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Sample records for zn superoxide dismutase

  1. Superoxide Dismutase

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Edward H.; Bennett, Jesse H.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental chemical N-[2-(2-oxo-1-imidazolidinyl)ethyl]-N′-phenylurea (EDU), is an effective protectant against acute and chronic foliar injury due to ozone (03) when sprayed on intact leaves or supplied to the plants through soil application. An 03-sensitive snap bean cultivar (Phaseolus vulgaris L. `Bush Blue Lake 290') was systemically treated with EDU (0, 25, 50, and 100 milligrams per 15-centimeter diameter pot) to determine if EDU-induced or activated protective oxyradical and peroxyl scavenging enzymes. EDU-enhanced tolerance to O3 injury always correlated with increases in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities in the leaves. Peroxidase levels correlated more closely with foliar injury. Greater SOD levels in young leves compared to older leaves were associated with lower ozone sensitivities in these tissues. Polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis separations and specific determinations of SOD activity showed that EDU-treated plants possessed markedly greater SOD activity than non-treated plants. Tolerant plant tissues may have enhanced enzyme scavenging capabilities for the protection against toxic oxyradicals. Experimental confirmation for the oxyradical theory for O3 phytotoxicity and SOD involvement in the detoxification process are presented. Images PMID:16662420

  2. Isolation and characterization of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase in Fasciola gigantica.

    PubMed

    Lalrinkima, H; Raina, O K; Chandra, Dinesh; Jacob, Siju Susan; Bauri, R K; Chandra, Subhash; Yadav, H S; Singh, M N; Rialch, A; Varghese, A; Banerjee, P S; Kaur, Navneet; Sharma, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    A full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase was isolated from Fasciola gigantica that on nucleotide sequencing showed a close homology (98.9%) with Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) of the temperate liver fluke, F. hepatica. Expression of the gene was found in all the three developmental stages of the parasite viz. adult, newly excysted juvenile and metacercaria at transcriptional level by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and at the protein level by Western blotting. F. gigantica Cu/Zn-SOD cDNA was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Enzyme activity of the recombinant protein was determined by nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and this activity was inactivated by hydrogen peroxide but not by sodium azide, indicating that the recombinant protein is Cu/Zn-SOD. The enzyme activity was relatively stable at a broad pH range of pH 4.0-10.0. Native Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase protein was detected in the somatic extract and excretory-secretory products of the adult F. gigantica by Western blotting. NBT-PAGE showed a single Cu/Zn-SOD present in the somatic extract while three SODs are released ex vivo by the adult parasite. The recombinant superoxide dismutase did not react with the serum from buffaloes infected with F. gigantica. The role of this enzyme in defense by the parasite against the host reactive oxygen species is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Novel inhibitors to Taenia solium Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase identified by virtual screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Gutiérrez, P.; Landa-Piedra, A.; Rodríguez-Romero, A.; Parra-Unda, R.; Rojo-Domínguez, A.

    2011-12-01

    We describe in this work a successful virtual screening and experimental testing aimed to the identification of novel inhibitors of superoxide dismutase of the worm Taenia solium ( TsCu/Zn-SOD), a human parasite. Conformers from LeadQuest® database of drug-like compounds were selected and then docked on the surface of TsCu/Zn-SOD. Results were screened looking for ligand contacts with receptor side-chains not conserved in the human homologue, with a subsequent development of a score optimization by a set of energy minimization steps, aimed to identify lead compounds for in vitro experiments. Six out of fifty experimentally tested compounds showed μM inhibitory activity toward TsCu/Zn-SOD. Two of them showed species selectivity since did not inhibit the homologous human enzyme when assayed in vitro.

  4. [Cu,Zn]-Superoxide Dismutase Mutants of the Swine Pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Are Unattenuated in Infections of the Natural Host

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, Brian J.; Langford, Paul R.; Rycroft, Andrew N.; Kroll, J. Simon

    2000-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, contains a periplasmic Cu- and Zn-cofactored superoxide dismutase ([Cu,Zn]-SOD, or SodC) which has the potential, realized in other pathogens, to promote bacterial survival during infection by dismutating host-defense-derived superoxide. Here we describe the construction of a site-specific, [Cu,Zn]-SOD-deficient A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 mutant and show that although the mutant is highly sensitive to the microbicidal action of superoxide in vitro, it remains fully virulent in experimental pulmonary infection in pigs. PMID:10899887

  5. Erythrocyte CuZn superoxide dismutase activity is decreased in iron-deficiency anemia.

    PubMed

    Olivares, M; Araya, M; Pizarro, F; Letelier, A

    2006-09-01

    Iron and copper are essential microminerals that are intimately related. The present study was performed to determine the effect of iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) and treatment with iron on laboratory indicators of copper status. Hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume erythrocyte Zn protoporphyrin, serum ferritin, serum copper, serum ceruloplasmin, and erythrocyte CuZn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were studied in 12 adult women with IDA before and after iron treatment for 60-90 d (100 mg/d Fe, as ferric polymaltose) and in 27 women with normal iron status. Prior to treatment with iron, serum copper and ceruloplasmin were not different between the groups and treatment with iron did not affect these measures. IDA women, before and after treatment with iron, presented a 2.9- and 2-fold decrease in erythrocyte CuZn-SOD activity compared to women with normal iron status (p < 0.001). Treatment with iron increased erythrocyte CuZn-SOD activity of the IDA group; however, this change was not statistically significant. In conclusion, CuZn-SOD activity is decreased in IDA. Measurement of this enzyme activity is not useful for evaluating copper nutrition in iron-deficient subjects.

  6. Flexibility of the Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase structure investigated at 0.57 GPa.

    PubMed

    Ascone, Isabella; Savino, Carmelinda; Kahn, Richard; Fourme, Roger

    2010-06-01

    The 2 A resolution crystal structure of bovine erythrocyte Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) has been determined by X-ray diffraction at high pressure (0.57 GPa) and room temperature. At 0.57 GPa the secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures are similar to other previously determined bovine erythrocyte CuZnSOD structures. Nevertheless, pressure has a localized impact on the atomic coordinates of C(alpha) atoms and on side chains. The compression of the crystal and of the protein backbone is anisotropic. This anisotropy is discussed, taking into account intermolecular contacts and protein conformation. Pressure perturbation highlights the more flexible zones in the protein such as the electrostatic loop. At 0.57 GPa, a global shift of the dimetallic sites in both subunits and changes in the oxidation state of Cu were observed. The flexibility of the electrostatic loop may be useful for the interaction of different metal carriers in the copper-uptake process, whereas the flexibility of the metal sites involved in the activity of the protein could contribute to explaining the ubiquitous character of CuZnSODs, which are found in organisms living in very different conditions, including the deep-sea environment. This work illustrates the potential of combining X-ray crystallography with high pressure to promote and stabilize higher energy conformational substates.

  7. Purification and properties of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase extracted from Brucella abortus strain 19

    SciTech Connect

    Tabatabai, L.B.

    Recent work showed that a recombinant 20 kDa protein from Brucella abortus expressed in E. coli is a Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD). Western blot and ELISA results indicated that cattle with brucellosis have antibody to SOD. Here the authors report the purification and properties of the native B. abortus Cu-Zn SOD. SOD was extracted from methanol-killed Brucella abortus strain 19 with 0.1 M sodium citrate-1.0 M sodium chloride solution. The extract was dialyzed and protein precipitated by ammonium sulfate at 70-100% saturation was collected. The SOD was purified by HPLC anion exchange chromatography. SOD activity was assayed with a coupledmore » enzyme assay using xanthine oxidase-cytochrome C reduction assay. The authors determined that the Brucella SOD is present in two molecular forms both inhibitable with KCN with Ki's of 0.32 mM and 4.98 mM, respectively. No other form of SOD was identified in the extract. Polyclonal antibody to SOD and polyclonal antibody to SOD synthetic peptide residues 134-143 inhibited SOD activity by 50% and 13%, respectively. Both SOD and the synthetic peptide inhibited binding of anti-SOD antibody to SOD by 60% and 20%, respectively. Based on these results the SOD and its amphipathic peptide will be considered as candidates for the design of synthetic multiple peptide vaccines and diagnostic reagents for bovine brucellosis.« less

  8. Properties of purified cytosolic isoenzyme I of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia leaves.

    PubMed

    Ragusa, S; Cambria, M T; Scarpa, M; Di Paolo, M L; Falconi, M; Rigo, A; Cambria, A

    2001-11-01

    The isoenzyme I of cytosolic Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia (tobacco) leaves has been purified to apparent homogeneity. The relative molecular mass of the native isoenzyme, determined by gel filtration chromatography, is about 33.2 kDa. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis shows that the enzyme is composed of two equal subunits of 16.6 kDa The isolectric point, assayed by isoelectric focusing, in the pH range of 3.5-6.5, is 4.3. The enzyme stability was tested at different temperatures, pH, and concentration of inhibitors (KCN and H(2)O(2)). The catalytic constant (k(cat)) was 1.17 +/- 0.14 x 10(9) M(-1) s(-1) at pH 9.9 and 0.1 M ionic strength. The activation energy of the thermal denaturation process is 263 kJ mol(-1). The electrostatic surface potential of the modeled tobacco Cu,Zn-SOD I was calculated showing that the functional spatial network of charges on the protein surface has been maintained, independently of the amino acid substitution around the active sites. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  9. Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase: cloning and analysis of the Taenia solium gene and Taenia crassiceps cDNA.

    PubMed

    Parra-Unda, Ricardo; Vaca-Paniagua, Felipe; Jiménez, Lucia; Landa, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Cytosolic Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide (O(2)(-)) to oxygen and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and plays an important role in the establishment and survival of helminthes in their hosts. In this work, we describe the Taenia solium Cu,Zn-SOD gene (TsCu,Zn-SOD) and a Taenia crassiceps (TcCu,Zn-SOD) cDNA. TsCu,Zn-SOD gene that spans 2.841 kb, and has three exons and two introns; the splicing junctions follow the GT-AG rule. Analysis in silico of the gene revealed that the 5'-flanking region has three putative TATA and CCAAT boxes, and transcription factor binding sites for NF1 and AP1. The transcription start site was a C, located at 22 nucleotides upstream of the translation start codon (ATG). Southern blot analysis showed that TcCu,Zn-SOD and TsCu,Zn-SOD genes are encoded by a single copy. The deduced amino acid sequences of TsCu,Zn-SOD gene and TcCu,Zn-SOD cDNA reveal 98.47% of identity, and the characteristic motives, including the catalytic site and β-barrel structure of the Cu,Zn-SOD. Proteomic and immunohistochemical analysis indicated that Cu,Zn-SOD does not have isoforms, is distributed throughout the bladder wall and is concentrated in the tegument of T. solium and T. crassiceps cysticerci. Expression analysis revealed that TcCu,Zn-SOD mRNA and protein expression levels do not change in cysticerci, even upon exposure to O(2)(-) (0-3.8 nmol/min) and H(2)O(2) (0-2mM), suggesting that this gene is constitutively expressed in these parasites. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase structure from a microbial pathogen establishes a class with a conserved dimer interface.

    PubMed

    Forest, K T; Langford, P R; Kroll, J S; Getzoff, E D

    2000-02-11

    Macrophages and neutrophils protect animals from microbial infection in part by issuing a burst of toxic superoxide radicals when challenged. To counteract this onslaught, many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens possess periplasmic Cu,Zn superoxide dismutases (SODs), which act on superoxide to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. We have solved the X-ray crystal structure of the Cu,Zn SOD from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, a major porcine pathogen, by molecular replacement at 1.9 A resolution. The structure reveals that the dimeric bacterial enzymes form a structurally homologous class defined by a water-mediated dimer interface, and share with all Cu,Zn SODs the Greek-key beta-barrel subunit fold with copper and zinc ions located at the base of a deep loop-enclosed active-site channel. Our structure-based sequence alignment of the bacterial enzymes explains the monomeric nature of at least two of these, and suggests that there may be at least one additional structural class for the bacterial SODs. Two metal-mediated crystal contacts yielded our C222(1) crystals, and the geometry of these sites could be engineered into proteins recalcitrant to crystallization in their native form. This work highlights structural differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic Cu,Zn SODs, as well as similarities and differences among prokaryotic SODs, and lays the groundwork for development of antimicrobial drugs that specifically target periplasmic Cu,Zn SODs of bacterial pathogens. Copyright 12000 Academic Press.

  11. Characterization of fish Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase and its protection from oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ken, Chuian-Fu; Lin, Chi-Tsai; Shaw, Jei-Fu; Wu, Jen-Leih

    2003-01-01

    Copper/zinc superoxide dismutase was cloned from the zebrafish ( Danio rerio). The full coding region of the zebrafish superoxide dismutase (ZSOD) complementary DNA was ligated with pET-20b(+) and successfully expressed in Escherichia coli strain AD494(DE3)pLysS. The active enzyme was purified by His tagging. The ZSOD yield was 6 mg from 0.2 L of E. coli culture, and the specific activity was 2000 U/mg as assayed using a RANSOD kit. The enzyme stability was characterized by reaction to temperature, pH, and detergent treatment. The results showed enzyme activity was still active after heat treatment at 70 degrees C for 10 minutes, resistant to pH treatment from 2.3 to 12, and resistant to treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) under 4%. In addition, the recombinant ZSOD was used to protect fish from 100 ppm of paraquat-induced oxidative injury by soaking fish larva in 55 micro g/ml SOD enzyme. The results were significant.

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (CSI-Cu,Zn-SOD) gene.

    PubMed

    Sujiwattanarat, Penporn; Pongsanarakul, Parinya; Temsiripong, Yosapong; Temsiripong, Theeranan; Thawornkuno, Charin; Uno, Yoshinobu; Unajak, Sasimanas; Matsuda, Yoichi; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Srikulnath, Kornsorn

    2016-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) is an antioxidant enzyme found in all living cells. It regulates oxidative stress by breaking down superoxide radicals to oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. A gene coding for Cu,Zn-SOD was cloned and characterized from Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis; CSI). The full-length expressed sequence tag (EST) of this Cu,Zn-SOD gene (designated as CSI-Cu,Zn-SOD) contained 462bp encoding a protein of 154 amino acids without signal peptides, indicated as intracellular CSI-Cu,Zn-SOD. This agreed with the results from the phylogenetic tree, which indicated that CSI-Cu,Zn-SOD belonged to the intracellular Cu,Zn-SOD. Chromosomal location determined that the CSI-Cu,Zn-SOD was localized to the proximal region of the Siamese crocodile chromosome 1p. Several highly conserved motifs, two conserved signature sequences (GFHVHEFGDNT and GNAGGRLACGVI), and conserved amino acid residues for binding copper and zinc (His(47), His(49), His(64), His(72), His(81), Asp(84), and His(120)) were also identified in CSI-Cu,Zn-SOD. Real-time PCR analysis showed that CSI-Cu,Zn-SOD mRNA was expressed in all the tissues examined (liver, pancreas, lung, kidney, heart, and whole blood), which suggests a constitutively expressed gene in these tissues. Expression of the gene in Escherichia coli cells followed by purification yielded a recombinant CSI-Cu,Zn-SOD, with Km and Vmax values of 6.075mM xanthine and 1.4×10(-3)mmolmin(-1)mg(-1), respectively. This Vmax value was 40 times lower than native Cu,Zn-SOD (56×10(-3)mmolmin(-1)mg(-1)), extracted from crocodile erythrocytes. This suggests that cofactors, protein folding properties, or post-translational modifications were lost during the protein purification process, leading to a reduction in the rate of enzyme activity in bacterial expression of CSI-Cu,Zn-SOD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Structural, functional and immunogenic insights on Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase pathogenic virulence factors from Neisseria meningitidis and Brucella abortus

    DOE PAGES

    Pratt, Ashley J.; DiDonato, Michael; Shin, David S.; ...

    2015-10-12

    Bacterial pathogens Neisseria meningitidis and Brucella abortus pose threats to human and animal health worldwide, causing meningococcal disease and brucellosis, respectively. Mortality from acute N. meningitidis infections remains high despite antibiotics, and brucellosis presents alimentary and health consequences. Superoxide dismutases are master regulators of reactive oxygen, general pathogenicity factors and therefore therapeutic targets. Cu,Zn superoxide dismutases (SODs) localized to the periplasm promote survival by detoxifying superoxide radicals generated by major host antimicrobial immune responses. We discovered that passive immunization with an antibody directed at N. meningitidis SOD (NmSOD) was protective in a mouse infection model. To define the relevant atomicmore » details and solution assembly states of this important virulence factor, we report high-resolution and X-ray scattering analyses of NmSOD and SOD from B. abortus (BaSOD). The NmSOD structures revealed an auxiliary tetrahedral Cu-binding site bridging the dimer interface; mutational analyses suggested that this metal site contributes to protein stability, with implications for bacterial defense mechanisms. Biochemical and structural analyses informed us about electrostatic substrate guidance, dimer assembly and an exposed C-terminal epitope in the NmSOD dimer. In contrast, the monomeric BaSOD structure provided insights for extending immunogenic peptide epitopes derived from the protein. These collective results reveal unique contributions of SOD to pathogenic virulence, refine predictive motifs for distinguishing SOD classes and suggest general targets for anti-bacterial immune responses. The identified functional contributions, motifs, and targets distinguishing bacterial and eukaryotic SOD assemblies presented here provide a foundation for efforts to develop SOD-specific inhibitors or vaccines against these harmful pathogens. IMPORTANCE By protecting microbes against reactive oxygen

  14. Structural, functional and immunogenic insights on Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase pathogenic virulence factors from Neisseria meningitidis and Brucella abortus

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Ashley J.; DiDonato, Michael; Shin, David S.

    Bacterial pathogens Neisseria meningitidis and Brucella abortus pose threats to human and animal health worldwide, causing meningococcal disease and brucellosis, respectively. Mortality from acute N. meningitidis infections remains high despite antibiotics, and brucellosis presents alimentary and health consequences. Superoxide dismutases are master regulators of reactive oxygen, general pathogenicity factors and therefore therapeutic targets. Cu,Zn superoxide dismutases (SODs) localized to the periplasm promote survival by detoxifying superoxide radicals generated by major host antimicrobial immune responses. We discovered that passive immunization with an antibody directed at N. meningitidis SOD (NmSOD) was protective in a mouse infection model. To define the relevant atomicmore » details and solution assembly states of this important virulence factor, we report high-resolution and X-ray scattering analyses of NmSOD and SOD from B. abortus (BaSOD). The NmSOD structures revealed an auxiliary tetrahedral Cu-binding site bridging the dimer interface; mutational analyses suggested that this metal site contributes to protein stability, with implications for bacterial defense mechanisms. Biochemical and structural analyses informed us about electrostatic substrate guidance, dimer assembly and an exposed C-terminal epitope in the NmSOD dimer. In contrast, the monomeric BaSOD structure provided insights for extending immunogenic peptide epitopes derived from the protein. These collective results reveal unique contributions of SOD to pathogenic virulence, refine predictive motifs for distinguishing SOD classes and suggest general targets for anti-bacterial immune responses. The identified functional contributions, motifs, and targets distinguishing bacterial and eukaryotic SOD assemblies presented here provide a foundation for efforts to develop SOD-specific inhibitors or vaccines against these harmful pathogens. IMPORTANCE By protecting microbes against reactive oxygen

  15. Developmental and environmental regulation of the Nicotiana plumbaginifolia cytosolic Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase promoter in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed Central

    Hérouart, D; Van Montagu, M; Inzé, D

    1994-01-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) play a key role in the cellular defense against reactive oxygen species. To study the transcriptional regulation at the cellular level, the promoter of the Nicotiana plumbaginifolia cytosolic gene encoding Cu/ZnSOD (SODCc) was fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene (gusA) and analyzed in transgenic tobacco plants. The promoter was highly active in vascular bundles of leaves and stems, where it is confined to phloem cells. In flowers, GUS activity was detected in ovules and pollen grains, in pigmented tissues of petals, and in vascular tissue of ovaries and anthers. In response to treatment with the superoxide-generating herbicide paraquat, very strong GUS staining was observed in photosynthetically active cells of leaves and in some epidermal root cells of seedlings. The expression of the SODCc-gusA was also induced in seedlings after heat shock and chilling and after treatment with sulfhydryl antioxidants such as reduced glutathione and cysteine. It is postulated that SODCc expression is directly linked to a cell-specific production of excess superoxide radicals in the cytosol. PMID:8165260

  16. Developmental and environmental regulation of the Nicotiana plumbaginifolia cytosolic Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase promoter in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Hérouart, D; Van Montagu, M; Inzé, D

    1994-03-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) play a key role in the cellular defense against reactive oxygen species. To study the transcriptional regulation at the cellular level, the promoter of the Nicotiana plumbaginifolia cytosolic gene encoding Cu/ZnSOD (SODCc) was fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene (gusA) and analyzed in transgenic tobacco plants. The promoter was highly active in vascular bundles of leaves and stems, where it is confined to phloem cells. In flowers, GUS activity was detected in ovules and pollen grains, in pigmented tissues of petals, and in vascular tissue of ovaries and anthers. In response to treatment with the superoxide-generating herbicide paraquat, very strong GUS staining was observed in photosynthetically active cells of leaves and in some epidermal root cells of seedlings. The expression of the SODCc-gusA was also induced in seedlings after heat shock and chilling and after treatment with sulfhydryl antioxidants such as reduced glutathione and cysteine. It is postulated that SODCc expression is directly linked to a cell-specific production of excess superoxide radicals in the cytosol.

  17. Purification of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase from Piper betle leaf and its characterization in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Ching; Lee, Miau-Rong; Chen, Chao-Jung; Lin, Yung-Chang; Ho, Heng-Chien

    2015-03-04

    The aim of this study was to purify protein(s) from Piper betle leaf for identification and further characterization. A functionally unknown protein was purified to apparent homogeneity with a molecular mass of 15.7 kDa and identified as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD). The purified SOD appeared to be monomeric and converted to its dimeric form with increased enzymatic activity in betel nut oral extract. This irreversible conversion was mainly induced by slaked lime, resulting from the increase in pH of the oral cavity. Oral extract from chewing areca nut alone also induced SOD dimerization due to the presence of arginine. The enhanced activity of the SOD dimer was responsible for the continuous production of hydrogen peroxide in the oral cavity. Thus, SOD may contribute to oral carcinogenesis through the continuous formation of hydrogen peroxide in the oral cavity, in spite of its protective role against cancer in vivo.

  18. Activation of CuZn superoxide dismutases from Caenorhabditis elegans does not require the copper chaperone CCS.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Laran T; Culotta, Valeria Cizewski

    2005-12-16

    Reactive oxygen species are produced as the direct result of aerobic metabolism and can cause damage to DNA, proteins, and lipids. A principal defense against reactive oxygen species involves the superoxide dismutases (SOD) that act to detoxify superoxide anions. Activation of CuZn-SODs in eukaryotic cells occurs post-translationally and is generally dependent on the copper chaperone for SOD1 (CCS), which inserts the catalytic copper cofactor and catalyzes the oxidation of a conserved disulfide bond that is essential for activity. In contrast to other eukaryotes, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans does not contain an obvious CCS homologue, and we have found that the C. elegans intracellular CuZn-SODs (wSOD-1 and wSOD-5) are not dependent on CCS for activation when expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. CCS-independent activation of CuZn-SODs is not unique to C. elegans; however, this is the first organism identified that appears to exclusively use this alternative pathway. As was found for mammalian SOD1, wSOD-1 exhibits a requirement for reduced glutathione in CCS-independent activation. Unexpectedly, wSOD-1 was inactive even in the presence of CCS when glutathione was depleted. Our investigation of the cysteine residues that form the disulfide bond in wSOD-1 suggests that the ability of wSODs to readily form this disulfide bond may be the key to obtaining high levels of activation through the CCS-independent pathway. Overall, these studies demonstrate that the CuZn-SODs of C. elegans have uniquely evolved to acquire copper without the copper chaperone and this may reflect the lifestyle of this organism.

  19. Crystal structure of bovine Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase at 3 A resolution: chain tracing and metal ligands.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, J; Thomas, K A; Rubin, B H; Richardson, D C

    1975-01-01

    An electron density map at 3 angstrom resolution has been calculated for Cu2+, Zn2+ superoxide dismutase from bovine erythrocytes, and the course of the main chain has been traced. The dominant structural feature is an 8-stranded barrel of antiparallel beta-pleated sheet. There is one very short helical section and two long loops of non-repetitive structure. The Cu and Zn are bound between the loops and one side of the beta barrel and are about 6 Angstrom apart, with a common histidine ligand. The Cu has four histidine ligands in a somewhat distorted square plane, and the Zn has three histidines and an aspartate in approximately tetrahedral arrangement. The two coppers of a dimer are about 34 Angstrom apart. The two subunits have essentially the same conformation and have an extensive contact area that mainly involves hydrophobic side chain interactions. The overall folding pattern of the polypeptide chain is very similar to that of an immunoglobulin domain. Images PMID:1055410

  20. Evolutionary conservativeness of electric field in the Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase active site. Evidence for co-ordinated mutation of charged amino acid residues.

    PubMed

    Desideri, A; Falconi, M; Polticelli, F; Bolognesi, M; Djinovic, K; Rotilio, G

    1992-01-05

    Equipotential lines were calculated, using the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, for six Cu,Zn superoxide dismutases with different protein electric charge and various degrees of sequence homology, namely those from ox, pig, sheep, yeast, and the isoenzymes A and B from the amphibian Xenopus laevis. The three-dimensional structures of the porcine and ovine superoxide dismutases were obtained by molecular modelling reconstruction using the structure of the highly homologous bovine enzyme as a template. The three-dimensional structure of the evolutionary distant yeast Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase was recently resolved by us, while computer-modelled structures are available for X. laevis isoenzymes. The six proteins display large differences in the net protein charge and distribution of electrically charged surface residues but the trend of the equipotential lines in the proximity of the active sites was found to be constant in all cases. These results are in line with the very similar catlytic rate constants experimentally measured for the corresponding enzyme activities. This analysis shows that electrostatic guidance for the enzyme-substrate interaction in Cu,Zn superoxide dismutases is related to a spatial distribution of charges, arranged so as to maintain, in the area surrounding the active sites, an identical electrostatic potential distribution, which is conserved in the evolution of this protein family.

  1. Structural, Functional, and Immunogenic Insights on Cu,Zn Superoxide Dismutase Pathogenic Virulence Factors from Neisseria meningitidis and Brucella abortus

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Ashley J.; DiDonato, Michael; Shin, David S.; Cabelli, Diane E.; Bruns, Cami K.; Belzer, Carol A.; Gorringe, Andrew R.; Langford, Paul R.; Tabatabai, Louisa B.; Kroll, J. Simon; Tainer, John A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial pathogens Neisseria meningitidis and Brucella abortus pose threats to human and animal health worldwide, causing meningococcal disease and brucellosis, respectively. Mortality from acute N. meningitidis infections remains high despite antibiotics, and brucellosis presents alimentary and health consequences. Superoxide dismutases are master regulators of reactive oxygen and general pathogenicity factors and are therefore therapeutic targets. Cu,Zn superoxide dismutases (SODs) localized to the periplasm promote survival by detoxifying superoxide radicals generated by major host antimicrobial immune responses. We discovered that passive immunization with an antibody directed at N. meningitidis SOD (NmSOD) was protective in a mouse infection model. To define the relevant atomic details and solution assembly states of this important virulence factor, we report high-resolution and X-ray scattering analyses of NmSOD and of SOD from B. abortus (BaSOD). The NmSOD structures revealed an auxiliary tetrahedral Cu-binding site bridging the dimer interface; mutational analyses suggested that this metal site contributes to protein stability, with implications for bacterial defense mechanisms. Biochemical and structural analyses informed us about electrostatic substrate guidance, dimer assembly, and an exposed C-terminal epitope in the NmSOD dimer. In contrast, the monomeric BaSOD structure provided insights for extending immunogenic peptide epitopes derived from the protein. These collective results reveal unique contributions of SOD to pathogenic virulence, refine predictive motifs for distinguishing SOD classes, and suggest general targets for antibacterial immune responses. The identified functional contributions, motifs, and targets distinguishing bacterial and eukaryotic SOD assemblies presented here provide a foundation for efforts to develop SOD-specific inhibitors of or vaccines against these harmful pathogens. IMPORTANCE By protecting microbes against

  2. Structural, Functional, and Immunogenic Insights on Cu,Zn Superoxide Dismutase Pathogenic Virulence Factors from Neisseria meningitidis and Brucella abortus.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Ashley J; DiDonato, Michael; Shin, David S; Cabelli, Diane E; Bruns, Cami K; Belzer, Carol A; Gorringe, Andrew R; Langford, Paul R; Tabatabai, Louisa B; Kroll, J Simon; Tainer, John A; Getzoff, Elizabeth D

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial pathogens Neisseria meningitidis and Brucella abortus pose threats to human and animal health worldwide, causing meningococcal disease and brucellosis, respectively. Mortality from acute N. meningitidis infections remains high despite antibiotics, and brucellosis presents alimentary and health consequences. Superoxide dismutases are master regulators of reactive oxygen and general pathogenicity factors and are therefore therapeutic targets. Cu,Zn superoxide dismutases (SODs) localized to the periplasm promote survival by detoxifying superoxide radicals generated by major host antimicrobial immune responses. We discovered that passive immunization with an antibody directed at N. meningitidis SOD (NmSOD) was protective in a mouse infection model. To define the relevant atomic details and solution assembly states of this important virulence factor, we report high-resolution and X-ray scattering analyses of NmSOD and of SOD from B. abortus (BaSOD). The NmSOD structures revealed an auxiliary tetrahedral Cu-binding site bridging the dimer interface; mutational analyses suggested that this metal site contributes to protein stability, with implications for bacterial defense mechanisms. Biochemical and structural analyses informed us about electrostatic substrate guidance, dimer assembly, and an exposed C-terminal epitope in the NmSOD dimer. In contrast, the monomeric BaSOD structure provided insights for extending immunogenic peptide epitopes derived from the protein. These collective results reveal unique contributions of SOD to pathogenic virulence, refine predictive motifs for distinguishing SOD classes, and suggest general targets for antibacterial immune responses. The identified functional contributions, motifs, and targets distinguishing bacterial and eukaryotic SOD assemblies presented here provide a foundation for efforts to develop SOD-specific inhibitors of or vaccines against these harmful pathogens. By protecting microbes against reactive oxygen

  3. Reactive oxygen species on bone mineral density and mechanics in Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (Sod1) knockout mice

    SciTech Connect

    Smietana, Michael J.; Arruda, Ellen M.; Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2250 GG Brown, 2350 Hayward, Ann Arbor, MI 48109

    Research highlights: {yields} Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be a factor in the onset of a number of age-associated conditions, including loss of BMD. {yields} Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) deficient mice have increased ROS, reduced bone mineral density, decreased bending stiffness, and decreased strength compared to WT controls. {yields} Increased ROS caused by the deficiency of Sod1, may be responsible for the changes in BMD and bone mechanics and therefore represent an appropriate model for studying mechanisms of age-associated bone loss. -- Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a role in a number of degenerative conditions including osteoporosis. Micemore » deficient in Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) (Sod1{sup -/-} mice) have elevated oxidative stress and decreased muscle mass and strength compared to wild-type mice (WT) and appear to have an accelerated muscular aging phenotype. Thus, Sod1{sup -/-} mice may be a good model for evaluating the effects of free radical generation on diseases associated with aging. In this experiment, we tested the hypothesis that the structural integrity of bone as measured by bending stiffness (EI; N/mm{sup 2}) and strength (MPa) is diminished in Sod1{sup -/-} compared to WT mice. Femurs were obtained from male and female WT and Sod1{sup -/-} mice at 8 months of age and three-point bending tests were used to determine bending stiffness and strength. Bones were also analyzed for bone mineral density (BMD; mg/cc) using micro-computed tomography. Femurs were approximately equal in length across all groups, and there were no significant differences in BMD or EI with respect to gender in either genotype. Although male and female mice demonstrated similar properties within each genotype, Sod1{sup -/-} mice exhibited lower BMD and EI of femurs from both males and females compared with gender matched WT mice. Strength of femurs was also lower in Sod1{sup -/-} mice compared to WT as well as between genders

  4. Activation of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase in the absence of oxygen and the copper chaperone CCS.

    PubMed

    Leitch, Jeffry M; Jensen, Laran T; Bouldin, Samantha D; Outten, Caryn E; Hart, P John; Culotta, Valeria C

    2009-08-14

    Eukaryotic Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutases (SOD1s) are generally thought to acquire the essential copper cofactor and intramolecular disulfide bond through the action of the CCS copper chaperone. However, several metazoan SOD1s have been shown to acquire activity in vivo in the absence of CCS, and the Cu,Zn-SOD from Caenorhabditis elegans has evolved complete independence from CCS. To investigate SOD1 activation in the absence of CCS, we compared and contrasted the CCS-independent activation of C. elegans and human SOD1 to the strict CCS-dependent activation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae SOD1. Using a yeast expression system, both pathways were seen to acquire copper derived from cell surface transporters and compete for the same intracellular pool of copper. Like CCS, CCS-independent activation occurs rapidly with a preexisting pool of apo-SOD1 without the need for new protein synthesis. The two pathways, however, strongly diverge when assayed for the SOD1 disulfide. SOD1 molecules that are activated without CCS exhibit disulfide oxidation in vivo without oxygen and under copper-depleted conditions. The strict requirement for copper, oxygen, and CCS in disulfide bond oxidation appears exclusive to yeast SOD1, and we find that a unique proline at position 144 in yeast SOD1 is responsible for this disulfide effect. CCS-dependent and -independent pathways also exhibit differential requirements for molecular oxygen. CCS activation of SOD1 requires oxygen, whereas the CCS-independent pathway is able to activate SOD1s even under anaerobic conditions. In this manner, Cu,Zn-SOD from metazoans may retain activity over a wide range of physiological oxygen tensions.

  5. Mechanisms for activating Cu- and Zn-containing superoxide dismutase in the absence of the CCS Cu chaperone.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Mark C; Girouard, Jody B; Ulloa, Janella L; Subramaniam, Jamuna R; Wong, Phillip C; Valentine, Joan Selverstone; Culotta, Valeria Cizewski

    2004-04-20

    The Cu- and Zn-containing superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) largely obtains Cu in vivo by means of the action of the Cu chaperone CCS. Yet, in the case of mammalian SOD1, a secondary pathway of activation is apparent. Specifically, when human SOD1 is expressed in either yeast or mammalian cells that are null for CCS, the SOD1 enzyme retains a certain degree of activity. This CCS-independent activity is evident with both wild-type and mutant variants of SOD1 that have been associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We demonstrate here that the CCS-independent activation of mammalian SOD1 involves glutathione, particularly the reduced form, or GSH. A role for glutathione in CCS-independent activation was seen with human SOD1 molecules that were expressed in either yeast cells or immortalized fibroblasts. Compared with mammalian SOD1, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae enzyme cannot obtain Cu without CCS in vivo, and this total dependence on CCS involves the presence of dual prolines near the C terminus of the SOD1 polypeptide. Indeed, the insertion of such prolines into human SOD1 rendered this molecule refractory to CCS-independent activation. The possible implications of multiple pathways for SOD1 activation are discussed in the context of SOD1 evolutionary biology and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  6. Superoxide Dismutase in Ripening Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Baker, James Earl

    1976-01-01

    The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in extracts of preclimacteric apple, banana, avocado, and tomato fruits were not greatly different than in extracts of postclimacteric fruits. The results indicate that no major quantitative change in SOD occurs in fruits with or preceding the onset of senescence. Tomato fruit SOD was studied in more detail, and was found largely in the soluble fraction, and to a lesser extent in the mitochondrial and plastid fractions. The soluble fraction was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, column chromatography, and isoelectric focusing. Isoelectric focusing separated SOD from contaminating peroxidases. The purified tomato SOD showed an apparent molecular weight of 31,500 determined by gel filtration. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of this preparation indicated two SOD components corresponding to two protein bands, one of which stained more intensely than the other. The purified tomato enzyme was inhibited 90% by 1 mm KCN. PMID:16659735

  7. Superoxide dismutase in ripening fruits.

    PubMed

    Baker, J E

    1976-11-01

    The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in extracts of preclimacteric apple, banana, avocado, and tomato fruits were not greatly different than in extracts of postclimacteric fruits. The results indicate that no major quantitative change in SOD occurs in fruits with or preceding the onset of senescence. Tomato fruit SOD was studied in more detail, and was found largely in the soluble fraction, and to a lesser extent in the mitochondrial and plastid fractions. The soluble fraction was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, column chromatography, and isoelectric focusing. Isoelectric focusing separated SOD from contaminating peroxidases. The purified tomato SOD showed an apparent molecular weight of 31,500 determined by gel filtration. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of this preparation indicated two SOD components corresponding to two protein bands, one of which stained more intensely than the other. The purified tomato enzyme was inhibited 90% by 1 mm KCN.

  8. Polarizable molecular mechanics studies of Cu(I)/Zn(II) superoxide dismutase: bimetallic binding site and structured waters.

    PubMed

    Gresh, Nohad; El Hage, Krystel; Perahia, David; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Berthomieu, Catherine; Berthomieu, Dorothée

    2014-11-05

    The existence of a network of structured waters in the vicinity of the bimetallic site of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) has been inferred from high-resolution X-ray crystallography. Long-duration molecular dynamics (MD) simulations could enable to quantify the lifetimes and possible interchanges of these waters between themselves as well as with a ligand diffusing toward the bimetallic site. The presence of several charged or polar ligands makes it necessary to resort to second-generation polarizable potentials. As a first step toward such simulations, we benchmark in this article the accuracy of one such potential, sum of interactions between fragments Ab initio computed (SIBFA), by comparisons with quantum mechanics (QM) computations. We first consider the bimetallic binding site of a Cu/Zn-SOD, in which three histidines and a water molecule are bound to Cu(I) and three histidines and one aspartate are bound to Zn(II). The comparisons are made for different His6 complexes with either one or both cations, and either with or without Asp and water. The total net charges vary from zero to three. We subsequently perform preliminary short-duration MD simulations of 296 waters solvating Cu/Zn-SOD. Six representative geometries are selected and energy-minimized. Single-point SIBFA and QM computations are then performed in parallel on model binding sites extracted from these six structures, each of which totals 301 atoms including the closest 28 waters from the Cu metal site. The ranking of their relative stabilities as given by SIBFA is identical to the QM one, and the relative energy differences by both approaches are fully consistent. In addition, the lowest-energy structure, from SIBFA and QM, has a close overlap with the crystallographic one. The SIBFA calculations enable to quantify the impact of polarization and charge transfer in the ranking of the six structures. Five structural waters, which connect Arg141 and Glu131, are endowed with very high dipole moments

  9. Oxidative Stress Induced Age Dependent Meibomian Gland Dysfunction in Cu, Zn-Superoxide Dismutase-1 (Sod1) Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Osama M. A.; Dogru, Murat; Matsumoto, Yukihiro; Igarashi, Ayako; Kojima, Takashi; Wakamatsu, Tais Hitomi; Inaba, Takaaki; Shimizu, Takahiko; Shimazaki, Jun; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of our study was to investigate alterations in the meibomian gland (MG) in Cu, Zn-Superoxide Dismutase-1 knockout (Sod1 −/−) mouse. Methods Tear function tests [Break up time (BUT) and cotton thread] and ocular vital staining test were performed on Sod1 −/− male mice (n = 24) aged 10 and 50 weeks, and age and sex matched wild–type (+/+) mice (n = 25). Tear and serum samples were collected at sacrifice for inflammatory cytokine assays. MG specimens underwent Hematoxylin and Eosin staining, Mallory staining for fibrosis, Oil Red O lipid staining, TUNEL staining, immunohistochemistry stainings for 4HNE, 8-OHdG and CD45. Transmission electron microscopic examination (TEM) was also performed. Results Corneal vital staining scores in the Sod1 −/− mice were significantly higher compared with the wild type mice throughout the follow-up. Tear and serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels also showed significant elevations in the 10 to 50 week Sod1 −/− mice. Oil Red O staining showed an accumulation of large lipid droplets in the Sod1 −/− mice at 50 weeks. Immunohistochemistry revealed both increased TUNEL and oxidative stress marker stainings of the MG acinar epithelium in the Sod1 −/− mice compared to the wild type mice. Immunohistochemistry staining for CD45 showed increasing inflammatory cell infiltrates from 10 to 50 weeks in the Sod1 −/− mice compared to the wild type mice. TEM revealed prominent mitochondrial changes in 50 week Sod1 −/− mice. Conclusions Our results suggest that reactive oxygen species might play a vital role in the pathogensis of meibomian gland dysfunction. The Sod1 −/− mouse appears to be a promising model for the study of reactive oxygen species associated MG alterations. PMID:25036096

  10. Superoxide dismutases in chronic gastritis.

    PubMed

    Švagelj, Dražen; Terzić, Velimir; Dovhanj, Jasna; Švagelj, Marija; Cvrković, Mirta; Švagelj, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    Human gastric diseases have shown significant changes in the activity and expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoforms. The aim of this study was to detect Mn-SOD activity and expression in the tissue of gastric mucosa, primarily in chronic gastritis (immunohistochemical Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis, without other pathohistological changes) and to evaluate their possible connection with pathohistological diagnosis. We examined 51 consecutive outpatients undergoing endoscopy for upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Patients were classified based on their histopathological examinations and divided into three groups: 51 patients (archive samples between 2004-2009) with chronic immunohistochemical Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis (mononuclear cells infiltration were graded as absent, moderate, severe) divided into three groups. Severity of gastritis was graded according to the updated Sydney system. Gastric tissue samples were used to determine the expression of Mn-SOD with anti-Mn-SOD Ab immunohistochemically. The Mn-SOD expression was more frequently present in specimens with severe and moderate inflammation of gastric mucosa than in those with normal mucosa. In patients with normal histological finding, positive immunoreactivity of Mn-SOD was not found. Our results determine the changes in Mn-SOD expression occurring in the normal gastric mucosa that had undergone changes in the intensity of chronic inflammatory infiltrates in the lamina propria. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Neutropenia restores virulence to an attenuated Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase-deficient Haemophilus ducreyi strain in the swine model of chancroid.

    PubMed

    San Mateo, L R; Toffer, K L; Orndorff, P E; Kawula, T H

    1999-10-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi causes chancroid, a sexually transmitted cutaneous genital ulcer disease associated with increased heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. H. ducreyi expresses a periplasmic copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn SOD) that protects the bacterium from killing by exogenous superoxide in vitro. We hypothesized that the Cu,Zn SOD would protect H. ducreyi from immune cell killing, enhance survival, and affect ulcer development in vivo. In order to test this hypothesis and study the role of the Cu,Zn SOD in H. ducreyi pathogenesis, we compared a Cu,Zn SOD-deficient H. ducreyi strain to its isogenic wild-type parent with respect to survival and ulcer development in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed pigs. The Cu,Zn SOD-deficient strain was recovered from significantly fewer inoculated sites and in significantly lower numbers than the wild-type parent strain or a merodiploid (sodC+ sodC) strain after infection of immunocompetent pigs. In contrast, survival of the wild-type and Cu,Zn SOD-deficient strains was not significantly different in pigs that were rendered neutropenic by treatment with cyclophosphamide. Ulcer severity in pigs was not significantly different between sites inoculated with wild type and sites inoculated with Cu,Zn SOD-deficient H. ducreyi. Our data suggest that the periplasmic Cu,Zn SOD is an important virulence determinant in H. ducreyi, protecting the bacterium from host immune cell killing and contributing to survival and persistence in the host.

  12. Neutropenia Restores Virulence to an Attenuated Cu,Zn Superoxide Dismutase-Deficient Haemophilus ducreyi Strain in the Swine Model of Chancroid

    PubMed Central

    San Mateo, Lani R.; Toffer, Kristen L.; Orndorff, Paul E.; Kawula, Thomas H.

    1999-01-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi causes chancroid, a sexually transmitted cutaneous genital ulcer disease associated with increased heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. H. ducreyi expresses a periplasmic copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn SOD) that protects the bacterium from killing by exogenous superoxide in vitro. We hypothesized that the Cu,Zn SOD would protect H. ducreyi from immune cell killing, enhance survival, and affect ulcer development in vivo. In order to test this hypothesis and study the role of the Cu,Zn SOD in H. ducreyi pathogenesis, we compared a Cu,Zn SOD-deficient H. ducreyi strain to its isogenic wild-type parent with respect to survival and ulcer development in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed pigs. The Cu,Zn SOD-deficient strain was recovered from significantly fewer inoculated sites and in significantly lower numbers than the wild-type parent strain or a merodiploid (sodC+ sodC) strain after infection of immunocompetent pigs. In contrast, survival of the wild-type and Cu,Zn SOD-deficient strains was not significantly different in pigs that were rendered neutropenic by treatment with cyclophosphamide. Ulcer severity in pigs was not significantly different between sites inoculated with wild type and sites inoculated with Cu,Zn SOD-deficient H. ducreyi. Our data suggest that the periplasmic Cu,Zn SOD is an important virulence determinant in H. ducreyi, protecting the bacterium from host immune cell killing and contributing to survival and persistence in the host. PMID:10496915

  13. Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and the proton ATPase Pma1p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, J. Allen; Chen, Janice S.; Culotta, Valeria C., E-mail: vculott1@jhu.edu

    2015-07-03

    In eukaryotes, the Cu/Zn containing superoxide dismutase (SOD1) plays a critical role in oxidative stress protection as well as in signaling. We recently demonstrated a function for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sod1p in signaling through CK1γ casein kinases and identified the essential proton ATPase Pma1p as one likely target. The connection between Sod1p and Pma1p was explored further by testing the impact of sod1Δ mutations on cells expressing mutant alleles of Pma1p that alter activity and/or post-translational regulation of this ATPase. We report here that sod1Δ mutations are lethal when combined with the T912D allele of Pma1p in the C-terminal regulatory domain.more » This “synthetic lethality” was reversed by intragenic suppressor mutations in Pma1p, including an A906G substitution that lies within the C-terminal regulatory domain and hyper-activates Pma1p. Surprisingly the effect of sod1Δ mutations on Pma1-T912D is not mediated through the Sod1p signaling pathway involving the CK1γ casein kinases. Rather, Sod1p sustains life of cells expressing Pma1-T912D through oxidative stress protection. The synthetic lethality of sod1Δ Pma1-T912D cells is suppressed by growing cells under low oxygen conditions or by treatments with manganese-based antioxidants. We now propose a model in which Sod1p maximizes Pma1p activity in two ways: one involving signaling through CK1γ casein kinases and an independent role for Sod1p in oxidative stress protection. - Highlights: • In yeast, the anti-oxidant enzyme SOD1 promotes activity of the proton ATPase Pma1p. • Cells expressing a T912D variant of Pma1p are not viable without SOD1. • SOD1 is needed to protect Pma1-T912D expressing cells from severe oxidative damage. • SOD1 activates Pma1p through casein kinase signaling and oxidative stress protection.« less

  14. Pyrimethamine significantly lowers cerebrospinal fluid Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients with SOD1 mutations.

    PubMed

    Lange, Dale J; Shahbazi, Mona; Silani, Vincenzo; Ludolph, Albert C; Weishaupt, Jochen H; Ajroud-Driss, Senda; Fields, Kara G; Remanan, Rahul; Appel, Stanley H; Morelli, Claudia; Doretti, Alberto; Maderna, Luca; Messina, Stefano; Weiland, Ulrike; Marklund, Stefan L; Andersen, Peter M

    2017-06-01

    Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) reduction prolongs survival in SOD1-transgenic animal models. Pyrimethamine produces dose-dependent SOD1 reduction in cell culture systems. A previous phase 1 trial showed pyrimethamine lowers SOD1 levels in leukocytes in patients with SOD1 mutations. This study investigated whether pyrimethamine lowered SOD1 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients carrying SOD1 mutations linked to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS/SOD1). A multicenter (5 sites), open-label, 9-month-duration, dose-ranging study was undertaken to determine the safety and efficacy of pyrimethamine to lower SOD1 levels in the CSF in fALS/SOD1. All participants underwent 3 lumbar punctures, blood draw, clinical assessment of strength, motor function, quality of life, and adverse effect assessments. SOD1 levels were measured in erythrocytes and CSF. Pyrimethamine was measured in plasma and CSF. Appel ALS score, ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised, and McGill Quality of Life Single-Item Scale were measured at screening, visit 6, and visit 9. We enrolled 32 patients; 24 completed 6 visits (18 weeks), and 21 completed all study visits. A linear mixed effects model showed a significant reduction in CSF SOD1 at visit 6 (p < 0.001) with a mean reduction of 13.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.4-18.5) and at visit 9 (p < 0.001) with a mean reduction of 10.5% (95% CI = 5.2-15.8). Pyrimethamine is safe and well tolerated in ALS. Pyrimethamine is capable of producing a significant reduction in total CSF SOD1 protein content in patients with ALS caused by different SOD1 mutations. Further long-term studies are warranted to assess clinical efficacy. Ann Neurol 2017;81:837-848. © 2017 The Authors. Annals of Neurology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Neurological Association.

  15. The Antiozonant Ethylenediurea Does Not Act via Superoxide Dismutase Induction in Bean 1

    PubMed Central

    Pitcher, Lynne H.; Brennan, Eileen; Zilinskas, Barbara A.

    1992-01-01

    It has been proposed that the mode of action of ethylenediurea, a very effective antiozonant, is via an increase in the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (EH Lee, JH Bennett [1982] Plant Physiol 69: 1444-1449). Data presented here refute that hypothesis. No ethylenediurea-associated increases in Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase or Mn-superoxide dismutase activity, nor in steady-state Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase protein levels, were found in soluble extracts of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Bush Blue Lake 290) leaves. However, the cytosolic Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase increased as a result of ozone fumigation and subsequent injury. Also noted was a developmentally related difference between chloroplastic and cytosolic Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase, the latter declining during maturation of the leaf. ImagesFigure 1Figure 3 PMID:16669049

  16. Comparison of effect of vitamin E-coated dialyzer and oral vitamin E on hemodialysis-induced Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Shinichiro; Inagaki, Masahiro; Tsuji, Mayumi; Gotoh, Hiromichi; Gotoh, Tomomi; Washio, Kazunori; Gotoh, Yoshikazu; Oguchi, Katsuji

    2005-01-01

    We reported earlier that production of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) increases markedly in hemodialysis patients but not in non-dialyzed chronic renal failure (CRF) patients. In this study, we compared the antioxidant effects of oral vitamin E supplementation (VE-PO) and vitamin E coating of a dialyzer (VE-BMD) by measuring increased Cu/Zn-SOD in hemodialysis patients. 31 hemodialysis patients were divided into two groups: 16 hemodialysis patients underwent usual dialysis with vitamin E supplementation 600 mg/day while 15 others were dialyzed using vitamin E-coated membrane for 6 months. Total plasma SOD activity was determined by NBT method, plasma Cu/Zn-SOD contents by ELISA and Cu/Zn-SOD mRNA in leukocytes by RT-PCR. VE-PO and VE-BMD showed almost comparable effects on Cu/Zn-SOD contents and its mRNA levels in hemodialysis patients. VE-PO resulted in a progressive decrease of Cu/Zn-SOD content (p < 0.001). A comparable progressive decrease was observed also in VE-BMD (p < 0.0001). Both VE-PO and VE-BMD resulted in a progressive decrease of Cu/Zn-SOD mRNA (p < 0.01), which reached the level of non-dialyzed CRF patients. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Role of superoxide–nitric oxide interactions in the accelerated age-related loss of muscle mass in mice lacking Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase

    PubMed Central

    Sakellariou, Giorgos K; Pye, Deborah; Vasilaki, Aphrodite; Zibrik, Lea; Palomero, Jesus; Kabayo, Tabitha; McArdle, Francis; Van Remmen, Holly; Richardson, Arlan; Tidball, James G; McArdle, Anne; Jackson, Malcolm J

    2011-01-01

    Summary Mice lacking Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) show accelerated, age-related loss of muscle mass. Lack of SOD1 may lead to increased superoxide, reduced nitric oxide (NO), and increased peroxynitrite, each of which could initiate muscle fiber loss. Single muscle fibers from flexor digitorum brevis of wild-type (WT) and Sod1−/− mice were loaded with NO-sensitive (4-amino-5-methylamino-2′,7′-difluorofluorescein diacetate, DAF-FM) and superoxide-sensitive (dihydroethidium, DHE) probes. Gastrocnemius muscles were analyzed for SOD enzymes, nitric oxide synthases (NOS), and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) content. A lack of SOD1 did not increase superoxide availability at rest because no increase in ethidium or 2-hydroxyethidium (2-HE) formation from DHE was seen in fibers from Sod1−/− mice compared with those from WT mice. Fibers from Sod1−/− mice had decreased NO availability (decreased DAF-FM fluorescence), increased 3-NT in muscle proteins indicating increased peroxynitrite formation and increased content of peroxiredoxin V (a peroxynitrite reductase), compared with WT mice. Muscle fibers from Sod1−/− mice showed substantially reduced generation of superoxide in response to contractions compared with fibers from WT mice. Inhibition of NOS did not affect DHE oxidation in fibers from WT or Sod1−/− mice at rest or during contractions, but transgenic mice overexpressing nNOS showed increased DAF-FM fluorescence and reduced DHE oxidation in resting muscle fibers. It is concluded that formation of peroxynitrite in muscle fibers is a major effect of lack of SOD1 in Sod1−/− mice and may contribute to fiber loss in this model, and that NO regulates superoxide availability and peroxynitrite formation in muscle. PMID:21443684

  18. Molecular Responses to Photooxidative Stress in Pinus sylvestris (L.) (II. Differential Expression of CuZn-Superoxide Dismutases and Glutathione Reductase.

    PubMed Central

    Karpinski, S.; Wingsle, G.; Karpinska, B.; Hallgren, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    The influence of photooxidative stress on genes expressing superoxide dismutase (Sod) and glutathione reductase (Gor) was analyzed in needles of top and side shoots of 3-year-old Pinus sylvestris (L.) seedlings. The study was carried out in the field during spring recovery. From mid-April the top shoots of seedlings protruded above the snow and thus were exposed to sunlight, whereas the side shoots were covered with snow until May 4. Needles were sampled from top and side shoots on five different occasions. At the beginning of May the mRNA levels for cytosolic CuZn-Sod were significantly higher in top-shoot needles than in side-shoot needles. Similar results were obtained for chloroplastic CuZn-Sod mRNA. After May 6 we could not detect any significant differences between top- and side-shoot needles for either CuZn-Sod mRNA level. Transcript accumulation for the chloroplastic CuZn-Sod was up to 4-fold higher than for cytosolic CuZn-Sod in both types of shoots. On June 1 minimum transcript levels were observed for both CuZn-SOD isoforms. Protein activity analysis for CuZn-SOD isozymes did not reveal any significant differences between top- and side-shoot needles during the whole period of measurements. The mRNA level for chloroplastic Gor was similar in both types of shoots. However, the total GR activity was significantly higher in top-shoot needles than in side-shoot needles at the beginning of May. The analysis of mRNA accumulation for chloroplastic CuZn-Sod and Gor indicates that transcript levels were at least 5- to 20-fold higher for CuZn-Sod than for chloroplastic Gor. The differential expressions of Sod and Gor genes are discussed in relation to regulation of the enzymic scavenging system during photooxidative stress conditions. PMID:12232032

  19. Cellular Redox Systems Impact the Aggregation of Cu,Zn Superoxide Dismutase Linked to Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Zaldiernas, Cristina; Lu, Jun; Zheng, Yujuan; Yang, Hongqian; Blasi, Juan; Solsona, Carles; Holmgren, Arne

    2016-08-12

    Protein misfolding is implicated in neurodegenerative diseases such as ALS, where mutations of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) account for about 20% of the inherited mutations. Human SOD1 (hSOD1) contains four cysteines, including Cys(57) and Cys(146), which have been linked to protein stability and folding via forming a disulfide bond, and Cys(6) and Cys(111) as free thiols. But the roles of the cellular oxidation-reduction (redox) environment in SOD1 folding and aggregation are not well understood. Here we explore the effects of cellular redox systems on the aggregation of hSOD1 proteins. We found that the known hSOD1 mutations G93A and A4V increased the capability of the thioredoxin and glutaredoxin systems to reduce hSOD1 compared with wild-type hSOD1. Treatment with inhibitors of these redox systems resulted in an increase of hSOD1 aggregates in the cytoplasm of cells transfected with mutants but not in cells transfected with wild-type hSOD1 or those containing a secondary C111G mutation. This aggregation may be coupled to changes in the redox state of the G93A and A4V mutants upon mild oxidative stress. These results strongly suggest that the thioredoxin and glutaredoxin systems are the key regulators for hSOD1 aggregation and may play critical roles in the pathogenesis of ALS. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Gene Disruption in Scedosporium aurantiacum: Proof of Concept with the Disruption of SODC Gene Encoding a Cytosolic Cu,Zn-Superoxide Dismutase.

    PubMed

    Pateau, Victoire; Razafimandimby, Bienvenue; Vandeputte, Patrick; Thornton, Christopher R; Guillemette, Thomas; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Giraud, Sandrine

    2018-02-01

    Scedosporium species are opportunistic pathogens responsible for a large variety of infections in humans. An increasing occurrence was observed in patients with underlying conditions such as immunosuppression or cystic fibrosis. Indeed, the genus Scedosporium ranks the second among the filamentous fungi colonizing the respiratory tracts of the CF patients. To date, there is very scarce information on the pathogenic mechanisms, at least in part because of the limited genetic tools available. In the present study, we successfully developed an efficient transformation and targeted gene disruption approach on the species Scedosporium aurantiacum. The disruption cassette was constructed using double-joint PCR procedure, and resistance to hygromycin B as the selection marker. This proof of concept was performed on the functional gene SODC encoding the Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase. Disruption of the SODC gene improved susceptibility of the fungus to oxidative stress. This technical advance should open new research areas and help to better understand the biology of Scedosporium species.

  1. Folding of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase suggests structural hotspots for gain of neurotoxic function in ALS: Parallels to precursors in amyloid disease

    PubMed Central

    Nordlund, Anna; Oliveberg, Mikael

    2006-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease linked to misfolding of the ubiquitous enzyme Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD). In contrast to other protein-misfolding disorders with similar neuropathogenesis, ALS is not always associated with the in vivo deposition of protein aggregates. Thus, under the assumption that all protein-misfolding disorders share at primary level a similar disease mechanism, ALS constitutes an interesting disease model for identifying the yet-mysterious precursor states from which the cytotoxic pathway emerges. In this study, we have mapped out the conformational repertoire of the apoSOD monomer through analysis of its folding behavior. The results allow us to target the regions of the SOD structure that are most susceptible to unfolding locally under physiological conditions, leading to the exposure of structurally promiscuous interfaces that are normally hidden in the protein’s interior. The structure of this putative ALS precursor is strikingly similar to those implicated in amyloid disease. PMID:16798882

  2. Co(II) derivatives of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase with the cobalt bound in the place of copper. A new spectroscopic tool for the study of the active site.

    PubMed

    Desideri, A; Cocco, D; Calabrese, L; Rotilio, G

    1984-03-29

    Co(II) derivatives of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase having cobalt substituted for the copper (Co,Zn-superoxide dismutase and Co,Co-superoxide dismutase) were studied by optical and EPR spectroscopy. EPR and electronic absorption spectra of Co,Zn-superoxide dismutase are sensitive to solvent perturbation, and in particular to the presence of phosphate. This behaviour suggests that cobalt in Co,Zn-superoxide dismutase is open to solvent access, at variance with the Co(II) of the Cu,Co-superoxide dismutase, which is substituted for the Zn. Phosphate binding as monitored by optical titration is dependent on pH with an apparent pKa = 8.2. The absorption spectrum of Co,Zn-superoxide dismutase in water has three weak bands in the visible region (epsilon = 75 M-1 X cm-1 at 456 nm; epsilon = 90 M-1 X cm-1 at 520 nm; epsilon = 70 M-1 X cm-1 at 600 nm) and three bands in the near infrared region, at 790 nm (epsilon = 18 M-1 X cm-1), 916 nm (epsilon = 27 M-1 X cm-1) and 1045 nm (epsilon = 25 M-1 X cm-1). This spectrum is indicative of five-coordinate geometry. In the presence of phosphate, three bands are still present in the visible region but they have higher intensity (epsilon = 225 M-1 X cm-1 at 544 nm; epsilon = 315 M-1 X cm-1 at 575 nm; epsilon = 330 M-1 X cm-1 at 603 nm), whilst the lowest wavelength band in the near infrared region is at much lower energy, 1060 nm (epsilon = 44 M-1 X cm-1). The latter property suggests a tetrahedral coordination around the Co(II) centre. Addition of 1 equivalent of CN- gives rise to a stable Co(II) low-spin intermediate, which is characterized by an EPR spectrum with a highly rhombic line shape. Formation of this CN- complex was found to require more cyanide equivalents in the case of the phosphate adduct, suggesting that binding of phosphate may inhibit binding of other anions. Titration of the Co,Co-derivative with CN- provided evidence for magnetic interaction between the two metal centres. These results substantiate the contention

  3. A novel polymeric ionic liquid-coated magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotubes for the solid-phase extraction of Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Wen, Qian; Wang, Yuzhi; Xu, Kaijia; Li, Na; Zhang, Hongmei; Yang, Qin

    2016-10-05

    A novel magnetic adsorbent, benzyl groups functionalized imidazolium-based polymeric ionic liquid (PIL)-coated magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) (m-MWCNTs@PIL), has been successfully synthesized and applied for the extraction of Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD). The m-MWCNTs@PIL were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and zeta-potential nanoparticles. In this method, the m-MWCNTs@PIL could interact with Cu, Zn-SOD through hydrogen bonding, π-π and electrostatic interactions. The extraction performance of the m-MWCNTs@PIL in the magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) procedure was investigated, coupled with the determination by UV-vis spectrophotometer. Compared with m-MWCNTs@IL and m-MWCNTs, the m-MWCNTs@PIL exhibited the highest extraction capacity of 29.1 mg/g for Cu, Zn-SOD. The adsorbed Cu, Zn-SOD remained high specific activity after being eluted from m-MWCNTs@PIL by 1 moL/L NaCl solution. Besides, the m-MWCNTs@PIL could be easily recycled and successfully employed in the extraction of Cu, Zn-SOD from real samples. Under the optimal conditions, the precision, repeatability and stability of the proposed method were investigated and the RSDs were 0.29%, 1.68% and 0.54%, respectively. Recoveries were in the range of 82.7-102.3%, with the RSD between 3.47% and 5.35%. On the basis of these results, the developed method has great potential in the extraction of Cu, Zn-SOD or other analytes from biological samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Megavirus Chilensis Cu,Zn-Superoxide Dismutase: the First Viral Structure of a Typical Cellular Copper Chaperone-Independent Hyperstable Dimeric Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Lartigue, Audrey; Burlat, Bénédicte; Coutard, Bruno; Chaspoul, Florence; Claverie, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Giant viruses able to replicate in Acanthamoeba castellanii penetrate their host through phagocytosis. After capsid opening, a fusion between the internal membranes of the virion and the phagocytic vacuole triggers the transfer in the cytoplasm of the viral DNA together with the DNA repair enzymes and the transcription machinery present in the particles. In addition, the proteome analysis of purified mimivirus virions revealed the presence of many enzymes meant to resist oxidative stress and conserved in the Mimiviridae. Megavirus chilensis encodes a predicted copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD), an enzyme known to detoxify reactive oxygen species released in the course of host defense reactions. While it was thought that the metal ions are required for the formation of the active-site lid and dimer stabilization, megavirus chilensis SOD forms a very stable metal-free dimer. We used electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis and activity measurements to show that the supplementation of the bacterial culture with copper and zinc during the recombinant expression of Mg277 is sufficient to restore a fully active holoenzyme. These results demonstrate that the viral enzyme's activation is independent of a chaperone both for disulfide bridge formation and for copper incorporation and suggest that its assembly may not be as regulated as that of its cellular counterparts. A SOD protein is encoded by a variety of DNA viruses but is absent from mimivirus. As in poxviruses, the enzyme might be dispensable when the virus infects Acanthamoeba cells but may allow megavirus chilensis to infect a broad range of eukaryotic hosts. IMPORTANCE Mimiviridae are giant viruses encoding more than 1,000 proteins. The virion particles are loaded with proteins used by the virus to resist the vacuole's oxidative stress. The megavirus chilensis virion contains a predicted copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD). The corresponding gene is present in some megavirus

  5. Metallochaperone for Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (CCS) protein but not mRNA is higher in organs from copper-deficient mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Prohaska, Joseph R; Broderius, Margaret; Brokate, Bruce

    2003-09-15

    Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is an abundant metalloenzyme important in scavenging superoxide ions. Cu-deficient rats and mice have lower SOD1 activity and protein, possibly because apo-SOD1 is degraded faster than holo-SOD1. SOD1 interacts with and requires its metallochaperone CCS for donating copper. We produced dietary Cu deficiency in rodents to determine if the reduction in SOD1 was related to the level of its specific metallochaperone CCS. CCS levels determined by immunoblot were 2- to 3-fold higher in liver, heart, kidney, and brain from male Cu-deficient rats and mice under a variety of conditions. CCS was also higher in livers of Cu-deficient dams. Interestingly, CCS levels in brain of Cu-deficient mice were also higher even though SOD1 activity and protein were not altered, suggesting that the rise in CCS is correlated with altered Cu status rather than a direct result of lower SOD1. A DNA probe specific for rat CCS detected a single transcript by Northern blot hybridization with liver RNA. CCS mRNA levels in mouse and rat liver were not altered by dietary treatment. These results suggest a posttranscriptional mechanism for higher CCS protein when Cu is limiting in the cell, perhaps due to slower protein turnover. Elevation in CCS level is one of the most dramatic alterations in Cu binding proteins accompanying Cu deficiency and may be useful to assess Cu status.

  6. The Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) inhibits ERK phosphorylation by muscarinic receptor modulation in rat pituitary GH3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Secondo, Agnese; De Mizio, Mariarosaria; Zirpoli, Laura

    The Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) belongs to a family of isoenzymes that are able to dismutate the oxygen superoxide in hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. This enzyme is secreted by many cellular lines and it is also released trough a calcium-dependent depolarization mechanism involving SNARE protein SNAP 25. Using rat pituitary GH3 cells that express muscarinic receptors we found that SOD1 inhibits P-ERK1/2 pathway trough an interaction with muscarinic M1 receptor. This effect is strengthened by oxotremorine, a muscarinic M agonist and partially reverted by pyrenzepine, an antagonist of M1 receptor; moreover this effect is independent from increased intracellular calciummore » concentration induced by SOD1. Finally, P-ERK1/2 inhibition was accompanied by the reduction of GH3 cell proliferation. These data indicate that SOD1 beside the well studied antioxidant properties can be considered as a neuromodulator able to affect mitogen-activated protein kinase in rat pituitary cells trough a M1 muscarinic receptor.« less

  7. Autoradiographic evidence for methamphetamine-induced striatal dopaminergic loss in mouse brain: attenuation in CuZn-superoxide dismutase transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Hirata, H; Ladenheim, B; Carlson, E; Epstein, C; Cadet, J L

    1996-04-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) has long-lasting neurotoxic effects on the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system of rodents. METH-induced neurotoxicity is thought to involve release of DA in presynaptic DA terminals, which is associated with increased formation of oxygen-based free radicals. We have recently shown that METH-induced striatal DA depletion is attenuated in transgenic (Tg) mice that express the human CuZn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme. That study did not specifically address the issue of loss of DA terminals. In the present study, we have used receptor autoradiographic studies of [(125)I]RTI-121-labeled DA uptake sites to evaluate the effects of several doses of METH on striatal DA terminals of Non-Tg as well as of heterozygous and homozygous SOD-Tg mice. In Non-Tg mice, METH caused decreases in striatal DA uptake sites in a dose-dependent fashion. The loss of DA terminals was more prominent in the lateral region than in the medial subdivisions of the striatum. In SOD-Tg mice, the loss of DA terminals caused by METH was attenuated in a gene dosage-dependent fashion, with the homozygous mice showing the greatest protection. Female mice were somewhat more resistant than male mice against these deleterious effects of METH. These results provide further evidence for a role of superoxide radicals in the long-term effects of METH. They also suggest the notion of a gender-specific handling of oxidative stress.

  8. Combined proteomic and molecular approaches for cloning and characterization of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD2) from garlic (Allium sativum).

    PubMed

    Hadji Sfaxi, Imen; Ezzine, Aymen; Coquet, Laurent; Cosette, Pascal; Jouenne, Thierry; Marzouki, M Nejib

    2012-09-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs; EC 1.15.1.1) are key enzymes in the cells protection against oxidant agents. Thus, SODs play a major role in the protection of aerobic organisms against oxygen-mediated damages. Three SOD isoforms were previously identified by zymogram staining from Allium sativum bulbs. The purified Cu, Zn-SOD2 shows an antagonist effect to an anticancer drug and alleviate cytotoxicity inside tumor cells lines B16F0 (mouse melanoma cells) and PAE (porcine aortic endothelial cells). To extend the characterization of Allium SODs and their corresponding genes, a proteomic approach was applied involving two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS analyses. From peptide sequence data obtained by mass spectrometry and sequences homologies, primers were defined and a cDNA fragment of 456 bp was amplified by RT-PCR. The cDNA nucleotide sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame coding for 152 residues. The deduced amino acid sequence showed high identity (82-87%) with sequences of Cu, Zn-SODs from other plant species. Molecular analysis was achieved by a protein 3D structural model.

  9. Non-native Soluble Oligomers of Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase (SOD1) Contain a Conformational Epitope Linked to Cytotoxicity in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Soluble misfolded Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is implicated in motor neuron death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); however, the relative toxicities of the various non-native species formed by SOD1 as it misfolds and aggregates are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that early stages of SOD1 aggregation involve the formation of soluble oligomers that contain an epitope specific to disease-relevant misfolded SOD1; this epitope, recognized by the C4F6 antibody, has been proposed as a marker of toxic species. Formation of potentially toxic oligomers is likely to be exacerbated by an oxidizing cellular environment, as evidenced by increased oligomerization propensity and C4F6 reactivity when oxidative modification by glutathione is present at Cys-111. These findings suggest that soluble non-native SOD1 oligomers, rather than native-like dimers or monomers, share structural similarity to pathogenic misfolded species found in ALS patients and therefore represent potential cytotoxic agents and therapeutic targets in ALS. PMID:24660965

  10. Treadmill exercise prevents diabetes-induced increases in lipid peroxidation and decreases in Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase levels in the hippocampus of Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Whi; Chae, Junghyun; Nam, Sung Min; Kim, Yo Na; Yoo, Dae Young; Choi, Jung Hoon; Jung, Hyo Young; Song, Wook; Hwang, In Koo; Seong, Je Kyung; Yoon, Yeo Sung

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on lipid peroxidation and Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) levels in the hippocampus of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats and lean control rats (ZLC) during the onset of diabetes. At 7 weeks of age, ZLC and ZDF rats were either placed on a stationary treadmill or made to run for 1 h/day for 5 consecutive days at 16~22 m/min for 5 weeks. At 12 weeks of age, the ZDF rats had significantly higher blood glucose levels and body weight than the ZLC rats. In addition, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the hippocampus of the ZDF rats were significantly higher than those of the ZLC rats whereas SOD1 levels in the hippocampus of the ZDF rats were moderately decreased. Notably, treadmill exercise prevented the increase of blood glucose levels in ZDF rats. In addition, treadmill exercise significantly ameliorated changes in MDA and SOD1 levels in the hippocampus although SOD activity was not altered. These findings suggest that diabetes increases lipid peroxidation and decreases SOD1 levels, and treadmill exercise can mitigate diabetes-induced oxidative damage in the hippocampus.

  11. Replacement of buried cysteine from zebrafish Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and enhancement of its stability via site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Ken, Chuian-Fu; Lin, Chi-Tsai; Wen, Yu-Der; Wu, Jen-Leih

    2007-01-01

    Zebrafish Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (ZSOD1) has one free cysteine (Cys-7) in a first beta-strand with lower thermostability. We predicted the stability would be increased with single-point mutation at 70 degrees C via the I-Mutant 2.0 server, and generated a mutant SOD with replacement of the free Cys to Ala (ZSODC7A) by site-directed mutagenesis. The mutant was expressed and purified from the Escherichia coli strain AD494(DE3)pLysS and the yield was 2 mg from 0.4 L of culture. The ZSODC7A was heated at 90 degrees C. In a time-dependent assay, the time interval for 50% inactivation was 32 min, and its thermal inactivation rate constant K (d) was 2 x 10(-2) min(-1). The mutant was still activated in broad pH range (2.3-12), and had only a moderate effect under sodium dodecyl sulfate treatment. The calculated specific activity of the mutant was 3980 U/mg, twice that of wild-type ZSOD1. In addition, we soaked fish larva with equal enzyme units of either ZSOD1 or ZSODC7A for 2 h, and then stressed them with 100 ppm of paraquat to induce oxidative injury. The survival rate was significant.

  12. Modification of a single tryptophan residue in human Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase by peroxynitrite in the presence of bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Yamakura, F; Matsumoto, T; Fujimura, T; Taka, H; Murayama, K; Imai, T; Uchida, K

    2001-07-09

    Human recombinant Cu,Zn-SOD was reacted with peroxynitrite in a reaction mixture containing 150 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) 25 mM sodium bicarbonate, and 0.1 mM diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid. Disappearance of fluorescence emission at 350 nm, which could be attributed to modification of a single tryptophan residue, was observed in the modified enzyme with a pH optimum of around 8.4. A fluorescence decrease with the same pH optimum was also observed without sodium bicarbonate, but with less efficiency. Amino acid contents of the modified enzyme showed no significant difference in all amino acids except the loss of a single tryptophan residue of the enzyme. The peroxynitrite-modified enzyme showed an increase in optical absorption around 350 nm and 30% reduced enzyme activity based on the copper contents. The modified enzyme showed the same electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum as that of the control enzyme. The modified Cu,Zn-SOD showed a single protein band in sodium dodecyl sulfate--polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS--PAGE) and five protein bands in non-denaturing PAGE. From this evidence, we conclude that nitration and/or oxidation of the single tryptophan 32 and partial inactivation of the enzyme activity of Cu,Zn-SOD is caused by a peroxynitrite-carbon dioxide adduct without perturbation of the active site copper integrity.

  13. Increased expression of native cytosolic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase improves tolerance to oxidative and chilling stresses in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia; Yang, Jun; Duan, Xiaoguang; Jiang, Yueming; Zhang, Peng

    2014-08-05

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a tropical root crop, and is therefore, extremely sensitive to low temperature; its antioxidative response is pivotal for its survival under stress. Timely turnover of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cells generated by chilling-induced oxidative damages, and scavenging can be achieved by non-enzymatic and enzymatic reactions in order to maintain ROS homeostasis. Transgenic cassava plants that co-express cytosolic superoxide dismutase (SOD), MeCu/ZnSOD, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), MeAPX2, were produced and tested for tolerance against oxidative and chilling stresses. The up-regulation of MeCu/ZnSOD and MeAPX2 expression was confirmed by the quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and enzymatic activity analyses in the leaves of transgenic cassava plant lines with a single-transgene integration site. Upon exposure to ROS-generating agents, 100 μM ROS-generating reagent methyl viologen and 0.5 M H₂O₂, higher levels of enzymatic activities of SOD and APX were detected in transgenic plants than the wild type. Consequently, the oxidative stress parameters, such as lipid peroxidation, chlorophyll degradation and H₂O₂ synthesis, were lower in the transgenic lines than the wild type. Tolerance to chilling stress at 4°C for 2 d was greater in transgenic cassava, as observed by the higher levels of SOD, catalase, and ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes (e.g., APX, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reducatase and glutathione reductase) and lower levels of malondialdehyde content. These results suggest that the expression of native cytosolic SOD and APX simultaneously activated the antioxidative defense mechanisms via cyclic ROS scavenging, thereby improving its tolerance to cold stress.

