V.; Kivilahti, J. K.

    2007-02-01

    In order to obtain a better understanding of the effects of interconnection microstructures on the reliability of soldered assemblies, one of the most important ternary systems used in electronics, the Sn-Cu-Ni system, has been assessed thermodynamically. Based on the data obtained, some recent experimental observations related to the formation of interfacial intermetallic compounds in solder interconnections have been studied analytically. First, the effect of Cu content on the formation of the interfacial intermetallic compounds between the SnAgCu solder alloys and Ni substrate was investigated. The critical Cu content for (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 formation was evaluated as a function of temperature. Second, we analyzed how the Ni dissolved in the Cu6Sn5 compound affects the driving forces for the diffusion of components and hence the growth kinetics of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 and (Cu,Ni)3Sn reaction layers. With the thermodynamic description, other experimental observations related to the Sn-Cu-Ni system can be rationalized as well. The system can be used also as a subsystem for industrially important higher order solder systems.

  18. Performance of ethanol electro-oxidation on Ni-Cu alloy nanowires through composition modulation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xi-Ke; Zhao, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Li-de; Yang, Chao; Pi, Zhen-Bang; Zhang, Su-Xin

    2008-05-28

    To reduce the cost of the catalyst for direct ethanol fuel cells and improve its catalytic activity, highly ordered Ni-Cu alloy nanowire arrays have been fabricated successfully by differential pulse current electro-deposition into the pores of a porous anodic alumina membrane (AAMs). The energy dispersion spectrum, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were utilized to characterize the composition and morphology of the Ni-Cu alloy nanowire arrays. The results reveal that the nanowires in the array are uniform, well isolated and parallel to each other. The catalytic activity of the nanowire electrode arrays for ethanol oxidation was tested and the binary alloy nanowire array possesses good catalytic activity for the electro-oxidation of ethanol. The performance of ethanol electro-oxidation was controlled by varying the Cu content in the Ni-Cu alloy and the Ni-Cu alloy nanowire electrode shows much better stability than the pure Ni one.

  19. Thermodynamic Optimization of the Ag-Bi-Cu-Ni Quaternary System: Part I, Binary Subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Cui, Senlin; Rao, Weifeng

    2018-07-01

    A comprehensive literature review and thermodynamic optimization of the phase diagrams and thermodynamic properties of the Ag-Bi, Ag-Cu, Ag-Ni, Bi-Cu, and Bi-Ni binary systems are presented. CALculation of PHAse Diagrams (CALPHAD)-type thermodynamic optimization was carried out to reproduce all available and reliable experimental phase equilibrium and thermodynamic data. The modified quasichemical model was used to model the liquid solution. The compound energy formalism was utilized to describe the Gibbs energies of all terminal solid solutions and intermetallic compounds. A self-consistent thermodynamic database for the Ag-Bi, Ag-Cu, Ag-Ni, Bi-Cu, and Bi-Ni binary subsystems of the Ag-Bi-Cu-Ni quaternary system was developed. This database can be used as a guide for research and development of lead-free solders.

  20. Thermodynamic Optimization of the Ag-Bi-Cu-Ni Quaternary System: Part I, Binary Subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Cui, Senlin; Rao, Weifeng

    2018-05-01

    A comprehensive literature review and thermodynamic optimization of the phase diagrams and thermodynamic properties of the Ag-Bi, Ag-Cu, Ag-Ni, Bi-Cu, and Bi-Ni binary systems are presented. CALculation of PHAse Diagrams (CALPHAD)-type thermodynamic optimization was carried out to reproduce all available and reliable experimental phase equilibrium and thermodynamic data. The modified quasichemical model was used to model the liquid solution. The compound energy formalism was utilized to describe the Gibbs energies of all terminal solid solutions and intermetallic compounds. A self-consistent thermodynamic database for the Ag-Bi, Ag-Cu, Ag-Ni, Bi-Cu, and Bi-Ni binary subsystems of the Ag-Bi-Cu-Ni quaternary system was developed. This database can be used as a guide for research and development of lead-free solders.

  1. Wetting Behavior of Ternary Au-Ge-X (X = Sb, Sn) Alloys on Cu and Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, S.; Valenza, F.; Novakovic, R.; Leinenbach, C.

    2013-06-01

    Au-Ge-based alloys are potential substitutes for Pb-rich solders currently used for high-temperature applications. In the present work, the wetting behavior of two Au-Ge-X (X = Sb, Sn) ternary alloys, i.e., Au-15Ge-17Sb and Au-13.7 Ge-15.3Sn (at.%), in contact with Cu and Ni substrates has been investigated. Au-13.7Ge-15.3Sn alloy showed complete wetting on both Cu and Ni substrates. Total spreading of Au-15Ge-17Sb alloy on Cu was also observed, while the final contact angle of this alloy on Ni was about 29°. Pronounced dissolution of Cu substrates into the solder alloys investigated was detected, while the formation of Ni-Ge intermetallic compounds at the interface of both solder/Ni systems suppressed the dissolution of Ni into the solder.

  2. Fast photocatalytic degradation of sulforhodamine B using ZnO:Cu nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raji, R.; Gopchandran, K. G.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, ZnO:Cu nanorods with tunable Cu content were successfully synthesized via co-precipitation method and investigations were made on the use of these nanorods as photocatalyst by observing the photodegradation of a representative dye pollutant of sulforhodamine B (SRB) under sunlight. The X-ray diffraction analysis and high resolution transmission electron microscopy showed that ZnO:Cu nanorods possess wurtzite phase with preferential growth along (101) plane. The formation of additional defect levels in these nanorods on doping with Cu and its dependence on the concentration of Cu were studied using photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. ZnO:Cu nanorods results in faster degradation of dye as compared to the undoped ZnO and is found that Cu doping enhances the photodegradation activity significantly and is highly sensitive to Cu doping level. The fast photocatalytic degradation is attributed to the fact that Cu ions promote the interfacial charge transfer and favors the effective charge separation of photogenerated electrons and holes generated during sunlight irradiation, increasing the rate of production of reactive oxygen species needed for the degradation of the dye. The chemical oxygen demand analysis of the dye solution after sunlight irradiation indicates that rate of mineralization is slower than the decoloration. The possible mechanism for degradation of dye under sunlight irradiation is described with a schematic. Additionally, the photostability of the ZnO:Cu nanorods was also tested through three repetitive cycles. This work suggest that the prepared ZnO:Cu nanorods are suitable for cost-effective water purification.

  3. Characterization of Cu buffer layers for growth of L10-FeNi thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuguchi, M.; Sekiya, S.; Takanashi, K.

    2010-05-01

    A Cu(001) layer was fabricated on a Au(001) layer to investigate the use of Cu as a buffer layer for growing L10-FeNi thin films. The epitaxial growth of a Cu buffer layer was observed using reflection high-energy electron diffraction. The flatness of the layer improved drastically with an increase in the substrate temperature although the layer was an alloy (AuCu3). An FeNi thin film was epitaxially grown on the AuCu3 buffer layer by alternate monatomic layer deposition and the formation of an L10-FeNi ordered alloy was expected. The AuCu3 buffer layer is thus a promising candidate material for the growth of L10-FeNi thin films.

  4. Defect mediated ferromagnetism in Ni-doped ZnO nanocrystals evidenced by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi-Yuan; Chen, Z. Q.; Zou, B.; Zhao, X. G.; Tang, Z.; Wang, S. J.

    2012-10-01

    NiO/ZnO nanocomposites with NiO content of 4 at. % and 20 at. % were annealed up to 1200 °C to get Ni doped ZnO nanocrystals. Raman scattering spectra illustrate a broad and strong band at 500-600cm-1 in all nanocomposites after annealing above 700 °C, which suggests incorporation of Ni in the ZnO lattice. However, x-ray diffraction measurements show that NiO phase can be still observed in all nanocomposites after annealing, which indicates that Ni is partially doped into the ZnO structure. Positron annihilation measurements reveal large number of vacancy defects in the interface region of all nanocomposites, and they are gradually recovered with increasing annealing temperature up to 1000 °C. Room temperature ferromagnetism can be observed in the NiO/ZnO nanocomposites, which is stronger in the 20 at. % NiO/ZnO nanocomposites, and the magnetization decreases continuously with increasing annealing temperature. This indicates that the ferromagnetism at low annealing temperatures originates from the NiO nanograins, and they become antiferromanetic after subsequent higher temperature annealing which leads to the weakening of ferromagnetism. After annealing up to 1000 °C, the ferromagnetism in both the two samples becomes nearly invisible. The disappearance of ferromagnetism shows good coincidence with the recovery of vacancy defects in NiO/ZnO nanocomposites. It can be inferred that the ferromagnetism is mediated by vacancy defects which are distributed in the interface region.

  5. Non-blinking (Zn)CuInS/ZnS Quantum Dots Prepared by In Situ Interfacial Alloying Approach

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Aidi; Dong, Chaoqing; Li, Liang; Yin, Jinjin; Liu, Heng; Huang, Xiangyi; Ren, Jicun

    2015-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are very important optical nanomaterials with a wide range of potential applications. However, blinking behavior of single QD is an intrinsic drawback for some biological and photoelectric applications based on single-particle emission. Herein we present a rational strategy for fabrication of non-blinking (Zn)CuInS/ZnS QDs in organic phase through in situ interfacial alloying approach. This new strategy includes three steps: synthesis of CuInS QDs, eliminating the interior traps of QDs by forming graded (Zn)CuInS alloyed QDs, modifying the surface traps of QDs by introducing ZnS shells onto (Zn)CuInS QDs using alkylthiols as sulfur source and surface ligands. The suppressed blinking mechanism was mainly attributed to modifying QDs traps from interior to exterior via a step-by-step modification. Non-blinking QDs show high quantum yield, symmetric emission spectra and excellent crystallinity, and will enable applications from biology to optoelectronics that were previously hindered by blinking behavior of traditional QDs. PMID:26458511

  6. Comparison of Cu2+ and Zn2+ thermalcatalyst in treating diazo dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Y. Y.; Wong, Y. S.; Ong, S. A.; Lutpi, N. A.; Ho, L. N.

    2018-05-01

    This research demonstrates the comparison between copper (II) sulphate (CuSO4) and zinc oxide (ZnO) as thermalcatalysts in thermolysis process for the treatment of diazo reactive black 5 (RB 5) wastewater. CuSO4 was found to be the most effective thermalcatalyst in comparison to ZnO. The color removal efficiency of RB 5 catalysed by CuSO4 and ZnO were 91.55 % at pH 9.5 and 7.36 % at pH 2, respectively. From the UV-Vis wavelength scan, CuSO4 catalyst is able to cleave the molecular structure bonding more efficiently compared to ZnO. ZnO which only show a slight decay on the main chemical network strands: azo bond, naphthalene and benzene rings whereas CuSO4 catalyst is able to fragment azo bond and naphthalene more effectively. The degradation reactions of CuSO4 and ZnO as thermalcatalysts in thermolysis process were compared.

  7. Study of the preparation of NI-Mn-Zn ferrite using spent NI-MH and alkaline Zn-Mn batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Guoxi; Xi, Yuebin; Xu, Huidao; Wang, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles of Ni-Mn-Zn ferrite have been prepared by a sol-gel method making use of spent Ni-MH and Zn-Mn batteries as source materials. Characterization by X-ray diffraction was carried out to study the particle size. The presence of functional groups was identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. From studies by thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, crystallization occurred at temperatures above 560 °C. The magnetic properties of the final products were found to be directly influenced by the average particle size of the product. The Ms values increase and the Hc values decrease as the size of the Ni-Mn-Zn ferrite particles increases.

  8. Investigation of the 66Zn(p,2pn) 64Cu and 68Zn(p,x) 64Cu nuclear processes up to 100 MeV: Production of 64Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szelecsényi, F.; Steyn, G. F.; Kovács, Z.; Vermeulen, C.; van der Meulen, N. P.; Dolley, S. G.; van der Walt, T. N.; Suzuki, K.; Mukai, K.

    2005-11-01

    Cross-sections of the 66Zn(p,2pn)64Cu and 68Zn(p,x)64Cu nuclear processes were measured on highly enriched zinc targets using the stacked-foil activation technique up to 100 MeV. The new cross-sections were compared to literature data. The optimum energy range for production of 64Cu was found to be 70 → 35 MeV on 66Zn and 37 → 20 MeV on 68Zn. The thick-target yields were determined as 777 MBq/μAh (21.0 mCi/μAh) and 185 MBq/μAh (5.0 mCi/μAh), respectively. The yields of the longer-lived contaminant copper radioisotopes (i.e. 61Cu when using 66Zn as target material and both 61Cu and 67Cu in the case of 68Zn target material) were also calculated. The results obtained from the present study indicate that both reactions are suited for the production of 64Cu at a medium energy cyclotron. The optimum energy ranges are also complementary therefore the potential to utilize tandem targetry exists.

  9. Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase: cloning and analysis of the Taenia solium gene and Taenia crassiceps cDNA.

    PubMed

    Parra-Unda, Ricardo; Vaca-Paniagua, Felipe; Jiménez, Lucia; Landa, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Cytosolic Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide (O(2)(-)) to oxygen and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and plays an important role in the establishment and survival of helminthes in their hosts. In this work, we describe the Taenia solium Cu,Zn-SOD gene (TsCu,Zn-SOD) and a Taenia crassiceps (TcCu,Zn-SOD) cDNA. TsCu,Zn-SOD gene that spans 2.841 kb, and has three exons and two introns; the splicing junctions follow the GT-AG rule. Analysis in silico of the gene revealed that the 5'-flanking region has three putative TATA and CCAAT boxes, and transcription factor binding sites for NF1 and AP1. The transcription start site was a C, located at 22 nucleotides upstream of the translation start codon (ATG). Southern blot analysis showed that TcCu,Zn-SOD and TsCu,Zn-SOD genes are encoded by a single copy. The deduced amino acid sequences of TsCu,Zn-SOD gene and TcCu,Zn-SOD cDNA reveal 98.47% of identity, and the characteristic motives, including the catalytic site and β-barrel structure of the Cu,Zn-SOD. Proteomic and immunohistochemical analysis indicated that Cu,Zn-SOD does not have isoforms, is distributed throughout the bladder wall and is concentrated in the tegument of T. solium and T. crassiceps cysticerci. Expression analysis revealed that TcCu,Zn-SOD mRNA and protein expression levels do not change in cysticerci, even upon exposure to O(2)(-) (0-3.8 nmol/min) and H(2)O(2) (0-2mM), suggesting that this gene is constitutively expressed in these parasites. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Template-grown NiFe/Cu/NiFe nanowires for spin transfer devices.

    PubMed

    Piraux, Luc; Renard, Krystel; Guillemet, Raphael; Matéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Matéfi-Tempfli, Maria; Antohe, Vlad Andrei; Fusil, Stéphane; Bouzehouane, Karim; Cros, Vincent

    2007-09-01

    We have developed a new reliable method combining template synthesis and nanolithography-based contacting technique to elaborate current perpendicular-to-plane giant magnetoresistance spin valve nanowires, which are very promising for the exploration of electrical spin transfer phenomena. The method allows the electrical connection of one single nanowire in a large assembly of wires embedded in anodic porous alumina supported on Si substrate with diameters and periodicities to be controllable to a large extent. Both magnetic excitations and switching phenomena driven by a spin-polarized current were clearly demonstrated in our electrodeposited NiFe/Cu/ NiFe trilayer nanowires. This novel approach promises to be of strong interest for subsequent fabrication of phase-locked arrays of spin transfer nano-oscillators with increased output power for microwave applications.

  11. Phase Equilibria of the Sn-Ni-Si Ternary System and Interfacial Reactions in Sn-(Cu)/Ni-Si Couples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Gu; Chen, Chih-chi

    2015-07-01

    Interfacial reactions in Sn/Ni-4.5 wt.%Si and Sn-Cu/Ni-4.5 wt.%Si couples at 250°C, and Sn-Ni-Si ternary phase equilibria at 250°C were investigated in this study. Ni-Si alloys, which are nonmagnetic, can be regarded as a diffusion barrier layer material in flip chip packaging. Solder/Ni-4.5 wt.%Si interfacial reactions are crucial to the reliability of soldered joints. Phase equilibria information is essential for development of solder/Ni-Si materials. No ternary compound is present in the Sn-Ni-Si ternary system at 250°C. Extended solubility of Si in the phases Ni3Sn2 and Ni3Sn is 3.8 and 6.1 at.%, respectively. As more Si dissolves in these phases their lattice constants decrease. No noticeable ternary solubility is observed for the other intermetallics. Interfacial reactions in solder/Ni-4.5 wt.%Si are similar to those for solder/Ni. Si does not alter the reaction phases. No Si solubility in the reaction phases was detected, although rates of growth of the reaction phases were reduced. Because the alloy Ni-4.5 wt.%Si reacts more slowly with solders than pure Ni, the Ni-4.5 wt.%Si alloy could be a potential new diffusion barrier layer material for flip chip packaging.

  12. Cu-doped ZnO nanorod arrays: the effects of copper precursor and concentration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cu-doped ZnO nanorods have been grown at 90°C for 90 min onto a quartz substrate pre-coated with a ZnO seed layer using a hydrothermal method. The influence of copper (Cu) precursor and concentration on the structural, morphological, and optical properties of ZnO nanorods was investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the nanorods grown are highly crystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure grown along the c-axis. The lattice strain is found to be compressive for all samples, where a minimum compressive strain of −0.114% was obtained when 1 at.% Cu was added from Cu(NO3)2. Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate morphologies and the diameters of the grown nanorods. The morphological properties of the Cu-doped ZnO nanorods were influenced significantly by the presence of Cu impurities. Near-band edge (NBE) and a broad blue-green emission bands at around 378 and 545 nm, respectively, were observed in the photoluminescence spectra for all samples. The transmittance characteristics showed a slight increase in the visible range, where the total transmittance increased from approximately 80% for the nanorods doped with Cu(CH3COO)2 to approximately 90% for the nanorods that were doped with Cu(NO3)2. PMID:24855460

  13. Effect of milling atmosphere on structural and magnetic properties of Ni-Zn ferrite nanocrystalline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajalilou, Abdollah; Hashim, Mansor; Ebrahimi-Kahrizsangi, Reza; Masoudi Mohamad, Taghi

    2015-04-01

    Powder mixtures of Zn, NiO, and Fe2O3 are mechanically alloyed by high energy ball milling to produce Ni-Zn ferrite with a nominal composition of Ni0.36Zn0.64Fe2O4. The effects of milling atmospheres (argon, air, and oxygen), milling time (from 0 to 30 h) and heat treatment are studied. The products are characterized using x-ray diffractometry, field emission scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and transmitted electron microscopy. The results indicate that the desired ferrite is not produced during the milling in the samples milled under either air or oxygen atmospheres. In those samples milled under argon, however, Zn/NiO/Fe2O3 reacts with a solid-state diffusion mode to produce Ni-Zn ferrite nanocrystalline in a size of 8 nm after 30-h-milling. The average crystallite sizes decrease to 9 nm and 10 nm in 30-h-milling samples under air and oxygen atmospheres, respectively. Annealing the 30-h-milling samples at 600 °C for 2 h leads to the formation of a single phase of Ni-Zn ferrite, an increase of crystallite size, and a reduction of internal lattice strain. Finally, the effects of the milling atmosphere and heating temperature on the magnetic properties of the 30-h-milling samples are investigated. Project supported by the University Putra Malaysia Graduate Research Fellowship Section.

  14. Cryogenic and elevated temperature strengths of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy modified with Sc and Zr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senkova, S. V.; Senkov, O. N.; Miracle, D. B.

    2006-12-01

    The effect of minor additions of Sc and Zr on tensile properties of two developmental Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys was studied in the temperature range -196°C to 300°C. Due to the presence of Sc and Zr in a fine dispersoid form, both low-temperature and elevated temperature strengths of these alloys are much higher than those of similar 7000 series alloys that do not contain these elements. After short holding times (up to 10 hours) at 205°C, the strength of these alloys is higher than those of high-temperature Al alloys 2219-T6 and 2618-T6; however, the latter alloys show better strength after longer holding times. It is suggested that additional alloying of the Sc-containing Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys with other dispersoid-forming elements, such as Ni, Fe, Mn, and Si, with a respective decrease in the amounts of Zn and Mg may further improve the elevated temperature strength and decrease the loss of strength with extended elevated temperature exposure.

  15. Soldering-induced Cu diffusion and intermetallic compound formation between Ni/Cu under bump metallization and SnPb flip-chip solder bumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chien-Sheng; Jang, Guh-Yaw; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2004-04-01

    Nickel-based under bump metallization (UBM) has been widely used as a diffusion barrier to prevent the rapid reaction between the Cu conductor and Sn-based solders. In this study, joints with and without solder after heat treatments were employed to evaluate the diffusion behavior of Cu in the 63Sn-37Pb/Ni/Cu/Ti/Si3N4/Si multilayer structure. The atomic flux of Cu diffused through Ni was evaluated from the concentration profiles of Cu in solder joints. During reflow, the atomic flux of Cu was on the order of 1015-1016 atoms/cm2s. However, in the assembly without solder, no Cu was detected on the surface of Ni even after ten cycles of reflow. The diffusion behavior of Cu during heat treatments was studied, and the soldering-process-induced Cu diffusion through Ni metallization was characterized. In addition, the effect of Cu content in the solder near the solder/intermetallic compound (IMC) interface on interfacial reactions between the solder and the Ni/Cu UBM was also discussed. It is evident that the (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 IMC might form as the concentration of Cu in the Sn-Cu-Ni alloy exceeds 0.6 wt.%.

  16. Biopsy applications of Ti50Ni41Cu9 shape memory films for wireless capsule endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Hejun; Fu, Yongqing; Zhang, S.; Luo, Jack K.; Flewitt, Andrew J.; Milne, William I.

    2004-02-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is a new technology to evaluate the patient with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. However, there is still some deficiency existing in the current WCE, for example, lack of ability to biopsy and precisely locate the pathology. This study aimed to prepare and characterize TiNiCu shape memory alloy thin films for developing microgripper for biopsy (tissue sampling and tagging) applications. Ti50Ni41Cu9 thin films were prepared by co-sputtering of TiNi and Cu targets, and their transformation temperatures were slightly above that of human body. Results from differential scanning calorimetry, in-situ X-ray diffraction, curvature and electrical resistance measurement revealed clearly martensitic transformation of the deposited TiNiCu films upon heating and cooling. The biocompatibility of the TiNiCu films in the simulated gastric and intestinal solutions was also studied. Results showed the release of Ni and Cu ions is much less than the toxic level and the film did not lose shape memory effect even after 10-day immersion in the simulated solutions. TiNiCu/Si micro-cantilevers with and without electrodes were fabricated using the conventional micromachining methods and apparent shape memory effect upon heating and cooling was demonstrated.

  17. Fabrication and performance of a double layered Mn-Co-Ni-O/Mn-Co-Ni-Cu-O thin film detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei; Yin, Yiming; Yao, Niangjuan; Jiang, Lin; Qu, Yue; Wu, Jing; Gao, Y. Q.; Huang, Jingguo; Huang, Zhiming

    2018-01-01

    A thermal sensitive infrared and THz detector was fabricated by a double layered Mn-Co-Ni-O/Mn-Co-Ni-Cu-O films. The Mn-Co-Ni-O material, as one type of transition metal oxides, has long been used as a candidate for thermal sensors or infrared detectors. The resistivity of a most important Mn-Co-Ni-O thin film, Mn1. 96Co0.96Ni0.48O4(MCN) , is about 200 Ω·cm at room temperature, which ranges about 2 orders larger than that of VOx detectors. Therefore, the thickness of a typical squared Mn-Co-Ni-O IR detector should be about 10 μm, which is too large for focal plane arrays applications. To reduce the resistivity of Mn-Co-Ni-O thin film, 1/6 of Co element was replaced by Cu. Meanwhile, a cover layer of MCN film was deposited onto the Mn-Co-Ni-Cu-O film to improve the long term stability. The detector fabricated by the double layered Mn-Co-Ni-O/Mn-Co-Ni-Cu-O films showed large response to blackbody and 170 GHz radiation. The NEP of the detector was estimated to be the order of 10-8 W/Hz0. 5. By applying thermal isolation structure and additional absorption materials, the detection performance can be largely improved by 1-2 orders according to numerical estimation. The double layered Mn-Co-Ni-O film detector shows great potentials in applications in large scale IR detection arrays, and broad-band imaging.

  18. Simultaneous increase in strength and ductility by decreasing interface energy between Zn and Al phases in cast Al-Zn-Cu alloy.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung Zeon; Choi, Eun-Ae; Park, Hyun Woong; Lim, Sung Hwan; Lee, Jehyun; Ahn, Jee Hyuk; Hwang, Nong-Moon; Kim, Kwangho

    2017-09-22

    Cast-Al alloys that include a high amount of the second element in their matrix have comparatively high strength but low ductility because of the high volume fraction of strengthening phases or undesirable inclusions. Al-Zn alloys that have more than 30 wt% Zn have a tensile strength below 300 MPa, with elongation under 5% in the as-cast state. However, we found that after substitution of 2% Zn by Cu, the tensile strength of as-cast Al-Zn-Cu alloys was 25% higher and ductility was four times higher than for the corresponding Al-35% Zn alloy. Additionally, for the Al-43% Zn alloy with 2% Cu after 1 h solution treatment at 400 °C and water quenching, the tensile strength unexpectedly reached values close to 600 MPa. For the Al-33% Zn alloy with 2% Cu, the tensile strength was 500 MPa with 8% ductility. The unusual trends of the mechanical properties of Al-Zn alloys with Cu addition observed during processing from casting to the subsequent solution treatment were attributed to the precipitation of Zn in the Al matrix. The interface energy between the Zn particles and the Al matrix decreased when using a solution of Cu in Zn.

