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Sample records for zn-modified tricalcium phosphate

  1. Resorption Rate Tunable Bioceramic: Si, Zn-Modified Tricalcium Phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Xiang

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation is organized in an alternate format. Several manuscripts which have already been published or are to be submitted for publication have been included as separate chapters. Chapter 1 is a general introduction which describes the dissertation organization and introduces the human bone and ceramic materials as bone substitute. Chapter 2 is the background and literature review on dissolution behavior of calcium phosphate, and discussion of motivation for this research. Chapter 3 is a manuscript entitled ''Si,Zn-modified tricalcium phosphate: a phase composition and crystal structure study'', which was published in ''Key Engineering Materials'' [1]. Chapter 4 gives more crystalmore » structure details by neutron powder diffraction, which identifies the position for Si and Zn substitution and explains the stabilization mechanism of the structure. A manuscript entitled ''Crystal structure analysis of Si, Zn-modified Tricalcium phosphate by Neutron Powder Diffraction'' will be submitted to Biomaterials [2]. Chapter 5 is a manuscript, entitled ''Dissolution behavior and cytotoxicity test of Si, Zn-modified tricalcium phosphate'', which is to be submitted to Biomaterials [3]. This paper discusses the additives effect on the dissolution behavior of TCP, and cytotoxicity test result is also included. Chapter 6 is the study of hydrolysis process of {alpha}-tricalcium phosphate in the simulated body fluid, and the phase development during drying process is discussed. A manuscript entitled ''Hydrolysis of {alpha}-tricalcium phosphate in simulated body fluid and phase transformation during drying process'' is to be submitted to Biomaterials [4]. Ozan Ugurlu is included as co-authors in these two papers due to his TEM contributions. Appendix A is the general introduction of the materials synthesis, crystal structure and preliminary dissolution result. A manuscript entitled ''Resorption rate tunable bioceramic: Si and Zn-modified tricalcium phosphate'' was

  2. Synthesis of β-tricalcium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Chaair, H; Labjar, H; Britel, O

    2017-09-01

    Ceramics play a key role in several biomedical applications. One of them is bone grafting, which is used for treating bone defects caused by injuries or osteoporosis. Calcium-phosphate based ceramic are preferred as bone graft biomaterials in hard tissue surgery because their chemical composition is close to the composition of human bone. They also have a marked bioresorbability and bioactivity. In this work, we have developed methods for synthesis of β-tricalcium phosphate apatite (β-TCP). These products were characterized by different techniques such as X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and chemical analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Devitrification studies of wollastonite-tricalcium phosphate eutectic glass.

    PubMed

    Magallanes-Perdomo, M; Pena, P; De Aza, P N; Carrodeguas, R G; Rodríguez, M A; Turrillas, X; De Aza, S; De Aza, A H

    2009-10-01

    The present paper describes and discusses the devitrification and crystallization process of wollastonite-tricalcium phosphate (W-TCP) eutectic glass. This process was studied in situ from room temperature up to 1375 degrees C, by neutron diffractometry in vacuum. The data obtained were combined and compared with those performed in ambient atmosphere by differential thermal analysis and with those of samples fired in air at selected temperatures, and then cooled down and subsequently studied by laboratory XRD and field emission scanning electron microscopy fitted with energy X-ray dispersive spectroscopy. The experimental evidence indicates that the devitrification of W-TCP eutectic glass begins at approximately 870 degrees C with the crystallization of a Ca-deficient apatite phase, followed by wollastonite-2M (CaSiO(3)) crystallization at approximately 1006 degrees C. At 1375 degrees C, the bio-glass-ceramic is composed of quasi-rounded colonies formed by a homogeneous mixture of pseudowollastonite (CaSiO(3)) and alpha-tricalcium phosphate (Ca(3)(PO(4))(2)). This microstructure corresponds to irregular eutectic structures. It was also found that it is possible to obtain from the eutectic composition of the wollastonite-tricalcium phosphate binary system a wide range of bio-glass-ceramics, with different crystalline phases present, through appropriate design of thermal treatments.

  4. TSDC and impedance spectroscopy measurements on hydroxyapatite, β-tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate biphasic bioceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prezas, P. R.; Melo, B. M. G.; Costa, L. C.; Valente, M. A.; Lança, M. C.; Ventura, J. M. G.; Pinto, L. F. V.; Graça, M. P. F.

    2017-12-01

    Bone grafting and surgical interventions related with orthopaedic disorders consist in a big business, generating large revenues worldwide every year. There is a need to replace the biomaterials that currently still dominate this market, i.e., autografts and allografts, due to their disadvantages, such as limited availability, need for additional surgeries and diseases transmission possibilities. The most promising replacement materials are biomaterials with bioactive properties, such as the calcium phosphate-based bioceramics group. The bioactivity of these materials, i.e., the rate at which they promote the growth and directly bond with the new host biological bone, can be enhanced through their electrical polarization. In the present work, the electrical polarization features of pure hydroxyapatite (Hap), pure β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and biphasic hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate composites (HTCP) were analyzed by measuring thermally stimulated depolarization currents (TSDC). The samples were thermoelectrically polarized at 500 °C under a DC electric field with a magnitude of 5 kV/cm. The biphasic samples were also polarized under electric fields with different magnitudes: 2, 3, 4 and 5 kV/cm. Additionally, the depolarization processes detected in the TSDC measurements were correlated with dielectric relaxation processes observed in impedance spectroscopy (IS) measurements. The results indicate that the β-TCP crystalline phase has a considerable higher ability to store electrical charge compared with the Hap phase. This indicates that it has a suitable composition and structure for ionic conduction and establishment of a large electric charge density, providing great potential for orthopaedic applications.