  14. Increased expression of native cytosolic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase improves tolerance to oxidative and chilling stresses in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a tropical root crop, and is therefore, extremely sensitive to low temperature; its antioxidative response is pivotal for its survival under stress. Timely turnover of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cells generated by chilling-induced oxidative damages, and scavenging can be achieved by non-enzymatic and enzymatic reactions in order to maintain ROS homeostasis. Results Transgenic cassava plants that co-express cytosolic superoxide dismutase (SOD), MeCu/ZnSOD, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), MeAPX2, were produced and tested for tolerance against oxidative and chilling stresses. The up-regulation of MeCu/ZnSOD and MeAPX2 expression was confirmed by the quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and enzymatic activity analyses in the leaves of transgenic cassava plant lines with a single-transgene integration site. Upon exposure to ROS-generating agents, 100 μM ROS-generating reagent methyl viologen and 0.5 M H2O2, higher levels of enzymatic activities of SOD and APX were detected in transgenic plants than the wild type. Consequently, the oxidative stress parameters, such as lipid peroxidation, chlorophyll degradation and H2O2 synthesis, were lower in the transgenic lines than the wild type. Tolerance to chilling stress at 4°C for 2 d was greater in transgenic cassava, as observed by the higher levels of SOD, catalase, and ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes (e.g., APX, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reducatase and glutathione reductase) and lower levels of malondialdehyde content. Conclusions These results suggest that the expression of native cytosolic SOD and APX simultaneously activated the antioxidative defense mechanisms via cyclic ROS scavenging, thereby improving its tolerance to cold stress. PMID:25091029

  15. Cerebellar Expression of Copper Chaperone for Superoxide, Cytosolic Cu/Zn-Superoxide Dismutase, 4-Hydroxy-2-Nonenal, Acrolein and Heat Shock Protein 32 in Patients with Menkes Kinky Hair Disease: Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Atsushi; Ohno, Kousaku; Hirano, Asao; Shintaku, Masayuki; Kato, Masako; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Kato, Shinsuke

    2014-01-01

    Background To clarify the pathogenesis of cerebellar Purkinje cell death in patients with Menkes kinky hair disease (MD), a disorder of copper absorption, we investigated the morphological and functional abnormalities of residual Purkinje cells in MD patients and the mechanism of cell death. Methods Seven MD patients and 39 neurologically normal autopsy cases were studied. We performed histopathological and quantitative analyses of the Purkinje cells. In addition, we used immunohistochemistry to detect copper-dependent enzymes [cytosolic Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase (CCS)], oxidative stress markers [4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and acrolein] and heat shock protein 32 (hsp 32). Results The surviving MD Purkinje cells showed abnormal development, such as somatic sprouts and heterotopic location. Due to maldevelopment and degeneration, dendrites showed the cactus and weeping willow patterns. Axonal degeneration led to the formation of torpedoes. Quantitative analysis revealed loss of approximately 50% of the Purkinje cells in MD patients. Almost all of the normal Purkinje cells were positive for immunostaining by anti-CCS and anti-SOD1 antibodies, with staining of the cell bodies, dendrites and axons. Normal Purkinje cells were not stained by antibodies for HNE, acrolein or hsp 32. In MD patients, the majority of Purkinje cells were positive for CCS, but the positive rate for SOD1 was only about 23%. Approximately 56%, 42% and 40% of the Purkinje cells of MD patients were positive for HNE, acrolein and hsp 32, respectively. Conclusion In MD patients, about 50% of the Purkinje cells have been lost due to maldevelopment and degeneration. In the residual Purkinje cells, CCS expression seems to be nearly normal as a protective response to decreased SOD1 activity due to copper deficiency. Because oxidative stress is elevated secondary to decreased SOD1 activity, hsp 32 is induced as another protective mechanism. PMID:25067875

  16. Cerebellar expression of copper chaperone for superoxide, cytosolic cu/zn-superoxide dismutase, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, acrolein and heat shock protein 32 in patients with menkes kinky hair disease: immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Atsushi; Ohno, Kousaku; Hirano, Asao; Shintaku, Masayuki; Kato, Masako; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Kato, Shinsuke

    2014-03-01

    To clarify the pathogenesis of cerebellar Purkinje cell death in patients with Menkes kinky hair disease (MD), a disorder of copper absorption, we investigated the morphological and functional abnormalities of residual Purkinje cells in MD patients and the mechanism of cell death. Seven MD patients and 39 neurologically normal autopsy cases were studied. We performed histopathological and quantitative analyses of the Purkinje cells. In addition, we used immunohistochemistry to detect copper-dependent enzymes [cytosolic Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase (CCS)], oxidative stress markers [4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and acrolein] and heat shock protein 32 (hsp 32). The surviving MD Purkinje cells showed abnormal development, such as somatic sprouts and heterotopic location. Due to maldevelopment and degeneration, dendrites showed the cactus and weeping willow patterns. Axonal degeneration led to the formation of torpedoes. Quantitative analysis revealed loss of approximately 50% of the Purkinje cells in MD patients. Almost all of the normal Purkinje cells were positive for immunostaining by anti-CCS and anti-SOD1 antibodies, with staining of the cell bodies, dendrites and axons. Normal Purkinje cells were not stained by antibodies for HNE, acrolein or hsp 32. In MD patients, the majority of Purkinje cells were positive for CCS, but the positive rate for SOD1 was only about 23%. Approximately 56%, 42% and 40% of the Purkinje cells of MD patients were positive for HNE, acrolein and hsp 32, respectively. In MD patients, about 50% of the Purkinje cells have been lost due to maldevelopment and degeneration. In the residual Purkinje cells, CCS expression seems to be nearly normal as a protective response to decreased SOD1 activity due to copper deficiency. Because oxidative stress is elevated secondary to decreased SOD1 activity, hsp 32 is induced as another protective mechanism.

  17. Cu, Zn-Superoxide Dismutase Increases the Therapeutic Potential of Adipose-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Maintaining Antioxidant Enzyme Levels.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Dae Young; Kim, Dae Won; Chung, Jin Young; Jung, Hyo Young; Kim, Jong Whi; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Hwang, In Koo; Choi, Jung Hoon; Choi, Goang-Min; Choi, Soo Young; Moon, Seung Myung

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, we investigated the ability of Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) to improve the therapeutic potential of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Ad-MSCs) against ischemic damage in the spinal cord. Animals were divided into four groups: the control group, vehicle (PEP-1 peptide and artificial cerebrospinal fluid)-treated group, Ad-MSC alone group, and Ad-MSC-treated group with PEP-1-SOD1. The abdominal aorta of the rabbit was occluded for 30 min in the subrenal region to induce ischemic damage, and immediately after reperfusion, artificial cerebrospinal fluid or Ad-MSCs (2 × 10 5 ) were administered intrathecally. In addition, PEP-1 or 0.5 mg/kg PEP-1-SOD1 was administered intraperitoneally to the Ad-MSC-treated rabbits. Motor behaviors and NeuN-immunoreactive neurons were significantly decreased in the vehicle-treated group after ischemia/reperfusion. Administration of Ad-MSCs significantly ameliorated the changes in motor behavior and NeuN-immunoreactive neuronal survival. In addition, the combination of PEP-1-SOD1 and Ad-MSCs further increased the ameliorative effects of Ad-MSCs in the spinal cord after ischemia. Furthermore, the administration of Ad-MSCs with PEP-1-SOD1 decreased lipid peroxidation and maintained levels of antioxidants such as SOD1 and glutathione peroxidase compared to the Ad-MSC alone group. These results suggest that combination therapy using Ad-MSCs and PEP-1-SOD1 strongly protects neurons from ischemic damage by modulating the balance of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants.

  18. Concurrent Increases and Decreases in Local Stability and Conformational Heterogeneity in Cu, Zn Superoxide Dismutase Variants Revealed by Temperature-Dependence of Amide Chemical Shifts.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Colleen M; Rumfeldt, Jessica A; Broom, Helen R; Sekhar, Ashok; Kay, Lewis E; Meiering, Elizabeth M

    2016-03-08

    The chemical shifts of backbone amide protons in proteins are sensitive reporters of local structural stability and conformational heterogeneity, which can be determined from their readily measured linear and nonlinear temperature-dependences, respectively. Here we report analyses of amide proton temperature-dependences for native dimeric Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (holo pWT SOD1) and structurally diverse mutant SOD1s associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Holo pWT SOD1 loses structure with temperature first at its periphery and, while having extremely high global stability, nevertheless exhibits extensive conformational heterogeneity, with ∼1 in 5 residues showing evidence for population of low energy alternative states. The holo G93A and E100G ALS mutants have moderately decreased global stability, whereas V148I is slightly stabilized. Comparison of the holo mutants as well as the marginally stable immature monomeric unmetalated and disulfide-reduced (apo(2SH)) pWT with holo pWT shows that changes in the local structural stability of individual amides vary greatly, with average changes corresponding to differences in global protein stability measured by differential scanning calorimetry. Mutants also exhibit altered conformational heterogeneity compared to pWT. Strikingly, substantial increases as well as decreases in local stability and conformational heterogeneity occur, in particular upon maturation and for G93A. Thus, the temperature-dependence of amide shifts for SOD1 variants is a rich source of information on the location and extent of perturbation of structure upon covalent changes and ligand binding. The implications for potential mechanisms of toxic misfolding of SOD1 in disease and for general aspects of protein energetics, including entropy-enthalpy compensation, are discussed.

  19. Weakness of whole muscles in mice deficient in Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase is not explained by defects at the level of the contractile apparatus.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Lisa M; Hanes, Michael C; Kayupov, Erdan; Claflin, Dennis R; Faulkner, John A; Brooks, Susan V

    2013-08-01

    Mice deficient in Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (Sod1 (-/-) mice) demonstrate elevated oxidative stress associated with rapid age-related declines in muscle mass and force. The decline in mass for muscles of Sod1 (-/-) mice is explained by a loss of muscle fibers, but the mechanism underlying the weakness is not clear. We hypothesized that the reduced maximum isometric force (F o) normalized by cross-sectional area (specific F o) for whole muscles of Sod1 (-/-) compared with wild-type (WT) mice is due to decreased specific F o of individual fibers. Force generation was measured for permeabilized fibers from muscles of Sod1 (-/-) and WT mice at 8 and 20 months of age. WT mice were also studied at 28 months to determine whether any deficits observed for fibers from Sod1 (-/-) mice were similar to those observed in old WT mice. No effects of genotype were observed for F o or specific F o at either 8 or 20 months, and no age-associated decrease in specific F o was observed for fibers from Sod1 (-/-) mice, whereas specific F o for fibers of WT mice decreased by 20 % by 28 months. Oxidative stress has also been associated with decreased maximum velocity of shortening (V max), and we found a 10 % lower V max for fibers from Sod1 (-/-) compared with WT mice at 20 months. We conclude that the low specific F o of muscles of Sod1 (-/-) mice is not explained by damage to contractile proteins. Moreover, the properties of fibers of Sod1 (-/-) mice do not recapitulate those observed with aging in WT animals.

  20. Copper-Zinc Superoxide Dismutase: A Unique Biological "Ligand" for Bioinorganic Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Joan Selverstone; de Freitas, Duarte Mota

    1985-01-01

    Discusses superoxide dismutase (SOD) research and the properties of copper, zinc (Cu, Zn)-SOD. Emphasizes the controversy concerning the role of Cu,Zn-SOD and other SOD enzymes as protective agents in reactions involving dioxygen metabolism, and the properties of Cu, Zn-SOD that make it an interesting biological ligand for physical studies of…

  1. ROLE OF COPPER,ZINC-SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE IN CATALYZING NITROTYROSINE FORMATION IN MURINE LIVER

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The solely known function of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is to catalyze the dismutation of superoxide anion into hydrogen peroxide. Our objective was to determine if SOD1 catalyzed murine liver protein nitration induced by acetaminophen (APAP) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Liver and plasma ...

  2. Manganese Superoxide Dismutase: Guardian of the Powerhouse

    PubMed Central

    Holley, Aaron K.; Bakthavatchalu, Vasudevan; Velez-Roman, Joyce M.; St. Clair, Daret K.

    2011-01-01

    The mitochondrion is vital for many metabolic pathways in the cell, contributing all or important constituent enzymes for diverse functions such as β-oxidation of fatty acids, the urea cycle, the citric acid cycle, and ATP synthesis. The mitochondrion is also a major site of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the cell. Aberrant production of mitochondrial ROS can have dramatic effects on cellular function, in part, due to oxidative modification of key metabolic proteins localized in the mitochondrion. The cell is equipped with myriad antioxidant enzyme systems to combat deleterious ROS production in mitochondria, with the mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) acting as the chief ROS scavenging enzyme in the cell. Factors that affect the expression and/or the activity of MnSOD, resulting in diminished antioxidant capacity of the cell, can have extraordinary consequences on the overall health of the cell by altering mitochondrial metabolic function, leading to the development and progression of numerous diseases. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which MnSOD protects cells from the harmful effects of overproduction of ROS, in particular, the effects of ROS on mitochondrial metabolic enzymes, may contribute to the development of novel treatments for various diseases in which ROS are an important component. PMID:22072939

  3. Superoxide Dismutase as an Anaerobic Polypeptide 1

    PubMed Central

    Monk, Lorna S.; Fagerstedt, Kurt V.; Crawford, Robert M. M.

    1987-01-01

    The perennating organ, the rhizome, was chosen for examination of response to anoxia in the species Iris pseudacorus L., Iris germanica L. var Quechei, and Glyceria maxima (Hartm.) Holmberg. These monocots are known to differ in their tolerance of anoxia. Intact rhizomes were subjected to periods of prolonged anoxia of up to 28 days and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was determined in a 48 hour postanoxic recovery phase. Tests were performed to ensure the accuracy of the measured enzyme activities. In the most anoxia tolerant species, I. pseudacorus, SOD activity rose continuously during the period of imposed anoxia, and levels were maintained in the postanoxic recovery phases: 28 days brought about a 13-fold increase to 1576 U SOD per milligram protein. Small increases were found in the less anoxia tolerant I. germanica during anoxic/postanoxic phases, while a drop in activity was recorded in the least anoxia tolerant G. maxima. However, initial levels in G. maxima were more than twice as high as in the other two species. Experiments applying cycloheximide to anoxic rhizome slices of I. pseudacorus inhibited the increase in SOD activity. This indicates that SOD is, paradoxically, induced under anoxia and we suggest that in this species SOD is one of the enzymes identified as anaerobic polypeptides. The significance of the induction of an `oxygen-protecting' enzyme during complete oxygen deprivation is discussed with regard to a possible critical role during recovery from anoxic stress. PMID:16665795

  4. Manganese Superoxide Dismutase in Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Delira

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Considering the quality of life and treatment cost, the best way to fight against cancer is to prevent or suppress cancer development. Cancer is preventable as indicated by human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination and tamoxifen/raloxifen treatment in breast cancer prevention. The activities of superoxide dismutases (SODs) are often lowered during early cancer development, making it a rational candidate for cancer prevention. Recent Advances: SOD liposome and mimetics have been shown to be effective in cancer prevention animal models. They've also passed safety tests during early phase clinical trials. Dietary supplement-based SOD cancer prevention provides another opportunity for antioxidant-based cancer prevention. New mechanistic studies have revealed that SOD inhibits not only oncogenic activity, but also subsequent metabolic shifts during early tumorigenesis. Critical Issues: Lack of sufficient animal model studies targeting specific cancers; and lack of clinical trials and support from pharmaceutical industries also hamper efforts in further advancing SOD-based cancer prevention. Future Directions: To educate and obtain support from our society that cancer is preventable. To combine SOD-based therapeutics with other cancer preventive agents to obtain synergistic effects. To formulate a dietary supplementation-based antioxidant approach for cancer prevention. Lastly, targeting specific populations who are prone to carcinogens, which can trigger oxidative stress as the mechanism of carcinogenesis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 1628–1645. PMID:23706068

  5. Regulatory and structural properties differentiating the chromosomal and the bacteriophage-associated Escherichia coli O157:H7 Cu, Zn superoxide dismutases.

    PubMed

    D'Orazio, Melania; Scotti, Raffaella; Nicolini, Laura; Cervoni, Laura; Rotilio, Giuseppe; Battistoni, Andrea; Gabbianelli, Roberta

    2008-10-01

    Highly virulent enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains possess three sodC genes encoding for periplasmic Cu, Zn superoxide dismutases: sodC, which is identical to the gene present in non-pathogenic E. coli strains, and sodC-F1 and sodC-F2, two nearly identical genes located within lambdoid prophage sequences. The significance of this apparent sodC redundancy in E. coli O157:H7 has not yet been investigated. We report that strains deleted of one or more sodC genes are less resistant than the wild type strain to a challenge with hydrogen peroxide, thus confirming their involvement in the bacterial antioxidant apparatus. To understand if the different sodC genes have truly overlapping functions, we have carried out a comparison of the functional, structural and regulatory properties of the various E. coli O157:H7 SodC enzymes. We have found that the chromosomal and prophagic sodC genes are differentially regulated in vitro. sodC is exclusively expressed in aerobic cultures grown to the stationary phase. In contrast, sodC-F1 and sodC-F2 are expressed also in the logarithmic phase and in anaerobic cultures. Moreover, the abundance of SodC-F1/SodC-F2 increases with respect to that of SodC in bacteria recovered from infected Caco-2 cells, suggesting higher expression/stability of SodC-F1/SodC-F2 in intracellular environments. This observation correlates with the properties of the proteins. In fact, monomeric SodC and dimeric SodC-F1/SodC-F2 are characterized by sharp differences in catalytic activity, metal affinity, protease resistance and stability. Our data show that the chromosomal and bacteriophage-associated E. coli O157:H7 sodC genes have different regulatory properties and encode for proteins with distinct structural/functional features, suggesting that they likely play distinctive roles in bacterial protection from reactive oxygen species. In particular, dimeric SodC-F1 and SodC-F2 possess physico-chemical properties which make these enzymes more

  6. Manganese superoxide dismutase: beyond life and death

    PubMed Central

    Holley, Aaron K.; Dhar, Sanjit Kumar; Xu, Yong

    2010-01-01

    Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a nuclear-encoded antioxidant enzyme that localizes to the mitochondria. Expression of MnSOD is essential for the survival of aerobic life. Transgenic mice expressing a luciferase reporter gene under the control of the human MnSOD promoter demonstrate that the level of MnSOD is reduced prior to the formation of cancer. Overexpression of MnSOD in transgenic mice reduces the incidences and multiplicity of papillomas in a DMBA/TPA skin carcinogenesis model. However, MnSOD deficiency does not lead to enhanced tumorigenicity of skin tissue similarly treated because MnSOD can modulate both the p53-mediated apoptosis and AP-1-mediated cell proliferation pathways. Apoptosis is associated with an increase in mitochondrial levels of p53 suggesting a link between MnSOD deficiency and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. Activation of p53 is preventable by application of a SOD mimetic (MnTE-2-PyP5+). Thus, p53 translocation to mitochondria and subsequent inactivation of MnSOD explain the observed mitochondrial dysfunction that leads to transcription-dependent mechanisms of p53-induced apoptosis. Administration of MnTE-2-PyP5+ following apoptosis but prior to proliferation leads to suppression of protein carbonyls and reduces the activity of AP-1 and the level of the proliferating cellular nuclear antigen, without reducing the activity of p53 or DNA fragmentation following TPA treatment. Remarkably, the incidence and multiplicity of skin tumors are drastically reduced in mice that receive MnTE-2-PyP5+ prior to cell proliferation. The results demonstrate the role of MnSOD beyond its essential role for survival and suggest a novel strategy for an antioxidant approach to cancer intervention. PMID:20454814

  7. Parasitization by Scleroderma guani influences expression of superoxide dismutase genes in Tenebrio molitor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an antioxidant enzyme involved in detoxifying reactive oxygen species. In this study, we identified genes encoding the extracellular and intracellular copper-zinc SODs (ecCuZnSOD and icCuZnSOD) and a manganese SOD (MnSOD) in the yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor....

  8. Copper-zinc-superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), an antioxidant gene from seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis); molecular cloning, sequence characterization, antioxidant activity and potential peroxidation function of its recombinant protein.

    PubMed

    Perera, N C N; Godahewa, G I; Lee, Jehee

    2016-10-01

    Copper-zinc-superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) from Hippocampus abdominalis (HaCuZnSOD) is a metalloenzyme which belongs to the ubiquitous family of SODs. Here, we determined the characteristic structural features of HaCuZnSOD, analyzed its evolutionary relationships, and identified its potential immune responses and biological functions in relation to antioxidant defense mechanisms in the seahorse. The gene had a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 67 bp, a coding sequence of 465 bp and a 3' UTR of 313 bp. The putative peptide consists of 154 amino acids. HaCuZnSOD had a predicted molecular mass of 15.94 kDa and a theoretical pI value of 5.73, which is favorable for copper binding activity. In silico analysis revealed that HaCuZnSOD had a prominent Cu-Zn_superoxide_dismutase domain, two Cu/Zn signature sequences, a putative N-glycosylation site, and several active sites including Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) binding sites. The three dimensional structure indicated a β-sheet barrel with 8 β-sheets and two short α-helical regions. Multiple alignment analyses revealed many conserved regions and active sites among its orthologs. The highest amino acid identity to HaCuZnSOD was found in Siniperca chuatsi (87.4%), while Maylandia zebra shared a close relationship in the phylogenetic analysis. Functional assays were performed to assess the antioxidant, biophysical and biochemical properties of overexpressed recombinant (r) HaCuZnSOD. A xanthine/XOD assay gave optimum results at pH 9 and 25 °C indicating these may be the best conditions for its antioxidant action in the seahorse. An MTT assay and flow cytometry confirmed that rHaCuZnSOD showed peroxidase activity in the presence of HCO3(-). In all the functional assays, the level of antioxidant activity of rHaCuZnSOD was concentration dependent; metal ion supplementation also increased its activity. The highest mRNA expressional level of HaCuZnSOD was found in blood. Temporal assessment under pathological stress showed a delay

  9. Stability of Benzotriazole Derivatives with Free Cu, Zn, Co and Metal-Containing Enzymes: Binding and Interaction of Methylbenzotriazoles with Superoxide Dismutase and Vitamin B12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abudalo, R. A.; AbuDalo, M. A.; Hernandez, M. T.

    2018-02-01

    Benzotriazole derivatives form very strong bonds with transition metals, and are the most widely used type of industrial corrosion inhibitor. Some benzotriazole derivatives have been implicated as hormone regulators which also carry the ability to induce uncoupling responses or otherwise inhibit respiration processes in some microorganisms. However, the mechanisms associated with benzotriazole toxicity and inhibition are unknown. Using Differential Pulse Polarography, the stability constants of commercially significant corrosion inhibitors, 4-and 5-methylbenzotriazole, coordinated with free Cu (II) and Co (III), were determined to be 1015 and 108, respectively. Polarographic analyses were extended to confirm that methylbenzotriazole also binds the copper center(s) in the ubiquitous enzyme superoxide dismutase, and the Corrin site in the coenzyme cobalamin (vitamin B12). These results suggest that the metal-chelating ability of this unique class of compounds may confer inhibition to certain enzyme systems.

  10. Use of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase tool for biomonitoring marine environment pollution in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.

    PubMed

    Zeinali, Farrokhzad; Homaei, Ahmad; Kamrani, Ehsan; Patel, Seema

    2018-04-30

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is the pivotal antioxidant enzyme that defends organisms against the oxidative stresses of superoxide radicals. In this experimental study, purification of SOD from the leaves of Avicennia marina (grey mangrove or white mangrove) from the family Acanthaceae, located in Sirik mangrove forest on the shore of the Gulf of Oman was performed, for the intended characterization of SOD. The Sirik AmSOD (A. marina SOD) expressed optimum activity in the pH range of 6-9 with the maximum activity at pH 8. The optimal temperature for Sirik AmSOD activity was 70°C. Comparison of the pH and temperature optima in two regions (the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman) showed significant differences with P<0.05. The SOD from the Persian Gulf was more resistant against the environmental stressors, because of the biochemical adaption to this environment, which is harsher. The evidence from these results suggests that AmSOD has different characteristics in each place, and mangroves undergo different adaptations and require different protections. The results of the enzymatic research can be useful for ecological management of organisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Overproduction of Petunia Chloroplastic Copper/Zinc Superoxide Dismutase Does Not Confer Ozone Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco 1

    PubMed Central

    Pitcher, Lynne H.; Brennan, Eileen; Hurley, Arthur; Dunsmuir, Pamela; Tepperman, James M.; Zilinskas, Barbara A.

    1991-01-01

    Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cultivar W38) plants that overproduce petunia chloroplastic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase were exposed to ozone dosages that injure control tobacco plants. Based on foliar injury ratings, there was no consistent protection provided to the transgenic plants. These data indicate that an increase in the chloroplastic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase alone is not sufficient to reduce ozone toxicity. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:16668407

  12. Exogenous superoxide dismutase may lose its antidotal ability on rice leaves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Leaf diffusates of the resistant rice cultivars suppressed spore germination of blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea). Bovine Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) added to the diffusate abolished its toxicity. However, the enzyme added to the inoculum did not affect the toxicity of the diffusate. Even the s...

  13. Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase is lower and copper chaperone CCS is higher in erythrocytes of copper-deficient rats and mice.

    PubMed

    West, Elizabeth C; Prohaska, Joseph R

    2004-09-01

    Discovery of a sensitive blood biochemical marker of copper status would be valuable for assessing marginal copper intakes. Rodent models were used to investigate whether erythrocyte concentrations of copper,zinc-superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the copper metallochaperone for SOD (CCS) were sensitive to dietary copper changes. Several models of copper deficiency were studied in postweanling male Holtzman rats, male Swiss Webster mice offspring, and both rat and mouse dams. Treatment resulted in variable but significantly altered copper status as evaluated by the presence of anemia, and lower liver copper and higher liver iron concentrations in copper-deficient compared with copper-adequate animals. Associated with this copper deficiency were consistent reductions in immunoreactive SOD and robust enhancements in CCS. In most cases, the ratio of CCS:SOD was several-fold higher in red blood cell extracts from copper-deficient compared with copper-adequate rodents. Determination of red cell CCS:SOD may be useful for assessing copper status of humans.

  14. Characterization of the Bacillus stearothermophilus manganese superoxide dismutase gene and its ability to complement copper/zinc superoxide dismutase deficiency in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Bowler, C.; Inze, D.; Van Camp, W.

    1990-03-01

    Recombinant clones containing the manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene of Bacillus stearothermophilus were isolated with an oligonucleotide probe designed to match a part of the previously determined amino acid sequence. Complementation analyses, performed by introducing each plasmid into a superoxide dismutase-deficient mutant of Escherichia coli, allowed us to define the region of DNA which encodes the MnSOD structural gene and to identify a promoter region immediately upstream from the gene. These data were subsequently confirmed by DNA sequencing. Since MnSOD is normally restricted to the mitochondria in eucaryotes, we were interested (i) in determining whether B. stearothermophilus MnSOD could functionmore » in eucaryotic cytosol and (ii) in determining whether MnSOD could replace the structurally unrelated copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD) which is normally found there. To test this, the sequence encoding bacterial MnSOD was cloned into a yeast expression vector and subsequently introduced into a Cu/ZnSOD-deficient mutant of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Functional expression of the protein was demonstrated, and complementation tests revealed that the protein was able to provide tolerance at wild-type levels to conditions which are normally restrictive for this mutant. Thus, in spite of the evolutionary unrelatedness of these two enzymes, Cu/ZnSOD can be functionally replaced by MnSOD in yeast cytosol.« less

  15. Copper, Zinc Superoxide Dismutase is Primarily a Cytosolic Protein in Human Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crapo, James D.; Oury, Tim; Rabouille, Catherine; Slot, Jan W.; Chang, Ling-Yi

    1992-11-01

    The intracellular localization of human copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD; superoxide:superoxide oxidoreductase, EC 1.15.1.1) was evaluated by using EM immunocytochemistry and both isolated human cell lines and human tissues. Eight monoclonal antibodies raised against either native or recombinant human Cu,Zn-SOD and two polyclonal antibodies raised against either native or recombinant human Cu,Zn-SOD were used. Fixation with 2% paraformaldehyde/0.2% glutaraldehyde was found necessary to preserve normal distribution of the protein. Monoclonal antibodies were less effective than polyclonal antibodies in recognizing the antigen after adequate fixation of tissue. Cu,Zn-SOD was found widely distributed in the cell cytosol and in the cell nucleus, consistent with it being a soluble cytosolic protein. Mitochondria and secretory compartments did not label for this protein. In human cells, peroxisomes showed a labeling density slightly less than that of cytoplasm.

  16. The effects of 3% diquafosol sodium eye drop application on meibomian gland and ocular surface alterations in the Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase-1 (Sod1) knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Keisuke; Simsek, Cem; Kojima, Takashi; Higa, Kazunari; Kawashima, Motoko; Dogru, Murat; Shimizu, Takahiko; Tsubota, Kazuo; Shimazaki, Jun

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of 3% diquafosol sodium eye drops on meibomian gland and ocular surface alterations in the superoxide dismutase-1 (Sod1 -/- ) mice in comparison to the wild-type mouse. Three percent diquafosol sodium eye drop was instilled to 20 eyes of 10 50-week-old male Sod1 -/- mice and 22 eyes of 11 C57BL/6 strain 50-week-old wild-type (WT) male mice six times a day for 2 weeks. Aqueous tear secretion quantity was measured with phenol red-impregnated cotton threads without anesthesia. Tear film stability and corneal epithelial damage were assessed by fluorescein and lissamine green staining. We also performed oil red O (ORO) lipid staining to evaluate the lipid changes in the meibomian glands. Meibomian gland specimens underwent hematoxylin and eosin staining to examine histopathological changes and meibomian gland acinar unit density after sacrifice. Immunohistochemistry staining was performed using cytokeratin 4, cytokeratin 13, and transglutaminase-1 antibodies. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for cytokeratin 4, cytokeratin 13, and transglutaminase-1 mRNA expression was also performed. The aqueous tear quantity, the mean tear film breakup time, and the number of lipid droplets significantly improved in the Sod1 -/- mice with treatment. The mean meibomian acinar unit density did not change in the Sod1 -/- mice and WT mice after treatment. Application of 3% diquafosol sodium eye drop significantly decreased the corneal fluorescein and lissamine green staining scores in the Sod1 -/- mice after 2 weeks. We showed a notable increase in cytokeratin 4, cytokeratin 13 immunohistochemistry staining, and cytokeratin 4, cytokeratin 13 mRNA expressions with a marked decrease in immunohistochemistry staining and significant decline in mRNA expression of transglutaminase-1 after 3% diquafosol sodium treatment. Topical application of 3% diquafosol sodium eye drop improved the number of lipid droplets, tear stability

  17. Zymographic Method for Distinguishing Different Classes of Superoxide Dismutases in Plants.

    PubMed

    Jamdhade, Ashwini R; Sunkar, Ramanjulu; Hivrale, Vandana K

    2017-01-01

    In plants, especially in chloroplasts, superoxide radical is generated when an electron is transferred to dimolecular O 2 due to decreased activity of Photosystem I. The superoxide (O 2 - ) radical accumulation is more rampant in plants exposed to abiotic stresses due to oxidation of photosystem components. Excessive superoxide radical accumulation will lead to oxidative damage to the cellular macromolecules. The ubiquitous superoxide dismutases (SODs) represent critical enzymatic antioxidant system present in cells, which can catalyze the disproportion of superoxide (O 2 - ) radical rapidly into hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and molecular oxygen. Depending on the metal cofactor present, the plant SODs are classified into Cu/ZnSOD, MnSOD, and FeSOD. The activity of SODs can be quantified zymographically. Additionally, using this method, different classes of SODs can be distinguished by using H 2 O 2 , KCN, and NaN 3.

  18. Superoxide dismutase from Trichuris ovis--inhibition by benzimidazoles and pyrimidine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Moreno, M; Garcia-Rejon, L; Salas, I; Osuna, A; Monteoliva, M

    1992-01-01

    Three superoxide dismutase isoenzymes of different cellular location were detected in an homogenate of Trichuris ovis. Each of these molecular forms was purified by differential centrifugation and precipitation with ammonium sulphate, followed by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-75 columns. The activity levels of the two molecular forms detected in the mitochondrial (one cyanide sensitive Cu-Zn-SOD and the other cyanide insensitive Mn-SOD) were higher than that of the superoxide dismutase detected in the cytoplasmic fraction (cyanide sensitive Cu-Zn-SOD). All molecular forms present evident differences to the SODs contained in the host liver. Molecular mass and some of the physical and chemical properties of the enzyme was determined for all three molecular forms. An inhibitory effect on the SOD of the parasite an the host was detected with a series of compounds, some of which markedly inhibited parasite enzyme but not host enzyme.

  19. High-level expression of a sika deer (Cervus nippon) Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase in Pichia pastoris and its characterization.

    PubMed

    Li, Ren-Kuan; Fu, Cai-Li; Chen, Ping; Ng, Tzi Bun; Ye, Xiu-Yun

    2013-03-01

    Production of a sika deer Cu/Zn-SOD was achieved in Pichia pastoris after the reconstituted expression vector pPIC9K was transformed into the strain GS115. By employing Saccharomyces cerevisiae secretion signal peptide (α-factor) under the regulation of the methanol-inducible promoter of the gene of alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1), sika deer Cu/Zn-SOD with a molecular mass of 16kDa was expressed while recombinant sika deer Cu/Zn-SOD with an activity of 3500U/mL was obtained from a 5L bioreactor. After two successive steps of chromatography on DEAE-650C and Superdex75, recombinant sika deer Cu/Zn-SOD was obtained with 13.8% yield, 14.5-fold purification, and a specific activity of 3447U/mg. Its optimum temperature and optimum pH were 40°C and 7.0, respectively. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative Analyses of Cu-Zn Superoxide Dismutase (SOD1) and Thioredoxin Reductase (TrxR) at the mRNA Level between Apis mellifera L. and Apis cerana F. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Under Stress Conditions.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hyun-Na; Lee, Soon-Gyu; Yun, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Choi, Yong Soo; Kim, Gil-Hah

    2016-01-01

    This study compared stress-induced expression of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) genes in the European honeybee Apis mellifera L. and Asian honeybee Apis cerana F. Expression of both SOD1 and TrxR rapidly increased up to 5 h after exposure to cold (4 °C) or heat (37 °C) treatment and then gradually decreased, with a stronger effect induced by cold stress in A. mellifera compared with A. cerana. Injection of stress-inducing substances (methyl viologen, [MV] and H2O2) also increased SOD1 and TrxR expression in both A. mellifera and A. cerana, and this effect was more pronounced with MV than H2O2. Additionally, we heterologously expressed the A. mellifera and A. cerana SOD1 and TrxR proteins in an Escherichia coli expression system, and detection by SDS-PAGE, confirmed by Western blotting using anti-His tag antibodies, revealed bands at 16 and 60 kDa, respectively. Our results show that the expression patterns of SOD1 and TrxR differ between A. mellifera and A. cerana under conditions of low or high temperature as well as oxidative stress. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  1. Immobilization of Superoxide Dismutase on Polyelectrolyte-Functionalized Titania Nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Rouster, Paul; Pavlovic, Marko; Szilagyi, Istvan

    2018-02-16

    The superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme was successfully immobilized on titania nanosheets (TNS) functionalized with the poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) polyelectrolyte. The TNS-PDADMAC solid support was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis followed by self-assembled polyelectrolyte layer formation. It was found that SOD strongly adsorbed onto oppositely charged TNS-PDADMAC through electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. The TNS-PDADMAC-SOD material was characterized by light scattering and microscopy techniques. Colloidal stability studies revealed that the obtained nanocomposites possessed good resistance against salt-induced aggregation in aqueous suspensions. The enzyme kept its functional integrity upon immobilization; therefore, TNS-PDADMAC-SOD showed excellent superoxide radical anion scavenging activity. The developed system is a promising candidate for applications in which suspensions of antioxidant activity are required in the manufacturing processes. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Superoxide Dismutase Mimics: Chemistry, Pharmacology, and Therapeutic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Rebouças, Júlio S.; Spasojević, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Oxidative stress has become widely viewed as an underlying condition in a number of diseases, such as ischemia–reperfusion disorders, central nervous system disorders, cardiovascular conditions, cancer, and diabetes. Thus, natural and synthetic antioxidants have been actively sought. Superoxide dismutase is a first line of defense against oxidative stress under physiological and pathological conditions. Therefore, the development of therapeutics aimed at mimicking superoxide dismutase was a natural maneuver. Metalloporphyrins, as well as Mn cyclic polyamines, Mn salen derivatives and nitroxides were all originally developed as SOD mimics. The same thermodynamic and electrostatic properties that make them potent SOD mimics may allow them to reduce other reactive species such as peroxynitrite, peroxynitrite-derived CO3·−, peroxyl radical, and less efficiently H2O2. By doing so SOD mimics can decrease both primary and secondary oxidative events, the latter arising from the inhibition of cellular transcriptional activity. To better judge the therapeutic potential and the advantage of one over the other type of compound, comparative studies of different classes of drugs in the same cellular and/or animal models are needed. We here provide a comprehensive overview of the chemical properties and some in vivo effects observed with various classes of compounds with a special emphasis on porphyrin-based compounds. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 13, 877–918. PMID:20095865

  3. Effect of intradermal human recombinant copper-zinc superoxide dismutase on random pattern flaps in rats.

    PubMed

    Schein, Ophir; Westreich, Melvyn; Shalom, Avshalom

    2013-09-01

    Studies have focused on enhancing flap viability using superoxide dismutase (SOD), but only a few used SOD from human origin, and most gave the compound systemically. We evaluated the ability of SOD to improve random skin flap survival using human recombinant copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Hr-CuZnSOD) in variable doses, injected intradermally into the flap. Seventy male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups. Cephalic random pattern flaps were elevated on their backs and intradermal injections of different dosages of Hr-CuZnSOD were given 15 minutes before surgery. Flap survival was evaluated by fluorescein fluorescence. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t test statistical analyses were performed. Flap survival in all treated groups was significantly better than in the controls. The beneficial effect of HR-CuZnSOD on flap survival is attained when it is given intradermally into the flap tissue. Theoretically, Hr-CuZnSOD delivered with local anesthetics used in flap elevation may be a valuable clinical tool. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Isolation, Chromosomal Localization, and Differential Expression of Mitochondrial Manganese Superoxide Dismutase and Chloroplastic Copper/Zinc Superoxide Dismutase Genes in Wheat1

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guohai; Wilen, Ronald W.; Robertson, Albert J.; Gusta, Lawrence V.

    1999-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene expression was investigated to elucidate its role in drought and freezing tolerance in spring and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum). cDNAs encoding chloroplastic Cu/ZnSODs and mitochondrial MnSODs were isolated from wheat. MnSOD and Cu/ZnSOD genes were mapped to the long arms of the homologous group-2 and -7 chromosomes, respectively. Northern blots indicated that MnSOD genes were drought inducible and decreased after rehydration. In contrast, Cu/ZnSOD mRNA was not drought inducible but increased after rehydration. In both spring and winter wheat seedlings exposed to 2°C, MnSOD transcripts attained maximum levels between 7 and 49 d. Transcripts of Cu/ZnSOD mRNA were detected sooner in winter than in spring wheat; however, they disappeared after 21 d of acclimation. Transcripts of both classes of SOD genes increased during natural acclimation in both spring and winter types. Exposure of fully hardened plants to three nonlethal freeze-thaw cycles resulted in Cu/Zn mRNA accumulation; however, MnSOD mRNA levels declined in spring wheat but remained unchanged in winter wheat. The results of the dehydration and freeze-thaw-cycle experiments suggest that winter wheat has evolved a more effective stress-repair mechanism than spring wheat. PMID:10364402

  5. Stability of ALS-related Superoxide Dismutase Protein variants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusebrink, Daniel; Plotkin, Steven

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is a metal binding, homodimeric protein, whose misfolding is implicated in the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Monomerization is believed to be a key step in the propagation of the disease. The dimer stability is often difficult to measure experimentally however, because it is entangled with protein unfolding and metal loss. We thus computationally investigate the dimer stability of mutants of SOD1 known to be associated with ALS. We report on systematic trends in dimer stability, as well as intriguing allosteric communication between mutations and the dimer interface. We study the dimer stabilities in molecular dynamics simulations and obtain the binding free energies of the dimers from pulling essays. Mutations are applied in silicoand we compare the differences of binding free energies compared to the wild type.

  6. Reduced superoxide dismutase activity in xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Nishigori, C.; Miyachi, Y.; Imamura, S.

    1989-10-01

    This study was performed in order to assess the possible protective effect of superoxide dismutase (SOD) on ultraviolet (UV) damage in xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) fibroblasts. SOD activity in fibroblasts originating from seven xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) patients was significantly lower than that in normal cells (p less than 0.005). Average SOD activity in XP cells belonging to complementation group A was 3.68 +/- 0.54 (n = 7) and that in normal human cells was 5.79 +/- 1.59 (n = 6). Addition of SOD before and during UV irradiation (UVB and UVC) to the cells caused no change in the amount ofmore » unscheduled DNA synthesis and UV survival. A possible involvement of reduced SOD in XP and a possible protective effect by SOD on UV damage is discussed.« less

  7. Identification of novel superoxide dismutase isoenzymes in the olive (Olea europaea L.) pollen.

    PubMed

    Zafra, Adoración; Castro, Antonio Jesús; Alché, Juan de Dios

    2018-06-08

    Among antioxidant enzymes, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) family is a major actor in catalysing the disproportionation of superoxide. Apart from its role as antioxidant, these enzymes have a role in cell signalling, and Cu,Zn-SOD proteins are also major pollen allergens. In order to deepen our understanding of the SOD isoenzymes present in olive pollen and to analyse the molecular variability of the pollen Cu,Zn-SOD family, we carried out biochemical, transcriptomic and localization studies of pollen grains from different olive cultivars and other allergenic species. Olive pollen showed a high rate of total SOD activity in all cultivars assayed, which did not correlate with pollen viability. Mass spectrometry analysis together with activity assays and Western blotting experiments enabled us to identify new forms of Cu,Zn-SOD enzyme (including chloroplastidic and peroxisomal forms) as well as differentially expressed Mn-, Fe- and Cu,Zn-SOD isoenzymes among the pollen of different olive cultivars and allergenic species. Ultrastructural localization of Cu,Zn-SOD revealed its plastidial localization in the pollen grain. We also identified the occurrence of a shorter form of one of the cytosolic Cu,Zn-SOD enzymes, likely as the result of alternative splicing. This shorter enzyme showed lower SOD activity as compared to the full length form. The presence of multiple SOD isoenzymes in the olive pollen could be related to the need of finely tuning the ROS metabolism during the transition from its quiescent condition at maturity to a highly metabolically active state at germination.

  8. Zymography Methods to Simultaneously Analyze Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase Activities: Novel Application for Yeast Species Identification.

    PubMed

    Gamero-Sandemetrio, Esther; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; Matallana, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    We provide an optimized protocol for a double staining technique to analyze superoxide dismutase enzymatic isoforms Cu-Zn SOD (Sod1) and Mn-SOD (Sod2) and catalase in the same polyacrylamide gel. The use of NaCN, which specifically inhibits yeast Sod1 isoform, allows the analysis of Sod2 isoform while the use of H 2 O 2 allows the analysis of catalase. The identification of a different zymography profiling of SOD and catalase isoforms in different yeast species allowed us to propose this technique as a novel yeast identification and classification strategy.

  9. Physical and chemical stability of different formulations with superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Di Mambro, V M; Campos, P M B G Maia; Fonseca, M J V

    2004-10-01

    Topical formulations with superoxide dismutase (SOD), a scavenger of superoxide radicals, have proved to be effective against some skin diseases. Nevertheless, formulations with proteins are susceptible to both chemical and physical instability. Three different formulations (anionic and non-ionic gel and emulsion) were developed and supplemented with SOD in order to determine the most stable formulation that would maintain SOD activity. Physical stability was evaluated by assessing the rheological behavior of the formulations stored at room temperature, 37 and 45 degrees C. Chemical stability was evaluated by the measurement of enzymatic activity in the formulations stored at room temperature and at 45 degrees C. Formulations showed a flow index less than one, characterizing pseudoplastic behavior. There was no significant difference in initial values of flow index, tixotropy or minimum apparent viscosity. Neither gel showed significant changes in minimum apparent viscosity concerning storage time or temperature, as well, SOD presence and its activity. The emulsion showed decreased viscosity by the 28th day, but no significant changes concerning storage temperature or SOD presence, although it showed a decreased activity. The addition of SOD to the formulations studied did not affect their physical stability but gel formulations seem to be better bases for enzyme addition.

  10. Recent trends in electrochemical biosensors of superoxide dismutases.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, Murugesan; Santharaman, Paulraj; Madasamy, Thangamuthu; Rajesh, Seenivasan; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Kotamraju, Srigiridhar; Karunakaran, Chandran

    2018-09-30

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs), a family of ubiquitous enzymes, provide essential protection to biological systems against uncontrolled reactions with oxygen- and nitrogen- based radical species. We review first the role of SODs in oxidative stress and the other biological functions such as peroxidase, nitrite oxidase, thiol oxidase activities etc., implicating its role in neurodegenerative, cardiovascular diseases, and ageing. Also, this review focuses on the development of electrochemical label-free immunosensor for SOD1 and the recent advances in biosensing assay methods based on their catalytic and biological functions with various substrates including reactive oxygen species (superoxide anion radical, hydrogen peroxide), nitric oxide metabolites (nitrite, nitrate) and thiols using thiol oxidase activity. Furthermore, we emphasize the progress made in improving the detection performance through incorporation of the SOD into conducting polymers and nanocomposite matrices. In addition, we address the potential opportunities, challenges, advances in electrochemical-sensing platforms and development of portable analyzer for point-of-care applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Determination of superoxide dismutase mimetic activity in common culinary herbs.

    PubMed

    Chohan, Magali; Naughton, Declan P; Opara, Elizabeth I

    2014-01-01

    Under conditions of oxidative stress, the removal of superoxide, a free radical associated with chronic inflammation, is catalysed by superoxide dismutase (SOD). Thus in addition to acting as an antioxidant, SOD may also be utilized as an anti-inflammatory agent. Some plant derived foods have been shown to have SOD mimetic (SODm) activity however it is not known if this activity is possessed by culinary herbs which have previously been shown to possess both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the study was to ascertain if the culinary herbs rosemary, sage and thyme possess SODm activity, and to investigate the influence of cooking and digestion on this activity. Transition metal ion content was also determined to establish if it could likely contribute to any SODm activity detected. All extracts of uncooked (U), cooked (C) and cooked and digested (C&D) herbs were shown to possess SODm activity, which was significantly correlated with previously determined antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of these herbs. SODm activity was significantly increased following (C) and (C&D) for rosemary and sage only. The impact of (C) and (C&D) on the SODm for thyme may have been influenced by its transition metal ion content. SODm activity may contribute to the herbs' antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities however the source and significance of this activity need to be established.

  12. The Phylogeny and Active Site Design of Eukaryotic Copper-only Superoxide Dismutases*

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Ryan L.; Galaleldeen, Ahmad; Villarreal, Johanna; Taylor, Alexander B.; Cabelli, Diane E.; Hart, P. John; Culotta, Valeria C.

    2016-01-01

    In eukaryotes the bimetallic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes play important roles in the biology of reactive oxygen species by disproportionating superoxide anion. Recently, we reported that the fungal pathogen Candida albicans expresses a novel copper-only SOD, known as SOD5, that lacks the zinc cofactor and electrostatic loop (ESL) domain of Cu/Zn-SODs for substrate guidance. Despite these abnormalities, C. albicans SOD5 can disproportionate superoxide at rates limited only by diffusion. Here we demonstrate that this curious copper-only SOD occurs throughout the fungal kingdom as well as in phylogenetically distant oomycetes or “pseudofungi” species. It is the only form of extracellular SOD in fungi and oomycetes, in stark contrast to the extracellular Cu/Zn-SODs of plants and animals. Through structural biology and biochemical approaches we demonstrate that these copper-only SODs have evolved with a specialized active site consisting of two highly conserved residues equivalent to SOD5 Glu-110 and Asp-113. The equivalent positions are zinc binding ligands in Cu/Zn-SODs and have evolved in copper-only SODs to control catalysis and copper binding in lieu of zinc and the ESL. Similar to the zinc ion in Cu/Zn-SODs, SOD5 Glu-110 helps orient a key copper-coordinating histidine and extends the pH range of enzyme catalysis. SOD5 Asp-113 connects to the active site in a manner similar to that of the ESL in Cu/Zn-SODs and assists in copper cofactor binding. Copper-only SODs are virulence factors for certain fungal pathogens; thus this unique active site may be a target for future anti-fungal strategies. PMID:27535222

  13. The Phylogeny and Active Site Design of Eukaryotic Copper-only Superoxide Dismutases

    DOE PAGES

    Peterson, Ryan L.; Galaleldeen, Ahmad; Villarreal, Johanna; ...

    2016-08-17

    In eukaryotes the bimetallic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes play important roles in the biology of reactive oxygen species by disproportionating superoxide anion. We reported that the fungal pathogen Candida albicans expresses a novel copper-only SOD, known as SOD5, that lacks the zinc cofactor and electrostatic loop (ESL) domain of Cu/Zn-SODs for substrate guidance. In spite of these abnormalities, C. albicans SOD5 can disproportionate superoxide at rates limited only by diffusion. Here we demonstrate that this curious copper-only SOD occurs throughout the fungal kingdom as well as in phylogenetically distant oomycetes or “pseudofungi” species. It is the only form ofmore » extracellular SOD in fungi and oomycetes, in stark contrast to the extracellular Cu/Zn-SODs of plants and animals. Through structural biology and biochemical approaches we demonstrate that these copper-only SODs have evolved with a specialized active site consisting of two highly conserved residues equivalent to SOD5 Glu-110 and Asp-113. The equivalent positions are zinc binding ligands in Cu/Zn-SODs and have evolved in copper-only SODs to control catalysis and copper binding in lieu of zinc and the ESL. Similar to the zinc ion in Cu/Zn-SODs, SOD5 Glu-110 helps orient a key copper-coordinating histidine and extends the pH range of enzyme catalysis. Furthermore, SOD5 Asp-113 connects to the active site in a manner similar to that of the ESL in Cu/Zn-SODs and assists in copper cofactor binding. Copper-only SODs are virulence factors for certain fungal pathogens; thus this unique active site may be a target for future anti-fungal strategies.« less

  14. Biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) nanosphere encapsulating superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sushant; Singh, Abhay Narayan; Verma, Anil; Dubey, Vikash Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) nanosphere encapsulating superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were successfully synthesized using double emulsion (w/o/w) solvent evaporation technique. Characterization of the nanosphere using dynamic light scattering, field emission scanning electron microscope, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed a spherical-shaped nanosphere in a size range of 812 ± 64 nm with moderate protein encapsulation efficiency of 55.42 ± 3.7 % and high in vitro protein release. Human skin HaCat cells were used for analyzing antioxidative properties of SOD- and CAT-encapsulated PCL nanospheres. Oxidative stress condition in HaCat cells was optimized with exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; 1 mM) as external stress factor and verified through reactive oxygen species (ROS) analysis using H2DCFDA dye. PCL nanosphere encapsulating SOD and CAT together indicated better antioxidative defense against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human skin HaCat cells in comparison to PCL encapsulating either SOD or CAT alone as well as against direct supplement of SOD and CAT protein solution. Increase in HaCat cells SOD and CAT activities after treatment hints toward uptake of PCL nanosphere into the human skin HaCat cells. The result signifies the role of PCL-encapsulating SOD and CAT nanosphere in alleviating oxidative stress.

  15. Superoxide dismutase activity of Cu-bound prion protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodak, Miroslav; Lu, Wenchang; Bernholc, Jerry

    2009-03-01

    Misfolding of the prion protein, PrP, has been linked to a group of neurodegenerative diseases, including the mad cow disease in cattle and the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. The normal function of PrP is still unknown, but it was found that the PrP can efficiently bind Cu(II) ions. Early experiments suggested that Cu-PrP complex possesses significant superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but later experiments failed to confirm it and at present this issue remains unresolved. Using a recently developed hybrid DFT/DFT method, which combines Kohn-Sham DFT for the solute and its first solvation shells with orbital-free DFT for the remainder of the solvent, we have investigated SOD activity of PrP. The PrP is capable of incorporating Cu(II) ions in several binding modes and our calculations find that each mode has a different SOD activity. The highest activity found is comparable to those of well-known SOD proteins, suggesting that the conflicting experimental results may be due to different bindings of Cu(II) in those experiments.

  16. Phytomonas iron superoxide dismutase: a possible molecular marker.

    PubMed

    Marín, Clotilde; Hitos, Ana B; Rodríguez-González, Isabel; Dollet, Michel; Sánchez-Moreno, Manuel

    2004-05-01

    We have isolated and biochemically characterized two iron superoxide dismutases activities (SODI and SODII) from a plant trypanosomatid isolated from Euphorbia characias. The isoenzyme FeSODII has immunogenic capacity, and the positivity of the anti-SODII serum persists to a dilution of 1/40,000, by Western blot. In addition, Western blot has been used to test the positivity of the anti-SODII serum against antigen fractions (SOD) from 17 isolates belonging to the family Trypanosomatidae and for which we had previously determined the isoenzymatic profile. The reaction proved positive only with those plant isolates considered to belong to the genus Phytomonas, whereas there was no reaction of the anti-SODII serum, against the antigen fractions from the species Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania donovani, Herpetomonas samuelpessoai, Herpetomonas davidi, Crithidia luciliae and Leptomonas collosoma. FeSODII is located mainly over the entire surface of the parasite, as well as in the nucleus, glycosomes and membranes. The above makes FeSODII promising as a molecular tool for diagnosis and identification, and as a potential chemotherapeutic target for designing drugs aimed at controlling not only of the diseases caused by Phytomonas species, but also for the great metabolic similarity to other trypanosomatids of animals and humans, it may be possible for these results to be extrapolated. Moreover, the sequencing of the amino-terminal end of the FeSODII enables the design of primers that in the near future will make it possible to sequence the gene of this isoenzyme.

  17. Anion-π interactions in active centers of superoxide dismutases.

    PubMed

    Ribić, Vesna R; Stojanović, Srđan Đ; Zlatović, Mario V

    2018-01-01

    We investigated 1060 possible anion-π interactions in a data set of 41 superoxide dismutase active centers. Our observations indicate that majority of the aromatic residues are capable to form anion-π interactions, mainly by long-range contacts, and that there is preference of Trp over other aromatic residues in these interactions. Furthermore, 68% of total predicted interactions in the dataset are multiple anion-π interactions. Anion-π interactions are distance and orientation dependent. We analyzed the energy contribution resulting from anion-π interactions using ab initio calculations. The results showed that, while most of their interaction energies lay in the range from -0 to -4kcalmol -1 , those energies can be up to -9kcalmol -1 and about 34% of interactions were found to be repulsive. Majority of the suggested anion-π interacting residues in ternary complexes are metal-assisted. Stabilization centers for these proteins showed that all the six residues found in predicted anion-π interactions are important in locating one or more of such centers. The anion-π interacting residues in these proteins were found to be highly conserved. We hope that these studies might contribute useful information regarding structural stability and its interaction in future designs of novel metalloproteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Replacement of a cytosolic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase by a novel cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase in crustaceans that use copper (haemocyanin) for oxygen transport.

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Marius; Hoexum Brouwer, Thea; Grater, Walter; Brown-Peterson, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    The blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, which uses the copper-dependent protein haemocyanin for oxygen transport, lacks the ubiquitous cytosolic copper-dependent enzyme copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu,ZnSOD) as evidenced by undetectable levels of Cu,ZnSOD activity, protein and mRNA in the hepatopancreas (the site of haemocyanin synthesis) and gills. Instead, the crab has an unusual cytosolic manganese SOD (cytMnSOD), which is retained in the cytosol, because it lacks a mitochondrial transit peptide. A second familiar MnSOD is present in the mitochondria (mtMnSOD). This unique phenomenon occurs in all Crustacea that use haemocyanin for oxygen transport. Molecular phylogeny analysis suggests the MnSOD gene duplication is as old as the origin of the arthropod phylum. cytMnSOD activity in the hepatopancreas changes during the moulting cycle of the crab. Activity is high in intermoult crabs and non-detectable in postmoult papershell crabs. mtMnSOD is present in all stages of the moulting cycle. Despite the lack of cytCu,ZnSOD, crabs have an extracellular Cu,ZnSOD (ecCu,ZnSOD) that is produced by haemocytes, and is part of a large, approx. 160 kDa, covalently-linked protein complex. ecCu,ZnSOD is absent from the hepatopancreas of intermoult crabs, but appears in this tissue at premoult. However, no ecCu,ZnSOD mRNA can be detected, suggesting that the protein is recruited from the haemolymph. Screening of different taxa of the arthropod phylum for Cu,ZnSOD activity shows that those crustaceans that use haemoglobin for oxygen transport have retained cytCu,ZnSOD. It appears, therefore, that the replacement of cytCu,ZnSOD with cytMnSOD is part of an adaptive response to the dynamic, haemocyanin-linked, fluctuations in copper metabolism that occur during the moulting cycle of the crab. PMID:12769817

  19. Cross-Reactivity of Schistosoma mansoni Cytosolic Superoxide Dismutase, a Protective Vaccine Candidate, with Host Superoxide Dismutase and Identification of Parasite-Specific B Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho-Queiroz, Claudia; Cook, Rosemary; Wang, Ching C.; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Bailey, Nicola A.; Egilmez, Nejat K.; Mathiowitz, Edith; LoVerde, Philip T.

    2004-01-01

    Schistosoma mansoni, an intravascular parasite, has evolved a number of immune evasion mechanisms to establish itself in the host, such as antioxidant enzymes. Our laboratory has demonstrated that the highest levels of certain antioxidant enzymes are found in adult worms, which are the least susceptible to immune killing. Vaccination of mice with naked DNA constructs containing the gene encoding Cu/Zn cytosolic superoxide dismutase (SmCT-SOD) showed significant levels of protection compared to a control group, and our data demonstrate that the adult worms are a target of the immune response that confers resistance in SmCT-SOD DNA-vaccinated mice. Because SmCT-SOD shows significant identity with the human homologue, we evaluated the reactivity of anti-SmCT-SOD antibodies derived from SmCT-SOD-immunized mice and rabbits and from S. mansoni-infected individuals to human superoxide dismutase (hSOD) and SmCT-SOD parasite-specific peptides to assess the potential for autoimmune responses from immunization with the recombinant molecule. In addition, we evaluated the ability of various SmCT-SOD adjuvant-delivered immunizations to induce cross-reactive antibodies. Both mouse and rabbit antibodies generated against SmCT-SOD recognized the denatured form of hSOD. The same antibodies did not recognize nondenatured hSOD. Sera from infected individuals with different clinical forms of schistosomiasis recognized SmCT-SOD but not hSOD. Antibodies from mice immunized with different SmCT-SOD-containing formulations of both DNA and protein were able to recognize SmCT-SOD-derived peptides but not soluble hSOD. All together, these findings serve as a basis for developing a subunit vaccine against schistosomiasis. PMID:15102772

  20. An elevated level of copper zinc superoxide dismutase fails to prevent oxygen induced retinopathy in mice.

    PubMed

    Klaeger, C; de Sa, L; Klaeger, A J; Carlson, E J; Good, W V; Epstein, C J

    1996-05-01

    To determine whether a higher level of copper zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) can reduce the severity of oxygen induced retinopathy (OIR) in a mouse model. CuZnSOD transgenic mice with a threefold increase in CuZnSOD activity and control non-transgenic mice were exposed to 90% oxygen for 12 hours a day during the first 5 days of life. After oxygen treatment, all mice were reared in room air for 10 days. Another group of transgenic and non-transgenic mice were kept in room air for 15 days and served as control groups for the oxygen effect. At day 15, all mice were killed and perfused with India ink. The retinas were flat mounted on slides and examined with a light microscope. There was a statistically significant increase in the incidence of OIR in mice exposed to high levels of oxygen, whether or not they were transgenic. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the severity of OIR between oxygen treated transgenic and non-transgenic mice. A threefold higher CuZnSOD activity does not protect against OIR in mice. This is an unexpected finding, since oxygen radicals are considered a major factor causing OIR, and increased CuZnSOD activity has reduced oxygen radical induced damage in several neuronal and non-neuronal systems. The possibility of a damaging role for other radicals not affected by CuZnSOD cannot be excluded.

  1. Peroxisomal copper, zinc superoxide dismutase. Characterization of the isoenzyme from watermelon cotyledons.

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, P; Varela, J; Gimeénez-Gallego, G; del Río, L A

    1995-01-01

    The biochemical and immunochemical characterization of a superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) from peroxisomal origin has been carried out. The enzyme is a Cu,Zn-containing SOD (CuZn-SOD) located in the matrix of peroxisomes from watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.) cotyledons (L.M. Sandalio and L.A. del Río [1988] Plant Physiol 88: 1215-1218). The amino acid composition of the enzyme was determined. Analysis by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of the peroxisomal CuZn-SOD incubated with 6 M guanidine-HCl indicated that this enzyme contained a noncovalently bound chromophore group that was responsible for the absorbance peak of the native enzyme at 260 nm. The amino acid sequence of the peroxisomal CuZn-SOD was determined by Edman degradation. Comparison of its sequence with those reported for other plant SODs revealed homologies of about 70% with cytosolic CuZn-SODs and of 90% with chloroplastic CuZn-SODs. The peroxisomal SOD has a high thermal stability and resistance to inactivation by hydrogen peroxide. A polyclonal antibody was raised against peroxisomal CuZn-SOD, and by western blotting the antibody cross-reacted with plant CuZn-SODs but did not recognize either plant Mn-SOD or bacterial Fe-SOD. The antiSOD-immunoglobulin G showed a weak cross-reaction with bovine erythrocytes and liver CuZn-SODs, and also with cell-free extracts from trout liver. The possible function of this CuZn-SOD in the oxidative metabolism of peroxisomes is discussed. PMID:7630940

  2. Cytosolic superoxide dismutase can provide protection against Fasciola gigantica.

    PubMed

    Jaikua, Wipaphorn; Kueakhai, Pornanan; Chaithirayanon, Kulathida; Tanomrat, Rataya; Wongwairot, Sirima; Riengrojpitak, Suda; Sobhon, Prasert; Changklungmoa, Narin

    2016-10-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SOD), antioxidant metallo-enzymes, are a part of the first line of defense in the trematode parasites which act as the chief scavengers for reactive oxygen species (ROS). A recombinant Fasciola gigantica cytosolic SOD (FgSOD) was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and used for immunizing rabbits to obtain polyclonal antibodies (anti-rFgSOD). This rabbit anti-rFgSOD reacted with the native FgSOD at a molecular weight of 17.5kDa. The FgSOD protein was expressed at high level in parenchyma, caecal epithelium and egg of the parasite. The rFgSOD reacted with antisera from rabbits infected with F. gigantica metacercariae collected at 2, 5, and 7 weeks after infection, and reacted with sera of infected mice. Anti-rFgSOD exhibited cross reactivity with the other parasites' antigens, including Eurytrema pancreaticum, Cotylophoron cotylophorum, Fischoederius cobboldi, Gastrothylax crumenifer, Paramphistomum cervi, and Setaria labiato papillosa. A vaccination was performed in imprinting control region (ICR) mice by subcutaneous injection with 50μg of rFgSOD combined with Freund's adjuvant. At 2 weeks after the second boost, mice were infected with 15 metacercariae by oral route. IgG1 and IgG2a in the immune sera were determined to indicate Th2 and Th1 immune responses. It was found that the parasite burden was reduced by 45%, and both IgG1 and IgG2a levels showed correlation with the numbers of worm recoveries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of the copper-zinc superoxide dismutase activity in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Chen, J R; Weng, C N; Ho, T Y; Cheng, I C; Lai, S S

    2000-05-11

    Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD), a key enzyme in defense against toxic oxygen-free radicals, is widespread in eukaryotes and several species of gram-negative bacteria. The presence of this enzyme in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae), the primary pathogen of mycoplasmal pneumonia in pigs, was examined since the polyclonal antibody against bovine Cu/ZnSOD was dominantly cross-reactive with the M. hyopneumoniae Cu/ZnSOD from whole cellular proteins. In situ activity staining on SDS-PAGE showed that the molecular mass of M. hyopneumoniae Cu/ZnSOD in reducing form was approximately 17kDa. The presence of Cu and Zn ions at the active site of the enzyme was confirmed on the basis of inhibition by KCN and by H(2)O(2). The activity of M. hyopneumoniae Cu/ZnSOD on both SDS- and native-polyacrylamide gels was completely inhibited by 2mM KCN and the gels showed no iron-containing SOD (FeSOD) or manganese-containing SOD (MnSOD) in the crude extracts. The activity of M. hyopneumoniae Cu/ZnSOD in crude extract was 70units/mg protein and was 55% inhibited by 5mM KCN and 56% inactivated by 40mM H(2)O(2). This enzyme was growth-stage dependent and evidenced markedly higher production during the early log phase. Different expression levels of Cu/ZnSOD activity in field isolates were also detected. Taken together, the presence of Cu/ZnSOD in M. hyopneumoniae was identified for the first time.

  4. E.s.r., magnetic, optical and biological (SOD and antimicrobial) studies of imidazolate bridged Cu II-Zn II and Cu II-Ni II complexes with tris(2-amino ethyl)amine as capping ligand: a plausible model for superoxide dismutase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Nripendra; Shukla, K. K.; Patel, R. N.; Chauhan, U. K.; Shrivastava, R.

    2003-11-01

    X-band e.s.r. and optical absorption spectra of the imidazolate bridged heterobimetallic complexes [(tren)Cu-E-Im-Zn-(tren)](ClO 4) 3 and [(tren)Cu-E-Im-Ni-(tren)](ClO 4) 3, where trentris(2-aminoethyl)amine, E-Im=2-ethylimidazolate ion and the related mononuclear complexes [Cu(tren)](ClO 4) 2 and [(tren)Cu-E-ImH)](ClO 4) 2 have been described. Biological activities (superoxide dismutase and antimicrobial) have also been measured and compared with reported complexes.

  5. Protective effect of human recombinant copper-zinc superoxide dismutase on zone of stasis survival in burns in rats.

    PubMed

    Shalom, Avshalom; Kramer, Eyal; Westreich, Melvyn

    2011-06-01

    Superoxide dismutase, acting as a scavenger of oxygen free radicals, has shown mixed results in increasing burn wound survival. Originally, we demonstrated that human recombinant copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Hr-CuZnSOD) could increase the survival of failing ischemic flaps in a rat model. Because of the possible similar pathophysiology of tissue ischemia in flaps and the zone of stasis in burns, we conducted a later study using 2 groups of rats with standardized intermediate burns, to ascertain whether Hr-CuZnSOD could increase zone of stasis survival in rats. The results showed that postburn Hr-CuZnSOD failed to improve zone of stasis survival in burns. We decided to undertake a new controlled study to ascertain whether there is a protective effect of Hr-CuZnSOD in cases of intermediate burns. We used 2 groups of rats, one of which received prophylactic treatments with Hr-CuZnSOD before the induction of standardized intermediate burns. Results showed that preburn Hr-CuZnSOD also failed to improve zone of stasis survival in burns. Further studies are needed to adequately understand the effect of oxygen free radicals in burn wound pathophysiology and to determine whether Hr-CuZnSOD has a role in the clinical management of burns or should be abandoned.

  6. Dietary copper supplements modulate aortic superoxide dismutase, nitric oxide and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lamb, David J; Tickner, Michelle L; Hourani, Susanna M O; Ferns, Gordon A A

    2005-08-01

    The objective was to test the hypothesis that dietary copper inhibits atherosclerosis by inducing superoxide dismutase (SOD) and potentiating nitric oxide (NO). New Zealand White rabbits were fed either a cholesterol diet (n = 8) or a cholesterol diet containing 0.02% copper acetate (n = 8) for 13 weeks. We found that the intimal area was significantly smaller in the animals supplemented with copper (P < 0.005), although integrated plasma cholesterol levels were not significantly different. This was associated with a significant increase in aortic copper content (P < 0.05), SOD activity (P < 0.05) and Cu/Zn SOD mRNA (P < 0.05) and a significant decrease in nitrotyrosine content (P < 0.05). Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between aortic copper content and SOD activity (P < 0.005, R(2) = 0.83) and a negative correlation between aortic superoxide dimutase activity and nitrotyrosine content (P < 0.005, R(2) = 0.93). In organ bath experiments, the relaxation of precontracted carotid artery rings to calcium ionophore was greater in animals supplemented with copper. No difference in response to sodium nitroprusside was observed. These data suggest that in the cholesterol-fed rabbit, copper supplements inhibit the progression of atherosclerosis by increasing SOD expression, thereby reducing the interaction of NO with superoxide, and hence potentiating NO-mediated pathways that may protect against atherosclerosis.

  7. Dietary copper supplements modulate aortic superoxide dismutase, nitric oxide and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, David J; Tickner, Michelle L; Hourani, Susanna M O; Ferns, Gordon A A

    2005-01-01

    The objective was to test the hypothesis that dietary copper inhibits atherosclerosis by inducing superoxide dismutase (SOD) and potentiating nitric oxide (NO). New Zealand White rabbits were fed either a cholesterol diet (n = 8) or a cholesterol diet containing 0.02% copper acetate (n = 8) for 13 weeks. We found that the intimal area was significantly smaller in the animals supplemented with copper (P < 0.005), although integrated plasma cholesterol levels were not significantly different. This was associated with a significant increase in aortic copper content (P < 0.05), SOD activity (P < 0.05) and Cu/Zn SOD mRNA (P < 0.05) and a significant decrease in nitrotyrosine content (P < 0.05). Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between aortic copper content and SOD activity (P < 0.005, R2 = 0.83) and a negative correlation between aortic superoxide dimutase activity and nitrotyrosine content (P < 0.005, R2 = 0.93). In organ bath experiments, the relaxation of precontracted carotid artery rings to calcium ionophore was greater in animals supplemented with copper. No difference in response to sodium nitroprusside was observed. These data suggest that in the cholesterol-fed rabbit, copper supplements inhibit the progression of atherosclerosis by increasing SOD expression, thereby reducing the interaction of NO with superoxide, and hence potentiating NO-mediated pathways that may protect against atherosclerosis. PMID:16045547

  8. Parasitization by Scleroderma guani influences expression of superoxide dismutase genes in Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jia-Ying; Ze, Sang-Zi; Stanley, David W; Yang, Bin

    2014-09-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an antioxidant enzyme involved in detoxifying reactive oxygen species. In this study, we identified genes encoding the extracellular and intracellular copper-zinc SODs (ecCuZnSOD and icCuZnSOD) and a manganese SOD (MnSOD) in the yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor. The cDNAs for ecCuZnSOD, icCuZnSOD, and MnSOD, respectively, encode 24.55, 15.81, and 23.14 kDa polypeptides, which possess structural features typical of other insect SODs. They showed 20-94% identity to other known SOD sequences from Bombyx mori, Musca domestica, Nasonia vitripennis, Pediculus humanus corporis, and Tribolium castaneum. Expression of these genes was analyzed in selected tissues and developmental stages, and following exposure to Escherichia coli and parasitization by Scleroderma guani. We recorded expression of all three SODs in cuticle, fat body, and hemocytes and in the major developmental stages. Relatively higher expressions were detected in late-instar larvae and pupae, compared to other developmental stages. Transcriptional levels were upregulated following bacterial infection. Analysis of pupae parasitized by S. guani revealed that expression of T. molitor SOD genes was significantly induced following parasitization. We infer that these genes act in immune response and in host-parasitoid interactions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Complete Amino Acid Sequence of a Copper/Zinc-Superoxide Dismutase from Ginger Rhizome.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yuki; Fukamizo, Tamo; Yoneda, Kazunari; Araki, Tomohiro

    2017-04-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an antioxidant enzyme protecting cells from oxidative stress. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is known for its antioxidant properties, however, there are no data on SODs from ginger rhizomes. In this study, we purified SOD from the rhizome of Z. officinale (Zo-SOD) and determined its complete amino acid sequence using N terminal sequencing, amino acid analysis, and de novo sequencing by tandem mass spectrometry. Zo-SOD consists of 151 amino acids with two signature Cu/Zn-SOD motifs and has high similarity to other plant Cu/Zn-SODs. Multiple sequence alignment showed that Cu/Zn-binding residues and cysteines forming a disulfide bond, which are highly conserved in Cu/Zn-SODs, are also present in Zo-SOD. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that plant Cu/Zn-SODs clustered into distinct chloroplastic, cytoplasmic, and intermediate groups. Among them, only chloroplastic enzymes carried amino acid substitutions in the region functionally important for enzymatic activity, suggesting that chloroplastic SODs may have a function distinct from those of SODs localized in other subcellular compartments. The nucleotide sequence of the Zo-SOD coding region was obtained by reverse-translation, and the gene was synthesized, cloned, and expressed. The recombinant Zo-SOD demonstrated pH stability in the range of 5-10, which is similar to other reported Cu/Zn-SODs, and thermal stability in the range of 10-60 °C, which is higher than that for most plant Cu/Zn-SODs but lower compared to the enzyme from a Z. officinale relative Curcuma aromatica.

  10. Endotoxin treatment protects rats against ozone-induced lung edema: with evidence for the role of manganese superoxide dismutase

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, I.; Massaro, D.

    Ozone is a strong oxidizing agent that can cause lung damage and edema. There is evidence that it does so by causing peroxidation of membrane lipids. However, the elevation in lung activity of copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu, ZnSOD), and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) during exposure to ozone suggests that increased production of superoxide could contribute to lung edema caused by ozone. This latter observation, and preliminary evidence that treatment of rats with endotoxin elevates lung activity of MnSOD without elevation of the activity of Cu, ZnSOD, catalase (CAT), or glutathione peroxidase (GP), led to the present study. We treatedmore » rats with endotoxin, exposed them to different concentrations of ozone, measured lung wet weight to dry weight ratio, thiobarbituric acid-reactive material (TBAR), and assayed lung tissue for Cu, ZnSOD, MnSOD, CAT, and GP activity. Our major findings are, (1) a strongly edemogenic concentration of ozone-lowered MnSOD activity; (2) endotoxin treatment of air-breathing rats did not decrease lipid peroxidation as indicated by the lung concentration of TBAR; (3) induction of increased MnSOD activity in lung by treatment with endotoxin was associated with virtually complete protection against an otherwise edemogenic concentration of ozone, with less lipid peroxidation, and with less loss of weight; and (4) this protection occurred without elevated Cu, ZnSOD, CAT, or GP activity.« less

  11. Do Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) protect Cells from DNA Damage Induced by Active Arsenicals?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalyzes the conversion of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide, which can be converted to water and oxygen through the action of catalase. Heterozygous mice of strain B6: 129S7-SodltmlLeb/J were obtained from Jackson Laboratories and bred to produce offspr...

  12. Superoxide Dismutase Protects Cells from DNA Damage Induced by Trivalent Methylated Arsenicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalyzes the conversion of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide. Heterozygous mice of strain B6; 129S7-Sod1(tm1Leb)/J were obtained from Jackson Laboratories and bred to produce offspring that were heterozygous (+/Sod1(tm1Leb)), homozygous wild-type (+/+), ...

  13. Copper/zinc superoxide dismutase insufficiency impairs progesterone secretion and fertility in female mice.

    PubMed

    Noda, Yoshihiro; Ota, Kuniaki; Shirasawa, Takuji; Shimizu, Takahiko

    2012-01-01

    Copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD, SOD1) is one of the major antioxidant enzymes, and is localized in the cytoplasm to scavenge superoxide. To investigate the physiological role of SOD1 in the ovaries, we analyzed the fertility of Sod1-deficient female mice. To evaluate their hormonal metabolism, we measured pituitary and ovarian hormone levels in the plasma of the mutant mice. Plasma follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and estradiol were not altered in the mutant compared to the wild-type females, while the plasma progesterone level was significantly reduced in the mutant females. Furthermore, the mutant mice showed decreased progesterone secretion under the condition of superovulation. In a histochemical analysis, we observed a remarkable reduction in the corpus luteum area in the mutant ovaries without atrophic changes. The mutant mice also displayed enhanced superoxide generation in the region surrounding the corpora lutea, which was associated with increased apoptotic cells and suppressed vasculature. These results suggested that SOD1 deficiency dysregulated luteal formation because of increased superoxide generation in the ovary. In vitro fertilization experiments showed no abnormal fertilization of Sod1-deficient oocytes. In addition, when Sod1-deficient embryos were transferred into the oviducts of wild-type females, mutant embryos developed at a normal rate, indicating that SOD1 deficiency in embryos did not cause miscarriage in the uterus of wild-type females. These results indicated that increased intracellular ROS impaired luteal formation and progesterone production in the mutant females, thus suggesting that SOD1 plays a crucial role in both the luteal function and the maintenance of fertility in female mice.

  14. The Single Superoxide Dismutase of Rhodobacter capsulatus Is a Cambialistic, Manganese-Containing Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Tabares, Leandro C.; Bittel, Cristian; Carrillo, Néstor; Bortolotti, Ana; Cortez, Néstor

    2003-01-01

    The phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus contains a single, oxygen-responsive superoxide dismutase (SODRc) homologous to iron-containing superoxide dismutase enzymes. Recombinant SODRc, however, displayed higher activity after refolding with Mn2+, especially when the pH of the assay mixture was raised. SODRc isolated from Rhodobacter cells also preferentially contains manganese, but metal discrimination depends on the culture conditions, with iron fractions increasing from 7% in aerobic cultures up to 40% in photosynthetic cultures. Therefore, SODRc behaves as a Mn-containing dismutase with cambialistic properties. PMID:12730184

  15. Characteristics of the Copper,Zinc Superoxide Dismutase of a Hadal Sea Cucumber (Paelopatides sp.) from the Mariana Trench.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanan; Kong, Xue; Chen, Jiawei; Liu, Helu; Zhang, Haibin

    2018-05-18

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are among the most important antioxidant enzymes and show great potential in preventing adverse effects during therapeutic trials. In the present study, cloning, expression, and characterization of a novel Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (Ps-Cu,Zn-SOD) from a hadal sea cucumber ( Paelopatides sp.) were reported. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Ps-Cu,Zn-SOD belonged to a class of intracellular SOD. Its K m and V max were 0.0258 ± 0.0048 mM and 925.1816 ± 28.0430 units/mg, respectively. The low K m value of this enzyme represents a high substrate affinity and can adapt to the low metabolic rate of deep sea organisms. The enzyme functioned from 0 °C to 80 °C with an optimal temperature of 40 °C. Moreover, the enzyme activity was maintained up to 87.12% at 5 °C. The enzyme was active at pH 4 to 12 with an optimal pH of 8.5. Furthermore, Ps-Cu,Zn-SOD tolerated high concentration of urea and GuHCl, resisted hydrolysis by proteases, and maintained stability at high pressure. All these features demonstrated that the deep sea Ps-Cu,Zn-SOD is a potential candidate for application to the biopharmaceutical field.

  16. Superoxide dismutase and catalase protect cultured hepatocytes from the cytotoxicity of acetaminophen.

    PubMed

    Kyle, M E; Miccadei, S; Nakae, D; Farber, J L

    1987-12-31

    Superoxide dismutase, catalase and mannitol prevent the killing of cultured hepatocytes by acetaminophen in the presence of an inhibitor of glutathione reductase, BCNU. Under these conditions, the cytotoxicity of acetaminophen depends upon its metabolism, since beta-naphthoflavone, an inhibitor of mixed function oxidation, prevents the cell killing. In hepatocytes made resistant to acetaminophen by pretreatment with the ferric iron chelator, deferoxamine, addition of ferric or ferrous iron restores the sensitivity to acetaminophen. In such a situation, both superoxide dismutase and catalase prevent the killing by acetaminophen in the presence of ferric iron. By contrast, catalase, but not superoxide dismutase, prevents the cell killing dependent upon addition of ferrous iron. These results document the participation of both superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide in the killing of cultured hepatocytes by acetaminophen and suggest that hydroxyl radicals generated by an iron catalyzed Haber-Weiss reaction mediate the cell injury.