  19. Complete transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles in culture medium and lymphocyte cells during toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Ivask, Angela; Scheckel, Kirk G; Kapruwan, Pankaj; Stone, Vicki; Yin, Hong; Voelcker, Nicolas H; Lombi, Enzo

    2017-03-01

    Here, we present evidence on complete transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles, which are among the most heavily studied metal oxide particles, during 24 h in vitro toxicological testing with human T-lymphocytes. Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy results revealed that Zn speciation profiles of 30 nm and 80 nm ZnO nanoparticles, and ZnSO 4 - exposed cells were almost identical with the prevailing species being Zn-cysteine. This suggests that ZnO nanoparticles are rapidly transformed during a standard in vitro toxicological assay, and are sequestered intracellularly, analogously to soluble Zn. Complete transformation of ZnO in the test conditions was further supported by almost identical Zn spectra in medium to which ZnO nanoparticles or ZnSO 4 was added. Likewise, Cu XANES spectra for CuO and CuSO 4 -exposed cells and cell culture media were similar. These results together with our observation on similar toxicological profiles of ZnO and soluble Zn, and CuO and soluble Cu, underline the importance of dissolution and subsequent transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles during toxicological testing and provide evidence that the nano-specific effect of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles is negligible in this system. We strongly suggest to account for this aspect when interpreting the toxicological results of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles.

  20. ZnO/Cu nanocomposite: a platform for direct electrochemistry of enzymes and biosensing applications.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chi; Xu, Chunxiang; Wang, Xuemei

    2012-03-06

    Unique structured nanomaterials can facilitate the direct electron transfer between redox proteins and the electrodes. Here, in situ directed growth on an electrode of a ZnO/Cu nanocomposite was prepared by a simple corrosion approach, which enables robust mechanical adhesion and electrical contact between the nanostructured ZnO and the electrodes. This is great help to realize the direct electron transfer between the electrode surface and the redox protein. SEM images demonstrate that the morphology of the ZnO/Cu nanocomposite has a large specific surface area, which is favorable to immobilize the biomolecules and construct biosensors. Using glucose oxidase (GOx) as a model, this ZnO/Cu nanocomposite is employed for immobilization of GOx and the construction of the glucose biosensor. Direct electron transfer of GOx is achieved at ZnO/Cu nanocomposite with a high heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant of 0.67 ± 0.06 s(-1). Such ZnO/Cu nanocomposite provides a good matrix for direct electrochemistry of enzymes and mediator-free enzymatic biosensors.

  1. Enhanced thermal stability of Cu alloy films by strong interaction between Ni and Zr (or Fe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yuehong; Li, Xiaona; Cheng, Xiaotian; Li, Zhuming; Liu, Yubo; Dong, Chuang

    2018-04-01

    Low resistivity, phase stability and nonreactivity with surrounding dielectrics are the key to the application of Cu to ultra-large-scale integrated circuits. Here, a stable solid solution cluster model was introduced to design the composition of barrierless Cu-Ni-Zr (or Fe) seed layers. The third elements Fe and Zr were dissolved into Cu via a second element Ni, which is soluble in both Cu and Zr (or Fe). The films were prepared by magnetron sputtering on the single-crystal p-Si (1 0 0) wafers. Since the diffusion characteristics of the alloying elements are different, the effects of the strong interaction between Ni and Zr (or Fe) on the film’s stability and resistivity were studied. The results showed that a proper addition of Zr-Ni (Zr/Ni  ⩽  0.6/12) into Cu could form a large negative lattice distortion, which inhibits Cu-Si interdiffusion and enhances the stability of Cu film. When Fe-Ni was co-added into Cu, the lattice distortion of Cu reached a lower value, 0.0029 Å  ⩽  |Δa|  ⩽  0.0046 Å, and the films showed poor stability. Therefore, when the model is applied to the composition design of the films, the strong interaction between the elements and the addition ratio should be taken into consideration.

  2. Investigations of Cu, Pb and Zn partitioning by sequential extraction in harbour sediments after electrodialytic remediation.

    PubMed

    Kirkelund, Gunvor M; Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Villumsen, Arne

    2010-05-01

    Electrodialytic remediation was used to remove Cu, Zn and Pb from three different contaminated harbour sediments. Electrodialytic experiments lasting 2 and 4 weeks were performed and 48-86% Cu, 74-90% Zn and 62-88% Pb were removed from the different sediments and the removal increased with longer remediation time. A three step sequential extraction scheme (BCR), with an extra residual step, was used to evaluate the heavy metal distribution in the sediments before and after electrodialytic remediation. Cu was mainly associated with the oxidisable phase of the sediment, both before and after remediation. Zn and Pb were found in the exchangeable and reducible phases before remediation. Zn was still found in the exchangeable and reducible phases after remediation, whereas most Pb was removed from these phases during electrodialytic remediation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Zn-Ni-Al₂O₃ Composite Coatings.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yang; Wang, Zhenhua; Li, Xiangbo; Huang, Guosheng; Li, Caixia; Li, Yan

    2018-05-21

    Zn-Ni-Al₂O₃ composite coatings with different Ni contents were fabricated by low-pressure cold spray (LPCS) technology. The effects of the Ni content on the microstructural and mechanical properties of the coatings were investigated. According to X-ray diffraction patterns, the composite coatings were primarily composed of metallic-phase Zn and Ni and ceramic-phase Al₂O₃. The energy-dispersive spectroscopy results show that the Al₂O₃ content of the composite coatings gradually decreased with increasing of Ni content. The cross-sectional morphology revealed thick, dense coatings with a wave-like stacking structure. The process of depositing Zn and Ni particles and Al₂O₃ particles by the LPCS method was examined, and the deposition mechanism was demonstrated to be mechanical interlocking. The bond strength, micro hardness and friction coefficient of the coatings did not obviously change when the Ni content varied. The presence of Al₂O₃ and Ni increased the wear resistance of the composite coatings, which was higher than that of pure Zn coatings, and the wear mechanism was abrasive and adhesive wear.

  4. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Zn-Ni-Al2O3 Composite Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yang; Wang, Zhenhua; Li, Xiangbo; Huang, Guosheng; Li, Caixia

    2018-01-01

    Zn-Ni-Al2O3 composite coatings with different Ni contents were fabricated by low-pressure cold spray (LPCS) technology. The effects of the Ni content on the microstructural and mechanical properties of the coatings were investigated. According to X-ray diffraction patterns, the composite coatings were primarily composed of metallic-phase Zn and Ni and ceramic-phase Al2O3. The energy-dispersive spectroscopy results show that the Al2O3 content of the composite coatings gradually decreased with increasing of Ni content. The cross-sectional morphology revealed thick, dense coatings with a wave-like stacking structure. The process of depositing Zn and Ni particles and Al2O3 particles by the LPCS method was examined, and the deposition mechanism was demonstrated to be mechanical interlocking. The bond strength, micro hardness and friction coefficient of the coatings did not obviously change when the Ni content varied. The presence of Al2O3 and Ni increased the wear resistance of the composite coatings, which was higher than that of pure Zn coatings, and the wear mechanism was abrasive and adhesive wear. PMID:29883391

  5. Coupled mobilization of dissolved organic matter and metals (Cu and Zn) in soil columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lu Y. L.; Schulin, Rainer; Weng, Liping; Nowack, Bernd

    2007-07-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a key component involved in metal displacement in soils. In this study, we investigated the concentration profiles of soil-borne DOC, Cu and Zn at various irrigation rates with synthetic rain water under quasi steady-state conditions, using repacked soil columns with a metal-polluted topsoil and two unpolluted subsoils. Soil solution was collected using suction cups installed at centimeter intervals over depth. In the topsoil the concentrations of DOC, dissolved metals (Zn and Cu), major cations (Ca 2+ and Mg 2+) and anions ( NO3- and SO42-) increased with depth. In the subsoil, the Cu and Zn concentrations dropped to background levels within 2 cm. All compounds were much faster mobilized in the first 4 cm than in the rest of the topsoil. DOC and Cu concentrations were higher at higher flow rates for a given depth, whereas the concentrations of the other ions decreased with increasing flow rate. The decomposition of soil organic matter resulted in the formation of DOC, SO42-, and NO3- and was the main driver of the system. Regression analysis indicated that Cu mobilization was governed by DOC, whereas Zn mobilization was primarily determined by Ca and to a lesser extent by DOC. Labile Zn and Cu 2+ concentrations were well predicted by the NICA-Donnan model. The results highlight the value of high-resolution in-situ measurements of DOC and metal mobilization in soil profiles.

  6. Towards Stable CuZnAl Slurry Catalysts for the Synthesis of Ethanol from Syngas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Weibing; Gao, Zhihua; Zhang, Qian; Huang, Wei

    2018-07-01

    A stable CuZnAl slurry catalyst for the synthesis of ethanol from syngas has been developed by adjusting the heat treatment conditions of the complete liquid-phase method. The activity evaluation results showed that the CuZnAl catalyst, when heat-treated under a high pressure and temperature, was a stable catalyst for the synthesis of ethanol. The selectivity of ethanol using the CuZnAl slurry catalyst, which was heat-treated at 553 K under 4.0 MPa, increased continuously with time and was stable at approximately 26.00% after 144 h. The characterization results indicated that the CuZnAl slurry catalyst heat-treated under high pressure conditions could facilitate the formation of a more perfect structure with a larger specific surface area. The prepared catalyst contained a balance of strong and weak acid sites, an appropriate form of Cu2O and a high Cu/Zn atomic ratio at the catalyst surface, providing its stability in ethanol synthesis from syngas.

  7. Room-temperature ferromagnetic Zn1- x Ni x S nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunapalli, Chaitanya Kumar; Shaik, Kaleemulla

    2018-05-01

    Nickel-doped zinc sulfide nanoparticles (Zn1- x Ni x S) at x = 0.00, 0.02, 0.05, 0.08 and 0.10 were synthesized by solid-state reaction. The (nickel sulfide) NiS and (zinc sulfide) ZnS nanoparticles in desired ratios were taken, mixed and ground for 6 h at a speed rate of 300 rpm using a planetary ball mill. The milled nanoparticles were sintered at 600 °C for 8 h using a high-temperature vacuum furnace. The structural, optical, luminescence and magnetic properties of the Zn1- x Ni x S nanoparticles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis-NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). No change in crystal structure was observed from XRD by substitution of Ni into ZnS lattice. The mean crystallite size was found to be 37 nm. The band gap of Zn1- x Ni x S nanoparticles decreased from 3.57 to 3.37 eV on increasing the dopant concentration. The room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra of Zn1- x Ni x S nanoparticles showed two broad and intense emission peaks at 420 and 438 nm with excitation wavelength of 330 nm. The Zn1- x Ni x S nanoparticles showed ferromagnetism at 100 K and at room temperature (300 K) and also the strength of magnetization increased with Ni concentration. The maximum magnetization value of 0.18 emu/g was observed for x = 0.10 at 100 K. The strength of the magnetization observed at 100 K was higher than that of magnetization observed at 300 K.

  8. Near room temperature and large-area synthesis of ZnO/Cu2O heterojunction for photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shiyong; Zhang, Jiejing; Li, Wenqiang; Jiao, Shujie; Nie, Yanguang; Fan, Huaiyun; Zeng, Zhi; Yu, Qingjiang; Wang, Jinzhong; Zhang, Xitian

    2018-01-01

    Large-area ZnO/Cu2O heterojunction have been successfully synthesized on Cu foil through a simple two-step solution method at near room temperature. The field emission scanning electron microscopy characterization indicates that the morphology of as-prepared Cu2O film grown on Cu foil is octahedral structure with diameter of ∼450 nm and ZnO is nanorod arrays structure with diameter of ∼150 nm. The current-voltage measurement of ZnO/Cu2O heterojunction shows a typical rectifying characteristics. Moreover, the photocatalytic test indicates that ZnO/Cu2O heterojunction exhibits high photocatalytic efficient for degradation of congo red dyes. The possible photocatalytic mechanism of ZnO/Cu2O heterojunction is also presented.

  9. CuNi Nanoparticles Assembled on Graphene for Catalytic Methanolysis of Ammonia Borane and Hydrogenation of Nitro/Nitrile Compounds

    SciT

    Yu, Chao; Fu, Jiaju; Muzzio, Michelle

    Here we report a solution phase synthesis of 16 nm CuNi nanoparticles (NPs) with the Cu/Ni composition control. These NPs are assembled on graphene (G) and show Cu/Ni composition-dependent catalysis for methanolysis of ammonia borane (AB) and hydrogenation of aromatic nitro (nitrile) compounds to primary amines in methanol at room temperature. Among five different CuNi NPs studied, the G-Cu 36Ni 64 NPs are the best catalyst for both AB methanolysis (TOF = 49.1 mol H2 mol CuNi -1 min -1 and E a = 24.4 kJ/mol) and hydrogenation reactions (conversion yield >97%). In conclusion, the G-CuNi represents a unique noble-metal-freemore » catalyst for hydrogenation reactions in a green environment without using pure hydrogen.« less

  10. CuNi Nanoparticles Assembled on Graphene for Catalytic Methanolysis of Ammonia Borane and Hydrogenation of Nitro/Nitrile Compounds

    DOE PAGES

    Yu, Chao; Fu, Jiaju; Muzzio, Michelle; ...

    2017-01-12

    Here we report a solution phase synthesis of 16 nm CuNi nanoparticles (NPs) with the Cu/Ni composition control. These NPs are assembled on graphene (G) and show Cu/Ni composition-dependent catalysis for methanolysis of ammonia borane (AB) and hydrogenation of aromatic nitro (nitrile) compounds to primary amines in methanol at room temperature. Among five different CuNi NPs studied, the G-Cu 36Ni 64 NPs are the best catalyst for both AB methanolysis (TOF = 49.1 mol H2 mol CuNi -1 min -1 and E a = 24.4 kJ/mol) and hydrogenation reactions (conversion yield >97%). In conclusion, the G-CuNi represents a unique noble-metal-freemore » catalyst for hydrogenation reactions in a green environment without using pure hydrogen.« less

  11. A facile green antisolvent approach to Cu2+-doped ZnO nanocrystals with visible-light-responsive photoactivities.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi-Hsuan; Lin, Wei-Hao; Yang, Chao-Yao; Chiu, Yi-Hsuan; Pu, Ying-Chih; Lee, Min-Han; Tseng, Yuan-Chieh; Hsu, Yung-Jung

    2014-08-07

    An environmentally benign antisolvent method has been developed to prepare Cu(2+)-doped ZnO nanocrystals with controllable dopant concentrations. A room temperature ionic liquid, known as a deep eutectic solvent (DES), was used as the solvent to dissolve ZnO powders. Upon the introduction of the ZnO-containing DES into a bad solvent which shows no solvation to ZnO, ZnO was precipitated and grown due to the dramatic decrease of solubility. By adding Cu(2+) ions to the bad solvent, the growth of ZnO from the antisolvent process was accompanied by Cu(2+) introduction, resulting in the formation of Cu(2+)-doped ZnO nanocrystals. The as-prepared Cu(2+)-doped ZnO showed an additional absorption band in the visible range (400-800 nm), which conduced to an improvement in the overall photon harvesting efficiency. Time-resolved photoluminescence spectra, together with the photovoltage information, suggested that the doped Cu(2+) may otherwise trap photoexcited electrons during the charge transfer process, inevitably depressing the photoconversion efficiency. The photoactivity of Cu(2+)-doped ZnO nanocrystals for photoelectrochemical water oxidation was effectively enhanced in the visible region, which achieved the highest at 2.0 at% of Cu(2+). A further increase in the Cu(2+) concentration however led to a decrease in the photocatalytic performance, which was ascribed to the significant carrier trapping caused by the increased states given by excessive Cu(2+). The photocurrent action spectra illustrated that the enhanced photoactivity of the Cu(2+)-doped ZnO nanocrystals was mainly due to the improved visible photon harvesting achieved by Cu(2+) doping. These results may facilitate the use of transition metal ion-doped ZnO in other photoconversion applications, such as ZnO based dye-sensitized solar cells and magnetism-assisted photocatalytic systems.

  12. Effect of substrate on texture and mechanical properties of Mg-Cu-Zn thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshaghi, F.; Zolanvari, A.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, thin films of Mg-Cu-Zn with 60 nm thicknesses have been deposited on the Si(100), Al, stainless steel, and Cu substrates using DC magnetron sputtering. FESEM images displayed uniformity of Mg-Cu-Zn particles on the different substrates. AFM micrograph revealed the roughness of thin film changes due to the different kinds of the substrates. XRD measurements showed the existence of strong Mg (002) reflections and weak Mg (101) peaks. Residual stress and adhesion force have been measured as the mechanical properties of the Mg-Cu-Zn thin films. The residual stresses of thin films which have been investigated by X-ray diffraction method revealed that the thin films sputtered on the Si and Cu substrates endure minimum and maximum stresses, respectively, during the deposition process. However, the force spectroscopy analysis indicated that the films grew on the Si and Cu experienced maximum and minimum adhesion force. The texture analysis has been done using XRD instrument to make pole figures of Mg (002) and Mg (101) reflections. ODFs have been calculated to evaluate the distribution of the orientations within the thin films. It was found that the texture and stress have an inverse relation, while the texture and the adhesion force of the Mg-Cu-Zn thin films have direct relation. A thin film that sustains the lowest residual stresses and highest adhesive force had the strongest {001} basal fiber texture.

  13. Wetting of Sn-Zn-Ga and Sn-Zn-Na Alloys on Al and Ni Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gancarz, Tomasz; Bobrowski, Piotr; Pawlak, Sylwia; Schell, Norbert; Chulist, Robert; Janik, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    Wetting of Al and Ni substrate by Sn-Zn eutectic-based alloys with 0.5 (wt.%) of Ga and 0.2 (wt.%) of Na was studied using the sessile drop method in the presence of ALU33® flux. Spreading tests were performed for 60 s, 180 s, and 480 s of contact, at temperatures of 503 K, 523 K and 553 K (230°C, 250°C, and 280°C). After cleaning the flux residue from solidified samples, the spreading areas of Sn-Zn0.5Ga and Sn-Zn0.2Na on Al and Ni substrate were determined. Selected, solidified solder-pad couples were cross-sectioned and subjected to scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction study and synchrotron measurements of the interfacial microstructure and identification of the phases. The growth of the intermetallic Ni5Zn21 phase layer was studied at the solder/Ni substrate interface, and the kinetics of the formation and growth of the intermetallic layer were determined. The formation of interlayers was not observed on the Al pads. On the contrary, dissolution of the Al substrate and migration of Al-rich particles into the bulk of the solder were observed.

  14. Surface chemistry, friction and wear of Ni-Zn and Mn-Zn ferrites in contact with metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopy analysis were used in sliding friction experiments. These experiments were conducted with hot-pressed polycrystalline Ni-Zn and Mn-Zn ferrites, and single-crystal Mn-Zn ferrite in contact with various transition metals at room temperature in both vacuum and argon. The results indicate that Ni2O3 and Fe3O4 were present on the Ni-Zn ferrite surface in addition to the nominal bulk constituents, while MnO2 and Fe3O4 were present on the Mn-Zn ferrite surface in addition to the nominal bulk constituents. The coefficients of friction for the ferrites in contact with metals were related to the relative chemical activity of these metals. The more active the metal, the higher is the coefficient of friction. The coefficients of friction for the ferrites were correlated with the free energy of formation of the lowest metal oxide. The interfacial bond can be regarded as a chemical bond between the metal atoms and the oxygen anions in the ferrite surfaces. The adsorption of oxygen on clean metal and ferrite does strengthen the metal-ferrite contact and increase the friction. The ferrites exhibit local cracking and fracture with sliding under adhesive conditions. All the metals transferred to he surfaces of the ferrites in sliding.

  15. Surface chemistry, friction, and wear of Ni-Zn and Mn-Zn ferrites in contact with metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopy analysis were used in sliding friction experiments. These experiments were conducted with hot-pressed polycrystalline Ni-Zn and Mn-Zn ferrites, and single-crystal Mn-Zn ferrite in contact with various transition metals at room temperature in both vacuum and argon. The results indicate that Ni2O3 and Fe3O4 were present on the Ni-Zn ferrite surface in addition to the nominal bulk constituents, while MnO2 and Fe3O4 were present on the Mn-Zn ferrite surface in addition to the nominal bulk constituents. The coefficients of friction for the ferrites in contact with metals were related to the relative chemical activity of these metals. The more active the metal, the higher is the coefficient of friction. The coefficients of friction for the ferrites were correlated with the free energy of formation of the lowest metal oxide. The interfacial bond can be regarded as a chemical bond between the metal atoms and the oxygen anions in the ferrite surfaces. The adsorption of oxygen on clean metal and ferrite does strengthen the metal-ferrite contact and increase the friction. The ferrites exhibit local cracking and fracture with sliding under adhesive conditions. All the metals transferred to the surfaces of the ferrites in sliding. Previously announced in STAR as N83-19901

  16. The determination of extinction coefficient of CuInS2, and ZnCuInS3 multinary nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Qin, Lei; Li, Dongze; Zhang, Zhuolei; Wang, Kefei; Ding, Hong; Xie, Renguo; Yang, Wensheng

    2012-10-21

    A pioneering work for determining the extinction coefficient of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) has been cited over 1500 times (W. Yu, W. Guo, X. G. Peng, Chem. Mater., 2003, 15, 2854-2860), indicating the importance of calculating NC concentration for further research and applications. In this study, the size-dependent nature of the molar extinction coefficient of "greener" CuInS(2) and ZnCuInS(3) NCs with emission covering the whole visible to near infrared (NIR) is presented. With the increase of NC size, the resulting quantitative values of the extinction coefficients of ternary CuInS(2) and quaternary ZnCuInS(3) NCs are found to follow a power function with exponents of 2.1 and 2.5, respectively. Obviously, a larger value of extinction coefficient is observed in quaternary NCs for the same size of particles. The difference of the extinction coefficient from both samples is clearly demonstrated due to incorporating ZnS with a much larger extinction coefficient into CuInS(2) NCs.

  17. The Electronic Structure and Formation Energies of Ni-doped CuAlO2 by Density Functional Theory Calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ying; Li, Fei; Sheng, Wei; Nie, Guo-Zheng; Yuan, Ding-Wang

    2014-03-01

    The electronic structure and formation energies of Ni-doped CuAlO2 are calculated by first-principles calculations. Our results show that Ni is good for p-type doping in CuAlO2. When Ni is doped into CuAlO2, it prefers to substitute Al-site. NiAl is a shallow acceptor, while NiCu is a deep acceptor and its formation energy is high. Further electronic structure calculations show that strong hybridization happens between Ni-3d and O-2p states for Ni substituting Al-site, while localized Ni-3d states are found for Ni substituting Cu-site.

  18. Integrated spectral photocurrent density and reproducibility analyses of excitonic ZnO/NiO heterojunction.

    PubMed

    Patel, Malkeshkumar; Kim, Joondong

    2017-12-01

    In this data article, the excitonic ZnO/NiO heterojunction device (Patel et al., 2017) [1] was measured for the integrated photocurrent density and reproducibility. Photograph of the prepared devices of ZnO/NiO on the FTO/glass is presented. Integrated photocurrent density as a function of photon energy from the sunlight is presented. Quantum efficiency measurement system (McScienceK3100, Korea) compliance with International Measurement System was employed to measure ZnO/NIO devices. These data are shown for the 300-440 nm of segment of the sunlight (AM1.5G, http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/spectra/am1.5/). Reproducibility measure of ZnO/NiO device was presented for nine devices with the estimated device performance parameters including the open circuit voltage, short circuit current density, fill factor and power conversion efficiency.

  19. Study of Cu-Al-Ni-Ga as high-temperature shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Wang, Qian; Zhao, Xu; Wang, Fang; Liu, Qingsuo

    2018-03-01

    The effect of Ga element on the microstructure, mechanical properties and shape memory effect of Cu-13.0Al-4.0Ni- xGa (wt%) high-temperature shape memory alloy was investigated by optical microscopy, SEM, XRD and compression test. The microstructure observation results showed that the Cu-13.0Al-4.0Ni- xGa ( x = 0.5 and 1.0) alloys displayed dual-phase morphology which consisted of 18R martensite and (Al, Ga)Cu phase, and their grain size was about several hundred microns, smaller than that of Cu-13.0Al-4.0Ni alloy. The compression test results proved that the mechanical properties of Cu-13.0Al-4.0Ni- xGa alloys were improved by addition of Ga element owing to the grain refinement and solid solution strengthening, and the compressive fracture strains were 11.5% for x = 0.5 and 14.9% for x = 1.0, respectively. When the pre-strain was 8%, the shape memory effect of 4.2 and 4.6% were obtained for Cu-13.0Al-4.0Ni-0.5 Ga and Cu-13.0Al-4.0Ni-1.0 Ga alloys after being heated to 400 °C for 1 min.

  20. Adsorption of multi-heavy metals Zn and Cu onto surficial sediments: modeling and adsorption capacity analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Shanshan; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Meng; Li, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Improved multiple regression adsorption models (IMRAMs) was developed to estimate the adsorption capacity of the components [Fe oxides (Fe), Mn oxides (Mn), organic materials (OMs), residuals] in surficial sediments for multi-heavy metal Zn and Cu. IMRAM is an improved version over MRAM, which introduces a computer program in the model developing process. As MRAM, Zn(Cu) IMRAM, and Cu(Zn) IMRAM again confirmed that there is significant interaction effects that control the adsorption of compounded Zn and Cu, which was neglected by additional adsorption model. The verification experiment shows that the relative deviation of the IMRAMs is less than 13%. It is revealed by the IMRAMs that Mn, which has the greatest adsorption capability for compounded Zn and Cu (54.889 and 161.180 mg/l, respectively), follows by interference adsorption capacity of Fe/Mn (-1.072 and -24.591 mg/l respectively). Zn and Cu influence each other through different mechanisms. When Zn is the adsorbate, compounded Cu mainly affects the adsorption capacities of Fe/Mn and Fe/Mn/OMs; while when Cu is the adsorbate, compounded Zn mainly exerts its effect on Mn, Fe/Mn, and Mn/OMs. It also shows that the compounded Zn or Cu weakened the interference adsorption of Fe/Mn, and meanwhile, strengthened the interference adsorption of Mn/OMs.

  1. P-Type Transparent Cu-Alloyed ZnS Deposited at Room Temperature

    DOE PAGES

    Woods-Robinson, Rachel; Cooper, Jason K.; Xu, Xiaojie; ...

