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Sample records for zn pb ag

  1. Bioleaching mechanism of Zn, Pb, In, Ag, Cd and As from Pb/Zn smelting slag by autotrophic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Huang, Qifei; Li, Ting; Xin, Baoping; Chen, Shi; Guo, Xingming; Liu, Changhao; Li, Yuping

    2015-08-15

    A few studies have focused on release of valuable/toxic metals from Pb/Zn smelting slag by heterotrophic bioleaching using expensive yeast extract as an energy source. The high leaching cost greatly limits the practical potential of the method. In this work, autotrophic bioleaching using cheap sulfur or/and pyrite as energy matter was firstly applied to tackle the smelting slag and the bioleaching mechanisms were explained. The results indicated autotrophic bioleaching can solubilize valuable/toxic metals from slag, yielding maximum extraction efficiencies of 90% for Zn, 86% for Cd and 71% for In, although the extraction efficiencies of Pb, As and Ag were poor. The bioleaching performance of Zn, Cd and Pb was independent of leaching system, and leaching mechanism was acid dissolution. A maximum efficiency of 25% for As was achieved by acid dissolution in sulfursulfur oxidizing bacteria (S-SOB), but the formation of FeAsO4 reduced extraction efficiency in mixed energy source - mixed culture (MS-MC). Combined works of acid dissolution and Fe(3+) oxidation in MS-MC was responsible for the highest extraction efficiency of 71% for In. Ag was present in the slag as refractory AgPb4(AsO4)3 and AgFe2S3, so extraction did not occur. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Classification of Broken Hill-Type Pb-Zn-Ag Deposits: A Refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spry, P. G.; Teale, G. S.; Steadman, J. A.

    2009-05-01

    Broken Hill Hill-type Pb-Zn-Ag (BHT) deposits constitute some of the largest ore deposits in the world. The Broken Hill deposit is the largest accumulation of Pb, Zn, and Ag on Earth and the Cannington deposit is currently the largest silver deposit. Characteristic features of BHT deposits include: 1. high Pb+Zn+Ag values with Pb > Zn; 2. Metamorphism to amphibolite-granulite facies; 3. Paleo-to Mesoprotoerozoic clastic metasedimentary host rocks; 4. Sulfides that are spatially associated with bimodal (felsic and mafic) volcanic rocks, and stratabound gahnite- and garnet-bearing rocks and iron formations, 5. Stacked orebodies with characteristic Pb:Zn:Ag ratios and skarn-like Fe-Mn-Ca-F gangue assemblages, and the presence of Cu, Au, Bi, As, and Sb; and 6. Sulfur-poor assemblages. Broken Hill (Australia) has a prominent footwall feeder zone whereas other BHT deposits have less obvious alteration zones (footwall garnet spotting and stratabound alteration haloes). Deposits previously regarded in the literature as BHT deposits are Broken Hill, Cannington, Oonagalabie, Menninie Dam, and Pegmont (Australia), Broken Hill, Swartberg, Big Syncline, and Gamsberg (South Africa), Zinkgruvan (Sweden), Sullivan, Cottonbelt, and Foster River (Canada), and Boquira (Brazil). Of these deposits, only the Broken Hill (Australia, South Africa), Pinnacles, Cannington, Pegmont, and Swartberg deposits are BHT deposits. Another BHT deposit includes the Green Parrot deposit, Jervois Ranges (Northern Territory). The Foster River, Gamsberg, and Sullivan deposits are considered to be "SEDEX deposits with BHT affinities", and the Oonagalabie, Green Mountain (Colorado), and Zinkgruvan are "VMS deposits with BHT affinities". In the Broken Hill area (Australia), Corruga-type Pb-Zn-Ag deposits occur in calc-silicate rocks and possess some BHT characteristics; the Big Syncline, Cottonbelt, Menninie Dam, and Saxberget deposits are Corruga-type deposits. SEDEX deposits with BHT affinities, VMS

  3. Geochemistry of the Patricia Zn-Pb-Ag Deposit (paguanta, NE Chile)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinchilla Benavides, D.; Merinero Palomares, R.; Piña García, R.; Ortega Menor, L.; Lunar Hernández, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Patricia Zn-Pb-Ag ore deposit is located within the Paguanta mining project, situated at the northern end of the Andean Oligocene Porphyry Copper Belt of Chile. The sulfide mineralization occurs as W-E oriented veins hosted in volcanic rocks, mainly andesite (pyroclastic, ash and lavas), of Upper Cretaceous to Middle Tertiary age. The ore mineralogy (obtained by EMPA analyses) comprises in order of abundance, pyrite, sphalerite (5.5 - 10.89 wt % Fe, 9.8-19 % molar FeS and 0.52 wt % Cd), galena, arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite and Ag-bearing sulfosalts. The veins show a zoned and banded internal structure with pyrite at the edges and sphalerite in the center. The Ag occurs mostly as Ag-Cu-Sb sulfosalts, in order of abundance: series freibergite - argentotennantite -polybasite and stephanite. Other minor Ag phases such as argentite, pyrargirite and diaphorite were also identified. These Ag phases are typically associated with the base-metal sulfides. Freibergite occurs filling voids within sphalerite, chalcopyrite and at the contact between sphalerite and galena. Polybasite, stephanite, pyrargirite and argentite are mostly in close association with freibergite. In the case of diaphorite, it commonly occurs filling voids between galena crystals or as inclusions within galena. Some minor Ag-bearing sulfosalts are also identified between pyrite crystals. The alteration minerals are dominated by chlorite, illite and kaolinite. The gangue minerals consist of quartz and carbonates identified by XRD as kutnahorite. We obtained linear correlation statistically significant only for Ag, As Au, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn and therefore we generated an enhanced scatter plot matrix of these elements. Bulk rock analyses (ICP/MS and XRF) of drill cores show that Ag is strongly and positively correlated with Pb and As, moderately with Cd, Sb, Au and Zn and weakly with Cu, while Au is moderately and positively correlated with Ag, As, Cd, Sb and Zn and weakly with Cu and Pb. These results

  4. Possible Mesozoic age of Ellenville Zn-Pb-Cu(Ag) deposit, Shawangunk Mountains, New York

    Friedman, J.D.; Conrad, J.E.; McKee, E.H.; Mutschler, F.E.; Zartman, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    Ore textures, epithermal open-space filling of Permian structures of the Alleghanian orogeny, and largely postorogenic mineralization of the Ellenville, New York, composite Zn-Pb-Cu(Ag) vein system, provide permissive evidence for post-Permian mineralization. Isochron ages determined by 40Ar/39Ar laser-fusion techniques for K-bearing liquid inclusions in main-stage quartz from the Ellenville deposit additionally suggest a Mesozoic time of mineralization, associated with extensional formation of the Newark basin. The best 40Ar/39Ar total-fusion age range is 165 ?? 30 to 193 ?? 35 Ma. The Mesozoic 40Ar/39Ar age agrees with that of many other dated northern Appalachian Zn-Pb-Cu(Ag) deposits with near-matching lead isotope ratios, and adds new evidence of Jurassic tectonism and mineralization as an overprint to Late Paleozoic tectonism at least as far north as Ellenville (lat. 41??43???N). ?? 1994 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Pb isotopic constraints on the formation of the Dikulushi Cu-Pb-Zn-Ag mineralisation, Kundelungu Plateau (Democratic Republic of Congo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haest, Maarten; Schneider, Jens; Cloquet, Christophe; Latruwe, Kris; Vanhaecke, Frank; Muchez, Philippe

    2010-04-01

    Base metal-Ag mineralisation at Dikulushi and in other deposits on the Kundelungu Plateau (Democratic Republic of Congo) developed during two episodes. Subeconomic Cu-Pb-Zn-Fe polysulphide ores were generated during the Lufilian Orogeny (c. 520 Ma ago) in a set of E-W- and NE-SW-oriented faults. Their lead has a relatively unradiogenic and internally inhomogeneous isotopic composition (206Pb/204Pb = 18.07-18.49), most likely generated by mixing of Pb from isotopically heterogeneous clastic sources. These sulphides were remobilised and enriched after the Lufilian Orogeny, along reactivated and newly formed NE-SW-oriented faults into a chalcocite-dominated Cu-Ag mineralisation of high economic interest. The chalcocite samples contain only trace amounts of lead and show mostly radiogenic Pb isotope signatures that fall along a linear trend in the 207Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb diagram (206Pb/204Pb = 18.66-23.65; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.72-16.02). These anomalous characteristics reflect a two-stage evolution involving admixture of both radiogenic lead and uranium during a young fluid event possibly c. 100 Ma ago. The Pb isotope systematics of local host rocks to mineralisation also indicate some comparable young disturbance of their U-Th-Pb systems, related to the same event. They could have provided Pb with sufficiently radiogenic compositions that was added to less radiogenic Pb remobilised from precursor Cu-Pb-Zn-Fe polysulphides, whereas the U most likely originated from external sources. Local metal sources are also suggested by the 208Pb/204Pb-206Pb/204Pb systematics of combined ore and rock lead, which indicate a pronounced and diversified lithological control of the immediate host rocks on the chalcocite-dominated Cu-Ag ores. The Pb isotope systematics of polysulphide mineralisation on the Kundelungu Plateau clearly record a diachronous evolution.

  6. Relationship between the Porco, Bolivia, Ag-Zn-Pb-Sn deposit and the Porco Caldera

    Cunningham, C.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Porco Ag-Zn-Pb-Sn deposit, a major Ag producer in the 16th century and currently the major Zn producer in Bolivia, consists of a swarm of fissure-filling veins in the newly recognized Porco caldera. The caldera measures 5 km by 3 km and formed in response to the eruption of the 12 Ma crystal-rich dacitic Porco Tuff. The mineralization is associated with, and is probably genetically related to, the 8.6 Ma Huayna Porco stock. The Porco deposit consists of steeply dipping irregular and curvilinear veins that cut the intracaldera Porco Tuff about 1 km east of the Huayna Porco stock. Most of the veins are aligned along the structural margin (ring fracture) of the caldera. The ore deposit is zoned around the Huayna Porco stock. The primary Ag minerals are most abundant in the upper parts of the viens. Fluid inclusions in sphalerite stalactites have homogenization temperatures of about 225??C and salinities of about 8 wt% NaCl equiv. The stalactites and the presence of sparse vapor-rich inclusions suggest deposition of sphalerite under boiling conditions. -from Authors

  7. Sm-Nd dating of the giant Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, British Columbia

    Jiang, Shao-Yong; Slack, John F.; Palmer, Martin R.

    2000-01-01

    We report here Sm and Nd isotope data for hydrothermal tourmalinites and sulfide ores from the giant Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, which occurs in the lower part of the Mesoproterozoic Purcell (Belt) Supergroup. Whole-rock samples of quartz-tourmaline tourmalinite from the footwall alteration pipe yield a Sm-Nd isochron age of 1470 ± 59 Ma, recording synsedimentary B metasomatism of clastic sediments during early evolution of the Sullivan hydrothermal system. Data for variably altered (chloritized and/or albitized) tourmalinites from the hanging wall of the deposit, which are believed to have formed originally ca. 1470 Ma, define a younger 1076 ± 77 Ma isochron because of resetting of Sm and Nd isotopes during Grenvillian metamorphism. HCl leachates of bedded Pb-Zn ore yield a Sm-Nd isochron age of 1451 ± 46 Ma, which is consistent with syngenetic-exhalative mineralization ca. 1470 Ma; this age could also reflect a slightly younger, epigenetic hydrothermal event. Results obtained for the Sullivan deposit indicate that the Sm-Nd geochronometer has the potential to directly date mineralization and alteration in stratabound sulfide deposits that are not amenable to dating by other isotope methods.

  8. Origin and tectonic implications of the Zhaxikang Pb-Zn-Sb-Ag deposit in northern Himalaya: evidence from structures, Re-Os-Pb-S isotopes, and fluid inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qing; Li, Wenchang; Qing, Chengshi; Lai, Yang; Li, Yingxu; Liao, Zhenwen; Wu, Jianyang; Wang, Shengwei; Dong, Lei; Tian, Enyuan

    2018-04-01

    The Zhaxikang Pb-Zn-Sb-Ag-(Au) deposits, located in the eastern part of northern Himalaya, totally contain more than 1.146 million tonnes (Mt) of Pb, 1.407 Mt of Zn, 0.345 Mt of Sb, and 3 kilotonnes (kt) of Ag. Our field observations suggest that these deposits are controlled by N-S trending and west- and steep-dipping normal faults, suggesting a hydrothermal rather than a syngenetic sedimentary origin. The Pb-Zn-Sb-Ag-(Cu-Au) mineralization formed in the Eocene as indicated by a Re-Os isochron age of 43.1 ± 2.5 Ma. Sulfide minerals have varying initial Pb isotopic compositions, with (206Pb/204Pb)i of 19.04-19.68, (207Pb/204Pb)i of 15.75-15.88, and (208Pb/204Pb)i of 39.66-40.31. Sulfur isotopic values display a narrow δ34S interval of +7.8-+12.2‰. These Pb-S isotopic data suggest that the Zhaxikang sources of Pb and S should be mainly from the coeval felsic magmas and partly from the surrounding Mesozoic strata including metasedimentary rocks and layered felsic volcanic rocks. Fluid inclusion studies indicate that the hydrothermal fluids have medium temperatures (200-336 °C) but varying salinities (1.40-18.25 wt.% NaCl equiv.) with densities of 0.75-0.95 g/cm3, possibly suggesting an evolution mixing between a high salinity fluid, perhaps of magmatic origin, with meteoric water.

  9. Feruvite from the Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, British Columbia

    Jiang, S.-Y.; Palmer, M.R.; McDonald, A.M.; Slack, J.F.; Leitch, C.H.B.

    1996-01-01

    Feruvite, an uncommon Ca- and Fe2+-rich tourmaline species, has been discovered in the footwall of the Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit (British Columbia) near gabbro sills and dikes. Its chemical composition varies according to occurrence: feruvite from the shallow footwall has lower Ca, higher Al, and higher X-site vacancies than that from the deep footwall. The major chemical substitution involved in the feruvite is the exchange vector CaMgO???-1Al-1(OH)-1. The most important factor controlling feruvite formation at Sullivan is likely the reaction of Fe-rich hydrothermal fluids with Ca-rich minerals in gabbro and host rocks. This reaction led to the breakdown of Ca-rich minerals (plagioclase and hornblende), with release of Ca to solution and its incorporation into feruvite. This process probably postdated the main stages of formation of fine-grained, intermediate schorl-dravite in the tourmalinite pipe in the footwall, and is attributed to postore intrusion of gabbro and associated albite-chlorite-pyrite alteration.

  10. Alkali-deficient tourmaline from the Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, British Columbia

    Jiang, S.-Y.; Palmer, M.R.; Slack, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    Alkali-deficient tourmalines are found in albitized rocks from the hanging-wall of the Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit (British Columbia, Canada). They approximate the Mg-equivalent of foitite with an idealized formula D???(Mg2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO 3)3(OH)4. Major chemical substitutions in the tourmalines are the alkali-defect type [Na*(x) + Mg*(Y) = ???(X) + Al(Y)] and the uvite type [Na*(X) + Al(Y) = Ca(X) + Mg*(Y)], where Na* = Na + K, Mg* = Mg + Fe + Mn. The occurrence of these alkali-deficient tourmalines reflects a unique geochemical environment that is either alkali-depleted overall or one in which the alkalis preferentially partitioned into coexisting minerals (e.g. albite). Some of the alkali-deficient tourmalines have unusually high Mn contents (up to 1.5 wt.% MnO) compared to other Sullivan tourmalines. Manganese has a strong preference for incorporation into coexisting garnet and carbonate at Sullivan, thus many tourmalines in Mn-rich rocks are poor in Mn (<0.2 wt.% MnO). It appears that the dominant controls over the occurrence of Mn-rich tourmalines at Sullivan are the local availability of Mn and the lack of other coexisting minerals that may preferentially incorporate Mn into their structures.

  11. Lithologic and structural controls of limestone-hosted Pb-Zn-Ag mineralization in Chihuahua, Mexico

    SciT

    Lofquist, D.J.; Ruiz, J.

    1985-01-01

    The state of Chihuahua contains some of the most important limestone-hosted ore deposits in Mexico. The best example are Santa Eulalia and Naica which together have produced 53 million tons or ore averaging 7.7% Pb, 6.4% Zn, and 280 g/ton Ag. These deposits occur as mantos and chimneys often accompanied by calc-silicates. Among the most critical questions in this type of deposit is the control that the limestone-host exerts on the mineralizing process. Here the authors present the first detailed data on the stratigraphic and lithologic character of the limestone-hosts at Naica and Santa Eulalia. All ore at Naica andmore » Santa Eulalia is hosted by micrites, biomicrites and biosparites indicative of generally quiet marine deposition. The authors work suggests that the western edge of the this trough might be a low angle, east dipping ramp which extends below the Sierra Madre Occidental. The primary permeability of the limestone that hosts Naica and Santa Eulalia is in the micro to nanodarcy range. The effective permeability has been augmented by 3 or 4 stages of micro-fracturing. Most of the ore is controlled by these fractures and by felsic dikes, which in cases are mostly endoskarn. Stylolites also appear to have exerted a control on the mineralizing process. Numerous instances of alteration and recrystallization confined to one side of a horizontal stylolite have been noted. At Santa Eulalia, horizontal stylolites have controlled the emplacement of massive sulfide mantos, suggesting that the mineralizing process was rather passive.« less

  12. The Transfiguration continental red-bed Cu-Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, Quebec Appalachians, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, Alexandre Raphael; Beaudoin, Georges; Taylor, Bruce E.

    2009-04-01

    The Transfiguration Cu-Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, enclosed within reduced grey sandstone, is associated with continental red beds of the Lower Silurian Robitaille Formation in the Quebec Appalachians, Canada. The Robitaille Formation rests unconformably on foliated Cambro-Ordovician rocks. The unconformity is locally cut by barite veins. The basal unit of the Robitaille Formation comprises green wacke and pebble conglomerate, which locally contain calcite nodules. The latter have microstructures characteristic of alpha-type calcretes, such as “floating” fabrics, calcite-filled fractures (crystallaria) and circumgranular cracks. Massive, grey sandstone overlies the basal green wacke and pebble conglomerate unit, which is overlain, in turn, by red, fine-grained sandstone. Mineralisation occurred underneath the red sandstone unit, chiefly in the grey sandstone unit, as disseminated and veinlet sulphides. Chalcopyrite, the most abundant Cu sulphide, replaced early pyrite. Calcrete, disseminated carbonate and vein carbonate have stable isotope ratios varying from -7.5‰ to -1.1‰ δ13C and from 14.7‰ to 21.3‰ δ18O. The negative δ13C values indicate the oxidation of organic matter in a continental environment. Sulphur isotope ratios for pyrite, chalcopyrite and galena vary from -19‰ to 25‰ δ34S, as measured on mineral concentrates by a conventional SO2 technique. Laser-assisted microanalyses (by fluorination) of S isotopes in pyrite show an analogous range in δ34S values, from -21‰ to 25‰. Negative and positive δ34S values are compatible with bacterial sulphate reduction (BSR) in systems open and closed with respect to sulphate. We interpret similarly high δ34S values for sulphide concentrates (25.1‰) and for vein barite (26.2‰) to result from rapid and complete thermochemical reduction of pore-water sulphate. Two early to late diagenetic stages of mineralisation best explain the origin of the Transfiguration deposit. The first stage was characterised

  13. Reactive flow models of the Anarraaq Zn-Pb-Ag deposit, Red Dog district, Alaska

    Schardt, C.; Garven, G.; Kelley, K.D.; Leach, D.L.

    2008-01-01

    The Red Dog ore deposit district in the Brooks Range of northern Alaska is host to several high-grade, shale-hosted Zn + Pb deposits. Due to the complex history and deformation of these ore deposits, the geological and hydrological conditions at the time of formation are poorly understood. Using geological observations and fluid inclusion data as constraints, numerical heat and fluid flow simulations of the Anarraaq ore deposit environment and coupled reactive flow simulations of a section of the ore body were conducted to gain more insight into the conditions of ore body formation. Results suggest that the ore body and associated base metal zonation may have formed by the mixing of oxidized, saline, metal-bearing hydrothermal fluids (<200??C) with reducing, HS-rich pore fluids within radiolarite-rich host rocks. Sphalerite and galena concentrations and base metal sulfide distribution are primarily controlled by the nature of the pore fluids, i.e., the extent and duration of the HS- source. Forward modeling results also predict the distribution of pyrite and quartz in agreement with field observations and indicate a reaction front moving from the initial mixing interface into the radiolarite rocks. Heuristic mass calculations suggest that ore grades and base metal accumulation comparable to those found in the field (18% Zn, 5% Pb) are predicted to be reached after about 0.3 My for initial conditions (30 ppm Zn, 3 ppm Pb; 20% deposition efficiency). ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

  14. Metallogeny of the Paramillos de Uspallata Pb-Zn-Ag vein deposit in the Cuyo Rift Basin, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinstein, Nora A.; Carrasquero, Silvia I.; Gómez, Anabel L. R.; Ricchetti, Ana P. Orellano; D'Annunzio, María C.

    2018-05-01

    The Paramillos de Uspallata deposit, previously considered as genetically linked to a Miocene porphyry deposit, is located in the Mesozoic Cuyo Basin, which was formed during the beginning of the break-up of Gondwana. In the present study, both previous information and new geological, mineralogical, and isotopic data allowed outlining a new descriptive model for this deposit. Stratigraphic and structural controls allowed considering this deposit as contemporaneous with the Mesozoic rifting, with the mineralization resulting from a Pb-Zn stage followed by an Ag-Cu-Pb stage. The hydrothermal fluids were found to have low temperature and low to moderate salinity, and to result from the mixing between metamorphic and meteoric fluids, with the lead sourced by the igneous Paleozoic basement and the sulfur partly derived from a magmatic source. These characteristics allow describing Paramillos de Uspallata as Pb-Zn-Ag veins hosted in clastic sedimentary sequences genetically linked to a rift basin and redefining it as detachment-related mineralization.

  15. Mineralogical, textural, sulfur and lead isotope constraints on the origin of Ag-Pb-Zn mineralization at Bianjiadayuan, Inner Mongolia, NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Degao; Liu, Jiajun; Cook, Nigel J.; Wang, Xilong; Yang, Yongqiang; Zhang, Anli; Jiao, Yingchun

    2018-04-01

    The Bianjiadayuan Ag-Pb-Zn deposit (4.81 Mt. @157.4 g/t Ag and 3.94% Pb + Zn) is located in the Great Hinggan Range Pb-Zn-Ag-Cu-Mo-Sn-Fe polymetallic metallogenic belt, NE China. Vein type Pb-Zn-Ag ore bodies are primarily hosted by slate, adjacent to a Sn ± Cu ± Mo mineralized porphyry intrusion. The deposit is characterized by silver-rich ores with Ag grades up to 3000 g/t. Four primary paragenetic sequences are recognized: (I) arsenopyrite + pyrite + quartz, (II) main sulfide + quartz, (III) silver-bearing sulfosalt + quartz, and (IV) boulangerite + calcite. A subsequent supergene oxidation stage has also been identified. Hydrothermal alteration consists of an early episode of silicification, two intermediate episodes (propylitic and phyllic), and a late argillic episode. Silver mineralization primarily belongs to the late paragenetic sequence III. Freibergite is the dominant and most important Ag-mineral in the deposit. Detailed ore mineralogy of Bianjiadayuan freibergite reveals evidence of chemical heterogeneity down to the microscale. Silver-rich sulfosalts in the late paragenetic sequence III are largely derived from a series of retrograde and solid-state reactions that redistribute Ag via decomposition and exsolution during cooling, illustrating that documentation of post-mineralization processes is essential for understanding silver ore formation. Sulfur and lead isotope compositions of sulfides, and comparison with those of local various geological units, indicate that the ore-forming fluids, lead, and other metals have a magmatic origin, suggesting a close genetic association between the studied Ag-Pb-Zn veins and the local granitic intrusion. Fluid cooling coupled with decreases in fO2 and fS2 are the factors inferred to have led to a decrease of silver solubility in the hydrothermal fluid, and successively promoted extensive Ag deposition.

  16. Origin of the Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag deposits, Brooks Range, Alaska: Evidence from regional Pb and Sr isotope sources

    Ayuso, R.A.; Kelley, K.D.; Leach, D.L.; Young, L.E.; Slack, J.F.; Wandless, G.; Lyon, A.M.; Dillingham, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Pb and Sr isotope data were obtained on the shale-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag Red Dog deposits (Qanaiyaq, Main, Aqqaluk, and Paalaaq), other shale-hosted deposits near Red Dog, and Zn-Pb-Ag sulfide and barite deposits in the western and central Brooks Range. The Red Dog deposits and other shale-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag deposits near Red Dog are hosted in the Mississippian Kuna Formation, which is underlain by a sequence of marine-deltaic clastic rocks of the Upper Devonian to Lower Mississippian Endicott Group. Ag-Pb-Zn vein-breccias are found in the Endicott Group. Galena formed during the main mineralization stages in the Red Dog deposits and from the Anarraaq and Wulik deposits have overlapping Pb isotope compositions in the range 206Pb/204Pb = 18.364 to 18.428, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.553 to 15.621, and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.083 to 38.323. Galena and sphalerite formed during the main ore-forming stages in the Red Dog deposits define a narrow field on standard uranogenic and thorogenic Pb isotope diagrams. Lead in sulfides of the Red Dog district is less radiogenic (238U/204Pb: ?? = 9.51-9.77) than is indicated by the average crustal lead evolution model (?? = 9.74), a difference consistent with a long history of evolution at low ratios of ?? before the Carboniferous. The homogeneous regional isotopic reservoir of Pb may indicate large-scale transport and leaching of minerals with various ?? ratios and Th/Pb ratios. Younger and genetically unrelated fluids did not significantly disturb the isotopic compositions of galena and sphalerite after the main mineralization event in the Red Dog district. Some pyrite shows evidence of minor Pb remobilization. The overall lead isotope homogeneity in the shale-hosted massive sulfide deposits is consistent with three types of control: a homogeneous regional source, mixing of lead during leaching of a thick sedimentary section and fluid transport, or mixing at the site of deposition. Isotopic variability of the hydrothermal fluids, as represented by galena

  17. Geochronology, fluid inclusions and isotopic characteristics of the Chaganbulagen Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tiegang; Wu, Guang; Liu, Jun; Wang, Guorui; Hu, Yanqing; Zhang, Yunfu; Luo, Dafeng; Mao, Zhihao; Xu, Bei

    2016-09-01

    The large Chaganbulagen Pb-Zn-Ag deposit is located in the Derbugan metallogenic belt of the northern Great Xing'an Range. The vein-style orebodies of the deposit occur in the NWW-trending fault zones. The ore-forming process at the deposit can be divided into three stages: an early quartz-pyrite-arsenopyrite-pyrrhotite-sphalerite-galena-chalcopyrite stage, a middle quartz-carbonate-pyrite-sphalerite-galena-silver-bearing minerals stage, and a late quartz-carbonate-pyrite stage. The sericite sample yielded a 40Ar -39Ar plateau age of 138 ± 1 Ma and an isochron age of 137 ± 3 Ma, and the zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb age of monzogranite porphyry was 143 ± 2 Ma, indicating that the ages of mineralization and monzogranite porphyry in the Chaganbulagen deposit should be the Early Cretaceous, and that the mineralization should be slightly later than the intrusion of monzogranite porphyry. There are only liquid inclusions in quartz veins of the Chaganbulagen deposit. Homogenization temperatures, densities, and salinities of the fluid inclusions from the early stage are 261-340 °C, 0.65-0.81 g/cm3, and 0.7-6.3 wt.% NaCl eqv., respectively. Fluid inclusions of the middle stage have homogenization temperatures, densities, and salinities of 209-265 °C, 0.75-0.86 g/cm3, and 0.5-5.7 wt.% NaCl eqv., respectively. For fluid inclusions of the late stage, their homogenization temperatures, densities, and salinities are 173-219 °C, 0.85-0.91 g/cm3, and 0.4-2.7 wt.% NaCl eqv., respectively. The ore-forming fluids of the deposit are generally characterized by moderate temperature and low salinity and density, and belong to an H2O-NaCl ± CO2 ± CH4 system. The δ18Owater values calculated for ore-bearing quartz vary from - 17.9‰ to - 10.8‰, and the δDV-SMOW values from bulk extraction of fluid inclusion waters vary from - 166‰ to - 127‰, suggesting that the ore-forming fluids consist dominantly of meteoric water. The δ34SV-CDT values range from 1.4‰ to 4.1‰. The 206Pb/204

  18. Mineral chemistry and shrimp U-Pb Geochronology of mesoproterozoic polycrase-titanite veins in the sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag Deposit, British Columbia

    Slack, J.F.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Belkin, H.E.; Fanning, C.M.; Ransom, P.W.

    2008-01-01

    Small polycrase-titanite veins 0.1-2 mm thick cut the tourmalinite feeder zone in the deep footwall of the Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, southeastern British Columbia. Unaltered, euhedral crystals of polycrase and titanite 50-100 ??m in diameter are variably replaced by a finer-grained alteration-induced assemblage composed of anhedral polycrase and titanite with local calcite, albite, epidote, allanite, and thorite or uranothorite (or both). Average compositions of the unaltered and altered polycrase, as determined by electron-microprobe analysis, are (Y0.38 REE0.49 Th0.10 Ca0.04 Pb0.03 Fe0.01U0.01) (Ti1.48 Nb0.54 W0.04 Ta0.02)O6 and (Y0.42 REE0.32 Th0.15 U0.06 Ca0.04 Pb0.01 Fe0.01) (Ti1.57 Nb0.44 W0.04 Ta0.02)O6, respectively. The unaltered titanite has, in some areas, appreciable F (to 0.15 apfu), Y (to 0.40 apfu), and Nb (to 0.13 apfu). SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology of eight grains of unaltered polycrase yields a weighted 207Pb/206Pb age of 1413 ?? 4 Ma (2??) that is interpreted to be the age of vein formation. This age is 50-60 m.y. younger than the ca. 1470 Ma age of synsedimentary Pb-Zn-Ag mineralization in the Sullivan deposit, which is based on combined geological and geochronological data. SHRIMP ages for altered polycrase and titanite suggest later growth of minerals during the ???1370-1320 Ma East Kootenay and ???1150-1050 Ma Grenvillian orogenies. The 1413 ?? 4 Ma age for the unaltered polycrase in the veins records a previously unrecognized post-ore (1370 Ma) mineralizing event in the Sullivan deposit and vicinity. The SHRIMP U-Pb age of the polycrase and high concentrations of REE, Y, Ti, Nb, and Th in the veins, together with elevated F in titanite and the absence of associated sulfides, suggest transport of these high-field-strength elements (HFSE) by F-rich and S-poor hydrothermal fluids unrelated to the fluids that formed the older Fe-Pb-Zn-Ag sulfide ores of the Sullivan deposit. Fluids containing abundant REE, HFSE, and F may have been derived from a

  19. The Anarraaq Zn-Pb-Ag and barite deposit, northern Alaska: Evidence for replacement of carbonate by barite and sulfides

    Kelley, K.D.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Jennings, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Anarraaq deposit in northern Alaska consists of a barite body, estimated to be as much as 1 billion metric tons, and a Zn-Pb-Ag massive sulfide zone with an estimated resource of about 18 Mt at 18 percent Zn, 5.4 percent Pb, and 85 g/t Ag. The barite and sulfide minerals are hosted by the uppermost part of the Mississippian Kuna Formation (Ikalukrok unit) that consists of carbonaceous and siliceous mudstone or shale interbedded with carbonate. The amount of interbedded carbonate in the Anarraaq deposit is atypical of the district as a whole, comprising as much as one third of the section. The total thickness of the Ikalukrok unit is considerably greater in the area of the deposit (210 to almost 350 m) than to the north and south (maximum of 164 m). The mineralized zone at Anarraaq is lens shaped and has a relatively flat top and a convex base. It also ranges greatly in thickness, from a few meters to more than 100 m. Textures of some of the carbonate layers are distinctive, consisting of nodules within siliceous mudstone or layers interbedded with shale. Many of the layers contain calcitized sponge spicules or radiolarians in a carbonate matrix. Textures of barite and sulfide minerals mimic those of carbonate and provide unequivocal evidence that replacement of precursor carbonate was an important process. Barite and sulfide textures include either nodular, bladed grains of various sizes that resemble spicules (observed only with iron sulfides) or well-rounded forms that are replaced radiolarians. Mineralization at Anarraaq probably occurred in a fault-bounded Carboniferous basin during early diagenesis in the shallow subsurface. The shape and size of the mineralized body suggest that barite and sulfides replaced calcareous mass flow deposits in a submarine channel. The distribution of biogenic and/or early diagenetic silica may have served as impermeable barriers to the fluids, thereby focusing and controlling fluid flow through unreplaced carbonate layers

  20. Geology, S-Pb isotopes, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of the Zhaxikang Sb-Pb-Zn-Ag deposit in Southern Tibet: implications for multiple mineralization events at Zhaxikang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiang; Zheng, Youye; Pirajno, Franco; McCuaig, T. Campbell; Yu, Miao; Xia, Shenlan; Song, Qingjie; Chang, Huifang

    2018-03-01

    Several Au, Sb, Sb-Au, Pb-Zn, and Sb-Pb-Zn-Ag deposits are present throughout the North Himalaya in southern Tibet, China. The largest Sb-Pb-Zn-Ag deposit is Zhaxikang (18 Mt at 0.6 wt% Sb, 2.0 wt% Pb, 3.5 wt% Zn, and 78 g/t Ag). Zhaxikang veins are hosted within N-S trending faults, which crosscut the Early-Middle Jurassic Ridang Formation consisting of shale interbedded with sandstone and limestone deposited on a passive continental margin. Ore paragenesis indicates that Zhaxikang mineralization occurred in two main phases composed of six total stages. The initial phase was characterized by assemblages of fine-grained Mn-Fe carbonate + arsenopyrite + pyrite + sphalerite (stage 1), followed by relatively coarse-grained Mn-Fe carbonate + Fe-rich sphalerite + galena + pyrite (stage 2). The second phase was marked by assemblages of quartz + pyrite + Fe-poor sphalerite and Ag-rich galena + tetrahedrite + sericite (stage 3), quartz + Sb-Pb sulfosalt minerals mainly composed of boulangerite and jamesonite (stage 4), quartz + stibnite ± cinnabar (stage 5), and quartz ± calcite (stage 6). Sulfides of stage 2 have δ34SV-CDT of 8.4-12.0‰, 206Pb/204Pb ratios of 19.648 to 19.659, 207Pb/204Pb ratios of 15.788 to 15.812, and 208Pb/204Pb ratios of 40.035 to 40.153. Sulfides of stage 3 have similar δ34SV-CDT of 6.1-11.2‰ and relatively more radiogenic lead isotopes (206Pb/204Pb = 19.683-19.792). Stage 4 Sb-Pb sulfosalt minerals have δ34SV-CDT of 5.0-7.2‰ and even more radiogenic lead (206Pb/204Pb = 19.811-19.981). By contrast, stibnite of stage 5 has δ34SV-CDT of 4.5-7.8‰ and less radiogenic lead (206Pb/204Pb = 18.880-18.974). Taken together with the geological observations that the Pb-Zn-bearing Mn-Fe carbonate veins were crosscut by various types of quartz veins, sphalerite and galena of stage 2 underwent dissolution and remobilization, and that Sb-Pb(-Fe) sulfosalts formed at the expense of Pb from stage 2 galena and of Fe from stage 2 sphalerite, we argue that

  1. Paragenesis and chemistry of multistage tourmaline formation in the sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, British Columbia

    Jiang, S.-Y.; Palmer, M.R.; Slack, J.F.; Shaw, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    Detailed petrographic study, scanning electron microscope imaging, and electron microprobe analyses of tourmalines from the Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag massive sulfide deposit (British Columbia, Canada) document multiple paragenetic stages and large compositional variations. The tourmalines mainly belong to two common solid-solution series: dravite-schorl and dravite-uvite. Ca- and Fe-rich feruvite and alkali-deficient tourmalines are present locally. Products of tourmaline-forming stages include (from oldest to youngest): (1) rare Fe-rich dravite-schorl within black tourmalinite clasts in footwall fragmental rocks; (2) widespread Mg-rich, very fine grained, felted dravite in the footwall (the main type of tourmaline in the footwall tourmalinite pipe); (3) recrystallized, Fe-rich dravite-schorl (locally Ca-Fe feruvite) in the tourmalinite pipe, which preferentially occurs near postore gabbroic intrusions; (4) Mg-rich dravite or uvite associated with chlorite-pyrrhotite and chlorite-albite-pyrite-altered rocks in the shallow footwall and hanging wall; (5) discrete Mg-rich tourmaline grains associated with chlorite and discordant Mg-rich tourmaline rims which occur on disseminated Fe-rich schorl in the bedded Pb-Zn-Ag ores. The timing of rare Fe-rich schorl in the bedded ores is uncertain, but it most likely occurred during or between stages 2 and 3. The different paragenetic stages and their respective tourmaline compositions are interpreted in terms of a multistage evolution involving contributions from: (1) variable mixtures of synsedimentary, Fe-rich hydrothermal fluids and entrained seawater; (2) postore, Fe-rich, gabbro-related hydrothermal fluids; and (3) postore metamorphic reactions. Early synsedimentary, Fe-rich hydrothermal fluids which contained little or no entrained seawater formed Fe-rich black tourmalinite clasts locally in the footwall. The major type of tourmaline in the footwall tourmalinite pipe is Mg rich, recording seawater entrainment under high water

  2. Multistage hydrothermal silicification and Fe-Tl-As-Sb-Ge-REE enrichment in the Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag district, northern Alaska: Geochemistry, origin, and exploration applications

    Slack, J.F.; Kelley, K.D.; Anderson, V.M.; Clark, J.L.; Ayuso, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Geochemical analyses of major, trace, and rare earth elements (REE) in more than 200 samples of variably silicified and altered wall rocks, massive and banded sulfide, silica rock, and sulfide-rich and unmineralized barite were obtained from the Main, Aqqaluk, and Anarraaq deposits in the Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag district of northern Alaska. Detailed lithogeochemical profiles for two drill cores at Aqqaluk display an antithetic relationship between SiO2/Al2O3 and TiO2/Zr which, together with textural information, suggest preferential silicification of carbonate-bearing sediments. Data for both drill cores also show generally high Tl, Sb, As, and Ge and uniformly positive Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* > 1.0). Similar high Tl, Sb, As, Ge, and Eu/Eu* values are present in the footwall and shallow hanging wall of Zn-Pb-Ag sulfide intervals at Anarraaq but are not as widely dispersed. Net chemical changes for altered wall rocks in the district, on the basis of average Al-normalized data relative to unaltered black shales of the host Kuna Formation, include large enrichments (>50%) of Fe, Ba, Eu, V, S, Co, Zn, Pb, Tl, As, Sb, and Ge at both Red Dog and Anarraaq, Si at Red Dog, and Sr, U, and Se at Anarraaq. Large depletions (>50%) are evident for Ca at both Red Dog and Anarraaq, for Mg, P, and Y at Red Dog, and for Na at Anarraaq. At both Red Dog and Anarraaq, wall-rock alteration removed calcite and minor dolomite during hydrothermal decarbonation reactions and introduced Si, Eu, and Ge during silicification. Sulfidation reactions deposited Fe, S, Co, Zn, Pb, Tl, As, and Sb; barite mineralization introduced Ba, S, and Sr. Light REE and U were mobilized locally. This alteration and mineralization occurred during Mississippi an hydrothermal events that predated the Middle Jurassic-Cretaceous Brookian orogeny. Early hydrothermal silicification at Red Dog took place prior to or during massive sulfide mineralization, on the basis of the dominantly planar nature of Zn-Pb veins, which suggests

  3. Boron isotope systematics of tourmaline formation in the Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, British Columbia, Canada

    Jiang, S.-Y.; Palmer, M.R.; Slack, J.F.; Shaw, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    We report here the results of 54 boron isotope analyses of tourmaline associated with the giant Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit in southeastern British Columbia, Canada. The ??11B values range from -11.1 to -2.9???, which is almost as great as the range found worldwide in tourmalines from 33 massive sulfide deposits and tourmalinites in dominantly clastic metasedimentary terranes. The major control on the overall ??11B values of the Sullivan tourmalinites is the boron source. Potential controls over the large range of the data also include: (1) differences in formation temperatures of the tourmalinites, (2) different stages of tourmaline formation, (3) variations in the proportions of dissolved boron incorporated into the tourmaline (Rayleigh fractionation), (4) seawater entrainment, and (5) post-depositional metamorphism. The boron isotope data at Sullivan are consistent with boron derivation from leaching of footwall clastic sediments. However, the great abundance of tourmaline in the Sullivan deposit suggests that the local clastic sediments were not the sole source of boron, and we argue that non-marine evaporites, buried deep below the orebody, are the most viable source of this additional boron. It is likely that some of the variation in tourmaline ??11B values reflect mixing of boron from these two sources. Comparison of the potential effects of these controls with geologic and other geochemical evidence suggests that major causes for the wide range of ??11B values measured at Sullivan are seawater entrainment and Rayleigh fractionation, although in places, post-depositional alteration and thermal metamorphism were important in determining ??11B values of some of the recrystallized tourmalinites.

  4. Mesozoic magmatism and timing of epigenetic Pb-Zn-Ag mineralization in the western Fortymile mining district, east-central Alaska: Zircon U-Pb geochronology, whole-rock geochemistry, and Pb isotopes

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Aleinkoff, J.N.; Day, W.C.; Mortensen, J.K.

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic Pb-Zn-Ag ± Cu prospects in the western Fortymile district are spatially associated with splays of the northeast-trending Kechumstuk sinistral-normal fault zone and with ca. 68-66 Ma felsic intrusions and dikes. The similarity between Pb isotope compositions of feldspars from the Late Cretaceous igneous bodies and sulfides from the epithermal prospects suggests a Late Cretaceous age for most of the mineralization. Fluid flow along the faults undoubtedly played a major role in mineralization. We interpret displacement on the northeast-trending faults to be a far-field effect of dextral translation along Late Cretaceous plate-scale boundaries and faults that were roughly parallel to the subsequently developed Denali and Tintina fault systems, which currently bound the region.

  5. Mineralogy, fluid inclusion petrography, and stable isotope geochemistry of Pb-Zn-Ag veins at the Shizhuyuan deposit, Hunan Province, southeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shenghua; Mao, Jingwen; Yuan, Shunda; Dai, Pan; Wang, Xudong

    2018-01-01

    The Shizhuyuan polymetallic deposit is located in the central part of the Nanling region, southeastern China, and consists of proximal W-Sn-Mo-Bi skarns and greisens and distal Pb-Zn-Ag veins. The sulfides and sulfosalts in the distal veins formed in three distinct stages: (1) an early stage of pyrite and arsenopyrite, (2) a middle stage of sphalerite and chalcopyrite, and (3) a late stage of galena, Ag-, Sn-, and Bi-bearing sulfides and sulfosalts, and pyrrhotite. Combined sulfide and sulfosalt geothermometry and fluid inclusion analyses indicate that the early stage of mineralization occurred at a temperature of 400 °C and involved boiling under hydrostatic pressure ( 200 bar), with the temperature of the system dropping during the late stage to 200 °C. Laser Raman analysis indicates that the fluid inclusions within the studied minerals are dominated by H2O, although some contain carbonate solids and CH4 gas. Vein-hosted sulfides have δ34S values of 3.8-6.3‰ that are interpreted as indicative of a magmatic source of sulfur. The mineralization process can be summarized as follows: an aqueous fluid exsolved on final crystallization of the Qianlishan pluton, ascended along fracture zones, cooled to <400 °C, and boiled under hydrostatic conditions, and with decreasing temperature and sulfur fugacity, sulfide and sulfosalt minerals precipitated successively from the Ag-Cu-Zn-Fe-Pb-Sb-As-S-bearing fluid system.

  6. Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in the Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag district and vicinity, western Brooks Range, Alaska: provenance, deposition, and metallogenic significance

    Slack, John F.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Schmidt, J.M.; Young, L.E.; Rombach, Cameron

    2004-01-01

    The distribution and composition of Paleozoic strata in the western Brooks Range may have played a fundamental role in Zn-Pb mineralization of the Red Dog district. In our model, deposition and early lithification of biogenic chert and bedded siliceous rocks in the upper part of the Kuna Formation served as a regional hydrologic seal, acting as a cap rock to heat and hydrothermal fluids during Late Mississippian base-metal mineralization. Equally important was the iron-poor composition of black shales of the Kuna Formation (i.e., low Fe/Ti ratios), which limited synsedimentary pyrite formation in precursor sediments, resulting in significant H2S production in pore waters through the interaction of aqueous sulfate with abundant organic matter. This H2S may have been critical to the subsurface deposition of the huge quantities of Zn and Pb in the district. On the basis of this model, we propose that low Fe/Ti and S/C ratios in black shale sequences are potential basin-scale exploration guides for giant sediment-hosted, stratiform Zn-Pb-Ag deposits.

  7. Oligocene shoshonitic rocks of the Rogozna Mts. (Central Balkan Peninsula): Evidence of petrogenetic links to the formation of Pb-Zn-Ag ore deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borojević Šoštarić, S.; Cvetković, V.; Neubauer, F.; Palinkaš, L. A.; Bernroider, M.; Genser, J.

    2012-09-01

    This study focuses on age and evolution of the Oligocene quartz latite of the Rogozna Mts. (Central Balkan Peninsula), in order to better understand the link between magmatism and formation of Pb-Zn ± Ag mineralization. New 40Ar/39Ar biotite and amphibole plateau ages suggest that the Rogozna Mts. quartz latite originated through a continuous volcanic episode from 27.3 ± 0.1 to 29.5 ± 0.1 Ma which was immediately followed by a hydrothermal phase. The quartz latites are hypocrystalline porphyritic with phenocrysts and microphenocrysts (~ 60 vol.%) of plagioclase (An37-49), biotite Mg# [100 × Mg / (Mg + Fetot)] < 50, calcic amphibole, quartz, sanidine clinopyroxene and phlogopite (Mg# = 79 to 84). The rocks display numerous disequilibrium textures, such as: sieved plagioclase phenocrysts, dissolution effects on quartz, phlogopitized biotite and amphibole crystals, and phlogopite microphenocrysts showing effects of incomplete growth (or dissolution?) and biotitization. The Rogozna Mts. quartz latites are shoshonitic in character with Na2O/K2O < 1, high LILE/HFSE ratios, strong depletions at Nb and Ti and K, Pb and U peaks on primitive mantle-normalized diagrams. They are similar to other potassic/ultrapotassic rocks in this region, in particular to those of Veliki Majdan and Rudnik (West Serbia), which are also related to Pb-Zn deposits. The evolution of the Rogozna Mts. quartz latite is modeled using a trace element binary mixing model adopting a lamproite magma and a dacite-like calc-alkaline melt as end-members. The model implies that a fractionating magma chamber (~ 4.5-9.5 km) undergoes cooling in the range of > 850 °C-~720 °C and injection of lamproite-like melts. The injection causes an increase of temperature and a decrease of viscosity of the resulting hybrid magma, facilitating its upwelling and triggering pyroclastic eruptions. The addition of new volatiles by lamproitic melts most probably established the conditions for a hydrothermal phase above the

  8. 40Ar/39Ar Dating of Zn-Pb-Ag Mineralization in the Northern Brooks Range, Alaska

    Werdon, Melanie B.; Layer, Paul W.; Newberry, Rainer J.

    2004-01-01

    The 40Ar/39Ar laser step-heating method potentially can be used to provide absolute ages for a number of formerly undatable, low-temperature ore deposits. This study demonstrates the use of this method by determining absolute ages for Zn-Pb-Ag sediment-hosted massive sulfide deposits and vein-breccia occurrences found throughout a 300-km-long, east-west-trending belt in the northern Brooks Range, Alaska. Massive sulfide deposits are hosted by Mississippian to Pennsylvanian(?) black carbonaceous shale, siliceous mudstone, and lesser chert and carbonate turbidites of the Kuna Formation (e.g., Red Dog, Anarraaq, Lik (Su), and Drenchwater). The vein-breccia occurrences (e.g., Husky, Story Creek, West Kivliktort Mountain, Vidlee, and Kady) are hosted by a deformed but only weakly metamorphosed package of Upper Devonian to Lower Mississippian mixed continental and marine clastic rocks (the Endicott Group) that stratigraphically underlie the Kuna Formation. The vein-breccias are mineralogically similar to, but not spatially associated with, known massive sulfide deposits. The region's largest shale-hosted massive sulfide deposit is Red Dog; it has reserves of 148 Mt grading 16.6 percent zinc, 4.5 percent lead, and 77 g of silver per tonne. Hydrothermally produced white mica in a whole-rock sample from a sulfide-bearing igneous sill within the Red Dog deposit yielded a plateau age of 314.5 Ma. The plateau age of this whole-rock sample records the time at which temperatures cooled below the argon closure temperature of the white mica and is interpreted to represent the minimum age limit for massive sulfide-related hydrothermal activity in the Red Dog deposit. Sulfide-bearing quartz veins at Drenchwater crosscut a hypabyssal intrusion with a maximum biotite age of 337.0 Ma. Despite relatively low sulfide deposition temperatures in the vein-breccia occurrences (162°-251°C), detrital white mica in sandstone immediately adjacent to large vein-breccia zones was partially to

  9. Metal dispersion and mobility in soils from the Lik Zn-Pb-Ag massive sulphide deposit, NW Alaska: Environmental and exploration implications

    Kelley, K.D.; Kelley, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    The Lik deposit in northern Alaska is a largely unexposed shale-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag massive sulphide deposit that is underlain by continuous permafrost. Residual soils overlying the mineralized zone have element enrichments that are two to six times greater than baseline values. The most prominent elements are Ag, Mo, P, Se, Sr, V by total 4-acid digestion and Tl by a weak partial digestion (Enzyme Leach or EL) because they show multi-point anomalies that extend across the entire mineralized zone, concentration ranges are 0.5-2.6 ppm Ag, 4-26 ppm Mo, 0.1-0.3% P, 3-22 ppm Se, 90-230 ppm Sr, 170-406 ppm V, and 1.6-30 ppb Tl. Lead, Sb, and Hg are also anomalous (up to 178 ppm, 30 ppm, and 1.9 ppm, respectively), but all are characterized by single point anomalies directly over the mineralized zone, with only slightly elevated concentrations over the lower mineralized section. Zinc (total) has a consistent baseline response of 200 ppm, but it is not elevated in soils overlying the mineralized zone. However, Zn by EL shows a distinct single-point anomaly over the ore zone that suggests it was highly mobile and partly adsorbed on oxides or other secondary phases during weathering. In situ analyses (by laser ablation ICP-MS) of pyrite and sphalerite from drill core suggest that sphalerite is the primary residence for Ag, Cd, and Hg in addition to Zn, and pyrite contains As, Fe, Sb, and Tl. The level and degree of oxidation, and the proportion of reacting pyrite and carbonate minerals are two factors that affected the mobility and transport of metals. In oxidizing conditions, Zn is highly mobile relative to Hg and Ag, perhaps explaining the decoupling of Zn from the other sphalerite-hosted elements in the soils. Soils are acidic (to 3.9 pH) directly over the deposit due to the presence of acid-producing pyrite, but acid-neutralizing carbonate away from the mineralized zone yield soils that are near neutral. The soils therefore formed in a complex system involving oxidation and

  10. Flowing Liquid Anode Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge as an Excitation Source for Optical Emission Spectrometry with the Improved Detectability of Ag, Cd, Hg, Pb, Tl, and Zn.

    PubMed

    Greda, Krzysztof; Swiderski, Krzysztof; Jamroz, Piotr; Pohl, Pawel

    2016-09-06

    A novel atmospheric pressure glow discharge generated in contact with a flowing liquid anode (FLA-APGD) was developed as the efficient excitation source for the optical emission spectrometry (OES) detection. Differences in the appearance and the electrical characteristic of the FLA-APGD and a conventional system operated with a flowing liquid cathode (FLC-APGD) were studied in detail and discussed. Under the optimal operating conditions for the FLA-APGD, the emission from the analytes (Ag, Cd, Hg, Pb, Tl, and Zn) was from 20 to 120 times higher as compared to the FLC-APGD. Limits of detections (LODs) established with a novel FLA-APGD system were on average 20 times better than those obtained for the FLC-APGD. A further improvement of the LODs was achieved by reducing the background shift interferences and, as a result, the LODs for Ag, Cd, Hg, Pb, Tl, and Zn were 0.004, 0.040, 0.70, 1.7, 0.035, and 0.45 μg L(-1), respectively. The precision of the FLA-APGD-OES method was evaluated to be within 2-5% (as the relative standard deviation of the repeated measurements). The method found its application in the determination of the content of Ag, Cd, Hg, Pb, Tl, and Zn in a certified reference material (CRM) of Lobster hepatopancreas (TORT-2), four brass samples as well as mineral water and tea leaves samples spiked with the analytes. In the case of brass samples, a reference method, i.e., inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was used. A good agreement between the results obtained with FLA-APGD-OES and the certified values for the CRM TORT-2 as well as the reference values obtained with ICP-OES for the brass samples was revealed, indicating the good accuracy of the proposed method. The recoveries obtained for the spiked samples of mineral water and tea leaves were within the range of 97.5-102%.

  11. Coupled heat and fluid flow modeling of the Carboniferous Kuna Basin, Alaska: Implications for the genesis of the Red Dog Pb-Zn-Ag-Ba ore district

    Garven, G.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Bradley, D.A.; Young, L.E.; Kelley, K.D.; Leach, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    The Red Dog deposit is a giant 175 Mton (16% Zn, 5% Pb), shale-hosted Pb-Zn-Ag-Ba ore district situated in the Carboniferous Kuna Basin, Western Brooks Range, Alaska. These SEDEX-type ores are thought to have formed in calcareous turbidites and black mudstone at elevated sub-seafloor temperatures (120-150??C) within a hydrogeologic framework of submarine convection that was structurally organized by large normal faults. The theory for modeling brine migration and heat transport in the Kuna Basin is discussed with application to evaluating flow patterns and heat transport in faulted rift basins and the effects of buoyancy-driven free convection on reactive flow and ore genesis. Finite element simulations show that hydrothermal fluid was discharged into the Red Dog subbasin during a period of basin-wide crustal heat flow of 150-160 mW/m2. Basinal brines circulated to depths as great as 1-3 km along multiple normal faults flowed laterally through thick clastic aquifers acquiring metals and heat, and then rapidly ascended a single discharge fault zone at rates ??? 5 m/year to mix with seafloor sulfur and precipitate massive sulfide ores. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Drenchwater deposit, Alaska: An example of a natural low pH environment resulting from weathering of an undisturbed shale-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag deposit

    Graham, G.E.; Kelley, K.D.

    2009-01-01

    The Drenchwater shale-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag deposit and the immediate vicinity, on the northern flank of the Brooks Range in north-central Alaska, is an ideal example of a naturally low pH system. The two drainages, Drenchwater and False Wager Creeks, which bound the deposit, differ in their acidity and metal contents. Moderately acidic waters with elevated concentrations of metals (pH ??? 4.3, Zn ??? 1400 ??g/L) in the Drenchwater Creek drainage basin are attributed to weathering of an exposed base-metal-rich massive sulfide occurrence. Stream sediment and water chemistry data collected from False Wager Creek suggest that an unexposed base-metal sulfide occurrence may account for the lower pH (2.7-3.1) and very metal-rich waters (up to 2600 ??g/L Zn, ??? 260 ??g/L Cu and ???89 ??g/L Tl) collected at least 2 km upstream of known mineralized exposures. These more acidic conditions produce jarosite, schwertmannite and Fe-hydroxides commonly associated with acid-mine drainage. The high metal concentrations in some water samples from both streams naturally exceed Alaska state regulatory limits for freshwater aquatic life, affirming the importance of establishing base-line conditions in the event of human land development. The studies at the Drenchwater deposit demonstrate that poor water quality can be generated through entirely natural weathering of base-metal occurrences, and, possibly unmineralized black shale.

  13. The Luanchuan Mo-W-Pb-Zn-Ag magmatic-hydrothermal system in the East Qinling metallogenic belt, China: Constrains on metallogenesis from C-H-O-S-Pb isotope compositions and Rb-Sr isochron ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hua-Wen; Zhang, Shou-Ting; Santosh, M.; Zheng, Luo; Tang, Li; Li, Dong; Zhang, Xu-Huang; Zhang, Yun-Hui

    2015-11-01

    The Luanchuan Mo-W-Pb-Zn-Ag polymetallic ore district is located in the East Qinling metallogenic belt on the southern margin of the North China Craton. Two ore fields (Nannihu and Yuku) are recognized in the district, and three types of deposits are identified from the two ore fields as follows: (1) the 6 proximal porphyry-skarn type Mo-W deposits occurring at the inner contact zone of the granite porphyries, (2) the 3 middle skarn-hydrothermal type Zn deposits, and (3) the 8 distal hydrothermal type Pb-Zn-Ag deposits at the periphery of the porphyry. We present C-H-O isotope compositions of hydrothermal quartz and calcite, S-Pb isotope compositions of sulfide minerals, and sphalerite Rb-Sr isochron ages from the 17 deposits. The geochemical and geochronological data from the two ore fields all show systematic temporal and spatial variation, and primarily lead to the following inferences. (1) The temperatures and salinities of the ore-forming fluids decreased during mineralization. The ore-forming fluids gradually evolved from magmatic water to mixed magmatic-meteoric water. (2) The metallogenic components were primarily derived from igneous rocks, with increasing proportions of the materials from the ore-bearing rocks. (3) The mineralization ages of these deposits are close (147-136 Ma), which correspond to the emplacement of the granite intrusions. (4) The three types of deposits and the ore-related late Mesozoic intrusives constitute a unified magmatic-hydrothermal-mineralization system. Finally, we also suggest exploration strategies for the Luanchuan ore district.

  14. Positive feedback between strain localization and fluid flow at the ductile-brittle transition leading to Pb-Zn-Fe-Cu-Ag ore deposits in Lavrion (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffer, Christophe; Tarantola, Alexandre; Vanderhaeghe, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    At the crustal scale, the ductile-brittle transition (DBT) might correspond to a physical barrier that separates a deep reservoir of metamorphic and magmatic fluids from a shallow reservoir of surficial fluids. Rock rheology, and thus the location of the DBT, is mainly governed by lithology, temperature and the presence/absence of fluids. Accordingly, the position of the DBT potentially evolves during orogenic evolution owing to thermal evolution and fluid circulation. In turn rocks are transferred across it during burial and exhumation. These processes induce connections between fluid reservoirs which might play a role on ore deposition. In this contribution, we discuss the impact of lithological heterogeneities on deformation, fluid flow and ore deposition based on the example of the Lavrion low-angle top-to-the-SSW detachment accommodating gravitational collapse of the Hellenides orogenic belt in Greece. The Lavrion peninsula, localized along the western boundary of the Attic-Cycladic Metamorphic Core Complex, is characterized by Pb-Zn-Fe-Cu-Ag ore mineralization mainly concentrated along a lithological contact (marble/schists) below and within a detachment shear zone. The mylonitic marble below the detachment shear zone is composed of white layers of pure marble alternating with blue layers containing impurities (SiO2, Al2O3, organic matter…). Development of the mylonitic fabric in competent impure blue marble is associated with its preferred dolomitization related to focused fluid infiltration. This mylonitic marble is cross-cut by several cataclastic horizons preferentially developed within the more competent impure blue marble and newly-crystallized dolomitic horizon. These cataclasites are invaded by fluorite and calcite gangue minerals showing locally Mn, Pb, Zn, Fe oxides and/or hydroxides, sphalerite, Ag-galena, Ag-sulfur and native Ag. Oxygen and carbon stable isotopes performed on marble sections point out decarbonation with magmatic contribution and

  15. Formation of the Wiesloch Mississippi Valley-type Zn-Pb-Ag deposit in the extensional setting of the Upper Rhinegraben, SW Germany

    Pfaff, Katharina; Hildebrandt, Ludwig H.; Leach, David L.; Jacob, Dorrit E.; Markl, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    The Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) Zn-Pb-Ag deposit in the Wiesloch area, Southwest Germany, is controlled by graben-related faults of the Upper Rhinegraben. Mineralization occurs as vein fillings and irregular replacement ore bodies consisting of sphalerite, banded sphalerite, galena, pyrite, sulfosalts (jordanite and geocronite), barite, and calcite in the Middle Triassic carbonate host rock. Combining paragenetic information, fluid inclusion investigations, stable isotope and mineral chemistry with thermodynamic modeling, we have derived a model for the formation of the Wiesloch deposit. This model involves fluid mixing between ascending hot brines (originating in the crystalline basement) with sedimentary formation waters. The ascending brines originally had a near-neutral pH (around 6) and intermediate oxidation state, reflecting equilibrium with granites and gneisses in the basement. During fluid ascent and cooling, the pH of the brine shifted towards more acidic (around 4) and the oxidation state increased to conditions above the hematite-magnetite buffer. These chemical characteristics contrast strongly with those of the pore and fracture fluid residing in the limestone aquifer, which had a pH between 8 and 9 in equilibrium with calcite and was rather reduced due to the presence of organic matter in the limestone. Mixing between these two fluids resulted in a strong decrease in the solubility of silver-bearing sphalerite and galena, and calcite. Besides Wiesloch, several Pb-Zn deposits are known along the Upper Rhinegraben, including hydrothermal vein-type deposits like Badenweiler and the Michael mine near Lahr. They all share the same fluid origin and formation process and only differ in details of their host rock and fluid cooling paths. The mechanism of fluid mixing also seems to be responsible for the formation of other MVT deposits in Europe (e.g., Reocin, Northern Spain; Treves, Southern France; and Cracow-Silesia, Poland), which show notable

  16. Depositional conditions for the Kuna Formation, Red Dog Zn-PB-Ag-Barite District, Alaska, inferred from isotopic and chemical proxies

    Johnson, Craig A.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Burruss, Robert A.; Slack, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Water column redox conditions, degree of restriction of the depositional basin, and other paleoenvironmental parameters have been determined for the Mississippian Kuna Formation of northwestern Alaska from stratigraphic profiles of Mo, Fe/Al, and S isotopes in pyrite, C isotopes in organic matter, and N isotopes in bulk rock. This unit is important because it hosts the Red Dog and Anarraaq Zn-Pb-Ag ± barite deposits, which together constitute one of the largest zinc resources in the world. The isotopic and chemical proxies record a deep basin environment that became isolated from the open ocean, became increasingly reducing, and ultimately became euxinic. The basin was ventilated briefly and then became isolated again just prior to its demise as a discrete depocenter with the transition to the overlying Siksikpuk Formation. Ventilation corresponded approximately to the initiation of bedded barite deposition in the district, whereas the demise of the basin corresponded approximately to the formation of the massive sulfide deposits. The changes in basin circulation during deposition of the upper Kuna Formation may have had multiple immediate causes, but the underlying driver was probably extensional tectonic activity that also facilitated fluid flow beneath the basin floor. Although the formation of sediment-hosted sulfide deposits is generally favored by highly reducing conditions, the Zn-Pb deposits of the Red Dog district are not found in the major euxinic facies of the Kuna basin, nor did they form during the main period of euxinia. Rather, the deposits occur where strata were permeable to migrating fluids and where excess H2S was available beyond what was produced in situ by decomposition of local sedimentary organic matter. The known deposits formed mainly by replacement of calcareous strata that gained H2S from nearby highly carbonaceous beds (Anarraaq deposit) or by fracturing and vein formation in strata that produced excess H2S by reductive dissolution of

  17. Trace elements in Zn Pb Ag deposits and related stream sediments, Brooks Range Alaska, with implications for Tl as a pathfinder element

    Graham, G.E.; Kelley, K.D.; Slack, J.F.; Koenig, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    The Zn-Pb-Ag metallogenic province of the western and central Brooks Range, Alaska, contains two distinct but mineralogically similar deposit types: shale-hosted massive sulphide (SHMS) and smaller vein-breccia occurrences. Recent investigations of the Red Dog and Anarraaq SHMS deposits demonstrated that these deposits are characterized by high trace-element concentrations of As, Ge, Sb and Tl. This paper examines geochemistry of additional SHMS deposits (Drenchwater and Su-Lik) to determine which trace elements are ubiquitously elevated in all SHMS deposits. Data from several vein-breccia occurrences are also presented to see if trace-element concentrations can distinguish SHMS deposits from vein-breccia occurrences. Whole-rock geochemical data indicate that Tl is the most consistently and highly concentrated characteristic trace element in SHMS deposits relative to regional unmineralized rock samples. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses of pyrite and sphalerite indicate that Tl is concentrated in pyrite in SHMS. Stream sediment data from the Drenchwater and Su-Lik SHMS show that high Tl concentrations are more broadly distributed proximal to known or suspected mineralization than As, Sb, Zn and Pb anomalies. This broader distribution of Tl in whole-rock and particularly stream sediment samples increases the footprint of exposed and shallowly buried SHMS mineralization. High Tl concentrations also distinguish SHMS mineralization from the vein-breccia deposits, as the latter lack high concentrations of Tl but can otherwise have similar trace-element signatures to SHMS deposits. ?? 2009 AAG/Geological Society of London.

  18. Timing of porphyry (Cu-Mo) and base metal (Zn-Pb-Ag-Cu) mineralisation in a magmatic-hydrothermal system—Morococha district, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catchpole, Honza; Kouzmanov, Kalin; Bendezú, Aldo; Ovtcharova, Maria; Spikings, Richard; Stein, Holly; Fontboté, Lluís

    2015-12-01

    The Morococha district in central Peru is characterised by economically important Cordilleran polymetallic (Zn-Pb-Ag-Cu) vein and replacement bodies and the large Toromocho porphyry Cu-Mo deposit in its centre. U-Pb, Re-Os, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology data for various porphyry-related hydrothermal mineralisation styles record a 3.5-Ma multi-stage history of magmatic-hydrothermal activity in the district. In the late Miocene, three individual magmatic-hydrothermal centres were active: the Codiciada, Toromocho, and Ticlio centres, each separated in time and space. The Codiciada centre is the oldest magmatic-hydrothermal system in the district and consists of a composite porphyry stock associated with anhydrous skarn and quartz-molybdenite veins. The hydrothermal events are recorded by a titanite U-Pb age at 9.3 ± 0.2 Ma and a molybdenite Re-Os age at 9.26 ± 0.03 Ma. These ages are indistinguishable from zircon U-Pb ages for porphyry intrusions of the composite stock and indicate a time span of 0.2 Ma for magmatic-hydrothermal activity. The small Ticlio magmatic-hydrothermal centre in the west of the district has a maximum duration of 0.3 Ma, ranging from porphyry emplacement to porphyry mineralisation at 8.04 ± 0.14 Ma (40Ar/39Ar muscovite cooling age). The Toromocho magmatic-hydrothermal centre has a minimum of five recorded porphyry intrusions that span a total of 1.3 Ma and is responsible for the formation of the giant Toromocho Cu-Mo deposit. At least two hydrothermal pulses are identified. Post-dating a first pulse of molybdenite mineralisation, wide-spread hydrous skarn covers an area of over 6 km2 and is recorded by five 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages at 7.2-6.8 Ma. These ages mark the end of the slowly cooling and long-lived Toromocho magmatic-hydrothermal centre soon after last magmatic activity at 7.26 ± 0.02 Ma. District-wide (50 km2) Cordilleran base metal vein and replacement bodies post-date the youngest recorded porphyry mineralisation event at Toromocho

  19. Critical elements in sediment-hosted deposits (clastic-dominated Zn-Pb-Ag, Mississippi Valley-type Zn-Pb, sedimentary rock-hosted Stratiform Cu, and carbonate-hosted Polymetallic Deposits): A review: Chapter 12

    Marsh, Erin; Hitzman, Murray W.; Leach, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Some sediment-hosted base metal deposits, specifically the clastic-dominated (CD) Zn-Pb deposits, carbonate-hosted Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits, sedimentary-rock hosted stratiform copper deposits, and carbonate-hosted polymetallic (“Kipushi type”) deposits, are or have been important sources of critical elements including Co, Ga, Ge, and Re. The generally poor data concerning trace element concentrations in these types of sediment-hosted ores suggest that there may be economically important concentrations of critical elements yet to be recognized.

  20. The Lavrion Pb-Zn-Fe-Cu-Ag detachment-related district (Attica, Greece): Structural control on hydrothermal flow and element transfer-deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffer, Christophe; Tarantola, Alexandre; Vanderhaeghe, Olivier; Voudouris, Panagiotis; Rigaudier, Thomas; Photiades, Adonis; Morin, Denis; Alloucherie, Alison

    2017-10-01

    The impact of lithological heterogeneities on deformation, fluid flow and ore deposition is discussed based on the example of the Lavrion low-angle detachment partly accommodating gravitational collapse of the Hellenides orogenic belt in Greece. The Lavrion peninsula is characterised by a multiphase Pb-Zn-Fe-Cu-Ag ore system with a probable pre-concentration before subduction followed by progressive remobilisation and deposition coeval with the development of a low-angle ductile to brittle shear zone. The mylonitic marble below the detachment shear zone is composed of white layers of pure marble alternating with blue layers containing impurities (SiO2, Al2O3, carbonaceous material). Ductile mylonitic deformation is more pervasive in the less competent impure blue marble. We propose that localised deformation in the impure marble is associated with fluid circulation and dolomitisation, which in turn causes an increase in competence of these layers. Mineralised cataclastic zones, crosscutting the mylonitic fabric, are preferentially localised in the more competent dolomitic layers. Oxygen and carbon isotopic signatures of marble invaded by carbonate replacement deposits during ductile to ductile-brittle deformation are consistent with decarbonation coeval with the invasion of magmatic fluids. Mineralised cataclastic zones reflecting brittle deformation evolve from low 13C to low 18O signatures, interpreted as local interaction with carbonaceous material that trends toward the contribution of a surface-derived fluid. These features indicate that the Lavrion area records a complex deposition history influenced by the evolution of fluid reservoirs induced by the thermal and mechanical evolution of the marble nappe stack. Ore remobilisation and deposition associated with the activity of the low-angle detachment is (i) firstly related to the intrusion of the Plaka granodiorite leading to porphyry-type and carbonate replacement mineralisation during ductile

  1. Re-Os sulfide geochronology of the Red Dog sediment-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag deposit, Brooks Range, Alaska

    Morelli, R.M.; Creaser, R.A.; Selby, D.; Kelley, K.D.; Leach, D.L.; King, A.R.

    2004-01-01

    The Red Dog sediment-hosted deposit in the De Long Mountains of northern Alaska is the largest Zn producer in the world. Main stage mineralization is characterized by massive sulfide ore and crosscutting subvertical veins. Although the vein mineralization is clearly younger than the massive ore, the exact temporal relationship between the two is unclear. Re-Os geochronology of pyrite is used to determine the absolute age of main stage ore at Red Dog. A 10-point isochron on both massive and vein pyrite yields an age of 338.3 ?? 5.8 Ma and is interpreted to represent the age of main stage ore. The Re-Os data indicate that both massive and vein ore types are coeval within the resolution of the technique. Formation of the Red Dog deposit was associated with extension along a passive continental margin, and therefore the Re-Os age of main stage ore constrains the timing of rifting as well as the age of the host sedimentary rocks. Sphalerite from both massive and vein ore yields imprecise ages and shows a high degree of scatter compared to pyrite. We suggest that the Re-Os systematics of sphalerite can be disturbed and that this mineral is not reliable for Re-Os geochronology. ?? 2004 by Economic Geology.

  2. Cierco Pb-Zn-Ag vein deposits: Isotopic and fluid inclusion evidence for formation during the mesozoic extension in the pyrenees of Spain

    Johnson, C.A.; Cardellach, E.; Tritlla, J.; Hanan, B.B.

    1996-01-01

    The Cierco Pb-Zn-Ag vein deposits, located in the central Pyrenees of Spain, crosscut Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks and are in close proximity to Hercynian granodiorite dikes and plutons. Galena and sphalerite in the deposits have average ??34S values of -4.3 and -0.8 per mil (CDT), respectively. Coexisting mineral pairs give an isotopic equilibration temperature range of 89?? to 163??C which overlaps with the 112?? to 198??C range obtained from primary fluid inclusions. Coexisting quartz has a ??18O value of 19 ?? 1 per mil (VSMOW). The fluid which deposited these minerals is inferred to have had ??18OH2o and ??34SH2s values of 5 ?? 1 and -1 ?? 1 per mil, respectively. Chemical and microthermometric analyses of fluid inclusions in quartz and sphalerite indicate salinities of 3 to 29 wt percent NaCl equiv with Na+ and Ca2+ as the dominant cations in solution. The Br/Cl and I/Cl ratios differ from those characteristic of magmatic waters and pristine seawater, but show some similarity to those observed in deep ground waters in crystalline terranes, basinal brines, and evaporated seawater, Barite, which postdates the sulfides, spans isotopic ranges of 13 to 21 per mil, 10 to 15 per mil, and 0.7109 to 0.7123 for ??34S, ??18O, and 87Sr/86Sr, respectively. The three parameters are correlated providing strong evidence that the barites are products of fluid mixing. We propose that the Cierco deposits formed along an extensional fault system at the margin of a marine basin during the breakup of Pangea at some time between the Early Triassic and Early Cretaceous. Sulfide deposition corresponded to an upwelling of hydrothermal fluid from the Paleozoic basement and was limited by the amount of metals carried by the fluid. Barite deposition corresponded to the waning of upward flow and the collapse of sulfate-rich surface waters onto the retreating hydrothermal plume. Calcite precipitated late in the paragenesis as meteoric or marine waters descended into the fault system

  3. Textural, compositional, and sulfur isotope variations of sulfide minerals in the Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag deposits, Brooks Range, Alaska: Implications for Ore Formation

    Kelley, K.D.; Leach, D.L.; Johnson, C.A.; Clark, J.L.; Fayek, M.; Slack, J.F.; Anderson, V.M.; Ayuso, R.A.; Ridley, W.I.

    2004-01-01

    The Red Dog Zn-Pb deposits are hosted in organic-rich mudstone and shale of the Mississippian Kuna Formation. A complex mineralization history is defined by four sphalerite types or stages: (1) early brown sphalerite, (2) yellow-brown sphalerite, (3) red-brown sphalerite, and (4) late tan sphalerite. Stages 2 and 3 constitute the main ore-forming event and are volumetrically the most important. Sulfides in stages 1 and 2 were deposited with barite, whereas stage 3 largely replaces barite. Distinct chemical differences exist among the different stages of sphalerite. From early brown sphalerite to later yellow-brown sphalerite and red-brown sphalerite, Fe and Co content generally increase and Mn and Tl content generally decrease. Early brown sphalerite contains no more than 1.9 wt percent Fe and 63 ppm Co, with high Mn (up to 37 ppm) and Tl (126 ppm), whereas yellow-brown sphalerite and red-brown sphalerite contain high Fe (up to 7.3 wt %) and Co (up to 382 ppm), and low Mn (<27 ppm) and Tl (<37 ppm). Late tan sphalerite has distinctly lower Fe (< 0.9 wt %) and higher Tl (up to 355 ppm), Mn (up to 177 ppm), and Ge (426 ppm), relative to earlier sphalerite. Wide ranges in concentrations of Ag, Cu, Pb, and Sb characterize all sphalerite types, particularly yellow-brown sphalerite and red-brown sphalerite, and most likely reflect submicroscopic inclusions of galena, chalcopyrite and/or tetrahedrite in the sphalerite. In situ ion microprobe sulfur isotope analyses show a progression from extremely low ??34S values for stage 1 (as low as -37.20???) to much higher values for yellow-brown sphalerite (mean of 3.3???; n = 30) and red-brown sphalerite (mean of 3.4; n = 20). Late tan sphalerite is isotopically light (-16.4 to -27.2???). The textural, chem ical, and isotopic data indicate the following paragenesis: (1) deposition of early brown sphalerite with abundant barite, minor pyrite, and trace galena immediately beneath the sea floor in unconsolidated mud; (2) deposition

  4. Genesis of the Assif El Mal Zn-Pb (Cu, Ag) vein deposit. An extension-related Mesozoic vein system in the High Atlas of Morocco. Structural, mineralogical, and geochemical evidence

    Bouabdellah, M.; Beaudoin, G.; Leach, D.L.; Grandia, F.; Cardellach, E.