  5. Hydrothermal synthesis of porous triphasic hydroxyapatite/(alpha and beta) tricalcium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Vani, R; Girija, E K; Elayaraja, K; Prakash Parthiban, S; Kesavamoorthy, R; Narayana Kalkura, S

    2009-12-01

    A novel, porous triphasic calcium phosphate composed of nonresorbable hydroxyapatite (HAp) and resorbable tricalcium phosphate (alpha- and beta-TCP) has been synthesized hydrothermally at a relatively low temperature. The calcium phosphate precursor for hydrothermal treatment was prepared by gel method in the presence of ascorbic acid. XRD, FT-IR, Raman analyses confirmed the presence of HAp/TCP. The surface area and average pore size of the samples were found to be 28 m2/g and 20 nm, respectively. The samples were found to be bioactive in simulated body fluid (SBF).

  6. Calorimetry investigations of milled α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) powders to determine the formation enthalpies of α-TCP and X-ray amorphous tricalcium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Hurle, Katrin; Neubauer, Juergen; Bohner, Marc; Doebelin, Nicola; Goetz-Neunhoeffer, Friedlinde

    2015-09-01

    One α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) powder was either calcined at 500°C to obtain fully crystalline α-TCP or milled for different durations to obtain α-TCP powders containing various amounts of X-ray amorphous tricalcium phosphate (ATCP). These powders containing between 0 and 71wt.% ATCP and up to 2.0±0.1wt.% β-TCP as minor phase were then hydrated in 0.1M Na2HPO4 aqueous solution and the resulting heat flows were measured by isothermal calorimetry. Additionally, the evolution of the phase composition during hydration was determined by in situ XRD combined with the G-factor method, an external standard method which facilitates the indirect quantification of amorphous phases. Maximum ATCP hydration was reached after about 1h, while that of crystalline α-TCP hydration occurred between 4 and 11h, depending on the ATCP content. An enthalpy of formation of -4065±6kJ/mol (T=23°C) was calculated for ATCP (Ca3(PO4)2), while for crystalline α-TCP (α-Ca3(PO4)2) a value of -4113±6kJ/mol (T=23°C) was determined. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mechanical optimization of the composite biomaterial based on the tricalcium phosphate, titania and magnesium fluoride.

    PubMed

    Ayadi, Ibticem; Ayed, Foued Ben

    2016-07-01

    The microstructure, the densification and the mechanical properties of the tricalcium phosphate - titania - MgF2 composites were investigated. The effect of MgF2 addition on the performances of the tricalcium phosphate - 40wt% titania composites is discussed. The mechanical properties were investigated by Brazilian test, Vickers indentation and the ultrasound techniques. The mechanical properties of the tricalcium phosphate - 40wt% titania composites reached optimum performances after the sintering process at 1200°C for one hour with 4wt% MgF2. Thus, the highest values of the rupture strength, Vickers hardness, Young׳s and the shear modulus reached 27MPa, 360Hv, 51GPa and 20GPa, respectively. The increase of the mechanical properties of the composites is due to the presence of the liquid phase and the formation of a new compound. Thus, the microstructure of the composites reveals the presence of a new lamella form relative to the Mg2(PO4)F. Beyond 4wt% MgF2, the performances of the composites are hindered by the exaggerated grain growth and the formation of the bubbles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Physical properties and morphology of electrospun composite fiber mats of polyhydroxyalkanoate containing nanoclay and tricalcium phosphate additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanadchangsaeng, N.; Boonyagul, S.

    2018-05-01

    Recently, nanofiber research has gained substantial attention from scientists. In this study, the main component of the nanofiber sheet is polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) polymer, which is strong, ductile, flexible and adhesive to human skin. Two major additives of nanofiber sheet that we applied are nanoclay and tricalcium phosphate. The additives are generally synthetic substances that can be chemically synthesized and compatible with tissues body. Nanoclay has a low density, strong, durable to compressive strength and humidity. While, tricalcium phosphate is a calcium phosphate ceramic that is biocompatible to human tissue. From the reasons above, we proposed to choose both nanoclay and tricalcium phosphate for adding into PHA nanofibers for film formation. Thus, this study aims to investigate the morphological and mechanical properties of the fiber mat by using PHA added with various amount of nanoclay and tricalcium phosphate at 0.1%, 1% and 10% by weight, and fabricate nanofiber samples by electrospinning technique. The tested results of scanning electron microscope (SEM) morphology show that the fibers have a uniformed pattern. The PHA containing nanoclay of all additive contents exhibited micrometer diameter distributions, while PHA loaded with 1% tricalcium phosphate still had the nano-scale diameter range, and might be the optimum additive load for further nanometer medical applications. A tensile test was performed to determine the effect of nanoclay and tricalcium phosphate contents on the mechanical properties of the electrospun PHA films, and reflect the level of modularity. With nanoclay components being integrated into the polymer matrix, subsequent reduction in fiber crystallinity was occurred after addition of nanoclay with an increase of modulus value. The results confirmed that PHA fiber mat containing 1% nanoclay may have a potential for using as a rigid scaffold which bearing force loading in human organ system. Whereas, it can be indicated that

  9. Extraction and characterisation of apatite- and tricalcium phosphate-based materials from cod fish bones.

    PubMed

    Piccirillo, C; Silva, M F; Pullar, R C; Braga da Cruz, I; Jorge, R; Pintado, M M E; Castro, P M L