  17. The activity of superoxide dismutases (SODs) at the early stages of wheat deetiolation

    PubMed Central

    Zimak-Piekarczyk, Paulina; Ślesak, Ireneusz

    2018-01-01

    Unbound tetrapyrroles, i.e. protochlorophyllide (Pchlide), chlorophyllide and chlorophylls, bring the risk of reactive oxygen species (ROS) being generated in the initial stages of angiosperm deetiolation due to inefficient usage of the excitation energy for photosynthetic photochemistry. We analyzed the activity of superoxide dismutases (SODs) in etiolated wheat (Triticum aestivum) leaves and at the beginning of their deetiolation. Mn-SOD and three isoforms of Cu/Zn-SODs were identified both in etiolated and greening leaves of T. aestivum. Two Cu/Zn-SODs, denoted as II and III, were found in plastids. The activity of plastidic Cu/Zn-SOD isoforms as well as that of Mn-SOD correlated with cell aging along a monocot leaf, being the highest at leaf tips. Moreover, a high Pchlide content at leaf tips was observed. No correlation between SOD activity and the accumulation of photoactive Pchlide, i.e. Pchlide bound into ternary Pchlide:Pchlide oxidoreductase:NADPH complexes was found. Cu/Zn-SOD I showed the highest activity at the leaf base. A flash of light induced photoreduction of the photoactive Pchlide to chlorophyllide as well as an increase in all the SODs activity which occurred in a minute time-scale. In the case of seedlings that were deetiolated under continuous light of moderate intensity (100 μmol photons m-2 s-1), only some fluctuations in plastidic Cu/Zn-SODs and Mn-SOD within the first four hours of greening were noticed. The activity of SODs is discussed with respect to the assembly of tetrapyrroles within pigment-protein complexes, monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy at 77 K. PMID:29558520

  18. Localization of superoxide dismutases and hydrogen peroxide in legume root nodules.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Maria C; James, Euan K; Clemente, Maria R; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Fedorova, Maria; Vance, Carroll P; Becana, Manuel

    2004-12-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) catalyze the dismutation of superoxide radicals to O2 and H2O2 and thus represent a primary line of antioxidant defense in all aerobic organisms. H2O2 is a signal molecule involved in the plant's response to pathogen attack and other stress conditions as well as in nodulation. In this work, we have tested the hypothesis that SODs are a source of H2O2 in indeterminate alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and pea (Pisum sativum) nodules. The transcripts and proteins of the major SODs of nodules were localized by in situ RNA hybridization and immunogold electron microscopy, respectively, whereas H2O2 was localized cytochemically by electron microscopy of cerium-perfused nodule tissue. The transcript and protein of cytosolic CuZnSOD are most abundant in the meristem (I) and invasion (II) zones, interzone II-III, and distal part of the N2-fixing zone (III), and those of MnSOD in zone III, especially in the infected cells. At the subcellular level, CuZnSOD was found in the infection threads, cytosol adjacent to cell walls, and apoplast, whereas MnSOD was in the bacteroids, bacteria within infection threads, and mitochondria. The distinct expression pattern of CuZnSOD and MnSOD suggests specific roles of the enzymes in nodules. Large amounts of H2O2 were found at the same three nodule sites as CuZnSOD but not in association with MnSOD. This colocalization led us to postulate that cytosolic CuZnSOD is a source of H2O2 in nodules. Furthermore, the absence or large reduction of H2O2 in nodule tissue preincubated with enzyme inhibitors (cyanide, azide, diphenyleneiodonium, diethyldithiocarbamate) provides strong support to the hypothesis that at least some of the H2O2 originates by the sequential operation of an NADPH oxidase-like enzyme and CuZnSOD. Results also show that there is abundant H2O2 associated with degrading bacteroids in the senescent zone (IV), which reflects the oxidative stress ensued during nodule senescence.

  19. Nitric oxide activates superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase to repress the cell death induced by wounding.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Ching; Jih, Pei-Ju; Lin, Hsin-Hung; Lin, Jeng-Shane; Chang, Ling-Lan; Shen, Yu-Hsing; Jeng, Shih-Tong

    2011-10-01

    Wounding caused by rain, wind, and pathogen may lead plants to onset defense response. Previous studies indicated that mechanical wounding stimulates plants to generate nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). In this study, the functions of NO and H(2)O(2) after wounding in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas cv. Tainung 57) was further analyzed. Mechanical wounding damaged cells and resulted in necrosis, but the presence of NO donors or NO scavenger might reduce or enhance the cell death caused by wounding, respectively. The amount of H(2)O(2) induced by wounding was also decreased or increased when plants were incubated with NO donors or NO scavenger, individually. These results indicate that NO may regulate H(2)O(2) generation to affect cell death. NO-induced proteins isolated from two-dimensional electrophoresis were identified to be Copper/Zinc superoxide dismutases (CuZnSODs). The activities of CuZnSODs and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) could be enhanced by NO. In addition, the expression of CuZnSOD and APX was induced by wounding via NO, and their expression was further stimulated by NO through the generation of cGMP. The influx of calcium ions and the activity of NADPH oxidase were also involved in the NO signal transduction pathway inducing APX expression. Collectively, the generation of H(2)O(2) in wounded plants might trigger cell death. Meanwhile, the production of NO induced by wounding stimulated signal transducers including cGMP, calcium ions, and H(2)O(2) to activate CuZnSOD and APX, which further decreased H(2)O(2) level and reduced the cell death caused by wounding.

  20. Unique molecular properties of superoxide dismutase from teleost fish skin.

    PubMed

    Nakano, T; Sato, M; Takeuchi, M

    1995-02-27

    A unique Cu,Zn-SOD was found and isolated from plaice Paralichthys olivaceus skin. Surprisingly, the properties of purified fish skin SOD were very different from those of SOD from other sources reported so far. The purified SOD was composed of four same subunits of 16 kDa and the molecular weight of the native SOD was found to be around 65 kDa. The dominant amino acids of the SOD were Ser, Thr, Pro and Glu. Above 70 degrees C, thermostability of the SOD was much lower than that of bovine erythrocyte Cu,Zn-SOD.

  1. Extraction of erythrocyte enzymes for the preparation of polyhemoglobin-catalase-superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jingsong; Chang, Thomas Ming Swi

    2009-01-01

    In sustained severe ischemia, reperfusion with oxygen carriers may result in ischemia-reperfusion injuries because of the release of damaging oxygen radicals. A nanobiotechnology-based polyhemogloin-calatase-superoxide dismutase can prevent this because the oxygen carrier, polyhemoglobin, is linked to antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase. However, these antioxidant enzymes come from nonhuman sources and recombinant human enzymes are expensive. This paper describes our study on extracting these enzymes from red blood cells and analyzing the amount of enzymes needed for adequate protection from ischemia-reperfusion.

  2. Cryo-Trapping the Distorted Octahedral Reaction Intermediate of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borgstahl, Gloria; Snell, Edward H.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase protects organisms from potentially damaging oxygen radicals by catalyzing the disproportion of superoxide to oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. We report the use of cryogenic temperatures to kinetically trap the 6th ligand bound to the active site of manganese superoxide dismutase. Using cryocrystallography and synchrotron radiation, we describe at 1.55A resolution the six-coordinate, distorted octahedral geometry assumed by the active site during catalysis and compare it to the room temperature, five-coordinate trigonal-bipyramidal active site. Gateway residues Tyr34, His30 and a tightly bound water molecule are implicated in closing off the active site and blocking the escape route of superoxide during dismutation.

  3. Neuron-specific regulation of superoxide dismutase amid pathogen-induced gut dysbiosis.

    PubMed

    Horspool, Alexander M; Chang, Howard C

    2018-05-19

    Superoxide dismutase, an enzyme that converts superoxide into less-toxic hydrogen peroxide and oxygen, has been shown to mediate behavioral response to pathogens. However, it remains largely unknown how superoxide dismutase is regulated in the nervous system amid pathogen-induced gut dysbiosis. Although there are five superoxide dismutases in C. elegans, our genetic analyses suggest that SOD-1 is the primary superoxide dismutase to mediate the pathogen avoidance response. When C. elegans are fed a P. aeruginosa diet, the lack of SOD-1 contributes to enhanced lethality. We found that guanylyl cyclases GCY-5 and GCY-22 and neuropeptide receptor NPR-1 act antagonistically to regulate SOD-1 expression in the gustatory neuron ASER. After C. elegans ingests a diet that contributes to high levels of oxidative stress, the temporal regulation of SOD-1 and the SOD-1-dependent response in the gustatory system demonstrates a sophisticated mechanism to fine-tune behavioral plasticity. Our results may provide the initial glimpse of a strategy by which a multicellular organism copes with oxidative stress amid gut dysbiosis. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nitration and inactivation of manganese superoxide dismutase in chronic rejection of human renal allografts.

    PubMed Central

    MacMillan-Crow, L A; Crow, J P; Kerby, J D; Beckman, J S; Thompson, J A

    1996-01-01

    Inflammatory processes in chronic rejection remain a serious clinical problem in organ transplantation. Activated cellular infiltrate produces high levels of both superoxide and nitric oxide. These reactive oxygen species interact to form peroxynitrite, a potent oxidant that can modify proteins to form 3-nitrotyrosine. We identified enhanced immunostaining for nitrotyrosine localized to tubular epithelium of chronically rejected human renal allografts. Western blot analysis of rejected tissue demonstrated that tyrosine nitration was restricted to a few specific polypeptides. Immunoprecipitation and amino acid sequencing techniques identified manganese superoxide dismutase, the major antioxidant enzyme in mitochondria, as one of the targets of tyrosine nitration. Total manganese superoxide dismutase protein was increased in rejected kidney, particularly in the tubular epithelium; however, enzymatic activity was significantly decreased. Exposure of recombinant human manganese superoxide dismutase to peroxynitrite resulted in a dose-dependent (IC50 = 10 microM) decrease in enzymatic activity and concomitant increase in tyrosine nitration. Collectively, these observations suggest a role for peroxynitrite during development and progression of chronic rejection in human renal allografts. In addition, inactivation of manganese superoxide dismutase by peroxynitrite may represent a general mechanism that progressively increases the production of peroxynitrite, leading to irreversible oxidative injury to mitochondria. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8876227

  5. Differential expression of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase gene of Polygonum sibiricum leaves, stems and underground stems, subjected to high-salt stress.

    PubMed

    Qu, Chun-Pu; Xu, Zhi-Ru; Liu, Guan-Jun; Liu, Chun; Li, Yang; Wei, Zhi-Gang; Liu, Gui-Feng

    2010-01-01

    In aerobic organisms, protection against oxidative damage involves the combined action of highly specialized antioxidant enzymes, such as copper-zinc superoxide dismutase. In this work, a cDNA clone which encodes a copper-zinc superoxide dismutase gene, named PS-CuZnSOD, has been identified from P. sibiricum Laxm. by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends method (RACE). Analysis of the nucleotide sequence reveals that the PS-CuZnSOD gene cDNA clone consists of 669 bp, containing 87 bp in the 5' untranslated region; 459 bp in the open reading frame (ORF) encoding 152 amino acids; and 123 bp in 3' untranslated region. The gene accession nucleotide sequence number in GenBank is GQ472846. Sequence analysis indicates that the protein, like most plant superoxide dismutases (SOD), includes two conserved ecCuZnSOD signatures that are from the amino acids 43 to 51, and from the amino acids 137 to 148, and it has a signal peptide extension in the front of the N-terminus (1-16 aa). Expression analysis by real-time quantitative PCR reveals that the PS-CuZnSOD gene is expressed in leaves, stems and underground stems. PS-CuZnSOD gene expression can be induced by 3% NaHCO(3). The different mRNA levels' expression of PS-CuZnSOD show the gene's different expression modes in leaves, stems and underground stems under the salinity-alkalinity stress.

  6. Insights into the role of the unusual disulfide bond in copper-zinc superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Sea, Kevin; Sohn, Se Hui; Durazo, Armando; Sheng, Yuewei; Shaw, Bryan F; Cao, Xiaohang; Taylor, Alexander B; Whitson, Lisa J; Holloway, Stephen P; Hart, P John; Cabelli, Diane E; Gralla, Edith Butler; Valentine, Joan Selverstone

    2015-01-23

    The functional and structural significance of the intrasubunit disulfide bond in copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) was studied by characterizing mutant forms of human SOD1 (hSOD) and yeast SOD1 lacking the disulfide bond. We determined x-ray crystal structures of metal-bound and metal-deficient hC57S SOD1. C57S hSOD1 isolated from yeast contained four zinc ions per protein dimer and was structurally very similar to wild type. The addition of copper to this four-zinc protein gave properly reconstituted 2Cu,2Zn C57S hSOD, and its spectroscopic properties indicated that the coordination geometry of the copper was remarkably similar to that of holo wild type hSOD1. In contrast, the addition of copper and zinc ions to apo C57S human SOD1 failed to give proper reconstitution. Using pulse radiolysis, we determined SOD activities of yeast and human SOD1s lacking disulfide bonds and found that they were enzymatically active at ∼10% of the wild type rate. These results are contrary to earlier reports that the intrasubunit disulfide bonds in SOD1 are essential for SOD activity. Kinetic studies revealed further that the yeast mutant SOD1 had less ionic attraction for superoxide, possibly explaining the lower rates. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking the sod1 gene do not grow aerobically in the absence of lysine, but expression of C57S SOD1 increased growth to 30-50% of the growth of cells expressing wild type SOD1, supporting that C57S SOD1 retained a significant amount of activity. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Insights into the Role of the Unusual Disulfide Bond in Copper-Zinc Superoxide Dismutase*

    PubMed Central

    Sea, Kevin; Sohn, Se Hui; Durazo, Armando; Sheng, Yuewei; Shaw, Bryan F.; Cao, Xiaohang; Taylor, Alexander B.; Whitson, Lisa J.; Holloway, Stephen P.; Hart, P. John; Cabelli, Diane E.; Gralla, Edith Butler; Valentine, Joan Selverstone

    2015-01-01

    The functional and structural significance of the intrasubunit disulfide bond in copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) was studied by characterizing mutant forms of human SOD1 (hSOD) and yeast SOD1 lacking the disulfide bond. We determined x-ray crystal structures of metal-bound and metal-deficient hC57S SOD1. C57S hSOD1 isolated from yeast contained four zinc ions per protein dimer and was structurally very similar to wild type. The addition of copper to this four-zinc protein gave properly reconstituted 2Cu,2Zn C57S hSOD, and its spectroscopic properties indicated that the coordination geometry of the copper was remarkably similar to that of holo wild type hSOD1. In contrast, the addition of copper and zinc ions to apo C57S human SOD1 failed to give proper reconstitution. Using pulse radiolysis, we determined SOD activities of yeast and human SOD1s lacking disulfide bonds and found that they were enzymatically active at ∼10% of the wild type rate. These results are contrary to earlier reports that the intrasubunit disulfide bonds in SOD1 are essential for SOD activity. Kinetic studies revealed further that the yeast mutant SOD1 had less ionic attraction for superoxide, possibly explaining the lower rates. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking the sod1 gene do not grow aerobically in the absence of lysine, but expression of C57S SOD1 increased growth to 30–50% of the growth of cells expressing wild type SOD1, supporting that C57S SOD1 retained a significant amount of activity. PMID:25433341

  8. Superoxide dismutase activity in mesocarp tissue from divergent Cucumis melo L. genotypes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) fruit matrix is unique among plant foods in being able to provide a protective medium in which the antioxidant activity of the enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) is preserved during the digestive process, and therefore, being able to elicit in vivo pharmacological effects ...

  9. CATALASE AND SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE OF ROOT-COLONIZING SAPROPHYTIC FLUORESCENT PSEUDOMONADS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Root-colonizing, saprophytic fluorescent pseudomonads of the Pseudomonas putida-P. fluorescens group express similar levels of catalase and superoxide dismutase activities during growth on a sucrose- and amino acid-rich medium. ncreased specific activities of catalase but not sup...

  10. Phosphate, not superoxide dismutase, facilitates electron transfer from ferrous salts to cytochrome c.

    PubMed

    Beyer, W F; Fridovich, I

    1991-02-15

    Peterson and Eaton (1989, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 165, 164-167) reported that the copper- and zinc-containing, but not the manganese-containing, superoxide dismutase catalyzes the reduction of cytochrome c by ferrous salts. This activity, erroneously attributed to the enzyme, is now shown to have been due to inorganic phosphate.

  11. Molecular Cloning and Expression of Sequence Variants of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Genes from Wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are very harmful to living organisms due to the potential oxidation of membrane lipids, DNA, proteins, and carbohydrates. Transformed E.coli strain QC 871, superoxide dismutase (SOD) double-mutant, with three sequence variant MnSOD1, MnSOD2, and MnSOD3 manganese supero...

  12. Identification of a misfolded region in superoxide dismutase 1 that is exposed in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rotunno, Melissa S; Auclair, Jared R; Maniatis, Stephanie; Shaffer, Scott A; Agar, Jeffrey; Bosco, Daryl A

    2014-10-10

    Mutations and aberrant post-translational modifications within Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause this otherwise protective enzyme to misfold, leading to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The C4F6 antibody selectively binds misfolded SOD1 in spinal cord tissues from postmortem human ALS cases, as well as from an ALS-SOD1 mouse model, suggesting that the C4F6 epitope reports on a pathogenic conformation that is common to misfolded SOD1 variants. To date, the residues and structural elements that comprise this epitope have not been elucidated. Using a chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry approach, we identified the C4F6 epitope within several ALS-linked SOD1 variants, as well as an oxidized form of WT SOD1, supporting the notion that a similar misfolded conformation is shared among pathological SOD1 proteins. Exposure of the C4F6 epitope was modulated by the SOD1 electrostatic (loop VII) and zinc binding (loop IV) loops and correlated with SOD1-induced toxicity in a primary microglia activation assay. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed Asp(92) and Asp(96) as key residues within the C4F6 epitope required for the SOD1-C4F6 binding interaction. We propose that stabilizing the functional loops within SOD1 and/or obscuring the C4F6 epitope are viable therapeutic strategies for treating SOD1-mediated ALS. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Copper/Zinc-Superoxide Dismutase Is Required for Oxytetracycline Resistance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Avery, Simon V.; Malkapuram, Srividya; Mateus, Carolina; Babb, Kimberly S.

    2000-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, along with other eukaryotes, is resistant to tetracyclines. We found that deletion of SOD1 (encoding Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase) rendered S. cerevisiae hypersensitive to oxytetracycline (OTC): a sod1Δ mutant exhibited a >95% reduction in colony-forming ability at an OTC concentration of 20 μg ml−1, whereas concentrations of up to 1,000 μg ml−1 had no effect on the growth of the wild type. OTC resistance was restored in the sod1Δ mutant by complementation with wild-type SOD1. The effect of OTC appeared to be cytotoxic and was not evident in a ctt1Δ (cytosolic catalase) mutant or in the presence of tetracycline. SOD1 transcription was not induced by OTC, suggesting that constitutive SOD1 expression is sufficient for wild-type OTC resistance. OTC uptake levels in wild-type and sod1Δ strains were similar. However, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were both enhanced during exposure of the sod1Δ mutant, but not the wild type, to OTC. We propose that Sod1p protects S. cerevisiae against a mode of OTC action that is dependent on oxidative damage. PMID:10613865

  14. Overproduction of superoxide dismutase and catalase confers cassava resistance to Tetranychus cinnabarinus

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Fuping; Liang, Xiao; Lu, Hui; Li, Qian; Chen, Qing; Zhang, Peng; Li, kaimian; Liu, Guanghua; Yan, Wei; Song, Jiming; Duan, Chunfang; Zhang, Linhui

    2017-01-01

    To explore the role of protective enzymes in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) resistance to mites, transgenic cassava lines overproducing copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (MeCu/ZnSOD) and catalase (MeCAT1) were used to evaluate and molecularly confirm cassava resistance to Tetranychus cinnabarinus. Laboratory evaluation demonstrated that, compared with the control cultivar TMS60444 (wild type, WT), the survival, reproduction, development and activities of SOD and CAT in T. cinnabarinus feeding on transgenic cassava lines SC2, SC4, and SC11 significantly inhibited. Furthermore, the activities of SOD and CAT in transgenic cassava lines SC2, SC4, and SC11 damaged by T. cinnabarinus significantly increased. These findings were similar to the results in the mite-resistant cassava cultivars. Besides, field evaluation indicated that the transgenic cassava lines SC2, SC4, and SC11 were slightly damaged as the highly mite-resistant control C1115, while the highly mite-susceptible WT was severely damaged by T. cinnabarinus. Laboratory and field evaluation demonstrated that transgenic cassava lines were resistant to T. cinnabarinus, which directly confirmed that the increase in SOD and CAT activities was positively related to cassava resistance to T. cinnabarinus. These results will help in understanding the antioxidant defense responses in the cassava–mite interaction and molecular breeding of mite-resistant cassava for effective pest control. PMID:28054665

  15. Yeast and Mammalian Metallothioneins Functionally Substitute for Yeast Copper-Zinc Superoxide Dismutase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamai, Katherine T.; Gralla, Edith B.; Ellerby, Lisa M.; Valentine, Joan S.; Thiele, Dennis J.

    1993-09-01

    Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase catalyzes the disproportionation of superoxide anion to hydrogen peroxide and dioxygen and is thought to play an important role in protecting cells from oxygen toxicity. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains lacking copper-zinc superoxide dismutase, which is encoded by the SOD1 gene, are sensitive to oxidative stress and exhibit a variety of growth defects including hypersensitivity to dioxygen and to superoxide-generating drugs such as paraquat. We have found that in addition to these known phenotypes, SOD1-deletion strains fail to grow on agar containing the respiratory carbon source lactate. We demonstrate here that expression of the yeast or monkey metallothionein proteins in the presence of copper suppresses the lactate growth defect and some other phenotypes associated with SOD1-deletion strains, indicating that copper metallothioneins substitute for copper-zinc superoxide dismutase in vivo to protect cells from oxygen toxicity. Consistent with these results, we show that yeast metallothionein mRNA levels are dramatically elevated under conditions of oxidative stress. Furthermore, in vitro assays demonstrate that yeast metallothionein, purified or from whole-cell extracts, exhibits copper-dependent antioxidant activity. Taken together, these data suggest that both yeast and mammalian metallothioneins may play a direct role in the cellular defense against oxidative stress by functioning as antioxidants.

  16. Exploration of Molecular Factors Impairing Superoxide Dismutase Isoforms Activity in Human Senile Cataractous Lenses

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, Sankaranarayanan; Vasavada, Abhay R.; Praveen, Mamidipudi R.; Ananthan, Rajendran; Reddy, Geereddy B.; Tripathi, Harsha; Ganatra, Darshini A.; Arora, Anshul I.; Patel, Alpesh R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To explore different molecular factors impairing the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoforms in senile cataractous lenses. Methods. Enzyme activity of SOD isoforms, levels of their corresponding cofactors copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and expression of mRNA transcripts and proteins were determined in the lenses of human subjects with and without cataract. DNA from lens epithelium (LE) and peripheral blood was isolated. Polymerase chain reaction–single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) followed by sequencing was carried out to screen somatic mutations. The impact of intronic insertion/deletion (INDEL) variations on the splicing process and on the resultant transcript was evaluated. Genotyping of IVS4+42delG polymorphism of SOD1 gene was done by PCR–restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Results. A significant decrease in Cu/Zn- and Mn-SOD activity (P < 0.001) and in Cu/Zn-SOD transcript (P < 0.001) and its protein (P < 0.05) were found in cataractous lenses. No significant change in the level of copper (P = 0.36) and an increase in the level of manganese (P = 0.01) and zinc (P = 0.02) were observed in cataractous lenses. A significant positive correlation between the level of Cu/Zn-SOD activity and the levels of Cu (P = 0.003) and Zn (P = 0.005) was found in the cataractous lenses. DNA sequencing revealed three intronic INDEL variations in exon4 of SOD1 gene. Splice-junction analysis showed the potential of IVS4+42delG in creating a new cryptic acceptor site. If it is involved in alternate splicing, it could result in generation of SOD1 mRNA transcripts lacking exon4 region. Transcript analysis revealed the presence of complete SOD1 mRNA transcripts. Genotyping revealed the presence of IVS4+42delG polymorphism in all subjects. Conclusions. The decrease in the activity of SOD1 isoform in cataractous lenses was associated with the decreased level of mRNA transcripts and their protein expression and was not

  17. A role for Candida albicans superoxide dismutase enzymes in glucose signaling.

    PubMed

    Broxton, Chynna N; He, Bixi; Bruno, Vincent M; Culotta, Valeria C

    2018-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans yeasts have evolved to differentially use glucose for fermentation versus respiration. S. cerevisiae is Crabtree positive, where glucose represses respiration and promotes fermentation, while the opportunistic fungal pathogen C. albicans is Crabtree negative and does not repress respiration with glucose. We have previously shown that glucose control in S. cerevisiae involves the antioxidant enzyme Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), where H 2 O 2 generated by SOD1 stabilizes the casein kinase YCK1 for glucose sensing. We now demonstrate that C. albicans SODs also participate in glucose regulation. C. albicans expresses two cytosolic SODs, Cu/Zn SOD1 and Mn containing SOD3, and both complemented a S. cerevisiae sod1Δ mutant in stabilizing YCK1. Moreover, in C. albicans cells, both SODs functioned to repress glucose transporter genes in response to glucose. However, the action of SODs in glucose control has diverged in the two yeasts. In S. cerevisiae, SOD1 specifically functions in the glucose sensing pathway involving YCK1 and the RGT1 repressor, but the analogous YCK/RGT1 pathway in C. albicans shows no control by SOD enzymes. Instead C. albicans SODs work in the glucose repression pathway involving the MIG1 transcriptional repressor. In C. albicans, the SODs repress glucose uptake, while in S. cerevisiae, SOD1 activates glucose uptake, in accordance with the divergent modes for glucose utilization in these two distantly related yeasts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Novel dimeric interface and electrostatic recognition in bacterial Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Yves; Redford, Susan M.; Steinman, Howard M.; Lepock, James R.; Tainer, John A.; Getzoff, Elizabeth D.

    1996-01-01

    Eukaryotic Cu,Zn superoxide dismutases (CuZnSODs) are antioxidant enzymes remarkable for their unusually stable β-barrel fold and dimer assembly, diffusion-limited catalysis, and electrostatic guidance of their free radical substrate. Point mutations of CuZnSOD cause the fatal human neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We determined and analyzed the first crystallographic structure (to our knowledge) for CuZnSOD from a prokaryote, Photobacterium leiognathi, a luminescent symbiont of Leiognathid fish. This structure, exemplifying prokaryotic CuZnSODs, shares the active-site ligand geometry and the topology of the Greek key β-barrel common to the eukaryotic CuZnSODs. However, the β-barrel elements recruited to form the dimer interface, the strategy used to forge the channel for electrostatic recognition of superoxide radical, and the connectivity of the intrasubunit disulfide bond in P. leiognathi CuZnSOD are discrete and strikingly dissimilar from those highly conserved in eukaryotic CuZnSODs. This new CuZnSOD structure broadens our understanding of structural features necessary and sufficient for CuZnSOD activity, highlights a hitherto unrecognized adaptability of the Greek key β-barrel building block in evolution, and reveals that prokaryotic and eukaryotic enzymes diverged from one primordial CuZnSOD and then converged to distinct dimeric enzymes with electrostatic substrate guidance. PMID:8917495

  19. Isolation and reconstitution of iron- and manganese-containing superoxide dismutases from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron.

    PubMed Central

    Pennington, C D; Gregory, E M

    1986-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) from extracts of anaerobically maintained Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron was a dimer of equally sized 23,000-molecular-weight monomers joined noncovalently. A preparation with a specific activity of 1,200 U/mg contained 1.1 g-atom of Fe, 0.6 g-atom of Zn, and less than 0.05 g-atom of Mn per mol of dimer. The apoprotein, prepared by dialysis of iron-SOD in 5 M guanidinium chloride-20 mM 8-hydroxyquinoline, had no superoxide-scavenging activity when renatured without exogenous metal. Enzymatic activity was restored to the denatured apoprotein by dialysis against either 1 mM Fe(NH4)2 or 1 mM MnCl2 in 20 mM Tris (pH 7.0). The Fe-reconstituted enzyme and the native enzyme were inhibited approximately 50% by 0.2 mM NaN3, whereas the Mn-reconstituted enzyme was inhibited 60% by 10 mM NaN3. Aeration of the anaerobic cells resulted in a fourfold induction of an azide-resistant SOD. The enzyme (43,000 molecular weight) isolated from aerated cells was a dimer of equally sized subunits. The metal content was 1.0 g-atom of Mn, 0.55 g-atom of Fe, and 0.3 g-atom of Zn per mol of dimer. Enzymatic activity of the denatured apoprotein from this enzyme was also restored on addition of either iron or manganese. The constitutive Fe-SOD and the O2-induced Mn-SOD, tested alone and in combination, migrated identically on acrylamide gels, had similar amino acid compositions, and had alanine as the sole N-terminal amino acid. These data are consistent with the synthesis of a single apoprotein in either anaerobically maintained or oxygenated cells. We have observed a similar phenomenon with SOD from Bacteroides fragilis (E. M. Gregory, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 238:83-89, 1985). PMID:3700336

  20. Involvement of Superoxide Dismutases in the Response of Escherichia coli to Selenium Oxides

    PubMed Central

    Bébien, Magali; Lagniel, Gilles; Garin, Jérôme; Touati, Danièle; Verméglio, André; Labarre, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Selenium can provoke contrasting effects on living organisms. It is an essential trace element, and low concentrations have beneficial effects, such as the reduction of the incidence of cancer. However, higher concentrations of selenium salts can be toxic and mutagenic. The bases for both toxicity and protection are not clearly understood. To provide insights into these mechanisms, we analyzed the proteomic response of Escherichia coli cells to selenate and selenite treatment under aerobic conditions. We identified 23 proteins induced by both oxides and ca. 20 proteins specifically induced by each oxide. A striking result was the selenite induction of 8 enzymes with antioxidant properties, particularly the manganese and iron superoxide dismutases (SodA and SodB). The selenium inductions of sodA and sodB were controlled by the transcriptional regulators SoxRS and Fur, respectively. Strains with decreased superoxide dismutase activities were severely impaired in selenium oxide tolerance. Pretreatment with a sublethal selenite concentration triggered an adaptive response dependent upon SoxRS, conferring increased selenite tolerance. Altogether, our data indicate that superoxide dismutase activity is essential for the cellular defense against selenium salts, suggesting that superoxide production is a major mechanism of selenium toxicity under aerobic conditions. PMID:11872706

  1. Eukaryotic copper-only superoxide dismutases (SODs): A new class of SOD enzymes and SOD-like protein domains.

    PubMed

    Robinett, Natalie G; Peterson, Ryan L; Culotta, Valeria C

    2018-03-30

    The copper-containing superoxide dismutases (SODs) represent a large family of enzymes that participate in the metabolism of reactive oxygen species by disproportionating superoxide anion radical to oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. Catalysis is driven by the redox-active copper ion, and in most cases, SODs also harbor a zinc at the active site that enhances copper catalysis and stabilizes the protein. Such bimetallic Cu,Zn-SODs are widespread, from the periplasm of bacteria to virtually every organelle in the human cell. However, a new class of copper-containing SODs has recently emerged that function without zinc. These copper-only enzymes serve as extracellular SODs in specific bacteria ( i.e. Mycobacteria), throughout the fungal kingdom, and in the fungus-like oomycetes. The eukaryotic copper-only SODs are particularly unique in that they lack an electrostatic loop for substrate guidance and have an unusual open-access copper site, yet they can still react with superoxide at rates limited only by diffusion. Copper-only SOD sequences similar to those seen in fungi and oomycetes are also found in the animal kingdom, but rather than single-domain enzymes, they appear as tandem repeats in large polypeptides we refer to as CSRPs (copper-only SOD-repeat proteins). Here, we compare and contrast the Cu,Zn versus copper-only SODs and discuss the evolution of copper-only SOD protein domains in animals and fungi. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Gas stunning with CO2 affected meat color, lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress, and gene expression of mitogen-activated protein kinases, glutathione S-transferases, and Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase in the skeletal muscles of broilers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Zhang, Haijun; Yue, Hongyuan; Wu, Shugeng; Yang, Haiming; Wang, Zhiyue; Qi, Guanghai

    2018-01-01

    Meat color and lipid peroxidation are important traits related to meat quality. CO 2 concentration is a critical factor that can affect meat quality in the commercial use of gas stunning (GS). However, the effect and mechanism of CO 2 stunning on meat color and lipid peroxidation during long-term storage remain poorly studied. We aimed to study the effects of GS methods, especially CO 2 concentration, on meat color and meat lipid peroxidation in broilers during long-term storage at 4 °C and to explore the potential mechanism of meat color change via lipid peroxidation and the inner lipid peroxide scavenging system. Eighteen broilers were sacrificed after exposure to one of the following gas mixtures for 90 s: 40% CO 2  + 21% O 2  + 39% N 2 (G40%), 79% CO 2  + 21% O 2 (G79%), or no stunning (0% CO 2 , control). Meat color, serum variables, enzyme activities, and the gene expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase ( MAPK ), nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 ( Nrf2 ), glutathione S-transferase ( GST ) and superoxide dismutase ( SOD ) were determined. The concentrations of serum triiodothyronine (T3, P  = 0.03) and the ratio of serum free triiodothyronine/free thyroxine (FT3/FT4, P  <  0.01) were decreased, whereas levels of serum cortisol ( P  <  0.01) were increased in the 40% CO 2 group compared with the control group. Additionally, the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) 3 d ( P  <  0.01) and TBARS 6 d ( P  = 0.01) in breast meat and the TBARS 3 d in thigh meat ( P  <  0.01) were increased in the 40% CO 2 group compared with the control group. Serum T3 was negatively correlated with TBARS 6 d both in the breast and thigh meat ( r  = - 0.63, P  <  0.01 and r  = - 0.47, P  = 0.05 respectively). T3/T4 was negatively correlated with TBARS 6 d in the breast meat and in the thigh meat ( r  = - 0.57, P  = 0.01; and r  = - 0.53, P  = 0.03 respectively). Compared

  3. Structural evidence for a copper-bound carbonate intermediate in the peroxidase and dismutase activities of superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Strange, Richard W; Hough, Michael A; Antonyuk, Svetlana V; Hasnain, S Samar

    2012-01-01

    Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD) is of fundamental importance to our understanding of oxidative damage. Its primary function is catalysing the dismutation of superoxide to O(2) and H(2)O(2). SOD also reacts with H(2)O(2), leading to the formation of a strong copper-bound oxidant species that can either inactivate the enzyme or oxidise other substrates. In the presence of bicarbonate (or CO(2)) and H(2)O(2), this peroxidase activity is enhanced and produces the carbonate radical. This freely diffusible reactive oxygen species is proposed as the agent for oxidation of large substrates that are too bulky to enter the active site. Here, we provide direct structural evidence, from a 2.15 Å resolution crystal structure, of (bi)carbonate captured at the active site of reduced SOD, consistent with the view that a bound carbonate intermediate could be formed, producing a diffusible carbonate radical upon reoxidation of copper. The bound carbonate blocks direct access of substrates to Cu(I), suggesting that an adjunct to the accepted mechanism of SOD catalysed dismutation of superoxide operates, with Cu(I) oxidation by superoxide being driven via a proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism involving the bound carbonate rather than the solvent. Carbonate is captured in a different site when SOD is oxidised, being located in the active site channel adjacent to the catalytically important Arg143. This is the probable route of diffusion from the active site following reoxidation of the copper. In this position, the carbonate is poised for re-entry into the active site and binding to the reduced copper.

  4. Structural Evidence for a Copper-Bound Carbonate Intermediate in the Peroxidase and Dismutase Activities of Superoxide Dismutase

    PubMed Central

    Strange, Richard W.; Hough, Michael A.; Antonyuk, Svetlana V.; Hasnain, S. Samar

    2012-01-01

    Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD) is of fundamental importance to our understanding of oxidative damage. Its primary function is catalysing the dismutation of superoxide to O2 and H2O2. SOD also reacts with H2O2, leading to the formation of a strong copper-bound oxidant species that can either inactivate the enzyme or oxidise other substrates. In the presence of bicarbonate (or CO2) and H2O2, this peroxidase activity is enhanced and produces the carbonate radical. This freely diffusible reactive oxygen species is proposed as the agent for oxidation of large substrates that are too bulky to enter the active site. Here, we provide direct structural evidence, from a 2.15 Å resolution crystal structure, of (bi)carbonate captured at the active site of reduced SOD, consistent with the view that a bound carbonate intermediate could be formed, producing a diffusible carbonate radical upon reoxidation of copper. The bound carbonate blocks direct access of substrates to Cu(I), suggesting that an adjunct to the accepted mechanism of SOD catalysed dismutation of superoxide operates, with Cu(I) oxidation by superoxide being driven via a proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism involving the bound carbonate rather than the solvent. Carbonate is captured in a different site when SOD is oxidised, being located in the active site channel adjacent to the catalytically important Arg143. This is the probable route of diffusion from the active site following reoxidation of the copper. In this position, the carbonate is poised for re-entry into the active site and binding to the reduced copper. PMID:22984565

  5. Cloning and characterization of iron-superoxide dismutase in Antarctic yeast strain Rhodotorula mucilaginosa AN5.

    PubMed

    Kan, Guangfeng; Wen, Hua; Wang, Xiaofei; Zhou, Ting; Shi, Cuijuan

    2017-08-01

    A novel superoxide dismutase gene from Antarctic yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa AN5 was cloned, sequenced, and then expressed in Escherichia coli. The R. mucilaginosa AN5 SOD (RmFeSOD) gene was 639 bp open reading frame in length, which encoded a protein of 212 amino acids with a deduced molecular mass of 23.5 kDa and a pI of 7.89. RmFeSOD was identified as iron SOD type with a natural status of homodimer. The recombinant RmFeSOD showed good pH stability in the pH 1.0-9.0 after 1 h incubation. Meanwhile, it was found to behave relatively high thermostability, and maintained more than 80% activity at 50 °C for 1 h. By addition of 1 mM metal ions, the enzyme activity increased by Zn 2+ , Cu 2+ , Mn 2+ , and Fe 3+ , and inhibited only by Mg 2+ . RmFeSOD showed relatively low tolerance to some compounds, such as PMSF, SDS, Tween-80, Triton X-100, DMSO, β-ME, and urea. However, DTT showed no inhibition to enzyme activity. Using copper stress experiment, the RmFeSOD recombinant E. coli exhibited better growth than non-recombinant bacteria, which revealed that RmFeSOD might play an important role in the adaptability of heavy metals. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Synthetic nickel-containing superoxide dismutase attenuates para-phenylenediamine-induced bladder dysfunction in rats

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Bing-Juin; Chen, Tien-Wen; Chung, Shiu-Dong; Lee, Way-Zen; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2017-01-01

    Para (p)-phenylenediamine and its toxic metabolites induce excess reactive oxygen species formation that results in bladder voiding dysfunction. We determined the effects of synthetic Ni-containing superoxide dismutase mimics and the role of oxidative stress in p-phenylenediamine-induced urinary bladder dysfunction. P-phenylenediamine (60 μg/kg/day) was intraperitoneally administered for 4 weeks to induce bladder injury in female Wistar rats. Synthetic Ni-containing superoxide dismutase mimics, WCT003 (1.5 mg/kg) and WCT006 (1.5 mg/kg), were then intraperitoneally administered for 2 weeks. Transcystometrograms were performed in urethane-anesthetized rats. The in vitro and in vivo reactive oxygen species levels and pathological changes in formalin-fixed bladder sections were evaluated. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry elucidated the pathophysiological mechanisms of oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, autophagy, and pyroptosis. P-phenylenediamine increased voiding frequency, blood and urinary bladder levels of reactive oxygen species, and neutrophil and mast cell infiltration. It also upregulated biomarkers of autophagy (LC3 II), apoptosis (poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase), and pyroptosis (Caspase 1). WCT003 and WCT006 ameliorated reactive oxygen species production, inflammation, apoptosis, autophagy, pyroptosis, and bladder hyperactivity. P-phenylenediamine increased oxidative stress, inflammatory leukocytosis, autophagy, apoptosis, and pyroptosis formation within the urinary bladder. Novel synthetic nickel-containing superoxide dismutase mimics relieved p-phenylenediamine-induced bladder inflammation and voiding dysfunction. PMID:29285288

  7. Soy isoflavone supplementation elevates erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, but not plasma ceruloplasmin in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    DiSilvestro, Robert A; Goodman, Jaime; Dy, Emily; Lavalle, Gregory

    2005-02-01

    Soy isoflavone antioxidant effects may help prevent breast cancer re-occurrence, but isoflavone estrogen-like actions may increase breast cancer risk. These isoflavone actions can be reflected by effects on two copper enzymes activities, superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD 1), which has antioxidant function relevant to breast cancer prevention, and ceruloplasmin, which has its synthesis up-regulated by estrogen, and for which high values are associated with high breast cancer risk. A soy isoflavone-rich concentrate supplement was examined for effects on these two copper enzyme activities in post-menopausal breast cancer survivors (n = 7) in a crossover design with a placebo (24 days on supplement or placebo; 14 day wash out). The soy concentrate, but not the placebo, increased erythrocyte SOD 1 activities, but not ceruloplasmin activities or protein. The effect on superoxide dismutase activities was not likely due to increased copper intake since analysis of the soy extract showed little copper. The effect on superoxide dismutase was not accompanied by a change in urinary contents of 8-deoxyhydroxyguanosine, a DNA oxidant product, though perhaps this would change with a longer intervention. In summary, in regard to two copper enzyme activities, an isoflavone-rich soy concentrate showed an antioxidant effect considered relevant to breast cancer, but not an effect associated with estrogenic activity and increased breast cancer risk.

  8. Identification of biomarkers for the antiangiogenic and antitumour activity of the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) inhibitor tetrathiomolybdate (ATN-224)

    PubMed Central

    Doñate, F; Juarez, J C; Burnett, M E; Manuia, M M; Guan, X; Shaw, D E; Smith, E L P; Timucin, C; Braunstein, M J; Batuman, O A; Mazar, A P

    2008-01-01

    Tetrathiomolybdate (choline salt; ATN-224), a specific, high-affinity copper binder, is currently being evaluated in several phase II cancer trials. ATN-224 inhibits CuZn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) leading to antiangiogenic and antitumour effects. The pharmacodynamics of tetrathiomolybdate has been followed by tracking ceruloplasmin (Cp), a biomarker for systemic copper. However, at least in mice, the inhibition of angiogenesis occurs before a measurable decrease in systemic copper is observed. Thus, the identification and characterisation of other biomarkers to follow the activity of ATN-224 in the clinic is of great interest. Here, we present the preclinical evaluation of two potential biomarkers for the activity of ATN-224: (i) SOD activity measurements in blood cells in mice and (ii) levels of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in bonnet macaques treated with ATN-224. The superoxide dismutase activity in blood cells in mice is rapidly inhibited by ATN-224 treatment at doses at which angiogenesis is maximally inhibited. Furthermore, ATN-224 dosing in bonnet macaques causes a profound and reversible decrease in EPCs without significant toxicity. Thus, both SOD activity measurements and levels of EPCs may be useful biomarkers of the antiangiogenic activity of ATN-224 to be used in its clinical development. PMID:18253124

  9. Human Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Tyrosine 34 Contribution to Structure and Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Perry, J. Jefferson P.; Hearn, Amy S.; Cabelli, Diane E.; Nick, Harry S.; Tainer, John A.; Silverman, David N.

    2009-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes are critical in controlling levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are linked to aging, cancer and neurodegenerative disease. Superoxide (O2 •−) produced during respiration is removed by the product of the SOD2 gene, the homotetrameric manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). Here, we examine the structural and catalytic roles of the highly conserved active-site residue Tyr34, based upon structure-function studies of MnSOD enzymes with mutations at this site. Substitution of Tyr34 with five different amino acids retained the active site protein structure and assembly, but causes a substantial decrease in the catalytic rate constant for the reduction of superoxide. The rate constant for formation of product inhibition complex also decreases but to a much lesser extent, resulting in a net increase in the product inhibition form of the mutant enzymes. Comparisons of crystal structures and catalytic rates also suggest that one mutation, Y34V, interrupts the hydrogen-bonded network, which is associated with a rapid dissociation of the product-inhibited complex. Notably, with three of the Tyr34 mutants we also observe an intermediate in catalysis, which has not been reported previously. Thus, these mutants establish a means to trap a catalytic intermediate that promises to help elucidate the mechanism of catalysis. PMID:19265433

  10. Metabolic Regulation of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Expression via Essential Amino Acid Deprivation*

    PubMed Central

    Aiken, Kimberly J.; Bickford, Justin S.; Kilberg, Michael S.; Nick, Harry S.

    2008-01-01

    Organisms respond to available nutrient levels by rapidly adjusting metabolic flux, in part through changes in gene expression. A consequence of adaptations in metabolic rate is the production of mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species. Therefore, we hypothesized that nutrient sensing could regulate the synthesis of the primary defense of the cell against superoxide radicals, manganese superoxide dismutase. Our data establish a novel nutrient-sensing pathway for manganese superoxide dismutase expression mediated through essential amino acid depletion concurrent with an increase in cellular viability. Most relevantly, our results are divergent from current mechanisms governing amino acid-dependent gene regulation. This pathway requires the presence of glutamine, signaling via the tricarboxylic acid cycle/electron transport chain, an intact mitochondrial membrane potential, and the activity of both the MEK/ERK and mammalian target of rapamycin kinases. Our results provide evidence for convergence of metabolic cues with nutrient control of antioxidant gene regulation, revealing a potential signaling strategy that impacts free radical-mediated mutations with implications in cancer and aging. PMID:18187411

  11. Metabolic regulation of manganese superoxide dismutase expression via essential amino acid deprivation.

    PubMed

    Aiken, Kimberly J; Bickford, Justin S; Kilberg, Michael S; Nick, Harry S

    2008-04-18

    Organisms respond to available nutrient levels by rapidly adjusting metabolic flux, in part through changes in gene expression. A consequence of adaptations in metabolic rate is the production of mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species. Therefore, we hypothesized that nutrient sensing could regulate the synthesis of the primary defense of the cell against superoxide radicals, manganese superoxide dismutase. Our data establish a novel nutrient-sensing pathway for manganese superoxide dismutase expression mediated through essential amino acid depletion concurrent with an increase in cellular viability. Most relevantly, our results are divergent from current mechanisms governing amino acid-dependent gene regulation. This pathway requires the presence of glutamine, signaling via the tricarboxylic acid cycle/electron transport chain, an intact mitochondrial membrane potential, and the activity of both the MEK/ERK and mammalian target of rapamycin kinases. Our results provide evidence for convergence of metabolic cues with nutrient control of antioxidant gene regulation, revealing a potential signaling strategy that impacts free radical-mediated mutations with implications in cancer and aging.

  12. Extracellular superoxide dismutase is necessary to maintain renal blood flow during sepsis development.

    PubMed

    Constantino, Larissa; Galant, Letícia Selinger; Vuolo, Francieli; Guarido, Karla Lorena; Kist, Luiza Wilges; de Oliveira, Giovanna Medeiros Tavares; Pasquali, Matheus Augusto de Bittencourt; de Souza, Cláudio Teodoro; da Silva-Santos, José Eduardo; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Ritter, Cristiane; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe

    2017-12-01

    Extracellular superoxide dismutase (ECSOD) protects nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability by decreasing superoxide levels and preventing peroxynitrite generation, which is important in maintaining renal blood flow and in preventing acute kidney injury. However, the profile of ECSOD expression after sepsis is not fully understood. Therefore, we intended to evaluate the content and gene expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoforms in the renal artery and their relation to renal blood flow. Sepsis was induced in Wistar rats by caecal ligation and perforation. Several times after sepsis induction, renal blood flow (12, 24 and 48 h); the renal arterial content of SOD isoforms, nitrotyrosine, endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase (e-NOS and i-NOS), and phosphorylated vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (pVASP); and SOD activity (3, 6 and 12 h) were measured. The influence of a SOD inhibitor was also evaluated. An increase in ECSOD content was associated with decreased 3-nitrotyrosine levels. These events were associated with an increase in pVASP content and maintenance of renal blood flow. Moreover, previous treatment with a SOD inhibitor increased nitrotyrosine content and reduced renal blood flow. ECSOD appears to have a major role in decreasing peroxynitrite formation in the renal artery during the early stages of sepsis development, and its application can be important in renal blood flow control and maintenance during septic insult.

  13. Protection against hyperoxia by serum from endotoxin treated rats: absence of superoxide dismutase induction

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, J.T.; Smith, R.M.

    Endotoxin greatly reduces lung injury and pleural effusions in adult rats exposed to normobaric hyperoxia (> 98% oxygen for 60 hours). This study reports that serum from endotoxin treated donor rats protects serum recipients against hyperoxic lung injury without altering lung superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Rats pretreated with endotoxin alone were protected and exhibited an increase in lung SOD activity as previously reported by others. Protection by serum was not due to the transfer of residual endotoxin or SOD. These results show, that protection from oxygen toxicity can occur in rats without an increase in lung SOD and suggest thatmore » a serum factor may be involved.« less

  14. Preliminary neutron diffraction analysis of challenging human manganese superoxide dismutase crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Azadmanesh, Jahaun; Trickel, Scott R.; Weiss, Kevin L.; ...

    2017-03-29

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are enzymes that protect against oxidative stress by dismutation of superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide through cyclic reduction and oxidation of the active-site metal. The complete enzymatic mechanisms of SODs are unknown since data on the positions of hydrogen are limited. Here, we present, methods for large crystal growth and neutron data collection of human manganese SOD (MnSOD) using perdeuteration and the MaNDi beamline at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Furthermore, The crystal from which the human MnSOD data set was obtained is the crystal with the largest unit-cell edge (240 Å) from which data have beenmore » collectedvianeutron diffraction to sufficient resolution (2.30 Å) where hydrogen positions can be observed.« less

  15. Preliminary neutron diffraction analysis of challenging human manganese superoxide dismutase crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Azadmanesh, Jahaun; Trickel, Scott R.; Weiss, Kevin L.

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are enzymes that protect against oxidative stress by dismutation of superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide through cyclic reduction and oxidation of the active-site metal. The complete enzymatic mechanisms of SODs are unknown since data on the positions of hydrogen are limited. Here, we present, methods for large crystal growth and neutron data collection of human manganese SOD (MnSOD) using perdeuteration and the MaNDi beamline at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Furthermore, The crystal from which the human MnSOD data set was obtained is the crystal with the largest unit-cell edge (240 Å) from which data have beenmore » collectedvianeutron diffraction to sufficient resolution (2.30 Å) where hydrogen positions can be observed.« less

  16. Compartmentalized oxidative stress in dopaminergic cell death induced by pesticides and complex I inhibitors: Distinct roles of superoxide anion and superoxide dismutases

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Garcia-Garcia, Aracely; Pickett, Chillian; Sumin, Li; Jones, Jocelyn; Chen, Han; Webb, Brian; Choi, Jae; Zhou, You; Zimmerman, Matthew C.; Franco, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    The loss of dopaminergic neurons induced by the parkinsonian toxins paraquat, rotenone and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) is associated with oxidative stress. However, controversial reports exist regarding the source/compartmentalization of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and its exact role in cell death. We aimed to determine in detail the role of superoxide anion (O2•−), oxidative stress and their subcellular compartmentalization in dopaminergic cell death induced by parkinsonian toxins. Oxidative stress and ROS formation was determined in the cytosol, intermembrane (IMS) and mitochondrial matrix compartments, using dihydroethidine derivatives, the redox sensor roGFP, as well as electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Paraquat induced an increase in ROS and oxidative stress in both the cytosol and mitochondrial matrix prior to cell death. MPP+ and rotenone primarily induced an increase in ROS and oxidative stress in the mitochondrial matrix. No oxidative stress was detected at the level of the IMS. In contrast to previous studies, overexpression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) or copper/zinc SOD (CuZnSOD) had no effect on ROS steady state levels, lipid peroxidation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and dopaminergic cell death induced by MPP+ or rotenone. In contrast, paraquat-induced oxidative stress and cell death were selectively reduced by MnSOD overexpression, but not by CuZnSOD or manganese-porphyrins. However, MnSOD also failed to prevent ΔΨm loss. Finally, paraquat, but not MPP+ or rotenone, induced the transcriptional activation the redox-sensitive antioxidant response elements (ARE) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB). These results demonstrate a selective role of mitochondrial O2•− in dopaminergic cell death induced by paraquat, and show that toxicity induced by the complex I inhibitors rotenone and MPP+ does not depend directly on mitochondrial O2•− formation. PMID:23602909

  17. A thermostable manganese-containing superoxide dismutase from the thermophilic fungus Thermomyces lanuginosus.

    PubMed

    Li, Duo-Chuan; Gao, Jing; Li, Ya-Ling; Lu, Jing

    2005-02-01

    A thermostable superoxide dismutase (SOD) from a Thermomyces lanuginosus strain (P134) was purified to homogeneity by fractional ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose, Phenyl-Sepharose hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and gel filtration on Sephacryl S-100. The molecular mass of a single band of the enzyme was estimated to be 22.4 kDa, using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Using gel filtration on Sephacryl S-100, the molecular mass was estimated to be 89.1 kDa, indicating that this enzyme was composed of four identical subunits of 22.4 kDa each. The SOD was found to be inhibited by NaN3, but not by KCN or H2O2, suggesting that the SOD in T. lanuginosus was of the manganese superoxide dismutase type. The SOD exhibited maximal activity at pH 7.5. The optimum temperature for the activity was 55 degrees C. It was thermostable at 50 and 60 degrees C and retained 55% activity after 60 min at 70 degrees C. The half-life of the SOD at 80 degrees C was approximately 28 min and even retained 20% activity after 20 min at 90 degrees C.

  18. Featured Article: Effect of copper on nuclear translocation of copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase-1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Ge, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase-1 (CCS-1), facilitating copper insertion into superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD-1), is present in the nucleus. However, it is unknown how CCS-1 is translocated to the nucleus. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of copper on nuclear translocation of CCS-1. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were subjected to hypoxia, causing an increase in both copper and CCS-1 in the nucleus. Treatment with tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) not only decreased the total cellular concentration and the nuclear translocation of copper, but also completely suppressed the entry of CCS-1 to the nucleus. On the other hand, siRNA targeting CCS-1 neither inhibited the increase in total concentrations nor blocked the nuclear translocation of copper. This study thus demonstrates that under hypoxia condition, both copper and CCS-1 are transported to the nucleus. The nuclear translocation of CCS-1 is copper dependent, but the nuclear translocation of copper could take place alternatively in a CCS-1-independent pathway. PMID:27190267

  19. Relationship of ROS accumulation and superoxide dismutase isozymes in developing anther with floret fertility of rice under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian; Zhou, Lujian; Liu, Jianchao; Du, Xiaoxia; Asad, Muhammad-Asad-Ullah; Huang, Fudeng; Pan, Gang; Cheng, Fangmin

    2018-01-01

    High temperature (HT) at meiosis stage is one of most important environment constraint affecting spikelet fertility and rice yield. In this paper, the effects of HT exposure at meiosis stage on the ROS (reactive oxygen species) accumulation, various superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC1.15.1.11) isozymes in developing anther, and its relationship with HT-induced decline in pollen viability and floret fertility were investigated by using four rice cultivars differing in heat tolerance under well-controlled climatic condition. Results showed that HT exposure significantly increased ROS level and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in rice anther, and this occurrence was strongly responsible for the HT-induced decline in pollen viability and harmful effect of HT adversity on floret fertility. However, the increased extent of ROS concentration in rice anther under HT exposure was greatly variable, depending on both the intensity and duration of HT exposure and different rice cultivars used. The SOD and CAT activities of HT-sensitive cultivars decreased more profoundly than those of HT-tolerant cultivars under the same HT regimes. Among various types of SOD enzymes, Cu/Zn-SODa expressed highly in rice anther and responded sensitively to HT exposure, while Cu/Zn-SODb expressed weakly in rice anther and preferentially in rice leaves. HT exposure suppressed the expression of Cu/Zn-SODa in developing anther, which was closely associated with the down-regulated transcripts of cCu/Zn-SOD1 gene. Hence, Cu/Zn-SODa may play a central role in the regulation of total SOD activity and ROS detoxification in rice anther as affected by HT exposure at meiosis stage. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. The expression of superoxide dismutase in Mytilus coruscus under various stressors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiong; Bao, Miaomiao; Ge, Delong; Huo, Liping; Lv, Zhenming; Chi, Changfeng; Liao, Zhi; Liu, Huihui

    2017-11-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs), a by-product of antioxidative defence system, protects organisms for eliminating excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) and maintaining the redox balance of immune system. The complete open reading frames (ORFs) of Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD were identified from Mytilus coruscus (designated as McSOD and MnSOD) by homologous cloning. The sequence lengths were 474bp and 687bp, encoding 157 and 228 amino acids respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of McSOD and MnSOD shared high identities with Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD from other mollusca. The distributions of McSOD and MnSOD were detected in six tissues including adductor, hemocyte, gill, gonad, mantle and hepatopancreas, and the highest expressions were both in gills. The temporal expression of McSOD and MnSOD were up-regulated in gills under a variety of stress factors, including Vibrio parahemolyticus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Cu 2+ and Pb 2+ . After being challenged with V. Parahemolyticus, the expressions of McSOD and MnSOD were increased rapidly at the initial hours, reaching the peaks of 4.9-fold and 15.3-fold respectively, and got to the highest levels of 43.5-fold and 7.1-fold after being challenged with A. hydrophila. The highest point of McSOD mRNA appeared at 15 d after being exposed to copper (7-fold at 0.5 mg/L and 13.2-fold at 1.5 mg/L), except for 0.1 mg/L group of Cu 2+ maintaining to the normal level, but plumbum at 1 d (2.4-fold at 1.0 mg/L and 4.4-fold at 3.0 mg/L) and at 15 d (2.1-fold at 0.2 mg/L). The temporal expression peaks of MnSOD appeared differently after exposing to copper of various concentrations (0.1 mg/L at 10 d with 4.7-fold, 0.5 mg/L at 1 d with 17.9-fold and 1.5 mg/L at 3 d with 13.2-fold). Whereas in plumbum exposing treatments, the 3.0 mg/L group jumped to the peak at 1 d (18.2-fold), the 0.2 mg/L and 1.0 mg/L groups had little change and maintained at the normal level throughout the experiment. The results provided several new

  1. Six-coordinate manganese(3+) in catalysis by yeast manganese superoxide dismutase

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Yuewei; Gralla, Edith Butler; Schumacher, Mikhail

    Reduction of superoxide (O{sub 2}{sup -}) by manganese-containing superoxide dismutase occurs through either a 'prompt protonation' pathway, or an 'inner-sphere' pathway, with the latter leading to formation of an observable Mn-peroxo complex. We recently reported that wild-type (WT) manganese superoxide dismutases (MnSODs) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans are more gated toward the 'prompt protonation' pathway than human and bacterial MnSODs and suggested that this could result from small structural changes in the second coordination sphere of manganese. We report here that substitution of a second-sphere residue, Tyr34, by phenylalanine (Y34F) causes the MnSOD from S. cerevisiae to react exclusivelymore » through the 'inner-sphere' pathway. At neutral pH, we have a surprising observation that protonation of the Mn-peroxo complex in the mutant yeast enzyme occurs through a fast pathway, leading to a putative six-coordinate Mn3+ species, which actively oxidizes O{sub 2}{sup -} in the catalytic cycle. Upon increasing pH, the fast pathway is gradually replaced by a slow proton-transfer pathway, leading to the well-characterized five-coordinate Mn{sup 3+}. We here propose and compare two hypothetical mechanisms for the mutant yeast enzyme, diffeeing in the structure of the Mn-peroxo complex yet both involving formation of the active six-coordinate Mn{sup 3+} and proton transfer from a second-sphere water molecule, which has substituted for the -OH of Tyr34, to the Mn-peroxo complex. Because WT and the mutant yeast MnSOD both rest in the 2+ state and become six-coordinate when oxidized up from Mn{sup 2+}, six-coordinate Mn{sup 3+} species could also actively function in the mechanism of WT yeast MnSODs.« less

  2. Redox Regulation of the Superoxide Dismutases SOD3 and SOD2 in the Pulmonary Circulation.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Saavedra, Daniel; Swain, Kalin; Tuder, Rubin; Petersen, Steen V; Nozik-Grayck, Eva

    2017-01-01

    When evaluating the role of redox-regulating signaling in pulmonary vascular diseases, it is intriguing to consider the modulation of key antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD) because SOD isoforms are regulated by redox reactions, and, in turn, modulate downstream redox sensitive processes. The emerging field of redox biology is built upon understanding the regulation and consequences of tightly controlled and specific reduction-oxidation reactions that are critical for diverse cellular processes including cell signaling. Of relevance, both the site of production of specific reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and the site of the antioxidant defenses are highly compartmentalized within the cell. For example, superoxide is generated during oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria as well as by a number of enzymatic sources within the cytosol and at the cell membrane. In the pulmonary circulation, these sources include the mitochondrial electron transport chain, NADPH oxidases (NOX1-4, Duox1,2), nitric oxide synthases, and xanthine oxidase; this important topic has been thoroughly reviewed recently [1]. In parallel with these different cellular sites of superoxide production, the three SOD isoforms are also specifically localized to the cytosol (SOD1), mitochondria (SOD2) or extracellular compartment (SOD3). This chapter focuses on the role of redox mechanisms regulating SOD2 and SOD3, with an emphasis on these processes in the setting of pulmonary hypertension.

  3. Virtual electrochemical nitric oxide analyzer using copper, zinc superoxide dismutase immobilized on carbon nanotubes in polypyrrole matrix.

    PubMed

    Madasamy, Thangamuthu; Pandiaraj, Manickam; Balamurugan, Murugesan; Karnewar, Santosh; Benjamin, Alby Robson; Venkatesh, Krishna Arun; Vairamani, Kanagavel; Kotamraju, Srigiridhar; Karunakaran, Chandran

    2012-10-15

    In this work, we have designed and developed a novel and cost effective virtual electrochemical analyzer for the measurement of NO in exhaled breath and from hydrogen peroxide stimulated endothelial cells using home-made potentiostat. Here, data acquisition system (NI MyDAQ) was used to acquire the data from the electrochemical oxidation of NO mediated by copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu,ZnSOD). The electrochemical control programs (graphical user-interface software) were developed using LabVIEW 10.0 to sweep the potential, acquire the current response and process the acquired current signal. The Cu,ZnSOD (SOD1) immobilized on the carbon nanotubes in polypyrrole modified platinum electrode was used as the NO biosensor. The electrochemical behavior of the SOD1 modified electrode exhibited the characteristic quasi-reversible redox peak at the potential, +0.06 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The biological interferences were eliminated by nafion coated SOD1 electrode and then NO was measured selectively. Further, this biosensor showed a wide linear range of response over the concentration of NO from 0.1 μM to 1 mM with a detection limit of 0.1 μM and high sensitivity of 1.1 μA μM(-1). The electroanalytical results obtained here using the developed virtual electrochemical instrument were also compared with the standard cyclic voltammetry instrument and found in agreement with each other. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Isoenzymes of superoxide dismutase in nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris L. , Pisum sativum L. , and Vigna unguiculata (L. ) Walp

    SciTech Connect

    Becana, M.; Paris, F.J.; Sandalio, L.M.

    1989-08-01

    The activity and isozymic composition of superoxide dismutase were determined in nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris L., Pisum sativum L., and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. A Mn-SOD was present in Rhizobium and two in Bradyrhizobium and bacteroids. Nodule mitochondria from all three legume species had a single Mn-SOD with similar relative mobility, whereas the cytosol contained several CuZn-SODs: two in Phaseolus and Pisum, and four in Vigna. In the cytoplasm of V. unguiculata nodules, a Fe-containing SOD was also present, with an electrophoretic mobility between those of CuZn- and Mn-SODs, and an estimated molecular weight of 57,000. Total SOD activity ofmore » the soluble fraction of host cells, expressed on a nodule fresh weight basis, exceeded markedly that of bacteroids. Likewise, specific SOD activities of free-living bacteria were superior or equal to those of their symbiotic forms. Soluble extracts of bacteria and bacteroids did not show peroxidase activity, but the nodule cell cytoplasm contained diverse peroxidase isozymes which were readily distinguishable from leghemoglobin components by electrophoresis. Data indicated that peroxidases and leghemoglobins did not significantly interfere with SOD localization on gels. Treatment with chloroform-ethanol scarcely affected the isozymic pattern of SODs and peroxidases, and had limited success in the removal of leghemoglobin.« less

  5. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: dynamics of the main antioxidant enzymes--superoxide dismutase and catalase.

    PubMed

    Negreva, Mariya N; Penev, Atanas P; Georgiev, Svetoslav Zh; Aleksandrova, Albena A

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have a particularly strong interest in the mechanisms implicated in the clinical manifestation of atrial fibrillation. To examine dynamically the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (duration < 48 hours). The studied parameters were examined in the erythrocytes of 51 patients (59.84 +/- 1.60, 26 men) immediately after their hospitalization, at 24 hours and 28 days after restoration of sinus rhythm. 52 controls (59.50 +/- 1.46, 26 men) were also included, none of which had a history of arrhythmia. Propafenone was used to manage the rhythm abnormality. The enzyme activity was determined by a spectrophotometric method. The average duration of atrial fibrillation episodes until the time of hospitalization was 8.14 hours (from 2 to 24 hours). During patient hospitalization the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase was considerably higher compared to that of the controls (8.46 +/- 0.26 vs 5.81 +/- 0.14 U/mg Hb; 7.36 +/- 0.25 vs 4.76 +/- 0.12 E240/min/mg Hb; P < 0.001). This difference was maintained 24 hours after the rhythm regularization (7.19 +/- 0.25 vs 5.81 +/- 0.14 U/mg Hb, p < 0.001; 5.30 +/- 0.21 vs 4.76 +/- 0.12 E240/min/mg Hb, p < 0.05). Twenty-eight days after the restoration of sinus rhythm, the activity of catalase remained increased (5.11 +/- 0.08 vs 4.76 +/- 0.12 E240/min/mg Hb, p < 0.05). The paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in our study was characterized with significantly increased activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase even in the early hours of clinical manifestation of the disorder, which then slowly decreased with the restoration of sinus rhythm. Therefore, we can conclude that changes in oxidative status are closely related to the disease and are probably a part of the intimate mechanisms related to its initiation and clinical course.

  6. Simple Biological Systems for Assessing the Activity of Superoxide Dismutase Mimics

    PubMed Central

    Tovmasyan, Artak; Reboucas, Julio S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Half a century of research provided unambiguous proof that superoxide and species derived from it—reactive oxygen species (ROS)—play a central role in many diseases and degenerative processes. This stimulated the search for pharmaceutical agents that are capable of preventing oxidative damage, and methods of assessing their therapeutic potential. Recent Advances: The limitations of superoxide dismutase (SOD) as a therapeutic tool directed attention to small molecules, SOD mimics, that are capable of catalytically scavenging superoxide. Several groups of compounds, based on either metal complexes, including metalloporphyrins, metallocorroles, Mn(II) cyclic polyamines, and Mn(III) salen derivatives, or non-metal based compounds, such as fullerenes, nitrones, and nitroxides, have been developed and studied in vitro and in vivo. Very few entered clinical trials. Critical Issues and Future Directions: Development of SOD mimics requires in-depth understanding of their mechanisms of biological action. Elucidation of both molecular features, essential for efficient ROS-scavenging in vivo, and factors limiting the potential side effects requires biologically relevant and, at the same time, relatively simple testing systems. This review discuses the advantages and limitations of genetically engineered SOD-deficient unicellular organisms, Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as tools for investigating the efficacy and mechanisms of biological actions of SOD mimics. These simple systems allow the scrutiny of the minimal requirements for a functional SOD mimic: the association of a high catalytic activity for superoxide dismutation, low toxicity, and an efficient cellular uptake/biodistribution. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2416–2436. PMID:23964890

  7. Enhanced reactive oxygen species scavenging by overproduction of superoxide dismutase and catalase delays postharvest physiological deterioration of cassava storage roots.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia; Duan, Xiaoguang; Yang, Jun; Beeching, John R; Zhang, Peng

    2013-03-01

    Postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) of cassava (Manihot esculenta) storage roots is the result of a rapid oxidative burst, which leads to discoloration of the vascular tissues due to the oxidation of phenolic compounds. In this study, coexpression of the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging enzymes copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (MeCu/ZnSOD) and catalase (MeCAT1) in transgenic cassava was used to explore the intrinsic relationship between ROS scavenging and PPD occurrence. Transgenic cassava plants integrated with the expression cassette p54::MeCu/ZnSOD-35S::MeCAT1 were confirmed by Southern-blot analysis. The expression of MeCu/ZnSOD and MeCAT1 was verified by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzymatic activity analysis both in the leaves and storage roots. Under exposure to the ROS-generating reagent methyl viologen or to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the transgenic plants showed higher enzymatic activities of SOD and CAT than the wild-type plants. Levels of malondialdehyde, chlorophyll degradation, lipid peroxidation, and H2O2 accumulation were dramatically reduced in the transgenic lines compared with the wild type. After harvest, the storage roots of transgenic cassava lines show a delay in their PPD response of at least 10 d, accompanied by less mitochondrial oxidation and H2O2 accumulation, compared with those of the wild type. We hypothesize that this is due to the combined ectopic expression of Cu/ZnSOD and CAT leading to an improved synergistic ROS-scavenging capacity of the roots. Our study not only sheds light on the mechanism of the PPD process but also develops an effective approach for delaying the occurrence of PPD in cassava.

  8. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities after heat injury of listeria monocytogenes

    SciTech Connect

    Dallmier, A.W.; Martin, S.E.

    1988-02-01

    Four strains of Listeria monocytogenes were examined for catalase (CA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. The two strains having the highest CA activities (LCDC and Scott A) also possessed the highest SOD activities. The CA activity of heated cell extracts of all four strains examined decreased sharply between 55 and 60/sup 0/C. SOD was more heat labile than CA. Two L. monocytogenes strains demonstrated a decline in SOD activity after heat treatment at 45/sup 0/C, whereas the other two strains demonstrated a decline at 50/sup 0/C. Sublethal heating of the cells at 55/sup 0/C resulted in increased sensitivity to 5.5%more » NaCl. Exogenous hydrogen peroxide was added to suspensions of L. monocytogenes; strains producing the highest CA levels showed the greatest H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ resistance.« less

  9. Cloning and expression of an iron-containing superoxide dismutase in the parasitic protist, Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Viscogliosi, E; Delgado-Viscogliosi, P; Gerbod, D; Dauchez, M; Gratepanche, S; Alix, A J; Dive, D

    1998-04-01

    A superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene of the parasitic protist Trichomonas vaginalis was cloned, sequenced, expressed in Escherichia coli, and its gene product characterized. It is an iron-containing dimeric protein with a monomeric mass of 22,067 Da. Southern blots analyses suggested the presence of seven iron-containing (FeSOD) gene copies. Hydrophobic cluster analysis revealed some peculiarities in the 2D structure of the FeSOD from T. vaginalis and a strong structural conservation between prokaryotic and eukaryotic FeSODs. Phylogenetic reconstruction of the SOD sequences confirmed the dichotomy between FeSODs and manganese-containing SODs. FeSODs of protists appeared to group together with homologous proteobacterial enzymes suggesting a possible origin of eukaryotic FeSODs through an endosymbiotic event.

  10. Microencapsulation of superoxide dismutase into poly(epsilon-caprolactone) microparticles by reverse micelle solvent evaporation.

    PubMed

    Youan, Bi-Botti Célestin

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to encapsulate superoxide dismutase (SOD) in poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) microparticles by reverse micelle solvent evaporation. The concentration of PCL, the hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB), and concentration of the sucrose ester used as surfactant in the organic phase were investigated as formulation variables. Relatively higher encapsulation efficiency (approximately 48%) and retained enzymatic activity (>90%) were obtained with microparticle formulation made from the 20% (w/v) PCL and 0.05% (w/v) sucrose ester of HLB = 6. This formulation allowed the in vitro release of SOD for at least 72 hr. These results showed that reverse micelle solvent evaporation can be used to efficiently encapsulate SOD in PCL microparticles. Such formulations may improve the bioavailability of SOD.

  11. [Free radicals of oxygen and superoxide dismutase. Biological and medical aspects].

    PubMed

    Monte, M; Sacerdote de Lustig, E

    1994-01-01

    Oxygen free radicals (OFR) are very reactive and unstable metabolites capable of altering important biomolecules including proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. OFR are regulated by enzymes such as superoxide dismutases (SOD), catalase, glutation peroxidase and by molecules such as vitamins E, A, C, and K, selenio, cystein and other compounds. Increased OFR levels due to an overproduction of these metabolites or to a failure in the control system, induce cellular and tissue injuries that could lead to diseases such as atherosclerosis, arthritis, fibrosis, lung and heart injuries, neurological disorders and cancer. In this article we consider the use of SOD as therapeutic agents both in human and experimental models. We also refer to the administration of SOD as a protective factor against secondary injuries during radiotherapy and to the determination of SOD as a tumor marker.

  12. Topical superoxide dismutase in posttreatment fibrosis in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Landeen, Kelly C; Spanos, William C; Gromer, Laurie

    2018-05-13

    Topical superoxide dismutase (SOD) has been shown to decrease postradiation fibrosis in some cancers but has not demonstrated an effect in patients with head and neck cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine if topical SOD is an effective treatment for postradiation neck fibrosis. This was a randomized prospective blinded clinical study of topical SOD versus placebo for the treatment of neck fibrosis. Measures of fibrosis grade and quality of life were obtained at baseline and after 3 months of treatment. Improvement in fibrosis score was comparable between the 2 study arms at 3 months. Both study groups showed improvement but the differences between groups was not statistically significant. Topical SOD likely has limited benefit for posttreatment neck fibrosis but this study confirms other published evidence of benefit from active physical therapy of posttreatment fibrosis in patients with head and neck cancer. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Purification and physicochemical properties of superoxide dismutase from two photosynthetic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Lumsden, J; Cammack, R; Hall, D O

    1976-07-08

    Superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) has been isolated and characterised from the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis and from aerobically-grown Rhodopseudomonas spheroides, a purple, non-sulphur bacterium. The former enzyme contains 1 gatom of iron and the latter 1 gatom of manganese per mol; both enzymes have a molecular weight of 37 000-38 000, being composed of two non-covalently joined subunits of equal size. Various spectral studies have been carried out including absorbance, circular dichroism and electron spin resonance. Catalytic activity has been studied as a function of pH and shows a decrease at alkaline pH values. The manganoenzyme is generally more stable to various potentially denaturing conditions and is resistant to inactivation by hydrogen peroxide. Amino acid compositions and N-terminal residue determinations are presented.

  14. The Attenuation of Central Angiotensin II-dependent Pressor Response and Intra-neuronal Signaling by Intracarotid Injection of Nanoformulated Copper/Zinc Superoxide Dismutase

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaugh, Erin G.; Roat, James; Gao, Lie; Yang, Rui-Fang; Manickam, Devika S.; Yin, Jing-Xiang; Schultz, Harold D.; Bronich, Tatiana K.; Batrakova, Elena V.; Kabanov, Alexander V.; Zucker, Irving H.; Zimmerman, Matthew C.

    2010-01-01

    Adenoviral-mediated overexpression of the intracellular superoxide (O2•−) scavenging enzyme copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) in the brain attenuates central angiotensin II (AngII)-induced cardiovascular responses. However, the therapeutic potential for adenoviral vectors is weakened by toxicity and the inability of adenoviral vectors to target the brain following peripheral administration. Therefore, we developed a non-viral delivery system in which CuZnSOD protein is electrostatically bound to a synthetic poly(ethyleneimine)-poly(ethyleneglycol) (PEI-PEG) polymer to form a polyion complex (CuZnSOD nanozyme). We hypothesized that PEI-PEG polymer increases transport of functional CuZnSOD to neurons, which inhibits AngII intra-neuronal signaling. The AngII-induced increase in O2•−, as measured by dihydroethidium fluorescence and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, was significantly inhibited in CuZnSOD nanozyme-treated neurons compared to free CuZnSOD- and non-treated neurons. CuZnSOD nanozyme also attenuated the AngII-induced inhibition of K+ current in neurons. Intracarotid injection of CuZnSOD nanozyme into rabbits significantly inhibited the pressor response of intracerebroventricular-delivered AngII; however, intracarotid injection of free CuZnSOD or PEI-PEG polymer alone failed to inhibit this response. Importantly, neither the PEI-PEG polymer alone nor the CuZnSOD nanozyme induced neuronal toxicity. These findings indicate that CuZnSOD nanozyme inhibits AngII intra-neuronal signaling in vitro and in vivo. PMID:20378166

  15. Effect of UV radiation on a thermostable superoxide dismutase purified from a thermophilic bacterium isolated from a sterilization drying oven.

    PubMed

    Monsalves, María T; Amenábar, Maximiliano J; Ollivet-Besson, Gabriela P; Blamey, Jenny M

    2013-07-01

    A thermostable superoxide dismutase from a thermophilic bacterium, called Geobacillus wiegeli (GWE1), isolated from the interior of a sterilization drying oven, was purified by anion-exchange and molecular size-exclusion liquid chromatography. On the basis of SDS-PAGE, the purified enzyme was found to be homogeneous and showed an estimated subunit molecular mass of 23.9 kDa. The holoenzyme is a homotetramer of 97.3 kDa. Superoxide dismutase exhibited maximal activity at pH 8.5 and at temperature around 60 ºC. The enzyme was thermostable maintaining 50% of its activity even after 4.5 hours incubation at 60 ºC and more than 70% of its activity after 30 min at 80 ºC. When the microorganism was irradiated with UVA, an increase in the specific activity of superoxide dismutase was observed which was correlated with decreasing levels of anion superoxide, indicating the direct involvement of this enzyme in the capture of reactive oxygen species. This study reports the effects of UV radiation on a superoxide dismutase from a thermophilic bacterium isolated from an anthropogenic environment.

  16. Expression and characterization of recombinant bifunctional enzymes with glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities.