    2009-01-01

    The Assif El Mal Zn-Pb (Cu-Ag) vein system, located in the northern flank of the High Atlas of Marrakech (Morocco), is hosted in a Cambro-Ordovician volcaniclastic and metasedimentary sequence composed of graywacke, siltstone, pelite, and shale interlayered with minor tuff and mudstone. Intrusion of synorogenic to postorogenic Late Hercynian peraluminous granitoids has contact metamorphosed the host rocks giving rise to a metamorphic assemblage of quartz, plagioclase, biotite, muscovite, chlorite, amphibole, chloritoid, and garnet. The Assif El Mal Zn-Pb (Cu-Ag) mineralization forms subvertical veins with ribbon, fault breccia, cockade, comb, and crack and seal textures. Two-phase liquid-vapor fluid inclusions that were trapped during several stages occur in quartz and sphalerite. Primary inclusion fluids exhibit Th mean values ranging from 104??C to 198??C. Final ice-melting temperatures range from -8.1??C to -12.8??C, corresponding to salinities of ???15 wt.% NaCl equiv. Halogen data suggest that the salinity of the ore fluids was largely due to evaporation of seawater. Late secondary fluid inclusions have either Ca-rich, saline (26 wt.% NaCl equiv.), or very dilute (3.5 wt.% NaCl equiv.) compositions and homogenization temperatures ranging from 75??C to 150??C. The ??18O and ??D fluid values suggest an isotopically heterogeneous fluid source involving mixing between connate seawater and black-shale-derived organic waters. Low ??13CVPDB values ranging from -7.5??? to -7.7??? indicate a homogeneous carbon source, possibly organic matter disseminated in black shale hosting the Zn-Pb (Cu-Ag) veins. The calculated ??34SH2S values for reduced sulfur (22.5??? to 24.3???) are most likely from reduction of SO42- in trapped seawater sulfate or evaporite in the host rocks. Reduction of sulfate probably occurred through thermochemical sulfate reduction in which organic matter was oxidized to produce CO2 which ultimately led to precipitation of saddle dolomite with

  5. A rapid, partial leach and organic separation for the sensitive determination of Ag, Bi, Cd, Cu, Mo, Pb, Sb, and Zn in surface geologic materials by flame atomic absorption

    Viets, J.G.; Clark, J.R.; Campbell, W.L.

    1984-01-01

    A solution of dilute hydrochloric acid, ascorbic acid, and potassium iodide has been found to dissolve weakly bound metals in soils, stream sediments, and oxidized rocks. Silver, Bi, Cd, Cu, Mo, Pb, Sb, and Zn are selectively extracted from this solution by a mixture of Aliquat 336 (tricaprylyl methyl ammonium chloride) and MIBK (methyl isobutyl ketone). Because potentially interfering major and minor elements do not extract, the organic separation allows interference-free determinations of Ag and Cd to the 0.05 ppm level, Mo, Cu, and Zn to 0.5 ppm, and Bi, Pb, and Sb to 1 ppm in the sample using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The analytical absorbance values of the organic solution used in the proposed method are generally enhanced more than threefold as compared to aqueous solutions, due to more efficient atomization and burning characteristics. The leaching and extraction procedures are extremely rapid; as many as 100 samples may be analyzed per day, yielding 800 determinations, and the technique is adaptable to field use. The proposed method was compared to total digestion methods for geochemical reference samples as well as soils and stream sediments from mineralized and unmineralized areas. The partial leach showed better anomaly contrasts than did total digestions. Because the proposed method is very rapid and is sensitive to pathfinder elements for several types of ore deposits, it should be useful for reconnaissance surveys for concealed deposits. ?? 1984.

  6. Impacts of anthropogenic pressures on the water quality of the Gironde Estuary (SW France) from the Urban Agglomeration of Bordeaux: spatial characterization and inputs of trace metal elements (Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessaci, Kahina; Coynel, Alexandra; Blanc, Gérard; Deycard, Victoria N.; Derriennic, Hervé; Schäfer, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    Recent European legislation (2000/60/CE) has listed eight trace metal elements as priority toxic substances for water quality. Urban metal inputs into hydrosystems are of increasing interest to both scientists and managers facing restrictive environmental protection policies, population increase and changing metal applications. The Gironde Estuary (SW France; 625 km2) is known for its metal/metalloid pollution originating from industrial (e.g. Cd, Zn, Cu, As, Ag, Hg) or agricultural sources (e.g. Cu) in the main fluvial tributaries (Garonne and Dordogne Rivers). However, little peer-reviewed scientific work has addressed the impact of urban sources on the Gironde Estuary, especially the Urban Agglomeration of Bordeaux (~1 million inhabitants) located on the downstream branch of the Garonne River. In this study, a snapshot sampling campaign was performed in 2011 for characterizing the spatial distribution of dissolved and particulate metal/metalloid (As, Ag, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu) concentrations in three suburban watersheds: the Jalle of Blanquefort (330 km2), Eau Bourde (140 km2), and Peugue (112 km2). Furthermore, particulate metal Enrichment Factors (EF) were calculated using local geochemical background measured at the bottom of a sediment core (492 cm). Results indicated that metal concentrations displayed a high spatial variability depending on the suburban watershed and the studied element. Local concentrations anomalies were observed for: (i) As in the Eau Bourde River in dissolved (4.2 μg/l) and particulate phases (246 mg/kg; EF= 20) and attributed to a nearby industrial incinerator; (ii) Zn in the Peugue River with maximum dissolved and particulate concentrations of 87 μg/l and 1580 mg/kg (EF=17), respectively, probably due to urban habitation runoff; (iii) Ag in the Jalle of Blanquefort River with high dissolved (74 ng/l) and particulate concentrations (33.7 mg/kg; EF=117) due to industrial activities in the downstream part. Based on hydro

  7. Partitioning of V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Ag, Sn, Sb, W, Au, Pb, and Bi between sulfide phases and hydrous basanite melt at upper mantle conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuan; Audétat, Andreas

    2012-11-01

    The partitioning of 15 major to trace metals between monosulfide solid solution (MSS), sulfide liquid (SL) and mafic silicate melt (SM) was determined in piston-cylinder experiments performed at 1175-1300 °C, 1.5-3.0 GPa and oxygen fugacities ranging from 3.1 log units below to 1.0 log units above the quartz-fayalite-magnetite fO2 buffer, which conditions are representative of partial melting in the upper mantle in different tectonic settings. The silicate melt was produced by partial melting of a natural, amphibole-rich mantle source rock, resulting in hydrous (˜5 wt% H2O) basanitic melts similar to low-degree partial melts of metasomatized mantle, whereas the major element composition of the starting sulfide (˜52 wt% Fe; 39 wt% S; 7 wt% Ni; 2 wt% Cu) was similar to the average composition of sulfides in this environment. SL/SM partition coefficients are high (≥100) for Au, Ni, Cu, Ag, Bi, intermediate (1-100) for Co, Pb, Sn, Sb (±As, Mo), and low (≤1) for the remaining elements. MSS/SM partition coefficients are generally lower than SL/SM partition coefficients and are high (≥100) for Ni, Cu, Au, intermediate (1-100) for Co, Ag (±Bi, Mo), and low (≤1) for the remaining elements. Most sulfide-silicate melt partition coefficients vary as a function of fO2, with Mo, Bi, As (±W) varying by a factor >10 over the investigated fO2 range, Sb, Ag, Sn (±V) varying by a factor of 3-10, and Pb, Cu, Ni, Co, Au, Zn, Mn varying by a factor of 3-10. The partitioning data were used to model the behavior of Cu, Au, Ag, and Bi during partial melting of upper mantle and during fractional crystallization of primitive MORB and arc magmas. Sulfide phase relationships and comparison of the modeling results with reported Cu, Au, Ag, and Bi concentrations from MORB and arc magmas suggest that: (i) MSS is the dominant sulfide in the source region of arc magmas, and thus that Au/Cu ratios in the silicate melt and residual sulfides may decrease with increasing degree of

  8. Bipolar Ag-Zn battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giltner, L. John

    1994-02-01

    The silver-zinc (AgZn) battery system has been unique in its ability to safely satisfy high power demand applications with low mass and volume. However, a new generation of defense, aerospace, and commercial applications will impose even higher power demands. These new power demands can be satisfied by the development of a bipolar battery design. In this configuration the power consuming, interelectrode current conductors are eliminated while the current is then conducted via the large cross-section electrode substrate. Negative and positive active materials are applied to opposite sides of a solid silver foil substrate. In addition to reducing the weight and volume required for a specified power level, the output voltage performance is also improved as follows. Reduced weight through: elimination of the plastic cell container; elimination of plate leads and intercell connector; and elimination of internal plate current collector. Increased voltage through: elimination of resistance of current collector; elimination of resistance of plate lead; and elimination of resistance of intercell connector. EPI worked previously on development of a secondary bipolar silver zinc battery. This development demonstrated the electrical capability of the system and manufacturing techniques. One difficulty with this development was mechanical problems with the seals. However, recent improvements in plastics and adhesives should eliminate the major problem of maintaining a seal around the periphery of the bipolar module. The seal problem is not as significant for a primary battery application or for a requirement for only a few discharge cycles. A second difficulty encountered was with activation (introducing electrolyte into the cell) and with venting gas from the cell without loss of electrolyte. During previous work, the following projections for energy density were made from test data for a high power system which demonstrated in excess of 50 discharge/charge cycles. Projected

  9. Bipolar Ag-Zn battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giltner, L. John

    1994-01-01

    The silver-zinc (AgZn) battery system has been unique in its ability to safely satisfy high power demand applications with low mass and volume. However, a new generation of defense, aerospace, and commercial applications will impose even higher power demands. These new power demands can be satisfied by the development of a bipolar battery design. In this configuration the power consuming, interelectrode current conductors are eliminated while the current is then conducted via the large cross-section electrode substrate. Negative and positive active materials are applied to opposite sides of a solid silver foil substrate. In addition to reducing the weight and volume required for a specified power level, the output voltage performance is also improved as follows. Reduced weight through: elimination of the plastic cell container; elimination of plate leads and intercell connector; and elimination of internal plate current collector. Increased voltage through: elimination of resistance of current collector; elimination of resistance of plate lead; and elimination of resistance of intercell connector. EPI worked previously on development of a secondary bipolar silver zinc battery. This development demonstrated the electrical capability of the system and manufacturing techniques. One difficulty with this development was mechanical problems with the seals. However, recent improvements in plastics and adhesives should eliminate the major problem of maintaining a seal around the periphery of the bipolar module. The seal problem is not as significant for a primary battery application or for a requirement for only a few discharge cycles. A second difficulty encountered was with activation (introducing electrolyte into the cell) and with venting gas from the cell without loss of electrolyte. During previous work, the following projections for energy density were made from test data for a high power system which demonstrated in excess of 50 discharge/charge cycles. Projected

  10. Geologic, geochemical, and isotopic studies of a carbonate- and siliciclastic-hosted Pb-Zn deposit at Lion Hill, Vermont

    Foley, Nora K.; Clark, Sandra H.B.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Mosier, Elwin L.

    1995-01-01

    The prospect of an Irish-type sedimentary-exhalative origin for stratabound Pb-Zn deposits of the Paleozoic shelf of North America is of considerable importance to understanding the timing of mineralization relative to platform evolution and for evaluating the mineral resource potential of the region. Our study of the Lion Hill deposit indicates a potential for Irish-type Pb-Zn deposits in platform rocks of western Vermont; however, at Lion Hill they contain enrichments of Pb, Zn, and Cu rather than a Pb, Zn, and Ag association.

  11. Bitumen II from the Paleoproterozoic Here’s Your Chance Pb/Zn/Ag deposit: Implications for the analysis of depositional environment and thermal maturity of hydrothermally-altered sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holman, Alex I.; Grice, Kliti; Jaraula, Caroline M. B.; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2014-08-01

    The formation of sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX) Pb/Zn deposits is linked to ocean euxinia, but recent evidence suggests that ferruginous conditions may have dominated the deep ocean during the Middle Proterozoic, a maximum period for SEDEX distribution. Biomarkers of sulfate-reducing and sulfide-oxidising bacteria are valuable indicators of euxinic conditions in such settings. Organic matter (OM) from SEDEX deposits is often affected by alteration and/or migration, but OM entrapped within the kerogen/mineral matrix (Bitumen II) may be less affected than the freely-extractable OM (Bitumen I). We analysed Bitumen II from the Paleoproterozoic Here’s Your Chance (HYC) Pb/Zn/Ag deposit to find evidence of euxinic conditions in the depositional environment. n-Alkane distributions in Bitumen II are markedly distinct from previously-reported Bitumen I. Bitumen II contains long-chain n-alkanes (up to C36 or C38) and a strong even-over-odd distribution in a number of samples, which are 4‰ to 7‰ depleted in 13C compared to n-alkanes in Bitumen I and verified as indigenous by comparison with δ13C of isolated kerogen. These features are interpreted as evidence of sulfate-reducing and sulfide-oxidising bacteria, confirming that HYC was deposited under euxinic conditions. Bitumen II has the potential to reveal information from OM that is degraded and/or overprinted in Bitumen I. Commonly-used methylphenanthrene maturity ratios give conflicting information as to the relative maturity of Bitumens I and II. Bitumen I contains a far higher proportion of methylated phenanthrenes than Bitumen II. As Bitumen II is sequestered within the kerogen/mineral matrix it may have restricted access to the ‘methyl pool’ of organic compounds that can donate methyl groups to aromatic hydrocarbons. Parameters that include both phenanthrene and methylphenanthrenes do not appear suitable to compare the maturity of Bitumens I and II; hence there is no clear evidence that Bitumen II is of

  12. Ag-ZnO nanostructure for ANTA explosive molecule detection

    SciT

    Shaik, Ummar Pasha; Sangani, L. D. Varma; Gaur, Anshu

    2016-05-23

    Ag/ZnO nanostructure for surface enhanced Raman scattering application in the detection of ANTA explosive molecule is demonstrated. A highly rough ZnO microstructure was achieved by rapid thermal annealing of metallic Zn film. Different thickness Ag nanostructures are decorated over these ZnO microstructures by ion beam sputtering technique. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic studies carried out over Ag/ZnO substrates have shown three orders higher enhancement compared to bare Ag nanostructure deposited on the same substrate. The reasons behind such huge enhancement are discussed based on the morphology of the sample.

  13. Genesis of the Bangbule Pb-Zn-Cu polymetallic deposit in Tibet, western China: Evidence from zircon U-Pb geochronology and S-Pb isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Tian; Zheng, Youye; Gao, Shunbao

    2016-04-01

    The Banbule Pb-Zn-Cu skarn deposit is located in the Longger-Gongbujiangda volcanic magma arc in the Gangdese-Nyainqentanglha Plate. It is the only lead-zinc polymetallic deposit discovered in the westernmost Nyainqentanglha metallogenic belt. The measured and indicated resources include 0.9 Mt of Pb+Zn (4.77% Pb and 4.74% Zn, respectively), 6499 t of Cu, and 178 t of Ag (18.75g/t Ag). The orebodies mainly occur as lenses, veins and irregular shapes in the contact zone between the quartz-porphyry and limestone of the Upper Permian Xiala Formation, or in the boundaries between limestone and sandstone. Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization in the Banbule deposit is closely associated with skarns. The ore minerals are dominated by galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, bornite, and magnetite, with subordinate pyrite, malachite, and azurite. The gangue minerals are mainly garnet, actinolite, diopside, quartz, and calcite. The ore-related quartz-porphyry displays LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb age of 77.31±0.74 Ma. The δ34S values of sulfides define a narrow range of -0.8 to 4.7‰ indicating a magmatic source for the ore-forming materials. Lead isotopic systematics yield 206Pb/204Pb of 18.698 to 18.752, 207Pb/204Pb of 15.696 to 15.760, and 208Pb/204Pb of 39.097 to 39.320. The data points are constrained around the growth curves of upper crust and orogenic belt according to the tectonic discrimination diagrams. The calculated Δβ - Δγ values plot within the magmatic field according to the discrimination diagram of Zhu et al. (1995). The S-Pb isotopic data suggest that Bangbule is a typical skarn deposit, and the Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization is genetically related to the quartz-porphyry in the mining district. The discovery of the Bangbule deposit indicates that there is metallogenic potential in the westernmost Nyainqentanglha belt, which is of great importance for the exploration work in this area.

  14. Electrical conduction in PVDF/ZnO-Ag nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Utpal; Jha, Anal K.; Chandra, K. P.; Kolte, Jayant; Kulkarni, A. R.; Prasad, K.

    2018-05-01

    A hybrid combination of Ag and ZnO nanoparticles were utilized to fabricate PVDF/ZnO(90/10)-Ag nanocomposites (with Ag as filler: 0.5, 1 and 1.5%) utilizing melt-mixing technique. X-ray diffraction study confirmed the formations of nanocomposites. Electric modulus analysis indicated the dielectric relaxation in this system to be of non- Debye type. Correlated barrier hopping model successfully explained the charge conduction in PVDF/ZnO-Ag nanocomposites and ac conductivity data followed Jonscher's power law.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO/ZnSe NWs/PbS QDs solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamruzzaman, M.; Zapien, J. A.

    2017-04-01

    The capture of solar energy has gained the attention for the next generation solar cell. ZnO/ZnSe NW arrays were synthesized on an FTO glass substrate using a simple and facile hydrothermal and ion-exchange approaches. The lead sulfide (PbS) QDs was infiltrated into ZnO/ZnSe NWs via SILAR method for making inorganic quantum dot sensitized ZnO/ZnSe/PbS QDs solar cell. The surface morphology, structural, optical, and J-V characteristics have been investigated. The ZnO/ZnSe NW is a core-shell like structure, and the absorption edge shifted from the UV region (ZnO NWs) to the near infrared region for ZnO/ZnSe NWs/PbS QDs. For PbS QDs-sensitized solar cell, the obtained value of η = 1.1%, J sc = 20.60 mA/cm2, V oc = 155 mV, and FF = 34.7%, respectively. The photovoltaic performance of the device in this study is still inferior. However, it is the first report regarding to ZnO/ZnZe NWs/PbS QDs solar cell. The achieving high absorption and large short circuit current density may interest in further improvement of the device performance by suppressing surface defects, optimizing the quality of ZnO/ZnSe NWs and PbS QDs.

  16. Pb-free Sn-Ag-Cu ternary eutectic solder

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Iver E.; Yost, Frederick G.; Smith, John F.; Miller, Chad M.; Terpstra, Robert L.

    1996-06-18

    A Pb-free solder includes a ternary eutectic composition consisting essentially of about 93.6 weight % Sn-about 4.7 weight % Ag-about 1.7 weight % Cu having a eutectic melting temperature of about 217.degree. C. and variants of the ternary composition wherein the relative concentrations of Sn, Ag, and Cu deviate from the ternary eutectic composition to provide a controlled melting temperature range (liquid-solid "mushy" zone) relative to the eutectic melting temperature (e.g. up to 15.degree. C. above the eutectic melting temperature).

  17. Pb-free Sn-Ag-Cu ternary eutectic solder

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, I.E.; Yost, F.G.; Smith, J.F.; Miller, C.M.; Terpstra, R.L.

    1996-06-18

    A Pb-free solder includes a ternary eutectic composition consisting essentially of about 93.6 weight % Sn-about 4.7 weight % Ag-about 1.7 weight % Cu having a eutectic melting temperature of about 217 C and variants of the ternary composition wherein the relative concentrations of Sn, Ag, and Cu deviate from the ternary eutectic composition to provide a controlled melting temperature range (liquid-solid ``mushy`` zone) relative to the eutectic melting temperature (e.g. up to 15 C above the eutectic melting temperature). 5 figs.

  18. Mineralogical and geochemical studies on the Central Seruyan Pb-Zn deposits in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Lee, I.; Choi, B.; KIM, Y.; Moon, I.

    2017-12-01

    The Central Seruyan Pb-Zn deposit is located in Seruyan, Central Kalimantan Province in Indonesia. This deposit has been developed since last year and is still being investigated. The Pb-Zn deposit consists of two formations, Pinoh and Kuayan formation. The former is a metamorphic unit hosting schist, phyllite and gneiss, and the latter is a pyroclastic and volcanic unit includes intermediate volcanic rocks such as dacite, tuff and breccia. Most host rocks of the deposit is composed of the silicified porphyritic dacite and silicified phyllite and covered by silicified tuff. The joints and fractures within the wall rock has E-W trends. The Seruyan Pb-Zn deposit is considered as hydrothermal breccia type.In this study, we observe ore minerals and host rocks to understand the genesis of the Pb-Zn deposit with geochemical data. Pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena are major ore minerals and covellite and bornite are also observed as minor sulfide minerals. These ore minerals, except pyrite, usually occur within quartz or calcite veins indicating the influence of hydrothermal fluid. In the host rocks, dacite, has the altered minerals like sericite, chlorite, epidote and some clay minerals of hydrothermal origin. All minerals occur as massive form. Only some pyrites have an euhedral form. Small amount of Au, Ag and Mo are detected in major ore minerals in the EPMA (electron probe X-ray microanalyzer) analyses.

  19. Photoluminescence study of ZnS and ZnS:Pb nanoparticles

    SciT

    Virpal,, E-mail: virpalsharma.sharma@gmail.com; Hastir, Anita; Kaur, Jasmeet

    2015-05-15

    Photoluminescence (PL) study of pure and 5wt. % lead doped ZnS prepared by co-precipitation method was conducted at room temperature. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), UV-Visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometer, Photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectroscopy. XRD patterns confirm cubic structure of ZnS and PbS in doped sample. The band gap energy value increased in case of Pb doped ZnS nanoparticles. The PL spectrum of pure ZnS was de-convoluted into two peaks centered at 399nm and 441nm which were attributed to defect states of ZnS. In doped sample, a shoulder peak at 389nm and a broad peak centered atmore » 505nm were observed. This broad green emission peak originated due to Pb activated ZnS states.« less

  20. Sediment-hosted Pb-Zn Deposits: a global perspective

    Leach, David L.; Sangster, Donald F.; Kelley, Karen D.; Large, R; Garven, G.; Allen, Craig R.

    2005-01-01

    Sediment-hosted Pb-Zn deposits contain the world's greatest lead and zinc resources and dominate world production of these metals. They are a chverse group of ore deposits hosted by a wide variety of carbonate and siliciclastic roch that have no obviolls genetic association with igneous activity. A nmge of ore-fortl1ing processes in a vmiety of geologic and tectonic environments created these deposits over at least two billion years of Earth history. The metals were precipitated by basinal brines in synsedimentary and early diagenetic to low-grade metamorphic environments. The deposits display a broad range of relationships to enclosing host rocks that includes stratiform, strata-bound, and discordant ores. These ores are divided into two broad subt)1Jes: Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) and sedimentmy exhalative (SEDEX), Despite the "exhalative" component inherent in the term "SEDEX," in this manusclipt, direct evidence of an exhalite in the ore or alteration component is not essential for a deposit to be classified as SEDEX. The presence of laminated sulfides parallel to bedding is assumed to be permissive evidence for exhalative ores. The chstinction between some SEDEX and MVT depOSits can be quite subjective because some SEDEX ores replaced carbonate, whereas some MVT depOSits formed in an early diagenetic environment and display laminated ore textures. Geologic and resource information are presented for 248 depositS that provide a framework to describe ,mel compare these deposits. Nine of tlle 10 largest sediment-hosted Pb-Zn deposits are SEDEX, Of the deposits that contain at least 2.5 million metric tons (Mt), there are 35 SEDEX (excluding Broken Hill-type) deposits and 15 MVT (excluding Iris-type) deposits. Despite the skewed distribution of the deposit size, the two deposits types have an excellent correlation between total tonnage and tonnage of contained metal (Pb + Zn), with a fairly consistent ratio of about lO/l, regardless of the size of the deposit or

  1. Effect of Ag doping and annealing on thermoelectric properties of PbTe

    SciT

    Bala, Manju, E-mail: Manjubala474@gmail.com; Tripathi, T. S.; Avasthi, D. K.

    2015-06-24

    The present study reveals that annealing Ag doped PbTe thin films enhance thermoelectric properties. Phase formation was identified by using X-ray diffraction measurement. Annealing increases the crystallinity of both undoped and Ag doped PbTe. Electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power measurements are done using four probe and bridge method respectively. The increase in thermoelectric power of Ag doped PbTe is 29 % in comparison to undoped PbTe and it further increases to 34 % after annealing at 250{sup o} C for 1 hour whereas thermoelectric power increases by 14 % on annealing undoped PbTe thin films at same temperature.

  2. Structure and properties of nanostructured ZnO arrays and ZnO/Ag nanocomposites fabricated by pulsed electrodeposition

    SciT

    Kopach, V. R.; Klepikova, K. S.; Klochko, N. P., E-mail: klochko-np@mail.ru

    We investigate the structure, surface morphology, and optical properties of nanostructured ZnO arrays fabricated by pulsed electrodeposition, Ag nanoparticles precipitated from colloidal solutions, and a ZnO/Ag nanocomposite based on them. The electronic and electrical parameters of the ZnO arrays and ZnO/Ag nanocomposites are analyzed by studying the I–V and C–V characteristics. Optimal modes for fabricating the ZnO/Ag heterostructures with the high stability and sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation as promising materials for use in photodetectors, gas sensors, and photocatalysts are determined.

  3. Plasmonic enhanced optical characteristics of Ag nanostructured ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Arijit; Gogurla, Narendar; Shivakiran Bhaktha, B. N.; Ray, Samit K.

    2016-04-01

    We have demonstrated the enhanced photoluminescence and photoconducting characteristics of plasmonic Ag-ZnO films due to the light scattering effect from Ag nanoislands. Ag nanoislands have been prepared on ITO-coated glass substrates by thermal evaporation followed by annealing. Plasmonic Ag-ZnO films have been fabricated by depositing ZnO over Ag nanoislands by sol-gel process. The band-edge emission of ZnO is enhanced for 170 nm sized Ag nanoislands in ZnO as compared to pure ZnO. The defect emission is also found to be quenched simultaneously for plasmonic Ag-ZnO films. The enhancement and quenching of photoluminescence at different wavelengths for Ag-ZnO films can be well understood from the localized surface plasmon resonance of Ag nanoislands. The Ag-ZnO M-S-M photoconductor device showed a tenfold increment in photocurrent and faster photoresponse as compared to the control ZnO device. The enhancement in photoresponse of the device is due to the increased photon absorption in ZnO films via scattering of the incident illumination.

  4. TEM and TED investigation of Ag/PbTe thin film bilayers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandrino, Đorđe; Marinković, V.

    Morphology and phase structure of Ag/PbTe thin film bilayers were investigated. This system was of particular interest because of interfacial reaction observed previously in an analogous Ag/SnTe system. Reaction products due to the interdiffusion of Ag with the substrate were determined as well as their orientations. They were discussed in view of the reaction products' structural relations to the PbTe.

  5. Ag nanoparticle-functionalized ZnO micro-flowers for enhanced photodegradation of herbicide derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Wu, Shumin; Li, Xianliang; Meng, Hao; Zhang, Xia; Wang, Zhuopeng; Han, Yide

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate a general strategy to design step by step the Ag nanoparticle-functionalized ZnO micro-flowers (Ag/ZnO composites). XRD patterns confirmed the presence of Ag nanoparticles in ZnO/Ag composites, and the SEM and TEM results further demonstrated that Ag nanoparticles were highly dispersed and anchored onto the surface of each ZnO nanosheets. By using the ZnO/Ag composites, the photodegradation of two herbicide derivatives, metamitron and metribuzin, were studied. The enhanced photocatalytic performance was ascribed to the fact that the Ag deposition could reduce the recombination probability of electron-hole pairs, and the photocatalytic mechanism were also investigated in this paper.

  6. Silver-bearing minerals in the Xinhua hydrothermal vein-type Pb-Zn deposit, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Minfang; Zhang, Xubo; Guo, Xiaonan; Pi, Daohui; Yang, Meijun

    2018-02-01

    Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) results are reported for newly identified silver-bearing minerals from the Xinhua deposit, Yunkaidashan area, South China. The Xinhua deposit is a hydrothermal vein-type Pb-Zn deposit and is hosted in the Pubei Complex, which consists of a cordierite-biotite granite with a U-Pb zircon age of 244.3 ± 1.8-251.9 ± 2.2 Ma. The mineralization process is subdivided into four mineralization stages, characterized by the following mineral associations: mineralization stage I with quartz, pyrite, and sphalerite; mineralization stage II with siderite, galena, and tetrahedrite; mineralization stage III with quartz and galena; and mineralization stage IV with quartz, calcite, and baryte. Tetrahedrite series minerals, such as freibergite, argentotetrahedrite, and tennantite are the main Ag-bearing minerals in the Xinhua deposit. The greatest concentration of silver occurs in phases from mineralization stage II. Microscopic observations reveal close relationship between galena and tetrahedrite series minerals that mostly occur as irregular inclusions within galena. The negative correlation between Cu and Ag in the lattices of tetrahedrite series minerals suggests that Cu sites are occupied by Ag atoms. Zn substitution for Fe in argentotetrahedrite and Cd substitution for Pb in tetrahedrite are also observed. Micro-thermometric data reveal that both homogenization temperatures and calculated salinities of hydrothermal fluids decrease progressively from the early to the later mineralization stages. The metal ions, such as Ag+, Cu+, Pb2+, and Zn2+, are transported as chlorine complex ions in the early mineralization stage and as bisulfide complex ions in the late mineralization stage, caused by changes in oxygen fugacity, temperature, and pH of the hydrothermal fluids. Because of the varying solubility of different metal ions, Pb2+, Zn2+, and Cu2+ ions are initially precipitated as galena, sphalerite, and chalcopyrite, respectively. With

  7. Mimetic Ag nanoparticle/Zn-based MOF nanocomposite (AgNPs@ZnMOF) capped with molecularly imprinted polymer for the selective detection of patulin.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Nafiseh; Khataee, Alireza; Habibi, Biuck; Hassanzadeh, Javad

    2018-03-01

    Here, Ag nanoparticle/flake-like Zn-based MOF nanocomposite (AgNPs@ZnMOF) with great peroxidase-like activity was applied as an efficient support for molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) and successfully used for selective determination of patulin. AgNPs@ZnMOF was simply synthesized by creating Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) inside the nano-pores of flake-like (Zn)MOF. The high surface area of MOF remarkably improved the catalytic activity of Ag NPs which was assessed by fluorometric, colorimetric and electrochemical techniques. Furthermore, it was observed that patulin could strangely reduce the catalytic activity of AgNPs@ZnMOF, probably due to its electron capturing features. This outcome was the motivation to design an assay for patulin detection. In order to make a selective interaction with patulin molecules, MIP layer was created on the surface of AgNPs@ZnMOF by co-polymerization reaction of 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) monomers wherein patulin was applied as template agent. Combination between the selective identifying feature of MIP and outstanding peroxidase-like activity of novel AgNPs@ZnMOF nanocomposite as well as the sensitive fluorescence detection system was led to the design of a reliable probe for patulin. The prepared MIP-capped AgNPs@ZnMOF catalyzed the H 2 O 2 -terephthalic acid reaction which produced a high florescent product. In the presence of patulin, the fluorescence intensity was decreased proportional to its concentration in the range of 0.1-10µmolL -1 with a detection limit of 0.06µmolL -1 . The proposed method was able to selectively measure patulin in a complex media without significant interfering effects from analogue compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sulfonated graphene oxide-ZnO-Ag photocatalyst for fast photodegradation and disinfection under visible light.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng; Ng, Kokseng; Sun, Darren Delai

    2013-11-15

    Synthesis of efficient visible-light-driven photocatalyst is urgent but challenging for environmental remediation. In this work, for the first time, the hierarchical plasmonic sulfonated graphene oxide-ZnO-Ag (SGO-ZnO-Ag) composites were prepared through nanocrystal-seed-directed hydrothermal method combining with polyol-reduction process. The results indicated that SGO-ZnO-Ag exhibited much faster rate in photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and disinfection of Escherichia coli (E. coli), than ZnO, SGO-ZnO and ZnO-Ag. SGO-ZnO-Ag totally degraded RhB dye and kill 99% of E. coli within 20 min under visible light irradiation. The outstanding performances of SGO-ZnO-Ag were attributed to the synergetic merits of SGO sheets, ZnO nanorod arrays and Ag nanoparticles. Firstly, the light absorption ability of SGO-ZnO-Ag composite in the visible region was enhanced due to the surface plasmon resonance of Ag. In addition, the hierarchical structure of SGO-ZnO-Ag composite improved the incident light scattering and reflection. Furthermore, SGO sheets facilitated charge transfer and reduce electron-hole recombination rate. Finally, the tentative mechanism was proposed and verified by the photoluminescence (PL) measurement as well as the theoretical finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation. In view of above, this work paves the way for preparation of multi-component plasmonic composites and highlights the potential applications of SGO-ZnO-Ag in photocatalytic wastewater treatment field. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ternary eutectic growth of nanostructured thermoelectric Ag-Pb-Te materials

    SciT

    Wu, Hsin-jay; Chen, Sinn-wen; Foo, Wei-jian

    2012-07-09

    Nanostructured Ag-Pb-Te thermoelectric materials were fabricated by unidirectionally solidifying the ternary Ag-Pb-Te eutectic and near-eutectic alloys using the Bridgeman method. Specially, the Bridgman-grown eutectic alloy exhibited a partially aligned lamellar microstructure, which consisted of Ag{sub 5}Te{sub 3} and Te phases, with additional 200-600 nm size particles of PbTe. The self-assembled interfaces altered the thermal and electronic transport properties in the bulk Ag-Pb-Te eutectic alloy. Presumably due to phonon scattering from the nanoscale microstructure, a low thermal conductivity ({kappa} = 0.3 W/mK) was achieved of the eutectic alloy, leading to a zT peak of 0.41 at 400 K.

  10. Preparation and characterization of double layer thin films ZnO/ZnO:Ag for methylene blue photodegradation

    SciT

    Wibowo, Singgih, E-mail: singgih@st.fisika.undip.ac.id; Sutanto, Heri, E-mail: herisutanto@undip.ac.id

    2016-02-08

    Double layer (DL) thin films of zinc oxide and silver-doped zinc oxide (ZnO/ZnO:Ag) were deposited on glass substrate by sol-gel spray coating technique. The prepared thin films were subjected for optical and photocatalytic studies. UV-visible transmission spectra shows that the subtitution of Ag in ZnO leads to band gap reduction. The influence of Ag doping on the photocatalytic activity of ZnO for the degradation of methylene blue dye was studied under solar radiation. The light absorption over an extended visible region by Ag ion doping in ZnO film contributed equally to improve the photocatalytic activity up to 98.29%.

  11. Investigation of the potential for concealed base-metal mineralization at the Drenchwater Creek Zn-Pb-Ag occurrence, northern Alaska, using geology, reconnaissance geochemistry, and airborne electromagnetic geophysics

    Graham, Garth E.; Deszcz-Pan, Maria; Abraham, Jared E.; Kelley, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    No drilling has taken place at the Drenchwater occurrence, so alternative data sources (for example, geophysics) are especially important in assessing possible indicators of mineralization. Data from the 2005 electromagnetic survey define the geophysical character of the rocks at Drenchwater and, in combination with geological and surface-geochemical data, can aid in assessing the possible shallow (up to about 50 m), subsurface lateral extent of base-metal sulfide accumulations at Drenchwater. A distinct >3-km-long electromagnetic conductive zone (observed in apparent resistivity maps) coincides with, and extends further westward than, mineralized shale outcrops and soils anomalously high in Pb concentrations within the Kuna Formation; this conductive zone may indicate sulfide-rich rock. Models of electrical resistivity with depth, generated from inversion of electromagnetic data, which provide alongflight-line conductivity-depth profiles to between 25 and 50 m below ground surface, show that the shallow subsurface conductive zone occurs in areas of known mineralized outcrops and thins to the east. Broader, more conductive rock along the western ~1 km of the geophysical anomaly does not reach ground surface. These data suggest that the Drenchwater deposit is more extensive than previously thought. The application of inversion modeling also was applied to another smaller geochemical anomaly in the Twistem Creek area. The results are inconclusive, but they suggest that there may be a local conductive zone, possibly due to sulfides.

  12. Defects responsible for abnormal n-type conductivity in Ag-excess doped PbTe thermoelectrics

    SciT

    Ryu, Byungki, E-mail: byungkiryu@keri.re.kr; Lee, Jae Ki; Lee, Ji Eun

    Density functional calculations have been performed to investigate the role of Ag defects in PbTe thermoelectric materials. Ag-defects can be either donor, acceptor, or isovalent neutral defect. When Ag is heavily doped in PbTe, the neutral (Ag-Ag) dimer defect at Pb-site is formed and the environment changes to the Pb-rich/Te-poor condition. Under Pb-rich condition, the ionized Ag-interstitial defect (Ag{sub I}{sup +}) becomes the major donor. The formation energy of Ag{sub I}{sup +} is smaller than other native and Ag-related defects. Also it is found that Ag{sub I}{sup +} is an effective dopant. There is no additional impurity state near themore » band gap and the conduction band minimum. The charge state of Ag{sub I}{sup +} defect is maintained even when the Fermi level is located above the conduction band minimum. The diffusion constant of Ag{sub I}{sup +} is calculated based on the temperature dependent Fermi level, formation energy, and migration energy. When T > 550 K, the diffusion length of Ag within a few minutes is comparable to the grain size of the polycrystalline PbTe, implying that Ag is dissolved into PbTe and this donor defect is distributed over the whole lattice in Ag-excess doped polycrystalline PbTe. The predicted solubility of Ag{sub I}{sup +} well explains the increased electron carrier concentration and electrical conductivity reported in Ag-excess doped polycrystalline PbTe at T = 450–750 K [Pei et al., Adv. Energy Mater. 1, 291 (2011)]. In addition, we suggest that this abnormal doping behavior is also found for Au-doped PbTe.« less

  13. Halloysite Nanotubes Supported Ag and ZnO Nanoparticles with Synergistically Enhanced Antibacterial Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Zhan; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Qian; Yang, Huaming

    2017-02-01

    Novel antimicrobial nanocomposite incorporating halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) and silver (Ag) into zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles is prepared by integrating HNTs and decorating Ag nanoparticles. ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) with a size of about 100 and 8 nm, respectively, are dispersively anchored onto HNTs. The synergistic effects of ZnO NPs, Ag NPs, and HNTs led to the superior antibacterial activity of the Ag-ZnO/HNTs antibacterial nanocomposites. HNTs facilitated the dispersion and stability of ZnO NPs and brought them in close contact with bacteria, while Ag NPs could promote the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs and enhanced the antibacterial activity of ZnO NPs. The close contact with cell membrane enabled the nanoparticles to produce the increased concentration of reactive oxygen species and the metal ions to permeate into the cytoplasm, thus induced quick death of bacteria, indicating that Ag-ZnO/HNTs antibacterial nanocomposite is a promising candidate in the antibacterial fields.

  14. Simple and Sensitive Colorimetric Assay for Pb2+ Based on Glutathione Protected Ag Nanoparticles by Salt Amplification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhang; Li, Huidong; Chu, Lin; Liu, Chenbin; Luo, Shenglian

    2015-02-01

    A simple and sensitive colorimetric assay for Pb2+ detection has been reported using glutathione protected silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by salt amplification. The naked AgNPs aggregate under the influence of salt. Glutathione (GSH) can bind to AgNPs via Ag-S bond, helping AgNPs to against salt-induced aggregation. However, GSH binding to AgNPs can be compromised by the interaction between Pb2+ and GSH. As a result, Pb2+-mediated aggregation of AgNPs under the influence of salt is reflected by the UV-Visible spectrum, and the qualitative and quantitative detection for Pb2+ is accomplished, with the detection range 0.5-4 µM and a detection limit of 0.5 µM. At the same time, Pb2+ in real water sample is detected. Furthermore, the high selectivity and low cost of the assay means it is promising for enviromental applications.

  15. Properties of a new type Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy composite anode for zinc electrowinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hai-tao; Liu, Huan-rong; Zhang, Yong-chun; Chen, Bu-ming; Guo, Zhong-cheng; Xu, Rui-dong

    2013-10-01

    An Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy composite anode was produced via composite casting. Its electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen evolution reaction and corrosion resistance was evaluated by anodic polarization curves and accelerated corrosion test, respectively. The microscopic morphologies of the anode section and anodic oxidation layer during accelerated corrosion test were obtained by scanning electron microscopy. It is found that the composite anode (hard anodizing) displays a more compact interfacial combination and a better adhesive strength than plating tin. Compared with industrial Pb-0.3%Ag anodes, the oxygen evolution overpotentials of Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy (hard anodizing) and Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy (plating tin) at 500 A·m-2 were lower by 57 and 14 mV, respectively. Furthermore, the corrosion rates of Pb-0.3%Ag alloy, Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy (hard anodizing), and Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy (plating tin) were 13.977, 9.487, and 11.824 g·m-2·h-1, respectively, in accelerated corrosion test for 8 h at 2000 A·m-2. The anodic oxidation layer of Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy (hard anodizing) is more compact than Pb-0.3%Ag alloy and Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy (plating tin) after the test.

  16. Bioaccumulation of Zn and Ag Nanoparticles in the Earthworms (Eisenia fetida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Lee Seung; Sung-Dae, Kim; Yi, Yang Song; Byeong-Gweon, Lee

    2014-05-01

    Many studies are carried out to evaluate environmental effects of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). Most of the previous studies primarily focused on the effects of nanoparticles into the aquatic environment and human. Model studies predict that ENPs released into environment would transferred primarily to the soil of the terrestrial environment. Despite this prediction, biogeochemical behavior of ENPs in soil environment as well as bioavailability of ENPs to soil-dwelling organisms such as earthworm, springtail, isopod and nematodes are poorly understood. The main goal of this study was to compare the bioaccumulation factor (BAFs) and subcellular partitioning of nanoparticles in the soil-dwelling earthworm (Eisenia fetida) from ENP (ZnO and Ag nanoparticles) or ionic metal (Zn2+, Ag+) contaminated soil. And the sequential extraction was also used to determine the mobility of metals in soil which could be used as to predict bioavailability and compare that with bioaccumulation factor. The radiotracer method was employed to trace the transfer of ENPs and ionic metal among different environmental media and animals. Radiolabeled 65ZnO, 110mAgNPs coated with PVP or citrate were synthesized in the laboratory and their chemical and biological behavior was compared to ionic 65Zn and 110mAg. The BAFs of Zn and Ag in the earthworms were determined after animals exposed to the contaminated soils. After the 7 days of elimination phase, subcellular partitioning of metals were also obtained. BAF for ZnO(0.06) was 31 times lower than that for Zn ion (1.86), suggesting that ZnO was less bioavailable than its ionic form from contaminated soil. On the other hands, BAFs for AgNPs coated with PVP (0.12) or with citrate (0.11) were comparable to those for Ag ion (0.17), indicating that Ag from contaminated soil was bioavailable in a similar rate regardless of chemical forms. The subcellular partitioning results showed that bioaccumulated Zn from Zn ion and ZnO contaminated soil were

  17. The giant Upper Yangtze Pb-Zn province in SW China: Reviews, new advances and a new genetic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jia-Xi; Xiang, Zhen-Zhong; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Feng, Yue-Xing; Luo, Kai; Huang, Zhi-Long; Wu, Tao

    2018-04-01

    western Yangtze Block. The change of tectonic regimes from extension to compression after eruption of basalts of the ELIP, and then to extension during Early Mesozoic, facilitated extraction, migration, and excretion of ore-forming metals and associated fluids. Mixing of fluids and reduction geochemical barrier activated TSR, causing cyclical carbonate dissolution, CO2 degassing and recrystallization (namely carbonate buffer). All these processes triggered continuous precipitation of huge amounts of hydrothermal minerals. Underplating and eruption of ELIP basalts provided heat flow, fluids and volatiles, whereas the basalts acted as an impermeable and protective layer, and even as ore-hosting rocks. These Pb-Zn deposits have spatial and genetic association with igneous activities of the ELIP, and are characterized by high ore grades (>10 wt% Pb + Zn), high concentrations of associated metals (e.g. Cu, Ag, Ge, and Cd), and medium-low temperatures (usually < 300 °C) and salinities (commonly < 20 wt% NaCl equiv.), all of which are significantly different from those of typical Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits. Hence, the carbonate-hosted epigenetic Pb-Zn deposits in the Upper Yangtze metallogenic province representing to a new type of Pb-Zn deposits that are hosted in platform carbonate sequences and formed within compressional zones of passive margin tectonic settings.

  18. Enhanced wound healing activity of Ag-ZnO composite NPs in Wistar Albino rats.

    PubMed

    Kantipudi, Sravani; Sunkara, Jhansi Rani; Rallabhandi, Muralikrishna; Thonangi, Chandi Vishala; Cholla, Raga Deepthi; Kollu, Pratap; Parvathaneni, Madhu Kiran; Pammi, Sri Venkata Narayana

    2018-06-01

    In the present study, silver (Ag) and Ag-zinc oxide (ZnO) composite nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesised and studied their wound-healing efficacy on rat model. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy of AgNPs displayed an intense surface plasmon (SP) resonance absorption at 450 nm. After the addition of aqueous Zn acetate solution, SP resonance band has shown at 413.2 nm indicating a distinct blue shift of about 37 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis Ag-ZnO composite NPs displayed existence of two mixed sets of diffraction peaks, i.e. both Ag and ZnO, whereas AgNPs exhibited face-centred cubic structures of metallic Ag. Scanning electron microscope (EM) and transmission EM analyses of Ag-ZnO composite NPs revealed the morphology to be monodispersed hexagonal and quasi-hexagonal NPs with distribution of particle size of 20-40 nm. Furthermore, the authors investigated the wound-healing properties of Ag-ZnO composite NPs in an animal model and found that rapid healing within 10 days when compared with pure AgNPs and standard drug dermazin.

  19. Adsorption heights and bonding strength of organic molecules on a Pb-Ag surface alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadtmüller, Benjamin; Haag, Norman; Seidel, Johannes; van Straaten, Gerben; Franke, Markus; Kumpf, Christian; Cinchetti, Mirko; Aeschlimann, Martin

    2016-12-01

    The understanding of the fundamental geometric and electronic properties of metal-organic hybrid interfaces is a key issue on the way to improving the performance of organic electronic and spintronic devices. Here, we studied the adsorption heights of copper-II-phthalocyanine (CuPc) and 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) on a Pb1Ag2 surface alloy on Ag(111) using the normal-incidence x-ray standing waves technique. We find a significantly larger adsorption height of both molecules on the Pb-Ag surface alloy compared to the bare Ag(111) surface which is caused by the larger size of Pb. This increased adsorption height suppresses the partial chemical interaction of both molecules with Ag surface atoms. Instead, CuPc and PTCDA molecules bond only to the Pb atoms with different interaction strength ranging from a van der Waals-like interaction for CuPc to a weak chemical interaction with additional local bonds for PTCDA. The different adsorption heights for CuPc and PTCDA on Pb1Ag2 are the result of local site-specific molecule-surface bonds mediated by functional molecular groups and the different charge donating and accepting character of CuPc and PTCDA.

  20. Soil-plant abstract of heavy metals in Pb-Zn mining sites from Alcudia Valley (South Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Berdonces, Miguel; Higueras, Pablo; Esbrí, Jose Maria; González-Corrochano, Beatríz; García-Noguero, Eva Mª; Martínez-Coronado, Alba; Fernandez-Calderón, Sergio; García-Noguero, Carolina

    2013-04-01

    Soil-plant transfer of heavy metals in Pb-Zn mining sites from Alcudia Valley (South Spain). Authors: Miguel A. López-Berdonces¹; Pablo Higueras¹; Jose María Esbrí¹; Beatriz González-Corrochano¹; Eva Mª García- Noguero¹; Alba Martínez Coronado¹; Sergio Fernández-Calderón¹; Carolina García-Noguero¹ ¹Instituto de Geología Aplicada, Universidad Castilla la Mancha, Pza. Manuel Meca, 1. 13400 Almadén, Spain. Alcudia Valley is a vast territory recently declared Natural Park, located in South of Spain. It is an area rich in mineral deposits of Zn and Pb and mining exists since the first millennium BC., having its highest ore production between mid-nineteenth century and the middle of the twentieth. This area has been selected because has more than 120 abandoned mines without remediation actions, with dumps and tailings with high contents of zinc and lead sulfides, and Cu, Ag, Cd, As, Sb in minor concentrations. In this study we determinate the transfer rate of these metals from soils to plants represented by oak leaves (Quercus ilex), because this specie is common within the selected area. To evaluate the soil-plant transfer were studied the correlation of contents, total and extractable, in soil-leaves. Extractable fraction was done by for different methods in water, EPA 1312 sulfuric acid: nitric acid 60:40 v., Ammonium Acetate and EDTA. To establish the correlation between heavy metals from soils to plants is necessary to know the contents of these and bioavailable content in soil. Three areas (S. Quintín, Romanilla, Bombita) were selected, taking 24 samples of soils and leaves. Analyzed leaves by XRF showed that Mn, Pb, Zn and Mo in S.Quintin and Romanilla, Mn, Pb in Bombita, exceeded the toxicity threshold. The same samples analyzed by ICP show us the toxicity threshold is exceeded Pb, Zn and Hg in S.Quintin, and Pb in Romanilla. The heavy metal content in leaves compared between two techniques analytical gives an acceptable correlation Zn - Pb

  1. [Stabilization Treatment of Pb and Zn in Contaminated Soils and Mechanism Studies].

    PubMed

    Xie, Wei-qiang; Li, Xiao-mingi; Chen, Can; Chen, Xun-feng; Zhong, Yu; Zhong, Zhen-yu; Wan, Yong; Wang, Yan

    2015-12-01

    In the present work, the combined application of potassium dihydrogen phosphate, quick lime and potassium chloride was used to immobilize the Pb and Zn in contaminated soils. The efficiency of the process was evaluated through leaching tests and Tessier sequential extraction procedure. The mechanism of stabilization was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) to reveal the mechanism of stabilization. The results showed that the stabilizing efficiency of Pb contaminated soils was above 80% and the leaching concentrations of Pb, Zn were far below the threshold when the ratio of exogenous P and soil (mol · mol⁻¹) was 2:1-4: 1, the dosing ratio of CaO was 0.1%-0.5% ( mass fraction) and the dosage of potassium chloride was 0.02-0. 04 mol. Meanwhile, Pb and Zn in soil were transformed from the exchangeable fraction into residual fraction, which implied that the migration of Pb, Zn in soil could be confined by the stabilization treatment. XRD and SEM analysis revealed that Ca-P-Pb precipitation, lead orthophosphate [PbHP0₄, Pb₃ (PO₄)₂], pyromorphite (Pb-PO₄-Cl/OH) and mixed heavy metal deposits (Fe-PO₄- Ca-Pb-Zn-OH) could be formed after solidification/stabilization in which Pb and Zn could be wrapped up to form a solidified composition and to prevent leaching.

  2. Photodegradation of Acid Violet 7 with AgBr-ZnO under highly alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Krishnakumar, B; Swaminathan, M

    2012-12-01

    The photocatalytic activity of AgBr-ZnO was investigated for the degradation of Acid Violet 7 (AV 7) in aqueous solution using UV-A light. AgBr-ZnO is found to be more efficient than commercial ZnO and prepared ZnO at pH 12 for the mineralization of AV 7. The effects of operational parameters such as the amount of photocatalyst, dye concentration, initial pH on photo mineralization have been analyzed. Expect oxone, other oxidants decrease the degradation efficiency. Addition of metal ions and anions decrease the degradation efficiency of AgBr-ZnO significantly. The mineralization of AV 7 has also been confirmed by COD measurements. The mechanism of degradation by AgBr-ZnO is proposed to explain its higher activity under UV light. The catalyst is found to be reusable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Morphologically manipulated Ag/ZnO nanostructures as surface enhanced Raman scattering probes for explosives detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaik, Ummar Pasha; Hamad, Syed; Ahamad Mohiddon, Md.; Soma, Venugopal Rao; Ghanashyam Krishna, M.

    2016-03-01

    The detection of secondary explosive molecules (e.g., ANTA, FOX-7, and CL-20) using Ag decorated ZnO nanostructures as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) probes is demonstrated. ZnO nanostructures were grown on borosilicate glass substrates by rapid thermal oxidation of metallic Zn films at 500 °C. The oxide nanostructures, including nanosheets and nanowires, emerged over the surface of the Zn film leaving behind the metal residue. We demonstrate that SERS measurements with concentrations as low as 10 μM, of the three explosive molecules ANTA, FOX-7, and CL-20 over ZnO/Ag nanostructures, resulted in enhancement factors of ˜107, ˜107, and ˜104, respectively. These measurements validate the high sensitivity of detection of explosive molecules using Ag decorated ZnO nanostructures as SERS substrates. The Zn metal residue and conditions of annealing play an important role in determining the detection sensitivity.

  4. Anomalous metal concentrations in soil and till at the Ballinalack Zn-Pb deposit, Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalveram, Ann-Kristin; McClenaghan, Seán H.; Kamber, Balz S.

    2017-04-01

    Metals such as zinc, iron, arsenic and lead are commonly found in low concentrations within soils. These signatures may occur as a result of natural dispersion from metal-bearing geological formations and (or) from anthropogenic sources. Prior to investigating any high or anomalous concentrations of metals in the surficial environment, it is important to reconcile potential sources of metals and verify whether element anomalies are in response to buried mineralization. Here we show how to distinguish true elevated concentrations from naturally occurring variations within a soil system. The research area is situated above the limestone-hosted Ballinalack Zn-Pb deposit in the central Irish Midlands. To investigate the pedogenesis and its related geochemical signature, top of the till and the BC soil horizon were sampled. Although the area can be described as pasture land, it does not preclude previous anthropogenic influences from former agricultural use and local small scale peat harvesting. For the soil BC horizon as well as in the top of the till, aqua regia-digestible element concentrations vary significantly and locally reach anomalous levels: Zn (median: 104 ppm; range: 27 - 13150 ppm), Pb (median: 16 ppm; range: 2 - 6430 ppm), As (median: 7.7 ppm; range: 1.4 - 362 ppm), Ag (median: 0.12 ppm; range: 0.04 - 19.9 ppm), Ba (median: 40 ppm; range: 10 - 1230 ppm), Cd (median: 1.5 ppm; range: 0.2 - 68 ppm), Co (median: 7.3 ppm; range: 0.5 - 22 ppm), Ni (median: 37 ppm; range: 3 - 134 ppm), Fe (median: 17900 ppm; range: 5000 - 52300 ppm), Ga (median: 2.4 ppm; range: 0.3 - 7.6 ppm), Sb (median: 1.2 ppm; range: 0.1 - 197 ppm) and Tl (median: 0.3 ppm; range: 0.02 - 8.6 ppm). Comparison with background levels from the area and grouped according to underlying geology, enrichment factor calculations (against Nb and Zr) indicate an elemental response to metalliferous-bearing bedrock. These results confirm that soil anomalies of Zn, Pb, As, Ag, Ba, Cd, Ni, Sb and Tl, are

  5. Tuning the emission of ZnO nanorods based light emitting diodes using Ag doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echresh, Ahmad; Chey, Chan Oeurn; Shoushtari, Morteza Zargar; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2014-11-01

    We have fabricated, characterized, and compared ZnO nanorods/p-GaN and n-Zn0.94Ag0.06O nanorods/p-GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs). Current-voltage measurement showed an obvious rectifying behaviour of both LEDs. A reduction of the optical band gap of the Zn0.94Ag0.06O nanorods compared to pure ZnO nanorods was observed. This reduction leads to decrease the valence band offset at n-Zn0.94Ag0.06O nanorods/p-GaN interface compared to n-ZnO nanorods/p-GaN heterojunction. Consequently, this reduction leads to increase the hole injection from the GaN to the ZnO. From electroluminescence measurement, white light was observed for the n-Zn0.94Ag0.06O nanorods/p-GaN heterojunction LEDs under forward bias, while for the reverse bias, blue light was observed. While for the n-ZnO nanorods/p-GaN blue light dominated the emission in both forward and reverse biases. Further, the LEDs exhibited a high sensitivity in responding to UV illumination. The results presented here indicate that doping ZnO nanorods might pave the way to tune the light emission from n-ZnO/p-GaN LEDs.

  6. The Effect of (Ag, Ni, Zn)-Addition on the Thermoelectric Properties of Copper Aluminate

    PubMed Central

    Yanagiya, Shun-ichi; Van Nong, Ngo; Xu, Jianxiao; Pryds, Nini

    2010-01-01

    Polycrystalline bulk copper aluminate Cu1-x-yAgxByAlO2 with B = Ni or Zn were prepared by spark plasma sintering and subsequent thermal treatment. The influence of partial substitution of Ag, Ni and Zn for Cu-sites in CuAlO2 on the high temperature thermoelectric properties has been studied. The addition of Ag and Zn was found to enhance the formation of CuAlO2 phase and to increase the electrical conductivity. The addition of Ag or Ag and Ni on the other hand decreases the electrical conductivity. The highest power factor of 1.26 × 10-4 W/mK2 was obtained for the addition of Ag and Zn at 1,060 K, indicating a significant improvement compared with the non-doped CuAlO2 sample.

  7. Doping Ag in ZnO Nanorods to Improve the Performance of Related Enzymatic Glucose Sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fan; Jing, Weixuan; Liu, Pengcheng; Han, Dejun; Jiang, Zhuangde; Wei, Zhengying

    2017-09-27

    In this paper, the performance of a zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod-based enzymatic glucose sensor was enhanced with silver (Ag)-doped ZnO (ZnO-Ag) nanorods. The effect of the doped Ag on the surface morphologies, wettability, and electron transfer capability of the ZnO-Ag nanorods, as well as the catalytic character of glucose oxidase (GOx) and the performance of the glucose sensor was investigated. The results indicate that the doped Ag slightly weakens the surface roughness and hydrophilicity of the ZnO-Ag nanorods, but remarkably increases their electron transfer ability and enhances the catalytic character of GOx. Consequently, the combined effects of the above influencing factors lead to a notable improvement of the performance of the glucose sensor, that is, the sensitivity increases and the detection limit decreases. The optimal amount of the doped Ag is determined to be 2 mM, and the corresponding glucose sensor exhibits a sensitivity of 3.85 μA/(mM·cm²), detection limit of 1.5 μM, linear range of 1.5 × 10 -3 -6.5 mM, and Michaelis-Menten constant of 3.87 mM. Moreover, the glucose sensor shows excellent selectivity to urea, ascorbic acid, and uric acid, in addition to displaying good storage stability. These results demonstrate that ZnO-Ag nanorods are promising matrix materials for the construction of other enzymatic biosensors.

  8. Doping Ag in ZnO Nanorods to Improve the Performance of Related Enzymatic Glucose Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Fan; Jing, Weixuan; Liu, Pengcheng; Han, Dejun; Jiang, Zhuangde; Wei, Zhengying

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of a zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod-based enzymatic glucose sensor was enhanced with silver (Ag)-doped ZnO (ZnO-Ag) nanorods. The effect of the doped Ag on the surface morphologies, wettability, and electron transfer capability of the ZnO-Ag nanorods, as well as the catalytic character of glucose oxidase (GOx) and the performance of the glucose sensor was investigated. The results indicate that the doped Ag slightly weakens the surface roughness and hydrophilicity of the ZnO-Ag nanorods, but remarkably increases their electron transfer ability and enhances the catalytic character of GOx. Consequently, the combined effects of the above influencing factors lead to a notable improvement of the performance of the glucose sensor, that is, the sensitivity increases and the detection limit decreases. The optimal amount of the doped Ag is determined to be 2 mM, and the corresponding glucose sensor exhibits a sensitivity of 3.85 μA/(mM·cm2), detection limit of 1.5 μM, linear range of 1.5 × 10−3–6.5 mM, and Michaelis-Menten constant of 3.87 mM. Moreover, the glucose sensor shows excellent selectivity to urea, ascorbic acid, and uric acid, in addition to displaying good storage stability. These results demonstrate that ZnO-Ag nanorods are promising matrix materials for the construction of other enzymatic biosensors. PMID:28953217

  9. A mixture toxicity approach to predict the toxicity of Ag decorated ZnO nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, S L; Holz, T; Rodrigues, J; Monteiro, T; Costa, F M; Soares, A M V M; Loureiro, S

    2017-02-01

    Nanotechnology is a rising field and nanomaterials can now be found in a vast variety of products with different chemical compositions, sizes and shapes. New nanostructures combining different nanomaterials are being developed due to their enhancing characteristics when compared to nanomaterials alone. In the present study, the toxicity of a nanostructure composed by a ZnO nanomaterial with Ag nanomaterials on its surface (designated as ZnO/Ag nanostructure) was assessed using the model-organism Daphnia magna and its toxicity predicted based on the toxicity of the single components (Zn and Ag). For that ZnO and Ag nanomaterials as single components, along with its mixture prepared in the laboratory, were compared in terms of toxicity to ZnO/Ag nanostructures. Toxicity was assessed by immobilization and reproduction tests. A mixture toxicity approach was carried out using as starting point the conceptual model of Concentration Addition. The laboratory mixture of both nanomaterials showed that toxicity was dependent on the doses of ZnO and Ag used (immobilization) or presented a synergistic pattern (reproduction). The ZnO/Ag nanostructure toxicity prediction, based on the percentage of individual components, showed an increase in toxicity when compared to the expected (immobilization) and dependent on the concentration used (reproduction). This study demonstrates that the toxicity of the prepared mixture of ZnO and Ag and of the ZnO/Ag nanostructure cannot be predicted based on the toxicity of their components, highlighting the importance of taking into account the interaction between nanomaterials when assessing hazard and risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sulfidation Roasting of Hemimorphite with Pyrite for the Enrichment of Zn and Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Xiao-Bo; Xue, Ke; Ke, Yong; Zhou, Bo-Sheng; Li, Yang-Wen-Jun; Wang, Qing-Wei

    2016-09-01

    With the increasing consumption of zinc and the depletion of zinc sulfide ores, the exploitation of low-grade zinc oxide ores may be important for the sustainability of the zinc industry. Hemimorphite, a zinc hydroxyl silicate hydrate, is a significant source of Zn and Pb. It is difficult to obtain Zn and Pb from the hemimorphite using traditional technology. In this work, for the first time, sulfidation roasting of hemimorphite with pyrite was studied for the enrichment of Zn and Pb by a flotation process. Four stages of sulfidation roasting were determined based on x-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry analysis. Then, the effects of sulfidation temperature, pyrite dosage and reaction time on the sulfidation percentages were investigated at the laboratory scale. The experimental results showed that the sulfidation percentages of Pb and Zn were as high as 98.08% and 90.55% under optimum conditions, respectively. Finally, a flotation test was performed to enrich Zn and Pb in the sulfidation product. A flotation concentrate with 8.78% Zn and 9.25% Pb was obtained, and the recovery of Zn and Pb reached 56.14% and 75.94%, respectively.

  11. Mobility and fractionation of Fe, Pb and Zn in river sediments from a silver and base-metals mining area: Taxco, México.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, E; Armienta, M A

    2007-08-01

    The impact of mining wastes on both the concentration and environmental mobility of Zn, Pb and Fe was studied in a shallow river. The studied tributary of the Taxco river is located south of the historical Ag, Zn, Cu and Pb mining area of Taxco, about 150 km south of México City. Methodology included total concentration determinations and sequential extraction analyses of the operational defined fractions of sediments. Results indicated that Fe, Pb and Zn concentrations are up to 5, 100 and 390 times respectively, greater than regional background concentrations. Higher contents of Pb and Zn were observed in the rainy season versus the dry season, whereas Fe was lower in the rainy season. Zinc and lead increased downflow in the dry season, and did not show any trend during the rainy season. Speciation showed that Zn was mainly linked to the carbonatic fraction (25-39%), to the hydrous Fe/Mn oxides fraction (15-25%) and to the organic matter and sulfide fraction (14-48%); lead was mainly associated to the hydrous Fe/Mn oxides (49-59%) and residual (22-39%) fractions; finally, iron was contained mainly in the residual (65-78%) and the hydrous Fe/Mn oxides fraction (15%). Mobility decreased according to the relation: Zn > Pb > Fe. Sediments were classified as strongly polluted in zinc, strongly to very strongly polluted in Pb, and moderately to strongly polluted in iron. However, a low proportion of metals in the exchangeable fractions, indicates low bioavailability. Limestone presence played a very important role on Zn and Pb fractionation and environmental mobility. Results show the importance of including geological background in river pollution studies.

  12. ZnO:Ag nanorods as efficient photocatalysts: Sunlight driven photocatalytic degradation of sulforhodamine B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raji, R.; K. S., Sibi; K. G., Gopchandran

    2018-01-01

    Visible light responsive highly photocatalytic ZnO:Ag nanorods with varying Ag concentration were synthesized via co-precipitation method. X-ray diffraction analysis and high resolution transmission electron microscopy investigations confirmed the hexagonal wurtzite phase for these ZnO:Ag nanorods with preferential growth along the (101) plane. Raman shift and luminescence measurements indicated that the incorporation of Ag influences the lattice vibrational modes; there by causing distortion in lattice, inducing silent vibrational modes and emission behavior by quenching of both the band edge and visible emissions respectively. The photocatalytic performance of these nanorods as catalysts was tested by observing the photodegradation of a representative dye pollutant, viz., sulforhodamine B under sunlight irradiation. Photocatalytic performance was evaluated by determining the rate of reaction kinetics, photodegradation efficiency and mineralization efficiency. A high rate constant of 0.552 min-1, chemical oxygen demand value of 5.8 ppm and a mineralization efficiency of 94% were obtained when ZnO: Ag nanorods with an Ag content of 1.5 at.% were used as catalysts. The observed increase in photocatalytic efficiency with Ag content in ZnO:Ag nanorods is attributed to the electron scavenging action of silver, Schottky barrier between the Ag and ZnO interface and the better utilization of sunlight due to enhanced absorption due to plasmons in the visible region. BET analysis indicated that silver doping causes effective surface area of nanorods to increase, which in turn increases the photocatalytic efficiency. The possible mechanism for degradation of dye under sunlight irradiation is described with a schematic and the photostability of the ZnO:Ag nanorods were also tested through five repetitive cycles. This work suggests that the prepared ZnO:Ag nanorods are excellent reusable photocatalysts for the degradation of toxic organic waste in water, which causes severe

  13. ZnO:Zn/6LiF scintillator-A low afterglow alternative to ZnS:Ag/6LiF for thermal neutron detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykora, G. Jeff; Schooneveld, Erik M.; Rhodes, Nigel J.

    2018-03-01

    Current ZnS:Ag/6LiF based scintillation detectors are often count rate limited by the long lifetime afterglow in the scintillator. Despite this drawback, new instruments at neutron scattering facilities, like ISIS in the UK, would still like to use ZnS:Ag/6LiF detectors due to their low gamma sensitivity, high light output, simplicity of detector design and relatively inexpensive production. One particular advantage of ZnS:Ag/6LiF detectors is their ability to provide strong pulse shape discrimination between neutrons and gammas. Despite the advantages of these detectors, it is becoming clear that new and upgraded instruments will be limited by the count rate capability of ZnS:Ag/6LiF, so an alternative scintillator technology with equivalent simplicity is being sought. ZnO:Zn/6LiF is investigated here as a low afterglow alternative to ZnS:Ag/6LiF. Basic scintillation properties of ZnO:Zn are studied and are discussed. Pulse shape discrimination between neutrons and gammas is explored and taken advantage of through simple single photon counting methods. A further step toward a realistic detector for neutron scattering is also taken by fiber coupling the ZnO:Zn/6LiF to a PMT. In an initial study of this fiber coupled configuration, 60Co gamma sensitivity of ∼ 7 × 10-6 is shown and improvements in count rate capability of at least a factor of 6 over ZnS:Ag/6LiF based neutron detectors are demonstrated.

  14. Effect of heavy Ag doping on the physical properties of ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Qingyu; Zhao, Chunwang; Jia, Xiaofang; Xu, Zhenchao

    2018-04-01

    The band structure, density of state and absorption spectrum of Zn1‑xAgxO (x = 0.02778, 0.04167) were calculated. Results indicated that a higher doping content of Ag led to a higher total energy, lower stability, higher formation energy, narrower bandgap, more significant red shift of the absorption spectrum, higher relative concentration of free hole, smaller hole effective mass, lower mobility and better conductivity. Furthermore, four types of model with the same doping content of double Ag-doped Zn1‑xAgxO (x = 0.125) but different manners of doping were established. Two types of models with different doping contents of double Ag-doped Zn1‑xAgxO (x = 0.0626, 0.0833) but the same manner of doping, were also established. Under the same doping content and different ordering occupations in Ag double doping, the doped system almost caused magnetic quenching upon the nearest neighbor -Ag-O-Ag- bonding at the direction partial to the a- or b-axis. Upon the next-nearest neighbor of -Ag-O-Zn-O-Ag- bonding at the direction partial to the c-axis, the total magnetic moment of the doped system increased, and the doped system reached a Curie temperature above the room-temperature. All these results indicated that the magnetic moments of Ag double-doped ZnO systems decreased with increased Ag doping content. Within the range of the mole number of the doping content of 0.02778-0.04167, a greater Ag doping content led to a narrower bandgap of the doped system and a more significant red shift in the absorption spectrum. The absorption spectrum of the doped ZnO system with interstitial Ag also shows a red shift.

  15. Effect of Ag and Pb Addition on Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of SAC 105 Solders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, Aliz; Janovszky, Dora; Kardos, Ibolya; Molnar, Istvan; Gacsi, Zoltan

    2015-10-01

    Melting and crystallization processes of lead-free and lead-contaminated alloys in near-equilibrium state were investigated. In addition, the effect of silver content up to 4 wt.% on the microstructure of Sn-Ag-Cu alloys was studied. The volume fraction of β-Sn decreased by half owing to 4 wt.% Ag content. Furthermore, contamination by lead strongly influences the properties of the solidified microstructure. The Pb grains appear as a result of two processes when the Pb content is equal to 0.5 wt.% or higher: Pb phase solidifies in the quaternary eutectic at 176°C, and Pb grains precipitate from the primary β-Sn solid solution grain during a solid state reaction. The freezing range enlarges to 51°C due to 2 wt.% Pb content owing to quaternary eutectic. Above 1 wt.% Pb content, the mechanical properties also improve due to grains of quaternary eutectic Pb and precipitated Pb grains with a size <1 μm.

  16. The interaction of Ag with Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, S. X.; Song, K. H.; Liu, H. K.; Sorrell, C. C.; Apperley, M. H.; Gouch, A. J.; Savvides, N.; Hensley, D. W.

    1989-10-01

    Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor compounds have been doped with up to 30 wt% Ag, sintered under variable oxygen partial pressure, and characterised in terms of the electrical and crystallographic behaviour. In contrast to previous reports that claim that Ag is the only metal non-poisoning to the superconductivity of Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O (BSCCO), it has been found that Ag additions to Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O depress Tc and Jc drastically and cause a large decrease in lattice parameters when samples are treated in air or pure oxygen. However, the lattice parameters, Tc and Jc remain unaffected by Ag additions when samples are heat treated in 0.030-0.067 atm oxygen. It is clear that the Ag reacts with and destabilises the superconducting phase when the samples are treated in air or pure oxygen while, when the samples are heat treated in low oxygen partial pressures, the Ag remains as an isolated inert metal phase that improves the weak links between the grains. This discovery clearly shows the feasibility of Ag-clad superconductor wire. For Ag-clad superconductor tape of 0.1 mm 2 cross sectional area heat treated in air, Jc was measured to be 54 A/cm 2. The same specimen sintered in 0.067 atm oxygen showed that the Jc increased to 2078 A/cm 2.

  17. Enhancement of durability of NIR emission of Ag2S@ZnS QDs in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimipour, M.; Bagheri, M.; Molaei, M.

    2017-11-01

    Stability of Ag2S@ZnS QDs in water is a crucial concern for their application in biology. In this work, both physical sustainability and emission stability of Ag2S QDs were enhanced using parameter optimization of a pulsed microwave irradiation (MI) method up to 105 days after their preparation. UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectroscopies depicted an absorption and emission about 817 nm and 878 nm, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed a growth of Ag2S acanthite phase. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images revealed a clear formation of Ag2S@ZnS core-shell structure.

  18. Diffusion Mechanisms of Ag atom in ZnO crystal: A First Principles Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoumi, Saeed; Noori, Amirreza; Nadimi, Ebrahim

    2017-12-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is currently under intensive investigation, as a result of its various applications in micro, nano and optoelectronics. However, a stable and reproducible p-type doping of ZnO is still a main challenging issue. Group IB elements such as Au, Cu and Ag, are promising candidates for p-type doping. Particularly, Ag atoms has been shown to be able to easily diffuse through the crystal structure of ZnO and lead to the p-type doping of the host crystal. However, the current understanding of Ag defects and their mobility in the ZnO crystal is still not fully explored. In this work, we report the results of our first-principles calculations based on density functional theory for Ag defects, particularly the interstitial and substitutional defects in ZnO crystal. Defect formation energies are calculated in different charged states as a function of Fermi energy in order to clarify the p-type behaviour of Ag-doped ZnO. We also investigate the diffusion behaviour and migration paths of Ag in ZnO crystal in the framework of density functional theory applying climbing image (CI) nudged elastic band method (NEB).

  19. Antifungal mechanisms of ZnO and Ag nanoparticles to Sclerotinia homoeocarpa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junli; Sang, Hyunkyu; Guo, Huiyuan; Popko, James T.; He, Lili; White, Jason C.; Parkash Dhankher, Om; Jung, Geunhwa; Xing, Baoshan

    2017-04-01

    Fungicides have extensively been used to effectively combat fungal diseases on a range of plant species, but resistance to multiple active ingredients has developed in pathogens such as Sclerotinia homoeocarpa, the causal agent of dollar spot on cool-season turfgrasses. Recently, ZnO and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) have received increased attention due to their antimicrobial activities. In this study, the NPs’ toxicity and mechanisms of action were investigated as alternative antifungal agents against S. homoeocarpa isolates that varied in their resistance to demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicides. S. homoeocarpa isolates were treated with ZnO NPs and ZnCl2 (25-400 μg ml-1) and Ag NPs and AgNO3 (5-100 μg ml-1) to test antifungal activity of the NPs and ions. The mycelial growth of S. homoeocarpa isolates regardless of their DMI sensitivity was significantly inhibited on ZnO NPs (≥200 μg ml-1), Ag NPs (≥25 μg ml-1), Zn2+ ions (≥200 μg ml-1), and Ag+ ions (≥10 μg ml-1) amended media. Expression of stress response genes, glutathione S-transferase (Shgst1) and superoxide dismutase 2 (ShSOD2), was significantly induced in the isolates by exposure to the NPs and ions. In addition, a significant increase in the nucleic acid contents of fungal hyphae, which may be due to stress response, was observed upon treatment with Ag NPs using Raman spectroscopy. We further observed that a zinc transporter (Shzrt1) might play an important role in accumulating ZnO and Ag NPs into the cells of S. homoeocarpa due to overexpression of Shzrt1 significantly induced by ZnO or Ag NPs within 3 h of exposure. Yeast mutants complemented with Shzrt1 became more sensitive to ZnO and Ag NPs as well as Zn2+ and Ag+ ions than the control strain and resulted in increased Zn or Ag content after exposure. This is the first report of involvement of the zinc transporter in the accumulation of Zn and Ag from NP exposure in filamentous plant pathogenic fungi. Understanding the molecular

  20. Role of Pb for Ag growth on H-passivated Si(1 0 0) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, S.; Satpati, B.; Joseph, B.; Dev, B. N.

    2005-08-01

    We have deposited Ag on hydrogen passivated Si(1 0 0) surfaces under high vacuum conditions at room temperature. The deposition, followed by annealing at 250 °C for 30 min, produced silver islands of an average lateral size 36±14 nm. Depositing a small amount of Pb prior to Ag deposition reduced the average island size to 14±5 nm. A small amount of Pb, initially present at the Ag-Si interface, is found to be segregating to the surface of Ag after annealing. Both these aspects, namely, reduction of the island size and Pb floating on the Ag surface conform to the surfactant action of Pb. Samples have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). A selective etching process that preferentially removes Pb, in conjunction with RBS, was used to detect surface segregation of Pb involving depth scales below the resolution of conventional RBS. The annealing and etching process leaves only smaller Ag islands on the surface with complete removal of Pb. Ag growth in the presence of Pb leads to smaller Ag islands with a narrower size distribution.

  1. Investigations of Cu, Pb and Zn partitioning by sequential extraction in harbour sediments after electrodialytic remediation.

    PubMed

    Kirkelund, Gunvor M; Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Villumsen, Arne

    2010-05-01

    Electrodialytic remediation was used to remove Cu, Zn and Pb from three different contaminated harbour sediments. Electrodialytic experiments lasting 2 and 4 weeks were performed and 48-86% Cu, 74-90% Zn and 62-88% Pb were removed from the different sediments and the removal increased with longer remediation time. A three step sequential extraction scheme (BCR), with an extra residual step, was used to evaluate the heavy metal distribution in the sediments before and after electrodialytic remediation. Cu was mainly associated with the oxidisable phase of the sediment, both before and after remediation. Zn and Pb were found in the exchangeable and reducible phases before remediation. Zn was still found in the exchangeable and reducible phases after remediation, whereas most Pb was removed from these phases during electrodialytic remediation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Highly reliable Ag/Zn/Ag ohmic reflector for high-power GaN-based vertical light-emitting diode.