    2016-03-16

    All transparent conducting materials (TCMs) of technological practicality are n-type; the inferior conductivity of p-type TCMs has limited their adoption. Additionally, many relatively high-performing p-type TCMs require synthesis temperatures > 400 °C. Here, room-temperature pulsed laser deposition of copper-alloyed zinc sulfide (Cu x Zn 1- x S) thin films (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.75) is reported. For 0.09 ≤ x ≤ 0.35, Cu x Zn 1- x S has high p-type conductivity, up to 42 S cm -1 at x = 0.30, with an optical band gap tunable from ≈3.0–3.3 eV and transparency, averaged over the visible, of 50%–71% formore » 200–250 nm thick films. In this range, synchrotron X-ray and electron diffraction reveal a nanocrystalline ZnS structure. Secondary crystalline Cu y S phases are not observed, and at higher Cu concentrations, x > 0.45, films are amorphous and poorly conducting. Furthermore, within the TCM regime, the conductivity is temperature independent, indicating degenerate hole conduction. A decrease in lattice parameter with Cu content suggests that the hole conduction is due to substitutional incorporation of Cu onto Zn sites. This hole-conducting phase is embedded in a less conducting amorphous Cu y S, which dominates at higher Cu concentrations. Finally, the combination of high hole conductivity and optical transparency for the peak conductivity Cu x Zn 1- x S films is among the best reported to date for a room temperature deposited p-type TCM.« less

  2. Effect of Ni addition to the Cu substrate on the interfacial reaction and IMC growth with Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu solder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xudong; Hu, Xiaowu; Jiang, Xiongxin; Li, Yulong

    2018-04-01

    The formation and growth of intermetallic compound (IMC) layer at the interface between Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu (SAC305) solder and Cu- xNi ( x = 0, 0.5, 1.5, 5, 10 wt%) substrate during reflowing and aging were investigated. The soldering was conducted at 270 °C using reflowing method, following by aging treatment at 150 °C for up to 360 h. The experimental results indicated that the total thickness of IMC increased with increasing aging time. The scallop-like Cu6Sn5 and planar-like Cu3Sn IMC layer were observed between SAC305 solder and purely Cu substrate. As the content of Ni element in Cu substrate was 0.5% or 1.5%, the scallop-like Cu6Sn5 and planar-like Cu3Sn IMC layer were still found between solder and Cu-Ni substrate and the total thickness of IMC layer decreased with the increasing Ni content. Besides, when the Ni content was up to 5%, the long prismatic (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 phase was the only product between solder and substrate and the total thickness of IMC layer increased significantly. Interestingly, the total thickness of IMC decreased slightly as the Ni addition was up to 10%. In the end, the grains of interfacial IMC layer became coarser with aging time increasing while the addition of Ni in Cu substrate could refine IMC grains.

  3. Distribution of Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu and their chemical speciations in soils from a peri-smelter area in northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Ping; Xue, Nandong; Liu, Li; Li, Fasheng

    2008-07-01

    An exploratory study on soil contamination of heavy metals was carried out surrounding Huludao zinc smelter in Liaoning province, China. The distribution of total heavy metals and their chemical speciations were investigated. The correlations between heavy metal speciations and soil pH values in corresponding sites were also analyzed. In general, Cd, Zn, Pb, Cu and As presented a significant contamination in the area near the smelter, comparied with Environmental Quality Standards for Soils in China. The geoaccumulation index showed the degree of contamination: Cd > Zn > Pb > Cu > As. There was no obvious pollution of Cr and Ni in the studied area. The speciation analysis showed that the dominant fraction of Cd and Zn was the acid soluble fraction, and the second was the residual fraction. Pb was mostly associated with the residual fraction, which constituted more than 50% of total concentration in all samples. Cu in residual fraction accounted for a high percentage (40-80%) of total concentration, and the proportion of Cu in the oxidizable fraction is higher than that of other metals. The distribution pattern of Pb and Zn was obviously affected by soil pH. It seemed that Pb and Zn content in acid solution fraction increased with increasing soil pH values, while Cd content in acid soluble fraction accounted for more proportion in neutral and alkaline groups than acidic one. The fraction distribution patterns of Cu in three pH groups were very similar and independent of soil pH values. And the residual fraction of Cu took a predominant part (50%) of the total content.

  4. Research on the synergistic doped effects and the catalysis properties of Cu2+ and Zn2+ co-doped CeO2 solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guofang; Li, Yiming; Hou, Zhonghui; Xv, Jianyi; Wang, Qingchun; Zhang, Yanghuan

    2018-08-01

    The Cu2+ and Zn2+ co-doped CeO2-based solid solutions were synthesized via hydrothermal method. The microstructure and the spectra features of the solid solutions were characterized systematically. The XRD results showed that the dopants were incorporated into the CeO2 lattice to form Ce1-xCu0.5xZn0.5xO2 solid solutions when x was lower than 0.14. The cell parameters and the crystalline size decreased linearly, and the lattice strain gradually increased with increasing the doping level. The TEM patterns showed that the particle size in the solid solution was lower than 10 nm which is in accordance with the XRD results. The ICP analysis indicated that the real doped content in the solid solution was close to the nominal proportion. XPS proved that the Ce3+ component was increased by doping. The Raman and PL spectra indicated that the lattice distortion and the oxygen vacancies also increased following the same trend. At the same time, the synergistic effects of two ions co-doped solid solutions were studied by comparing them with that of single ions doped samples. The catalysis effects of Cu2+ and Zn2+ co-doped CeO2-based solid solutions on the hydrogen storage electrochemical and kinetic properties of Mg2Ni alloys were detected. The electrochemistry properties of the Mg2Ni-Ni-5 wt% Ce1-xCu0.5xZn0.5xO2 composites indicated that the doped catalysts could provide better optimizations to improve the maximum discharge capacities and the discharge potentials. On the other hand, the charge transfer abilities on the surface and diffusion rate of H atoms in the bulk of alloys also got improved. The DSC measurements showed that the hydrogen desorption activation of the hydrogenated composites with Ce0.88Cu0.06Zn0.06O2 solid solutions decreased to 77.03 kJ mol-1, while that of the composites with pure CeO2 was 97.62 kJ mol-1. The catalysis effect was enhanced by the doped content increase that means that the catalysis mechanism had close links to the oxygen vacancy

  5. Synthesis and structural characterization of transition metal doped MgO: Mg0.95Mn0.01TM0.04O (TM = Co, Ni, Cu)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Ishtihadah; Khandy, Shakeel Ahmad; Hafiz, Aurangzeb Khurram

    2018-05-01

    In the present work, preparation and characterization of transition metal doped MgO: Zn0.94Mn0.01TM0.05O (TM = Co, Ni and Cu) nano-particles have been reported. Transition metal doped samples of MgO were synthesized by Sol gel auto combustion method. Structural characterisation from XRD and SEM show the formation of single-phase primary particles, nearly of spherical shaped nano-crystallites. The crystallite size was found to be 78.2, 67.02, 78.11 and 64 nm for pure, Co, Cu and Ni doped MgMnO nano-particles, respectively. Hence, the average crystallite size increases monotonously from Co to Cu doping.

  6. Investigations on structural, vibrational and dielectric properties of nanosized Cu doped Mg-Zn ferrites

    SciT

    Yadav, Anand; Department of Physics, MEDICAPS Institute of Science and Technology, Pithampur 453331; Rajpoot, Rambabu

    2016-05-23

    Transition metal Cu{sup 2+} doped Mg-Zn ferrite [Mg{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5-x}Cu{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5)] were prepared by sol gel auto combustion (SGAC) method to probe the structural, vibrational and electrical properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern reveals a single-phase cubic spinel structure without the presence of any secondary phase corresponding to other structure. The average particle size of the parent Mg{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is found to be ~29.8 nm and is found to increase with Cu{sup 2+} doping. Progressive reduction in lattice parameter of Mg{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} has been observed due to difference inmore » ionic radii of cations with improved Cu doping. Spinel cubic structure is further confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. Small shift in Raman modes towards higher wave number has been observed in doped Mg-Zn ferrites. The permittivity and dielectric loss decreases at lower doping and increases at higher order doping of Cu{sup 2+}.« less

  7. Effects of annealing on the ferromagnetism and photoluminescence of Cu-doped ZnO nanowires.

    PubMed

    Xu, H J; Zhu, H C; Shan, X D; Liu, Y X; Gao, J Y; Zhang, X Z; Zhang, J M; Wang, P W; Hou, Y M; Yu, D P

    2010-01-13

    Room temperature ferromagnetic Cu-doped ZnO nanowires have been synthesized using the chemical vapor deposition method. By combining structural characterizations and comparative annealing experiments, it has been found that both extrinsic (CuO nanoparticles) and intrinsic (Zn(1-x)Cu(x)O nanowires) sources are responsible for the observed ferromagnetic ordering of the as-grown samples. As regards the former, annealing in Zn vapor led to a dramatic decrease of the ferromagnetism. For the latter, a reversible switching of the ferromagnetism was observed with sequential annealings in Zn vapor and oxygen ambience respectively, which agreed well with previous reports for Cu-doped ZnO films. In addition, we have for the first time observed low temperature photoluminescence changed with magnetic properties upon annealing in different conditions, which revealed the crucial role played by interstitial zinc in directly mediating high T(c) ferromagnetism and indirectly modulating the Cu-related structured green emission via different charge transfer transitions.

  8. Functional Performances of CuZnAl Shape Memory Alloy Open-Cell Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biffi, C. A.; Casati, R.; Bassani, P.; Tuissi, A.

    2018-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) with cellular structure offer a unique mixture of thermo-physical-mechanical properties. These characteristics can be tuned by changing the pore size and make the shape memory metallic foams very attractive for developing new devices for structural and functional applications. In this work, CuZnAl SMA foams were produced through the liquid infiltration of space holder method. In comparison, a conventional CuZn brass alloy was foamed trough the same method. Functional performances were studied on both bulk and foamed SMA specimens. Calorimetric response shows similar martensitic transformation (MT) below 0 °C. Compressive response of CuZnAl revealed that mechanical behavior is strongly affected by sample morphology and that damping capacity of metallic foam is increased above the MT temperatures. The shape memory effect was detected in the CuZnAl foams. The conventional brass shows a compressive response similar to that of the martensitic CuZnAl, in which plastic deformation accumulation occurs up to the cellular structure densification after few thermal cycles.

  9. Speciation of Cu and Zn during composting of pig manure amended with rock phosphate.

    PubMed

    Lu, Duian; Wang, Lixia; Yan, Baixing; Ou, Yang; Guan, Jiunian; Bian, Yu; Zhang, Yubin

    2014-08-01

    Pig manure usually contains a large amount of metals, especially Cu and Zn, which may limit its land application. Rock phosphate has been shown to be effective for immobilizing toxic metals in toxic metals contaminated soils. The aim of this study work was to investigate the effect of rock phosphate on the speciation of Cu and Zn during co-composting of pig manure with rice straw. The results showed that composting process and rock phosphate addition significantly affected the changes of metal species. During co-composting, the exchangeable and reducible fractions of Cu were transformed to organic and residue fractions, thus the bioavailable Cu fractions were decreased. The rock phosphate addition enhanced the metal transformation depending on the level of rock phosphate amendment. Zinc was found in the exchangeable and reducible fractions in the compost. The bioavailable Zn fraction changed a little during the composting process. The composting process converted the exchangeable Zn fraction into reducible fraction. Addition of an appropriate amount (5.0%) of rock phosphate could advance the conversion. Rock phosphate could reduce metal availability through adsorption and complexation of the metal ions on inorganic components. The increase in pH and organic matter degradation could be responsible for the reduction in exchangeable and bioavailable Cu fractions and exchangeable Zn fraction in rock phosphate amended compost. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Salts affect the interaction of ZnO or CuO nanoparticles with wheat.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jacob; Hansen, Trevor; McLean, Joan E; McManus, Paul; Das, Siddhartha; Britt, David W; Anderson, Anne J; Dimkpa, Christian O

    2015-09-01

    Exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) that release metals with potential phytotoxicity could pose problems in agriculture. The authors of the present study used growth in a model growth matrix, sand, to examine the influence of 5 mmol/kg of Na, K, or Ca (added as Cl salts) and root exudates on transformation and changes to the bioactivity of copper(II) oxide (CuO) and zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs on wheat. These salt levels are found in saline agricultural soils. After 14 d of seedling growth, particles with crystallinity typical of CuO or ZnO remained in the aqueous fraction from the sand; particles had negative surface charges that differed with NP type and salt, but salt did not alter particle agglomeration. Reduction in shoot and root elongation and lateral root induction by ZnO NPs were mitigated by all salts. However, whereas Na and K promoted Zn loading into shoots, Ca reduced loading, suggesting that competition with Zn ions for uptake occurred. With CuO NPs, plant growth and loading was modified equally by all salts, consistent with major interaction with the plant with CuO rather than Cu ions. Thus, for both NPs, loading into plant tissues was not solely dependent on ion solubility. These findings indicated that salts in agricultural soils could modify the phytotoxicity of NPs. © 2015 SETAC.

  11. Phytoextraction of Zn and Cu from sewage sludge and impact on agronomic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Xiaomei, Liu; Qitang, Wu; Banks, M K; Ebbs, S D

    2005-01-01

    The presence of elevated concentrations of heavy metals limits the usage of sewage sludge as a fertilizer and soil amendment. Experiments were carried out to examine the extent to which seven plant species phytoextracted Zn and Cu from dewatered sludge. The hyperaccumulators Thlaspi caerulescens and Sedum alfredii showed the greatest removal of Zn, while shoots and tubers of two species of Alocasia showed the greatest Cu removal. Cultivation of plants in the sludge resulted in significant decreases in total Zn and changes in the partitioning of Zn between soil pools. However, Cu levels were largely unchanged and remained associated predominantly with the organic matter pool. Agronomic characteristics of the sludge material, such as pH, organic matter content, and nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium concentrations, did not change significantly during the four-month growth period, indicating that subsequent crops could be sustained by this material. These results suggest that Zn can be phytoextracted from sludge material, provided the rate of metal uptake exceeds the rate of mobilization to the exchangeable fraction. Since there was no appreciable accumulation of Zn and Cu in seeds of Zea mays in this study, some tissues from sludge-grown plants could potentially be used as animal fodder.

  12. Electromigration effect upon the Sn-0.7 wt% Cu/Ni and Sn-3.5 wt% Ag/Ni interfacial reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chih-ming; Chen, Sinn-wen

    2001-08-01

    This study investigates the effect of electromigration upon the interfacial reactions between the promising lead-free solders, Sn-Cu and Sn-Ag, with Ni substrate. Sandwich-type reaction couples, Sn-0.7 wt% Cu/Ni/Sn-0.7 wt% Cu and Sn-3.5 wt% Ag/Ni/Sn-3.5 wt% Ag, were reacted at 160, 180, and 200 °C for various lengths of time with and without the passage of electric currents. Without passage of electric currents through the couples, only one intermetallic compound Ni3Sn4 with ˜7 at. % Cu solubility was found at both interfaces of the Sn-0.7 wt% Cu/Ni couples. With the passage of an electric current of 500 A/cm2 density, the Cu6Sn5 phase was formed at the solder/Ni interface besides the Ni3Sn4 phase. Similar to those without the passage of electric currents, only the Ni3Sn4 phase was found at the Ni/solder interface. Directions of movement of electrons, Sn, and Cu atoms are the same at the solder/Ni interface, and the growth rates of the intermetallic layers were enhanced. At the Ni/solder interface, the electrons flow in the opposite direction of the Sn and Cu movement, and the growth rates of the intermetallic layers were retarded. Only the Ni3Sn4 phase was formed from the Sn-3.5 wt% Ag/Ni interfacial reaction with and without the passage of electric currents. Similar to the Sn-0.7 wt% Cu/Ni system, the movement of electrons enhances or retards the growth rates of the intermetallic layers at the solder/Ni and Ni/solder interfaces, respectively. Calculation results show the apparent effective charge za* decreases in magnitude with raising temperatures, which indicates the electromigration effect becomes insignificant at higher temperatures.

  13. Bimetallic Cu-Ni nanoparticles supported on activated carbon for catalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimi, Melody; Jaidie, Mohd Muazmil Hadi; Pang, Suh Cem

    2018-01-01

    A series of bimetallic copper-nickel (CuNix, x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1) nanoparticles supported on activated carbon (AC) were prepared by deposition-precipitation method for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde using hydrogen peroxide as oxidising agent. Analyses by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) confirmed that Cu and Ni was successfully added on the surface of activated carbon. CuNi1/AC showed the best catalytic activity for the oxidation of benzyl alcohols to the corresponding aldehyde within a short reaction period at 80 °C. The catalytic performance is significantly enhanced by the addition of equal amount of Ni as compared to the monometallic counterpart. This result indicates the synergistic effect between Ni and Cu particles in the catalytic oxidation reaction.

  14. Compositional partitioning during the spinodal decomposition in Cu-Ni-Sn alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, C. B.; Poswal, A. K.

    2018-05-01

    Spinodal decomposition in Cu-9.4at%Ni-3.1at%Sn alloy was elucidated with the new insight from the experimental EXAFS analysis supported by ab initio total energy calculations suggesting the strong influence of the first near-neighbour atoms. Enthalpy of mixing was calculated for all crystallographically unique first near-neighbour configurations and finally an average positive enthalpy of mixing of 1604 J/mol was obtained. Combination of ab initio results, XRD and EXAFS analysis indicate that one of the daughter phase becomes rich in Ni and Sn than the other phase; in contrary to the earlier proposition that Cu/Ni ratio remains constant in both daughter phases. It is also shown that the present thermodynamic description requires further refinement to extend the miscibility gap towards lower Ni content in Cu-Ni-Sn system.

  15. Optical model potentials for 6He+64Zn from 63Cu(7Li,6He)64Zn reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L.; Lin, C. J.; Jia, H. M.; Wang, D. X.; Sun, L. J.; Ma, N. R.; Yang, F.; Wu, Z. D.; Xu, X. X.; Zhang, H. Q.; Liu, Z. H.; Bao, P. F.

    2017-03-01

    Angular distributions of the transfer reaction 63Cu(7Li,6He )64Zn were measured at Elab(7Li) =12.67 , 15.21, 16.33, 23.30, 27.30, and 30.96 MeV. With the interaction potentials of the entrance channel 7Li+63Cu obtained from elastic scattering data as input, the optical potentials of the halo nuclear system 6He+64Zn in the exit channel were extracted by fitting the experimental data with the distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) and coupled reaction channels (CRC) methods, respectively. The results show that the threshold anomaly presents in the weakly bound system of 7Li+63Cu and the dispersion relation can be adopted to describe the connection between the real and imaginary potentials, while both the real and imaginary potentials nearly keep constant within the researched energy region for the halo system of 6He+64Zn . Moreover, calculations by the potentials extracted from the CRC method can reproduce the experimental elastic scattering of the 6He+64Zn system rather well, but those by the potentials from the DWBA method cannot, where the couplings between 7Li and 6He are absent. This work verifies the validity of the transfer method in the medium-mass target region and lays a solid foundation for the further study of optical potentials for exotic nuclear systems.

  16. CuGaS₂ and CuGaS₂-ZnS Porous Layers from Solution-Processed Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Berestok, Taisiia; Guardia, Pablo; Estradé, Sònia; Llorca, Jordi; Peiró, Francesca; Cabot, Andreu; Brock, Stephanie L

    2018-04-05

    The manufacturing of semiconducting films using solution-based approaches is considered a low cost alternative to vacuum-based thin film deposition strategies. An additional advantage of solution processing methods is the possibility to control the layer nano/microstructure. Here, we detail the production of mesoporous CuGaS₂ (CGS) and ZnS layers from spin-coating and subsequent cross-linking through chalcogen-chalcogen bonds of properly functionalized nanocrystals (NCs). We further produce NC-based porous CGS/ZnS bilayers and NC-based CGS-ZnS composite layers using the same strategy. Photoelectrochemical measurements are used to demonstrate the efficacy of porous layers, and particularly the CGS/ZnS bilayers, for improved current densities and photoresponses relative to denser films deposited from as-produced NCs.

  17. Influence of Cu Addition on the Structure, Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of Cast Mg-2%Zn Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotfpour, M.; Emamy, M.; Dehghanian, C.; Tavighi, K.

    2017-05-01

    Effects of different concentrations of Cu on the structure, mechanical and corrosion properties of Mg-2%Zn alloy were studied by the use of x-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, standard tensile testing, polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The average grain size of the alloy decreased from above 1000 μm to about 200 μm with 5 wt.% Cu addition in as-cast condition. Microstructural studies revealed that Mg-2Zn- xCu alloys matrix typically consists of primary α-Mg and MgZnCu and Mg(Zn,Cu)2 intermetallics which are mainly found at the grain boundaries. The results obtained from mechanical testing ascertained that Cu addition increased the hardness values significantly. Although the addition of 0.5 wt.% Cu improved the ultimate tensile strength and elongation values, more Cu addition (i.e., 5 wt.%) weakened the tensile properties of the alloy by introducing semi-continuous network of brittle intermetallic phases. Based on polarization test results, it can be concluded that Cu eliminates a protective film on Mg-2%Zn alloy surface. Among Mg-2%Zn- x%Cu alloys, the one containing 0.1 wt.% Cu exhibited the best anti-corrosion property. However, further Cu addition increased the volume fraction of intermetallics culminating in corrosion rate enhancement due to the galvanic couple effect. EIS and microstructural analysis also confirmed the polarization results.

  18. Bond length variation in Zn substituted NiO studied from extended X-ray absorption fine structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. D.; Poswal, A. K.; Kamal, C.; Rajput, Parasmani; Chakrabarti, Aparna; Jha, S. N.; Ganguli, Tapas

    2017-06-01

    Bond length behavior for Zn substituted NiO is determined through extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements performed at ambient conditions. We report bond length value of 2.11±0.01 Å for Zn-O of rock salt (RS) symmetry, when Zn is doped in RS NiO. Bond length for Zn substituted NiO RS ternary solid solutions shows relaxed behavior for Zn-O bond, while it shows un-relaxed behavior for Ni-O bond. These observations are further supported by first-principles calculations. It is also inferred that Zn sublattice remains nearly unchanged with increase in lattice parameter. On the other hand, Ni sublattice dilates for Zn compositions up to 20% to accommodate increase in the lattice parameter. However, for Zn compositions more than 20%, it does not further dilate. It has been attributed to the large disorder that is incorporated in the system at and beyond 20% of Zn incorporation in the cubic RS lattice of ternary solid solutions. For these large percentages of Zn incorporation, the Ni and the Zn atoms re-arrange themselves microscopically about the same nominal bond length rather than systematically increase in magnitude to minimize the energy of the system. This results in an increase in the Debye-Waller factor with increase in the Zn concentration rather than a systematic increase in the bond lengths.

  19. Insight into CH4 dissociation on NiCu catalyst: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongyan; Zhang, Riguang; Yan, Ruixia; Li, Jingrui; Wang, Baojun; Xie, Kechang

    2012-08-01

    A density-functional theory method has been conducted to investigate the dissociation of CH4 on NiCu (1 1 1) surface. Two models: uniform surface slab model (Model A) and Cu-rich surface slab model (Model B) have been constructed to represent the NiCu (1 1 1) surface, in which the ratio of Ni/Cu is unit. The obtained results on the two models have been compared with those obtained on pure Ni (1 1 1) and Cu (1 1 1). It is found that the adsorption of CHx(x = 1-3) on Model B are weaker than on Model A. The rate-determining steps of CH4 dissociation on Model A and B both are the dissociation of CH, and the corresponding activation barriers are 1.37 and 1.63 eV, respectively. Obviously, it is approximately equal on Model A to that on pure Ni (1 1 1) [H. Liu, R. Zhang, R. Yan, B. Wang, K. Xie, Applied Surface Science 257 (2011) 8955], while it is lower by 0.58 eV on Model B compared to that on pure Cu (1 1 1). Therefore, the Cu-rich surface has better carbon-resistance ability than the uniform one. Those results well explain the experimental facts that NiCu/SiO2 has excellent catalytic performance and long-term stability [H.-W. Chen, C.-Y. Wang, C.-H. Yu, L.-T. Tseng, P.-H. Liao, Catalysis Today 97 (2004) 173], however, there is serious carbon deposition on NiCu/MgO-Al2O3 in CO2 reforming of methane [J. Zhang, H. Wang, A. K. Dalai, Journal of Catalysis 249 (2007) 300].

  20. Facile synthesis of core-shell Cu2O@ ZnO structure with enhanced photocatalytic H2 production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong-Hui; Jiu, Bei-Bei; Gong, Fei-Long; Lu, Kuan; Jiang, Nan; Zhang, Hao-Li; Chen, Jun-Li

    2018-05-01

    Core-shell Cu2O@ZnO composites were synthesized successfully based on a one-pot hydrothermal method in the presence of dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt (AOT) surfactant. The Cu2O can be converted to rough core-shell Cu2O@ZnO structure by adjusting the amount of zinc powder added. The as-synthesized Cu2O@ZnO composites exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity and the amount of H2 generated using these composites was 4.5-fold more than that produced with Cu2O cubes. A possible photocatalytic mechanism for the Cu2O@ZnO composites with enhanced photocatalytic activity could be the separation by ZnO of the effective charge carriers.

  1. Intrinsic point defects in off-stoichiometric Cu2ZnSnSe4: A neutron diffraction study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurieva, Galina; Valle Rios, Laura Elisa; Franz, Alexandra; Whitfield, Pamela; Schorr, Susan

    2018-04-01

    This work is an experimental study of intrinsic point defects in off-stoichiometric kesterite type CZTSe by means of neutron powder diffraction. We revealed the existence of copper vacancies (VCu), various cation anti site defects (CuZn, ZnCu, ZnSn, SnZn, and CuZn), as well as interstitials (Cui, Zni) in a wide range of off-stoichiometric polycrystalline powder samples synthesized by the solid state reaction. The results show that the point defects present in off-stoichiometric CZTSe agree with the off-stoichiometry type model, assuming certain cation substitutions accounting for charge balance. In addition to the known off-stoichiometry types A-H, new types (I-L) have been introduced. For the very first time, a correlation between the chemical composition of the CZTSe kesterite type phase and the occurring intrinsic point defects is presented. In addition to the off-stoichiometry type specific defects, the Cu/Zn disorder is always present in the CZTSe phase. In Cu-poor/Zn-rich CZTSe, a composition considered as the one that delivers the best photovoltaic performance, mainly copper vacancies, ZnCu and ZnSn anti sites are present. Also, this compositional region shows the lowest degree of Cu/Zn disorder.