    PubMed

    Guan, Tuchen; Song, Jian; Wang, Yanan; Guo, Liying; Yuan, Lin; Zhao, Yingding; Gao, Yuan; Lin, Liangru; Wang, Yali; Wei, Jingyan

    2017-09-01

    To balance the production and decomposition of reactive oxygen species, living organisms have generated antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) are two important antioxidant enzymes. Apart from their catalytic functions, they protect each other, resulting in more efficient removal of reactive oxygen species, protection of cells against injury, and maintenance of the normal metabolism of reactive oxygen species. SOD catalyzes the dismutation of the superoxide anion (O 2 •- ) to oxygen (O 2 ) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). H 2 O 2 is then detoxified to water by GPx. In this study, human GPx1 Ser and the Alvinella pompejana SOD (ApSOD) gene were used to design and generate several recombinant proteins with both GPx and SOD activities by combining traditional fusion protein technology, a cysteine auxotrophic expression system, and a single protein production (SPP) system. Among the fusion proteins, Se-hGPx1 Ser -L-ApSOD exhibited the highest SOD and GPx activities. Additional research was conducted to better understand the properties of Se-hGPx1 Ser -L-ApSOD. The synergism of Se-hGPx1 Ser -L-ApSOD was evaluated by using an in vitro model. This research may facilitate future studies on the cooperation and catalytic mechanisms of GPx and SOD. We believe that the bifunctional enzyme has potential applications as a potent antioxidant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Impaired fertilizing ability of superoxide dismutase 1-deficient mouse sperm during in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Tsunoda, Satoshi; Kawano, Natsuko; Miyado, Kenji; Kimura, Naoko; Fujii, Junichi

    2012-11-01

    The oxidative modification of gametes by a reactive oxygen species is a major deleterious factor that decreases the successful rate of in vitro fertilization. Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) plays a pivotal role in antioxidation by scavenging the superoxide anion, and its deficiency causes infertility in female mice, but the significance of the enzyme in male mice remains unclear. In the present study, we characterized Sod1(-/-) (Sod1-KO) male reproductive organs and compiled the first report of the impaired fertilizing ability of Sod1-KO sperm in in vitro fertilization. Insemination of wild-type oocytes with Sod1-KO sperm exhibited lower rates of fertility compared with insemination by wild-type sperm. The low fertilizing ability found for Sod1-KO sperm was partially rescued by reductant 2-mercaptoethanol, which suggested the oxidative modification of sperm components. The numbers of motile and progressive sperm decreased during the in vitro fertilization process, and a decline in ATP content and elevation in lipid peroxidation occurred in the Sod1-KO sperm in an incubation time-dependent manner. Tyrosine phosphorylation, which is a hallmark for sperm capacitation, was also impaired in the Sod1-KO sperm. These results collectively suggest that machinery involved in sperm capacitation and motility are vulnerable to oxidative damage during the in vitro fertilization process, which could increase the rate of inefficient fertilization.

  18. Cholic acid modified N-(2-hydroxy)-propyl-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride for superoxide dismutase delivery.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ye; Cai, Huanxin; Yin, Baoru; Yao, Ping

    2013-09-15

    A series of novel amphiphilic chitosan derivatives, cholic acid modified N-(2-hydroxy)-propyl-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride (HTCC-CA) with different quaternization degrees and cholic acid substitutions were synthesized in this study. HTCC-CA is biocompatible and forms particles in aqueous solution. The binding with superoxide dismutase (SOD) at pH 6.8 destroys the original aggregates of HTCC-CA and produces smaller SOD/HTCC-CA complex nanoparticles via electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. The SOD loading efficiency and loading capacity of HTCC-CA can reach to more than 90% and 45%, respectively. Confocal laser scanning microscopy observation and flow cytometry analysis reveal that SOD/HTCC-CA complex nanoparticles greatly enhance the cellular internalization of the loaded SOD. The SOD activities and malonaldehyde concentrations in the serum and organs of the rats, administrated intravenously with free SOD, free HTCC-CA, and SOD/HTCC-CA nanoparticles, were assayed to evaluate the antioxidant efficiency in vivo. The results demonstrate that free HTCC-CA is effective to scavenge superoxide radicals in the blood circulation and SOD/HTCC-CA nanoparticles have better antioxidant efficiency than free SOD as well as free HTCC-CA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase Deficiency Exacerbates Pressure Overload–Induced Left Ventricular Hypertrophy and Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhongbing; Xu, Xin; Hu, Xinli; Zhu, Guangshuo; Zhang, Ping; van Deel, Elza D.; French, Joel P.; Fassett, John T.; Oury, Tim D.; Bache, Robert J.; Chen, Yingjie

    2008-01-01

    Extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD) contributes only a small fraction to total SOD activity in the normal heart but is strategically located to scavenge free radicals in the extracellular compartment. To examine the physiological significance of extracellular SOD in the response of the heart to hemodynamic stress, we studied the effect of extracellular SOD deficiency on transverse aortic constriction (TAC)–induced left ventricular remodeling. Under unstressed conditions extracellular SOD deficiency had no effect on myocardial total SOD activity, the ratio of glutathione:glutathione disulfide, nitrotyrosine content, or superoxide anion production but resulted in small but significant increases in myocardial fibrosis and ventricular mass. In response to TAC for 6 weeks, extracellular SOD-deficient mice developed more severe left ventricular hypertrophy (heart weight increased 2.56-fold in extracellular SOD-deficient mice as compared with 1.99-fold in wild-type mice) and pulmonary congestion (lung weight increased 2.92-fold in extracellular SOD-deficient mice as compared with 1.84-fold in wild-type mice). Extracellular SOD-deficient mice also had more ventricular fibrosis, dilation, and a greater reduction of left ventricular fractional shortening and rate of pressure development after TAC. TAC resulted in greater increases of ventricular collagen I, collagen III, matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, nitrotyrosine, and superoxide anion production. TAC also resulted in a greater decrease of the ratio of glutathione:glutathione disulfide in extracellular SOD-deficient mice. The finding that extracellular SOD deficiency had minimal impact on myocardial overall SOD activity but exacerbated TAC induced myocardial oxidative stress, hypertrophy, fibrosis, and dysfunction indicates that the distribution of extracellular SOD in the extracellular space is critically important in protecting the heart against pressure overload. PMID:17998475

  20. Superoxide-Dismutase Deficient Mutants in Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): Genetic Control, Differential Expressions of Isozymes, and Sensitivity to Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Talukdar, Dibyendu; Talukdar, Tulika

    2013-01-01

    Two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) mutants, sodPv 1 and sodPv 2, exhibiting foliar superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of only 25% and 40% of their mother control (MC) cv. VL 63 were isolated in EMS-mutagenized (0.15%, 8 h) M2 progeny. Native-PAGE analysis revealed occurrence of Mn SOD, Fe SOD, Cu/Zn SOD I and Cu/Zn SOD II isozymes in MC, while Fe SOD, and Mn SOD were not formed in sodPv 1 and sodPv 2 leaves, respectively. In-gel activity of individual isozymes differed significantly among the parents. SOD deficiency is inherited as recessive mutations, controlled by two different nonallelic loci. Gene expressions using qRT PCR confirmed higher expressions of Cu/Zn SOD transcripts in both mutants and the absence of Fe SOD in sodPv 1 and Mn SOD in sodPv 2. In 50 μM arsenic, Cu/Zn SODs genes were further upregulated but other isoforms downregulated in the two mutants, maintaining SOD activity in its control level. In an F2 double mutants of sodPv 1 × sodPv 2, no Fe SOD, and Mn SOD expressions were detectable, while both Cu/Zn SODs are down-regulated and arsenic-induced leaf necrosis appeared. In contrast to both mutants, ROS-imaging study revealed overaccumulation of both superoxides and H2O2 in leaves of double mutant. PMID:24078924

  1. Identification of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase as a novel nitric oxide-regulated gene in rat glomerular mesangial cells and kidneys of endotoxemic rats.

    PubMed

    Frank, S; Zacharowski, K; Wray, G M; Thiemermann, C; Pfeilschifter, J

    1999-05-01

    To define the mechanism of nitric oxide (NO) action in the glomerulus, we attempted to identify genes that are regulated by NO in rat glomerular mesangial cells. We identified a Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) that was strongly induced in these cells by treatment with S-nitroso-glutathione as a NO-donating agent. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) acutely decreased Cu/Zn SOD mRNA levels. The LPS-mediated decrease in Cu/Zn SOD is reversed by endogenously produced NO, as LPS also induced a delayed strong iNOS expression in these cells in vitro, which is accompanied by increased Cu/Zn SOD expression. NO dependency of Cu/Zn SOD mRNA recovery could be demonstrated by inhibition of this process by L-NG-monomethylarginine, an inhibitor of NOS enzymatic activity. To demonstrate the in vivo relevance of our observations, we have chosen LPS-treated rats as a model for induction of a systemic inflammatory response. In these animals, we demonstrate a direct coupling of Cu/Zn SOD expression levels to the presence of NO, as Cu/Zn SOD mRNA levels declined during acute inflammation in the presence of a selective inhibitor of iNOS. We propose that the up-regulation of Cu/Zn SOD by endogenous NO may serve as an adaptive, protective mechanism to prevent the formation of toxic quantities of peroxynitrite in conditions associated with iNOS induction during endotoxic shock.

  2. Superoxide dismutase 1 mutation in a cellular model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis shifts energy generation from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis.

    PubMed

    Allen, Scott P; Rajan, Sandeep; Duffy, Lynn; Mortiboys, Heather; Higginbottom, Adrian; Grierson, Andrew J; Shaw, Pamela J

    2014-06-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder involving the progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a key role in ALS disease progression and has been observed in several ALS cellular and animal models. Here, we show that fibroblasts isolated from ALS cases with a Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) I113T mutation recapitulate these mitochondrial defects. Using a novel technique, which measures mitochondrial respiration and glycolytic flux simultaneously in living cells, we have shown that SOD1 mutation causes a reduction in mitochondrial respiration and an increase in glycolytic flux. This causes a reduction in adenosine triphosphate produced by oxidative phosphorylation and an increase in adenosine triphosphate produced by glycolysis. Switching the energy source from glucose to galactose caused uncoupling of mitochondria with increased proton leak in SOD1(I113T) fibroblasts. Assessment of the contribution of fatty acid oxidation to total respiration, suggested that fatty acid oxidation is reduced in SOD1 ALS fibroblasts, an effect which can be mimicked by starving the control cells of glucose. These results highlight the importance of understanding the interplay between the major metabolic pathways, which has the potential to lead to strategies to correct the metabolic dysregulation observed in ALS cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. RNA interference-mediated silencing of mutant superoxide dismutase rescues cyclosporin A-induced death in cultured neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Michele M.; Pasinelli, Piera; Kazantsev, Aleksey G.; Brown, Robert H.

    2004-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disorder resulting from selective death of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. In ≈25% of familial ALS cases, the disease is caused by dominantly acting point mutations in the gene encoding cytosolic Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). In cell culture and in rodent models of ALS, mutant SOD1 proteins exhibit dose-dependent toxicity; thus, agents that reduce mutant protein expression would be powerful therapeutic tools. A wealth of recent evidence has demonstrated that the mechanism of RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) can be exploited to achieve potent and specific gene silencing in vitro and in vivo. We have evaluated the utility of RNAi for selective silencing of mutant SOD1 expression in cultured cells and have identified small interfering RNAs capable of specifically inhibiting expression of ALS-linked mutant, but not wild-type, SOD1. We have investigated the functional effects of RNAi-mediated silencing of mutant SOD1 in cultured murine neuroblastoma cells. In this model, stable expression of mutant, but not wild-type, human SOD1 sensitizes cells to cytotoxic stimuli. We find that silencing of mutant SOD1 protects these cells against cyclosporin A-induced cell death. These results demonstrate a positive physiological effect caused by RNAi-mediated silencing of a dominant disease allele. The present study further supports the therapeutic potential of RNAi-based methods for the treatment of inherited human diseases, including ALS. PMID:14981234

  4. Genome-Wide Identification and Transcriptional Expression Analysis of Cucumber Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Family in Response to Various Abiotic Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yong; Hu, Lifang; Wu, Hao; Jiang, Lunwei

    2017-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) proteins are widely present in the plant kingdom and play important roles in different biological processes. However, little is known about the SOD genes in cucumber. In this study, night SOD genes were identified from cucumber (Cucumis sativus) using bioinformatics-based methods, including 5 Cu/ZnSODs, 3 FeSODs, and 1 MnSOD. Gene structure and motif analysis indicated that most of the SOD genes have relatively conserved exon/intron arrangement and motif composition. Phylogenetic analyses with SODs from cucumber and several other species revealed that these SOD proteins can be traced back to two ancestral SODs before the divergence of monocot and dicot plants. Many cis-elements related to stress responses and plant hormones were found in the promoter sequence of each CsSOD gene. Gene expression analysis revealed that most of the CsSOD genes are expressed in almost all the tested tissues. qRT-PCR analysis of 8 selected CsSOD genes showed that these genes could respond to heat, cold, osmotic, and salt stresses. Our results provide a basis for further functional research on SOD gene family in cucumber and facilitate their potential applications in the genetic improvement of cucumber. PMID:28808654

  5. Acylation of Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1) at K122 Governs SOD1-Mediated Inhibition of Mitochondrial Respiration

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Courtney J.; Rodriguez, Nathan W.; Gashler, Kyle R.; Pandya, Rushika R.; Mortenson, Jeffrey B.; Whited, Matthew D.; Soderblom, Erik J.; Thompson, J. Will; Moseley, M. Arthur; Reddi, Amit R.; Tessem, Jeffery S.; Torres, Matthew P.; Bikman, Benjamin T.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study, we employed proteomics to identify mechanisms of posttranslational regulation on cell survival signaling proteins. We focused on Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), which protects cells from oxidative stress. We found that acylation of K122 on SOD1, while not impacting SOD1 catalytic activity, suppressed the ability of SOD1 to inhibit mitochondrial metabolism at respiratory complex I. We found that deacylase depletion increased K122 acylation on SOD1, which blocked the suppression of respiration in a K122-dependent manner. In addition, we found that acyl-mimicking mutations at K122 decreased SOD1 accumulation in mitochondria, initially hinting that SOD1 may inhibit respiration directly within the intermembrane space (IMS). However, surprisingly, we found that forcing the K122 acyl mutants into the mitochondria with an IMS-targeting tag did not recover their ability to suppress respiration. Moreover, we found that suppressing or boosting respiration levels toggled SOD1 in or out of the mitochondria, respectively. These findings place SOD1-mediated inhibition of respiration upstream of its mitochondrial localization. Lastly, deletion-rescue experiments show that a respiration-defective mutant of SOD1 is also impaired in its ability to rescue cells from toxicity caused by SOD1 deletion. Together, these data suggest a previously unknown interplay between SOD1 acylation, metabolic regulation, and SOD1-mediated cell survival. PMID:28739857

  6. QM/MM Calculation of the Enzyme Catalytic Cycle Mechanism for Copper- and Zinc-Containing Superoxide Dismutase.

    PubMed

    Lintuluoto, Masami; Yamada, Chiaki; Lintuluoto, Juha M

    2017-08-03

    The entire enzyme catalytic mechanism including the electron and the proton transfers of the copper- and zinc-containing extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) was investigated by using QM/MM method. In the first step, the electron transfer from O 2 ·- to SOD3 occurred without the bond formation between the donor and the acceptor and formed the triplet oxygen molecule and reduced SOD3. In the reduced SOD3, the distorted tetrahedral structure of Cu(I) atom was maintained. The reduction of Cu(II) atom induced the protonation of His113, which bridges between the Cu(II) and Zn(II) atoms in the resting state. Since the protonation of His113 broke the bond between Cu(I) and His113, three-coordinated Cu(I) was formed. Further, we suggest the binding of O 2 ·- formed hydrogen peroxide and the resting state after both the Cu reduction and the protonation of His113. The protonation of His113 caused the conformational change of Arg186 located at the entrance of the reactive site. The electrostatic potential surface around the reactive site showed that Arg186 plays an important role as electrostatic guidance for the negatively charged substrates only after the protonation of His113. The rotation of Arg186 switched the proton supply routes via Glu108 or Glu179 for transferring two protons from the bulk solvent.

  7. Mechanism of Action of Sulforaphane as a Superoxide Radical Anion and Hydrogen Peroxide Scavenger by Double Hydrogen Transfer: A Model for Iron Superoxide Dismutase.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Ajit Kumar; Mishra, P C

    2015-06-25

    The mechanism of action of sulforaphane as a scavenger of superoxide radical anion (O2(•-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was investigated using density functional theory (DFT) in both gas phase and aqueous media. Iron superoxide dismutase (Fe-SOD) involved in scavenging superoxide radical anion from biological media was modeled by a complex consisting of the ferric ion (Fe(3+)) attached to three histidine rings. Reactions related to scavenging of superoxide radical anion by sulforaphane were studied using DFT in the presence and absence of Fe-SOD represented by this model in both gas phase and aqueous media. The scavenging action of sulforaphane toward both superoxide radical anion and hydrogen peroxide was found to involve the unusual mechanism of double hydrogen transfer. It was found that sulforaphane alone, without Fe-SOD, cannot scavenge superoxide radical anion in gas phase or aqueous media efficiently as the corresponding reaction barriers are very high. However, in the presence of Fe-SOD represented by the above-mentioned model, the scavenging reactions become barrierless, and so sulforaphane scavenges superoxide radical anion by converting it to hydrogen peroxide efficiently. Further, sulforaphane was found to scavenge hydrogen peroxide also very efficiently by converting it into water. Thus, the mechanism of action of sulforaphane as an excellent antioxidant has been unravelled.

  8. Nitric oxide and superoxide dismutase modulate endothelial progenitor cell function in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Saher; Brenner, Benjamin; Aharon, Anat; Daoud, Deeb; Roguin, Ariel

    2009-10-30

    The function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which are key cells in vascular repair, is impaired in diabetes mellitus. Nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species can regulate EPC functions. EPCs tolerate oxidative stress by upregulating superoxide dismutase (SOD), the enzyme that neutralizes superoxide anion (O2-). Therefore, we investigated the roles of NO and SOD in glucose-stressed EPCs. The functions of circulating EPCs from patients with type 2 diabetes were compared to those from healthy individuals. Healthy EPCs were glucose-stressed, and then treated with insulin and/or SOD. We assessed O2- generation, NO production, SOD activity, and their ability to form colonies. EPCs from diabetic patients generated more O2-, had higher NAD(P)H oxidase and SOD activity, but lower NO bioavailability, and expressed higher mRNA and protein levels of p22-phox, and manganese SOD and copper/zinc SOD than those from the healthy individuals. Plasma glucose and HbA1c levels in the diabetic patients were correlated negatively with the NO production from their EPCs. SOD treatment of glucose-stressed EPCs attenuated O2- generation, restored NO production, and partially restored their ability to form colonies. Insulin treatment of glucose-stressed EPCs increased NO production, but did not change O2- generation and their ability to form colonies. However, their ability to produce NO and to form colonies was fully restored after combined SOD and insulin treatment. Our data provide evidence that SOD may play an essential role in EPCs, and emphasize the important role of antioxidant therapy in type 2 diabetic patients.

  9. Nitric oxide and superoxide dismutase modulate endothelial progenitor cell function in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Hamed, Saher; Brenner, Benjamin; Aharon, Anat; Daoud, Deeb; Roguin, Ariel

    2009-01-01

    Background The function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which are key cells in vascular repair, is impaired in diabetes mellitus. Nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species can regulate EPC functions. EPCs tolerate oxidative stress by upregulating superoxide dismutase (SOD), the enzyme that neutralizes superoxide anion (O2-). Therefore, we investigated the roles of NO and SOD in glucose-stressed EPCs. Methods The functions of circulating EPCs from patients with type 2 diabetes were compared to those from healthy individuals. Healthy EPCs were glucose-stressed, and then treated with insulin and/or SOD. We assessed O2- generation, NO production, SOD activity, and their ability to form colonies. Results EPCs from diabetic patients generated more O2-, had higher NAD(P)H oxidase and SOD activity, but lower NO bioavailability, and expressed higher mRNA and protein levels of p22-phox, and manganese SOD and copper/zinc SOD than those from the healthy individuals. Plasma glucose and HbA1c levels in the diabetic patients were correlated negatively with the NO production from their EPCs. SOD treatment of glucose-stressed EPCs attenuated O2- generation, restored NO production, and partially restored their ability to form colonies. Insulin treatment of glucose-stressed EPCs increased NO production, but did not change O2- generation and their ability to form colonies. However, their ability to produce NO and to form colonies was fully restored after combined SOD and insulin treatment. Conclusion Our data provide evidence that SOD may play an essential role in EPCs, and emphasize the important role of antioxidant therapy in type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:19878539

  10. Chronic treatment with fibrates elevates superoxide dismutase in adult mouse brain microvessels

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guangming; Liu, Xiaowei; Guo, Qingmin; Namura, Shobu

    2010-01-01

    Fibrates are activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α. Pretreatment with fibrates has been shown to protect brain against ischemia in mice. We hypothesized that fibrates elevate superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in the brain microvessels (BMV). BMV were isolated from male C57BL/6 and PPARα null mice that had been treated with fenofibrate or gemfibrozil for 7 days. To examine the effect of discontinuation of fenofibrate, another animal group treated with fenofibrate was examined on post-discontinuation day 3 (D-3). To examine whether SOD elevations attenuate oxidative stress in the ischemic brain, separate animals treated with fenofibrate for 7 days were subjected to 60 minutes focal ischemia on post-discontinuation day 0 (D-0) or D-3. Fenofibrate (30 mg/kg) increased mRNA levels of all three isoforms of SOD and activity level in BMV on D-0 but these effects were not detected on D-3. The elevations were not detected in PPARα null mice. SOD levels were also elevated by gemfibrozil (30 mg/kg). Fenofibrate significantly reduced superoxide production and protein oxidation in the ischemic brain at 30 minutes after reperfusion. Fenofibrate reduced infarct size measured at 24 hours after reperfusion on D-0; however, the infarct reduction was not seen when ischemia was induced on D-3. These findings suggest that fibrates elevate SOD in BMV through PPARα, which contributes to the infarct reduction, at least in part. Further studies are needed to establish the link between the SOD elevations and the brain protection by fibrates against ischemia. PMID:20813100

  11. Perylene Diimide as a Precise Graphene-like Superoxide Dismutase Mimetic

    SciTech Connect

    Jalilov, Almaz S.; Nilewski, Lizanne G.; Berka, Vladimir

    Here we show that the active portion of a graphitic nanoparticle can be mimicked by a perylene diimide (PDI) to explain the otherwise elusive biological and electrocatalytic activity of the nanoparticle construct. Development of molecular analogues that mimic the antioxidant properties of oxidized graphenes, in this case the poly(ethylene glycolated) hydrophilic carbon clusters (PEG–HCCs), will afford important insights into the highly efficient activity of PEG–HCCs and their graphitic analogues. PEGylated perylene diimides (PEGn–PDI) serve as well-defined molecular analogues of PEG–HCCs and oxidized graphenes in general, and their antioxidant and superoxide dismutase-like (SOD-like) properties were studied. PEGn–PDIs have two reversible reductionmore » peaks, which are more positive than the oxidation peak of superoxide (O2•–). This is similar to the reduction peak of the HCCs. Thus, as with PEG–HCCs, PEGn–PDIs are also strong single-electron oxidants of O2•–. Furthermore, reduced PEGn–PDI, PEGn–PDI•–, in the presence of protons, was shown to reduce O2•– to H2O2 to complete the catalytic cycle in this SOD analogue. The kinetics of the conversion of O2•– to O2 and H2O2 by PEG8–PDI was measured using freeze-trap EPR experiments to provide a turnover number of 133 s–1; the similarity in kinetics further supports that PEG8–PDI is a true SOD mimetic. Finally, PDIs can be used as catalysts in the electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction in water, which proceeds by a two-electron process with the production of H2O2, mimicking graphene oxide nanoparticles that are otherwise difficult to study spectroscopically.« less

  12. Time- and dose-dependent differential regulation of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase and manganese superoxide dismutase enzymatic activity and mRNA level by vitamin E in rat blood cells.

    PubMed

    Hajiani, Maliheh; Razi, Farideh; Golestani, Aboualfazl; Frouzandeh, Mehdi; Owji, Ali Akbar; Khaghani, Shahnaz; Ghannadian, Naghmeh; Shariftabrizi, Ahmad; Pasalar, Parvin

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin E is the most important lipid-soluble antioxidant. Recently, it has been proposed as a gene regulator, and its gene modulation effects have been observed at different levels of gene expression and cell signaling. This study was performed to investigate the effects of vitamin E on the activity and expression of the most important endogenous antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD), in rat plasma. Twenty-eight male Sprauge-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control group and three dosing groups. The control group received the vehicle (liquid paraffin), and the dosing groups received twice-weekly intraperitoneal injections of 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg of vitamin E ((±)-α-Tocopherol) for 6 weeks. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme assays were used to assess the levels of Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD mRNA and enzyme activity levels in blood cells at 0, 2, 4, and 6 weeks following vitamin E administration. Catalase enzyme activity and total antioxidant capacity were also assessed in plasma at the same time intervals. Mn-SOD activity was significantly increased in the 100 and 30 mg/kg dosing groups after 4 and 6 weeks, with corresponding significant increase in their mRNA levels. Cu/Zn-SOD activity was not significantly changed in response to vitamin E administration at any time points, whereas Cu/Zn-SOD mRNA levels were significantly increased after longer time points with high doses (30 and 100 mg/kg) of vitamin E. Catalase enzyme activity was transiently but significantly increased after 4 weeks of vitamin E treatment in 30 and 100 mg/kg dosing groups. Total antioxidant status was significantly increased after 4 and 6 weeks in the 100 mg/kg dosing group. Only the chronic administration of higher doses of alpha-tocopherol is associated with the increased activity and expression of Mn-SOD in rats. Cu/Zn-SOD activity and expression does not dramatically change in response to vitamin E.

  13. SODa: an Mn/Fe superoxide dismutase prediction and design server.

    PubMed

    Kwasigroch, Jean Marc; Wintjens, René; Gilis, Dimitri; Rooman, Marianne

    2008-06-02

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are ubiquitous metalloenzymes that play an important role in the defense of aerobic organisms against oxidative stress, by converting reactive oxygen species into nontoxic molecules. We focus here on the SOD family that uses Fe or Mn as cofactor. The SODa webtool http://babylone.ulb.ac.be/soda predicts if a target sequence corresponds to an Fe/Mn SOD. If so, it predicts the metal ion specificity (Fe, Mn or cambialistic) and the oligomerization mode (dimer or tetramer) of the target. In addition, SODa proposes a list of residue substitutions likely to improve the predicted preferences for the metal cofactor and oligomerization mode. The method is based on residue fingerprints, consisting of residues conserved in SOD sequences or typical of SOD subgroups, and of interaction fingerprints, containing residue pairs that are in contact in SOD structures. SODa is shown to outperform and to be more discriminative than traditional techniques based on pairwise sequence alignments. Moreover, the fact that it proposes selected mutations makes it a valuable tool for rational protein design.

  14. Subunit Dissociation and Metal Binding by Escherichia coli apo-Manganese Superoxide Dismutase

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, Mei M.; Lerch, Thomas F.; Kirillova, Olga; Chapman, Michael S.; Whittaker, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Metal binding by apo-manganese superoxide dismutase (apo-MnSOD) is essential for functional maturation of the enzyme. Previous studies have demonstrated that metal binding by apo-MnSOD is conformationally gated, requiring protein reorganization for the metal to bind. We have now solved the X-ray crystal structure of apo-MnSOD at 1.9 Å resolution. The organization of active site residues is independent of the presence of the metal cofactor, demonstrating that protein itself templates the unusual metal coordination geometry. Electrophoretic analysis of mixtures of apo- and (Mn2)-MnSOD, dye-conjugated protein, or C-terminal Strep-tag II fusion protein reveals a dynamic subunit exchange process associated with cooperative metal binding by the two subunits of the dimeric protein. In contrast, (S126C) (SS) apo-MnSOD, which contains an inter-subunit covalent disulfide crosslink, exhibits anticooperative metal binding. The protein concentration dependence of metal uptake kinetics implies that protein dissociation is involved in metal binding by the wild type apo-protein, although other processes may also contribute to gating metal uptake. Protein concentration dependent small-zone size exclusion chromatography is consistent with apo-MnSOD dimer dissociation at low protein concentration (KD = 1×10−6 M). Studies on metal uptake by apo-MnSOD in Escherichia coli cells show that the protein exhibits similar behavior in vivo and in vitro. PMID:21044611

  15. Aqueous two-phase system purification for superoxide dismutase induced by menadione from Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Kavakcıoğlu, Berna; Tongul, Burcu; Tarhan, Leman

    2017-03-01

    In the present work, the partitioning behavior of menadione-induced superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1), an antioxidant enzyme that has various applications in the medical and cosmetic industries, from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been characterized on different types of aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) (poly(ethylene glycol)/polypropylene glycol (PEG/PPG)-dextran, PEG-salt and PPG-salt). PEG-salt combinations were found most optimal systems for the purification of SOD. The best partition conditions were found using the PEG-3350 24% and K 2 HPO 4 5% (w/w) with pH 7.0 at 25 °C. The partition coefficient of total SOD activity and total protein concentration observed in this system were 0.17 and 6.65, respectively, with the recovery percentage as 78.90% in the bottom phase and 13.17% in the top phase. The highest purification fold for SOD from P. chrysosporium was found as 6.04 in the bottom phase of PEG 3350%24 - K 2 HPO 4 %5 (w/w) system with pH 7.0. SOD purified from P. chrysosporium was determined to be a homodimer in its native state with a molecular weight of 60  ± 4 kDa. Consequently, simple and only one step PEG-salt ATPS system was developed for SOD purification from P. chrysosporium.

  16. Superoxide Dismutase: A Predicting Factor for Boar Semen Characteristics for Short-Term Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Nemec Svete, Alenka

    2014-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in seminal plasma were evaluated on the basis of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis as predictors for distinguishing satisfactory from unsatisfactory boar semen samples after storage. SOD on day 0 correlated significantly with progressive motility (r = −0.686; P < 0.05) and viability (r = −0.513; P < 0.05) after storage; TBARS correlated only with motility (r = −0.480; P < 0.05). Semen samples that, after 3 days of storage, fulfilled all criteria for semen characteristics (viability > 85%, motility > 70%, progressive motility > 25%, and normal morphology > 50%) had significantly lower SOD levels on the day 0 than those with at least one criterion not fulfilled (P < 0.05) following storage. SOD levels of less than 1.05 U/mL predicted with 87.5% accuracy that fresh semen will suit the requirements for satisfactory semen characteristics after storage, while semen with SOD levels higher than 1.05 U/mL will not fulfill with 100% accuracy at least one semen characteristic after storage. These results support the proposal that SOD in fresh boar semen can be used as a predictor of semen quality after storage. PMID:24729963

  17. Characterization of a hyperthermostable Fe-superoxide dismutase from hot spring.

    PubMed

    He, Yong-Zhi; Fan, Ke-Qiang; Jia, Cui-Juan; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Pan, Wu-Bin; Huang, Li; Yang, Ke-Qian; Dong, Zhi-Yang

    2007-05-01

    A new gene encoding a thermostable Fe-superoxide dismutase (tcSOD) was identified from a metagenomic library prepared from a hot spring sample. The open reading frame of tcSOD encoded a 211 amino acid protein. The recombinant protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and confirmed to be a Fe-SOD with a specific activity of 1,890 U/mg using the pyrogallol method. The enzyme was highly stable at 80 degrees C and retained 50% activity after heat treatment at 95 degrees C for 2 h. It showed striking stability across a wide pH span from 4 to 11. The native form of the enzyme was determined as a homotetramer by analytical ultracentrifugation and gradient native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Fe(2+) was found to be important to SOD activity and to the stability of tcSOD dimer. Comparative modeling analyses of tcSOD tetramer indicate that its high thermostability is mainly due to the presence of a large number of intersubunit ion pairs and hydrogen bonds and to a decrease in solvent accessible hydrophobic surfaces.

  18. Topical formulations with superoxide dismutase: influence of formulation composition on physical stability and enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Di Mambro, Valéria M; Borin, Maria F; Fonseca, Maria J V

    2003-04-24

    Three different topical formulations were supplemented with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and evaluated concerning physical and chemical stabilities in order to determine the most stable formulation that would maintain SOD activity. Physical stability was evaluated by storing the formulation at room temperature, and at 37 and 45 degrees C for 28 days. Samples were collected at 7-day intervals for assessment of rheological behavior. Chemical stability was evaluated by the measurement of enzymatic activity in formulations stored at room temperature and at 45 degrees C for 75 days. The formulations showed a pseudoplastic behavior, with a flow index of less than 1. There was no significant difference in the initial values of flow index, hysteresis loop or minimum apparent viscosity. The simple emulsion and the one stabilized with hydroxyethylcellulose showed decreased viscosity by the 21st day and with higher temperature, but no significant changes concerning the presence of SOD. Although there were no significant changes concerning storage time or temperature, the formulation stabilized with hydroxyethylcellulose showed a marked loss of SOD activity. The addition of SOD to the formulations studied did not affect their physical stability. Simple emulsions or emulsions stabilized with carboxypolymethylene seem to be better bases for enzyme addition than emulsion stabilized with hydroxyethylcellulose.

  19. Superoxide dismutase: a predicting factor for boar semen characteristics for short-term preservation.

    PubMed

    Zakošek Pipan, Maja; Mrkun, Janko; Kosec, Marjan; Nemec Svete, Alenka; Zrimšek, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in seminal plasma were evaluated on the basis of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis as predictors for distinguishing satisfactory from unsatisfactory boar semen samples after storage. SOD on day 0 correlated significantly with progressive motility (r=-0.686; P<0.05) and viability (r=-0.513; P<0.05) after storage; TBARS correlated only with motility (r=-0.480; P<0.05). Semen samples that, after 3 days of storage, fulfilled all criteria for semen characteristics (viability>85%, motility>70%, progressive motility>25%, and normal morphology>50%) had significantly lower SOD levels on the day 0 than those with at least one criterion not fulfilled (P<0.05) following storage. SOD levels of less than 1.05 U/mL predicted with 87.5% accuracy that fresh semen will suit the requirements for satisfactory semen characteristics after storage, while semen with SOD levels higher than 1.05 U/mL will not fulfill with 100% accuracy at least one semen characteristic after storage. These results support the proposal that SOD in fresh boar semen can be used as a predictor of semen quality after storage.

  20. Inhibitory effect of alliin from Allium sativum on the glycation of superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Shehwaz; Younus, Hina

    2017-10-01

    Inhibition of glycation is an important approach for alleviating diabetic complications. Alliin, the most abundant sulphur compound in garlic has been demonstrated to possess antidiabetic activity. However, there is no scientific evidence supporting its antiglycating activity. The objective of this study was to determine the inhibitory effect of alliin on glucose and methyglyoxal (MG)-induced glycation of an important antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD). Glycation of SOD resulted in a decrease in enzyme activity, fragmentation/cross-linking, reduced cross-reactivity with anti-SOD antibodies, both tertiary and secondary structural changes, and formation of AGEs and fibrils. Alliin offered protection against glucose or MG induced glycation of SOD. The antiglycating potential of alliin appears to be comparable with that of quercetin which is reported to be a potent natural inhibitor of glycation. Alliin has a good antiglycating effect and hence is expected to have therapeutic potential in the prevention of glycation-mediated diabetic complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effect of UV-B Radiation on Bufo arenarum Embryos Survival and Superoxide Dismutase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Herkovits, J.; D’Eramo, J. L.; Fridman, O.

    2006-01-01

    The exposure of Bufo arenarum embryos to 300–310 nm UV-B at a dose of 4,104 Joule/m2 resulted in 100% lethality within 24 hr while 820 Joule/m2 was the NOEC value for short-term chronic (10 days) exposure. The dose response curves show that lethal effects are proportional with the dose and achieve its highest value within 48 hr post exposure. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in amphibian embryos for sublethal UV-B exposures was evaluated by means of UV-B treatments with 273 (A), 820(B), 1368(C) and 1915(D) Joule/m2 at 2 and 5 hours post irradiation. The SOD activity in units/mg protein in A, B, C and D at 2 hr after treatments were 80.72 ± 14.29, 74.5 ± 13.19, 39.5 ± 6.99 and 10.7 ± 1.89 respectively while for control embryos it was 10.88 ± 1.31. At 5 hr after treatments the SOD values were similar to those found in control embryos. The results confirm the high susceptibility of amphibian embryos to UV-B and point out that the SOD activity is enhanced by low doses of UV-B irradiation achieving significantly higher values than in control embryos at 2 hr post exposure. PMID:16823076

  2. Comparative study of copper(II)-curcumin complexes as superoxide dismutase mimics and free radical scavengers.

    PubMed

    Barik, Atanu; Mishra, Beena; Kunwar, Amit; Kadam, Ramakant M; Shen, Liang; Dutta, Sabari; Padhye, Subhash; Satpati, Ashis K; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Indira Priyadarsini, K

    2007-04-01

    Two stoichiometrically different copper(II) complexes of curcumin (stoichiometry, 1:1 and 1:2 for copper:curcumin), were examined for their superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, free radical-scavenging ability and antioxidant potential. Both the complexes are soluble in lipids and DMSO. The formation constants of the complexes were determined by voltammetry. EPR spectra of the complexes in DMSO at 77K showed that the 1:2 Cu(II)-curcumin complex is square planar and the 1:1 Cu(II)-curcumin complex is distorted orthorhombic. Cu(II)-curcumin complex (1:1) with larger distortion from square planar structure shows higher SOD activity. These complexes inhibit gamma-radiation induced lipid peroxidation in liposomes and react with DPPH acting as free radical scavengers. One-electron oxidation of the two complexes by radiolytically generated azide radicals in Tx-100 micellar solutions produced phenoxyl radicals, indicating that the phenolic moiety of curcumin in the complexes participates in free radical reactions. Depending on the structure, these two complexes possess different SOD activities, free radical neutralizing abilities and antioxidant potentials. In addition, quantum chemical calculations with density functional theory have been performed to support the experimental observations.

  3. Trichloroethylene exposure aggravates behavioral abnormalities in mice that are deficient in superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Noriyuki; Homma, Takujiro; Fujiwara, Hiroki; Kaneko, Kenya; Hozumi, Yasukazu; Shichiri, Mototada; Takashima, Mizuki; Ito, Junitsu; Konno, Tasuku; Kurahashi, Toshihiro; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Goto, Kaoru; Fujii, Satoshi; Fujii, Junichi

    2016-08-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) has been implicated as a causative agent for Parkinson's disease (PD). The administration of TCE to rodents induces neurotoxicity associated with dopaminergic neuron death, and evidence suggests that oxidative stress as a major player in the progression of PD. Here we report on TCE-induced behavioral abnormality in mice that are deficient in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). Wild-type (WT) and SOD1-deficient (Sod1(-/-)) mice were intraperitoneally administered TCE (500 mg/kg) over a period of 4 weeks. Although the TCE-administrated Sod1(-/-) mice showed marked abnormal motor behavior, no significant differences were observed among the experimental groups by biochemical and histopathological analyses. However, treating mouse neuroblastoma-derived NB2a cells with TCE resulted in the down regulation of the SOD1 protein and elevated oxidative stress under conditions where SOD1 production was suppressed. Taken together, these data indicate that SOD1 plays a pivotal role in protecting motor neuron function against TCE toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization, molecular modelling and developmental expression of zebrafish manganese superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chi-Tsai; Tseng, Wen-Chung; Hsiao, Nai-Wan; Chang, Hsiao-Huang; Ken, Chuian-Fu

    2009-08-01

    A 977 bp cDNA containing an open reading frame encoding 224 amino acid residues of manganese superoxide dismutase was cloned from zebrafish (zMn-SOD). The deduced amino acid sequence showed high identity with the sequences of Mn-SODs from human (85.1%) to nematode (61.6%). The 3-D structure model was superimposed on the relative domains of human Mn-SOD with the root mean square (rms) deviation of 0.0919 A. The recombinant mature zMn-SOD with enzyme activity was purified using His-tag technique. The half-life of the enzyme is approximately 48 min and its thermal inactivation rate constant k(d) is 0.0154 min(-1)at 70 degrees C. The enzyme was active under a broad pH (2.2-11.2) and in the presence of up to 4% SDS. Real-time RT-PCR assay was used to detect the zMn-SOD mRNA expression during the developmental stages following a challenge with paraquat. A high level expression of Mn-SOD mRNA was detected at the cleavage stage, but decreased significantly under paraquat treatment. The results indicated that Mn-SOD plays an important role during embryonic development.

  5. Identification of excreted iron superoxide dismutase for the diagnosis of Phtytomonas.

    PubMed

    Marín, Clotilde; Rodríguez-González, Isabel; Sánchez-Moreno, Manuel

    2006-09-01

    An excreted iron superoxide dismutase (FeSODe) of pI 3.6 with a molecular weight of 28-30 kDa was detected in the in vitro culture of Phytomonas isolated from Euphorbia characias (SODeCHA) and from Lycopersicon esculentum (SODeTOM), in Grace's medium without serum. These FeSODe excreted into the medium had immunogenic capacity: the positivity of the anti-SODeCHA serum persisted to a dilution of 1/30,000, and for the anti-SODeTOM to 1/10,000 by Western blot. In addition, cross reaction was detected between the anti-SODe serum of Phytomonas isolated from E. characias against SODeTOM, and the anti-SODe serum from L. esculentum with SODeCHA. This characteristic offers the possibility of its use to diagnose plant trypanosomatids. The validation of the test was confirmed by experimental inoculation of tomato fruits with Phytomonas isolated from L. esculentum. At 7, 10, 15, and 21 days post infection, it was possible to detect the presence of the parasites with the anti-SODe serum of Phytomonas isolated from L. esculentum at a dilution of 1/250. These serological results were confirmed by visualization of the parasites by optical microscopy. The data of this study confirm that the SOD is sufficient to identify a trypanosomatid isolated from plants as belonging to the genus Phytomonas.

  6. The effect of UV-B radiation on Bufo arenarum embryos survival and superoxide dismutase activity.

    PubMed

    Herkovits, J; D'Eramo, J L; Fridman, O

    2006-03-01

    The exposure of Bufo arenarum embryos to 300-310 nm UV-B at a dose of 4,104 Joule/m(2) resulted in 100% lethality within 24 hr while 820 Joule/m(2) was the NOEC value for short-term chronic (10 days) exposure. The dose response curves show that lethal effects are proportional with the dose and achieve its highest value within 48 hr post exposure. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in amphibian embryos for sublethal UV-B exposures was evaluated by means of UV-B treatments with 273 (A), 820(B), 1368(C) and 1915(D) Joule/m(2) at 2 and 5 hours post irradiation. The SOD activity in units/mg protein in A, B, C and D at 2 hr after treatments were 80.72 +/- 14.29, 74.5 +/- 13.19, 39.5 +/- 6.99 and 10.7 +/- 1.89 respectively while for control embryos it was 10.88 +/- 1.31. At 5 hr after treatments the SOD values were similar to those found in control embryos. The results confirm the high susceptibility of amphibian embryos to UV-B and point out that the SOD activity is enhanced by low doses of UV-B irradiation achieving significantly higher values than in control embryos at 2 hr post exposure.

  7. Effect of Trasina, an Ayurvedic herbal formulation, on pancreatic islet superoxide dismutase activity in hyperglycaemic rats.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, S K; Satyan, K S; Chakrabarti, A

    1997-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus was induced in male CF strain rats by streptozotocin (STZ) and hyperglycaemia and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of pancreatic islet cells was assessed on days 7, 14, 21 and 28. STZ induced significant hyperglycaemia and a concomitant decrease in islet cell SOD activity. Transina (TR), an Ayurvedic herbal formulation comprising of Withania somnifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Eclipta alba, Ocimum sanctum, Picrorrhiza kurroa and shilajit, had little per se effect on blood sugar concentrations and islet SOD activity in euglycaemic rats, in the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. administered once daily for 28 days. However, these doses of TR induced a dose- related decrease in STZ hyperglycaemia and attenuation of STZ induced decrease in islet SOD activity. The results indicate that the earlier reported anti-hyperglycaemic effect of TR may be due to pancreatic islet free radical scavenging activity, the hyperglycaemic activity of STZ being the consequence of decrease in islet SOD activity leading to the accumulation of degenerative oxidative free radicals in islet beta-cells.

  8. Effect of Nanoparticles on Modified Screen Printed Inhibition Superoxide Dismutase Electrodes for Aluminum

    PubMed Central

    Barquero-Quirós, Miriam; Arcos-Martínez, María Julia

    2016-01-01

    A novel amperometric biosensor for the determination of Al(III) based on the inhibition of the enzyme superoxide dismutase has been developed. The oxidation signal of epinephrine substrate was affected by the presence of Al(III) ions leading to a decrease in its amperometric current. The immobilization of the enzyme was performed with glutaraldehyde on screen-printed carbon electrodes modifiedwith tetrathiofulvalene (TTF) and different types ofnanoparticles. Nanoparticles of gold, platinum, rhodium and palladium were deposited on screen printed carbon electrodes by means of two electrochemical procedures. Nanoparticles were characterized trough scanning electronic microscopy, X-rays fluorescence, and atomic force microscopy. Palladium nanoparticles showed lower atomic force microscopy parameters and higher slope of aluminum calibration curves and were selected to perform sensor validation. The developed biosensor has a detection limit of 2.0 ± 0.2 μM for Al(III), with a reproducibility of 7.9% (n = 5). Recovery of standard reference material spiked to buffer solution was 103.8% with a relative standard deviation of 4.8% (n = 5). Recovery of tap water spiked with the standard reference material was 100.5 with a relative standard deviation of 3.4% (n = 3). The study of interfering ions has also been carried out. PMID:27681735

  9. Early superoxide dismutase alterations during SV40-transformation of human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Bravard, A; Hoffschir, F; Sabatier, L; Ricoul, M; Pinton, A; Cassingena, R; Estrade, S; Luccioni, C; Dutrillaux, B

    1992-11-11

    The expression of superoxide dismutases (SOD) 1 and 2 was studied in 4 clones of human fibroblasts after their infection by simian virus 40 (SV40), in parallel with the alterations of chromosomes 21 and chromosome 6q arms, carrying the genes that encode for SOD1 and SOD2 respectively. For all clones, a similar scheme with 2 main phases was observed for both chromosome and SOD variations. The first phase, defined as the pre-crisis phase, was characterized by chromosomal instability, but maintenance of normal numbers of chromosome 6q arms and chromosomes 21. The level of SOD2 mRNA was high, while SOD2 activity and immunoreactive protein were low. SOD1 protein and activity were decreased. In the second phase, defined as the post-crisis phase, the accumulation of clonal chromosomal rearrangements led to the loss of 6q arms, while the number of chromosomes 21 remained normal. SOD2 mRNA level was decreased and SOD2 immunoreactive protein and activity remained low. SOD1 protein and activity increased with passages, reaching values similar to those of control cells at late passages. As in established SV40-transformed human fibroblast cell lines, good correlation was found between SOD2 activity and the relative number of 6q arms. These results allow us to reconstruct the sequence of events leading to the decrease of SOD2, a possible tumor-suppressor gene, during the process of SV40-transformation of human fibroblasts.

  10. Differential Expression of Superoxide Dismutase Genes in Aphid-Stressed Maize (Zea mays L.) Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the expression patterns of superoxide dismutase genes (sod2, sod3.4, sod9 and sodB) in seedling leaves of the Zea mays L. Tasty Sweet (susceptible) and Ambrozja (relatively resistant) cultivars infested with one of two hemipteran species, namely monophagous Sitobion avenae F. (grain aphid) or oligophagous Rhopalosiphum padi L. (bird cherry-oat aphid). Secondarily, aphid-elicited alternations in the antioxidative capacity towards DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical in insect-stressed plants were evaluated. Comprehensive comparison of expression profiles of the four sod genes showed that both insect species evoked significant upregulation of three genes sod2, sod3.4 and sod9). However, aphid infestation affected non-significant fluctuations in expression of sodB gene in seedlings of both maize genotypes. The highest levels of transcript accumulation occurred at 8 h (sod2 and sod3.4) or 24 h (sod9) post-infestation, and aphid-induced changes in the expression of sod genes were more dramatic in the Ambrozja cultivar than in the Tasty Sweet variety. Furthermore, bird cherry-oat aphid colonization had a more substantial impact on levels of DPPH radical scavenging activity in infested host seedlings than grain aphid colonization. Additionally, Ambrozja plants infested by either hemipteran species showed markedly lower antioxidative capacity compared with attacked Tasty Sweet plants. PMID:24722734

  11. Differential expression of superoxide dismutase genes in aphid-stressed maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the expression patterns of superoxide dismutase genes (sod2, sod3.4, sod9 and sodB) in seedling leaves of the Zea mays L. Tasty Sweet (susceptible) and Ambrozja (relatively resistant) cultivars infested with one of two hemipteran species, namely monophagous Sitobion avenae F. (grain aphid) or oligophagous Rhopalosiphum padi L. (bird cherry-oat aphid). Secondarily, aphid-elicited alternations in the antioxidative capacity towards DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical in insect-stressed plants were evaluated. Comprehensive comparison of expression profiles of the four sod genes showed that both insect species evoked significant upregulation of three genes sod2, sod3.4 and sod9). However, aphid infestation affected non-significant fluctuations in expression of sodB gene in seedlings of both maize genotypes. The highest levels of transcript accumulation occurred at 8 h (sod2 and sod3.4) or 24 h (sod9) post-infestation, and aphid-induced changes in the expression of sod genes were more dramatic in the Ambrozja cultivar than in the Tasty Sweet variety. Furthermore, bird cherry-oat aphid colonization had a more substantial impact on levels of DPPH radical scavenging activity in infested host seedlings than grain aphid colonization. Additionally, Ambrozja plants infested by either hemipteran species showed markedly lower antioxidative capacity compared with attacked Tasty Sweet plants.

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE AND CATALASE ACTIVITY AND EXPRESSION IN HONEY BEE.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Tatjana V; Purać, Jelena; Orčić, Snežana; Kojić, Danijela; Vujanović, Dragana; Stanimirović, Zoran; Gržetić, Ivan; Ilijević, Konstantin; Šikoparija, Branko; Blagojević, Duško P

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the cellular stress response in honey bees will significantly contribute to their conservation. The aim of this study was to analyze the response of the antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase in honey bees related to the presence of toxic metals in different habitats. Three locations were selected: (i) Tunovo on the mountain Golija, as control area, without industry and large human impact, (ii) Belgrade as urban area, and (iii) Zajača, as mining and industrial zone. Our results showed that the concentrations of lead (Pb) in whole body of bees vary according to habitat, but there was very significant increase of Pb in bees from investigated industrial area. Bees from urban and industrial area had increased expression of both Sod1 and Cat genes, suggesting adaptation to increased oxidative stress. However, in spite increased gene expression, the enzyme activity of catalase was lower in bees from industrial area suggesting inhibitory effect of Pb on catalase. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase Inhibits Innate Immune Responses and Clearance of an Intracellular Bacterial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Break, Timothy J.; Jun, Sujung; Indramohan, Mohanalaxmi; Carr, Karen D.; Sieve, Amy N.; Dory, Ladislav; Berg, Rance E.

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) play important roles during immune responses to bacterial pathogens. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) regulates extracellular concentrations of ROS/RNS and contributes to tissue protection during inflammatory insults. The participation of ecSOD in immune responses seems therefore intuitive, yet is poorly understood. In the present study, we utilized mice with varying levels of ecSOD activity to investigate the involvement of this enzyme in immune responses against Listeria monocytogenes. Surprisingly, our data demonstrate that, despite enhanced neutrophil recruitment to the liver, ecSOD activity negatively impacted host survival and bacterial clearance. Increased ecSOD activity was accompanied by decreased co-localization of neutrophils with bacteria, as well as increased neutrophil apoptosis, which reduced overall and neutrophil-specific TNF-α production. Liver leukocytes from mice lacking ecSOD produced equivalent nitric oxide (NO·) when compared to mice expressing ecSOD. However, during infection, there were higher levels of peroxynitrite (NO3·−) in livers from mice lacking ecSOD compared to mice expressing ecSOD. Neutrophil depletion studies revealed that high levels of ecSOD activity resulted in neutrophils with limited protective capacity, whereas neutrophils from mice lacking ecSOD provided superior protection compared to neutrophils from wild-type mice. Taken together, our data demonstrate that ecSOD activity reduces innate immune responses during bacterial infection and provides a potential target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:22393157

  14. Inhibitory effect on the proliferation of human heptoma induced by cell-permeable manganese superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hua; Zhang, Na; Liu, Di; Wang, Ping; Ma, Xingyuan

    2016-10-01

    Mitochondrial antioxidant manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) belongs to a group of genes whose expression is generally decreased significantly in patients with hepatoma. The proliferation of cancer cells with low expression of MnSOD exhibit high sensitivity to the elevated expression of MnSOD. However, due to the lack of ability to penetrate the cell membrane, the direct use and study of SOD for cancer treatment are largely hampered. In this work, cell penetrating peptide TAT was fused to the N-terminus of MnSOD to facilitate the penetration of MnSOD through cell membranes. Results showed that TAT-MnSOD wt treatment induced evident inhibitory effect on the proliferation of heptoma, with minimal effect on normal cells. It was further demonstrated that both the penetration of cells and enzymatic activity of MnSOD are essential to its inhibitory function, because only TAT-MnSOD wt, not inactive TAT-MnSOD mutant or MnSOD could successfully inhibit cell proliferation and reduce the intra-celluar reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, the lower oxidative stress delayed the cell cycle at G2/M and significantly slowed HepG2 cell growth in association with the dephosphorylation of survivin. Our results help in understanding the regulatory effects of MnSOD on cell viability and redox homestasis of heptoma and promise potential applications of TAT-MnSOD wt for clinical cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. Effect of high dietary zinc on plasma ceruloplasmin and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activities in copper-depleted and repleted rats.

    PubMed

    Panemangalore, M; Bebe, F N

    1996-01-01

    The effect of moderately high dietary zinc (Zn) on the activities of plasma (PL) ceruloplasmin (CP), and PL and erythrocyte (RBC) copper (Cu), Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) was determined in weanling rats fed Cu-deficient (DEF; < 1 mg Cu/kg), marginal (MAR; 2 mg Cu/kg), or control (CON; 5 mg Cu/kg) copper diets containing normal or high Zn (HZn; 60 mg/kg) for 4 wk and supplemented with oral Cu (CuS; 5 mg/L) in drinking water for 0, 1, 3, or 7 d. PL Cu decreased (67% compared to CON; p < or = 0.05) in the DEF and increased to control level after 3 d of CuS; increased in the MAR group after 1 d of CuS. HZn reduced overall PL Cu by 27% in all groups, but did not alter the linear increase in PL Cu between 0 and 3 d of Cu S. PL CP activity altered concomitantly with PL Cu levels: The time course of increase in CP activity after 0-3 d of CuS was not influenced by HZn in the diet and CP declined in the DEF group by 92%. There was no correlation between dietary Cu level and PL CP. PL SOD activity decreased by 46% (p < or = .05) in the DEF group, increased to control activity after 1 d of CuS and declined slightly after 7 d; MAR diet did not alter PL SOD. HZn diet increased PL SOD activity in all groups by 150%, reduced activity in the DEF and MAR groups by 65 and 37% and delayed the recovery of PL SOD after CuS. RBC SOD declined in the DEF and MAR groups by 56 and 33% (p < or = 0.05) and did not respond to CuS; HZn diet did not influence RBC SOD activity. These data indicate that moderately high Zn in the diet reduces PL Cu, but not PL CP activity or the recovery of PL Cu or CP activity after oral CuS of Cu-deficient rats, modifies the response of PL SOD to dietary Cu, but does not influence RBC SOD activity.

  16. A multielement trace mineral injection improves liver copper and selenium concentrations and manganese superoxide dismutase activity in beef steers.

    PubMed

    Genther, O N; Hansen, S L

    2014-02-01

    Trace minerals (TM) are vital to health and growth of livestock, but low dietary concentrations and dietary antagonists may reduce mineral status and feeder cattle TM status is usually unknown at arrival. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of TM status on response to mineral injection in beef cattle. Forty steers were equally assigned to diets for an 84-d depletion period: control (CON; supplemental Cu, Mn, Se, and Zn) or deficient (DEF; no supplemental Cu, Mn, Se, or Zn plus Fe and Mo as TM antagonists). Lesser liver Cu and Se concentrations (79.0 ± 11.60 and 1.66 ± 0.080 mg/kg DM, respectively) in DEF steers compared with CON steers (228.8 ± 11.60 and 2.41 ± 0.080 mg/kg DM, respectively) on d 71 of depletion indicated mild deficiencies of these TM (P < 0.001). On d 1 of the 85-d repletion period, 10 steers within each dietary treatment were injected with sterilized saline (SAL) or Multimin90 (MM), containing 15, 10, 5, and 60 mg/mL of Cu, Mn, Se, and Zn, respectively, at a dose of 1 mL/68 kg BW. All steers were fed the same repletion diet supplemented with Cu, Mn, Se, and Zn to meet or exceed NRC recommendations. Blood was collected on d 0 and 1, and blood and liver biopsies were collected on d 8, 15, 29, 57, and 85 postinjection. Red blood cell lysate manganese-superoxide dismutase activity was greater in MM (P = 0.02), suggesting incorporation of injectable TM into a biological process. The increase in liver Se in response to MM was greater in CON vs. DEF (P = 0.02), suggesting TM from injection were used rather than stored in DEF steers. Liver Se and Cu (P < 0.05) were elevated through at least d 30 by MM. Dietary TM deficiency decreased neutrophil bacteria killing ability and increased myeloperoxidase (MPO) degranulation (P < 0.04) as measured on d 0, 1, 13, and 14 during the repletion period while injection had no impact. Within CON animals, total MPO was greater in animals that received TM injection, but injection did not affect MPO

  17. Nickel superoxide dismutase: structural and functional roles of His1 and its H-bonding network

    DOE PAGES

    Maroney, Michael J.; Cabelli, Diane E.; Ryan, Kelly C.; ...

    2015-01-21

    Crystal structures of nickel-dependent superoxide dismutases (NiSODs) reveal the presence of a H-bonding network formed between the NH group of the apical imidazole ligand from His1 and the Glu17 carboxylate from a neighboring subunit in the hexameric enzyme. This interaction is supported by another intrasubunit H-bond between Glu17 and Arg47. In this study, four mutant NiSOD proteins were produced to experimentally evaluate the roles of this H-bonding network and compare the results with prior predictions from density functional theory calculations. The X-ray crystal structure of H1A-NiSOD, which lacks the apical ligand entirely, reveals that in the absence of the Glu17-His1more » H-bond, the active site is disordered. Characterization of this variant using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) shows that Ni(II) is bound in the expected N₂S₂ planar coordination site. Despite these structural perturbations, the H1A-NiSOD variant retains 4% of wild-type (WT) NiSOD activity. Three other mutations were designed to preserve the apical imidazole ligand but perturb the H-bonding network: R47A-NiSOD, which lacks the intramolecular H-bonding interaction; E17R/R47A-NiSOD, which retains the intramolecular H-bond but lacks the intermolecular Glu17-His1 H-bond; and E17A/R47ANiSOD, which lacks both H-bonding interactions. These variants were characterized by a combination of techniques, including XAS to probe the nickel site structure, kinetic studies employing pulse-radiolytic production of superoxide, and electron paramagnetic resonance to assess the Ni redox activity. The results indicate that in addition to the roles in redox tuning suggested on the basis of previous computational studies, the Glu17-His1 H-bond plays an important structural role in the proper folding of the “Ni-hook” motif that is a critical feature of the active site.« less

  18. Nickel Superoxide Dismutase: Structural and Functional Roles of His1 and its H-bonding Network

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Kelly C.; Guce, Abigail I.; Johnson, Olivia E.; Brunold, Thomas C.; Cabelli, Diane E.; Garman, Scott C.; Maroney, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Crystal structures of nickel-dependent superoxide dismutases (NiSODs) reveal the presence of a H-bonding network formed between the N-H of the apical imidazole ligand from His1 and the Glu17 carboxylate from a neighboring subunit in the hexameric enzyme. This interaction is supported by another intra-subunit H-bond between Glu17 and Arg47. In this study, four mutant NiSOD proteins were produced to experimentally evaluate the roles of this H-bonding network, and compare the results with prior predictions from DFT calculations. H1A-NiSOD, which lacks the apical ligand entirely, was crystallographically characterized and reveals that in the absence of the Glu17-His1 H-bond, the active site is disordered. Subsequent characterization using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) shows that Ni(II) is bound in the expected N2S2 planar coordination site. Despite these structural perturbations, the H1A-NiSOD variant is an active catalyst with 4% of WT-NiSOD activity. Three other mutations were designed to preserve the apical imidazole ligand, but perturb the H-bonding network: R47A-NiSOD, lacks the intra-molecular H-bonding interaction, E17R/R47A-NiSOD, which retains the intra-molecular H-bond, but lacks the inter-molecular Glu17-His1 H-bond, and E17A/R47A-NiSOD, which lacks both H-bonding interactions. These variants were characterized by a combination of techniques including XAS characterization of the nickel site structure, kinetic studies employing pulse-radiolytic production of superoxide, and EPR and chemical probes of the redox activity. The results indicate that in addition to the roles in redox tuning suggested by the computational models, the Glu17-His1 H-bond plays an important structural role in the formation of the Ni-hook motif that is a critical feature of the active site. PMID:25580509

  19. Isolation and in silico analysis of Fe-superoxide dismutase in the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune.

    PubMed

    Kesheri, Minu; Kanchan, Swarna; Richa; Sinha, Rajeshwar P

    2014-12-15

    Cyanobacteria are known to endure various stress conditions due to the inbuilt potential for oxidative stress alleviation owing to the presence of an array of antioxidants. The present study shows that Antarctic cyanobacterium Nostoc commune possesses two antioxidative enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase that jointly cope with environmental stresses prevailing at its natural habitat. Native-PAGE analysis illustrates the presence of a single prominent isoform recognized as Fe-SOD and three distinct isoforms of catalase. The protein sequence of Fe-SOD in N. commune retrieved from NCBI protein sequence database was used for in silico analysis. 3D structure of N. commune was predicted by comparative modeling using MODELLER 9v11. Further, this model was validated for its quality by Ramachandran plot, ERRAT, Verify 3D and ProSA-web which revealed good structure quality of the model. Multiple sequence alignment showed high conservation in N and C-terminal domain regions along with all metal binding positions in Fe-SOD which were also found to be highly conserved in all 28 cyanobacterial species under study, including N. commune. In silico prediction of isoelectric point and molecular weight of Fe-SOD was found to be 5.48 and 22,342.98Da respectively. The phylogenetic tree revealed that among 28 cyanobacterial species, Fe-SOD in N. commune was the closest evolutionary homolog of Fe-SOD in Nostoc punctiforme as evident by strong bootstrap value. Thus, N. commune may serve as a good biological model for studies related to survival of life under extreme conditions prevailing at the Antarctic region. Moreover cyanobacteria may be exploited for biochemical and biotechnological applications of enzymatic antioxidants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Copper and Zinc Metallation Status of Copper Zinc Superoxide Dismutase form Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Transgenic Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lelie, H.L.; Miller, L.; Liba, A.

    2010-09-24

    Mutations in the metalloenzyme copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause one form of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and metals are suspected to play a pivotal role in ALS pathology. To learn more about metals in ALS, we determined the metallation states of human wild-type or mutant (G37R, G93A, and H46R/H48Q) SOD1 proteins from SOD1-ALS transgenic mice spinal cords. SOD1 was gently extracted from spinal cord and separated into insoluble (aggregated) and soluble (supernatant) fractions, and then metallation states were determined by HPLC inductively coupled plasma MS. Insoluble SOD1-rich fractions were not enriched in copper and zinc. However, the soluble mutantmore » and WT SOD1s were highly metallated except for the metal-binding-region mutant H46R/H48Q, which did not bind any copper. Due to the stability conferred by high metallation of G37R and G93A, it is unlikely that these soluble SOD1s are prone to aggregation in vivo, supporting the hypothesis that immature nascent SOD1 is the substrate for aggregation. We also investigated the effect of SOD1 overexpression and disease on metal homeostasis in spinal cord cross-sections of SOD1-ALS mice using synchrotron-based x-ray fluorescence microscopy. In each mouse genotype, except for the H46R/H48Q mouse, we found a redistribution of copper between gray and white matters correlated to areas of high SOD1. Interestingly, a disease-specific increase of zinc was observed in the white matter for all mutant SOD1 mice. Together these data provide a picture of copper and zinc in the cell as well as highlight the importance of these metals in understanding SOD1-ALS pathology.« less

  1. Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Gene-Modified Mesenchymal Stem Cells Attenuate Acute Radiation-Induced Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hai-Xu; Xiang, Hang; Xu, Wen-Huan; Li, Ming; Yuan, Jie; Liu, Juan; Sun, Wan-Jun; Zhang, Rong; Li, Jun; Ren, Zhao-Qi; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Du, Bin; Wan, Jun; Wu, Ben-Yan; Zeng, Qiang; He, Kun-Lun; Yang, Chao

    2017-06-01

    Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a major clinical complication for radiotherapy in thoracic tumors. An immediate effect of lung irradiation is the generation of reactive oxygen that can produce oxidative damage to DNA, lipids, and proteins resulting in lung cell injury or death. Currently, the medical management of RILI remains supportive. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of countermeasures. The present study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene-modified mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to facilitate the improved recovery of RILI. Here, nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency mice received a 13 Gy dose of whole-thorax irradiation, and were then transfused intravenously with MnSOD-MSCs and monitored for 30 days. Lung histopathologic analysis, plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α), profibrotic factor transforming growth factor-β1, and the oxidative stress factor (hydroxyproline) were evaluated after MnSOD-MSC transplant. Apoptotic rates were evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling immunohistochemical method. Colonization and differentiation of MnSOD-MSCs in the irradiated lung were analyzed by immunofluorescence staining. Consequently, systemic administration of MnSOD-MSCs significantly attenuated lung inflammation, ameliorated lung damage, and protected the lung cells from apoptosis. MnSOD-MSCs could differentiate into epithelial-like cells in vivo. MnSOD-MSCs were effective in modulating RILI in mice and had great potential for accelerating from bench to bedside.

  2. Extracellular superoxide dismutase increased the therapeutic potential of human mesenchymal stromal cells in radiation pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Li; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Zai-Liang; You, Hua

    2017-05-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis induced by irradiation is a significant problem of radiotherapy in cancer patients. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) is found to be predominantly and highly expressed in the extracellular matrix of lung and plays a pivotal role against oxidative damage. Early administration of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) has been demonstrated to reduce fibrosis of damaged lung. However, injection of MSCs at a later stage would be involved in fibrosis development. The present study aimed to determine whether injection of human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) over-expressing SOD3 at the established fibrosis stage would have beneficial effects in a mice model of radiation pulmonary fibrosis. Herein, pulmonary fibrosis in mice was induced using Cobalt-60 ( 60 Co) irradiator with 20 Gy, followed by intravenous injection of UC-MSCs, transduced or not to express SOD3 at 2 h (early delivery) and 60 day (late delivery) post-irradiation, respectively. Our results demonstrated that the early administration of UC-MSCs could attenuate the microscopic damage, reduce collagen deposition, inhibit (myo)fibroblast proliferation, reduce inflammatory cell infiltration, protect alveolar type II (AE2) cell injury, prevent oxidative stress and increase antioxidant status, and reduce pro-fibrotic cytokine level in serum. Furthermore, the early treatment with SOD3-infected UC-MSCs resulted in better improvement. However, we failed to observe the therapeutic effects of UC-MSCs, transduced to express SOD3, during established fibrosis. Altogether, our results demonstrated that the early treatment with UC-MSCs alone significantly reduced radiation pulmonary fibrosis in mice through paracrine effects, with further improvement by administration of SOD3-infected UC-MSCs, suggesting that SOD3-infected UC-MSCs may be a potential cell-based gene therapy to treat clinical radiation pulmonary fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by

  3. Peroxisomal membrane manganese superoxide dismutase: characterization of the isozyme from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Schrad.) cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Serrano, María; Romero-Puertas, María C; Pastori, Gabriela M; Corpas, Francisco J; Sandalio, Luisa M; del Río, Luis A; Palma, José M

    2007-01-01

    In this work the manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) bound to peroxisomal membranes of watermelon cotyledons (Citrullus lanatus Schrad.) was purified to homogeneity and some of its molecular properties were determined. The stepwise purification procedure consisted of ammonium sulphate fractionation, batch anion-exchange chromatography, and anion-exchange and gel-filtration column chromatography using a fast protein liquid chromatography system. Peroxisomal membrane Mn-SOD (perMn-SOD; EC 1.15.1.1) was purified 5600-fold with a yield of 2.6 mug of enzyme g(-1) of cotyledons, and had a specific activity of 480 U mg(-1) of protein. The native molecular mass determined for perMn-SOD was 108 000 Da, and it was composed of four equal subunits of 27 kDa, which indicates that perMn-SOD is a homotetramer. Ultraviolet and visible absorption spectra of the enzyme showed a shoulder at 275 nm and two absorption maxima at 448 nm and 555 nm, respectively. By isoelectric focusing, a pI of 5.75 was determined for perMn-SOD. In immunoblot assays, purified perMn-SOD was recognized by a polyclonal antibody against Mn-SOD from pea leaves, and the peroxisomal enzyme rapidly dissociated in the presence of dithiothreitol and SDS. The potential binding of the Mn-SOD isozyme to the peroxisomal membrane was confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy analysis. The properties of perMn-SOD and the mitMn-SOD are compared and the possible function in peroxisomal membranes of the peripheral protein Mn-SOD is discussed.

  4. Microencapsulation of superoxide dismutase into biodegradable microparticles by spray-drying.

    PubMed

    Youan, Bi-Botti Célestin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was to encapsulate superoxide dismutase (SOD) into biodegradable microparticles by spray-drying technique. The nature of the organic solvent to dissolve the polymer, the method of incorporation of the drug in the organic phase (with or without a surfactant, namely sucrose ester of HLB = 6), the surfactant/polymer ratio, and the nature of the biodegradable polyesters were investigated as formulation variables. The polyesters investigated as matrix were poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(d, l, lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG-RG756), and poly(d, l-lactide) (PLA-R207) of respective molecular weight 78.2 kDa, 84.8 kDa, and 199.8 kDa. At surfactant/polymer ratio of 1/10, the SOD-retained enzymatic activities were higher (> 95%) for PLG-RG756 and PLA-R207 but relatively lower for the PCL (approximately 85%) probably due to the PCL relatively higher hydrophobicity. The obtained microparticles exhibited average volume mean diameter of 4-10 microm, the smaller for PCL and the larger for PLG-RG756 polymeric matrix. The in vitro release profile showed that SOD was completely (100%) released from PLA-R207 in 48 hr and from PLG-RG756 and PCL within 72 hr. These results showed that spray-drying with incorporation of surfactant such as sucrose ester may efficiently encapsulate SOD into biodegradable microparticles. Such formulations may improve the bioavailability of SOD and similar biopharmaceuticals.

  5. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant iron superoxide dismutase protein from Bordetella pertussis in mice models.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Çiğdem; Apak, Aycan; Özcengiz, Erkan; Özcengiz, Gülay

    2016-11-01

    Whooping cough (pertussis) is a highly contagious respiratory infection caused by Bordetella pertussis. Although availability of effective pertussis vaccines reportedly decreases the incidence of the disease, B. pertussis circulation in populations has not been eliminated. Thus, it is necessary to find new protein candidates with greater immune protective capacities than the currently available acellular pertussis vaccines. In this study, iron superoxide dismutase (FeSOD) gene (sodB) was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and recombinant FeSOD protein thence purified. The recombinant protein (rFeSOD) was formulated with aluminum hydroxide (Alum) or monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) and injected intraperitoneally to immunize mice, after which IgG1, IgG2a and IFN-γ titers were measured to assess humoral and cellular responses, respectively, to these immunizations. The extent of bacterial colonization in lungs of intranasally challenged mice was determined 5, 8 and 14 days post-challenge. IgG1 and IgG2a responses were significantly stronger in mice that had been immunized with rFeSOD-MPLA than in those that had received rFeSOD-Alum (P < 0.05). Additionally, IgG2a titers were higher in mice vaccinated with recombinant protein FeSOD (rFeSOD) formulated with MPLA, especially after the second immunization. Immunization with rFeSOD-MPLA also provided a modest, but significant decrease in bacterial counts in lungs of mice (P < 0.05). Antigen specific-IFN-γ responses were significantly stronger in the group vaccinated with rFeSOD-MPLA, which could account for the lower bacterial counts. These findings suggest that rFeSOD protein formulated with MPLA has potential as an acellular pertussis vaccine candidate component. © 2016 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Superoxide dismutase 1 is positively selected to minimize protein aggregation in great apes.

    PubMed

    Dasmeh, Pouria; Kepp, Kasper P

    2017-08-01

    Positive (adaptive) selection has recently been implied in human superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), a highly abundant antioxidant protein with energy signaling and antiaging functions, one of very few examples of direct selection on a human protein product (exon); the molecular drivers of this selection are unknown. We mapped 30 extant SOD1 sequences to the recently established mammalian species tree and inferred ancestors, key substitutions, and signatures of selection during the protein's evolution. We detected elevated substitution rates leading to great apes (Hominidae) at ~1 per 2 million years, significantly higher than in other primates and rodents, although these paradoxically generally evolve much faster. The high evolutionary rate was partly due to relaxation of some selection pressures and partly to distinct positive selection of SOD1 in great apes. We then show that higher stability and net charge and changes at the dimer interface were selectively introduced upon separation from old world monkeys and lesser apes (gibbons). Consequently, human, chimpanzee and gorilla SOD1s have a net charge of -6 at physiological pH, whereas the closely related gibbons and macaques have -3. These features consistently point towards selection against the malicious aggregation effects of elevated SOD1 levels in long-living great apes. The findings mirror the impact of human SOD1 mutations that reduce net charge and/or stability and cause ALS, a motor neuron disease characterized by oxidative stress and SOD1 aggregates and triggered by aging. Our study thus marks an example of direct selection for a particular chemical phenotype (high net charge and stability) in a single human protein with possible implications for the evolution of aging.

  7. Redox-Modulated Phenomena and Radiation Therapy: The Central Role of Superoxide Dismutases

    PubMed Central

    Holley, Aaron K.; Miao, Lu; St. Clair, Daret K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Ionizing radiation is a vital component in the oncologist's arsenal for the treatment of cancer. Approximately 50% of all cancer patients will receive some form of radiation therapy as part of their treatment regimen. DNA is considered the major cellular target of ionizing radiation and can be damaged directly by radiation or indirectly through reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed from the radiolysis of water, enzyme-mediated ROS production, and ROS resulting from altered aerobic metabolism. Recent Advances: ROS are produced as a byproduct of oxygen metabolism, and superoxide dismutases (SODs) are the chief scavengers. ROS contribute to the radioresponsiveness of normal and tumor tissues, and SODs modulate the radioresponsiveness of tissues, thus affecting the efficacy of radiotherapy. Critical Issues: Despite its prevalent use, radiation therapy suffers from certain limitations that diminish its effectiveness, including tumor hypoxia and normal tissue damage. Oxygen is important for the stabilization of radiation-induced DNA damage, and tumor hypoxia dramatically decreases radiation efficacy. Therefore, auxiliary therapies are needed to increase the effectiveness of radiation therapy against tumor tissues while minimizing normal tissue injury. Future Directions: Because of the importance of ROS in the response of normal and cancer tissues to ionizing radiation, methods that differentially modulate the ROS scavenging ability of cells may prove to be an important method to increase the radiation response in cancer tissues and simultaneously mitigate the damaging effects of ionizing radiation on normal tissues. Altering the expression or activity of SODs may prove valuable in maximizing the overall effectiveness of ionizing radiation. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 1567–1589. PMID:24094070

  8. Oxidized/misfolded superoxide dismutase-1: the cause of all amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?

    PubMed

    Kabashi, Edor; Valdmanis, Paul N; Dion, Patrick; Rouleau, Guy A

    2007-12-01

    The identification in 1993 of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) mutations as the cause of 10 to 20% of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases, which represents 1 to 2% of all amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases, prompted a substantial amount of research into the mechanisms of SOD1-mediated toxicity. Recent experiments have demonstrated that oxidation of wild-type SOD1 leads to its misfolding, causing it to gain many of the same toxic properties as mutant SOD1. In vitro studies of oxidized/misfolded SOD1 and in vivo studies of misfolded SOD1 have indicated that these protein species are selectively toxic to motor neurons, suggesting that oxidized/misfolded SOD1 could lead to ALS even in individuals who do not carry an SOD1 mutation. It has also been reported that glial cells secrete oxidized/misfolded mutant SOD1 to the extracellular environment, where it can trigger the selective death of motor neurons, offering a possible explanation for the noncell autonomous nature of mutant SOD1 toxicity and the rapid progression of disease once the first symptoms develop. Therefore, considering that sporadic (SALS) and familial ALS (FALS) cases are clinically indistinguishable, the toxic properties of mutated SOD1 are similar to that of oxidized/misfolded wild-type SOD1 (wtSOD1), and secreted/extracellular misfolded SOD1 is selectively toxic to motor neurons, we propose that oxidized/misfolded SOD1 is the cause of most forms of classic ALS and should be a prime target for the design of ALS treatments.

  9. Plasma superoxide dismutase-1 as a surrogate marker of vivax malaria severity.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Bruno B; Reis-Filho, Antonio; Souza-Neto, Sebastião Martins; Raffaele-Netto, Imbroinise; Camargo, Luis M A; Barral, Aldina; Barral-Netto, Manoel

    2010-04-06

    Severe outcomes have been described for both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax infections. The identification of sensitive and reliable markers of disease severity is fundamental to improving patient care. An intense pro-inflammatory response with oxidative stress and production of reactive oxygen species is present in malaria. Inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and antioxidant agents such as superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1) are likely candidate biomarkers for disease severity. Here we tested whether plasma levels of SOD-1 could serve as a biomarker of severe vivax malaria. Plasma samples were obtained from residents of the Brazilian Amazon with a high risk for P. vivax transmission. Malaria diagnosis was made by both microscopy and nested PCR. A total of 219 individuals were enrolled: non-infected volunteers (n = 90) and individuals with vivax malaria: asymptomatic (n = 60), mild (n = 50) and severe infection (n = 19). SOD-1 was directly associated with parasitaemia, plasma creatinine and alanine amino-transaminase levels, while TNF-alpha correlated only with the later enzyme. The predictive power of SOD-1 and TNF-alpha levels was compared. SOD-1 protein levels were more effective at predicting vivax malaria severity than TNF-alpha. For discrimination of mild infection, elevated SOD-1 levels showed greater sensitivity than TNF-alpha (76% vs. 30% respectively; p<0.0001), with higher specificity (100% vs. 97%; p<0.0001). In predicting severe vivax malaria, SOD-1 levels exhibited higher sensitivity than TNF-alpha (80% vs. 56%, respectively; p<0.0001; likelihood ratio: 7.45 vs. 3.14; p<0.0001). Neither SOD-1 nor TNF-alpha could discriminate P. vivax infections from those caused by P. falciparum. SOD-1 is a powerful predictor of disease severity in individuals with different clinical presentations of vivax malaria.