    PubMed

    Yum, Woong-Sun; Jeon, Joon-Woo; Sung, Jun-Suk; Seong, Tae-Yeon

    2012-08-13

    We report the improved performance of InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) through Ag reflectors combined with a Zn middle layer. It is shown that the Zn middle layer (5 nm thick) suppresses the agglomeration of Ag reflectors by forming ZnO and dissolving into Ag. The Ag/Zn/Ag contacts show a specific contact resistance of 6.2 × 10(-5) Ωcm(2) and reflectance of ~83% at a wavelength of 440 nm when annealed at 500 °C, which are much better than those of Ag only contacts. Blue LEDs fabricated with the 500 °C-annealed Ag/Zn/Ag reflectors show a forward voltage of 2.98 V at an injection current of 20 mA, which is lower than that (3.02 V) of LEDs with the annealed Ag only contacts. LEDs with the 500 °C-annealed Ag/Zn/Ag contacts exhibit 34% higher output power (at 20 mA) than LEDs with the annealed Ag only contacts.

  3. ZnTe Alloying Effect on Enhanced Thermoelectric Properties of p-Type PbTe.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Kyunghan; Shin, Hocheol; Im, Jino; Park, Sang Hyun; Chung, In

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the effect of ZnTe incorporation on PbTe to enhance thermoelectric performance. We report structural, microscopic, and spectroscopic characterizations, ab initio theoretical calculations, and thermoelectric transport properties of Pb 0.985 Na 0.015 Te-x% ZnTe (x = 0, 1, 2, 4). We find that the solid solubility limit of ZnTe in PbTe is less than 1 mol %. The introduction of 2% ZnTe in p-type Pb 0.985 Na 0.015 Te reduces the lattice thermal conductivity through the ZnTe precipitates at the microscale. Consequently, a maximum thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of 1.73 at 700 K is achieved for the spark plasma-sintered Pb 0.985 Na 0.015 Te-2% ZnTe, which arises from a decreased lattice thermal conductivity of ∼0.69 W m -1 K -1 at ∼700 K in comparison with Pb 0.985 Na 0.015 Te.

  4. Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles study by first principle: The structural, magnetic and optical properties

    SciT

    Cheng, Hai-Xia; Wang, Xiao-Xu; Beijing Computing Center, Beijing 100094

    Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles of around 72 atoms have been investigated by the density functional theory, revealing proving for the first time that the core-shell structure exhibits a shrinkage phenomenon from outer shell in agreement with the other studies in literatures. Our calculations predict that the Ag@ZnO core-shell structure is a ferromagnetic spin polarized state, and the magnetism mainly stems from the spin splitting of 2p electrons of O atoms. In addition, the total and partial DOS of Ag@ZnO indicate that the nanostructure is a half-metallic nanoparticle and has the characters of the p-type semiconductor. Furthermore, the optical properties calculations showmore » that the absorption edge of Ag@ZnO have a red shift and good photocatalysis compare to that of the bulk ZnO. These results of the Ag@ZnO core-shell structure obtain a well agreement with the experimental measurement. - Graphical abstract: Geometric structure of (a) Ag@ZnO core-shell nanostructure; (b) the core of Ag; (c) the shell of ZnO The core-shell nanoparticle Ag@ZnO contains Ag inner core of radius of 4 Å and ZnO outer shell with thickness of 2 Å. Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles of around 72 atoms have been proved for the first time that the core-shell structure exhibit a shrinkage phenomenon from outer shell. Our calculations predict that the Ag@ZnO core-shell structure is a half-metallic nanoparticle and has the characters of the p-type semiconductor. The absorption edge of Ag@ZnO have a red shift and get good photo-catalysis compare to that of the bulk ZnO.« less

  5. Probing the distribution and contamination levels of 10 trace metal/metalloids in soils near a Pb/Zn smelter in Middle China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhonggen; Feng, Xinbin; Bi, Xiangyang; Li, Guanghui; Lin, Yan; Sun, Guangyi

    2014-03-01

    The horizontal and vertical distribution patterns and contamination status of ten trace metal/metalloids (Ag, Bi, Co, Cr, Ge, In, Ni, Sb, Sn, Tl) in soils around one of the largest Chinese Pb-Zn smelter in Zhuzhou City, Central China, were revealed. Different soil samples were collected from 11 areas, including ten agricultural areas and one city park area, with a total of 83 surface soil samples and six soil cores obtained. Trace metal/metalloids were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry after digestion by an acid mixture of HF and HNO3. The results showed that Ag, Bi, In, Sb, Sn, and Tl contents decreased both with the distance to the Pb-Zn smelter as well as the soil depth, hinting that these elements were mainly originated from the Pb-Zn smelting operations and were introduced into soils through atmospheric deposition. Soil Ge was influenced by the smelter at a less extent, while the distributions of Co, Cr, and Ni were roughly even among most sampling sites and soil depths, suggesting that they were primarily derived from natural sources. The contamination status, as revealed by the geo-accumulation index (I geo), indicated that In and Ag were the most enriched elements, followed by Sb, Bi, and Sn. In general, Cr, Tl, Co, Ni, and Ge were of an uncontaminated status.

  6. Study on swift heavy ions induced modifications of Ag-ZnO nanocomposite thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. K.; Singhal, R.; Siva Kumar, V. V.

    2017-03-01

    In the present work, swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation induced modifications in structural and optical properties of Ag-ZnO nanocomposite thin films have been investigated. Ag-ZnO nanocomposite (NCs) thin films were synthesized by RF magnetron sputtering technique and irradiated with 100 MeV Ag7+ ions at three different fluences 3 × 1012, 1 × 1013 and 3 × 1013 ions/cm2. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry revealed Ag concentration to be ∼8.0 at.%, and measured thickness of the films was ∼55 nm. Structural properties of pristine and irradiated films have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction analysis and found that variation in crystallite size of the film with ion irradiation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicates the formation of Ag-ZnO nanocomposite thin film with presence of Ag, Zn and O elements. Oxidation state of Ag and Zn also estimated by XPS analysis. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Ag nanoparticle has appeared at ∼475 nm in the pristine thin film, which is blue shifted by ∼30 nm in film irradiated at fluence of 3 × 1012 ions/cm2 and completely disappeared in film irradiated at higher fluences, 1 × 1013 and 3 × 1013 ions/cm2. A marginal change in the optical band gap of Ag-ZnO nanocomposite thin film is also found with increasing ion fluence. Surface morphology of pristine and irradiated films have been studied using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Raman and Photo-luminance (PL) spectra of nanocomposite thin films have been investigated to understand the ion induced modifications such as lattice defects and disordering in the nanocomposite thin film.

  7. Metallophytes in biotopes polluted by waste dumps rich in Zn-Pb, Cd (Olkusz region) - review of previous and planned research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rożek, Dorota

    2013-09-01

    The aim of that publication was the presentation of previous and planned research concerning selected vascular plants and soils near Olkusz (Southern Poland). The extremely high concentration of heavy metals in soils from that region was caused by the natural geochemical aureoles of dispersed metals (due to weathering of Zn-Pb-Fe ore sulphides) and mining and processing of shallowly occurring metalliferous deposits (containing Ag-Pb and Zn-Pb ores) since XII century. The condition of stress in metals, shortage of water and some plant nutrition led to formation of some adaptable vegetation features by plants growing in that region. Some species called metallophytes have been already detailed investigated. Moreover some geochemical and pedological research of soil have been already done. However the conditions of habitat of pioneering species such as Koeleria glauca and Corynephorus canescens are not still recognized.

  8. Assessment of Pb, Cd, Cr and Ag leaching from electronics waste using four extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Keith, Ashley; Keesling, Kara; Fitzwater, Kendra K; Pichtel, John; Houy, Denise

    2008-12-01

    Heavy metals present in electronic components may leach upon disposal and therefore pose significant environmental hazards. The potential leaching of Pb, Cd, Cr and Ag from PC cathode ray tubes, printed circuit boards (PCBs), PC mice, TV remote controls, and mobile phones was assessed. After controlled crushing, each component was extracted using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), EPA Method 1312 (SPLP), NEN 7371 (Dutch Environmental Agency), and DIN S4 (Germany). The TCLP consistently leached the greatest amounts of Pb from all components. The SPLP, NEN 7371 and DIN S4 extracted relatively small amounts of metals compared with the TCLP and were not considered effective as leaching tests for e-waste. The smallest size fraction (< 2 mm) of CRT glass and PCBs leached significantly (p < 0.05) highest Pb via the TCLP. A modified TCLP removed 50.9% more extractable Pb compared with the conventional procedure.

  9. Exploring the Photovoltaic Performance of All-Inorganic Ag2PbI4/PbI2 Blends.

    PubMed

    Frolova, Lyubov A; Anokhin, Denis V; Piryazev, Alexey A; Luchkin, Sergey Yu; Dremova, Nadezhda N; Troshin, Pavel A

    2017-04-06

    We present an all-inorganic photoactive material composed of Ag 2 PbI 4 and PbI 2 , which shows unexpectedly good photovoltaic performance in planar junction solar cells delivering external quantum efficiencies of ∼60% and light power conversion efficiencies of ∼3.9%. The revealed characteristics are among the best reported to date for metal halides with nonperovskite crystal structure. Most importantly, the obtained results suggest a possibility of reaching high photovoltaic efficiencies for binary and, probably, also ternary blends of different inorganic semiconductor materials. This approach, resembling the bulk heterojunction concept guiding the development of organic photovoltaics for two decades, opens wide opportunities for rational design of novel inorganic and hybrid materials for efficient and sustainable photovoltaic technologies.

  10. Critical island size for Ag thin film growth on ZnO (0 0 0 1 bar)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Adam L.; Smith, Roger; Kenny, Steven D.

    2017-02-01

    Island growth of Ag on ZnO is investigated with the development of a new technique to approximate critical island sizes. Ag is shown to attach in one of three highly symmetric sites on the ZnO surface or initial monolayers of grown Ag. Due to this, a lattice based adaptive kinetic Monte Carlo (LatAKMC) method is used to investigate initial growth phases. As island formation is commonly reported in the literature, the critical island sizes of Ag islands on a perfect polar ZnO surface and a first monolayer of grown Ag on the ZnO surface are considered. A mean rate approach is used to calculate the average time for an Ag ad-atom to drop off an island and this is then compared to deposition rates on the same island. Results suggest that Ag on ZnO (0 0 0 1 bar) will exhibit Stranski-Krastanov (layer plus island) growth.

  11. Aligned hierarchical Ag/ZnO nano-heterostructure arrays via electrohydrodynamic nanowire template for enhanced gas-sensing properties.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhouping; Wang, Xiaomei; Sun, Fazhe; Tong, Xiaohu; Zhu, Chen; Lv, Qiying; Ye, Dong; Wang, Shuai; Luo, Wei; Huang, YongAn

    2017-09-22

    Gas sensing performance can be improved significantly by the increase in both the effective gas exposure area and the surface reactivitiy of ZnO nanorods. Here, we propose aligned hierarchical Ag/ZnO nano-heterostructure arrays (h-Ag/ZnO-NAs) via electrohydrodynamic nanowire template, together with a subsequent hydrothermal synthesis and photoreduction reaction. The h-Ag/ZnO-NAs scatter at top for higher specific surface areas with the air, simultaneously contact at root for the electrical conduction. Besides, the ZnO nanorods are uniformly coated with dispersed Ag nanoparticles, resulting in a tremendous enhancement of the surface reactivity. Compared with pure ZnO, such h-Ag/ZnO-NAs exhibit lower electrical resistance and faster responses. Moreover, they demonstrate enhanced NO 2 gas sensing properties. Self-assembly via electrohydrodynamic nanowire template paves a new way for the preparation of high performance gas sensors.

  12. Enhanced photocatalytic performances and magnetic recovery capacity of visible-light-driven Z-scheme ZnFe2O4/AgBr/Ag photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jie; Cheng, Yahui; Wang, Tianzhao; Feng, Deqiang; Zheng, Lingcheng; Shao, Dawei; Wang, Weichao; Wang, Weihua; Lu, Feng; Dong, Hong; Zheng, Rongkun; Liu, Hui

    2018-05-01

    High efficiency, high stability and easy recovery are three key factors for practical photocatalysts. Z-scheme heterostructure is one of the most promising photocatalytic systems to meet all above requirements. However, efficient Z-scheme photocatalysts which could absorb visible light are still few and difficult to implement at present. In this work, the composite photocatalysts ZnFe2O4/AgBr/Ag were prepared through a two-step method. A ∼92% photodegradation rate on methyl orange was observed within 30 min under visible light, which is much better than that of individual ZnFe2O4 or AgBr/Ag. The stability was also greatly improved compared with AgBr/Ag. The increased performance is resulted from the suitable band alignment of ZnFe2O4 and AgBr, and it is defined as Z-scheme mechanism which was demonstrated by detecting active species and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Besides, ZnFe2O4/AgBr/Ag is ferromagnetic and can be recycled by magnet. These results show that ZnFe2O4/AgBr/Ag is a potential magnetically recyclable photocatalyst which can be driven by visible light.

  13. Thermophysical Properties of Sn-Ag-Cu Based Pb-Free Solders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sok Won; Lee, Jaeran; Jeon, Bo-Min; Jung, Eun; Lee, Sang Hyun; Kang, Kweon Ho; Lim, Kwon Taek

    2009-06-01

    Lead-tin (Pb-Sn) alloys are the dominant solders used for electronic packaging because of their low cost and superior properties required for interconnecting electronic components. However, increasing environmental and health concerns over the toxicity of lead, combined with global legislation to limit the use of Pb in manufactured products, have led to extensive research and development studies of lead-free solders. The Sn-Ag-Cu ternary eutectic alloy is considered to be one of the promising alternatives. Except for thermal properties, much research on several properties of Sn-Ag-Cu alloy has been performed. In this study, five Sn-xAg-0.5Cu alloys with variations of Ag content x of 1.0 mass%, 2.5 mass%, 3.0 mass%, 3.5 mass%, and 4.0 mass% were prepared, and their thermal diffusivity and specific heat were measured from room temperature to 150 °C, and the thermal conductivity was calculated using the measured thermal diffusivity, specific heat, and density values. Also, the linear thermal expansion was measured from room temperature to 170 °C. The results show that Sn-3.5Ag-0.5Cu is the best candidate because it has a maximum thermal conductivity and a low thermal expansion, which are the ideal conditions to be a proper packaging alloy for effective cooling and thermostability.

  14. The investigation of Ag/ZnO interface system by first principle: The structural, electronic and optical properties

    SciT

    Cheng, Hai-Xia; Wang, Xiao-Xu; Beijing Computing Center, Beijing 100094

    Ag/ZnO interfaces have been investigated for both of Zn-termination and O-termination by the first principle based on density functional theory. Our calculations demonstrate that the Ag atoms go inward from the Ag/ZnO interface, and the Zn and O atoms are all move outward bulk in the Zn-termination interface, and the changes are just opposite for O-termination. These behaviors are in agreement with the other studies in literatures. Furthermore, an expansion situation is observed in the first two Zn-O bilayer and first three Ag monolayers for both of Zn-termination and O-termination interfaces by comparing with the pure ZnO(0001) and Ag(111) surfaces.more » Moreover, the valence-band both of O-2p and Zn-3d states of Ag/ZnO interface gradual close to Femi level as the Zn, O atoms locate at the deeper layer for Zn-termination, but it is the other way round for O-termination. Calculated absorption spectrum indicates that the absorption intensity of Zn-termination interface is stronger than that of O-termination in the lower energy range (visible light region). These properties of ZnO surfaces are also evaluated for comparison with interfaces. - Graphical abstract: The structures of Ag/ZnO interface: Zn-termination (left) and O-termination (right). In this Ag/ZnO interface system, the ZnO (0001) surface is rotated 30°(R30), and Ag (111) surface is built (2×2) supercell, then a (2×√3) R30 Ag/ZnO interface is constructed using the supercell method (i.e. periodically repeated slabs). The lattice mismatch of (2×√3) R30 Ag/ZnO (2.6% mismatch) is smaller than that of (1×1) Ag/ZnO (11% mismatch).« less

  15. Microstructural Evolution and Tensile Properties of SnAgCu Mixed with Sn-Pb Solder Alloys (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-TP-2009-4132 MICROSTRUCTURAL EVOLUTION AND TENSILE PROPERTIES OF SnAgCu MIXED WITH Sn-Pb SOLDER ALLOYS (PREPRINT...PROPERTIES OF SnAgCu MIXED WITH Sn-Pb SOLDER ALLOYS (PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-04-C-5704 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...ANSI Std. Z39-18 Microstructural evolution and tensile properties of SnAgCu mixed with Sn-Pb solder alloys Fengjiang Wang,1 Matthew O’Keefe,1,2 and

  16. Photocatalytic activity of Ag/ZnO core-shell nanoparticles with shell thickness as controlling parameter under green environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajbongshi, Himanshu; Bhattacharjee, Suparna; Datta, Pranayee

    2017-02-01

    Plasmonic Ag/ZnO core-shell nanoparticles have been synthesized via a simple two-step wet chemical method for application in Photocatalysis. The morphology, size, crystal structure, composition and optical properties of the nanoparticles are investigated by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FTIR spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The shell thicknesses are varied by varying the concentration of zinc nitrate hexa-hydrate and triethanolamine. The ZnO shell coating over Ag core enhances the charge separation, whereas the larger shell thickness and increased refractive index of surrounding medium cause red shifts of surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) peak of Ag core. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of Ag/ZnO core-shell show that the larger shell thickness quenches the near band edge UV emission of ZnO. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) i.e. Nyquist plots also confirm the higher charge transfer efficiency of the Ag/ZnO core-shell nanoparticles. The Photocatalytic activities of Ag/ZnO core-shell nanoparticles are investigated by the degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye under direct sunlight irradiation. Compared to pure ZnO nanoparticles (NPs), Ag/ZnO core-shell NPs display efficient sunlight plasmonic photocatalytic activity because of the influence of SPR of Ag core and the electron sink effect. The photocatalytic activity of Ag/ZnO core-shell NPs is found to be enhanced with increase in shell thickness.

  17. Synthesis of highly efficient antibacterial agent Ag doped ZnO nanorods: Structural, Raman and optical properties

    SciT

    Jan, Tariq; Iqbal, Javed, E-mail: javed.saggu@iiu.edu.pk; Ismail, Muhammad

    Here, synthesis, structural, morphological, Raman, optical properties and antibacterial activity of undoped and Ag doped ZnO nanorods by chemical co-precipitation technique have been reported. Structural analysis has revealed that Ag doping cannot deteriorate the structure of ZnO and wurtzite phase is maintained. Lattice constants are found to be decreased with the Ag doping. Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy also confirm the X-ray diffraction results. Scanning electron microscopy results have demonstrated the formation of ZnO nanorods with average diameter and length of 96 nm and 700 nm, respectively. Raman spectroscopy results suggest that the Ag doping enhances the number of defects inmore » ZnO crystal. It has been found from optical study that Ag doping results in positional shift of band edge absorption peak. This is attributed to the successful incorporation of Ag dopant into ZnO host matrix. The antibacterial activity of prepared nanorods has been determined by two different methods and compared to that of undoped ZnO nanorods. Ag doped ZnO nanorods exhibit excellent antibacterial activity as compared to that of undoped ZnO nanorods. This excellent antibacterial activity may be attributed to the presence of oxygen vacancies and Zn{sup 2+} interstitial defects. Our preliminary findings suggest that Ag doped ZnO nanorods can be used externally to control the spreading of infections related with tested bacterial strains.« less

  18. Tennantite-tetrahedrite series from the Madan Pb-Zn deposits, Central Rhodopes, Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassileva, Rossitsa D.; Atanassova, Radostina; Kouzmanov, Kalin

    2014-08-01

    Minerals from the tennantite-tetrahedrite series (fahlores) are found as single euhedral crystals and crustiform aggregates in hydrothermal veins of the Gradishte and Petrovitsa Pb-Zn deposits of the Madan ore field, southern Bulgaria. Unusually large compositional variations and fine oscillatory crystal zoning were investigated with electron microprobe analysis. The Gradishte samples correspond dominantly to tennantite, while Petrovitsa crystals have exclusively tetrahedrite composition. Fahlore compositions at Madan correspond to zincian varieties (1.6-1.95 apfu), with low Fe-content (<0.45 apfu). Minor silver is characteristic only for the Petrovitsa samples, reaching a maximum of 0.30 apfu. The (Cu+Ag) content of the Petrovitsa tennantites and the Cu content of the Gradishte tetrahedrites systematically exceed 10 apfu resulting in compensation of the excess Cu in the structure by Fe3+. Textural characteristics, mineral relationships and available fluid inclusion and stable isotope data suggest that fahlores precipitated in the late stages of mineralization at Madan, at temperature interval of 300-200 °C from oxidizing fluids with mixed (magmatic-meteoric) signatures.

  19. The green synthesis of Ag/ZnO in montmorillonite with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrabnezhad, Sh.; Seifi, A.

    2016-11-01

    The Ag/ZnO-MMT nanocomposite was prepared using urtica dioica leaf extract. To improve the photocatalytic properties of ZnO-MMT nanocomposite, silver metal nanoparticles was deposited over nanocomposite. Zn(CH3COO)2, AgNO3 and Urtica dioica leaf extract were used as a zinc, silver precursor and reducing agent, respectively. The nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The powder X-ray diffraction showed that Ag/ZnO nanoparticles located on the surface MMT layers. The diffuse reflectance spectra of nanocomposite indicated a strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption band in the visible region, resulting from metallic Ag nanoparticles. TEM image demonstrated the presence of silver nanoparticles with an average size of 2-4 nm over both MMT and flower-shape ZnO. The photocatalytic activity of nanocomposite was studied for destructive reaction methylene blue dye under visible light. In addition, the effects of different parameters such as amount of nanocomposite, concentration of the dye and pH of the solution were studied. The results showed that modiffication of ZnO-MMT nanocomposite with silver nanoparticles increased the percentage of discoloration methylene blue (MB) from 38.95 to 91.95. MMT matrix showed an important role in the reduction of recombination of electron-hole in nanocomposite.

  20. Optoelectronic properties of candidate photovoltaic Cu 2PbSiS 4, Ag 2PbGeS 4 and KAg 2SbS 4 semiconductors

    SciT

    Nhalil, Hariharan; Han, Dan; Du, Mao-Hua

    High temperature synthesis and optical band gaps are reported for three candidate photovoltaic earth-abundant Cu 2PbSiS 4, Ag 2PbGeS 4 and KAg 2SbS 4 semiconductors. The reported synthesis method is found to be more advantageous for KAg 2SbS 4 compared to the literature reported synthesis utilizing supercritical ammonia as a reaction medium, which produces a mixture of chalcogenide products. Based on optical diffuse reflectance data, Cu 2PbSiS 4, Ag 2PbGeS 4 and KAg 2SbS 4 have band gaps in the 1.6–1.8 eV range, and are shown to be stable in ambient air for a period of 6 weeks, making themmore » attractive candidates for solar cell applications. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate indirect band gaps for Cu 2PbSiS 4 and KAg 2SbS 4, and a nearly direct band gap for Ag 2PbGeS 4 with the calculated difference between indirect and direct gaps of only 30 meV. The p-type semiconducting behavior of Cu 2PbSiS 4, Ag 2PbGeS 4 is also verified by the transport measurments. The 3D connectivity of the polyanionic networks in these compounds results in dispersive valence and conduction bands, which is especially noticeable for KAg 2SbS 4. This fact is in part attributed to the presence of formally pentavalent SbV in this compound leading to empty Sb 5s orbitals in the conduction band. Finally, we discuss the potential of Cu 2PbSiS 4, Ag 2PbGeS 4 and KAg 2SbS 4 for photovoltaic applications based on synthesis, stability, band gap and electronic structure considerations.« less

  1. Optoelectronic properties of candidate photovoltaic Cu 2PbSiS 4, Ag 2PbGeS 4 and KAg 2SbS 4 semiconductors

    DOE PAGES

    Nhalil, Hariharan; Han, Dan; Du, Mao-Hua; ...

    2018-03-01

    High temperature synthesis and optical band gaps are reported for three candidate photovoltaic earth-abundant Cu 2PbSiS 4, Ag 2PbGeS 4 and KAg 2SbS 4 semiconductors. The reported synthesis method is found to be more advantageous for KAg 2SbS 4 compared to the literature reported synthesis utilizing supercritical ammonia as a reaction medium, which produces a mixture of chalcogenide products. Based on optical diffuse reflectance data, Cu 2PbSiS 4, Ag 2PbGeS 4 and KAg 2SbS 4 have band gaps in the 1.6–1.8 eV range, and are shown to be stable in ambient air for a period of 6 weeks, making themmore » attractive candidates for solar cell applications. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate indirect band gaps for Cu 2PbSiS 4 and KAg 2SbS 4, and a nearly direct band gap for Ag 2PbGeS 4 with the calculated difference between indirect and direct gaps of only 30 meV. The p-type semiconducting behavior of Cu 2PbSiS 4, Ag 2PbGeS 4 is also verified by the transport measurments. The 3D connectivity of the polyanionic networks in these compounds results in dispersive valence and conduction bands, which is especially noticeable for KAg 2SbS 4. This fact is in part attributed to the presence of formally pentavalent SbV in this compound leading to empty Sb 5s orbitals in the conduction band. Finally, we discuss the potential of Cu 2PbSiS 4, Ag 2PbGeS 4 and KAg 2SbS 4 for photovoltaic applications based on synthesis, stability, band gap and electronic structure considerations.« less

  2. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity of visible-light-driven plasmonic Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites

    SciT

    Li, Xiaojuan, E-mail: lixiaojuan@fzu.edu.cn; Tang, Duanlian; Tang, Fan

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • A plasmonic Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} photocatalyst has been successfully synthesized. • Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites exhibit high visible light photocatalytic activity. • Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} photocatalyst is stable and magnetically separable. - Abstract: A visible-light-driven plasmonic Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposite has been successfully synthesized via a deposition–precipitation and photoreduction through a novel one-pot process. X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy were employed to investigate the crystal structure, chemical composition, morphology, and optical properties of the as-prepared nanocomposites. The photocatalytic activities of the nanocomposites were evaluated by photodegradationmore » of Rhodamine B (RhB) and phenol under visible light. The results demonstrated that the obtained Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites exhibited higher photocatalytic activity as compared to pure ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. In addition, the sample photoreduced for 20 min and calcined at 500 °C achieved the highest photocatalytic activity. Furthermore, the Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposite has high stability under visible light irradiation and could be conveniently separated by using an external magnetic field.« less

  3. Electrically conductive nanostructured silver doped zinc oxide (Ag:ZnO) prepared by solution-immersion technique

    SciT

    Afaah, A. N., E-mail: afaahabdullah@yahoo.com; Asib, N. A. M., E-mail: amierahasib@yahoo.com; Aadila, A., E-mail: aadilaazizali@gmail.com

    2016-07-06

    p-type ZnO films have been fabricated on ZnO-seeded glass substrate, using AgNO{sub 3} as a source of silver dopant by facile solution-immersion. Cleaned glass substrate were seeded with ZnO by mist-atomisation, and next the seeded substrates were immersed in Ag:ZnO solution. The effects of Ag doping concentration on the Ag-doped ZnO have been investigated. The substrates were immersed in different concentrations of Ag dopant with variation of 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 at. %. The surface morphology of the films was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). In order to investigate the electrical properties, the films weremore » characterized by Current-Voltage (I-V) measurement. FESEM micrographs showed uniform distribution of nanostructured ZnO and Ag:ZnO. Besides, the electrical properties of Ag-doped ZnO were also dependent on the doping concentration. The I-V measurement result indicated the electrical properties of 1 at. % Ag:ZnO thin film owned highest electrical conductivity.« less

  4. Pb(core)/ZnO(shell) nanowires obtained by microwave-assisted method

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this study, Pb-filled ZnO nanowires [Pb(core)/ZnO(shell)] were synthesized by a simple and novel one-step vapor transport and condensation method by microwave-assisted decomposition of zinc ferrite. The synthesis was performed using a conventional oven at 1000 W and 5 min of treatment. After synthesis, a spongy white cotton-like material was obtained in the condensation zone of the reaction system. HRTEM analysis revealed that product consists of a Pb-(core) with (fcc) cubic structure that preferentially grows in the [111] direction and a hexagonal wurtzite ZnO-(Shell) that grows in the [001] direction. Nanowire length was more than 5 μm and a statistical analysis determined that the shell and core diameters were 21.00 ± 3.00 and 4.00 ± 1.00 nm, respectively. Experimental, structural details, and synthesis mechanism are discussed in this study. PMID:21985637

  5. Metal speciation in agricultural soils adjacent to the Irankuh Pb-Zn mining area, central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtari, Ahmad Reza; Roshani Rodsari, Parisa; Cohen, David R.; Emami, Adel; Dehghanzadeh Bafghi, Ali Akbar; Khodaian Ghegeni, Ziba

    2015-01-01

    Mining activities are a significant potential source of metal contamination of soils in surrounding areas, with particular concern for metals dispersed into agricultural area in forms that are bioavailable and which may affect human health. Soils in agricultural land adjacent to Pb-Zn mining operations in the southern part of the Irankuh Mountains contain elevated concentrations for a range of metals associated with the mineralization (including Pb, Zn and As). Total and partial geochemical extraction data from a suite of 137 soil samples is used to establish mineralogical controls on ore-related trace elements and help differentiate spatial patterns that can be related to the effects of mining on the agricultural land soils from general geological and environmental controls. Whereas the patterns for Pb, Zn and As are spatially related to the mining operations they display little correlation with the distribution of secondary Fe + Mn oxyhydroxides or carbonates, suggesting dispersion as dust and in forms with limited bioavailability.

  6. Room-temperature synthesis of carnation-like ZnO@AgI hierarchical nanostructures assembled by AgI nanoparticles-decorated ZnO nanosheets with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Huang, He; Huang, Ni; Wang, Zhonghua; Xia, Guangqiang; Chen, Ming; He, Lingling; Tong, Zhifang; Ren, Chunguang

    2017-09-15

    The preparation of highly efficient visible-light-driven photocatalyst for the photodegradation of organic pollutants has received much attention due to the increasing global energy crises and environmental pollution. In this study, carnation-like ZnO@AgI hierarchical nanostructures assembled by AgI nanoparticles-decorated ZnO nanosheets were successfully prepared via a room-temperature route. The as-prepared ZnO@AgI nanostructures exhibited highly efficient photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation (λ>400nm). Under optimized AgI content, the ZnO@AgI-5% sample showed high photocatalytic activity, which was 25.7 and 1.5 times the activity of pure ZnO and pure AgI, respectively. Mechanism studies indicated that superoxide anion radicals (O 2 - ) was the main reactive species in the photocatalytic process. The high photocatalytic activity of the ZnO@AgI nanostructures is attributed to the highly active AgI nanoparticles and the heterojunction between AgI nanoparticles and ZnO nanosheets. The heterojunction structure reduced the recombination of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs in the conduction band (CB) and valence band (VB) of AgI nanoparticles by transferring the electrons from the CB of AgI nanoparticles to the CB of ZnO nanosheets. The composite of ZnO and AgI not only improves photocatalytic efficiency but also reduces photocatalyst cost, which is beneficial for practical application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Structural analysis of the epitaxial interface Ag/ZnO in hierarchical nanoantennas.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, John Eder; Santiago, Ulises; Benitez, Alfredo; Yacamán, Miguel José; González, Francisco Javier; Ponce, Arturo

    2016-10-10

    Detectors, photo-emitter, and other high order radiation devices work under the principle of directionality to enhance the power of emission/transmission in a particular direction. In order to understand such directionality, it is important to study their coupling mechanism of their active elements. In this work, we present a crystalline orientation analysis of ZnO nanorods grown epitaxially on the pentagonal faces of silver nanowires. The analysis of the crystalline orientation at the metal-semiconductor interface (ZnO/Ag) is performed with precession electron diffraction under assisted scanning mode. In addition, high resolution X-ray diffraction on a Bragg-Brentano configuration has been used to identify the crystalline phases of the arrangement between ZnO rods and silver nanowires. The work presented herein provides a fundamental knowledge to understand the metal-semiconductor behavior related to the receiving/transmitting mechanisms of ZnO/Ag nanoantennas.

  8. Characterization of aerosols containing Zn, Pb, and Cl from an industrial region of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Moffet, Ryan C; Desyaterik, Yury; Hopkins, Rebecca J; Tivanski, Alexei V; Gilles, Mary K; Wang, Y; Shutthanandan, V; Molina, Luisa T; Abraham, Rodrigo Gonzalez; Johnson, Kirsten S; Mugica, Violeta; Molina, Mario J; Laskin, Alexander; Prather, Kimberly A

    2008-10-01

    Recent ice core measurements show lead concentrations increasing since 1970, suggesting new nonautomobile-related sources of Pb are becoming important worldwide (1). Developing a full understanding of the major sources of Pb and other metals is critical to controlling these emissions. During the March, 2006 MILAGRO campaign, single particle measurements in Mexico City revealed the frequent appearance of particles internally mixed with Zn, Pb, Cl, and P. Pb concentrations were as high as 1.14 microg/m3 in PM10 and 0.76 microg/m3 in PM2.5. Real time measurements were used to select time periods of interest to perform offline analysis to obtain detailed aerosol speciation. Many Zn-rich particles had needle-like structures and were found to be composed of ZnO and/or Zn(NO3)2 x 6H2O. The internally mixed Pb-Zn-Cl particles represented as much as 73% of the fine mode particles (by number) in the morning hours between 2-5 am. The Pb-Zn-Cl particles were primarily in the submicrometer size range and typically mixed with elemental carbon suggesting a combustion source. The unique single particle chemical associations measured in this study closely match signatures indicative of waste incineration. Our findings also show these industrial emissions play an important role in heterogeneous processing of NO(y) species. Primary emissions of metal and sodium chloride particles emitted by the same source underwent heterogeneous transformations into nitrate particles as soon as photochemical production of nitric acid began each day at approximately 7 am.

  9. Chemical behavior of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in a eutrophic reservoir: speciation and complexation capacity.

    PubMed

    Tonietto, Alessandra Emanuele; Lombardi, Ana Teresa; Choueri, Rodrigo Brasil; Vieira, Armando Augusto Henriques

    2015-10-01

    This research aimed at evaluating cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) speciation in water samples as well as determining water quality parameters (alkalinity, chlorophyll a, chloride, conductivity, dissolved organic carbon, dissolved oxygen, inorganic carbon, nitrate, pH, total suspended solids, and water temperature) in a eutrophic reservoir. This was performed through calculation of free metal ions using the chemical equilibrium software MINEQL+ 4.61, determination of labile, dissolved, and total metal concentrations via differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry, and determination of complexed metal by the difference between the total concentration of dissolved and labile metal. Additionally, ligand complexation capacities (CC), such as the strength of the association of metals-ligands (logK'ML) and ligand concentrations (C L) were calculated via Ruzic's linearization method. Water samples were taken in winter and summer, and the results showed that for total and dissolved metals, Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd concentration. In general, higher concentrations of Cu and Zn remained complexed with the dissolved fraction, while Pb was mostly complexed with particulate materials. Chemical equilibrium modeling (MINEQL+) showed that Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) dominated the labile species, while Cu and Pb were complexed with carbonates. Zinc was a unique metal for which a direct relation between dissolved species with labile and complexed forms was obtained. The CC for ligands indicated a higher C L for Cu, followed by Pb, Zn, and Cd in decreasing amounts. Nevertheless, the strength of the association of all metals and their respective ligands was similar. Factor analysis with principal component analysis as the extraction procedure confirmed seasonal effects on water quality parameters and metal speciation. Total, dissolved, and complexed Cu and total, dissolved, complexed, and labile Pb species were all higher in winter, whereas in summer, Zn was mostly present in the

  10. Hybrid polymer/ZnO solar cells sensitized by PbS quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy-p-phenylenevinylene)]/ZnO nanorod hybrid solar cells consisting of PbS quantum dots [QDs] prepared by a chemical bath deposition method were fabricated. An optimum coating of the QDs on the ZnO nanorods could strongly improve the performance of the solar cells. A maximum power conversion efficiency of 0.42% was achieved for the PbS QDs' sensitive solar cell coated by 4 cycles, which was increased almost five times compared with the solar cell without using PbS QDs. The improved efficiency is attributed to the cascade structure formed by the PbS QD coating, which results in enhanced open-circuit voltage and exciton dissociation efficiency. PMID:22313746

  11. Exploring the doping effects of Ag in p-type PbSe compounds with enhanced thermoelectric performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shanyu; Zheng, Gang; Luo, Tingting; She, Xiaoyu; Li, Han; Tang, Xinfeng

    2011-11-01

    In this study, we prepared a series of Ag-doped PbSe bulk materials by a melting-quenching process combined with a subsequent spark plasma sintering process, and systematically investigated the doping effects of Ag on the thermoelectric properties. Ag substitution in the Pb site does not introduce resonant levels near the valence band edge or detectable change in the density of state in the vicinity of the Fermi level, but moves the Fermi level down and increases the carrier concentration to a maximum value of ~4.7 × 1019 cm-3 which is still insufficient for heavily doped PbSe compounds. Nonetheless, the non-monotonic variation in carrier concentration with increasing Ag content indicates that Ag doping reaches the solution limit at ~1.0% and the excessive Ag presumably acts as donors in the materials. Moreover, the large energy gap of the PbSe-based material wipes off significant 'roll-over' in the Seebeck coefficient at elevated temperatures which gives rise to high power factors, being comparable to p-type Te analogues. Consequently, the maximum ZT reaches ~1.0 for the 1.5% Ag-doped samples with optimized carrier density, which is ~70% improvement in comparison with an undoped sample and also superior to the commercialized p-type PbTe materials.

  12. Zn isotope study of atmospheric emissions and dry depositions within a 5 km radius of a Pb-Zn refinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattielli, Nadine; Petit, Jérôme C. J.; Deboudt, Karine; Flament, Pascal; Perdrix, Esperanza; Taillez, Aurélien; Rimetz-Planchon, Juliette; Weis, Dominique

    The present paper examines the use of zinc isotopes as tracers of atmospheric sources and focuses on the potential fractionation of Zn isotopes through anthropogenic processes. In order to do so, Zn isotopic ratios are measured in enriched ores and airborne particles associated with pyrometallurgical activities of one of the major Pb-Zn refineries in France. Supporting the isotopic investigation, this paper also compares morphological and chemical characteristics of Zn particles collected on dry deposition plates ("environmental samples") placed within a 5 km radius of the smelter, with those of Zn particles collected inside the plant ("process samples"), i.e. dust collected from the main exhaust system of the plant. To ensure a constant isotopic "supply", the refinery processed a specific set of ores during the sampling campaigns, as agreed with the executive staff of the plant. Enriched ores and dust produced by the successive Zn extraction steps show strong isotope fractionation (from -0.66 to +0.22‰) mainly related to evaporation processes within the blast furnaces. Dust from the main chimney displays a δ 66Zn value of -0.67‰. Application of the Rayleigh equation to evaluate the fractionation factor associated with the Zn vapor produced after a free evaporation gives a range of αore/vapor from 1.0004 to 1.0008. The dry deposits, collected on plates downwind of the refinery, display δ 66Zn variations of up to +0.7‰. However, it is to be noted that between 190 and 1250 m from the main chimney of the refinery, the dry deposits show a high level of large (>10 μm) Zn, S, Fe and O bearing aggregates characterized by positive δ 66Zn values (+0.02 to +0.19‰). These airborne particles probably derive from the re-suspension of slag heaps and local emissions from the working-units. In contrast, from 1720 to 4560 m, the dry deposits are comprised of small (PM10) particles, including spherical Zn-bearing aggregates, showing negative δ 66Zn values (-0.52 to -0

  13. Comparative of Quercus spp. and Salix spp. for phytoremediation of Pb/Zn mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiang; Wang, Shufeng; Sun, Haijing; Chen, Yitai; Wang, Dongxue; Pan, Hongwei; Zou, Yazhu; Liu, Jianfeng; Zheng, Linyu; Zhao, Xiulian; Jiang, Zeping

    2017-02-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using tree seedlings for the phytoremediation of lead/zinc (Pb/Zn) mine tailings. Seedlings of three Quercus spp. (Q. shumardii, Q. phellos, and Q. virginiana) and rooted cuttings of two Salix spp. (S. matsudana and S. integra) were transplanted into pots containing 50 and 100 % Pb/Zn mine tailings to evaluate their tolerance of heavy metals. The five species showed different tolerance levels to the Pb/Zn tailings treatments. Q. virginiana was highly tolerant to heavy metals and grew normally in the Pb/Zn tailings. The root systems showed marked differences between the Quercus spp. and Salix spp., indicating that different mechanisms operated to confer tolerance of heavy metals. The maximum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry value of the five species showed no differences among the treatments, except for Q. shumardii. All species showed low metal translocation factors (TFs). However, S. integra had significantly higher TF values for Zn (1.42-2.18) and cadmium (1.03-1.45) than did the other species. In this respect, Q. virginiana showed the highest tolerance and a low TF, implying that it is a candidate for phytostabilization of mine tailings in southern China. S. integra may be useful for phytoextraction of tailings in temperate regions.

  14. Manipulation of surface morphology of flower-like Ag/ZnO nanorods to enhance photocatalytic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    U-thaipan, Kasira; Tedsree, Karaked

    2018-06-01

    The surface morphology of flower-like Ag/ZnO nanorod can be manipulated by adopting different synthetic routes and also loading different levels of Ag in order to alter their surface structures to achieve the maximum photocatalytic efficiency. In a single-step preparation method Ag/ZnO was prepared by heating directly a mixture of Zn2+ and Ag+ precursors in an aqueous NaOH-ethylene glycol solution, while in the two-step preparation method an intermediate of flower-shaped ZnO nanorod was obtained by a hydrothermal process before depositing Ag particles on the ZnO surfaces by chemical reduction. The structure, morphology and optical properties of the synthesized samples were characterized using TEM, SEM, XRD, DRS and PL techniques. The sample prepared by single-step method are characterized with agglomeration of Ag atoms as clusters on the surface of ZnO, whereas in the sample prepared by two-step method Ag atoms are found uniformly dispersed and deposited as discrete Ag nanoparticles on the surface of ZnO. A significant enhancement in the adsorption of visible light was evident for Ag/ZnO samples prepared by two-step method especially with low Ag content (0.5 mol%). The flower-like Ag/ZnO nanorod prepared with 0.5 mol% Ag by two-step process was found to be the most efficient photocatalyst for the degradation of phenol, which can decompose 90% of phenol within 120 min.

  15. Plasmonic Ag coated Zn/Ti-LDH with excellent photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yanping; Zhu, Runliang; Zhu, Gangqiang; Wang, Miaomiao; Chen, Yannan; Zhu, Jianxi; Xi, Yunfei; He, Hongping

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets, such as layered double hydroxides (LDH), have received considerable attention for their potential to meeting clean energy demand and solving environmental problems. In this work, novel and efficient photocatalysts of plasmonic Ag nanoparticles coated Zn/Ti-LDH nanosheets have been synthesized through low-temperature reduction method. The structural characteristics of the as-prepared products were investigated by a series of characteristic methods The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images showed that Ag nanoparticles were distributed on the surface of Zn/Ti-LDH uniformly. The UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) showed that the absorbance of Ag/LDH in visible-light region enhanced markedly and presented a broad band at 500-600 nm, which was resulted from the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect of Ag nanoparticles. The photocatalytic activities of Ag/LDH were evaluated by degradation of Rhodamine-B (RhB) and NO. The photocatalytic experiments showed that Ag/LDH had higher photocatalytic activity than that of pure LDH, and 2%Ag/LDH exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity. In addition, the 2%Ag/LDH exhibited high photochemical stability after multiple reaction runs. The obtained results from photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic measurement and transient photocurrent (I-V) analysis both revealed the existence of Schottky barriers between LDH and Ag nanoparticles. The electron spin resonance (ESR) showed that rad OH were the dominant active species in the photo-degradation process. The enhanced photocatalytic performance of the composite should be ascribed to both the SPR effect of Ag nanoparticles in visible light and the Schottky barriers between LDH and Ag nanoparticles.

  16. Ag nanoparticles-decorated ZnO nanorod array on a mechanical flexible substrate with enhanced optical and antimicrobial properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi; Tse, Wai Hei; Chen, Longyan; Zhang, Jin

    2015-03-01

    Heteronanostructured zinc oxide nanorod (ZnO NR) array are vertically grown on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) through a hydrothermal method followed by an in situ deposition of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) through a photoreduction process. The Ag-ZnO heterostructured nanorods on PDMS are measured with an average diameter of 160 nm and an average length of 2 μm. ZnO NRs measured by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) shows highly crystalline with a lattice fringe of 0.255 nm, which corresponds to the (0002) planes in ZnO crystal lattice. The average diameter of the Ag NPs in situ deposited on the ZnO NRs is estimated at 22 ± 2 nm. As compared to the bare ZnO NRs, the heterostructured Ag-ZnO nanorod array shows enhanced ultraviolet (UV) absorption at 440 nm, and significant emission in the visible region (λem = 542 nm). In addition, the antimicrobial efficiency of Ag-ZnO heterostructured nanorod array shows obvious improvement as compared to bare ZnO nanorod array. The cytotoxicity of ZnO nanorod array with and without Ag NPs was studied by using 3 T3 mouse fibroblast cell line. No significant toxic effect is imposed on the cells.

  17. Ag nanoparticles-decorated ZnO nanorod array on a mechanical flexible substrate with enhanced optical and antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Tse, Wai Hei; Chen, Longyan; Zhang, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Heteronanostructured zinc oxide nanorod (ZnO NR) array are vertically grown on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) through a hydrothermal method followed by an in situ deposition of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) through a photoreduction process. The Ag-ZnO heterostructured nanorods on PDMS are measured with an average diameter of 160 nm and an average length of 2 μm. ZnO NRs measured by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) shows highly crystalline with a lattice fringe of 0.255 nm, which corresponds to the (0002) planes in ZnO crystal lattice. The average diameter of the Ag NPs in situ deposited on the ZnO NRs is estimated at 22 ± 2 nm. As compared to the bare ZnO NRs, the heterostructured Ag-ZnO nanorod array shows enhanced ultraviolet (UV) absorption at 440 nm, and significant emission in the visible region (λem = 542 nm). In addition, the antimicrobial efficiency of Ag-ZnO heterostructured nanorod array shows obvious improvement as compared to bare ZnO nanorod array. The cytotoxicity of ZnO nanorod array with and without Ag NPs was studied by using 3 T3 mouse fibroblast cell line. No significant toxic effect is imposed on the cells.

  18. Thermal-induced SPR tuning of Ag-ZnO nanocomposite thin film for plasmonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. K.; Singhal, R.

    2018-05-01

    The formation of silver (Ag) nanoparticles in a ZnO matrix were successfully synthesized by RF-magnetron sputtering at room temperature. As prepared Ag-ZnO nanocomposite (NCs) thin films were annealed in vacuum at three different temperatures of 300 °C, 400 °C and 500 °C, respectively. The structural modifications for as-deposited and annealed films were estimated by X-ray diffraction and TEM techniques. The crystalline behavior preferably along the c-axis of the hexagonal wurtzite structure was observed in as-deposited Ag-ZnO film and improved significantly with increasing the annealing temperature. The crystallite size of as-deposited film was measured to be 13.6 nm, and increases up to 28.5 nm at higher temperatures. The chemical composition and surface structure of the as-deposited films were estimated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The presence of Ag nanoparticles with average size of 8.2 ± 0.2 nm, was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band was observed at the wavelength of ∼565 nm for as-deposited film and a remarkable red shift of ∼22 nm was recorded after the annealing treatment as confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopy confirmed the grain growth from 60.38 nm to 79.42 nm for as-deposited and higher temperature annealed film respectively, with no significant change in the surface roughness. Thermal induced modifications such as disordering and lattice defects in Ag-ZnO NCs thin films were carried out by Raman spectroscopy. High quality Ag-ZnO NCs thin films with minimum strain and tunable optical properties could be useful in various plasmonic applications.

  19. Evidence for microbial activity in the formation of carbonate-hosted Zn-Pb deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucha, H.; Raith, J.

    2009-04-01

    *Kucha H **Raith J *University of Mining and Metallurgy, Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, Mickiewicza 30, PL-30-059 Krakow, Poland. ** University of Leoben, Department of Applied Geosciences and Geophysics, A-8700 Leoben, Peter Tunner Str. 5, Austria Evidence for microbial activity in the formation of carbonate-hosted Zn-Pb deposits To date evaluation of bacterial processes in the formation of carbonate-hosted Zn-Pb deposits is largely based on sulphur isotope evidence. However, during a past few years, textural criteria, have been established, which support the bacterial origin of many of these deposits. This has received a strong support from micro-, and nano-textures of naturally growing bacterial films in a flooded tunnel within carbonates that host the Piquette Zn-Pb deposit (Druschel et al., 2002). Bacterial textures, micro- and nano textures found in carbonate-hosted Zn-Pb deposits are: i)wavy bacterial films up to a few mm thick to up to a few cm long composed of peloids, ii)semimassive agglomeration of peloids in the carbonate matrix, and iii)solitary peloids dispersed in the carbonate matrix. Peloids are usually composed of a distinct 50-90um core most often made up of Zn-bearing calcite surrounded by 30-60um thick dentate rim composed of ZnS. Etching of Zn-carbonate cores reveals 1 - 2um ZnS filaments, and numerous 15 to 90nm large ZnS nano-spheres (Kucha et al., 2005). In massive ore composite Zn-calcite - sphalerite peloids are entirely replaced by zinc sulphide, and form peloids ghosts within banded sulphide layers. Bacterially derived micro- and nano-textures have been observed in the following carbonate-hosted Zn-Pb deposits: 1)Irish-type Zn-Pb deposits. In the Navan deposit the basic sulphur is isotopically light bacteriogenic S (Fallick at al., 2001). This is corroborated by semimassive agglomerations of composite peloids (Zn-calcite-ZnS corona or ZnS core-melnikovite corona). Etching of Zn-calcite core reveals globular

  20. Superhydrophobic Ag decorated ZnO nanostructured thin film as effective surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayram, Naidu Dhanpal; Sonia, S.; Poongodi, S.; Kumar, P. Suresh; Masuda, Yoshitake; Mangalaraj, D.; Ponpandian, N.; Viswanathan, C.

    2015-11-01

    The present work is an attempt to overcome the challenges in the fabrication of super hydrophobic silver decorated zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructure thin films via thermal evaporation process. The ZnO nanowire thin films are prepared without any surface modification and show super hydrophobic nature with a contact angle of 163°. Silver is further deposited onto the ZnO nanowire to obtain nanoworm morphology. Silver decorated ZnO (Ag@ZnO) thin films are used as substrates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) studies. The formation of randomly arranged nanowire and silver decorated nanoworm structure is confirmed using FESEM, HR-TEM and AFM analysis. Crystallinity and existence of Ag on ZnO are confirmed using XRD and XPS studies. A detailed growth mechanism is discussed for the formation of the nanowires from nanobeads based on various deposition times. The prepared SERS substrate reveals a reproducible enhancement of 3.082 × 107 M for Rhodamine 6G dye (R6G) for 10-10 molar concentration per liter. A higher order of SERS spectra is obtained for a contact angle of 155°. Thus the obtained thin films show the superhydrophobic nature with a highly enhanced Raman spectrum and act as SERS substrates. The present nanoworm morphology shows a new pathway for the construction of semiconductor thin films for plasmonic studies and challenges the orderly arranged ZnO nanorods, wires and other nano structure substrates used in SERS studies.

  1. Studies on Magnetron Sputtered ZnO-Ag Films: Adhesion Activity of S. aureus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geetha, S. R.; Dhivya, P.; Raj, P. Deepak; Sridharan, M.; Princy, S. Adline

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been deposited onto thoroughly cleaned stainless steel (AISI SS 304) substrates by reactive direct current (dc) magnetron sputtering and the films were doped with silver (Ag). The prepared thin films were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) to investigate the structural and morphological properties. The thickness values of the films were in the range of 194 to 256nm. XRD results revealed that the films were crystalline with preferred (002) orientation. Grain size values of pure ZnO films were found to be 19.82-23.72nm. On introducing Ag into ZnO film, the micro-structural properties varied. Adhesion test was carried out with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in order to know the adherence property of the deposited films. Colony formation units (CFU) were counted manually and bacterial adhesion inhibition (BAI) was calculated. We observed a decrease in the CFU on doping Ag in the ZnO films. BAI of the film deposited at - 100 V substrate bias was found to be increased on Ag doping from 69 to 88%.

  2. Preparation, structural and luminescent properties of nanocrystalline ZnO films doped Ag by close space sublimation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomchenko, Viktoriya; Mazin, Mikhail; Sopinskyy, Mykola; Lytvyn, Oksana; Dan'ko, Viktor; Piryatinskii, Yurii; Demydiuk, Pavlo

    2018-05-01

    The simple way for silver doping of ZnO films is presented. The ZnO films were prepared by reactive rf-magnetron sputtering on silicon and sapphire substrates. Ag doping is carried out by sublimation of the Ag source located at close space at atmospheric pressure in air. Then the ZnO and ZnO-Ag films were annealed in wet media. The microstructure and optical properties of the films were compared and studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL). XRD results indicated that all the ZnO films have a polycrystalline hexagonal structure and a preferred orientation with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. The annealing and Ag doping promote increasing grain's sizes and modification of grain size distribution. The effect of substrate temperature, substrate type, Ag doping and post-growth annealing of the films was studied by PL spectroscopy. The effect of Ag doping was obvious and identical for all the films, namely the wide visible bands of PL spectra are suppressed by Ag doping. The intensity of ultraviolet band increased 15 times as compared to their reference films on sapphire substrate. The ultraviolet/visible emission ratio was 20. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) for a 380 nm band was 14 nm, which is comparable with that of epitaxial ZnO. The data implies the high quality of ZnO-Ag films. Possible mechanisms to enhance UV emission are discussed.

  3. Optical properties of ordered ZnO/Ag thin films on polystyrene spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiu; Chen, Xiuyan; Xin, Zhiqing; Li, Luhai; Xu, Yanfang

    2017-08-01

    A thorough research of the optical properties of ZnO/Ag structures sputtered by RF on PS colloidal crystal molds with different diameters is reported. The influences of the period of the substrates on the performance of ZnO thin films were studied. The results of scanning electron microscopic, X-ray diffraction patterns and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy indicated that the ZnO/Ag thin films were well-covering on PS colloidal crystal molds. The diameter of the polystyrene particles significantly influenced the PL spectrum intensity of ZnO/Ag by affecting the interferences of light. After adding PS colloidal crystal molds with different diameters, all the samples show two luminescent regions, namely a strong, narrow UV emission peak and a wide, weak visible emission band. However, the signal of UV emission increases more significantly. In particular, the maximum enhancement occurs when the diameter is 300 nm. This work proposes an effective way to improve ZnO light emission based on a simple, rapid and cost effective method to fabricate ordered periodic substrates by preparing single layer polystyrene microspheres masks.

  4. Constitutive Behavior of Mixed Sn-Pb/Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu Solder Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, J. P.; Chan, D. K.; Subbarayan, G.; Handwerker, C. A.

    2012-03-01

    During the transition from Pb-containing solders to Pb-free solders, joints composed of a mixture of Sn-Pb and Sn-Ag-Cu often result from either mixed assemblies or rework. Comprehensive characterization of the mechanical behavior of these mixed solder alloys resulting in a deformationally complete constitutive description is necessary to predict failure of mixed alloy solder joints. Three alloys with 1 wt.%, 5 wt.%, and 20 wt.% Pb were selected so as to represent reasonable ranges of Pb contamination expected from different 63Sn-37Pb components mixed with Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu. Creep and displacement-controlled tests were performed on specially designed assemblies at temperatures of 25°C, 75°C, and 125°C using a double lap shear test setup that ensures a nearly homogeneous state of plastic strain at the joint interface. The observed changes in creep and tensile behavior with Pb additions were related to phase equilibria and microstructure differences observed through differential scanning calorimetric and scanning electron microscopic cross-sectional analysis. As Pb content increased, the steady-state creep strain rates increased, and primary creep decreased. Even 1 wt.% Pb addition was sufficient to induce substantially large creep strains relative to the Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu alloy. We describe rate-dependent constitutive models for Pb-contaminated Sn-Ag-Cu solder alloys, ranging from the traditional time-hardening creep model to the viscoplastic Anand model. We illustrate the utility of these constitutive models by examining the inelastic response of a chip-scale package (CSP) under thermomechanical loading through finite-element analysis. The models predict that, as Pb content increases, total inelastic dissipation decreases.

  5. Electrochemical EDTA recycling after soil washing of Pb, Zn and Cd contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Pociecha, Maja; Kastelec, Damijana; Lestan, Domen

    2011-08-30

    Recycling of chelant decreases the cost of EDTA-based soil washing. Current methods, however, are not effective when the spent soil washing solution contains more than one contaminating metal. In this study, we applied electrochemical treatment of the washing solution obtained after EDTA extraction of Pb, Zn and Cd contaminated soil. A sacrificial Al anode and stainless steel cathode in a conventional electrolytic cell at pH 10 efficiently removed Pb from the solution. The method efficiency, specific electricity and Al consumption were significantly higher for solutions with a higher initial metal concentration. Partial replacement of NaCl with KNO(3) as an electrolyte (aggressive Cl(-) are required to prevent passivisation of the Al anode) prevented EDTA degradation during the electrolysis. The addition of FeCl(3) to the acidified washing solution prior to electrolysis improved Zn removal. Using the novel method 98, 73 and 66% of Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively, were removed, while 88% of EDTA was preserved in the treated washing solution. The recycled EDTA retained 86, 84 and 85% of Pb, Zn and Cd extraction potential from contaminated soil, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Characteristic of total suspended particulate (TSP) containing Pb and Zn at solid waste landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budihardjo, M. A.; Noveandra, K.; Samadikun, B. P.

    2018-05-01

    Activities conducted at municipal solid waste landfills (MSWLs) potentially cause air pollution. Heavy vehicles in MSWLs release various pollutants that can have negative impacts for humans. One noticeable pollutant at MSWLs is airborne total suspended particulate (TSP) which may contain heavy metals such as Pb and Zn and can cause disease when inhaled by humans. In this study, TSP from a landfill in Semarang, Indonesia was collected and characterized to quantify the concentration of Pb and Zn. Meteorological factors (i.e. temperature, humidity and wind velocity) and landfill activities were considered as factors affecting pollutant concentrations. TSP was sampled using dust samplers while the concentrations of heavy metals in TSP were analyzed using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Pb concentration ranged from 0.84 to 1.78 µg/m3 while Zn concentration was from 7.87 to 8.76 µg/m3. The levels of Pb were below the threshold specified by the Indonesian Government. Meanwhile, the threshold for Zn has not yet been determined.

  7. Behaviors of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in soil amended with composts.

    PubMed

    Gusiatin, Zygmunt Mariusz; Kulikowska, Dorota

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated how amendment with sewage sludge compost of different maturation times (3, 6, 12 months) affected metal (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) bioavailability, fractionation and redistribution in highly contaminated sandy clay soil. Metal transformations during long-term soil stabilization (35 months) were determined. In the contaminated soil, Cd, Ni and Zn were predominately in the exchangeable and reducible fractions, Pb in the reducible fraction and Cu in the reducible, exchangeable and oxidizable fractions. All composts decreased the bioavailability of Cd, Ni and Zn for up to 24 months, which indicates that cyclic amendment with compost is necessary. The bioavailability of Pb and Cu was not affected by compost amendment. Based on the reduced partition index (IR), metal stability in amended soil after 35 months of stabilization was in the following order: Cu > Ni = Pb > Zn > Cd. All composts were more effective in decreasing Cd, Ni and Zn bioavailability than in redistributing the metals, and increasing Cu redistribution more than that of Pb. Thus, sewage sludge compost of as little as 3 months maturation can be used for cyclic amendment of multi-metal-contaminated soil.

  8. [Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb contents and forms in soils and rapeseeds around Wuhu Plant].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingming; Liu, Dengyi; Tu, Junfang; Li, Zheng; Wang, Youbao

    2005-10-01

    The study showed that around Wuhu Plant, soil Cd, Zn and Pb mainly existed in Fe-Mn oxide form, and Cu in residual form, with the percentage of 31.81%, 39.83%, 53.79%, and 46.24%, respectively. Soil exchangeable Cd and Pb had a higher proportion (23.47% and 16.32%) than soil exchangeable Cu and Zn (3.14% and 0.54%). The correlations between soil heavy metals and their forms, as well as their transformation to available form were different. Different heavy metals had different accumulation trends in rapeseed and its hull. Cu easily accumulated in hull, while Cd, Zn and Pb had a higher accumulation in seed. The accumulation rate of heavy metals in rapeseed and hull was also different, being the highest for Cd. There was a significantly negative correlation (P < 0.05) between the accumulation rate of heavy metals and their contents in soil. In rapeseed, Cd, Cu and Pb were mainly in sodium hydroxide form, with the percentage of 32.50%, 22.94% and 34.69%, respectively, while Zn was mainly in EDTA form, with a percentage of 45.97. The existed forms of heavy metals in rapeseed probably affected their toxicity, but the toxicity to human food could not be inferred from this research, and needed to be studied further. There was a weak relation between heavy metals contents and their existed forms in rapeseed.

  9. Concomitant Zn-Cd and Pb retention in a carbonated fluvio-glacial deposit under both static and dynamic conditions.

    PubMed

    Lassabatere, Laurent; Spadini, Lorenzo; Delolme, Cécile; Février, Laureline; Galvez Cloutier, Rosa; Winiarski, Thierry

    2007-11-01

    The chemical and physical processes involved in the retention of 10(-2)M Zn, Pb and Cd in a calcareous medium were studied under saturated dynamic (column) and static (batch) conditions. Retention in columns decreased in order: Pb>Cd approximately Zn. In the batch experiments, the same order was observed for a contact time of less than 40h and over, Pb>Cd>Zn. Stronger Pb retention is in accordance with the lower solubility of Pb carbonates. However, the equality of retained Zn and Cd does not fit the solubility constants of carbonated solids. SEM analysis revealed that heavy metals and calcareous particles are associated. Pb precipitated as individualized Zn-Cd-Ca- free carbonated crystallites. All the heavy metals were also found to be associated with calcareous particles, without any change in their porosity, pointing to a surface/lattice diffusion-controlled substitution process. Zn and Cd were always found in concomitancy, though Pb fixed separately at the particle circumferences. The Phreeqc 2.12 interactive code was used to model experimental data on the following basis: flow fractionation in the columns, precipitation of Pb as cerrusite linked to kinetically controlled calcite dissolution, and heavy metal sorption onto proton exchanging sites (presumably surface complexation onto a calcite surface). This model simulates exchanges of metals with surface protons, pH buffering and the prevention of early Zn and Cd precipitation. Both modeling and SEM analysis show a probable significant decrease of calcite dissolution along with its contamination with metals.

  10. Investigation of transport properties of ZnO/PbS heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yang; Whitaker, Michael D. C.; Whiteside, Vincent R.; Bumm, Lloyd A.; Sellers, Ian R.

    Lead sulfide (PbS) and lead selenide (PbSe) colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are considered as a potential candidate material for solar cell applications due to their large band gap tunability range (0.5 to 1.7 eV) and cost-effective solution based processing. A series of Glass/ITO/ZnO/PbS/MoO3/Au heterojunction solar cells were processed and analyzed. A stable (reproducible) 2% conversion efficiency under 1-sun is achieved based on the result of J - V measurements. Absorbance and external quantum efficiency (EQE) measurements clearly show photo-generated carrier extraction from PbS active layers in the solar cell. However, a non-ideal J - V behavior is observed in current-voltage measurements. This behavior may be attributed to a high density of trap states at the QD surface or defect states at the PbS/ZnO or ITO/ZnO interfaces. C-V and Impedance spectroscopy measurements are used to study this unusual behavior. These techniques could also help probe the transport properties and limitation of these heterojunction solar cells. This research is funded through NASA EPSCoR program Award # NNX13AN101A.

  11. Extremely High Phosphate Sorption Capacity in Cu-Pb-Zn Mine Tailings.

    PubMed

    Huang, Longbin; Li, Xiaofang; Nguyen, Tuan A H

    2015-01-01

    Elevated inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations in pore water of amended tailings under direct revegetation may cause toxicity in some native woody species but not native forbs or herb species, all of which are key constituents in target native plant communities for phytostabilizing base metal mine tailings. As a result, Pi sorption capacity has been quantified by a conventional batch procedure in three types of base metal mine tailings sampled from two copper (Cu)-lead (Pb)-zinc (Zn) mines, as the basis for Pi-fertiliser addition. It was found that the Pi-sorption capacity in the tailings and local soil was extremely high, far higher than highly weathered agricultural soils in literature, but similar to those of volcanic ash soils. The Langmuir P-sorption maximum was up to 7.72, 4.12, 4.02 and 3.62 mg P g-1 tailings, in the fresh tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD7), the weathered tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD5), EHM-TD (fresh Cu-stream, high magnetite content) and local soil (weathered shale and schist), respectively. Physicochemical factors highly correlated with the high Pi-sorption in the tailings were fine particle distribution, oxalate and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate extractable Fe (FeO and Fed), oxalate-extractable Al and Mn, and the levels of soluble Cd and Zn, and total S and Fe. Large amounts of amorphous Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides may have been formed from the oxidation of pyritic materials and redox cycles of Fe-minerals (such as pyrite (FeS2), ankerite (Ca(Fe Mg)(CO3)2 and siderite (FeCO3), as indicated by the extractable FeO values. The likely formation of sparingly soluble Zn-phosphate in the Pb-Zn tailings containing high levels of Zn (from sphalerite ((Zn,Fe)S, ZnS, (Zn,Cd)S)) may substantially lower soluble Zn levels in the tailings through high rates of Pi-fertiliser addition. As a result, the possibility of P-toxicity in native plant species caused by the addition of soluble phosphate fertilizers would be minimal.

  12. Extremely High Phosphate Sorption Capacity in Cu-Pb-Zn Mine Tailings

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Longbin; Li, Xiaofang; Nguyen, Tuan A. H.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations in pore water of amended tailings under direct revegetation may cause toxicity in some native woody species but not native forbs or herb species, all of which are key constituents in target native plant communities for phytostabilizing base metal mine tailings. As a result, Pi sorption capacity has been quantified by a conventional batch procedure in three types of base metal mine tailings sampled from two copper (Cu)-lead (Pb)-zinc (Zn) mines, as the basis for Pi-fertiliser addition. It was found that the Pi-sorption capacity in the tailings and local soil was extremely high, far higher than highly weathered agricultural soils in literature, but similar to those of volcanic ash soils. The Langmuir P-sorption maximum was up to 7.72, 4.12, 4.02 and 3.62 mg P g-1 tailings, in the fresh tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD7), the weathered tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD5), EHM-TD (fresh Cu-stream, high magnetite content) and local soil (weathered shale and schist), respectively. Physicochemical factors highly correlated with the high Pi-sorption in the tailings were fine particle distribution, oxalate and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate extractable Fe (FeO and Fed), oxalate-extractable Al and Mn, and the levels of soluble Cd and Zn, and total S and Fe. Large amounts of amorphous Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides may have been formed from the oxidation of pyritic materials and redox cycles of Fe-minerals (such as pyrite (FeS2), ankerite (Ca(Fe Mg)(CO3)2 and siderite (FeCO3), as indicated by the extractable FeO values. The likely formation of sparingly soluble Zn-phosphate in the Pb-Zn tailings containing high levels of Zn (from sphalerite ((Zn,Fe)S, ZnS, (Zn,Cd)S)) may substantially lower soluble Zn levels in the tailings through high rates of Pi-fertiliser addition. As a result, the possibility of P-toxicity in native plant species caused by the addition of soluble phosphate fertilizers would be minimal. PMID

  13. Impact of ZnO and Ag Nanoparticles on Bacterial Growth and Viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, M. S.; Digiovanni, K. A.

    2007-12-01

    Hundreds of consumer products containing nanomaterials are currently available in the U.S., including computers, clothing, cosmetics, sports equipment, medical devices and product packaging. Metallic nanoparticles can be embedded in or coated on product surfaces to provide antimicrobial, deodorizing, and stain- resistant properties. Although these products have the potential to provide significant benefit to the user, the impact of these products on the environment remains largely unknown. The purpose of this project is to study the effect of metallic nanoparticles released to the environment on bacterial growth and viability. Inhibition of bacterial growth was tested by adding doses of suspended ZnO and Ag nanoparticles into luria broth prior to inoculation of Escherichia coli cells. ZnO particles (approximately 40 nm) were obtained commercially and Ag particles (12-14 nm) were fabricated by reduction of silver nitrate with sodium borohydride. Toxicity assays were performed to test the viability of E. coli cells exposed to both ZnO and Ag nanoparticles using the LIVE/DEAD BacLight bacterial viability kit (Invitrogen). Live cells stain green whereas cells with compromised membranes that are considered dead or dying stain red. Cells were first grown, stained, and exposed to varying doses of metallic nanoparticles, and then bacterial viability was measured hourly using fluorescence microscopy. Results indicate that both ZnO and Ag nanoparticles inhibit the growth of E. coli in liquid media. Preliminary results from toxicity assays confirm the toxic effect of ZnO and Ag nanoparticles on active cell cultures. Calculated death rates resulting from analyses of toxicity studies will be presented.

  14. Electrochemically synthesis and optoelectronic properties of Pb- and Zn-doped nanostructured SnSe films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamali-Sheini, Farid; Cheraghizade, Mohsen; Yousefi, Ramin

    2018-06-01

    In this study, electrodeposition technique was applied to deposit un-, lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn)-doped SnSe films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the films showed a polycrystalline SnSe phase with orthorhombic crystalline lattice. SEM images revealed ball-shaped, rod-shaped, and wire-shaped morphologies for SnSe films. Moreover, optical measurements indicated incorporation of dopant in the crystalline lattice of films by varying the optical energy band gap. Electrical characterization of Pb- and Zn-doped SnSe films showed their p-type nature. Finally, the solar cell device fabricated using the Zn-doped SnSe films reveal a higher efficiency because of their higher carrier concentration.

  15. Metal accumulation strategies in plants spontaneously inhabiting Zn-Pb waste deposits.

    PubMed

    Wójcik, Małgorzata; Sugier, Piotr; Siebielec, Grzegorz

    2014-07-15

    Metal (Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Cr) accumulation in shoots of 38 plant species spontaneously colonizing three Zn-Pb waste deposits in southern Poland was studied in order to find out if the age of the waste (30-130 years) or its type (slag or flotation residues) influence metal content in plants and to identify species potentially suitable for biomonitoring and phytoremediation. The total metal concentrations in the waste upper layers ranged from 7300 to 171,790 mg kg(-1) for Zn, from 1390 to 22,265 mg kg(-1) for Pb, and from 66 to 1,464 mg kg(-1) for Cd, whereas CaCl2-extracted fractions accounted for 0.034-0.11 %, 0.005-0.03 %, and 0.28-0.62 % of total Zn, Pb and Cd concentrations, respectively. The concentrations of Cu, Ni, and Cr in substrates and in plants were low and ranged within the background values. Metal accumulation in plant shoots was poorly correlated with both total and CaCl2-extracted forms of metals in the substrate and was highly variable among species and also specimens of the same species. The highest mean concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd were found in Anthyllis vulneraria L. (901.5 mg kg(-1)), Echium vulgare L. (116.92 mg kg(-1)), and Hieracium piloselloides Vill. (26.86 mg kg(-1)), respectively. Besides Reseda lutea L., no species appeared to be a good indicator of polymetallic environment pollution based on chemical analysis of shoots; however, metal accumulation in the whole plant communities of a particular contaminated area might be an accurate tool for assessment of metal transfer to vegetation irrespective of the type or age of the waste. All the species studied developed a metal exclusion strategy, thus exhibiting potential for phytostabilization of metalliferous wastelands. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of serum Concentration of Se, Pb, Mg, Cu, Zn, between MS patients and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Anahita; Mehrpour, Omid; Nikkhah, Karim; Bayat, Golnaz; Espandani, Mahsa; Golzari, Alireza; Jarahi, Lida; Foroughipour, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is defined as one of the inflammatory autoimmune disorders and is common. Its exact etiology is unclear. There are some evidences on the role of environmental factors in susceptible genetics. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible role of Selenium, Zinc, Copper, Lead and Magnesium metals in Multiple Sclerosis patients. Methods In the present analytical cross-sectional study, 56 individuals including 26 patients and 30 healthy controls were enrolled in the evaluation. The serum level of Se, Zn, Cu, Pb were quantified in graphite furnace conditions and flame conditions by utilizing an atomic absorption Perkin Elmer spectrophotometer 3030. The serum levels of Mg were measured by auto analyzer 1500 BT. The mean level of minerals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Mg, Se) in serum samples were compared in both cases and controls. The mean level of minerals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Mg, Se) in serum samples were compared in both cases and controls by using independent-samples t-test for normal distribution and Mann-Whitney U test as a non-parametric test. All statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS 11.0. Results As well as the Zn, Cu, and Se, there was no significant difference between MS patients and healthy individuals in Pb concentrations (p-value = 0.11, 0.14, 0.32, 0.20 respectively) but the level of Mg was significantly different (p= 0.001). Conclusion All serum concentrations of Zn, Pb, Se, Cu in both groups were in normal ranges and there was no difference in MS patients compared with the healthy group who were matched in genetics. Blood level of Mg was significantly lower in MS patients. But it should be noted that even with the low level of serum magnesium in MS patients, this value is still in the normal range. PMID:27757186

  17. Growth and characterization of ZnO multipods on functional surfaces with different sizes and shapes of Ag particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, Kamalianfar; S, A. Halim; Mahmoud Godarz, Naseri; M, Navasery; Fasih, Ud Din; J, A. M. Zahedi; Kasra, Behzad; K, P. Lim; A Lavari, Monghadam; S, K. Chen

    2013-08-01

    Three-dimensional ZnO multipods are successfully synthesized on functional substrates using the vapor transport method in a quartz tube. The functional surfaces, which include two different distributions of Ag nanoparticles and a layer of commercial Ag nanowires, are coated onto silicon substrates before the growth of ZnO nanostructures. The structures and morphologies of the ZnO/Ag heterostructures are investigated using X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The sizes and shapes of the Ag particles affect the growth rates and initial nucleations of the ZnO structures, resulting in different numbers and shapes of multipods. They also influence the orientation and growth quality of the rods. The optical properties are studied by photoluminescence, UV-vis, and Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that the surface plasmon resonance strongly depends on the sizes and shapes of the Ag particles.

  18. ZnO/Ag/CdO nanocomposite for visible light-induced photocatalytic degradation of industrial textile effluents.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, R; Mansoob Khan, M; Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Mosquera, E; Gracia, F; Narayanan, V; Stephen, A

    2015-08-15

    A ternary ZnO/Ag/CdO nanocomposite was synthesized using thermal decomposition method. The resulting nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The ZnO/Ag/CdO nanocomposite exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation for the degradation of methyl orange and methylene blue compared with binary ZnO/Ag and ZnO/CdO nanocomposites. The ZnO/Ag/CdO nanocomposite was also used for the degradation of the industrial textile effluent (real sample analysis) and degraded more than 90% in 210 min under visible light irradiation. The small size, high surface area and synergistic effect in the ZnO/Ag/CdO nanocomposite is responsible for high photocatalytic activity. These results also showed that the Ag nanoparticles induced visible light activity and facilitated efficient charge separation in the ZnO/Ag/CdO nanocomposite, thereby improving the photocatalytic performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Multi-angle ZnO microstructures grown on Ag nanorods array for plasmon-enhanced near-UV-blue light emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Anil Kumar; Bharathi Mohan, D.

    2017-10-01

    Metal enhanced ultraviolet light emission has been explored in ZnO/Ag hybrid structures prepared by hydrothermal growth of multi-angled ZnO nanorods on slanted Ag nanorods array fabricated by the thermal evaporation technique. Slanted Ag nanorods are realized to be the stacking of non-spherical Ag nanoparticles, resulting in asymmetric surface plasmon resonance spectra. The surface roughness of Ag nanorod array films significantly influences the growth mechanism of ZnO nanorods, leading to the formation of multi-angled ZnO microflowers. ZnO/Ag hybrid structures facilitate the interfacial charge transfer from Ag to ZnO with the realization of negative shift in binding energy of Ag 3d orbitals by ˜0.8 eV. These high quality ZnO nanorods in ZnO/Ag hybrid nanostructures exhibit strong ultraviolet emission in the 383-396 nm region without broad deep level emission, which can be explained by a suitable band diagram. The metal enhanced photoluminescence is witnessed mainly due to interfacial charge transfer with its dependence on surface roughness of bottom layer Ag nanorods, number density of ZnO nanorods and diversity in the interfacial area between Ag and ZnO nanorods. The existence of strong ultraviolet light with minor blue light emission and appearance of CIE shade in strong violet-blue region by ZnO/Ag hybrid structures depict exciting possibilities towards near UV-blue light emitting devices.