  2. Metallic glass alloys of Zr, Ti, Cu and Ni

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Xianghong; Peker, Atakan; Johnson, William L.

    1997-01-01

    At least quaternary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10.sup.3 K/s. Such alloys comprise titanium from 19 to 41 atomic percent, an early transition metal (ETM) from 4 to 21 atomic percent and copper plus a late transition metal (LTM) from 49 to 64 atomic percent. The ETM comprises zirconium and/or hafnium. The LTM comprises cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is further constrained such that the product of the copper plus LTM times the atomic proportion of LTM relative to the copper is from 2 to 14. The atomic percentage of ETM is less than 10 when the atomic percentage of titanium is as high as 41, and may be as large as 21 when the atomic percentage of titanium is as low as 24. Furthermore, when the total of copper and LTM are low, the amount of LTM present must be further limited. Another group of glass forming alloys has the formula (ETM.sub.1-x Ti.sub.x).sub.a Cu.sub.b (Ni.sub.1-y Co.sub.y).sub.c wherein x is from 0.1 to 0.3, y.cndot.c is from 0 to 18, a is from 47 to 67, b is from 8 to 42, and c is from 4 to 37. This definition of the alloys has additional constraints on the range of copper content, b.

  3. Molecular controls on Cu and Zn isotopic fractionation in Fe-Mn crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, S. H.; Sherman, D. M.; Vance, D.; Hein, J. R.

    2014-06-01

    The isotopic systems of the transition metals are increasingly being developed as oceanic tracers, due to their tendency to be fractionated by biological and/or redox-related processes. However, for many of these promising isotope systems the molecular level controls on their isotopic fractionations are only just beginning to be explored. Here we investigate the relative roles of abiotic and biotic fractionation processes in controlling modern seawater Cu and Zn isotopic compositions. Scavenging to Fe-Mn oxides represents the principal output for Cu and Zn to sediments deposited under normal marine (oxic) conditions. Using Fe-Mn crusts as an analogue for these dispersed phases, we investigate the phase association and crystal chemistry of Cu and Zn in such sediments. We present the results of an EXAFS study that demonstrate unequivocally that Cu and Zn are predominantly associated with the birnessite (δ-MnO2) phase in Fe-Mn crusts, as previously predicted from sequential leaching experiments (e.g., Koschinsky and Hein, 2003). The crystal chemistry of Cu and Zn in the crusts implies a reduction in coordination number in the sorbed phase relative to the free metal ion in seawater. Thus, theory would predict equilibrium fractionations that enrich the heavy isotope in the sorbed phase (e.g., Schauble, 2004). In natural samples, Fe-Mn crusts and nodules are indeed isotopically heavy in Zn isotopes (at ∼1‰) compared to deep seawater (at ∼0.5‰), consistent with the predicted direction of equilibrium isotopic fractionation based on our observations of the coordination environment of sorbed Zn. Further, ∼50% of inorganic Zn‧ is chloro-complexed (the other ∼50% is present as the free Zn2+ ion), and complexation by Cl- is also predicted to favour equilibrium partitioning of light Zn isotopes into the dissolved phase. The heavy Zn isotopic composition of Fe-Mn crusts and nodules relative to seawater can therefore be explained by an inorganic fractionation during

  4. Effect of the transit through the gut of earthworm (Eisenia fetida) on fractionation of Cu and Zn in pig manure.

    PubMed

    Li, Lingxiangyu; Wu, Jianyang; Tian, Guangming; Xu, Zhenlan

    2009-08-15

    To investigate the effect of the transit through the gut of earthworm (Eisenia fetida) on the fractionation of Cu and Zn in pig manure, earthworms were reared with pig manure in the greenhouse. Both the pig manure and the earthworm casts were subjected to a five-step sequential extraction of Cu and Zn. The content of Cu bound to organic matter in pig manure increased from 60% to 75% after transit through the gut of earthworm, whereas that of Zn decreased from 50% to 25%. It demonstrated that Cu had a strong affinity towards organic matter. The share of Cu and Zn in the exchangeable fraction was reduced by the transit through the gut of earthworm. Based on these changes, Cu was more bioavailable, whereas Zn was less bioavailable. The factors affecting metal fractionation, like pH, organic matter (OM) and total phosphorous (TP) contents, and total metal concentration, were also affected significantly by the transit through the gut of earthworm. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the fractionation of Cu in the earthworm casts was influenced by OM, TP and the amount of Cu in the earthworm casts. The total Zn concentration in the earthworm casts was the primary factor that explained most of the variation in Zn fractionation. The present study demonstrated that the digestive activity in the gut of E. fetida played an important role in the fraction redistribution of Cu and Zn in pig manure.

  5. Effect of fluoride prophylactic agents on the surface topography of NiTi and CuNiTi wires.

    PubMed

    Mane, Pratap P; Pawar, Renuka; Ganiger, Chanamallappa; Phaphe, Sandesh

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to see the effect of topical fluoride on surface texture on nickel-titanium and copper-nickel-titanium orthodontic archwires. Preformed rectangular NiTi and CuNiTi wires were immersed in in fluoride solution and artificial saliva (control) for 90 minutes at 37°C. after immersion optical microscope was used to see the fluoride effect on the wire topography. The acidulated fluoride agents appeared to cause greater corrosive effects as compared to the neutral fluoride agents. The result suggest that using topical fluoride agents leads to corrosion of surface topography indirectly affecting the mechanical properties of the wire that will lead to prolonged orthodontic treatment. The use of topical fluoride agents has to be limited in patients with prolonged orthodontic treatment as it causes the corrosion of the NiTi and CuNiTi wires.

  6. Enhanced Oxidation-Resistant Cu@Ni Core-Shell Nanoparticles for Printed Flexible Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Gon; Park, Hye Jin; Woo, Kyoohee; Jeong, Sunho; Choi, Youngmin; Lee, Su Yeon

    2018-01-10

    In this work, the fabrication and application of highly conductive, robust, flexible, and oxidation-resistant Cu-Ni core-shell nanoparticle (NP)-based electrodes have been reported. Cu@Ni core-shell NPs with a tunable Ni shell thickness were synthesized by varying the Cu/Ni molar ratios in the precursor solution. Through continuous spray coating and flash photonic sintering without an inert atmosphere, large-area Cu@Ni NP-based conductors were fabricated on various polymer substrates. These NP-based electrodes demonstrate a low sheet resistance of 1.3 Ω sq -1 under an optical energy dose of 1.5 J cm -2 . In addition, they exhibit highly stable sheet resistances (ΔR/R 0 < 1) even after 30 days of aging at 85 °C and 85% relative humidity. Further, a flexible heater fabricated from the Cu@Ni film is demonstrated, which shows uniform heat distribution and stable temperature compared to those of a pure Cu film.

  7. Remarks on the Particular Behavior in Martensitic Phase Transition in Cu-Based and Ni-Ti Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torra, Vicenç; Martorell, Ferran; Lovey, Francisco C.; Sade, Marcos

    2018-05-01

    Many macroscopic behaviors of the martensitic transformations are difficult to explain in the frame of the classical first-order phase transformations, without including the role of point and crystallographic defects (dislocations, stacking faults, interfaces, precipitates). A few major examples are outlined in the present study. First, the elementary reason for thermoelasticity and pseudoelasticity in single crystals of Cu-Zn-Al (β-18R transformation) arises from the interaction of a growing martensite plate with the existing dislocations in the material. Secondly, in Cu-Al-Ni, the twinned hexagonal (γ') martensite produces dislocations inhibiting this transformation and favoring the appearance of 18R in subsequent transformation cycles. Thirdly, single crystals of Cu-Al-Be visualize, via enhanced stress, a transformation primarily to 18R, a structural distortion of the 18R structure, and an additional transformation to another martensitic phase (i.e., 6R) with an increased strain. A dynamic behavior in Ni-Ti is also analyzed, where defects alter the pseudoelastic behavior after cycling.

  8. Changes in urinary Cu, Zn, and Se levels in cancer patients after treatment with Sha Shen Mai Men Dong Tang

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Tung-Yuan; Kuo, Hsien-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Sha Shen Mai Men Dong Tang (SMD-2; 沙參麥冬湯 shā shēn mài dōng tāng) is a Chinese medicinal herb (CMH; 中草藥 zhōng cǎo yào) used to treat symptoms associated with cancer therapy. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of SMD-2 on the levels of urinary copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) in lung cancer patients and head and neck cancer patients receiving chemoradiotherapy. Forty-two head and neck cancer patients and 10 lung cancer patients participated in our clinical trial. Each patient received chemoradiotherapy for 4 weeks. In addition, each patient was treated with SMD-2 for 8 weeks, including 2 weeks prior to and after the chemoradiotherapy treatment. Comparison of urinary Cu, Zn, and Se levels and the ratios of Zn to Cu and Se to Cu at three time points in the two types of cancer were assessed using the generalized estimating equations (GEEs). After the patients received chemoradiotherapy for 4 weeks, SMD-2 treatment was found to be associated with a significant decrease in urinary Cu levels, whereas urinary Zn and Se levels increased significantly. In addition, the ratios of Zn to Cu and Se to Cu in the urine samples of these patients also increased significantly. Both the urinary Zn levels and the ratio of Zn to Cu in head and neck cancer patients were significantly higher than in lung cancer patients. Urinary Zn and Se levels and the ratios of Zn to Cu and Se to Cu, but not urinary Cu levels, increased significantly during and after treatment when assessed using the GEE model. The SMD-2 treatments significantly increased Zn and Se levels in the urine of head and neck cancer patients. Increased Zn and Se levels in urine strengthened immune system. PMID:27114935

  9. Interfaces in La2NiO4- La2CuO4 superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smadici, S.; Lee, J. C. T.; Wang, S.; Abbamonte, P.; Logvenov, G.; Gozar, A.; Bozovic, I.

    2009-03-01

    Ni substitution on Cu sites in underdoped La2-xSrxCuO4 quickly restores Neel order. This was attributed to strong interaction between the Ni and doped holes. An open question was whether the additional Ni empty orbital or the different spin on Ni sites was at the origin of this strong interaction. We have addressed this problem with resonant soft x-ray scattering on a La2NiO4- La2CuO4 heterostructure. La2NiO4 and La2CuO4 have close lattice structures and electronic configurations. However, the x-ray scattering contrast between superlattice layers is greatly enhanced at soft x-ray resonant energies. Based on our measurements at the O K, La M, Cu L and Ni L edges a model of the charge, orbital and spin structures in these superlattices will be presented with a special emphasis on the interface region. This work was supported by Grants. DE-FG02- 06ER46285, DE-AC02-98CH10886, MA-509-MACA, DE-FG02-07ER46453 and DE-FG02-07ER46471.

  10. Effects of Ti addition and heat treatments on mechanical and electrical properties of Cu-Ni-Si alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyung Giun; Lee, Taeg Woo; Kim, Sang Min; Han, Seung Zeon; Euh, Kwangjun; Kim, Won Yong; Lim, Sung Hwan

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical and electrical properties of Cu-5.98Ni-1.43Si and Cu-5.98Ni-1.29Si-0.24Ti alloys under heat treatment at 400 and 500 °C after hot- and cold-rolling were investigated, and a microstructural analysis using transmission electron microscopy was performed. Cu-5.98Ni-1.29Si-0.24Ti alloy displayed the combined Vickers hardness/electrical conductivity value of 315.9 Hv/57.1%IACS. This was attributed to a decrease of the solution solubility of Ni and Si in the Cu matrix by the formation of smaller and denser δ-Ni2Si precipitates. Meanwhile, the alloyed Ti was detected in the coarse Ni-Si-Ti phase particles, along with other large Ni-Si phase particles, in Cu-5.98Ni-1.29Si-0.24Ti.

  11. The crystal structures of Ni{sub 3+x}Sn{sub 4}Zn and Ni{sub 6+x}Sn{sub 8}Zn and their structural relations to Ni{sub 3+x}Sn{sub 4}, NiSn and Ni{sub 5−δ}ZnSn{sub 4}

    SciT

    Schmetterer, Clemens, E-mail: clemens.schmetterer@univie.ac.at; Effenberger, Herta Silvia; Rajamohan, Divakar

    2016-06-15

    The crystal structures of two new compounds were determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction measurements: Ni{sub 3+x}Sn{sub 4}Zn, (x~1.35, a=7.110(2) Å, b=4.123(1) Å, c=10.346(3) Å, β=90.23(2)°, space group I2/m, Z=2. R1=0.025, wR2=0.059 for 748 unique reflections, 35 variable parameters) and Ni{sub 6+x}Sn{sub 8}Zn, x~1.35 (a=12.379(3) Å, b=4.095(1) Å, c=12.155(3) Å, β=116.25(3)°, space group C2/m, Z=2. R1=0.026, wR2=0.052 for 1346 unique reflections, 60 variable parameters). In addition, a structural refinement was performed for Ni{sub 3+x}Sn{sub 4}, x~0.13 (a=12.264(3) Å, b=4.066(1) Å, c=5.223(2) Å, β=104.85(3)°, space group C2/m, Z=2. R1=0.019, wR2=0.046 for 617 unique reflections, 29 variable parameters). The three compounds show pronouncedmore » similarities among each other as well as to the crystal structures of surrounding binary Ni–Sn and ternary Ni–Sn–Zn compounds. In particular, the two new compounds form a homologous series with Ni{sub 3+x}Sn{sub 4}, x~0.13. They contain “Ni{sub 4}Sn{sub 4}” and “Ni{sub 2}Sn{sub 4}” building blocks which by different interconnection build up the distinct structures. Topological relations with NiSn and Ni{sub 5−δ}Sn{sub 4}Zn, δ~0.25 are evident. - Graphical abstract: Projection of the structure of Ni{sub 6+x}ZnSn{sub 8}, x~1.35 and constituent building blocks. Display Omitted - Highlights: • The crystal structures of Ni{sub 6+x}Sn{sub 8}Zn and Ni{sub 3+x}Sn{sub 4}Zn were determined using single crystal XRD. • Topological relations to Ni–Sn and Ni–Sn–Zn compounds were established and discussed. • Common structural units were identified and their interconnection patterns described.« less

  12. Dilute electrodeposition of TiO2 and ZnO thin film memristors on Cu substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauzi, F. B.; Ani, M. H.; Herman, S. H.; Mohamed, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    Memristor has become one of the alternatives to replace the current memory technologies. Fabrication of titanium dioxide, TiO2 memristor has been extensively studied by using various deposition methods. However, recently more researches have been done to explore the compatibility of other transition metal oxide, TMO such as zinc oxide, ZnO to be used as the active layer of the memristor. This paper highlights the simple and easy-control electrodeposition to deposit titanium, Ti and zinc, Zn thin film at room temperature and subsequent thermal oxidation at 600 °C. Gold, Au was then sputtered as top electrode to create metal-insulator-metal, MIM sandwich of Au/TiO2-Cu2O-CuO/Cu and Au/ZnO-Cu2O-CuO/Cu memristors. The structural, morphological and memristive properties were characterized using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, FESEM, X-Ray Diffraction, XRD and current-voltage, I-V measurement. Both Au/TiO2-Cu2O-CuO/Cu and Au/ZnO-Cu2O-CuO/Cu memristivity were identified by the pinched hysteresis loop with resistive ratio of 1.2 and 1.08 respectively. Empirical study on diffusivity of Ti4+, Zn2+ and O2‑ ions in both metal oxides show that the metal vacancies were formed, thus giving rise to its memristivity. The electrodeposited Au/TiO2-Cu2O-CuO/Cu and Au/ZnO-Cu2O-CuO/Cu memristors demonstrate comparable performances to previous studies using other methods.

  13. Studies of the spin Hamiltonian parameters and local structure for ZnO:Cu2+.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shao-Yi; Wei, Li-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Xue-Feng; Hu, Yue-Xia

    2008-12-15

    The spin Hamiltonian parameters (the g factors and the hyperfine structure constants) and local structure for ZnO:Cu2+ are theoretically studied from the perturbation formulas of these parameters for a 3d9 ion under trigonally distorted tetrahedra. The ligand orbital and spin-orbit coupling contributions are taken into account from the cluster approach due to the significant covalency of the [CuO4](6-) cluster. According to the investigations, the impurity Cu2+ is suggested not to locate on the ideal Zn2+ site in ZnO but to undergo a slight outward displacement (approximately 0.01 angstroms) away from the ligand triangle along C3 axis. The calculated spin Hamiltonian parameters are in good agreement with the observed values. The validity of the above impurity displacement is also discussed.

  14. Novel inhibitors to Taenia solium Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase identified by virtual screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Gutiérrez, P.; Landa-Piedra, A.; Rodríguez-Romero, A.; Parra-Unda, R.; Rojo-Domínguez, A.

    2011-12-01

    We describe in this work a successful virtual screening and experimental testing aimed to the identification of novel inhibitors of superoxide dismutase of the worm Taenia solium ( TsCu/Zn-SOD), a human parasite. Conformers from LeadQuest® database of drug-like compounds were selected and then docked on the surface of TsCu/Zn-SOD. Results were screened looking for ligand contacts with receptor side-chains not conserved in the human homologue, with a subsequent development of a score optimization by a set of energy minimization steps, aimed to identify lead compounds for in vitro experiments. Six out of fifty experimentally tested compounds showed μM inhibitory activity toward TsCu/Zn-SOD. Two of them showed species selectivity since did not inhibit the homologous human enzyme when assayed in vitro.

  15. Hydrogenation of CO 2 on ZnO/Cu(100) and ZnO/Cu(111) Catalysts: Role of Copper Structure and Metal–Oxide Interface in Methanol Synthesis

    DOE PAGES

    Palomino, Robert M.; Ramirez, Pedro J.; Liu, Zongyuan; ...

    2017-08-21

    The results of kinetic tests and ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) show the important role played by a ZnO–copper interface in the generation of CO and the synthesis of methanol from CO 2 hydrogenation. The deposition of nanoparticles of ZnO on Cu(100) and Cu(111), θ oxi < 0.3 monolayer, produces highly active catalysts. The catalytic activity of these systems increases in the sequence: Cu(111) < Cu(100) < ZnO/Cu(111) < ZnO/Cu(100). The structure of the copper substrate influences the catalytic performance of a ZnO–copper interface. Furthermore, size and metal–oxide interactions affect the chemical and catalytic properties of the oxide making themore » supported nanoparticles different from bulk ZnO. The formation of a ZnO–copper interface favors the binding and conversion of CO 2 into a formate intermediate that is stable on the catalyst surface up to temperatures above 500 K. Alloys of Zn with Cu(111) and Cu(100) were not stable at the elevated temperatures (500–600 K) used for the CO 2 hydrogenation reaction. However, reaction with CO 2 oxidized the zinc, enhancing its stability over the copper substrates.« less

  16. Hydrogenation of CO 2 on ZnO/Cu(100) and ZnO/Cu(111) Catalysts: Role of Copper Structure and Metal–Oxide Interface in Methanol Synthesis

    SciT

    Palomino, Robert M.; Ramirez, Pedro J.; Liu, Zongyuan

    The results of kinetic tests and ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) show the important role played by a ZnO–copper interface in the generation of CO and the synthesis of methanol from CO 2 hydrogenation. The deposition of nanoparticles of ZnO on Cu(100) and Cu(111), θ oxi < 0.3 monolayer, produces highly active catalysts. The catalytic activity of these systems increases in the sequence: Cu(111) < Cu(100) < ZnO/Cu(111) < ZnO/Cu(100). The structure of the copper substrate influences the catalytic performance of a ZnO–copper interface. Furthermore, size and metal–oxide interactions affect the chemical and catalytic properties of the oxide making themore » supported nanoparticles different from bulk ZnO. The formation of a ZnO–copper interface favors the binding and conversion of CO 2 into a formate intermediate that is stable on the catalyst surface up to temperatures above 500 K. Alloys of Zn with Cu(111) and Cu(100) were not stable at the elevated temperatures (500–600 K) used for the CO 2 hydrogenation reaction. However, reaction with CO 2 oxidized the zinc, enhancing its stability over the copper substrates.« less

  17. Isolation and characterization of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase in Fasciola gigantica.

    PubMed

    Lalrinkima, H; Raina, O K; Chandra, Dinesh; Jacob, Siju Susan; Bauri, R K; Chandra, Subhash; Yadav, H S; Singh, M N; Rialch, A; Varghese, A; Banerjee, P S; Kaur, Navneet; Sharma, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    A full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase was isolated from Fasciola gigantica that on nucleotide sequencing showed a close homology (98.9%) with Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) of the temperate liver fluke, F. hepatica. Expression of the gene was found in all the three developmental stages of the parasite viz. adult, newly excysted juvenile and metacercaria at transcriptional level by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and at the protein level by Western blotting. F. gigantica Cu/Zn-SOD cDNA was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Enzyme activity of the recombinant protein was determined by nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and this activity was inactivated by hydrogen peroxide but not by sodium azide, indicating that the recombinant protein is Cu/Zn-SOD. The enzyme activity was relatively stable at a broad pH range of pH 4.0-10.0. Native Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase protein was detected in the somatic extract and excretory-secretory products of the adult F. gigantica by Western blotting. NBT-PAGE showed a single Cu/Zn-SOD present in the somatic extract while three SODs are released ex vivo by the adult parasite. The recombinant superoxide dismutase did not react with the serum from buffaloes infected with F. gigantica. The role of this enzyme in defense by the parasite against the host reactive oxygen species is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Distribution of Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in primary colorectal cancer and secondary colorectal liver metastases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ebraheem, A.; Mersov, A.; Gurusamy, K.; Farquharson, M. J.

    2010-07-01

    A microbeam synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (μSRXRF) technique has been used to determine the localization and the relative concentrations of Zn, Cu, Fe and Ca in primary colorectal cancer and secondary colorectal liver metastases. 24 colon and 23 liver samples were examined, all of which were formalin fixed tissues arranged as microarrays of 1.0 mm diameter and 10 μm thickness. The distribution of these metals was compared with light transmission images of adjacent sections that were H and E stained to reveal the location of the cancer cells. Histological details were provided for each sample which enable concentrations of all elements in different tissue types to be compared. In the case of liver, significant differences have been found for all elements when comparing tumour, normal, necrotic, fibrotic, and blood vessel tissues (Kruskal Wallis Test, P<0.0001). The concentrations of all elements have also been found to be significantly different among tumour, necrotic, fibrotic, and mucin tissues in the colon samples (Kruskal Wallis Test, P<0.0001). The concentrations of all elements have been compared between primary colorectal samples and colorectal liver metastases. Concentration of Zn, Cu, Fe and Ca are higher in all types of liver tissues compared to those in the colon tissues. Comparing liver tumour and colon tumour samples, significant differences have been found for all elements (Mann Whitney, P<0.0001). For necrotic tissues, significant increase has been found for Zn, Ca, Cu and Fe (Mann Whitney, P<0.0001 for Fe and Zn, 0.014 for Ca, and 0.001 for Cu). The liver fibrotic levels of Zn, Ca, Cu and Fe were higher than the fibrotic colon areas (independent T test, P=0.007 for Zn and Mann Whitney test P<0.0001 for Cu, Fe and Ca). For the blood vessel tissue, the analysis revealed that the difference was only significant for Fe ( P=0.009) from independent T test.

  19. Chemical behavior of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in a eutrophic reservoir: speciation and complexation capacity.

    PubMed

    Tonietto, Alessandra Emanuele; Lombardi, Ana Teresa; Choueri, Rodrigo Brasil; Vieira, Armando Augusto Henriques

    2015-10-01

    This research aimed at evaluating cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) speciation in water samples as well as determining water quality parameters (alkalinity, chlorophyll a, chloride, conductivity, dissolved organic carbon, dissolved oxygen, inorganic carbon, nitrate, pH, total suspended solids, and water temperature) in a eutrophic reservoir. This was performed through calculation of free metal ions using the chemical equilibrium software MINEQL+ 4.61, determination of labile, dissolved, and total metal concentrations via differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry, and determination of complexed metal by the difference between the total concentration of dissolved and labile metal. Additionally, ligand complexation capacities (CC), such as the strength of the association of metals-ligands (logK'ML) and ligand concentrations (C L) were calculated via Ruzic's linearization method. Water samples were taken in winter and summer, and the results showed that for total and dissolved metals, Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd concentration. In general, higher concentrations of Cu and Zn remained complexed with the dissolved fraction, while Pb was mostly complexed with particulate materials. Chemical equilibrium modeling (MINEQL+) showed that Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) dominated the labile species, while Cu and Pb were complexed with carbonates. Zinc was a unique metal for which a direct relation between dissolved species with labile and complexed forms was obtained. The CC for ligands indicated a higher C L for Cu, followed by Pb, Zn, and Cd in decreasing amounts. Nevertheless, the strength of the association of all metals and their respective ligands was similar. Factor analysis with principal component analysis as the extraction procedure confirmed seasonal effects on water quality parameters and metal speciation. Total, dissolved, and complexed Cu and total, dissolved, complexed, and labile Pb species were all higher in winter, whereas in summer, Zn was mostly present in the

  20. The growth of intermetallic compounds at Sn-Ag-Cu solder/Cu and Sn-Ag-Cu solder/Ni interfaces and the associated evolution of the solder microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zribi, A.; Clark, A.; Zavalij, L.; Borgesen, P.; Cotts, E. J.