    2013-01-01

    Apatite- and tricalcium phosphate-based materials were produced from codfish bones, thus converting a waste by-product from the food industry into high added-valued compounds. The bones were annealed at temperatures between 900 and 1200 °C, giving a biphasic material of hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 and β-Ca(PO4)3) with a molar proportion of 75:25, a material widely used in biomedical implants. The treatment of the bones in solution prior to their annealing changed the composition of the material. Single phase hydroxyapatite, chlorapatite (Ca10(PO4)6Cl2) and fluorapatite (Ca10(PO4)6F2) were obtained using CaCl2 and NaF solutions, respectively. The samples were analysed by several techniques (X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and differential thermal/thermogravimetric analysis) and by elemental analyses, to have a more complete understanding of the conversion process. Such compositional modifications have never been performed before for these materials of natural origin to tailor the relative concentrations of elements. This paper shows the great potential for the conversion of this by-product into highly valuable compounds for biomedical applications, using a simple and effective valorisation process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect Of Gravity On Porous Tricalcium Phosphate And Nonstoichiometric Titanium Carbide Produced Via Combustion Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castillo, M.; Moore, J. J.; Schowengerdt, F. D.; Ayers, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    Novel processing techniques, such as self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS), have the capability to rapidly produce advanced porous materials that are difficult to fabricate by other methods. This processing technique is also capable of near net shape synthesis, while variable gravity allows the manipulation of the structure and composition of the material. The creation of porous tricalcium phosphate (TCP) is advantageous in the biomaterials field, since it is both a biocompatible material and an osteoconductive material. Porous tricalcium phosphate produced via SHS is an excellent candidate for bone scaffold material in the bone regeneration process. The porosity allows for great vascularization and ingrowth of tissue. Titanium Carbide is a nonstoichiometric biocompatible material that can be incorporated into a TiC-Ti composite system using combustion synthesis. The TiC-Ti composite exhibits a wide range of mechanical and chemical properties. Both of these material systems (TCP and TiC-Ti) can be used to advantage in designing novel bone replacement materials. Gravity plays an important role in both the pore structure and the chemical uniformity of these composite systems and offers considerable potential in advanced bone engineering.

  11. Effect of Mg and Si co-substitution on microstructure and strength of tricalcium phosphate ceramics.

    PubMed

    García-Páez, Ismael H; Carrodeguas, Raúl García; De Aza, Antonio H; Baudín, Carmen; Pena, Pilar

    2014-02-01

    Magnesium and silicon co-doped tricalcium phosphate (TCP) ceramics with compositions corresponding to 0, 5 and 10wt% CaMg(SiO3)2 in the system Ca3(PO4)2-CaMg(SiO3)2 were obtained by conventional sintering of compacted mixtures of Ca3(PO4)2, MgO, SiO2 and CaCO3 powders at temperatures between 1100 and 1450°C. Microstructural analyses were performed by X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy. Major phases in the obtained ceramics were β- or α+β-tricalcium phosphate containing Mg and Si in solid solution. Certain amounts of liquid were formed during sintering depending on composition and temperature. There were found significant differences in distributions of strength determined by the diametral compression of disc tests (DCDT). Failure strengths were controlled by microstructural defects associated with phase development. Mg and Si additions were found to be effective to improve densification and associated strength of TCP bioceramics due to the enhancement of sintering by the low viscosity liquids formed. The highest density and strength were obtained for the TCP ceramic containing 5wt% CaMg(SiO3)2 sintered at 1300°C. Cracking and porosity increased at higher temperatures due to grain growth and swelling. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Mg- and Zn-modified calcium phosphates prepared by biomimetic precipitation and subsequent treatment at high temperature.

    PubMed

    Rabadjieva, D; Tepavitcharova, S; Gergulova, R; Sezanova, K; Titorenkova, R; Petrov, O; Dyulgerova, E

    2011-10-01

    Powders of magnesium-modified as well as zinc-modified calcium phosphates (Me-β-TCP and HA) with a (Ca(2+)+Mg(2+)+Zn(2+)+Na(+)+K(+))/P ratio of 1.3-1.4 and various Me(2+)/(Me(2+)+Ca(2+)) ratios (from 0.005 to 0.16) were prepared in biomimetic electrolyte systems at pH 8, mother liquid maturation and further syntering at 600-1000°C. Some differences in zinc and magnesium modifications have been prognosed on the basis of thermodynamic modeling of the studied systems and explained by the Mg(2+) and Zn(2+) ion chemical behaviour. The temperature as well as the degree of Zn(2+) and Mg(2+) ions substitutions were found to stabilize the β-TCP structure and this effect was more prononced for zinc. Thus, zinc-modified β-TCP powders consisting of idiomorphic crystals were obtained through sintering of Zn(2+) ion substituted calcium phosphates precursors at 800-1000°C. The Mg(2+) ion substitution leads to obtaining magnesium-modified β-TCP with spherical grains.

  13. Setting time and sealing ability of alpha-tricalcium phosphate cement containing titanic oxide.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, M; Terada, Y; Toda, T

    1998-10-01

    We developed a new type of calcium phosphate cement for clinical use in endodontics as a root canal sealer or pulp cupping agent. The solid phase of the sealer is composed of 70% of alpha-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-TCP) and 30% of titanic oxide (TiO2), and the liquid phase is 37% citric acid, 5% tannic acid and 58% distilled water. TiO2 was added to control setting time and handling of the cement. We used commercially available calcium phosphate root canal sealer as a control. ISO standards specify that new endodontic products should be examined thoroughly before clinical use. It is important to carry out in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo histocompatibility tests. We first did in vitro test of setting time and root canal sealing ability of the cement. We found that this developed calcium phosphate cement had an appropriate setting time and excellent sealing ability as a root canal sealer, and concluded that it was suitable for clinical use as a root canal sealer.