  20. Multi-angle ZnO microstructures grown on Ag nanorods array for plasmon-enhanced near-UV-blue light emitter.

    PubMed

    Pal, Anil Kumar; Mohan, D Bharathi

    2017-10-13

    Metal enhanced ultraviolet light emission has been explored in ZnO/Ag hybrid structures prepared by hydrothermal growth of multi-angled ZnO nanorods on slanted Ag nanorods array fabricated by the thermal evaporation technique. Slanted Ag nanorods are realized to be the stacking of non-spherical Ag nanoparticles, resulting in asymmetric surface plasmon resonance spectra. The surface roughness of Ag nanorod array films significantly influences the growth mechanism of ZnO nanorods, leading to the formation of multi-angled ZnO microflowers. ZnO/Ag hybrid structures facilitate the interfacial charge transfer from Ag to ZnO with the realization of negative shift in binding energy of Ag 3d orbitals by ∼0.8 eV. These high quality ZnO nanorods in ZnO/Ag hybrid nanostructures exhibit strong ultraviolet emission in the 383-396 nm region without broad deep level emission, which can be explained by a suitable band diagram. The metal enhanced photoluminescence is witnessed mainly due to interfacial charge transfer with its dependence on surface roughness of bottom layer Ag nanorods, number density of ZnO nanorods and diversity in the interfacial area between Ag and ZnO nanorods. The existence of strong ultraviolet light with minor blue light emission and appearance of CIE shade in strong violet-blue region by ZnO/Ag hybrid structures depict exciting possibilities towards near UV-blue light emitting devices.

  1. Large enhancement of UV luminescence emission of ZnO nanoparticles by coupling excitons with Ag surface plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuiri, Probodh K.; Pramanik, Subhamay

    2018-04-01

    For an emitter based on bandgap emission, defect mediated emission has always been considered as the most important loss. Here, a novel approach which can overcome such emission loss is proposed using films of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) on Ag NPs embedded in silica. The effects of the size of Ag NPs on the enhancement of ultra-violet (UV) photoluminescence (PL) of ZnO NPs for such a system have been studied. For the ZnO NPs without Ag NPs, two emission bands have been seen: one in the UV region and the other one in the visible region. This UV PL emission intensity has been seen to increase significantly with a drastic reduction of the visible PL emission intensity in the case of the sample containing ZnO NPs on silica embedded Ag NPs. A linear increase in UV emission with increase in the size of Ag NPs has been found. For the largest size of Ag NPs (˜10 nm, considered in the present study), the PL emission enhancement becomes about 4 times higher than that of sample without Ag NPs. The observed enhancement of the UV PL emission was caused by coupling between spontaneous emission in ZnO and surface plasmons of Ag. The larger Ag NPs provided a larger scattering cross section in coupling surface plasmons to light leading to an increase in UV emission. Thus, it is possible to convert the useless defect emission to the useful excitonic emission with a large enhancement factor.

  2. Preparation of ZnO nanorods on conductive PET-ITO-Ag fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yiwen; Ji, Shuai; Chen, Yuanyu; Zhang, Hong; Gong, Yumei; Guo, Jing

    2016-12-01

    We studied the vertical ZnO nanorods grown on conductive conventional polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers which are prepared by electroless silver depositing on tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) coated PET fibers through an efficient and low-cost green approach. The PET fibers were firstly functionalized with a layer of ITO gel synthesized through a sol-gel process at rather low temperature, simply by immersing the fibers into ITO sol for several minutes followed by gelation at 120 °C. Once the ITO gel layer surface was activated by SnCl2, a continuous, uniform, and compact layer of silver was carried out on the surface of the PET-ITO fibers through electroless plating operation at room temperature. The as-prepared PET-ITO-Ag fibers had good electrical conductivity, with surface resistivity as low as 0.23 mΩ cm. The overall procedure is simple, efficient, nontoxic, and controllable. The conductive PET-ITO-Ag fiber was used successfully as a flexible basal material to plant vertical ZnO nanorods through controlling the seeding and growth processes. The morphology of the PET-ITO, PET-ITO-Ag, and PET-ITO-Ag-ZnO fibers were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Undergone the whole process, although the tensile strength of the fiber decreased slightly, they may still exert their applications in flexible electronic such as photovoltaic and piezoelectric devices.

  3. Mechanical Characteristics, In Vitro Degradation, Cytotoxicity, and Antibacterial Evaluation of Zn-4.0Ag Alloy as a Biodegradable Material

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Schille, Christine; Schweizer, Ernst; Rupp, Frank; Heiss, Alexander; Legner, Claudia; Klotz, Ulrich E.; Geis-Gerstorfer, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    Zn-based biodegradable metallic materials have been regarded as new potential biomaterials for use as biodegradable implants, mainly because of the ideal degradation rate compared with those of Mg-based alloys and Fe-based alloys. In this study, we developed and investigated a novel Zn-4 wt % Ag alloy as a potential biodegradable metal. A thermomechanical treatment was applied to refine the microstructure and, consequently, to improve the mechanical properties, compared to pure Zn. The yield strength (YS), ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and elongation of the Zn-4Ag alloy are 157 MPa, 261 MPa, and 37%, respectively. The corrosion rate of Zn-4Ag calculated from released Zn ions in DMEM extracts is approximately 0.75 ± 0.16 μg cm–2 day–1, which is higher than that of pure Zn. In vitro cytotoxicity tests showed that the Zn-4Ag alloy exhibits acceptable toxicity to L929 and Saos-2 cells, and could effectively inhibit initial bacteria adhesion. This study shows that the Zn-4Ag exhibits excellent mechanical properties, predictable degradation behavior, acceptable biocompatibility, and effective antibacterial properties, which make it a candidate biodegradable material. PMID:29518938

  4. Tri-functional Fe2O3-encased Ag-doped ZnO nanoframework: magnetically retrievable antimicrobial photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunakaran, Chockalingam; Vinayagamoorthy, Pazhamalai

    2016-11-01

    Fe2O3-encased ZnO nanoframework was obtained by hydrothermal method and was doped with Ag through photoreduction process. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM, selected area electron diffractometry, x-ray diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy were employed for the structural characterization of the synthesized material. While the charge transfer resistance of the prepared nanomaterial is larger than those of Fe2O3 and ZnO the coercivity of the nanocomposite is less than that of hydrothermally obtained Fe2O3 nanostructures. Although Fe2O3/Ag-ZnO exhibits weak visible light absorption its band gap energy does not differ from that of ZnO. The photoluminescence of the fabricated nanoframework is similar to that of ZnO. The radiative recombination of charge carriers is slightly slower in Fe2O3/Ag-ZnO than in ZnO. The synthesized Fe2O3-encased Ag-doped ZnO, under UV A light, exhibits sustainable photocatalytic activity to degrade dye and is magnetically recoverable. Also, the Fe2O3/Ag-ZnO nanocomposite disinfects bacteria effectively in absence of direct illumination.

  5. Preparation and Use of Photocatalytically Active Segmented Ag|ZnO and Coaxial TiO2-Ag Nanowires Made by Templated Electrodeposition

    PubMed Central

    Maijenburg, A. Wouter; Rodijk, Eddy J.B.; Maas, Michiel G.; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2014-01-01

    Photocatalytically active nanostructures require a large specific surface area with the presence of many catalytically active sites for the oxidation and reduction half reactions, and fast electron (hole) diffusion and charge separation. Nanowires present suitable architectures to meet these requirements. Axially segmented Ag|ZnO and radially segmented (coaxial) TiO2-Ag nanowires with a diameter of 200 nm and a length of 6-20 µm were made by templated electrodeposition within the pores of polycarbonate track-etched (PCTE) or anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes, respectively. In the photocatalytic experiments, the ZnO and TiO2 phases acted as photoanodes, and Ag as cathode. No external circuit is needed to connect both electrodes, which is a key advantage over conventional photo-electrochemical cells. For making segmented Ag|ZnO nanowires, the Ag salt electrolyte was replaced after formation of the Ag segment to form a ZnO segment attached to the Ag segment. For making coaxial TiO2-Ag nanowires, a TiO2 gel was first formed by the electrochemically induced sol-gel method. Drying and thermal annealing of the as-formed TiO2 gel resulted in the formation of crystalline TiO2 nanotubes. A subsequent Ag electrodeposition step inside the TiO2 nanotubes resulted in formation of coaxial TiO2-Ag nanowires. Due to the combination of an n-type semiconductor (ZnO or TiO2) and a metal (Ag) within the same nanowire, a Schottky barrier was created at the interface between the phases. To demonstrate the photocatalytic activity of these nanowires, the Ag|ZnO nanowires were used in a photocatalytic experiment in which H2 gas was detected upon UV illumination of the nanowires dispersed in a methanol/water mixture. After 17 min of illumination, approximately 0.2 vol% H2 gas was detected from a suspension of ~0.1 g of Ag|ZnO nanowires in a 50 ml 80 vol% aqueous methanol solution. PMID:24837535

  6. Stabilization of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in contaminated rice paddy soil using starfish: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Hwang, Inseong; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Ok, Yong Sik; Ji, Won Hyun; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2018-05-01

    Lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) contaminated rice paddy soil was stabilized using natural (NSF) and calcined starfish (CSF). Contaminated soil was treated with NSF in the range of 0-10 wt% and CSF in the range of 0-5 wt% and cured for 28 days. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test was used to evaluate effectiveness of starfish treatment. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) analyses were conducted to investigate the mechanism responsible for effective immobilization of Pb and Zn. Experimental results suggest that NSF and CSF treatments effectively immobilize Pb and Zn in treated rice paddy soil. TCLP levels for Pb and Zn were reduced with increasing NSF and CSF dosage. Comparison of the two treatment methods reveals that CSF treatment is more effective than NSF treatment. Leachability of the two metals is reduced approximately 58% for Pb and 51% for Zn, upon 10 wt% NSF treatment. More pronounced leachability reductions, 93% for Pb and 76% for Zn, are achieved upon treatment with 5 wt% CSF. Sequential extraction results reveal that NSF and CSF treatments of contaminated soil generated decrease in exchangeable/weak acid Pb and Zn soluble fractions, and increase of residual Pb and Zn fractions. Results for the SEM-EDX sample treated with 5 wt% CSF indicate that effective Pb and Zn immobilization is most probably associated with calcium silicate hydrates (CSHs) and calcium aluminum hydrates (CAHs). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Speciation Characteristics and Bioavailability of Heavy Metals in Oasis Soil Under Pb, Zn Combined Stress].

    PubMed

    Jin, Cheng; Zhao, Zhuan-jun; Nan, Zhong-ren; Wang, Sheng-li; Wu, Wen-fei; Wang, Hou-cheng

    2015-05-01

    Pot experiments were conducted on cole (Brassica) grown in oasis soil under combined stress of lead and zinc, to study the effect of heavy metal combined pollution on cole growth as well as the speciation conversion rules and bioavailability. The result showed that the promoting effect on cole growth was shown in the low concentration treatments, especially on stem leaves. With addition of exotic heavy metals, the main speciations of Pb and Zn in the soil transformed from tight-bound to loose-bound forms as compared to the control, and the bioavailability of heavy metals was increased. And, the exchangeable Pb and the carbonate bound form of Zn were the major contributing speciations which were absorbed in different parts of cole. What's more, the capabilities of uptake and translocation of Pb and Zn by cole were stronger at lower stress levels, and the enrichment and migration coefficients decreased with the increasing content of bioavailable fraction of the corresponding element or the coexisting element. In all treatments, the Pb concentration in the stem leaves of cole exceeded the food safety threshold, therefore it is recommended to conduct detection of relevant indicators before planting foliage vegetables in this kind of soil.

  8. Optical transmission larger than 1 (T>1) through ZnS -SiO2/AgOx/ZnS-SiO2 sandwiched thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jingsong; Xiao, Mufei

    2006-09-01

    Optical transmission through flat media should be smaller than 1. However, we have observed optical transmission up to T =1.18. The samples were ZnS -SiO2/AgOx/ZnS-SiO2 sandwiched thin films on glass substrate. The supertransmission could only be observed in the near field. We attribute the supertransmission to the lateral propagation relayed by the laser activated and decomposed Ag nanoparticles.

  9. ZnO nanoflower-based photoelectrochemical DNAzyme sensor for the detection of Pb2+.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bintian; Lu, Lili; Hu, Qichang; Huang, Feng; Lin, Zhang

    2014-06-15

    Lead contamination is now widespread, and exposure to lead may cause adverse effects on human beings. In this study, a photoelectrochemical sensor based on flower-like ZnO nanostructures was developed for Pb(2+) detection, using a Pb(2+)-dependent DNAzyme as the recognition unit and a double-strand DNA intercalator, Ru(bpy)2(dppz)(2+) (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine, dppz=dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c] phenazine) as the photoelectrochemical signal reporter. The ZnO nanoflower was fabricated on an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode by the convenient hydrothermal decomposition method. The morphology and photoelectrochemical property of the ZnO nanoflowers were characterized by SEM, XRD and photocurrent measurements. DNAzyme-substrate duplex was assembled on an ITO/ZnO electrode through electrostatic adsorption. In the presence of Pb(2+), RNA-cleavage activity of the DNAzyme was activated and its substrate strand was cleaved, resulting in the release of Ru(bpy)2(dppz)(2+) from the DNA film and the concomitant photocurrent decrease. The detection principle was verified by fluorescence measurements. Under the optimized conditions, a linear relationship between photocurrent and Pb(2+) concentration was obtained over the range of 0.5-20 nM, with a detection limit of 0.1 nM. Interference from other common metal ions was found negligible. Applicability of the sensor was demonstrated by analyzing lead level in human serum and Pb(2+) spiked water samples. This facile and economical sensor system showed high sensitivity and selectivity, thus can be potentially applied for on-site monitoring of lead contaminant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Leaching potential of pervious concrete and immobilization of Cu, Pb and Zn using pervious concrete.

    PubMed

    Solpuker, U; Sheets, J; Kim, Y; Schwartz, F W

    2014-06-01

    This paper investigates the leaching potential of pervious concrete and its capacity for immobilizing Cu, Pb and Zn, which are common contaminants in urban runoff. Batch experiments showed that the leachability of Cu, Pb and Zn increased when pH<8. According to PHREEQC equilibrium modeling, the leaching of major ions and trace metals was mainly controlled by the dissolution/precipitation and surface complexation reactions, respectively. A 1-D reactive transport experiment was undertaken to better understand how pervious concrete might function to attenuate contaminant migration. A porous concrete block was sprayed with low pH water (pH=4.3±0.1) for 190 h. The effluent was highly alkaline (pH~10 to 12). In the first 50 h, specific conductance and trace-metal were high but declined towards steady state values. PHREEQC modeling showed that mixing of interstitial alkaline matrix waters with capillary pore water was required in order to produce the observed water chemistry. The interstitial pore solutions seem responsible for the high pH values and relatively high concentrations of trace metals and major cations in the early stages of the experiment. Finally, pervious concrete was sprayed with a synthetic contaminated urban runoff (10 ppb Cu, Pb and Zn) with a pH of 4.3±0.1 for 135 h. It was found that Pb immobilization was greater than either Cu or Zn. Zn is the most mobile among three and also has the highest variation in the observed degree of immobilization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ag-NPs embedded in two novel Zn3/Zn5-cluster-based metal-organic frameworks for catalytic reduction of 2/3/4-nitrophenol.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xue-Qian; Huang, Dan-Dan; Zhou, Zhi-Hang; Dong, Wen-Wen; Wu, Ya-Pan; Zhao, Jun; Li, Dong-Sheng; Zhang, Qichun; Bu, Xianhui

    2017-02-21

    By utilizing symmetrical pentacarboxylate ligands, 3,5-di(2',5'-dicarboxylphenyl)benzoic acid (H 5 L1) and 3,5-di(2',4'-dicarboxylphenyl)benzoic acid (H 5 L2), two novel porous Zn-MOFs, [Zn 5 (μ 3 -H 2 O) 2 (L1) 2 ]·3DMA·4H 2 O (CTGU-3) and [Zn 3 (μ 3 -OH)L2(H 2 O) 3 ]·H 2 O (CTGU-4) have been synthesized under solvothermal conditions. CTGU-3 and CTGU-4 exhibit 3D microporous frameworks with flu and dia topologies and possess unique secondary building units [Zn 5 (μ 3 -H 2 O) 2 (RCO 2 ) 6 ] and [Zn 3 (μ 3 -OH)(RCO 2 ) 3 ], respectively. Such porous systems create a unique space or surface to accommodate Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs), which could efficiently prevent Ag NPs from aggregation and leaching. In this work, two new Ag@Zn-MOF composites, denoted as Ag@CTGU, have been successfully fabricated through solution infiltration, for the reduction of nitrophenol. Compared with CTGU-4, CTGU-3 shows enhanced catalytic efficiency toward the reaction when it is used as a catalyst support of Ag NPs. Moreover, gas sorption and luminescence properties of two compounds were also investigated.

  12. Do Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn biomagnify in aquatic ecosystems?

    PubMed

    Cardwell, Rick D; Deforest, David K; Brix, Kevin V; Adams, William J

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we sought to assess from a study of the literature whether five in organic metals (viz., cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc) bio magnify in aquatic food webs. We also examined whether accumulated metals were toxic to consumers/predators and whether the essential metals (Cu and Zn and possibly Ni) behaved differently from non-essential ones (Cd and Pb). Biomagnification potential was indexed by the magnitude of single and multiple trophic transfers in food chains. In this analysis, we used three lines of evidence-laboratory empirical, biokinetic modeling, and field studies-to make assessments. Trophic transfer factors, calculatedfrom lab studies, field studies, and biokinetic modeling, were generally congruent.Results indicated that Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn generally do not biomagnify in food chains consisting of primary producers, macro invertebrate consumers, and fish occupying TL 3 and higher. However, bio magnification of Zn (TTFs of 1-2) is possible for circumstances in which dietary Zn concentrations are below those required for metabolism. Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn may biomagnify in specific marine food chains consisting of bivalves, herbivorous gastropods, and barnacles at TL2 and carnivorous gastropods at TL3. There was an inverse relationship between TTF and exposure concentration for Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, a finding that is consistent with previous reviews of bioconcentration factors and bioaccumulation factors for metals. Our analysis also failed to demonstrate a relationship between the magnitude of TTFsand dietary toxicity to consumer organisms. Consequently, we conclude that TTFs for the metals examined are not an inherently useful predictor of potential hazard(i.e., toxic potential) to aquatic organisms. This review identified several uncertainties or data gaps, such as the relatively limited data available for nickel, reliance upon highly structured food chains in laboratory studies compared to the unstructured food webs found in nature, and

  13. Structural transformation and photoluminescence modification of AgInS2 nanoparticles induced by ZnS shell formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamanaka, Yasushi; Yukitoki, Daichi; Kuzuya, Toshihiro

    2015-09-01

    AgInS2 nanoparticles were capped by ZnS via a widely used procedure to fabricate core/shell nanoparticles with highly efficient luminescence. The nanoparticle structures were investigated by ultrahigh-resolution analytical electron microscopy. We found that Zn-Ag-In-S nanoparticles were created by ZnS capping at ˜480 K, which suggests that the luminescence enhancement reported for such core/shell nanoparticles is not caused by the passivation of surface defects by ZnS shells but by Zn doping. Quasi-core/shell nanoparticles could be obtained by ZnS capping without heating. However, their luminescence efficiency remained unchanged, indicating that surface passivation was ineffective when ZnS shells were formed at room temperature.

  14. Hercynian Pb-Zn mineralization types in the Alcudia Valley mining district (Spain) and their reflect in Pb isotopic signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García de Madinabeitia, S.; Santos Zalduegui, J. F.; Palero, F.; Gil Ibarguchi, J. I.; Carracedo, M.

    2003-04-01

    More than 450 ore deposits indexed within the Alcudia Valley of the Central-Iberian Zone (Spain) may be grouped by their tectonic and lithologic characteristics (1,2) as follows: type A of rare stratabound mineralizations, and types B, C, D and E represented by abundant Hercynian veins (post-Namurian). 86 new Pb isotope analyses of galenas from the four vein types reveal that types B and C have similar isotopic ratios with values of μ_2 = 10.07, ω_2 = 40.6 and a mean model age of 564 Ma. Types D and E have μ_2 and ω_2 values of 9.79 and 38.5, respectively, but differ each other with respect to their model ages, 600 Ma (type D) and 335 Ma (type E). The observed variations appear to be related to the geochemical features of the metasedimentary host-rocks of the mineralizations where two distinct types of Pb isotopic ratios have been reported (3): one with μ_2 and ω_2 comparable to those of the D and E types and another with a more radiogenic composition, close to those of the B and C types of galenas. Nägler et al. have suggested partial rehomogeneization of Pb isotopic composition within the metasediments at ca. 330 Ma, that is, prior to the mineralization events, but the extent of this process and its effects on the ore bodies isotopic features is not evident. The origin of the more abundant E type ore bodies has been related to the Hercynian granitic rocks in the area (2, and references therein). Other plutons within this sector of the Central Iberian Zone (e.g., Linares, etc.; cf. accompanying Abstract) associate ore bodies whose Pb isotopic composition is very similar to that of the E type galenas from the Alcudia Valley. The isotopic data obtained thus point to a related or common source material for the various types of granites within the area studied. Yet, the Pb isotopic composition of other mineralizations (B, C, D), likewise located in Hercynian veins, allow to consider different types of Pb-Zn ore bodies and point therefore to different sources of

  15. Long life, low cost, rechargeable AgZn battery for non-military applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Curtis C.

    1996-03-01

    Of the rechargeable (secondary) battery systems with mature technology, the silver oxide-zinc system (AgZn) safely offers the highest power and energy (watts and watt hours) per unit of volume and mass. As a result they have long been used for aerospace and defense applications where they have also proven their high reliability. In the past, the expense associated with the cost of silver and the resulting low production volume have limited their commercial application. However, the relative low cost of silver now make this system feasible in many applications where high energy and reliability are required. One area of commercial potential is power for a new generation of sophisticated, portable medical equipment. AgZn batteries have recently proven ``enabling technology'' for power critical, advanced medical devices. By extending the cycle calendar life to the system (offers both improved performance and lower operating cost), a combination is achieved which may enable a wide range of future electrical devices. Other areas where AgZn batteries have been used in nonmilitary applications to provide power to aid in the development of commercial equipment have been: (a) Electrically powered vehicles; (b) Remote sensing in nuclear facilities; (c) Special effects equipment for movies; (d) Remote sensing in petroleum pipe lines; (e) Portable computers; (f) Fly by wire systems for commercial aircraft; and (g) Robotics. However none of these applications have progressed to the level where the volume required will significantly lower cost.

  16. Bactericidal impact of Ag, ZnO and mixed AgZnO colloidal nanoparticles on H37Rv Mycobacterium tuberculosis phagocytized by THP-1 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Alireza; Mosavari, Nader; Movahedzadeh, Farahnaz; Nodooshan, Saeedeh Jafari; Safarkar, Roya; Moro, Rossella; Kamalzadeh, Morteza; Majidpour, Ali; Boustanshenas, Mina; Mosavi, Tahereh

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this research project was to infection of human macrophages (THP-1) cell lines by H 37 Rv strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H 37 RvMTB) and find out the ratio/dilution of mixture silver (Ag NPs) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) whose ability to eliminate phagocytized bacteria compared to rifampicin. The colloidal Ag NPs and ZnO NPs were synthesized and their characteristics were evaluated. The THP-1 cell lines were infected with different concentration of H 37 RvMTB. Next, the infected cells were treated with different ratios/dilutions of Ag NPs, ZnO NPs and rifampicin. The THP-1 were lysed and were cultured in Lowenstein-Jensen agar medium, for eight weeks. The TEM and AFM images of NPs and H 37 RvMTB were supplied. It is observed that Ag NPs, 2 Ag :8 ZnO and 8 Ag :2 ZnO did not have any anti-tubercular effects on phagocytized H 37 RvMTB. Conversely, ZnO NPs somehow eliminated 18.7 × 10 4  CFU ml -1 of H 37 RvMTB in concentration of ∼ 0.468 ppm. To compare with 40 ppm of rifampicin, ∼ 0.663 ppm of 5 Ag :5 ZnO had the ability to kill of H 37 RvMTB, too. Based on previous research, ZnO NPs had strong anti-tubercular impact against H 37 RvMTB to in-vitro condition, but it was toxic in concentration of ∼ 0.468 ppm to both of THP-1 and normal lung (MRC-5) cell lines. It also seems that 5 Ag :5 ZnO is justified because in concentration of ∼ 0.663 ppm of 5 Ag :5 ZnO , phagocytized H 37 RvMTB into the THP-1 had died without any toxicity effects against THP-1 and also MRC-5 cell lines. It is obvious that the mixture of colloidal silver and zinc oxide NPs with ratio of 5 Ag :5 ZnO would be trustworthy options as anti-tubercular nano-drugs in future researches. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Thermodynamics of Pb(ii) and Zn(ii) binding to MT-3, a neurologically important metallothionein.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, M C; Shami Shah, A; DeSilva, S; Gleaton, A; Su, A; Goundie, B; Croteau, M L; Stevenson, M J; Wilcox, D E; Austin, R N

    2016-06-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was used to quantify the thermodynamics of Pb(2+) and Zn(2+) binding to metallothionein-3 (MT-3). Pb(2+) binds to zinc-replete Zn7MT-3 displacing each zinc ion with a similar change in free energy (ΔG) and enthalpy (ΔH). EDTA chelation measurements of Zn7MT-3 and Pb7MT-3 reveal that both metal ions are extracted in a tri-phasic process, indicating that they bind to the protein in three populations with different binding thermodynamics. Metal binding is entropically favoured, with an enthalpic penalty that reflects the enthalpic cost of cysteine deprotonation accompanying thiolate ligation of the metal ions. These data indicate that Pb(2+) binding to both apo MT-3 and Zn7MT-3 is thermodynamically favourable, and implicate MT-3 in neuronal lead biochemistry.

  18. Mobility of Heavy Metals (Pb, Cd, Zn) in the Pampeano and Puelche Aquifers, Argentina: Partition and Retardation Coefficients.

    PubMed

    Jakomin, L M; Marbán, L; Grondona, S; Glok Galli, M; Martínez, D E

    2015-09-01

    The prediction about metals behaviour in soil requires knowledge on their solid-liquid partitioning. Usually it is expressed with an empirical distribution coefficient or Kd, which gives the ratio of the metal concentration in the solid phase to that in the solution. Kd values have been determined for Zn, Pb and Cd from samples representing the two most exploited aquifers in Argentina, Pampeano and Puelche, at three different locations in the province of Buenos Aires. The Pampeano aquifer presented higher Kd values than the Puelche aquifer. Comparing Kd values, different relationships could be observed: (a) Pampeano aquifer: Pb > Zn > Cd, and (b) Puelche aquifer: Pb > Cd > Zn. Kd for Cd seems to be linked to cationic exchange capacity, but solid phases precipitation can be more determining for Pb and Zn.

  19. Ecotoxicological risks of the abandoned F-Ba-Pb-Zn mining area of Osor (Spain).

    PubMed

    Bori, Jaume; Vallès, Bettina; Navarro, Andrés; Riva, Maria Carme

    2017-06-01

    Due to its potential toxic properties, metal mobilization is of major concern in areas surrounding Pb-Zn mines. In the present study, metal contents and toxicity of soils, aqueous extracts from soils and mine drainage waters from an abandoned F-Ba-Pb-Zn mining area in Osor (Girona, NE Spain) were evaluated through chemical extractions and ecotoxicity bioassays. Toxicity assessment in the terrestrial compartment included lethal and sublethal endpoints on earthworms Eisenia fetida, arthropods Folsomia candida and several plant species, whereas aquatic tests involved bacteria Vibrio fischeri, microalgae Raphidocelis subcapitata and crustaceans Daphnia magna. Total concentrations of Ba (250-5110 mg kg -1 ), Pb (940 to >5000 mg kg -1 ) and Zn (2370-11,300 mg kg -1 ) in soils exceeded intervention values to protect human health. Risks for the aquatic compartment were identified in the release of drainage waters and in the potential leaching and runoff of metals from contaminated soils, with Cd (1.98-9.15 µg L -1 ), Pb (2.11-326 µg L -1 ) and Zn (280-2900 µg L -1 ) concentrations in filtered water samples surpassing US EPA Water Quality Criteria (2016a, b). Terrestrial ecotoxicity tests were in accordance with metal quantifications and identified the most polluted soil as the most toxic. Avoidance and reproduction tests with earthworms showed the highest sensitivity to metal contamination. Aquatic bioassays performed in aqueous extracts from soils confirmed the results from terrestrial tests and also detected toxic effects caused by the mine drainage waters. Algal growth inhibition was the most sensitive aquatic endpoint. In view of the results, the application of a containment or remediative procedure in the area is encouraged.

  20. Visualization of plasmon-enhanced photocarrier generation in ZnO/Ag nanogratings (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwon, Minji; Sohn, Ahrum; Cho, Yunae; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2017-03-01

    ZnO has attracted growing research attention as a strong candidate material for various optoelectronic device applications. It is important to understand and control the interactions between surface plasmons (SPs) and charge carriers in metal-ZnO hybrid nanostructures to improve the optical characteristics. In this work, we fabricated ZnO/Ag nanogratings using patterned polymer and Si templates. Excitation of the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) well explained the optical reflectance and photoluminescence spectra of the ZnO/Ag nanogratings [1,2]. Nanoscopic mapping of surface photovoltage (SPV), i.e., changes in the surface potential under illumination, obtained by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) enabled us to investigate the local behaviors of the photo-generated carriers. The magnitude and relaxation time of the measured SPV depended on the wavelength and polarization of the incident light [3]. This showed that the SP excitation in the nanogratings directly affected the creation and recombination processes of the charge carriers. All of these results suggested that SPV measurements using KPFM should be very useful for studying the SP effects in metal/semiconductor hybrid nanostructures. References [1] Gwon et al., Opt. Express 19, 5895 (2011). [2] Gwon et al., ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces. 6, 8602 (2014). [3] Gwon et al., Sci. Rep. 5, 16727; doi: 10.1038/srep16727 (2015).

  1. Li-Zn-Pb multi isotopic characterization of the Loire River Basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millot, R.; Desaulty, A.; Widory, D.; Bourrain, X.

    2013-12-01

    The Loire River in France is approximately 1010 km long and drains an area of 117 800 km2. Upstream, the Loire River flows following a south to north direction from the Massif Central down to the city of Orléans, 650 km from its source. The Loire River is one of the main European riverine inputs to the Atlantic Ocean. Over time, its basin has been exposed to numerous sources of anthropogenic metal pollutions, such as metal mining, industry, agriculture and domestic inputs. The Loire River basin is thus an excellent study site to develop new isotope systematics for tracking anthropogenic sources of metal pollutions (Zn and Pb) and also to investigate Li isotope tracing that can provide key information on the nature of weathering processes at the Loire River Basin scale. Preliminary data show that Li-Zn-Pb concentrations and isotopic compositions span a wide range in river waters of the Loire River main stream and the main tributaries. There is a clear contrast between the headwaters upstream and rivers located downstream in the lowlands. In addition, one of the major tributaries within the Massif Central (the Allier River) is clearly influenced by inputs resulting from mineralizations and thermomineral waters. The results showed that, on their own, each of these isotope systematics reveals important information about the geogenic or anthropogenic origin Li-Zn-Pb. Considered together, they are however providing a more integrated understanding of the overall budgets of these elements at the scale of the Loire River Basin.

  2. Conventional crops and organic amendments for Pb, Cd and Zn treatment at a severely contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Pichtel, J; Bradway, D J

    2008-03-01

    The ability of selected plants and amendments to treat Pb, Cd and Zn accumulations from a metalliferous waste disposal site was studied both in the greenhouse and field. Spinach (Spinacea oleracea), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), and a grass-legume mix (red fescue, Festuca rubra; ryegrass, Lolium perenne); and bean (Vicia faba) were grown in the greenhouse on blast furnace slag or baghouse dust amended with composted peat (CP). All plant species accumulated Pb, Cd and Zn to varying degrees. Total soil metal concentrations had a marked influence on plant uptake. Topdressing versus incorporating CP had a significant (p<0.05) effect on spinach and cabbage tissue metal concentrations. Soil Pb and Zn tended to shift towards less bioavailable forms after treatment with CP. Field plots were treated with CP, farmyard manure (FYM), or inorganic fertilizer. Dry matter production of spinach, cabbage and a grass-legume mix was greatest on either the CP or FYM treatments. Phytostabilization in combination with organic amendments may be the most appropriate technology to ensure stabilization of soil metals at this site.

  3. Study of Zn-Pb ore tailings and their potential in cement technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouairi, J.; Hajjaji, W.; Costa, C. S.; Senff, L.; Patinha, C.; Ferreira da Silva, E.; Labrincha, J. A.; Rocha, F.; Medhioub, M.

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of sulfobelite clinkers incorporating mining rejects. The targeted Zn-Pb tailing wastes generated in the diapiric zone (NW Tunisia) were tested in clinker/cement compositions to ensure the inertization of existing hazardous heavy metals. Mineralogical composition of the two selected samples revealed calcite, dolomite, quartz, kaolinite, galena, pyrite and gypsum as crystalline phases. Vertical distributions of dominant heavy metals (Pb, Zn and Cu) in soil profiles show enrichment in the surface layers and decrease towards the depth. In sintered clinkers powders, the presence of the targeted crystalline phases (trialuminate sulphate (C4A3Š), belite (C2S), and ferrite (C4AF)) are in the predicted desirable amounts. Heat flow generated during the hydration of different cement pastes showed a slower reaction for clinkers with higher amounts of C4A3Š or constituted by coarser particles. After 28 days curing, the best mechanical resistance (24.34 MPa under compression) was obtained for the clinker calcined at 1350 °C and showing a suitable particle size distribution. Concerning heavy metals, immobilisation of 75-85% of Pb, Zn and Cu was assessed in the mortars formulated with the produced clinker/cement, posing no hazardous risks to the environment.

  4. The accumulation of elements in plants growing spontaneously on small heaps left by the historical Zn-Pb ore mining.

    PubMed

    Stefanowicz, Anna M; Stanek, Małgorzata; Woch, Marcin W; Kapusta, Paweł

    2016-04-01

    The study evaluated the levels of nine metals, namely Ca, Cd, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Pb, Tl, and Zn, in soils and tissues of ten plant species growing spontaneously on heaps left by historical mining for Zn-Pb ores. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Tl, and Zn in heap soils were much higher than in control soils. Plants growing on heaps accumulated excessive amounts of these elements in tissues, on average 1.3-52 mg Cd kg(-1), 9.4-254 mg Pb kg(-1), 0.06-23 mg Tl kg(-1) and 134-1479 mg Zn kg(-1) in comparison to 0.5-1.1 mg Cd kg(-1), 2.1-11 mg Pb kg(-1), 0.02-0.06 mg Tl kg(-1), and 23-124 mg Zn kg(-1) in control plants. The highest concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn were found in the roots of Euphorbia cyparissias, Fragaria vesca, and Potentilla arenaria, and Tl in Plantago lanceolata. Many species growing on heaps were enriched in K and Mg, and depleted in Ca, Fe, and Mn. The concentrations of all elements in plant tissues were dependent on species, organ (root vs. shoot), and species-organ interactions. Average concentrations of Ca, K, and Mg were generally higher in shoots than in roots or similar in the two organs, whereas Cd, Fe, Pb, Tl, and Zn were accumulated predominantly in the roots. Our results imply that heaps left by historical mining for Zn-Pb ores may pose a potential threat to the environment and human health.

  5. Photocatalytic degradation of lignin on synthesized Ag-AgCl/ZnO nanorods under solar light and preliminary trials for methane fermentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Huifang; Lei, Zhongfang; Liu, Chunguang; Zhang, Zhenya; Lu, Baowang

    2015-01-01

    New photocatalysts, Ag-AgCl/ZnO nanorods, were successfully synthesized in this study by using microwave assisted chemical precipitation and deposition-precipitation-photoreduction methods. The optimal preparation condition was determined as pH 9 in distilled water and 40min for UV light photoreduction of Ag (i.e. Ag40-AgCl/ZnO) by degradation of methyl orange. This work investigated the feasibility of using Ag40-AgCl/ZnO to degrade lignin under natural solar light and then subsequent methane production with influencing factors like solution pH, dosage of catalyst and initial lignin concentration being considered. OH radicals were found to play the most important role in the photocatalytic process, and the new prepared catalyst possessed stable photocatalytic activity after 7 cycles' utilization. During the subsequent biogasification, the degraded lignin obtained from 120min photocatalysis yielded 184ml methane and 325ml biogas for per gram of removed total organic carbon, increased by 10.9% and 23.1%, respectively compared to the control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesis of Ag-ZnO with multiple rods (multipods) morphology and its application in the simultaneous photo-catalytic degradation of methyl orange and methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Arab Chamjangali, M; Bagherian, G; Javid, A; Boroumand, S; Farzaneh, N

    2015-11-05

    In this study, the photo-decolorization of a mixture of methylene blue (MB) and methyl orange (MO) was investigated using Ag-ZnO multipods. The photo-catalyst used, ZnO multipods, was successfully synthesized. The surface of ZnO microstructure was modified by deposition of different amounts of Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using the photo-reduction method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Vis and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The photo-catalytic efficiency of Ag-ZnO is mainly controlled by the amount of Ag NPs deposited on the ZnO surface. The results obtained suggest that Ag-ZnO containing 6.5% Ag NPs, has the highest photo-catalytic performance in the simultaneous photo-degradation of dyes at a shorter time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Ag and Cu Contents on the Age Hardning Behavior of Al-Zn-Mg Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Katsumi; Kawabata, Tokimasa; Ikeno, Susumu; Yoshida, Tomoo; Murakami, Satoshi; Matsuda, Kenji

    Al-Zn-Mg alloy has been known as one of the aluminum alloys with the good age-hardening ability and the high strength among commercial aluminum alloys. The mechanical property of the limited ductility, however, is required to further improvement. In this work, three alloys, which were added Cu or Ag into the Al-Zn-Mg-Si alloy, were prepared to compare the effect of the additional elements on the aging behavior. The content of Ag and Cu were 0.2 at.% and 0.2at.%, respectively. The age-hardening behavior and microstructures of those alloys were investigated by hardness measurement, high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) technique. Ag or Cu added alloy showed higher peak hardness than Ag or Cu free alloy. According to addition of Ag or Cu, the number density of the precipitates increased than Ag or Cu free alloy.

  8. The first report of Pb and Zn accumulation in some native plants from the Peruvian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bech, Jaume; Duran, Paola; Poma, Wilfredo; Sánchez, Isidoro; Barceló, Juan; Roca, Núria; Boluda, Rafael; Roca-Pérez, Luís.; Poschenrieder, Charlotte

    2010-05-01

    Until recent decades little has been known about the remediation of mining sites using metalophytes in Latin America. Metal mining has helped to create severe and diverse environmental problems. The present study proposed to identify and characterize spontaneously growing heavy metal tolerant plant species in the area around the polimetalic mine in Hualgayoc (Cajamarca, Peru). These species are potentially useful for phytorremediation. Plant and soils from their rhizosphere were sampled and analized for concentration of As, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn. Translocation Factor (TF) defined the metals concentrations ratio between shoots and root biomass and Shoot Accumulation Factor (SAF) the metal concentration ratio between shoot and soil concentration were determined and used to measure the effectiveness of a plant in concentrating metals into its biomass. The soils were neutral pH (7,4±0,5) with variable content of organic carbon (2,4±1,1) and loam texture: sand (42,9±10,8) and clay (16,7±4,6). According to the total metals, all samples exceeded toxicity thresholds, high Pb (20016 ± 32559 mg•kg-1) and Zn (22512 ± 13056 mg•kg-1) concentrations were detected. High shoot Pb and Zn concentrations were found in Plantaginaceae Plantago orbignyana (6998 and 9617 μg/g); Brassicaceae Lepidium bipinnatifidum (6886 and 5034 mg•kg-1) and Asteraceae Senecio sp (4253 and 3870 mg•kg-1) and Baccharis latifolia (2554 and 1284 mg•kg-1 respectively). The high values of TFs indicates that the plants effectively traslocated metales. Lepidium bipinnatifidum shows the highest TFs values (143 in Pb and 21,5 in Zn). The SAF values were much lower than those reported for other species such as Paspalum sp in the Peruvian copper mine, which may be due to a high top soil Pb and Zn concentrations. These species can surely be considered as interesting for phytoextraction, due not only to its accumulative capacity but also since they showed an elevated transfer factor and grew in the

  9. Coexistence of bipolar and unipolar resistive switching behaviors in the double-layer Ag/ZnS-Ag/CuAlO2/Pt memory device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Xu, Haiyang; Wang, Zhongqiang; Yu, Hao; Ma, Jiangang; Liu, Yichun

    2016-01-01

    The coexistence of uniform bipolar and unipolar resistive-switching (RS) characteristics was demonstrated in a double-layer Ag/ZnS-Ag/CuAlO2/Pt memory device. By changing the compliance current (CC) from 1 mA to 10 mA, the RS behavior can be converted from the bipolar mode (BRS) to the unipolar mode (URS). The temperature dependence of low resistance states further indicates that the CFs are composed of the Ag atoms and Cu vacancies for the BRS mode and URS mode, respectively. For this double-layer structure device, the thicker conducting filaments (CFs) will be formed in the ZnS-Ag layer, and it can act as tip electrodes. Thus, the formation and rupture of these two different CFs are located in the CuAlO2 layer, realizing the uniform and stable BRS and URS.

  10. Optimization of {sup 6}LiF:ZnS(Ag) Scintillator Light Yield Using Geant4

    SciT

    Yehuda-Zada, Y.; Ben-Gurion University; Pritchard, K.

    2015-07-01

    Neutrons provide an effective tool to probe materials structure. Neutron diffraction is a method to determine the atomic and magnetic structure of a material based on neutron scattering. By this method a collimated incident beam of thermal neutrons heat the examined sample and based on the obtained diffraction pattern information on the structure of the material is provided. Research for developing a novel cold neutron detector for Chromatic Analysis Neutron Diffractometer Or Reflectometer (CANDOR) is underway at the NIST center for neutron research. The system unique design is aimed to provide over ten times fold faster analysis of materials thanmore » conventional system. In order to achieve the fast analysis a large number of neutron detectors is required. A key design constraint for this detector is the thickness of the neutron sensitive element. This is met using {sup 6}LiF:ZnS(Ag) scintillation material with embedded wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers conducting scintillation light to silicon photomultiplier photo-sensors. The detector sensitivity is determined by both the neutron capture probability ({sup 6}Li density) and the detectable light output produced by the ZnS(Ag) ionization, the latter of which is hindered by the fluorescence absorption of the scintillation light by the ZnS. Tradeoffs between the neutron capture probability, stimulated light production and light attenuation for determining the optimal stoichiometry of the {sup 6}LiF and ZnS(Ag) as well as the volume ratio of scintillator and fiber. Simulations performed using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo package were made in order to optimize the detector design. GEANT4 enables the investigation of the neutron interaction with the detector, the ionization process and the light transfer process following the nuclear process. The series of conversions required for this detector were modelled: - A cold neutron enters the sensor and is captured by {sup 6}Li in the scintillator mixture ({sup 6}Li (n,α) {sup

  11. An experimental and thermodynamic equilibrium investigation of the Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu, Mn and Ni partitioning during sewage sludge incineration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingyong; Fu, Jiewen; Ning, Xun'an; Sun, Shuiyu; Wang, Yujie; Xie, Wuming; Huang, Shaosong; Zhong, Sheng

    2015-09-01

    The effects of different chlorides and operational conditions on the distribution and speciation of six heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu, Mn and Ni) during sludge incineration were investigated using a simulated laboratory tubular-furnace reactor. A thermodynamic equilibrium investigation using the FactSage software was performed to compare the experimental results. The results indicate that the volatility of the target metals was enhanced as the chlorine concentration increased. Inorganic-Cl influenced the volatilization of heavy metals in the order of Pb>Zn>Cr>Cu>Mn>Ni. However, the effects of organic-Cl on the volatility of Mn, Pb and Cu were greater than the effects on Zn, Cr and Ni. With increasing combustion temperature, the presence of organic-Cl (PVC) and inorganic-Cl (NaCl) improved the transfer of Pb and Zn from bottom ash to fly ash or fuse gas. However, the presence of chloride had no obvious influence on Mn, Cu and Ni. Increased retention time could increase the volatilization rate of heavy metals; however, this effect was insignificant. During the incineration process, Pb readily formed PbSiO4 and remained in the bottom ash. Different Pb compounds, primarily the volatile PbCl2, were found in the gas phase after the addition of NaCl; the dominant Pb compounds in the gas phase after the addition of PVC were PbCl2, Pb(ClO4)2 and PbCl2O4. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Concentrations, spatial distribution, and risk assessment of soil heavy metals in a Zn-Pb mine district in southern China.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jianying; Zhang, Hailong; Li, Xiangping; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Gaosheng

    2016-07-01

    China is one of the largest producers and consumers of lead and zinc in the world. Lead and zinc mining and smelting can release hazardous heavy metals such as Cd, Pb, Zn, and As into soils, exerting health risks to human by chronic exposure. The concentrations of Cd, Zn, Pb, and As in soil samples collected from a Pb-Zn mining area with exploitation history of 60 years were investigated. Health risks of the heavy metals in soil were evaluated using US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) recommended method. A geo-statistical technique (Kriging) was used for the interpolation of heavy metals pollution and Hazard Index (HI). The results indicated that the long-term Pb/Zn mining activities caused the serious pollution in the local soil. The concentrations of Cd, As, Pb, and Zn in topsoil were 40.3 ± 6.3, 103.7 ± 37.3, 3518.4 ± 896.1, and 10,413 ± 2973.2 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. The spatial distribution of the four metals possessed similar patterns, with higher concentrations around Aayiken (AYK), Maseka (MSK), and Kuangshan (KS) area and more rapidly dropped concentrations at upwind direction than those at downwind direction. The main pollutions of Cd and Zn were found in the upper 60 cm, the Pb was found in the upper 40 cm, and the As was in the upper 20 cm. The mobility of metals in soil profile of study area was classed as Cd > Zn ≫ Pb > As. Results indicated that there was a higher health risk (child higher than adult) in the study area. Pb contributed to the highest Hazard Quotient (57.0 ~ 73.9 %) for the Hazard Index.

  13. Effects on the optical properties and conductivity of Ag-N co-doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhenchao; Hou, Qingyu; Qu, Lingfeng

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, the studies of the effects on the optical bandgap, absorption spectrum, and electrical properties of Ag-N co-doped ZnO have been extensively investigated. However, Ag and N atoms in doped systems are randomly doped, and the asymmetric structure of ZnO is yet to be explored. In this paper, the geometric structure, stability, density of states, absorption spectra and conductivity of pure and Ag-N co-doped Zn1-xAgxO1-xNx(x=0.03125, 0.0417 and 0.0625) in different orientations are calculated by using plane-wave ultrasoft pseudopotential on the basis of density functional theory with GGA+U method. Results show that the volume, equivalent total energy and formation energy of the doped system increase as the concentration of Ag-N co-doped Zn1-xAgxO1-xNx increases at the same doping mode. The doped systems also become unstable, and difficulty in doping. At the same concentration of Ag-N co-doped Zn1-xAgxO1-xNx, the systems with Ag-N along the c-axis orientation is unstable, and doping is difficult. The optical bandgap of Ag-N co-doped systems is narrower than that of the pure ZnO. At the same doping mode, the optical bandgap of the systems with Ag-N perpendicular to the c-axis orientation becomes narrow as the concentration of Ag-N co-doped Zn1-xAgxO1-xNx increases. The absorption spectra of the doped systems exhibit a red shift, and this red shift becomes increasingly significant as the concentration of Ag-N co-doped Zn1-xAgxO1-xNx increases. Under the same condition, the relative hole concentrations of the doped systems increases, the hole effective mass in valence band maximum decreases, the hole mobility decreases, the ionization energy decreases, Bohr radius increases, the conductance increases and the conductivity become better. Our results may be used as a basis for the designing and preparation of new optical and electrical materials for Ag-N co-doped ZnO applied in low temperature end of temperature difference battery.

  14. Tracing Cd, Zn and Pb pollution sources in bivalves using isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiel, A. E.; Weis, D. A.; Orians, K. J.

    2010-12-01

    In a multi-tracer study, Cd, Zn and Pb isotopes (MC-ICP-MS) and elemental concentrations (HR-ICP-MS) are evaluated as tools to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic sources of these metals in bivalves from western Canada (British Columbia), the eastern USA, Hawaii and France. High Cd concentrations found in BC oysters have elicited economic and health concerns. The source of these high Cd levels is unknown but thought to be largely natural. High Cd levels in BC oysters are largely attributed to the natural upwelling of Cd-rich intermediate waters in the North Pacific as the δ114/110Cd (-0.69 to -0.09‰) and δ66/64Zn (0.28 to 0.36‰) values of BC oysters fall within the range reported for North Pacific seawater. Different contributions from anthropogenic sources account for the variability of Cd isotopic compositions of BC oysters; the lightest of these oysters are from the BC mainland. These oysters also have Pb isotopic compositions that reflect primarily anthropogenic sources (e.g., leaded and unleaded automotive gasoline and smelting of Pb ores, potentially historical). On the contrary, USA East Coast bivalves exhibit relatively light Cd isotopic compositions (δ114/110Cd = -1.20 to -0.54‰; lighter than reported for North Atlantic seawater) due to the high prevalence of industry on this coast. The Pb isotopic compositions of these bivalves indicate contributions from the combustion of coal. The large variability of environmental health among coastal areas in France is reflected in the broad range of Cd isotopic compositions exhibited by French bivalves (δ114/110Cd = -1.08 to -0.20‰). Oysters and mussels from the Marennes-Oléron basin and Gironde estuary have the lightest Cd isotopic compositions of the French oysters consistent with significant historical Cd emissions from the now-closed proximal Zn smelter. In these bivalves, significant declines in the Cd levels between 1984/7 and 2004/5 are not accompanied by a significant shift in the Cd

  15. Facile synthesis of Ag/ZnO heterostructures assisted by UV irradiation: Highly photocatalytic property and enhanced photostability

    SciT

    Yang, Zhongmei, E-mail: kalimodor@163.com; Zhang, Ping; Ding, Yanhuai

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} Fabrication of Ag/ZnO heterostructure between the two incompatible phases is realized under UV irradiation in the absence of surfactant. {yields} The synthetic method is facile, low cost, and low carbon, which depends on the photogenerated electrons produced by ZnO under UV light. {yields} Photocatalytic property of the as-synthesized samples is 3.0 times as good as the pure ZnO synthesized under the same condition or the commercial TiO{sub 2} (Degussa, P-25). {yields} The heterostructures exhibit good durability without significant change in the activity even after the third cycle compared to the pure ZnO. -- Abstract: We report a newmore » method to synthesize Ag/ZnO heterostructures assisted by UV irradiation. The formation of Ag/ZnO heterostructures depends on photogenerated electrons produced by ZnO under UV light to reduce high valence silver. Functional property of the Ag/ZnO heterostructures is evaluated by photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV illumination. Results of photodegradation tests reveal that the optimal photocatalytic activity of as-syntheszied samples is about 1.5 times higher than the pure ZnO synthesized in the same condition or commercial TiO{sub 2} (P-25), showing the advantage of the unique structure in the Ag/ZnO heterostructure. Besides, due to the reduced activation of surface oxygen atom, photocatalytic activity of the photocatalysts has no evident decrease even after three recycles.« less

  16. Examples from the Greenland-Project - Gentle Remediation Optiones (GROs) on Pb/zn Contaminated Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang; Kidd, Petra; Siebielec, Grzegorz

    2017-04-01

    The GREENLAND-project brought together "best practice" examples of several field applied gentle remediation techniques (EUFP7-project "Gentle remediation of trace element-contaminated land - GREENLAND; www.greenland-project.eu) with 17 partners from 11 countries. Gentle remediation options (GRO) comprise environmentally friendly technologies that have little or no negative impact on the soil. The main technologies are • phytoextraction • in situ immobilization and • assisted phytostabilization. Mining and processing activities affecting many sites worldwide negatively. The huge amounts of moved and treated materials have led to considerable flows of wastes and emissions. Alongside the many advantages of processed ores to our society, adverse effects in nature and risks for the environment and human health are observed. Three stages of impact of Pb/Zn-ore-treatment on the environment are discussed here: (1) On sites where the ores are mined impacts are the result of crushing, grinding, concentrating activities, and where additionally parts of the installations remain after abandoning the mine, as well as by the massive amounts of remaining deposits or wastes (mine tailings). (2) On sites where smelting and processing takes place, depending on the process (Welz, Doerschel) different waste materials are deposited. The Welz process waste generally contains less Cd and Pb than the Doerschel process waste which additionally shows higher water- extractable metals. (3) On sites close to the emitting source metal contamination can be found in areas for housing, gardening, and agricultural use. Emissions consist mainly from oxides and sulfides (Zn, Cd), sulfates (Zn, Pb, and Cd), chlorides (Pb) and carbonates (Cd). All these wastes and emissions pose potential risks of dispersion of pollutants into the food chain due to erosion (wind, water), leaching and the transfer into feeding stuff and food crops. In-situ treatments have the potential for improving the situation

  17. Spectral analysis of Cu 2+: B 2O 3-ZnO-PbO glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshminarayana, G.; Buddhudu, S.

    2005-11-01

    A new series of heavy metal oxide (PbO) based zinc borate glasses in the chemical composition of (95 - x)B 2O 3-5ZnO- xPbO ( x = 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 mol%) have been prepared to verify their UV filtering performance. Both direct and indirect optical band gaps ( Eopt) have been evaluated for these glasses. For a reference glass of 45B 2O 3-5ZnO-50PbO, refractive indices at different wavelengths are measured and found the results satisfactorily correlated with the theoretical data upon the computation of Cauchy's constants of A = 1.766029949, B = 159531.024 nm 2 and C = -1.078 × 10 10 nm 4. Measurements concerning X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR, differential scanning colorimeter (DSC) profiles have been carried out for this glass. The FT-IR profile has revealed that the glass has both BO 3 and BO 4 units. From DSC thermogram, glass transition temperature ( Tg), crystallization temperature ( Tc) and melting temperature ( Tm) have been located and from them, other related parameters of the glass have also been calculated. Visible absorption spectra of 45B 2O 3-5ZnO-(50 - x)PbO- xCuO ( x = 0. 1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 mol%) have revealed two absorption bands at around 400 nm ( 2B 1g → 2E g) and 780 nm ( 2B 1g → 2B 2g) of Cu 2+ ions, respectively. Emission bands at 422 and 512 nm are found for the 1 mol% CuO doped glass with excitations at 306 and 332 nm.

  18. Ag nanoparticle-ZnO nanowire hybrid nanostructures as enhanced and robust antimicrobial textiles via a green chemical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhou; Tang, Haoying; Yuan, Weiwei; Song, Wei; Niu, Yongshan; Yan, Ling; Yu, Min; Dai, Ming; Feng, Siyu; Wang, Menghang; Liu, Tengjiao; Jiang, Peng; Fan, Yubo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-04-01

    A new approach for fabrication of a long-term and recoverable antimicrobial nanostructure/textile hybrid without increasing the antimicrobial resistance is demonstrated. Using in situ synthesized Ag nanoparticles (NPs) anchored on ZnO nanowires (NWs) grown on textiles by a ‘dip-in and light-irradiation’ green chemical method, we obtained ZnONW@AgNP nanocomposites with small-size and uniform Ag NPs, which have shown superior performance for antibacterial applications. These new Ag/ZnO/textile antimicrobial composites can be used for wound dressings and medical textiles for topical and prophylactic antibacterial treatments, point-of-use water treatment to improve the cleanliness of water and antimicrobial air filters to prevent bioaerosols accumulating in ventilation, heating, and air-conditioning systems.

  19. ZnO/Ag nanocomposite: an efficient catalyst for degradation studies of textile effluents under visible light.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, R; Karthikeyan, N; Gupta, V K; Thirumal, E; Thangadurai, P; Narayanan, V; Stephen, A

    2013-05-01

    Degradation of model organic dye and industry effluent was studied using different weight percentages of Ag into ZnO as a catalyst. In this study, the catalysts were prepared by thermal decomposition method, which was employed for the first time in the preparation of ZnO/Ag nanocomposite catalysts. The physical and chemical properties of the prepared samples were studied using various techniques. The specific surface area, which plays an important role in the photocatalytic degradation, was studied using BET analysis and 10 wt.% Ag into ZnO showed the best degrading efficiency. The optical absorption (UV-vis) and emission (PL) properties of the samples were studied and results suggest better photocatalytic properties for 10 wt.% Ag sample compared to other samples. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Transparent capacitors with hybrid ZnO:Al and Ag nanowires as electrodes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guozhen; Wu, Hao; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Ti; Liu, Chang

    2016-03-11

    Transparent conducting films with a composite structure of AlZnO-Ag nanowires (AgNWs) have been prepared by atomic layer deposition. The sheet resistance was reduced from 120 to 9 Ω when the AgNW networks were involved. Transparent capacitors with Al2O3-TiO2-Al2O3 dielectrics were fabricated on the composite electrodes and demonstrated a capacitance density of 10.1 fF μm(-2), which was significantly higher than that of capacitors with AlZnO electrodes (8.8 fF μm(-1)). The capacitance density remained almost unchanged in a broad frequency range from 3 kHz to 1 MHz. Moreover, a low leakage current density of 2.4 × 10(-7) A cm(-2) at 1 V was achieved. Transparent and flexible capacitors were also fabricated using the composite electrodes, and demonstrated an improved bendability. The transparent capacitors showed an average optical transmittance over 70% in the visible range, and thus open the door to practical applications in transparent integrated circuits.

  1. SERS-active ZnO/Ag hybrid WGM microcavity for ultrasensitive dopamine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Junfeng; Xu, Chunxiang; Nan, Haiyan; Zhu, Qiuxiang; Qin, Feifei; Manohari, A. Gowri; Wei, Ming; Zhu, Zhu; Shi, Zengliang; Ni, Zhenhua

    2016-08-01

    Dopamine (DA) is a potential neuro modulator in the brain which influences a variety of motivated behaviors and plays a key role in life science. A hybrid ZnO/Ag microcavity based on Whispering Gallery Mode (WGM) effect has been developed for ultrasensitive detection of dopamine. Utilizing this effect of structural cavity mode, a Raman signal of R6G (5 × 10-3 M) detected by this designed surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)-active substrate was enhanced more than 10-fold compared with that of ZnO film/Ag substrate. Also, this hybrid microcavity substrate manifests high SERS sensitivity to rhodamine 6 G and detection limit as low as 10-12 M to DA. The Localized Surface Plasmons of Ag nanoparticles and WGM-enhanced light-matter interaction mainly contribute to the high SERS sensitivity and help to achieve a lower detection limit. This designed SERS-active substrate based on the WGM effect has the potential for detecting neurotransmitters in life science.

  2. X-ray fluorescence analysis of Pb, Fe and Zn in kohl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daar, Eman; Alsubaie, Abdullah; Almugren, K. S.; Barnes, S.; Alanazi, A.; Alyahyawi, A.; Alomairy, S.; Al-Sulaiti, H.; Bradley, D. A.

    Kohl, a facial salve used in ancient times as a symbol of affluence, now enjoys more widespread traditional followings, for cosmetic, religious and supposed medicinal purposes. Popularly used by women and men of all ages, particularly those of North African, Middle Eastern, Southern Asia, Japanese and Chinese origins, it is also known to be used on neonates and children from such populations. With small-scale producers of kohl possessing a growing awareness of the adverse market impact of products that contain (lead) Pb and other toxicity related elements, some claim their products to be Pb-free, offering an apparent change from the more traditional galena-based (lead sulphide) media. Among the published physiological effects of exposure to Pb is that it replaces Ca in bones and teeth, making them weak and fragile, other impacts including nephrotoxicity, also linked with increased Pb blood levels in studies in Oman, Canada, Saudi Arabia, India and Pakistan. Current study involves XRF analysis of Pb, Fe and Zn concentrations in 135 samples of kohl from nine randomly selected suppliers (15 samples of each brand being represented). In pursuit of this, use was made of an in-house assembled facility comprising compact high-performance components, the arrangement offering sufficient sensitivity for the purposes of present study. In most of the samples investigated in the present study observation has been made of concentrations of Pb at elevated levels, quantification of those levels also demonstrating a need to address self-attenuation by the Pb itself. Significant concentration of Fe have also been found in several of the samples.

  3. Comparative study on thermodynamic characteristics of AgCuZnSn brazing alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingxing; Li, Shuai; Peng, Jin

    2018-01-01

    AgCuZnSn brazing alloys were prepared based on the BAg50CuZn filler metal through electroplating diffusion process, and melting alloying method. The thermodynamics of phase transformations of those fillers were analyzed by non-isothermal differentiation and integration methods of thermal analysis kinetics. In this study, it was demonstrated that as the Sn content increased, the reaction fractional integral curves of AgCuZnSn fillers from solid to liquid became straighter at the endothermic peak. Under the same Sn contents, the reaction fractional integral curve of the Sn-plated filler metal was straighter, and the phase transformation activation energy was higher compared to the traditional silver filler metal. At the 7.2 wt% Sn content, the activation energies and pre-exponential factors of the two fillers reached the maximum, then the phase transformation rate equations of the Sn-plated silver filler and the traditional filler were determined as: k = 1.41 × 1032exp(-5.56 × 105/RT), k = 7.29 × 1020exp(-3.64 × 105/RT), respectively.

  4. Ionic liquid-assisted photochemical synthesis of ZnO/Ag2O heterostructures with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shuo; Zhang, Yiwei; Zhou, Yuming; Zhang, Chao; Fang, Jiasheng; Sheng, Xiaoli

    2017-07-01

    ZnO/Ag2O heterostructures have been successfully fabricated using ionic liquids (ILs) as templates by a simple photochemical route. The influence of the type of ionic liquid and synthetic method on the morphology of ZnO, as well as the photocatalytic activity for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB), tetracycline (TC) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) under ultraviolet and visible light irradiation was studied. The samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, PL and UV-vis DRS. The results established that the type of ionic liquid and synthetic method played an important role in the growth of ZnO nanoparticles. And as-fabricated ZnO/Ag2O materials exhibited self-assembled flower-like architecture whose size was about 3 μm. Moreover, as-prepared ZnO/Ag2O exhibited the enhanced photocatalytic activity than ZnO sample, which may be due to the special structure, heterojunction, enhanced adsorption capability of dye, the improved separation rate of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. According to the results of radical trapping experiments, it can be found that •OH and h+ were the main active species for the photocatalytic degradation of RhB. It is valuable to develop this facile route preparing the highly dispersive flower-like ZnO/Ag2O materials, which can be beneficial for environmental protection.

  5. Low temperature preparation of Ag-doped ZnO nanowire arrays for sensor and light-emitting diode applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupan, O.; Viana, B.; Cretu, V.; Postica, V.; Adelung, R.; Pauporté, T.

    2016-02-01

    Transition metal doped-oxide semiconductor nanostructures are important to achieve enhanced and new properties for advanced applications. We describe the low temperature preparation of ZnO:Ag nanowire/nanorod (NW/NR) arrays by electrodeposition at 90 °C. The NWs have been characterized by SEM, EDX, transmittance and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The integration of Ag in the crystal is shown. Single nanowire/nanorod of ZnO:Ag was integrated in a nanosensor structure leading to new and enhanced properties. The ultraviolet (UV) response of the nanosensor was investigated at room temperature. Experimental results indicate that ZnO:Ag (0.75 μM) nanosensor possesses faster response/recovery time and better response to UV light than those reported in literature. The sensor structure has been also shown to give a fast response for the hydrogen detection with improved performances compared to pristine ZnO NWs. ZnO:Ag nanowire/nanorod arrays electrochemically grown on p-type GaN single crystal layer is also shown to act as light emitter in LED structures. The emission wavelength is red-shifted compared to pristine ZnO NW array. At low Ag concentration a single UV-blue emission is found whereas at higher concentration of dopant the emission is broadened and extends up to the red wavelength range. Our study indicates that high quality ZnO:Ag NW/NR prepared at low temperature by electrodeposition can serve as building nanomaterials for new sensors and light emitting diodes (LEDs) structures with low-power consumption.

  6. Electrokinetic enhancement on phytoremediation in Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd contaminated soil using potato plants.

    PubMed

    Aboughalma, Hanssan; Bi, Ran; Schlaak, Michael

    2008-07-01

    The use of a combination of electrokinetic remediation and phytoremediation to decontaminate soil polluted with heavy metals has been demonstrated in a laboratory-scale experiment. Potato tubers were planted in plastic vessels filled with Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd contaminated soil and grown in a greenhouse. Three of these vessels were treated with direct current electric field (DC), three with alternative current (AC) and three remained untreated as control vessels. The soil pH varied from anode to cathode with a minimum of pH 3 near the anode and a maximum of pH 8 near the cathode in the DC treated soil profile. There was an accumulation of Zn, Cu and Cd at about 12 cm distance from anode when soil pH was 5 in the DC treated soil profile. There was no significant metal redistribution and pH variation between anode and cathode in the AC soil profile. The biomass production of the plants was 72% higher under AC treatment and 27% lower under DC treatment compared to the control. Metal accumulation was generally higher in the plant roots treated with electrical fields than the control. The overall metal uptake in plant shoots was lower under DC treatment compared to AC treatment and control, although there was a higher accumulation of Zn and Cu in the plant roots treated with electrical fields. The Zn uptake in plant shoots under AC treatment was higher compared to the control and DC treatment. Zn and Cu accumulation in the plant roots under AC and DC treatment was similar, and both were higher comparing to control. Cd content in plant roots under all three treatments was found to be higher than that in the soil. The Pb accumulation in the roots and the uptake into the shoots was lower compared to its content in the soil.

  7. Synthesis of a ternary Ag/RGO/ZnO nanocomposite via microwave irradiation and its application for the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light.

    PubMed

    Surendran, Divya Kollikkara; Xavier, Marilyn Mary; Viswanathan, Vandana Parakkal; Mathew, Suresh

    2017-06-01

    Reduced graphene oxide supporting plasmonic photocatalyst (Ag) on ZnO has been synthesized via a facile two-step microwave synthesis using RGO/ZnO and AgNO 3 . First step involves fabrication of RGO/ZnO via microwave irradiation. The nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Ag/RGO/ZnO shows enhanced photoactivity under visible light for the degradation of Rhodamine B. Enhanced charge separation and migration have been assigned using UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, photoluminescence spectra, electrochemical impedance spectra, and TCSPC analysis. The improved photoactivity of Ag/RGO/ZnO can be ascribed to the prolonged lifetime of photogenerated electron-hole pairs and effective interfacial hybridization between RGO and Ag with ZnO nanoparticles. Ag nanoparticles can absorb visible light via surface plasmon resonance to enhance photocatalytic activity.

  8. Influence of plasmon coupling on the photoluminescence of ZnS/Ag nanoparticles obtained by laser irradiation in liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moos, Rafaela; Graff, Ismael L.; de Oliveira, Vinicius S.; Schreiner, Wido H.; Bezerra, Arandi G.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the photoluminescence, optical absorption and structural properties of ZnS submitted to laser irradiation in water and isopropyl alcohol. Nanoparticles were produced by irradiating micro-sized ZnS particles dispersed in both liquids, with and without the addition of Ag nanoparticles, taking advantage of the laser-assisted fragmentation effect. When ZnS microparticles are irradiated either in pure water or isopropyl alcohol a considerable size reduction is achieved (from micra to few nanometers). The photoluminescence of these nanoparticles mainly occurs in the UV, centered at 350 nm, and with smaller intensity in the visible, centered at 600 nm. Irradiation of ZnS microparticles dispersed in colloidal silver triggers a reaction between both materials, modifying its optical absorption and photoluminescent properties. After irradiation of ZnS in alcohol containing Ag nanoparticles, a giant increase of the UV photoluminescence is observed. Interestingly, when the irradiation is performed in aqueous Ag nanoparticles colloids, the photoluminescence suffers a red-shift towards the violet-blue. The data show that core-shell (Ag-ZnO) nanostructures are formed after irradiation and the visible emission likely originates from the ZnO shell grown around silver nanoparticles. The presence of Ag nanoparticles in the liquid medium promotes a stronger absorption of the laser beam during irradiation due to the coupling with the surface plasmon resonance, fostering intense reactions among ZnS, Ag nanoparticles, and the liquid medium. Our study shows that with a simple change of the liquid medium wherein the irradiation is conducted the photoluminescence can be tuned from UV to visible and core-shell nanostructures can be obtained.

  9. Self-assembled Ag nanoparticle network passivated by a nano-sized ZnO layer for transparent and flexible film heaters

    SciT

    Seo, Ki-Won; Kim, Han-Ki, E-mail: imdlhkkim@khu.ac.kr; Kim, Min-Yi

    2015-12-15

    We investigated a self-assembled Ag nanoparticle network electrode passivated by a nano-sized ZnO layer for use in high-performance transparent and flexible film heaters (TFFHs). The low temperature atomic layer deposition of a nano-sized ZnO layer effectively filled the uncovered area of Ag network and improved the current spreading in the self-assembled Ag network without a change in the sheet resistance and optical transmittance as well as mechanical flexibility. The time-temperature profiles and heat distribution analysis demonstrate that the performance of the TFTH with the ZnO/Ag network is superior to that of a TFFH with Ag nanowire electrodes. In addition, themore » TFTHs with ZnO/Ag network exhibited better stability than the TFFH with a bare Ag network due to the effective current spreading through the nano-sized ZnO layer.« less

  10. Geo-accumulation index and contamination factors of heavy metals (Zn and Pb) in urban river sediment.

    PubMed

    Haris, Hazzeman; Looi, Ley Juen; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Mokhtar, Nor Farhanna; Ayob, Nur Ain Ayunie; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Praveena, Sarva Mangala

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to appraise the levels of heavy metal contamination (Zn and Pb) in sediment of the Langat River (Selangor, Malaysia). Samples were collected randomly from 15 sampling stations located along the Langat River. The parameters measured were pH, redox potential, salinity, electrical conductivity, loss of ignition, cation exchanges capacity (Na, Mg, Ca, K), and metal ions (Zn and Pb). The geo-accumulation index (I geo ) and contamination factor (C f ) were applied to determine and classify the magnitude of heavy metal pollution in this urban river sediment. Results revealed that the I geo of Pb indicated unpolluted to moderately polluted sediment at most of the sampling stations, whereas Zn was considered to be within background concentration. The I geo results were refined by the C f values, which showed Pb with very high C f at 12 stations. Zinc, on the other hand, had low to moderate C f values. These findings indicated that the sediment of the Langat River is severely polluted with Pb. The Zn concentration at most sampling points was well below most sediment quality guidelines. However, 40% of the sampling points were found to have a Pb concentration higher than the consensus-based probable effect concentration of 128 mg/kg (concentrations above this value are likely to cause harmful effects). This result not only highlights the severity of Pb pollution in the sediment of the Langat River, but also the potential risk it poses to the environment.

  11. Gamma ray shielding characteristic of BiZnBo-SLS and PbZnBo-SLS glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syuhada Ahmad, Nor; Shahrim Mustafa, Iskandar; Mansor, Ishak; Malik, Muhammad Fadhirul Izwan bin Abdul; Ain Nabilah Razali, Nur; Nordin, Sufiniza

    2018-05-01

    The radiation shielding and optical properties of x [RmOn] (0.5‑x) [ZnO] 0.2 [B2O3] 0.3 [SLS], where RmOn are Bi2O3 and PbO with x = 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.30, 0.40, and 0.45 have been prepared by using the melt-quenching method at 1200 °C and was investigated on their physical, structural and gamma ray shielding properties. Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) data revealed that the particle morphologies is aggregated and irregular in shapes and size. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) elemental mapping data confirmed that all mentioned element all present on the prepared glass. Soda Lime Silica (SLS) that is mainly composed of SiO2 has been utilized in this study as the source of SiO2 for fabrication of glass system. From the result, the density and molar volume of both glass samples increased as Bi2O3 and PbO content increased. The gamma ray shielding properties, such as linear attenuation and mass attenuation coefficient, were increased while half value layer (HVL) and mean free path (MFP) were decreased as the increased in Bi2O3 and PbO concentrations. It is recognized that the mass attenuation coefficient value of Bi2O3 and PbO glass are slightly different. From this study, it can be concluded that from the non-toxicity and shielding point of view, the bismuth glass is a good shield to gamma radiation as compared to lead glass.

  12. Contamination of arctic Fjord sediments by Pb-Zn mining at Maarmorilik in central West Greenland.

    PubMed

    Perner, K; Leipe, Th; Dellwig, O; Kuijpers, A; Mikkelsen, N; Andersen, T J; Harff, J

    2010-07-01

    This study focuses on heavy metal contamination of arctic sediments from a small Fjord system adjacent to the Pb-Zn "Black Angel" mine (West Greenland) to investigate the temporal and spatial development of contamination and to provide baseline levels before the mines re-opening in January 2009. For this purpose we collected multi-cores along a transect from Affarlikassaa Fjord, which received high amounts of tailings from 1973 to 1990, to the mouth of Qaumarujuk Fjord. Along with radiochemical dating by (210)Pb and (137)Cs, geochemical analyses of heavy metals (e.g. As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Zn) were carried out. Maximum contents were found at 12 cm depth in Affarlikassaa. After 17 years the mine last closed, specific local hydrographic conditions continue to disperse heavy metal enriched material derived from the Affarlikassaa into Qaumarujuk. Total Hg profiles from multi-cores along the transect clearly illustrate this transport and spatial distribution pattern of the contaminated material. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Different Activated Carbon as Carrier on the Photocatalytic Activity of Ag-N-ZnO Photocatalyst for Methyl Orange Degradation under Visible Light Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoqing; Gao, Zhenzhen; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2017-01-01

    In order to enhance the photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) by ZnO under visible light irradiation, ZnO nanoparticles co-doped with Ag and N and supported on activated carbon (AC) with different properties were synthesized through the sol-gel method. The prepared photocatalysts were characterized in terms of the structure and properties through X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and electron spin resonance. The photocatalytic activities of these photocatalysts followed the order: Ag-N-ZnO/ACs > Ag-N-ZnO > N, or Ag single-doped ZnO > commercial ZnO. This result was attributed to the small particle size, large surface area, narrow band gap, and high charge separation of Ag-N-ZnO/ACs. The Ag-N-ZnO/coconut husk activated carbon (Ag-N-ZnO/CHAC) exhibited the highest degradation efficiency of 98.82% for MO under visible light irradiation. This outcome was due to the abundant pore structure of Ag-N-ZnO/CHAC, resulting in stronger adsorption than that of other Ag-N-ZnO/ACs. Moreover, the degradation of MO on photocatalysis followed first order kinetics. The reactive species ·OH and ·O2− played more important roles in the photocatalytic degradation of MO over composite photocatalyst. Ag-N-ZnO/CHAC photocatalyst exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than unsupported Ag-N-ZnO after five recycling runs. PMID:28872593

  14. Effect of Different Activated Carbon as Carrier on the Photocatalytic Activity of Ag-N-ZnO Photocatalyst for Methyl Orange Degradation under Visible Light Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoqing; Wu, Zhansheng; Gao, Zhenzhen; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2017-09-05

    In order to enhance the photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) by ZnO under visible light irradiation, ZnO nanoparticles co-doped with Ag and N and supported on activated carbon (AC) with different properties were synthesized through the sol-gel method. The prepared photocatalysts were characterized in terms of the structure and properties through X-ray diffraction, N₂ adsorption-desorption, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and electron spin resonance. The photocatalytic activities of these photocatalysts followed the order: Ag-N-ZnO/ACs > Ag-N-ZnO > N, or Ag single-doped ZnO > commercial ZnO. This result was attributed to the small particle size, large surface area, narrow band gap, and high charge separation of Ag-N-ZnO/ACs. The Ag-N-ZnO/coconut husk activated carbon (Ag-N-ZnO/CHAC) exhibited the highest degradation efficiency of 98.82% for MO under visible light irradiation. This outcome was due to the abundant pore structure of Ag-N-ZnO/CHAC, resulting in stronger adsorption than that of other Ag-N-ZnO/ACs. Moreover, the degradation of MO on photocatalysis followed first order kinetics. The reactive species ·OH and ·O₂ - played more important roles in the photocatalytic degradation of MO over composite photocatalyst. Ag-N-ZnO/CHAC photocatalyst exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than unsupported Ag-N-ZnO after five recycling runs.

  15. Use of inorganic and organic wastes for in situ immobilisation of Pb and Zn in a contaminated alkaline soil.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y-F; Haynes, R J; Naidu, R

    2012-05-01

    This study aims to examine whether addition of immobilising agents to a sandy, alkaline (pH = 8.1) soil, which had been contaminated with Pb and Zn by airborne particles from a Pb/Zn smelter, would substantially reduce metal bioavailability. The effectiveness of five waste materials (blast furnace (BF) slag, alum water treatment (WT) sludge, red mud, sugar mill mud and green waste compost) as metal immobilising agents was evaluated by incubating them with a contaminated soil for a period of 12 months at rates of 5% and 10% (w/w), after which, Rhodes grass was grown in the soils in a greenhouse study. Additions of WT sludge, BF slag and red mud reduced CaCl(2), CH(3)COOH, HCl and EDTA-extractable Zn but compost and mill mud had no appreciable immobilising effects. Additions of all amendments reduced levels of CaCl(2), CH(3)COOH and HCl-extractable Pb although concentrations of EDTA-extractable Pb remained unchanged. A sequential extraction procedure showed that additions of mill mud and compost increased the percentage of total Pb and Zn present in the oxidisable fraction whilst additions of the other materials increased the percentage present in the residual fraction. Rhodes grass yields were promoted greatly by additions of red mud, compost and particularly mill mud, and yields were negatively correlated with tissue Pb concentrations and extractable Pb. Red mud was the most effective material for lowering extractable Pb and Zn levels simultaneously while mill mud and compost were notably effective for Pb. A field evaluation in the study area is justified.