    2001-09-01

    The evolution of intermetallics at and near SnAgCu/Cu and SnAgCu/Ni interfaces was examined, and compared to the behavior, near PbSn/metal and Sn/metal interfaces. Two different solder compositions were considered, Sn93.6Ag4.7Cu1.7 and Sn95.5Ag3.5Cu1.0 (Sn91.8Ag5.1 Cu3.1 and Sn94.35Ag3.8Cu1.85 in atomic percent). In both cases, phase formation and growth at interfaces with Cu were very similar to those commonly observed for eutectic SnPb solder. However, the evolution of intermetallics at SnAgCu/Ni interfaces proved much more complex. The presence of the Cu in the solder dramatically altered the phase selectivity at the solder/Ni interface and affected the growth kinetics of intermetallics. As long as sufficient Cu was available, it would combine with Ni and Sn to form (Cu,Ni)6)Sn5 which grew instead of the Ni3Sn4 usually observed in PbSn/Ni and Sn/Ni diffusion couples. This growing phase would, however, eventually consume essentially all of the available Cu in the solder. Because the mechanical properties of Sn-Ag-Cu alloys, depend upon the Cu content, this consumption can be expected to alter the mechanical properties of these Pb-free solderjoints. After depletion of the Cu from the solder, further annealing then gradually transformed the (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 phase into a (Ni,Cu)3Sn4 phase.

  1. Cation/Anion Substitution in Cu2ZnSnS4 for Improved Photovoltaic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Ananthoju, Balakrishna; Mohapatra, Jeotikanta; Jangid, Manoj K.; Bahadur, D.; Medhekar, N. V.; Aslam, M.

    2016-01-01

    Cations and anions are replaced with Fe, Mn, and Se in CZTS in order to control the formations of the secondary phase, the band gap, and the micro structure of Cu2ZnSnS4. We demonstrate a simplified synthesis strategy for a range of quaternary chalcogenide nanoparticles such as Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS), Cu2FeSnS4 (CFTS), Cu2MnSnS4 (CMTS), Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe), and Cu2ZnSn(S0.5Se0.5)4 (CZTSSe) by thermolysis of metal chloride precursors using long chain amine molecules. It is observed that the crystal structure, band gap and micro structure of the CZTS thin films are affected by the substitution of anion/cations. Moreover, secondary phases are not observed and grain sizes are enhanced significantly with selenium doping (grain size ~1 μm). The earth-abundant Cu2MSnS4/Se4 (M = Zn, Mn and Fe) nanoparticles have band gaps in the range of 1.04–1.51 eV with high optical-absorption coefficients (~104 cm−1) in the visible region. The power conversion efficiency of a CZTS solar cell is enhanced significantly, from 0.4% to 7.4% with selenium doping, within an active area of 1.1 ± 0.1 cm2. The observed changes in the device performance parameters might be ascribed to the variation of optical band gap and microstructure of the thin films. The performance of the device is at par with sputtered fabricated films, at similar scales. PMID:27748406

  2. Electrodeposition mechanism of quaternary compounds Cu2ZnSnS4: Effect of the additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Aiyue; Li, Zhilin; Wang, Feng; Dou, Meiling; Liu, Jingjun; Ji, Jing; Song, Ye

    2018-01-01

    The electrodeposition mechanism of pure phase Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin film with subsequent annealing was investigated in detail. An electrolyte design principle of quaternary compounds was proposed. The complex ions of Cu(H2C6H5O7)+, Cu2(C6H5O7)+, Zn(C4H5O6)+, Sn(H2C6H5O7)+ and Sn2(C6H5O7)+, which influenced the reduction process and played important roles in co-deposition, were identified by UV spectra. Electrochemical studies indicated that trisodium citrate and tartaric acid could narrow the co-deposition potential range of the four elements to -0.8 V to -1.2 V (vs. SCE). The cause was the synergetic effect that trisodium citrate inhibited the reduction of Cu2+ and Sn2+ and tartaric acid promoted the reduction of Zn2+. The reduction of S2O32- was mainly attributed to the induction effect of the metallic ions, and the H+ dissociated from tartaric acid could also promote the cathode process of S2O32-. The reaction mechanism could be summarized as the following steps: (I) Cu(H2C6H5O7)+, Cu2(C6H5O7)+ → Cu, Sn(H2C6H5O7)+, Sn2(C6H5O7)+ → Sn, Zn(C4H5O6)+ → Zn; (II) the desorption of (H2C6H5O7)- and (C6H5O7)-, and the reduction of S2O32- induced by metallic ions and H+. The mechanism studies provided a path of electrolyte design for multicomponent compounds.

  3. Erythrocyte CuZn superoxide dismutase activity is decreased in iron-deficiency anemia.

    PubMed

    Olivares, M; Araya, M; Pizarro, F; Letelier, A

    2006-09-01

    Iron and copper are essential microminerals that are intimately related. The present study was performed to determine the effect of iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) and treatment with iron on laboratory indicators of copper status. Hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume erythrocyte Zn protoporphyrin, serum ferritin, serum copper, serum ceruloplasmin, and erythrocyte CuZn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were studied in 12 adult women with IDA before and after iron treatment for 60-90 d (100 mg/d Fe, as ferric polymaltose) and in 27 women with normal iron status. Prior to treatment with iron, serum copper and ceruloplasmin were not different between the groups and treatment with iron did not affect these measures. IDA women, before and after treatment with iron, presented a 2.9- and 2-fold decrease in erythrocyte CuZn-SOD activity compared to women with normal iron status (p < 0.001). Treatment with iron increased erythrocyte CuZn-SOD activity of the IDA group; however, this change was not statistically significant. In conclusion, CuZn-SOD activity is decreased in IDA. Measurement of this enzyme activity is not useful for evaluating copper nutrition in iron-deficient subjects.

  4. Passivation of Cu-Zn alloy on low carbon steel electrodeposited from a pyrophosphate medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavuz, Abdulcabbar; Yakup Hacıibrahimoğlu, M.; Bedir, Metin

    2018-01-01

    The motivation of this study is to understand whether zinc-based alloy also has a passivation behaviour similar to zinc itself. Cu-Zn alloys were electrodeposited potentiostatically from a pyrophosphate medium on a carbon steel electrode and their corrosion behaviours were studied. Pt and carbon steel electrodes were used in order to examine the corrosion/passivation behaviour of bare Cu, bare Zn and Cu-Zn alloy coatings. The passivation behaviour of all brass-modified electrodes having Zn content between 10% and 100% was investigated. The growth potential affects the morphology and structure of crystals. The brass coatings are more porous than their pure components. The crystalline structure of Cu-Zn alloys can be obtained by changing the deposition potential. The zinc content in brass increases when the deposition voltage applied decreases. However, the growth potential and the ratio of zinc in brass do not affect the passivation behaviour of the resulting alloys. The coatings obtained by applying different growth potentials were immersed in tap water for 24 h to compare their corrosion behaviours with carbon steel having pitting formation.

  5. Unoccupied states in Cu and Zn octaethyl-porphyrin and phthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Cook, Peter L; Yang, Wanli; Liu, Xiaosong; García-Lastra, Juan María; Rubio, Angel; Himpsel, F J

    2011-05-28

    Copper and zinc phthalocyanines and porphyrins are used in organic light emitting diodes and dye-sensitized solar cells. Using near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy at the Cu 2p and Zn 2p edges, the unoccupied valence states at the Cu and Zn atoms are probed and decomposed into 3d and 4s contributions with the help of density functional calculations. A comparison with the N 1s edge provides the 2p states of the N atoms surrounding the metal, and a comparison with inverse photoemission provides a combined density of states. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  6. Thermally evaporated Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Gunawan, O.; Todorov, T.; Shin, B.; Chey, S. J.; Bojarczuk, N. A.; Mitzi, D.; Guha, S.

    2010-10-01

    High efficiency Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells have been fabricated on glass substrates by thermal evaporation of Cu, Zn, Sn, and S. Solar cells with up to 6.8% efficiency were obtained with absorber layer thicknesses less than 1 μm and annealing times in the minutes. Detailed electrical analysis of the devices indicate that the performance of the devices is limited by high series resistance, a "double diode" behavior of the current voltage characteristics, and an open circuit voltage that is limited by a carrier recombination process with an activation energy below the band gap of the material.

  7. Solution-Processed Cu2ZnSn(S,Se) 4 Thin-Film Solar Cells Using Elemental Cu, Zn, Sn, S, and Se Powders as Source.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Pei, Yingli; Zhou, Zhengji; Zhou, Wenhui; Kou, Dongxing; Wu, Sixin

    2015-12-01

    Solution-processed approach for the deposition of Cu2ZnSn (S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) absorbing layer offers a route for fabricating thin film solar cell that is appealing because of simplified and low-cost manufacturing, large-area coverage, and better compatibility with flexible substrates. In this work, we present a simple solution-based approach for simultaneously dissolving the low-cost elemental Cu, Zn, Sn, S, and Se powder, forming a homogeneous CZTSSe precursor solution in a short time. Dense and compact kesterite CZTSSe thin film with high crystallinity and uniform composition was obtained by selenizing the low-temperature annealed spin-coated precursor film. Standard CZTSSe thin film solar cell based on the selenized CZTSSe thin film was fabricated and an efficiency of 6.4 % was achieved.

  8. High salinity volatile phases in magmatic Ni-Cu-platinum group element deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanley, J. J.; Mungall, J. E.

    2004-12-01

    The role of "deuteric" fluids (exsolved magmatic volatile phases) in the development of Ni-Cu-PGE (platinum group element) deposits in mafic-ultramafic igneous systems is poorly understood. Although considerable field evidence demonstrates unambiguously that fluids modified most large primary Ni-Cu-PGE concentrations, models which hypothesize that fluids alone were largely responsible for the economic concentration of the base and precious metals are not widely accepted. Determination of the trace element composition of magmatic volatile phases in such ore-forming systems can offer considerable insight into the origin of potentially mineralizing fluids in such igneous environments. Laser ablation ICP-MS microanalysis allows researchers to confirm the original metal budget of magmatic volatile phases and quantify the behavior of trace ore metals in the fluid phase in the absence of well-constrained theoretical or experimental predictions of ore metal solubility. In this study, we present new evidence from major deposits (Sudbury, Ontario, Canada; Stillwater Complex, Montana, U.S.A.) that compositionally distinct magmatic brines and halide melt phases were exsolved from crystallizing residual silicate melt and trapped within high-T fluid conduits now comprised of evolved rock compositions (albite-quartz graphic granite, orthoclase-quartz granophyre). Petrographic evidence demonstrates that brines and halide melts coexisted with immiscible carbonic phases at the time of entrapment (light aliphatic hydrocarbons, CO2). Brine and halide melt inclusions are rich in Na, Fe, Mn, K, Pb, Zn, Ba, Sr, Al and Cl, and homogenize by either halite dissolution at high T ( ˜450-700° C) or by melting of the salt phase (700-800° C). LA-ICPMS analyses of single inclusions demonstrate that high salinity volatile phases contained abundant base metals (Cu, Fe, Sn, Bi) and precious metals (Pt, Pd, Au, Ag) at the time of entrapment. Notably, precious metal concentrations in the inclusions

  9. Phytotoxic effects of Cu and Zn on soybeans grown in field-aged soils: their additive and interactive actions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bojeong; McBride, Murray B

    2009-01-01

    A field pot experiment was conducted to investigate the interactive phytotoxicity of soil Cu and Zn on soybean plants [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Two soils (Arkport sandy loam [coarse-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Lamellic Hapludalf] and Hudson silty clay loam [fine, illitic, mesic Glossaquic Hapludalf]) spiked with Cu, Zn, and combinations of both to reach the final soil metal range of 0 to 400 mg kg(-1) were tested in a 2-yr bioassay after 1 yr of soil-metal equilibration in the field. The soluble and easily-extractable fraction of soil Zn (or Cu), estimated by dilute CaCl2, increased linearly in response to the total Zn (or Cu) added. This linearity was, however, strongly affected where soils were treated with both metals in combination, most notably for Zn, as approximately 50% more of soil Zn was extracted into solution when the Cu level was high. Consequently, added Zn is less likely to be stabilized by aging than added Cu when both metals are present in field soils. The predictive model relating soil metal extractability to plant Zn concentration also revealed a significant Cu-Zn interaction. By contrast, the interaction between the two metals contributed little to explain plant Cu uptake. The additive action of soil Cu and Zn was of considerable importance in explaining plant biomass reduction. This work clearly demonstrates the critical roles of the properties of the soil, the nature of the metal, and the level of other toxic metals present on the development of differential phytotoxicity due to soil Cu and Zn.

  10. Flexibility of the Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase structure investigated at 0.57 GPa.

    PubMed

    Ascone, Isabella; Savino, Carmelinda; Kahn, Richard; Fourme, Roger

    2010-06-01

    The 2 A resolution crystal structure of bovine erythrocyte Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) has been determined by X-ray diffraction at high pressure (0.57 GPa) and room temperature. At 0.57 GPa the secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures are similar to other previously determined bovine erythrocyte CuZnSOD structures. Nevertheless, pressure has a localized impact on the atomic coordinates of C(alpha) atoms and on side chains. The compression of the crystal and of the protein backbone is anisotropic. This anisotropy is discussed, taking into account intermolecular contacts and protein conformation. Pressure perturbation highlights the more flexible zones in the protein such as the electrostatic loop. At 0.57 GPa, a global shift of the dimetallic sites in both subunits and changes in the oxidation state of Cu were observed. The flexibility of the electrostatic loop may be useful for the interaction of different metal carriers in the copper-uptake process, whereas the flexibility of the metal sites involved in the activity of the protein could contribute to explaining the ubiquitous character of CuZnSODs, which are found in organisms living in very different conditions, including the deep-sea environment. This work illustrates the potential of combining X-ray crystallography with high pressure to promote and stabilize higher energy conformational substates.

  11. Ab initio investigation on hydrogen adsorption capability in Zn and Cu-based metal organic frameworks

    SciT

    Tanuwijaya, V. V., E-mail: viny.veronika@gmail.com; Hidayat, N. N., E-mail: avantgarde.vee@gmail.com; Agusta, M. K., E-mail: kemal@fti.itb.ac.id

    2015-09-30

    One of the biggest challenge in material technology for hydrogen storage application is to increase hydrogen uptake in room temperature and pressure. As a class of highly porous material, Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOF) holds great potential with its tunable structure. However, little is known about the effect of metal cluster to its hydrogen storage capability. Investigation on this matter has been carried out carefully on small cluster of Zn and Cu-based MOF using first principles method. The calculation of two distinct building units of MOFs, namely octahedral and paddle-wheel models, have been done with B3LYP density functional method using 6-31G(d,p) andmore » LANL2DZ basis sets. From geometry optimization of Zn-based MOF linked by benzene-dicarboxylate (MOF-5), it is found that hydrogen tends to keep distance from metal cluster group and stays above benzene ring. In the other hand, hydrogen molecule prefers to stay atop of the exposed Cu atom in Cu-based MOF system linked by the same linker group (Cu-bdc). Calculated hydrogen binding enthalpies for Zn and Cu octahedral cages at ZnO{sub 3} sites are 1.64kJ/mol and 2.73kJ/mol respectively, while hydrogen binding enthalpies for Zn and Cu paddle-wheel cages calculated on top of metal atoms are found to be at 6.05kJ/mol and 6.10kJ/mol respectively. Major difference between Zn-MOF-5 and Cu-bdc hydrogen uptake performance might be caused by unsaturated metal sites present in Cu-bdc system and the influence of their geometric structures, although a small difference on binding energy in the type of transition metal used is also observed. The comparison between Zn and Cu-based MOF may contribute to a comprehensive understanding of metal clusters and the importance of selecting best transition metal for design and synthesis of metal-organic frameworks.« less

  12. Effects of added Zn, Ni and Cd on desert shrubs grown in desert soil

    SciT

    Patel, P.M.; Wallace, A.; Romney, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    Desert shrubs - Ambrosia dumosa, Lycium andersonii, Larrea tridenata, and Ephedra nevadensis wre grown in a glasshouse in desert (calcarous) soil with different levels of added Zn, Ni, and Cd. The objective was to study effects of the metals on growth and yield and uptake and translocation of metals in desert plant species which are common in the Mojave Desert (areas of Nevada and southeast California). Zinc and Cd considerably decreased yields of all four species. Yields of E. nevadensis were increased by Ni at 250 and 500 mg/kg applied to desert soil. Ephedra nevadensis was more tolerant of Nimore » than were the other three desert shrubs. Some interactions were observed among various elements: manganese concentration was increased in shrubs by Zn. Particularly, application of Ni reduced the concentrations of Zn and Mn over the control.« less

  13. Structural and magnetic analysis of Cu, Co substituted NiFe2O4 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Hakikat; Bala, Kanchan; Negi, N. S.

    2016-05-01

    In the present work we prepared NiFe2O4, Ni0.95Cu0.05Fe2O4 and Ni0.94Cu0.05Co0.01 Fe2O4 thin films by metallo-organic decomposition method (MOD) using spin coating technique. The thin films were analyzed by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Atomic force microscope (AFM) for structural studies. The XRD patterns confirmed the ferrite phase of thin films. From AFM, we analyzed surface morphology, calculated grain size (GS) and root mean square roughness (RMSR). Room temperature magnetic properties were investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM).

  14. Kinetics and thermodynamics associated with Bi adsorption transitions at Cu and Ni grain boundaries

    SciT

    Tai, Kaiping; Feng, Lin; Dillon, Shen J.

    The grain boundary diffusivity of Au in Cu and Cu-Bi, and Cu in Ni and Ni-Bi are characterized by secondary ion mass spectroscopy depth profiling. Samples are equilibrated in a Bi containing atmosphere at temperatures above and below the onset of grain boundary adsorption transitions, sometimes called complexion transitions. A simple thermo-kinetic model is used to estimate the relative entropic contributions to the grain boundary energies. The results indicate that the entropy term plays a major role in promoting thermally and chemically induced grain boundary complexion transition.

  15. Magnetic studies of Co2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+-modified DNA double-crossover lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugasani, Sreekantha Reddy; Oh, Young Hoon; Gnapareddy, Bramaramba; Park, Tuson; Kang, Won Nam; Park, Sung Ha

    2018-01-01

    We fabricated divalent-metal-ion-modified DNA double-crossover (DX) lattices on a glass substrate and studied their magnetic characteristics as a function of ion concentrations [Co2+], [Ni2+] and [Zn2+]. Up to certain critical concentrations, the DNA DX lattices with ions revealed discrete S-shaped hysteresis, i.e. characteristics of strong ferromagnetism, with significant changes in the coercive field, remanent magnetization, and susceptibility. Induced magnetic dipoles formed by metal ions in DNA duplex in the presence of a magnetic field imparted ferromagnetic behaviour. By considering hysteresis and the magnitude of magnetization in a magnetization-magnetic field curve, Co2+-modified DNA DX lattices showed a relatively strong ferromagnetic nature with an increasing (decreasing) trend of coercive field and remanent magnetization when [Co2+] ≤ 1 mM ([Co2+] > 1 mM). In contrast, Ni2+ and Zn2+-modified DNA DX lattices exhibited strong and weak ferromagnetic behaviours at lower (≤1 mM for Ni2+ and ≤0.5 mM for Zn2+) and higher (>1 mM for Ni2+ and >0.5 mM for Zn2+) concentrations of ions, respectively. About 1 mM of [Co2+], [Ni2+] and [Zn2+] in DNA DX lattices was of special interest with regard to physical characteristics and was identified to be an optimum concentration of each ion. Finally, we measured the temperature-dependent magnetic characteristics of the metal-ion-modified DNA DX lattices. Nonzero magnetization and inverse susceptibility with almost constant values were observed between 25 and 300 K, with no indication of a magnetic transition. This indicated that the magnetic Curie temperatures of Co2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+-modified DNA DX lattices were above 300 K.

  16. Shell Evolution towards 78Ni: Low-Lying States in 77Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, E.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Tsunoda, Y.; Otsuka, T.; de Angelis, G.; Görgen, A.; Niikura, M.; Nishimura, S.; Xu, Z. Y.; Baba, H.; Browne, F.; Delattre, M.-C.; Doornenbal, P.; Franchoo, S.; Gey, G.; Hadyńska-KlÈ©k, K.; Isobe, T.; John, P. R.; Jung, H. S.; Kojouharov, I.; Kubo, T.; Kurz, N.; Li, Z.; Lorusso, G.; Matea, I.; Matsui, K.; Mengoni, D.; Morfouace, P.; Napoli, D. R.; Naqvi, F.; Nishibata, H.; Odahara, A.; Sakurai, H.; Schaffner, H.; Söderström, P.-A.; Sohler, D.; Stefan, I. G.; Sumikama, T.; Suzuki, D.; Taniuchi, R.; Taprogge, J.; Vajta, Z.; Watanabe, H.; Werner, V.; Wu, J.; Yagi, A.; Yalcinkaya, M.; Yoshinaga, K.

    2017-06-01

    The level structure of the neutron-rich 77Cu nucleus is investigated through β -delayed γ -ray spectroscopy at the Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory of the RIKEN Nishina Center. Ions of 77Ni are produced by in-flight fission, separated and identified in the BigRIPS fragment separator, and implanted in the WAS3ABi silicon detector array, surrounded by Ge cluster detectors of the EURICA array. A large number of excited states in 77Cu are identified for the first time by correlating γ rays with the β decay of 77Ni, and a level scheme is constructed by utilizing their coincidence relationships. The good agreement between large-scale Monte Carlo shell model calculations and experimental results allows for the evaluation of the single-particle structure near 78Ni and suggests a single-particle nature for both the 5 /21- and 3 /21- states in 77Cu, leading to doubly magic 78Ni.

  17. EXAFS analysis of a human Cu,Zn SOD isoform focused using non-denaturing gel electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevreux, Sylviane; Solari, Pier Lorenzo; Roudeau, Stéphane; Deves, Guillaume; Alliot, Isabelle; Testemale, Denis; Hazemann, Jean Louis; Ortega, Richard

    2009-11-01

    Isoelectric point isoforms of a metalloprotein, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), separated on electrophoresis gels were analyzed using X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy. Mutations of this protein are involved in familial cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The toxicity of mutants could be relied to defects in the metallation state. Our purpose is to establish analytical protocols to study metallation state of protein isoforms such as those from CuZnSOD. We previously highlighted differences in the copper oxidation state between CuZnSOD isoforms using XANES. Here, we present the first results for EXAFS analyses performed at Cu and Zn K-edge on the majoritary expressed isoform of human CuZnSOD separated on electrophoresis gels.

  18. Influence of La addition on the semi-conductive properties of passive films formed on Cu-Ni alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Xiang; Zhang, Yadong; Zhou, Qiongyu; Zhang, Yinghui; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Hang; Yang, Bin

    2018-05-01

    The semi-conductive properties of passive films formed on Cu-Ni alloy and Cu-Ni-La alloy were investigated in 0.1 M NaOH solution, by employing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), Mott–Schottky analysis and point defect model (PDM). Results indicate that both the passive films formed on Cu-Ni alloy and Cu-Ni-La alloy display p-type semi-conductive characteristics with cation vacancies in order of magnitude of 1020 cm3. Compared with Cu-Ni alloy, La addition could significantly improve the corrosion resistance, due to a superior barrier passive film formed Cu-Ni-La alloy with a bigger film resistance (R f), increased passive film thickness (L ss) in conjunction with decreased diffusion coefficient (D 0).

  19. Metallic glass alloys of Zr, Ti, Cu and Ni

    DOEpatents

    Lin, X.; Peker, A.; Johnson, W.L.

    1997-04-08

    At least quaternary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10{sup 3} K/s. Such alloys comprise titanium from 19 to 41 atomic percent, an early transition metal (ETM) from 4 to 21 atomic percent and copper plus a late transition metal (LTM) from 49 to 64 atomic percent. The ETM comprises zirconium and/or hafnium. The LTM comprises cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is further constrained such that the product of the copper plus LTM times the atomic proportion of LTM relative to the copper is from 2 to 14. The atomic percentage of ETM is less than 10 when the atomic percentage of titanium is as high as 41, and may be as large as 21 when the atomic percentage of titanium is as low as 24. Furthermore, when the total of copper and LTM are low, the amount of LTM present must be further limited. Another group of glass forming alloys has the formula (ETM{sub 1{minus}x}Ti{sub x}){sub a} Cu{sub b} (Ni{sub 1{minus}y}Co{sub y}){sub c} wherein x is from 0.1 to 0.3, y{center_dot}c is from 0 to 18, a is from 47 to 67, b is from 8 to 42, and c is from 4 to 37. This definition of the alloys has additional constraints on the range of copper content, b. 2 figs.

  20. Intrinsically Radioactive [64Cu]CuInS/ZnS Quantum Dots for PET and Optical Imaging: Improved Radiochemical Stability and Controllable Cerenkov Luminescence

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Functionalized quantum dots (QDs) have been widely explored for multimodality bioimaging and proven to be versatile agents. Attaching positron-emitting radioisotopes onto QDs not only endows their positron emission tomography (PET) functionality, but also results in self-illuminating QDs, with no need for an external light source, by Cerenkov resonance energy transfer (CRET). Traditional chelation methods have been used to incorporate the radionuclide, but these methods are compromised by the potential for loss of radionuclide due to cleavage of the linker between particle and chelator, decomplexation of the metal, and possible altered pharmacokinetics of nanomaterials. Herein, we described a straightforward synthesis of intrinsically radioactive [64Cu]CuInS/ZnS QDs by directly incorporating 64Cu into CuInS/ZnS nanostructure with 64CuCl2 as synthesis precursor. The [64Cu]CuInS/ZnS QDs demonstrated excellent radiochemical stability with less than 3% free 64Cu detected even after exposure to serum containing EDTA (5 mM) for 24 h. PEGylation can be achieved in situ during synthesis, and the PEGylated radioactive QDs showed high tumor uptake (10.8% ID/g) in a U87MG mouse xenograft model. CRET efficiency was studied as a function of concentration and 64Cu radioactivity concentration. These [64Cu]CuInS/ZnS QDs were successfully applied as an efficient PET/self-illuminating luminescence in vivo imaging agents. PMID:25549258

  1. Intrinsically radioactive [64Cu]CuInS/ZnS quantum dots for PET and optical imaging: improved radiochemical stability and controllable Cerenkov luminescence.