  14. Effects of 3D-Printed Polycaprolactone/β-Tricalcium Phosphate Membranes on Guided Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Jin-Hyung; Won, Joo-Yun; Park, Jung-Hyung; Bae, Ji-Hyeon; Ahn, Geunseon; Kim, Chang-Hwan; Lim, Dong-Hyuk; Cho, Dong-Woo; Yun, Won-Soo; Bae, Eun-Bin; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare 3D-printed polycaprolactone (PCL) and polycaprolactone/β-tricalcium phosphate (PCL/β-TCP) membranes with a conventional commercial collagen membrane in terms of their abilities to facilitate guided bone regeneration (GBR). Fabricated membranes were tested for dry and wet mechanical properties. Fibroblasts and preosteoblasts were seeded into the membranes and rates and patterns of proliferation were analyzed using a kit-8 assay and by scanning electron microscopy. Osteogenic differentiation was verified by alizarin red S and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining. An in vivo experiment was performed using an alveolar bone defect beagle model, in which defects in three dogs were covered with different membranes. CT and histological analyses at eight weeks after surgery revealed that 3D-printed PCL/β-TCP membranes were more effective than 3D-printed PCL, and substantially better than conventional collagen membranes in terms of biocompatibility and bone regeneration and, thus, at facilitating GBR. PMID:28441338

  15. Effects of 3D-Printed Polycaprolactone/β-Tricalcium Phosphate Membranes on Guided Bone Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jin-Hyung; Won, Joo-Yun; Park, Jung-Hyung; Bae, Ji-Hyeon; Ahn, Geunseon; Kim, Chang-Hwan; Lim, Dong-Hyuk; Cho, Dong-Woo; Yun, Won-Soo; Bae, Eun-Bin; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2017-04-25

    This study was conducted to compare 3D-printed polycaprolactone (PCL) and polycaprolactone/β-tricalcium phosphate (PCL/β-TCP) membranes with a conventional commercial collagen membrane in terms of their abilities to facilitate guided bone regeneration (GBR). Fabricated membranes were tested for dry and wet mechanical properties. Fibroblasts and preosteoblasts were seeded into the membranes and rates and patterns of proliferation were analyzed using a kit-8 assay and by scanning electron microscopy. Osteogenic differentiation was verified by alizarin red S and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining. An in vivo experiment was performed using an alveolar bone defect beagle model, in which defects in three dogs were covered with different membranes. CT and histological analyses at eight weeks after surgery revealed that 3D-printed PCL/β-TCP membranes were more effective than 3D-printed PCL, and substantially better than conventional collagen membranes in terms of biocompatibility and bone regeneration and, thus, at facilitating GBR.

  16. Physico-chemical and thermochemical studies of the hydrolytic conversion of amorphous tricalcium phosphate into apatite

    SciTech Connect

    Somrani, Saida; Banu, Mihai; Jemal, Mohamed

    2005-05-15

    The conversion of amorphous tricalcium phosphate with different hydration ratio into apatite in water at 25 deg. C has been studied by microcalorimetry and several physical-chemical methods. The hydrolytic transformation was dominated by two strong exothermic events. A fast, relatively weak, wetting process and a very slow but strong heat release assigned to a slow internal rehydration and the crystallization of the amorphous phase into an apatite. The exothermic phenomenon related to the rehydration exceeded the crystalline transformation enthalpy. Rehydration occurred before the conversion of the amorphous phase into apatite and determined the advancement of the hydrolytic reaction. The apatiticmore » phases formed evolved slightly with time after their formation. The crystallinity increased whereas the amount of HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ion decreased. These data allow a better understanding of the behavior of biomaterials involving amorphous phases such as hydroxyapatite plasma-sprayed coatings.« less

  17. Partitioning of dopant cations between β-tricalcium phosphate and fluorapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jay, E. E.; Mallinson, P. M.; Fong, S. K.; Metcalfe, B. L.; Grimes, R. W.

    2011-07-01

    Mixed crystalline phase composite ceramics offer the possibility of partitioning defect species between the phases as well as occupancy of specific sites within a given phase. Here we use atomic scale simulations to study the site preference of an extensive range of divalent and trivalent substitutional ions across the five cation sites in β-tricalcium phosphate ( β-TCP) and the two cations sites in fluorapatite (FAp). This study indicates that in β-TCP small dopant species occupy the smaller of the five cation sites and vice versa. Conversely, in FAp, small divalent species occupy the nominally larger Ca(1) site while larger cations occupy the Ca(2) site. Partition energies between the two phases indicate that divalent species strongly segregate to β-TCP as do Al 3+ and Ga 3+, whereas all other (larger) trivalent ions exhibit little preference.

  18. Tolerance Induction of Temperature and Starvation with Tricalcium Phosphate on Preservation and Sporulation in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Detected by Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Shahrokh Esfahani, Samaneh; Emtiazi, Giti; Shafiei, Rasoul; Ghorbani, Najmeh; Zarkesh Esfahani, Seyed Hamid

    2016-09-01

    The Bacillus species have many applications in the preparation of various enzymes, probiotic, biofertilizer, and biomarkers for which the survival of resting cells and spore formation under different conditions are important. In this study, water and saline along with different mineral substances such as calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate, and silica were used for the detection of survival and preservation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The results showed intensive death of resting cells at 8 °C, but significant survival at 28 °C after one month. However, preservation by minerals significantly decreased the rate of death and induced sporulation at both the temperatures. The resting cells were maintained at room temperature (about 60 % of the initial population survived after a month) in the presence of tricalcium phosphate. The results showed that temperature has more effect on sporulation compare with starvation. The sporulation in normal saline at 28 °C was 70 times more than that at 8 °C; meanwhile, addition of tricalcium phosphate increases sporulation by 90 times. Also, the FTIR data showed the interaction of tricalcium phosphate with spores and resting cells. The discrimination of sporulation from non-sporulation state was performed by nucleic acid staining with thiazole orange and detected by flow cytometry. The flow cytometric studies confirmed that the rates of sporulation in pure water were significantly more at 28 °C. This is the first report on the detection of bacterial spore with thiazole orange by flow cytometry and also on the interaction of tricalcium phosphate with spores by FTIR analyses.