  16. Influence of Fluoride Ion on the Performance of Pb-Ag Anode During Long-Term Galvanostatic Electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Xiaocong; Yu, Xiaoying; Jiang, Liangxing; Lv, Xiaojun; Liu, Fangyang; Lai, Yanqing; Li, Jie

    2015-09-01

    Anodic potential, morphology and phase composition of the anodic layer, corrosion morphology of the metallic substrate, and oxygen evolution behavior of Pb-Ag anode in H2SO4 solution without/with fluoride ion were investigated and compared. The results showed that the presence of fluoride ions contributed to a smoother anodic layer with lower PbO2 concentration, which resulted in lower double layer capacity and higher charge transfer resistance for the oxygen evolution reaction. Consequently, the Pb-Ag anode showed a higher anodic potential (about 35 mV) in the fluoride-containing electrolyte. In addition, the fluoride ions accelerated the detachment of loose flakes on the anodic layer. It was demonstrated that the anodic layer formed in the fluoride-containing H2SO4 solution was thinner. Furthermore, fluoride ions aggravated the corrosion of the metallic substrate at interdendritic boundary regions. Hence, the presence of fluoride ions is detrimental to oxygen evolution reactivity and increases the corrosion of the Pb-Ag anode, which may further increase the energy consumption and capital cost of zinc plants.

  17. ZnO-Ag core shell nanocomposite formed by green method using essential oil of wild ginger and their bactericidal and cytotoxic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizi, Susan; Mohamad, Rosfarizan; Rahim, Raha Abdul; Moghaddam, Amin Boroumand; Moniri, Mona; Ariff, Arbakariya; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Namvab, Farideh

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a novel green method for fabrication of zinc oxide-silver (ZnO-Ag) core-shell nanocomposite using essential oil of ginger (EO-G) is reported. The EO-G played two significant roles in the synthesis process: it could act as a reaction media for the formation of ZnO and reduce Ag+ to Ag0. The bioformed ZnO-Ag nanocomposite was compared with pure biosynthesized ZnO-NPs and characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, TEM, EDX, XRD and FTIR. The characterization results confirmed that Ag-NPs had been embedded in ZnO hexagonal nanoparticles. Six Gram positive and negative pathogens were used to investigate the antibacterial effects of these samples. Ag-doping improves the bactericidal activity of ZnO-NPs. In vitro cytotoxicity studies on Vero cells, a dose dependent toxicity with non-toxic effect of concentration below 100 μg/mL was shown for ZnO-Ag nanocomposite. The biosynthesized ZnO-Ag nanocomposites were found to be comparable to those obtained from the conventional methods using hazardous materials which can be an excellent alternative for the synthesis of ZnO-Ag using biomass.

  18. Amino-functionalized sub-40 nm ultrathin Ag/ZnO transparent electrodes for flexible polymer dispersed liquid crystal devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jinhua; Lu, Yuehui; Wu, Wenxuan; Li, Jia; Zhang, Xianpeng; Zhu, Chaoting; Yang, Ye; Xu, Feng; Song, Weijie

    2017-11-01

    Various flexible transparent conducting electrodes (FTCEs) have been studied for promising applications in flexible optoelectronic devices, but there are still challenges in achieving higher transparency and conductivity, lower thickness, better mechanical flexibility, and lower preparation temperatures. In this work, we prepared a sub-40 nm Ag(9 nm)/ZnO(30 nm) FTCE at room temperature, where each layer played a relatively independent role in the tailoring of the optoelectronic properties. A continuous and smooth 9-nm Ag thin film was grown on amino-functionalized glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates to provide good conductivity. A 30-nm ZnO cladding, as an antireflection layer, further improved the transmittance while hardly affecting the conductivity. The room-temperature grown sub-40 nm Ag/ZnO thin films on PET substrate exhibited a transmittance of 88.6% at 550 nm and a sheet resistance of 7.6 Ω.sq-1, which were superior to those of the commercial ITO. The facile preparation benefits the integration of FTCEs into various flexible optoelectronic devices, where the excellent performance of the sub-40 nm Ag/ZnO FTCEs in a flexible polymer dispersed liquid crystal device was demonstrated. Sub-40 nm Ag/ZnO FTCEs that have the characteristics of simple structure, room-temperature preparation, and easily tailored optoelectronic properties would provide flexible optoelectronic devices with more degrees of freedom.

  19. Controllable synthesis of dual emissive Ag:InP/ZnS quantum dots with high fluorescence quantum yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wu; He, Guoxing; Mei, Shiliang; Zhu, Jiatao; Zhang, Wanlu; Chen, Qiuhang; Zhang, Guilin; Guo, Ruiqian

    2017-11-01

    Dual emissive Cd-free quantum dots (QDs) are in great demand for various applications. However, their synthesis has been faced with challenges. Here, we demonstrate the dual emissive Ag:InP/ZnS core/shell QDs with the excellent photoluminescence quantum yield (PL QY) up to 75% and their PL dependence on the reaction temperature, reaction time, the different ZnX2 (X = I, Cl, and Br) precursors, the ratio of In/Zn and the Ag dopant concentration. The as-prepared Ag:InP/ZnS QDs exhibit dual emission with one peak position of about 492 nm owing to the intrinsic emission, and the other peak position of about 575 nm resulting from Ag-doped emission. These dual emissive QDs are integrated with the commercial GaN-based blue LEDs, and the simulation results show that the Ag:InP/ZnS QDs-based white LEDs could realize bright natural white-lights with the luminous efficacy (LE) of 94.2-98.4 lm/W, the color rendering index (CRI) of 82-83 and the color quality scale (CQS) of 82-83 at different correlated color temperatures (CCT). This unique combination of the above properties makes this new class of dual emissive QDs attractive for white LED applications.

  20. Influence of reactive sulfide (AVS) and supplementary food on Ag, Cd and Zn bioaccumulation in the marine polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata

    Lee, J.-S.; Lee, B.-G.; Yoo, H.; Koh, C.-H.; Luoma, S.N.

    2001-01-01

    A laboratory bioassay determined the relative contribution of various pathways of Ag, Cd and Zn bioaccumulation in the marine polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata exposed to moderately contaminated sediments. Juvenile worms were exposed for 25 d to experimental sediments containing 5 different reactive sulfide (acid volatile sulfides, AVS) concentrations (1 to 30 ??mol g-1), but with constant Ag, Cd, and Zn concentrations of 0.1, 0.1 and 7 ??mol g-1, respectively. The sediments were supplemented with contaminated food (TetraMin??) containing 3 levels of Ag-Cd-Zn (uncontaminated, 1?? or 5??1 metal concentrations in the contaminated sediment). The results suggest that bioaccumulation of Ag, Cd and Zn in the worms occurred predominantly from ingestion of contaminated sediments and contaminated supplementary food. AVS or dissolved metals (in porewater and overlying water) had a minor effect on bioaccumulation of the 3 metals in most of the treatments. The contribution to uptake from the dissolved source was most important in the most oxic sediments, with maximum contributions of 8% for Ag, 30% for Cd and 20% for Zn bioaccumulation. Sediment bioassays where uncontaminated supplemental food is added could seriously underestimate metal exposures in an equilibrated system; N. arenaceodentata feeding on uncontaminated food would be exposed to 40-60% less metal than if the food source was equilibrated (as occurs in nature). Overall, the results show that pathways of metal exposure are dynamically linked in contaminated sediments and shift as external geochemical characteristics and internal biological attributes vary.

  1. Biological diversity of Salix taxa in Cu, Pb and Zn phytoextraction from soil.

    PubMed

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Rutkowski, Paweł; Goliński, Piotr; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Szentner, Kinga; Waliszewska, Bogusława; Stolarski, Mariusz; Szczukowski, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the efficiency of copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) phytoextraction by 145 Salix taxa cultivated in an area affected by industrial activity. Survivability and biomass of plants were also analyzed. The highest Cu, Pb and Zn content in shoots was 33.38 ± 2.91 (S. purpurea × viminalis 8), 24.64 ± 1.97 (S. fragilis 1) and 58.99 ± 4.30 (S. eriocephala 7) mg kg -1 dry weight, respectively. In the case of unwashed leaves, the highest content of these metals was 135.06 ± 8.14 (S. purpurea 26), 67.98 ± 5.27 (S. purpurea 45) and 142.56 ± 12.69 (S. alba × triandra 2) mg kg -1 dw, while in washed leaves it was 106.02 ± 11.12 (S. purpurea 45), 55.06 ± 5.75 (S. purpurea 45) and 122.87 ± 12.33 (S. alba × triandra 2) mg kg -1 dw, respectively. The differences between the highest and lowest values for Cu, Pb and Zn were 545%, 20500% and 535% in shoots; 2692%, 2560% and 7500% in unwashed leaves; and 3286%, 2221% and 6950% in washed leaves, respectively. S. acutifolia was able to effectively accumulate all three metals jointly, producing shoots that were well developed in both length and diameter when compared with the other tested willows-an ability that would suggest its high suitability for practical application.

  2. Immobilization of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in mine drainage stream sediment using Chinese loess.

    PubMed

    Zang, Fei; Wang, Shengli; Nan, Zhongren; Ma, Jianmin; Li, Yepu; Zhang, Qian; Chen, Yazhou

    2017-08-01

    The in situ immobilization of metal-contaminated sediment, using various amendments, has attracted great attention owing to their cost-effectiveness. The present study investigated the effectiveness of Chinese loess on Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb stabilization by decreasing their bioavailability in contaminated sediment. The loess was mixed with the sediment in doses of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 kg. Approximately 70 d after loess application, the effectiveness was evaluated using the Tessier sequential extraction procedure and single extractants, including ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA-2Na), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ) and hydrochloric acid (HCl). The results indicated that the loess can effectively transform Cu from the carbonate fraction into the residual fraction when the loess dose was ≥5 kg. However, loess had little effect on Zn, Cd and Pb immobilization. Correlation analysis showed that these four extractants can provide a good indication of the toxicity of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in the amended sediment. Additionally, the organic matter content in the amended sediment decreased by 1.4% for CK, 1.6% for L0.5, 1.7% for L1, 1.5% for L2, 1.5% for L5, 1.9% for L10 and 1.9% for L20 (CK: untreated sediment; L0.5 to L20 represent loess doses of 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 kg, respectively) compared to the initial organic matter content in the unamended sediment, which may increase the atmospheric carbon dioxide owing to the degradation of organic matter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ultrasonic semi-solid coating soldering 6061 aluminum alloys with Sn-Pb-Zn alloys.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xin-ye; Xing, Wen-qing; Ding, Min

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, 6061 aluminum alloys were soldered without a flux by the ultrasonic semi-solid coating soldering at a low temperature. According to the analyses, it could be obtained that the following results. The effect of ultrasound on the coating which promoted processes of metallurgical reaction between the components of the solder and 6061 aluminum alloys due to the thermal effect. Al2Zn3 was obtained near the interface. When the solder was in semi-solid state, the connection was completed. Ultimately, the interlayer mainly composed of three kinds of microstructure zones: α-Pb solid solution phases, β-Sn phases and Sn-Pb eutectic phases. The strength of the joints was improved significantly with the minimum shear strength approaching 101MPa. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Ultrafast carrier dynamics and third-order nonlinear optical properties of AgInS2/ZnS nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kuai; Yang, Yang; Wang, Junzhong; Tang, Xiaosheng; Xu, Qing-Hua; Wang, Guo Ping

    2018-06-22

    Broad photoluminescence (PL) emission, a large Stokes shift and extremely long-lived radiative lifetimes are the characteristics of ternary I-III-VI semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs), such as CuInS 2 and AgInS 2 . However, the lack of understanding regarding the intriguing PL mechanisms and photo-carrier dynamics limits their further applications. Here, AgInS 2 and AgInS 2 /ZnS NCs were chemically synthesized and their carrier dynamics were studied by time-resolved PL spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that the surface defect state, which contributed dominantly to the non-radiative decay processes, was effectively passivated through ZnS alloying. Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy was also used to investigate the carrier dynamics, revealing the electron storage at the surface state and donor state. Furthermore, the two photon absorption properties of AgInS 2 and AgInS 2 /ZnS NCs were measured using an open-aperture Z-scan technique. The improved third-order nonlinear susceptibility [Formula: see text] of AgInS 2 through ZnS alloying demonstrates potential application in two photon PL biological imaging.

  5. Ultrafast carrier dynamics and third-order nonlinear optical properties of AgInS2/ZnS nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kuai; Yang, Yang; Wang, Junzhong; Tang, Xiaosheng; Xu, Qing-Hua; Wang, Guo Ping

    2018-06-01

    Broad photoluminescence (PL) emission, a large Stokes shift and extremely long-lived radiative lifetimes are the characteristics of ternary I–III–VI semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs), such as CuInS2 and AgInS2. However, the lack of understanding regarding the intriguing PL mechanisms and photo-carrier dynamics limits their further applications. Here, AgInS2 and AgInS2/ZnS NCs were chemically synthesized and their carrier dynamics were studied by time-resolved PL spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that the surface defect state, which contributed dominantly to the non-radiative decay processes, was effectively passivated through ZnS alloying. Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy was also used to investigate the carrier dynamics, revealing the electron storage at the surface state and donor state. Furthermore, the two photon absorption properties of AgInS2 and AgInS2/ZnS NCs were measured using an open-aperture Z-scan technique. The improved third-order nonlinear susceptibility {χ }(3) of AgInS2 through ZnS alloying demonstrates potential application in two photon PL biological imaging.

  6. Dependence of nonlinear optical properties of Ag2S@ZnS core-shells on Zinc precursor and capping agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghanipour, M.; Khanzadeh, M.; Karimipour, M.; Molaei, M.

    2018-03-01

    In this research, four different types of Ag2S@ZnS core-shells were synthesized and their nonlinear optical (NLO) properties were investigated using a Z-scan technique by a 532 nm laser diode. Here, Ag2S and ZnS nanoparticles were also synthesized and their NLO properties were compared with Ag2S@ZnS core-shells. It was observed that the NLO properties of Ag2S@ZnS quantum dots significantly increased by increasing the values of Zn(NO3)2 and thioglycolic acid (TGA). It was also observed that the NLO properties of Ag2S@ZnS core-shells for 0.1 g of Zn(NO3)2 and 7000 μl TGA is higher than sole Ag2S and ZnS nanoparticles. In open aperture Z-scan curve of ZnS sample, a saturable absorption peak was observed and this peak was seen also in type of Ag2S@ZnS nanoparticles which the value of Zn(NO3)2 much more.

  7. Significant enhancement of yellow-green light emission of ZnO nanorod arrays using Ag island films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chin-An; Tsai, Dung-Sheng; Chen, Cheng-Ying; He-Hau, Jr.

    2011-03-01

    Surface plasmon (SP) mediated emission from ZnO nanorod arrays (NRAs)/Ag/Si structures has been investigated. The ratio of visible emission to UV emission can be increased by over 30 times via coupling with SP without deterioration of the crystal quality. The fact that the effect of SP crucially depends on the size of Ag island films provides the feasibility to significantly enhance the yellow-green emission of the ZnO nanostructures without sacrificing the crystallinity of ZnO.Surface plasmon (SP) mediated emission from ZnO nanorod arrays (NRAs)/Ag/Si structures has been investigated. The ratio of visible emission to UV emission can be increased by over 30 times via coupling with SP without deterioration of the crystal quality. The fact that the effect of SP crucially depends on the size of Ag island films provides the feasibility to significantly enhance the yellow-green emission of the ZnO nanostructures without sacrificing the crystallinity of ZnO. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00732c

  8. Distribution and evolution of Zn, Cd, and Pb in Apollo 16 regolith samples and the average U-Pb ages of the parent rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cirlin, E. H.; Housley, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    The concentration of surface (low temperature site) and interior (high temperature site) Cd, Zn, and Pb in 13 Apollo 16 highland fines samples, pristine rock 65325, and mare fines sample 75081 were analyzed directly from the thermal release profiles obtained by flameless atomic absorption technique (FLAA). Cd and Zn in pristine ferroan anothosite 65325, anorthositic grains of the most mature fines 65701, and basaltic rock fragments of mare fines 75081 were almost all surface Cd and Zn indicating that most volatiles were deposited on the surfaces of vugs, vesicles and microcracks during the initial cooling process. A considerable amount of interior Cd and Zn was observed in agglutinates. This result suggests that high temperature site interior volatiles originate from entrapment during the lunar maturation processes. Interior Cd found in the most mature fines sample 65701 was only about 15% of the total Cd in the sample. Interior Pb present in Apollo 16 fines samples went up to 60%. From our Cd studies we can assume that this interior Pb in highland fines samples is largely due to the radiogenic decay which occurred after the redistribution of the volatiles took place. We obtained an average age of 4.0 b.y. for the parent rocks of Apollo 16 highland regolith from our interior Pb analyses.

  9. Creep Behavior of a Sn-Ag-Bi Pb-Free Solder

    PubMed Central

    Vianco, Paul; Rejent, Jerome; Grazier, Mark; Kilgo, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Compression creep tests were performed on the ternary 91.84Sn-3.33Ag-4.83Bi (wt.%, abbreviated Sn-Ag-Bi) Pb-free alloy. The test temperatures were: −25 °C, 25 °C, 75 °C, 125 °C, and 160 °C (± 0.5 °C). Four loads were used at the two lowest temperatures and five at the higher temperatures. The specimens were tested in the as-fabricated condition or after having been subjected to one of two air aging conditions: 24 hours at either 125 °C or 150 °C. The strain-time curves exhibited frequent occurrences of negative creep and small-scale fluctuations, particularly at the slower strain rates, that were indicative of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) activity. The source of tertiary creep behavior at faster strain rates was likely to also be DRX rather than a damage accumulation mechanism. Overall, the strain-time curves did not display a consistent trend that could be directly attributed to the aging condition. The sinh law equation satisfactorily represented the minimum strain rate as a function of stress and temperature so as to investigate the deformation rate kinetics: dε/dtmin = Asinhn (ασ) exp (−ΔH/RT). The values of α, n, and ΔH were in the following ranges (±95% confidence interval): α, 0.010–0.015 (±0.005 1/MPa); n, 2.2–3.1 (±0.5); and ΔH, 54–66 (±8 kJ/mol). The rate kinetics analysis indicated that short-circuit diffusion was a contributing mechanism to dislocation motion during creep. The rate kinetics analysis also determined that a minimum creep rate trend could not be developed between the as-fabricated versus aged conditions. This study showed that the elevated temperature aging treatments introduced multiple changes to the Sn-Ag-Bi microstructure that did not result in a simple loss (“softening”) of its mechanical strength.

  10. Tolerance and hyperaccumulation of a mixture of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Hg, and Zn) by four aquatic macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Romero-Hernández, Jorge Alberto; Amaya-Chávez, Araceli; Balderas-Hernández, Patricia; Roa-Morales, Gabriela; González-Rivas, Nelly; Balderas-Plata, Miguel Ángel

    2017-03-04

    In the present investigation, four macrophytes, namely Typha latifolia (L.), Lemna minor (L.), Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach, and Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdc, were evaluated for their heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Hg, and Zn) hyperaccumulation potential under laboratory conditions. Tolerance analyses were performed for 7 days of exposure at five different treatments of the metals mixture (Cu +2 , Hg +2 , Pb +2 , and Zn +2 ). The production of chlorophyll and carotenoids was determined at the end of each treatment. L. minor revealed to be sensitive, because it did not survive in all the tested concentrations after 72 hours of exposure. E. crassipes and M. aquaticum displayed the highest tolerance to the metals mixture. For the most tolerant species of aquatic macrophytes, The removal kinetics of E. crassipes and M. aquaticum was carried out, using the following mixture of metals: Cu (0.5 mg/L) and Hg, Pb, and Zn 0.25 mg/L. The obtained results revealed that E. crassipes can remove 99.80% of Cu, 97.88% of Pb, 99.53% of Hg, and 94.37% of Zn. M. aquaticum withdraws 95.2% of Cu, 94.28% of Pb, 99.19% of Hg, and 91.91% of Zn. The obtained results suggest that these two species of macrophytes could be used for the phytoremediation of this mixture of heavy metals from the polluted water bodies.

  11. Pb2+ and Zn2+ adsorption by a natural aluminum- and iron-bearing surface coating on an aquifer sand

    Coston, J.A.; Fuller, C.C.; Davis, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Pb2+ and Zn2+ adsorption was studied in batch experiments with material collected from a shallow, unconfined aquifer of glacial outwash sand and gravel in Falmouth, Massachusetts, USA. The aquifer solids contain primarily quartz with minor amounts of alkali feldspars and ferromagnetic minerals. Pb2+ and Zn2+ adsorption experiments with various grain size and mineral fractions of the aquifer solids showed that: 1) Zn2+ adsorption was independent of grain size, but Pb2+ was preferentially adsorbed by the <64 ??m size fraction and 2) Pb2+ adsorption decreased after removal of the paramagnetic, Fe-bearing mineral fraction, but Zn2+ adsorption was unaffected. Pb2+ and Zn2+ adsorption on mineral separates from the aquifer material compared with metal adsorption on a purified quartz powder indicated that adsorption of both metal ions was dominated by coatings on the quartz fraction of the sediment. Characterization of the coatings by AES, SEM-EDS, and TOF-SIMS demonstrated that the natural quartz grains were extensively coated with Al- and Fe-bearing minerals of variable composition. -from Authors

  12. Soil heavy metal pollution and risk assessment associated with the Zn-Pb mining region in Yunnan, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xianfeng; Danek, Tomas; Drozdova, Jarmila; Huang, Qianrui; Qi, Wufu; Zou, Liling; Yang, Shuran; Zhao, Xinliang; Xiang, Yungang

    2018-03-07

    The environmental assessment and identification of sources of heavy metals in Zn-Pb ore deposits are important steps for the effective prevention of subsequent contamination and for the development of corrective measures. The concentrations of eight heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in soils from 40 sampling points around the Jinding Zn-Pb mine in Yunnan, China, were analyzed. An environmental quality assessment of the obtained data was performed using five different contamination and pollution indexes. Statistical analyses were performed to identify the relations among the heavy metals and the pH in soils and possible sources of pollution. The concentrations of As, Cd, Pb, and Zn were extremely high, and 23, 95, 25, and 35% of the samples, respectively, exceeded the heavy metal limits set in the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (GB15618-1995, grade III). According to the contamination and pollution indexes, environmental risks in the area are high or extremely high. The highest risk is represented by Cd contamination, the median concentration of which exceeds the GB15618-1995 limit. Based on the combination of statistical analyses and geostatistical mapping, we identified three groups of heavy metals that originate from different sources. The main sources of As, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu are mining activities, airborne particulates from smelters, and the weathering of tailings. The main sources of Hg are dust fallout and gaseous emissions from smelters and tailing dams. Cr and Ni originate from lithogenic sources.

  13. Determining provenance of marine metal pollution in French bivalves using Cd, Zn and Pb isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiel, Alyssa E.; Weis, Dominique; Cossa, Daniel; Orians, Kristin J.

    2013-11-01

    Cadmium, Zn and Pb isotopic compositions (MC-ICP-MS) and elemental concentrations (HR-ICP-MS) have been used to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic sources of these metals in bivalves collected from the coastlines of France (English Channel, Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts). The Cd isotopic signatures (δ114Cd = -1.08‰ to -0.52‰) exhibited by bivalves from the coastlines of France, excluding those from NE France, are within the range of those exhibited by bivalves from the USA East coast (δ114Cd = -1.20‰ to -0.54‰). This indicates the high prevalence of industry, as well as the low natural contributions of Cd from North Atlantic waters in both regions. Thus, the significance of anthropogenic Cd sources is similar. These significant anthropogenic contributions are identified for bivalves with a large range in tissue Cd concentrations. Importantly, French bivalves from the Gironde estuary and Marennes-Oléron basin (regions of historic and modern importance for oyster farming, respectively) exhibited the highest Cd levels of the study. Their Cd isotopic signatures indicate historical smelting emissions remain the primary Cd source despite the cessation of local smelting activities in 1986 and subsequent remedial efforts. No significant variability is observed in the δ66Zn values of the French bivalves (∼0.53‰), with the exception of the much heavier compositions exhibited by oysters from the polluted Gironde estuary (1.19-1.27‰). Lead isotopes do not fractionate during processing like Cd and Zn. They can, therefore, be used to identify emissions from industrial processes and the consumption of unleaded gasoline and diesel fuel as metal sources to French bivalves. Cadmium and Zn isotopes are successfully used here as tracers of anthropogenic processing emissions and are combined with Pb isotope "fingerprinting" techniques to identify metal sources.

  14. Modelling equilibrium adsorption of single, binary, and ternary combinations of Cu, Pb, and Zn onto granular activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Loganathan, Paripurnanda; Shim, Wang Geun; Sounthararajah, Danious Pratheep; Kalaruban, Mahatheva; Nur, Tanjina; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu

    2018-03-30

    Elevated concentrations of heavy metals in water can be toxic to humans, animals, and aquatic organisms. A study was conducted on the removal of Cu, Pb, and Zn by a commonly used water treatment adsorbent, granular activated carbon (GAC), from three single, three binary (Cu-Pb, Cu-Zn, Pb-Zn), and one ternary (Cu-Pb-Zn) combination of metals. It also investigated seven mathematical models on their suitability to predict the metals adsorption capacities. Adsorption of Cu, Pb, and Zn increased with pH with an abrupt increase in adsorption at around pH 5.5, 4.5, and 6.0, respectively. At all pHs tested (2.5-7.0), the adsorption capacity followed the order Pb > Cu > Zn. The Langmuir and Sips models fitted better than the Freundlich model to the data in the single-metal system at pH 5. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacities of Pb, Cu, and Zn (mmol/g) obtained from the model's fits were 0.142, 0.094, and 0.058, respectively. The adsorption capacities (mmol/g) for these metals at 0.01 mmol/L equilibrium liquid concentration were 0.130, 0.085, and 0.040, respectively. Ideal Adsorbed Solution (IAS)-Langmuir and IAS-Sips models fitted well to the binary and ternary metals adsorption data, whereas the Extended Langmuir and Extended Sips models' fits to the data were poor. The selectivity of adsorption followed the same order as the metals' capacities and affinities of adsorption in the single-metal systems.

  15. Electrochemical route to the synthesis of ZnO microstructures: its nestlike structure and holding of Ag particles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A simple and facile electrochemical route was developed for the shape-selective synthesis of large-scaled series of ZnO microstructures, including petal, flower, sphere, nest and clew aggregates of ZnO laminas at room temperature. This route is based on sodium citrate-directed crystallization. In the system, sodium citrate can greatly promote ZnO to nucleate and directly grow by selectively capping the specific ZnO facets because of its excellent adsorption ability. The morphology of ZnO is tuned by readily adjusting the concentration of sodium citrate and the electrodeposition time. Among the series structures, the remarkable ZnO nestlike structure can be used as a container to hold not only the interlaced ZnO laminas but also Ag nanoparticles in the center. The special heterostructures of nestlike ZnO holding Ag nanoparticles were found to display the superior properties on the surface-enhanced Raman scattering. This work has signified an important methodology to produce a wide assortment of desired microstructures of ZnO. PACS 81 Materials science 81.07.-b nanoscale materials and structures Fabrication Characterization 81.15.-z Methods of deposition of films Coatings Film growth and epitaxy. PMID:23414592

  16. Electrochemical route to the synthesis of ZnO microstructures: its nestlike structure and holding of Ag particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Ling; Zhang, Ruixue; Fan, Louzhen

    2013-02-01

    A simple and facile electrochemical route was developed for the shape-selective synthesis of large-scaled series of ZnO microstructures, including petal, flower, sphere, nest and clew aggregates of ZnO laminas at room temperature. This route is based on sodium citrate-directed crystallization. In the system, sodium citrate can greatly promote ZnO to nucleate and directly grow by selectively capping the specific ZnO facets because of its excellent adsorption ability. The morphology of ZnO is tuned by readily adjusting the concentration of sodium citrate and the electrodeposition time. Among the series structures, the remarkable ZnO nestlike structure can be used as a container to hold not only the interlaced ZnO laminas but also Ag nanoparticles in the center. The special heterostructures of nestlike ZnO holding Ag nanoparticles were found to display the superior properties on the surface-enhanced Raman scattering. This work has signified an important methodology to produce a wide assortment of desired microstructures of ZnO.

  17. Native plant communities in an abandoned Pb-Zn mining area of northern Spain: implications for phytoremediation and germplasm preservation.

    PubMed

    Barrutia, O; Artetxe, U; Hernández, A; Olano, J M; García-Plazaola, J I; Garbisu, C; Becerril, J M

    2011-03-01

    Plants growing on metalliferous soils from abandoned mines are unique because of their ability to cope with high metal levels in soil. In this study, we characterized plants and soils from an abandoned Pb-Zn mine in the Basque Country (northern Spain). Soil in this area proved to be deficient in major macronutrients and to contain toxic levels of Cd, Pb, and Zn. Spontaneously growing native plants (belonging to 31 species, 28 genera, and 15 families) were botanically identified. Plant shoots and rhizosphere soil were sampled at several sites in the mine, and analyzed for Pb, Zn and Cd concentration. Zinc showed the highest concentrations in shoots, followed by Pb and Cd. Highest Zn concentrations in shoots were found in the Zn-Cd hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (mean = 18,254 mg Zn kg(-1) DW). Different metal tolerance and accumulation patterns were observed among the studied plant species, thus offering a wide germplasm assortment for the suitable selection of phytoremediation technologies. This study highlights the importance of preserving metalliferous environments as they shelter a unique and highly valuable metallicolous biodiversity.

  18. Superconducting properties of multilayered Ag/Bi(Pb)-2223 tapes prepared using pretextured monolayered tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syamaprasad, U.; Sarma, M. S.; Guruswamy, P.; Pillai, S. G. K.; Warrier, K. G. K.; Damodaran, A. D.

    1997-02-01

    Multilayered Ag/Bi(Pb)-2223 tapes with high critical current densities 0953-2048/10/2/005/img1 have been fabricated using partially heat treated, textured monolayered tapes. Cut sections of the monolayered tapes have been stacked one over the other and folded together using high-purity silver foil and further rolled and heat treated to obtain multilayered tapes of different thickness with an HTS layer thickness varying from 9 to 0953-2048/10/2/005/img2. A comparison of the superconducting properties of the multilayered tapes with those of monolayered tapes prepared under identical heat treatment conditions shows that the 0953-2048/10/2/005/img3 ratio at 77 K is as high as 0.57. The ratio is found to decrease with a decrease in the HTS core thickness of the multilayered tapes. XRD studies of `banana peeled' samples show that the monolayered tapes at the folding stage acquire a good degree of texturing. The relatively high value of the 0953-2048/10/2/005/img3 ratio obtained in the present case compared with those reported by the existing techniques is attributed to the use of pretextured monolayered tapes.

  19. Formation of recent Pb-Ag-Au mineralization by potential sub-surface microbial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornos, Fernando; Velasco, Francisco; Menor-Salván, César; Delgado, Antonio; Slack, John F.; Escobar, Juan Manuel

    2014-08-01

    Las Cruces is a base-metal deposit in the Iberian Pyrite Belt, one of the world’s best-known ore provinces. Here we report the occurrence of major Pb-Ag-Au mineralization resulting from recent sub-surface replacement of supergene oxyhydroxides by carbonate and sulphide minerals. This is probably the largest documented occurrence of recent microbial activity producing an ore assemblage previously unknown in supergene mineralizing environments. The presence of microbial features in the sulphides suggests that these may be the first-described natural bacteriomorphs of galena. The low δ13C values of the carbonate minerals indicate formation by deep anaerobic microbial processes. Sulphur isotope values of sulphides are interpreted here as reflecting microbial reduction in a system impoverished in sulphate. We suggest that biogenic activity has produced around 3.1 × 109 moles of reduced sulphur and 1010 moles of CO2, promoting the formation of ca. 1.19 Mt of carbonates, 114,000 t of galena, 638 t of silver sulphides and 6.5 t of gold.

  20. Near-infrared emitting AgInTe2 and Zn-Ag-In-Te colloidal nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langevin, Marc-Antoine; Pons, Thomas; Ritcey, Anna M.; Nì. Allen, Claudine

    2015-06-01

    The synthesis of AgInTe2 nanocrystals emitting between 1095 nm and 1160 nm is presented. Evolution of the Ag:In:Te ratio shows progressive incorporation of In3+ in Ag2Te, leading to the formation of orthorhombic AgInTe2. When zinc is added to the synthesis, the photoluminescence quantum yield reaches 3.4 %.

  1. Metal pollution (Cd, Pb, Zn, and As) in agricultural soils and soybean, Glycine max, in southern China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunyun; Fang, Xiaolong; Mu, Yinghui; Cheng, Yanbo; Ma, Qibin; Nian, Hai; Yang, Cunyi

    2014-04-01

    Crops produced on metal-polluted agricultural soils may lead to chronic toxicity to humans via the food chain. To assess metal pollution in agricultural soils and soybean in southern China, 30 soybean grain samples and 17 soybean-field soil samples were collected from 17 sites in southern China, and metal concentrations of samples were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The integrated pollution index was used to evaluate if the samples were contaminated by Cd, Pb, Zn and As. Results showed that Cd concentration of 12 samples, Pb concentration of 2 samples, Zn concentration of 2 samples, and As concentrations of 2 samples were above the maximum permissible levels in soils. The integrated pollution index indicated that 11 of 17 soil samples were polluted by metals. Metal concentrations in soybean grain samples ranged from 0.11 to 0.91 mg kg(-1) for Cd; 0.34 to 2.83 mg kg(-1) for Pb; 42 to 88 mg kg(-1) for Zn; and 0.26 to 5.07 mg kg(-1) for As, which means all 30 soybean grain samples were polluted by Pb, Pb/Cd, Cd/Pb/As or Pb/As. Taken together, our study provides evidence that metal pollution is an important concern in agricultural soils and soybeans in southern China.

  2. High performance and reusable SERS substrates using Ag/ZnO heterostructure on periodic silicon nanotube substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Yi-Chen; Ho, Hsin-Chia; Shih, Bo-Wei; Tsai, Feng-Yu; Hsueh, Chun-Hway

    2018-05-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate with a higher surface area, enhanced light harvesting, multiple hot spots and strong electromagnetic field enhancements would exhibit enhanced Raman signals. Herein, the Ag nanoparticle/ZnO nanowire heterostructure decorated periodic silicon nanotube (Ag@ZnO@SiNT) substrate was proposed and fabricated. The proposed structure employed as SERS-active substrate was examined, and the results showed both the high performance in terms of high sensitivity and good reproducibility. Furthermore, the Ag@ZnO@SiNT substrate demonstrated the self-cleaning performance through the photocatalytic degradation of probed molecules upon UV-irradiation. The results showed that the proposed nanostructure had high performance, good reproducibility and reusability, and it is a promising SERS-active substrate for molecular sensing and cleaning.

  3. Effect of Ag doping on the properties of ZnO thin films for UV stimulated emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razeen, Ahmed S.; Gadallah, A.-S.; El-Nahass, M. M.

    2018-06-01

    Ag doped ZnO thin films have been prepared using sol-gel spin coating method, with different doping concentrations. Structural and morphological properties of the films have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Thin films have been optically pumped and stimulated emission has been observed with strong peaks in the UV region. The UV stimulated emission is found to be due to exciton-exciton scattering, and Ag doping promoted this process by increasing the excitons concentrations in the ZnO lattice. Output-input intensity relation and peak emission, FWHM, and quantum efficiency relations with pump intensity have been reported. The threshold for which stimulated emission started has been evaluated to be about 18 MW/cm2 with quantum efficiency of about 58.7%. Mechanisms explaining the role of Ag in enhancement of stimulated emission from ZnO thin films have been proposed.

  4. A Detailed Analysis of Aerosols Containing Zn, Pb, and Cl from an Industrial Region of Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffet, R. C.; Desyaterik, Y.; Hopkins, R. J.; Tivanski, A. V.; Gilles, M. K.; Shutthanandan, V.; Molina, L. T.; Gonzalez-Abraham, R.; Johnson, K. S.; Mugica, V.; Molina, M. J.; Laskin, A.; Prather, K. A.

    2008-12-01

    Measurements in the Northern Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the March, 2006 MILAGRO campaign revealed the frequent appearance of particles with a characteristically high content of internally mixed Zn, Pb, Cl, and P. A detailed analysis of the chemical and physical properties of these particles was performed using a complementary combination of aerosol measurement techniques. Single particles were analyzed using Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (ATOFMS) and Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (CCSEM/EDX). Proton Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) analysis of bulk aerosol samples provided time-resolved mass concentrations of individual elements. The PIXE measurements indicated that Zn is more strongly correlated with Cl than with any other element and that Zn concentrations are higher than other non-ferrous transition metals. The Zn- and Pb - containing particles have both spherical and non-spherical morphologies. Many metal rich particles had needle-like structures and were found to be composed of ZnO and/or Zn(NO3)2-6H2O as indicated by scanning transmission x-ray microscopy/near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). The Zn and Pb rich particles were primarily in the submicron size range and internally mixed with elemental carbon. The unique chemical associations most closely match signatures acquired for garbage incineration.

  5. Thermoelectric Inhomogeneities in (Ag(sub 1-y)SbTe2)(sub x)(PbTe)(sub 1-x)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Chen, Nancy; Gascoin, Franck; Mueller, Eckhard; Karpinski, Gabriele; Stiewe, Christian

    2006-01-01

    A document presents a study of why materials of composition (Ag1 ySbTe2)0.05 (PbTe)0.95 [0< or = y < or = 1] were previously reported to have values of the thermoelectric figure of merit [ZT (where Z = alpha(sup 2)/rk, alpha is the Seebeck coefficient, r is electrical resistivity, k is thermal conductivity, and T is absolute temperature)] ranging from <1 to >2. In the study, samples of (AgSbTe2)0.05(PbTe)0.95, (Ag0.67SbTe2)0.05 (PbTe)0.95, and (Ag0.55SbTe2)0.05(PbTe)0.95 were prepared by melting followed, variously, by slow or rapid cooling. Analyses of these samples by x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and scanning-microprobe measurements of the Seebeck coefficient led to the conclusion that these materials have a multiphase character on a scale of the order of millimeters, even though they appear homogeneous in x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. The Seebeck measurements showed significant variations, including both n-type and p-type behavior in the same sample. These variations were found to be consistent with observed variations of ZT. The rapidly quenched samples were found to be less inhomogeneous than were the furnace-cooled ones; hence, rapid quenching was suggested as a basis of research on synthesizing more nearly uniform high-ZT samples.

  6. The bioleaching feasibility for Pb/Zn smelting slag and community characteristics of indigenous moderate-thermophilic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yi; Guo, Zhaohui; Liu, Xueduan; Yin, Huaqun; Qiu, Guanzhou; Pan, Fengkai; Liu, Hongwei

    2009-05-01

    The feasibility of recovering metal values and removing hazardous elements from the Pb/Zn smelting slag using bioleaching technique were studied through a flask experiment, and the community characteristics of the indigenous moderate-thermophilic bacteria in this bioleaching system were also analyzed through a culture-independent restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of 16S rRNA genes approach. The results show that more than 80% of Al, As, Cu, Mn, Fe and Zn in the Pb/Zn smelting slag were leached at 65(o)C, pH 1.5, pulp density 5%, but only about 5% of Pb. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the bacteria in the bioleaching system mainly fell among Firmicutes, Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, and the dominant bacteria are affiliated with Bacillus spp., Sporosarcina spp. and Pseudomonas spp.

  7. Photocatalytic reduction of CO2 by employing ZnO/Ag1-xCux/CdS and related heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingampalli, S. R.; Ayyub, Mohd Monis; Magesh, Ganesan; Rao, C. N. R.

    2018-01-01

    In view of the great importance of finding ways to reduce CO2 by using solar energy, we have examined the advantage of employing heterostructures containing bimetallic alloys for the purpose. This choice is based on the knowledge that metals such as Pt reduce CO2, although the activity may not be considerable. Our studies on the reduction of CO2 by ZnO/M/CdS (M = Ag, Au, Ag1-xAux, Ag1-xCux) heterostructures in liquid phase have shown good results specially in the case of ZnO/Ag1-xCux/CdS, reaching a CO production activity of 327.4 μmol h-1 g-1. The heterostructures also reduce CO2 in the gas-phase although the production activity is not high. Some of the heterostructures exhibit reduction of CO2 even in the absence of a sacrificial reagent.

  8. Removal of Pb, Zn, and Cd from contaminated soil by new washing agent from plant material.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yaru; Zhang, Shirong; Wang, Guiyin; Huang, Qinling; Li, Ting; Xu, Xiaoxun

    2017-03-01

    Soil washing is an effective approach to remove soil heavy metals, and the washing agent is generally regarded as one of the primary factors in the process, but there is still a lack of efficient and eco-friendly agents for this technique. Here, we showed that four plant washing agents-from water extracts of Coriaria nepalensis (CN), Clematis brevicaudata (CB), Pistacia weinmannifolia (PW), and Ricinus communis (RC)-could be feasible agents for the removal of soil lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd). The metal removal efficiencies of the agents increased with their concentrations from 20 to 80 g L -1 , decreased with the increasing solution pH, and presented different trends with the reaction time increasing. CN among the four agents had the highest removal efficiencies of soil Pb (62.02%) and Zn (29.18%) but owned the relatively low Cd removal efficiencies (21.59%). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the abilities of plant washing agents for the removal of soil heavy metals may result from bioactive substances with specific functional groups such as -COOH, -NH 2 , and -OH. Our study provided CN as the best washing agents for the remediation of contaminated soil by heavy metals.

  9. Mobility of Pb, Zn, Cu and As in disturbed forest soils affected by acid rain.

    PubMed

    Kochergina, Yulia V; Udatný, Martin; Penížek, Vít; Mihaljevič, Martin

    2017-10-18

    Early efforts at remediation of contaminated soils involve overturn or removal of the uppermost soil horizons. We find that such disruption is counterproductive, as it actually increases the mobility of the heavy metals involved. In our study, we sought to replicate in a controlled manner this commonly used remediation strategy and measure Pb, Zn, Cu and As concentrations in all soil horizons-both prior to and 1 year after disruption by trenching. BCR analyses (sequential leaching) indicate that Pb is affected to the greatest degree and is most highly mobile; however, Zn and As remain insoluble, thus partially ameliorating the detrimental effect. Differences in vegetation cover (i.e. spruce vs. beech forest) have little influence on overall element mobility patterns. The Krušné hory (Ore Mts., Czech Republic) study area is one of the more heavily contaminated areas in Central Europe, and thus the results reported here are applicable to areas affected by brown-coal-burning power plants.

  10. Smooth ZnO:Al-AgNWs Composite Electrode for Flexible Organic Light-Emitting Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hu; Li, Kun; Tao, Ye; Li, Jun; Li, Ye; Gao, Lan-Lan; Jin, Guang-Yong; Duan, Yu

    2017-01-01

    The high interest in organic light-emitting device (OLED) technology is largely due to their flexibility. Up to now, indium tin oxide (ITO) films have been widely used as transparent conductive electrodes (TCE) in organic opto-electronic devices. However, ITO films, typically deposited on glass are brittle and they make it difficult to produce flexible devices, restricting their use for flexible devices. In this study, we report on a nano-composite TCE, which is made of a silver nanowire (AgNW) network, combined with aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al, AZO) by atomic layer deposition. The AgNWs/AZO composite electrode on photopolymer substrate shows a low sheet resistance of only 8.6 Ω/sq and a high optical transmittance of about 83% at 550 nm. These values are even comparable to conventional ITO on glass. In addition, the electrodes also have a very smooth surface (0.31 nm root-mean-square roughness), which is flat enough to contact the OLED stack. Flexible OLED were built with AgNWs/AZO electrodes, which suggests that this approach can replace conventional ITO TCEs in organic electronic devices in the future.

  11. Smooth ZnO:Al-AgNWs Composite Electrode for Flexible Organic Light-Emitting Device.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hu; Li, Kun; Tao, Ye; Li, Jun; Li, Ye; Gao, Lan-Lan; Jin, Guang-Yong; Duan, Yu

    2017-12-01

    The high interest in organic light-emitting device (OLED) technology is largely due to their flexibility. Up to now, indium tin oxide (ITO) films have been widely used as transparent conductive electrodes (TCE) in organic opto-electronic devices. However, ITO films, typically deposited on glass are brittle and they make it difficult to produce flexible devices, restricting their use for flexible devices. In this study, we report on a nano-composite TCE, which is made of a silver nanowire (AgNW) network, combined with aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al, AZO) by atomic layer deposition. The AgNWs/AZO composite electrode on photopolymer substrate shows a low sheet resistance of only 8.6 Ω/sq and a high optical transmittance of about 83% at 550 nm. These values are even comparable to conventional ITO on glass. In addition, the electrodes also have a very smooth surface (0.31 nm root-mean-square roughness), which is flat enough to contact the OLED stack. Flexible OLED were built with AgNWs/AZO electrodes, which suggests that this approach can replace conventional ITO TCEs in organic electronic devices in the future.

  12. Sublethal mechanisms of Pb and Zn toxicity to the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) during early development.

    PubMed

    Tellis, Margaret S; Lauer, Mariana M; Nadella, Sunita; Bianchini, Adalto; Wood, Chris M

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand sublethal mechanisms of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) toxicity, developing sea urchins were exposed continuously from 3h post-fertilization (eggs) to 96 h (pluteus larvae) to 55 (±2.4) μgPb/L or 117 (±11)μgZn/L, representing ~ 70% of the EC50 for normal 72 h development. Growth, unidirectional Ca uptake rates, whole body ion concentrations (Na, K, Ca, Mg), Ca(2+) ATPase activity, and metal bioaccumulation were monitored every 12h over this period. Pb exhibited marked bioaccumulation whereas Zn was well-regulated, and both metals had little effect on growth, measured as larval dry weight, or on Na, K, or Mg concentrations. Unidirectional Ca uptake rates (measured by (45)Ca incorporation) were severely inhibited by both metals, resulting in lower levels of whole body Ca accumulation. The greatest disruption occurred at gastrulation. Ca(2+) ATPase activity was also significantly inhibited by Zn but not by Pb. Interestingly, embryos exposed to Pb showed some capacity for recovery, as Ca(2+)ATPase activities increased, Ca uptake rates returned to normal intermittently, and whole body Ca levels were restored to control values by 72-96 h of development. This did not occur with Zn exposure. Both Pb and Zn rendered their toxic effects through disruption of Ca homeostasis, though likely through different proximate mechanisms. We recommend studying the toxicity of these contaminants periodically throughout development as an effective way to detect sublethal effects, which may not be displayed at the traditional toxicity test endpoint of 72 h. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Pb, Cu, and Zn distributions at humic acid-coated metal-oxide surfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Yingge; Michel, F. Marc; Choi, Yongseong; ...

    2016-05-09

    Here, mineral surfaces are often coated by natural organic matter (NOM), which has a major influence on metal-ion sorption and sequestration because of the abundance of binding sites in such coatings and the changes they cause in local nanoscale environments. The effects of NOM coatings on mineral surfaces are, however, still poorly understood at the molecular level due to the complexity of these systems. In this study, we have applied long-period X-ray standing wave-fluorescence yield (LP-XSW-FY) spectroscopy to measure the partitioning of naturally present Cu(II) (0.0226%), Zn(II) (0.009%), and Pb(II) ( 0.0004%) between Elliott Soil Humic Acid (ESHA) coatings andmore » three model single-crystal metal-oxide substrates: α-Al 2O 3 (0 0 0 1), α-Al 2O 3 (1 1 0 2), and α-Fe 2O 3 (0 0 0 1). The competitive sorption effects among these metal ions for binding sites in the ESHA coatings and on the metal-oxide surfaces were investigated as a function of reaction time, calcium content, and solution pH. Pb(II) ions present in the ESHA coatings were found to redistribute to reactive α-Al 2O 3 (1 1 0 2) and α-Fe 2O 3 (0 0 0 1) surfaces after 3 h of reaction (pH = 6.0, [Ca(II)] = 2 mM). Pb(II) partitioning onto these reactive metal-oxide surfaces increased with increasing reaction time (up to 7 d). In addition, the partitioning of Cu(II) and Zn(II) from the ESHA coating to the α-Fe 2O 3 (0 0 0 1) substrate increased slightly with reaction time (2.4% and 3.7% for Cu(II) and Zn(II), respectively, after 3 h and 6.4% and 7.7% for Cu(II) and Zn(II), respectively, after 72 h of reaction time).« less

  14. Boron-rich mud volcanoes of the Black Sea region: Modern analogues to ancient sea-floor tourmalinites associated with Sullivan-type Pb-Zn deposits?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slack, John F.; Turner, Robert J. W.; Ware, Paul L. G.

    1998-05-01

    Large submarine mud volcanoes in the abyssal part of the Black Sea south of the Crimean Peninsula are similar in many respects to synsedimentary mud volcanoes in the Mesoproterozoic Belt-Purcell basin. One of the Belt-Purcell mud volcanoes directly underlies the giant Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit in southeastern British Columbia. Footwall rocks to the Sullivan deposit comprise variably tourmalinized siltstone, conglomerate, and related fragmental rock; local thin pyrrhotite-rich and spessartine-quartz beds are interpreted as Fe and Fe-Mn exhalites, respectively. Analogous Fe- and Mn-rich sediments occur near the abyssal Black Sea mud volcanoes. Massive pyrite crusts and associated carbonate chimneys discovered in relatively shallow waters (˜200 m depth) west of the Crimean Peninsula indicate an active sea-floor hydrothermal system. Subaerial mud volcanoes on the Kerch and Taman Peninsulas (˜100 km north of the abyssal mud volcanoes) contain saline thermal waters that locally have very high B contents (to 915 mg/L). These data suggest that tourmalinites might be forming in or near submarine Black Sea mud volcanoes, where potential may also exist for Sullivan-type Pb-Zn mineralization.

  15. Boron-rich mud volcanoes of the Black Sea region: modern analogues to ancient sea-floor tourmalinites associated with Sullivan-type Pb-Zn deposits?

    Slack, J.F.; Turner, R.J.W.; Ware, P.L.G.

    1998-01-01

    Large submarine mud volcanoes in the abyssal part of the Black Sea south of the Crimean Peninsula are similar in many respects to synsedimentary mud volcanoes in the Mesoproterozoic Belt-Purcell basin. One of the Belt-Purcell mud volcanoes directly underlies the giant Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit in southeastern British Columbia. Footwall rocks to the Sullivan deposit comprise variably tourmalinized siltstone, conglomerate, and related fragmental rock; local thin pyrrhotite-rich and spessartine-quartz beds are interpreted as Fe and Fe-Mn exhalites, respectively. Analogous Fe- and Mn-rich sediments occur near the abyssal Black Sea mud volcanoes. Massive pyrite crusts and associated carbonate chimneys discovered in relatively shallow waters (~200 m depth) west of the Crimean Peninsula indicate an active sea-floor-hydrothermal system. Subaerial mud volcanoes on the Kerch and Taman Peninsulas (~100 km north of the abyssal mud volcanoes) contain saline thermal waters that locally have very high B contents (to 915 mg/L). These data suggest that tourmalinites might be forming in or near submarine Black Sea mud volcanoes, where potential may also exist for Sullivan-type Pb-Zn mineralization.

  16. Ages and sources of components of Zn-Pb, Cu, precious metal, and platinum group element deposits in the goodsprings district, Clark County, Nevada

    Vikre, Peter G.; Browne, Quentin J.; Fleck, Robert J.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Wooden, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    The Goodsprings district, Clark County, Nevada, includes zinc-dominant carbonate replacement deposits of probable late Paleozoic age, and lead-dominant carbonate replacement deposits, copper ± precious metal-platinum group element (PGE) deposits, and gold ± silver deposits that are spatially associated with Late Triassic porphyritic intrusions. The district encompasses ~500 km2 although the distribution of all deposits has been laterally condensed by late Mesozoic crustal contraction. Zinc, Pb, and Cu production from about 90 deposits was ~160,000 metric tons (t) (Zn > Pb >> Cu), 2.1 million ounces (Moz) Ag, 0.09 Moz Au, and small amounts of PGEs—Co, V, Hg, Sb, Ni, Mo, Mn, Ir, and U—were also recovered.Zinc-dominant carbonate replacement deposits (Zn > Pb; Ag ± Cu) resemble Mississippi Valley Type (MVT) Zn-Pb deposits in that they occur in karst and fault breccias in Mississippian limestone where the southern margin of the regional late Paleozoic foreland basin adjoins Proterozoic crystalline rocks of the craton. They consist of calcite, dolomite, sphalerite, and galena with variably positive S isotope compositions (δ34S values range from 2.5–13‰), and highly radiogenic Pb isotope compositions (206Pb/204Pb >19), typical of MVT deposits above crystalline Precambrian basement. These deposits may have formed when southward flow of saline fluids, derived from basinal and older sedimentary rocks, encountered thinner strata and pinch-outs against the craton, forcing fluid mixing and mineral precipitation in karst and fault breccias. Lead-dominant carbonate replacement deposits (Pb > Zn, Ag ± Cu ± Au) occur among other deposit types, often near porphyritic intrusions. They generally contain higher concentrations of precious metals than zinc-dominant deposits and relatively abundant iron oxides after pyrite. They share characteristics with copper ± precious metal-PGE and gold ± silver deposits including fine-grained quartz replacement of carbonate minerals

  17. Heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) partitioning and bioaccessibility in uncontaminated and long-term contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Dane T; Ming, Hui; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2009-11-15

    We investigated the pore-water content and speciation of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in a range of uncontaminated and long-term contaminated soils in order to establish their potential bioaccessibility to soil biota, plants and humans. Among the samples, soil pH (0.01 M CaCl(2)) ranged from 4.9 to 8.2. The total metal content of the uncontaminated soils ranged from 3.8 to 93.8 mg Cu kg(-1), 10.3 to 95 mg kg(-1) Zn, 0.1 to 1.8 mg Cd kg(-1) and 5.2 to 183 mg kg(-1) Pb, while metal content in the contaminated soils ranged from 104 to 6841 mg Cu kg(-1), 312 to 39,000 mg kg(-1) Zn, 6 to 302 mg Cd kg(-1) and 609 to 12,000 mg kg(-1) Pb. Our analysis of pore-water found the Cu concentrations to be much higher in contaminated soils than in uncontaminated soils, with the distribution coefficients (K(d)) correlating significantly with the log of dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Despite the high total metal content of the contaminated soil, Zn, Cd and Pb were not generally found at elevated levels in the pore-water with the exception of a single contaminated soil. A long period of ageing and soil weathering may have led to a substantial reduction in heavy metal concentrations in the pore-water of contaminated soils. On the other hand, Pb bioaccessibility was found to be comparatively high in Pb contaminated soils, where it tended to exceed the total Pb values by more than 80%. We conclude that, despite the extensive ageing of some contaminated soils, the bioaccessibility of Pb remains relatively high.

  18. Removal of Pb and Zn from contaminated soil by different washing methods: the influence of reagents and ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaming; Jiang, Jianguo; Li, Dean; Li, Tianran; Li, Kaimin; Tian, Sicong

    2015-12-01

    Pb and Zn contamination in agricultural soils has become an important issue for human health and the environment. Washing is an effective method for remediating polluted soil. Here, we compare several washing materials and methods in the treatment of Pb- and Zn-polluted farmland soil. We examined four washing reagents, hydrochloric acid, citric acid, Na2EDTA, and tartaric acid, all of which independently removed Zn at rates >65 %. Combining washing reagents markedly enhanced heavy metal removal, by using Na2EDTA and either tartaric acid or lactate in sequence: Pb and Zn removal rates improved to 84.1 and 82.1 % for Na2EDTA-tartaric acid; and to 88.3 and 89.9 % for Na2EDTA-lactate, respectively. Additionally, combining ultrasound with conventional washing methods markedly improved washing efficiency, by shortening washing duration by 96 %. We achieved similar removal rates using ultrasound for 10 min, compared with traditional mechanical vibration alone for 4 h. We concluded that treating Pb- and Zn-contaminated soil with appropriate washing reagents under optimal conditions can greatly enhance the remediation of polluted farmland soils.

  19. Effect of Cu(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) on Pb(II) biosorption by algae Gelidium-derived materials.

    PubMed

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2008-06-15

    Biosorption of Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) from binary metal solutions onto the algae Gelidium sesquipedale, an algal industrial waste and a waste-based composite material was investigated at pH 5.3, in a batch system. Binary Pb(II)/Cu(II), Pb(II)/Cd(II) and Pb(II)/Zn(II) solutions have been tested. For the same equilibrium concentrations of both metal ions (1 mmol l(-1)), approximately 66, 85 and 86% of the total uptake capacity of the biosorbents is taken by lead ions in the systems Pb(II)/Cu(II), Pb(II)/Cd(II) and Pb(II)/Zn(II), respectively. Two-metal results were fitted to a discrete and a continuous model, showing the inhibition of the primary metal biosorption by the co-cation. The model parameters suggest that Cd(II) and Zn(II) have the same decreasing effect on the Pb(II) uptake capacity. The uptake of Pb(II) was highly sensitive to the presence of Cu(II). From the discrete model it was possible to obtain the Langmuir affinity constant for Pb(II) biosorption. The presence of the co-cations decreases the apparent affinity of Pb(II). The experimental results were successfully fitted by the continuous model, at different pH values, for each biosorbent. The following sequence for the equilibrium affinity constants was found: Pb>Cu>Cd approximately Zn.

  20. Effect of Ag doping on the structural, electrical and optical properties of ZnO grown by MOCVD at different substrate temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ievtushenko, A.; Karpyna, V.; Eriksson, J.; Tsiaoussis, I.; Shtepliuk, I.; Lashkarev, G.; Yakimova, R.; Khranovskyy, V.

    2018-05-01

    ZnO films and nanostructures were deposited on Si substrates by MOCVD using single source solid state zinc acetylacetonate (Zn(AA)) precursor. Doping by silver was realized in-situ via adding 1 and 10 wt. % of Ag acetylacetonate (Ag(AA)) to zinc precursor. Influence of Ag on the microstructure, electrical and optical properties of ZnO at temperature range 220-550 °C was studied by scanning, transmission electron and Kelvin probe force microscopy, photoluminescence and four-point probe electrical measurements. Ag doping affects the ZnO microstructure via changing the nucleation mode into heterogeneous and thus transforming the polycrystalline films into a matrix of highly c-axis textured hexagonally faceted nanorods. Increase of the work function value from 4.45 to 4.75 eV was observed with Ag content increase, which is attributed to Ag behaviour as a donor impurity. It was observed, that near-band edge emission of ZnO NS was enhanced with Ag doping as a result of quenching deep-level emission. Upon high doping of ZnO by Ag it tends to promote the formation of basal plane stacking faults defect, as it was observed by HR TEM and PL study in the case of 10 wt.% of Ag. Based on the results obtained, it is suggested that NS deposition at lower temperatures (220-300 °C) is more favorable for p-type doping of ZnO.

  1. LED Die-Bonded on the Ag/Cu Substrate by a Sn-BiZn-Sn Bonding System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Y. K.; Hsu, Y. C.; Lin, E. J.; Hu, Y. J.; Liu, C. Y.

    2016-12-01

    In this study, light emitting diode (LED) chips were die-bonded on a Ag/Cu substrate by a Sn-BixZn-Sn bonding system. A high die-bonding strength is successfully achieved by using a Sn-BixZn-Sn ternary system. At the bonding interface, there is observed a Bi-segregation phenomenon. This Bi-segregation phenomenon solves the problems of the brittle layer-type Bi at the joint interface. Our shear test results show that the bonding interface with Bi-segregation enhances the shear strength of the LED die-bonding joints. The Bi-0.3Zn and Bi-0.5Zn die-bonding cases have the best shear strength among all die-bonding systems. In addition, we investigate the atomic depth profile of the deposited Bi-xZn layer by evaporating Bi-xZn E-gun alloy sources. The initial Zn content of the deposited Bi-Zn alloy layers are much higher than the average Zn content in the deposited Bi-Zn layers.

  2. Synergistic mechanism of Ag+-Zn2+ in anti-bacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis and its application against dentin infection.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wei; Sun, Qing; Li, Yanyun; Tay, Franklin R; Fan, Bing

    2018-01-31

    Ag + and Zn 2+ have already been used in combinations to obtain both enhanced antibacterial effect and low cytotoxicity. Despite this, it is still unclear how the Zn 2+ co-works with Ag + in the synergistic antibacterial activity. The main purposes of this study were to investigate the co-work pattern and optimum ratio between Ag + and Zn 2+ in their synergistic antibacterial activity against E. faecalis, the possible mechanisms behind this synergy and the primary application of optimum Ag + -Zn 2+ co-work pattern against the E. faecalis biofilm on dentin. A serial of Ag + -Zn 2+ atomic combination ratios were tested on both planktonic and biofilm-resident E. faecalis on dentin, their antibacterial efficiency was calculated and optimum ratio determined. And the cytotoxicity of various Ag + -Zn 2+ atomic ratios was tested on MC3T3-E1 Cells. The role of Zn 2+ in Ag + -Zn 2+ co-work was evaluated using a Zn 2+ pretreatment study and membrane potential-permeability measurement. The results showed that the synergistically promoted antibacterial effect of Ag + -Zn 2+ combinations was Zn 2+ amount-dependent with the 1:9 and 1:12 Ag + -Zn 2+ atomic ratios showing the most powerful ability against both planktonic and biofilm-resident E. faecalis. This co-work could likely be attributed to the depolarization of E. faecalis cell membrane by the addition of Zn 2+ . The cytotoxicity of the Ag + -Zn 2+ atomic ratios of 1:9 and 1:12 was much lower than 2% chlorhexidine. The Ag + -Zn 2+ atomic ratios of 1:9 and 1:12 demonstrated similar strong ability against E. faecalis biofilm on dentin but much lower cytotoxicity than 2% chlorhexidine. New medications containing optimum Ag + -Zn 2+ atomic ratios higher than 1:6, such as 1:9 or 1:12, could be developed against E. faecalis infection in root canals of teeth or any other parts of human body.

  3. Pb, Cu, and Zn distributions at humic acid-coated metal-oxide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yingge; Michel, F. Marc; Choi, Yongseong; Eng, Peter J.; Levard, Clement; Siebner, Hagar; Gu, Baohua; Bargar, John R.; Brown, Gordon E.

    2016-09-01

    Mineral surfaces are often coated by natural organic matter (NOM), which has a major influence on metal-ion sorption and sequestration because of the abundance of binding sites in such coatings and the changes they cause in local nanoscale environments. The effects of NOM coatings on mineral surfaces are, however, still poorly understood at the molecular level due to the complexity of these systems. In this study, we have applied long-period X-ray standing wave-fluorescence yield (LP-XSW-FY) spectroscopy to measure the partitioning of naturally present Cu(II) (0.0226%), Zn(II) (0.009%), and Pb(II) (∼0.0004%) between Elliott Soil Humic Acid (ESHA) coatings and three model single-crystal metal-oxide substrates: α-Al2O3 (0 0 0 1), α-Al2O3 (1 -1 0 2), and α-Fe2O3 (0 0 0 1). The competitive sorption effects among these metal ions for binding sites in the ESHA coatings and on the metal-oxide surfaces were investigated as a function of reaction time, calcium content, and solution pH. Pb(II) ions present in the ESHA coatings were found to redistribute to reactive α-Al2O3 (1 -1 0 2) and α-Fe2O3 (0 0 0 1) surfaces after 3 h of reaction (pH = 6.0, [Ca(II)] = 2 mM). Pb(II) partitioning onto these reactive metal-oxide surfaces increased with increasing reaction time (up to 7 d). In addition, the partitioning of Cu(II) and Zn(II) from the ESHA coating to the α-Fe2O3 (0 0 0 1) substrate increased slightly with reaction time (2.4% and 3.7% for Cu(II) and Zn(II), respectively, after 3 h and 6.4% and 7.7% for Cu(II) and Zn(II), respectively, after 72 h of reaction time). However, no changes in the partitioning of Cu(II) and Zn(II) onto the α-Al2O3 (1 -1 0 2) surface were observed with increasing reaction time, suggesting that these ions strongly complex with functional groups in the ESHA coatings. Similar results were obtained for Cu(II) and Zn(II) on the ESHA-coated α-Al2O3 (1 -1 0 2) surfaces in samples without the addition of calcium. However, the amounts of Pb

  4. Luminophores of tunable colors from ternary Ag-In-S and quaternary Ag-In-Zn-S nanocrystals covering the visible to near-infrared spectral range.

    PubMed

    Gabka, Grzegorz; Bujak, Piotr; Kotwica, Kamil; Ostrowski, Andrzej; Lisowski, Wojciech; Sobczak, Janusz W; Pron, Adam

    2017-01-04

    Ternary Ag-In-S or quaternary Ag-In-Zn-S nanocrystals were prepared from simple precursors (silver nitrate, indium(iii) chloride, zinc stearate in a mixture of DDT and ODE) by injecting a solution of elemental sulfur into OLA. Ternary nanocrystals were modified by depositing either a ZnS or a CdS shell, yielding type I and type II core/shell systems exhibiting photoluminescence QY in the range of 12-16%. Careful optimization of the reaction conditions allowed alloyed quaternary Ag-In-Zn-S nanocrystals exhibiting tunable photoluminescence in the spectral range of 520-720 nm with a QY of 48% and 59% for green and red radiations, respectively, to be obtained. 1 H NMR analysis of the nanocrystal organic shell, after dissolution of its inorganic core, indicated that surfacial sulfur atoms were covalently bonded to aliphatic chains whereas surfacial cations were coordinated by amines and carboxylate anions. No thiol-type ligands were detected. Transfer of the prepared nanocrystals to water could be achieved in one step by exchanging the initial ligands for 11-mercaptoundecanoic ones resulting in a QY value of 31%. A new Ag-In-Zn-S nanocrystal preparation method was elaborated in which indium and zinc salts of fatty acids were used as cation precursors and DDT was replaced by thioacetamide. This original DDT-free method enabled similar tuning of the photoluminescence properties of the nanocrystals as in the previous method; however the measured photoluminescence QYs were three times lower. Hence, further optimization of the new method is required.

  5. Understanding the Antifungal Mechanism of Ag@ZnO Core-shell Nanocomposites against Candida krusei.

    PubMed

    Das, Bhaskar; Khan, Md Imran; Jayabalan, R; Behera, Susanta K; Yun, Soon-Il; Tripathy, Suraj K; Mishra, Amrita

    2016-11-04

    In the present paper, facile synthesis of Ag@ZnO core-shell nanocomposites is reported where zinc oxide is coated on biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using Andrographis paniculata and Aloe vera leaf extract. Structural features of as synthesized nanocomposites are characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD, and FTIR. Morphology of the above core-shell nanocomposites is investigated by electron microscopy. As synthesized nanocomposite material has shown antimicrobial activity against Candida krusei, which is an opportunistic pathogen known to cause candidemia. The possible mode of activity of the above material has been studied by in-vitro molecular techniques. Our investigations have shown that surface coating of biogenic silver nanoparticles by zinc oxide has increased its antimicrobial efficiency against Candida krusei, while decreasing its toxicity towards A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cell lines.

  6. Insights into the proteomic response of soybean towards Al₂O₃, ZnO, and Ag nanoparticles stress.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Zahed; Mustafa, Ghazala; Sakata, Katsumi; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-03-05

    Understanding the complex mechanisms involved in plant response to nanoparticles is indispensable in assessing the impact of nano-pollutants on environment. The present study compares the phytotoxicity of three different metal-based nanoparticles (Al2O3, ZnO, and Ag) in soybean seedling at proteome level. Plant growth, rigidity of roots, and root cell viability were markedly affected by ZnO- and Ag-NPs stress; while, Al2O3-NPs challenged soybean maintained normal seedling growth like control. Moreover, severe oxidative burst was evident in ZnO-NPs and Ag-NPs treatments. Gel-free proteomic analysis of NPs stressed soybean roots revealed 104 commonly changed proteins primarily associated with secondary metabolism, cell organization, and hormone metabolism. Oxidation-reduction cascade related genes, such as GDSL motif lipase 5, SKU5 similar 4, galactose oxidase, and quinone reductase were up-regulated in Al2O3-NPs challenged roots and down-regulated in ZnO- and Ag-NPs treatments. In comparison to root, 16 common proteins were found to be significantly changed in leaves of NPs exposed soybean that were predominantly associated to photosystem and protein degradation. The proteomic findings suggest that high abundance of proteins involved in oxidation-reduction, stress signaling, hormonal pathways related to growth and development might be the principal key for optimum growth of soybean under Al2O3-NPs stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. In Situ Fabrication of 3D Ag@ZnO Nanostructures for Microfluidic Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Systems

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we develop an in situ method to grow highly controllable, sensitive, three-dimensional (3D) surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates via an optothermal effect within microfluidic devices. Implementing this approach, we fabricate SERS substrates composed of Ag@ZnO structures at prescribed locations inside microfluidic channels, sites within which current fabrication of SERS structures has been arduous. Conveniently, properties of the 3D Ag@ZnO nanostructures such as length, packing density, and coverage can also be adjusted by tuning laser irradiation parameters. After exploring the fabrication of the 3D nanostructures, we demonstrate a SERS enhancement factor of up to ∼2 × 106 and investigate the optical properties of the 3D Ag@ZnO structures through finite-difference time-domain simulations. To illustrate the potential value of our technique, low concentrations of biomolecules in the liquid state are detected. Moreover, an integrated cell-trapping function of the 3D Ag@ZnO structures records the surface chemical fingerprint of a living cell. Overall, our optothermal-effect-based fabrication technique offers an effective combination of microfluidics with SERS, resolving problems associated with the fabrication of SERS substrates in microfluidic channels. With its advantages in functionality, simplicity, and sensitivity, the microfluidic-SERS platform presented should be valuable in many biological, biochemical, and biomedical applications. PMID:25402207

  8. Chitosan film loaded with silver nanoparticles-sorbent for solid phase extraction of Al(III), Cd(II), Cu(II), Co(II), Fe(III), Ni(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II).

    PubMed

    Djerahov, Lubomir; Vasileva, Penka; Karadjova, Irina; Kurakalva, Rama Mohan; Aradhi, Keshav Krishna

    2016-08-20

    The present study describes the ecofriendly method for the preparation of chitosan film loaded with silver nanoparticles (CS-AgNPs) and application of this film as efficient sorbent for separation and enrichment of Al(III), Cd(II), Cu(II), Co(II), Fe(III), Ni(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II). The stable CS-AgNPs colloid was prepared by dispersing the AgNPs sol in chitosan solution at appropriate ratio and further used to obtain a cast film with very good stability under storage and good mechanical strength for easy handling in aqueous medium. The incorporation of AgNPs in the structure of CS film and interaction between the polymer matrix and nanoparticles were confirmed by UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy. The homogeneously embedded AgNPs (average diameter 29nm, TEM analysis) were clearly observed throughout the film by SEM. The CS-AgNPs nanocomposite film shows high sorption activity toward trace metals under optimized chemical conditions. The results suggest that the CS-AgNPs nanocomposite film can be feasibly used as a novel sorbent material for solid-phase extraction of metal pollutants from surface waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Competitive adsorption of Pb2+ and Zn2+ ions from aqueous solutions by modified coal fly ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astuti, Widi; Martiani, Wulan; Any Ismawati Khair, N.

    2017-03-01

    Coal fly ash (CFA), which is a solid waste generated in large amounts worldwide, is mainly composed of some oxides having high crystallinity, including quartz (SiO2) and mullite (3Al2O3 2SiO2), and unburned carbon as a mesopore material that enables it to act as a dual site adsorbent. To decrease the crystallinity, CFA was modified by sodium hydroxide treatment. The modified fly ash (MFA) contains lower amount of Si and Al and has a higher specific surface area than the untreated fly ash (CFA). The objective of this study is to investigate the competitive adsorption of Pb2+ and Zn2+ from aqueous solutions by CFA and MFA. The effect of pH, contact time and initial concentration was investigated. Effective pH for Pb2+ and Zn2+ removal was 4. A greater percentage of Pb2+ and Zn2+ was removed with a decrease in the initial concentration of Pb2+ and Zn2+. Quasi-equilibrium reached in 240 min.

  10. Content of Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn on Pacific white shrimp cultured in modern farm at BLUPPB, Karawang, West Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takarina, N. D.; Rahman, A.; Siswanting, T.; Pin, T. J.

    2018-03-01

    Heavy metal is one of the hazardous substances which often found in shrimp farm. Since this shrimp become mostly favorable food, it is necessary to determine the content of metal in this shrimps. This research was aimed to determine the content of Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn on Pacific white shrimp cultured on the modern farm at BLUPPB, Karawang, West Java. Samples were taken from five farms. During transport, samples were kept in a more relaxed box. Farms used were designed using black plastic as the bottom layer to separate contact with soil. Heavy metal of Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn on shrimp meat was analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry method. The content of Cr was ranged from 0.06 – 0.38 ppm and Pb were 0.02 – 0.05 ppm. The content of Cu was ranged from 1.89 – 15.25 ppm and Zn were 2.16 – 3.92 ppm. According to government rules and literature, those content were below a threshold which was 0.4 ppm for Cu, 0.5 ppm for Pb, 20 ppm for Cu and 0.2 ppm for Zn.

  11. Efficiency of several leaching reagents on removal of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn from highly contaminated paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ruili; Zhu, Pengfei; Guo, Guangguang; Hu, Hongqing; Zhu, Jun; Fu, Qingling

    2016-11-01

    The efficiency of five different single leaching reagents (tartaric acid (TA), citric acid (CA), CaCl 2 , FeCl 3 , EDTA) and two different composite leaching reagents (CA + FeCl 3 , CA + EDTA) on removing Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd from contaminated paddy soil in Hunan Province (in China) was studied. The results indicated that the efficiencies of CA, FeCl 3 , and EDTA on extracting Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn from soil were greater than that of TA and CaCl 2 , and their extraction efficiencies were EDTA ≥ FeCl 3 > CA. The efficiencies of CA + FeCl 3 on extracting Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn were higher than that of single CA or FeCl 3 . The 25 mmol L -1 CA + 20 mmol L -1 FeCl 3 was a promising composite leaching reagent for paddy soil, and it could remove Cu (57.6 %), Pb (59.3 %), Cd (84.8 %), and Zn (28.0 %), respectively. With the same amount of leaching reagent, the efficiency of continuous leaching by several times was higher than that by once. In addition, the easily reducible and oxidizable fractions of heavy metals showed significant decrease during the process of leaching.

  12. Using electrocoagulation for metal and chelant separation from washing solution after EDTA leaching of Pb, Zn and Cd contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Pociecha, Maja; Lestan, Domen

    2010-02-15

    Electrocoagulation with an Al sacrificial anode was tested for the separation of chelant and heavy metals from a washing solution obtained after leaching Pb (3200 mg kg(-1)), Zn (1100 mg kg(-1)), and Cd (21 mg kg(-1)) contaminated soil with EDTA. In the electrochemical process, the sacrificial anode corroded to release Al(3+) which served as coagulant for precipitation of chelant and metals. A constant current density of 16-128 mAc m(-2) applied between the Al anode and the stainless-steel cathode removed up to 95% Pb, 68% Zn and 66% Cd from the soil washing solution. Approximately half of the initial EDTA remained in the washing solution after treatment, up to 16.3% of the EDTA was adsorbed on Al coagulant and precipitated, the rest of the EDTA was degraded by anodic oxidation. In a separate laboratory-scale remediation experiment, we leached a soil with 40 mmol EDTA per kg of soil and reused the washing solution (after electrocoagulation) in a closed loop. It removed 53% of Pb, 26% of Zn and 52% of Cd from the soil. The discharge solution was clear and colourless, with pH 7.52 and 170 mg L(-1) Pb, 50 mg L(-1) Zn, 1.5 mg L(-1) Cd and 11 mM EDTA.

  13. Immobilisation of Cu, Pb and Zn in Scrap Metal Yard Soil Using Selected Waste Materials.

    PubMed

    Kamari, A; Putra, W P; Yusoff, S N M; Ishak, C F; Hashim, N; Mohamed, A; Isa, I M; Bakar, S A

    2015-12-01

    Immobilisation of heavy metals in a 30-year old active scrap metal yard soil using three waste materials, namely coconut tree sawdust (CTS), sugarcane bagasse (SB) and eggshell (ES) was investigated. The contaminated soil was amended with amendments at application rates of 0 %, 1 % and 3 % (w/w). The effects of amendments on metal accumulation in water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) and soil metal bioavailability were studied in a pot experiment. All amendments increased biomass yield and reduced metal accumulation in the plant shoots. The bioconcentration factor and translocation factor values of the metals were in the order of Zn > Cu > Pb. The addition of ES, an alternative source of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), has significantly increased soil pH and resulted in marked reduction in soil metal bioavailability. Therefore, CTS, SB and ES are promising low-cost immobilising agents to restore metal contaminated land.