    PubMed

    Guo, Weisheng; Sun, Xiaolian; Jacobson, Orit; Yan, Xuefeng; Min, Kyunghyun; Srivatsan, Avinash; Niu, Gang; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Chang, Jin; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-27

    Functionalized quantum dots (QDs) have been widely explored for multimodality bioimaging and proven to be versatile agents. Attaching positron-emitting radioisotopes onto QDs not only endows their positron emission tomography (PET) functionality, but also results in self-illuminating QDs, with no need for an external light source, by Cerenkov resonance energy transfer (CRET). Traditional chelation methods have been used to incorporate the radionuclide, but these methods are compromised by the potential for loss of radionuclide due to cleavage of the linker between particle and chelator, decomplexation of the metal, and possible altered pharmacokinetics of nanomaterials. Herein, we described a straightforward synthesis of intrinsically radioactive [(64)Cu]CuInS/ZnS QDs by directly incorporating (64)Cu into CuInS/ZnS nanostructure with (64)CuCl2 as synthesis precursor. The [(64)Cu]CuInS/ZnS QDs demonstrated excellent radiochemical stability with less than 3% free (64)Cu detected even after exposure to serum containing EDTA (5 mM) for 24 h. PEGylation can be achieved in situ during synthesis, and the PEGylated radioactive QDs showed high tumor uptake (10.8% ID/g) in a U87MG mouse xenograft model. CRET efficiency was studied as a function of concentration and (64)Cu radioactivity concentration. These [(64)Cu]CuInS/ZnS QDs were successfully applied as an efficient PET/self-illuminating luminescence in vivo imaging agents.

  2. Synthesis and anion exchange properties of a Zn/Ni double hydroxide salt with a guarinoite structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delorme, F.; Seron, A.; Licheron, M.; Veron, E.; Giovannelli, F.; Beny, C.; Jean-Prost, V.; Martineau, D.

    2009-09-01

    In this study, the first route to synthesize a compound with the guarinoite structure (Zn,Co,Ni) 6(SO 4)(OH,Cl) 10·5H 2O is reported. Zn/Ni guarinoite is obtained from the reaction of NiSO 4·7H 2O with solid ZnO in aqueous solution. The resulting green Zn/Ni guarinoite ((Zn 3.52Ni 1.63)(SO 4) 1.33(OH 7.64)·4.67H 2O) was characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectrometry, UV-Visible spectrometry and thermal analysis. It is shown that its structure is similar to the one described for the layered Zn sulfate hydroxide hydrate, i.e. brucite layers with {1}/{4} empty octahedra presenting tetrahedrally coordinated divalent atoms above and below the empty octahedra. Ni atoms are located in the octahedra and zinc atoms in tetrahedra and octahedra. In this structure the exchangeable anions are located at the apex of tetrahedra. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations show that the Zn/Ni guarinoite is composed of aggregates of hexagonal plates of several hundreds of nanometers. Due to its interest for industrial or environmental applications, the exchange of sulfate groups by carbonates has been investigated. Results show a limited exchange and a higher affinity of the Zn/Ni guarinoite for sulfates compared to carbonates.

  3. Raman spectroscopy and dielectric Studies of multiple phase transitions in ZnO:Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Harish Kumar; Sreenivas, K.; Gupta, Vinay; Scott, J. F.; Katiyar, R. S.

    2008-03-01

    We present Raman and dielectric data on Ni-doped ZnO (Zn1-xNixO) ceramics as a function of Ni concentration (x =0.03, 0.06, and 0.10) and temperature. A mode (around 130cm-1) is identified as TA(M) [J. M. Calleja and M. Cardona, Phys. Rev. B 16, 3753 (1977)] and appears due to an antiferromagnetic phase transition at low temperatures (100K) via the spin-orbit mechanism [P. Moch and C. Dugautier, Phys. Lett. A 43, 169 (1973)]. A strong dielectric anomaly occurs at around 430-460K, depending on Ni concentration, and is due to extrinsic electret effects (Ni ionic conduction) and not to a ferroelectric phase transition.

  4. Antiproliferative effects of ZnO, ZnO-MTCP, and ZnO-CuMTCP nanoparticles with safe intensity UV and X-ray irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Sadjadpour, Susan; Safarian, Shahrokh; Zargar, Seyed Jalal; Sheibani, Nader

    2016-01-01

    In photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer both the light and the photosensitizing agent are normally harmless, but in combination they could result in selective tumor killing. Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized and coated with the amino acid cysteine to provide an adequate arm for conjugation with porphyrin photosensitizers (meso-tetra (4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin [MTCP] and CuMTCP). Porphyrin-conjugated nanoparticles were characterized by TEM, FTIR, and UV–vis, and fluorescence spectrophotometry. The 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to measure cell viability in the presence or absence of porphyrin conjugates following UV and X-ray irradiation. The uptake of the porphyrin-conjugated ZnO nanoparticles by cells was detected using fluorescence microscopy. Our results indicated that the survival of T-47D cells was significantly compromised in the presence of ZnO-MTCP-conjugated nanostructures with UV light exposure. Exhibition of cytotoxic activity of ZnO-MTCP for human prostate cancer (Du145) cells occurred at a higher concentration, indicating the more resistant nature of these tumor cells. ZnO-CuMTCP showed milder cytotoxic effects in human breast cancer (T-47D) and no cytotoxic effects in Du145 with UV light exposure, consistent with its lower cytotoxic potency as well as cellular uptake. Surprisingly, none of the ZnO-porphyrin conjugates exhibited cytotoxic effects with X-ray irradiation, whereas ZnO alone exerted cytotoxicity. Thus, ZnO and ZnO-porphyrin nanoparticles with UV or X-ray irradiation may provide a suitable treatment option for various cancers. PMID:25581219

  5. Application of 67Cu Produced by 68Zn(n,n'p+d)67Cu to Biodistribution Study in Tumor-Bearing Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugo, Yumi; Hashimoto, Kazuyuki; Kawabata, Masako; Saeki, Hideya; Sato, Shunichi; Tsukada, Kazuaki; Nagai, Yasuki

    2017-02-01

    67Cu produced by the 68Zn(n,n'p+d)67Cu reaction was used for the first time to determine the biodistribution of 67CuCl2 in colorectal tumor-bearing mice. A high uptake of 67Cu was observed in the tumor as well as in the liver and kidney, which are the major organs for copper metabolism. The result showing 67Cu accumulation in the tumor suggests that 67CuCl2 can be a potential radionuclide agent for cancer radiotherapy. It should also encourage further studies on the therapeutic effect on small animals using an increased dose of 67Cu produced by the 68Zn(n,n'p+d)67Cu reaction using presently available intense neutrons.

  6. Transient and modulated charge separation at CuInSe2/C60 and CuInSe2/ZnPc hybrid interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Morzé, Natascha; Dittrich, Thomas; Calvet, Wolfram; Lauermann, Iver; Rusu, Marin

    2017-02-01

    Spectral dependent charge transfer and exciton dissociation have been investigated at hybrid interfaces between inorganic polycrystalline CuInSe2 (untreated and Na-conditioned) thin films and organic C60 as well as zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) layers by transient and modulated surface photovoltage measurements. The stoichiometry and electronic properties of the bare CuInSe2 surface were characterized by photoelectron spectroscopy which revealed a Cu-poor phase with n-type features. After the deposition of the C60 layer, a strong band bending at the CuInSe2 surface was observed. Evidence for dissociation of excitons followed by charge separation was found at the CuInSe2/ZnPc interface. The Cu-poor layer at the CuInSe2 surface was found to be crucial for transient and modulated charge separation at CuInSe2/organic hybrid interfaces.

  7. Effect of copper and nickel doping on the optical and structural properties of ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muǧlu, G. Merhan; Sarıtaş, S.; ćakıcı, T.; Şakar, B.; Yıldırım, M.

    2017-02-01

    The present study is focused on the Cu doped ZnO and Ni doped ZnO dilute magnetic semiconductor thin films. ZnO:Cu and ZnO:Ni thin films were grown by Chemically Spray Pyrolysis (CSP) method on glass substrates. Optical analysis of the films was done spectral absorption and transmittance measurements by UV-Vis double beam spectrophotometer technique. The structure, morphology, topology and elemental analysis of ZnO:Cu and ZnO:Ni dilute magnetic thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques, respectively. Also The magnetic properties of the ZnO:Ni thin film was investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) method. VSM measurements of ZnO:Ni thin film showed that the ferromagnetic behavior.

  8. Synthesis and photoelectrochemical properties of a novel CuO/ZnO nanorod photocathode for solar hydrogen generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaislamov, Ulugbek; Lee, Heon-Ju

    2016-10-01

    Here, we present a facile synthesis method and photoelectrochemical characterizations of a p-type CuO-nanorod array photoelectrode with ZnO nanorod branches. Vertically-aligned CuO nanorods were synthesized by using direct oxidation of metallic Cu nanorods grown on a Cu substrate by using a facile template-assisted electrodeposition method. The formed CuONR/ZnONB hierarchically-structured photoelectrode exhibited remarkable photoelectrodechemical performance and outstanding stability compared to the CuO NR photoelectrode without ZnO NR branches. Morphological, optical and electrochemical characterizations were carried out in order to examine the effects of ZnO nanorod branches on the stability and the overall electrochemical performance of the electrode.

  9. Synthesis of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} nanoparticles and controlling the morphology with polyethylene glycol

    SciT

    Rawat, Kusum; Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, Delhi 110021; Kim, Hee-Joon

    Highlights: • Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} nanoparticles were synthesized by wet chemical technique. • First report on the effect of using polyethylene glycol as a structure directing agent on Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} nanoparticles. • The morphology of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} nanoparticles changes into nanoflakes and nanorods structures with polyethylene glycol concentration. • Polyethylene glycol assisted Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} nanoparticle film exhibits optical bandgap of 1.5 eV which is suitable for the application in solar cells. - Abstract: Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} nanoparticles were synthesized by wet chemical technique using metal thiourea precursor at 250 °C. The structural and morphological properties of asmore » grown nanoparticles have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The influence of different concentration of polyethylene glycol as structure directing agent on the morphologies of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} nanoparticles are investigated on thin films deposited by spin coating technique. The mean crystallite size of the Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} nanoparticles was found to improve with polyethylene glycol concentration. Scanning electron microscopy images of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} revealed aggregated spherical shaped nanoparticles whereas the polyethylene glycol assisted Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} nanoparticle films show nanoflakes and nanorods structures with increasing concentration of polyethylene glycol. Transmission electron microscopy analysis has also been performed to determine the size and structure of nanorods. UV–vis absorption spectroscopy shows the broad band absorption with optical bandgap of 1.50 eV for polyethylene glycol assisted Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} films.« less

  10. Trace amounts of Cu²⁺ ions influence ROS production and cytotoxicity of ZnO quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Moussa, Hatem; Merlin, Christophe; Dezanet, Clément; Balan, Lavinia; Medjahdi, Ghouti; Ben-Attia, Mossadok; Schneider, Raphaël

    2016-03-05

    3-Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) was used as ligand to prepare ZnO@APTMS, Cu(2+)-doped ZnO (ZnO:Cu@APTMS) and ZnO quantum dots (QDs) with chemisorbed Cu(2+) ions at their surface (ZnO@APTMS/Cu). The dots have a diameter of ca. 5 nm and their crystalline and phase purities and composition were established by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopies and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The effect of Cu(2+) location on the ability of the QDs to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) under light irradiation was investigated. Results obtained demonstrate that all dots are able to produce ROS (OH, O2(-), H2O2 and (1)O2) and that ZnO@APTMS/Cu QDs generate more OH and O2(-) radicals and H2O2 than ZnO@APTMS and ZnO:Cu@APTMS QDs probably via mechanisms associating photo-induced charge carriers and Fenton reactions. In cytotoxicity experiments conducted in the dark or under light exposure, ZnO@APTMS/Cu QDs appeared slightly more deleterious to Escherichia coli cells than the two other QDs, therefore pointing out the importance of the presence of Cu(2+) ions at the periphery of the nanocrystals. On the other hand, with the lack of photo-induced toxicity, it can be inferred that ROS production cannot explain the cytotoxicity associated to the QDs. Our study demonstrates that both the production of ROS from ZnO QDs and their toxicity may be enhanced by chemisorbed Cu(2+) ions, which could be useful for medical or photocatalytic applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Microstructural Characteristics and Mechanical Properties of an Electron Beam-Welded Ti/Cu/Ni Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feng; Wang, Ting; Jiang, Siyuan; Zhang, Binggang; Feng, Jicai

    2018-04-01

    Electron beam welding experiments of TA15 titanium alloy to GH600 nickel superalloy with and without a copper sheet interlayer were carried out. Surface appearance, microstructure and phase constitution of the joint were examined by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis. Mechanical properties of Ti/Ni and Ti/Cu/Ni joint were evaluated based on tensile strength and microhardness tests. The results showed that cracking occurred in Ti/Ni electron beam weldment for the formation of brittle Ni-Ti intermetallics, while a crack-free electron beam-welded Ti/Ni joint can be obtained by using a copper sheet as filler metal. The addition of copper into the weld affected the welding metallurgical process of the electron beam-welded Ti/Ni joint significantly and was helpful for restraining the formation of Ti-Ni intermetallics in Ti/Ni joint. The microstructure of the weld was mainly characterized by a copper-based solid solution and Ti-Cu interfacial intermetallic compounds. Ti-Ni intermetallic compounds were almost entirely suppressed. The hardness of the weld zone was significantly lower than that of Ti/Ni joint, and the tensile strength of the joint can be up to 282 MPa.

  12. Microstructural Characteristics and Mechanical Properties of an Electron Beam-Welded Ti/Cu/Ni Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feng; Wang, Ting; Jiang, Siyuan; Zhang, Binggang; Feng, Jicai

    2018-05-01

    Electron beam welding experiments of TA15 titanium alloy to GH600 nickel superalloy with and without a copper sheet interlayer were carried out. Surface appearance, microstructure and phase constitution of the joint were examined by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis. Mechanical properties of Ti/Ni and Ti/Cu/Ni joint were evaluated based on tensile strength and microhardness tests. The results showed that cracking occurred in Ti/Ni electron beam weldment for the formation of brittle Ni-Ti intermetallics, while a crack-free electron beam-welded Ti/Ni joint can be obtained by using a copper sheet as filler metal. The addition of copper into the weld affected the welding metallurgical process of the electron beam-welded Ti/Ni joint significantly and was helpful for restraining the formation of Ti-Ni intermetallics in Ti/Ni joint. The microstructure of the weld was mainly characterized by a copper-based solid solution and Ti-Cu interfacial intermetallic compounds. Ti-Ni intermetallic compounds were almost entirely suppressed. The hardness of the weld zone was significantly lower than that of Ti/Ni joint, and the tensile strength of the joint can be up to 282 MPa.

  13. Extremely High Phosphate Sorption Capacity in Cu-Pb-Zn Mine Tailings.

    PubMed

    Huang, Longbin; Li, Xiaofang; Nguyen, Tuan A H

    2015-01-01

    Elevated inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations in pore water of amended tailings under direct revegetation may cause toxicity in some native woody species but not native forbs or herb species, all of which are key constituents in target native plant communities for phytostabilizing base metal mine tailings. As a result, Pi sorption capacity has been quantified by a conventional batch procedure in three types of base metal mine tailings sampled from two copper (Cu)-lead (Pb)-zinc (Zn) mines, as the basis for Pi-fertiliser addition. It was found that the Pi-sorption capacity in the tailings and local soil was extremely high, far higher than highly weathered agricultural soils in literature, but similar to those of volcanic ash soils. The Langmuir P-sorption maximum was up to 7.72, 4.12, 4.02 and 3.62 mg P g-1 tailings, in the fresh tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD7), the weathered tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD5), EHM-TD (fresh Cu-stream, high magnetite content) and local soil (weathered shale and schist), respectively. Physicochemical factors highly correlated with the high Pi-sorption in the tailings were fine particle distribution, oxalate and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate extractable Fe (FeO and Fed), oxalate-extractable Al and Mn, and the levels of soluble Cd and Zn, and total S and Fe. Large amounts of amorphous Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides may have been formed from the oxidation of pyritic materials and redox cycles of Fe-minerals (such as pyrite (FeS2), ankerite (Ca(Fe Mg)(CO3)2 and siderite (FeCO3), as indicated by the extractable FeO values. The likely formation of sparingly soluble Zn-phosphate in the Pb-Zn tailings containing high levels of Zn (from sphalerite ((Zn,Fe)S, ZnS, (Zn,Cd)S)) may substantially lower soluble Zn levels in the tailings through high rates of Pi-fertiliser addition. As a result, the possibility of P-toxicity in native plant species caused by the addition of soluble phosphate fertilizers would be minimal.

  14. Extremely High Phosphate Sorption Capacity in Cu-Pb-Zn Mine Tailings

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Longbin; Li, Xiaofang; Nguyen, Tuan A. H.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations in pore water of amended tailings under direct revegetation may cause toxicity in some native woody species but not native forbs or herb species, all of which are key constituents in target native plant communities for phytostabilizing base metal mine tailings. As a result, Pi sorption capacity has been quantified by a conventional batch procedure in three types of base metal mine tailings sampled from two copper (Cu)-lead (Pb)-zinc (Zn) mines, as the basis for Pi-fertiliser addition. It was found that the Pi-sorption capacity in the tailings and local soil was extremely high, far higher than highly weathered agricultural soils in literature, but similar to those of volcanic ash soils. The Langmuir P-sorption maximum was up to 7.72, 4.12, 4.02 and 3.62 mg P g-1 tailings, in the fresh tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD7), the weathered tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD5), EHM-TD (fresh Cu-stream, high magnetite content) and local soil (weathered shale and schist), respectively. Physicochemical factors highly correlated with the high Pi-sorption in the tailings were fine particle distribution, oxalate and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate extractable Fe (FeO and Fed), oxalate-extractable Al and Mn, and the levels of soluble Cd and Zn, and total S and Fe. Large amounts of amorphous Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides may have been formed from the oxidation of pyritic materials and redox cycles of Fe-minerals (such as pyrite (FeS2), ankerite (Ca(Fe Mg)(CO3)2 and siderite (FeCO3), as indicated by the extractable FeO values. The likely formation of sparingly soluble Zn-phosphate in the Pb-Zn tailings containing high levels of Zn (from sphalerite ((Zn,Fe)S, ZnS, (Zn,Cd)S)) may substantially lower soluble Zn levels in the tailings through high rates of Pi-fertiliser addition. As a result, the possibility of P-toxicity in native plant species caused by the addition of soluble phosphate fertilizers would be minimal. PMID

  15. Growth of Cu2ZnSnSe4 Film under Controllable Se Vapor Composition and Impact of Low Cu Content on Solar Cell Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianjun; Wang, Hongxia; Wu, Li; Chen, Cheng; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Liu, Fangfang; Sun, Yun; Han, Junbo; Zhang, Yi

    2016-04-27

    It is a challenge to fabricate high quality Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) film with low Cu content (Cu/(Zn + Sn) < 0.8). In this work, the growth mechanisms of CZTSe films under different Se vapor composition are investigated by DC-sputtering and a postselenization approach. The composition of Se vapor has important influence on the compactability of the films and the diffusion of elements in the CZTSe films. By adjusting the composition of Se vapor during the selenization process, an optimized two step selenization process is proposed and highly crystallized CZTSe film with low Cu content (Cu/(Zn + Sn) = 0.75) is obtained. Further study of the effect of Cu content on the morphology and photovoltaic performance of the corresponding CZTSe solar cells has shown that the roughness of the CZTSe absorber film increases when Cu content decreases. As a consequence, the reflection loss of CZTSe solar cells reduces dramatically and the short circuit current density of the cells improve from 34.7 mA/cm(2) for Cu/(Zn + Sn) = 0.88 to 38.5 mA/cm(2) for Cu/(Zn + Sn) = 0.75. In addition, the CZTSe solar cells with low Cu content show longer minority carrier lifetime and higher open circuit voltage than the high Cu content devices. A champion performance CZTSe solar cell with 10.4% efficiency is fabricated with Cu/(Zn + Sn) = 0.75 in the CZTSe film without antireflection coating.

  16. New influence factor inducing difficulty in selective flotation separation of Cu-Zn mixed sulfide minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jiu-shuai; Mao, Ying-bo; Wen, Shu-ming; Liu, Jian; Xian, Yong-jun; Feng, Qi-cheng

    2015-02-01

    Selective flotation separation of Cu-Zn mixed sulfides has been proven to be difficult. Thus far, researchers have found no satisfactory way to separate Cu-Zn mixed sulfides by selective flotation, mainly because of the complex surface and interface interaction mechanisms in the flotation solution. Undesired activation occurs between copper ions and the sphalerite surfaces. In addition to recycled water and mineral dissolution, ancient fluids in the minerals are observed to be a new source of metal ions. In this study, significant amounts of ancient fluids were found to exist in Cu-Zn sulfide and gangue minerals, mostly as gas-liquid fluid inclusions. The concentration of copper ions released from the ancient fluids reached 1.02 × 10-6 mol/L, whereas, in the cases of sphalerite and quartz, this concentration was 0.62 × 10-6 mol/L and 0.44 × 10-6 mol/L, respectively. As a result, the ancient fluid is a significant source of copper ions compared to mineral dissolution under the same experimental conditions, which promotes the unwanted activation of sphalerite. Therefore, the ancient fluid is considered to be a new factor that affects the selective flotation separation of Cu-Zn mixed sulfide ores.

  17. Detection of esophageal cancer cell by photoelectrochemical Cu2O/ZnO biosensor (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chao-Hsin; Chu, Cheng-Hsun; Chen, Weichung; Wu, I.-Chen; Wu, Ming Tsang; Kuo, Chie-Tong; Tsiang, Raymond Chien-Chao; Wang, Hsiang-Chen

    2016-03-01

    We have demonstrated a Cu2O/ZnO nanorods (NRs) array p-n heterostructures photoelectrochemical biosensor. The electrodeposition of Cu2O at pH 12 acquired the preferably (111) lattice planes, resulting in the largest interfacial electric field between Cu2O and ZnO, which finally led to the highest separation efficiency of photogenerated charge carriers. High verticality ZnO nanorods by seed layer and thermal annealing assist the hydrothermal growth. The optimized Cu2O/ZnO NRs array p-n heterostructures exhibited enhanced PEC performance, such as elevated photocurrent and photoconversion efficiency, as well as excellent sensing performance for the sensitive detection of four strains of different races and different degree of cancer cell which made the device self-powered. We got spectral response characteristics and operating wavelength range of biosensor, and to verify the biological characteristics of cancer cells wafer react with different stages of cancer characterized by a cancer measured reaction experiment.

  18. Synthesis of ZnO-CuO/MCM-48 photocatalyst for the degradation of organic pollutions.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yongzheng; Shen, Yulian

    2017-07-01

    The photocatalytic properties of ZnO-CuO catalysts supported on siliceous MCM-48 (Mobil Composition of Matter No. 48) for the degradation of organic pollutions such as methylene blue and salicylic acid under UV light irradiation were investigated. These catalysts were prepared by impregnation of MCM-48 with a mixed aqueous solution of copper acetate and zinc acetate. X-ray diffraction, N 2 -physisorption, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and photoluminescence were used to characterize these samples. Results from characterizations showed that the addition of ZnO to CuO/MCM-48 could markedly improve the photocatalytic degradation properties. The enhanced photocatalytic behaviors of ZnO-CuO/MCM-48 may be due to the formation of p-n heterojunctions between ZnO and CuO, resulting in the effective separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Moreover, the photocatalysts were easily recovered and reused for five cycles without considerable loss of activity.

  19. [Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb contents and forms in soils and rapeseeds around Wuhu Plant].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingming; Liu, Dengyi; Tu, Junfang; Li, Zheng; Wang, Youbao

    2005-10-01

    The study showed that around Wuhu Plant, soil Cd, Zn and Pb mainly existed in Fe-Mn oxide form, and Cu in residual form, with the percentage of 31.81%, 39.83%, 53.79%, and 46.24%, respectively. Soil exchangeable Cd and Pb had a higher proportion (23.47% and 16.32%) than soil exchangeable Cu and Zn (3.14% and 0.54%). The correlations between soil heavy metals and their forms, as well as their transformation to available form were different. Different heavy metals had different accumulation trends in rapeseed and its hull. Cu easily accumulated in hull, while Cd, Zn and Pb had a higher accumulation in seed. The accumulation rate of heavy metals in rapeseed and hull was also different, being the highest for Cd. There was a significantly negative correlation (P < 0.05) between the accumulation rate of heavy metals and their contents in soil. In rapeseed, Cd, Cu and Pb were mainly in sodium hydroxide form, with the percentage of 32.50%, 22.94% and 34.69%, respectively, while Zn was mainly in EDTA form, with a percentage of 45.97. The existed forms of heavy metals in rapeseed probably affected their toxicity, but the toxicity to human food could not be inferred from this research, and needed to be studied further. There was a weak relation between heavy metals contents and their existed forms in rapeseed.

  20. NiFeCo/Cu superlattices with high magnetoresistive sensitivity and weak hysteresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannikova, N. S.; Milyaev, M. A.; Naumova, L. I.; Krinitsina, T. P.; Patrakov, E. I.; Proglyado, V. V.; Chernyshova, T. A.; Ustinov, V. V.

    2016-10-01

    The microstructure and the magetoresistive characteristics of [NiFeCo/Cu]8 superlattices prepared by magnetron sputtering with various thickness of the buffer NiFeCr layer and exhibiting a giant magnetoresistive effect have been studied. It has been found that these nanostructures are formed with a strong or weak hysteresis depending on the structure (bcc or fcc) formed in the NiFeCr buffer layer. The method of the substantial decrease in the hysteresis loop width of the magnetoresistance by using the composite Ta/NiFeCr buffer layer has been suggested.