  19. Effect of Mg(2+) doping on beta-alpha phase transition in tricalcium phosphate (TCP) bioceramics.

    PubMed

    Frasnelli, Matteo; Sglavo, Vincenzo M

    2016-03-01

    The beta to alpha transition in tricalcium phosphate (TCP) bioceramics containing different amount of magnesium was studied in the present work. Mg-doped TCP powder was obtained by solid-state reaction starting from pure calcium carbonate, ammonium phosphate dibasic and magnesium oxide powders. The β to α transformation temperature was identified by dilatometric and thermo-differential analyses. Small pellets produced by uniaxial pressing samples were employed to study the influence of Mg(2+) on the transition kinetic, after sintering at 1550°C and subsequent slow or fast cooling down to room temperature. The evolution of β- and α-TCP crystalline phases during each thermal treatment was determined by X-ray powder diffraction analysis combined with Rietveld method-based software An annealing treatment, suitable to reconvert metastable α phase to the more clinically suitable β phase, was also investigated. It is shown that the presence of magnesium within the TCP lattice strongly influences the kinetic of the β⇆α phase transition, promoting the spontaneous α→β reconversion even upon fast cooling, or slowing down the β→α transition during heating. Similarly, it allows the α→β transformation in TCP sintered components by optimized annealing treatment at 850°C. This work concerns the effect of Mg(2+) doping on the β→α phase reconstructive transition in tricalcium phosphate (TCP), one of the most important bio-resorbable materials for bone tissue regeneration. The transition occurs upon the sintering process and is has been shown to be strongly irreversible upon cooling, leading to technological issues such as poor mechanical properties and excessive solubility due to the presence of metastable α-phase. This paper points out the kinetic contribution of Mg(2+) on the spontaneous α→β reconversion also upon fast cooling (i.e. quenching). Moreover, an annealing treatment has been shown to be beneficial to remove the retained α-phase in

  20. β-tricalcium phosphate composite ceramics with high compressive strength, enhanced osteogenesis and inhibited osteoclastic activities.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ye; Lu, Teliang; He, Fupo; Xu, Yubin; Shi, Haishan; Shi, Xuetao; Zuo, Fei; Wu, Shanghua; Ye, Jiandong

    2018-04-13

    β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) is well known as a resorbable bone repair material due to its inherent excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. However, β-TCP is encountered with osteostimulation-deficiency and poor mechanical strength because of poor sinterability. Herein, we prepared novel β-TCP composite ceramics (TCP/SPGs) by introducing strontium-containing phosphate-based glass (SPG; 45P 2 O 5 -32SrO-23Na 2 O) as sintering additive. The SPG helped to achieve efficient liquid-phase sintering of β-TCP at 1100 °C. The compressive strength of TCP/SPGs with 15 wt.% SPG (TCP/SPG15) was 2.65 times as high as that of plain β-TCP ceramic. The SPG reacted with β-TCP, and the Sr 2+ and Na 2+ from SPG replaced Ca 2+ in the lattice structure of β-TCP, enabling the sustained release of strontium from TCP/SPGs. In vitro cytological test indicated that TCP/SPGs with certain amount of SPG were highly biocompatible, and noticeably promoted osteogenesis, and inhibited osteoclastic activities. Our results suggested that the TCP/SPG15 might be potential high-strength bone grafts used for bone defect repair, especially in the osteoporotic condition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Preparation of micro-porous bioceramic containing silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite and beta-tricalcium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Fuh, Lih-Jyh; Huang, Ya-Jing; Chen, Wen-Cheng; Lin, Dan-Jae

    2017-06-01

    Dimensional instability caused by sintering shrinkage is an inevitable drawback for conventional processing of hydroxyapatite (HA). A new preparation method for biphasic calcium phosphates was developed to increase micro pores and biodegradation without significant dimensional change. Powder pressed HA discs, under 100MPa, were immersed in a colloidal mixture of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and ammonium hydroxide for 10min, followed by drying, and then were sintered at 900°C, 1050°C, and 1200°C, respectively. Comparing with pure HA discs, the newly prepared product sintered up to 1200°C contained silicon substituted HA, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium silicate with better micro-porosity, high specific surface area, less sintering shrinkage and the strength maintained. The cytocompatibility test demonstrated a better viability for D1 mice stem cells cultured on TEOS treated HA for 14days compared to the pure HA. This simple TEOS sol-gel pretreatment has the potential to be applied to any existing manufacturing process of HA scaffold for better control of sintering shrinkage, create micropores, and increase biodegradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of factor analysis of infrared spectra for quantitative determination of beta-tricalcium phosphate in calcium hydroxylapatite.

    PubMed

    Arsenyev, P A; Trezvov, V V; Saratovskaya, N V

    1997-01-01

    This work represents a method, which allows to determine phase composition of calcium hydroxylapatite basing on its infrared spectrum. The method uses factor analysis of the spectral data of calibration set of samples to determine minimal number of factors required to reproduce the spectra within experimental error. Multiple linear regression is applied to establish correlation between factor scores of calibration standards and their properties. The regression equations can be used to predict the property value of unknown sample. The regression model was built for determination of beta-tricalcium phosphate content in hydroxylapatite. Statistical estimation of quality of the model was carried out. Application of the factor analysis on spectral data allows to increase accuracy of beta-tricalcium phosphate determination and expand the range of determination towards its less concentration. Reproducibility of results is retained.