  10. Misfolded Polyglutamine, Polyalanine, and Superoxide Dismutase 1 Aggregate via Distinct Pathways in the Cell*

    PubMed Central

    Polling, Saskia; Mok, Yee-Foong; Ramdzan, Yasmin M.; Turner, Bradley J.; Yerbury, Justin J.; Hill, Andrew F.; Hatters, Danny M.

    2014-01-01

    Protein aggregation into intracellular inclusions is a key feature of many neurodegenerative disorders. A common theme has emerged that inappropriate self-aggregation of misfolded or mutant polypeptide sequences is detrimental to cell health. Yet protein quality control mechanisms may also deliberately cluster them together into distinct inclusion subtypes, including the insoluble protein deposit (IPOD) and the juxtanuclear quality control (JUNQ). Here we investigated how the intrinsic oligomeric state of three model systems of disease-relevant mutant protein and peptide sequences relates to the IPOD and JUNQ patterns of aggregation using sedimentation velocity analysis. Two of the models (polyalanine (37A) and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutants A4V and G85R) accumulated into the same JUNQ-like inclusion whereas the other, polyglutamine (72Q), formed spatially distinct IPOD-like inclusions. Using flow cytometry pulse shape analysis (PulSA) to separate cells with inclusions from those without revealed the SOD1 mutants and 37A to have abruptly altered oligomeric states with respect to the nonaggregating forms, regardless of whether cells had inclusions or not, whereas 72Q was almost exclusively monomeric until inclusions formed. We propose that mutations leading to JUNQ inclusions induce a constitutively “misfolded” state exposing hydrophobic side chains that attract and ultimately overextend protein quality capacity, which leads to aggregation into JUNQ inclusions. Poly(Q) is not misfolded in this same sense due to universal polar side chains, but is highly prone to forming amyloid fibrils that we propose invoke a different engagement mechanism with quality control. PMID:24425868

  11. Misfolded polyglutamine, polyalanine, and superoxide dismutase 1 aggregate via distinct pathways in the cell.

    PubMed

    Polling, Saskia; Mok, Yee-Foong; Ramdzan, Yasmin M; Turner, Bradley J; Yerbury, Justin J; Hill, Andrew F; Hatters, Danny M

    2014-03-07

    Protein aggregation into intracellular inclusions is a key feature of many neurodegenerative disorders. A common theme has emerged that inappropriate self-aggregation of misfolded or mutant polypeptide sequences is detrimental to cell health. Yet protein quality control mechanisms may also deliberately cluster them together into distinct inclusion subtypes, including the insoluble protein deposit (IPOD) and the juxtanuclear quality control (JUNQ). Here we investigated how the intrinsic oligomeric state of three model systems of disease-relevant mutant protein and peptide sequences relates to the IPOD and JUNQ patterns of aggregation using sedimentation velocity analysis. Two of the models (polyalanine (37A) and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutants A4V and G85R) accumulated into the same JUNQ-like inclusion whereas the other, polyglutamine (72Q), formed spatially distinct IPOD-like inclusions. Using flow cytometry pulse shape analysis (PulSA) to separate cells with inclusions from those without revealed the SOD1 mutants and 37A to have abruptly altered oligomeric states with respect to the nonaggregating forms, regardless of whether cells had inclusions or not, whereas 72Q was almost exclusively monomeric until inclusions formed. We propose that mutations leading to JUNQ inclusions induce a constitutively "misfolded" state exposing hydrophobic side chains that attract and ultimately overextend protein quality capacity, which leads to aggregation into JUNQ inclusions. Poly(Q) is not misfolded in this same sense due to universal polar side chains, but is highly prone to forming amyloid fibrils that we propose invoke a different engagement mechanism with quality control.

  12. A manganese-rich environment supports superoxide dismutase activity in a Lyme disease pathogen, Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, J Dafhne; Clark, Hillary M; McIlvin, Matthew; Vazquez, Christine; Palmere, Shaina L; Grab, Dennis J; Seshu, J; Hart, P John; Saito, Mak; Culotta, Valeria C

    2013-03-22

    The Lyme disease pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi represents a novel organism in which to study metalloprotein biology in that this spirochete has uniquely evolved with no requirement for iron. Not only is iron low, but we show here that B. burgdorferi has the capacity to accumulate remarkably high levels of manganese. This high manganese is necessary to activate the SodA superoxide dismutase (SOD) essential for virulence. Using a metalloproteomic approach, we demonstrate that a bulk of B. burgdorferi SodA directly associates with manganese, and a smaller pool of inactive enzyme accumulates as apoprotein. Other metalloproteins may have similarly adapted to using manganese as co-factor, including the BB0366 aminopeptidase. Whereas B. burgdorferi SodA has evolved in a manganese-rich, iron-poor environment, the opposite is true for Mn-SODs of organisms such as Escherichia coli and bakers' yeast. These Mn-SODs still capture manganese in an iron-rich cell, and we tested whether the same is true for Borrelia SodA. When expressed in the iron-rich mitochondria of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, B. burgdorferi SodA was inactive. Activity was only possible when cells accumulated extremely high levels of manganese that exceeded cellular iron. Moreover, there was no evidence for iron inactivation of the SOD. B. burgdorferi SodA shows strong overall homology with other members of the Mn-SOD family, but computer-assisted modeling revealed some unusual features of the hydrogen bonding network near the enzyme's active site. The unique properties of B. burgdorferi SodA may represent adaptation to expression in the manganese-rich and iron-poor environment of the spirochete.

  13. Mitochondrial superoxide dismutase activation with 17 β-estradiol-treated human lens epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Gottipati, Srinivas

    2008-01-01

    Purpose 17 β-estradiol (17β-E2) protects human lens epithelial cells against oxidative stress by preserving mitochondrial function in part via the non-genomic rapid activation of prosurvival signal transduction pathways. The study described herein examined whether 17β-E2 also elicits genomic protection by influencing the expression (and activity) of mitochondrial-associated manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) as a possible parallel mechanism by which 17β-E2 protects against oxidative stress. Methods Virally-transformed human lens epithelial cells (HLE-B3) were pre-incubated with 17β-E2, and mRNA or protein lysates were collected over a time course ranging from 90 min to 24 h. Positive expression of lens epithelial cell MnSOD mRNA was determined by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR), and its levels were monitored by real-time PCR up to 24 h after 17β-E2 administration. Western blot analysis was used to examine the pattern of protein expression as influenced by 17β-E2 treatment. MnSOD activity as influenced by 17β-E2 was determined by measuring enzymatic activity. Results A significant rapid increase in the activity of MnSOD was observed with HLE-B3 cells by 90 min post-bolus addition of 17β-E2, which returned to control level by 240 min. Neither an increase in MnSOD mRNA nor in protein expression was detected up through 24 h. Conclusions These data demonstrate that 17β-E2 rapidly and transiently increases the activity of MnSOD but influences neither its mRNA expression nor its protein expression. The results suggest that (estrogen-activated) MnSOD plays an important role against mitochondrial oxidative stress by diminishing reactive oxygen species, thus promoting cell survival. PMID:18490963

  14. Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase Enhances Recruitment of Immature Neutrophils to the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Break, Timothy J.; Witter, Alexandra R.; Indramohan, Mohanalaxmi; Mummert, Mark E.; Dory, Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive intracellular pathogen that causes spontaneous abortion in pregnant women, as well as septicemia, meningitis, and gastroenteritis, primarily in immunocompromised individuals. Although L. monocytogenes can usually be effectively treated with antibiotics, there is still around a 25% mortality rate with individuals who develop clinical listeriosis. Neutrophils are innate immune cells required for the clearance of pathogenic organisms, including L. monocytogenes. The diverse roles of neutrophils during both infectious and noninfectious inflammation have recently gained much attention. However, the impact of reactive oxygen species, and the enzymes that control their production, on neutrophil recruitment and function is not well understood. Using congenic mice with varying levels of extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) activity, we have recently shown that the presence of ecSOD decreases clearance of L. monocytogenes while increasing the recruitment of neutrophils that are not protective in the liver. The data presented here show that ecSOD activity does not lead to a cell-intrinsic increase in neutrophil-homing potential or a decrease in protection against L. monocytogenes. Instead, ecSOD activity enhances the production of neutrophil-attracting factors and protects hyaluronic acid (HA) from damage. Furthermore, neutrophils from the livers of ecSOD-expressing mice have decreased intracellular and surface-bound myeloperoxidase, are less capable of killing phagocytosed L. monocytogenes, and have decreased oxidative burst. Collectively, our data reveal that ecSOD activity modulates neutrophil recruitment and function in a cell-extrinsic fashion, highlighting the importance of the enzyme in protecting tissues from oxidative damage. PMID:27600509

  15. Functional characterization and expression of a cytosolic iron-superoxide dismutase from cowpea root nodules.

    PubMed

    Moran, Jose F; James, Euan K; Rubio, Maria C; Sarath, Gautam; Klucas, Robert V; Becana, Manuel

    2003-10-01

    An iron-superoxide dismutase (FeSOD) with an unusual subcellular localization, VuFeSOD, has been purified from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) nodules and leaves. The enzyme has two identical subunits of 27 kD that are not covalently bound. Comparison of its N-terminal sequence (NVAGINLL) with the cDNA-derived amino acid sequence showed that VuFeSOD is synthesized as a precursor with seven additional amino acids. The mature protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant enzyme was used to generate a polyclonal monospecific antibody. Phylogenetic and immunological data demonstrate that there are at least two types of FeSODs in plants. An enzyme homologous to VuFeSOD is present in soybean (Glycine max) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) nodules but not in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and pea (Pisum sativum) nodules. The latter two species also contain FeSODs in the leaves and nodules, but the enzymes are presumably localized to the chloroplasts and plastids. In contrast, immunoblots of the soluble nodule fraction and immunoelectron microscopy of cryo-processed nodule sections demonstrate that VuFeSOD is localized to the cytosol. Immunoblot analysis showed that the content of VuFeSOD protein increases in senescent nodules with active leghemoglobin degradation, suggesting a direct or indirect (free radical-mediated) role of the released Fe in enzyme induction. Therefore, contrary to the widely held view, FeSODs in plants are not restricted to the chloroplasts and may become an important defensive mechanism against the oxidative stress associated with senescence.

  16. Effects of recombinant human extracellular-superoxide dismutase type C on myocardial infarct size in pigs.

    PubMed

    Hatori, N; Sjöquist, P O; Marklund, S L; Rydén, L

    1992-09-01

    The efficacy of human extracellular-superoxide dismutase type C (EC-SOD C) to limit infarct size after ischemia and reperfusion was explored and compared to that of EC-SOD C combined with catalase (CAT) and to that of CAT alone. EC-SOD C binds to heparan sulphate proteoglycan on the cell surfaces. Thirty-two pigs were subjected to 45 min of myocardial ischemia followed by 4 h of reperfusion. Control pigs (group A; n = 8) received 300 mL of saline into the great cardiac vein during a 30-min period started 5 min prior to reperfusion; pigs in group B (EC-SOD C; n = 8) got 16.6 mg of EC-SOD C; pigs in group C (EC-SOD C + CAT; n = 8) got 16.6 mg of EC-SOD C together with 150 mg of CAT. Pigs in group D (CAT; n = 8) received 150 mg of CAT. In groups B, C, and D, the drug was dissolved in saline and infused into the great cardiac. Infarct size expressed as percent of area at risk was smaller in groups B (14.5 +/- 16.7%) and C (40.8 +/- 13.3%) than in groups A (78.8 +/- 8.6%) and D (67.2 +/- 18.6%; p less than .05). Creatine kinase (CK) activity in ischemic myocardium was higher in groups B (1740 +/- 548 U/g) and C (1729 +/- 358 U/g) than in groups A (1184 +/- 237 U/g) and D (1251 +/- 434 U/g; p less than .05). There was an inverse relation (r = -.83) between infarct size and CK content. The EC-SOD C infusions resulted in only minimal increases in plasma SOD activities. In conclusion, the presence of SOD on the cell surfaces is of importance in the prevention of reperfusion injury rather than circulating SOD.

  17. Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Is a Promising Target for Enhancing Chemosensitivity of Basal-Like Breast Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Alan Prem; Loo, Ser Yue; Shin, Sung Won; Tan, Tuan Zea; Eng, Chon Boon; Singh, Rajeev; Putti, Thomas Choudary; Ong, Chee Wee; Salto-Tellez, Manuel; Goh, Boon Cher; Park, Joo In; Thiery, Jean Paul; Pervaiz, Shazib

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Although earlier reports highlighted a tumor suppressor role for manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), recent evidence indicates increased expression in a variety of human cancers including aggressive breast carcinoma. In the present article, we hypothesized that MnSOD expression is significantly amplified in the aggressive breast carcinoma basal subtype, and targeting MnSOD could be an attractive strategy for enhancing chemosensitivity of this highly aggressive breast cancer subtype. Results: Using MDA-MB-231 and BT549 as a model of basal breast cancer cell lines, we show that knockdown of MnSOD decreased the colony-forming ability and sensitized the cells to drug-induced cell death, while drug resistance was associated with increased MnSOD expression. In an attempt to develop a clinically relevant approach to down-regulate MnSOD expression in patients with basal breast carcinoma, we employed activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) to repress MnSOD expression; PPARγ activation significantly reduced MnSOD expression, increased chemosensitivity, and inhibited tumor growth. Moreover, as a proof of concept for the clinical use of PPARγ agonists to decrease MnSOD expression, biopsies derived from breast cancer patients who had received synthetic PPARγ ligands as anti-diabetic therapy had significantly reduced MnSOD expression. Finally, we provide evidence to implicate peroxynitrite as the mechanism involved in the increased sensitivity to chemotherapy induced by MnSOD repression. Innovation and Conclusion: These data provide evidence to link increased MnSOD expression with the aggressive basal breast cancer, and underscore the judicious use of PPARγ ligands for specifically down-regulating MnSOD to increase the chemosensitivity of this subtype of breast carcinoma. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2326–2346. PMID:23964924

  18. Direct evidence for interaction between nano-anatase and superoxide dismutase from rat erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Linglan; Ze, Yuguang; Liu, Jie; Liu, Huiting; Liu, Chao; Li, Zhongrui; Zhao, Jinfang; Yan, Jinying; Duan, Yanmei; Xie, Yaning; Hong, Fashui

    2009-07-01

    Nano-TiO2 and superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) have been added to cosmetics and used to prevent injury of skin from UV-radiation, which might be related to the decrease of oxidative damage of skin. In previous studies we had proven that nano-anatase could increase the activity of SOD and decrease the oxidative damage in vivo. The mechanisms by which nano-anatase promoted SOD activity, however, are still not clearly understood. In the present work, nano-anatase in various concentrations was added to SOD from rat erythrocytes in vitro to gain insight into the mechanism of molecular interactions between nano-anatase and SOD by various spectral methods, suggesting that the reaction between SOD and nano-anatase was two-order, which meant that the SOD activity was greatly increased by low concentration of nano-anatase and inhibited by high concentration of nano-anatase. The spectroscopic assays suggested that the nano-anatase was determined to directly bind to SOD; the binding site of nano-anatase to SOD was 0.256 and the binding constants were 6.54 × 105 and 3.6 × 105 L mol-1; Ti was bound with three oxygen or nitrogen atoms and a sulfur atoms of amino acid residues at the Ti-O(N) and Ti-S bond lengths of 1.86 and 2.37 Å, respectively, the binding nano-anatase entirely altered the secondary structure of SOD. It implied that the nano-anatase coordination created a new metal ion-active site form in SOD, thus leading to an enhancement in SOD activity.

  19. Effects of Altered Levels of Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase and Irradiation on Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Female Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Yani; Leu, David; Palo Alto Institute of Research and Education, Palo Alto, California

    Purpose: Altered levels of extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) and cranial irradiation have been shown to affect hippocampal neurogenesis. However, previous studies were only conducted in male mice, and it was not clear if there was a difference between males and females. Therefore, female mice were studied and the results compared with those generated in male mice from an earlier study. Methods and Materials: Female wild-type, EC-SOD-null (KO), and EC-SOD bigenic mice with neuronal-specific expression of EC-SOD (OE) were subjected to a single dose of 5-Gy gamma rays to the head at 8 weeks of age. Progenitor cell proliferation, differentiation, andmore » long-term survival of newborn neurons were determined. Results: Similar to results from male mice, EC-SOD deficiency and irradiation both resulted in significant reductions in mature newborn neurons in female mice. EC-SOD deficiency reduced long-term survival of newborn neurons whereas irradiation reduced progenitor cell proliferation. Overexpression of EC-SOD corrected the negative impacts from EC-SOD deficiency and irradiation and normalized the production of newborn neurons in OE mice. Expression of neurotrophic factors brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 were significantly reduced by irradiation in wild-type mice, but the levels were not changed in KO and OE mice even though both cohorts started out with a lower baseline level. Conclusion: In terms of hippocampal neurogenesis, EC-SOD deficiency and irradiation have the same overall effects in males and females at the age the studies were conducted.« less

  20. Inhibitory effects of recombinant manganese superoxide dismutase on influenza virus infections in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Sidwell, R W; Huffman, J H; Bailey, K W; Wong, M H; Nimrod, A; Panet, A

    1996-01-01

    The oxygen free-radical scavenger recombinant human manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) was studied for its effects on influenza virus infections in mice when used alone and in combination with ribavirin. Mice challenged with influenza A/NWS/33 (H1N1) virus were treated parenterally in doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg of body weight per day every 8 h for 5 days beginning at 48 h post-virus exposure. An increase in mean day to death, lessened decline in arterial oxygen saturation, and reduced lung consolidation and lung virus titers occurred in the treated animals. To determine the influence of viral challenge, experiments were run in which mice were infected with a 100 or 75% lethal dose of virus and were treated intravenously once daily for 5 days beginning 96 h after virus exposure. Weak inhibition of the mortality rate was seen in mice receiving the high viral challenge, whereas significant inhibition occurred in the animals infected with the lower viral challenge, indicating that MnSOD effects are virus dose dependent. To determine if treatment with small-particle aerosol would render an antiviral effect, infected mice were treated by this route for 1 h daily for 5 days beginning 72 h after virus exposure. A dose-responsive disease inhibition was seen. An infection induced by influenza B/Hong Kong/5/72 virus in mice was mildly inhibited by intravenous MnSOD treatment as seen by increased mean day to death, lessened arterial oxygen saturation decline, and lowered lung consolidation. MnSOD was well tolerated in all experiments. A combination of MnSOD and ribavirin, each administered with small-particle aerosol, resulted in a generally mild improvement of the disease induced by the influenza A virus compared with use of either material alone. PMID:8913477

  1. Calcium Ions Promote Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1) Aggregation into Non-fibrillar Amyloid

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Sónia S.; Cardoso, Isabel; Valentine, Joan S.; Gomes, Cláudio M.

    2013-01-01

    Imbalance in metal ion homeostasis is a hallmark in neurodegenerative conditions involving protein deposition, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is no exception. In particular, Ca2+ dysregulation has been shown to correlate with superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) aggregation in a cellular model of ALS. Here we present evidence that SOD1 aggregation is enhanced and modulated by Ca2+. We show that at physiological pH, Ca2+ induces conformational changes that increase SOD1 β-sheet content, as probed by far UV CD and attenuated total reflectance-FTIR, and enhances SOD1 hydrophobicity, as probed by ANS fluorescence emission. Moreover, dynamic light scattering analysis showed that Ca2+ boosts the onset of SOD1 aggregation. In agreement, Ca2+ decreases SOD1 critical concentration and nucleation time during aggregation kinetics, as evidenced by thioflavin T fluorescence emission. Attenuated total reflectance FTIR analysis showed that Ca2+ induced aggregates consisting preferentially of antiparallel β-sheets, thus suggesting a modulation effect on the aggregation pathway. Transmission electron microscopy and analysis with conformational anti-fibril and anti-oligomer antibodies showed that oligomers and amyloidogenic aggregates constitute the prevalent morphology of Ca2+-induced aggregates, thus indicating that Ca2+ diverts SOD1 aggregation from fibrils toward amorphous aggregates. Interestingly, the same heterogeneity of conformations is found in ALS-derived protein inclusions. We thus hypothesize that transient variations and dysregulation of cellular Ca2+ levels contribute to the formation of SOD1 aggregates in ALS patients. In this scenario, Ca2+ may be considered as a pathogenic effector in the formation of ALS proteinaceous inclusions. PMID:23861388

  2. Histone deacetylation contributes to low extracellular superoxide dismutase expression in human idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Crystal; Stearman, Robert S.; Venkataraman, Sujatha; Ferguson, Bradley S.; Swain, Kalin; Bowler, Russell P.; Geraci, Mark W.; Ihida-Stansbury, Kaori; Stenmark, Kurt R.; McKinsey, Timothy A.; Domann, Frederick E.

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation and histone acetylation, regulate gene expression in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). These mechanisms can modulate expression of extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3 or EC-SOD), a key vascular antioxidant enzyme, and loss of vascular SOD3 worsens outcomes in animal models of pulmonary arterial hypertension. We hypothesized that SOD3 gene expression is decreased in patients with IPAH due to aberrant DNA methylation and/or histone deacetylation. We used lung tissue and pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC) from subjects with IPAH at transplantation and from failed donors (FD). Lung SOD3 mRNA expression and activity was decreased in IPAH vs. FD. In contrast, mitochondrial SOD (Mn-SOD or SOD2) protein expression was unchanged and intracellular SOD activity was unchanged. Using bisulfite sequencing in genomic lung or PASMC DNA, we found the methylation status of the SOD3 promoter was similar between FD and IPAH. Furthermore, treatment with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine did not increase PASMC SOD3 mRNA, suggesting DNA methylation was not responsible for PASMC SOD3 expression. Though total histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity, histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity, acetylated histones, and acetylated SP1 were similar between IPAH and FD, treatment with two selective class I HDAC inhibitors increased SOD3 only in IPAH PASMC. Class I HDAC3 siRNA also increased SOD3 expression. Trichostatin A, a pan-HDAC inhibitor, decreased proliferation in IPAH, but not in FD PASMC. These data indicate that histone deacetylation, specifically via class I HDAC3, decreases SOD3 expression in PASMC and HDAC inhibitors may protect IPAH in part by increasing PASMC SOD3 expression. PMID:27233998

  3. Involvement of Superoxide Dismutase in Spore Coat Assembly in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Adriano O.; Melsen, Lawrence R.; Moran, Charles P.

    1998-01-01

    Endospores of Bacillus subtilis are enclosed in a proteinaceous coat which can be differentiated into a thick, striated outer layer and a thinner, lamellar inner layer. We found that the N-terminal sequence of a 25-kDa protein present in a preparation of spore coat proteins matched that of the Mn-dependent superoxide dismutase (SOD) encoded by the sodA locus. sodA is transcribed throughout the growth and sporulation of a wild-type strain and is responsible for the SOD activity detected in total cell extracts prepared from B. subtilis. Disruption of the sodA locus produced a mutant that lacked any detectable SOD activity during vegetative growth and sporulation. The sodA mutant was not impaired in the ability to form heat- or lysozyme-resistant spores. However, examination of the coat layers of sodA mutant spores revealed increased extractability of the tyrosine-rich outer coat protein CotG. We showed that this condition was not accompanied by augmented transcription of the cotG gene in sporulating cells of the sodA mutant. We conclude that SodA is required for the assembly of CotG into the insoluble matrix of the spore and suggest that CotG is covalently cross-linked into the insoluble matrix by an oxidative reaction dependent on SodA. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that the inner coat formed by a sodA mutant was incomplete. Moreover, the outer coat lacked the characteristic striated appearance of wild-type spores, a pattern that was accentuated in a cotG mutant. These observations suggest that the SodA-dependent formation of the insoluble matrix containing CotG is largely responsible for the striated appearance of this coat layer. PMID:9573176

  4. Gene Therapy With Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase Protects Conscious Rabbits Against Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qianhong; Bolli, Roberto; Qiu, Yumin; Tang, Xian-Liang; Guo, Yiru; French, Brent A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Extracellular superoxide dismutase (Ec-SOD) may protect the heart against myocardial infarction (MI) because of its extended half-life and capacity to bind heparan sulfate proteoglycans on cellular surfaces. Accordingly, we used direct gene transfer to increase systemic levels of Ec-SOD and determined whether this gene therapy could protect against MI. Methods and Results The cDNA for human Ec-SOD was incorporated into a replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad5/CMV/Ec-SOD). Injection of this virus produced a high level of Ec-SOD in the liver, which was redistributed to the heart and other organs by injection of heparin. Untreated rabbits (group I) underwent a 30-minute coronary occlusion and 3 days of reperfusion. For comparison, preconditioned rabbits (group II) underwent a sequence of six 4-minute-occlusion/4-minute-reperfusion cycles 24 hours before the 30-minute occlusion. Control-treated rabbits (group III) were injected intravenously with Ad5/CMV/nls-LacZ, and gene-therapy rabbits (group IV) were injected with Ad5/CMV/Ec-SOD 3 days before the 30-minute occlusion. Both groups treated with Ad5 received intravenous heparin 2 hours before the 30-minute occlusion. Infarct size (percent risk area) was similar in groups I (57±6%) and III (58±5%). Ec-SOD gene therapy markedly reduced infarct size to 25±4% (P<0.01, group IV versus group III), a protection comparable to that of the late phase of ischemic preconditioning (29±3%, P<0.01 group II versus group I). Conclusions Direct gene transfer of the cDNA encoding membrane-bound Ec-SOD affords powerful cardioprotection, providing proof of principle for the effectiveness of antioxidant gene therapy against MI. PMID:11294809

  5. Protection from ethanol-induced limb malformations by the superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic, EUK-134.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Yu; Dehart, Deborah B; Sulik, Kathleen K

    2004-08-01

    Based on previous in vitro studies that have illustrated prevention of ethanol-induced cell death by antioxidants, using an in vivo model, we have tested the anti-teratogenic potential of a potent synthetic superoxide dismutase plus catalase mimetic, EUK-134. The developing limb of C57BL/6J mice, which is sensitive to ethanol-induced reduction defects, served as the model system. On their ninth day of pregnancy, C57BL/6J mice were administered ethanol (two intraperitoneal doses of 2.9 g/kg given 4 h apart) alone or in combination with EUK-134 (two doses of 10 mg/kg). Pregnant control mice were similarly treated with either vehicle or EUK-134, alone. Within 15 h of the initial ethanol exposure, excessive apoptotic cell death was observed in the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) of the newly forming forelimb buds. Forelimb defects, including postaxial ectrodactyly, metacarpal, and ulnar deficiencies, occurred in 67.3% of the ethanol-exposed fetuses that were examined at 18 days of gestation. The right forelimbs were preferentially affected. No limb malformations were observed in control fetuses. Cell death in the AER of embryos concurrently exposed to ethanol and EUK-134 was notably reduced compared with that in embryos from ethanol-treated dams. Additionally, the antioxidant treatment reduced the incidence of forelimb malformations to 35.9%. This work illustrates that antioxidants can significantly improve the adverse developmental outcome that results from ethanol exposure in utero, diminishing the incidence and severity of major malformations that result from exposure to this important human teratogen.

  6. The Protective Roles of the Antioxidant Enzymes Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase in the Green Photosynthetic Bacterium Chloroflexus Aurantiacus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankenship, Robert E.; Rothschild, Lynn (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the biochemical response of the green thermophilic photosynthetic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus to oxidative stress. Lab experiments focused primarily on characterizing the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase and the response of this organism to oxidative stress. Experiments in the field at the hotsprings in Yellowstone National Park focused on the changes in the level of these enzymes during the day in response to oxidants and to the different types of ultraviolet radiation.

  7. [Antimutagenic action of superoxide dismutase on sodium azide- and nitrosoguanidine-induced mutagenesis in Salmonella typhimurium TA 1535].

    PubMed

    Vorob'eva, L I; Cherdyntseva, T A; Aver'ianov, A A; Abilev, S K

    1993-05-01

    It was shown that superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased the mutagenic action of sodium azide (NaN3) and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535. Catalase and quenchers of hydroxyl radicals showed, unlike SOD no effect on the mutagenicity of NaN3. Cell extract from propionic acid bacteria also possessed the antimutagenic activity, only partially depending on the SOD activity.

  8. Palmitoylation of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is increased for familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked SOD1 mutants.

    PubMed

    Antinone, Sarah E; Ghadge, Ghanashyam D; Lam, Tukiet T; Wang, Lijun; Roos, Raymond P; Green, William N

    2013-07-26

    Mutations in Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (mtSOD1) cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS), a neurodegenerative disease resulting from motor neuron degeneration. Here, we demonstrate that wild type SOD1 (wtSOD1) undergoes palmitoylation, a reversible post-translational modification that can regulate protein structure, function, and localization. SOD1 palmitoylation was confirmed by multiple techniques, including acyl-biotin exchange, click chemistry, cysteine mutagenesis, and mass spectrometry. Mass spectrometry and cysteine mutagenesis demonstrated that cysteine residue 6 was the primary site of palmitoylation. The palmitoylation of FALS-linked mtSOD1s (A4V and G93A) was significantly increased relative to that of wtSOD1 expressed in HEK cells and a motor neuron cell line. The palmitoylation of FALS-linked mtSOD1s (G93A and G85R) was also increased relative to that of wtSOD1 when assayed from transgenic mouse spinal cords. We found that the level of SOD1 palmitoylation correlated with the level of membrane-associated SOD1, suggesting a role for palmitoylation in targeting SOD1 to membranes. We further observed that palmitoylation occurred predominantly on disulfide-reduced as opposed to disulfide-bonded SOD1, suggesting that immature SOD1 is the primarily palmitoylated species. Increases in SOD1 disulfide bonding and maturation with increased copper chaperone for SOD1 expression caused a decrease in wtSOD1 palmitoylation. Copper chaperone for SOD1 overexpression decreased A4V palmitoylation less than wtSOD1 and had little effect on G93A mtSOD1 palmitoylation. These findings suggest that SOD1 palmitoylation occurs prior to disulfide bonding during SOD1 maturation and that palmitoylation is increased when disulfide bonding is delayed or decreased as observed for several mtSOD1s.

  9. Molecular characterization of a cDNA encoding copper/zinc superoxide dismutase from cultured cells of Manihot esculenta.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seung-Yong; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Kwon, Soon-Tae; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2005-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) cDNA, mSOD2, encoding cytosolic copper/zinc SOD (CuZnSOD) cDNA was isolated from suspension-cultured cells of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) by cDNA library screening, and its expression was investigated in relation to environmental stress. mSOD2 is 774 bp in length with an open reading frame (ORF) of 152 amino acids, corresponding to a protein of predicted molecular mass 15 kDa and a pI of 5.22. One copy of the mSOD2 gene was found to be present in the cassava genome by Southern analysis using an mSOD2 cDNA-specific probe. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed diverse expression patterns for the mSOD2 gene in various tissues of intact cassava plants, at various stages of the growth in suspension cultures, and in the leaf tissues exposed to different stresses. The mSOD2 gene was highly expressed in suspension-cultured cells and in the stems of intact plants. However, it was expressed at low levels in leaves and roots. During suspension cell growth, the mSOD2 transcript progressively increased during culture. Moreover, the mSOD2 gene in excised cassava leaves responded to various stresses in different ways. In particular, it was highly induced in leaf tissue by several abiotic stresses, including high temperature (37 degrees C), chilling (4 degrees C), methyl viologen (MV) exposure, and wounding treatment. These results indicate that the mSOD2 gene is involved in the antioxidative process triggered by oxidative stress induced by environmental change.

  10. Decreased stability and increased formation of soluble aggregates by immature superoxide dismutase do not account for disease severity in ALS

    PubMed Central

    Vassall, Kenrick A.; Stubbs, Helen R.; Primmer, Heather A.; Tong, Ming Sze; Sullivan, Sarah M.; Sobering, Ryan; Srinivasan, Saipraveen; Briere, Lee-Ann K.; Dunn, Stanley D.; Colón, Wilfredo; Meiering, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Protein aggregation is a hallmark of many diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), where aggregation of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is implicated in causing neurodegeneration. Recent studies have suggested that destabilization and aggregation of the most immature form of SOD1, the disulfide-reduced, unmetallated (apo) protein is particularly important in causing ALS. We report herein in depth analyses of the effects of chemically and structurally diverse ALS-associated mutations on the stability and aggregation of reduced apo SOD1. In contrast with previous studies, we find that various reduced apo SOD1 mutants undergo highly reversible thermal denaturation with little aggregation, enabling quantitative thermodynamic stability analyses. In the absence of ALS-associated mutations, reduced apo SOD1 is marginally stable but predominantly folded. Mutations generally result in slight decreases to substantial increases in the fraction of unfolded protein. Calorimetry, ultracentrifugation, and light scattering show that all mutations enhance aggregation propensity, with the effects varying widely, from subtle increases in most cases, to pronounced formation of 40–100 nm soluble aggregates by A4V, a mutation that is associated with particularly short disease duration. Interestingly, although there is a correlation between observed aggregation and stability, there is minimal to no correlation between observed aggregation, predicted aggregation propensity, and disease characteristics. These findings suggest that reduced apo SOD1 does not play a dominant role in modulating disease. Rather, additional and/or multiple forms of SOD1 and additional biophysical and biological factors are needed to account for the toxicity of mutant SOD1 in ALS. PMID:21257910

  11. Effects of the peroxisome proliferator clofibric acid on superoxide dismutase expression in the human HepG2 hepatoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Bécuwe, P; Bianchi, A; Keller, J M; Dauça, M

    1999-09-15

    We examined the effects of clofibric acid, a peroxisome proliferator, on the production of superoxide radicals, on the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), and on the expression of superoxide dismutases (SODs) in the human HepG2 hepatoma cell line. To this end, HepG2 cells were treated for 1 or 5 days with 0.25, 0.50, or 0.75 mM clofibric acid. The production of superoxide radicals was only enhanced in HepG2 cells exposed for 5 days to the different clofibric acid concentrations. However, this overproduction of superoxide radicals was not accompanied by increased rates of lipid peroxidation, as the MDA and 4-HNE levels did not change significantly. Manganese (Mn) SOD activity was increased when HepG2 cells were treated for 1 day with 0.50 or 0.75 mM clofibric acid. For this duration of treatment, no change was observed in total SOD and copper/zinc (Cu/Zn) SOD activities. For a 5-day treatment, total SOD and MnSOD activities as well as the enzyme apoprotein and MnSOD mRNA levels increased whatever the clofibric acid concentration used. This transcriptional induction of the MnSOD gene was correlated with an activation of the activator protein-1 transcription factor for 1 and 5 days of treatment, but was independent of nuclear factor-kappa B and of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor. On the other hand, the PP exerted very little effect if any on Cu,ZnSOD expression. In contrast to rodent data, PP treatment of human hepatoma cells induces MnSOD expression.

  12. Catalytic spectrofluorimetric determination of superoxide anion radical and superoxide dismutase activity using N, N-dimethylaniline as the substrate for horseradish peroxidase (HRP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Bo; Wang, Yan; Chen, Zhen-zhen

    2002-10-01

    The coupled reaction of N, N-dimethylaniline (DMA) with 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AAP) using superoxide anion radical (O 2-) as oxidizing agent under the catalysis of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was studied. Based on the reaction, O 2- produced by irradiating Vitamin B 2, (V B2) was spectrophotometricly determined at 554 nm. The linear range of this method was 1.8×10 -6-1.2×10 -4 mol l -1 with a detection limit of 5.3×10 -7 mol l -1. The effect of interferences on the determination of O 2- was investigated. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in human blood and mouse blood.

  13. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) genetic polymorphisms, dietary antioxidants, and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ambrosone, C B; Freudenheim, J L; Thompson, P A; Bowman, E; Vena, J E; Marshall, J R; Graham, S; Laughlin, R; Nemoto, T; Shields, P G

    1999-02-01

    Oxidative stress, resulting from the imbalance between prooxidant and antioxidant states, damages DNA, proteins, cell membranes, and mitochondria and seems to play a role in human breast carcinogenesis. Dietary sources of antioxidants (chemical) and endogenous antioxidants (enzymatic), including the polymorphic manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), can act to reduce the load of oxidative stress. We hypothesized that the valine-to-alanine substitution that seems to alter transport of the enzyme into the mitochondrion, changing its efficacy in fighting oxidative stress, was associated with breast cancer risk and that a diet rich in sources of antioxidants could ameliorate the effects on risk. Data were collected in a case-control study of diet and breast cancer in western New York from 1986 to 1991. Caucasian women with incident, primary, histologically confirmed breast cancer were frequency-matched on age and county of residence to community controls. Blood specimens were collected and processed from a subset of participants in the study (266 cases and 295 controls). Using a RFLP that distinguishes a valine (V) to alanine (A) change in the -9 position in the signal sequence of the protein for MnSOD, we characterized MnSOD genotypes in relation to breast cancer risk. We also evaluated the effect of the polymorphism on risk among low and high consumers of fruits and vegetables. Premenopausal women who were homozygous for the A allele had a 4-fold increase in breast cancer risk in comparison to those with 1 or 2 V alleles (odds ratio, 4.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-10.8). Risk was most pronounced among women below the median consumption of fruits and vegetables and of dietary ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol, with little increased risk for those with diets rich in these foods. Relationships were weaker among postmenopausal women, although the MnSOD AA genotype was associated with an almost 2-fold increase in risk (odds ratio, 1.8; confidence interval, 0

  14. Transcript profiles of mitochondrial and cytoplasmic manganese superoxide dismutases in Exopalaemon carinicauda under ammonia stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Hai; Li, Jian; Li, Jitao; Liu, Ping; Liang, Zhongxiu; Wu, Jianhua

    2015-05-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is one of the most important antioxidant defense enzymes, and is considered as the first line against oxidative stress. In this study, we cloned a mitochondrial manganese (Mn) SOD ( mMnSOD) cDNA from the ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods. The full-length cDNA for mMnSOD was 1 014-bp long, containing a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 37-bp, a 3'-UTR of 321-bp with a poly (A) tail, and included a 657-bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 218 amino acids with a 16-amino-acid signal peptide. The protein had a calculated molecular weight of 23.87 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 6.75. The mMnSOD sequence included two putative N-glycosylation sites (NHT and NLS), the MnSOD signature sequence 180DVWEHAYY187, and four putative Mn binding sites (H48, H96, D180, and H184). Sequence comparison showed that the mMnSOD deduced amino acid sequence of E. carinicauda shared 97%, 95%, 89%, 84%, 82%, 72%, and 69% identity with that of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Macrobrachium nipponense, Fenneropeneaus chinensis, Callinectes sapidus, Perisesarma bidens, Danio rerio, and Homo sapiens, resectively. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that mMnSOD transcripts were present in all E. carinicauda tissues examined, with the highest levels in the hepatopancreas. During an ammonia stress treatment, the transcript levels of mMnSOD and cMnSOD were up-regulated at 12 h in hemocytes and at 24 h in the hepatopancreas. As the duration of the ammonia stress treatment extended to 72 h, the transcript levels of mMnSOD and cMnSOD significantly decreased both in hemocytes and hepatopancreas. These findings indicate that the SOD system is induced to respond to acute ammonia stress, and may be involved in environmental stress responses in E. carinicauda.

  15. Thermal and Denaturation Studies of the Time-Resolved Fluorescence Decay of Human Superoxide Dismutase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Norberto De Jesus

    Previous studies have shown that time-resolved fluorescence decay of various single tryptophan proteins is best described by a distribution of fluorescence lifetimes rather than one or two lifetimes. The thermal dependence of the lifetime distributions is consistent with the hypothesis that proteins fluctuate between a hierarchy of many conformational substates. With this scenario as a theoretical framework, the correlations between protein dynamic and structure are investigated by studying the time-resolved fluorescence and anisotropy decay of the single tryptophan (Trp) residue of human superoxide dismutase (HSOD) over a wide range of temperatures and at different denaturant concentrations. First, it is demonstrated that the center of the lifetime distribution can characterize the average deactivation environment of the excited Trp-protein system. A qualitative model is introduced to explain the time-resolved fluorescence decay of HSOD in 80% glycerol over a wide range of temperatures. The dynamical model features isoenergetic conformational substates separated by a hierarchy of energy barriers. The HSOD system is also investigated as a function of denaturant concentration in aqueous solution. As a function of guanidine hydrochloride (GdHCl), the width of the fluorescence lifetime distribution of HSOD displays a maximum which is not coincident with the fully denatured form of HSOD at 6.5M GdHCl. Furthermore, the width for the fully denatured form of HSOD is greater than that of the native form. This is consistent with the scenario that more conformational substates are being created upon denaturation of HSOD. HSOD is a dimeric protein and it was observed that the width of the lifetime distribution of HSOD at intermediate GdHCl concentrations increased with decreasing protein concentration. In addition, the secondary structure of HSOD at intermediate GdHCl concentration does not change with protein concentration. These results suggest that HSOD display structural

  16. Superoxide Dismutase Protects Osteoprogenitors from Irradiation with Low-LET but Not High-LET Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreurs, A.-S.; Tran, L.; Alwood, J. S.; Tahimic, C. G.; Globus, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation-induced bone loss appears to be a two-stage process: first an early increase in pro-resorption cytokines and increased bone resorption by osteoclasts, followed by a decrease in bone formation by osteoblasts. This results in a net loss of mass in mineralized bone tissue. The molecular mechanisms underlying the imbalance in bone remodeling caused by exposure to radiation are not fully understood. We hypothesized that the radiation-induced rise in reactive oxygen species (ROS) damages osteoblast progenitors, leading to a decrease in number and activity of differentiated progeny. We have shown that a diet high in antioxidant capacity prevents radiation-induced bone loss in adult mice (Schreurs et al. 2016) by reducing the early increase in pro-resotption cytokines. Here, we investigated the damaging effects of radiation exposure on cells in the osteoblast lineage, testing if addition of the exogenous antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD) can mitigate radiation damage. Osteoprogenitors were grown in vitro from the marrow of 16wk old, male C57Bl/6 mice. Cells were irradiated 3 days after plating (day 0) with either gamma (Cs-137, 0.1-5Gy) or iron (Fe-56, 600 MeV/n, 0.5-2Gy), and then grown until day 10. SOD or vehicle was added 2 hours before irradiation (SOD at 200U/ml), twice a day and up to day 5, for a total of 2 days treatment. Cell behavior was assessed by: (a) colony number (counted on day 7), (b) DNA content (surrogate for cell number) to assess cell growth (percent change between day 3 and day 10) and (c) alkaline phosphatase activity (osteoblast differentiation marker). Results show that SOD protected cells from the adverse effects of low-LET ionizing radiation, but not high-LET radiation. These novel results provide an interesting platform to explore further diverse effects and damages caused by low-LET and high-LET, pointing toward different mechanisms and possible intervention strategies for radiation-induced bone loss.

  17. Intravenous superoxide dismutase as a protective agent to prevent impairment of lung function induced by high tidal volume ventilation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Nan-Chun; Liao, Fan-Ting; Cheng, Hao-Min; Sung, Shih-Hsien; Yang, Yu-Chun; Wang, Jiun-Jr

    2017-07-26

    Positive-pressure mechanical ventilation is essential in assisting patients with respiratory failure in the intensive care unit and facilitating oxygenation in the operating room. However, it was also recognized as a primary factor leading to hospital-acquired pulmonary dysfunction, in which pulmonary oxidative stress and lung inflammation had been known to play important roles. Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an important antioxidant, and possesses anti-inflammatory capacity. In this study, we aimed to study the efficacy of Cu/Zn SOD, administered intravenously during high tidal volume (HTV) ventilation, to prevent impairment of lung function. Thirty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: 5 h ventilation with (A) low tidal volume (LTV; 8 mL/kg; n = 10), (B) high tidal volume (HTV; 18 mL/kg; n = 14), or (C) HTV and intravenous treatment of Cu/Zn SOD at a dose of 1000 U/kg/h (HTV + SOD; n = 14). Lung function was evaluated both at baseline and after 5-h ventilation. Lung injury was assessed by histological examination, lung water and protein contents in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Pulmonary oxidative stress was examined by concentrations of methylguanidine (MG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in BALF, and antioxidative activity by protein expression of glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1) in the lung. Severity of lung inflammation was evaluated by white blood cell and differential count in BALF, and protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and mRNA expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in the lung. We also examined protein expression of surfactant protein (SP)-A and D and we measured hourly changes in serum nitric oxide (NO) level. Five hours of LTV ventilation did not induce a major change in lung function, whereas 5 h of HTV ventilation induced apparent combined restrictive and

  18. Insight into the structure and mechanism of nickel-containing superoxide dismutase derived from peptide-based mimics.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Jason

    2014-08-19

    Nickel superoxide dismutase (NiSOD) is a nickel-containing metalloenzyme that catalyzes the disproportionation of superoxide through a ping-pong mechanism that relies on accessing reduced Ni(II) and oxidized Ni(III) oxidation states. NiSOD is the most recently discovered SOD. Unlike the other known SODs (MnSOD, FeSOD, and (CuZn)SOD), which utilize "typical" biological nitrogen and oxygen donors, NiSOD utilizes a rather unexpected ligand set. In the reduced Ni(II) oxidation state, NiSOD utilizes nitrogen ligands derived from the N-terminal amine and an amidate along with two cysteinates sulfur donors. These are unusual biological ligands, especially for an SOD: amine and amidate donors are underrepresented as biological ligands, whereas cysteinates are highly susceptible to oxidative damage. An axial histidine imidazole binds to nickel upon oxidation to Ni(III). This bond is long (2.3-2.6 Å) owing to a tight hydrogen-bonding network. All of the ligating residues to Ni(II) and Ni(III) are found within the first 6 residues from the NiSOD N-terminus. Thus, small nickel-containing metallopeptides derived from the first 6-12 residues of the NiSOD sequence can reproduce many of the properties of NiSOD itself. Using these nickel-containing metallopeptide-based NiSOD mimics, we have shown that the minimal sequence needed for nickel binding and reproduction of the structural, spectroscopic, and functional properties of NiSOD is H2N-HCXXPC. Insight into how NiSOD avoids oxidative damage has also been gained. Using small NiN2S2 complexes and metallopeptide-based mimics, it was shown that the unusual nitrogen donor atoms protect the cysteinates from oxidative damage (both one-electron oxidation and oxygen atom insertion reactions) by fine-tuning the electronic structure of the nickel center. Changing the nitrogen donor set to a bis-amidate or bis-amine nitrogen donor led to catalytically nonviable species owing to nickel-cysteinate bond oxidative damage. Only the amine

  19. Over-expression of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase in the median preoptic nucleus attenuates chronic angiotensin II-induced hypertension in the rat.

    PubMed

    Collister, John P; Bellrichard, Mitch; Drebes, Donna; Nahey, David; Tian, Jun; Zimmerman, Matthew C

    2014-12-02

    The brain senses circulating levels of angiotensin II (AngII) via circumventricular organs, such as the subfornical organ (SFO), and is thought to adjust sympathetic nervous system output accordingly via this neuro-hormonal communication. However, the cellular signaling mechanisms involved in these communications remain to be fully understood. Previous lesion studies of either the SFO, or the downstream median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) have shown a diminution of the hypertensive effects of chronic AngII, without providing a clear explanation as to the intracellular signaling pathway(s) involved. Additional studies have reported that over-expressing copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), an intracellular superoxide (O2·-) scavenging enzyme, in the SFO attenuates chronic AngII-induced hypertension. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that overproduction of O2·- in the MnPO is an underlying mechanism in the long-term hypertensive effects of chronic AngII. Adenoviral vectors encoding human CuZnSOD (AdCuZnSOD) or control vector (AdEmpty) were injected directly into the MnPO of rats implanted with aortic telemetric transmitters for recording of arterial pressure. After a 3 day control period of saline infusion, rats were intravenously infused with AngII (10 ng/kg/min) for ten days. Rats over-expressing CuZnSOD (n = 7) in the MnPO had a blood pressure increase of only 6 ± 2 mmHg after ten days of AngII infusion while blood pressure increased 21 ± 4 mmHg in AdEmpty-infected rats (n = 9). These results support the hypothesis that production of O2·- in the MnPO contributes to the development of chronic AngII-dependent hypertension.

  20. The effect of macromolecular crowding on the structure of the protein complex superoxide dismutase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajapaksha Mudalige, Ajith Rathnaweera

    Biological environments contain between 7 - 40% macromolecules by volume. This reduces the available volume for macromolecules and elevates the osmotic pressure relative to pure water. Consequently, biological macromolecules in their native environments tend to adopt more compact and dehydrated conformations than those in vitro. This effect is referred to as macromolecular crowding and constitutes an important physical difference between native biological environments and the simple solutions in which biomolecules are usually studied. We used small angle scattering (SAS) to measure the effects of macromolecular crowding on the size of a protein complex, superoxide dismutase (SOD). Crowding was induced using 400 MW polyethylene glycol (PEG), triethylene glycol (TEG), methyl-alpha-glucoside (alpha-MG) and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO). Parallel small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) allowed us to unambiguously attribute apparent changes in radius of gyration to changes in the structure of SOD. For a 40% PEG solution, we find that the volume of SOD was reduced by 9%. SAS coupled with osmotic pressure measurements allowed us to estimate a compressibility modulus for SOD. We believe this to be the first time the osmotic compressibility of a protein complex was measured. Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations are widely used to obtain insights on biomolecular processes. However, it is not clear whether MD is capable of predicting subtle effects of macromolecular crowding. We used our experimentally observed compressibility of SOD to evaluate the ability of MD to predict macromolecular crowding. Effects of macromolecular crowding due to PEG on SOD were modeled using an all atom MD simulation with the CHARMM forcefield and the crystallographically resolved structures of SOD and PEG. Two parallel MD simulations were performed for SOD in water and SOD in 40% PEG for over 150~ns. Over the period of the simulation the SOD structure in 40

  1. Piper betle shows antioxidant activities, inhibits MCF-7 cell proliferation and increases activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Abrahim, Noor Nazirahanie; Kanthimathi, M S; Abdul-Aziz, Azlina

    2012-11-15

    Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the focus on finding chemotherapeutic agents have recently shifted to natural products. Piper betle is a medicinal plant with various biological activities. However, not much data is available on the anti-cancer effects of P. betle on breast cancer. Due to the current interest in the potential effects of antioxidants from natural products in breast cancer treatment, we investigated the antioxidant activities of the leaves of P. betle and its inhibitory effect on the proliferation of the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. The leaves of P. betle were extracted with solvents of varying polarities (water, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane) and their phenolic and flavonoid content were determined using colorimetric assays. Phenolic composition was characterized using HPLC. Antioxidant activities were measured using FRAP, DPPH, superoxide anion, nitric oxide and hyroxyl radical scavenging assays. Biological activities of the extracts were analysed using MTT assay and antioxidant enzyme (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) assays in MCF-7 cells. Overall, the ethyl acetate extract showed the highest ferric reducing activity and radical scavenging activities against DPPH, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radicals. This extract also contained the highest phenolic content implying the potential contribution of phenolics towards the antioxidant activities. HPLC analyses revealed the presence of catechin, morin and quercetin in the leaves. The ethyl acetate extract also showed the highest inhibitory effect against the proliferation of MCF-7 cells (IC50=65 μg/ml). Treatment of MCF-7 cells with the plant extract increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Ethyl acetate is the optimal solvent for the extraction of compounds with antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities. The increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase in the treated cells could alter the antioxidant defense

  2. Piper betle shows antioxidant activities, inhibits MCF-7 cell proliferation and increases activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the focus on finding chemotherapeutic agents have recently shifted to natural products. Piper betle is a medicinal plant with various biological activities. However, not much data is available on the anti-cancer effects of P. betle on breast cancer. Due to the current interest in the potential effects of antioxidants from natural products in breast cancer treatment, we investigated the antioxidant activities of the leaves of P. betle and its inhibitory effect on the proliferation of the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. Methods The leaves of P. betle were extracted with solvents of varying polarities (water, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane) and their phenolic and flavonoid content were determined using colorimetric assays. Phenolic composition was characterized using HPLC. Antioxidant activities were measured using FRAP, DPPH, superoxide anion, nitric oxide and hyroxyl radical scavenging assays. Biological activities of the extracts were analysed using MTT assay and antioxidant enzyme (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) assays in MCF-7 cells. Results Overall, the ethyl acetate extract showed the highest ferric reducing activity and radical scavenging activities against DPPH, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radicals. This extract also contained the highest phenolic content implying the potential contribution of phenolics towards the antioxidant activities. HPLC analyses revealed the presence of catechin, morin and quercetin in the leaves. The ethyl acetate extract also showed the highest inhibitory effect against the proliferation of MCF-7 cells (IC50=65 μg/ml). Treatment of MCF-7 cells with the plant extract increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Conclusions Ethyl acetate is the optimal solvent for the extraction of compounds with antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities. The increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase in the treated cells

  3. Intracellular implantation of enzymes in hollow silica nanospheres for protein therapy: cascade system of superoxide dismutase and catalase.

    PubMed

    Chang, Feng-Peng; Chen, Yi-Ping; Mou, Chung-Yuan

    2014-11-01

    An approach for enzyme therapeutics is elaborated with cell-implanted nanoreactors that are based on multiple enzymes encapsulated in hollow silica nanospheres (HSNs). The synthesis of HSNs is carried out by silica sol-gel templating of water-in-oil microemulsions so that polyethyleneimine (PEI) modified enzymes in aqueous phase are encapsulated inside the HSNs. PEI-grafted superoxide dismutase (PEI-SOD) and catalase (PEI-CAT) encapsulated in HSNs are prepared with quantitative control of the enzyme loadings. Excellent activities of superoxide dismutation by PEI-SOD@HSN are found and transformation of H2 O2 to water by PEI-CAT@HSN. When PEI-SOD and PEI-CAT are co-encapsulated, cascade transformation of superoxide through hydrogen peroxide to water was facile. Substantial fractions of HSNs exhibit endosome escape to cytosol after their delivery to cells. The production of downstream reactive oxygen species (ROS) and COX-2/p-p38 expression show that co-encapsulated SOD/CAT inside the HSNs renders the highest cell protection against the toxicant N,N'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride (paraquat). The rapid cell uptake and strong detoxification effect on superoxide radicals by the SOD/CAT-encapsulated hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles demonstrate the general concept of implanting catalytic nanoreactors in biological cells with designed functions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Molecular and biochemical characterization of a unique mutation in CCS, the human copper chaperone to superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Huppke, Peter; Brendel, Cornelia; Korenke, Georg Christoph; Marquardt, Iris; Donsante, Anthony; Yi, Ling; Hicks, Julia D; Steinbach, Peter J; Wilson, Callum; Elpeleg, Orly; Møller, Lisbeth Birk; Christodoulou, John; Kaler, Stephen G; Gärtner, Jutta

    2012-08-01

    Copper (Cu) is a trace metal that readily gains and donates electrons, a property that renders it desirable as an enzyme cofactor but dangerous as a source of free radicals. To regulate cellular Cu metabolism, an elaborate system of chaperones and transporters has evolved, although no human Cu chaperone mutations have been described to date. We describe a child from a consanguineous family who inherited homozygous mutations in the SLC33A1, encoding an acetyl CoA transporter, and in CCS, encoding the Cu chaperone for superoxide dismutase. The CCS mutation, p.Arg163Trp, predicts substitution of a highly conserved arginine residue at position 163, with tryptophan in domain II of CCS, which interacts directly with superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). Biochemical analyses of the patient's fibroblasts, mammalian cell transfections, immunoprecipitation assays, and Lys7Δ (CCS homolog) yeast complementation support the pathogenicity of the mutation. Expression of CCS was reduced and binding of CCS to SOD1 impaired. As a result, this mutation causes reduced SOD1 activity and may impair other mechanisms important for normal Cu homeostasis. CCS-Arg163Trp represents the primary example of a human mutation in a gene coding for a Cu chaperone. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Role of Superoxide Dismutase 2 Gene Ala16Val Polymorphism and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Diabetes and its Complications

    PubMed Central

    Pourvali, Katayoun; Abbasi, Mehrnaz; Mottaghi, Azadeh

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic heterogeneous disorder and oxidative stress is a key participant in the development and progression of it and its complications. Anti-oxidant status can affect vulnerability to oxidative damage, onset and progression of diabetes and diabetes complications. Superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) is one of the major antioxidant defense systems against free radicals. SOD2 is encoded by the nuclear SOD2 gene located on the human chromosome 6q25 and the Ala16Val polymorphism has been identified in exon 2 of the human SOD2 gene. Ala16Val (rs4880) is the most commonly studied SOD2 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in SOD2 gene. This SNP changes the amino acid at position 16 from valine (Val) to alanine (Ala), which has been shown to cause a conformational change in the target sequence of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and also affects MnSOD activity in mitochondria. Ala16Val SNP and changes in the activity of the SOD2 antioxidant enzyme have been associated with altered progression and risk of different diseases. Association of this SNP with diabetes and some of its complications have been studied in numerous studies. This review evaluated how rs4880, oxidative stress and antioxidant status are associated with diabetes and its complications although some aspects of this line still remain unclear. PMID:27141263

  6. Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase is activated through a sulfenic acid intermediate at a copper ion entry site.

    PubMed

    Fetherolf, Morgan M; Boyd, Stefanie D; Taylor, Alexander B; Kim, Hee Jong; Wohlschlegel, James A; Blackburn, Ninian J; Hart, P John; Winge, Dennis R; Winkler, Duane D

    2017-07-21

    Metallochaperones are a diverse family of trafficking molecules that provide metal ions to protein targets for use as cofactors. The copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase (Ccs1) activates immature copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Sod1) by delivering copper and facilitating the oxidation of the Sod1 intramolecular disulfide bond. Here, we present structural, spectroscopic, and cell-based data supporting a novel copper-induced mechanism for Sod1 activation. Ccs1 binding exposes an electropositive cavity and proposed "entry site" for copper ion delivery on immature Sod1. Copper-mediated sulfenylation leads to a sulfenic acid intermediate that eventually resolves to form the Sod1 disulfide bond with concomitant release of copper into the Sod1 active site. Sod1 is the predominant disulfide bond-requiring enzyme in the cytoplasm, and this copper-induced mechanism of disulfide bond formation obviates the need for a thiol/disulfide oxidoreductase in that compartment. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Purification and characterization of two iron superoxide dismutases of Phytomonas sp. isolated from Euphorbia characias (plant trypanosomatids).

    PubMed

    Marín, C; Rodríguez-González, I; Hitos, A B; Rosales, M J; Dollet, M; Sánchez-Moreno, M

    2004-07-01

    Two superoxide dismutases (SODI and SODII) have been purified by differential centrifugation, fractionation with ammonium sulphate followed by chromatographic separation (ionic exchange and affinity), from a plant trypanosomatid isolated from Euphorbia characias, and then characterized for several biochemical properties. Both enzymes were insensitive to cyanide but sensitive to hydrogen peroxide, properties characteristic of iron-containing superoxide dismutase. SODI had a molecular mass of approximately 66 kDa, whereas the molecular mass of SODII was approximately 22 kDa, both enzymes showing single bands. The isoelectric points of SODI and SODII were 6.8 and 3.6, respectively. The enzymatic stability persisted at least for 6 months when the sample was lyophilized and preserved at -80 degrees C. Digitonin titration and subcellular fractionation showed that both enzymes were in the cytoplasmic fraction, although part of SODII isoenzyme was also associated with glycosomes. We assayed these activities (SOD) in 18 trypanosomatid isolates on isoelectric focusing gels, and have demonstrated that the SOD is a biochemical marker sufficient to identify a trypanosomatid isolated from a plant as belonging to the genus Phytomonas and to distinguish between a true Phytomonas and other trypanosomatids that are capable of causing transient infections in plants.

  8. Effect of sodium benzoate preservative on micronucleus induction, chromosome break, and Ala40Thr superoxide dismutase gene mutation in lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Pongsavee, Malinee

    2015-01-01

    Sodium benzoate is food preservative that inhibits microbial growth. The effects of sodium benzoate preservative on micronucleus induction, chromosome break, and Ala40Thr superoxide dismutase gene mutation in lymphocytes were studied. Sodium benzoate concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mg/mL were treated in lymphocyte cell line for 24 and 48 hrs, respectively. Micronucleus test, standard chromosome culture technique, PCR, and automated sequencing technique were done to detect micronucleus, chromosome break, and gene mutation. The results showed that, at 24- and 48-hour. incubation time, sodium benzoate concentrations of 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mg/mL increased micronucleus formation when comparing with the control group (P < 0.05). At 24- and 48-hour. incubation time, sodium benzoate concentrations of 2.0 mg/mL increased chromosome break when comparing with the control group (P < 0.05). Sodium benzoate did not cause Ala40Thr (GCG→ACG) in superoxide dismutase gene. Sodium benzoate had the mutagenic and cytotoxic toxicity in lymphocytes caused by micronucleus formation and chromosome break.

  9. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 is downregulated during early skin tumorigenesis which can be inhibited by overexpression of manganese superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Delira; Wittwer, Jennifer A; Codarin, Sarah; Circu, Magdalena L; Aw, Tak Yee; Huang, Ting-Ting; Van Remmen, Holly; Richardson, Arlan; Wang, David B; Witt, Stephan N; Klein, Ronald L; Zhao, Yunfeng

    2012-08-01

    Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1), a cytosolic enzyme that converts isocitrate to alpha-ketoglutarate, has been shown to be dysregulated during tumorigenesis. However, at what stage of cancer development IDH1 is dysregulated and how IDH1 may affect cell transformation and tumor promotion during early stages of cancer development are unclear. We used a skin cell transformation model and mouse skin epidermal tissues to study the role of IDH1 in early skin tumorigenesis. Our studies demonstrate that both the tumor promoter TPA and UVC irradiation decreased expression and activity levels of IDH1, not IDH2, in the tumor promotable JB6 P+ cell model. Skin epidermal tissues treated with dimethylbenz[α]anthracene/TPA also showed decreases in IDH1 expression and activity. In non-promotable JB6 P-cells, IDH1 was upregulated upon TPA treatment, whereas IDH2 was maintained at similar levels with TPA treatment. Interestingly, IDH1 knockdown enhanced, whereas IDH1 overexpression suppressed, TPA-induced cell transformation. Finally, manganese superoxide dismutase overexpression suppressed tumor promoter induced decreases in IDH1 expression and mitochondrial respiration, while intracellular alpha-ketoglutarate levels were unchanged. These results suggest that decreased IDH1 expression in early stage skin tumorigenesis is highly correlated with tumor promotion. In addition, oxidative stress might contribute to IDH1 inactivation, because manganese superoxide dismutase, a mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme, blocked decreases in IDH1 expression and activity. © 2012 Japanese Cancer Association.

  10. Effect of hypoxia mimetic cobalt chloride on the expression of extracellular-superoxide dismutase in retinal pericytes.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Tetsuo; Aida, Kazunari; Nishihara, Hiroko; Kamiya, Tetsuro; Hara, Hirokazu

    2011-01-01

    The initial clinical stage of diabetic retinopathy (DR) is characterized by the development of intraretinal microvascular abnormalities. The increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is thought to be a key event in the pathogenesis of DR. Extracellular-superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is an anti-inflammatory enzyme that is distributed mainly in vascular cells and protects cells from ROS by scavenging superoxide anion. Treatment with cobalt chloride (CoCl(2)) decreased the expression of EC-SOD but not other SOD isozymes in pericytes accompanied with an increase of intracellular ROS production. Pre-treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly suppressed the ROS production and down-regulation of EC-SOD. We observed the activation of caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation as signs of apoptotic process by CoCl(2) treatment. In addition, these phenomena were significantly inhibited by pre-treatment with NAC. EC-SOD enhancer 4-phenyl butyric acid also suppressed the caspase-3 activation. It is known that the presence of a high level of EC-SOD throughout the vessel walls might have an important protective role against superoxide in the vascular system. The decrease in EC-SOD expression accompanied with elevation of ROS level in pericytes under hypoxia might induce and/or promote the ROS-triggered apoptosis of pericytes and the development of pathogenesis in DR.

  11. Extraction of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and carbonic anhydrase from stroma-free red blood cell hemolysate for the preparation of the nanobiotechnological complex of polyhemoglobin-superoxide dismutase-catalase-carbonic anhydrase.

    PubMed

    Guo, C; Gynn, M; Chang, T M S

    2015-06-01

    We report a novel method to simultaneously extract superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and carbonic anhydrase (CA) from the same sample of red blood cells (RBCs). This avoids the need to use expensive commercial enzymes, thus enabling a cost-effective process for large-scale production of a nanobiotechnological polyHb-SOD-CAT-CA complex, with enhancement of all three red blood cell functions. An optimal concentration of phosphate buffer for ethanol-chloroform treatment results in good recovery of CAT, SOD, and CA after extraction. Different concentrations of the enzymes can be used to enhance the activity of polyHb-SOD-CAT-CA to 2, 4, or 6 times that of RBC.

  12. Cissus quadrangularis ethanol extract upregulates superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in hydrogen peroxide-injured human ECV304 cells.

    PubMed

    Sapsrithong, Tarat; Kaewprem, Weeraya; Tongumpai, Sarunya; Nusuetrong, Punnee; Meksuriyen, Duangdeun

    2012-09-28

    Cissus quadrangularis has been widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of hemorrhoid. However, the detailed mechanism of antioxidant defense of C. quadrangularis in endothelial cells under oxidative stress remains unclear. The present study aims to elucidate the protective role of ethanol extract of C. quadrangularis (CQE) including its constituents, quercetin and resveratrol, on hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-injured human umbilical vein endothelial ECV304 cells. Viability, genotoxicity and protein expression of ECV304 cells were analyzed by MTT, alkaline comet and Western blot, respectively. Production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined using dichlorofluorescein fluorescence dye. After exposing cells to CQE containing quercetin and resveratrol, DNA damage was not observed. CQE including quercetin and resveratrol significantly attenuated ROS in H(2)O(2)-injured ECV304 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The protein expression of superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) increased in the cells treated with CQE, quercetin or resveratrol prior to H(2)O(2) exposure, as compared with control. The results provide a molecular mechanism of C. quadrangularis, which could be partially related to quercetin and resveratrol, in restoring ROS in endothelial cells through the upregulation of Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, GPx and eNOS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Allium flavum L. and Allium melanantherum Panč. Extracts on Oxidative DNA Damage and Antioxidative Enzymes Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase.

    PubMed

    Mitić-Ćulafić, Dragana; Nikolić, Biljana; Simin, Nataša; Jasnić, Nebojša; Četojević-Simin, Dragana; Krstić, Maja; Knežević-Vukčević, Jelena

    2016-03-01

    Allium flavum L. and Allium melanantherum Panč. are wild growing plants used in traditional diet in Balkan region. While chemical composition and some biological activities of A. flavum have been reported, A. melanantherum, as an endemic in the Balkan Peninsula, has never been comprehensively examined. After chemical characterization of A. melanantherum, we examined the protective effect of methanol extracts of both species against t-butyl hydro-peroxide (t-BOOH)-induced DNA damage and mutagenesis. The bacterial reverse mutation assay was performed on Escherichia coli WP2 oxyR strain. DNA damage was monitored in human fetal lung fibroblasts (MRC-5) with alkaline comet assay. Obtained results indicated that extracts reduced t-BOOH-induced DNA damage up to 70 and 72% for A. flavum and A. melanantherum extract, respectively, and showed no effect on t-BOOH-induced mutagenesis. Since the results indicated modulatory effect on cell-mediated antioxidative defense, the effect of extracts on total protein content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) amounts and activities were monitored. Both extracts increased total protein content, while the increase of enzyme amount and activity was obtained only with A. melanantherum extract and restricted to CAT. The activity of CuZnSOD family was not affected, while SOD1 and SOD2 amounts were significantly decreased, indicating potential involvement of extracellular CuZnSOD. Obtained results strongly support the traditional use of A. flavum and A. melanantherum in nutrition and recommend them for further study.

  14. Protein charge ladders reveal that the net charge of ALS-linked superoxide dismutase can be different in sign and magnitude from predicted values

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yunhua; Abdolvahabi, Alireza; Shaw, Bryan F

    2014-01-01

    This article utilized “protein charge ladders”—chemical derivatives of proteins with similar structure, but systematically altered net charge—to quantify how missense mutations that cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) affect the net negative charge (Z) of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) as a function of subcellular pH and Zn2+ stoichiometry. Capillary electrophoresis revealed that the net charge of ALS-variant SOD1 can be different in sign and in magnitude—by up to 7.4 units per dimer at lysosomal pH—than values predicted from standard pKa values of amino acids and formal oxidation states of metal ions. At pH 7.4, the G85R, D90A, and G93R substitutions diminished the net negative charge of dimeric SOD1 by up to +2.29 units more than predicted; E100K lowered net charge by less than predicted. The binding of a single Zn2+ to mutant SOD1 lowered its net charge by an additional +2.33 ± 0.01 to +3.18 ± 0.02 units, however, each protein regulated net charge when binding a second, third, or fourth Zn2+ (ΔZ < 0.44 ± 0.07 per additional Zn2+). Both metalated and apo-SOD1 regulated net charge across subcellular pH, without inverting from negative to positive at the theoretical pI. Differential scanning calorimetry, hydrogen-deuterium exchange, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry confirmed that the structure, stability, and metal content of mutant proteins were not significantly affected by lysine acetylation. Measured values of net charge should be used when correlating the biophysical properties of a specific ALS-variant SOD1 protein with its observed aggregation propensity or clinical phenotype. PMID:25052939

  15. Enhanced Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging by Overproduction of Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase Delays Postharvest Physiological Deterioration of Cassava Storage Roots1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jia; Duan, Xiaoguang; Yang, Jun; Beeching, John R.; Zhang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) of cassava (Manihot esculenta) storage roots is the result of a rapid oxidative burst, which leads to discoloration of the vascular tissues due to the oxidation of phenolic compounds. In this study, coexpression of the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging enzymes copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (MeCu/ZnSOD) and catalase (MeCAT1) in transgenic cassava was used to explore the intrinsic relationship between ROS scavenging and PPD occurrence. Transgenic cassava plants integrated with the expression cassette p54::MeCu/ZnSOD-35S::MeCAT1 were confirmed by Southern-blot analysis. The expression of MeCu/ZnSOD and MeCAT1 was verified by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzymatic activity analysis both in the leaves and storage roots. Under exposure to the ROS-generating reagent methyl viologen or to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the transgenic plants showed higher enzymatic activities of SOD and CAT than the wild-type plants. Levels of malondialdehyde, chlorophyll degradation, lipid peroxidation, and H2O2 accumulation were dramatically reduced in the transgenic lines compared with the wild type. After harvest, the storage roots of transgenic cassava lines show a delay in their PPD response of at least 10 d, accompanied by less mitochondrial oxidation and H2O2 accumulation, compared with those of the wild type. We hypothesize that this is due to the combined ectopic expression of Cu/ZnSOD and CAT leading to an improved synergistic ROS-scavenging capacity of the roots. Our study not only sheds light on the mechanism of the PPD process but also develops an effective approach for delaying the occurrence of PPD in cassava. PMID:23344905

  16. An FD-LC-MS/MS Proteomic Strategy for Revealing Cellular Protein Networks: A Conditional Superoxide Dismutase 1 Knockout Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ichibangase, Tomoko; Sugawara, Yasuhiro; Yamabe, Akio; Koshiyama, Akiyo; Yoshimura, Akari; Enomoto, Takemi; Imai, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Systems biology aims to understand biological phenomena in terms of complex biological and molecular interactions, and thus proteomics plays an important role in elucidating protein networks. However, many proteomic methods have suffered from their high variability, resulting in only showing altered protein names. Here, we propose a strategy for elucidating cellular protein networks based on an FD-LC-MS/MS proteomic method. The strategy permits reproducible relative quantitation of differences in protein levels between different cell populations and allows for integration of the data with those obtained through other methods. We demonstrate the validity of the approach through a comparison of differential protein expression in normal and conditional superoxide dismutase 1 gene knockout cells and believe that beginning with an FD-LC-MS/MS proteomic approach will enable researchers to elucidate protein networks more easily and comprehensively. PMID:23029042

  17. Effects of macromolecular crowding on the structure of a protein complex: A small-angle scattering study of superoxide dismutase

    DOE PAGES

    Rajapaksha, Ajith; Stanley, Christopher B.; Todd, Brian A.

    2015-02-17

    Macromolecular crowding can alter the structure and function of biological macromolecules. We used small angle scattering (SAS) to measure the change in size of a protein complex, superoxide dismutase (SOD), induced by macromolecular crowding. Crowding was induced using 400 MW polyethylene glycol (PEG), triethylene glycol (TEG), methyl- -glucoside ( -MG) and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO). Parallel small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) allowed us to unambiguously attribute apparent changes in radius of gyration to changes in the structure of SOD. For a 40% PEG solution, we find that the volume of SOD was reduced by 9%.more » Considering the osmotic pressure due to PEG, this deformation corresponds to a highly compressible structure. SAXS done in the presence of TEG suggests that for further deformation beyond a 9% decrease in volume the resistance to deformation may increase dramatically.« less

  18. Activity of superoxide dismutase in Galleria mellonella larvae infected with entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema affinis and S. feltiae.

    PubMed

    Zółtowska, Krystyna; Grochla, Paulina; Łopieńska-Biernat, Elzbieta

    2006-01-01

    The influence of infection with two species of entomopathogenic nematodes of Steinernematidae family on the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) of the host was studied. Last instar larvae of Galleria mellonella were experimentally infected with Steinernema affinis and S. feltiae at 20 invasive juveniles per insect. At 6, 12, 18, 24 and 36 h after infection activity of SOD was determined in extracts from infected and control insects. The activity of SOD decreased gradually in the controls during the experiment. The activity of enzyme was 2-4-times higher in insects from both infected groups than in the control. During the first 12 h of infection the activity of SOD in insects infected with S. feltiae was higher than in those infected with S. affinis, then the activity of enzyme in the insects of both infected groups stayed at a similar level. A significant decrease of SOD activity in infected was recorded in second day of the infection.

  19. Tryptophan 32 potentiates aggregation and cytotoxicity of a copper/zinc superoxide dismutase mutant associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Taylor, David M; Gibbs, Bernard F; Kabashi, Edor; Minotti, Sandra; Durham, Heather D; Agar, Jeffrey N

    2007-06-01

    One familial form of the neurodegenerative disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, is caused by gain-of-function mutations in the gene encoding copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD-1). This study provides in vivo evidence that normally occurring oxidative modification to SOD-1 promotes aggregation and toxicity of mutant proteins. The oxidation of Trp-32 was identified as a normal modification being present in both wild-type enzyme and SOD-1 with the disease-causing mutation, G93A, isolated from erythrocytes. Mutating Trp-32 to a residue with a slower rate of oxidative modification, phenylalanine, decreased both the cytotoxicity of mutant SOD-1 and its propensity to form cytoplasmic inclusions in motor neurons of dissociated mouse spinal cord cultures.

  20. Response of superoxide dismutase isoenzymes in tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) during thermo-acclimation of the photosynthetic apparatus.

    PubMed

    Camejo, Daymi; Martí, María del C; Nicolás, Emilio; Alarcón, Juan J; Jiménez, Ana; Sevilla, Francisca

    2007-11-01

    Seedlings of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. Amalia were grown in a growth chamber under a photoperiod of 16 h light at 25 degrees C and 8 h dark at 20 degrees C. Five different treatments were applied to 30-day-old plants: Control treatment (plants maintained in the normal growth conditions throughout the experimental time), heat acclimation (plants exposed to 35 degrees C for 4 h in dark for 3 days), dark treatment (plants exposed to 25 degrees C for 4 h in dark for 3 days), heat acclimation plus heat shock (plants that previously received the heat acclimation treatment were exposed to 45 degrees C air temperature for 3 h in the light) and dark treatment plus heat shock (plants that previously received the dark treatment were exposed to 45 degrees C air temperature for 3 h in the light). Only the heat acclimation treatment increased the thermotolerance of the photosynthesis apparatus when the heat shock (45 degrees C) was imposed. In these plants, the CO(2) assimilation rate was not affected by heat shock and there was a slight and non-significant reduction in maximum carboxylation velocity of Rubisco (V(cmax)) and maximum electron transport rate contributing to Rubisco regeneration (J(max)). However, the plants exposed to dark treatment plus heat shock showed a significant reduction in the CO(2) assimilation rate and also in the values of V(cmax) and J(max). Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements showed increased thermotolerance in heat-acclimated plants. The values of maximum chlorophyll fluorescence (F(m)) were not modified by heat shock in these plants, while in the dark-treated plants that received the heat shock, the F(m) values were reduced, which provoked a significant reduction in the efficiency of photosystem II. A slight rise in the total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was found in the plants that had been subjected to both heat acclimation and heat shock, and this SOD activity was significantly higher than that found in the plants subjected to

  1. Targeting superoxide dismutase to endothelial caveolae profoundly alleviates inflammation caused by endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Shuvaev, Vladimir V; Kiseleva, Raisa Yu; Arguiri, Evguenia; Villa, Carlos H; Muro, Silvia; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo; Stan, Radu V; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2018-02-28

    Inflammatory mediators binding to Toll-Like receptors (TLR) induce an influx of superoxide anion in the ensuing endosomes. In endothelial cells, endosomal surplus of superoxide causes pro-inflammatory activation and TLR4 agonists act preferentially via caveolae-derived endosomes. To test the hypothesis that SOD delivery to caveolae may specifically inhibit this pathological pathway, we conjugated SOD with antibodies (Ab/SOD, size ~10nm) to plasmalemmal vesicle-associated protein (Plvap) that is specifically localized to endothelial caveolae in vivo and compared its effects to non-caveolar target CD31/PECAM-1. Plvap Ab/SOD bound to endothelial cells in culture with much lower efficacy than CD31 Ab/SOD, yet blocked the effects of LPS signaling with higher efficiency than CD31 Ab/SOD. Disruption of cholesterol-rich membrane domains by filipin inhibits Plvap Ab/SOD endocytosis and LPS signaling, implicating the caveolae-dependent pathway(s) in both processes. Both Ab/SOD conjugates targeted to Plvap and CD31 accumulated in the lungs after IV injection in mice, but the former more profoundly inhibited LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation and elevation of plasma level of interferon-beta and -gamma and interleukin-27. Taken together, these results indicate that targeted delivery of SOD to specific cellular compartments may offer effective, mechanistically precise interception of pro-inflammatory signaling mediated by reactive oxygen species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Two novel cyanobacterial bioluminescent whole-cell bioreporters based on superoxide dismutases MnSod and FeSod to detect superoxide anion.