  1. Construction of Hierarchical CuO/Cu2O@NiCo2S4 Nanowire Arrays on Copper Foam for High Performance Supercapacitor Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Luoxiao; He, Ying; Jia, Congpu; Pavlinek, Vladimir; Saha, Petr; Cheng, Qilin

    2017-01-01

    Hierarchical copper oxide @ ternary nickel cobalt sulfide (CuO/Cu2O@NiCo2S4) core-shell nanowire arrays on Cu foam have been successfully constructed by a facile two-step strategy. Vertically aligned CuO/Cu2O nanowire arrays are firstly grown on Cu foam by one-step thermal oxidation of Cu foam, followed by electrodeposition of NiCo2S4 nanosheets on the surface of CuO/Cu2O nanowires to form the CuO/Cu2O@NiCo2S4 core-shell nanostructures. Structural and morphological characterizations indicate that the average thickness of the NiCo2S4 nanosheets is ~20 nm and the diameter of CuO/Cu2O core is ~50 nm. Electrochemical properties of the hierarchical composites as integrated binder-free electrodes for supercapacitor were evaluated by various electrochemical methods. The hierarchical composite electrodes could achieve ultrahigh specific capacitance of 3.186 F cm−2 at 10 mA cm−2, good rate capability (82.06% capacitance retention at the current density from 2 to 50 mA cm−2) and excellent cycling stability, with capacitance retention of 96.73% after 2000 cycles at 10 mA cm−2. These results demonstrate the significance of optimized design and fabrication of electrode materials with more sufficient electrolyte-electrode interface, robust structural integrity and fast ion/electron transfer. PMID:28914819

  2. Copper doping of ZnO crystals by transmutation of 64Zn to 65Cu: An electron paramagnetic resonance and gamma spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recker, M. C.; McClory, J. W.; Holston, M. S.; Golden, E. M.; Giles, N. C.; Halliburton, L. E.

    2014-06-01

    Transmutation of 64Zn to 65Cu has been observed in a ZnO crystal irradiated with neutrons. The crystal was characterized with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) before and after the irradiation and with gamma spectroscopy after the irradiation. Major features in the gamma spectrum of the neutron-irradiated crystal included the primary 1115.5 keV gamma ray from the 65Zn decay and the positron annihilation peak at 511 keV. Their presence confirmed the successful transmutation of 64Zn nuclei to 65Cu. Additional direct evidence for transmutation was obtained from the EPR of Cu2+ ions (where 63Cu and 65Cu hyperfine lines are easily resolved). A spectrum from isolated Cu2+ (3d9) ions acquired after the neutron irradiation showed only hyperfine lines from 65Cu nuclei. The absence of 63Cu lines in this Cu2+ spectrum left no doubt that the observed 65Cu signals were due to transmuted 65Cu nuclei created as a result of the neutron irradiation. Small concentrations of copper, in the form of Cu+-H complexes, were inadvertently present in our as-grown ZnO crystal. These Cu+-H complexes are not affected by the neutron irradiation, but they dissociate when a crystal is heated to 900 °C. This behavior allowed EPR to distinguish between the copper initially in the crystal and the copper subsequently produced by the neutron irradiation. In addition to transmutation, a second major effect of the neutron irradiation was the formation of zinc and oxygen vacancies by displacement. These vacancies were observed with EPR.

  3. Stable isotope tracing of Ni and Cu pollution in North-East Norway: Potentials and drawbacks.

    PubMed

    Šillerová, Hana; Chrastný, Vladislav; Vítková, Martina; Francová, Anna; Jehlička, Jan; Gutsch, Marissa R; Kocourková, Jana; Aspholm, Paul E; Nilsson, Lars O; Berglen, Tore F; Jensen, Henning K B; Komárek, Michael

    2017-09-01

    The use of Ni and Cu isotopes for tracing contamination sources in the environment remains a challenging task due to the limited information about the influence of various biogeochemical processes influencing stable isotope fractionation. This work focuses on a relatively simple system in north-east Norway with two possible endmembers (smelter-bedrock) and various environmental samples (snow, soil, lichens, PM 10 ). In general, the whole area is enriched in heavy Ni and Cu isotopes highlighting the impact of the smelting activity. However, the environmental samples exhibit a large range of δ 60 Ni (-0.01 ± 0.03‰ to 1.71 ± 0.02‰) and δ 65 Cu (-0.06 ± 0.06‰ to -3.94 ± 0.3‰) values which exceeds the range of δ 60 Ni and δ 65 Cu values determined in the smelter, i.e. in feeding material and slag (δ 60 Ni from 0.56 ± 0.06‰ to 1.00 ± 0.06‰ and δ 65 Cu from -1.67 ± 0.04‰ to -1.68 ± 0.15‰). The shift toward heavier Ni and Cu δ values was the most significant in organic rich topsoil samples in the case of Ni (δ 60 Ni up to 1.71 ± 0.02‰) and in lichens and snow in the case of Cu (δ 65 Cu up to -0.06 ± 0.06‰ and -0.24 ± 0.04‰, respectively). These data suggest an important biological and biochemical fractionation (microorganisms and/or metal uptake by higher plants, organo-complexation etc.) of Ni and Cu isotopes, which should be quantified separately for each process and taken into account when using the stable isotopes for tracing contamination in the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Controlling intermetallic compound growth in SnAgCu/Ni-P solder joints by nanosized Cu6Sn5 addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Szu-Tsung; Lin, Yung-Chi; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2006-03-01

    Nanosized Cu6Sn5 dispersoids were incorporated into Sn and Ag powders and milled together to form Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu composite solders by a mechanical alloying process. The aim of this study was to investigate the interfacial reaction between SnAgCu composite solder and electroless Ni-P/Cu UBM after heating for 15 min. at 240°C. The growth of the IMCs formed at the composite solder/EN interface was retarded as compared to the commercial Sn3Ag0.5Cu solder joints. With the aid of the elemental distribution by x-ray color mapping in electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), it was revealed that the SnAgCu composite solder exhibited a refined structure. It is proposed that the Cu6Sn5 additives were pinned on the grain boundary of Sn after heat treatment, which thus retarded the movement of Cu toward the solder/EN interface to form interfacial compounds. In addition, wetting is an essential prerequisite for soldering to ensure good bonding between solder and substrate. It was demonstrated that the contact angles of composite solder paste was <25°, and good wettability was thus assured.

  5. Improved sensitivity of polychlorinated-biphenyl-orientated porous-ZnO surface photovoltage sensors from chemisorption-formed ZnO-CuPc composites

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingtao; Meng, Guowen; Huang, Qing; Zhang, Shile

    2014-01-01

    We report a new mechanism for the enhancement of porous-ZnO surface photovoltage (SPV) response to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, a notorious class of persistent organic pollutants as global environmental hazard) based on copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) chemisorptive bonding on porous-ZnO. A new ZnO-CuPc composite is formed on the porous-ZnO surface due to the interaction between the surface ZnO and CuPc, with its valence band (VB) energy level being higher than that of the pristine porous-ZnO. So that the efficiency of the photogenerated-electron transfer from the composite VB to the adjacent ZnO's surface states is drastically increased due to the reduced energy gap between the transition states. As a result, the sensitivity of the PCB-orientated SPV sensor is much improved by showing amplified variation of the SPV-signals perturbed by PCBs adsorbed on the ZnO-CuPc@porous-ZnO sensitive material. PMID:24594662

  6. The role of Sb in solar cell material Cu 2ZnSnS 4

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Han, Miaomiao; Zeng, Zhi; ...

    2017-03-03

    In this paper, based on first-principles calculations we report a possible mechanism of the efficiency improvement of the Sb-doped Cu 2ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) solar cells from the Sb-related defect point of view. Different from Sb in CuInSe 2 which substituted the Cu atomic site and acted as group-13 elements on the Cu-poor growth condition, we find out that Sb prefers to substitute Sn atomic site and acts as group-14 elements on the Cu-poor growth condition in CZTS. At low Sb concentration, Sb Sn produces a deep defect level which is detrimental for the solar cell application. At high Sb concentration,more » Sb 5s states form an isolated half-filled intermediate band at 0.5 eV above the valence band maximum which will increase the photocurrent as well as the solar cell efficiency.« less

  7. Optoelectronic properties of novel amorphous CuAlO2/ZnO NWs based heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Ian Y. Y.

    2013-08-01

    Amorphous p-type CuAlO2 thin films were grown onto n-type crystalline ZnO NWs forming a heterojunction through the combination of sol-gel process and hydrothermal growth method. The effects of temperature on structure and optoelectronic properties of CuAlO2 thin films were investigated through various measurement techniques. It was found that the derived CuAlO2 is Al-rich with thin film. UV-Vis measurements showed that the deposited CuAlO2 films are semi-transparent with maximum transmittance ∼82% at 500 nm. Electrical characterization and integration into pn junction confirms that the amorphous CuAlO2 is p-type and exhibited photovoltaic behavior.

  8. Electrodeposition and Characterization of Mn-Cu-Zn Alloys for Corrosion Protection Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsurtsumia, Gigla; Gogoli, David; Koiava, Nana; Kakhniashvili, Izolda; Jokhadze, Nunu; Lezhava, Tinatin; Nioradze, Nikoloz; Tatishvili, Dimitri

    2017-12-01

    Mn-Cu-Zn alloys were electrodeposited from sulphate bath, containing citrate or EDTA and their mixtures as complexing ligands. The influence of bath composition and deposition parameters on alloys composition, cathodic current efficiency and structural and electrochemical properties were studied. At a higher current density (≥ 37.5 A dm-2) a uniform surface deposit of Mn-Cu-Zn was obtained. Optimal pH of electrolyte (0.3 mol/dm3Mn2+ + 0.6 mol/dm3 (NH4)2SO4 +0.1 mol/dm3Zn2++0.005 mol/dm3 Cu2++ 0.05mol/dm3Na3Cit + 0.15mol/dm3 EDTA; t=300C; τ=20 min) for silvery, nonporous coating of Mn-Cu-Zn alloy was within 6.5-7.5; coating composition: 71-83% Mn, 6-7.8% Cu, 11.5-20% Zn, current efficiency up to 40%. XRD patterns revealed BCT (body centred tetragonal) γ-Mn solid phase solution (lattice constants a=2.68 Å c=3.59 Å). Corrosion measurements of deposited alloys were performed in aerated 3.5% NaCl solution. The corrosion current density (icorr) of the electrodeposited alloys on carbon steel was 10 times lower than corrosion rate of pure zinc and manganese coatings. Triple alloy coatings corrosion potential (Ecorr = -1140 mV vs. Ag/AgCl) preserved negative potential value longer (more than three months) compared to carbon steel substrate (Ecorr = -670 mV vs. Ag/AgCl). Tafel polarization curves taken on Mn-Cu-Zn alloy coating in aerated 3.5% NaCl solution did not show a typical passivation behaviour which can be explained by formation oflow solubility of adherent corrosion products on the alloy surface. Corrosion test of Mn-Cu-Zn electrocoating in chlorine environment shows that it is the best cathodic protective coating for a steel product.

  9. Changing the thickness of two layers: i-ZnO nanorods, p-Cu2O and its influence on the carriers transport mechanism of the p-Cu2O/i-ZnO nanorods/n-IGZO heterojunction.

    PubMed

    Ke, Nguyen Huu; Trinh, Le Thi Tuyet; Phung, Pham Kim; Loan, Phan Thi Kieu; Tuan, Dao Anh; Truong, Nguyen Huu; Tran, Cao Vinh; Hung, Le Vu Tuan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, two layers: i-ZnO nanorods and p-Cu2O were fabricated by electrochemical deposition. The fabricating process was the initial formation of ZnO nanorods layer on the n-IGZO thin film which was prepared by sputtering method, then a p-Cu2O layer was deposited on top of rods to form the p-Cu2O/i-ZnO nanorods/n-ZnO heterojunction. The XRD, SEM, UV-VIS, I-V characteristics methods were used to define structure, optical and electrical properties of these heterojunction layers. The fabricating conditions and thickness of the Cu2O layers significantly affected to the formation, microstructure, electrical and optical properties of the junction. The length of i-ZnO nanorods layer in the structure of the heterojunction has strongly affected to the carriers transport mechanism and performance of this heterojunction.

  10. Effect of milling time on microstructure and mechanical properties of Cu-Ni-graphite composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yiran; Gao, Yimin; Li, Yefei; Zhang, Chao; Huang, Xiaoyu; Zhai, Wenyan

    2017-09-01

    Cu-Ni-graphite composites are intended for application in switch slide baseplate materials. The microstructure of the composites depends strongly on the ball milling time, and a suitable time can significantly improve the properties of the Cu-Ni-graphite composites. In this study, a two-step milling method was employed. The morphology evolution and microstructural features of the powder was characterized at different milling times. Afterwards, the Cu-Ni-graphite composites were prepared in the process of cold pressing, sintering, re-pressing and re-sintering as a function of the different milling times. Finally, both the microstructure and mechanical properties of the Cu-Ni-graphite composites are discussed. The results show that no new phase was generated during the milling process. The morphology evolution of the mixture of Cu/Ni powder changed from spherical-like to cubic-like, plate-like and flake-like with an increasing milling time. The microstructure of the composites consisted of α-phase and graphite. The boundary area and quantity of pores changed as the milling time increased. The relative density, hardness and flexural strength reached maximum values at 15 h of milling time.

  11. Cytotoxicity Evaluation and Magnetic Characteristics of Mechano-thermally Synthesized CuNi Nanoparticles for Hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amrollahi, P.; Ataie, A.; Nozari, A.; Seyedjafari, E.; Shafiee, A.

    2015-03-01

    CuNi alloys are very well known, both in academia and industry, based on their wide range of applications. In the present investigation, the previously synthesized Cu0.5Ni0.5 nanoparticles (NPs) by mechano-thermal method were studied more extensively. Phase composition and morphology of the samples were studied by employing x-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The Curie temperature ( T c) was determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In vitro cytotoxicity was studied through methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium (MTT) assay. XRD and FESEM results indicated the formation of single-phase Cu0.5Ni0.5. TEM micrographs showed that the mean particle size of powders is 20 nm. DSC results revealed that T c of mechano-thermally synthesized Cu0.5Ni0.5 is 44 °C. The MTT assay results confirmed the viability and proliferation of human bone marrow stem cells in contact with Cu0.5Ni0.5 NPs. In summary, the fabricated particles were demonstrated to have potential in low concentrations for cancer treatment applications.

  12. Fabrication and photocatalytic property of magnetic NiFe2O4/Cu2O composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zuming; Xia, Yongmei; Tang, Bin; Su, Jiangbin

    2017-09-01

    Magnetically separable NiFe2O4/Cu2O composites were successfully synthesized by a two-step method. The samples were characterized by XRD, XPS, SEM and VSM as well as their PL spectra and UV-vis adsorption spectra. The results showed that the NiFe2O4/Cu2O composites were composed of cubic-structured Cu2O and spinel-structured NiFe2O4, were able to absorb a large amount of visible light, exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity under simulated solar light irradiation and could be easily separated by an external magnetic field. The NiFe2O4/Cu2O composites exhibited higher photocatalytic performance than that of a single semiconductor. It was found that the prominently enhanced photocatalytic performance of NiFe2O4/Cu2O composites was ascribed to the effective separation of photo-generated electron-hole pairs and the effective generation of the hydroxyl radical •OH.

  13. Natural sorbents modified by divalent Cu2+- and Zn2+- ions and their corresponding antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Đolić, Maja B; Rajaković-Ognjanović, Vladana N; Štrbac, Svetlana B; Dimitrijević, Suzana I; Mitrić, Miodrag N; Onjia, Antonije E; Rajaković, Ljubinka V

    2017-10-25

    The objective of this study was to investigate the modification of materials used in wastewater treatment for possible antimicrobial application(s). Granulated activated carbon (GAC) and natural clinoptilolite (CLI) were activated using Cu 2+ - and Zn 2+ - ions and the disinfection ability of the resulting materials was tested. Studies of the sorption and desorption kinetics were performed in order to determine and clarify the antimicrobial activity of the metal-activated sorbents. The exact sorption capacities of the selected sorbents, GAC and CLI, activated through use of Cu 2+ - ions, were 15.90 and 3.60mg/g, respectively, while for the materials activated by Zn 2+ - ions, the corresponding capacities were 14.00 and 4.72mg/g,. The desorption rates were 2 and 3 orders of magnitude lower than their sorption efficacy for the Cu 2+ -, and Zn 2+ -activated sorbents, respectively. The intermediate sorption capacity and low desorption rate indicated that the overall antimicrobial activity of the metal-modified sorbents was a result of metal ions immobilized onto surface sites. The effect of antimicrobial activity of free ions desorbed from the metal-activated surface may thus be disregarded. The antimicrobial activities of Cu/GAC, Zn/GAC, Cu/CLI and Zn/CLI were also tested against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. After 15min exposure, the highest levels of cell inactivation were obtained through the Cu/CLI and the Cu/GAC against E. coli, 100.0 and 98.24%, respectively. However, for S. aureus and yeast cell inactivation, all Cu 2+ - and Zn 2+ -activated sorbents proved to be unsatisfactory. A characterization of the sorbents was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). A concentration of the adsorbed and released ions was determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results

  14. Transparent Cu4O3/ZnO heterojunction photoelectric devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hong-Sik; Yadav, Pankaj; Patel, Malkeshkumar; Kim, Joondong; Pandey, Kavita; Lim, Donggun; Jeong, Chaehwan

    2017-12-01

    The present article reports the development of flexible, self-biased, broadband, high speed and transparent heterojunction photodiode, which is essentially important for the next generation electronic devices. We grow semitransparent p-type Cu4O3 using the reactive sputtering method at room temperature. The structural and optical properties of the Cu4O3 film were investigated by using the X-ray diffraction and UV-visible spectroscopy, respectively. The p-Cu4O3/n-ZnO heterojunction diode under dark condition yields rectification behavior with an extremely low saturation current value of 1.8 × 10-10 A and a zero bias photocurrent under illumination condition. The transparent p-Cu4O3/n-ZnO heterojunction photodetector can be operated without an external bias, due to the light-induced voltage production. The metal oxide heterojunction based on Cu4O3/ZnO would provide a route for the transparent and flexible photoelectric devices, including photodetectors and photovoltaics.

  15. Mineral deposits and Cu-Zn-As dispersion-contamination in stream sediments from the semiarid Coquimbo Region, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyarzun, R.; Oyarzún, J.; Lillo, J.; Maturana, H.; Higueras, P.

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents Cu-Zn-As geochemical data from stream sediment surveys carried out in the three main watersheds of the Coquimbo Region of Chile. This mountainous semiarid realm occupies an area of 40,656 km2 between 29° and 32°S. Given that the area has a long historical record of mining activities, important environmental disturbances were expected. However, despite the detection of three major geochemical anomalies for Cu, Zn, or As, only one can be unmistakably linked to the development of mining-metal recovery procedures (Andacollo-Panulcillo). An investigation of the other two anomalies (Elqui and Hurtado) reveals three major causes that fully or partially account for them: (1) the type of ore deposit and associated hydrothermal alteration; (2) the regional structural setting (intensity of fracturing); and (3) climate-landscape. Cu-Au-As epithermal deposits/prospects along the so-called El Indio belt are here regarded as the sources of both the Elqui and Hurtado anomalies. The strong advanced argillic alteration present in some of the epithermal deposits/prospects of the El Indio belt may have induced the loss of the buffering capacity of rocks, and therefore favoured metal dispersion during later oxidation-leaching of sulphides. This applies to the Elqui and Hurtado anomalies. Conversely, given that the potassic, propylitic and phyllic alterations do not affect the buffering capacity of rocks, only minor metal dispersion is observed in relation to the Los Pelambres porphyry copper deposit. Besides, the epithermal belt is located within a highly fractured Andean domain (3,000-4,000 m of altitude), which may have conditioned the fast unroofing of ore deposits, contributed to enhanced circulation of meteoric waters, and eventually, to strong oxidation, and leaching of metals. Metal dispersion is aggravated during rainy years in response to strong El Niño episodes.

  16. Solar Absorber Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 and its Parent Multilayers ZnS/SnS 2 /Cu 2 S Synthesized by Atomic Layer Deposition and Analyzed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    SciT

    Baryshev, Sergey V.; Riha, Shannon C.; Zinovev, Alexander V.

    2015-06-01

    Presented here are results of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) on multilayers of metal-sulfide binaries ZnS, SnS2, and Cu2S grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on Si substrates, and of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) formed upon 450 °C annealing of the parent multilayer ZnS/SnS2/Cu2S. Survey and detailed spectral analysis of the multilayer ZnS/SnS2/Cu2S are presented step-wise, as each layer was sequentially added by ALD. The set of data is finalized with spectra of the resulting alloy CZTS. XPS analyses indicate significant mixing between SnS2 and Cu2S, which favors CZTS formation within the ALD approach.

  17. Effect of Cu addition on the martensitic transformation of powder metallurgy processed Ti–Ni alloys

    SciT

    Kim, Yeon-wook, E-mail: ywk@gw.kmu.ac.kr; Choi, Eunsoo

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • M{sub s} of Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} powders is 22 °C, while M{sub s} of SPS-sintered porous bulk increases up to 50 °C. • M{sub s} of Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 40}Cu{sub 20} porous bulk is only 2 °C higher than that of the powders. • Recovered stain of porous TiNi and TiNiCu alloy is more than 1.5%. - Abstract: Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} and Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 30}Cu{sub 20} powders were prepared by gas atomization and their transformation behaviors were examined by means of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. One-step B2–B19’ transformation occurred in Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} powders, while Ti{sub 50}Ni{submore » 30}Cu{sub 20} powders showed B2–B19 transformation behavior. Porous bulks with 24% porosity were fabricated by spark plasma sintering. The martensitic transformation start temperature (50 °C) of Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} porous bulk is much higher than that (22 °C) of the as-solidified powders. However, the martensitic transformation start temperature (35 °C) of Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 30}Cu{sub 20} porous bulk is almost the same as that (33 °C) of the powders. When the specimens were compressed to the strain of 8% and then unloaded, the residual strains of Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} and Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 30}Cu{sub 20} alloy bulks were 3.95 and 3.7%, respectively. However, these residual strains were recovered up to 1.7% after heating by the shape memory phenomenon.« less

  18. Adaptation to chronic MG132 reduces oxidative toxicity by a CuZnSOD-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Leak, Rehana K.; Zigmond, Michael J.; Liou, Anthony K. F.

    2010-01-01

    To study whether and how cells adapt to chronic cellular stress, we exposed PC12 cells to the proteasome inhibitor MG132 (0.1 μM) for 2 weeks and longer. This treatment reduced chymotrypsin-like proteasome activity by 47% and was associated with protection against both 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 100 μM) and higher dose MG132 (40 μM). Protection developed slowly over the course of the first 2 weeks of exposure and was chronic thereafter. There was no change in total glutathione levels after MG132. Buthionine sulfoximine (100 μM) reduced glutathione levels by 60%, but exacerbated 6-OHDA toxicity to the same extent in both MG132-treated and control cells and failed to reduce MG132-induced protection. Chronic MG132 resulted in elevated antioxidant proteins CuZn superoxide dismutase (SOD, +55%), MnSOD (+21%), and catalase (+15%), as well as chaperone heat shock protein 70 (+42%). Examination of SOD enzyme activity revealed higher levels of CuZnSOD (+40%), with no change in MnSOD. We further assessed the mechanism of protection by reducing CuZnSOD levels with two independent siRNA sequences, both of which successfully attenuated protection against 6-OHDA. Previous reports suggested that artificial overexpression of CuZnSOD in dopaminergic cells is protective. Our data complement such observations, revealing that dopaminergic cells are also able to use endogenous CuZnSOD in self-defensive adaptations to chronic stress, and that they can even do so in the face of extensive glutathione loss. PMID:18466318

  19. Comparison of serum Concentration of Se, Pb, Mg, Cu, Zn, between MS patients and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Anahita; Mehrpour, Omid; Nikkhah, Karim; Bayat, Golnaz; Espandani, Mahsa; Golzari, Alireza; Jarahi, Lida; Foroughipour, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is defined as one of the inflammatory autoimmune disorders and is common. Its exact etiology is unclear. There are some evidences on the role of environmental factors in susceptible genetics. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible role of Selenium, Zinc, Copper, Lead and Magnesium metals in Multiple Sclerosis patients. Methods In the present analytical cross-sectional study, 56 individuals including 26 patients and 30 healthy controls were enrolled in the evaluation. The serum level of Se, Zn, Cu, Pb were quantified in graphite furnace conditions and flame conditions by utilizing an atomic absorption Perkin Elmer spectrophotometer 3030. The serum levels of Mg were measured by auto analyzer 1500 BT. The mean level of minerals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Mg, Se) in serum samples were compared in both cases and controls. The mean level of minerals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Mg, Se) in serum samples were compared in both cases and controls by using independent-samples t-test for normal distribution and Mann-Whitney U test as a non-parametric test. All statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS 11.0. Results As well as the Zn, Cu, and Se, there was no significant difference between MS patients and healthy individuals in Pb concentrations (p-value = 0.11, 0.14, 0.32, 0.20 respectively) but the level of Mg was significantly different (p= 0.001). Conclusion All serum concentrations of Zn, Pb, Se, Cu in both groups were in normal ranges and there was no difference in MS patients compared with the healthy group who were matched in genetics. Blood level of Mg was significantly lower in MS patients. But it should be noted that even with the low level of serum magnesium in MS patients, this value is still in the normal range. PMID:27757186

  20. Comparative Toxicity of Nanoparticulate CuO and ZnO to Soil Bacterial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Rousk, Johannes; Ackermann, Kathrin; Curling, Simon F.; Jones, Davey L.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing industrial application of metal oxide Engineered Nano-Particles (ENPs) is likely to increase their environmental release to soils. While the potential of metal oxide ENPs as environmental toxicants has been shown, lack of suitable control treatments have compromised the power of many previous assessments. We evaluated the ecotoxicity of ENP (nano) forms of Zn and Cu oxides in two different soils by measuring their ability to inhibit bacterial growth. We could show a direct acute toxicity of nano-CuO acting on soil bacteria while the macroparticulate (bulk) form of CuO was not toxic. In comparison, CuSO4 was more toxic than either oxide form. Unlike Cu, all forms of Zn were toxic to soil bacteria, and the bulk-ZnO was more toxic than the nano-ZnO. The ZnSO4 addition was not consistently more toxic than the oxide forms. Consistently, we found a tight link between the dissolved concentration of metal in solution and the inhibition of bacterial growth. The inconsistent toxicological response between soils could be explained by different resulting concentrations of metals in soil solution. Our findings suggested that the principal mechanism of toxicity was dissolution of metal oxides and sulphates into a metal ion form known to be highly toxic to bacteria, and not a direct effect of nano-sized particles acting on bacteria. We propose that integrated efforts toward directly assessing bioavailable metal concentrations are more valuable than spending resources to reassess ecotoxicology of ENPs separately from general metal toxicity. PMID:22479561

  1. Microstructural characteristics and aging response of Zn-containing Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yuan-hua; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Ji-shan

    2013-07-01

    Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloys with and without Zn addition were fabricated by conventional ingot metallurgy method. The microstructures and properties were investigated using optical microscopy (OM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), tensile test, hardness test, and electrical conductivity measurement. It is found that the as-cast Al-Mg-Si-Cu-Zn alloy is composed of coarse dendritic grains, long needle-like β/δ-AlFeSi white intermetallics, and Chinese script-like α-AlFeSi compounds. During high temperature homogenization treatment, only harmful needle-like β-AlFeSi phase undergoes fragmentation and spheroidizing at its tips, and the destructive needle-like δ-phase does not show any morphological and size changes. Phase transitions from β-AlFeSi to α-AlFeSi and from δ-AlFeSi to β-AlFeSi are also not found. Zn addition improves the aging hardening response during the former aging stage and postpones the peak-aged hardness to a long aging time. In T4 condition, Zn addition does not obviously increase the yield strength and decrease the elongation, but it markedly improves paint-bake hardening response during paint-bake cycle. The addition of 0.5wt% Zn can lead to an increment of 99 MPa in yield strength compared with the value of 69 MPa for the alloy without Zn after paint-bake cycle.