  3. Maxillary sinus floor augmentation using a beta-tricalcium phosphate (Cerasorb) alone compared to autogenous bone grafts.

    PubMed

    Zijderveld, Steven A; Zerbo, Ilara R; van den Bergh, Johan P A; Schulten, Engelbert A J M; ten Bruggenkate, Chris M

    2005-01-01

    A prospective human clinical study was conducted to determine the clinical and histologic bone formation ability of 2 graft materials, a beta-tricalcium phosphate (Cerasorb; Curasan, Kleinostheim, Germany) and autogenous chin bone, in maxillary sinus floor elevation surgery. Ten healthy patients underwent a bilateral (n = 6) or unilateral (n = 4) maxillary sinus floor elevation procedure under local anesthesia. In each case, residual posterior maxillary bone height was between 4 and 8 mm. In cases of bilateral sinus floor elevation, the original bone was augmented with a split-mouth design with 100% beta-tricalcium phosphate on the test side and 100% chin bone on the contralateral control side. The unilateral cases were augmented with 100% beta-tricalcium phosphate. After a healing period of 6 months, ITI full body screw-type implants (Straumann, Waldenburg, Switzerland) were placed. At the time of implant surgery, biopsy samples were removed with a 3.5-mm trephine drill. Sixteen sinus floor elevations were performed. Forty-one implants were placed, 26 on the test side and 15 on the control side. The clinical characteristics at the time of implantation differed, especially regarding clinical appearance and drilling resistance. The increase in height was examined radiographically prior to implantation and was found to be sufficient in all cases. After a mean of nearly 1 year of follow-up, no implant losses or failures had occurred. The promising clinical results of the present study and the lack of implant failures are probably mainly the result of requiring an original bone height of at least 4 mm at the implant location. Although autogenous bone grafting is still the gold standard, according to the clinical results, the preimplantation sinus floor elevation procedure used, which involved a limited volume of beta-tricalcium phosphate, appeared to be a clinically reliable procedure in this patient population.

  4. Treatment of osteomyelitis defects by a vancomycin-loaded gelatin/β-tricalcium phosphate composite scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, J.; Zhou, X. G.; Wang, J. W.; Zhou, H.; Dong, J.

    2018-01-01

    Objective In the present study, we aimed to assess whether gelatin/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) composite porous scaffolds could be used as a local controlled release system for vancomycin. We also investigated the efficiency of the scaffolds in eliminating infections and repairing osteomyelitis defects in rabbits. Methods The gelatin scaffolds containing differing amounts of of β-TCP (0%, 10%, 30% and 50%) were prepared for controlled release of vancomycin and were labelled G-TCP0, G-TCP1, G-TCP3 and G-TCP5, respectively. The Kirby-Bauer method was used to examine the release profile. Chronic osteomyelitis models of rabbits were established. After thorough debridement, the osteomyelitis defects were implanted with the scaffolds. Radiographs and histological examinations were carried out to investigate the efficiency of eliminating infections and repairing bone defects. Results The prepared gelatin/β-TCP scaffolds exhibited a homogeneously interconnected 3D porous structure. The G-TCP0 scaffold exhibited the longest duration of vancomycin release with a release duration of eight weeks. With the increase of β-TCP contents, the release duration of the β-TCP-containing composite scaffolds was decreased. The complete release of vancomycin from the G-TCP5 scaffold was achieved within three weeks. In the treatment of osteomyelitis defects in rabbits, the G-TCP3 scaffold showed the most efficacious performance in eliminating infections and repairing bone defects. Conclusions The composite scaffolds could achieve local therapeutic drug levels over an extended duration. The G-TCP3 scaffold possessed the optimal porosity, interconnection and controlled release performance. Therefore, this scaffold could potentially be used in the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis defects. Cite this article: J. Zhou, X. G. Zhou, J. W. Wang, H. Zhou, J. Dong. Treatment of osteomyelitis defects by a vancomycin-loaded gelatin/β-tricalcium phosphate composite scaffold. Bone Joint Res

  5. The increase of apatite layer formation by the poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) surface modification of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Szubert, M; Adamska, K; Szybowicz, M; Jesionowski, T; Buchwald, T; Voelkel, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the surface modification of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate by poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) grafting and characterization of modificates. The bioactivity examination was carried out by the determination to grow an apatite layer on modified materials during incubation in simulated body fluid at 37°C. The additional issue taken up in this paper was to investigate the influence of fluid replacement. The process of the surface modification of biomaterials was evaluated by means of infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Formation of the apatite layer was assessed by means of scanning electron microscopy and confirmed by energy dispersive, Raman and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. During exposure in simulated body fluid, the variation of the zeta potential, pH measurement and relative weight was monitored. Examination of scanning electron microscopy micrographs suggests that modification of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate by poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) significantly increases apatite layer formation. Raman spectroscopy evaluation revealed that the formation of the apatite layer was more significant in the case of hydroxyapatite modificate, when compared to the β-tricalcium phosphate modificate. Both modificates were characterized by stable pH, close to the natural pH of human body fluids. Furthermore, we have shown that a weekly changed, simulated body fluid solution increases apatite layer formation. © 2013.