  14. One-pot ultrasonic-assisted method for preparation of Ag/AgCl sensitized ZnO nanostructures as visible-light-driven photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghizadeh-Alamdari, Sara; Habibi-Yangjeh, Aziz; Pirhashemi, Mahsa

    2015-02-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted method was applied for preparation of Ag/AgCl sensitized ZnO nanostructures by one-pot procedure in water without using any post preparation treatments. The resultant nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, EDX, SEM, DRS, XPS, BET, and PL techniques. In the nanocomposites, ZnO and AgCl have wurtzite hexagonal and cubic crystalline phases, respectively and their surface morphologies remarkably change with increasing mole fraction of silver chloride. The EDX and XPS techniques show that the prepared samples are extremely pure. Ability of the nanocomposites for absorption of visible-light irradiation enhanced with increasing AgCl content. Photocatalytic examination of the nanocomposites was carried out using aqueous solution of methylene blue under visible-light irradiation. The degradation rate constant on the nancomposite rapidly increases with mole fraction of silver chloride up to 0.237. Enhancing activity of the nanocomposite was attributed to its ability for absorbing visible light and separation of electron-hole pairs. Furthermore, influence of ultrasonic irradiation time, calcination temperature, catalyst weight, pH of solution, and scavengers of reactive species on the degradation activity was investigated and the results were discussed. Finally, the photocatalyst has good activity after five successive cycles.

  15. Paleomagnetic dating of the Cu-Zn-Pb Kupferschiefer deposit at Sangerhausen, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symons, D. T.; Kawasaki, K.; Walther, S.; Borg, G.

    2010-12-01

    Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic results are reported for the Cu-Zn-Pb Kupferschiefer mineralization at Sangerhausen, Germany. The mineralization is richest in the ~0.5 m thick Upper Permian (258±2 Ma) Kupferschiefer black marly shale (9 sites) and dies out over ~0.2 m in the underlying Weisliegend sandstones (3 sites) and overlying Zechstein carbonates (2 sites). Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic analysis were made on 205 specimens from 15 sites on the margin of the Sangerhausen Syncline. Except for the one site from fault zone gypsum, stable characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) directions were isolated in pyrrhotite with minor magnetite for the 14 sites using alternating field and thermal step demagnetization. Rock magnetic measurements show that the Kupferschiefer shale marks a redox front between the oxidized Weissliegend sandstones and non-oxidized Zechstein carbonates. A negative paleomagnetic fold test indicates that the ChRM postdates Jurassic fault block tilting. The ChRM directions from the 14 sites give a Late Jurassic paleopole at 149±3 Ma on the European apparent polar wander path. The observed age is significantly younger than the 254±6 Ma primary age of the associated red beds near Lubin in Poland, based on re-interpretation of the 1987 paleopole of Jowett et al. Overall the paleomagnetic results at Sangerhausen favour a very late diagenetic or epigenetic Late Jurassic origin for the Cu-Pb-Zn mineralization in the Kupferschiefer rather than the commonly proposed Late Permian syngenetic to mid-Triassic diagenetic origin.

  16. Relation of pH and other soil variables to concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Se in earthworms

    Beyer, W.N.; Hensler, G.L.; Moore, J.

    1987-01-01

    Various soil treatments (clay, composted peat, superphosphate, sulfur, calcium carbonate, calcium chloride, zinc chloride, selenous acid) were added to experimental field plots to test the effect of different soil variables on the concentrations of 5 elements in earthworms (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Se). Concentrations of the 5 elements were related to 9 soil variables (soil Pb, soil Cu, soil Zn, pH, organic matter, P, K, Mg, and Ca) with linear multiple regression. Lead concentrations in earthworms were positively correlated with soil Pb and soil organic matter, and negatively correlated with soil pH and soil Mg, with an R2 of 64%. Se concentrations were higher in earthworms from plots amended with Se, and Zn concentrations were higher in earthworms from plots amended with Zn. However, none of the other soil variables had important effects on the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd and Se in earthworms. Although some significant statistical relations were demonstrated, the values of r2 of all relations (> 20%) were so low that they had little predictive value.

  17. Spatial distribution and risk assessment of heavy metals in soil near a Pb/Zn smelter in Feng County, China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Feng; Liao, Renmei; Ali, Amjad; Mahar, Amanullah; Guo, Di; Li, Ronghua; Xining, Sun; Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Wang, Quan; Zhang, Zengqiang

    2017-05-01

    A large scale survey and a small scale continuous monitoring was conducted to evaluate the impact of Pb/Zn smelting on soil heavy metals (HMs) accumulation and potential ecological risk in Feng County, Shaanxi province of China. Soil parameters including pH, texture, CEC, spatial and temporal distribution of HMs (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn), and BCR fractionation were monitored accordingly. The results showed the topsoil in the proximity of smelter, especially the smelter area and county seat, were highly polluted by HMs in contrast to the river basins. Fractionation of Cd and Zn in soil samples revealed higher proportion of mobile fractions than other HMs. The soil Cd and Zn contents decreased vertically, but still exceeded the second level limits of Environmental Quality Standard for Soils of China (EQSS) within 80cm. The dominated soil pollutant (Cd) had higher ecological risk than Cu, Ni, Zn and Pb. The potential ecological risk (PER) factor of Cd were 65.7% and 100% in surrounding county and smelter area, respectively. The long-term smelter dust emission mainly contributed to the HMs pollution and posed serious environment risk to living beings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular beam epitaxy growth of PbSe on Si (211) using a ZnTe buffer layer

    SciT

    Wang, X. J.; Chang, Y.; Hou, Y. B.

    2011-09-15

    The authors report the results of successful growth of single crystalline PbSe on Si (211) substrates with ZnTe as a buffer layer by molecular beam epitaxy. Single crystalline PbSe with (511) orientation was achieved on ZnTe/Si (211), as evidenced by RHEED patterns indicative of 2 dimensional (2D) growth, x ray diffraction rocking curves with a full width at half maximum as low as 153 arc sec and mobility as large as 1.1x10{sup 4}cm{sup 2}V{sup -1}s{sup -1} at 77 K. Cross hatch patterns were found on the PbSe(511) surface in Nomarski filtered microscope images suggesting the presence of a surface thermalmore » strain relaxation mechanism, which was confirmed by Fourier transformed high resolution transmission electron microscope images.« less

  19. Fabrication of PbS quantum dots and their applications in solar cells based on ZnO nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Chaudhary, Sujeet; Pandya, Dinesh K.

    2018-05-01

    An efficient, inexpensive and large area scalable approach based on sol-gel technique is presented to fabricate quantum dots (QDs) of PbS. Size of the QDs is tuned by the varying the bath concentrations in the range of 50-200 mM. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies confirm the growth of spherically shaped ˜5.6 nm QDs at 50 mM bath concentration. The optical bandgap of the QDs is found to be ˜0.9 eV and corresponds to the size obtained from TEM studies. ZnO/PbS solar cells are fabricated by sensitizing the ZnO nanorods with PbS QDs. The fabricated solar cells demonstrate the highest open circuit voltage ˜200 mV and short circuit current density ˜0.81 µA/cm2.

  20. Tailoring the Hydrothermal Synthesis of Stainless Steel Wire Sieve-Supported Ag-Doped ZnO Nanowires to Optimize Their Photo-catalytic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, W. X.; Shi, J. F.; Xu, Z. P.; Jiang, Z. D.; Wei, Z. Y.; Zhou, F.; Wu, Q.; Cui, Q. B.

    2018-03-01

    Batches of un-doped and Ag-doped ZnO nanowires (ZnONWs) were prepared hydrothermally on stainless steel wire sieves at varied Zn2+ concentrations of the growth solution and at different Ag+ concentrations of the silver nitrate solution. Methylene blue solution was degraded with these as-prepared ZnONWs in the presences of ultraviolet irradiation. It is found that both the processing parameters greatly affect the surface textures, wettability, and photo-activity of the ZnONWs. The latter synthesizing parameter is optimized only after the former one has been finely regulated. The un-doped and Ag-doped ZnONWs at Zn2+ concentration of 75 mM of the growth solution and at Ag+ concentration of3 mM of the silver nitrate solution both produce Gaussian rough surfaces and in each batch are most hydrophilic. Therefore, in the related batch the contacting surface area of the catalyst is the largest, the hydroxyl radicals attached on the top ends of corresponding ZnONWs the most, and the catalytic activity of these catalysts the optimal. Besides these, the latter synthesizing parameter affects the photo-activity of Ag-doped ZnONWs more significantly than the former one does that of un-doped ZnONWs.

  1. Age and geochemistry of the intrusive rocks from the Shaquanzi-Hongyuan Pb-Zn mineral district: Implications for the Late Carboniferous tectonic setting and Pb-Zn mineralization in the Eastern Tianshan, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wan-Jian; Chen, Hua-Yong; Zhang, Li; Han, Jin-Sheng; Xiao, Bing; Li, Deng-Feng; Zhang, Wei-Feng; Wang, Cheng-Ming; Zhao, Lian-Dang; Jiang, Hong-Jun

    2017-12-01

    The Central Tianshan Terrane (CTT) in the Eastern Tianshan (Xinjiang, NW China) is an important Pb-Zn metallogenic belt and played a pivotal role in crustal evolution and collisional tectonics of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The Shaquanzi gabbro and Hongyuan granodiorite are located in the northern margin of the CTT and associated with Pb-Zn mineralization. Zircon U-Pb dating yielded weighted mean ages of 307.2 ± 1.5 Ma and 301.2 ± 1.5 Ma for the Shaquanzi gabbro and the Hongyuan granodiorite, respectively. These rocks are medium-K calc-alkaline series and enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs; e.g., K, Rb, Ba) and depleted in high field strength elements (HFSEs; e.g., Nb, Ta, Ti), displaying typical arc affinities. The Shaquanzi gabbro shows low Nb/Ta (11.0-14.2), a high Mg# range (56-59), positive zircon εHf(t) (+ 3.30 - + 7.26) and whole rock εNd(t) (+ 0.70 - + 1.38) values, and low ISr ratios (0.704858-0.705137), which indicate that the protolith was probably derived from the sub-continental lithospheric mantle that had been metasomatized by subduction-related fluids. The Hongyuan granodiorite contains hornblende but lack of Al-rich minerals and has low ISr ratios (0.704769-0.706211 < 0.707), suggesting an I-type origin. Moreover, the Hongyuan granodiorite has positive εHf(t) (+ 1.12 - + 5.57) and εNd(t) (+ 0.38 - + 1.86) values, with high Mg# (52), variable Nb/Ta ratios (12.6-12.9), low contents of Ni, Cr and Co and Pb isotopes (206Pb/204Pb = 17.461-18.299, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.541-15.581, 208Pb/204Pb = 37.456-38.129), suggesting the Hongyuan granodiorite was generated by partial melting of juvenile crust sources mixed with some mantle-derived materials. Combined published works with our new geochronological, geological, geochemical and isotopic data, we propose that the CTT may have evolved from a continental arc to a syn-collisional setting during the period of ca. 307-301 Ma. The continuing southward subduction of the Junggar

  2. Compatibility between Co-Metallized PbTe Thermoelectric Legs and an Ag-Cu-In Brazing Alloy.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ayoun, Dana; Sadia, Yatir; Gelbstein, Yaniv

    2018-01-10

    In thermoelectric (TE) generators, maximizing the efficiency of conversion of direct heat to electricity requires the reduction of any thermal and electrical contact resistances between the TE legs and the metallic contacts. This requirement is especially challenging in the development of intermediate to high-temperature TE generators. PbTe-based TE materials are known to be highly efficient up to temperatures of around 500 °C; however, only a few practical TE generators based on these materials are currently commercially available. One reason for that is the insufficient bonding techniques between the TE legs and the hot-side metallic contacts. The current research is focused on the interaction between cobalt-metallized n -type 9.104 × 10 -3 mol % PbI₂-doped PbTe TE legs and the Ag 0.32 Cu 0.43 In 0.25 brazing alloy, which is free of volatile species. Clear and fine interfaces without any noticeable formation of adverse brittle intermetallic compounds were observed following prolonged thermal treatment testing. Moreover, a reasonable electrical contact resistance of ~2.25 mΩmm² was observed upon brazing at 600 °C, highlighting the potential of such contacts while developing practical PbTe-based TE generators.

  3. Photocatalytic activity of ZnO doped with Ag on the degradation of endocrine disrupting under UV irradiation and the investigation of its antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechambi, Olfa; Chalbi, Manel; Najjar, Wahiba; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-08-01

    Ag-doped ZnO photocatalysts with different Ag molar content (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0%) were prepared via hydrothermal method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), Nitrogen physisorption at 77 K, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV--Visible spectroscopy, Photoluminescence spectra (PL) and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the structural, textural and optical properties of the samples. The results showed that Ag-doping does not change the average crystallite size with the Ag low content (≤1.0%) but slightly decreases with Ag high content (>1.0%). The specific surface area (SBET) increases with the increase of the Ag content. The band gap values of ZnO are decreased with the increase of the Ag doping level. The results of the photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenol (NP) in aqueous solutions under UV irradiation and in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) showed that silver ions doping greatly improved the photocatalytic efficiency of ZnO. The TOC conversion BPA and NP are 72.1% and 81.08% respectively obtained using 1% Ag-doped ZnO. The enhancement of photocatalytic activity is ascribed to the fact that the modification of ZnO with an appropriate amount of Ag can increase the separation efficiency of the photogenerated electrons-holes in ZnO. The antibacterial activity of the catalysts which uses Escherichia coli as a model for Gram-negative bacteria confirmed that Ag-doped ZnO possessed more antibacterial activity than the pure ZnO.

  4. Influences of Silver and Zinc Contents in the Stannite Ag2ZnSnS4 Photoelectrodes on Their Photoelectrochemical Performances in the Salt-Water Solution.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kong-Wei; Hong, Shu-Wei

    2018-06-13

    The multicomponent metal sulphide (stannite Ag2ZnSnS4) samples were grown onto the conductive metal oxide coated glass substrates by using the sulfurization of co-sputtering silver-zinc-tin precursors. Several [Ag]/[Zn+Sn] and [Zn]/[Sn] ratios were set in the metal precursors to investigate their influences on the crystal phases, microstructures and physical properties of the stannite Ag2ZnSnS4 samples. The results of the crystal phases and compositions of samples showed that the stannite Ag2ZnSnS4 phase can be obtained using the two-step sulfurization process, which maintained the silver-zinc-tin precursors at 160C for 1 hour and then kept them at 450oC for 30 minutes under sulfur/nitrogen atmosphere. N-type stannite Ag2ZnSnS4 samples with the carrier concentrations of 5.54x1012 - 9.11x1012 cm-3 can be obtained. High resistivities of Ag2ZnSnS4 samples were observed due to the low values of carrier concentration. Increasing the silver content in the sample can improve its PEC performance due to the decrease in the sample resistivity. The ratio of [Ag]/[Zn+Sn] kept at 0.8 and ratio of [Zn]/[Sn] set at 0.90 in the stannite Ag2ZnSnS4 sample had the highest photoelectrochemical performance of 0.31 mA.cm-2 with the potential set at 1.23 V vs. relative hydrogen electrode applied on the sample because of it having the lowest charge transfer resistance in electrolyte.

  5. Ag+12 ion induced modifications of structural and optical properties of ZnO-PMMA nanocomposite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sarla; Vyas, Rishi; Vijay, Y. K.

    2013-02-01

    The influence of swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation on structural and photoluminescence (PL) properties of ZnO-PMMA nanocomposite films, prepared by solution casting method, was studied. The ZnO-PMMA nanocomposite films were irradiated using 120 MeV Ag+12 ions at different fluences varying from 1×1011 to 1×1013 ions/cm2. The intensity of the X-ray diffraction peaks is increased at the high fluence, without evolution of any new peak. A shift in absorption edge (i.e. shift in optical band gap) towards higher wavelength was observed after irradiation and PL from ZnO-PMMA nanocomposite films is found to increase up to a critical fluence and then found to be suppressed for higher fluence (1×1012 ion/cm2). The change in photoluminescence after irradiation can be attributed to the change in microstructure of PMMA matrix as well as the agglomeration of ZnO nanoparticles.

  6. An experimental study of Pb and Zn as a function of HCl at 300 and 500°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rock, M.; Frank, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrothermal galena (PbS) and sphalerite (ZnS) deposits are important sources of Pb and Zn and can be related to low-temperature Mississippi Valley (MVT), moderate temperature massive sulfides (VMS), and higher-temperature porphyry type deposits). Lead and Zn are thought to complex with chloride (PbCl2 and ZnCl2) in the hydrothermal fluid and can precipitate through a decrease in temperature, an increase in pH, or through the addition of reduce sulfur. There is, however, a dearth of data on the solubility of galena and sphalerite in acidic and sulfur-rich hydrothermal fluids over a range temperature that spans the MVT to porphyry systems The experiments were conducted in René 41 cold-seal pressure vessels at 300 and 500°C and 100 MPa to determine the concentrations of Pb and Zn in hydrothermal fluids as a function of HCl. Platinum capsules were loaded with natural galena and sphalerite and an aqueous fluid of 13-15 wt.% NaCl (eq.) containing HCl + NaCl. The [Na/H] of the aqueous fluid was varied from 1.75 to 340. The aqueous fluids were captured at the conclusion of the experiment and Pb and Zn concentrations were determined by using AA and ICP-OES. The data illustrate that the concentration of Pb and Zn in the fluid increased directly with temperature and total chloride while indirectly with [Na/H]. Lead and Zn concentrations at 300°C were highest at a [Na/H] of 1.75 with concentrations of 84 μg/g and 2200 ± 600 μg/g, respectively, and decreased to 4 μg/g and 241 μg/g, respectively, at a [Na/H] of 295. At 500°C, lead concentrations were 7600 ± 1600 μg/g at a [Na/H] of 1.75 and decreased to 1170 μg/g at a [Na/H] of 340. Zinc concentrations at 500°C were 1700 μg/g at a [Na/H] of 30 and 640 μg/g at a [Na/H] of 100. Decreasing acidity (increasing [Na/H]) and temperature are especially efficient at inducing the precipitation of galena and sphalerite and could produce variable Pb:Zn values in a given system depending on if temperature or acidity was more

  7. Ferroelectric enhancement in heterostructured ZnO /BiFeO3-PbTiO3 film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shengwen; Chen, Rui; Zhang, Guanjun; Cheng, Jinrong; Meng, Zhongyan

    2006-11-01

    The authors have prepared heterostructured ZnO /BiFeO3-PbTiO3 (BFO-PT) composite film and BFO-PT film on Pt /Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by pulsed-laser deposition. The structure and morphologies of the films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope. XRD results show that both films are perovskite structured last with different orientations. The leakage current density in the ZnO /BFO-PT film was found to be nearly two orders of magnitude lower. This could be due to the introduced ZnO layer behaving as a Schottky barrier between the BFO-PT film and top electrodes. The dramatic ferroelectric enhancement in ZnO /BFO-PT film is mostly ascribed to the improved insulation.

  8. Evaluation of the incorporation ratio of ZnO, PbO and CdO into cement clinker.

    PubMed

    Barros, A M; Tenório, J A S; Espinosa, D C R

    2004-08-09

    Zinc, lead, and cadmium are minor elements that might be brought by wastes to the cement kilns. This work studies the incorporation ratio of ZnO, PbO, and CdO when they are added to the clinker raw material. The cement raw material used in this work was prepared by mixing pure compounds, this choice was made to avoid the effect of other elements and provide a better understanding of the behavior of these metals during the clinkering process. The samples contained additions of 0.05, 0.10, 0.30, 0.50, 0.80 and 1.00 wt.% of a specific oxide (ZnO, PbO, or CdO) to the clinker raw-meal. The chlorine influence in the ZnO incorporation ratio was also evaluated. A device to simulate the thermal cycle imposed on the charge during the clinker production was used to evaluate the incorporation ratio of these oxides as well as thermogravimetric tests. The products of the tests in the simulator device were submitted to X-ray fluorescence chemical analysis or energy disperse scanning (EDS) microprobe analysis. The results led to the conclusions that the evaporation of Zn in cements kilns is due to the chlorine content and the Pb and Cd incorporation ratio stands around 50 wt.%.

  9. Impedance analysis of PbS colloidal quantum dot solar cells with different ZnO nanowire lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Takeshi; Takahashi, Akihiro; Wang, Haibin; Takahira, Kazuya; Kubo, Takaya; Segawa, Hiroshi

    2018-03-01

    The photoconversion efficiency of colloidal quantum dot (QD) solar cells has been markedly improved by optimizing the surface passivation and device structure, and details of device physics are now under investigation. In this study, we investigated the resistance and capacitance components at the ZnO/PbS-QD interface and inside a PbS-QD layer by measuring the impedance spectrum while the interface area was controlled by changing the ZnO nanowire length. By evaluating the dependence of optical intensity and DC bias voltage on the ZnO nanowire length, only the capacitance was observed to be influenced by the interface area, and this indicates that photoinduced carriers are generated at the surface of PbS-QD. In addition, since the capacitance is proportional to the surface area of the QD, the interface area can be evaluated from the capacitance. Finally, photovoltaic performance was observed to increase with increasing ZnO nanowire length owing to the large interface area, and this result is in good agreement with the capacitance measurement.

  10. Analysis of heavy metals (Pb and Zn) concentration in sediment of Blanakan fish ponds, Subang, West Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiriawan, A.; Takarina, N. D.; Pin, T. G.

    2017-07-01

    Blanakan fish ponds receive water resource from Kali Malang and Blanakan rivers. Industrial and domestic activities along the river can cause pollution, especially heavy metals. Zinc (Zn) is an essential element that needed by an organism, while Lead (Pb) is a nonessential element that is not needed. Discharge of waste water from industries and anthropogenic activities continuously not only pollute the water but also the sediment and biota live on it. This research was aimed to know the heavy metals content in the sediment of Blanakan fish ponds. Sediment samples were taken on July and August 2016 at three locations. Heavy metals were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) Shimadzu 6300. The result of Lead (Pb) measurement showed that Fish Pond 1 had higher average concentration compared Fish Pond 2 and Fish Pond 3 which was 0.55 ppm. Standard for Lead (Pb) in sediment according to Ontario Sediment Standards (2008) is 31 ppm. Based on Zinc (Zn) measurement, it was known that average of Zinc (Zn) concentration also higher on Fish Pond 1 compared to Fish Pond 2 and 3 which was 1.93 ppm. According to Ontario Sediment Standards (2008), a standard for Zinc (Zn) in sediment is 120 ppm. This indicated that heavy metals in the sediment of fish ponds were below standards. Statistical analysis using t-test showed that there was no significant difference of heavy metals content among fish ponds.

  11. The influence of Pb and Ag doping on the Jc(H,T) dependence and the mechanical properties of Bi-2212 textured rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotelo, A.; Madre, M. A.; Diez, J. C.; Rasekh, Sh; Angurel, L. A.; Martínez, E.

    2009-03-01

    Textured rods of Bi-2212 based materials with nominal compositions Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ, Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ+1 wt% Ag, Bi1.6Pb0.4Sr2CaCu2O8+δ, and Bi1.6Pb0.4Sr2CaCu2O8+δ+3 wt% Ag were fabricated using a laser floating zone (LFZ) melting method. The electrical, magnetic, and mechanical properties of the resulting rods after annealing were characterized. Pb doping results in the decrease of the transport critical current density, Jc,t (from 4.4 × 107 to 6 × 106 A m-2 at 65 K and self-field) as well as in the worsening of the mechanical properties, by about 35% compared to the undoped samples. In contrast, Ag doping results in the improvement of both the critical current density and mechanical strength. In this regard we have observed an increase of Jc,t (65 K) from 4.4 × 107 for Bi-2212 to 7.2 × 107 A m-2 for Bi-2212/Ag and from 6 × 106 for Bi(Pb)-2212 to 8 × 106 A m-2 for Bi(Pb)-2212/Ag. These described effects are related to the microstructural observations, since Pb doping dramatically reduces the texture while Ag doping improves it. Moreover, for samples with Ag addition, an intergrowth of Bi-2223 inside the Bi-2212 grains is observed, which would explain the improved superconducting properties of these samples.

  12. 3D ZnO/Ag Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering on Disposable and Flexible Cardboard Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel, Ana; Araújo, Andreia; Águas, Hugo; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) with a hexagonal structure have been synthesized via a hydrothermal method assisted by microwave radiation, using specialized cardboard materials as substrates. Cardboard-type substrates are cost-efficient and robust paper-based platforms that can be integrated into several opto-electronic applications for medical diagnostics, analysis and/or quality control devices. This class of substrates also enables highly-sensitive Raman molecular detection, amiable to several different operational environments and target surfaces. The structural characterization of the ZnO NR arrays has been carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical measurements. The effects of the synthesis time (5–30 min) and temperature (70–130 °C) of the ZnO NR arrays decorated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been investigated in view of their application for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) molecular detection. The size and density of the ZnO NRs, as well as those of the AgNPs, are shown to play a central role in the final SERS response. A Raman enhancement factor of 7 × 105 was obtained using rhodamine 6 G (R6G) as the test analyte; a ZnO NR array was produced for only 5 min at 70 °C. This condition presents higher ZnO NR and AgNP densities, thereby increasing the total number of plasmonic “hot-spots”, their volume coverage and the number of analyte molecules that are subject to enhanced sensing.

  13. Microleakage and antibacterial properties of ZnO and ZnO:Ag nanopowders prepared via a sol-gel method for endodontic sealer application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shayani Rad, M.; Kompany, A.; Khorsand Zak, A.; Javidi, M.; Mortazavi, S. M.

    2013-09-01

    One of the most important problems in dentistry is the microleakage, whether apical or coronal, which may cause failure of root canal therapy. The aim of this study is to prepare suitable sealer to decrease the microleakage of the root canals as well as having good antibacterial property. Pure ZnO and ZnO:Ag nanopowders were synthesized via sol gel method using gelatin as polymerization agent calcined at different temperatures of 500, 600, and 700 °C for 8 h. The prepared samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction and transition electron microscopy. The microleakage and antibacterial properties of the prepared samples were investigated and compared with zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE) and epoxy resin sealer (AH26), which are commonly used in dentistry as sealers. The results showed that the synthesized pure ZnO and ZnO:Ag nanopowders exhibit better microleakage and antibacterial properties in comparison with ZOE and AH26 sealers, and therefore are more suitable filling materials to be used as sealer in root canal treatment.

  14. Diffusion across the modified polyethylene separator GX in the heat-sterilizable AgO-Zn battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutwack, R.

    1973-01-01

    Models of diffusion across an inert membrane have been studied using the computer program CINDA. The models were constructed to simulate various conditions obtained in the consideration of the diffusion of Ag (OH)2 ions in the AgO-Zn battery. The effects on concentrations across the membrane at the steady state and on the fluxout as a function of time were used to examine the consequences of stepwise reducing the number of sources of ions, of stepwise blocking the source and sink surfaces, of varying the magnitude of the diffusion coefficient for a uniform membrane, of varying the diffusion coefficient across the membrane, and of excluding volumes to diffusion.

  15. Nanocomposites of AgInZnS and graphene nanosheets as efficient photocatalysts for hydrogen evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiaosheng; Chen, Weiwei; Zu, Zhiqiang; Zang, Zhigang; Deng, Ming; Zhu, Tao; Sun, Kuan; Sun, Lidong; Xue, Junmin

    2015-11-01

    In this study, AgInZnS-reduced graphene (AIZS-rGO) nanocomposites with tunable band gap absorption and large specific surface area were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal route, which showed highly efficient photocatalytic hydrogen evolution under visible-light irradiation. The relationships between their crystal structures, morphology, surface chemical states and photocatalytic activity have been explored in detail. Importantly, the AIZS-rGO nanocomposites with 0.02 wt% of graphene exhibited the highest hydrogen production rate of 1.871 mmol h-1 g-1, which was nearly 2 times the hydrogen production rate when using pure AIZS nanoparticles as the photocatalyst. This high photocatalytic H2-production activity was attributed predominantly to the incorporation of graphene sheets, which demonstrated an obvious influence on the structure and optical properties of the AIZS nanoparticles. In the AIZS-rGO nanocomposites, graphene could not only serve as an effective supporting layer but also is a recombination center for conduction band electrons and valence band holes. It is believed that this kind of graphene-based material would attract much attention as a promising photocatalyst with a high efficiency and a low cost for photocatalytic H2 evolution and facilitates their application in the environmental protection field.In this study, AgInZnS-reduced graphene (AIZS-rGO) nanocomposites with tunable band gap absorption and large specific surface area were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal route, which showed highly efficient photocatalytic hydrogen evolution under visible-light irradiation. The relationships between their crystal structures, morphology, surface chemical states and photocatalytic activity have been explored in detail. Importantly, the AIZS-rGO nanocomposites with 0.02 wt% of graphene exhibited the highest hydrogen production rate of 1.871 mmol h-1 g-1, which was nearly 2 times the hydrogen production rate when using pure AIZS nanoparticles as the

  16. Geochemical position of Pb, Zn and Cd in soils near the Olkusz mine/smelter, South Poland: effects of land use, type of contamination and distance from pollution source.

    PubMed

    Chrastný, Vladislav; Vaněk, Aleš; Teper, Leslaw; Cabala, Jerzy; Procházka, Jan; Pechar, Libor; Drahota, Petr; Penížek, Vít; Komárek, Michael; Novák, Martin

    2012-04-01

    The soils adjacent to an area of historical mining, ore processing and smelting activities reflects the historical background and a mixing of recent contamination sources. The main anthropogenic sources of metals can be connected with historical and recent mine wastes, direct atmospheric deposition from mining and smelting processes and dust particles originating from open tailings ponds. Contaminated agriculture and forest soil samples with mining and smelting related pollutants were collected at different distances from the source of emission in the Pb-Zn-Ag mining area near Olkusz, Upper Silesia to (a) compare the chemical speciation of metals in agriculture and forest soils situated at the same distance from the point source of pollution (paired sampling design), (b) to evaluate the relationship between the distance from the polluter and the retention of the metals in the soil, (c) to describe mineralogy transformation of anthropogenic soil particles in the soils, and (d) to assess the effect of deposited fly ash vs. dumped mining/smelting waste on the mobility and bioavailability of metals in the soil. Forest soils are much more affected with smelting processes than agriculture soils. However, agriculture soils suffer from the downward metal migration more than the forest soils. The maximum concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd were detected in a forest soil profile near the smelter and reached about 25 g kg(- 1), 20 g kg(- 1) and 200 mg kg(- 1) for Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively. The metal pollutants from smelting processes are less stable under slightly alkaline soil pH then acidic due to the metal carbonates precipitation. Metal mobility ranges in the studied forest soils are as follows: Pb > Zn ≈ Cd for relatively circum-neutral soil pH (near the smelter), Cd > Zn > Pb for acidic soils (further from the smelter). Under relatively comparable pH conditions, the main soil properties influencing metal migration are total organic carbon and cation exchange

  17. Tandem Solar Cells from Solution-Processed CdTe and PbS Quantum Dots Using a ZnTe-ZnO Tunnel Junction.

    PubMed

    Crisp, Ryan W; Pach, Gregory F; Kurley, J Matthew; France, Ryan M; Reese, Matthew O; Nanayakkara, Sanjini U; MacLeod, Bradley A; Talapin, Dmitri V; Beard, Matthew C; Luther, Joseph M

    2017-02-08

    We developed a monolithic CdTe-PbS tandem solar cell architecture in which both the CdTe and PbS absorber layers are solution-processed from nanocrystal inks. Due to their tunable nature, PbS quantum dots (QDs), with a controllable band gap between 0.4 and ∼1.6 eV, are a promising candidate for a bottom absorber layer in tandem photovoltaics. In the detailed balance limit, the ideal configuration of a CdTe (E g = 1.5 eV)-PbS tandem structure assumes infinite thickness of the absorber layers and requires the PbS band gap to be 0.75 eV to theoretically achieve a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 45%. However, modeling shows that by allowing the thickness of the CdTe layer to vary, a tandem with efficiency over 40% is achievable using bottom cell band gaps ranging from 0.68 and 1.16 eV. In a first step toward developing this technology, we explore CdTe-PbS tandem devices by developing a ZnTe-ZnO tunnel junction, which appropriately combines the two subcells in series. We examine the basic characteristics of the solar cells as a function of layer thickness and bottom-cell band gap and demonstrate open-circuit voltages in excess of 1.1 V with matched short circuit current density of 10 mA/cm 2 in prototype devices.

  18. Tandem Solar Cells from Solution-Processed CdTe and PbS Quantum Dots Using a ZnTe–ZnO Tunnel Junction

    DOE PAGES

    Crisp, Ryan W.; Pach, Gregory F.; Kurley, J. Matthew; ...

    2017-01-10

    Here, we developed a monolithic CdTe-PbS tandem solar cell architecture in which both the CdTe and PbS absorber layers are solution-processed from nanocrystal inks. Due to their tunable nature, PbS quantum dots (QDs), with a controllable band gap between 0.4 and ~1.6 eV, are a promising candidate for a bottom absorber layer in tandem photovoltaics. In the detailed balance limit, the ideal configuration of a CdTe (E g = 1.5 eV)-PbS tandem structure assumes infinite thickness of the absorber layers and requires the PbS band gap to be 0.75 eV to theoretically achieve a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 45%.more » But, modeling shows that by allowing the thickness of the CdTe layer to vary, a tandem with efficiency over 40% is achievable using bottom cell band gaps ranging from 0.68 and 1.16 eV. In a first step toward developing this technology, we explore CdTe-PbS tandem devices by developing a ZnTe-ZnO tunnel junction, which appropriately combines the two subcells in series. Furthermore, we examine the basic characteristics of the solar cells as a function of layer thickness and bottom-cell band gap and demonstrate open-circuit voltages in excess of 1.1 V with matched short circuit current density of 10 mA/cm 2 in prototype devices.« less

  19. Contents and leachability of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Sb, Zn, As) in soil at the Pantex firing range, Amarillo, Texas.

    PubMed

    Basunia, S; Landsberger, S

    2001-10-01

    Pantex firing range soil samples were analyzed for Pb, Cu, Sb, Zn, and As. One hundred ninety-seven samples were collected from the firing range and vicinity area. There was a lack of knowledge about the distribution of Pb in the firing range, so a random sampling with proportional allocation was chosen. Concentration levels of Pb and Cu in the firing range were found to be in the range of 11-4675 and 13-359 mg/kg, respectively. Concentration levels of Sb were found to be in the range of 1-517 mg/kg. However, the Zn and As concentration levels were close to average soil background levels. The Sn concentration level was expected to be higher in the Pantex firing range soil samples. However, it was found to be below the neutron activation analysis (NAA) detection limit of 75 mg/kg. Enrichment factor analysis showed that Pb and Sb were highly enriched in the firing range with average magnitudes of 55 and 90, respectively. Cu was enriched approximately 6 times more than the usual soil concentration levels. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was carried out on size-fractionated homogeneous soil samples. The concentration levels of Pb in leachates were found to be approximately 12 times higher than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulatory concentration level of 5 mg/L. Sequential extraction (SE) was also performed to characterize Pb and other trace elements into five different fractions. The highest Pb fraction was found with organic matter in the soil.

  20. Resonance properties of Ag-ZnO nanostructures at terahertz frequencies

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, John E.; Díaz de León, Ramón; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando; González, Gabriel; José-Yacaman, Miguel; Ponce, Arturo; González, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    Nanoantennas have been fabricated by scaling down traditional antenna designs using nanolithographic techniques and testing them at different optical wavelengths, these particular nanoantennas have shown responses in a broad range of frequencies going from visible wavelengths to the range of the terahertz. Some self-assembled nanostructures exist that exhibit similar shapes and properties to those of traditional antenna structures. In this work the emission and absorption properties of self-assembled nanostructures made of zinc oxide nanorods on silver nanowires, which resemble traditional dipole antennas, were measured and simulated in order to test their antenna performance. These structures show resonant properties in the 10-120 THz range, with the main resonance at 60 THz. The radiation pattern of these nanostructures was also obtained by numerical simulations, and it is shown that it can be tailored to increase or decrease its directivity as a function of the location of the energy source of excitation. Experimental measurements were performed by Raman spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) in order to show existing vibrational frequencies at the resonant frequencies of the nanostructures, measurements were made from ~9 to 103 THz and the results were in agreement with the simulations. These characteristics make these metal-semiconductor Ag/ZnO nanostructures useful as self-assembled nanoantennas in applications such as terahertz spectroscopy and sensing at terahertz frequencies. PMID:26406710

  1. Aqueous synthesis of high bright and tunable near-infrared AgInSe2-ZnSe quantum dots for bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Che, Dongchen; Zhu, Xiaoxu; Wang, Hongzhi; Duan, Yourong; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang

    2016-02-01

    Efficient synthetic methods for near-infrared quantum dots with good biophysical properties as bioimaging agents are urgently required. In this work, a simple and fast synthesis of highly luminescent, near-infrared AgInSe2-ZnSe quantum dots (QDs) with tunable emissions in aqueous media is reported. This method avoids high temperature and pressure and organic solvents to directly generate water-dispersible AgInSe2-ZnSe QDs. The photoluminescence emission peak of the AgInSe2-ZnSe QDs ranged from 625 to 940nm, with quantum yields up to 31%. The AgInSe2-ZnSe QDs with high quantum yield, near-infrared and low cytotoxic could be used as good cell labels, showing great potential applications in bio-imaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Effects of fly ash on the exchangeable heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb) during sewage sludge composting and land utilization].

    PubMed

    Sheng, Jun; Lu, Wen-Jing; Wang, Hong-Tao

    2007-06-01

    A series of composting test using fly ash as stabilizing agent were investigated to study the variation of the exchangeable heavy metals during composting and land utilization. A whole procedure of adsorption and desorption of stabilized heavy metals were analyzed. The result shows that the exchangeable Cu increases while the exchangeable Zn and Pb decrease during composting. Fly ash has significant stabilizing effect on Zn and Pb as evidenced by a decline of 62.47% and 92.61% respectively in the trails with flay ash as stabilizing agent. However there is no obvious change with exchangeable Cu. Although there is a big difference on the activities of heavy metals in different soil types tested, it seems to be ineluctable that addition of sewage sludge composting products cause enrichment of heavy metal in soil.

  3. Dispersion, Speciation, and Pollution Assessment of Heavy Metals Pb and Zn in Surface Sediment from Disturbed Ecosystem of Jeneberang Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najamuddin; Surahman

    2017-10-01

    Surface sediments were collected from seventeen stations in Jeneberang waters (riverine, estuarine, and marine). Lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, and the speciation of metals was obtained by a sequential extraction procedure. Dispersion of Pb and Zn were found higher in the riverine and marine samples than the estuarine samples. Following speciation, the metals were found similar composition of fraction in the riverine and estuarine samples but any different in the marine samples. The results indicated that there is a change of dispersion pattern and speciation composition of metals due to the presence of the dam that lies at the boundary between the estuary and the river. The toxicity unit was indicated low toxicity level; pollution level was in weakly to moderately polluted while the aquatic environment risk attributed were no risky to light risk.

  4. Differential Metal Tolerance and Accumulation Patterns of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the Liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L.

    PubMed

    Ares, Ángela; Itouga, Misao; Kato, Yukari; Sakakibara, Hitoshi

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the bioaccumulation, tissue distribution and physiological responses to different metal concentration (0.2 and 2 mM) and time of exposure of 1, 2 and 3 weeks with cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) using the model liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. Our data showed, on one hand, a significant enrichment and tissue translocation of Cu, Zn, and specially Cd, reaching concentrations of 1800 µg g - 1 in 3 weeks. On the other hand, Pb exhibited the lowest concentration values (50 µg g - 1 ), and 90% of the total concentration in the rhizoids. We could observe a positive correlation between tissue concentration, metal translocation and an enhanced toxic response. The results obtained in this study might contribute not only in the application of this species in environmental studies with heavy metals but also as a starting point to study the evolution of metal tolerance in land plants.

  5. Ag-Modified In2O3/ZnO Nanobundles with High Formaldehyde Gas-Sensing Performance

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Fang; Bai, Lu; Song, Dongsheng; Yang, Hongping; Sun, Xiaoming; Sun, Hongyu; Zhu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Ag-modified In2O3/ZnO bundles with micro/nano porous structures have been designed and synthesized with by hydrothermal method continuing with dehydration process. Each bundle consists of nanoparticles, where nanogaps of 10–30 nm are present between the nanoparticles, leading to a porous structure. This porous structure brings high surface area and fast gas diffusion, enhancing the gas sensitivity. Consequently, the HCHO gas-sensing performance of the Ag-modified In2O3/ZnO bundles have been tested, with the formaldehyde-detection limit of 100 ppb (parts per billion) and the response and recover times as short as 6 s and 3 s, respectively, at 300 °C and the detection limit of 100 ppb, response time of 12 s and recover times of 6 s at 100 °C. The HCHO sensing detect limitation matches the health standard limitation on the concentration of formaldehyde for indoor air. Moreover, the strategy to synthesize the nanobundles is just two-step heating and easy to scale up. Therefore, the Ag-modified In2O3/ZnO bundles are ready for industrialization and practical applications. PMID:26287205

  6. Development of neutron-monitor detector using liquid organic scintillator coupled with 6Li + ZnS(Ag) Sheet.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Endo, Akira; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Fumiaki

    2004-01-01

    A phoswitch-type detector has been developed for monitoring neutron doses in high-energy accelerator facilities. The detector is composed of a liquid organic scintillator (BC501A) coupled with ZnS(Ag) sheets doped with 6Li. The dose from neutrons with energies above 1 MeV is evaluated from the light output spectrum of the BC501A by applying the G-function, which relates the spectrum to the neutron dose directly. The dose from lower energy neutrons, on the other hand, is estimated from the number of scintillations emitted from the ZnS(Ag) sheets. Characteristics of the phoswitch-type detector were studied experimentally in some neutron fields. It was found from the experiments that the detector has an excellent property of pulse-shape discrimination between the scintillations of BC501A and the ZnS(Ag) sheets. The experimental results also indicate that the detector is capable of reproducing doses from thermal neutrons as well as neutrons with energies from one to several tens of megaelectronvolts (MeV).

  7. Template-free synthesis of porous ZnO/Ag microspheres as recyclable and ultra-sensitive SERS substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanjun; Xu, Chunxiang; Lu, Junfeng; Zhu, Zhu; Zhu, Qiuxiang; Manohari, A. Gowri; Shi, Zengliang

    2018-01-01

    The porous structured zinc oxide (ZnO) microspheres decorated with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have been fabricated as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate for ultra-sensitive, highly reproducible and stable biological/chemical sensing of various organic molecules. The ZnO microspheres were hydrothermally synthesized without any template, and the Ag NPs decorated on microspheres via photochemical reaction in situ, which provided stable Ag/ZnO contact to achieve a sensitive SERS response. It demonstrates a higher enhancement factor (EF) of 2.44 × 1011 and a lower detection limit of 10-11 M-10-12 M. This porous SERS substrate could also be self-cleaned through a photocatalytic process and then further recycled for the detection of same or different molecules, such as phenol red (PhR), dopamine (DA) and glucose (GLU) with ultra-low concentration and it possessed a sensitive response. The excellent performances are attributed to morphology of porous microspheres, hybrid structure of semiconductor/metal and corresponding localized field enhancement of surface plasmons. Therefore, it is expected to design the recyclable ultra-sensitive SERS sensors for the detection of biological molecules and organic pollutant monitoring.

  8. Carbon Dioxide Electroreduction using a Silver-Zinc Alloy [CO 2 Electroreduction on a Ag-Zn Alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Hatsukade, Toru; Kuhl, Kendra P.; Cave, Etosha R.; ...

    2017-02-20

    We report on CO 2 electroreduction activity and selectivity of a polycrystalline AgZn foil in aqueous bicarbonate electrolyte. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements show that the alloy foil was slightly enriched in zinc both at the surface and in the bulk, with a surface alloy composition of 61.3±5.4 at % zinc and with Ag 5Zn 8 as the most prominent bulk phase. AgZn is active for CO 2 reduction; CO is the main product, likely due to the weak CO binding energy of the surface, with methane and methanol emerging as minor products. Compared to puremore » silver and pure zinc foils, enhancements in activity and selectivity for methane and methanol are observed. A five-fold increase is observed in the combined partial current densities for methane and methanol at –1.43 V vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), representing a four- to six-fold increase in faradaic efficiency. Here, such enhancements indicate the existence of a synergistic effect between silver and zinc at the surface of the alloy that contributes to the enhanced formation of further reduced products.« less

  9. Atom Probe Tomography Analysis of Ag Doping in 2D Layered Material (PbSe) 5(Bi 2Se 3) 3

    DOE PAGES

    Ren, Xiaochen; Singh, Arunima K.; Fang, Lei; ...

    2016-09-07

    Impurity doping in two-dimensional (2D) materials can provide a route to tuning electronic properties, so it is important to be able to determine the distribution of dopant atoms within and between layers. Here we report the totnographic mapping of dopants in layered 2D materials with atomic sensitivity and subnanometer spatial resolution using atom, probe tomography (APT). Also, APT analysis shows that Ag dopes both Bi 2Se 3 and PbSe layers in (PbSe) 5(Bi 2Se 3) 3, and correlations :in the position of Ag atoms suggest a pairing across neighboring Bi 2Se 3 and PbSe layers. Finally, density functional theory (DFT)more » calculations confirm the favorability of substitutional-doping for both Pb and Bi and provide insights into the,observed spatial correlations in dopant locations.« less

  10. Theoretical investigation of geometries, stabilities, electronic and optical properties for advanced Ag{sub n}@(ZnO){sub 42} (n=6-18) hetero-nanostructure

    SciT

    Cheng, Hai-Xia; Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 117542; Wang, Xiao-Xu

    The structural properties of Ag{sub n}@(ZnO){sub 42} (n=6-18) core-shell nanoparticles have been investigated by the first principles calculations, and the core-shell nanostructure with n=13 is proved to be the most stable one for the first time. Ag{sub 13}@(ZnO){sub 42} core-shell nanostructure possesses higher chemistry activity and shows a red shift phenomenon in the light of the absorption spectrum compare to the (ZnO){sub 48}, this can be confirmed by the calculated electron structure. The visible-light could be absorbed by Ag{sub 13}@(ZnO){sub 42} to improve the photo-catalysis of (ZnO){sub 48} nanostructure. Our results show good agreement with experiments.

  11. Investigation of the growth and in situ heating transmission electron microscopy analysis of Ag2S-catalyzed ZnS nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung Han; Kim, Jong Gu; Song, Junghyun; Bae, Tae-Sung; Kim, Kyou-Hyun; Lee, Young-Seak; Pang, Yoonsoo; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Chung, Hee-Suk

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the semiconductor-catalyzed formation of semiconductor nanowires (NWs) - silver sulfide (Ag2S)-catalyzed zinc sulfide (ZnS) NWs - based on a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism through metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with a Ag thin film. The Ag2S-catalyzed ZnS NWs were confirmed to have a wurtzite structure with a width and length in the range of ∼30 nm to ∼80 nm and ∼1 μm, respectively. Using extensive transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses from plane and cross-sectional viewpoints, the ZnS NWs were determined to have a c-axis, [0001] growth direction. In addition, the catalyst at the top of the ZnS NWs was determined to consist of a Ag2S phase. To support the Ag2S-catalyzed growth of the ZnS NWs by a VLS reaction, an in situ heating TEM experiment was conducted from room temperature to 840 °C. During the experiment, the melting of the Ag2S catalyst in the direction of the ZnS NWs was first observed at approximately 480 °C along with the formation of a carbon (C) shell. Subsequently, the Ag2S catalyst melted completely into the ZnS NWs at approximately 825 °C. As the temperature further increased, the Ag2S and ZnS NWs continuously melted and vaporized up to 840 °C, leaving only the C shell behind. Finally, a possible growth mechanism was proposed based on the structural and chemical investigations.

  12. Kinetic rate laws of Cd, Pb, and Zn vaporization during municipal solid waste incineration.

    PubMed

    Falcoz, Quentin; Gauthier, Daniel; Abanades, Stéphane; Flamant, Gilles; Patisson, Fabrice

    2009-03-15

    The kinetic rate laws of heavy metal (HM) vaporization from municipal solid waste during its incineration were studied. Realistic artificial waste (RAW) samples spiked with Pb, Zn, and Cd were injected into a fluidized bed reactor. Metal vaporization wastracked by continuous measure ofthe above metals in exhaust gases. An inverse model of the reactor was used to calculate the metal vaporization rates from the concentration vs time profiles in the outlet gas. For each metal, experiments were carried out at several temperatures in order to determine the kinetic parameters and to obtain specific rate laws as functions of temperature. Temperature has a strong influence on the HM vaporization dynamics, especially on the vaporization kinetics profile. This phenomenon was attributed to internal diffusion control of the HM release. Two types of kinetic rate laws were established based on temperature: a fourth- or fifth-order polynomial rate law (r(x) = k0e(-E(A)/RT)p(x)) for temperatures lower than 740 degrees C and a first-order polynomial (r(x) = k0e(-E(A)/ RT(q-q(f) for temperatures higher than 740 degrees C.

  13. Thermoelectric Properties of Pulsed Electric Current Sintered Samples of AgPb m SbSe17 ( m = 16 or 17)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chun-I.; Todorov, Ilyia; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Timm, Edward; Case, Eldon D.; Schock, Harold; Hogan, Timothy P.

    2012-06-01

    Lead chalcogenide materials have drawn attention in recent years because of their outstanding thermoelectric properties. Bulk n-type materials of AgPb m SbTe2+ m have been reported to exhibit high figure of merit, ZT, as high as 1.7 at 700 K. Recent reports have shown p-type lead selenide-based compounds with comparable ZT. The analogous material AgPb m SbSe17 shares a similar cubic rock-salt structure with PbTe-based compounds; however, it exhibits a higher melting point, and selenium is more abundant than tellurium. Using solid solution chemistry, we have fabricated cast AgPb15SbSe17 samples that show a peak power factor of approximately 17 μW/cm K2 at 450 K. Increasing the strength of such materials is commonly achieved through powder processing, which also helps to homogenize the source materials. Pulsed electric current sintering (PECS) is a hot-pressing technique that utilizes electric current through the die and sample for direct Joule heating during pressing. The mechanisms present during PECS processing have captured significant research interest and have led to some notable improvements in sample properties compared with other densification techniques. We report the thermoelectric properties of PECS samples of AgPb m SbSe17 along with sample fabrication and processing details.

  14. Inorganic-organic Ag-rhodamine 6G hybrid nanorods: "turn on" fluorescent sensors for highly selective detection of Pb2+ ions in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, A K; Ramkumar, Jayshree; Jayakumar, O D

    2012-02-07

    Lead metal ions are of great concern and the monitoring of their concentration in the environment has become extremely important. In the present study, a new inorganic-organic hybrid assay of Ag nanorods (AgNR)-Rhodamine 6G (R6G) was developed for the sensitive and selective determination of Pb(2+) ions in aqueous solutions. To the best of our knowledge there is almost no literature on the use of silver nanorod sensors for determination of lead ions in aqueous solutions. The sensor is developed by the coating of R6G on the surface of AgNRs. The sensing is based on the photoluminescence of R6G. The sensor was rapid as the measurements were carried out within 3 min of addition of the test solution to the AgNR-R6G hybrid. Moreover, the system showed excellent stability at tested concentration levels of Pb(2+) ions. The naked eye detection of the colour was possible with 1 mg L(-1) of Pb(2+) ions. The present method has a detection limit of 50 μg L(-1) of Pb(2+) (for a signal/noise (S/N) ratio > 3). The selectivity toward Pb(2+) ions against other metal ions was improved using chelating agents. The proposed method was validated by analysis using different techniques.

  15. Assessing human health risks and strategies for phytoremediation in soils contaminated with As, Cd, Pb, and Zn by slag disposal.

    PubMed

    da Silva, William Ramos; da Silva, Fernando Bruno Vieira; Araújo, Paula Renata Muniz; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo

    2017-10-01

    Soils impacted by metallurgy activities pose serious risks to the health of exposed populations, whether by ingestion of soil or contaminated food and water. The municipality of Santo Amaro, Bahia state, presents the most important case of human lead contamination in Brazil. It occurred because of inadequate slag disposal. The aims of this research were to: (i) determine the environmentally available concentrations and the distribution of As, Cd, Pb, and Zn in soil fractions; (ii) estimate the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks of these elements for children; and (iii) to evaluate the use of corn (Zea mays) and castor bean (Ricinus communis) either for phytoextraction induced by chelating agents or phytostabilization. Our data demonstrated that the environmentally available concentrations of As, Cd, Pb, and Zn in soils surrounding the Pb smelting plant are among the highest that have been reported. Apart from Cd, sequential extraction demonstrated that most metals are in recalcitrant forms in the soil. However, the daily exposure of children to Pb, Zn, Cd, and As exceeded the acceptable daily intake as established by the World Health Organization. Non-carcinogenic risk modeling indicated probable adverse health effects from chronic exposure to soil Pb. The mean estimated time for remediation of the area using phytoextraction was high, ranging from 76 to 259 years; therefore, this is not a viable alternative for remediating soils in the studied area. However, good development in the contaminated soil along with restriction of the metal(oid) translocation to shoots enables castor bean to phytostabilize metal(oid)s. Additionally, castor bean cultivation may be an alternative for an economic return because of biofuel production. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Localized surface plasmon resonances dominated giant lateral photovoltaic effect observed in ZnO/Ag/Si nanostructure

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ke; Wang, Hui; Gan, Zhikai; Zhou, Peiqi; Mei, Chunlian; Huang, Xu; Xia, Yuxing

    2016-01-01

    We report substantially enlarged lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE) in the ZnO/Ag/Si nanostructures. The maximum LPE sensitivity (55.05 mv/mm) obtained in this structure is about seven times larger than that observed in the control sample (7.88 mv/mm) of ZnO/Si. We attribute this phenomenon to the strong localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) induced by nano Ag semicontinuous films. Quite different from the traditional LPE in PN junction type structures, in which light-generated carriers contributed to LPE merely depends on direct excitation of light in semiconductor, this work firstly demonstrates that, by introducing a super thin metal Ag in the interface between two different kinds of semiconductors, the nanoscale Ag embedded in the interface will produce strong resonance of localized field, causing extra intraband excitation, interband excitation and an enhanced direct excitation. As a consequence, these LSPRs dominated contributions harvest much more carriers, giving rise to a greatly enhanced LPE. In particular, this LSPRs-driven mechanism constitutes a sharp contrast to the traditional LPE operation mechanism. This work suggests a brand new LSPRs approach for tailoring LPE-based devices and also opens avenues of research within current photoelectric sensors area. PMID:26965713

  17. Cd, Pb, and Zn mobility and (bio)availability in contaminated soils from a former smelting site amended with biochar.

    PubMed

    Lomaglio, Tonia; Hattab-Hambli, Nour; Miard, Florie; Lebrun, Manhattan; Nandillon, Romain; Trupiano, Dalila; Scippa, Gabriella Stefania; Gauthier, Arnaud; Motelica-Heino, Mikael; Bourgerie, Sylvain; Morabito, Domenico

    2017-07-20

    Biochar is a potential candidate for the remediation of metal(loid)-contaminated soils. However, the mechanisms of contaminant-biochar retention and release depend on the amount of soil contaminants and physicochemical characteristics, as well as the durability of the biochar contaminant complex, which may be related to the pyrolysis process parameters. The objective of the present study was to evaluate, in a former contaminated smelting site, the impact of two doses of wood biochar (2 and 5% w/w) on metal immobilization and/or phytoavailability and their effectiveness in promoting plant growth in mesocosm experiments. Different soil mixtures were investigated. The main physicochemical parameters and the Cd, Pb, and Zn contents were determined in soil and in soil pore water. Additionally, the growth, dry weight, and metal concentrations were analyzed in the different dwarf bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) organs tested. Results showed that the addition of biochar at two doses (2 and 5%) improved soil conditions by increasing soil pH, electrical conductivity, and water holding capacity. Furthermore, the application of biochar (5%) to metal-contaminated soil reduced Cd, Pb, and Zn mobility and availability, and hence their accumulation in the different P. vulgaris L. organs. In conclusion, the data clearly demonstrated that biochar application can be effectively used for Cd, Pb, and Zn immobilization, thereby reducing their bioavailability and phytotoxicity.

  18. [Effects of Remedies on the Remediation of Typical Pb and Zn-contaminated soil in Huanjiang, Guangxi].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wei-quan; Song, Bo; Yuan, Li-zhu; Huang, Yu-fei; Fu, Feng-yan

    2015-06-01

    Due to the collapse of the Pb/Zn tailing dam of Huanjiang, Guangxi, the farmland along Huanjiang River are strongly acidic and heavy metal-contaminated, resulting in the loss of agricultural production. To explore some remedies and the migration of heavy metals in heavy metal contaminated-soil of Huanjiang, this study investigated the effects of different types of amendments (lime, calcium magnesium phosphate, organic fertilizer, polypropylene amide) on tested soils through soil leaching test. The results showed that T1 soil was severely acidified, reducing the pH of the soil layer to clean contact, while T2, T3, T4, T5 could significantly improve the contaminated soil pH, ranging from 2.7 to 3.2, 1.6 to 2.7 respectively. Compared with T1, in the contaminated soil at 0-20 cm, T2, T3, T4, T5 could effectively activate Pb and immobilize Zn. Compared with T1, in 20-60 cm clean soil, there was no significant differences in the effect of different treatments on DTPA-Pb and DTPA-Zn (P < 0.05). Compared with T1, T4 and T5 could provide good growing conditions for plants, which might provide technical support for future measurements such as bioremediation.

  19. Counter-current acid leaching process for the removal of Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn from shooting range soil.

    PubMed

    Lafond, Stéphanie; Blais, Jean-François; Mercier, Guy; Martel, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the performance of a counter-current leaching process (CCLP) for Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn extraction in a polluted shooting range soil. The initial metal concentrations in the soil were 1790 mg Cu/kg, 48,300 mg Pb/kg, 840 mg Sb/kg and 368 mg Zn/kg. The leaching process consisted of five one-hour acid leaching steps, which used 1 M H2SO4 + 4 M NaCl (20 degrees C, soil suspension = 100 g/L) followed by two water rinsing steps. Ten counter-current remediation cycles were completed and the average metal removal yields were 98.3 +/- 0.3% of Cu, 99.5 +/- 0.1% of Pb, 75.5 +/- 5.1% of Sb and 29.1 +/- 27.2% of Zn. The quality of metal leaching did not deteriorate throughout the 10 remediation cycles completed for this study. The CCLP reduced acid and salt use by approximately 68% and reduced water consumption by approximately 60%, exceeding reductions achieved by a standard acid leaching process.

  20. Characterization of cadmium biosorption by Exiguobacterium sp. isolated from farmland soil near Cu-Pb-Zn mine.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Hee; Chon, Hyo-Taek

    2016-06-01

    Bacteria have the ability to bind heavy metals on their cell wall. Biosorption is a passive and energy-independent mechanism to adsorb heavy metals. The efficiency of heavy metal biosorption can vary depending on several factors such as the growth phase of bacteria, solution pH, and existence of competitive heavy metals. In this study, Exiguobacterium sp. isolated from farmland soil near a mine site were used, and optimal conditions for Cd biosorption in solution were investigated. As bacterial growth progressed, Cd biosorption increased, which is attributed to changes in the structure and composition of the cell wall during bacterial growth. The biosorption process was rapid and was completed within 30 min. Cadmium biosorption was highest at pH 7 due to the dissociation of hydrogen ions and the increase of negative charges with increasing pH. In the mixed metal solution of Cd, Pb, and Zn, the amount of biosorption was in the order of Pb>Cd>Zn while in a single metal solution, the order was Cd≥Pb>Zn. The maximum adsorption capacity for Cd by the isolated bacteria was 15.6 mg/g biomass, which was calculated from the Langmuir isotherm model. Different adsorption efficiencies under various environmental conditions indicate that, to control metal mobility, the conditions for biosorption should be optimized before applying bacteria. The results showed that the isolated bacteria can be used to immobilize metals in metal-contaminated wastewater.

  1. Influences of traffic on Pb, Cu and Zn concentrations in roadside soils of an urban park in Dublin, Ireland.

    PubMed

    Dao, Ligang; Morrison, Liam; Zhang, Hongxuan; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2014-06-01

    Soils in the vicinity of roads are recipients of contaminants from traffic emissions. In order to obtain a better understanding of the impacts of traffic on soils, a total of 225 surface soil samples were collected from an urban park (Phoenix Park, Dublin, Ireland) in a grid system. Metal (Pb, Cu and Zn) concentrations were determined using a portable X-ray fluorescence analyzer. Strong spatial variations for the concentrations of Pb, Cu and Zn were observed. The spatial distribution maps created using geographical information system techniques revealed elevated metal concentrations close to the main traffic route in the park. The relationships between the accumulation of Pb, Cu and Zn in the roadside soils and the distance from the road were well fitted with an exponential model. Elevated metal concentrations from traffic pollution extended to a distance of approximately 40 m from the roadside. The results of this study provide useful information for the management of urban parks particularly in relation to policies aimed at reducing the impact of traffic related pollution on soils.

  2. Paleomagnetic age and tectonic constraints on the genesis of the giant Jinding Zn-Pb deposit, Yunnan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalikun, Yaxiaer; Xue, Chunji; Symons, D. T. A.

    2018-02-01

    The Jinding Zn-Pb deposit is located in the Lanping-Simao basin, Yunnan, China. Paleomagnetic results are reported from the Beichang, Jiayashan, and Nanchang mineralization zones that are hosted in the Lower Cretaceous Jinxing and Upper Paleocene Yunlong Formations. The timing of formation of the Zn-Pb mineralization has not been previously defined but is geologically constrained to be younger than Upper Paleocene. Paleomagnetic analyses of 645 specimens from 42 sites using mostly thermal and then alternating field step demagnetization isolated a stable characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) for 29 mineralized sites. Step demagnetization and rock magnetic analyses of Zn and Pb concentrates and tailings show that the main remanence carriers are pyrrhotite and magnetite or low Ti titanomagnetite inclusions in sphalerite and galena. Randomly oriented ChRM directions for 18 clast specimens collected from site 40 provide a conglomerate test that shows that the clasts have not been remagnetized by a metamorphic event. A paleomagnetic fold test on the mineralized specimens is negative, showing that the mineralization is epigenetic because its ChRM substantially postdates the major thrust folding event that formed the dome structure of the Jinding deposit. Using extensive regional geologic and paleomagnetic data from other studies with the Jinding paleomagnetic data yields a mean age of 23 ± 3 Ma for the mineralization.

  3. Centennial record of anthropogenic impacts in Galveston Bay: Evidence from trace metals (Hg, Pb, Ni, Zn) and lignin oxidation products.

    PubMed

    Al Mukaimi, Mohammad E; Kaiser, Karl; Williams, Joshua R; Dellapenna, Timothy M; Louchouarn, Patrick; Santschi, Peter H

    2018-06-01

    During the 20th century the impacts of industrialization and urbanization in Galveston Bay resulted in significant shifts in trace metals (Hg, Pb, Ni, Zn) and vascular plant biomarkers (lignin phenols) recorded within the surface sediments and sediment cores profile. A total of 22 sediment cores were collected in Galveston Bay in order to reconstruct the historical input of Hg, Pb, Ni, Zn and terrestrial organic matter. Total Hg (T-Hg) concentration ranged between 6 and 162 ng g -1 in surface sediments, and showed decreasing concentrations southward from the Houston Ship Channel (HSC) toward the open estuary. Core profiles of T-Hg and trace metals (Ni, Zn) showed substantial inputs starting in 1905, with peak concentrations between 1960 and 1970's, and decreasing thereafter with exception to Pb, which peaked around 1930-1940s. Stable carbon isotopes and lignin phenols showed an increasing input of terrestrial organic matter driven by urban development within the watershed in the early 1940s. Both the enrichment factor and the geoaccumulation index (I geo ) for T-Hg as a measure of the effectiveness of environmental management practices showed substantial improvements since the 1970s. The natural recovery rate in Galveston Bay since the peak input of T-Hg was non-linear and displayed a slow recovery during the twenty-first century. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of organic amendments on the mobility of Pb and Zn from mine tailings added to semi-arid soils.

    PubMed

    Barajas-Aceves, M; Rodríguez-Vázquez, R

    2013-01-01

    The effects of mine tailings and three organic amendments (compost, bokashi and vermicompost) on the mobility factor for Pb and Zn and on the potential C and N mineralization in semi-arid agricultural and rangeland soils were examined. During the experiment, soil samples were analyzed periodically for CO(2)-C evolution, inorganic N, dehydrogenase activity and percent Pb and Zn mobility during 169 d of incubation. The dehydrogenase activity and CO(2)-C evolved were strongly inhibited by mine tailings mixed with organic compost in both agricultural and rangeland soils (37 to 43 %), followed by N mineralization in treatments with mine tailings plus bokashi or compost (13 to 26.5 %) at 169 d incubation. The highest % mobility of Pb and Zn were observed in soils amended with mine tailings alone, while the lowest was observed in agricultural soils treated with vermicompost plus mine tailings. The CO(2)-C evolved was fitted to first order E, while the cumulative N mineralization was fitted to the linearized power function. Mine tailings were found to influence the potential C and N mineralization rate constants in both soils. The models for C and N mineralization could be used to evaluate the effects of mine tailings, which include intrinsic parameters in the soil.

  5. Distribution of trace metals (Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn) between particulate, colloidal and truly dissolved fractions in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, Andrew J; Vale, Peter; Whelan, Jonathan; Constantino, Carlos; Dotro, Gabriela; Campo, Pablo; Cartmell, Elise

    2017-05-01

    The distribution of Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn between particulate, colloidal and truly dissolved size fractions in wastewater from a trickling filter treatment plant was investigated. Samples of influent, primary effluent, humus effluent, final effluent and sludge holding tank returns were collected and separated into particulate (i.e. > 0.45 μm), colloidal (i.e. 1 kDa to 0.45 μm), and truly dissolved (i.e. < 1 kDa) fractions using membrane filters. In the influent, substantial proportions of Cu (60%), Pb (67%), and Zn (32%) were present in the particulate fraction which was removed in conjunction with suspended particles at the works in subsequent treatment stages. In final effluent, sizeable proportions of Cu (52%), Pb (32%), Ni (44%) and Zn (68%) were found within the colloidal size fraction. Calculated ratios of soluble metal to organic carbon suggest the metal to be adsorbed to or complexed with non-humic macromolecules typically found within the colloidal size range. These findings suggest that technologies capable of removing particles within the colloidal fraction have good potential to enhance metals removal from wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of alkaline material on phytotoxicity and bioavailability of Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn in stabilized sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongling; Ma, Guofeng; Sun, Lina; Li, Huiying

    2017-07-16

    The availability and phytotoxicity of heavy metals in sewage sludge is the key restrictive factor that limits sludge application. In this study, municipal sewage sludge was stabilized by alkaline slag or coal fly ash, then the leaching characteristic and fraction distributions of Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn were studied, and their effects on seed germination, root length, and plant accumulating were compared. The results showed that mixed sewage sludge with alkaline slag and coal fly ash decreased the percentage of available heavy metals in sewage sludge. The percentage of exchangeable Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd in stabilized sewage sludge (S1-S4) was 1.50-8.67 times lower than that in SS-only treatment. Leachate Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn from stabilized SS was much lower than the limit threshold. The addition of alkaline materials to SS reduced the inhibitory effect on seed germination and root growth. Pearson's correlation analysis indicated that there was a significant negative correlation between pH and available heavy metals, while a significant positive correlation between the percentage of exchangeable fraction of heavy metals, the leaching potential, tissue concentration and accumulation of heavy metal and toxicity for seed germination was observed.

  7. Structural and Solar Cell Properties of a Ag-Containing Cu2ZnSnS4 Thin Film Derived from Spray Pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Hiep; Kawaguchi, Takato; Chantana, Jakapan; Minemoto, Takashi; Harada, Takashi; Nakanishi, Shuji; Ikeda, Shigeru

    2018-02-14

    A silver (Ag)-incorporated kesterite Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) thin film was fabricated by a facile spray pyrolysis method. Crystallographic analyses indicated successful incorporation of various amounts of Ag up to a Ag/(Ag + Cu) ratio of ca. 0.1 into the crystal lattice of CZTS in a homogeneous manner without formation of other impurity compounds. From the results of morphological investigations, Ag-incorporated films had larger crystal grains than the CZTS film. The sample with a relatively low Ag content (Ag/(Ag + Cu) of ca. 0.02) had a compact morphology without appreciable voids and pinholes. However, an increase in the Ag content in the CZTS film (Ag/(Ag + Cu) ca. 0.10) induced the formation of a large number of pinholes. As can be expected from these morphological properties, the best sunlight conversion efficiency was obtained by the solar cell based on the film with Ag/(Ag + Cu) of ca. 0.02. Electrostructural analyses of the devices suggested that the Ag-incorporated film in the device achieved reduction in the amounts of unfavorable copper on zinc antisite defects compared to the bare CZTS film. Moreover, the use of a Ag-incorporated film improved band alignment at the CdS(buffer)-CZTS interface. These alterations should also contribute to enhancement of device properties.

  8. Template free synthesis of ZnO/Ag2O nanocomposites as a highly efficient visible active photocatalyst for detoxification of methyl orange.

    PubMed

    Kadam, Abhijit; Dhabbe, Rohant; Gophane, Anna; Sathe, Tukaram; Garadkar, Kalyanrao

    2016-01-01

    A simple and effective route for the synthesis of ZnO/Ag2O nanocomposites with different weight ratios (4:1 to 4:4) have been successfully obtained by combination of thermal decomposition and precipitation technique. The structure, composition, morphology and optical properties of the as-prepared ZnO/Ag2O composites were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, EDS, SEM, TEM, UV-Vis DRS and PL, respectively. The photocatalytic performance of the photocatalysts was evaluated towards the degradation of a methyl orange (MO) under UV and visible light. More specifically, the results showed that the photocatalytic activity with highest rate constant of MO degradation over ZnO/Ag2O (4:2) nanocomposites is more than 22 and 4 times than those of pure ZnO and Ag2O under visible light irradiation, respectively. An improved photocatalytic activity was attributed to the formation of heterostructure between Ag2O and ZnO, the strong visible light absorption and more separation efficiency of photoinduced electron-hole pairs. Moreover, the ZnO/Ag2O (4:2) nanocomposite showed excellent stability towards the photodegradation of MO under visible light. Finally, a possible mechanism for enhanced charge separation and photodegrdation is proposed. Genotoxicity of MO before and after photodegradation was also evaluated by simple comet assay technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ag nanodots decorated SiO2 coated ZnO core-shell nanostructure with enhanced luminescence property as potential imaging agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Jagriti; Barick, K. C.; Hassan, P. A.; Bahadur, Dhirendra

    2018-04-01

    Ag decorated silica coated ZnO nanocomposite (Ag@SiO2@ZnO NCs) has been synthesized by soft chemical approach. The physico-chemical properties of Ag@SiO2@ZnO NCs are investigated by various sophisticated characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction, Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-visible absorption and photoluminescent spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction confirms the phase formation of ZnO and Ag in nanocomposite. TEM micrograph clearly shows that Ag nanodots are well decorated over silica coated ZnO NCs. The photoluminescent study reveals the enhancement in the photoluminance property when the Ag nanodots are decorated over silica coated ZnO nanocomposite due to an electromagnetic coupling between excitons and plasmons. Furthermore, the photoluminescent property is an important tool for bio-imaging application, reveal that NCs give green and red emission after excitation with 488 and 535 nm. Therefore, low cytotoxicity and excellent fluorescence stability in vitro makes it a more suitable material for both cellular imaging and therapy for biomedical applications.

  10. A first principles study of the properties of Al:ZnO and its adhesion to Ag in an optical coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zheshuai; Bristowe, Paul D.

    2009-07-01

    A first principles density functional study of the atomistic properties of Al:ZnO and its adhesion to Ag is presented. Optical coatings often contain interfaces between ZnO (0001) and Ag (111) layers whose bonding can be improved by incorporating small amounts of Al into the ZnO but the underlying strengthening mechanism remains unclear. It is assumed that Al relaxes the internal compressive stress in the film but the situation is complicated by the presence of hydrogen and/or water which can adsorb on the ZnO surface during fabrication of the coating. Hydrogen and/or water are known to weaken the Ag/ZnO interface particularly when it is O terminated. In this paper it is shown that aluminum substitutes on Zn sites in ZnO and this does indeed reduce the internal stress in the layer under compression. However, it is also shown that Al segregates to the ZnO surface when it is O terminated (but not Zn terminated) and this reduces the propensity for hydrogen adsorption. Thus by eliminating some of the hydrogen from the ZnO surface which is more likely to be O terminated than Zn terminated under ambient conditions, the strength of the Ag/ZnO interface can be increased. The effect of aluminum incorporation into the ZnO layer is therefore twofold: it relaxes the residual stresses in the coating and also improves the chemical bonding at the metal/oxide interface by removing the weakening effects of gaseous adsorption. The changes in interfacial bonding are explained in terms of an electron redistribution and compensation model.

  11. Influence of Ag, Cd or Pb Addition on Electrical and Dielectric Properties of Bulk Glassy Se-Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Metwally, E. G.; Shakra, A. M.

    2018-05-01

    Bulk glassy samples of Se0.7Ge0.3 and Se0.7Ge0.25 X 0.05 (X = Ag, Cd or Pb) chalcogenide glass have been prepared by melt-quenching method. The studied compositions were examined in powder form by x-ray diffraction analysis. The direct-current (dc) conductivity σ_{{dc}} was measured for bulk samples in the temperature range from 303 K to 433 K, revealing enhancement with temperature for all samples. The results indicate two values of activation energy ( Δ E_{{σ1 }} and Δ E_{{σ2 }} ) due to two conduction mechanisms. Measurements of the alternating-current (ac) conductivity σ_{{ac}} ( ω ) and dielectric properties for bulk samples were carried out in the temperature range from 303 K to 433 K and frequency range from 1 kHz to 1 MHz. The ac conductivity σ_{{ac}} ( ω ) was temperature dependent and proportional to ωS , where S is the frequency exponent, which reduced with rising temperature, and ω is the angular frequency. These results are discussed based on a correlated barrier hopping model. The calculated values of the maximum height of the barrier W_{{M}} for each composition are consistent with carrier hopping over a potential barrier. The density of localized states N( {E_{{F}} } ) at the Fermi level lay in the range from 1019 eV-1 cm-3 to 1020 eV-1 cm-3, and increased with temperature. The dielectric constant ɛ1 ( ω ) and loss ɛ2 ( ω ) increased with temperature but decreased with frequency. The values of σ_{{dc}} , σ_{{ac}} ( ω ) , ɛ1 ( ω ) , and ɛ2 ( ω ) increased with temperature and with addition of Ag, Cd or Pb. The observed increase was greater for Se0.7Ge0.25Pb0.05 than for Se0.7Ge0.25Cd0.05, which was greater than for Se0.7Ge0.25Ag0.05.

  12. Ore genesis of the Wusihe carbonate-hosted Zn-Pb deposit in the Dadu River Valley district, Yangtze Block, SW China: evidence from ore geology, S-Pb isotopes, and sphalerite Rb-Sr dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Suo-Fei; Gong, Yong-Jun; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Zhang, Xiao-Jing; Li, Qian; Zeng, Guo-Ping

    2018-01-01

    The Wusihe carbonate-hosted Zn-Pb deposit (3.7 Mt. Zn + Pb at a grade of 8.6% Zn and 2.0% Pb) is the largest deposit in the Dadu River Valley district of the Sichuan-Yunnan-Guizhou metallogenic province of southwest China. Three types of orebodies occur: (1) stratiform, banded and lamellar, within dolomite of the Neoproterozoic Dengying Formation; (2) vein type; and (3) breccia type. Four stages of mineralization are distinguished: (i) pyrite stage, (ii) pyrite-pyrrhotite-galena-sphalerite-bitumen stage, (iii) sphalerite-galena stage, and (iv) bitumen-calcite stage. Sphalerite and galena from stages II and III show δ34S ranges from +7.1 to +9.7‰ and +9.1 to +13.1‰, respectively. High-precision in situ lead isotope analyses of sulfides show 208Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 206Pb/204Pb ratios of 37.938 to 38.336, 15.579 to 15.682, and 17.951 to 18.195, respectively, which suggest a mixing of lead from the basement and the host rocks. Rb-Sr isotope analyses for six sphalerite samples of stage II yielded an isochron age of 411 ± 10 Ma (MSWD = 1.4). Combining all available ore geology and geochemical data, together with fluid inclusion data reported previously, we suggest that the Wusihe deposit is a Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposit.

  13. Determination of some heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb) in blood by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bounakhla, M.; Doukkali, A.; Lalaoui, K.; Aguenaou, H.; Mokhtar, N.; Attrassi, B.