    PubMed

    Hurtado-Gallego, J; Martín-Betancor, K; Rodea-Palomares, I; Leganés, F; Rosal, R; Fernández-Piñas, F

    2018-06-01

    This work describes the construction of two novel self-luminescent bioreporter strains of the cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 by fusing the promoter region of the sodA and sodB genes (encoding the superoxide dismutases MnSod and FeSod, respectively) to luxCDABE from Photorhabdus luminescens aimed at detecting pollutants that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly O 2 - . Bioreporters were tested against methyl viologen (MV) as the inducer of superoxide anion (O 2 - ). Both bioreporters were specific for O 2 - and Limits of detection (LODs) and Maximum Permissive Concentrations (MPCs) were calculated: Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 pBG2154 (sodA) had a range of detection from 400 to 1000 pM of MV and for Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 pBG2165 (sodB) the range of detection was from 500 to 1800 pM of MV after 5 h-exposure. To further validate the bioreporters, they were tested with the emerging pollutant Triclosan which induced bioluminescence in both strains. Furthermore, the bioreporters performance was tested in two real environmental samples with different water matrix complexity, spiked with MV. Both bioreporters were induced by O 2 - in these environmental samples. In the case of the river water sample, the amount of bioavailable MV as calculated from the bioreporters output was similar to that nominally added. For the waste water sample, the bioavailable MV concentration detected by the bioreporters was one order of magnitude lower than nominal. These differences could be due to MV complexation with organic matter and/or co-occurring organic contaminants. These results confirm their high sensitivity to O 2 - and their suitability to detect oxidative stress-generating pollutants in fresh-waters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of Mn-superoxide dismutase and catalase gene expression in childhood obesity: its association with insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Mohseni, Roohollah; Arab Sadeghabadi, Zahra; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi; Teimouri, Maryam; Nourbakhsh, Mitra; Razzaghy Azar, Maryam

    2018-06-28

    Obesity is associated with oxidative stress. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is the first line of defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS), eliminating the strong superoxide radical and producing H2O2, which can then be degraded by catalase (CAT). The main objective of this study was to evaluate the gene expression antioxidant enzymes (Mn-SOD and CAT) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of obese and normal-weight children, and its association with anthropometric and biochemical parameters. Thirty obese and 30 control subjects between the ages of 8 and 16 years were enrolled in this study. Serum insulin levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and insulin resistance was calculated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Biochemical parameters were also measured. PBMCs of the subjects were separated and Mn-SOD and CAT gene expression was measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Mn-SOD and CAT gene expression was significantly lower in the obese group compared with the control group (p<0.01). Also, a positive correlation was observed between the gene expression of Mn-SOD and CAT and body mass index (BMI), fasting blood sugar, insulin resistance, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) cholesterol, triglycerides (TG) and systolic blood pressure (SBP). Induction of antioxidants, especially Mn-SOD and CAT, can lead to reduction of oxidative stress and prevent the complications of obesity in children.

  4. Copper binding by tetrathiomolybdate attenuates angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation through the inhibition of superoxide dismutase 1.

    PubMed

    Juarez, Jose C; Betancourt, Oscar; Pirie-Shepherd, Steven R; Guan, Xiaojun; Price, Melissa L; Shaw, David E; Mazar, Andrew P; Doñate, Fernando

    2006-08-15

    A second-generation tetrathiomolybdate analogue (ATN-224; choline tetrathiomolybdate), which selectively binds copper with high affinity, is currently completing two phase I clinical trials in patients with advanced solid and advanced hematologic malignancies. However, there is very little information about the mechanism of action of ATN-224 at the molecular level. The effects of ATN-224 on endothelial and tumor cell growth were evaluated in cell culture experiments in vitro. The antiangiogenic activity of ATN-224 was investigated using the Matrigel plug model of angiogenesis. ATN-224 inhibits superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) in tumor and endothelial cells. The inhibition of SOD1 leads to inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation in vitro and attenuation of angiogenesis in vivo. The inhibition of SOD1 activity in endothelial cells is dose and time dependent and leads to an increase in the steady-state levels of superoxide anions, resulting in the inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation without apparent induction of apoptosis. In contrast, the inhibition of SOD1 in tumor cells leads to the induction of apoptosis. The effects of ATN-224 on endothelial and tumor cells could be substantially reversed using Mn(III)tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin chloride, a catalytic small-molecule SOD mimetic. These data provide a distinct molecular target for the activity of ATN-224 and provide validation for SOD1 as a target for the inhibition of angiogenesis and tumor growth.

  5. Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)-mimetic M40403 Is Protective in Cell and Fly Models of Paraquat Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Filograna, Roberta; Godena, Vinay K.; Sanchez-Martinez, Alvaro; Ferrari, Emanuele; Casella, Luigi; Beltramini, Mariano; Bubacco, Luigi; Whitworth, Alexander J.; Bisaglia, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson disease is a debilitating and incurable neurodegenerative disorder affecting ∼1–2% of people over 65 years of age. Oxidative damage is considered to play a central role in the progression of Parkinson disease and strong evidence links chronic exposure to the pesticide paraquat with the incidence of the disease, most probably through the generation of oxidative damage. In this work, we demonstrated in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells the beneficial role of superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes against paraquat-induced toxicity, as well as the therapeutic potential of the SOD-mimetic compound M40403. Having verified the beneficial effects of superoxide dismutation in cells, we then evaluated the effects using Drosophila melanogaster as an in vivo model. Besides protecting against the oxidative damage induced by paraquat treatment, our data demonstrated that in Drosophila M40403 was able to compensate for the loss of endogenous SOD enzymes, acting both at a cytosolic and mitochondrial level. Because previous clinical trials have indicated that the M40403 molecule is well tolerated in humans, this study may have important implication for the treatment of Parkinson disease. PMID:26953346

  6. The relationship of the lipoprotein SsaB, manganese and superoxide dismutase in Streptococcus sanguinis virulence for endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Crump, Katie E; Bainbridge, Brian; Brusko, Sarah; Turner, Lauren S; Ge, Xiuchun; Stone, Victoria; Xu, Ping; Kitten, Todd

    2014-06-01

    Streptococcus sanguinis colonizes teeth and is an important cause of infective endocarditis. Our prior work showed that the lipoprotein SsaB is critical for S. sanguinis virulence for endocarditis and belongs to the LraI family of conserved metal transporters. In this study, we demonstrated that an ssaB mutant accumulates less manganese and iron than its parent. A mutant lacking the manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase, SodA, was significantly less virulent than wild-type in a rabbit model of endocarditis, but significantly more virulent than the ssaB mutant. Neither the ssaB nor the sodA mutation affected sensitivity to phagocytic killing or efficiency of heart valve colonization. Animal virulence results for all strains could be reproduced by growing bacteria in serum under physiological levels of O(2). SodA activity was reduced, but not eliminated in the ssaB mutant in serum and in rabbits. Growth of the ssaB mutant in serum was restored upon addition of Mn(2+) or removal of O(2). Antioxidant supplementation experiments suggested that superoxide and hydroxyl radicals were together responsible for the ssaB mutant's growth defect. We conclude that manganese accumulation mediated by the SsaB transport system imparts virulence by enabling cell growth in oxygen through SodA-dependent and independent mechanisms. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The Relationship of the Lipoprotein SsaB, Manganese, and Superoxide Dismutase in Streptococcus sanguinis Virulence for Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Crump, Katie E.; Bainbridge, Brian; Brusko, Sarah; Turner, Lauren S.; Ge, Xiuchun; Stone, Victoria; Xu, Ping; Kitten, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Summary Streptococcus sanguinis colonizes teeth and is an important cause of infective endocarditis. Our prior work showed that the lipoprotein SsaB is critical for S. sanguinis virulence for endocarditis and belongs to the LraI family of conserved metal transporters. In this study, we demonstrated that an ssaB mutant accumulates less manganese and iron than its parent. A mutant lacking the manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase, SodA, was significantly less virulent than wild-type in a rabbit model of endocarditis, but significantly more virulent than the ssaB mutant. Neither the ssaB nor the sodA mutation affected sensitivity to phagocytic killing or efficiency of heart valve colonization. Animal virulence results for all strains could be reproduced by growing bacteria in serum under physiological levels of O2. SodA activity was reduced, but not eliminated in the ssaB mutant in serum and in rabbits. Growth of the ssaB mutant in serum was restored upon addition of Mn2+ or removal of O2. Antioxidant supplementation experiments suggested that superoxide and hydroxyl radicals were together responsible for the ssaB mutant’s growth defect. We conclude that manganese accumulation mediated by the SsaB transport system imparts virulence by enabling cell growth in oxygen through SodA-dependent and independent mechanisms. PMID:24750294

  8. Escherichia coli avoids high dissolved oxygen stress by activation of SoxRS and manganese-superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Baez, Antonino; Shiloach, Joseph

    2013-03-12

    High concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were reported to cause oxidative stress to E. coli cells associated with reduced or inhibited growth. The high ROS concentrations described in these reports were generated by exposing the bacteria to H2O2 and superoxide-generating chemicals which are non-physiological growth conditions. However, the effect of molecular oxygen on oxidative stress response has not been evaluated. Since the use of oxygen-enriched air is a common strategy to support high density growth of E. coli, it was important to investigate the effect of high dissolved oxygen concentrations on the physiology and growth of E. coli and the way it responds to oxidative stress. To determine the effect of elevated oxygen concentrations on the growth characteristics, specific gene expression and enzyme activity in E. coli, the parental and SOD-deficient strain were evaluated when the dissolved oxygen (dO2) level was increased from 30% to 300%. No significant differences in the growth parameters were observed in the parental strain except for a temporary decrease of the respiration and acetate accumulation profile. By performing transcriptional analysis, it was determined that the parental strain responded to the oxidative stress by activating the SoxRS regulon. However, following the dO2 switch, the SOD-deficient strain activated both the SoxRS and OxyR regulons but it was unable to resume its initial growth rate. The transcriptional analysis and enzyme activity results indicated that when E. coli is exposed to dO2 shift, the superoxide stress regulator SoxRS is activated and causes the stimulation of the superoxide dismutase system. This enables the E. coli to protect itself from the poisoning effects of oxygen. The OxyR protecting system was not activated, indicating that H2O2 did not increase to stressing levels.

  9. Escherichia coli avoids high dissolved oxygen stress by activation of SoxRS and manganese-superoxide dismutase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were reported to cause oxidative stress to E. coli cells associated with reduced or inhibited growth. The high ROS concentrations described in these reports were generated by exposing the bacteria to H2O2 and superoxide-generating chemicals which are non-physiological growth conditions. However, the effect of molecular oxygen on oxidative stress response has not been evaluated. Since the use of oxygen-enriched air is a common strategy to support high density growth of E. coli, it was important to investigate the effect of high dissolved oxygen concentrations on the physiology and growth of E. coli and the way it responds to oxidative stress. Results To determine the effect of elevated oxygen concentrations on the growth characteristics, specific gene expression and enzyme activity in E. coli, the parental and SOD-deficient strain were evaluated when the dissolved oxygen (dO2) level was increased from 30% to 300%. No significant differences in the growth parameters were observed in the parental strain except for a temporary decrease of the respiration and acetate accumulation profile. By performing transcriptional analysis, it was determined that the parental strain responded to the oxidative stress by activating the SoxRS regulon. However, following the dO2 switch, the SOD-deficient strain activated both the SoxRS and OxyR regulons but it was unable to resume its initial growth rate. Conclusion The transcriptional analysis and enzyme activity results indicated that when E. coli is exposed to dO2 shift, the superoxide stress regulator SoxRS is activated and causes the stimulation of the superoxide dismutase system. This enables the E. coli to protect itself from the poisoning effects of oxygen. The OxyR protecting system was not activated, indicating that H2O2 did not increase to stressing levels. PMID:23497217

  10. Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein-Activated c-Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase Regulates Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Takabe, Wakako; Li, Rongsong; Ai, Lisong; Yu, Fei; Berliner, Judith A.; Hsiai, Tzung K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) modulates intracellular redox status and induces apoptosis in endothelial cells. However, the signal pathways and molecular mechanism remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) on oxLDL-induced apoptosis via c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK)-mediated ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. Methods and Results OxLDL induced JNK phosphorylation that peaked at 30 minutes in human aortic endothelial cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis revealed that oxLDL increased mitochondrial superoxide production by 1.88±0.19-fold and mitochondrial membrane potential by 18%. JNK small interference RNA (siJNK) reduced oxLDL-induced mitochondrial superoxide production by 88.4% and mitochondrial membrane potential by 61.7%. OxLDL did not affect Mn-SOD mRNA expression, but it significantly reduced Mn-SOD protein level, which was restored by siJNK. Immunoprecipitation by ubiquitin antibody revealed that oxLDL increased ubiquitination of Mn-SOD, which was inhibited by siJNK. OxLDL-induced caspase-3 activities were also attenuated by siJNK but were enhanced by Mn-SOD small interfering RNA. Furthermore, overexpression of Mn-SOD abrogated oxLDL-induced caspase-3 activities. Conclusion OxLDL-induced JNK activation regulates mitochondrial redox status and Mn-SOD protein degradation via JNK-dependent ubiquitination, leading to endothelial cell apoptosis. PMID:20139358

  11. Senescence marker protein-30/superoxide dismutase 1 double knockout mice exhibit increased oxidative stress and hepatic steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Yoshitaka; Masutomi, Hirofumi; Noda, Yoshihiro; Ozawa, Yusuke; Takahashi, Keita; Handa, Setsuko; Maruyama, Naoki; Shimizu, Takahiko; Ishigami, Akihito

    2014-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is an antioxidant enzyme that converts superoxide anion radicals into hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. The senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) is a gluconolactonase that functions as an antioxidant protein in mammals due to its involvement in ascorbic acid (AA) biosynthesis. SMP30 also participates in Ca2+ efflux by activating the calmodulin-dependent Ca2+-pump. To reveal the role of oxidative stress in lipid metabolism defects occurring in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease pathogenesis, we generated SMP30/SOD1-double knockout (SMP30/SOD1-DKO) mice and investigated their survival curves, plasma and hepatic lipid profiles, amounts of hepatic oxidative stress, and hepatic protein levels expressed by genes related to lipid metabolism. While SMP30/SOD1-DKO pups had no growth retardation by 14 days of age, they did have low plasma and hepatic AA levels. Thereafter, 39% and 53% of male and female pups died by 15–24 and 89 days of age, respectively. Compared to wild type, SMP30-KO and SOD1-KO mice, by 14 days SMP30/SOD1-DKO mice exhibited: (1) higher plasma levels of triglyceride and aspartate aminotransferase; (2) severe accumulation of hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol; (3) higher levels of superoxide anion radicals and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in livers; and (4) decreased mRNA and protein levels of Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) in livers – ApoB is an essential component of VLDL secretion. These results suggest that high levels of oxidative stress due to concomitant deficiency of SMP30 and/or AA, and SOD1 cause abnormal plasma lipid metabolism, hepatic lipid accumulation and premature death resulting from impaired VLDL secretion. PMID:25003023

  12. The structure of the Caenorhabditis elegans manganese superoxide dismutase MnSOD-3-azide complex

    DOE PAGES

    Hunter, Gary J.; Trinh, Chi H.; Bonetta, Rosalin; ...

    2015-08-27

    C. elegans MnSOD-3 has been implicated in the longevity pathway and its mechanism of catalysis is relevant to the aging process and carcinogenesis. The structures of MnSOD-3 provide unique crystallographic evidence of a dynamic region of the tetrameric interface (residues 41–54). We have determined the structure of the MnSOD-3-azide complex to 1.77-Å resolution. The analysis of this complex shows that the substrate analog, azide, binds end-on to the manganese center as a sixth ligand and that it ligates directly to a third and new solvent molecule also positioned within interacting distance to the His30 and Tyr34 residues of the substratemore » access funnel. This is the first structure of a eukaryotic MnSOD-azide complex that demonstrates the extended, uninterrupted hydrogen-bonded network that forms a proton relay incorporating three outer sphere solvent molecules, the substrate analog, the gateway residues, Gln142, and the solvent ligand. This configuration supports the formation and release of the hydrogen peroxide product in agreement with the 5-6-5 catalytic mechanism for MnSOD. The high product dissociation constant k₄ of MnSOD-3 reflects low product inhibition making this enzyme efficient even at high levels of superoxide.« less

  13. Mononuclear nonheme iron(III) complexes that show superoxide dismutase-like activity and antioxidant effects against menadione-mediated oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Hitomi, Yutaka; Iwamoto, Yuji; Kashida, Akihiro; Kodera, Masahito

    2015-05-21

    This communication describes the superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity of mononuclear iron(III) complexes with pentadentate monocarboxylamido ligands. The SOD activity can be controlled by the electronic nature of the substituent group on the ligand. The nitro-substituted complex showed clear cytoprotective activity against menadione-mediated oxidative stress in cultured cells.

  14. Adaptation of Staphylococcus aureus to Airway Environments in Patients With Cystic Fibrosis by Upregulation of Superoxide Dismutase M and Iron-Scavenging Proteins.

    PubMed

    Treffon, Janina; Block, Desiree; Moche, Martin; Reiss, Swantje; Fuchs, Stephan; Engelmann, Susanne; Becher, Dörte; Langhanki, Lars; Mellmann, Alexander; Peters, Georg; Kahl, Barbara C

    2018-04-11

    Adaptation of S. aureus to the hostile environment of CF airways resulted in changed abundance of proteins involved in energy metabolism, cellular processes, transport and binding, but most importantly in an iron-scavenging phenotype and increased activity of superoxide dismutase M.

  15. Bioassay-comparison of the antioxidant efficacy of hydrogen sulfide and superoxide dismutase in isolated arteries and veins.

    PubMed

    Hamar, J; Solymár, M; Tanai, E; Cseplo, P; Springo, Zs; Berta, G; Debreceni, B; Koller, Akos

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) exhibits potent antioxidant capacity and improves vascular and tissue functions. Thus we aimed to compare the antioxidant efficacy of H2S to that of superoxide dismutase (SOD).Isometric force of isolated rat carotid arteries and gracilis veins was measured with a myograph. The vasomotor effect of the superoxide-generator pyrogallol (10-5M) was obtained in control conditions, and then in the presence of SOD (120 U/ml) or H2S (10-5M or 10-4M), respectively. Spectrophotometric measurements were performed to detect the effect of SOD and H2S on the auto-oxidation of pyrogallol.Pyrogallol increased the isometric force of carotid arteries (9.7 ± 0.8 mN), which was abolished by SOD (5.3 ± 0.8 mN), was not affected by 10-5M H2S (9.1 ± 0.5 mN), whereas 10-4M H2S slightly, but significantly reduced it (8.1 ± 0.7 mN). Pyrogallol significantly increased the isometric force of gracilis veins (1.3 ± 0.2 mN), which was abolished by SOD (0.9 ± 0.2 mN), whereas 10-5M (1.3 ± 0.2 mN), or 10-4M H2S (1.2 ± 0.2 mN) did not affect it. Pyrogallol-induced superoxide production was measured by a spectrophotometer (A420 = 0.19 ± 0.0). SOD reduced absorbance (A420 = 0.02 ± 0.0), whereas 10-5M H2S did not (A420 = 0.18 ± 0.0) and 10-4M H2S slightly reduced it (A420 = 0.15 ± 0.0).These data suggest that H2S is a less effective vascular antioxidant than SOD. We propose that the previously described beneficial effects of H2S are unlikely to be related to its direct effect on superoxide.

  16. Models for the mechanism for activating copper-zinc superoxide dismutase in the absence of the CCS Cu chaperone in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Hsun; Kuo, Wen-Yu; Jinn, Tsung-Luo

    2012-03-01

    Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD; CSD) is an important antioxidant enzyme for oxidative stress protection. To date, two activation pathways have been identified in many species. One requiring the CCS, Cu chaperone for SOD, to insert Cu and activate CSD (referred to as CCS-dependent pathway), and the other works independently of CCS (referred to as CCS-independent pathway). In our previous study, we suggest an unidentified factor will work with glutathione (GSH) for CSD activation in the absence of the CCS. Here, two models of the CCS-independent mechanism are proposed. The role of the unidentified factor may work as a scaffold protein, which provides a platform for the CSD protein and Cu-GSH to interact, or as a Cu carrier, which itself can bind Cu and interact with CSD proteins. We also suggest that the CSD protein conformation at C-terminal is important in providing a docking site for unidentified factor to access.

  17. A germin-like protein with superoxide dismutase activity in pea nodules with high protein sequence identity to a putative rhicadhesin receptor.

    PubMed

    Gucciardo, Sébastian; Wisniewski, Jean-Pierre; Brewin, Nicholas J; Bornemann, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The cDNAs encoding three germin-like proteins (PsGER1, PsGER2a, and PsGER2b) were isolated from Pisum sativum. The coding sequence of PsGER1 transiently expressed in tobacco leaves gave a protein with superoxide dismutase activity but no detectable oxalate oxidase activity according to in-gel activity stains. The transient expression of wheat germin gf-2.8 oxalate oxidase showed oxalate oxidase but no superoxide dismutase activity under the same conditions. The superoxide dismutase activity of PsGER1 was resistant to high temperature, denaturation by detergent, and high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. In salt-stressed pea roots, a heat-resistant superoxide dismutase activity was observed with an electrophoretic mobility similar to that of the PsGER1 protein, but this activity was below the detection limit in non-stressed or H(2)O(2)-stressed pea roots. Oxalate oxidase activity was not detected in either pea roots or nodules. Following in situ hybridization in developing pea nodules, PsGER1 transcript was detected in expanding cells just proximal to the meristematic zone and also in the epidermis, but to a lesser extent. PsGER1 is the first known germin-like protein with superoxide dismutase activity to be associated with nodules. It shared protein sequence identity with the N-terminal sequence of a putative plant receptor for rhicadhesin, a bacterial attachment protein. However, its primary location in nodules suggests functional roles other than as a rhicadhesin receptor required for the first stage of bacterial attachment to root hairs.

  18. Myocardial protective effect of extracellular superoxide dismutase gene modified bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells on infarcted mice hearts.

    PubMed

    Pan, Qiao; Qin, Xing; Ma, Sai; Wang, Haichang; Cheng, Kang; Song, Xinxing; Gao, Haokao; Wang, Qiang; Tao, Rannie; Wang, Yabin; Li, Xiujuan; Xiong, Lize; Cao, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) is a unique scavenger of superoxide anions and a promising target of gene therapy for ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R). However, conventional gene therapies have limitation in effectiveness and efficiency. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of ecSOD gene modified bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) on cardiac function improvement in mice infarcted heart. BMSCs were isolated from Fluc(+) transgenic mice (Tg FVB[Fluc(+)]) and transfected by adenovirus combined with human ecSOD gene. ELISA was performed to determine ecSOD protein level. Female syngeneic FVB mice were randomized into 5 groups: (1) Sham group (sham); (2) MI group (MI); (3) MI+BMSCs group (BMSC); (4) MI+BMSCs-vector group (BMSC-vector); (5) MI+ BMSCs-ecSOD group (BMSC-ecSOD). MI was accomplished by ligation of the left anterior descending artery. BMSCs (2 x 10(6)) were injected into the border zone of infarction. In vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI) was performed to monitor transplanted BMSCs viability. Echocardiography and histological staining revealed that BMSCs-ecSOD significantly reduced myocardial infarction size and improved cardiac function. Lucigenin chemiluminescence, DHE and TUNEL staining demonstrated that BMSCs-ecSOD delivery reduced ROS level and cell apoptosis both in vivo and in vitro. Western blot assay revealed that ecSOD supplementation increased FoxO3a phosphorylation in cardiomyocytes. Moreover, quantitative real-time PCR showed that pro-apoptotic factors (bim and bax) were decreased while the anti-apoptotic factor mir-21 expression was increased after ecSOD intervention. Intra-myocardial transplantation of adenovirus-ecSOD transfected BMSCs could exert potential cardiac protection against MI, which may be partly through reduction of oxidative stress and improvement of BMSCs survival.

  19. Basal brain oxidative and nitrative stress levels are finely regulated by the interplay between superoxide dismutase 2 and p53.

    PubMed

    Barone, Eugenio; Cenini, Giovanna; Di Domenico, Fabio; Noel, Teresa; Wang, Chi; Perluigi, Marzia; St Clair, Daret K; Butterfield, D Allan

    2015-11-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are the primary reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging enzymes of the cell and catalyze the dismutation of superoxide radicals O2- to H2O2 and molecular oxygen (O2). Among the three forms of SOD identified, manganese-containing SOD (MnSOD, SOD2) is a homotetramer located wholly in the mitochondrial matrix. Because of the SOD2 strategic location, it represents the first mechanism of defense against the augmentation of ROS/reactive nitrogen species levels in the mitochondria for preventing further damage. This study seeks to understand the effects that the partial lack (SOD2(-/+) ) or the overexpression (TgSOD2) of MnSOD produces on oxidative/nitrative stress basal levels in different brain isolated cellular fractions (i.e., mitochondrial, nuclear, cytosolic) as well as in the whole-brain homogenate. Furthermore, because of the known interaction between SOD2 and p53 protein, this study seeks to clarify the impact that the double mutation has on oxidative/nitrative stress levels in the brain of mice carrying the double mutation (p53(-/-) × SOD2(-/+) and p53(-/-) × TgSOD2). We show that each mutation affects mitochondrial, nuclear, and cytosolic oxidative/nitrative stress basal levels differently, but, overall, no change or reduction of oxidative/nitrative stress levels was found in the whole-brain homogenate. The analysis of well-known antioxidant systems such as thioredoxin-1 and Nrf2/HO-1/BVR-A suggests their potential role in the maintenance of the cellular redox homeostasis in the presence of changes of SOD2 and/or p53 protein levels. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Anti-inflammatory effects of tobramycin and a copper–tobramycin complex with superoxide dismutase-like activity

    PubMed Central

    Gziut, M; MacGregor, HJ; Nevell, TG; Mason, T; Laight, D; Shute, JK

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Airway inflammation in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is characterized by accumulations of neutrophils in the airway and T cells in bronchial tissue, with activation of platelets in the circulation. CF patients are routinely treated with systemic or inhaled tobramycin for airway infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Clinical trials have indicated an anti-inflammatory effect of tobramycin beyond its bactericidal activity. Here, we investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of tobramycin in vitro and consider if these relate to the ability of tobramycin to bind copper, which is elevated in blood and sputum in CF. Experimental Approach A copper–tobramycin complex was synthesized. The effect of tobramycin and copper–tobramycin on neutrophil activation and migration of T cells and neutrophils across human lung microvascular endothelial cells in response to thrombin-activated platelets were investigated in vitro. Tobramycin uptake was detected by immunocytochemistry. Intracellular reactive oxygen species were detected using the fluorescent indicator, 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA). Neutrophil superoxide, hydrogen peroxide and neutrophil elastase activity were measured using specific substrates. Copper was measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Key Results Tobramycin and copper–tobramycin were taken up by endothelial cells via a heparan sulphate-dependent mechanism and significantly inhibited T-cell and neutrophil transendothelial migration respectively. Copper–tobramycin has intracellular and extracellular superoxide dismutase-like activity. Neutrophil elastase inhibition by α1-antitrypsin is enhanced in the presence of copper–tobramycin. Tobramycin and copper–tobramycin are equally effective anti-pseudomonal antibiotics. Conclusions and Implications Anti-inflammatory effects of tobramycin in vivo may relate to the spontaneous formation of a copper–tobramycin complex, implying that copper–tobramycin may

  1. Cocktail of Superoxide Dismutase and Fasudil Encapsulated in Targeted Liposomes Slows PAH Progression at a Reduced Dosing Frequency.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nilesh; Rashid, Jahidur; Nozik-Grayck, Eva; McMurtry, Ivan F; Stenmark, Kurt R; Ahsan, Fakhrul

    2017-03-06

    Currently, two or more pulmonary vasodilators are used to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but conventional vasodilators alone cannot reverse disease progression. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a combination therapy comprising a vasodilator plus a therapeutic agent that slows pulmonary arterial remodeling and right heart hypertrophy is an efficacious alternative to current vasodilator-based PAH therapy. Thus, we encapsulated a cocktail of superoxide dismutase (SOD), a superoxide scavenger, and fasudil, a specific rho-kinase inhibitor, into a liposomal formulation equipped with a homing peptide, CAR. We evaluated the effect of the formulations on pulmonary hemodynamics in monocrotaline-induced PAH rats (MCT-induced PAH) and assessed the formulation's efficacy in slowing the disease progression in Sugen-5416/hypoxia-induced PAH rats (SU/hypoxia-induced PAH). For acute studies, we monitored both mean pulmonary and systemic arterial pressures (mPAP and mSAP) for 2 to 6 h after a single dose of the plain drugs or formulations. In chronic studies, PAH rats received plain drugs every 48 h and the formulations every 72 h for 21 days. In MCT-induced PAH rats, CAR-modified liposomes containing fasudil plus SOD elicited a more pronounced, prolonged, and selective reduction in mPAP than unmodified liposomes and plain drugs did. In SU/hypoxia-induced PAH rats, the formulation produced a >50% reduction in mPAP and slowed right ventricular hypertrophy. When compared with individual plain drugs or combination, CAR-modified-liposomes containing both drugs reduced the extent of collagen deposition, muscularization of arteries, increased SOD levels in the lungs, and decreased the expression of pSTAT-3 and p-MYPT1. Overall, CAR-modified-liposomes of SOD plus fasudil, given every 72 h, was as efficacious as plain drugs, given every 48 h, suggesting that the formulation can reduce the total drug intake, systemic exposures, and dosing frequency.

  2. Stabilization of superoxide dismutase by acetyl-l-carnitine in human brain endothelium during alcohol exposure: novel protective approach.

    PubMed

    Haorah, James; Floreani, Nicholas A; Knipe, Bryan; Persidsky, Yuri

    2011-10-15

    Oxidative damage of the endothelium disrupts the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We have shown before that alcohol exposure increases the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS; superoxide and hydroxyl radical) and nitric oxide (NO) in brain endothelial cells by activating NADPH oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase. We hypothesize that impairment of antioxidant systems, such as a reduction in catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, by ethanol exposure may elevate the levels of ROS/NO in endothelium, resulting in BBB damage. This study examines whether stabilization of antioxidant enzyme activity results in suppression of ROS levels by anti-inflammatory agents. To address this idea, we determined the effects of ethanol on the kinetic profile of SOD and catalase activity and ROS/NO generation in primary human brain endothelial cells (hBECs). We observed an enhanced production of ROS and NO levels due to the metabolism of ethanol in hBECs. Similar increases were found after exposure of hBECs to acetaldehyde, the major metabolite of ethanol. Ethanol simultaneously augmented ROS generation and the activity of antioxidative enzymes. SOD activity was increased for a much longer period of time than catalase activity. A decline in SOD activity and protein levels preceded elevation of oxidant levels. SOD stabilization by the antioxidant and mitochondria-protecting agent acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) and the anti-inflammatory agent rosiglitazone suppressed ROS levels, with a marginal increase in NO levels. Mitochondrial membrane protein damage and decreased membrane potential after ethanol exposure indicated mitochondrial injury. These changes were prevented by ALC. Our findings suggest the counteracting mechanisms of oxidants and antioxidants during alcohol-induced oxidative stress at the BBB. The presence of enzymatic stabilizers favors the ROS-neutralizing antioxidant redox of the BBB, suggesting an underlying protective mechanism of NO for brain

  3. Insulin alleviates mitochondrial oxidative stress involving upregulation of superoxide dismutase 2 and uncoupling protein 2 in septic acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guang-Dao; Zhang, Jun-Liang; Chen, Yi-Ting; Zhang, Ju-Xing; Wang, Tao; Zeng, Qi-Yi

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the effects and mechanisms of insulin on mitochondrial oxidative stress in septic acute kidney injury (AKI). Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided randomly into four groups: Control group, sham surgery group, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) group, and CLP plus insulin group. Blood specimens and kidney tissues were obtained at 12 and 24 h after surgery as separate experiments. Analyses of histology and indicators of renal injury [blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (CRE) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL)], mitochondrial function [adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP)], oxidative stress [inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO)], endogenous antioxidant systems [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH)] as well as the expression of uncoupling protein (UCP), PINK1 protein (a major mediator of mitophagy), PGC1α protein (a major regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis) were performed. Compared with CLP group, the CLP plus insulin group had milder histological damage, higher levels of ATP and MMP as well as lower levels of BUN, serum CRE and NGAL, intrarenal iNOS, mitochondrial ROS and total NO. Moreover, the CLP plus insulin group demonstrated increased expression of SOD2 and UCP2. In contrast, insulin administration suppressed mitophagy meanwhile did not upregulate total GSH and induce mitochondrial biogenesis following CLP. These findings indicated that the upregulation of SOD2 and UCP2 may be involved in insulin protecting against mitochondrial oxidative stress in septic AKI. PMID:29563990

  4. Insulin alleviates mitochondrial oxidative stress involving upregulation of superoxide dismutase 2 and uncoupling protein 2 in septic acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guang-Dao; Zhang, Jun-Liang; Chen, Yi-Ting; Zhang, Ju-Xing; Wang, Tao; Zeng, Qi-Yi

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the effects and mechanisms of insulin on mitochondrial oxidative stress in septic acute kidney injury (AKI). Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided randomly into four groups: Control group, sham surgery group, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) group, and CLP plus insulin group. Blood specimens and kidney tissues were obtained at 12 and 24 h after surgery as separate experiments. Analyses of histology and indicators of renal injury [blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (CRE) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL)], mitochondrial function [adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP)], oxidative stress [inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO)], endogenous antioxidant systems [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH)] as well as the expression of uncoupling protein (UCP), PINK1 protein (a major mediator of mitophagy), PGC1α protein (a major regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis) were performed. Compared with CLP group, the CLP plus insulin group had milder histological damage, higher levels of ATP and MMP as well as lower levels of BUN, serum CRE and NGAL, intrarenal iNOS, mitochondrial ROS and total NO. Moreover, the CLP plus insulin group demonstrated increased expression of SOD2 and UCP2. In contrast, insulin administration suppressed mitophagy meanwhile did not upregulate total GSH and induce mitochondrial biogenesis following CLP. These findings indicated that the upregulation of SOD2 and UCP2 may be involved in insulin protecting against mitochondrial oxidative stress in septic AKI.

  5. The Effects of Aging on Pulmonary Oxidative Damage, Protein Nitration and Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase Down-Regulation During Systemic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Starr, Marlene E; Ueda, Junji; Yamamoto, Shoji; Evers, B. Mark; Saito, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), a serious clinical condition characterized by whole body inflammation, is particularly threatening for elderly patients who suffer much higher mortality rates than the young. A major pathological consequence of SIRS is acute lung injury caused by neutrophil-mediated oxidative damage. Previously, we reported an increase in protein tyrosine nitration (a marker of oxidative/nitrosative damage), and a decrease in antioxidant enzyme, extra-cellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD), in the lungs of young mice during endotoxemia-induced SIRS. Here we demonstrate that during endotoxemia, down-regulation of EC-SOD is significantly more profound and prolonged, while up-regulation of iNOS is augmented in aged compared to young mice. Aged mice also showed 2.5-fold higher protein nitration levels, compared to young mice, with particularly strong nitration in the pulmonary vascular endothelium during SIRS. Additionally, by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, Western blotting and mass spectrometry, we identified proteins which show increased tyrosine nitration in age- and SIRS-dependent manners; these proteins (profilin-1, transgelin-2, LASP 1, tropomyosin and myosin) include components of the actin cytoskeleton responsible for maintaining pulmonary vascular permeability. Reduced EC-SOD in combination with increased oxidative/nitrosative damage and altered cytoskeletal protein function due to tyrosine nitration may contribute to augmented lung injury in the aged with SIRS. PMID:21092756

  6. A synthetic superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic EUK-207 mitigates radiation dermatitis and promotes wound healing in irradiated rat skin

    PubMed Central

    Doctrow, Susan R.; Lopez, Argelia; Schock, Ashley M.; Duncan, Nathan E.; Jourdan, Megan M.; Olasz, Edit B.; Moulder, John E.; Fish, Brian L.; Mäder, Marylou; Lazar, Jozef; Lazarova, Zelmira

    2012-01-01

    In the event of a radionuclear attack or nuclear accident, the skin would be the first barrier exposed to radiation, though skin injury can progress over days to years following exposure. Chronic oxidative stress has been implicated as being a potential contributor to the progression of delayed radiation-induced injury to skin and other organs. To examine the causative role of oxidative stress in delayed radiation-induced skin injury, including impaired wound healing, we tested a synthetic superoxide dismutase (SOD)/catalase mimetic, EUK-207, in a rat model of combined skin irradiation and wound injury. Administered systemically, beginning 48 h after irradiation, EUK-207 mitigated radiation dermatitis, suppressed indicators of tissue oxidative stress, and enhanced wound healing. Evaluation of gene expression in irradiated skin at 30 days after exposure revealed a significant upregulation of several key genes involved in detoxication of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. This gene expression pattern was primarily reversed by EUK-207 therapy. These results demonstrate that oxidative stress plays a critical role in the progression of radiation-induced skin injury, and that the injury can be mitigated by appropriate antioxidant compounds administered 48 h after exposure. PMID:23190879

  7. Demonstration of a strategy for product purification by high-gradient magnetic fishing: recovery of superoxide dismutase from unconditioned whey.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Andrea; Hansen, Dennis B; Gomes, Cláudia S G; Hobley, Timothy J; Thomas, Owen R T; Franzreb, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    A systematic approach for the design of a bioproduct recovery process employing magnetic supports and the technique of high-gradient magnetic fishing (HGMF) is described. The approach is illustrated for the separation of superoxide dismutase (SOD), an antioxidant protein present in low concentrations (ca. 0.15-0.6 mg L(-1)) in whey. The first part of the process design consisted of ligand screening in which metal chelate supports charged with copper(II) ions were found to be the most suitable. The second stage involved systematic and sequential optimization of conditions for the following steps: product adsorption, support washing, and product elution. Next, the capacity of a novel high-gradient magnetic separator (designed for biotechnological applications) for trapping and holding magnetic supports was determined. Finally, all of the above elements were assembled to deliver a HGMF process for the isolation of SOD from crude sweet whey, which consisted of (i) binding SOD using Cu2+ -charged magnetic metal chelator particles in a batch reactor with whey; (ii) recovery of the "SOD-loaded" supports by high-gradient magnetic separation (HGMS); (iii) washing out loosely bound and entrained proteins and solids; (iv) elution of the target protein; and (v) recovery of the eluted supports from the HGMF rig. Efficient recovery of SOD was demonstrated at approximately 50-fold increased scale (cf magnetic rack studies) in three separate HGMF experiments, and in the best of these (run 3) an SOD yield of >85% and purification factor of approximately 21 were obtained.

  8. Seroprevalence of antibodies against the excreted antigen superoxide dismutase by Trypanosoma cruzi in dogs from the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico).

    PubMed

    López-Cespedes, A; Longoni, S S; Sauri-Arceo, C H; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Villegas, N; Escobedo-Ortegón, J; Barrera-Pérez, M A; Sánchez-Moreno, M; Bolio González, M E; Marín, C

    2013-06-01

    Numerous studies have shown the role of dogs as a reservoir for the American trypanosomiasis, as the bridge connecting sylvatic and peridomestic cycles. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of American trypanosomiasis in the dog population (630 sera) from seven localities in the Yucatan Peninsula (city of Mérida and the towns of Molas, Playa del Carmen, Akumal, Xcalacoop, Xcalac and Xahuachol). These data are key for developing control measures for the disease. The sera were analysed to detect antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi, using Fe-SOD excreted as the antigenic fraction by ELISA and Western blot as confirmation. The total prevalence found in the Yucatan Peninsula was some 14.76%, with 10.74% in the state of Yucatan (city of Mérida, towns of Molas and Xcalacoop) and 21.34% in the state of Quintana Roo (towns of Playa del Carmen, Akumal, Xcalac and Xahuachol). However, a more thorough epidemiological study of the dog population, both wild and urban, in the Yucatan Peninsula will be required to design a control strategy for these diseases, paying particular attention to the population affected and even broadening the study to other Mexican states as well as neighbouring countries. These results again confirm that iron-superoxide dismutase excreted by T. cruzi constitutes a good source of antigen for serodiagnosis in epidemiological studies. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Molecular and biochemical characterization of a unique mutation in CCS, the human copper chaperone to superoxide dismutase

    PubMed Central

    Huppke, Peter; Brendel, Cornelia; Korenke, Georg Christoph; Marquardt, Iris; Donsante, Anthony; Yi, Ling; Hicks, Julia D.; Steinbach, Peter J.; Wilson, Callum; Elpeleg, Orly; Møller, Lisbeth Birk; Christodoulou, John; Kaler, Stephen G.; Gärtner, Jutta

    2012-01-01

    Copper is a trace metal that readily gains and donates electrons, a property that renders it desirable as an enzyme cofactor but dangerous as a source of free radicals. To regulate cellular copper metabolism, an elaborate system of chaperones and transporters has evolved, although no human copper chaperone mutations have been described to date. We describe a child from a consanguineous family who inherited a homozygous mutations in the SLC33A1, encoding an acetyl CoA transporter, and in CCS, encoding the copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase. The CCS mutation, p.Arg163Trp, predicts substitution of a highly conserved arginine residue at position 163 with tryptophan in domain II of CCS, which interacts directly with SOD1. Biochemical analyses of the patient’s fibroblasts, mammalian cell transfections, immunoprecipitation assays, and Lys7Δ (CCS homolog) yeast complementation support the pathogenicity of the mutation. Expression of CCS was reduced and binding of CCS to SOD1 impaired. As a result this mutation causes reduced SOD1 activity and may impair other mechanisms important for normal copper homeostasis. CCS-Arg163Trp represents the primary example of a human mutation in a gene coding for a copper chaperone. PMID:22508683

  10. Effects of transgenic Bt rice on growth, reproduction, and superoxide dismutase activity of Folsomia candida (Collembola: Isotomidae) in laboratory studies.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yaoyu; Yan, Ruihong; Ke, Xin; Ye, Gongyin; Huang, Fangneng; Luo, Yongming; Cheng, Jiaan

    2011-12-01

    Transgenic rice expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) CrylAb protein is expected to be commercialized in China in the near future. The use of Bt rice for controlling insect pests sparks intensive debates regarding its biosafety. Folsomia candida is an euedaphic species and is often used as a "standard" test organism in assessing effects of environmental pollutants on soil organisms. In this study, growth, development, reproduction, and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) of F. candida were investigated in the laboratory for populations reared on leaf tissue or leaf-soil mixtures of two CrylAb rice lines and a non-Bt rice isoline. Two independent tests were performed: 1) a 35-d test using petri dishes containing yeast diet (positive control) or fresh rice leaf tissue, and 2) a 28-d test in soil-litter microcosms containing yeast or a mixture of soil and rice leaf tissue. Biological parameters measured in both tests were number of progeny production, population growth rate, and SOD activity. For the petri dish test, data measured also included insect body length and number of exuviation. There were no significant differences between the populations reared on Bt and non-Bt rice leaf tissue in all measured parameters in both tests and for both Bt rice lines, suggesting no significant effects of the CrylAb protein in Bt rice on F. candida in the laboratory studies. Results of this study should add additional biosafety proofs for use of Bt rice to manage rice pests in China.

  11. Evaluation of recombinant protein superoxide dismutase of Haemophilus parasuis strain SH0165 as vaccine candidate in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ling; Xu, Lei; Wu, Tao; Fu, Shulin; Qiu, Yinsheng; Hu, Chien-An Andy; Ren, Xinglong; Liu, Rongrong; Ye, Mengdie

    2017-04-01

    Haemophilus parasuis can cause a severe membrane inflammation disorder. It has been documented that superoxide dismutase (SOD) is a potential target to treat systemic inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we constructed an experimental H. parasuis subunit vaccine SOD and determined the protective efficacy of SOD using a lethal dose challenge against H. parasuis serovar 4 strain MD0322 and serovar 5 strain SH0165 in a mouse model. The results demonstrated that SOD could induce a strong humoral immune response in mice and provide significant immunoprotection efficacy against a lethal dose of H. parasuis serovar 4 strain MD0322 or serovar 5 strain SH0165 challenge. IgG subtype analysis indicated SOD protein could trigger a bias toward a Th1-type immune response and induce the proliferation of splenocytes and secretion of IL-2 and IFN-γ of splenocytes. In addition, serum in mice from the SOD-immunized group could inhibit the growth of strain MD0322 and strain SH0165 in the whole-blood killing bacteria assay. This is the first report that immunization of mice with SOD protein could provide protective effect against a lethal dose of H. parasuis serovar 4 and serovar 5 challenge in mice, which may provide a novel approach against heterogeneous serovar infection of H. parasuis in future.

  12. Resveratrol suppresses ethanol stress in winery and bottom brewery yeast by affecting superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidation and fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Gharwalova, Lucia; Sigler, Karel; Dolezalova, Jana; Masak, Jan; Rezanka, Tomas; Kolouchova, Irena

    2017-11-03

    Mid-exponential cultures of two traditional biotechnological yeast species, winery Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the less ethanol tolerant bottom-fermenting brewery Saccharomyces pastorianus, were exposed to different concentrations of added ethanol (3, 5 and 8%) The degree of ethanol-induced cell stress was assessed by measuring the cellular activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), level of lipid peroxidation products, changes in cell lipid content and fatty acid profile. The resveratrol as an antioxidant was found to decrease the ethanol-induced rise of SOD activity and suppress the ethanol-induced decrease in cell lipids. A lower resveratrol concentration (0.5 mg/l) even reduced the extent of lipid peroxidation in cells. Resveratrol also alleviated ethanol-induced changes in cell lipid composition in both species by strongly enhancing the proportion of saturated fatty acids and contributing thereby to membrane stabilization. Lower resveratrol concentrations could thus diminish the negative effects of ethanol stress on yeast cells and improve their physiological state. These effects may be utilized to enhance yeast vitality in high-ethanol-producing fermentations or to increase the number of yeast generations in brewery.

  13. Mutant Copper-Zinc Superoxide Dismutase (SOD1) Induces Protein Secretion Pathway Alterations and Exosome Release in Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Manuela; Pozzi, Silvia; Tortarolo, Massimo; Fiordaliso, Fabio; Bisighini, Cinzia; Pasetto, Laura; Spaltro, Gabriella; Lidonnici, Dario; Gensano, Francesco; Battaglia, Elisa; Bendotti, Caterina; Bonetto, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is the most common motor neuron disease and is still incurable. The mechanisms leading to the selective motor neuron vulnerability are still not known. The interplay between motor neurons and astrocytes is crucial in the outcome of the disease. We show that mutant copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) overexpression in primary astrocyte cultures is associated with decreased levels of proteins involved in secretory pathways. This is linked to a general reduction of total secreted proteins, except for specific enrichment in a number of proteins in the media, such as mutant SOD1 and valosin-containing protein (VCP)/p97. Because there was also an increase in exosome release, we can deduce that astrocytes expressing mutant SOD1 activate unconventional secretory pathways, possibly as a protective mechanism. This may help limit the formation of intracellular aggregates and overcome mutant SOD1 toxicity. We also found that astrocyte-derived exosomes efficiently transfer mutant SOD1 to spinal neurons and induce selective motor neuron death. We conclude that the expression of mutant SOD1 has a substantial impact on astrocyte protein secretion pathways, contributing to motor neuron pathology and disease spread. PMID:23592792

  14. LSU network hubs integrate abiotic and biotic stress responses via interaction with the superoxide dismutase FSD2

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Molina, Antoni; Altmann, Melina; Alkofer, Angela; Epple, Petra M.; Dangl, Jeffery L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In natural environments, plants often experience different stresses simultaneously, and adverse abiotic conditions can weaken the plant immune system. Interactome mapping revealed that the LOW SULPHUR UPREGULATED (LSU) proteins are hubs in an Arabidopsis protein interaction network that are targeted by virulence effectors from evolutionarily diverse pathogens. Here we show that LSU proteins are up-regulated in several abiotic and biotic stress conditions, such as nutrient depletion or salt stress, by both transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms. Interference with LSU expression prevents chloroplastic reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and proper stomatal closure during sulphur stress. We demonstrate that LSU1 interacts with the chloroplastic superoxide dismutase FSD2 and stimulates its enzymatic activity in vivo and in vitro. Pseudomonas syringae virulence effectors interfere with this interaction and preclude re-localization of LSU1 to chloroplasts. We demonstrate that reduced LSU levels cause a moderately enhanced disease susceptibility in plants exposed to abiotic stresses such as nutrient deficiency, high salinity, or heavy metal toxicity, whereas LSU1 overexpression confers significant disease resistance in several of these conditions. Our data suggest that the network hub LSU1 plays an important role in co-ordinating plant immune responses across a spectrum of abiotic stress conditions. PMID:28207043

  15. LSU network hubs integrate abiotic and biotic stress responses via interaction with the superoxide dismutase FSD2.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Molina, Antoni; Altmann, Melina; Alkofer, Angela; Epple, Petra M; Dangl, Jeffery L; Falter-Braun, Pascal

    2017-02-01

    In natural environments, plants often experience different stresses simultaneously, and adverse abiotic conditions can weaken the plant immune system. Interactome mapping revealed that the LOW SULPHUR UPREGULATED (LSU) proteins are hubs in an Arabidopsis protein interaction network that are targeted by virulence effectors from evolutionarily diverse pathogens. Here we show that LSU proteins are up-regulated in several abiotic and biotic stress conditions, such as nutrient depletion or salt stress, by both transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms. Interference with LSU expression prevents chloroplastic reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and proper stomatal closure during sulphur stress. We demonstrate that LSU1 interacts with the chloroplastic superoxide dismutase FSD2 and stimulates its enzymatic activity in vivo and in vitro. Pseudomonas syringae virulence effectors interfere with this interaction and preclude re-localization of LSU1 to chloroplasts. We demonstrate that reduced LSU levels cause a moderately enhanced disease susceptibility in plants exposed to abiotic stresses such as nutrient deficiency, high salinity, or heavy metal toxicity, whereas LSU1 overexpression confers significant disease resistance in several of these conditions. Our data suggest that the network hub LSU1 plays an important role in co-ordinating plant immune responses across a spectrum of abiotic stress conditions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  16. Hematopoietic recovery of acute radiation syndrome by human superoxide dismutase-expressing umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Gan, Jingyi; Meng, Fanwei; Zhou, Xin; Li, Chan; He, Yixin; Zeng, Xiaoping; Jiang, Xingen; Liu, Jia; Zeng, Guifang; Tang, Yunxia; Liu, Muyun; Mrsny, Randall J; Hu, Xiang; Hu, Jifan; Li, Tao

    2015-04-01

    Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) leads to pancytopenia and multi-organ failure. Transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells provides a curative option for radiation-induced aplasia, but this therapy is limited by donor availability. We examined an alternative therapeutic approach to ARS with the use of human extracellular superoxide dismutase (ECSOD)-modified umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (UCMSCs). This treatment combines the unique regenerative role of UCMSCs with the anti-oxidative activity of ECSOD. We demonstrated that systemically administered ECSOD-UCMSCs are able to protect mice from sub-lethal doses of radiation and improve survival by promoting multilineage hematopoietic recovery. The therapeutic effect of this treatment is related to the decrease in radiation-induced O(2)(-) and apoptosis. Our data highlight the clinical potential of this two-pronged approach to the treatment of ARS, thereby serving as a rapid and effective first-line strategy to combat the hematopoietic failure resulting from a radiation accident, nuclear terrorism and other radiologic emergencies. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Gene Expression Is Induced by Nanog and Oct4, Essential Pluripotent Stem Cells' Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Solari, Claudia; Vázquez Echegaray, Camila; Cosentino, María Soledad; Petrone, María Victoria; Waisman, Ariel; Luzzani, Carlos; Francia, Marcos; Villodre, Emilly; Lenz, Guido; Miriuka, Santiago; Barañao, Lino; Guberman, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells possess complex systems that protect them from oxidative stress and ensure genomic stability, vital for their role in development. Even though it has been reported that antioxidant activity diminishes along stem cell differentiation, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of the involved genes. The reported modulation of some of these genes led us to hypothesize that some of them could be regulated by the transcription factors critical for self-renewal and pluripotency in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). In this work, we studied the expression profile of multiple genes involved in antioxidant defense systems in both ESCs and iPSCs. We found that Manganese superoxide dismutase gene (Mn-Sod/Sod2) was repressed during diverse differentiation protocols showing an expression pattern similar to Nanog gene. Moreover, Sod2 promoter activity was induced by Oct4 and Nanog when we performed a transactivation assay using two different reporter constructions. Finally, we studied Sod2 gene regulation by modulating the expression of Oct4 and Nanog in ESCs by shRNAs and found that downregulation of any of them reduced Sod2 expression. Our results indicate that pluripotency transcription factors positively modulate Sod2 gene transcription.

  18. Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Gene Expression Is Induced by Nanog and Oct4, Essential Pluripotent Stem Cells’ Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Solari, Claudia; Vázquez Echegaray, Camila; Cosentino, María Soledad; Petrone, María Victoria; Waisman, Ariel; Luzzani, Carlos; Francia, Marcos; Villodre, Emilly; Lenz, Guido; Miriuka, Santiago; Barañao, Lino; Guberman, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells possess complex systems that protect them from oxidative stress and ensure genomic stability, vital for their role in development. Even though it has been reported that antioxidant activity diminishes along stem cell differentiation, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of the involved genes. The reported modulation of some of these genes led us to hypothesize that some of them could be regulated by the transcription factors critical for self-renewal and pluripotency in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). In this work, we studied the expression profile of multiple genes involved in antioxidant defense systems in both ESCs and iPSCs. We found that Manganese superoxide dismutase gene (Mn-Sod/Sod2) was repressed during diverse differentiation protocols showing an expression pattern similar to Nanog gene. Moreover, Sod2 promoter activity was induced by Oct4 and Nanog when we performed a transactivation assay using two different reporter constructions. Finally, we studied Sod2 gene regulation by modulating the expression of Oct4 and Nanog in ESCs by shRNAs and found that downregulation of any of them reduced Sod2 expression. Our results indicate that pluripotency transcription factors positively modulate Sod2 gene transcription. PMID:26642061

  19. Genetic polymorphisms of superoxide dismutase-1 A251G and catalase C-262T with the risk of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Jamhiri, Iman; Saadat, Iraj; Omidvari, Shahpour

    2017-06-01

    Oxidative stress is significant in numerous types of disease including cancer. To protect cells and organs against reactive oxygen species (ROS), the body has evolved an antioxidant protection system that involved in the detoxification of ROS. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of anti-oxidative enzymes may dramatically change the activity of the encoded proteins; therefore, certain alleles can be established as risk factors for some kind of multi-factorial diseases including cancer. In present study we investigate the possible association between polymorphisms of superoxide dismutase 1 ( SOD1 , OMIM: 147450) and catalase ( CAT , OMIM: 115500) genes and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). The study included 204 colorectal cancer patients and 239 healthy control group matched for gender and age. Genotyping of SOD1 A251G and CAT C-262T were done by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. There was no significant association between CAT C-262T polymorphism and susceptibility to CRC (P>0.05). The carries of the G allele of SOD1 significantly showed higher prevalence in CRC patients compared with the control group (OR=1.84, 95% CI=1.13-2.98, P=0.013). We assessed the effect of combination of genotypes of the study polymorphisms on the risk of CRC. We found that the combination of AG+GG ( SOD1 ) and CC ( CAT ) increases the risk of developing CRC (OR=2.38, 95% CI=1.25-4.52, P=0.008).

  20. Dimethylsulfoniopropionate, superoxide dismutase and glutathione as stress response indicators in three corals under short-term hyposalinity stress.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Stephanie G; Nielsen, Daniel A; Laczka, Olivier; Shimmon, Ronald; Beltran, Victor H; Ralph, Peter J; Petrou, Katherina

    2016-02-10

    Corals are among the most active producers of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), a key molecule in marine sulfur cycling, yet the specific physiological role of DMSP in corals remains elusive. Here, we examine the oxidative stress response of three coral species (Acropora millepora, Stylophora pistillata and Pocillopora damicornis) and explore the antioxidant role of DMSP and its breakdown products under short-term hyposalinity stress. Symbiont photosynthetic activity declined with hyposalinity exposure in all three reef-building corals. This corresponded with the upregulation of superoxide dismutase and glutathione in the animal host of all three species. For the symbiont component, there were differences in antioxidant regulation, demonstrating differential responses to oxidative stress between the Symbiodinium subclades. Of the three coral species investigated, only A. millepora provided any evidence of the role of DMSP in the oxidative stress response. Our study reveals variability in antioxidant regulation in corals and highlights the influence life-history traits, and the subcladal differences can have on coral physiology. Our data expand on the emerging understanding of the role of DMSP in coral stress regulation and emphasizes the importance of exploring both the host and symbiont responses for defining the threshold of the coral holobiont to hyposalinity stress. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Critical Nucleus Structure and Aggregation Mechanism of the C-terminal Fragment of Copper-Zinc Superoxide Dismutase Protein.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yu; Sun, Yunxiang; Zhu, Yuzhen; Ma, Buyong; Nussinov, Ruth; Zhang, Qingwen

    2016-03-16

    The aggregation of the copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) protein is linked to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a progressive neurodegenerative disease. A recent experimental study has shown that the (147)GVIGIAQ(153) SOD1 C-terminal segment not only forms amyloid fibrils in isolation but also accelerates the aggregation of full-length SOD1, while substitution of isoleucine at site 149 by proline blocks its fibril formation. Amyloid formation is a nucleation-polymerization process. In this study, we investigated the oligomerization and the nucleus structure of this heptapeptide. By performing extensive replica-exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations and conventional MD simulations, we found that the GVIGIAQ hexamers can adopt highly ordered bilayer β-sheets and β-barrels. In contrast, substitution of I149 by proline significantly reduces the β-sheet probability and results in the disappearance of bilayer β-sheet structures and the increase of disordered hexamers. We identified mixed parallel-antiparallel bilayer β-sheets in both REMD and conventional MD simulations and provided the conformational transition from the experimentally observed parallel bilayer sheets to the mixed parallel-antiparallel bilayer β-sheets. Our simulations suggest that the critical nucleus consists of six peptide chains and two additional peptide chains strongly stabilize this critical nucleus. The stabilized octamer is able to recruit additional random peptides into the β-sheet. Therefore, our simulations provide insights into the critical nucleus formation and the smallest stable nucleus of the (147)GVIGIAQ(153) peptide.

  2. The Antitumor Effect of Single-domain Antibodies Directed Towards Membrane-associated Catalase and Superoxide Dismutase.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Georg; Motz, Manfred

    2016-11-01

    Neutralizing single-domain antibodies directed towards catalase or superoxide dismutase (SOD) caused efficient reactivation of intercellular reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS)-dependent apoptosis-inducing signaling specifically in human tumor cells. Single-domain antibodies targeted tumor cell-specific membrane-associated SOD and catalase, but not the corresponding intracellular enzymes. They were shown to be about 200-fold more effective than corresponding classical recombinant antigen-binding fragments and more than four log steps more efficient than monoclonal antibodies. Combined addition of single-domain antibodies against catalase and SOD caused a remarkable synergistic effect. Proof-of-concept experiments in immunocompromised mice using human tumor xenografts and single-domain antibodies directed towards SOD showed an inhibition of tumor growth. Neutralizing single-domain antibodies directed to catalase and SOD also caused a very strong synergistic effect with the established chemotherapeutic agent taxol, indicating an overlap of signaling pathways. This effect might also be useful in order to avoid unwanted side-effects and to drastically lower the costs for taxol-based therapy. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular interaction of triclosan with superoxide dismutase (SOD) reveals a potentially toxic mechanism of the antimicrobial agent.

    PubMed

    Mi, Chenyu; Teng, Yue; Wang, Xiaofang; Yu, Hongyan; Huang, Zhenxing; Zong, Wansong; Zou, Luyi

    2018-05-30

    In this article, the interaction mechanism between the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the triclosan (TCS), a kind of antimicrobial agent which is of widely application with potential effects both on environment and human health, was explored through a series of spectroscopic methods, animal experiment and the molecular docking simulation. The negative free energy change ∆G, enthalpy change (∆H = 162.21 kJmol -1 ) and entropy change (∆S = 615 Jmol -1 K -1 ) demonstrated that TCS could combine with SOD spontaneously through hydrophobic interaction to form a complex. The binding constants of K a293 and K a313 were 1.706 × 10 3 and 1.2 × 10 5 Lmol -1 , respectively. Furthermore, the interaction could also influence the skeleton structure and secondary contents of SOD. The molecular docking analysis revealed the TCS located between two subunits of SOD, and there was a hydrogen bond between TCS and the residue Asn51 of SOD, which influenced the structure of protein and resulted in a decrease of enzyme activity. This work could help understand the interaction mechanism between SOD and TCS. Moreover, it could also be used to consult for toxicity assessment of TCS at molecular level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Relationship among glycated compounds, superoxide dismutase activities, and other related analytes in diabetic patients classified by ages].

    PubMed

    Maehata, E; Shimomura, H; Kiyose, H; Hayashi, A; Sakagishi, Y

    1991-07-01

    Among several glycated compounds (GC) which are based on Maillard reaction, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and fructosamine (FRA) have been utilized widely as a markers of diabetes. Recently, glycated albumin (GA) has been pointed out as a new indicator. For the determination of GA, spectrophotometry combined with an affinity column method has been mainly used, however the procedure is complicated. Recently a two-column HPLC method (ion-exchange column and affinity column) has been developed by Shima. We have evaluated a GA analyzer GAA-2000 based on Shima's method. After a series of fundamental and performance evaluation studies, the GAA-2000 was found to be appropriate for our study. Reference values obtained from this equipment were 10.56-16.87%. Correlation coefficients based on GA using diabetic and diabetic nephropathy patient specimens (n = 87) were: FRA (r = 0.944) greater than HbA1c (r = 0.842) greater than Glucose (r = 0.510) Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxidase (LPO) with are produced in relation to active oxygen did not show a good correlation. Although we tried classify the patients according to juvenile (20-39), middle (40-64) and senile (greater than 65) the method of Asada et al., we could not find any distinct tendencies.

  5. Identification of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase from Sphingobacterium sp. T2 as a Novel Bacterial Enzyme for Lignin Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Goran M M; Taylor, Charles R; Liu, Yangqingxue; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Rea, Dean; Fülöp, Vilmos; Bugg, Timothy D H

    2015-10-16

    The valorization of aromatic heteropolymer lignin is an important unsolved problem in the development of a biomass-based biorefinery, for which novel high-activity biocatalysts are needed. Sequencing of the genomic DNA of lignin-degrading bacterial strain Sphingobacterium sp. T2 revealed no matches to known lignin-degrading genes. Proteomic matches for two manganese superoxide dismutase proteins were found in partially purified extracellular fractions. Recombinant MnSOD1 and MnSOD2 were both found to show high activity for oxidation of Organosolv and Kraft lignin, and lignin model compounds, generating multiple oxidation products. Structure determination revealed that the products result from aryl-Cα and Cα-Cβ bond oxidative cleavage and O-demethylation. The crystal structure of MnSOD1 was determined to 1.35 Å resolution, revealing a typical MnSOD homodimer harboring a five-coordinate trigonal bipyramidal Mn(II) center ligated by three His, one Asp, and a water/hydroxide in each active site. We propose that the lignin oxidation reactivity of these enzymes is due to the production of a hydroxyl radical, a highly reactive oxidant. This is the first demonstration that MnSOD is a microbial lignin-oxidizing enzyme.

  6. Oxygen free radical induced damage in kidneys subjected to warm ischemia and reperfusion. Protective effect of superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, G L; Corry, R J; Autor, A P

    1985-01-01

    Superoxide anion free radical (O2-.) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of tissue injury consequent to ischemia/reperfusion in several different organs, including heart and bowel. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), an enzyme free radical scavenger specific for O2-., has been used successfully to protect these organs from structural damage during reoxygenation of ischemic tissue. It has been suggested that the catalytic action of xanthine oxidase in injured tissue is an important source of O2-. during reoxygenation. In order to evaluate the potential of SOD to protect against kidney damage resulting from transient ischemia followed by reperfusion with oxygenated blood, a model of warm renal ischemia was studied. LBNF1 rats underwent right nephrectomy and occlusion of the left renal artery for 45 minutes. Survival in the group of ischemic untreated rats (N = 30) was 56% at 7 days and serum creatinine was greatly elevated (p less than 0.01) in rats remaining alive over the full 7-day period. In strong contrast to these results, all of the animals treated with SOD before reperfusion (N = 18) were alive after 7 days similar to sham operated control rats (N = 8). Serum creatinine in the SOD treated rats was significantly elevated only to postoperative day 3 and thereafter returned to normal. Rats treated with inactive SOD (N = 4) or SOD before ischemia (N = 4) had decreased survival rates compared to ischemic untreated animals and prolonged elevation of serum creatinine. When the ischemia time was extended to 60 minutes, only 19% of the untreated animals (N = 16) survived at 7 days whereas nearly 60% of the SOD-treated animals survived (N = 19). Serum creatinine was greatly elevated during the full 7-day observation period in all surviving rats in the untreated ischemic group, whereas serum creatinine returned to normal (p less than 0.05) after 4 days in the surviving rats treated with SOD. To test whether the action of xanthine oxidase contributed to the kidney damage

  7. Detection of different Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in cats from the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico) using an iron superoxide dismutase excreted as antigen.

    PubMed

    Longoni, Silvia S; López-Cespedes, Angeles; Sánchez-Moreno, Manuel; Bolio-Gonzalez, Manuel E; Sauri-Arceo, Carlos H; Rodríguez-Vivas, Roger I; Marín, Clotilde

    2012-09-01

    Although human leishmaniasis has been reported in 20 states in Mexico, no case of leishmaniasis has been reported in cats to date. In the Yucatan Peninsula, it has been found that dogs may act as reservoirs for at least three Leishmania species (Leishmania mexicana, Leishmania braziliensis, and Leishmania panamensis). In this study we identified specific antibodies against these three Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi in the sera from 95 cats from two States on the Yucatan Peninsula, namely Quintana Roo and Yucatan, by ELISA and Western blot techniques using whole extract and an iron superoxide dismutase excreted by the parasites as antigens. As well as demonstrating the presence of trypanosomatid antibodies in the feline population on the Yucatan Peninsula, we were also able to confirm the high sensitivity and specificity of the iron superoxide dismutase antigen secreted by them, which may prove to be very useful in epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hepatoprotective effects of Poly-[hemoglobin-superoxide dismutase-catalase-carbonic anhydrase] on alcohol-damaged primary rat hepatocyte culture in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenhua; Bian, Yuzhu; Wang, Zhenghui; Chang, Thomas Ming Swi

    2017-02-01

    We have prepared a novel nanobiotherapeutic, Poly-[hemoglobin-superoxide dismutase-catalase-carbonic anhydrase], which not only transports both oxygen and carbon dioxide but also a therapeutic antioxidant. Our previous study in a severe sustained 90 min hemorrhagic shock rat model shows that it has a hepatoprotective effect. We investigate its hepatoprotective effect further in this present report using an alcohol-damaged primary hepatocyte culture model. Results show that it significantly reduced ethanol-induced AST release, lipid peroxidation, and ROS production in rat primary hepatocytes culture. It also significantly enhanced the viability of ethanol-treated hepatocytes. Thus, the result shows that Poly-[hemoglobin-superoxide dismutase-catalase-carbonic anhydrase] also has some hepatoprotective effects against alcohol-induced injury in in vitro rat primary hepatocytes cell culture. This collaborate our previous observation of its hepatoprotective effect in a severe sustained 90-min hemorrhagic shock rat model.

  9. Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice Occurs with Inhibition of Activity and Nitration of Mitochondrial Manganese Superoxide Dismutase

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Rakhee; MacMillan-Crow, Lee Ann; Rafferty, Tonya M.; Saba, Hamida; Roberts, Dean W.; Fifer, E. Kim; James, Laura P.

    2011-01-01

    In overdose the analgesic/antipyretic acetaminophen (APAP) is hepatotoxic. Toxicity is mediated by initial hepatic metabolism to N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI). After low doses NAPQI is efficiently detoxified by GSH. However, in overdose GSH is depleted, NAPQI covalently binds to proteins as APAP adducts, and oxygen/nitrogen stress occurs. Toxicity is believed to occur by mitochondrial dysfunction. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) inactivation by protein nitration has been reported to occur during other oxidant stress-mediated diseases. MnSOD is a critical mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme that prevents peroxynitrite formation within the mitochondria. To examine the role of MnSOD in APAP toxicity, mice were treated with 300 mg/kg APAP. GSH was significantly reduced by 65% at 0.5 h and remained reduced from 1 to 4 h. Serum alanine aminotransferase did not significantly increase until 4 h and was 2290 IU/liter at 6 h. MnSOD activity was significantly reduced by 50% at 1 and 2 h. At 1 h, GSH was significantly depleted by 62 and 80% at nontoxic doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg, respectively. No further GSH depletion occurred with hepatotoxic doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg APAP. A dose response decrease in MnSOD activity was observed for APAP at 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg. Immunoprecipitation of MnSOD from livers of APAP-treated mice followed by Western blot analysis revealed nitrated MnSOD. APAP-MnSOD adducts were not detected. Treatment of recombinant MnSOD with NAPQI did not produce APAP protein adducts. The data indicate that MnSOD inactivation by nitration is an early event in APAP-induced hepatic toxicity. PMID:21205919

  10. Effect of Ankaferd Blood Stopper on Skin Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase Activities in Warfarin-Treated Rats.

    PubMed

    Aktop, Sertaç; Emekli-Alturfan, Ebru; Gönül, Onur; Göçmen, Gökhan; Garip, Hasan; Yarat, Ayşen; Göker, Kamil

    2017-03-01

    Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS) is a new promising local hemostatic agent, and its mechanism on hemostasis has been shown by many studies. However, the effects of ABS on skin superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities have not been investigated before. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of this new generation local hemostatic agent on warfarin-treated rats focusing on its the antioxidant potential in short-term soft tissue healing. Twelve systemically warfarin treated (warfarin group) and 12 none treated Wistar Albino rats (control group) were selected for the trial. Rats in the warfarin group were treated intraperitonally with 0.1 mg/kg warfarin, and rats in the control group were given 1 mL/kg saline 3 days earlier to surgical procedure and continued until killing. All rats had incisions on dorsal dermal tissue, which was applied ABS or no hemostatic agent before suturing. Six of each group were killed on day 4, and the other 6 were killed on day 8. Blood and skin samples were taken. Prothrombin time (PT) in blood samples, CAT, and SOD activities in skin samples were determined. Warfarin treatment dose was found to be convenient and warfarin treatment increased the PT levels as expected. Warfarin treatment decreased CAT activity significantly compared to the control group. The ABS treatment significantly increased SOD activities in the warfarin group at the end of the eighth day. Ankaferd Blood Stopper acted positively in short-term tissue healing by increasing SOD activity in warfarin-treated rats. Therefore, ABS may be suggeted as a promoting factor in tissue healing.

  11. Effects of Aging and Oxidative Stress on Spermatozoa of Superoxide-Dismutase 1- and Catalase-Null Mice.

    PubMed

    Selvaratnam, Johanna S; Robaire, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    Advanced paternal age is linked to complications in pregnancy and genetic diseases in offspring. Aging results in excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage in spermatozoa; this damage can be transmitted to progeny with detrimental consequences. Although there is a loss of antioxidants with aging, the impact on aging male germ cells of the complete absence of either catalase (CAT) or superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) has not been investigated. We used CAT-null (Cat(-/-)) and SOD1-null (Sod(-/-)) mice to determine whether loss of these antioxidants increases germ cell susceptibility to redox dysfunction with aging. Aging reduced fertility and the numbers of Sertoli and germ cells in all mice. Aged Sod(-/-) mice displayed an increased loss of fertility compared to aged wild-type mice. Treatment with the pro-oxidant SIN-10 increased ROS in spermatocytes of aged wild-type and Sod(-/-) mice, while aged Cat(-/-) mice were able to neutralize this ROS. The antioxidant peroxiredoxin 1 (PRDX1) increased with age in wild-type and Cat(-/-) mice but was consistently low in young and aged Sod(-/-) mice. DNA damage and repair markers (γ-H2AX and 53BP1) were reduced with aging and lower in young Sod(-/-) and Cat(-/-) mice. Colocalization of γ-H2AX and 53BP1 suggested active repair in young wild-type mice but reduced in young Cat(-/-) and in Sod(-/-) mice and with age. Oxidative DNA damage (8-oxodG) increased in young Sod(-/-) mice and with age in all mice. These studies show that aged Sod(-/-) mice display severe redox dysfunction, while wild-type and Cat(-/-) mice have compensatory mechanisms to partially alleviate oxidative stress and reduce age-related DNA damage in spermatozoa. Thus, SOD1 but not CAT is critical to the maintenance of germ cell quality with aging. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  12. Copper Transporter ATP7A Protects Against Endothelial Dysfunction in Type 1 Diabetic Mice by Regulating Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase

    PubMed Central

    Sudhahar, Varadarajan; Urao, Norifumi; Oshikawa, Jin; McKinney, Ronald D.; Llanos, Roxana M.; Mercer, Julian F.B.; Ushio-Fukai, Masuko; Fukai, Tohru

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction contribute to vascular complication in diabetes. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) is one of the key antioxidant enzymes that obtains copper via copper transporter ATP7A. SOD3 is secreted from vascular smooth muscles cells (VSMCs) and anchors at the endothelial surface. The role of SOD3 and ATP7A in endothelial dysfunction in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is entirely unknown. Here we show that the specific activity of SOD3, but not SOD1, is decreased, which is associated with increased O2•− production in aortas of streptozotocin-induced and genetically induced Ins2Akita T1DM mice. Exogenous copper partially rescued SOD3 activity in isolated T1DM vessels. Functionally, acetylcholine-induced, endothelium-dependent relaxation is impaired in T1DM mesenteric arteries, which is rescued by SOD mimetic tempol or gene transfer of SOD3. Mechanistically, ATP7A expression in T1DM vessels is dramatically decreased whereas other copper transport proteins are not altered. T1DM-induced endothelial dysfunction and decrease of SOD3 activity are rescued in transgenic mice overexpressing ATP7A. Furthermore, SOD3-deficient T1DM mice or ATP7A mutant T1DM mice augment endothelial dysfunction and vascular O2•− production versus T1DM mice. These effects are in part due to hypoinsulinemia in T1DM mice, since insulin treatment, but not high glucose, increases ATP7A expression in VSMCs and restores SOD3 activity in the organoid culture of T1DM vessels. In summary, a decrease in ATP7A protein expression contributes to impaired SOD3 activity, resulting in O2•− overproduction and endothelial dysfunction in blood vessels of T1DM. Thus, restoring copper transporter function is an essential therapeutic approach for oxidant stress–dependent vascular and metabolic diseases. PMID:23884884

  13. Metal-based superoxide dismutase and catalase mimics reduce oxidative stress biomarkers and extend life span of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Thales de P; Fonseca, Fernanda L; de Carvalho, Mariana D C; Godinho, Rodrigo M da C; de Almeida, Fernando Pereira; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D; Rey, Nicolás A; Fernandes, Christiane; Horn, Adolfo; Pereira, Marcos D

    2017-01-15

    Aging is a natural process characterized by several biological changes. In this context, oxidative stress appears as a key factor that leads cells and organisms to severe dysfunctions and diseases. To cope with reactive oxygen species and oxidative-related damage, there has been increased use of superoxide dismutase (SOD)/catalase (CAT) biomimetic compounds. Recently, we have shown that three metal-based compounds {[Fe(HPClNOL)Cl 2 ]NO 3 , [Cu(HPClNOL)(CH 3 CN)](ClO 4 ) 2 and Mn(HPClNOL)(Cl) 2 }, harboring in vitro SOD and/or CAT activities, were critical for protection of yeast cells against oxidative stress. In this work, treating Saccharomyces cerevisiae with these SOD/CAT mimics (25.0 µM/1 h), we highlight the pivotal role of these compounds to extend the life span of yeast during chronological aging. Evaluating lipid and protein oxidation of aged cells, it becomes evident that these mimics extend the life expectancy of yeast mainly due to the reduction in oxidative stress biomarkers. In addition, the treatment of yeast cells with these mimics regulated the amounts of lipid droplet occurrence, consistent with the requirement and protection of lipids for cell integrity during aging. Concerning SOD/CAT mimics uptake, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, we add new evidence that these complexes, besides being bioabsorbed by S. cerevisiae cells, can also affect metal homeostasis. Finally, our work presents a new application for these SOD/CAT mimics, which demonstrate a great potential to be employed as antiaging agents. Taken together, these promising results prompt future studies concerning the relevance of administration of these molecules against the emerging aging-related diseases such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and Huntington's. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  14. Malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase correlate with FEV(1) in patients with COPD associated with wood smoke exposure and tobacco smoking.