  6. Enhanced osteogenesis of β-tricalcium phosphate reinforced silk fibroin scaffold for bone tissue biofabrication.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae Hoon; Tripathy, Nirmalya; Shin, Jae Hun; Song, Jeong Eun; Cha, Jae Geun; Min, Kyung Dan; Park, Chan Hum; Khang, Gilson

    2017-02-01

    Scaffolds, used for tissue regeneration are important to preserve their function and morphology during tissue healing. Especially, scaffolds for bone tissue engineering should have high mechanical properties to endure load of bone. Silk fibroin (SF) from Bombyx mori silk cocoon has potency as a type of biomaterials in the tissue engineering. β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) as a type of bioceramics is also critical as biomaterials for bone regeneration because of its biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, and mechanical strength. The aim of this study was to fabricate three-dimensional SF/β-TCP scaffolds and access its availability for bone grafts through in vitro and in vivo test. The scaffolds were fabricated in each different ratios of SF and β-TCP (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75). The characterizations of scaffolds were conducted by FT-IR, compressive strength, porosity, and SEM. The in vitro and in vivo tests were carried out by MTT, ALP, RT-PCR, SEM, μ-CT, and histological staining. We found that the SF/β-TCP scaffolds have high mechanical strength and appropriate porosity for bone tissue engineering. The study showed that SF/β-TCP (75:25) scaffold exhibited the highest osteogenesis compared with other scaffolds. The results suggested that SF/β-TCP (75:25) scaffold can be applied as one of potential bone grafts for bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Strength and fracture mechanism of iron reinforced tricalcium phosphate cermet fabricated by spark plasma sintering.

    PubMed

    Tkachenko, Serhii; Horynová, Miroslava; Casas-Luna, Mariano; Diaz-de-la-Torre, Sebastian; Dvořák, Karel; Celko, Ladislav; Kaiser, Jozef; Montufar, Edgar B

    2018-05-01

    The present work studies the microstructure and mechanical performance of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) based cermet toughened by iron particles. A novelty arises by the employment of spark plasma sintering for fabrication of the cermet. Results showed partial transformation of initial alpha TCP matrix to beta phase and the absence of oxidation of iron particles, as well as a lack of chemical reaction between TCP and iron components during sintering. The values of compressive and tensile strength of TCP/Fe cermet were 3.2 and 2.5 times, respectively, greater than those of monolithic TCP. Fracture analysis revealed the simultaneous action of crack-bridging and crack-deflection microstructural toughening mechanisms under compression. In contrast, under tension the reinforcing mechanism was only crack-bridging, being the reason for smaller increment of strength. Elastic properties of the cermet better matched values reported for human cortical bone. Thereby the new TCP/Fe cermet has potential for eventual use as a material for bone fractures fixation under load-bearing conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [A study on alpha-tricalcium phosphate bone cement carbon fiber-reinforced].

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenjin; Yang, Weizhong; Zhou, Dali; Ma, Jiang; Xiao, Bin

    2006-06-01

    In order to improve the mechanical properties of alpha-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-TCP), we prepared surface-modified carbon fibers (CF) reinforced alpha-TCP composite bone cement. Bone cement was soaked in Ringer's body solution to test its capacity of fast formation of hydroxyapatite crystals and self-solidification. Scan electronic microscope (SEM) observation and compressive strength measurement were taken to analyze the mechanical properties and the micro- morphological structure of CF reinforced alpha-TCP bone cement. The results showed that the bone cement was transferred into hydroxyapatite plates after being soaked in Ringer's simulated body fluid for 5 days. Suitable amount of carbon fibers could well spread in and bond with the matrix of the bone cement. The mechanical properties of the bone cement have been improved by CF reinforcing; the compressive strength reaches 46.7 MPa when the amount of carbon fibers is 0.5% in weight percent, which is 22% higher than that of the non-reinforced alpha-TCP bone cement.

  9. Methacrylate-based root canal sealer containing chlorexidine and α-tricalcium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Collares, Fabrício Mezzomo; Leitune, Vicente Castelo Branco; Portella, Fernando Freitas; Santos, Paula Dapper; Balbinot, Gabriela de Souza; Dos Santos, Luís Alberto; Parolo, Clarissa Cavalcanti Fatturi; Samuel, Susana Maria Werner

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and to characterize a methacrylate-based root canal sealer containing chlorhexidine (CHX) and α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP). Experimental dual cure methacrylate-based sealer was produced containing 0, 2.5, or 5 wt% of CHX and 0, 25, or 50 wt% of α-TCP. Experimental sealers were evaluated based on flow, film thickness, radiopacity, degree of conversion (DC), degradation in water, pH and antibacterial activity. Flow ranged from 15.09 ± 0.11 to 17.47 ± 0.42 mm. All groups presented mean film thickness lower than 50 µm and had radiopacity equivalent to 3 mmAl. DC was higher than 60% for all compositions. The weight loss (WL) ranged 0.12-3.47%. The groups containing 5% of CHX presented the highest WL and the lower pH values after 28 days of water immersion. All chlorexidine-compositions exhibited antibacterial efficacy against Enterococcus faecalis on direct contact and agar diffusion tests. CHX and α-TCP addition at an experimental methacrylate-based root canal sealer influenced the physicochemical properties and provided antibacterial properties. The incorporation of CHX and α-TCP could be an alternative to antibacterial sealers with potential to improve periapical healing in endodontic treatments. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomater Res Part B: 106B: 1439-1443, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. 3D Powder Printed Bioglass and β-Tricalcium Phosphate Bone Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Seidenstuecker, Michael; Kerr, Laura; Bernstein, Anke; Mayr, Hermann O; Suedkamp, Norbert P; Gadow, Rainer; Krieg, Peter; Hernandez Latorre, Sergio; Thomann, Ralf; Syrowatka, Frank; Esslinger, Steffen