  2. Elevated temperature creep and fracture properties of the 62Cu-35Au-3Ni braze alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, J. J.; Greulich, F. A.

    1995-06-01

    The Cu-Au-Ni braze alloys are used for metal/ceramic brazes in electronic assemblies because of their good wetting characteristics and low vapor pressure. We have studied the tensile creep properties of annealed 62Cu-35Au-3Ni alloy over the temperature range 250 °C to 750 °C. Two power-law equations have been developed for the minimum creep rate as a function of true stress and temperature. At the highest temperatures studied (650 °C and 750 °C), the minimum creep rate is well described with a stress exponent of 3.0, which can be rationalized in the context of Class I solid solution strengthening. The inverted shape of the creep curves observed at these temperatures is also consistent with Class I alloy behavior. At lower temperatures, power-law creep is well described with a stress exponent of 7.5, and normal three-stage creep curves are observed. Intergranular creep damage, along with minimum values of strain to fracture, is most apparent at 450 °C and 550 °C. The lower stress exponent in the Class I alloy regime helps to increase the strain to fracture at higher temperatures (650 °C and 750 °C). The minimum creep rate behavior of the 62Cu-35Au-3Ni alloy is also compared with those of the 74.2Cu-25. 8Au alloy and pure Cu. This comparison indicates that the 62Cu-35Au-3Ni has considerably higher creep strength than pure Cu. This fact suggests that the 62Cu-35Au-3Ni braze alloy can be used in low mismatch metal-to-ceramic braze joints such as Mo to metallized alumina ceramic with few problems. However, careful joint design may be essential for the use of this alloy in high thermal mismatch metal-to-ceramic braze joints.

  3. High figure-of-merit p-type transparent conductor, Cu alloyed ZnS via radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, Sandeep Kumar; Liu, Ya; Xu, Xiaojie; Woods-Robinson, Rachel; Das, Chandan; Ager, Joel W., III; Balasubramaniam, K. R.

    2017-12-01

    p-type transparent conducting Cu alloyed ZnS thin films from Cu{x} Zn{1-x} S targets (x = 0.1 , 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5) were deposited on glass substrates via radio frequency sputtering. x-ray diffraction and TEM-SAED analysis show that all the films have sphalerite ZnS as the majority crystalline phase. In addition, films with 30% and 40% Cu show the presence of increasing amounts of crystalline Cu2S phase. Conductivity values  ⩾400 S cm-1 were obtained for the films having 30% and 40% Cu, with the maximum conductivity of 752 S cm-1 obtained for the film with 40% Cu. Temperature dependent electrical transport measurements indicate metallic as well as degenerate hole conductivity in the deposited films. The reflection-corrected transmittance of this Cu alloyed ZnS (40% Cu) film was determined to be  ⩾75% at 550 nm. The transparent conductor figure of merit (ΦTC ) of the Cu alloyed ZnS (40% Cu), calculated with the average value of transmittance between 1.5 to 2.5 eV, was  ≈276 μS .

  4. Cation distribution in NiZn-ferrite films via extended x-ray absorption fine structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, V. G.; Koon, N. C.; Williams, C. M.; Zhang, Q.; Abe, M.; Kirkland, J. P.

    1996-04-01

    We have applied extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy to study the cation distribution in a series of spin-sprayed NiZn-ferrite films. A least-squares fitting of experimental EXAFS data with theoretical, multiple-scattering, EXAFS data allowed the quantitative determination of site distributions for all transition metal cations.

  5. Common barbel (Barbus barbus) as a bioindicator of surface river sediment pollution with Cu and Zn in three rivers of the Danube River Basin in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Morina, Arian; Morina, Filis; Djikanović, Vesna; Spasić, Sladjana; Krpo-Ćetković, Jasmina; Kostić, Bojan; Lenhardt, Mirjana

    2016-04-01

    River sediments are a major source of metal contamination in aquatic food webs. Due to the ability of metals to move up the food chain, fishes, occupying higher trophic levels, are considered to be good environmental indicators of metal pollution. The aim of this study was to analyze the metal content in tissues of the common barbel (Barbus barbus), a rheophilous cyprinid fish widely distributed in the Danube Basin, in order to find out if it can be used as a bioindicator of the metal content in the river sediment. We analyzed bioavailable concentrations of 15 elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn) in sediments of the Danube (D), the Zapadna Morava (ZM), and the Južna Morava (JM) using the inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The barbel specimens were collected in the proximity of sediment sampling sites for the analysis of metals in four tissues, gills, muscle, intestine, and liver. The sediment analysis indicated that the ZM is the most polluted with Cu, Ni, and Zn compared to other two rivers. The JM had the lowest concentrations of almost all observed elements, while the Danube sediments were mainly characterized by higher concentrations of Pb. The fish from the ZM had the highest concentration of Cu and Ni in the liver and intestine, and of Zn in the muscle tissue, which was in accordance with the concentrations of these metals in the sediment. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) was used for further analyses of metal interactions with fish tissues. The results suggest that the barbel can potentially be used as a bioindicator of sediment quality with respect to metal contamination.

  6. Influence of Li Addition to Zn-Al Alloys on Cu Substrate During Spreading Test and After Aging Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gancarz, Tomasz; Pstrus, Janusz; Cempura, Grzegorz; Berent, Katarzyna

    2016-12-01

    The spreading of Zn-Al eutectic-based alloys with 0.05 wt.%, 0.1 wt.%, and 0.2 wt.% Li on Cu substrate has been studied using the sessile drop method in presence of QJ201 flux. Wetting tests were performed after 1 min, 3 min, 8 min, 15 min, 30 min, and 60 min of contact at temperatures of 475°C, 500°C, 525°C, and 550°C. Samples after spreading at 500°C for 1 min were subjected to aging for 1 day, 10 days, and 30 days at temperature of 120°C, 170°C, and 250°C. The spreadability of eutectic Zn-5.3Al alloy with different Li contents on Cu substrate was determined in accordance with ISO 9455-10:2013-03. Selected solidified solder-substrate couples were, after spreading and aging tests, cross-sectioned and subjected to scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the interfacial microstructure. An experiment was designed to demonstrate the effect of Li addition on the kinetics of the formation and growth of CuZn, Cu5Zn8, and CuZn4 intermetallic compound (IMC) phases, during spreading and aging. The IMC layers formed at the interface were identified using XRD and EDS analyses. Increasing addition of Li to Zn-Al alloy caused a reduction in the thickness of the IMC layer at the interface during spreading, and an increase during aging. The activation energy was calculated, being found to increase for the Cu5Zn8 phase but decrease for the CuZn and CuZn4 phases with increasing Li content in the Zn-Al-Li alloys. The highest value of 142 kJ mol-1 was obtained for Zn-Al with 1.0 Li during spreading and 69.2 kJ mol-1 for Zn-Al with 0.05 Li during aging. Aging at 250°C caused an increase in only the Cu5Zn8 layer, which has the lowest Gibbs energy in the Cu-Zn system. This result is connected to the high diffusion of Cu from the substrate to the solder.

  7. Microstructure and properties of Cu-Sn-Zn-TiO 2 nano-composite coatings on mild steel

    SciT

    Gao, Weidong; Cao, Di; Jin, Yunxue

    Cu-Sn-Zn coatings have been widely used in industry for their unique properties, such as good conductivity, high corrosion resistance and excellent solderability. To further improve the mechanical performance of Cu-Sn-Zn coatings, powder-enhanced method was applied and Cu-Sn-Zn-TiO 2 nano-composite coatings with different TiO 2 concentration were fabricated. The microstructure of Cu-Sn-Zn-TiO 2 nano-composite coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The mechanical properties of coatings including microhardness and wear resistance were studied. The results indicate that the incorporation of TiO 2 nanoparticle can significantly influence the properties of Cu-Sn-Zn coatings. The microhardness of Cu-Sn-Zn coatingmore » was increased to 383 HV from 330 HV with 1 g/L TiO 2 addition. Also, the corrosion resistance of coating was enhanced. The effects of TiO 2 nanoparticle concentration on the microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of Cu-Sn-Zn-TiO 2 nano-composite coatings were discussed.« less

  8. Microstructure and properties of Cu-Sn-Zn-TiO 2 nano-composite coatings on mild steel

    DOE PAGES

    Gao, Weidong; Cao, Di; Jin, Yunxue; ...

    2018-04-18

    Cu-Sn-Zn coatings have been widely used in industry for their unique properties, such as good conductivity, high corrosion resistance and excellent solderability. To further improve the mechanical performance of Cu-Sn-Zn coatings, powder-enhanced method was applied and Cu-Sn-Zn-TiO 2 nano-composite coatings with different TiO 2 concentration were fabricated. The microstructure of Cu-Sn-Zn-TiO 2 nano-composite coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The mechanical properties of coatings including microhardness and wear resistance were studied. The results indicate that the incorporation of TiO 2 nanoparticle can significantly influence the properties of Cu-Sn-Zn coatings. The microhardness of Cu-Sn-Zn coatingmore » was increased to 383 HV from 330 HV with 1 g/L TiO 2 addition. Also, the corrosion resistance of coating was enhanced. The effects of TiO 2 nanoparticle concentration on the microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of Cu-Sn-Zn-TiO 2 nano-composite coatings were discussed.« less

  9. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of NiTiFeAlCu High-Entropy Alloys with Exceptional Nano-precipitates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanqiu; Wang, Sibing; Jiang, Shuyong; Zhu, Xiaoming; Sun, Dong

    2017-01-01

    Three novel NiTiFeAlCu high-entropy alloys, which consist of nano-precipitates with face-centered cubic structure and matrix with body-centered cubic structure, were fabricated to investigate microstructures and mechanical properties. With the increase in Ni and Ti contents, the strength of NiTiFeAlCu alloy is enhanced, while the plasticity of NiTiFeAlCu alloy is lowered. Plenty of dislocations can be observed in the Ni32Ti32Fe12Al12Cu12 high-entropy alloy. The size of nano-precipitates decreases with the increase in Ni and Ti contents, while lattice distortion becomes more and more severe with the increase in Ni and Ti contents. The existence of nano-precipitates, dislocations and lattice distortion is responsible for the increase in the strength of NiTiFeAlCu alloy, but it has an adverse influence on the plasticity of NiTiFeAlCu alloy. Ni20Ti20Fe20Al20Cu20 alloy exhibits the substantial ability of plastic deformation and a characteristic of steady flow at 850 and 1000 °C. This phenomenon is attributed to a competition between the increase in the dislocation density induced by plastic strain and the decrease in the dislocation density due to the dynamic recrystallization.

  10. Substitution of Li for Cu in Cu2ZnSnS4: Toward Wide Band Gap Absorbers with Low Cation Disorder for Thin Film Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Lafond, A; Guillot-Deudon, C; Vidal, J; Paris, M; La, C; Jobic, S

    2017-03-06

    The substitution of lithium for copper in Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) has been experimentally and theoretically investigated. Formally, the (Cu 1-x Li x )ZnSnS 4 system exhibits two well-defined solid solutions. Indeed, single crystal structural analyses demonstrate that the low (x < 0.4) and high (x > 0.6) lithium-content compounds adopt the kesterite structure and the wurtz-kesterite structure, respectively. For x between 0.4 and 0.6, the two aforementioned structure types coexist. Moreover, 119 Sn NMR analyses carried out on a (Cu 0.7 Li 0.3 ) 2 ZnSnS 4 sample clearly indicate that lithium replaces copper preferentially on two of the three available 2-fold crystallographic sites commonly occupied by Cu and Zn in disordered kesterite. Furthermore, the observed individual lines in the NMR spectrum suggest that the propensity of Cu and Zn atoms to be randomly distributed over the 2c and 2d crystallographic sites is lowered when lithium is partially substituted for copper. Additionally, the first-principles calculations provide insights into the arrangement of Li atoms as a function of the Cu/Zn disorder and its effect on the structural (lattice parameters) and optical properties of CZTS (band gap evolution). Those calculations agree with the experimental observations and account for the evolutions of the unit cell parameters as well as for the increase of band gap when the Li-content increases. The calculation of the formation enthalpy of point defect unambiguously indicates that Li modifies the Cu/Zn disorder in a manner similar to the change of Cu/Zn disorder induced by Ag alloying. Overall, it was found that Li alloying is a versatile way of tuning the optoelectronic properties of CZTS making it a good candidate as wide band gap materials for the top cells of tandem solar cells.

  11. Improving the Mechanical Properties of Cu-15Ni-8Sn Alloys by Addition of Titanium

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chao; Zhang, Weiwen; Li, Daoxi; Luo, Zongqiang; Yang, Chao; Zhang, Datong

    2017-01-01

    The effect of Ti addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Cu-15Ni-8Sn alloys was investigated. Optical microscopy (OM), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to determine grain size and distribution of the second phases in the alloys. The results indicate that the tensile properties of Cu-15Ni-8Sn alloys are improved significantly with Ti addition. Tensile elongation increased from 2.7% for the alloy without Ti to 17.9% for the alloy with 0.3% Ti, while tensile strength was maintained and even increased from 935 MPa to 1024 MPa. The improvement of the mechanical properties of Cu-15Ni-8Sn alloys by the addition of Ti is attributed to the grain refinement and suppression of discontinuous precipitation during heat treatment. PMID:28878192

  12. The As-Cu-Ni System: A Chemical Thermodynamic Model for Ancient Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, Benjamin J.

    2015-12-01

    This article is the first thermodynamically reasoned ancient metal system assessment intended for use by archaeologists and archaeometallurgists to aid in the interpretation of remelted/recycled copper alloys composed of arsenic and copper, and arsenic, copper, and nickel. These models are meant to fulfill two main purposes: first, to be applied toward the identification of progressive and regressive temporal changes in artifact chemistry that would have occurred due to recycling, and second, to provide thermodynamic insight into why such metal combinations existed in antiquity. Built on well-established thermodynamics, these models were created using a combination of custom-written software and published binary thermodynamic systems data adjusted to within the boundary conditions of 1200°C and 1 atm. Using these parameters, the behavior of each element and their likelihood of loss in the binaries As-Cu, As-Ni, Cu-Ni, and ternary As-Cu-Ni, systems, under assumed ancient furnace conditions, was determined.

  13. Recovery of zinc and manganese, and other metals (Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, Cd, Cr, Na, K) from Zn-MnO2 and Zn-C waste batteries: Hydroxyl and carbonate co-precipitation from solution after reducing acidic leaching with use of oxalic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobianowska-Turek, A.; Szczepaniak, W.; Maciejewski, P.; Gawlik-Kobylińska, M.

    2016-09-01

    The article discusses the current situation of the spent batteries and portable accumulators management. It reviews recycling technologies of the spent batteries and portable accumulators which are used in the manufacturing installations in the world. Also, it presents the authors' research results on the reductive acidic leaching of waste material of the zinc-carbon batteries (Zn-C) and zinc-manganese batteries (alkaline Zn-MnO2) delivered by a company dealing with mechanical treatment of this type of waste stream. The research data proved that the reductive acidic leaching (H2SO4 + C2H2O4) of the battery's black mass allows to recover 85.0% of zinc and 100% of manganese. Moreover, it was found that after the reductive acidic leaching it is possible to recover nearly 100% of manganese, iron, cadmium, and chromium, 98.0% of cobalt, 95.5% of zinc, and 85.0% of copper and nickel from the solution with carbonate method. On the basis of the results, it is possible to assume that the carbonate method can be used for the preparation of manganese-zinc ferrite.

  14. Band alignment and optical response of facile grown NiO/ZnO nano-heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultan, Muhammad; Mumtaz, Sundas; Ali, Asad; Khan, Muhammad Yaqoob; Iqbal, Tahir

    2017-12-01

    ZnO nanorods decorated by NiO nanostructures were fabricated using facile chemical route. The nanorods of ZnO were prepared by using chemical bath deposition technique and subsequently decorated by NiO using sol-gel spin coating. The density and orientation of the ZnO nanorods was controlled through the seed layer with preferential growth along c-axis and hexagonal face. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analysis was used to confirm stoichiometry of the materials and band alignment study of the heterostructures. Type-II band alignment was observed from the experimental results. The IV characteristics of the device depicting rectifying behavior at different temperatures were observed with photocurrent generation in response to light excitation. The electrical properties reported in this study are in line with earlier work where heterojunctions were fabricated by physical deposition techniques.

  15. Rietveld refinement and electrical properties of Ni-Zn spinel ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooda, Ashima; Sanghi, Sujata; Agarwal, Ashish; Khasa, Satish; Hooda, Bhawana

    2017-05-01

    NiFe2O4, ZnFe2O4, Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 spinel samples have been synthesized by conventional solid state reaction technique. Powder X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement revealed that the samples were single Spinel phase with space group fd3m. The average crystalline size (D), lattice constant (a), X-ray density (ρx), measured density (ρm) and Porosity (P) of prepared samples were determined from XRD data. The dc electrical resistivity (p) was measured as a function of temperature. The variations of ρ were explained on the basis of Verwey and de Bohr mechanism. The value of DC resistivity found to increase with increase Zn concentration.

  16. [Changes in bio-availability of immobilized Cu and Zn bound to phosphate in contaminated soils with different nutrient addition].

    PubMed

    Xu, Ming-Gang; Zhang, Qian; Sun, Nan; Shen, Hua-Ping; Zhang, Wen-Ju

    2009-07-15

    Bio-availability of Cu and Zn fixed by phosphate in contaminated soils with application of nutrients were measured by pot experiment. It was simulated for the third national standardization of copper and zinc polluted soils by adding copper and zinc nitrate into red and paddy soils, respectively and together. Phosphate amendment was added to the soils to fix Cu and Zn, then added KCl and NH4Cl or K2SO4 and (NH4)2SO4 fertilizers following to plant Ryegrass, which was harvested after 40 d. Available Cu/Zn content in soils and biomass, Cu/Zn content in the shoot of Ryegrass were determined. Results showed that, compared with no nutrient application, adding KCl and NH4 Cl/K2SO4 and (NH4)2SO4 to polluted red and paddy soils increased the available Cu and Zn content in red soil significantly. The increasing order was KCl and NH4 Cl > K2SO4 and (NH4)2SO4. Especially in single Zn polluted red soil, the available Zn content increased by 133.4% in maximum. Although adding K2SO4 and (NH4)2SO4 could promote the growth of Ryegrass on red soil, and the largest increasing was up to 22.2%, it increased Cu and Zn content in the shoot of Ryegrass for 21.5%-112.6% remarkably. These nutrient effects on available Cu and Zn were not significantly in paddy soil. It was suggested that application of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers to soils could change the bioavailability of Cu/Zn. So it is necessary to take full account of the nutrient influence to the heavy metal stability which fixed by phosphate in contaminated soils when consider contaminated soils remediation by fertilization.

  17. Cu-doped Cd1- x Zn x S alloy: synthesis and structural investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Indu; Ahlawat, Dharamvir Singh; Ahlawat, Rachna

    2016-03-01

    Copper doped Cd1- x Zn x S ( x ≤ 1) quantum dots have been synthesized using chemical co-precipitation method. Structural investigation of the synthesized nanomaterials has been carried out by powder XRD method. The XRD results have confirmed that as-prepared Cu-doped Cd1- x Zn x S quantum dots have hexagonal structure. The average nanocrystallite size was estimated in the range 2-12 nm using Debye-Scherrer formula. The lattice constants, lattice plane, d-spacing, unit cell volume, Lorentz factor and dislocation density were also calculated from XRD data. The change in particle size was observed with the change in Zn concentration. Furthermore, FTIR spectra of the prepared samples were observed for identification of COO- and O-H functional groups. The TEM study has also reported the same size range of nanoparticles. The increase in agglomeration has been observed with the increase in Zn concentration in the prepared samples.

  18. Toxicity of nanoparticles of CuO, ZnO and TiO2 to microalgae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata.

    PubMed

    Aruoja, Villem; Dubourguier, Henri-Charles; Kasemets, Kaja; Kahru, Anne

    2009-02-01

    Toxicities of ZnO, TiO2 and CuO nanoparticles to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata were determined using OECD 201 algal growth inhibition test taking in account potential shading of light. The results showed that the shading effect by nanoparticles was negligible. ZnO nanoparticles were most toxic followed by nano CuO and nano TiO2. The toxicities of bulk and nano ZnO particles were both similar to that of ZnSO4 (72 h EC50 approximately 0.04 mg Zn/l). Thus, in this low concentration range the toxicity was attributed solely to solubilized Zn2+ ions. Bulk TiO2 (EC50=35.9 mg Ti/l) and bulk CuO (EC50=11.55 mg Cu/l) were less toxic than their nano formulations (EC50=5.83 mg Ti/l and 0.71 mg Cu/l). NOEC (no-observed-effect-concentrations) that may be used for risk assessment purposes for bulk and nano ZnO did not differ (approximately 0.02 mg Zn/l). NOEC for nano CuO was 0.42 mg Cu/l and for bulk CuO 8.03 mg Cu/l. For nano TiO2 the NOEC was 0.98 mg Ti/l and for bulk TiO2 10.1 mg Ti/l. Nano TiO2 formed characteristic aggregates entrapping algal cells that may contribute to the toxic effect of nano TiO2 to algae. At 72 h EC50 values of nano CuO and CuO, 25% of copper from nano CuO was bioavailable and only 0.18% of copper from bulk CuO. Thus, according to recombinant bacterial and yeast Cu-sensors, copper from nano CuO was 141-fold more bioavailable than from bulk CuO. Also, toxic effects of Cu oxides to algae were due to bioavailable copper ions. To our knowledge, this is one of the first systematic studies on effects of metal oxide nanoparticles on algal growth and the first describing toxic effects of nano CuO towards algae.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of Cu-Zn/TiO2 for the photocatalytic conversion of CO2 to methane.

    PubMed

    Rana, Adeem Ghaffar; Ahmad, Waqar; Al-Matar, Ali; Shawabkeh, Reyad; Aslam, Zaheer

    2017-05-01

    Different Cu-Zn/TiO 2 catalysts were synthesized by using the wet impregnation method. The prepared catalysts were used for the conversion of CO 2 into methane by photocatalysis. Various characterization techniques were used to observe the surface morphology, crystalline phase, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, presence of impregnated Cu and Zn, and functional group. Scanning electron microscope analysis showed spherical morphology, and slight agglomeration of catalyst particles was observed. BET analysis revealed that the surface area of the catalyst was decreased from 10 to 8.5 m 2 /g after impregnation of Cu and Zn over TiO 2 support. Synergetic effect of Cu and Zn over TiO 2 support (Cu 2.6 /TiO 2 , Zn 0.5 /TiO 2 and Cu 2.6 -Zn 0.5 /TiO 2 ) and the effects of Cu loading (0, 1.8, 2.1, 2.6 and 2.9 wt%) were also investigated at different feed molar ratios of H 2 /CO 2 (2:1 and 4:1). The Cu 2.6 -Zn 0.5 /TiO 2 catalyst showed a maximum conversion of 14.3% at a feed molar ratio of 4. The addition of Zn over the catalyst surface increased the conversion of CO 2 from 10% to 14.3% which might be due to synergy of Cu and Zn over TiO 2 support.

  20. Giant magnetic coercivity in CaCu{sub 5}-type SmNi{sub 3}TSi (T=Mn–Cu) solid solutions

    SciT

    Yao, Jinlei; Yan, Xu; Morozkin, A.V., E-mail: morozkin@tech.chem.msu.ru

    The effects of transition metal substitution for Ni on the magnetic properties of the CaCu{sub 5}-type SmNi{sub 3}TSi (T=Mn, Fe, Co, Cu) solid solutions have been investigated. SmNi{sub 3}MnSi, SmNi{sub 3}FeSi, SmNi{sub 3}CoSi and SmNi{sub 3}CuSi show ferromagnetic ordering at 125 K, 190 K, 46 K and 12 K and field induced transitions at 65 K, 110 K, 30 K and 6 K, respectively. The magnetocaloric effects of SmNi{sub 3}TSi (T=Mn, Fe, Co, Cu) were calculated in terms of isothermal magnetic entropy change (ΔS{sub m}). The magnetic entropy ΔS{sub m} reaches value of −1.1 J/kg K at 130 K formore » SmNi{sub 3}MnSi, −0.4 J/kg K at 180 K for SmNi{sub 3}FeSi, −0.37 J/kg K at 45 K for SmNi{sub 3}CoSi and −0.5 J/kg K at 12 K for SmNi{sub 3}CuSi in field change of 0–50 kOe around the ferromagnetic ordering temperature. They show positive ΔS{sub m} of +2.4 J/kg K at 30 K for SmNi{sub 3}MnSi, −2.6 J/kg K at 65 K for SmNi{sub 3}FeSi, +0.73 J/kg K at 15 K for SmNi{sub 3}CoSi and −0.5 J/kg K at 6 K for SmNi{sub 3}CuSi in field change of 0–50 kOe around the metamagnetic-like transition temperature. Below the field induced transition temperature, SmNi{sub 3}TSi (T=Mn, Fe, Co, Cu) exhibits giant magnetic coercivity of 80 kOe at 20 K for