    PubMed

    Montaño, Martha; Cisneros, José; Ramírez-Venegas, Alejandra; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Mercado, Daniel; Ramos, Carlos; Sansores, Raul H

    2010-08-01

    Tobacco smoking is the primary risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, recent epidemiological studies have established domestic exposure to wood smoke and other biomass fuels as additional important risk factors, characteristic in developing countries. Oxidative stress is one of the mechanisms concerned with pathogenesis of COPD. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the onset and progress of COPD associated with biomass and specifically that derived from wood smoke exposure remain unknown. We analyzed the relationship between forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV(1)) with plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in COPD patients associated with wood smoke (WSG; n = 30), tobacco smoking (TSG; n = 30), and healthy control subjects (HCG; n = 30). Differences between FEV(1) from WSG and TSG (58 +/- 22% and 51 +/- 24%, respectively) with HCG (100 +/- 6%) were observed (P < 0.01). Plasma MDA concentration was higher in both WSG and TSG (1.87 +/- 0.81 and 1.68 +/- 0.82 nmol/mL, respectively) compared with HCG (0.42 +/- 0.17 nmol/mL; P < 0.01). SOD activity showed a significant increase in both WSG and TSG (0.36 +/- 0.12 and 0.37 +/- 0.13 U/mL) compared with HCG (0.19 +/- 0.04 U/mL; P < 0.01). No differences were shown regarding GPx, GR, and GST activities between COPD and control groups. Inverse correlations were founded between MDA and SOD with FEV(1) in both COPD patients and control subjects (P < 0.001). These results indicate a role for oxidative stress in COPD associated with wood smoke similar to that observed with tobacco smoking in subjects who ceased at least 10 years previous to this study.

  15. A double-blind, randomized trial of 0.05% betamethasone vs. topical catalase/dismutase superoxide in vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Sanclemente, G; Garcia, J J; Zuleta, J J; Diehl, C; Correa, C; Falabella, R

    2008-11-01

    Among all the topical immunomodulators, vitiligo's mainstay therapy includes topical corticosteroids. Many other non-immune theories have also been suggested for vitiligo's pathogenesis, but the role of oxidative stress has gained more importance in recent years. To compare the effect of topical 0.05% betamethasone vs. catalase/dismutase superoxide (C/DSO). Randomized, matched-paired, double-blind trial. Dermatology Section, University of Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia. Patients (aged > 18 years or between 12 and 18 years) with parent's informed consent, with stable or active bilateral vitiligo. Topical 0.05% betamethasone or C/DSO. Two lesions similar to each other in size were chosen. All assessments were made by two blinded investigators, and photographs were subjected to morphometry analysis. Skin repigmentation by digital morphometry. Twenty-five patients were enrolled in the study (21 women and 4 men). Mean age of participants was 40 years (range: 12-74 years). One patient on C/DSO experienced a mild local erythematous papular rash that self-resolved. At 4 months of therapy, there was no statistical difference on the percentage of repigmentation between betamethasone and C/DSO (5.63% +/- 27.9 vs. 3.22% +/- 25.8, respectively, P = 0.758). After 10 months of therapy, the percentage of skin repigmentation increased to 18.5 +/- 93.14% with betamethasone and to 12.4 +/- 59% with C/DSO, but again, we found no statistical differences (P = 0.79). Few studies have described objective methods to evaluate repigmentation among vitiligo patients. Digital morphometry provides an objective assessment of repigmentation in vitiligo. Objective vitiligo repigmentation with topical C/DSO at 10 months is similar to topical 0.05% betamethasone. Although a mild adverse effect was related to the use of C/DSO, such finding was not severe enough to discontinue treatment.

  16. Interleukin-6 counteracts therapy-induced cellular oxidative stress in multiple myeloma by up-regulating manganese superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Brown, Charles O; Salem, Kelley; Wagner, Brett A; Bera, Soumen; Singh, Neeraj; Tiwari, Ajit; Choudhury, Amit; Buettner, Garry R; Goel, Apollina

    2012-06-15

    IL (interleukin)-6, an established growth factor for multiple myeloma cells, induces myeloma therapy resistance, but the resistance mechanisms remain unclear. The present study determines the role of IL-6 in re-establishing intracellular redox homoeostasis in the context of myeloma therapy. IL-6 treatment increased myeloma cell resistance to agents that induce oxidative stress, including IR (ionizing radiation) and Dex (dexamethasone). Relative to IR alone, myeloma cells treated with IL-6 plus IR demonstrated reduced annexin/propidium iodide staining, caspase 3 activation, PARP [poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase] cleavage and mitochondrial membrane depolarization with increased clonogenic survival. IL-6 combined with IR or Dex increased early intracellular pro-oxidant levels that were causally related to activation of NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) as determined by the ability of N-acetylcysteine to suppress both pro-oxidant levels and NF-κB activation. In myeloma cells, upon combination with hydrogen peroxide treatment, relative to TNF (tumour necrosis factor)-α, IL-6 induced an early perturbation in reduced glutathione level and increased NF-κB-dependent MnSOD (manganese superoxide dismutase) expression. Furthermore, knockdown of MnSOD suppressed the IL-6-induced myeloma cell resistance to radiation. MitoSOX Red staining showed that IL-6 treatment attenuated late mitochondrial oxidant production in irradiated myeloma cells. The present study provides evidence that increases in MnSOD expression mediate IL-6-induced resistance to Dex and radiation in myeloma cells. The results of the present study indicate that inhibition of antioxidant pathways could enhance myeloma cell responses to radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.

  17. Interleukin-6 counteracts therapy-induced cellular oxidative stress in multiple myeloma by up-regulating manganese superoxide dismutase

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Charles O.; Salem, Kelley; Wagner, Brett A.; Bera, Soumen; Singh, Neeraj; Tiwari, Ajit; Choudhury, Amit; Buettner, Garry R.; Goel, Apollina

    2012-01-01

    IL (interleukin)-6, an established growth factor for multiple myeloma cells, induces myeloma therapy resistance, but the resistance mechanisms remain unclear. The present study determines the role of IL-6 in re-establishing intracellular redox homoeostasis in the context of myeloma therapy. IL-6 treatment increased myeloma cell resistance to agents that induce oxidative stress, including IR (ionizing radiation) and Dex (dexamethasone). Relative to IR alone, myeloma cells treated with IL-6 plus IR demonstrated reduced annexin/propidium iodide staining, caspase 3 activation, PARP [poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase] cleavage and mitochondrial membrane depolarization with increased clonogenic survival. IL-6 combined with IR or Dex increased early intracellular pro-oxidant levels that were causally related to activation of NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) as determined by the ability of N-acetylcysteine to suppress both pro-oxidant levels and NF-κB activation. In myeloma cells, upon combination with hydrogen peroxide treatment, relative to TNF (tumour necrosis factor)-α, IL-6 induced an early perturbation in reduced glutathione level and increased NF-κB-dependent MnSOD (manganese superoxide dismutase) expression. Furthermore, knockdown of MnSOD suppressed the IL-6-induced myeloma cell resistance to radiation. MitoSOX Red staining showed that IL-6 treatment attenuated late mitochondrial oxidant production in irradiated myeloma cells. The present study provides evidence that increases in MnSOD expression mediate IL-6-induced resistance to Dex and radiation in myeloma cells. The results of the present study indicate that inhibition of antioxidant pathways could enhance myeloma cell responses to radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. PMID:22471522

  18. Effective microorganism - X attenuates circulating superoxide dismutase following an acute bout of intermittent running in hot, humid conditions.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Lee; Lee, Ben J; Gibson, Oliver R; Midgley, Adrian W; Watt, Peter; Mauger, Alexis; Castle, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This study determined the effectiveness of antioxidant supplementation on high-intensity exercise-heat stress. Six males completed a high-intensity running protocol twice in temperate conditions (TEMP; 20.4°C), and twice in hot conditions (HOT; 34.7°C). Trials were completed following7 days supplementation with 70 ml·day(-1) effective microorganism-X (EM-X; TEMPEMX or HOTEMX) or placebo (TEMPPLA or HOTPLA). Plasma extracellular Hsp72 (eHsp72) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured by ELISA. eHsp72 and SOD increased pre-post exercise (p < 0.001), with greater eHsp72 (p < 0.001) increases observed in HOT (+1.5 ng·ml(-1)) compared to TEMP (+0.8 ng·ml(-1)). EM-X did not influence eHsp72 (p > 0.05). Greater (p < 0.001) SOD increases were observed in HOT (+0.22 U·ml(-1)) versus TEMP (+0.10 U·ml(-1)) with SOD reduced in HOTEMX versus HOTPLA (p = 0.001). Physiological and perceptual responses were all greater (p < 0.001) in HOT versus TEMP conditions, with no difference followed EM-X (p > 0.05). EM-X supplementation attenuated the SOD increases following HOT, potentiating its application as an ergogenic aid to ameliorate oxidative stress.

  19. Interleukin 1 alpha-induced expression of manganous superoxide dismutase reduces myocardial reperfusion injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Nogae, C; Makino, N; Hata, T; Nogae, I; Takahashi, S; Suzuki, K; Taniguchi, N; Yanaga, T

    1995-10-01

    We investigated the effects of pretreatment with interleukin (IL)-1 alpha on the expression of manganous (Mn) superoxide dismutase (SOD) mRNA and reperfusion-induced arrhythmias and the size of myocardial infarct in rats. Male Wistar rats received 10 mg intraperitoneal injections of human recombinant IL-1 alpha. Their hearts were thereafter isolated at 6, 12, 24, 36 h. A Northern analysis showed that Mn-SOD mRNA was mainly expressed in the heart and slightly in kidney, but not in any other organs. The expression of Mn-SOD mRNA peaked at 6 h after the injection of IL-1 alpha. The Mn-SOD protein content was most increased 12 h after injection. In the isolated heart model, the rats were pretreated with IL-1 alpha 24 h earlier and their hearts were perfused by the Langendorff method. After 20 min of ischemia which was induced by a ligation of a coronary artery, reperfusion-induced arrhythmias were observed. There were no significant differences in the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias between the IL-1 alpha pretreated and the untreated hearts. IL-1 alpha pretreatment significantly reduced the mean duration of the ventricular arrhythmias and also delayed the onset of arrhythmias. The effect of IL-1 alpha pretreatment was also investigated in a 30-min model of ischemia followed by a 3-min reperfusion in anesthetized rats. The infarct size expressed as a percentage of the area at risk was significantly reduced in the IL-1 alpha pretreated hearts compared with the untreated hearts. The left ventricular systolic pressure increased significantly in rat hearts pretreated with IL-1 alpha. Our results therefore showed that the pretreatment with IL-1 alpha induced the overexpression of Mn-SOD mRNA in the rat hearts and also suggested that pretreatment with IL-1 alpha 24 h before ischemia reduced the risk of ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  20. Total antioxidant capacity and superoxide dismutase activity levels in serum and gingival crevicular fluid in pregnant women with chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Akalin, Ferda Alev; Baltacioğlu, Esra; Alver, Ahmet; Karabulut, Erdem

    2009-03-01

    There is evidence of reduced antioxidant (AO) defense in periodontitis and pregnancy and adverse interactions between periodontitis and pregnancy. In this study, serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) total AO capacity (TAOC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme concentrations in pregnant patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) were compared to those in non-pregnant patients. Periodontal examinations were performed and GCF/serum samples were obtained from 33 pregnant patients with CP (PCP), 18 pregnant patients with gingivitis (PG), and 21 periodontally healthy pregnant controls (P-controls), monitored in the first and third trimesters; 27 non-pregnant women with CP; and 25 non-pregnant control women. The concentrations of TAOC (automated measurement method) and SOD (spectrophotometric method) were determined. Periodontal parameters were higher in pregnant patients versus non-pregnant patients and in the CP group compared to controls, whereas TAOC and SOD concentrations were lower (P <0.05). All parameters, except plaque index, increased in pregnant subjects in the third trimester compared to the first trimester, whereas TAOC and SOD levels decreased (P <0.05). Periodontal parameters were highest and TAOC and SOD levels were lowest in the PCP group in the third trimester (P <0.05). Systemic and local GCF AO levels decreased in pregnancy and periodontitis, and AO defense reached the lowest levels in the last phase of pregnancy, whereas periodontal status deteriorated. These results suggest that reduced AO capacity may be associated with adverse periodontitis-pregnancy interactions, and each situation can be a provocative risk factor for the other.

  1. Stress fermentation strategies for the production of hyperthermostable superoxide dismutase from Thermus thermophilus HB27: effects of ions.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hu; Liu, Jianguo; Qu, Jianbo; Gao, Xinliang; Pan, Tao; Cui, Zhanfeng; Zhao, Xiubo; Lu, Jian R

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we explored how ammonium and metal ion stresses affected the production of recombinant hyperthermostable manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD). To improve Mn-SOD production, fed-batch culture in shake flasks and bioreactor fermentation were undertaken to examine the effects of [Formula: see text] and Mn(2+) feeding. Under the optimized feeding time and concentrations of [Formula: see text] and Mn(2+), the maximal SOD activity obtained from bioreactor fermentation reached some 480 U/ml, over 4 times higher than that in batch cultivation (113 U/ml), indicating a major enhancement of the concentration of Mn-SOD in the scale-up of hyperthermostable Mn-SOD production. In contrast, when the fed-batch culture with appropriate [Formula: see text] and Mn(2+) feeding was carried out in the same 5-L stirred tank bioreactor, a maximal SOD concentration of some 450 U/ml was obtained, again indicating substantial increase in SOD activity as a result of [Formula: see text] and Mn(2+) feeding. The isoelectric point (pI) of the sample was found to be 6.2. It was highly stable at 90 °C and circular dichroism measurements indicated a high α-helical content of 70 % as well, consistent with known SOD properties. This study indicates that [Formula: see text] and Mn(2+) play important roles in Mn-SOD expression. Stress fermentation strategies established in this study are useful for large-scale efficient production of hyperthermostable Mn-SOD and may also be valuable for the scale-up of other extremozymes.

  2. Tempol, a Superoxide Dismutase Mimetic Agent, Ameliorates Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity through Alleviation of Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Lamiaa A.; Shehata, Nagwa I.; Abdelkader, Noha F.; Khattab, Mahmoud M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial dysfunction is a crucial mechanism by which cisplatin, a potent chemotherapeutic agent, causes nephrotoxicity where mitochondrial electron transport complexes are shifted mostly toward imbalanced reactive oxygen species versus energy production. In the present study, the protective role of tempol, a membrane-permeable superoxide dismutase mimetic agent, was evaluated on mitochondrial dysfunction and the subsequent damage induced by cisplatin nephrotoxicity in mice. Methods and Findings Nephrotoxicity was assessed 72 h after a single i.p. injection of cisplatin (25 mg/kg) with or without oral administration of tempol (100 mg/kg/day). Serum creatinine and urea as well as glucosuria and proteinuria were evaluated. Both kidneys were isolated for estimation of oxidative stress markers, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content and caspase-3 activity. Moreover, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity, complexes I–IV activities and mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (mNOS) protein expression were measured along with histological examinations of renal tubular damage and mitochondrial ultrastructural changes. Tempol was effective against cisplatin-induced elevation of serum creatinine and urea as well as glucosuria and proteinuria. Moreover, pretreatment with tempol notably inhibited cisplatin-induced oxidative stress and disruption of mitochondrial function by restoring mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, complexes I and III activities, mNOS protein expression and ATP content. Tempol also provided significant protection against apoptosis, tubular damage and mitochondrial ultrastructural changes. Interestingly, tempol did not interfere with the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin against the growth of solid Ehrlich carcinoma. Conclusion This study highlights the potential role of tempol in inhibiting cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity without affecting its antitumor activity via amelioration of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction

  3. Genetic polymorphisms of superoxide dismutase-1 A251G and catalase C-262T with the risk of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jamhiri, Iman; Saadat, Iraj; Omidvari, Shahpour

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress is significant in numerous types of disease including cancer. To protect cells and organs against reactive oxygen species (ROS), the body has evolved an antioxidant protection system that involved in the detoxification of ROS. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of anti-oxidative enzymes may dramatically change the activity of the encoded proteins; therefore, certain alleles can be established as risk factors for some kind of multi-factorial diseases including cancer. In present study we investigate the possible association between polymorphisms of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1, OMIM: 147450) and catalase (CAT, OMIM: 115500) genes and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). The study included 204 colorectal cancer patients and 239 healthy control group matched for gender and age. Genotyping of SOD1 A251G and CAT C-262T were done by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. There was no significant association between CAT C-262T polymorphism and susceptibility to CRC (P>0.05). The carries of the G allele of SOD1 significantly showed higher prevalence in CRC patients compared with the control group (OR=1.84, 95% CI=1.13-2.98, P=0.013). We assessed the effect of combination of genotypes of the study polymorphisms on the risk of CRC. We found that the combination of AG+GG (SOD1) and CC (CAT) increases the risk of developing CRC (OR=2.38, 95% CI=1.25-4.52, P=0.008). PMID:28775994

  4. Healing effects and superoxide dismutase activity of diode/Ga-As lasers in a rabbit model of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Yeon; Lee, Sang Ui; Lim, Taekjoo; Choi, Seok Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a major cause of pain and disability in joints. The present study investigated the effects of differences of wavelengths and continuous versus pulsed delivery modes of low-level laser therapy (LLT) in a rabbit model of osteoarthritis. Comparison of the healing effects and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity between therapy using diode and Ga-As lasers was our primary interest. Simple continuous wave (808-nm diode) and super-pulsed wave (904-nm Ga-As) lasers were used. Osteoarthritis was induced by injecting hydrogen peroxide into the articular spaces of the right stifle in rabbits. The rabbits were randomly assigned to four groups: normal control without osteoarthritis induction (G1), osteoarthritis-induction group without treatment (G2), osteoarthritis induction with diode irradiation (G3), and osteoarthritis induction with Ga-As irradiation (G4). Laser irradiation was applied transcutaneously for 5 min every day for over four weeks, starting the first day after confirmation of induction of osteoarthritis. The induction of osteoarthritis and effects of LLT were evaluated by biochemistry, computed tomography, and histological analyses. The SOD activity in G3 and G4 rabbits at two and four weeks after laser irradiation was significantly higher than that of G1 animals (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference between G3 and G4 animals. Moreover, there were significant differences at two and four weeks between the control and osteoarthritis-induction groups, but no significant difference between G3 and G4 in the computed tomographic analyses and histological findings. These results indicate that diode and Ga-As lasers are similarly effective in healing and inducing SOD activity for LLT applications in a rabbit model of OA. Copyright © 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  5. Differential Expression of Mitochondrial Manganese Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) in Triticum aestivum Exposed to Silver Nitrate and Silver Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Javad; Mohsenzadeh, Sasan; Niazi, Ali; Moghadam, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background: The increasing use of nanoparticles (NPs) may have negative impacts on both organisms and the environment. Objectives: The differential expression of mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase ( MnSOD ) gene in wheat in response to silver nitrate nanoparticles (AgNPs) and AgNO 3 was investigated. Materials and Methods: A quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR experiment was carried out with MnSOD gene using RNAs isolated from wheat shoots treated for 0, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h with 100 mg.L -1 of either AgNO 3 or AgNPs. Results: The results of this study showed that both treatments cause changes in the expression pattern of the MnSOD gene. While 2 and 6 h following the beginning of the stress, MnSOD expression was up-regulated significantly, in response to AgNO 3 (1.4 and 2.8 fold, respectively), in response to AgNPs, it was up-regulated significant only after 6 h (1.6 fold), compared with the control. The gene expression, after 12 h in response to AgNO 3 and AgNPs were downregulated significantly (0.7 and 0.8 fold, respectively), and in the next 12 h , the expression appeared to be similar to the control. Conclusion: Exposure to both AgNPs and Ag ions led to a significant increase in MnSOD expression, but AgNO 3 changed the MnSOD expression faster than AgNPs. Therefore, it is suggested that AgNO 3 has greater penetrability and effectiveness.

  6. Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase Ameliorates Skeletal Muscle Abnormalities, Cachexia and Exercise Intolerance in Mice with Congestive Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Okutsu, Mitsuharu; Call, Jarrod A.; Lira, Vitor A.; Zhang, Mei; Donet, Jean A.; French, Brent A.; Martin, Kyle S.; Peirce-Cottler, Shayn M.; Rembold, Christopher M.; Annex, Brian H.; Yan, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Background Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, and oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cachexia (muscle wasting) and the hallmark symptom, exercise intolerance. We have previously shown that a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent antioxidant defense renders oxidative skeletal muscle resistant to catabolic wasting. Here, we aimed to identify and determine the functional role of the NO-inducible antioxidant enzyme(s) in protection against cardiac cachexia and exercise intolerance in CHF. Methods and Results We demonstrated that systemic administration of endogenous nitric oxide donor S-Nitrosoglutathione in mice blocked the reduction of extracellular superoxide dismutase (EcSOD) protein expression, the induction of MAFbx/Atrogin-1 mRNA expression and muscle atrophy induced by glucocorticoid. We further showed that endogenous EcSOD, expressed primarily by type IId/x and IIa myofibers and enriched at endothelial cells, is induced by exercise training. Muscle-specific overexpression of EcSOD by somatic gene transfer or transgenesis [muscle creatine kinase (MCK)-EcSOD] in mice significantly attenuated muscle atrophy. Importantly, when crossbred into a mouse genetic model of CHF [α-myosin heavy chain (MHC)-calsequestrin] MCK-EcSOD transgenic mice had significant attenuation of cachexia with preserved whole body muscle strength and endurance capacity in the absence of reduced heart failure. Enhanced EcSOD expression significantly ameliorated CHF-induced oxidative stress, MAFbx/Atrogin-1 mRNA expression, loss of mitochondria and vascular rarefaction in skeletal muscle. Conclusions EcSOD plays an important antioxidant defense function in skeletal muscle against cardiac cachexia and exercise intolerance in CHF. PMID:24523418

  7. Gene transfer of extracellular superoxide dismutase reduces arterial pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats: role of heparin-binding domain.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yi; Iida, Shinichiro; Lund, Donald D; Weiss, Robert M; DiBona, Gerald F; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Faraci, Frank M; Heistad, Donald D

    2003-03-07

    Oxidative stress may contribute to hypertension. The goals of this study were to determine whether extracellular superoxide dismutase (ECSOD) reduces arterial pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and whether its heparin-binding domain (HBD), which is responsible for cellular binding, is necessary for the function of ECSOD. Three days after intravenous injection of an adenoviral vector expressing human ECSOD (AdECSOD), mean arterial pressure (MAP) decreased from 165+/-4 mm Hg (mean+/-SE, n=7) to 124+/-3 mm Hg (n=7) in adult anesthetized SHR (P<0.01) but was not altered in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. Cardiac output was not changed in SHR 3 days after AdECSOD. Gene transfer of ECSOD with deletion of the HBD (AdECSODDeltaHBD) had no effect on SHR MAP, even though plasma SOD activity was greater after AdECSODDeltaHBD than after AdECSOD. Immunohistochemistry revealed intense staining for ECSOD in blood vessels and kidneys after AdECSOD but not after AdECSODDeltaHBD. Impaired relaxation of the carotid artery to acetylcholine in SHR was significantly improved after AdECSOD. Cumulative sodium balance in SHR was reduced by AdECSOD compared with AdECSODDeltaHBD. Gene transfer of ECSOD also reduced MAP in conscious SHR, although the effect was not as profound as in anesthetized SHR. In summary, gene transfer of ECSOD, with a strict requirement for its HBD, reduces systemic vascular resistance and arterial pressure in a genetic model of hypertension. This reduction in arterial pressure may be mediated by vasomotor and/or renal mechanisms.

  8. Antioxidant defenses of Onychostoma macrolepis in response to thermal stress: Insight from mRNA expression and activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haibo; Deng, Wei; Zhang, Dongdong; Gao, Yao; Yang, Zhou; Shi, Xiaochen; Sun, Jian; Zhou, Jishu; Ji, Hong

    2017-07-01

    Onychostoma macrolepis has becoming an endangered fish species in China, which population gradually declined in the past few decades due to the changing environment including elevated water temperature resulted from adverse weather events. The present study determined antioxidant defenses of O. macrolepis in response to thermal stress, aiming to understand the role of antioxidant system in adaptation of thermal stress for O. macrolepis. Experimental fish which were acclimated at 24 °C were stressed at 30 °C for 0 h, 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h, respectively. Change in mRNA expression of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) and catalase (CAT) and activity of SOD and CAT of the experimental fish with different stress time were determined. We cloned the full-length cDNA of Cu/Zn-SOD and CAT by means of RACE method, and analyzed their molecular characterization and tissue distribution. We discovered that the mRNA expression of the Cu/Zn-SOD in heart, liver, spleen, gill, intestine and the CAT in heart, liver, spleen, kidney, intestine and muscle of O. macrolepis significantly increased when water temperature increased from 24 °C to 30 °C, indicating a sensitive response of mRNA expression of Cu/Zn-SOD and CAT to the thermal stress. Moreover, the mRNA expression of the Cu/Zn-SOD and CAT were varied in different tissues, indicating different sensitivity of the tissues in response to thermal stress. Activity of the SOD in serum of O. macrolepis gradually increased from 1 h to 12 h sampling time, but significantly decreased at 24 h sampling time, compared to that of 0 h sampling time. And activity of the CAT in serum of O. macrolepis significantly decreased from 1 h to 12 h sampling time, and did not changed significantly at 24 h and 48 h sampling time, compared to that of 0 h sampling time. As such, MDA contents in the serum of O. macrolepis significantly decreased from 1 h to 6 h sampling time, but significantly increased at 12

  9. Superoxide Dismutase Mimetic GC4419 Enhances the Oxidation of Pharmacological Ascorbate and Its Anticancer Effects in an H₂O₂-Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Heer, Collin D; Davis, Andrew B; Riffe, David B; Wagner, Brett A; Falls, Kelly C; Allen, Bryan G; Buettner, Garry R; Beardsley, Robert A; Riley, Dennis P; Spitz, Douglas R

    2018-01-19

    Lung cancer, together with head and neck cancer, accounts for more than one-fourth of cancer deaths worldwide. New, non-toxic therapeutic approaches are needed. High-dose IV vitamin C (aka, pharmacological ascorbate; P-AscH - ) represents a promising adjuvant to radiochemotherapy that exerts its anti-cancer effects via metal-catalyzed oxidation to form H₂O₂. Mn(III)-porphyrins possessing superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic activity have been shown to increase the rate of oxidation of AscH - , enhancing the anti-tumor effects of AscH - in several cancer types. The current study demonstrates that the Mn(II)-containing pentaazamacrocyclic selective SOD mimetic GC4419 may serve as an AscH - /O₂ •- oxidoreductase as evidenced by the increased rate of oxygen consumption, steady-state concentrations of ascorbate radical, and H₂O₂ production in complete cell culture media. GC4419, but not CuZnSOD, was shown to significantly enhance the toxicity of AscH - in H1299, SCC25, SQ20B, and Cal27 cancer cell lines. This enhanced cancer cell killing was dependent upon the catalytic activity of the SOD mimetic and the generation of H₂O₂, as determined using conditional overexpression of catalase in H1299T cells. GC4419 combined with AscH - was also capable of enhancing radiation-induced cancer cell killing. Currently, AscH - and GC4419 are each being tested separately in clinical trials in combination with radiation therapy. Data presented here support the hypothesis that the combination of GC4419 and AscH - may provide an effective means by which to further enhance radiation therapy responses.

  10. A correlation of reactive oxygen species accumulation by depletion of superoxide dismutases with age-dependent impairment in the nervous system and muscles of Drosophila adults.

    PubMed

    Oka, Saori; Hirai, Jun; Yasukawa, Takashi; Nakahara, Yasuyuki; Inoue, Yoshihiro H

    2015-08-01

    The theory that accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in internal organs is a major promoter of aging has been considered negatively. However, it is still controversial whether overexpression of superoxide dismutases (SODs), which remove ROS, extends the lifespan in Drosophila adults. We examined whether ROS accumulation by depletion of Cu/Zn-SOD (SOD1) or Mn-SOD (SOD2) influenced age-related impairment of the nervous system and muscles in Drosophila. We confirmed the efficient depletion of Sod1 and Sod2 through RNAi and ROS accumulation by monitoring of ROS-inducible gene expression. Both RNAi flies displayed accelerated impairment of locomotor activity with age and shortened lifespan. Similarly, adults with nervous system-specific depletion of Sod1 or Sod2 also showed reduced lifespan. We then found an accelerated loss of dopaminergic neurons in the flies with suppressed SOD expression. A half-dose reduction of three pro-apoptotic genes resulted in a significant suppression of the neuronal loss, suggesting that apoptosis was involved in the neuronal loss caused by SOD silencing. In addition, depletion of Sod1 or Sod2 in musculature is also associated with enhancement of age-related locomotion impairment. In indirect flight muscles from SOD-depleted adults, abnormal protein aggregates containing poly-ubiquitin accumulated at an early adult stage and continued to increase as the flies aged. Most of these protein aggregates were observed between myofibril layers. Moreover, immuno-electron microscopy indicated that the aggregates were predominantly localized in damaged mitochondria. These findings suggest that muscular and neuronal ROS accumulation may have a significant effect on age-dependent impairment of the Drosophila adults.

  11. Subacute Exposure to N-Ethyl Perfluorooctanesulfonamidoethanol Results in the Formation of Perfluorooctanesulfonate and Alters Superoxide Dismutase Activity in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wei; Wu, Qian; Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Tharappel, Job C.; Telu, Sanjay; Coleman, Mitchell C.; Glauert, Howard P.; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Santhana Mariappan, S. V.; Spitz, Douglas R.; Weydert, Jamie; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonamides, such as N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoethanol (N-EtFOSE), are large scale industrial chemicals but their disposition and toxicity are poorly understood despite significant human exposure. The hypothesis that subacute exposure to N-EtFOSE, a weak peroxisome proliferator, causes a redox imbalance in vivo was tested using the known peroxisome proliferator, ciprofibrate, as a positive control. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated orally with N-EtFOSE, ciprofibrate or corn oil (vehicle) for 21 days, and levels of N-EtFOSE and its metabolites as well as markers of peroxisome proliferation and oxidative stress were assessed in serum, liver and/or uterus. The N-EtFOSE metabolite profile in liver and serum was in good agreement with reported in vitro biotransformation pathways in rats and the metabolite levels decreasing in the order perfluorooctanesulfonate ≫ perfluorooctanesulfonamide ∼ N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetate ≫ perfluorooctanesulfonamidoethanol ∼ N-EtFOSE. Although N-EtFOSE treatment significantly decreased the growth rate, increased relative liver weight and activity of superoxide dismutases (SOD) in liver and uterus (total SOD, CuZnSOD and MnSOD), a metabolic study revealed no differences in the metabolome in serum from N-EtFOSE-treated and control animals. Ciprofibrate treatment increased liver weight and peroxisomal acyl Co-A oxidase activity in the liver and altered antioxidant enzyme activities in the uterus and liver. According to NMR metabolomic studies, ciprofibrate treated animals had altered serum lipid profiles compared to N-EtFOSE-treated and control animals, whereas putative markers of peroxisome proliferation in serum were not affected. Overall, this study demonstrates the biotransformation of N-EtFOSE to PFOS in rats that is accompanied by N-EtFOSE-induced alterations in antioxidant enzyme activity. PMID:19544052

  12. Subacute exposure to N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoethanol results in the formation of perfluorooctanesulfonate and alters superoxide dismutase activity in female rats.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wei; Wu, Qian; Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Tharappel, Job C; Telu, Sanjay; Coleman, Mitchell C; Glauert, Howard P; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Mariappan, S V S; Spitz, Douglas R; Weydert, Jamie; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2009-10-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonamides, such as N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoethanol (N-EtFOSE), are large scale industrial chemicals but their disposition and toxicity are poorly understood despite significant human exposure. The hypothesis that subacute exposure to N-EtFOSE, a weak peroxisome proliferator, causes a redox imbalance in vivo was tested using the known peroxisome proliferator, ciprofibrate, as a positive control. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated orally with N-EtFOSE, ciprofibrate or corn oil (vehicle) for 21 days, and levels of N-EtFOSE and its metabolites as well as markers of peroxisome proliferation and oxidative stress were assessed in serum, liver and/or uterus. The N-EtFOSE metabolite profile in liver and serum was in good agreement with reported in vitro biotransformation pathways in rats and the metabolite levels decreasing in the order perfluorooctanesulfonate > perfluorooctanesulfonamide ~ N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetate > perfluorooctanesulfonamidoethanol approximately N-EtFOSE. Although N-EtFOSE treatment significantly decreased the growth rate, increased relative liver weight and activity of superoxide dismutases (SOD) in liver and uterus (total SOD, CuZnSOD and MnSOD), a metabolic study revealed no differences in the metabolome in serum from N-EtFOSE-treated and control animals. Ciprofibrate treatment increased liver weight and peroxisomal acyl Co-A oxidase activity in the liver and altered antioxidant enzyme activities in the uterus and liver. According to NMR metabolomic studies, ciprofibrate treated animals had altered serum lipid profiles compared to N-EtFOSE-treated and control animals, whereas putative markers of peroxisome proliferation in serum were not affected. Overall, this study demonstrates the biotransformation of N-EtFOSE to PFOS in rats that is accompanied by N-EtFOSE-induced alterations in antioxidant enzyme activity.

  13. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 5 (MKK5)-mediated signalling cascade regulates expression of iron superoxide dismutase gene in Arabidopsis under salinity stress

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yu; Chen, Wei-hua; Jia, Wensuo; Zhang, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are involved in plant adaptive responses to biotic and abiotic stresses but the upstream signalling process that modulates their expression is not clear. Expression of two iron SODs, FSD2 and FSD3, was significantly increased in Arabidopsis in response to NaCl treatment but blocked in transgenic MKK5-RNAi plant, mkk5. Using an assay system for transient expression in protoplasts, it was found that mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 5 (MKK5) was also activated in response to salt stress. Overexpression of MKK5 in wild-type plants enhanced their tolerance to salt treatments, while mkk5 mutant exhibited hypersensitivity to salt stress in germination on salt-containing media. Moreover, another kinase, MPK6, was also involved in the MKK5-mediated iron superoxide dismutase (FSD) signalling pathway in salt stress. The kinase activity of MPK6 was totally turned off in mkk5, whereas the activity of MPK3 was only partially blocked. MKK5 interacted with the MEKK1 protein that was also involved in the salt-induced FSD signalling pathway. These data suggest that salt-induced FSD2 and FSD3 expressions are influenced by MEKK1 via MKK5–MPK6-coupled signalling. This MAP kinase cascade (MEKK1, MKK5, and MPK6) mediates the salt-induced expression of iron superoxide dismutases. PMID:26136265

  14. Status of Serum and Salivary Levels of Superoxide Dismutase in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Oral Manifestations: A Case Control Study.

    PubMed

    Madi, Medhini; Babu, Subhas; Kumari, Suchetha; Shetty, Shishir; Achalli, Sonika; Madiyal, Ananya; Bhat, Manohar

    2016-11-01

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is a very well known metabolic disorder that has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Evidence suggests that oxidative stress increases in Diabetes Mellitus because of the excessive production of reactive oxygen species and an impaired antioxidant defence mechanism. This study estimated, compared and correlated the serum and salivary Superoxide dismutase levels in healthy subjects and subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus having oral manifestations. In this study, serum and salivary Superoxide dismutase levels were estimated in 45 healthy subjects and 45 patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with oral manifestations. The mean serum and salivary Superoxide dismutase levels were significantly decreased in subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with oral manifestations compared to the healthy subjects. Positive correlation in both healthy and diabetics was observed between serum and salivary samples. This study highlights that the abnormally high levels of oxidative stress in diabetics coupled with simultaneous decline in antioxidant defence mechanism results in complications in Diabetes mellitus. Thus exploring saliva for antioxidant markers that accurately reflect the redox status of the body is worthwhile.

  15. Study on the Protective Effect of a New Manganese Superoxide Dismutase on the Microvilli of Rabbit Eyes Exposed to UV Radiation.

    PubMed

    Grumetto, Lucia; Del Prete, Antonio; Ortosecco, Giovanni; Barbato, Francesco; Del Prete, Salvatore; Borrelli, Antonella; Schiattarella, Antonella; Mancini, Roberto; Mancini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    We present a study on the protective effects against UV radiation of a gel formulation containing a new recombinant form of manganese superoxide dismutase on the conjunctiva and corneal epithelia of rabbit eyes. The integrity of the microvilli of both ocular tissues has been considered as an indicator of the health of the tissues. Samples, collected by impression cytology technique, were added of 80 µL of a gel formulation containing superoxide dismutase (2.0 µg/mL) and irradiated with UV rays for 30 minutes and were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy. Wilcoxon test was used to verify the possible occurrence of statistically significant differences between damage for treated and nontreated tissues. Application of gel produces a significant reduction of damage by UV irradiation of ocular epithelia; both epithelia present a significant reduction of damaged microvilli number if treated with the superoxide dismutase gel formulation: the p values (differences between damage found for treated and nontreated both ocular tissues) for conjunctiva and cornea samples were p ≪ 0.01 and p ≪ 0.0001, respectively, at confidence level of 95%. The administration of this gel formulation before UV exposure plays a considerable protective role in ocular tissues of rabbit eye with a significant reduction of the damage.

  16. Rebamipide attenuates nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) induced lipid peroxidation by the manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) overexpression in gastrointestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Y; Matsui, H; Shimokawa, O; Hirayama, A; Tamura, M; Nakamura, Y; Kaneko, T; Rai, K; Indo, H P; Majima, H J; Hyodo, I

    2012-04-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) often cause gastrointestinal complications such as gastric ulcers and erosions. Recent studies on the pathogenesis have revealed that NSAIDs induce lipid peroxidation in gastric epithelial cells by generating superoxide anion in mitochondria, independently with cyclooxygenase-inhibition and the subsequent prostaglandin deficiency. Although not clearly elucidated, the impairment of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, or uncoupling, by NSAIDs is associated with the generation of superoxide anion. Physiologically, superoxide is immediately transformed into hydrogen peroxide and diatomic oxygen with manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). Rebamipide is an antiulcer agent that showed protective effects against NSAID-induced lipid peroxidation in gastrointestinal tracts. We hypothesized that rebamipide may attenuate lipid peroxidation by increasing the expression of MnSOD protein in mitochondria and decreasing the leakage of superoxide anion in NSAID-treated gastric and small intestinal epithelial cells. Firstly, to examine rebamipide increases the expression of MnSOD proteins in mitochondria of gastrointestinal epithelial cells, we underwent Western blotting analysis against anti-MnSOD antibody in gastric RGM1 cells and small intestinal IEC6 cells. Secondly, to examine whether the pretreatment of rebamipide decreases NSAID-induced mitochondrial impairment and lipid peroxidation, we treated these cells with NSAIDs with or without rebamipide pretreatment, and examined with specific fluorescent indicators. Finally, to examine whether pretreatment of rebamipide attenuates NSAID-induced superoxide anion leakage from mitochondria, we examined the mitochondria from indomethacin-treated RGM1 cells with electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy using a specific spin-trapping reagent, CYPMPO. Rebamipide increased the expression of MnSOD protein, and attenuated NSAID-induced mitochondrial impairment and lipid peroxidation in RGM1

  17. [The protective effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells carrying antioxidant gene superoxide dismutase on paraquat lung injury in mice].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Ding, Yingwei; Hou, Yuehui; Zhao, Guangju; Lu, Yang; Chen, Xiao; Cai, Qiqi; Hong, Guangliang; Qiu, Qiaomeng; Lu, Zhongqiu

    2016-01-01

    To explore the possible mechanism and protective effect of BMSCs (bone mesenchymal stem cells) carrying superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene on mice with paraquat-induced acute lung injury. To establish the cell line of BMSCs bringing SOD gene, lentiviral vector bringing SOD gene was built and co-cultured with BMSCs. A total of 100 BALB/c mice were randomly divided into five groups, namely Control group, poisoning group (PQ group) , BMSCs therapy group (BMSC group) , BMSCs-Cherry therapy group (BMSC-Cherry group) , BMSCs-SOD therapy group (BMSC-SOD group) . PQ poisoning model was produced by stomach lavaged once with 1 ml of 25 mg/kg PQ solution, and the equal volume of normal saline (NS) was given to Control group mice instead of PQ. The corresponding BMSCs therapy cell lines were delivered to mice through the tail vein of mice 4h after PQ treatment.Five mice of each group were sacrificed 3 d, 7 d, 14 d and 21 days after corresponding BMSCs therapy cell lines administration, and lung tissues of mice were taken to make sections for histological analysis. The serum levels of glutathione (GSH) , malondialdehyde (MDA) , SOD, and the levels of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in lung tissue were determined. The level of SOD was assayed by Westen-blot. Compared with Control group, the early (3 days) levels of SOD protein in lung tissue of PQ group obviously decreased, and the late (21 days) levels of SOD obviously increased, while in therapy groups, that was higher than that in PQ group, and the BMSCs-SOD group showed most obvious (all P<0.05) . Compared with Control group, the levels of plasma GSH and SOD of PQ group and each therapy group wae significantly lower than those in Control group, while in therapy groups, those were higher than those of PQ group, and the BMSCs-SOD group showed most obvious (all P<0.05) .Compared with Control group, the level of plasma MDA, TNF-α and TGF-β in PQ group and therapy groups were

  18. The protective effect of superoxide dismutase on isolated human mammary arteries preincubated with triglyceride-rich remnant lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Savoiu, Germaine; Drăgan, Simona; Cristescu, Carmen; Serban, Corină; Noveanu, Lavinia; Ionescu, Daniela; Nicola, T; Duicu, Oana; Răducan, Andreea; Voicu, Mirela

    2009-01-01

    The main changes of the plasma lipid profile in patients with endothelial dysfunction are the increased triglyceride content of the lipoprotein remnant particles, the presence of the small and dense LDL particles and the decreasing of the HDL-cholesterol level. Considering these observations, we performed "in vitro" experiments using human mammary artery rings, in order to examine the effect of the lipoprotein "remnants" on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation induced by cumulative doses (10(-9) M - 10(-4) M) of adenosine (ADP) and to study the effect on endothelial--independent vasodilatation induced by cumulative doses (10(-9) M-10(-4) M) of sodium-nitropruside (NSP), respectively. Our results showed that 1 hour pre-incubation with triglyceride--rich lipoprotein remnants diminished the endothelial-dependent vasodilator response to ADP, but it has not modified the endothelial-independent vasodilator response to NSP. Vascular response was expressed as maximal vasodilatation from the 10(-4)M phenilephrine (PE) induced pre-contraction, considered as reference. In the case of ADP, the maximal vasodilatation was ranged in 36.50% +/- 10.81% interval, comparing with the control group that presented a maximal vasodilatation of 66.15% +/- 19.41% (p < 0.005). In the case of NSP the maximal vasodilatation was ranged in 99.78% +/- 10.53% interval, comparing with the control that presented a maximal vasodilatation of 98.99% +/- 12.45% (p = 0.44). One hour co-incubation of the rings with a solution containing lipoprotein remnants (1% oxidized IDL (ox-IDL) and antioxidant factor (150 U/mL 10(-4) M Superoxid dismutase (SOD) significantly reduced the impairment of the vasodilatation response to ADP. Maximal vasodilatation of ox-IDL and SOD coincubated human mammary artery rings was 58.50% +/- 10.63% compared to the control, were the maximal vasodilatation was 66.15% +/- 19.41% (p < 0.01), but has not modified the vasodilatation response to NSP (99% +/- 0.53% vs control 98

  19. Effects of Aging and Oxidative Stress on Spermatozoa of Superoxide-Dismutase 1- and Catalase-Null Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Selvaratnam, Johanna S.; Robaire, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Advanced paternal age is linked to complications in pregnancy and genetic diseases in offspring. Aging results in excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage in spermatozoa; this damage can be transmitted to progeny with detrimental consequences. Although there is a loss of antioxidants with aging, the impact on aging male germ cells of the complete absence of either catalase (CAT) or superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) has not been investigated. We used CAT-null (Cat−/−) and SOD1-null (Sod−/−) mice to determine whether loss of these antioxidants increases germ cell susceptibility to redox dysfunction with aging. Aging reduced fertility and the numbers of Sertoli and germ cells in all mice. Aged Sod−/− mice displayed an increased loss of fertility compared to aged wild-type mice. Treatment with the pro-oxidant SIN-10 increased ROS in spermatocytes of aged wild-type and Sod−/− mice, while aged Cat−/− mice were able to neutralize this ROS. The antioxidant peroxiredoxin 1 (PRDX1) increased with age in wild-type and Cat−/− mice but was consistently low in young and aged Sod−/− mice. DNA damage and repair markers (γ-H2AX and 53BP1) were reduced with aging and lower in young Sod−/− and Cat−/− mice. Colocalization of γ-H2AX and 53BP1 suggested active repair in young wild-type mice but reduced in young Cat−/− and in Sod−/− mice and with age. Oxidative DNA damage (8-oxodG) increased in young Sod−/− mice and with age in all mice. These studies show that aged Sod−/− mice display severe redox dysfunction, while wild-type and Cat−/− mice have compensatory mechanisms to partially alleviate oxidative stress and reduce age-related DNA damage in spermatozoa. Thus, SOD1 but not CAT is critical to the maintenance of germ cell quality with aging. PMID:27465136

  20. Effect of Cu(II) coordination compounds on the activity of antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase in patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kubiak, Katarzyna; Malinowska, Katarzyna; Langer, Ewa; Dziki, Łukasz; Dziki, Adam; Majsterek, Ireneusz

    2011-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a serious medical and economical problem of our times. It is the most common gastrointestinal cancer in the world. In Poland, the treatment and detection of CRC are poorly developed and the pathogenesis is still unclear. One hypothesis suggests a role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathogenesis of CRC. Experimental studies in recent years confirm the participation of ROS in the initiation and promotion of CRC. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of the following coordination compounds coordination compounds: dinitrate (V) tetra(3,4,5-trimethyl-N1-pyrazole-κN2) copper(II), dichloro di(3,4,5-trimethyl-N1-pyrazole-κN2) copper(II), dinitrate (V) di(1,4,5-trimethyl-N1-pyrazole-κN2) copper(II), dichloro di(1,3,4,5-tetramethyl-N1-pyrazole-κN2) copper(II) on the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, ZnCu-SOD) and catalase (CAT) in a group of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and in the control group consisting of patients with minor gastrointestinal complaints. The study was conducted in 20 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer at the age of 66.5±10.2 years (10 men and 10 women) versus the control group of 20 people (10 men and 10 women) aged 57.89±17.10 years without cancer lesions in the biological material - hemolysate prepared in a proportion of 1ml of water per 1 ml of blood. CAT activity was measured by the Beers method (1952), while SOD activity was measured by the Misra and Fridovich method (1972). We found that patients with CRC showed a statistically significant decrease of SOD and CAT activity (CAT - 12,75±1.97 U/g Hb, SOD - 1111.52±155.52 U/g Hb) in comparison with the control group (CAT - 19.65±2,17 U/g Hb, SOD - 2046.26±507.22 U/g Hb). Simultaneously, we observed that the investigated coordination compounds of Cu(II) significantly increased the antioxidant activity of CAT and SOD in patients with CRC (mean: CAT 25.23±4.86 U/g Hb, SOD - 3075.96±940.20 U/g Hb). Patients with

  1. Effect of catalase inactivation on levels of inorganic peroxides, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, oxygen consumption and life span in adult houseflies (Musca domestica).

    PubMed Central

    Allen, R G; Farmer, K J; Sohal, R S

    1983-01-01

    The effects of total inhibition of catalase, induced by 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, on the adult housefly (Musca domestica) were examined. The lack of catalase activity had no effect on the longevity of the houseflies. Inorganic-peroxide concentration was elevated at younger ages, but declined in older flies. The rate of oxygen consumption by the flies was greatly decreased and the levels of oxidized as well as reduced glutathione were augmented. Superoxide dismutase activity showed a slight increase. This study suggests that loss of catalase activity does not affect survival of houseflies due to adaptive responses. PMID:6661212

  2. Structural and denaturation studies of two mutants of a cold adapted superoxide dismutase point to the importance of electrostatic interactions in protein stability.

    PubMed

    Merlino, Antonello; Russo Krauss, Irene; Castellano, Immacolata; Ruocco, Maria Rosaria; Capasso, Alessandra; De Vendittis, Emmanuele; Rossi, Bianca; Sica, Filomena

    2014-03-01

    A peculiar feature of the psychrophilic iron superoxide dismutase from Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis (PhSOD) is the presence in its amino acid sequence of a reactive cysteine (Cys57). To define the role of this residue, a structural characterization of the effect of two PhSOD mutations, C57S and C57R, was performed. Thermal and denaturant-induced unfolding of wild type and mutant PhSOD followed by circular dichroism and fluorescence studies revealed that C→R substitution alters the thermal stability and the resistance against denaturants of the enzyme, whereas C57S only alters the stability of the protein against urea. The crystallographic data on the C57R mutation suggest an involvement of the Arg side chain in the formation of salt bridges on protein surface. These findings support the hypothesis that the thermal resistance of PhSOD relies on optimization of charge-charge interactions on its surface. Our study contributes to a deeper understanding of the denaturation mechanism of superoxide dismutases, suggesting the presence of a structural dimeric intermediate between the native state and the unfolded state. This hypothesis is supported by the crystalline and solution data on the reduced form of the enzyme. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cafeteria diet induces obesity and insulin resistance associated with oxidative stress but not with inflammation: improvement by dietary supplementation with a melon superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Carillon, Julie; Romain, Cindy; Bardy, Guillaume; Fouret, Gilles; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Gaillet, Sylvie; Lacan, Dominique; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Rouanet, Jean-Max

    2013-12-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in obesity. However, dietary antioxidants could prevent oxidative stress-induced damage. We have previously shown the preventive effects of a melon superoxide dismutase (SODB) on oxidative stress. However, the mechanism of action of SODB is still unknown. Here, we evaluated the effects of a 1-month curative supplementation with SODB on the liver of obese hamsters. Golden Syrian hamsters received either a standard diet or a cafeteria diet composed of high-fat, high-sugar, and high-salt supermarket products, for 15 weeks. This diet resulted in insulin resistance and in increased oxidative stress in the liver. However, inflammatory markers (IL-6, TNF-α, and NF-κB) were not enhanced and no liver steatosis was detected, although these are usually described in obesity-induced insulin resistance models. After the 1-month supplementation with SODB, body weight and insulin resistance induced by the cafeteria diet were reduced and hepatic oxidative stress was corrected. This could be due to the increased expression of the liver antioxidant defense proteins (manganese and copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase). Even though no inflammation was detected in the obese hamsters, inflammatory markers were decreased after SODB supplementation, probably through the reduction of oxidative stress. These findings suggest for the first time that SODB could exert its antioxidant properties by inducing the endogenous antioxidant defense. The mechanisms underlying this induction need to be further investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The impact of sublethal concentrations of Cu, Pb and Cd on honey bee redox status, superoxide dismutase and catalase in laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Tatjana V; Kojić, Danijela; Orčić, Snežana; Batinić, Darko; Vukašinović, Elvira; Blagojević, Duško P; Purać, Jelena

    2016-12-01

    In this study, laboratory bioassays were performed to investigate the impact of sublethal concentrations of Cu (CuCl 2 : 1000, 100, 10 mg L -1 ), Pb (PbCl 2 : 10, 1, 0.1 mg L -1 ) and Cd (CdCl 2 : 0.1, 0.01, 0.001 mg L -1 ) on honey bee redox status and the activity of the main antioxidative enzymes and their gene expression. Our results show that exposure to these metals led to significant changes of gene expression, the levels of enzyme activity and redox status, but the effects are metal and dose dependent. In general, exposure of 48 h to given concentrations of Cu, Cd and Pb did not change the activity of antioxidative enzymes and the level of lipid peroxidation, with the exception of decreased activity of catalase at the lowest concentration of cadmium. Only lead produced increases in glutathione and thiol groups. Expression of genes for catalase and superoxide dismutase changed with exposure to cadmium and copper, whilst lead induced only expression of superoxide dismutase genes. The results from this study provide basic data for future research regarding the impacts of metal pollution on Apis mellifera and will be an important step towards a comprehensive risk assessment of the environmental stressors on honey bees. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Iron, copper, and manganese complexes with in vitro superoxide dismutase and/or catalase activities that keep Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells alive under severe oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Thales P; Fernandes, Christiane; Melo, Karen V; Ferreira, Sarah S; Lessa, Josane A; Franco, Roberto W A; Schenk, Gerhard; Pereira, Marcos D; Horn, Adolfo

    2015-03-01

    Due to their aerobic lifestyle, eukaryotic organisms have evolved different strategies to overcome oxidative stress. The recruitment of some specific metalloenzymes such as superoxide dismutases (SODs) and catalases (CATs) is of great importance for eliminating harmful reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion). Using the ligand HPClNOL {1-[bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino]-3-chloropropan-2-ol}, we have synthesized three coordination compounds containing iron(III), copper(II), and manganese(II) ions, which are also present in the active site of the above-noted metalloenzymes. These compounds were evaluated as SOD and CAT mimetics. The manganese and iron compounds showed both SOD and CAT activities, while copper showed only SOD activity. The copper and manganese in vitro SOD activities are very similar (IC50~0.4 μmol dm(-3)) and about 70-fold higher than those of iron. The manganese compound showed CAT activity higher than that of the iron species. Analyzing their capacity to protect Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells against oxidative stress (H2O2 and the O2(•-) radical), we observed that all compounds act as antioxidants, increasing the resistance of yeast cells mainly due to a reduction of lipid oxidation. Especially for the iron compound, the data indicate complete protection when wild-type cells were exposed to H2O2 or O2(•-) species. Interestingly, these compounds also compensate for both superoxide dismutase and catalase deficiencies; their antioxidant activity is metal ion dependent, in the order iron(III)>copper(II)>manganese(II). The protection mechanism employed by the complexes proved to be independent of the activation of transcription factors (such as Yap1, Hsf1, Msn2/Msn4) and protein synthesis. There is no direct relation between the in vitro and the in vivo antioxidant activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Functional Activities and Immunohistochemical Distribution of Superoxide Dismutase in Normal, Dysplastic and Squamous Cell Carcinoma Oral Tissues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-07-26

    antioxidant enzymes: SOD, catalase ( CAT ), and glutathione peroxidase (GPO).2 ° SOD converts superoxide radical into hydrogen peroxide, while CAT and GPO convert...in endometriosis and adenomyosis. Fertility and Sterility 1999; 1:129-134. 45. Muse KE, Oberley TD, Sempf JM, Oberley LW. Immunolocalization of antioxidant enzymes in adult hamster kidney. Histochem J 1994;9:734-753. 43

  7. Molecular Cloning and Biochemical Characterization of the Iron Superoxide Dismutase from the Cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 and Its Response to Methyl Viologen-Induced Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Moirangthem, Lakshmipyari Devi; Ibrahim, Kalibulla Syed; Vanlalsangi, Rebecca; Stensjö, Karin; Lindblad, Peter; Bhattacharya, Jyotirmoy

    2015-12-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) detoxifies cell-toxic superoxide radicals and constitutes an important component of antioxidant machinery in aerobic organisms, including cyanobacteria. The iron-containing SOD (SodB) is one of the most abundant soluble proteins in the cytosol of the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133, and therefore, we investigated its biochemical properties and response to oxidative stress. The putative SodB-encoding open reading frame Npun_R6491 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli as a C-terminally hexahistidine-tagged protein. The purified recombinant protein had a SodB specific activity of 2560 ± 48 U/mg protein at pH 7.8 and was highly thermostable. The presence of a characteristic iron absorption peak at 350 nm, and its sensitivity to H2O2 and azide, confirmed that the SodB is an iron-containing SOD. Transcript level of SodB in nitrogen-fixing cultures of N. punctiforme decreased considerably (threefold) after exposure to an oxidative stress-generating herbicide methyl viologen for 4 h. Furthermore, in-gel SOD activity analysis of such cultures grown at increasing concentrations of methyl viologen also showed a loss of SodB activity. These results suggest that SodB is not the primary scavenger of superoxide radicals induced by methyl viologen in N. punctiforme.

  8. Nucleotide sequence of a complementary DNA encoding pea cytosolic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase. [Pisum sativum L

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.A.; Zilinskas, B.A.

    1991-08-01

    The authors now report the nucleotide sequence of the cytosolic Cu/Zn SOD cloned from a {lambda}gt11 cDNA library constructed from mRNA extracted from leaves of 7- to 10-d pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L.). The clone was isolated using a 22-base synthetic oligonucleotide complementary to the amino acid sequence CGIIGLQG. This sequence, found at the protein's carboxy terminus, is highly conserved among plant cytosolic Cu/Zn SODs but not chloroplastic Cu/Zn SODs. The 738-base pair sequence contains an open reading frame specifying 152 codons and a predicted M{sub r} of 18,024 D. The deduced amino acid sequence is highly homologous (79-82% identity)more » with the sequences of other known plant cytosolic Cu/Zn SODs but less highly conserved (63-65%) when compared with several chloroplastic Cu/Zn SODs including pea (10).« less

  9. [Study on effect of jinshui liujun jian oral liquid on serum superoxide dismutase activity and malonyldialdehyde content in mice with chronic bronchitis].

    PubMed

    Zhao, C Y; Shen, Y S; Meng, H

    2001-11-01

    To study the effect of Jinshui Liujun Jian Oral Liquid (JLJOL) on serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) content in mice with chronic bronchitis. JLJOL was given to the chronic bronchitis mice model (induced by smoking) through gastrogavage, and then SOD activity and MDA content were tested. SOD activity in model mice after JLJOL treatment was 0.67 +/- 0.15 NU/L, which was significantly higher than that in the untreated model (0.39 +/- 0.13 NU/L, P < 0.01). But the MDA content in treated mice was significantly lower than that in untreated one (9.26 +/- 2.90 nmol/L vs 16.07 +/- 5.62 nmol/L, P < 0.01). JLJOL could scavenge the injury of free radical on organism.

  10. Copper(II) complexes of tridentate N, N, N', N″, N″-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine: Superoxide dismutase and inhibitory activity against bacteria and fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, R. N.; Singh, Nripendra; Gundla, V. L. N.; Chauhan, U. K.

    2007-03-01

    A series of ternary copper(II) complexes containing same coordination sphere but difference in the counter ions, viz., [Cu(PMDT)(OAc)]PF 6(1); [Cu(PMDT)(OAc)]ClO 4(2); [Cu(PMDT)(OAc)]BF 4(3) and [Cu(PMDT)(OAc)]BPh 4(4) where PMDT = N, N, N', N″, N″-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine, OAc = Acetate ion were synthesized and characterized by means of spectroscopic, magnetic and cyclic voltammetric measurements. In frozen solution e.p.r. spectra, an interesting relation g|| > g⊥ has been observed which is a typical of the axially symmetric d 9 Cu II ( SCu = 1/2) having an unpaired electron in a d orbital. Single crystal X-ray analysis of (1) has revealed the presence of distorted square planar geometry. The influence of the counter ion on the complexes has been examined by performing some biological experiments like superoxide dismutase and anti-microbial activity.

  11. Investigation of the simultaneous production of superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes from Rhodotorula glutinis under different culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Unlü, Ayşe Ezgi; Takaç, Serpil

    2012-10-01

    The simultaneous production production of superoxide (SOD) and catalase (CAT) from Rhodotorula glutinis was studied. The effects of temperature, initial medium pH, and carbon source on the enzyme activities were investigated. Temperature and carbon sources were found to have significant effects on the enzyme activities. 10°C provided the highest specific CAT and SOD activities as 22.6 U/mg protein and 170 U/mg protein, respectively. Glycerol was found to be the best carbon source for enzyme activities, providing 113 U/mg protein for CAT and 125 U/mg protein for SOD, which were also the highest activities obtained in the present study.

  12. Superoxide dismutase analog (TEMPOL: 4-hydroxy-2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl) treatment restores erectile function in diabetes-induced impotence

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Toshifumi; Urakami, Shinji; Hirata, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Nakajima, Koichi; Enokida, Hideki; Shiina, Hiroaki; Ogishima, Tatsuya; Tokizane, Takashi; Kawamoto, Ken; Miura, Kazukiyo; Ishii, Nobuhisa; Dahiya, Rajvir

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that administration of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic Tempol (4-hydroxy-2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl) may reverse diabetes induced ED(erectile dysfunction). To test this hypothesis, ROS related genes (SOD1, SOD2, GPx1, CAT, NOS2, NOS3), erectile functional studies, and immunohistochemical analysis were performed in diabetic rats treated with or without Tempol. Thirty Sprague-Dawley (3–4 months old) rats were divided into 3 groups (n=10 each), 20 with diabetes (diabetic control and Tempol treatment) and 10 healthy controls. Twelve weeks after induction of diabetes by streptozotocin and Tempol treatment, all groups underwent in vivo cavernous nerve stimulation. Rat crura were harvested and expression of antioxidative defense enzymes examined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. To confirm the RT-PCR results, we performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) for catalase (CAT) and iNOS (NOS2). Nitration of tyrosine groups in proteins was also examined by IHC. Mean intracavernous pressure in the diabetic group was significantly lower than in healthy controls (p<0.001) and was reversed by Tempol treatment (p<0.0108). NOS2 protein expression was significantly increased in diabetic animals compared to healthy controls and Tempol restored NOS2 protein level. Nitrotyrosine was also higher in diabetic animals and though Tempol treatment decreased its formation, it remained higher than that found in healthy controls. This study suggests that Tempol treatment increased erectile function through modulating oxidative stress related genes in diabetic rats. This is the first report about the relationship between diabetes induced erectile dysfunction and oxidative stress, and anti-oxidative therapy using the superoxide dismutase mimetic, Tempol to restore erectile function. PMID:19554009

  13. Mitochondrial Superoxide Dismutase and Yap1p Act as a Signaling Module Contributing to Ethanol Tolerance of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zyrina, Anna N; Smirnova, Ekaterina A; Markova, Olga V; Severin, Fedor F; Knorre, Dmitry A

    2017-02-01

    There are two superoxide dismutases in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae-cytoplasmic and mitochondrial enzymes. Inactivation of the cytoplasmic enzyme, Sod1p, renders the cells sensitive to a variety of stresses, while inactivation of the mitochondrial isoform, Sod2p, typically has a weaker effect. One exception is ethanol-induced stress. Here we studied the role of Sod2p in ethanol tolerance of yeast. First, we found that repression of SOD2 prevents ethanol-induced relocalization of yeast hydrogen peroxide-sensing transcription factor Yap1p, one of the key stress resistance proteins. In agreement with this, the levels of Trx2p and Gsh1p, proteins encoded by Yap1 target genes, were decreased in the absence of Sod2p. Analysis of the ethanol sensitivities of the cells lacking Sod2p, Yap1p, or both indicated that the two proteins act in the same pathway. Moreover, preconditioning with hydrogen peroxide restored the ethanol resistance of yeast cells with repressed SOD2 Interestingly, we found that mitochondrion-to-nucleus signaling by Rtg proteins antagonizes Yap1p activation. Together, our data suggest that hydrogen peroxide produced by Sod2p activates Yap1p and thus plays a signaling role in ethanol tolerance. Baker's yeast harbors multiple systems that ensure tolerance to high concentrations of ethanol. Still, the role of mitochondria under severe ethanol stress in yeast is not completely clear. Our study revealed a signaling function of mitochondria which contributes significantly to the ethanol tolerance of yeast cells. We found that mitochondrial superoxide dismutase Sod2p and cytoplasmic hydrogen peroxide sensor Yap1p act together as a module of the mitochondrion-to-nucleus signaling pathway. We also report cross talk between this pathway and the conventional retrograde signaling cascade activated by dysfunctional mitochondria. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. Enhancing NAD+ Salvage Pathway Reverts the Toxicity of Primary Astrocytes Expressing Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis-linked Mutant Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1).

    PubMed

    Harlan, Benjamin A; Pehar, Mariana; Sharma, Deep R; Beeson, Gyda; Beeson, Craig C; Vargas, Marcelo R

    2016-05-13

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) participates in redox reactions and NAD(+)-dependent signaling pathways. Although the redox reactions are critical for efficient mitochondrial metabolism, they are not accompanied by any net consumption of the nucleotide. On the contrary, NAD(+)-dependent signaling processes lead to its degradation. Three distinct families of enzymes consume NAD(+) as substrate: poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, ADP-ribosyl cyclases (CD38 and CD157), and sirtuins (SIRT1-7). Because all of the above enzymes generate nicotinamide as a byproduct, mammalian cells have evolved an NAD(+) salvage pathway capable of resynthesizing NAD(+) from nicotinamide. Overexpression of the rate-limiting enzyme in this pathway, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, increases total and mitochondrial NAD(+) levels in astrocytes. Moreover, targeting nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase to the mitochondria also enhances NAD(+) salvage pathway in astrocytes. Supplementation with the NAD(+) precursors nicotinamide mononucleotide and nicotinamide riboside also increases NAD(+) levels in astrocytes. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is caused by the progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord, brain stem, and motor cortex. Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutations account for up to 20% of familial ALS and 1-2% of apparently sporadic ALS cases. Primary astrocytes isolated from mutant human superoxide dismutase 1-overexpressing mice as well as human post-mortem ALS spinal cord-derived astrocytes induce motor neuron death in co-culture. Increasing total and mitochondrial NAD(+) content in ALS astrocytes increases oxidative stress resistance and reverts their toxicity toward co-cultured motor neurons. Taken together, our results suggest that enhancing the NAD(+) salvage pathway in astrocytes could be a potential therapeutic target to prevent astrocyte-mediated motor neuron death in ALS. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular

  15. Enhancing NAD+ Salvage Pathway Reverts the Toxicity of Primary Astrocytes Expressing Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis-linked Mutant Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1)*

    PubMed Central

    Harlan, Benjamin A.; Pehar, Mariana; Sharma, Deep R.; Beeson, Gyda; Beeson, Craig C.; Vargas, Marcelo R.

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) participates in redox reactions and NAD+-dependent signaling pathways. Although the redox reactions are critical for efficient mitochondrial metabolism, they are not accompanied by any net consumption of the nucleotide. On the contrary, NAD+-dependent signaling processes lead to its degradation. Three distinct families of enzymes consume NAD+ as substrate: poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, ADP-ribosyl cyclases (CD38 and CD157), and sirtuins (SIRT1–7). Because all of the above enzymes generate nicotinamide as a byproduct, mammalian cells have evolved an NAD+ salvage pathway capable of resynthesizing NAD+ from nicotinamide. Overexpression of the rate-limiting enzyme in this pathway, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, increases total and mitochondrial NAD+ levels in astrocytes. Moreover, targeting nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase to the mitochondria also enhances NAD+ salvage pathway in astrocytes. Supplementation with the NAD+ precursors nicotinamide mononucleotide and nicotinamide riboside also increases NAD+ levels in astrocytes. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is caused by the progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord, brain stem, and motor cortex. Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutations account for up to 20% of familial ALS and 1–2% of apparently sporadic ALS cases. Primary astrocytes isolated from mutant human superoxide dismutase 1-overexpressing mice as well as human post-mortem ALS spinal cord-derived astrocytes induce motor neuron death in co-culture. Increasing total and mitochondrial NAD+ content in ALS astrocytes increases oxidative stress resistance and reverts their toxicity toward co-cultured motor neurons. Taken together, our results suggest that enhancing the NAD+ salvage pathway in astrocytes could be a potential therapeutic target to prevent astrocyte-mediated motor neuron death in ALS. PMID:27002158

  16. Nanovaccine for leishmaniasis: preparation of chitosan nanoparticles containing Leishmania superoxide dismutase and evaluation of its immunogenicity in BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Danesh-Bahreini, Mohammad Ali; Shokri, Javad; Samiei, Afshin; Kamali-Sarvestani, Eskandar; Barzegar-Jalali, Mohammad; Mohammadi-Samani, Soliman

    2011-01-01

    Background: Leishmaniasis is a protozoan disease, affecting 12 million people in different regions of the world with a wide spectrum of diseases. Although several chemotherapeutic agents have been used for treating the disease, long-term therapy, limited efficacy and the development of drug-resistant parasites remain the major limitations. Methods: To develop a new nanovaccine for leishmaniasis, recombinant Leishmania superoxide dismutase (SODB1) was loaded onto chitosan nanoparticles by the ionotropic gelation method. Size and loading efficiency of the nanoparticles were evaluated and optimized, and an immunization study was undertaken on BALB/c mice. The mice received phosphate buffer saline (PBS), superoxide dismutase B1 (SODB1) in PBS and nanoparticles via subcutaneous injection. Soluble Leishmania Antigens (SLA) and complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) were also injected subcutaneously three times every three weeks (some groups received only a single dose). Three weeks after the last injection, blood samples were collected and assessed with ELISA to detect IgG2a and IgG1. Results: Immunological analysis showed that in single and triple doses of SODB1 nanoparticles, IgG2a and IgG2a/IgG1 were significantly higher than the other groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: The results revealed that formulations of SODB1 in biodegradable and stable chitosan nanoparticles can increase the immunogenicity toward cell-mediated immunity (TH1 cells producing IgG2a in mice) that is effective in Leishmania eradication and could be presented as a single dose nanovaccine for leishmaniasis. PMID:21589651

  17. Thermostable Fe/Mn superoxide dismutase from Bacillus licheniformis SPB-13 from thermal springs of Himalayan region: Purification, characterization and antioxidative potential.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Abhishek; Kumar, Pradeep; Lata, Jeevan; Devi, Neena; Chand, Duni

    2018-05-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1) is an enzyme that scavenges free radicals and increases the longevity. In this study, a thermostable superoxide dismutase (SOD) from Bacillus licheniformis SPB-13, from Himalayan region was purified to homogeneity using ion exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sepharose). The SDS and native PAGE analysis showed that SOD is composed of two subunits of 32 kDa each and total molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated as 68 kDa. The specific activity of enzyme was 3965.51 U/mg and was purified to 16.17 folds. The SOD showed maximum activity with 60 mM Tris-HCl buffer at pH 8.0 for 2 min of incubation. Enzyme along with FeCl 3 as metal ion remained active till 70 °C. After reaction variables optimization, enzyme activity increased from 3965.51 to 4015.72 U/mg. Kinetic analysis of SOD showed k m of 1.4 mM of NADH and V max of 10000 U/mg of protein. Turnover number (k cat ) and catalytic efficiency (k cat /K m ) were found to be 11,333 s -1 and 7092.2 s -1 ·mM -1 NADH. The activation energy (E a ) was calculated as 2.67 kJ·mol -1 . After typing, it was found to be a member of Fe/Mn SOD family with IC 50 value of 25 μg/ml, prevented the cell death at a concentration of 30 μg/ml and it increased the cell viability by 30%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mitochondrial Superoxide Dismutase and Yap1p Act as a Signaling Module Contributing to Ethanol Tolerance of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Zyrina, Anna N.; Smirnova, Ekaterina A.; Markova, Olga V.; Severin, Fedor F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT There are two superoxide dismutases in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae—cytoplasmic and mitochondrial enzymes. Inactivation of the cytoplasmic enzyme, Sod1p, renders the cells sensitive to a variety of stresses, while inactivation of the mitochondrial isoform, Sod2p, typically has a weaker effect. One exception is ethanol-induced stress. Here we studied the role of Sod2p in ethanol tolerance of yeast. First, we found that repression of SOD2 prevents ethanol-induced relocalization of yeast hydrogen peroxide-sensing transcription factor Yap1p, one of the key stress resistance proteins. In agreement with this, the levels of Trx2p and Gsh1p, proteins encoded by Yap1 target genes, were decreased in the absence of Sod2p. Analysis of the ethanol sensitivities of the cells lacking Sod2p, Yap1p, or both indicated that the two proteins act in the same pathway. Moreover, preconditioning with hydrogen peroxide restored the ethanol resistance of yeast cells with repressed SOD2. Interestingly, we found that mitochondrion-to-nucleus signaling by Rtg proteins antagonizes Yap1p activation. Together, our data suggest that hydrogen peroxide produced by Sod2p activates Yap1p and thus plays a signaling role in ethanol tolerance. IMPORTANCE Baker's yeast harbors multiple systems that ensure tolerance to high concentrations of ethanol. Still, the role of mitochondria under severe ethanol stress in yeast is not completely clear. Our study revealed a signaling function of mitochondria which contributes significantly to the ethanol tolerance of yeast cells. We found that mitochondrial superoxide dismutase Sod2p and cytoplasmic hydrogen peroxide sensor Yap1p act together as a module of the mitochondrion-to-nucleus signaling pathway. We also report cross talk between this pathway and the conventional retrograde signaling cascade activated by dysfunctional mitochondria. PMID:27864171

  19. RAGE-dependent activation of gene expression of superoxide dismutase and vanins by AGE-rich extracts in mice cardiac tissue and murine cardiac fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Leuner, Beatrice; Ruhs, Stefanie; Brömme, Hans-Jürgen; Bierhaus, Angelika; Sel, Saadettin; Silber, Rolf-Edgar; Somoza, Veronika; Simm, Andreas; Nass, Norbert

    2012-10-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are stable compounds formed from initial Maillard reaction products. They are considered as markers for ageing and often associated with age-related, degenerative diseases. Bread crust represents an established model for nutritional compounds rich in AGEs and is able to induce antioxidative defense genes such as superoxide dismutases and vanins in cardiac cells. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extend the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) contributes to this response. Signal transduction in response to bread crust extract was analysed in cardiac fibroblasts derived from C57/B6-NCrl (RAGE +/+) and the corresponding RAGE-knock out C57/B6-NCrl mouse strain (RAGE -/-). Activation of superoxide dismutases in animals was then analysed upon bread crust feeding in these two mice strains. Cardiac fibroblasts from RAGE -/- mice did not express RAGE, but the expression of AGER-1 and AGER-3 was up-regulated, whereas the expression of SR-B1 was down-regulated. RAGE -/- cells were less sensitive to BCE in terms of MAP-kinase phosphorylation and NF-κB reporter gene activation. Bread crust extract induced mRNA levels of MnSOD and Vnn-1 were also reduced in RAGE -/- cells, whereas Vnn-3 mRNA accumulation seemed to be RAGE receptor independent. In bread crust feeding experiments, RAGE -/- mice did not exhibit an activation of MnSOD-mRNA and -protein accumulation as observed for the RAGE +/+ animals. In conclusion, RAGE was clearly a major factor for the induction of antioxidant defense signals derived from bread crust in cardiac fibroblast and mice. Nevertheless higher doses of bread crust extract could overcome the RAGE dependency in cell cultures, indicating that additional mechanisms are involved in BCE-mediated activation of SOD and vanin expression.

  20. Association between ETFA genotype and activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in cryopreserved sperm of Holstein-Friesian bulls.

    PubMed

    Hering, D M; Lecewicz, M; Kordan, W; Kamiński, S

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether C/T missense mutation within the ETFA gene is associated with sperm antioxidant enzymatic activity. One hundred and twenty Holstein-Friesian bulls were genotyped by the PCR-RFLP technique (MwoI). Commercial straws of frozen-thawed semen were used to evaluate the activity of three antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Among all bulls investigated, genotype CT was the most frequent (44.2%), in comparison with CC (42.5%) and TT (13.3%). Significant differences in glutathione peroxidase activity were observed between homozygous individuals (CC vs TT) with heterozygous CT having intermediate values. Dismutase activity was significantly associated with ETFA genotype, although only bulls with the CT genotype were significantly different from bulls carrying the CC genotype. The activity of catalase showed a similar trend (but was not statistically significant). In conclusion, we found that bulls with the ETFA TT genotype produce sperm with the highest glutathione peroxidase activity and can therefore be more efficiently protected from reactive oxygen. The mechanism of this interaction needs to be elucidated in future research. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. The impact of the lacto-ovo vegetarian diet on the erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity: a study in the Romanian population.

    PubMed

    Boancă, M M; Colosi, H A; Crăciun, E C

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that vitamin B12 scavenges superoxide anion as effectively as superoxide dismutase (SOD), and has a key role in the defense against oxidative stress. The status of vitamin B12 is suboptimal in a substantial number of vegans and even vegetarians. We therefore evaluated in lacto-ovo vegetarians (LOVs) who did not take vitamin B12 supplements the impact of the duration of this diet on the vitamin B12 status, the erythrocyte SOD activity and the serum malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. The study group included 38 non-vegetarians and 48 LOVs divided, according to the duration of this diet, into two subgroups: LOV1 (2-10 years) and LOV2 (11-29 years). The erythrocyte SOD activity and the serum concentrations of vitamin B12 and MDA were assayed. In LOVs, the mean serum vitamin B12 concentration, the erythrocyte SOD activity and the mean serum MDA concentration were statistically significantly lower that in non-vegetarians. No significant association between the serum vitamin B12 and MDA concentrations and the duration of the LOV diet were observed. A significant inverse linear correlation between SOD activity and the duration of adherence to LOV diet was observed in LOVs. The duration of LOV diet has impact only on SOD activity. Further researches, both in vitro and in vivo, are necessary to understand the underlying molecular mechanism.

  2. Potential application of aqueous two-phase systems and three-phase partitioning for the recovery of superoxide dismutase from a clarified homogenate of Kluyveromyces marxianus.

    PubMed

    Simental-Martínez, Jesús; Rito-Palomares, Marco; Benavides, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1) is an antioxidant enzyme that represents the primary cellular defense against superoxide radicals and has interesting applications in the medical and cosmetic industries. In the present work, the partition behavior of SOD in aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) (using a standard solution and a complex extract from Kluyveromyces marxianus as sample) was characterized on different types of ATPS (polymer-polymer, polymer-salt, alcohol-salt, and ionic liquid (IL)-salt). The systems composed of PEG 3350-potassium phosphate, 45% TLL, 0.5 M NaCl (315 U/mg, 87% recovery, and 15.1-fold purification) and t-butanol-20% ammonium sulfate (205.8 U/mg, 80% recovery and 9.8-fold purification), coupled with a subsequent 100 kDa ultrafiltration stage, allowed the design of a prototype process for the recovery and partial purification of the product of interest. The findings reported herein demonstrate the potential of PEG-salt ATPS for the potential recovery of SOD. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  3. Identification of two new polymorphisms in the manganese superoxide dismutase gene (Mn-SOD); Part of the etiology of Parkinson`s disease?

    SciTech Connect

    Eggers, B.; Kurth, J.H.; Kurth, M.C.