    2003-05-01

    The main purpose of this study is the interaction between nutrition (micronutrients heavy metals: Fe, Zn, Cu) and toxic heavy metals such as Pb in blood of children living in Gharb region of Morocco. This region receives all pollution carried by the Sebou river coming mainly from industrial activities. A rapid and simple analytical procedure was used for the determination of Fe, Cu and Zn trace amounts in blood by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence technique. This method is an energy dispersive XRF technique in a special geometry of primary beam, sample and detector. The sample is deposited on a plane polished surface of a suitable reflector material. It is presented as a few drops (25 μl) from a solution of blood digested in a mixture of HNO3 and H2O2 using a microwaves accelerated reaction system. The accuracy of measurements has been investigated by using certified materials. The concentration of Cu was found to be normal in all samples (\\cong1 ppm) which ruled out any interaction between this element and the others. On the other hand, amounts of Fe and Zn are very variables, suggesting an interaction between Fe and Zn. However, amounts of Pb in blood are inferior to 50 ppb, suggesting that no interaction exist with this metal and micronutrients.

  14. Structural and superionic properties of Ag+-rich ternary phases within the AgI-MI2 systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, S.; Keen, D. A.; Berastegui, P.

    2002-12-01

    The effects of temperature on the crystal structure and ionic conductivity of the compounds Ag2CdI4, Ag2ZnI4 and Ag3SnI5 have been investigated by powder diffraction and impedance spectroscopy techniques. varepsilon-Ag2CdI4 adopts a tetragonal crystal structure under ambient conditions and abrupt increases in the ionic conductivity are observed at 407(2), 447(3) and 532(4) K, consistent with the sequence of transitions varepsilon-Ag2CdI 4 rightarrow beta-Ag2CdI 4 + beta-AgI + CdI2 rightarrow alpha-AgI + CdI2 rightarrow alpha-Ag2CdI4. Hexagonal beta-Ag2CdI4 is metastable at ambient temperature. The ambient-temperature beta phase of Ag2ZnI4 is orthorhombic and the structures of beta-Ag2CdI4 and beta-Ag2ZnI4 can, respectively, be considered as ordered derivatives of the wurtzite (beta) and zincblende (gamma) phases of AgI. On heating Ag2ZnI4, there is a 12-fold increase in ionic conductivity at 481(1) K and a further eightfold increase at 542(3) K. These changes result from decomposition of beta-Ag2ZnI4 into alpha-AgI + ZnI2, followed by the appearance of superionic alpha-Ag2ZnI4 at the higher temperature. The hexagonal crystal structure of alpha-Ag2ZnI4 is a dynamically disordered counterpart to the beta modification. Ag3SnI5 is only stable at temperatures in excess of 370(3) K and possesses a relatively high ionic conductivity (sigma approx 0.19Omega-1 cm-1 at 420 K) due to dynamic disorder of the Ag+ and Sn2+ within a cubic close packed I- sublattice. The implications of these findings for the wider issue of high ionic conductivity in AgI-MI2 compounds is discussed, with reference to recently published studies of Ag4PbI6 and Ag2HgI4 and new data for the temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity of the latter compound.

  15. Nanocrystal growth and morphology of PbTeSe-ZnSe composite thin films prepared by one-step synthesis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kazuhisa; Abe, Seishi

    2016-10-01

    The microstructure of polycrystalline PbTe1-xSex-ZnSe composite thin films has been studied by scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. The films were prepared by the one-step synthesis method using simultaneous evaporation of PbTe and ZnSe. The nanocrystals of PbTe1-xSex are formed in a ZnSe matrix. Tellurium concentration can be tuned by controlling the PbTe evaporation source temperatures between 753 K and 793 K. Binary PbSe nanocrystals were formed at 753 K, while ternary PbTe1-xSex nanocrystals were formed at 793 K. The nanocrystals grow in a granular shape at the initial stage of film growth, and the morphology changes to nanowire-shape as the film grows, irrespective of the Te concentration. The ternary PbTe1-xSex nanocrystals were composed of two phases with different Te concentration; Te-rich (Se-poor) granular crystals were formed near the bottom half parts of the film and Te-poor (Se-rich) nanowires were formed at the upper half parts of the film. Columnar ZnSe crystals contain high-density {111} stacking faults due to the low stacking fault energy of ZnSe. A balance of deposition and re-evaporation on the substrate during the film growth will be responsible for the resultant nanocrystal morphology.

  16. Effects of Zn2+ and Pb2+ dopants on the activity of Ga2O3-based photocatalysts for water splitting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang; Shen, Shuai; Jin, Shaoqing; Yang, Jingxiu; Li, Mingrun; Wang, Xiuli; Han, Hongxian; Li, Can

    2013-11-28

    Zn-doped and Pb-doped β-Ga2O3-based photocatalysts were prepared by an impregnation method. The photocatalyst based on the Zn-doped β-Ga2O3 shows a greatly enhanced activity in water splitting while the Pb-doped β-Ga2O3 one shows a dramatic decrease in activity. The effects of Zn(2+) and Pb(2+) dopants on the activity of Ga2O3-based photocatalysts for water splitting were investigated by HRTEM, XPS and time-resolved IR spectroscopy. A ZnGa2O4-β-Ga2O3 heterojunction is formed in the surface region of the Zn-doped β-Ga2O3 and a slower decay of photogenerated electrons is observed. The ZnGa2O4-β-Ga2O3 heterojunction exhibits type-II band alignment and facilitates charge separation, thus leading to an enhanced photocatalytic activity for water splitting. Unlike Zn(2+) ions, Pb(2+) ions are coordinated by oxygen atoms to form polyhedra as dopants, resulting in distorted surface structure and fast decay of photogenerated electrons of β-Ga2O3. These results suggest that the Pb dopants act as charge recombination centers expediting the recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes, thus decreasing the photocatalytic activity.

  17. Geologic Criteria for the Assessment of Sedimentary Exhalative (Sedex) Zn-Pb-Ag Deposits

    Emsbo, Poul

    2009-01-01

    Sedex deposits account for more than 50 percent of the world's zinc and lead reserves and furnish more than 25 percent of the world's production of these two metals. This report draws on previous syntheses as well as on topical studies of deposits in sedex basins to determine the characteristics and processes that produced sedex deposits. This analysis also uses studies of the tectonic, sedimentary, and fluid evolution of modern and ancient sedimentary basins and mass balance constraints to identify the hydrothermal processes that are required to produce sedex deposits. This report demonstrates how a genetic model can be translated into geologic criteria that can be used in the U.S. Geological Survey National Assessments for sedex zinc-lead-silver deposits to define permissive tracts, assess the relative prospectivity of permissive tracts, and map favorability within permissive tracts.

  18. The effect of intermetallic compound morphology on Cu diffusion in Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb solder bump on the Ni/Cu Under-bump metallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Guh-Yaw; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2005-01-01

    The eutectic Sn-Ag solder alloy is one of the candidates for the Pb-free solder, and Sn-Pb solder alloys are still widely used in today’s electronic packages. In this tudy, the interfacial reaction in the eutectic Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb solder joints was investigated with an assembly of a solder/Ni/Cu/Ti/Si3N4/Si multilayer structures. In the Sn-3.5Ag solder joints reflowed at 260°C, only the (Ni1-x,Cux)3Sn4 intermetallic compound (IMC) formed at the solder/Ni interface. For the Sn-37Pb solder reflowed at 225°C for one to ten cycles, only the (Ni1-x,Cux)3Sn4 IMC formed between the solder and the Ni/Cu under-bump metallization (UBM). Nevertheless, the (Cu1-y,Niy)6Sn5 IMC was observed in joints reflowed at 245°C after five cycles and at 265°C after three cycles. With the aid of microstructure evolution, quantitative analysis, and elemental distribution between the solder and Ni/Cu UBM, it was revealed that Cu content in the solder near the solder/IMC interface played an important role in the formation of the (Cu1-y,Niy)6Sn5 IMC. In addition, the diffusion behavior of Cu in eutectic Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb solders with the Ni/Cu UBM were probed and discussed. The atomic flux of Cu diffused through Ni was evaluated by detailed quantitative analysis in an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). During reflow, the atomic flux of Cu was on the order of 1016-1017 atoms/cm2sec in both the eutectic Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb systems.

  19. Enhanced photocatalytic activity and characterization of magnetic Ag/BiOI/ZnFe2O4 composites for Hg0 removal under fluorescent light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengwei; Zhang, Anchao; Zhang, Lixiang; Song, Jun; Su, Sheng; Sun, Zhijun; Xiang, Jun

    2018-03-01

    A series of magnetic Ag/BiOI/ZnFe2O4 hybrids synthesized via hydrothermal process, subsequent deposition-precipitation and photoreduction method were employed to remove elemental mercury (Hg0) under fluorescent light irradiation. The effects of Ag content, fluorescent light irradiation, reaction temperature, pH value, flue gas composition, anions and photocatalyst dosage on Hg0 removal were investigated in detail. The as-synthesized photocatalysts were characterized using N2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, SEM, TEM, HRTEM, XPS, VSM, DRS, ESR, PL and photocurrent response. The results showed that the ternary Ag/BiOI/ZnFe2O4 hybrids possessed enhanced visible-light-responsive photocatalytic performances for Hg0 removal. Ag/BiOI/ZnFe2O4 photocatalyst could be easily recovered from the reaction solution by an extra magnet and was stable in the process of Hg0 removal. Lower content of Ag was highly dispersed on the surface of BiOI/ZnFe2O4, while higher content of Ag would result in some aggregations and/or the blockages of micropore. In comparison to BiOI/ZnFe2O4, Ag deposited BiOI/ZnFe2O4 material showed lower recombination rate of electron-hole pairs. The superior Hg0 oxidation removal could correspond to good match of BiOI and ZnFe2O4, excellent fluidity and surface plasmon resonance effect of Ag0 nanoparticles, which led to higher separation efficiency of photogenerated electrons and holes, thereby enhancing the hybrids' photocatalytic activity.

  20. Low-Temperature Preparation of Ag-Doped ZnO Nanowire Arrays, DFT Study, and Application to Light-Emitting Diode.

    PubMed

    Pauporté, Thierry; Lupan, Oleg; Zhang, Jie; Tugsuz, Tugba; Ciofini, Ilaria; Labat, Frédéric; Viana, Bruno

    2015-06-10

    Doping ZnO nanowires (NWs) by group IB elements is an important challenge for integrating nanostructures into functional devices with better and tuned performances. The growth of Ag-doped ZnO NWs by electrodeposition at 90 °C using a chloride bath and molecular oxygen precursor is reported. Ag acts as an electrocatalyst for the deposition and influences the nucleation and growth of the structures. The silver atomic concentration in the wires is controlled by the additive concentration in the deposition bath and a content up to 3.7 atomic % is reported. XRD analysis shows that the integration of silver enlarges the lattice parameters of ZnO. The optical measurements also show that the direct optical bandgap of ZnO is reduced by silver doping. The bandgap shift and lattice expansion are explained by first principle calculations using the density functional theory (DFT) on the silver impurity integration as an interstitial (Ag(i)) and as a substitute of zinc atom (Ag(Zn)) in the crystal lattice. They notably indicate that Ag(Zn) doping forms an impurity band because of Ag 4d and O 2p orbital interactions, shifting the Fermi level toward the valence band. At least, Ag-doped ZnO vertically aligned nanowire arrays have been epitaxially grown on GaN(001) substrate. The heterostructure has been inserted in a light emitting device. UV-blue light emission has been achieved with a low emission threshold of 5 V and a tunable red-shifted emission spectrum related to the bandgap reduction induced by silver doping of the ZnO emitter material.

  1. Optimization of 6LiF:ZnS(Ag) scintillator light yield using GEANT4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yehuda-Zada, Y.; Pritchard, K.; Ziegler, J. B.; Cooksey, C.; Siebein, K.; Jackson, M.; Hurlbut, C.; Kadmon, Y.; Cohen, Y.; Ibberson, R. M.; Majkrzak, C. F.; Maliszewskyj, N. C.; Orion, I.; Osovizky, A.

    2018-06-01

    A new cold neutron detector has been developed at the NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR) for the CANDoR (Chromatic Analysis Neutron Diffractometer or Reflectometer) project. Geometric and performance constraints dictate that this detector be exceptionally thin (∼ 2 mm). For this reason, the design of the detector consists of a 6LiF:ZnS(Ag) scintillator with embedded wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers. We used the GEANT4 package to simulate neutron capture and light transport in the detector to optimize the composition and arrangement of materials to satisfy the competing requirements of high neutron capture probability and light production and transport. In the process, we have developed a method for predicting light collection and total neutron detection efficiency for different detector configurations. The simulation was performed by adjusting crucial parameters such as the scintillator stoichiometry, light yield, component grain size, WLS fiber geometry, and reflectors at the outside edges of the scintillator volume. Three different detector configurations were fabricated and their test results were correlated with the simulations. Through this correlation we have managed to find a common photon threshold for the different detector configurations which was then used to simulate and predict the efficiencies for many other detector configurations. New detectors that have been fabricated based on simulation results yielding the desired sensitivity of 90% for 3.27 meV (5 Å) cold neutrons. The simulation has proven to be a useful tool by dramatically reducing the development period and the required number of detector prototypes. It can be used to test new designs with different thicknesses and different target neutron energies.

  2. Calculation of phase diagrams for the FeCl2, PbCl2, and ZnCl2 binary systems by using molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Won-Gap; Matsuura, Hiroyuki; Tsukihashi, Fumitaka

    2006-04-01

    Recently, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation has been widely employed as a very useful method for the calculation of various physicochemical properties in the molten slags and fluxes. In this study, MD simulation has been applied to calculate the structural, transport, and thermodynamic properties for the FeCl2, PbCl2, and ZnCl2 systems using the Born—Mayer—Huggins type pairwise potential with partial ionic charges. The interatomic potential parameters were determined by fitting the physicochemical properties of iron chloride, lead chloride, and zinc chloride systems with experimentally measured results. The calculated structural, transport, and thermodynamic properties of pure FeCl2, PbCl2, and ZnCl2 showed the same tendency with observed results. Especially, the calculated structural properties of molten ZnCl2 and FeCl2 show the possibility of formation of polymeric network structures based on the ionic complexes of ZnCl{4/2-}, ZnCl{3/-}, FeCl{4/2-}, and FeCl{3/-}, and these calculations have successfully reproduced the measured results. The enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs energy of mixing for the PbCl2-ZnCl2, FeCl2-PbCl2, and FeCl2-ZnCl2 systems were calculated based on the thermodynamic and structural parameters of each binary system obtained from MD simulation. The phase diagrams of the PbCl2-ZnCl2, FeCl2-PbCl2, and FeCl2-ZnCl2 systems estimated by using the calculated Gibbs energy of mixing reproduced the experimentally measured ones reasonably well.

  3. Valorization of a treated soil via amendments: fractionation and oral bioaccessibility of Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn.

    PubMed

    Zagury, Gerald J; Rincon Bello, Jhony A; Guney, Mert

    2016-04-01

    The present study aims to transform a treated soil (TS) into a more desirable resource by modifying physico-chemical properties via amendments while reducing toxic metals' mobility and oral bioaccessibility. A hydrocarbon-contaminated soil submitted to treatment (TS) but still containing elevated concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn has been amended with compost, sand, and Al2(SO4)3 to render it usable for horticulture. Characterization and sequential extraction were performed for TS and four amended mixtures (AM1-4). P and K availability and metal bioaccessibility were investigated in TS and AM2. Amendment improved soil properties for all mixtures and yielded a usable product (AM2 20 % TS, 49 % compost, 30 % sand, 1 % Al2(SO4)3) satisfying regulatory requirements except for Pb content. In particular, AM2 had improved organic matter (OM) and cation exchange capacity (CEC), highly increased P and K availability, and reduced total metal concentrations. Furthermore, amendment decreased metal mobile fraction likely to be plant-available (in mg kg(-1), assumed as soluble/exchangeable + carbonates fractions). For AM2, estimated Pb bioavailability decreased from 1.50 × 10(3) mg kg(-1) (TS) to 238 mg kg(-1) (52.4 % (TS) to 34.2 %). Bioaccessible concentrations of Cu, Ni, and Zn (mg kg(-1)) were lower in AM2 than in TS, but there was no significant decrease for Pb. The results suggest that amendment improved soil by modifying its chemistry, resulting in lower metal mobile fraction (in %, for Cu and Zn) and bioaccessibility (in %, for Cu only). Amending soils having residual metal contamination can be an efficient valorization method, indicating potential for reducing treatment cost and environmental burden by rendering disposal/additional treatment unnecessary. Further studies including plant bioavailability are recommended to confirm results.

  4. Impact of natural and calcined starfish (Asterina pectinifera) on the stabilization of Pb, Zn and As in contaminated agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jung Eun; Sung, Jwa Kyung; Sarkar, Binoy; Wang, Hailong; Hashimoto, Yohey; Tsang, Daniel C W; Ok, Yong Sik

    2017-04-01

    Metal stabilization using soil amendments is an extensively applied, economically viable and environmentally friendly remediation technique. The stabilization of Pb, Zn and As in contaminated soils was evaluated using natural starfish (NSF) and calcined starfish (CSF) wastes at different application rates (0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 wt%). An incubation study was conducted over 14 months, and the efficiency of stabilization for Pb, Zn and As in soil was evaluated by the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test. The TCLP-extractable Pb was reduced by 76.3-100 and 91.2-100 % in soil treated with NSF and CSF, respectively. The TCLP-extractable Zn was also reduced by 89.8-100 and 93.2-100 % in soil treated with NSF and CSF, respectively. These reductions could be associated with the increased metal adsorption and the formation of insoluble metal precipitates due to increased soil pH following application of the amendments. However, the TCLP-extractable As was increased in the soil treated with NSF, possibly due to the competitive adsorption of phosphorous. In contrast, the TCLP-extractable As in the 10 % CSF treatment was not detectable because insoluble Ca-As compounds might be formed at high pH values. Thermodynamic modeling by visual MINTEQ predicted the formation of ettringite (Ca 6 Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 (OH) 12 ·26H 2 O) and portlandite (Ca(OH) 2 ) in the 10 % CSF-treated soil, while SEM-EDS analysis confirmed the needle-like structure of ettringite in which Pb was incorporated and stabilized in the 10 % CSF treatment.

  5. Facile low-temperature one-step synthesis of pomelo peel biochar under air atmosphere and its adsorption behaviors for Ag(I) and Pb(II).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tuo; Yao, Ying; Li, Danrong; Wu, Feng; Zhang, Cunzhong; Gao, Bin

    2018-05-29

    This study prepared a novel low-cost surface functionalized carbon adsorbent (PPC) from biomass waste (pomelo peel) through a facile low-temperature (250 °C) one-step method under regular air atmosphere. The adsorption performance and mechanism of the carbon material for Ag(I) and Pb(II) were investigated by a range of sorption experiments and characterizations including SEM, EDX, XRD and FTIR. Sorption experimental results suggested that PPC had high adsorption capacities of 137.4 and 88.7 mg/g for Ag(I) and Pb(II), respectively, with adsorbent dosage of 2 g/L at unadjusted solution pH and room temperature (23 ± 1 °C). The characterization results indicated high-efficiency removal of the heavy metals by PPC was attributed to the strong chemical adsorption involving that Ag(I) ions were reduced as metallic Ag particles by oxygenic functional groups and Pb(II) ions were precipitated as Pb 5 (PO 4 ) 3 OH crystals by phosphorous functional groups on the carbon surfaces. This study provides the possibility of synthesis high-efficient adsorbent using economic and environmental-friendly approach with low energy consumption. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of Zn(O,OH)S and AgInS2 layers to be used in thin film solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallejo, W.; Arredondo, C. A.; Gordillo, G.

    2010-11-01

    In this paper AgInS2 and Zn(O,OH)S thin films were synthesized and characterized. AgInS2 layers were grown by co-evaporation from metal precursors in a two-step process, and, Zn(O,OH)S thin films were deposited from chemical bath containing thiourea, zinc acetate, sodium citrate and ammonia. X-ray diffraction measurements indicated that AgInS2 thin films grown with chalcopyrite structure, and the as-grown Zn(O,OH)S thin films were polycrystalline. It was also found that the AgInS2 films presented p-type conductivity, a high absorption coefficient (greater than 104 cm-1) and energy band-gap Eg of about 1.95 eV, Zn(O,OH),S thin films presented Eg of about 3.89 eV. Morphological analysis showed that under this synthesis conditions Zn(O,OH),S thin films coated uniformly the absorber layer. Additionally, the Zn(O,OH)S kinetic growth on AgInS2 layer was studied also. Finally, the results suggest that these layers possibly could be used in one-junction solar cells and/or as top cell in a tandem solar cell.

  7. Two mineralization events in the Baiyinnuoer Zn-Pb deposit in Inner Mongolia, China: Evidence from field observations, S-Pb isotopic compositions and U-Pb zircon ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Si-Hong; Chen, Chun-Liang; Bagas, Leon; Liu, Yuan; Han, Ning; Kang, Huan; Wang, Ze-Hai

    2017-08-01

    The Xing-Mong Orogenic Belt (XMOB) is located in the eastern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) and has experienced multiple tectonic events. The Baiyinnuoer Pb-Zn deposit may be a rare case that documents two periods of mineralization in the tectonically complex XMOB. There are two types of Pb-Zn mineralization in the deposit: (1) skarn-type ore, hosted by the skarn in the contact zone between marble and granodiorite and within the marble and (2) vein-type ore, hosted by crystal tuff and feldspar porphyry. This study revealed that the host rocks, mineral assemblages, mineralization occurrences, S-Pb isotopes, and ages between the two types of ore are notably different. Zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the granodiorite was emplaced in the Early Triassic (244 ± 1 to 242 ± 1 Ma), the crystal tuff was deposited in the Early Cretaceous (140 ± 1 to 136 ± 1 Ma), and the feldspar porphyry was intruded in the Early Cretaceous (138 ± 2 to 136 ± 2 Ma). The first skarn mineralization occurred at ∼240 Ma and the second vein-type Pb-Zn mineralization took place between 136 and 129 Ma. Thus the Triassic orebodies were overprinted by Early Cretaceous mineralization. The sphalerite and galena from the skarn mineralization have higher δ34S values (-4.7 to +0.3‰) than the sphalerite, galena and aresenopyrite from the vein-type mineralization (-7.5 to -4.2‰), indicating different sulfur sources or ore-forming processes for the two types of mineralization. The Pb isotopic compositions of the two types of ore are very similar, suggesting similar lead sources. Geochemistry and Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic systematics of the igneous rocks in the region show that the Triassic granodiorite was generated from hybridization of mafic and felsic magmas due to strong crust-mantle interaction under the collisional setting that resulted following the closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean and the collision of North China and Siberian cratons at the end of the Permian; while the

  8. Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/ZnO: An efficient visible-light-sensitized composite with its application in photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B

    SciT

    Liu, Wei; School of Chemistry and Material Science, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei 235000; Wang, Mingliang, E-mail: wangmlchem@263.net

    2013-01-15

    Graphical abstract: The free OH radicals generated in the VB of ZnO play the primary role in the visible-light photocatalytic degradation of RhB in Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/ZnO system. The accumulated electrons in the CB of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} can be transferred to O{sub 2} adsorbed on the surface of the composite semiconductors and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} yields. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} reacts with electrons in succession to produce active ·OH to some extent. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Efficient visible-light-sensitized Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/ZnO composites were successfully prepared. ► Effect of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} content on the catalytic activity of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/ZnOmore » is studied in detail. ► Rate constant of RhB degradation over Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}(3.0 wt.%)/ZnO is 3 times that of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. ► The active species in RhB degradation are examined by adding a series of scavengers. ► Visible light degradation mechanism of RhB over Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/ZnO is systematically studied. -- Abstract: The efficient visible-light-sensitized Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/ZnO composites with various weight percents of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} were prepared by a facile ball milling method. The photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, DRS, SEM, EDS, XPS, and BET specific area. The ·OH radicals produced during the photocatalytic reaction was detected by the TA–PL technique. The photocatalytic property of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/ZnO was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light irradiation. Significantly, the results revealed that the photocatalytic activity of the composites was much higher than that of pure Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and ZnO. The rate constant of RhB degradation over Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}(3.0 wt.%)/ZnO is 3 times that of single-phase Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. The optimal percentage of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in the composite is 3.0 wt.%. It is proposed that the ·OH radicals produced in the valence band of ZnO play the leading role in the photocatalytic

  9. Line length dependence of threshold current density and driving force in eutectic SnPb and SnAgCu solder electromigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Min-Seung; Ko, Min-Ku; Kim, Bit-Na; Kim, Byung-Joon; Park, Yong-Bae; Joo, Young-Chang

    2008-04-01

    The relationship between the threshold current density and the critical line length in eutectic SnPb and SnAgCu electromigrations were examined using solder lines with the various lengths ranging from 100to1000μm. When the electron wind-force was balanced by the back-stress gradient force, the net flux of electromigration is zero, at which the current density and line length are defined as the threshold current density and the critical length, respectively. It was found that in SnAgCu electromigration, the 1/L dependence on the threshold current density showed good agreement, whereas the threshold current densities of the eutectic SnPb deviated from the 1/L dependence. The balance between the electron wind-force and the back-stress gradient force was the main factor determining the threshold product of SnAgCu electromigration. On the other hand, in the case of eutectic SnPb, the chemical driving force is contributed as a back-flux force in addition to the back-stress gradient force. The existence of the chemical driving force was caused by the nonequilibrium Pb concentration inside the Pb-rich phases between the cathode and anode during the electromigration procedure.

  10. Mechanical, structural and thermal properties of Ag-Cu and ZnO reinforced polylactide nanocomposite films.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Jasim; Arfat, Yasir Ali; Castro-Aguirre, Edgar; Auras, Rafael

    2016-05-01

    Plasticized polylactic acid (PLA) based nanocomposite films were prepared by incorporating polyethylene glycol (PEG) and two selected nanoparticles (NPs) [silver-copper (Ag-Cu) alloy (<100 nm) and zinc oxide (ZnO) (<50 and <100 nm)] through solvent casting method. Incorporation of Ag-Cu alloy into the PLA/PEG matrix increased the glass transition temperature (Tg) significantly. The crystallinity of the nanocomposites (NCs) was significantly influenced by NP incorporation as evidenced from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The PLA nanocomposite reinforced with NPs exhibited much higher tensile strength than that of PLA/PEG blend. Melt rheology of NCs exhibited a shear-thinning behavior. The mechanical property drastically reduced with a loading of NPs, which is associated with degradation of PLA. SEM micrographs exhibited that both Ag-Cu alloy and ZnO NPs were dispersed well in the PLA film matrix. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Color-Tunable ZnO/GaN Heterojunction LEDs Achieved by Coupling with Ag Nanowire Surface Plasmons.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; Wang, Yue; Xu, Haiyang; Liu, Weizhen; Zhang, Cen; Wang, Chunliang; Wang, Zhongqiang; Ma, Jiangang; Liu, Yichun

    2018-05-09

    Color-tunable light-emitting devices (LEDs) have a great impact on our daily life. Herein, LEDs with tunable electroluminescence (EL) color were achieved via introducing Ag nanowires surface plasmons into p-GaN/n-ZnO film heterostructures. By optimizing the surface coverage density of coated Ag nanowires, the EL color was changed continuously from yellow-green to blue-violet. Transient-state and temperature-variable fluorescence emission characterizations uncovered that the spontaneous emission rate and the internal quantum efficiency of the near-UV emission were increased as a consequence of the resonance coupling interaction between Ag nanowires surface plasmons and ZnO excitons. This effect induces the selective enhancement of the blue-violet EL component but suppresses the defect-related yellow-green emission, leading to the observed tunable EL color. The proposed strategy of introducing surface plasmons can be further applied to many other kinds of LEDs for their selective enhancement of EL intensity and effective adjustment of the emission color.

  12. Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in clams and sediments from an impacted estuary by the oil industry in the southwestern Gulf of Mexico: concentrations and bioaccumulation factors.

    PubMed

    Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Spanopoulos-Zarco, P; Páez-Osuna, F

    2009-12-01

    With the objective of estimating the temporal variation and bioavailability of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in Coatzacoalcos estuary, the biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF) were calculated. For this purpose, surficial sediments and clams from 14 selected sites were collected during three climatic seasons. In surficial sediments, highest levels of Cd and Cu were measured during the rainy season near to the industrial area of Minatitlan, while highest concentrations of Pb and Zn were registered during the windy season in sediments collected near to the industrial area of Coatzacoalcos. Considering all the sampling seasons and bivalve species, average metal concentrations followed the order Zn > Cu > Cd > Pb. BSAF ranged from 0.01 (Pb) in Corbicula fluminea during the hot season to 25.1 (Cd) in Polymesoda caroliniana during the windy season. BSAF of Cd, Cu and Zn were higher during the windy season; in the case of Pb, the dry season was the time when such figure was more elevated. It can be stated that Polymesoda caroliniana is a net accumulator of Cd and Zn and a weak accumulator of Pb for the studied estuary.

  13. Evidencing lead deposition at the urban scale using "short-lived" isotopic signatures of the source term (Pb-Zn refinery)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franssens, Matthias; Flament, Pascal; Deboudt, Karine; Weis, Dominique; Perdrix, Espéranza

    2004-09-01

    To demonstrate the ability of the lead isotope signature technique to evidence the spatial extent of an industrial Pb deposition plume at a local scale, dry deposition of lead in the urban environment of a Pb-Zn refinery was investigated, as a study case, using transient ("short-lived") isotopic signatures of the industrial source. Sampling campaigns were achieved in representative weather conditions, on an 8-h basis. Dry deposition rates measured downwind from refinery emissions (≈102-103 μg Pb m-2 h-1), cross-sectionally in a 3-5 km radius area around the plant, represent 10-100 times the urban background dry fallout, measured upwind, as well as fallout measured near other potential sources of anthropogenic Pb. The Pb-Zn refinery isotopic signature (approx. 1.100<206Pb/207Pb<1.135) is made identifiable, using the same set of Pb and Zn ores for 2 days before sampling and during field experiments, by agreement with the executive staff of the plant. This source signature is less radiogenic than signatures of urban background Pb aerosols (1.155<206Pb/207Pb<1.165) and minor sources of Pb aerosols (1.147<206Pb/207Pb<1.165). By a simple binary mixing model calculation, we established the extension of the industrial Pb deposition plume. Fifty to eighty percents of total lead settled by the dry deposition mode, 3-4 km away from the refinery, still have an industrial origin. That represents from 40 to 80 μg Pb m-2 h-1, in an area where the blood lead level exceeds 100 μg Pb l-1 for 30% of men and 12% of women living there. We demonstrate here that stable Pb isotope analysis is able to evidence the Pb dry deposition plume in stabilised aerodynamic conditions, using a short-lived source term, suggesting that this methodology is able to furnish valuable data to validate industrial Pb aerosols dispersion models, at the urban scale.

  14. Synthesis and properties of Ag/ZnO/g-C3N4 ternary micro/nano composites by microwave-assisted method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zijie; Li, Xuexue; Chen, Haitao; Shao, Gang; Zhang, Rui; Lu, Hongxia

    2018-01-01

    Ag/ZnO/g-C3N4 ternary micro/nanocomposites, as novel visible-light-driven photocatalysts, were prepared by a simple and convenient microwave-assisted method. The resulting ternary structure micro/nano composites were characterized by x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and infrared radiation techniques to examine its phase structure, valence state, morphological, thermal and optical properties. Well crystallized Ag/ZnO/g-C3N4 ternary micro/nano composites were synthesized under microwave-radiation for 15 min with the output of 240 W. Further experiments indicated Ag(5.0mol%)/ZnO/g-C3N4 photocatalyst in degradation of methylene blue exhibited an outstanding photocatalytic activity and its reaction rate constant (k, 0.0084 min-1) is 7.5, 2.4 2.9 and 3.5 times higher than that of monolithic ZnO (k, 0.0011 min-1), ZnO/g-C3N4(k, 0.0035 min-1), Ag(5 mol%)/ZnO(k, 0.0029 min-1) and Ag(5mol%)/g-C3N4 (k, 0.0024 min-1) respectively. Finally, a possible photocatalytic mechanism of Ag/ZnO/g-C3N4 photocatalyst in degradation process was proposed. This work provides a feasible strategy to synthesize an efficient ZnO-based photocatalyst which combines structure and properties of different dimensional components and made this ternary system an exciting candidate for sunlight-driven photocatalytic water treatment.

  15. Potential hyperaccumulation of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in endurant plants distributed in an old smeltery, northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Shuang; Zhou, Qixing; Chao, Lei

    2007-01-01

    The absorption and accumulation of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in some endurant weed plant species that survived in an old smeltery in Liaoning, China, were systematically investigated. Potential hyperaccumulative characteristics of these species were also discussed. The results showed that metal accumulation in plants differed with species, tissues and metals. Endurant weed plants growing in this contaminated site exhibited high metal adaptability. Both the metal exclusion and detoxification tolerance strategies were involved in the species studied. Seven species for Pb and four species for Cd were satisfied for the concentration time level standard for hyperaccumulator. Considering translocation factor (TF) values, one species for Pb, seven species for Zn, two species for Cu and five species for Cd possessed the characteristic of hyperaccumulator. Particularly, Abutilon theophrasti Medic, exhibited strong accumulative ability to four heavy metals. Although enrichment coefficients of all samples were lesser than 1 and the absolute concentrations didn’t reach the standard, species mentioned above were primarily believed to be potential hyperaccumulators.

  16. ZnO/CuO/M (M = Ag, Au) Hierarchical Nanostructure by Successive Photoreduction Process for Solar Hydrogen Generation.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jinhyeong; Cho, Hyunmin; Jung, Jinwook; Lee, Habeom; Hong, Sukjoon; Yeo, Junyeob; Han, Seungyong; Ko, Seung Hwan

    2018-05-12

    To date, solar energy generation devices have been widely studied to meet a clean and sustainable energy source. Among them, water splitting photoelectrochemical cell is regarded as a promising energy generation way for splitting water molecules and generating hydrogen by sunlight. While many nanostructured metal oxides are considered as a candidate, most of them have an improper bandgap structure lowering energy transition efficiency. Herein, we introduce a novel wet-based, successive photoreduction process that can improve charge transfer efficiency by surface plasmon effect for a solar-driven water splitting device. The proposed process enables to fabricate ZnO/CuO/Ag or ZnO/CuO/Au hierarchical nanostructure, having an enhanced electrical, optical, photoelectrochemical property. The fabricated hierarchical nanostructures are demonstrated as a photocathode in the photoelectrochemical cell and characterized by using various analytic tools.

  17. ZnO/CuO/M (M = Ag, Au) Hierarchical Nanostructure by Successive Photoreduction Process for Solar Hydrogen Generation

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jinhyeong; Cho, Hyunmin; Jung, Jinwook; Lee, Habeom; Han, Seungyong

    2018-01-01

    To date, solar energy generation devices have been widely studied to meet a clean and sustainable energy source. Among them, water splitting photoelectrochemical cell is regarded as a promising energy generation way for splitting water molecules and generating hydrogen by sunlight. While many nanostructured metal oxides are considered as a candidate, most of them have an improper bandgap structure lowering energy transition efficiency. Herein, we introduce a novel wet-based, successive photoreduction process that can improve charge transfer efficiency by surface plasmon effect for a solar-driven water splitting device. The proposed process enables to fabricate ZnO/CuO/Ag or ZnO/CuO/Au hierarchical nanostructure, having an enhanced electrical, optical, photoelectrochemical property. The fabricated hierarchical nanostructures are demonstrated as a photocathode in the photoelectrochemical cell and characterized by using various analytic tools. PMID:29757225

  18. Ferroelectric switching in epitaxial PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3/ZnO/GaN heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juan; Salev, Pavel; Grigoriev, Alexei

    As a wide-bandgap semiconductor, ZnO has gained substantial interest due to its favorable properties including high electron mobility, strong room-temperature luminescence, etc. The main obstacle of its application is the lack of reproducible and low-resistivity p-type ZnO. P-type doping of ZnO through the interface charge injection, which can be achieved by the polarization switching of ferroelectric films, is a tempting solution. We explored ferroelectric switching behavior of PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3/ZnO/GaN heterostructures epitaxially grown on Sapphire substrates by RF sputtering. The electrical measurements of Pt/PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3/ZnO/GaN ferroelectric-semiconductor capacitors revealed unusual behavior that is a combination of polarization switching and a diode I-V characteristics.

  19. Spectroscopic properties of Arx-Zn and Arx-Ag+ (x = 1,2) van der Waals complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyedepo, Gbenga A.; Peterson, Charles; Schoendorff, George; Wilson, Angela K.

    2013-03-01

    Potential energy curves have been constructed using coupled cluster with singles, doubles, and perturbative triple excitations (CCSD(T)) in combination with all-electron and pseudopotential-based multiply augmented correlation consistent basis sets [m-aug-cc-pV(n + d)Z; m = singly, doubly, triply, n = D,T,Q,5]. The effect of basis set superposition error on the spectroscopic properties of Ar-Zn, Ar2-Zn, Ar-Ag+, and Ar2-Ag+ van der Waals complexes was examined. The diffuse functions of the doubly and triply augmented basis sets have been constructed using the even-tempered expansion. The a posteriori counterpoise scheme of Boys and Bernardi and its generalized variant by Valiron and Mayer has been utilized to correct for basis set superposition error (BSSE) in the calculated spectroscopic properties for diatomic and triatomic species. It is found that even at the extrapolated complete basis set limit for the energetic properties, the pseudopotential-based calculations still suffer from significant BSSE effects unlike the all-electron basis sets. This indicates that the quality of the approximations used in the design of pseudopotentials could have major impact on a seemingly valence-exclusive effect like BSSE. We confirm the experimentally determined equilibrium internuclear distance (re), binding energy (De), harmonic vibrational frequency (ωe), and C1Π ← X1Σ transition energy for ArZn and also predict the spectroscopic properties for the low-lying excited states of linear Ar2-Zn (X1Σg, 3Πg, 1Πg), Ar-Ag+ (X1Σ, 3Σ, 3Π, 3Δ, 1Σ, 1Π, 1Δ), and Ar2-Ag+ (X1Σg, 3Σg, 3Πg, 3Δg, 1Σg, 1Πg, 1Δg) complexes, using the CCSD(T) and MR-CISD + Q methods, to aid in their experimental characterizations.

  20. Photoelectrochemical detection of alpha-fetoprotein based on ZnO inverse opals structure electrodes modified by Ag2S nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yandong; Liu, Dali; Yang, Yudan; Xu, Ru; Zhang, Tianxiang; Sheng, Kuang; Song, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a new photoelectrochemical biosensor based on Ag2S nanoparticles (NPs) modified macroporous ZnO inverse opals structure (IOs) was developed for sensitive and rapid detection of alpha fetal protein (AFP). Small size and uniformly dispersed Ag2S NPs were prepared using the Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption And Reaction (SILAR) method, which were adsorbed on ZnO IOs surface and frame work as matrix for immobilization of AFP. The composite structure of ZnO/Ag2S expanded the scope of light absorption to long wavelength, which can make full use of the light energy. Meanwhile, an effective matching of energy levels between the conduction bands of Ag2S and ZnO are beneficial to the photo-generated electrons transfer. The biosensors based on FTO (fluorine-doped tinoxide) ZnO/Ag2S electrode showed enough sensitivity and a wide linear range from 0.05 ng/mL to 200 ng/mL with a low detection limit of 8 pg/mL for the detection of AFP. It also exhibited high reproducibility, specificity and stability. The proposed method was potentially attractive for achieving excellent photoelectrochemical biosensor for detection of other proteins. PMID:27922086

  1. Zinc, copper, and lead in mid-ocean ridge basalts and the source rock control on Zn/Pb in ocean-ridge hydrothermal deposits

    Doe, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    The contents of Zn, Cu, and Pb in mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) and the MORB source-rock control on Zn/Pb in ocean-ridge hydrothermal deposits are examined. The values of Zn, Cu, and Pb for submarine mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) are, respectively (in ppm): average MORB-75, 75, and 0.7; West Valley, Juan de Fuca Ridge (JFR)-87, 64, and 0.5; southern JFR-120 and 0.5; and 21??N, East Pacific Rise (EPR)-73, 78, and 0.5. Values of Zn/Pb range from about 100-240 and Cu/ Pb from 100-156. In this study, Zn is found to correlate positively with TiO2 + FeO (mean square of weighted deviates, MSWD, of 1.6 for JFR basalt), and inversely with Mg number (MSWD of 3.5). Therefore, contrary to statements in the literature that Zn should be compatible in MORB, Zn is a mildly incompatible element and must be enriched in the glass phase relative to olivine as Zn does not fit into the other major phenocryst phase, plagioclase. In the source of MORB, Zn likely is most enriched in oxides: spinel, magnetite, and titanomagnetite. Copper generally does not correlate well with other elements in most MORB data examined. When differentiation is dominated by olivine, Cu has a tendency to behave incompatibly (e.g., at Mg numbers > 70), but, overall, Cu shows some tendency towards being a compatible element, particularly along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a behavior presumably due to separation of sulfides in which Cu (but not Zn) is markedly enriched. Copper thus may be in dispersed sulfides in the source of MORB. Ocean ridges provide important data on source-rock controls for sulfide deposits because, in sediment-starved ridges, much is known about the possible source rocks and mineralization is presently occurring. In contrast to Zn/Pb ~5 in continental hot Cl-rich brines, Zn/Pb in the hottest sediment-starved ridge black smoker hydrothermal fluids at 21 ??N, EPR is about 110, similar to local MORB (145), but Cu/Pb is closer to 30, possibly due to subsurface deposition of Cu. At the JFR, the best

  2. Selective divalent cobalt ions detection using Ag2O3-ZnO nanocones by ICP-OES method for environmental remediation.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammed M; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Marwani, Hadi M; Asiri, Abdullah M

    2014-01-01

    Here, we have synthesized Ag2O3-ZnO nanocones (NCs) by a wet-chemical route using reducing agents at low temperature. The structural, optical and morphological properties of Ag2O3-ZnO NCs were investigated by several conventional techniques such as powder XRD, XPS, FESEM, XEDS, FTIR and UV/vis. spectroscopy. The analytical parameters of prepared NCs were also calculated for a selective detection of divalent cobalt [Co(II)] prior to its determination by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The selectivity of NCs toward various metal ions, including Cd(II), Co(II), Cr(III), Cu(II), Fe(III), Ni(II), and Zn(II) was studied. Results of the selectivity study demonstrated that Ag2O3-ZnO NC phase was the most selective towards Co(II) ion. The uptake capacity for Co(II) ion was experimentally calculated to be ∼76.69 mgg-1. Moreover, adsorption isotherm data provided that the adsorption process was mainly monolayer on homogeneous adsorbent surfaces of Ag2O3-ZnO NCs. Kinetic study revealed that the adsorption of Co(II) on Ag2O3-ZnO NCs phase followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. In addition, thermodynamic results provided that the adsorption mechanism of Co(II) ions on Ag2O3-ZnO NCs was a spontaneous process and thermodynamically favorable. Finally, the proposed method was validated by applying it to real environmental water samples with reasonable results.

  3. Selective Divalent Cobalt Ions Detection Using Ag2O3-ZnO Nanocones by ICP-OES Method for Environmental Remediation

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mohammed M.; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Marwani, Hadi M.; Asiri, Abdullah M.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we have synthesized Ag2O3-ZnO nanocones (NCs) by a wet-chemical route using reducing agents at low temperature. The structural, optical and morphological properties of Ag2O3-ZnO NCs were investigated by several conventional techniques such as powder XRD, XPS, FESEM, XEDS, FTIR and UV/vis. spectroscopy. The analytical parameters of prepared NCs were also calculated for a selective detection of divalent cobalt [Co(II)] prior to its determination by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The selectivity of NCs toward various metal ions, including Cd(II), Co(II), Cr(III), Cu(II), Fe(III), Ni(II), and Zn(II) was studied. Results of the selectivity study demonstrated that Ag2O3-ZnO NC phase was the most selective towards Co(II) ion. The uptake capacity for Co(II) ion was experimentally calculated to be ∼76.69 mgg−1. Moreover, adsorption isotherm data provided that the adsorption process was mainly monolayer on homogeneous adsorbent surfaces of Ag2O3-ZnO NCs. Kinetic study revealed that the adsorption of Co(II) on Ag2O3-ZnO NCs phase followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. In addition, thermodynamic results provided that the adsorption mechanism of Co(II) ions on Ag2O3-ZnO NCs was a spontaneous process and thermodynamically favorable. Finally, the proposed method was validated by applying it to real environmental water samples with reasonable results. PMID:25464507

  4. Construction of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/ZnO nanorods/Ag nanoparticles hybrid coating on Ti implants for enhanced antibacterial activity and biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yiming; Li, Jun; Liu, Xiangmei; Cui, Zhenduo; Yang, Xianjin; Yeung, K W K; Pan, Haobo; Wu, Shuilin

    2017-10-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/Ag/ZnO nanorods coating were successfully prepared on the surface of Ti metallic implants using a hydrothermal method and subsequent spin-coating of mixtures of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and silver nanoparticles. The poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/Ag/ZnO nanorods coating exhibited excellent antibacterial efficacy of over 96% against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli when the initial content of Ag nanoparticles was over 3wt%. In addition, the release of both silver and zinc could last for over a hundred days due to the enwrapping of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid). Proliferation of mouse calvarial cells exhibited minimal cytotoxicity on the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/Ag/ZnO coating with an initial content of Ag nanoparticles of 1wt% and 3wt%, while it inhibited cell proliferation once this value was increased to 6wt%. The results revealed that this poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/Ag/ZnO composite could provide a long-lasting antibacterial approach and good cytocompatibility, thus exhibiting considerable potential for biomedical application in orthopedic and dental implants with excellent self-antibacterial activity and good biocompatibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Conversion of the trace elements Zn, Cd, and Pb in the combustion of near-Moscow coals

    SciT

    E.V. Samuilov; L.N. Lebedeva; L.S. Pokrovskaya

    A model for the conversion of trace elements in the combustion of near-Moscow coals based on a complex approach combining the capabilities of geochemistry, chemical thermodynamics, phase analysis, and chemical kinetics is proposed. The conversion of the trace elements Zn, Cd, and Pb as the constituents of near-Moscow coal in the flow of coal combustion products along the line of the P-59 boiler at the Ryazanskaya Thermal Power Plant was calculated. Experimental data were used in the development of the model and in calculations.

  6. Activated carbon and biochar from agricultural by-products in the adorption of Cd, Pb and Zn under laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coscione, Aline; Zini, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    The immobilization of inorganic contaminants by using biochar in soils has played an increasingly important role and it is seen as an attractive alternative for the remediation of heavy metals. Although, the production of activated carbon (CA) from agricultural by-products has received special attention, the activation of the the organic source has been studied in order to increase its porposity, surface area and chemical polarity, resulting in higher adsorption of metals. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of BC and CA samples, obtained from a eucalyptus husks and cane sugar bagasse after activation with 20% phosphoric acid and pyrolyzed at 450oC in the retention of Zn, Cd and Pb using contaminated individual solutions. The experiment was performed using samples of activated carbon of eucalyptus husk (CCA), eucalyptus husk biochar (BC), activated carbon of sugar cane bagasse (CBA) and sugar cane bagasse biochar (BB), treated with Zn, Cd (range of tested solution from 0.1 up to 12 mmol L-1) and Pb (from 0.1 up 50 mmol L-1) and the adjustemento of Langmuir adsorption isotherms. Samples obtained from bagasse presented higher adsoprtion of the metals tested then eucalyptus. Also the activation process had not the expected effect on either eucalyptus and bagasse samples The maxmum adsorption capacyty of samples were as follws, in mmol g-1: for Cd - 0.36 for BC; 0.32 for CCA; 0.40 for BB; 0.31 for CBA. For Zn- 0.14 for BC; no adsorbed by CCA; 0.35 5 for BB; 0.06 for CBA. For Pb - 1.24 for BC; 0.40 for CCA; 0,45 for BB; 0,03 for CBA. However, it was also observed that due to the activation with phosphoric acid, the pH of the activated carbon (CCA and CBA) were 2.4 and 2.5 in comparison with the biochars not activated (BC and BB) 9.7 and 7.0 respectively. Thus, it is yet not possible to state if the calculate capacity is due exclusively to the complexation of chemical groups in the surface of samples or to which extent there is a contribution of

  7. Monitoring air pollution at Mohammedia (Morocco): Pb, Cd and Zn in the blood of pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Kouddane, N; Mouhir, L; Fekhaoui, M; Elabidi, A; Benaakame, R

    2016-05-01

    The concentrations of Pb, Cd and Zn were investigated in the blood of pigeons (Columba livia) in order to assess the degree of pollution by heavy metal. For this, wild city pigeons were caught at four different locations in Mohammedia classified according to their industrial activity and road traffic density. Significant difference in heavy metal concentrations were observed between sites studied, the highest lead and cadmium levels were found in industrial area and center town, while the highest zinc level was found in the less contaminated area. These results indicate that the industrial activities and the road traffic are the most important source of pollution.

  8. Pb-Zn-Cd-Hg multi isotopic characterization of the Loire River Basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millot, R.; Widory, D.; Innocent, C.; Guerrot, C.; Bourrain, X.; Johnson, T. M.

    2012-12-01

    The contribution of human activities such as industries, agriculture and domestic inputs, becomes more and more significant in the chemical composition (major ions and pollutants such as metals) of the dissolved load of rivers. Furthermore, this influence can also be evidenced in the suspended solid matter known to play an important role in the transport of heavy metals through river systems. Human factors act as a supplementary key process. Therefore the mass-balance for the budget of catchments and river basins include anthropogenic disturbances. The Loire River in central France is approximately 1010 km long and drains an area of 117,800 km2. Initially, the Loire upstream flows in a south to north direction originating in the Massif Central, and continues up to the city of Orléans, 650 km from the source. In the upper basin, the bedrock is old plutonic rock overlain by much younger volcanic rocks. The Loire River then follows a general east to west direction to the Atlantic Ocean. The intermediate basin includes three major tributaries flowing into the Loire River from the left bank: the Cher, the Indre and the Vienne rivers; the main stream flows westward and its valley stretches toward the Atlantic Ocean. Here, the Loire River drains the sedimentary series of the Paris Basin, mainly carbonate deposits. The lower Loire basin drains pre-Mesozoic basement of the Armorican Massif and its overlying Mesozoic to Cenozoic sedimentary deposits. The Loire River is one of the main European riverine inputs to the Atlantic ocean. Here we are reporting concentration and isotope data for heavy metals Zn-Cd-Pb-Hg in river waters and suspended sediments from the Loire River Basin. In addition, we also report concentration and isotope data for these metals for the different industrial sources within the Loire Basin, as well as data for biota samples such as mussels and oysters from the Bay of Biscay and North Brittany. These organisms are known to be natural accumulators of

  9. On diagenesis, dolomitisation and mineralisation in the Irish Zn-Pb orefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Jamie J.

    2003-12-01

    Marine calcite cementation and lithification of Carboniferous carbonate sediments hosting Zn-Pb mineralisation in the Irish orefield occurred at or near the seafloor. A relatively early, fine-grained, grey replacive dolomite, preferentially developed in micrite, is widely developed in the Waulsortian Limestone Formation, the main host to mineralisation, and is pervasive in the southeastern Midlands in proximity to the Leinster Massif. This dolomite formed after the first four main stages of calcite cementation but probably also developed within tens of metres of the seafloor as evidenced by incorporation of clasts of dolomite in intraformational sedimentary breccias. Later, coarse-grained white dolomite preferentially replaced coarser components of the Waulsortian Limestone and infilled residual vuggy porosity. Whilst some of this coarse dolomite may be related to the fine replacive dolomite event, a common spatial association with fault zones, coupled with primary fluid inclusion data, suggest that a significant proportion of this phase precipitated during the onset of fault-controlled subsidence and widespread hydrothermal circulation within the Irish Midlands area. Fluids up to ~250 °C and 10-15 wt% NaCl equivalent, sourced from a Lower Palaeozoic basement-equilibrated fluid reservoir, infiltrated the carbonate sequence via faults and fractures. The more localised development of dolomite-cemented breccias (white matrix breccias) that are frequently associated spatially with mineralisation was a consequence of the increased focusing of these hydrothermal fluids. Ore formation was broadly synchronous with development of the white dolomite breccias but only happened where mixing occurred between the hydrothermal ore-fluids and localised, near-surface reservoirs of low-temperature, H2S-rich brine. In the Waulsortian, this process led to the precipitation of a distinctive black dolomite that forms a broad halo to massive sulphides. Although ore-stage sulphides

  10. Can the shell of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia be a potential biomonitoring material for Cd, Pb and Zn?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yap, C. K.; Ismail, A.; Tan, S. G.; Abdul Rahim, I.

    2003-07-01

    The distributions of Cd, Pb and Zn in the total soft tissues and total shells of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis were studied in field collected samples as well as from laboratory experimental samples. The results showed that Cd, Pb and Zn were readily accumulated in the whole shells. In mussels sampled from 12 locations along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, the ratios of the shell metals to the soft tissue metals were different at each sampling site. Nevertheless, the Cd and Pb levels in the shells were always higher than those in the soft tissues, while the Zn level was higher in the soft tissues than in the shells. In comparison with soft tissues, the degrees of variability for Pb and Cd concentrations in the shells were lower. The lower degrees of variability and significant ( P<0.05) correlation coefficients of Cd and Pb within the shells support the use of the mussel shell as a suitable biomonitoring material for the two metals rather than the soft tissue since this indicated that there is more precision (lower CV) in the determination of metal concentrations in the shell than in the soft tissue. Experimental work showed that the pattern of depuration in the shell was not similar to that of the soft tissue although their patterns of accumulation were similar. This indicated that the depuration of heavy metals in the shell was not affected by the physiological conditions of the mussels. Although Zn could be regulated by the soft tissue, the incorporated Cd, Pb and Zn remained in the shell matrices. The present results support the use of the total shell of P. viridis as a potential biomonitoring material for long-term contamination of Cd, Pb and Zn.

  11. The effectiveness of municipal sewage sludge application on the stabilization of Pb, Zn, and Cd in a soil contaminated from mining activities.

    PubMed

    Xenidis, A; Stouraiti, C; Moirou, A

    2001-01-01

    The effectiveness of municipal sewage sludge for the stabilisation of Pb, Zn and Cd in a heavily contaminated soil was evaluated by performing pot experiments on soil-sludge mixtures. The soil sample originated from the Montevecchio mining district, Sardinia, Italy, and presented high Pb, Zn and Cd content, as well as US EPA TCLP solubility values for Pb and Cd, which exceeded the respective regulatory limits. Sewage sludge application increased the soil pH. Stabilisation experiments showed that 10% w/w sewage sludge addition effectively reduced Pb and Cd solubilities below the TCLP regulatory limits. At the same addition rate, the EDTA extractable fraction of Pb, Zn, Cd in the treated soil was reduced by 12, 47 and 50% respectively compared with the untreated sample. The five-stage sequential extraction procedure applied on the untreated and treated soil samples, showed a remarkable shift of the metals towards more stable forms. The reducible fractions of Zn and Cd and the residual fraction of Pb were increased by 12, 20 and 18% respectively, while a corresponding decrease in the mobile fractions (exchangeable and carbonate) occurred which accounted for 14, 23 and 25% respectively.

  12. Internally consistent database for sulfides and sulfosalts in the system Ag 2S-Cu 2S-ZnS-Sb 2S 3-As 2S 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sack, Richard O.

    2000-11-01

    An updated thermodynamic database for Ag 2S-Cu 2S-ZnS-Sb 2S 3-As 2S 3 sulfides and sulfosalts applicable to temperatures above 119°C is developed to calculate phase relations for polybasite-pearceite- and fahlore-bearing assemblages. It is based on pre-existing and new constraints on activity-composition, Ag-Cu and As-Sb partitioning, and other relations, and on experiments (200-300°C, evacuated silica tubes) conducted to define the stability of the polybasite-pearceite [(Ag 1- x,Cu x) 16(Sb 1- y,As y) 2S 11] + ZnS sphalerite assemblage with respect to assemblages containing (Ag,Cu) 2S sulfides coexisting with (Cu, Ag) 10Zn 2(Sb,As) 4S 13 fahlore sulfosalts. It was found that the thermodynamics of mixing of bcc- and hcp-(Ag,Cu) 2S solutions, which are fast-ion conductors, may be described by using site multiplicities of metals α Ag,Cu > 2 and temperature-dependent regular solution parameters. We obtained estimates for the Gibbs energies of formation for Ag 16Sb 2S 11 and Cu 16Sb 2S 11 polybasite endmembers from the simple sulfides (Ag 2S, Cu 2S, and Sb 2S 3) of -30.79 and -4.07 kJ/gfw at 200°C, and -32.04 and -0.59 kJ/gfw at 400°C, respectively, that are about one half kJ/gfw more positive and about 6 kJ/gfw more negative than those estimated by Harlov and Sack (1995b). The corresponding estimates for formation energies of Ag 10Zn 2Sb 4S 13 and Cu 10Zn 2Sb 4S 13 fahlores (-20.29 and -105.29 kJ/gfw at 200°C and -23.72 and -105.76 kJ/gfw at 400°C) are comparable to, and roughly 110 kJ/gfw more positive than, the corresponding estimates of Ebel and Sack (1994). We also determined that the Gibbs energies of the As-Sb exchange reactions: 1/4Ag 10Zn2Sb4S13+1/2Ag 16As2S11=1/2Ag 16Sb2S11+1/4Ag 10Zn2As4S13Sb-fahlorepearceitepolybasiteAs-fahlore and Ag3SbS3+1/2Ag 16As2S11=1/2Ag 16Sb2S11+Ag3AsS3pyrargyritepearceitepolybasiteproustite are, respectively, 8.75 and 0.40 kJ/gfw in the range 150-350°C, and these predictions are consistent with As-Sb partitioning relations

  13. Mobility of Pb, Cu, and Zn in the phosphorus-amended contaminated soils under simulated landfill and rainfall conditions.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xinde; Liang, Yuan; Zhao, Ling; Le, Huangying

    2013-09-01

    Phosphorus-bearing materials have been widely applied in immobilization of heavy metals in contaminated soils. However, the study on the stability of the initially P-induced immobilized metals in the contaminated soils is far limited. This work was conducted to evaluate the mobility of Pb, Cu, and Zn in two contrasting contaminated soils amended with phosphate rock tailing (PR) and triple superphosphate fertilizer (TSP), and their combination (P + T) under simulated landfill and rainfall conditions. The main objective was to determine the stability of heavy metals in the P-treated contaminated soils in response to the changing environment conditions. The soils were amended with the P-bearing materials at a 2:1 molar ratio of P to metals. After equilibrated for 2 weeks, the soils were evaluated with the leaching procedures. The batch-based toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was conducted to determine the leachability of heavy metals from both untreated and P-treated soils under simulated landfill condition. The column-based synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) were undertaken to measure the downward migration of metals from untreated and P-treated soils under simulated rainfall condition. Leachability of Pb, Cu, and Zn in the TCLP extract followed the order of Zn > Cu > Pb in both soils, with the organic-C- and clay-poor soil showing higher metal leachability than the organic-C- and clay-rich soil. All three P treatments reduced leachability of Pb, Cu, and Zn by up to 89.2, 24.4, and 34.3 %, respectively, compared to the untreated soil, and TSP revealed more effectiveness followed by P + T and then PR. The column experiments showed that Zn had the highest downward migration upon 10 pore volumes of SPLP leaching, followed by Pb and then Cu in both soils. However, migration of Pb and Zn to subsoil and leachate were inhibited in the P-treated soil, while Cu in the leachate was enhanced by P treatment in the organic

  14. Martensitelike spontaneous relaxor-normal ferroelectric transformation in Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbLa(ZrTi)O3 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Guochu; Ding, Aili; Li, Guorong; Zheng, Xinsen; Cheng, Wenxiu; Qiu, Pingsun; Yin, Qingrui

    2005-11-01

    The spontaneous relaxor-normal ferroelectric transformation was found in the tetragonal composition of Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbLa(ZrTi)O3 (0.3PZN-0.7PLZT) complex ABO3 system. The corresponding dielectric permittivities and losses of different compositions located near the morphotrophic phase boundary were analyzed. By reviewing all of the results about this type of transformation in previous references, the electric, compositional, structural, and thermodynamic characteristics of the spontaneous relaxor-normal transformation were proposed. Additionally, the adaptive phase model for martensite transformation proposed by Khachaturyan et al. [Phys. Rev. B 43, 10832 (1991)] was introduced into this ferroelectric transformation to explain the unique transformation pathway and associated features such as the tweedlike domain patterns and the dielectric dispersion under the critical transition temperature. Due to the critical compositions near the MPB, the ferroelectric materials just fulfill the condition, in which the adaptive phases can form in the transformation procedure. The formation of the adaptive phases, which are composed of stress-accommodating twinned domains, makes the system bypass the energy barrier encountered in conventional martensite transformations. The twinned adaptive phase corresponds to the tweedlike domain pattern under a transmission electronic microscope. At lower temperature, these precursor phases transform into the conventional ferroelectric state with macrodomains by the movement of domain walls, which causes a weak dispersion in dielectric permittivity.

  15. Heavy metals and health risk assessment of arable soils and food crops around Pb-Zn mining localities in Enyigba, southeastern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obiora, Smart C.; Chukwu, Anthony; Davies, Theophilus C.

    2016-04-01

    This study determined the heavy metals concentration in arable soils and associated food crops around the Pb-Zn mines in Enyigba, Nigeria, and metal transfer factors were calculated. Air-dried samples of the soils and food crops were analyzed for 8 known nutritional and toxic heavy metals by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) method. Eighty seven percent of all the 20 sampled soils contain Pb in excess of the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) set by Canadian Environmental Quality Guideline (CCME) and European Union (EU) Standard, while Zn in thirty-one percent of the samples exceeded the CCME for MAC of 200 mg/kg. All the food crops, with the exception of yam tuber, contain Pb which exceeded the 0.43 mg/kg and 0.3 mg/kg MAC standards of EU and WHO/FAO respectively, with the leafy vegetables accumulating more Pb than the tubers. The metal transfer factors in the tubers and the leafy vegetables were in the order: Mo > Cu > Zn > Mn > As > Cd > Cr > Ni > Pb and Cd > Cu > Zn > Mn > Mo > As > Ni > Pb > Cr, respectively. Risk assessment studies revealed no health risk in surrounding populations for most of the heavy metals. However, Pb had a high health risk index (HRI) of 1.1 and 1.3, in adults and children, respectively for cassava tuber; Pb had HRI > 1 in lemon grass while Mn also had HRI > 1 in all the leafy vegetables for both adult and children. This high level of HRI for Pb and Mn is an indication that consumers of the food crops contaminated by these metals are at risk of health problems such as Alzheimers' disease and Manganism, associated with excessive intake of these metals. Further systematic monitoring of heavy metal fluxes in cultivable soils around the area of these mines is recommended.

  16. Development and operation of a 6LiF:ZnS(Ag)-scintillating plastic capture-gated detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, K.; Nattress, J.; Jovanovic, I.

    2017-01-01

    We report on the design, construction, and operation of a capture-gated neutron detector based on a heterogeneous scintillating structure comprising two scintillator types. A flat, 500 μm thick sheet composed of a mixture of lithium-6-fluoride capture agent, 6LiF, and zinc sulfide phosphor, ZnS(Ag), is wrapped around scintillating polyvinyl toluene (PVT) in a form of cylinder. The 6LiF: ZnS(Ag) sheet uses an aluminum foil backing as a support for the scintillating material and as an optical reflector, and its optical properties have been characterized independently. The composite scintillator was tested using 252Cf, DD fusion, 137Cs, and 60Co sources. The intrinsic detection efficiency for neutrons from an unmoderated 252Cf source and rejection of gammas from 137Cs were measured to be 3.6 % and 10-6, respectively. A figure of merit for pulse shape discrimination of 4.6 was achieved, and capture-gated spectroscopic analysis is demonstrated.

  17. Novel transparent high-performance AgNWs/ZnO electrodes prepared on unconventional substrates with 3D structured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Wei; Yang, Zhiwei; Zhang, Yue; Wei, Yupeng; Wang, Pengxiang; Abas, Asim; Tang, Guomei; Zhang, Xuetao; Wang, Junya; Xie, Erqing

    2018-03-01

    With the development of optoelectronic devices with three-dimensional (3D) structured surfaces, transparent electrodes that can be deposited on non-plane substrates have become increasingly important. In this paper, novel transparent silver nanowire (AgNWs)/ZnO film electrodes were uniformly prepared on treated 3D glass and PET substrates with a combination of spin-coating and heat-welding. The AgNWs/ZnO films show a transmittance of ∼88% and a sheet resistance of ∼10 Ω/sq. They are comparable with commercial ITO films. Furthermore, only a small in-plane resistance variation of ∼1 Ω/sq was measured using four-point probe mapping in films with a 10 cm × 10 cm area. These results confirm that these novel film electrodes are very uniform. Both electrical resistance and optical transmittance of the films remain mostly intact after 1000 bending cycles and tape peeling-tests with 10 cycles. The films show high thermal stability for more than one month at 80 °C. The strategy provides a new route for the design and fabrication of optoelectronic devices with 3D structured surfaces.

  18. Advances in superconductivity and Co3O4 nanoparticles as flux pinning center in (Bi, Pb)-2223/Ag superconductor tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd-Shukor, R.; Jannah, A. N.

    2017-09-01

    Many new superconducting materials have been discovered in recent years. This includes hydrogen sulfide which superconducts at 203 K under high pressure and Fe-As based materials. To this date the copper oxide-based materials remain as the highest transition temperature superconductor under normal pressure. In this paper we discuss the use of nano-sized particle as pinning center in the Ag-sheathed high temperature superconductor tapes to enhance the transport properties. When the size d of the pinning center is between the coherence length ξ and the penetration depth λ (ξ < d < λ), a stronger interaction between the pinning center and flux lines leading to higher transport critical current density, Jc can be expected. The effect of nanoparticle with size between the coherence length and the penetration depth i.e. ξ < d < λ, Co3O4 on superconductor tapes is discussed in this paper. Three types of Bi(Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O starting materials namely from co-precipitation method without Co3O4 and with 30 nm and 50 nm Co3O4 addition have been prepared. The composition of the 30 nm and 50 nm Co3O4 added samples is (Bi1.6Pb0.4)Sr2Ca2Cu3O10-(Co3O4)0.02 and (Bi1.6Pb0.4)Sr2Ca2Cu3O10-(Co3O4)0.01, respectively. The tapes (˜2-3 cm long) were heated at 845°C for 100 and 150 h. All nanoparticles added tapes showed higher Jc compared to the non-added tapes. By comparing the current results with our previously reported results, the tapes with 30 nm Co3O4 sintered for 50 h showed the highest Jc at all temperatures. This work also showed that smaller magnetic nanoparticles enhanced Jc better than larger particles, A longer sintering time (> 50 h) degraded Jc.

  19. A simple route to alloyed quaternary nanocrystals Ag-In-Zn-S with shape and size control.

    PubMed

    Gabka, Grzegorz; Bujak, Piotr; Giedyk, Kamila; Ostrowski, Andrzej; Malinowska, Karolina; Herbich, Jerzy; Golec, Barbara; Wielgus, Ireneusz; Pron, Adam

    2014-05-19

    A convenient method of the preparation of alloyed quaternary Ag-In-Zn-S nanocrystals is elaborated, in which a multicomponent mixture of simple and commercially available precursors, namely, silver nitrate, indium(III) chloride, zinc stearate, 1-dodecanethiol, and sulfur, is used with 1-octadecene as a solvent. The formation of quaternary nanocrystals necessitates the use of an auxiliary sulfur precursor, namely, elemental sulfur dissolved in oleylamine, in addition to 1-dodecanethiol. Without this additional precursor binary ZnS nanocrystals are formed. The optimum reaction temperature of 180 °C was also established. In these conditions shape, size, and composition of the resulting nanocrystals can be adjusted in a controlled manner by changing the molar ratio of the precursors in the reaction mixture. For low zinc stearate contents anisotropic rodlike (ca.3 nm x 10 nm) and In-rich nanocrystals are obtained. This is caused by a significantly higher reactivity of the indium precursor as compared to the zinc one. With increasing zinc precursor content the reactivities of both precursors become more balanced, and the resulting nanocrystals are smaller (1.5-4.0 nm) and become Zn-rich as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive spectrometry investigations. Simultaneous increases in the zinc and sulfur precursor content result in an enlargement of nanocrystals (2.5 to 5.0 nm) and further increase in the molar ZnS content (up to 0.76). The prepared nanoparticles show stable photoluminescence with the quantum yield up to 37% for In and Zn-rich nanocrystals. Their hydrodynamic diameter in toluene dispersion, determined by dynamic light scattering, is roughly twice larger than the diameter of their inorganic core.

  20. Investigating the Role of Wind in the Dispersion of Heavy Metals Around Mines in Arid Regions (a Case Study from Kushk Pb-Zn Mine, Bafgh, Iran).

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Ahmad Reza; Feiznia, Sadat; Jafari, Mohammad; Tavili, Ali; Ghaneei-Bafghi, Mohammad-Javad; Rahmany, Farah; Kerry, Ruth

    2018-03-16

    The Kushk Pb-Zn mine is located in Central Iran and it has been in operation for the last 75 years. To investigate the role of wind dispersion of heavy metal pollutants from the mine area, dust samples were collected during 1 year and topsoil samples were collected around the mine. Results showed that the topsoil is polluted with Pb and Zn to about 1500 m away from the mine. It was also found that there was not a significant difference between the metal concentrations in topsoil and dust samples. The Pb and Zn concentrations in the dust samples exceeded 200 mg kg -1 and their lateral dispersion via wind was estimated to be about 4 km away from the mine. It has been shown that a combination of mining activities and mechanical dispersion via water and wind have caused lateral movement of heavy metals in this area.

  1. Bioaccumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn in the edible and inedible tissues of three sturgeon species in the Iranian coastline of the Caspian Sea.

    PubMed

    Mashroofeh, Abdulreza; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Pourkazemi, Mohammad; Rasouli, Sana

    2013-01-01

    The accumulations of Cd, Pb and Zn were determined in edible and inedible tissues of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus; n=27), stellate sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus; n=5) and beluga (Huso huso; n=4) collected from coastal waters of the South Caspian Sea from March to April 2011. Concentrations of metals evaluated in the caviar, muscle, liver, kidney, gills, ovary and heart of the three species of sturgeons have been assessed using the flame and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd in the edible and inedible tissues were apparently different among the three species of sturgeons. Especially, beluga heart showed the highest concentrations of Zn and Pb and Cd in Persian sturgeon liver. The analyzed metals were found in the caviar and muscle samples of Persian sturgeon and likewise muscle samples two other sturgeon species at mean concentrations under the permissible limits proposed by MAFF (2000). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of nitrate and ammonium fertilization on Zn, Pb, and Cd phytostabilization by Populus euramericana Dorskamp in contaminated technosol.

    PubMed

    Qasim, Bashar; Motelica-Heino, Mikael; Bourgerie, Sylvain; Gauthier, Arnaud; Morabito, Domenico

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed at assessing the effect of nitrogen addition under two forms, nitrate and ammonium, on the stabilization of Zn, Pb, and Cd by Populus euramericana Dorskamp grown in contaminated soils for 35 days under controlled conditions. Temporal changes in the soil pore water (SPW) were monitored for pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and total dissolved concentrations of metals in the soils rhizosphere. Rhizospheric SPW pH decreased gradually with NH4(+) addition and increased with NO3(-) addition up to one unit, while it slightly decreased initially then increased for the untreated control soil DOC increased with time up to six times, the highest increase occurring with NH4(+) fertilization. An increase in the metal concentrations in the rhizospheric SPW was observed for NH4(+) addition associated with the lowest rhizospheric SPW pH, whereas the opposite was observed for the control soil and NO3(-) fertilization. Fertilization did not affect plant shoots or roots biomass development compared to the untreated control (without N addition). Metals were mostly accumulated in the rhizosphere and N fertilization increased the accumulation for Zn and Pb while Cd accumulation was enhanced for NH4(+) addition. Collectively, our results suggest metal stabilization by P. euramericana Dorskamp rhizosphere with nitrogen fertilization and are potential for phytostabilization of contaminated technosol.

  3. The spatial and temporal trends of Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn in Seine River floodplain deposits (1994-2000)

    Grosbois, C.; Meybeck, Michel; Horowitz, A.; Ficht, A.

    2006-01-01

    Fresh floodplain deposits (FD), from 11 key stations, covering the Seine mainstem and its major tributaries (Yonne, Marne and Oise Rivers), were sampled from 1994 to 2000. Background levels for Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn were established using prehistoric FD and actual bed sediments collected in small forested sub-basins in the most upstream part of the basin. Throughout the Seine River Basin, FD contain elevated concentrations of Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn compared to local background values (by factors > twofold). In the Seine River Basin, trace element concentrations display substantial downstream increases as a result of increasing population densities, particularly from Greater Paris (10 million inhabitants), and reach their maxima at the river mouth (Poses). These elevated levels make the Seine one of the most heavily impacted rivers in the world. On the other hand, floodplain-associated trace element levels have declined over the past 7 years. This mirrors results from contemporaneous suspended sediment surveys at the river mouth for the 1984-1999 period. Most of these temporal declines appear to reflect reductions in industrial and domestic solid wastes discharged from the main Parisian sewage plant (Seine Aval). ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Paleomagnetic and mineral magnetic constraints on Zn-Pb ore genesis in the Pend Oreille Mine, Metaline district, Washington, USA

    Pannalal, S.J.; Symons, David T. A.; Leach, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    Zinc-lead mineralization in the Metaline mining district of northeastern Washington, USA, is hosted by the Cambrian Metaline Formation and is classified into Yellowhead-type (YO) and Josephine-type (JO) ore based on texture and mineralogy. Paleomagnetic results are reported for four Cambrian Metaline Formation sites, one Ordovician Ledbetter slate site, 12 YO and 13 JO (including two breccia sites) mineralization sites in the Pend Oreille Mine, and eight sites from the nearby Cretaceous Kaniksu granite batholith. Thermal and alternating field step demagnetization, saturation isothermal remanence analysis, and synthetic specimen tests show that the remanence in the host carbonates and Zn-Pb mineralization is carried mostly by pseudosingle (PSD) to single domain (SD) pyrrhotite and mostly by PSD to SD magnetite in the Kaniksu granite. Based on thermomagnetic measurements, sphalerite and galena concentrates and tailings from the mine's mill contain hexagonal and monoclimc pyrrhotite. The postfolding characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM), known thermal data, and paleoarc method of dating suggest that the Zn-Pb mineralization carries a primary chemical remanent magnetization (CRM), and Metaline Formation carbonates a secondary CRM that were acquired during the Middle Jurassic (166 ??6 Ma) during the waning stages of the Nevadan orogeny. A paleomagnetic breccia test favours a solution-collapse origin for the Josephine breccia. Finally, the Kaniksu paleopole is concordant with the North American Cretaceous reference paleopole, suggesting the Kootenay terrane has not been rotated since emplacement of the batholith at ???94 Ma. ?? 2007 NRC Canada.

  5. Accumulation of Zn, Cd, Cu, and Pb in Chinese cabbage as influenced by climatic conditions under protected cultivation.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Diego A; Víllora, Gemma; Hernández, Joaquín; Castilla, Nicolás; Romero, Luis

    2002-03-27

    Accumulation of heavy metals from agricultural soils contaminated by low levels heavy metals has important implications in the understanding of heavy metal contamination in the food chain. Through field experiments (1994-1996), the influence of thermal regime under different treatments on the accumulation of zinc, cadmium, copper, and lead in Chinese cabbage [Brassica pekinensis (Lour) Rupr. cv. Nagaoka 50] grown in a Calcareous Fluvisol (Xerofluvent) in Granada (southern Spain) was examined. Two floating row covers were used: T(1) (perforated polyethylene, 50 microm thick) and T(2) (17 g m(-2) polypropylene nonwoven fleece). An uncovered cultivation (T(0)) served as control. Zn, Cd, Cu, and Pb levels in the whole tops of experimental plants were analyzed. Treatments T(1) and T(2) gave rise to differences in environmental conditions with respect to T(0). The influence of environmental factors manipulated by floating row covers (particularly under T(1)) increased total heavy metal accumulation in the above ground plant biomass with respect to the open-air crop. The total contents of Zn, Cd, Cu, and Pb were 30, 50, 90, and 40% higher in T(1), respectively, than in T(0). This technique could be used in contaminated zones for different plant species because the thermal effect favors the process of phytoextraction and thus reduces the contamination.

  6. The function of digestive enzymes on Cu, Zn, and Pb release from soil in in vitro digestion tests.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Demisie, Walelign; Zhang, Ming-kui

    2013-07-01

    The bioaccessibility of soil heavy metals is the solubility of soil heavy metals in synthetic human digestive juice, which is usually determined using in vitro digestion test. To reveal the effects of digestive enzymes on soil heavy metals bioaccessibility, three representative in vitro digestion tests, Simple Bioaccessibility Extraction Test (SBET), Physiologically Based Extraction Test (PBET), and Simple Gastrointestinal Extraction Test (SGET), were chosen. The bioaccessibility of soil Cu, Zn, and Pb in each method were respectively evaluated with and without digestive enzymes, and the differences were compared. The results showed that the effects of digestive enzymes varied with different methods and elements. Because of digestive enzymes addition, the environmental change from acid gastric phase to neutral intestinal phase of PBET did not result in apparently decrease of the bioaccessibility of soil Cu. However, the solubility of soil Zn and Pb were pH-dependent. For SGET, when digestive enzymes were added, its results reflected more variations resulting from soil and element types. The impacts of digestive enzymes on heavy metal dissolution are mostly seen in the intestinal phase. Therefore, digestive enzyme addition is indispensable to the gastrointestinal digestion methods (PBET and SGET), while the pepsin addition is not important for the methods only comprised of gastric digestion (SBET).

  7. The recovery of Zn and Pb and the manufacture of lightweight bricks from zinc smelting slag and clay.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huiping; Deng, Qiufeng; Li, Chao; Xie, Yue; Dong, Zeqin; Zhang, Wei

    2014-04-30

    Novel lightweight bricks have been produced by sintering mixes of zinc smelting slag and clay. A two-stage sintered process has been proposed to recovery of Zn and Pb and reutilization of the zinc smelting slag. In the first stage of the process, called reduction and volatilization procedure, zinc and lead were reduced by the carbon contained in the zinc smelting slag and volatilized into the dust, and the dust can be used as a secondary zinc resource. In the second stage of the process, called oxidation sintering procedure, a lightweight brick was produced. Samples containing up to 60 wt.% zinc smelting slag and 40 wt.% kaolin clay were reduced at 1050°C for 6h, and then sintered at 1050°C for 4h. The recoveries of Zn and Pb from the brick are 94.5 ± 0.6% and 97.6 ± 0.2%, respectively. Low bulk density (1.42 g cm(-3)) and relatively high compressive strength (2 2MPa) sintered bricks were produced, and the leaching toxicity of the sintered bricks was below the regulatory thresholds of Chinese National Standards. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb levels in beach and dune sands from Havana resorts, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Díaz Rizo, Oscar; Buzón González, Fran; Arado López, Juana O

    2015-11-15

    Concentrations of nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in beach and dune sands from thirteen Havana (Cuba) resorts were estimated by X-ray fluorescence analysis. Determined mean metal contents (in mg·kg(-1)) in beach sand samples were 28±12 for Ni, 35±12 for Cu, 31±11 for Zn and 6.0±1.8 for Pb, while for dune sands were 30±15, 38±22, 37±15 and 6.8±2.9, respectively. Metal-to-iron normalization shows moderately severe and severe enrichment by Cu. The comparison with sediment quality guidelines shows that dune sands from various resorts must be considered as heavily polluted by Cu and Ni. Almost in every resort, the Ni and Cu contents exceed their corresponding TEL values and, in some resorts, the Ni PEL value. The comparison with a Havana topsoil study indicates the possible Ni and Cu natural origin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Geochemical behavior of heavy metals in a Zn-Pb-Cu mining area in the State of Mexico (central Mexico).

    PubMed

    Lizárraga-Mendiola, L; González-Sandoval, M R; Durán-Domínguez, M C; Márquez-Herrera, C

    2009-08-01

    The geochemical behavior of zinc, lead and copper from sulfidic tailings in a mine site with potential to generate acidic drainage (pyrite (55%) and sphalerite (2%)) is reported in this paper. The mining area is divided in two zones, considering the topographic location of sampling points with respect to the tailings pile: (a) outer zone, out of the probable influence of acid mine drainage (AMD) pollution, and (b) inner zone, probably influenced by AMD pollution. Maximum total ions concentrations (mg/L) measured in superficial waters found were, in the outer zone: As (0.2), Cd (0.9), Fe (19), Mn (39), Pb (5.02), SO4(2-) (4650), Zn (107.67), and in the inner zone are As (0.1), Cd (0.2), Fe (88), Mn (13), Pb (6), SO4(2-) (4,880), Zn (46). The presence of these ions that exceeding the permissible maximum limits for human consume, could be associated to tailings mineralogy and acid leachates generated in tailings pile.

  10. Mineralogical and geochemical characterization of supergene Cu-Pb-Zn-V ores in the Oriental High Atlas, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhaert, Michèle; Bernard, Alain; Dekoninck, Augustin; Lafforgue, Ludovic; Saddiqi, Omar; Yans, Johan

    2017-10-01

    In the Moroccan High Atlas, two sulfide deposits hosted by Jurassic dolostones underwent significant weathering. In the Cu deposit of Jbel Klakh, several stages of supergene mineralization are distinguished: (1) the replacement of hypogene sulfides in the protolith (chalcopyrite) by secondary sulfides in the cementation zone (bornite, digenite, chalcocite, covellite), (2) the formation of oxidized minerals in the saprolite (malachite, azurite, brochantite) where the environment becomes more oxidizing and neutral, and (3) the precipitation of late carbonates (calcite) and iron (hydr-)oxides in the laterite. The precipitation of carbonates is related to the dissolution of dolomitic host rocks, which buffers the fluid acidity due to the oxidation of sulfides. In the Jbel Haouanit Pb-Zn deposit, the mineral assemblage is dominated by typical calamine minerals, Cu minerals (chalcocite, covellite, malachite), and a Cu-Pb-Zn vanadate (mottramite). Galena is successively weathered in anglesite and cerussite. Sphalerite is weathered in smithsonite, which is rapidly replaced by hydrozincite. Late iron (hydr-)oxides are mainly found at the top of both deposits (laterite). Both deposits are thus characterized by specific mineral zoning, from laterite to protolith, related to variations in the mineralogy and ore grades and probably caused by varying Eh-pH conditions.

  11. Effect of carbonation on leachability, strength and microstructural characteristics of KMP binder stabilized Zn and Pb contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Du, Yan-Jun; Wei, Ming-Li; Reddy, Krishna R; Wu, Hao-liang

    2016-02-01

    This study presents a systematic investigation of effects of carbonation on the contaminant leachability and unconfined compressive strength of KMP stabilized contaminated soils. A field soil spiked with Zn and Pb individually and together is stabilized using a new KMP additive under standard curing conditions and also with carbonation. The KMP additive is composed of oxalic acid-activated phosphate rock, monopotassium phosphate and reactive magnesia. The stabilized soils are tested for acid neutralization capacity, toxic characteristics leaching characteristics, contaminant speciation and unconfined compression strength. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectroscopy analyses are performed to assess reaction products. The results demonstrate that carbonation increases both acid buffer capacity index and unconfined compressive strength, but decreases leachability of KMP stabilized soils. These results are interpreted based on the changes in chemical speciation of Zn and Pb and also stability and solubility of the reaction products (metal phosphates and carbonates) formed in the soils. Overall, this study demonstrates that carbonation has positive effects on leachability and strength of the KMP stabilized soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Stabilization of Cd-, Pb-, Cu- and Zn-contaminated calcareous agricultural soil using red mud: a field experiment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yangyang; Li, Fangfang; Song, Jian; Xiao, Ruiyang; Luo, Lin; Yang, Zhihui; Chai, Liyuan

    2018-04-12

    Red mud (RM) was used to remediate heavy metal-contaminated soils. Experiments with two different dosages of RM added to soils were carried out in this study. It was found that soil pH increased 0.3 and 0.5 unit with the dosage of 3 and 5% (wt%), respectively. At the dosage of 5%, the highest stabilization efficiencies for Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn reached 67.95, 64.21, 43.73 and 63.73%, respectively. The addition of RM obviously transferred Cd from the exchangeable fraction to the residual fraction. Meanwhile, in comparison with the control (no RM added), it reduced 24.38, 49.20, 19.42 and 8.89% of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn in wheat grains at the RM addition dosage of 5%, respectively. At the same time, the yield of wheat grains increased 17.81 and 24.66% at the RM addition dosage of 3 and 5%, respectively. Finally, the addition of RM did not change the soil bacterial community. These results indicate that RM has a great potential in stabilizing heavy metals in calcareous agricultural soils.

  13. Enhanced stabilization of Pb, Zn, and Cd in contaminated soils using oxalic acid-activated phosphate rocks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuo; Guo, Guanlin; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Jia; Wang, Zhixin; Li, Fasheng; Chen, Honghan

    2018-01-01

    Phosphate amendments, especially phosphate rock (PR), are one of the most commonly used materials to stabilize heavy metals in contaminated soils. However, most of PR reserve consists of low-grade ore, which limits the efficiency of PR for stabilizing heavy metals. This study was to enhance the stabilization of heavy metals through improving the available phosphorous (P) release of PR by oxalic acid activation. Raw PR and activated PR (APR) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface analysis, and laser diffraction to determine the changes of structure and composition of APR. The stabilization effectiveness of lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) in soils by APR was investigated through toxicity leaching test and speciation analysis. The results indicated that after treatment by oxalic acid, (1) the crystallinity of the fluorapatite phase of PR transformed into the weddellite phase; (2) the surface area of PR increased by 37%; (3) the particle size of PR became homogenized (20-70 μm); and (4) the available P content in PR increased by 22 times. These changes of physicochemical characteristics of PR induced that APR was more effective to transform soil heavy metals from the non-residual fraction to the residual fraction and enhance the stabilization efficiency of Pb, Zn, and Cd than PR. These results are significant for the future use of low-grade PR to stabilize heavy metals.

  14. Effects of freeze-thaw on characteristics of new KMP binder stabilized Zn- and Pb-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ming-Li; Du, Yan-Jun; Reddy, Krishna R; Wu, Hao-Liang

    2015-12-01

    For viable and sustainable reuse of solidified/stabilized heavy metal-contaminated soils as roadway subgrade materials, long-term durability of these soils should be ensured. A new binder, KMP, has been developed for solidifying/stabilizing soils contaminated with high concentrations of heavy metals. However, the effects of long-term extreme weather conditions including freeze and thaw on the leachability and strength of the KMP stabilized contaminated soils have not been investigated. This study presents a systematic investigation on the impacts of freeze-thaw cycle on leachability, strength, and microstructural characteristics of the KMP stabilized soils spiked with Zn and Pb individually and together. For comparison purpose, Portland cement is also tested as a conventional binder. Several series of tests are conducted including the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), modified European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction procedure, unconfined compression test (UCT), and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP). The results demonstrate that the freeze-thaw cycles have much less impact on the leachability and strength of the KMP stabilized soils as compared to the PC stabilized soils. After the freeze-thaw cycle tests, the KMP stabilized soils display much lower leachability, mass loss, and strength loss. These results are assessed based on the chemical speciation of Zn and Pb, and pore size distribution of the soils. Overall, this study demonstrates that the KMP stabilized heavy metal-contaminated soils perform well under the freeze-thaw conditions.

  15. Removal of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cr from Yangtze Estuary Using the Phragmites australis Artificial Floating Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Feng; Yu, Gao; Song, Chao; Geng, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    Contamination of heavy metals would threaten the water and soil resources; phytoremediation can be potentially used to remediate metal contaminated sites. We constructed the Phragmites australis artificial floating wetlands outside the Qingcaosha Reservoir in the Yangtze Estuary. Water characteristic variables were measured in situ by using YSI Professional Pro Meter. Four heavy metals (copper, zinc, lead, and chromium) in both water and plant tissues were determined. Four heavy metals in estuary water were as follows: 0.03 mg/Kg, 0.016 mg/Kg, 0.0015 mg/Kg, and 0.004 mg/Kg. These heavy metals were largely retained in the belowground tissues of P. australis. The bioaccumulation (BAF) and translation factor (TF) value of four heavy metals were affected by the salinity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen. The highest BAF of each metal calculated was as follows: Cr (0.091 in winter) > Cu (0.054 in autumn) > Pb (0.016 in summer) > Zn (0.011 in summer). Highest root-rhizome TF values were recorded for four metals: 6.450 for Cu in autumn, 2.895 for Zn in summer, 7.031 for Pb in autumn, and 2.012 for Cr in autumn. This indicates that the P. australis AFW has potential to be used to protect the water of Qingcaosha Reservoir from heavy metal contamination. PMID:28717650

  16. Utilization of biochar and activated carbon to reduce Cd, Pb and Zn phytoavailability and phytotoxicity for plants.

    PubMed

    Břendová, Kateřina; Zemanová, Veronika; Pavlíková, Daniela; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, the content of risk elements and content of free amino acids were studied in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and mustard (Sinapis alba L.) subsequently grown on uncontaminated and contaminated soils (5 mg Cd/kg, 1000 mg Pb/kg and 400 mg Zn/kg) with the addition of activated carbon (from coconut shells) or biochar (derived from local wood residues planted for phytoextaction) in different seasons (spring, summer and autumn). The results showed that activated carbon and biochar increased biomass production on contaminated site. Application of amendments decreased Cd and Zn uptake by spinach plants. Mustard significantly increased Pb accumulation in the biomass as well in subsequently grown autumn spinach. Glutamic acid and glutamine were major free amino acids in leaves of all plants (15-34% and 3-45%) from total content. Application of activated carbon and biochar increased content of glutamic acid in all plants on uncontaminated and contaminated soils. Activated carbon and biochar treatments also induced an increase of aspartic acid in spinach plants. Biochar produced from biomass originated from phytoextraction technologies promoted higher spinach biomass yield comparing unamended control and showed a tendency to reduce accumulation of cadmium and zinc and thus it is promising soil amendment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Structural and dielectric studies on Ag doped nano ZnSnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deepa, K.; Angel, S. Lilly; Rajamanickam, N.; Jayakumar, K.; Ramachandran, K.

    2018-04-01

    Undoped and Ag-doped nano Zinc Stannate (ZSO) ternary oxide were prepared by co-precipitation method. The crystallographic, morphological and optical properties of the synthesized nanoparticles were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrical properties of the synthesized samples were studied by dielectric measurements. Higher concentration Ag doped ZSO nanoparticles exhibit higher dielectric constant at low frequency.

  18. Removal of Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) by hematite nanoparticles: effect of sorbent concentration, pH, temperature, and exhaustion.

    PubMed

    Shipley, Heather J; Engates, Karen E; Grover, Valerie A

    2013-03-01

    Nanoparticles offer the potential to improve environmental treatment technologies due to their unique properties. Adsorption of metal ions (Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II), Zn(II)) to nanohematite was examined as a function of sorbent concentration, pH, temperature, and exhaustion. Adsorption experiments were conducted with 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 g/L nanoparticles in a pH 8 solution and in spiked San Antonio tap water. The adsorption data showed the ability of nanohematite to remove Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn species from solution with adsorption increasing as the nanoparticle concentration increased. At 0.5 g/L nanohematite, 100 % Pb species adsorbed, 94 % Cd species adsorbed, 89 % Cu species adsorbed and 100 % Zn species adsorbed. Adsorption kinetics for all metals tested was described by a pseudo second-order rate equation with lead having the fastest rate of adsorption. The effect of temperature on adsorption showed that Pb(II), Cu(II), and Cd(II) underwent an endothermic reaction, while Zn(II) underwent an exothermic reaction. The nanoparticles were able to simultaneously remove multiple metals species (Zn, Cd, Pb, and Cu) from both a pH 8 solution and spiked San Antonio tap water. Exhaustion experiments showed that at pH 8, exhaustion did not occur for the nanoparticles but adsorption does decrease for Cd, Cu, and Zn species but not Pb species. The strong adsorption coupled with the ability to simultaneously remove multiple metal ions offers a potential remediation method for the removal of metals from water.

  19. The potential of Lemna gibba L. and Lemna minor L. to remove Cu, Pb, Zn, and As in gallery water in a mining area in Keban, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sasmaz, Merve; Arslan Topal, Emine Işıl; Obek, Erdal; Sasmaz, Ahmet

    2015-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate removal efficiencies of Cu, Pb, Zn, and As in gallery water in a mining area in Keban, Turkey by Lemna gibba L. and Lemna minor L. These plants were placed in the gallery water of Keban Pb-Zn ore deposits and adapted individually fed to the reactors. During the study period (8 days), the plant and water samples were collected daily and the temperature, pH, and electric conductivity of the gallery water were measured daily. The plants were washed, dried, and burned at 300 °C for 24 h in a drying oven. These ash and water samples were analyzed by ICP-MS to determine the amounts of Cu, Pb, Zn, and As. The Cu, Pb, Zn and As concentrations in the gallery water of the study area detected 67, 7.5, 7230, and 96 μg L(-1), respectively. According to the results, the obtained efficiencies in L. minor L. and L. gibba L. are: 87% at day 2 and 36% at day 3 for Cu; 1259% at day 2 and 1015% at day 2 for Pb; 628% at day 3 and 382% at day 3 for Zn; and 7070% at day 3 and 19,709% at day 2 for As, respectively. The present study revealed that both L. minor L. and L. gibba L. had very high potential to remove Cu, Pb, Zn, and As in gallery water contaminated by different ores. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Root-induced changes of Zn and Pb dynamics in the rhizosphere of sunflower with different plant growth promoting treatments in a heavily contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Seyed Majid; Motesharezadeh, Babak; Hosseini, Hossein Mirseyed; Alikhani, Hoseinali; Zolfaghari, Ali Asghar

    2018-01-01

    Root induced changes are deemed to have an important role in the success of remediation techniques in contaminated soils. Here, the effects of two nano-particles [SiO 2 and zeolite] with an application rate of 200mgkg -1 , and two bacteria [Bacillus safensis FO-036b(T) and Pseudomonas fluorescens p.f.169] in the rhizosphere of sunflower on Zn and Pb dynamics were studied in greenhouse conditions. The treatments reduced the exchangeable Zn (from 13.68% to 30.82%) and Pb (from 10.34% to 25.92%) in the rhizosphere compared to the control. The EC and microbial respiration/population of the rhizosphere and bulk soil had an opposite trend with the exchangeable fraction of Zn and Pb, but dissolved organic carbon followed a similar trend with the more bioavailable fractions. As a result, the accumulation of Pb and Zn in the plant tissues was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced by the application of amendments, which might be due to the shift of the metals to immobile forms induced by the nature of the treatments and changes in the rhizosphere process. The empirical conditions of this research produced the intensification of the rhizosphere process because the findings highlight those changes in the rhizosphere EC, pH and dissolved organic carbon can affect the efficiency of zeolite/SiO 2 NPs and bacteria to immobilize Pb and Zn in the soil, depending on the chemical character of the metals and the treatments. Generally, the affinity of the biotic treatment for Pb was more than the abiotic and conversely, the abiotic treatment showed a higher ability to immobilize Zn than the biotic treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Biodynamic modelling of the accumulation of Ag, Cd and Zn by the deposit-feeding polychaete Nereis diversicolor: inter-population variability and a generalised predictive model.

    PubMed

    Kalman, J; Smith, B D; Riba, I; Blasco, J; Rainbow, P S

    2010-06-01

    Biodynamic parameters of the ragworm Nereis diversicolor from southern Spain and south England were experimentally derived to assess the inter-population variability of physiological parameters of the bioaccumulation of Ag, Cd and Zn from water and sediment. Although there were some limited variations, these were not consistent with the local metal bioavailability nor with temperature changes. Incorporating the biodynamic parameters into a defined biodynamic model, confirmed that sediment is the predominant source of Cd and Zn accumulated by the worms, accounting in each case for 99% of the overall accumulated metals, whereas the contribution of dissolved Ag to the total accumulated by the worm increased from about 27 to about 53% with increasing dissolved Ag concentration. Standardised values of metal-specific parameters were chosen to generate a generalised model to be extended to N. diversicolor populations across a wide geographical range from western Europe to North Africa. According to the assumptions of this model, predicted steady state concentrations of Cd and Zn in N. diversicolor were overestimated, those of Ag underestimated, but still comparable to independent field measurements. We conclude that species-specific physiological metal bioaccumulation parameters are relatively constant over large geographical distances, and a single generalised biodynamic model does have potential to predict accumulated Ag, Cd and Zn concentrations in this polychaete from a single sediment metal concentration.

  2. Disinfection of the Water Borne Pathogens Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by Solar Photocatalysis Using Sonochemically Synthesized Reusable Ag@ZnO Core-Shell Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Das, Sourav; Ranjana, Neha; Misra, Ananyo Jyoti; Suar, Mrutyunjay; Mishra, Amrita; Tamhankar, Ashok J; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby; Tripathy, Suraj K

    2017-07-10

    Water borne pathogens present a threat to human health and their disinfection from water poses a challenge, prompting the search for newer methods and newer materials. Disinfection of the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and the Gram-positive coccal bacterium Staphylococcus aureus in an aqueous matrix was achieved within 60 and 90 min, respectively, at 35 °C using solar-photocatalysis mediated by sonochemically synthesized Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles. The efficiency of the process increased with the increase in temperature and at 55 °C the disinfection for the two bacteria could be achieved in 45 and 60 min, respectively. A new ultrasound-assisted chemical precipitation technique was used for the synthesis of Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles. The characteristics of the synthesized material were established using physical techniques. The material remained stable even at 400 °C. Disinfection efficiency of the Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles was confirmed in the case of real world samples of pond, river, municipal tap water and was found to be better than that of pure ZnO and TiO₂ (Degussa P25). When the nanoparticle- based catalyst was recycled and reused for subsequent disinfection experiments, its efficiency did not change remarkably, even after three cycles. The sonochemically synthesized Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles thus have a good potential for application in solar photocatalytic disinfection of water borne pathogens.

  3. Disinfection of the Water Borne Pathogens Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by Solar Photocatalysis Using Sonochemically Synthesized Reusable Ag@ZnO Core-Shell Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sourav; Ranjana, Neha; Misra, Ananyo Jyoti; Suar, Mrutyunjay; Mishra, Amrita; Tripathy, Suraj K.

    2017-01-01

    Water borne pathogens present a threat to human health and their disinfection from water poses a challenge, prompting the search for newer methods and newer materials. Disinfection of the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and the Gram-positive coccal bacterium Staphylococcus aureus in an aqueous matrix was achieved within 60 and 90 min, respectively, at 35 °C using solar-photocatalysis mediated by sonochemically synthesized Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles. The efficiency of the process increased with the increase in temperature and at 55 °C the disinfection for the two bacteria could be achieved in 45 and 60 min, respectively. A new ultrasound-assisted chemical precipitation technique was used for the synthesis of Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles. The characteristics of the synthesized material were established using physical techniques. The material remained stable even at 400 °C. Disinfection efficiency of the Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles was confirmed in the case of real world samples of pond, river, municipal tap water and was found to be better than that of pure ZnO and TiO2 (Degussa P25). When the nanoparticle- based catalyst was recycled and reused for subsequent disinfection experiments, its efficiency did not change remarkably, even after three cycles. The sonochemically synthesized Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles thus have a good potential for application in solar photocatalytic disinfection of water borne pathogens. PMID:28698514

  4. Structural and optical properties of DC magnetron sputtered ZnO films on glass substrate and their modification by Ag ions implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, R.; Afzal, Naveed; Amjad, U.; Jabbar, S.; Hussain, T.; Hussnain, A.

    2017-07-01

    This work is focused on investigating the effects of deposition time and Ag ions implantation on structural and optical properties of ZnO film. The ZnO film was prepared on glass substrate by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering of pure Zn target in reactive oxygen environment for 2 h, 3 h, 4 h and 5 h respectively. X-ray diffraction results revealed polycrystalline ZnO film whose crystallinity was improved with increase of the deposition time. The morphological features indicated agglomeration of smaller grains into larger ones by increasing the deposition time. The UV-vis spectroscopy analysis depicted a small decrease in the band gap of ZnO from 3.36 eV to 3.27 eV with increase of deposition time. The Ag ions implantation in ZnO films deposited for 5 h on glass was carried out by using Pelletron Accelerator at different ions fluences ranging from 1  ×  1011 ions cm-2 to 2  ×  1012 ions cm-2. XRD patterns of Ag ions implanted ZnO did not show significant change in crystallite size by increasing ions fluence from 1  ×  1011 ions cm-2 to 5  ×  1011 ions cm-2. However, with further increase of the ions fluence, the crystallite size was decreased. The band gap of Ag ions implanted ZnO indicated anomalous variations with increase of the ions fluence.

  5. Importance of lithology in defining natural background concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in sedimentary soils, northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gloaguen, Thomas Vincent; Passe, José João

    2017-11-01

    The sedimentary basins of Recôncavo and Tucano, Bahia, represent the most important Brazilian Phanerozoic continental basin system, formed during fracturing of Gondwana. The northern basin of Tucano has a semiarid climate (Bsh) while the southern basin of Recôncavo has a tropical rainforest climate (Af). The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of trace metals in soils derived from various sedimentary rocks and climates. Soils were collected at 30 sites in 5 geological units at 0-20 cm and 60-80 cm deep under native vegetation. Physical and chemical attributes (particle size distribution, pH, Al, exchangeable bases, organic matter) were determined, as well as the pseudo-total concentrations (EPA 3050 b) and the total concentrations (X-ray fluorescence) of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. The concentrations of metals were overall correlated to soil texture, according to lithologic origin. Shales resulted in Vertisols 30.4 (Zn), 27.2 (Ni), 16.9 (Cu), 7.5 (Cr) and 2.5 (Pb) times more concentrated than Arenosols derived from the sandstones. High Cr and Ni values in clay soils from shales were attributed to diffuse contamination by erosion of mafic rocks of the Greenstone Belt River Itapicuru (from 3 km northwest of the study area) during the late Jurassic. Tropical rainforest climate resulted in a slight enrichment of Pb and Cr, and Ni had the higher mobility during soil formation (enrichment factor up to 6.01). In conclusion, the geological environment is a much more controlling factor than pedogenesis in the concentration of metals in sedimentary soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of aided phytostabilization of Pb and Zn in Santa Antonieta tailing pond two years after its remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Neveu, Aurore; Acosta, Jose A.; Zornoza, Raúl; Gómez, M. Dolores; Faz, Ángel

    2017-04-01

    Mining and its subsequent activities have been found to degrade the land to a significant extent. Phytostabilization aims to generate a functional soil ecosystem that supports plant growth over contaminated wastes, lessening surface and subsurface water flow, providing stability to soil through the development of extensive root systems, and hastening successional development. A field experiment was carried out in Santa Antonieta tailing pond, located in Cartagena-La Unión mining district (SE Spain) in order to know the reasons why important differences in the percentage of plant cover were observed in the studied areas two years after the end of assisted phytostabilization. The main objectives of this research were to: a) determine the vegetation cover and biodiversity of the four plots selected; b) evaluate which soil physicochemical properties influence significant the growth and development of plant species and c) identify in which soil fractions are mostly retained Pb and Zn. The results of this study showed that the highest percentage of vegetation cover was registered in the plot 1 (85%), while the lowest percentage was observed in Plot 3 where no plant grew as in the control plot. The most influential physicochemical properties on the growth and development of the plant species that grew on the plots were: pH, electrical conductivity, inorganic carbon and bioavailable phosphorus.With regard to sequential extraction, Pb and Zn were in a very high percentage in the residual fraction. The highest concentration of bioavailable metal was observed with Zn in plot 3, around 15%, probably due to its acidity (pH value of 3.2) and this may be the cause of this plot is devoid of vegetation. For future research in the study area, a new sampling of plant species that continue growing on plots would need to be carried out to determine if metals continue to accumulate in the rhizosphere or are accumulating at the aerial part of the plant, and avoid possible environmental

  7. Sulfur isotope study of the Velardeña skarn (Zn-Pb), Durango, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, A.

    2012-04-01

    Sulfur isotope study of the Velardeña skarn (Zn-Pb), Durango, Mexico Abigail Jimenez-Franco1*, Pura Alfonso Abella2, Carles Canet3, Eduardo González-Partida4 1 Posgrado en Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegación Coyoacán, 04510 México D.F., Mexico 2 Departament d'Enginyeria Minera i Recursos Naturals, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av de Les Bases de Manresa 61-73, 08242 Manresa. 3Instituto de Geofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegación Coyoacán, 04510 México D.F., Mexico 4Centro de Geociencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, 76230 Santiago de Querétaro, Qro., Mexico The Velardeña mining district is located in north-eastern part of the state of Durango, in northern of Mexico. The ore deposit is a lead-zinc, garnet-rich skarn developed at the contact between granite porphyry dikes (Eocene) and well-laminated limestones with interbedded chert (Albian-Cenomanian). A study of sulfur isotopes has been carried out in various sulfide minerals of the ores of Velardeña, in order to: (a) constrain the possible sources of sulfur and, therefore, better understand the sulfide mineralizing processes, and (b) to estimate the temperature of the ore-forming stage of the skarn. Sulfur isotope analyses were performed in 21 pure fractions of sulfide minerals of the ore mineralization (pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena). The mineral separation was performed using a series of sieves, and the purity of the samples was verified under a binocular microscope. Isotopic analyses were done on a Finnigan MAT Delta C flow elemental analyzer coupled to a TC-EA, according with the method of Giesemann et al. (1974). The δ34S values of the analyzed sulfides range mostly between -0.6 and +2.6 ‰ (relative to the CDT standard). These values are indicative of a magmatic source of sulfur. A single analysis falls

  8. Soil pollution associated to the El Borracho Pb-Ag mine (Badajoz Province, Spain). Metal transfer to biota: oak-tree and moss.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; María Esbrí, José; Fernández-Calderón, Sergio; Naharro, Elena; García-Noguero, Eva Maria; Higueras, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    El Borracho mine was active since Roman times, but with its higher production period on 19th Century. Mine closure occured without restoration works and nowadays the mining area is dedicated to deer hunting activities. In order to evaluate heavy metals distribution on mining tailings and surrounding soils of the studied area, 40 samples of dumps, soils and sediments were taken. Samples from the mine tailings were collected with an Eijkelkamp soil core sampler for undisturbed samples, with a vertical constant spacing of 25 cm. With this procedure, a total of 21 samples were taken in two points at main dump. Samples of Oak-tree leaves and moss were taken to evaluate metal transfer to biota. Analytical determinations have included soil parameters (pH, conductivity, organic matter content), and total metal contents in geological and biological samples by EDXRF. Analytical determinations shows higher metal contents in dumps, especially in surficial samples, 17,700 mg kg-1 and 470 mg kg-1 in average of Pb and Zn respectively, and lower contents in soils, 5,200 mg kg-1 and 300 mg kg-1, and sediments, 3,500 mg kg-1 and 120 mg kg-1. Metal contents in tailings profiles shows higher levels of Pb, Zn and Cu at 3.5 meters depth, a zone with lower grainsize and higher moisture. Differences in efficiency of extraction techniques and metal remobilization inside the dump can be an explanation for this enrichment level. Metal contents in agricultural soils exceeded maximum allowed levels by European Community (300 mg kg-1 for Pb and Zn and 140 mg kg-1 for Cu). Metal contents in biota evidence that Oak-tree bioaccumulates some metals, especially those with higher mobility in acidic conditions like Zn and Sb, with averages Bioaccumulation factor (BAF = plant concentration/soil concentration) of 0.48 and 0.85 respectively. Moss reaches high concentrations of Pb and Zn (3,000 mg kg-1 and 175 mg kg-1 in average respectively). Uptake pattern of Pb and Zn by plants leaves and mosses seems

  9. Aqueous synthesis of Ag and Mn co-doped In2S3/ZnS quantum dots with tunable emission for dual-modal targeted imaging.

    PubMed

    Lai, Pei-Yu; Huang, Chih-Ching; Chou, Tzung-Han; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chang, Jia-Yaw

    2017-03-01

    Here, we present the microwave-assisted synthesis of In 2 S 3 /ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) co-doped with Ag + and Mn 2+ (referred to as AgMn:In 2 S 3 /ZnS). Ag + altered the optical properties of the host QDs, whereas the spin magnetic moment (S=5/2) of Mn 2+ efficiently induced the longitudinal relaxation of water protons. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the aqueous synthesis of color-tunable AgMn:In 2 S 3 /ZnS core/shell QDs with magnetic properties. The synthetic procedure is rapid, facile, reproducible, and scalable. The obtained QDs offered a satisfactory quantum yield (45%), high longitudinal relaxivity (6.84s -1 mM -1 ), and robust photostability. In addition, they exhibited excellent stability over a wide pH range (5-12) and high ionic strength (0.15-2.0M NaCl). As seen by confocal microscopy and magnetic resonance imaging, AgMn:In 2 S 3 /ZnS conjugated to hyaluronic acid (referred to as AgMn:In 2 S 3 /ZnS@HA) efficiently and specifically targeted cluster determinant 44, a receptor overexpressed on cancer cells. Moreover, AgMn:In 2 S 3 /ZnS@HA showed negligible cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo, rendering it a promising diagnostic probe for dual-modal imaging in clinical applications. In this manuscript, we reported a facial and rapid method to prepare In 2 S 3 /ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) co-doped with Ag + and Mn 2+ (referred to as AgMn:In 2 S 3 /ZnS). Ag + dopants were used to alter the optical properties of the In 2 S 3 host, whereas Mn 2+ co-dopants with their unpaired electrons provided paramagnetic properties. The emission wavelength of the core/shell QDs could be tuned from 550 to 743nm with a maximum PL quantum yield of 45%. The resulting core/shell QDs also maintained a stable emission in aqueous solution at broad ranges of pH (5-12) and ionic strength (0.15-2.0M NaCl), as well as a high photostability under continuous irradiation. In vivo cytotoxicity experiments showed that up to 500μg/mL AgMn:In 2 S 3 /Zn

  10. Effect of short-term Zn/Pb or long-term multi-metal stress on physiological and morphological parameters of metallicolous and nonmetallicolous Echium vulgare L. populations.

    PubMed

    Dresler, Sławomir; Wójciak-Kosior, Magdalena; Sowa, Ireneusz; Stanisławski, Grzegorz; Bany, Izabela; Wójcik, Małgorzata

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the response of metallicolous and nonmetallicolous Echium vulgare L. populations to chronic multi-metal (Zn, Pb, Cd) and acute Zn (200, 400 μM) and Pb (30, 60 μM) stress. Three populations of E. vulgare, one from uncontaminated and two from metal-contaminated areas, were studied. Two types of experiments were performed - a short-term hydroponic experiment with acute Zn or Pb stress and a long-term manipulative soil experiment with the use of soils from the sites of origin of the three populations. Growth parameters, such as shoot and root fresh weight and leaf area, as well as organic acid accumulation were determined. Moreover, the concentration of selected secondary metabolites and antioxidant capacity in the three populations exposed to Pb or Zn excess were measured. Both metallicolous populations generally achieved higher biomass compared with the nonmetallicolous population cultivated under metal stress in hydroponics or on metalliferous substrates. Plants exposed to Pb or Zn excess or contaminated soil substrate exhibited higher malate and citrate concentrations compared with the reference (no metal stress) plants. It was observed that Zn or Pb stress increased accumulation of allantoin, chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids, total phenolics, and flavonoids. Moreover, it was shown that Pb sequestration in the roots or Zn translocation to the shoots may play a role in enhanced metal tolerance of metallicolous populations under acute Pb/Zn stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Intermetallic compounds of the heaviest elements and their homologs: the electronic structure and bonding of MM', where M=Ge, Sn, Pb, and element 114, and M'=Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au, Sn, Pb, and element 114.

    PubMed

    Pershina, V; Anton, J; Fricke, B

    2007-10-07

    Fully relativistic (four-component) density-functional theory calculations were performed for intermetallic dimers MM', where M=Ge, Sn, Pb, and element 114, and MM'=group 10 elements (Ni, Pd, and Pt) and group 11 elements (Cu, Ag, and Au). PbM and 114M, where M are group 14 elements, were also considered. The results have shown that trends in spectroscopic properties-atomization energies D(e), vibrational frequencies omega(e), and bond lengths R(e), as a function of MM', are similar for compounds of Ge, Sn, Pb, and element 114, except for D(e) of PbNi and 114Ni. They were shown to be determined by trends in the energies and space distribution of the valence ns(MM')atomic orbitals (AOs). According to the results, element 114 should form the weakest bonding with Ni and Ag, while the strongest with Pt due to the largest involvement of the 5d(Pt) AOs. In turn, trends in the spectroscopic properties of MM' as a function of M were shown to be determined by the behavior of the np(1/2)(M) AOs. Overall, D(e) of the element 114 dimers are about 1 eV smaller and R(e) are about 0.2 a.u. larger than those of the corresponding Pb compounds. Such a decrease in bonding of the element 114 dimers is caused by the large SO splitting of the 7p orbitals and a decreasing contribution of the relativistically stabilized 7p(1/2)(114) AO. On the basis of the calculated D(e) for the dimers, adsorption enthalpies of element 114 on the corresponding metal surfaces were estimated: They were shown to be about 100-150 kJ/mol smaller than those of Pb.

  12. TiO2/PbS/ZnS heterostructure for panchromatic quantum dot sensitized solar cells synthesized by wet chemical route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, T. S.; Mali, S. S.; Sheikh, A. D.; Korade, S. D.; Pawar, K. K.; Hong, C. K.; Kim, J. H.; Patil, P. S.

    2017-11-01

    So far we developed the efficient photoelectrodes which can harness the UV as well as the visible regime of the solar spectrum effectively. In order to exploit a maximum portion of solar spectrum, it is necessary to study the synergistic effect of a photoelectrode comprising UV and visible radiations absorbing materials. Present research work highlights the efforts to study the synchronized effect of TiO2 and PbS on the power conversion efficiency of quantum dot sensitized solar cell (QDSSC). A cascade structure of TiO2/PbS/ZnS QDSSC is achieved to enhance the photoconversion efficiency of TiO2/PbS system by incorporating a surface passivation layer of ZnS which avoids the recombination of charge carriers. A QDSSC is fabricated using a simple and cost-effective technique such as hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanorod arrays decorated with PbS and ZnS using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. Synthesized electrode materials are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), High resolution-transmission electron microscopy (TEM), STEM-EDS mapping, optical and solar cell performances. Phase formation of TiO2, PbS and ZnS get confirmed from the XPS study. FE-SEM images of the photoelectrode show uniform coverage of PbS QDs onto the TiO2 nanorods which increases with increasing number of SILAR cycles. The ZnS layer not only improves the charge transport but also reduces the photocorrosion of lead chalcogenides in the presence of a liquid electrolyte. Finally, the photoelectrochemical (PEC) study is carried out using an optimized photoanode comprising TiO2/PbS/ZnS assembly. Under AM 1.5G illumination the TiO2/PbS/ZnS QDSSC photoelectrode shows 4.08 mA/cm2 short circuit current density in a polysulfide electrolyte which is higher than that of a bare TiO2 nanorod array.

  13. Crystal structure and luminescence properties of silver in AgM(PO{sub 3}){sub 3} (M = Mg, Zn, Ba) polyphosphates

    SciT

    Belharouak, I.; Parent, C.; Tanguy, B.

    1999-06-01

    The relationships between the crystal structures and the luminescent properties of the AgM(PO{sub 3}){sub 3} (M = Mg, Zn, Ba) polyphosphates are reported in comparison with those of AgPO{sub 3}. The structure of the magnesium and zinc phosphates is characterized by long polyphosphates chains connected to infinite chains of [AgO{sub 6}] and [MO{sub 6}] polyhedra sharing faces. The basic structural phosphate unit in AgBa(PO{sub 3}){sub 3} is a P{sub 3}O{sub 9} ring. Silver atoms are located in distorted octahedral sites. Two types of luminescent centers have been observed. The UV emission observed in all these materials is typical of isolatedmore » Ag{sup +} ions. The visible emission observed only in the zinc phosphate is probably the result of a silver-zinc association. 16 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  14. Distribution and mobility of lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and antimony (Sb) from ammunition residues on shooting ranges for small arms located on mires.

    PubMed

    Mariussen, Espen; Johnsen, Ida Vaa; Strømseng, Arnljot Einride

    2017-04-01

    An environmental survey was performed on shooting ranges for small arms located on minerotrophic mires. The highest mean concentrations of Pb (13 g/kg), Cu (5.2 g/kg), Zn (1.1 g/kg), and Sb (0.83 g/kg) in the top soil were from a range located on a poor minerotrophic and acidic mire. This range had also the highest concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn, and Sb in discharge water (0.18 mg/L Pb, 0.42 mg/L Cu, 0.63 mg/L Zn, and 65 μg/L Sb) and subsurface soil water (2.5 mg/L Pb, 0.9 mg/L Cu, 1.6 mg/L Zn, and 0.15 mg/L Sb). No clear differences in the discharge of ammunition residues between the mires were observed based on the characteristics of the mires. In surface water with high pH (pH ~7), there was a trend with high concentrations of Sb and lower relative concentrations of Cu and Pb. The relatively low concentrations of ammunition residues both in the soil and soil water, 20 cm below the top soil, indicates limited vertical migration in the soil. Channels in the mires, made by plant roots or soil layer of less decomposed materials, may increase the rate of transport of contaminated surface water into deeper soil layers and ground water. A large portion of both Cu and Sb were associated to the oxidizable components in the peat, which may imply that these elements form inner-sphere complexes with organic matter. The largest portion of Pb and Zn were associated with the exchangeable and pH-sensitive components in the peat, which may imply that these elements form outer-sphere complexes with the peat.

  15. Geospatial Mapping of Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Sb in Urban Soil, Cd. Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaya, M. A.; Grimida, S. E.; Elkekli, A. R.; Aldouri, R. K.; Benedict, B. A.; Pingitore, N. E., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Population-based random stratified sampling of the city of Cd. Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico provided 500 city blocks for study. We collected soil from the public space (where present) in front of each house on a selected block; equal measured small volumes of these were combined to produce a composite sample for analysis. Such composite samples (1) decrease, by an order of magnitude, laboratory processing and analysis costs, and (2) smooth the data to represent blocks as averages of individual houses. Retention of the unanalyzed samples of the individual houses permits their later analysis should the composites suggest further study of individual houses on an anomalous block. Elemental analysis of 10 mg pressed powders was performed on a Panalytical Epsilon5 EDS-XRF, via 8 secondary targets and 12 USGS and NIST multi-element rock standards. The mean and (range) of concentration for Pb was 43 (13-550) ppm; for Cr, 31 (1.8-76); for Cu, 22 (6-550); for Zn 84 (42-415) ppm; for Cd, 1.9 (0.1-6.2); and for Sb, 5.9 (2.7-29). The old urban core of Cd. Juarez was marked by high levels of Pb, Cr, Cu, and Zn, and, to a smaller degree, of Cd and Sb. This pattern mirrors that of contiguous El Paso, Texas, USA, directly across the narrow Rio Grande. Businesses, industrial facilities, transportation (both railroads and highways), traditional "downtown" shopping, and old residential districts cluster in this urban core. A Pb-Cu-Zn smelter, which operated for more than a century until 1999, is present in the US adjacent to the Rio Grande, about two km away from downtown Cd. Juarez. Thus the city has been subject to both traditional metal sources (e.g., leaded gasoline, highway debris) and smelter emissions. The poplation of Cd. Juarez has exploded in the last few decades to some 1.5 million inhabitants due both to natural growth and in-migration from rural districts for economic opportunity. Most of this growth has been accommodated by radial expansion of the city into the surrounding

  16. Bioavailability of Pb and Zn from mine tailings as indicated by erythrocyte aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) activity in suckers (Pisces: catostomidae)

    Schmitt, Christopher J.; Dwyer, F. James; Finger, Susan E.

    1984-01-01

    The activity of the erythrocyte enzyme δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) was measured in 35 catostomids (black redhorse, Moxostoma duquesnei; golden redhorse, M. erythrurum; northern hogsucker, Hypentelium nigricans) collected from three sites on a stream contaminated with Pb-, Cd-, and Zn-rich mine tailings and from an uncontaminated site upstream. Enzyme activity was expressed in terms of hemoglobin (Hb), DNA, and protein concentrations; these variables can be determined in the laboratory on once-frozen blood samples. Concentrations of Pb and Zn in blood and of Pb in edible tissues were significantly higher, and ALA-D activity was significantly lower, at all three contaminated sites than upstream. At the most contaminated site, ALA-D activity was 62–67% lower than upstream. Lead concentrations in the edible tissues and in blood were positively correlated (r = 0.80), whereas ALA-D activity was negatively correlated with Pb in blood (r = −0.70) and in edible tissues (r = −0.59). Five statistically significant relations between Pb and Zn in blood and ALA-D activity were determined. The two models that explained the highest percentage (> 74%) of the total variance also included factors related to Hb concentration. All five significant models included negative coefficients for variables that represented Pb in blood and positive coefficients for Zn in blood. The ALA-D assay with results standardized to Hb concentration represents an expedient alternative to the more traditional hematocrit standardization, and the measurement of ALA-D activity by this method can be used to document exposure of fish to environmental Pb.

  17. UV shielding with visible transparency based properties of poly (styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/Ag doped ZnO nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rajender; Verma, Karan; Singh, Tejbir; Barman, P. B.; Sharma, Dheeraj

    2018-02-01

    Development of ultraviolet (UV) shielding with visible transparency based thermoplastic polymer nanocomposite (PNs) presents an important requisite in terms of their efficiency and cost. Present study contributed for the same approach by dispersion of Ag doped ZnO nanoparticles upto 10 wt% in poly (styrene-co-acrylonitrile) matrix by insitu emulsion polymerization method. The crystal and chemical structure of PNs has been analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and fourier infrared spectrometer (FTIR) techniques. The morphological and elemental information of synthesized nanomaterial has been studied by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) technique. The optical properties of PNs has been studied by UV-visible spectroscopy technique. The incorporation of nanoparticles in polymer matrix absorb the complete UV light with visible transparency. The present reported polymer nanocomposite (PNs) have tuned refractive index with UV blocking and visible transparency based properties which can serve as a viable alternative as compared to related conventional materials.

  18. Development and testing of a high cycle life 30 A-h sealed AgO-Zn battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogner, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    A two-phase program was initiated to investigate design parameters and technology to develop an improved AgO-Zn battery. The basic performance goal was 100 charge/discharge cycles (22 h/2 h) at 50 percent depth of discharge following a six-month period of charged stand at room temperature. Phase 1, cell evaluation, involved testing 70 cells in five-cell groups. The major design variables were active material ratios, electrolyte concentrations, separator systems, and negative plate shape. Phase 1 testing showed that cycle life could be improved 10 percent to 20 percent by using greater ratios of zinc to silver oxide and higher electrolyte concentrations. Wedge-shaped negatives increased cycle life by nearly 100 percent. Phase 2 battery evaluation, which was initiated before the Phase 1 results were known completely, involved evaluation of six designs as 19-cell batteries. Only one battery exceeded 100 cycles following nine months charged stand.

  19. Phototodynamic activity of zinc monocarboxyphenoxy phthalocyane (ZnMCPPc) conjugated to gold silver (AuAg) nanoparticles in melanoma cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoto, Sello L.; Oluwole, David O.; Malabi, Rudzani; Maphanga, Charles; Ombinda-Lemboumba, Saturnin; Nyokong, Tebello; Mthunzi-Kufa, Patience

    2017-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a minimally invasive therapeutic modality for the treatment of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. In PDT of cancer, irradiation with light of a specific wavelength leads to activation of a photosensitizer which results in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which induces cell death. Many phthalocyanine photosensitizers are hydrophobic and insoluble in water, which limits their therapeutic efficiency. Consequently, advanced delivery systems and strategies are needed to improve the effectiveness of these photosensitizers. Nanoparticles have shown promising results in increasing aqueous solubility, bioavailability, stability and delivery of photosensitizers to their target. This study investigated the photodynamic activity of zinc monocarboxyphenoxy phthalocyanine (ZnMCPPc) conjugated to gold silver (AuAg) nanoparticles in melanoma cancer cells. The photodynamic activity of ZnMCPPc conjugated to AuAg nanoparticles were evaluated using cellular morphology, viability, proliferation and cytotoxicity. Untreated cells showed no changes in cellular morphology, proliferation and cytotoxicity. However, photoactivated ZnMCPPc conjugated to AuAg nanoparticles showed changes in cell morphology and a dose dependent decrease in cellular viability, proliferation and an increase in cell membrane damage. The ZnMCPPc conjugated to AuAg nanoparticles used in this study was highly effective in inducing cell death of melanoma cancer cells.

  20. Removal of dibutyl phthalate from aqueous environments using a nanophotocatalytic Fe, Ag-ZnO/VIS-LED system: modeling and optimization.

    PubMed

    Akbari-Adergani, B; Saghi, M H; Eslami, A; Mohseni-Bandpei, A; Rabbani, M

    2018-06-01

    An (Fe, Ag) co-doped ZnO nanostructure was synthesized by a simple chemical co-precipitation method and used for the degradation of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) in aqueous solution under visible light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation. (Fe, Ag) co-doped ZnO nanorods were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-VIS diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, elemental mapping, Field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis. A Central Composite Design was used to optimize the reaction parameters for the removal of DBP by the (Fe, Ag) co-doped ZnO nanorods. The four main reaction parameters optimized in this study were the following: pH, time of radiation, concentration of the nanorods and initial DBP concentration. The interaction between the four parameters was studied and modeled using the Design Expert 10 software. A maximum reduction of 95% of DBP was achieved at a pH of 3, a photocatalyst concentration of 150 mg L -1 and a DBP initial DBP concentration of 15 mg L -1 . The results showed that the (Fe, Ag) co-doped ZnO nanorods under low power LED irradiation can be used as an effective photocatalyst for the removal of DBP from aqueous solutions.

  1. Aqueous synthesis of highly luminescent AgInS2-ZnS quantum dots and their biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regulacio, Michelle D.; Win, Khin Yin; Lo, Seong Loong; Zhang, Shuang-Yuan; Zhang, Xinhai; Wang, Shu; Han, Ming-Yong; Zheng, Yuangang

    2013-02-01

    Highly emissive and air-stable AgInS2-ZnS quantum dots (ZAIS QDs) with quantum yields of up to 20% have been successfully synthesized directly in aqueous media in the presence of polyacrylic acid (PAA) and mercaptoacetic acid (MAA) as stabilizing and reactivity-controlling agents. The as-prepared water-dispersible ZAIS QDs are around 3 nm in size, possess the tetragonal chalcopyrite crystal structure, and exhibit long fluorescence lifetimes (>100 ns). In addition, these ZAIS QDs are found to exhibit excellent optical and colloidal stability in physiologically relevant pH values as well as very low cytotoxicity, which render them particularly suitable for biological applications. Their potential use in biological labelling of baculoviral vectors is demonstrated.Highly emissive and air-stable AgInS2-ZnS quantum dots (ZAIS QDs) with quantum yields of up to 20% have been successfully synthesized directly in aqueous media in the presence of polyacrylic acid (PAA) and mercaptoacetic acid (MAA) as stabilizing and reactivity-controlling agents. The as-prepared water-dispersible ZAIS QDs are around 3 nm in size, possess the tetragonal chalcopyrite crystal structure, and exhibit long fluorescence lifetimes (>100 ns). In addition, these ZAIS QDs are found to exhibit excellent optical and colloidal stability in physiologically relevant pH values as well as very low cytotoxicity, which render them particularly suitable for biological applications. Their potential use in biological labelling of baculoviral vectors is demonstrated. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Quantum yields, EDX spectrum and photoluminescence decay curves. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr34159c

  2. Release of airborne particles and Ag and Zn compounds from nanotechnology-enabled consumer sprays: Implications for inhalation exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderón, Leonardo; Han, Taewon T.; McGilvery, Catriona M.; Yang, Letao; Subramaniam, Prasad; Lee, Ki-Bum; Schwander, Stephan; Tetley, Teresa D.; Georgopoulos, Panos G.; Ryan, Mary; Porter, Alexandra E.; Smith, Rachel; Chung, Kian Fan; Lioy, Paul J.; Zhang, Junfeng; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2017-04-01

    The increasing prevalence and use of nanotechnology-enabled consumer products have increased potential consumer exposures to nanoparticles; however, there is still a lack of data characterizing such consumer exposure. The research reported here investigated near-field airborne exposures due to the use of 13 silver (Ag)-based and 5 zinc (Zn)-based consumer sprays. The products were sprayed into a specially designed glove box, and all products were applied with equal spraying duration and frequency. Size distribution and concentration of the released particles were assessed using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer and an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to investigate the presence of metals in all investigated products. Spray liquids and airborne particles from select products were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). We found that all sprays produced airborne particles ranging in size from nano-sized particles (<100 nm) to coarse particles (>2.5 μm); however, there was a substantial variation in the released particle concentration depending on a product. The total aerosol mass concentration was dominated by the presence of coarse particles, and it ranged from ∼30 μg/m3 to ∼30,000 μg/m3. The TEM verified the presence of nanoparticles and their agglomerates in liquid and airborne states. The products were found to contain not only Ag and Zn compounds - as advertised on the product labeling - but also a variety of other metals including lithium, strontium, barium, lead, manganese and others. The results presented here can be used as input to model population exposures as well as form a basis for human health effects studies due to the use nanotechnology-enabled products.

  3. CORRELATION OF THE PARTITIONING OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER FRACTIONS WITH THE DESORPTION OF CD, CU, NI, PB AND ZN FROM 18 DUTCH SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eighteen Dutch soils were extracted in aqueous solutions at varying pH. Extracts were analyzed for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn by ICP-AES. Extract dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was also concentrated onto a macroreticular resin and fractionation into three operationally defined fract...

  4. Sulfur isotopes of host strata for Howards Pass (Yukon–Northwest Territories) Zn-Pb deposits implicate anaerobic oxidation of methane, not basin stagnation

    Johnson, Craig A.; Slack, John F.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Kelley, Karen Duttweiler; Falck, Hendrik

    2018-01-01

    A new sulfur isotope stratigraphic profile has been developed for Ordovician-Silurian mudstones that host the Howards Pass Zn-Pb deposits (Canada) in an attempt to reconcile the traditional model of a stagnant euxinic basin setting with new contradictory findings. Our analyses of pyrite confirm the up-section 34S enrichment reported previously, but additional observations show parallel depletion of carbonate 13C, an increase in organic carbon weight percent, and a change in pyrite morphology. Taken together, the data suggest that the 34S enrichment reflects a transition in the mechanism of pyrite formation during diagenesis, not isotopic evolution of a stagnant water mass. Low in the stratigraphic section, pyrite formed mainly in the sulfate reduction zone in association with organic matter–driven bacterial sulfate reduction. In contrast, starting just below the Zn-Pb mineralized horizon, pyrite formed increasingly within the sulfate-methane transition zone in association with anaerobic oxidation of methane. Our new insights on diagenesis have implications for (1) the setting of Zn-Pb ore formation, (2) the reliability of redox proxies involving metals, and (3) the source of ore sulfur for Howards Pass, and potentially for other stratiform Zn-Pb deposits contained in carbonaceous strata.

  5. Study of the Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn dynamics in soil, plants and bee pollen from the region of Teresina (PI), Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Aline S; Araújo, Sebastião B; Souza, Darcet C; Silva, Fábio A Santos e

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize native bee plants regarding their capacity to extract and accumulate trace elements from the soil and its consequences to the sanity of the produced pollen. The trace elements Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn were analyzed in soil, plants and bee pollen from Teresina region (PI), Brazil, by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Considering the studied plant species, Cu and Pb metals presented in the highest levels in the roots of B. platypetala with 47.35 and 32.71 μg.mL(-1) and H. suaveolens with 39.69 and 17.06 μg.mL(-1), respectively, while in the aerial parts Mn and Zn metals presented the highest levels in S. verticillata with 199.18 and 85.73 μg.mL(-1). In the pollen, the levels of Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn vary from 5.44 to 11.75 μg.mL(-1); 34.31 to 85.75 μg.mL(-1); 13.98 to 18.19 μg.mL(-1) and 50.19 to 90.35 μg.mL(-1), respectively. These results indicate that in the apicultural pasture the translocation (from soil to pollen) of Mn and Zn was more effective than in case of Cu and Pb, therefore, the bee pollen can be used as food supplement without causing risks to human health.

  6. A new LiNbO{sub 3}-type polar oxide with closed-shell cations: ZnPbO{sub 3}

    SciT

    Yu, Runze, E-mail: yu.r.aa@m.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: mazuma@msl.titech.ac.jp; Hojo, Hajime; Azuma, Masaki, E-mail: yu.r.aa@m.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: mazuma@msl.titech.ac.jp

    2015-09-07

    A new lithium-niobate (LiNbO{sub 3})-type polar compound, namely, ZnPbO{sub 3} (a = 5.41605(7) Å and c = 14.33151(3) Å), with closed-shell ions only was synthesized under high pressure and high temperature (8 GPa and 1273 K). A point-charge-model calculation based on atomic positions refined by Rietveld analysis of synchrotron X-ray diffraction data gave an electrical ionic polarization of 77 μC/cm{sup 2} along the hexagonal c-axis. Detailed structural analysis indicated that the contribution of Pb{sup 4+} in ZnPbO{sub 3} to the polarization was almost twice as large as that of Sn{sup 4+} in ZnSnO{sub 3}. Transport measurement showed metallic behavior of ZnPbO{sub 3} from room temperature to lowmore » temperature despite the fact that both cations are closed-shell ions.« less

  7. Heavy Metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb and Zn) in Meretrix meretrix Roding, Water and Sediments from Estuaries in Sabah, North Borneo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Mohd. Harun; Sidi, Jovita; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb and Zn) in tissues of Meretrix meretrix Roding (M. meretrix R.), water and sediments from two estuaries were determined. One estuary is located in an urban area of Kota Kinabalu (Likas estuary) and the other in a rural district of Kota Belud (Kota Belud estuary), where both are in Sabah, North of…

  8. Factors affecting the partitioning of Cu, Zn and Pb in boulder coatings and stream sediments in the vicinity of a polymetallic sulfide deposit

    Filipek, L.H.; Chao, T.T.; Carpenter, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    A sequential extraction scheme is utilized to determine the geochemical partitioning of Cu, Zn and Pb among hydrous Mn- and Fe-oxides, organics and residual crystalline silicates and oxides in the minus-80-mesh ( Fe-oxides > Mn-oxides; Zn, Mn-oxides {reversed tilde equals} organics > Fe-oxides; Pb, Fe-oxides > organics > Mn-oxides. In the sediments, organics are the most efficient scavengers of all three ore metals. These results emphasize the importance of organics as sinks for the ore metals, even in environments with high concentrations of Mn- and Fe-oxides. Of the ore metals, Zn appears to be the most mobile, and is partitioned most strongly into the coatings. However, anomaly contrast for hydromorphic Zn, normalized to the MnFe-oxide or organic content, is similar in sediments and coatings. Cu shows the highest anomaly on the boulder coatings, probably due to precipitation of a secondary Cu mineral. In contrast, detrital Pb in the pan concentrates shows a better anomaly than any hydromorphic Pb component. ?? 1981.

  9. Effects of EDTA on phytoextraction of heavy metals (Zn, Mn and Pb) from sludge-amended soil with Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Zaier, Hanen; Ghnaya, Tahar; Ben Rejeb, Kilani; Lakhdar, Abdelbasset; Rejeb, Salwa; Jemal, Fatima

    2010-06-01

    Sludge application is a reliable practice to ameliorate soil fertility. However, repetitive sludge addition represents a potential soil contamination source with heavy metals, which must be extracted. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of Brassica napus to remove metals from soils amended with sludge, and to study the effect of EDTA on this process. Seedlings were cultivated in presence of sludge combined or not with EDTA. Results showed that sludge ameliorate significantly biomass production. This effect was accompanied with an increase in Pb, Zn and Mn shoot concentrations. EDTA application does not affect significantly plant growth. However, this chelator enhances shoot metals accumulation. It's therefore concluded that sludge has a beneficial effect on soil fertility, B. napus can be used for the decontamination of affected soils and that the EDTA addition increases the ability of B. napus to accumulate heavy metals. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Magnetic characteristics of M2FeV3O11 (M = Mg, Zn, Pb, Co, Ni) compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groń, T.; Blonska-Tabero, A.; Filipek, E.; Stokłosa, Z.; Duda, H.; Sawicki, B.

    2018-02-01

    The unusual physical characteristics of the multicomponent oxide systems renewed the interest as the potential cathode materials in high-energy cells. Since the earlier magnetic characteristics were not entirely conclusive, we report the results of dc magnetic measurements including higher harmonics of ac magnetic susceptibility of the M2FeV3O11 (M = Mg, Zn, Pb, Co, Ni) compounds. Ferrimagnetic long-range and antiferromagnetic short-range interactions for all compounds under study at low temperatures as well as superparamagnetic-like behavior with the blocking temperature of 29 K and the freezing parameter of 0.013 were observed. These effects are discussed within the framework of superexchange and double exchange magnetic interactions as well as the mixed valence band of iron ions.

  11. Paleomagnetic Constraints on the age of the Lisheen Zn-Pb Deposit, Ireland: A Pre- Variscan Metamorphosed "MVT" Versus an Epigenetic Variscan Model for Ore Genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pannalal, S. J.; Symons, D. T.; Sangster, D. F.

    2009-05-01

    Lower Carboniferous carbonate units in the Irish Midlands host major Zn-Pb ore deposits in two units, the Navan Group and the Waulsortian Limestone. The age and, therefore, the genesis of these ore deposits remains controversial because of the lack of absolute geochronological constraints. In addition, the effect of the Early Permian Variscan thermal episode, observed by elevated conodont color alteration indices in all Carboniferous strata in Ireland, on the Zn-Pb ore deposits is not clearly understood. This paleomagnetic study was undertaken to date and, thereby, constrain the genesis of the Waulsortian Limestone-hosted Lisheen Zn- Pb ore deposit. Specimens (432) from 12 sites in ore mineralization and 10 sites in host rocks at Lisheen were subjected to alternating-field and thermal step demagnetization protocols. Analysis of these specimens isolated a well-defined stable shallow and southerly-up paleomagnetic characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) direction. Saturation remanence tests, thermal decay data, and a paleomagnetic tilt test indicate a post-folding ChRM that is carried dominantly by single-domain magnetite. The ChRM directions from 8 host rock and 11 Zn-Pb mineralized sites are indistinguishable at 95% confidence, and give a mean paleopole at 41.6° S, 18.8° W (dp = 1.7°, dm = 3.3° ) with a paleomagnetic age of 277 ± 7 (2 σ) Ma on the apparent polar wander path for Laurentia in European coordinates. This Early Permian magnetization postdates peak-Variscan orogenic heating to ˜ 350° C in the surrounding region, suggesting two basic genetic models for Lisheen's Zn-Pb mineralization i.e. Variscan and metamorphosed pre-Variscan. The Variscan model, our preferred interpretation, suggests that the Zn-Pb mineralizing event occurred at 277 Ma during cooling from the regional Variscan thermal episode. This model, in conjunction with other thermal data, supports an entirely epigenetic origin that invokes a topographically-driven fluid flow, either

  12. Initiation of soil formation in weathered sulfidic Cu-Pb-Zn tailings under subtropical and semi-arid climatic conditions.

    PubMed

    You, Fang; Dalal, Ram; Huang, Longbin

    2018-08-01

    Field evidence has been scarce about soil (or technosol) formation and direct phytostabilization of base metal mine tailings under field conditions. The present study evaluated key attributes of soil formation in weathered and neutral Cu-Pb-Zn tailings subject to organic amendment (WC: woodchips) and colonization of pioneer native plant species (mixed native woody and grass plant species) in a 2.5-year field trial under subtropical and semi-arid climatic conditions. Key soil indicators of engineered soil formation process were characterized, including organic carbon fractions, aggregation, microbial community and key enzymatic activities. The majority (64-87%) of the OC was stabilized in microaggregate or organo-mineral complexes in the amended tailings. The levels of OC and water soluble OC were elevated by 2-3 folds across the treatments, with the highest level in the treatment of WC and plant colonization (WC+P). Specifically, the WC+P treatment increased the proportion of water stable macroaggregates. Plants further contributed to the N rich organic matter in the tailings, favouring organo-mineral interactions and organic stabilization. Besides, the plants played a major role in boosting microbial biomass and activities in the treated tailings. WC and plants enhanced the contents of organic carbon (OC) associated with aggregates (e.g., physically protected OC), formation of water-stable aggregates (e.g., micro and macroaggregates), chemical buffering capacity (e.g., cation exchange capacity). Microbial community and enzymatic activities were also stimulated in the amended tailings. The present results showed that the formation of functional technosol was initiated in the eco-engineered and weathered Cu-Pb-Zn tailings under field conditions for direct phytostabilization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Using isotopic dilution to assess chemical extraction of labile Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in soils.

    PubMed

    Garforth, J M; Bailey, E H; Tye, A M; Young, S D; Lofts, S

    2016-07-01

    Chemical extractants used to measure labile soil metal must ideally select for and solubilise the labile fraction, with minimal solubilisation of non-labile metal. We assessed four extractants (0.43 M HNO3, 0.43 M CH3COOH, 0.05 M Na2H2EDTA and 1 M CaCl2) against these requirements. For soils contaminated by contrasting sources, we compared isotopically exchangeable Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb (EValue, mg kg(-1)), with the concentrations of metal solubilised by the chemical extractants (MExt, mg kg(-1)). Crucially, we also determined isotopically exchangeable metal in the soil-extractant systems (EExt, mg kg(-1)). Thus 'EExt - EValue' quantifies the concentration of mobilised non-labile metal, while 'EExt - MExt' represents adsorbed labile metal in the presence of the extractant. Extraction with CaCl2 consistently underestimated EValue for Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb, while providing a reasonable estimate of EValue for Cd. In contrast, extraction with HNO3 both consistently mobilised non-labile metal and overestimated the EValue. Extraction with CH3COOH appeared to provide a good estimate of EValue for Cd; however, this was the net outcome of incomplete solubilisation of labile metal, and concurrent mobilisation of non-labile metal by the extractant (MExtEValue). The Na2H2EDTA extractant mobilised some non-labile metal in three of the four soils, but consistently solubilised the entire labile fraction for all soil-metal combinations (MExt ≈ EExt). Comparison of EValue, MExt and EExt provides a rigorous means of assessing the underlying action of soil chemical extraction methods and could be used to refine long-standing soil extraction methodologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Phytoextraction of Pb, Cr, Ni, and Zn using the aquatic plant Limnobium laevigatum and its potential use in the treatment of wastewater.

    PubMed

    Arán, Daniela Silvina; Harguinteguy, Carlos Alfredo; Fernandez-Cirelli, Alicia; Pignata, María Luisa

    2017-08-01

    In order to study the bioaccumulation of Pb, Cr, Ni, and Zn and the stress response, the floating aquatic plant Limnobium laevigatum was exposed to increasing concentrations of a mixture of these metals for 28 days, and its potential use in the treatment of wastewater was evaluated. The metal concentrations of the treatment 1 (T1) were Pb 1 μg L -1 , Cr 4 μg L -1 , Ni 25 μg L -1 , and Zn 30 μg L -1 ; of treatment 2 (T2) were Pb 70 μg L -1 , Cr 70 μg L -1 , Ni 70 μg L -1 , and Zn 70 μg L -1 ; and of treatment 3 (T3) were Pb 1000 μg L -1 , Cr 1000 μg L -1 , Ni 500 μg L -1 , and Zn 100 μg L -1 , and there was also a control group (without added metal). The accumulation of Pb, Cr, Ni, and Zn in roots was higher than in leaves of L. laevigatum, and the bioconcentration factor revealed that the concentrations of Ni and Zn in the leaf and root exceeded by over a thousand times the concentrations of those in the culture medium (2000 in leaf and 6800 in root for Ni; 3300 in leaf and 11,500 in root for Zn). Thus, this species can be considered as a hyperaccumulator of these metals. In general, the changes observed in the morphological and physiological parameters and the formation of products of lipid peroxidation of membranes during the exposure to moderate concentrations (T2) of the mixture of metals did not cause harmful effects to the survival of the species within the first 14 days of exposure. Taking into account the accumulation capacity and tolerance to heavy metals, L. laevigatum is suitable for phytoremediation in aquatic environments contaminated with moderated concentrations of Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the early stages of exposure.

  15. Assessment of metal concentrations (Cu, Zn, and Pb) in seawater, sediment and biota samples in the coastal area of Eastern Black Sea, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Baltas, Hasan; Sirin, Murat; Dalgic, Goktug; Bayrak, Esra Yilmaz; Akdeniz, Aysel

    2017-09-15

    This study investigated the contents of Cu, Zn and Pb in seawater, sediment, different shell sizes of mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and sea snail (Rapana venosa) samples collected from four different provinces of the Eastern Black Sea Region. With the exception of Zn, all the metal concentration values measured in the sea snail were observed to be higher than those of mussels in all stations. While the correlation between mussels and sea snail according to metal concentrations was found to be positive (p˂0.05), this relation was not observed between the other parameters, such as the shell sizes, salinity and pH (p˃0.05). Although the mean concentration values of Cu, Zn, and Pb for mussel and sea snail are significantly above the tolerable levels, the estimated daily intake values for mussel were below the daily intake recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. SHRIMP U-Pb ages of xenotime and monazite from the Spar Lake red bed-associated Cu-Ag deposit, western Montana: Implications for ore genesis

    Aleinikoff, John N.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Evans, Karl V.; Mazdab, Frank K.; Pillers, Renee M.; Fanning, C. Mark

    2012-01-01

    Xenotime occurs as epitaxial overgrowths on detrital zircons in the Mesoproterozoic Revett Formation (Belt Supergroup) at the Spar Lake red bed-associated Cu-Ag deposit, western Montana. The deposit formed during diagenesis of Revett strata, where oxidizing metal-bearing hydrothermal fluids encountered a reducing zone. Samples for geochronology were collected from several mineral zones. Xenotime overgrowths (1–30 μm wide) were found in polished thin sections from five ore and near-ore zones (chalcocite-chlorite, bornite-calcite, galena-calcite, chalcopyrite-ankerite, and pyrite-calcite), but not in more distant zones across the region. Thirty-two in situ SHRIMP U-Pb analyses on xenotime overgrowths yield a weighted average of 207Pb/206Pb ages of 1409 ± 8 Ma, interpreted as the time of mineralization. This age is about 40 to 60 m.y. after deposition of the Revett Formation. Six other xenotime overgrowths formed during a younger event at 1304 ± 19 Ma. Several isolated grains of xenotime have 207Pb/206Pb ages in the range of 1.67 to 1.51 Ga, and thus are considered detrital in origin. Trace element data can distinguish Spar Lake xenotimes of different origins. Based on in situ SHRIMP analysis, detrital xenotime has heavy rare earth elements-enriched patterns similar to those of igneous xenotime, whereas xenotime overgrowths of inferred hydrothermal origin have hump-shaped (i.e., middle rare earth elements-enriched) patterns. The two ages of hydrothermal xenotime can be distinguished by slightly different rare earth elements patterns. In addition, 1409 Ma xenotime overgrowths have higher Eu and Gd contents than the 1304 Ma overgrowths. Most xenotime overgrowths from the Spar Lake deposit have elevated As concentrations, further suggesting a genetic relationship between the xenotime formation and Cu-Ag mineralization.

  17. Simultaneous Stripping Detection of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) Using a Bimetallic Hg-Bi/Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Composite Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Ruizhuo; Zhu, Zhenqian; Tatum, Clarissa E.; Chambers, James Q.; Xue, Zi-Ling

    2011-01-01

    A new, sensitive platform for the simultaneous electrochemical assay of Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) in aqueous solution has been developed. The platform is based on a new bimetallic Hg-Bi/single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) composite modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE), demonstrating remarkably improved performance for the anodic stripping assay of Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II). The synergistic effect of Hg and Bi as well as the enlarged, activated surface and good electrical conductivity of SWNTs on GCE contribute to the enhanced activity of the proposed electrode. The analytical curves for Zn(II), Cd(II) an Pb(II) cover two linear ranges varying from 0.5 to 11 μg L-1 and 10 to 130 μg L-1 with correlation coefficients higher than 0.992. The limits of detection for Zn(II), Cd(II) are lower than 2 μg L-1 (S/N = 3). For Pb(II), moreover, there is another lower, linear range from 5 to 1100 ng L-1 with a coefficient of 0.987 and a detection limit of 0.12 ng L-1. By using the standard addition method, Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in river samples were successfully determined. These results suggest that the proposed method can be applied as a simple, efficient alternative for the simultaneous monitoring of heavy metals in water samples. In addition, this method demonstrates the powerful application of carbon nanotubes in electrochemical analysis of heavy metals. PMID:21660117

  18. Distribution of Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu and their chemical speciations in soils from a peri-smelter area in northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Ping; Xue, Nandong; Liu, Li; Li, Fasheng

    2008-07-01

    An exploratory study on soil contamination of heavy metals was carried out surrounding Huludao zinc smelter in Liaoning province, China. The distribution of total heavy metals and their chemical speciations were investigated. The correlations between heavy metal speciations and soil pH values in corresponding sites were also analyzed. In general, Cd, Zn, Pb, Cu and As presented a significant contamination in the area near the smelter, comparied with Environmental Quality Standards for Soils in China. The geoaccumulation index showed the degree of contamination: Cd > Zn > Pb > Cu > As. There was no obvious pollution of Cr and Ni in the studied area. The speciation analysis showed that the dominant fraction of Cd and Zn was the acid soluble fraction, and the second was the residual fraction. Pb was mostly associated with the residual fraction, which constituted more than 50% of total concentration in all samples. Cu in residual fraction accounted for a high percentage (40-80%) of total concentration, and the proportion of Cu in the oxidizable fraction is higher than that of other metals. The distribution pattern of Pb and Zn was obviously affected by soil pH. It seemed that Pb and Zn content in acid solution fraction increased with increasing soil pH values, while Cd content in acid soluble fraction accounted for more proportion in neutral and alkaline groups than acidic one. The fraction distribution patterns of Cu in three pH groups were very similar and independent of soil pH values. And the residual fraction of Cu took a predominant part (50%) of the total content.

  19. A photoelectrochemical biosensor for fibroblast-like synoviocyte cell using visible light-activated NCQDs sensitized-ZnO/CH3NH3PbI3 heterojunction.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xuehui; Zhang, Yong; Pan, Jihong; Zhao, Yanxia; Chen, Yao; Ren, Xiang; Ma, Hongmin; Wei, Qin; Du, Bin

    2016-03-15

    Based on ZnO nanorods (NRs)/CH3NH3PbI3/nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots (NCQDs) nanocomposites, the highly sensitive detection of fibroblast-like synoviocyte (FLS) cell was realized by a photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensor. ZnO/CH3NH3PbI3/NCQDs nanocomposites were exploited as the photo-to-electron generator to produce the signal. CH3NH3PbI3 was spin-coated on ZnO surface after ZnO NRs grew on ITO electrode then by dropping on the modified electrode, NCQDs were diffused and adhered to the surface of ZnO and CH3NH3PbI3. In the presence of EDC/NHS, the combination of CH3NH3PbI3 and NCQDs was achieved by the carboxyl groups (-COOH) and amino groups (-NH2) in the preparation process. Furthermore, the capture probe of FLS cell, CD95 antibody, can be anchored by -COOH and -NH2 groups through EDC/NHS. The specific recognition between the antibody capture probes and cell targets gained high-sensitive detection for FLS cell for the first time. The developed biosensor showed a wide linear range from 1.0 × 10(4)cell/mL to 10 cell/mL and a low detection limit of 2 cell/mL. This kind of biosensor would provide a novel detection strategy for FLS cell. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mass change calculations of hydrothermal alterations within the volcanogenic metasediments hosted Cu-Pb (-Zn) mineralization at Halilar area, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiran Yildirim, Demet; Abdelnasser, Amr; Doner, Zeynep; Kumral, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    The Halilar Cu-Pb (-Zn) mineralization that is formed in the volcanogenic metasediments of Bagcagiz Formation at Balikesir province, NW Turkey, represents locally vein-type deposit as well as restricted to fault gouge zone directed NE-SW along with the lower boundary of Bagcagiz Formation and Duztarla granitic intrusion in the study area. Furthermore, This granite is traversed by numerous mineralized sheeted vein systems, which locally transgress into the surrounding metasediments. Therefore, this mineralization closely associated with intense hydrothermal alteration within brecciation, and quartz stockwork veining. The ore mineral assemblage includes chalcopyrite, galena, and some sphalerite with covellite and goethite formed during three phases of mineralization (pre-ore, main ore, and supergene) within an abundant gangue of quartz and calcite. The geologic and field relationships, petrographic and mineralogical studies reveal two alteration zones occurred with the Cu-Pb (-Zn) mineralization along the contact between the Bagcagiz Formation and Duztarla granite; pervasive phyllic alteration (quartz, sericite, and pyrite), and selective propylitic alteration (albite, calcite, epidote, sericite and/or chlorite). This work, by using the mass balance calculations, reports the mass/volume changes (gain and loss) of the chemical components of the hydrothermal alteration zones associated with Halilar Cu-Pb (-Zn) mineralization at Balikesir area (Turkey). It revealed that the phyllic alteration has enrichments of Si, Fe, K, Ba, and LOI with depletion of Mg, Ca, and Na reflect sericitization of alkali feldspar and destruction of ferromagnesian minerals. This zone has high Cu and Pb with Zn contents represents the main mineralized zone. On the other hand, the propylitic zone is characterized by addition of Ca, Na, K, Ti, P, and Ba with LOI and Cu (lower content) referring to the replacement of plagioclase and ferromagnesian minerals by albite, calcite, epidote, and sericite