    1994-09-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that several different environmental agents interact with a number of genetic elements to cause Parkinson`s disease (PD), a common neurodegenerative disease. Abnormalities of oxidative metabolism may be central to this process. Specifically, the production and degradation of dopamine may lead to toxic by-products and increased oxidative stress. Toxic by-products include hydrogen peroxide, superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals, all of which are implicated in the aging process of the central nervous system. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalyzes superoxide to hydrogen peroxide. Genetic predisposition to PD may be at least partially a result of certain SOD alleles. Using the cDNA sequencemore » of Mn-SOD gene, oligonucleotide primers were designed which span several presumptive splice junction sites. An approximatley 2.4kb PCR product was amplified from gDNA samples that span one or more intron near the 3{prime} end of the Mn-SOD cDNA sequence. The resultant product was screened with a panel of 4-cutters to identify fragments appropriate for SSCP analysis. Twenty-two gDNA samples were screened for SSCP and size differences of these PCR products. After digestion with AluI, two polymorphisms were observed. Two alleles with a size difference of 2-4 bp were observed by denaturing PAGE in one of the fragments. SSCP analysis revealed a polymorphism with 2 alleles in another fragment. Sequence analysis of these polymorphisms is in progress. DNA from several DEPH families was used to confirm Mendelian inheritance of these polymorphisms. Genomic DNA samples have been collected from 265 PD patients and 169 control individuals; allelic frequencies will be determined for these populations, compared by {chi}{sup 2} analysis, and relative risk calculated. These results may support a contribution of Mn-SOD in the genetic predisposition to PD.« less

  4. The superoxide dismutase (SOD)-mimic manganese-deferoxamine (Mn-DFO) improves survival following hemorrhagic and endotoxic shock

    SciTech Connect

    de Garavilla, L.; Chermak, T.; Valentine, H.L.

    1990-02-26

    The novel, low-molecular weight, organo-metallic complex Mn-DFO functions in vitro as an SOD-mimic effectively dismutating the superoxide radical. Oxygen-derived free radicals appear to be involved in the pathology of both endotoxic (ENDO) and hemorrhagic (HEM) shock whereby treatment with SOD is associated with improvements in survival. Therefore, the following models were utilized to evaluate the in vivo activity of Mn-DFO. Male rats (350-450g) were anesthetized with ketamine (100mg/kg, ip) and subjected to HEM hypotension by withdrawing approximately 40% of the animals' blood volume over a 10 minute period. MABP was maintained constant at 40mmHg for 60 minutes, followed by completemore » autoreinfusion. Survival was reduced to 20% in the control group at 24 hour post-reinfusion. A single post-shock dose of Mn-DFO (10mg/kg, iv) more than doubled the survival rate for up to 24 hour post-reinfusion as compared to control. Female mice (CFmal and-1, 20-25g) were challenged with 500ug of ENDO and 0.8ug of actinomycin/animal and dosed 1 hour pre and post with Mn-DFO (30mg/kg/dose, iv). Survival improved from 60% in the control group to 100% in the Mn-DFO group at 18 hours post ENDO challenge. Using a multiple dosing regimen, Mn-DFO significantly improved survival for up to 48 hours post-ENDO. Thus, unlike other SOD-mimics, Mn-DFO appears to exhibit in vivo activity.« less

  5. [The level of superoxide dismutase expression in primary and metastatic colorectal cancer cells in hypoxia and tissue normoxia].

    PubMed

    Skrzycki, Michał; Czeczot, Hanna; Chrzanowska, Alicja; Otto-Ślusarczyk, Dagmara

    2015-11-01

    Superoxide oxidase (SOD) is a key antioxidant enzyme protecting cells against oxidative stress, which might induce cancerogenesis. In tumor cells SOD influences the level of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) allowing for survival and proliferation. High rate of cells proliferation in tumor leads to their temporary hypoxia due to lower rate of angiogenesis. Therefore during tumor development, cancer cells function in conditions of hypoxia or tissue normoxia. The aim of study was to evaluate of SOD isoenzymes (SOD1 and SOD2) expression level in cell lines of primary (SW 480) and metastatic (SW 620) colorectal cancer, cultured in hypoxia (1% oxygen), tissue normoxia (10% oxygen), and atmospheric normoxia (21% oxygen). Cells were cultured in MEM medium in different oxygen concentrations (1%, 10%, 21%) in hypoxic chamber with oxygenation regulator. The number of living cells in lines SW 480 and 620 was determined by trypan blue method. Expression of SOD1 and SOD2 at the mRNA level was determined by RT-PCR and PCR. In both studied cell lines (SW 480 and SW 620), the number of living cells (viability) was increased in hypoxia and atmospheric normoxia. The expression level of SOD1 and SOD2 in studied cell lines was different. The lowest level of expression of both SOD isoenzymes was observed in hypoxia. In conditions of atmospheric normoxia the expression level of SOD1 in SW480 cell line was increased, and similar in SW620 cell line comparing to tissue normoxia. Whereas the SOD2 expression level in atmospheric normoxia conditions in both cell lines was significantly increased. Observed differences were statistically significant (p ≤ 0,05). The profile of expression of SOD1 and SOD2 in cell lines SW480 and SW620 indicates differentiated response of tumor cells depending on access to oxygen. Low level of SOD isoenzymes expression in SW480 and SW620 cells in hypoxia indicates decreased production of ROS. Differences of SOD isoenzymes expression level in tissue normoxia

  6. Cloning, Characterization and Expression Pattern Analysis of a Cytosolic Copper/Zinc Superoxide Dismutase (SaCSD1) in a Highly Salt Tolerant Mangrove (Sonneratia alba)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Enze; Yi, Shanze; Bai, Fang; Niu, Dewei; Zhong, Junjie; Wu, Qiuhong; Chen, Shufang; Zhou, Renchao; Wang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Mangroves are critical marine resources for their remarkable ability to tolerate seawater. Antioxidant enzymes play an especially significant role in eliminating reactive oxygen species and conferring abiotic stress tolerance. In this study, a cytosolic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SaCSD1) cDNA of Sonneratia alba, a mangrove species with high salt tolerance, was successfully cloned and then expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta-gami (designated as SaCSD1). SaCSD1 comprised a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 459 bp which encoded a protein of 152 amino acids. Its mature protein is predicted to be 15.32 kDa and the deduced isoelectric point is 5.78. SaCSD1 has high sequence similarity (85%–90%) with the superoxide dismutase (CSD) of some other plant species. SaCSD1 was expressed with 30.6% yield regarding total protein content after being introduced into the pET-15b (Sma I) vector for expression in Rosetta-gami and being induced with IPTG. After affinity chromatography on Ni-NTA, recombinant SaCSD1 was obtained with 3.2-fold purification and a specific activity of 2200 U/mg. SaCSD1 showed good activity as well as stability in the ranges of pH between 3 and 7 and temperature between 25 and 55 °C. The activity of recombinant SaCSD1 was stable in 0.25 M NaCl, Dimethyl Sulphoxide (DMSO), glycerol, and chloroform, and was reduced to a great extent in β-mercaptoethanol, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), H2O2, and phenol. Moreover, the SaCSD1 protein was very susceptive to pepsin digestion. Real-time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay demonstrated that SaCSD1 was expressed in leaf, stem, flower, and fruit organs, with the highest expression in fruits. Under 0.25 M and 0.5 M salt stress, the expression of SaCSD1 was down-regulated in roots, but up-regulated in leaves. PMID:26703583

  7. Manganese-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), a role player in seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis) antioxidant defense system and adaptive immune system.

    PubMed

    Perera, N C N; Godahewa, G I; Lee, Seongdo; Kim, Myoung-Jin; Hwang, Jee Youn; Kwon, Mun Gyeong; Hwang, Seong Don; Lee, Jehee

    2017-09-01

    Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a metaloenzyme that catalyzes dismutation of the hazardous superoxide radicals into less hazardous H 2 O 2 and H 2 O. Here, we identified a homolog of MnSOD from big belly seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis; HaMnSOD) and characterized its structural and functional features. HaMnSOD transcript possessed an open reading frame (ORF) of 672 bp which codes for a peptide of 223 amino acids. Pairwise alignment showed that HaMnSOD shared highest identity with rock bream MnSOD. Results of the phylogenetic analysis of HaMnSOD revealed a close proximity with rock bream MnSOD which was consistent with the result of homology alignment. The intense expression of HaMnSOD was observed in the ovary, followed by the heart and the brain. Further, immune related responses of HaMnSOD towards pathogenic stimulation were observed through bacterial and viral challenges. Highest HaMnSOD expression in response to stimulants Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C) was observed in the late stage in the blood tissue. Xanthine/xanthine oxidase assay (XOD assay) indicated the ROS-scavenging ability of purified recombinant HaMnSOD (rHaMnSOD). The optimum conditions for the SOD activity of rHaMnSOD were pH 9 and the 25 °C. Collectively, the results obtained through the expressional analysis profiles and the functional assays provide insights into potential immune related and antioxidant roles of HaMnSOD in the big belly seahorse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Superoxide Dismutase 1 In Vivo Ameliorates Maternal Diabetes Mellitus-Induced Apoptosis and Heart Defects Through Restoration of Impaired Wnt Signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Fisher, Steven A; Zhong, Jianxiang; Wu, Yanqing; Yang, Peixin

    2015-10-01

    Oxidative stress is manifested in embryos exposed to maternal diabetes mellitus, yet specific mechanisms for diabetes mellitus-induced heart defects are not defined. Gene deletion of intermediates of Wingless-related integration (Wnt) signaling causes heart defects similar to those observed in embryos from diabetic pregnancies. We tested the hypothesis that diabetes mellitus-induced oxidative stress impairs Wnt signaling, thereby causing heart defects, and that these defects can be rescued by transgenic overexpression of the reactive oxygen species scavenger superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). Wild-type (WT) and SOD1-overexpressing embryos from nondiabetic WT control dams and nondiabetic/diabetic WT female mice mated with SOD1 transgenic male mice were analyzed. No heart defects were observed in WT and SOD1 embryos under nondiabetic conditions. WT embryos of diabetic dams had a 26% incidence of cardiac outlet defects that were suppressed by SOD1 overexpression. Insulin treatment reduced blood glucose levels and heart defects. Diabetes mellitus increased superoxide production, canonical Wnt antagonist expression, caspase activation, and apoptosis and suppressed cell proliferation. Diabetes mellitus suppressed Wnt signaling intermediates and Wnt target gene expression in the embryonic heart, each of which were reversed by SOD1 overexpression. Hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite mimicked the inhibitory effect of high glucose on Wnt signaling, which was abolished by the SOD1 mimetic, tempol. The oxidative stress of diabetes mellitus impairs Wnt signaling and causes cardiac outlet defects that are rescued by SOD1 overexpression. This suggests that targeting of components of the Wnt5a signaling pathway may be a viable strategy for suppression of congenital heart defects in fetuses of diabetic pregnancies. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), a cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, disrupts the recruitment of SMN, the spinal muscular atrophy protein to nuclear Cajal bodies.

    PubMed

    Kariya, Shingo; Re, Diane B; Jacquier, Arnaud; Nelson, Katelyn; Przedborski, Serge; Monani, Umrao R

    2012-08-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are among the most common motor neuron diseases to afflict the human population. A deficiency of the survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein causes SMA and is also reported to be an exacerbating factor in the development of ALS. However, pathways linking the two diseases have yet to be defined and it is not clear precisely how the pathology of ALS is aggravated by reduced SMN or whether mutant proteins underlying familial forms of ALS interfere with SMN-related biochemical pathways to exacerbate the neurodegenerative process. In this study, we show that mutant superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), a cause of familial ALS, profoundly alters the sub-cellular localization of the SMN protein, preventing the formation of nuclear 'gems' by disrupting the recruitment of the protein to Cajal bodies. Overexpressing the SMN protein in mutant SOD1 mice, a model of familial ALS, alleviates this phenomenon, most likely in a cell-autonomous manner, and significantly mitigates the loss of motor neurons in the spinal cord and in culture dishes. In the mice, the onset of the neuromuscular phenotype is delayed and motor function enhanced, suggestive of a therapeutic benefit for ALS patients treated with agents that augment the SMN protein. Nevertheless, this finding is tempered by an inability to prolong survival, a limitation most likely imposed by the inexorable denervation that characterizes ALS and eventually disrupts the neuromuscular synapses even in the presence of increased SMN.

  10. Clinical symptoms and cognitive impairment associated with male schizophrenia relate to plasma manganese superoxide dismutase activity: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang Yang; Chen, Da Chun; Xiu, Mei Hong; Tan, Yun Long; Yang, Fu De; Zhang, Laurence Y; Zhang, Laura Y; Haile, Colin N; Kosten, Thomas R

    2013-08-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that excessive reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative damage may underlie cognitive impairment in psychiatric disorders. A growing body of evidence show that oxidative damage may relate to the range of cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. In this study we examine one of the primary antioxidant defense enzymes manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), and whether it relates to cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. We recruited 185 chronic male schizophrenia patients and 132 male controls and compared results from the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) and plasma MnSOD activity between groups. Symptom severity in patients with schizophrenia was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Our results showed that MnSOD activities were significantly lower in patients than controls (p<0.05). Cognitive scores on the RBANS and nearly all of its five subscales (all p<0.001) except for the Visuospatial/Constructional index were significantly lower in schizophrenia patients than normal controls. MnSOD was negatively correlated with the general psychopathology subscale of PANSS, PANSS total score, positive symptoms and RBANS total score in patients with schizophrenia. Our findings add to growing evidence that oxidative stress may be involved in the psychopathology of male schizophrenia, and its associated cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The modulation of extracellular superoxide dismutase in the specifically enhanced cellular immune response against secondary challenge of Vibrio splendidus in Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas).

    PubMed

    Liu, Conghui; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Lingling; Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Weilin; Jia, Zhihao; Jiang, Shuai; Song, Linsheng

    2016-10-01

    Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EcSOD) is a copper-containing glycoprotein playing an important role in antioxidant defense of living cells exposed to oxidative stress, and also participating in microorganism internalization and cell adhesion in invertebrates. EcSOD from oyster (designated CgEcSOD) had been previously reported to bind lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and act as a bridge molecule in Vibrio splendidus internalization. Its mRNA expression pattern, PAMP binding spectrum and microorganism binding capability were examined in the present study. The mRNA expression of CgEcSOD in hemocytes was significantly up-regulated at the initial phase and decreased sharply at 48 h post V. splendidus stimulation. The recombinant CgEcSOD protein (rCgEcSOD) could bind LPS, PGN and poly (I:C), as well as various microorganisms including Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Vibrio anguillarum, V. splendidus, Pastoris pastoris and Yarrowia lipolytica at the presence of divalent metal ions Cu(2+). After the secondary V. splendidus stimulation, the mRNA and protein of CgEcSOD were both down-regulated significantly. The results collectively indicated that CgEcSOD could not only function in the immune recognition, but also might contribute to the immune priming of oyster by inhibiting the foreign microbe invasion through a specific down-regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Transduced with Superoxide Dismutase on Imiquimod-Induced Psoriasis-Like Skin Inflammation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Sah, Shyam Kishor; Park, Kyung Ho; Yun, Chae-Ok; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Kim, Tae-Yoon

    2016-02-10

    The immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been proposed in several autoimmune diseases and successfully tested in animal models, but their contribution to psoriasis and underlying pathways remains elusive. Likewise, an increased or prolonged presence of reactive oxygen species and aberrant antioxidant systems in skin are known to contribute to the development of psoriasis and therefore effective antioxidant therapy is highly required. We explored the feasibility of using extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3)-transduced allogeneic MSCs as a novel therapeutic approach in a mouse model of imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like inflammation and investigated the poorly understood underlying mechanism. In addition, the chronicity and late-phase response of inflammation were evaluated during continued activation of antigen receptors by applying a booster dose of IMQ. Subcutaneous injection of allogeneic SOD3-transduced MSCs significantly prevented psoriasis development in our IMQ-induced mouse model, likely through a suppression of proliferation and infiltration of various effector cells into skin with a concomitant modulated cytokine and chemokine expression and inhibition of signaling pathways such as toll-like receptor-7, nuclear factor-kappa B, p38 mitogen-activated kinase, and Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription, as well as adenosine receptor activation. Our data offer a novel therapeutic approach to chronic inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis by leveraging immunomodulatory effects of MSCs as well as SOD3 expression.

  13. Superoxide dismutases and glutaredoxins have a distinct role in the response of Candida albicans to oxidative stress generated by the chemical compounds menadione and diamide.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Guilherme Maranhão; da Silva, Walicyranison Plinio

    2012-12-01

    To cope with oxidative stress, Candida albicans possesses several enzymes involved in a number of biological processes, including superoxide dismutases (Sods) and glutaredoxins (Grxs). The resistance of C. albicans to reactive oxygen species is thought to act as a virulence factor. Genes such as SOD1 and GRX2, which encode for a Sod and Grx, respectively, in C. albicans are widely recognised to be important for pathogenesis. We generated a double mutant, Δgrx2/sod1, for both genes. This strain is very defective in hyphae formation and is susceptible to killing by neutrophils. When exposed to two compounds that generate reactive oxygen species, the double null mutant was susceptible to menadione and resistant to diamide. The reintegration of the SOD1 gene in the null mutant led to recovery in resistance to menadione, whereas reintegration of the GRX2 gene made the null mutant sensitive to diamide. Despite having two different roles in the responses to oxidative stress generated by chemical compounds, GRX2 and SOD1 are important for C. albicans pathogenesis because the double mutant Δgrx2/sod1 was very susceptible to neutrophil killing and was defective in hyphae formation in addition to having a lower virulence in an animal model of systemic infection.

  14. Dietary supplementation with a superoxide dismutase-melon concentrate reduces stress, physical and mental fatigue in healthy people: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Carillon, Julie; Notin, Claire; Schmitt, Karine; Simoneau, Guy; Lacan, Dominique

    2014-06-19

    We aimed to investigate effects of superoxide dismutase (SOD)-melon concentrate supplementation on psychological stress, physical and mental fatigue in healthy people. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed on 61 people divided in two groups: active supplement (n = 32) and placebo (n = 29) for 12 weeks. Volunteers were given one small hard capsule per day. One capsule contained 10 mg of SOD-melon concentrate (140 U of SOD) and starch for the active supplement and starch only for the placebo. Stress and fatigue were evaluated using four psychometric scales: PSS-14; SF-36; Stroop tests and Prevost scale. The supplementation with SOD-melon concentrate significantly decreased perceived stress, compared to placebo. Moreover, quality of life was improved and physical and mental fatigue were reduced with SOD-melon concentrate supplementation. SOD-melon concentrate supplementation appears to be an effective and natural way to reduce stress and fatigue. trial approved by the ethical committee of Poitiers (France), and the ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier is NCT01767922.

  15. Efficient intradermal delivery of superoxide dismutase using a combination of liposomes and iontophoresis for protection against UV-induced skin damage.

    PubMed

    Kigasawa, Kaoru; Miyashita, Moeko; Kajimoto, Kazuaki; Kanamura, Kiyoshi; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Kogure, Kentaro

    2012-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is a potent antioxidant agent that protects against UV-induced skin damage. However, its high molecular weight is a significant obstacle for efficient delivery into the skin through the stratum corneum and development of antioxidant activity. Recently, we developed a non-invasive transfollicular delivery system for macromolecules using a combination of liposomes and iontophoresis, that represents promising technology for enhancing transdermal administration of charged drugs (IJP, 403, 2011, Kajimoto et al.). In this study, in rats we attempted to apply this system to intradermal delivery of SOD for preventing UV-induced skin injury. SOD encapsulating in cationic liposomes was subjected to anodal iontophoresis. After iontophoretic treatment, the liposomes were diffused widely in the viable skin layer around hair follicles. In contrast, passive diffusion failed to transport liposomes efficiently into the skin. Iontophoretic delivery of liposomes encapsulating SOD caused a marked decrease in the production of oxidative products, such as malondialdehyde, hexanoyl lysine, and 8-hydroxi-2-deoxyguanosine, in UV-irradiated skin. These findings suggested that functional SOD can be delivered into the skin using a combination of iontophoresis and a liposomal system. In conclusion, we succeeded in developing an efficient intradermal SOD delivery system, that would be useful for delivery of other macromolecules.

  16. The effects of different levels of superoxide dismutase in Modena on boar semen quality during liquid preservation at 17°C.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Gang; Li, Hao; Wang, Le; Hao, Yang-Yi; Liang, Guo-Dong; Ma, Yun-Hui; Yang, Gong-She; Hu, Jian-Hong

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the influence of superoxide dismutase (SOD) on the quality of boar semen during liquid preservation at 17°C. Semen samples from 10 Duroc boars were collected and pooled, divided into five equal parts and diluted with Modena containing different concentrations (0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 U/mL) of SOD. During the process of liquid preservation at 17°C, sperm motility, acrosome integrity, membrane integrity, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) content were measured and analyzed every 24 h. Meanwhile, effective survival time of boar semen during preservation was evaluated and analyzed. The results indicated that different concentrations of SOD in Modena showed different protective effects on boar sperm quality. Modena supplemented with SOD decreased the effects on reactive oxygen species on boar sperm quality during liquid preservation compared with that of the control group. The added 200 U/mL SOD group showed higher sperm motility, membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, effective survival time and T-AOC activity. Meanwhile, the added 200 U/mL SOD group showed lower MDA content and H 2 O 2 content. In conclusion, addition of SOD to Modena improved the boar sperm quality by reducing oxidative stress during liquid preservation at 17°C and the optimum concentration was 200 U/mL. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. E.S.R., magnetic, electronic and superoxide dismutase studies of imidazolate-bridged Cu(II)-Cu(II) complexes with ethylenediamine as capping ligand.

    PubMed

    Patel, R N; Singh, Nripendra; Shukla, K K; Gundla, V L N

    2005-06-01

    X-band E.S.R., magnetic and electronic spectra of some imidazolate-bridged homometallic complexes [(en)2Cu-R-Im-Cu(en)2](ClO4)3 where en, ethylenediamine; R-ImH, R = H imidazole (ImH); if R = CH3, 2-methylimidazole (M-ImH) and if R = C2H5, 2-ethylimidazole (E-ImH), and mononuclear complexes [(en)Cu-dien](ClO4)2 and [(en)Cu-PMDT](ClO4)2 where dien, diethylenetriamine; PMDT, pentamethyldiethylenetriamine have been described. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity has also been measured and compared with earlier reported complexes. In frozen solution at 77 K, the spectra show axial symmetry with a d(x2-y2) ground state. Difference in lambda(max) between mononuclear and binuclear complexes was found to be approximately 65-75 nm. Magnetic susceptibility and E.S.R. spectral measurements for all these binuclear complexes revealed that the copper(II) ions are involved in antiferromagnetic exchange interactions propagated by the imidazolate bridge.

  18. Association of manganese superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferases genotypes with myocardial infarction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kariž, Stojan; Nikolajević Starčević, Jovana; Petrovič, Daniel

    2012-10-01

    In the present study we investigated the association between genetic polymorphisms with functional effects on redox regulation: Val16Ala of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), polymorphic deletions of glutathione S-transferases M1 (GSTM1) and T1 (GSTT1) and Ile105Val of glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) and myocardial infarction (MI) in a group of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The study population consisted of 463 Caucasian subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus of more than 10 years' duration: 206 patients with MI and 257 patients with no history of coronary artery disease (CAD). Genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and with multiplex PCR. The genotype distributions of tested single nucleotide polymorphisms did not show significant difference between cases and controls. After adjustment for age, gender, smoking, BMI, duration of diabetes and lipid parameters carriers of GSTM1/GSTT1-null haplotype showed an increased risk for MI (OR=3.22, 95% CI 1.37-5.04, p=0.03). The GSTM1/GSTT1 haplotype might be a genetic risk factor for MI in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Destabilization of the metal site as a hub for the pathogenic mechanism of five ALS-linked mutants of copper, zinc superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Mera-Adasme, Raúl; Erdmann, Hannes; Bereźniak, Tomasz; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2016-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a lethal neurodegenerative disease, with no effective pharmacological treatment. Its pathogenesis is unknown, although a subset of the cases is linked to genetic mutations. A significant fraction of the mutations occur in one protein, copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1). The toxic function of mutant SOD1 has not been elucidated, but damage to the metal site of the protein is believed to play a major role. In this work, we study the electrostatic loop of SOD1, which we had previously proposed to work as a "solvent seal" isolating the metal site from water molecules. Out of the five contact points identified between the electrostatic loop and its dock in the rest of the protein, three points were found to be affected by ALS-linked mutations, with a total of five mutations identified. The effect of the five mutations was studied using methods of computational chemistry. We found that four of the mutations destabilize the proposed solvent seal, while the fifth mutation directly affects the metal-site stability. In the two contact points unaffected by ALS-linked mutations, the side chains of the residues were not found to play a stabilizing role. Our results show that the docking of the electrostatic loop to the rest of SOD1 plays a role in ALS pathogenesis, in support of that structure acting as a solvent barrier for the metal site. The results provide a unified pathogenic mechanism for five different ALS-linked mutations of SOD1.

  20. Development of luminol-N-hydroxyphthalimide chemiluminescence system for highly selective and sensitive detection of superoxide dismutase, uric acid and Co2.

    PubMed

    Saqib, Muhammad; Qi, Liming; Hui, Pan; Nsabimana, Anaclet; Halawa, Mohamed Ibrahim; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Guobao

    2018-01-15

    N-hydroxyphthalimide (NHPI), a well known reagent in organic synthesis and biochemical applications, has been developed as a stable and efficient chemiluminescence coreactant for the first time. It reacts with luminol much faster than N-hydroxysuccinimide, eliminating the need of a prereaction coil used in N-hydroxysuccinimide system. Without using prereaction coil, the chemiluminescence peak intensities of luminol-NHPI system are about 102 and 26 times greater than that of luminol-N-hydroxysuccinimide system and classical luminol-hydrogen peroxide system, respectively. The luminol-NHPI system achieves the highly sensitive detection of luminol (LOD = 70pM) and NHPI (LOD = 910nM). Based on their excellent quenching efficiencies, superoxide dismutase and uric acid are sensitively detected with LODs of 3ng/mL and 10pM, respectively. Co 2+ is also detected a LOD of 30pM by its remarkable enhancing effect. Noteworthily, our method is at least 4 orders of magnitude more sensitive than previously reported uric acid detection methods, and can detect uric acid in human urine and Co 2+ in tap and lake water real samples with excellent recoveries in the range of 96.35-102.70%. This luminol-NHPI system can be an important candidate for biochemical, clinical and environmental analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Zymogram profiling of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities allows Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces species differentiation and correlates to their fermentation performance.

    PubMed

    Gamero-Sandemetrio, Esther; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; Matallana, Emilia

    2013-05-01

    Aerobic organisms have devised several enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses to deal with reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by cellular metabolism. To combat such stress, cells induce ROS scavenging enzymes such as catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase. In the present research, we have used a double staining technique of SOD and catalase enzymes in the same polyacrylamide gel to analyze the different antioxidant enzymatic activities and protein isoforms present in Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeast species. Moreover, we used a technique to differentially detect Sod1p and Sod2p on gel by immersion in NaCN, which specifically inhibits the Sod1p isoform. We observed unique SOD and catalase zymogram profiles for all the analyzed yeasts and we propose this technique as a new approach for Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeast strains differentiation. In addition, we observed functional correlations between SOD and catalase enzyme activities, accumulation of essential metabolites, such as glutathione and trehalose, and the fermentative performance of different yeasts strains with industrial relevance.

  2. Molecular mechanism of composite nanoparticles TiO2/WO3/GO-induced activity changes of catalase and superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Li; Zheng, Xin; Zong, Wansong; Liu, Chunguang

    2018-06-21

    More and more composite nano-photocatalysts were developed by doping, modifying and coupling, which expanded its application but resulted in pollution due to the unrecyclability. Composite photocatalyst TiO 2 /WO 3 /GO, as a model, was evaluated by exploring the molecular mechanism of TiO 2 /WO 3 /GO-induced activity changes of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Results showed that TiO 2 /WO 3 /GO could lead to conformational and functional changes of CAT and SOD. The activity of both CAT and SOD increased depending on the exposure dose of TiO 2 /WO 3 /GO. The change skeleton structure and increase of α-helix content of CAT and SOD were certificated with UV-vis absorption and CD measurements. Intrinsic fluorescence of CAT and SOD were quenched by dynamic quenching. Micro-environment of amino acid residues of CAT and SOD became more hydrophilic, and the microenvironment of Trp residues was more vulnerable than Tyr residues with TiO 2 /WO 3 /GO exposure. In addition, inhibitory comparison between GO, TiO 2 , WO 3 and TiO 2 /WO 3 /GO was made, results showed that composite nano-photocatalyst exhibited different inhibitory compared to their parent nano-particles. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Thioredoxin Activates MKK4-NFκB Pathway in a Redox-dependent Manner to Control Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Gene Expression in Endothelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Kundumani-Sridharan, Venkatesh; Subramani, Jaganathan; Das, Kumuda C.

    2015-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MKK4) is activated via phosphorylation of Ser-257 and Thr-261 by upstream MAP3Ks and activates JNK and p38 MAPKs in response to cellular stress. We show that thioredoxin (Trx), a cellular redox protein, activates MKK4 via Cys-246 and Cys-266 residues as mutation of these residues renders MKK4 insensitive to phosphorylation by MAP3Ks, TNFα, or Trx. MKK4 is activated in vitro by reduced Trx but not oxidized Trx in the absence of an upstream kinase, suggesting that autophosphorylation of this protein occurs due to reduction of Cys-246 and Cys-266 by Trx. Additionally, mutation of Cys-246 and Cys-266 resulted in loss of kinase activity suggesting that the redox state of Cys-246 and Cys-266 is a critical determinant of MKK4 activation. Trx induces manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene transcription by activating MKK4 via redox control of Cys-246 and Cys-266, as mutation of these residues abrogates MKK4 activation and MnSOD expression. We further show that MKK4 activates NFκB for its binding to the MnSOD promoter, which leads to AP-1 dissociation followed by MnSOD transcription. Taken together, our studies show that the redox status of Cys-246 and Cys-266 in MKK4 controls its activities independent of MAP3K, demonstrating integration of the endothelial redox environment to MAPK signaling. PMID:26028649

  4. Mice Deficient in Both Mn Superoxide Dismutase and Glutathione Peroxidase-1 Have Increased Oxidative Damage and a Greater Incidence of Pathology but No Reduction in Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiqiang; Ikeno, Yuji; Qi, Wenbo; Chaudhuri, Asish; Li, Yan; Bokov, Alex; Thorpe, Suzanne R.; Baynes, John W.; Epstein, Charles; Richardson, Arlan

    2009-01-01

    To test the impact of increased mitochondrial oxidative stress as a mechanism underlying aging and age-related pathologies, we generated mice with a combined deficiency in two mitochondrial-localized antioxidant enzymes, Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and glutathione peroxidase-1 (Gpx-1). We compared life span, pathology, and oxidative damage in Gpx1−/−, Sod2+/−Gpx1+/−, Sod2+/−Gpx1−/−, and wild-type control mice. Oxidative damage was elevated in Sod2+/−Gpx1−/− mice, as shown by increased DNA oxidation in liver and skeletal muscle and increased protein oxidation in brain. Surprisingly, Sod2+/−Gpx1−/− mice showed no reduction in life span, despite increased levels of oxidative damage. Consistent with the important role for oxidative stress in tumorigenesis during aging, the incidence of neoplasms was significantly increased in the older Sod2+/−Gpx1−/− mice (28–30 months). Thus, these data do not support a significant role for increased oxidative stress as a result of compromised mitochondrial antioxidant defenses in modulating life span in mice and do not support the oxidative stress theory of aging. PMID:19776219

  5. Manganese superoxide dismutase Ala-9Val polymorphism and risk of breast cancer in a population-based case–control study of African Americans and whites

    PubMed Central

    Millikan, Robert C; Player, Jon; de Cotret, Allan René; Moorman, Patricia; Pittman, Gary; Vannappagari, Vani; Tse, Chiu-Kit J; Keku, Temitope

    2004-01-01

    Introduction A polymorphism in the manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene, Ala-9Val, has been examined in association with breast cancer risk in several epidemiologic studies. Results suggest that the Ala allele increases the risk of breast cancer and modifies the effects of environmental exposures that produce oxidative damage to DNA. Methods We examined the role of the MnSOD Ala-9Val polymorphism in a population-based case–control study of invasive and in situ breast cancer in North Carolina. Genotypes were evaluated for 2025 cases (760 African Americans and 1265 whites) and for 1812 controls (677 African Americans and 1135 whites). Results The odds ratio for MnSOD Ala/Ala versus any MnSOD Val genotypes was not elevated in African Americans (odds ratio = 0.9, 95% confidence interval = 0.7–1.2) or in whites (odds ratio = 1.0, 95% confidence interval = 0.8–1.2). Greater than additive joint effects were observed for the Ala/Ala genotype and smoking, radiation to the chest, and occupational exposure to ionizing radiation. Antagonism was observed between the Ala/Ala genotype and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Conclusions The MnSOD genotype may contribute to an increased risk of breast cancer in the presence of specific environmental exposures. These results provide further evidence for the importance of reactive oxygen species and of oxidative DNA damage in the etiology of breast cancer. PMID:15217492

  6. A Gel Formulation Containing a New Recombinant Form of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase: A Clinical Experience Based on Compassionate Use-Safety of a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Prete, Antonio Del; Ortosecco, Giovanni; Borrelli, Antonella; Prete, Salvatore Del; Mancini, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    Background. We report a case of bilateral posterior subcapsular cataracts (PSCs) in a 24-year-old man with an allergic conjunctivitis history caused by a long-term therapy with glucocorticoids. Case Presentation. The patient showed a visual acuity of 9/10 for both eyes. He followed a therapy with ketotifen and bilastine for four years. During the last six months before our evaluation, he was treated with chloramphenicol and betamethasone, interrupted for onset of cataracts and increased intraocular pressure. We treated him with ophthalmic gel preparation containing a new recombinant form of manganese superoxide dismutase (rMnSOD) at a concentration of 12.5 μg/mL, only for the right eye, while left eye was treated with standard protocol of Bendazac-lysine g 0.5. Conclusion. This case report shows the protective effects of rMnSOD versus PSC disease, probably due to the capacity of rMnSOD of countering free radical species. PMID:27610257

  7. The efficacy of an antioxidant cocktail on lipid peroxide level and superoxide dismutase activity in aged rat brain and DNA damage in iron-induced epileptogenic foci.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, M; Hiramatsu, M

    2000-08-07

    Mixed natural antioxidants can be combined in a prophylactic food against age related disease involving reactive oxygen species. beta-Catechin is an antioxidant drink, having free radical scavenging activities. It contains green tea extract as a main component as well as ascorbic acid, sunflower seed extract, dunaliella carotene and natural vitamin E. In the present study, we examined the effect of beta-catechin on lipid peroxide formation and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in aged rat brain and the effect on 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in ipsilateral cortex, 30 min after ferric chloride solution was injected into the left cortex of rats. beta-Catechin solution was orally administered to aged rats and normal rats for 1 month. One-month administration of beta-catechin solution increased SOD activity in the mitochondria fraction of striatum and midbrain and decreased thiobarbiturate reactive substance formation in the cortex and cerebellum of aged rats. It also inhibited 8-OHdG formation in the ipsilateral cortex 30 min after injection of ferric chloride solution. These results suggest that beta-catechin is a suitable prophylactic beverage against age-related neurological diseases associated with reactive oxygen species.

  8. A Gel Formulation Containing a New Recombinant Form of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase: A Clinical Experience Based on Compassionate Use-Safety of a Case Report.

    PubMed

    Grumetto, Lucia; Prete, Antonio Del; Ortosecco, Giovanni; Borrelli, Antonella; Prete, Salvatore Del; Mancini, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    Background. We report a case of bilateral posterior subcapsular cataracts (PSCs) in a 24-year-old man with an allergic conjunctivitis history caused by a long-term therapy with glucocorticoids. Case Presentation. The patient showed a visual acuity of 9/10 for both eyes. He followed a therapy with ketotifen and bilastine for four years. During the last six months before our evaluation, he was treated with chloramphenicol and betamethasone, interrupted for onset of cataracts and increased intraocular pressure. We treated him with ophthalmic gel preparation containing a new recombinant form of manganese superoxide dismutase (rMnSOD) at a concentration of 12.5 μg/mL, only for the right eye, while left eye was treated with standard protocol of Bendazac-lysine g 0.5. Conclusion. This case report shows the protective effects of rMnSOD versus PSC disease, probably due to the capacity of rMnSOD of countering free radical species.

  9. Carcinogenesis and Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling: Interaction of the NADPH Oxidase NOX1-5 and Superoxide Dismutase 1-3 Signal Transduction Pathways.

    PubMed

    Parascandolo, Alessia; Laukkanen, Mikko O

    2018-04-05

    Reduction/oxidation (redox) balance could be defined as an even distribution of reduction and oxidation complementary processes and their reaction end products. There is a consensus that aberrant levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), commonly observed in cancer, stimulate primary cell immortalization and progression of carcinogenesis. However, the mechanism how different ROS regulate redox balance is not completely understood. Recent Advances: In the current review, we have summarized the main signaling cascades inducing NADPH oxidase NOX1-5 and superoxide dismutase (SOD) 1-3 expression and their connection to cell proliferation, immortalization, transformation, and CD34 + cell differentiation in thyroid, colon, lung, breast, and hematological cancers. Interestingly, many of the signaling pathways activating redox enzymes or mediating the effect of ROS are common, such as pathways initiated from G protein-coupled receptors and tyrosine kinase receptors involving protein kinase A, phospholipase C, calcium, and small GTPase signaling molecules. The clarification of interaction of signal transduction pathways could explain how cells regulate redox balance and may even provide means to inhibit the accumulation of harmful levels of ROS in human pathologies. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.

  10. Conjugates of Superoxide Dismutase 1 with Amphiphilic Poly(2-oxazoline) Block Copolymers for Enhanced Brain Delivery: Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Jing; Yi, Xiang; Luxenhofer, Robert; Banks, William A.; Jordan, Rainer; Zimmerman, Matthew C.; Kabanov, Alexander V.

    2013-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) efficiently catalyzes dismutation of superoxide but its poor delivery to the target sites in the body, such as brain, hinders its use as a therapeutic agent for superoxide-associated disorders. Here to enhance the delivery of SOD1 across the blood brain barrier (BBB) and in neurons the enzyme was conjugated with poly(2-oxazoline) (POx) block copolymers, P(MeOx-b-BuOx) or P(EtOx-b-BuOx), comprised of 1) hydrophilic 2-methyl-2-oxazoline (MeOx) or 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline (EtOx) and 2) hydrophobic 2-butyl-2-oxazoline (BuOx) repeating units. The conjugates contained from 2 to 3 POx chains joining the protein amino groups via cleavable -(ss)- or non-cleavable –(cc)- linkers at the BuOx block terminus. They retained 30% to 50% of initial SOD1 activity, were conformationally and thermally stable and assembled in 8 or 20 nm aggregates in aqueous solution. They had little if any toxicity to CATH.a neurons and displayed enhanced uptake in these neurons as compared to native or PEGylated SOD1. Of the two conjugates, SOD1-(cc)-P(MeOx-b-BuOx) and SOD1-(cc)-P(EtOx-b-BuOx) compared, the latter was entering cells 4 to 7 times faster and at 6 h colocalized predominantly with endoplasmic reticulum (41 ± 3%) and mitochondria (21 ± 2%). Colocalization with endocytosis markers and pathway inhibition assays suggested that it was internalized through lipid raft/caveolae, also employed by the P(EtOx-b-BuOx) copolymer. The SOD activity in cell lysates and ability to attenuate angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced superoxide in live cells were increased for this conjugate compared to SOD1 and PEG-SOD1. Studies in mice showed that SOD1-POx had ca. 1.75 times longer half-life in blood than native SOD1 (28.4 vs 15.9 min) and after i.v. administration penetrated the BBB significantly faster than albumin to accumulate in brain parenchyma. The conjugate maintained high stability both in serum and in brain (77% vs. 84% at 1 h post injection). Its amount taken up by the brain

  11. Nitroxide derivatives of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs exert anti-inflammatory and superoxide dismutase scavenging properties in A459 cells.

    PubMed

    Flores-Santana, Wilmarie; Moody, Terry; Chen, Weibin; Gorczynski, Michael J; Shoman, Mai E; Velázquez, Carlos; Thetford, Angela; Mitchell, James B; Cherukuri, Murali K; King, S Bruce; Wink, David A

    2012-02-01

    Inflammation and reactive oxygen species are associated with the promotion of various cancers. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in cancer prevention treatments has been promising in numerous cancers. We report the evaluation of NSAIDs chemically modified by the addition of a redox-active nitroxide group. TEMPO-aspirin (TEMPO-ASA) and TEMPO-indomethacin (TEMPO-IND) were synthesized and evaluated in the lung cancer cell line A549. We evaluated physico-chemical properties of TEMPO-ASA and TEMPO-IND by electron paramagnetic resonance and cyclic voltammetry. Superoxide dismutase-like properties was assayed by measuring cytochrome c reduction and anti-inflammatory effects were assayed by measuring production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2) ) and leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4) ). MTT proliferation assay and clonogenic assay were evaluated in the A549 lung carcinoma cell line. Maximum tolerated doses (MTD) and acute ulcerogenic index were also evaluated in in vivo. MTD were: TEMPO (140 mg·kg(-1) ), ASA (100 mg·kg(-1) ), indomethacin (5 mg·kg(-1) ), TEMPO-ASA (100 mg·kg(-1) ) and TEMPO-IND (40 mg·kg(-1) ). While TEMPO-ASA was as well tolerated as ASA, TEMPO-IND showed an eightfold improvement over indomethacin. TEMPO-IND showed markedly less gastric toxicity than the parent NSAID. Both TEMPO-ASA and TEMPO-IND inhibited production of PGE(2) and LTB(4) in A549 cells with maximum effects at 100 µg·mL(-1) or 10 µg·mL(-1) respectively. The nitroxide-NSAIDs retained superoxide scavenging capacity of the parent nitroxide and anti-inflammatory effects, inhibiting cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase enzymes. These redox-modified NSAIDs might be potential drug candidates, as they exhibit the pharmacological properties of the parent NSAID with antioxidant activity decreasing NSAID-associated toxicity. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Superoxide Dismutases, SOD1 and SOD2, Play a Distinct Role in the Fat Body during Pupation in Silkworm Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Nojima, Yosui; Ito, Katsuhiko; Ono, Hiromasa; Nakazato, Takeru; Bono, Hidemasa; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Sato, Ryoichi; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Nakamura, Yuki; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Satoh, Jun-ichi; Tabunoki, Hiroko; Fugo, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    One way that aerobic biological systems counteract the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is with superoxide dismutase proteins SOD1 and SOD2 that metabolize superoxide radicals to molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide or scavenge oxygen radicals produced by the extensive oxidation-reduction and electron-transport reactions that occur in mitochondria. We characterized SOD1 and SOD2 of Bombyx mori isolated from the fat body of larvae. Immunological analysis demonstrated the presence of BmSOD1 and BmSOD2 in the silk gland, midgut, fat body, Malpighian tubules, testis and ovary from larvae to adults. We found that BmSOD2 had a unique expression pattern in the fat body through the fifth instar larval developmental stage. The anti-oxidative functions of BmSOD1 and BmSOD2 were assessed by exposing larvae to insecticide rotenone or vasodilator isosorbide dinitrate, which is an ROS generator in BmN4 cells; however, exposure to these compounds had no effect on the expression levels of either BmSOD protein. Next, we investigated the physiological role of BmSOD1 and BmSOD2 under environmental oxidative stress, applied through whole-body UV irradiation and assayed using quantitative RT-PCR, immunoblotting and microarray analysis. The mRNA expression level of both BmSOD1 and BmSOD2 was markedly increased but protein expression level was increased only slightly. To examine the differences in mRNA and protein level due to UV irradiation intensity, we performed microarray analysis. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that genes in the insulin signaling pathway and PPAR signaling pathway were significantly up-regulated after 6 and 12 hours of UV irradiation. Taken together, the activities of BmSOD1 and BmSOD2 may be related to the response to UV irradiation stress in B. mori. These results suggest that BmSOD1 and BmSOD2 modulate environmental oxidative stress in the cell and have a specific role in fat body of B. mori during pupation. PMID:25714339

  13. Superoxide Dismutase Mimetic, MnTE-2-PyP, Attenuates Chronic Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension, Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling, and Activation of the NALP3 Inflammasome

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Leah R.; Kluck, Dylan; Field, Carlie; Oberley-Deegan, Rebecca E.; Woods, Crystal; Yeager, Michael E.; El Kasmi, Karim C.; Savani, Rashmin C.; Bowler, Russell P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by an oxidant/antioxidant imbalance that promotes abnormal vascular responses. Reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide (O2•−), contribute to the pathogenesis of PH and vascular responses, including vascular remodeling and inflammation. This study sought to investigate the protective role of a pharmacological catalytic antioxidant, a superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic (MnTE-2-PyP), in hypoxia-induced PH, vascular remodeling, and NALP3 (NACHT, LRR, and PYD domain-containing protein 3)–mediated inflammation. Results: Mice (C57/BL6) were exposed to hypobaric hypoxic conditions, while subcutaneous injections of MnTE-2-PyP (5 mg/kg) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were given 3× weekly for up to 35 days. SOD mimetic-treated groups demonstrated protection against increased right ventricular systolic pressure, indirect measurements of pulmonary artery pressure, and RV hypertrophy. Vascular remodeling was assessed by Ki67 staining to detect vascular cell proliferation, α-smooth muscle actin staining to analyze small vessel muscularization, and hyaluronan (HA) measurements to assess extracellular matrix modulation. Activation of the NALP3 inflammasome pathway was measured by NALP3 expression, caspase-1 activation, and interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β) and IL-18 production. Hypoxic exposure increased PH, vascular remodeling, and NALP3 inflammasome activation in PBS-treated mice, while mice treated with MnTE-2-PyP showed an attenuation in each of these endpoints. Innovation: This study is the first to demonstrate activation of the NALP3 inflammasome with cleavage of caspase-1 and release of active IL-1 β and IL-18 in chronic hypoxic PH, as well as its attenuation by the SOD mimetic, MnTE-2-PyP. Conclusion: The ability of the SOD mimetic to scavenge extracellular O2•− supports our previous observations in EC-SOD-overexpressing mice that implicate extracellular oxidant/antioxidant imbalance in hypoxic PH

  14. Responses of transgenic Arabidopsis plants and recombinant yeast cells expressing a novel durum wheat manganese superoxide dismutase TdMnSOD to various abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Kaouthar, Feki; Ameny, Farhat-Khemakhem; Yosra, Kamoun; Walid, Saibi; Ali, Gargouri; Faiçal, Brini

    2016-07-01

    In plant cells, the manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) plays an elusive role in the response to oxidative stress. In this study, we describe the isolation and functional characterization of a novel Mn-SOD from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. Durum), named TdMnSOD. Molecular phylogeny analysis showed that the durum TdMnSOD exhibited high amino acids sequence identity with other Mn-SOD plants. The three-dimensional structure showed that TdMnSOD forms a homotetramer and each subunit is composed of a predominantly α-helical N-terminal domain and a mixed α/β C-terminal domain. TdMnSOD gene expression analysis showed that this gene was induced by various abiotic stresses in durum wheat. The expression of TdMnSOD enhances tolerance of the transformed yeast cells to salt, osmotic, cold and H2O2-induced oxidative stresses. Moreover, the analysis of TdMnSOD transgenic Arabidopsis plants subjected to different environmental stresses revealed low H2O2 and high proline levels as compared to the wild-type plants. Compared with the non-transformed plants, an increase in the total SOD and two other antioxidant enzyme activities including catalase (CAT) and peroxidases (POD) was observed in the three transgenic lines subjected to abiotic stress. Taken together, these data provide evidence for the involvement of durum wheat TdMnSOD in tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in crop plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Distinct Functions of CCAAT Enhancer-binding Protein Isoforms in the Regulation of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase during Interleukin-1β Stimulation*

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xiaolei; Aiken, Kimberly J.; Chokas, Ann L.; Beachy, Dawn E.; Nick, Harry S.

    2008-01-01

    The mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) is crucial in maintaining cellular and organismal homeostasis. Mn-SOD expression is tightly regulated in a manner that synchronizes its cytoprotective functions during inflammatory challenges. Induction of Mn-SOD gene expression by the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β is mediated through a complex intronic enhancer element. To identify and characterize the transcription factors required for Mn-SOD enhancer function, a yeast one-hybrid assay was utilized, and two CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) members, C/EBP β and C/EBP δ, were identified. These two transcription factors responded to IL-1β treatment with distinct expression profiles, different temporal yet inducible interactions with the endogenous Mn-SOD enhancer, and also opposite effects on Mn-SOD transcription. C/EBP β is expressed as three isoforms, LAP* (liver-activating protein), LAP, and LIP (liver-inhibitory protein). Our functional analysis demonstrated that only the full-length C/EBP β/LAP* served as a true activator for Mn-SOD, whereas LAP, LIP, and C/EBP δ functioned as potential repressors. Finally, our systematic mutagenesis of the unique N-terminal 21 amino acids further solidified the importance of LAP* in the induction of Mn-SOD and emphasized the crucial role of this isoform. Our data demonstrating the physiological relevance of the N-terminal peptide also provide a rationale for revisiting the role of LAP* in the regulation of other genes and in pathways such as lipogenesis and development. PMID:18559338

  16. Superoxide dismutase recombinant Lactobacillus fermentum ameliorates intestinal oxidative stress through inhibiting NF-κB activation in a trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced colitis mouse model.

    PubMed

    Hou, C L; Zhang, J; Liu, X T; Liu, H; Zeng, X F; Qiao, S Y

    2014-06-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) can prevent and cure inflammatory bowel diseases by decreasing the amount of reactive oxygen species. Unfortunately, short half-life of SOD in the gastrointestinal tract limited its application in the intestinal tract. This study aimed to investigate the treatment effects of recombinant SOD Lactobacillus fermentum in a colitis mouse model. In this study, we expressed the sodA gene in Lact. fermentum I5007 to obtain the SOD recombinant strain. Then, we determined the therapeutic effects of this SOD recombinant strain in a trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis mouse model. We found that SOD activity in the recombinant Lact. fermentum was increased by almost eightfold compared with that in the wild type. Additionally, both the wild type and the recombinant Lact. fermentum increased the numbers of lactobacilli in the colon of mice (P < 0·05). Colitis mice treated with recombinant Lact. fermentum showed a higher survival rate and lower disease activity index (P < 0·05). Recombinant Lact. fermentum significantly decreased colonic mucosa histological scoring for infiltration of inflammatory cells, lipid peroxidation, the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and myeloperoxidase (P < 0·05) and inhibited NF-κB activity in colitis mice (P < 0·05). SOD recombinant Lact. fermentum significantly reduced oxidative stress and inflammation through inhibiting NF-κB activation in the TNBS-induced colitis model. This study provides insights into the anti-inflammatory effects of SOD recombinant Lact. fermentum, indicating the potential therapeutic effects in preventing and curing intestinal bowel diseases. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Canine Degenerative Myelopathy: Biochemical characterization of superoxide dismutase 1 in the first naturally occurring non-human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis model1

    PubMed Central

    Crisp, Matthew J.; Beckett, Jeffrey; Coates, Joan R.; Miller, Timothy M.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in canine superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) have recently been shown to cause canine degenerative myelopathy, a disabling neurodegenerative disorder affecting specific breeds of dogs characterized by progressive motor neuron loss and paralysis until death, or more common, euthanasia. This discovery makes canine degenerative myelopathy the first and only naturally occurring non-human model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), closely paralleling the clinical, pathological, and genetic presentation of its human counterpart, SOD1-mediated familial ALS. To further understand the biochemical role that canine SOD1 plays in this disease and how it may be similar to human SOD1, we characterized the only two SOD1 mutations described in affected dogs to date, E40K and T18S. We show that a detergent-insoluble species of mutant SOD1 is present in spinal cords of affected dogs that increases with disease progression. Our in vitro results indicate that both canine SOD1 mutants form enzymatically active dimers, arguing against a loss of function in affected homozygous animals. Further studies show that these mutants, like most human SOD1 mutants, have an increased propensity to form aggregates in cell culture, with 10-20% of cells possessing visible aggregates. Creation of the E40K mutation in human SOD1 recapitulates the normal enzymatic activity but not the aggregation propensity seen with the canine mutant. Our findings lend strong biochemical support to the toxic role of SOD1 in canine degenerative myelopathy and establish close parallels for the role mutant SOD1 plays in both canine and human disorders. PMID:23707216

  18. Canine degenerative myelopathy: biochemical characterization of superoxide dismutase 1 in the first naturally occurring non-human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis model.

    PubMed

    Crisp, Matthew J; Beckett, Jeffrey; Coates, Joan R; Miller, Timothy M

    2013-10-01

    Mutations in canine superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) have recently been shown to cause canine degenerative myelopathy, a disabling neurodegenerative disorder affecting specific breeds of dogs characterized by progressive motor neuron loss and paralysis until death, or more common, euthanasia. This discovery makes canine degenerative myelopathy the first and only naturally occurring non-human model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), closely paralleling the clinical, pathological, and genetic presentation of its human counterpart, SOD1-mediated familial ALS. To further understand the biochemical role that canine SOD1 plays in this disease and how it may be similar to human SOD1, we characterized the only two SOD1 mutations described in affected dogs to date, E40K and T18S. We show that a detergent-insoluble species of mutant SOD1 is present in spinal cords of affected dogs that increases with disease progression. Our in vitro results indicate that both canine SOD1 mutants form enzymatically active dimers, arguing against a loss of function in affected homozygous animals. Further studies show that these mutants, like most human SOD1 mutants, have an increased propensity to form aggregates in cell culture, with 10-20% of cells possessing visible aggregates. Creation of the E40K mutation in human SOD1 recapitulates the normal enzymatic activity but not the aggregation propensity seen with the canine mutant. Our findings lend strong biochemical support to the toxic role of SOD1 in canine degenerative myelopathy and establish close parallels for the role mutant SOD1 plays in both canine and human disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Histone Acetylation Regulates the Cell-Specific and Interferon-γ–Inducible Expression of Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase in Human Pulmonary Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Stepp, Marcus W.; Vorst, Alan L.; Folz, Rodney J.

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is the major antioxidant enzyme present in the vascular wall, and is responsible for both the protection of vessels from oxidative stress and for the modulation of vascular tone. Concentrations of EC-SOD in human pulmonary arteries are very high relative to other tissues, and the expression of EC-SOD appears highly restricted to smooth muscle. The molecular basis for this smooth muscle–specific expression of EC-SOD is not known. Here we assessed the role of epigenetic factors in regulating the cell-specific and IFN-γ–inducible expression of EC-SOD in human pulmonary artery cells. The analysis of CpG site methylation within the promoter and coding regions of the EC-SOD gene demonstrated higher levels of DNA methylation within the distal promoter region in endothelial cells compared with smooth muscle cells. Exposure of both cell types to DNA demethylation agents reactivated the transcription of EC-SOD in endothelial cells alone. However, exposure to the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) significantly induced EC-SOD gene expression in both endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. Concentrations of EC-SOD mRNA were also induced up to 45-fold by IFN-γ in smooth muscle cells, but not in endothelial cells. The IFN-γ–dependent expression of EC-SOD was regulated by the Janus tyrosine kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription proteins signaling pathway. Simultaneous exposure to TSA and IFN-γ produced a synergistic effect on the induction of EC-SOD gene expression, but only in endothelial cells. These findings provide strong evidence that EC-SOD cell-specific and IFN-γ–inducible expression in pulmonary artery cells is regulated, to a major degree, by epigenetic mechanisms that include histone acetylation and DNA methylation. PMID:21493784

  20. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities and risk of coronary heart disease in generally healthy women: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuman; Jensen, Majken K; Rimm, Eric B; Willett, Walter; Wu, Tianying

    2014-11-01

    Erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes are major circulating antioxidant enzymes in the oxidative stress defense system. Few prospective studies have assessed the association between these enzymes and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in generally healthy adults. We conducted a prospective nested case-control study of CHD among 32,826 women at baseline with 15 years of follow-up from 1989 to 2004 in the Nurses' Health Study. We investigated the association of baseline erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) activities with the risk of CHD. A total of 365 cases and 728 controls were included in the analysis. Overall, the relative risks of CHD associated with 1-standard deviation higher SOD, GPx, and CAT activities were 1.07 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.94, 1.22), 1.04 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.18), and 1.04 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.17), respectively. Multivariable adjustments did not change the associations appreciably. Fasting status did not modify the associations, with the exception that SOD activity was positively associated with the risk of CHD among participants who provided blood samples within 12 hours of fasting. Overall, activities of SOD, GPx, and CAT were not associated with CHD among women who were generally healthy at the time of blood collection. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The effects of superoxide dismutase addition to the transport medium on cumulus-oocyte complex apoptosis and IVF outcome in cats (Felis catus).

    PubMed

    Cocchia, Natascia; Corteggio, Annunziata; Altamura, Gennaro; Tafuri, Simona; Rea, Silviana; Rosapane, Isabella; Sica, Alessandro; Landolfi, Francesco; Ciani, Francesca

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of superoxide dismutase (SOD) addition to the ovary transport medium (4°C, 3-72 h) on ovarian cell viability and apoptosis and in vitro embryo production (IVEP) in domestic cats. The ovaries collected from 76 mixed-breed domestic queens were randomly assigned to the control or SOD-treated groups and incubated for 3, 24, 48 or 72 h. The ovaries were then subjected to the following: (1) fixed in formalin to assess the incidence of apoptosis (fragmented DNA in situ detection kit), (2) stored at -196°C in liquid nitrogen to evaluate the expression of the pro-apoptotic Bax gene and the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 gene (RT-PCR), and (3) used to obtain the cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) in order to test the cell viability (carboxyfluorescein or trypan blue staining) and IVEP. The incidence of apoptosis appeared to be higher in the control compared with the SOD-treated ovaries. The ovarian expression of Bax was lower and the Bcl-2 expression was higher in the SOD-treated group compared with the control group. The presence of SOD in the transport medium increased the viability of COCs and IVEP compared with the control medium. In summary, the supplementation of the ovary transport medium with SOD reduced cellular apoptosis and enhanced COC survival and IVEP in domestic cats. Copyright © 2014 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  2. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) in boar spermatozoa: purification, biochemical properties and changes in activity during semen storage (16°C) in different extenders.

    PubMed

    Orzołek, Aleksandra; Wysocki, Paweł; Strzeżek, Jerzy; Kordan, Władysław

    2013-03-01

    The antioxidant system in semen is composed of enzymes, low-molecular weight antioxidants and seminal plasma proteins. Loss of enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) during semen preservation may cause insufficient antioxidant defense of boar spermatozoa. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize SOD molecular forms from spermatozoa and to describe changes in SOD activity in boar sperm during preservation at 16°C. Sperm extracts were prepared from fresh or diluted semen and used for SOD purification or activity measurement. Ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration was used to purify SOD molecular forms. BTS, Dilu Cell, M III and Vitasem were used as diluents for 5-day storage of semen at +16°C. The molecular form of SOD released from spermatozoa after cold shock and homogenization had a molecular weight of approximately 67kDa. The activity of the SOD form was the highest at pH 10 within the temperature range between 20 and 45°C. The enzymatic activity of form released after cold shock was inhibited by H2O2 and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC; by 65 and 40%, respectively). The SOD form released by homogenization was inhibited by H2O2 and DDC (40%). The molecular form released after urea treatment was a 30kDa protein with maximum activity at 20°C and pH 10. Enzymatic activity of this form was inhibited by H2O2 by 35%, DDC by 80% and 2-mercaptoethanol by 15%. The antigenic determinants of SOD isolated from boar seminal plasma and spermatozoa were similar to each other. Susceptibility of spermatozoa to cold shock increased during storage, but the differences between extenders were statistically non-significant. Copyright © 2013 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of different concentrations of oxygen on expression of sigma 1 receptor and superoxide dismutases in human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Skrzycki, Michał; Czeczot, Hanna; Mielczarek-Puta, Magdalena; Otto-Ślusarczyk, Dagmara; Graboń, Wojciech

    2017-06-01

    Tumor cells due to distance from capillary vessels exist in different oxygenation conditions (anoxia, hypoxia, normoxia). Changes in cell oxygenation lead to reactive oxygen species production and oxidative stress. Sigma 1 receptor (Sig1R) is postulated to be stress responding agent and superoxide dismutases (SOD1 and SOD2) are key antioxidant enzymes. It is possible that they participate in tumor cells adaptation to different concentrations of oxygen. Evaluation of Sig1R, SOD1, and SOD2 expression in different concentrations of oxygen (1%, 10%, 21%) in colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. SW480 (primary adenocarcinoma) and SW620 (metastatic) cell lines were cultured in standard conditions in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium for 5 days, and next cultured in Hypoxic Chamber in 1% O 2 , 10% O 2 , 21% O 2 . Number of living cells was determined by trypan blue assay. Level of mRNA for Sig1R, SOD1, and SOD2 was determined by standard PCR method. Statistical analysis was conducted using Statistica 10.1 software. We observed significant changes in expression of Sig1R, SOD1, SOD2 due to different oxygen concentrations. ANOVA analysis revealed significant interactions between studied parameters mainly in hypoxia conditions in SW480 cells and between Sig1R and SOD2 in SW620 cells. It also showed that changes in expression of studied proteins depend significantly on type of the cell line. Changes of Sig1R and SOD2 expression point to mitochondria as main organelle responsible for survival of tumor cells exposed to hypoxia or oxidative stress. Studied proteins are involved in intracellular response to stress related with different concentrations of oxygen.

  4. Oxidation of the Tryptophan 32 Residue of Human Superoxide Dismutase 1 Caused by Its Bicarbonate-dependent Peroxidase Activity Triggers the Non-amyloid Aggregation of the Enzyme*

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Fernando R.; Iqbal, Asif; Linares, Edlaine; Silva, Daniel F.; Lima, Filipe S.; Cuccovia, Iolanda M.; Augusto, Ohara

    2014-01-01

    The role of oxidative post-translational modifications of human superoxide dismutase 1 (hSOD1) in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathology is an attractive hypothesis to explore based on several lines of evidence. Among them, the remarkable stability of hSOD1WT and several of its ALS-associated mutants suggests that hSOD1 oxidation may precede its conversion to the unfolded and aggregated forms found in ALS patients. The bicarbonate-dependent peroxidase activity of hSOD1 causes oxidation of its own solvent-exposed Trp32 residue. The resulting products are apparently different from those produced in the absence of bicarbonate and are most likely specific for simian SOD1s, which contain the Trp32 residue. The aims of this work were to examine whether the bicarbonate-dependent peroxidase activity of hSOD1 (hSOD1WT and hSOD1G93A mutant) triggers aggregation of the enzyme and to comprehend the role of the Trp32 residue in the process. The results showed that Trp32 residues of both enzymes are oxidized to a similar extent to hSOD1-derived tryptophanyl radicals. These radicals decayed to hSOD1-N-formylkynurenine and hSOD1-kynurenine or to a hSOD1 covalent dimer cross-linked by a ditryptophan bond, causing hSOD1 unfolding, oligomerization, and non-amyloid aggregation. The latter process was inhibited by tempol, which recombines with the hSOD1-derived tryptophanyl radical, and did not occur in the absence of bicarbonate or with enzymes that lack the Trp32 residue (bovine SOD1 and hSOD1W32F mutant). The results support a role for the oxidation products of the hSOD1-Trp32 residue, particularly the covalent dimer, in triggering the non-amyloid aggregation of hSOD1. PMID:25237191

  5. Alternative Splicing Studies of the Reactive Oxygen Species Gene Network in Populus Reveal Two Isoforms of High-Isoelectric-Point Superoxide Dismutase1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Vaibhav; Srivastava, Manoj Kumar; Chibani, Kamel; Nilsson, Robert; Rouhier, Nicolas; Melzer, Michael; Wingsle, Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that alternative splicing (AS) is widely involved in the regulation of gene expression, substantially extending the diversity of numerous proteins. In this study, a subset of expressed sequence tags representing members of the reactive oxygen species gene network was selected from the PopulusDB database to investigate AS mechanisms in Populus. Examples of all known types of AS were detected, but intron retention was the most common. Interestingly, the closest Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) homologs of half of the AS genes identified in Populus are not reportedly alternatively spliced. Two genes encoding the protein of most interest in our study (high-isoelectric-point superoxide dismutase [hipI-SOD]) have been found in black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa), designated PthipI-SODC1 and PthipI-SODC2. Analysis of the expressed sequence tag libraries has indicated the presence of two transcripts of PthipI-SODC1 (hipI-SODC1b and hipI-SODC1s). Alignment of these sequences with the PthipI-SODC1 gene showed that hipI-SODC1b was 69 bp longer than hipI-SODC1s due to an AS event involving the use of an alternative donor splice site in the sixth intron. Transcript analysis showed that the splice variant hipI-SODC1b was differentially expressed, being clearly expressed in cambial and xylem, but not phloem, regions. In addition, immunolocalization and mass spectrometric data confirmed the presence of hipI-SOD proteins in vascular tissue. The functionalities of the spliced gene products were assessed by expressing recombinant hipI-SOD proteins and in vitro SOD activity assays. PMID:19176719

  6. Alternative splicing studies of the reactive oxygen species gene network in Populus reveal two isoforms of high-isoelectric-point superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Vaibhav; Srivastava, Manoj Kumar; Chibani, Kamel; Nilsson, Robert; Rouhier, Nicolas; Melzer, Michael; Wingsle, Gunnar

    2009-04-01

    Recent evidence has shown that alternative splicing (AS) is widely involved in the regulation of gene expression, substantially extending the diversity of numerous proteins. In this study, a subset of expressed sequence tags representing members of the reactive oxygen species gene network was selected from the PopulusDB database to investigate AS mechanisms in Populus. Examples of all known types of AS were detected, but intron retention was the most common. Interestingly, the closest Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) homologs of half of the AS genes identified in Populus are not reportedly alternatively spliced. Two genes encoding the protein of most interest in our study (high-isoelectric-point superoxide dismutase [hipI-SOD]) have been found in black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa), designated PthipI-SODC1 and PthipI-SODC2. Analysis of the expressed sequence tag libraries has indicated the presence of two transcripts of PthipI-SODC1 (hipI-SODC1b and hipI-SODC1s). Alignment of these sequences with the PthipI-SODC1 gene showed that hipI-SODC1b was 69 bp longer than hipI-SODC1s due to an AS event involving the use of an alternative donor splice site in the sixth intron. Transcript analysis showed that the splice variant hipI-SODC1b was differentially expressed, being clearly expressed in cambial and xylem, but not phloem, regions. In addition, immunolocalization and mass spectrometric data confirmed the presence of hipI-SOD proteins in vascular tissue. The functionalities of the spliced gene products were assessed by expressing recombinant hipI-SOD proteins and in vitro SOD activity assays.

  7. Molecular and expression analysis of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) gene under temperature and starvation stress in rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianghua; Dong, Siming; Zhu, Huanxi; Jiang, Qichen; Yang, Jiaxin

    2013-04-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an important antioxidant enzyme that protects organs from damage by reactive oxygen species. We cloned cDNA encoding SOD activated with manganese (Mn-SOD) from the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas. The full-length cDNA of Mn-SOD was 1,016 bp and had a 669 bp open reading frame encoding 222 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of B. calyciflorus Mn-SOD showed 89.1, 71.3, and 62.1 % similarity with the Mn-SOD of the marine rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, respectively. The phylogenetic tree constructed based on the amino acid sequences of Mn-SODs from B. calyciflorus and other organisms revealed that this rotifer is closely related to nematodes. Analysis of the mRNA expression of Mn-SOD under different conditions revealed that expression was enhanced 5.6-fold (p < 0.001) at 30 °C after 2 h, however, low temperature (15 °C) promoted Mn SOD temporarily (2.5-fold, p < 0.001) and then decreased to normal level (p > 0.05). Moderate starvation promoted Mn-SOD mRNA expression (p 12 < 0.01, p 36 < 0.05), which reached a maximum value (15.3 times higher than control, p 24 < 0.01) at 24 h. SOD and CAT activities also elevated at the 12 h-starved group. These results indicate that induction of Mn-SOD expression by stressors likely plays an important role in aging of B. calyciflorus.

  8. The effects of different levels of catalase and superoxide dismutase in modified Beltsville extender on rooster post-thawed sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Amini, Mahmood Reza; Kohram, Hamid; Zare-Shahaneh, Ahmad; Zhandi, Mahdi; Sharideh, Hossein; Nabi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-06-01

    Oxidative damage of sperm by means of reactive oxygen species generated by the cellular components of semen is one of the main reasons for decreased sperm motility and fertility during the freeze-thawing process. This study was conducted to determine the influence of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) on rooster sperm motility, viability and MDA level after freezing and thawing. Semen samples from 10 sexually-mature Ross 308 breeder roosters were collected and pooled, divided into nine equal parts and diluted with modified Beltsville extender containing no antioxidants (control), or supplemented with 50, 100, 200 and 300 μg/mL CAT, or 50, 100, 200 and 300 U/mL SOD. After thawing, sperm motility and motion parameters were assessed using a CASA system. Sperm viability and MDA level were assessed by eosin-nigrosin and MDA test, respectively. The results of this experiment showed that the extender supplemented with 100 and 200 μg CAT, and 50 U SOD had the highest sperm motility (P<0.05) in sperm motility. Also, addition 100, 200 and 300 μg CAT, and 50 U SOD can improve significantly viability after freeze-thaw. Extender supplemented with 100 μg CAT had significantly lower MDA level compared to control and 300 μg CAT. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrate that addition of CAT (100 μg/mL) and SOD (50 U/mL) independently have beneficial effect on quality of post-thawed rooster semen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Glycerolipid Headgroups Control Rate and Mechanism of Superoxide Dismutase-1 Aggregation and Accelerate Fibrillization of Slowly Aggregating Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Mutants.

    PubMed

    Rasouli, Sanaz; Abdolvahabi, Alireza; Croom, Corbin M; Plewman, Devon L; Shi, Yunhua; Shaw, Bryan F

    2018-04-20

    Interactions between superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) and lipid membranes might be directly involved in the toxicity and intercellular propagation of aggregated SOD1 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but the chemical details of lipid-SOD1 interactions and their effects on SOD1 aggregation remain unclear. This paper determined the rate and mechanism of nucleation of fibrillar apo-SOD1 catalyzed by liposomal surfaces with identical hydrophobic chains (RCH 2 (O 2 C 18 H 33 ) 2 ), but headgroups of different net charge and hydrophobicity (i.e., R(CH 2 )N + (CH 3 ) 3 , RPO 4 - (CH 2 ) 2 N + (CH 3 ) 3 , and RPO 4 - ). Under semiquiescent conditions (within a 96 well microplate, without a gyrating bead), the aggregation of apo-SOD1 into thioflavin-T-positive (ThT(+)) amyloid fibrils did not occur over 120 h in the absence of liposomal surfaces. Anionic liposomes triggered aggregation of apo-SOD1 into ThT(+) amyloid fibrils; cationic liposomes catalyzed fibrillization but at slower rates and across a narrower lipid concentration; zwitterionic liposomes produced nonfibrillar (amorphous) aggregates. The inability of zwitterionic liposomes to catalyze fibrillization and the dependence of fibrillization rate on anionic lipid concentration suggests that membranes catalyze SOD1 fibrillization by a primary nucleation mechanism. Membrane-catalyzed fibrillization was also examined for eight ALS variants of apo-SOD1, including G37R, G93R, D90A, and E100G apo-SOD1 that nucleate slower than or equal to WT SOD1 in lipid-free, nonquiescent amyloid assays. All ALS variants (with one exception) nucleated faster than WT SOD1 in the presence of anionic liposomes, wherein the greatest acceleratory effects were observed among variants with lower net negative surface charge (G37R, G93R, D90A, E100G). The exception was H46R apo-SOD1, which did not form ThT(+) species.

  10. Genetic polymorphisms in extracellular superoxide dismutase Leu53Leu, Arg213Gly, and Ala40Thr and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y M; Xie, X R; Jin, A L

    2016-12-02

    The most common type of endocrine disease is type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); genetic factors contribute to the development to T2DM. In this study, we investigated the role of the Leu53Leu, Arg213Gly, and Ala40Thr polymorphisms in extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) gene in the development of T2DM in a Chinese population. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples obtained from 256 T2DM patients and 324 control subjects recruited from our hospital between January 2013 and March 2015. DNA was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The obtained data was then statistically analyzed. The chi-square test revealed a statistically significant difference in the genotype frequencies of EC-SOD Ala40Thr (χ 2 = 13.26, P = 0.001) between the patients and controls. Unconditional regression analysis indicated that the GA and AA genotypes of EC-SOD Ala40Thr were associated with an increased risk of T2DM compared to the GG genotype {adjusted odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 1.46 (1.01-2.11) and 2.67 (1.48-4.85), respectively}. In the dominant model, the GA+AA genotype of EC-SOD Ala40Thr was correlated with a higher risk of T2DM, in comparison with the GG genotype (OR = 1.64, 95%CI = 1.16-2.33). In the recessive model, AA of EC-SOD Ala40Thr showed a 2.19-fold higher risk of developing T2DM than the GG+GA genotype. In conclusion, people with the Ala40Thr polymorphism in EC-SOD are at a higher risk of developing T2DM; therefore, this may be utilized as a biomarker for early screening of T2DM in a Chinese population.

  11. Selenocysteine Positional Variants Reveal Contributions to Copper Binding From Cysteine Residues in Domains 2 And 3 of Human Copper Chaperone for Superoxide Dismutase

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, A.N.; Clark, K.M.; Otoikhian, A.

    2009-05-11

    The human copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase binds copper both in an Atx1-like MTCQSC motif in domain 1 and via a multinuclear cluster formed by two CXC motifs at the D3 dimer interface. The composition of the Cu(I) cluster has been investigated previously by mutagenesis of the CXC motif, and by construction of a CXU selenocysteine derivative, which has permitted XAS studies at both Cu and Se absorption edges. Here, we report the semisynthesis and spectroscopic characterization of a series of derivatives with the sequences 243-CACA, 243-CAUA, 243-UACA, and 243-UAUA in the D1 double mutant (C22AC25A) background, prepared by expressedmore » protein ligation of Sec-containing tetrapeptides to an hCCS-243 truncation. By varying the position of the Se atom in the CXC motif, we have been able to show that Se is always bridging (2 Se-Cu) rather than terminal (1 Se-Cu). Substitution of both D3 Cys residues by Sec in the UAUA variant does not eliminate the Cu-S contribution, confirming our previous description of the cluster as most likely a Cu{sub 4}S{sub 6} species, and suggesting that D2 Cys residues contribute to the cluster. As predicted by this model, when Cys residues C141, C144, and C227 are mutated to alanine either individually or together as a triple mutant, the cluster nuclearity is dramatically attenuated. These data suggest that Cys residues in D2 of hCCS are involved in the formation, stability, and redox potential of the D3 cluster. The significance of these finding to the SOD1 thiol/disulfide oxidase activity are discussed in terms of a model in which a similar multinuclear cluster may form in the CCS-SOD heterodimer.« less

  12. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and gluthatione S-transferases M1 and T1 gene polymorphisms in three Brazilian population groups.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Hiragi, Cássia; Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Rocha, Dulce Maria Sucena; de Oliveira, Silviene Fabiana; Hatagima, Ana; de Nazaré Klautau-Guimarães, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) reduce the oxidation rates in the organism. Gluthatione S-transferases (GSTs) play a vital role in phase 2 of biotransformation of many substances. Variation in the expression of these enzymes suggests individual differences for the degree of antioxidant protection and geographical differences in the distribution of these variants. We described the distribution frequency of CAT (21A/T), SOD2 (Ala9Val), GPX1 (Pro198Leu), GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms in three Brazilian population groups: Kayabi Amerindians (n = 60), Kalunga Afro-descendants (n = 72), and an urban mixed population from Federal District (n = 162). Frequencies of the variants observed in Kalunga (18% to 58%) and Federal District (33% to 63%) were similar to those observed in Euro and Afro-descendants, while in Kayabi (3% to 68%), depending on the marker, frequencies were similar to the ones found in different ethnic groups. Except for SOD2 in all population groups studied here, and for GPX1 in Kalunga, the genotypic distributions were in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. These data can clarify the contribution of different ethnicities in the formation of mixed populations, such as that of Brazil. Moreover, outcomes will be valuable resources for future functional studies and for genetic studies in specific populations. If these studies are designed to comprehensively explore the role of these genetic polymorphisms in the etiology of human diseases they may help to prevent inconsistent genotype-phenotype associations in pharmacogenetic studies.

  13. The effects of 2% rebamipide ophthalmic solution on the tear functions and ocular surface of the superoxide dismutase-1 (sod1) knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Ohguchi, Takeshi; Kojima, Takashi; Ibrahim, Osama M; Nagata, Taeko; Shimizu, Takahiko; Shirasawa, Takuji; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Satake, Yoshiyuki; Tsubota, Kazuo; Shimazaki, Jun; Ishida, Susumu

    2013-11-21

    To investigate the efficacy of 2% rebamipide ophthalmic solution on the tear functions and ocular surface status of the superoxide dismutase-1(Sod1(-/-)) mice. Two percent Rebamipide ophthalmic solution was applied to 40-week-old male Sod1(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice four times a day for 2 weeks. We examined the cytokine concentrations in the tear fluid (by CytoBead assay), tear film break-up time, amount of tear production, and expressions of mucins 1, 4, and 5AC, by RT-PCR. We also performed vital staining of the ocular surface, PAS staining for muc5AC, and immunohistochemical stainings for 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), in the conjunctiva to compare the results before and after rebamipide instillations. The tear functions and ocular surface epithelial damage scores were significantly worse in the Sod1(-/-) than in the WT mice. Application of 2% rebamipide for 2 weeks significantly improved the tear film break-up time, the amount of tear production, and the corneal epithelial damage scores, which also significantly increased the conjunctival goblet cell density and muc5 mRNA expression, in the Sod1(-/-) mice. The mean IL-6, IL-17, TNF-α, and IFN-γ levels in the tear fluid were reduced significantly along with a significant decrease in the density of cells positive for 4-HNE and 8-OHdG in the conjunctiva. Two percent Rebamipide ophthalmic solution significantly improved the tear stability and corneal epithelial damage, and enhanced the expression of muc5 mRNA on the ocular surface. We also observed anti-inflammatory effects in the tear film together with antioxidative effects in the conjunctiva, suggesting the efficacy of rebamipide in age-related dry eye disease attributable to SOD1 knockout.

  14. Association of the C47T polymorphism in superoxide dismutase gene 2 with noise-induced hearing loss: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Li, Jun; Peng, Kang; Fu, Zi-Ying; Tang, Jia; Yang, Ming-Jian; Chen, Qi-Cai