    2017-12-22

    The use of both bioglass (BG) and β tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) for bone replacement applications has been studied extensively due to the materials' high biocompatibility and ability to resorb when implanted in the body. 3D printing has been explored as a fast and versatile technique for the fabrication of porous bone scaffolds. This project investigates the effects of using different combinations of a composite BG and β-TCP powder for 3D printing of porous bone scaffolds. Porous 3D powder printed bone scaffolds of BG, β-TCP, 50/50 BG/β-TCP and 70/30 BG/β-TCP compositions were subject to a variety of characterization and biocompatibility tests. The porosity characteristics, surface roughness, mechanical strength, viability for cell proliferation, material cytotoxicity and in vitro bioactivity were assessed. The results show that the scaffolds can support osteoblast-like MG-63 cells growth both on the surface of and within the scaffold material and do not show alarming cytotoxicity; the porosity and surface characteristics of the scaffolds are appropriate. Of the two tested composite materials, the 70/30 BG/β-TCP scaffold proved to be superior in terms of biocompatibility and mechanical strength. The mechanical strength of the scaffolds makes them unsuitable for load bearing applications. However, they can be useful for other applications such as bone fillers.

  11. Microstereolithography-Based Fabrication of Anatomically Shaped Beta-Tricalcium Phosphate Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Du, Dajiang; Asaoka, Teruo; Shinohara, Makoto; Kageyama, Tomonori; Ushida, Takashi; Furukawa, Katsuko Sakai

    2015-01-01

    Porous ceramic scaffolds with shapes matching the bone defects may result in more efficient grafting and healing than the ones with simple geometries. Using computer-assisted microstereolithography (MSTL), we have developed a novel gelcasting indirect MSTL technology and successfully fabricated two scaffolds according to CT images of rabbit femur. Negative resin molds with outer 3D dimensions conforming to the femur and an internal structure consisting of stacked meshes with uniform interconnecting struts, 0.5 mm in diameter, were fabricated by MSTL. The second mold type was designed for cortical bone formation. A ceramic slurry of beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) with room temperature vulcanization (RTV) silicone as binder was cast into the molds. After the RTV silicone was completely cured, the composite was sintered at 1500°C for 5 h. Both gross anatomical shape and the interpenetrating internal network were preserved after sintering. Even cortical structure could be introduced into the customized scaffolds, which resulted in enhanced strength. Biocompatibility was confirmed by vital staining of rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells cultured on the customized scaffolds for 5 days. This fabrication method could be useful for constructing bone substitutes specifically designed according to local anatomical defects. PMID:26504839

  12. Basic research and clinical application of beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP).

    PubMed

    Tanaka, T; Komaki, H; Chazono, M; Kitasato, S; Kakuta, A; Akiyama, S; Marumo, K

    2017-09-01

    The mechanism of bone substitute resorption involves two processes: solution-mediated and cell-mediated disintegration. In our previous animal studies, the main resorption process of beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) was considered to be cell-mediated disintegration by TRAP-positive cells. Thus, osteoclast-mediated resorption of β-TCP is important for enabling bone formation. We also report the results of treatment with β-TCP graft in patients since 1989. Two to three weeks after implantation, resorption of β-TCP occurred from the periphery, and then continued toward the center over time. Complete or nearly complete bone healing was achieved in most cases within a few years and was dependent upon the amount of implanted material, the patient's age, and the type of bone (cortical or cancellous). We have previously reported that an injectable complex of β-TCP granules and collagen supplemented with rhFGF-2 enabled cortical bone regeneration of rabbit tibiae. Based on the experimental results, we applied this technique to the patients with femoral and humeral fractures in elderly patients, and obtained bone union. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Tricalcium phosphate-Fluorapatite as bone tissue engineering: Evaluation of bioactivity and biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Taktak, Rym; Elghazel, Achwek; Bouaziz, Jamel; Charfi, Slim; Keskes, Hassib

    2018-05-01

    Biocomposites consisting of β Tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) with 26.52% Fluorapatite (Fap) were elaborated and characterized in order to evaluate it potential application in bone graft substitute. Bioactivity was determined with in vitro tests by immersion of samples in simulated fluid body for several periods of times. The SEM, EDS and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy showed the deposition of apatite layer on the surface of samples showing a good bioactivity. However, after 6days of soaking, the dissolution rate of Ca 2+ and PO 4 3- decreased which due probably to the improvement of crystallization of the apatite layer. These findings agree with those observed after 6weeks postimplantation of prepared macroporous scaffolds in rabbits. All histological observations of the preliminary in vivo study in the tibia of rabbits proved the biocompatibility and the resorption of the investigated bioceramic. In contrast, the implantation period will have to be optimized by further extensive animal experiments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Formation of Biphasic Hydroxylapatite-Beta Magnesium Tricalcium Phosphate in Heat Treated Salmonid Vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Butler, Don H; Shahack-Gross, Ruth

    2017-06-15

    Ichthyoarchaeological evidence is uncommon at ancient hunter-gatherer sites from various regions and timeframes. This research contributes to the development of microarchaeological techniques useful for identifying fishing economies in situations where classifiable bones are unavailable. Specifically, traces of heat altered bone mineral in domestic hearths are expected to provide markers for discarded fish remains. We used a series of laboratory incineration experiments to characterize the mineralogy of burned salmonid vertebrae. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction distinguished the formation of beta magnesium tricalcium phosphate (βMgTCP) at temperatures as low as 600 °C. Bones from a sample of game mammals and birds did not form this phase at temperatures below 1,000 °C. We propose that this neoformed mineral can serve as a proxy for hunter-gatherer salmonid fishing when typical ichthyoarchaeological evidence is absent. Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, it will be possible to rapidly and inexpensively determine the presence of βMgTCP in fragmentary burned bone remains associated with combustion features. The occurrence of βMgTCP in archaeological hearth features will offer a new means of further evaluating the temporal, geographic, and cultural scope of salmonid harvesting. We also acknowledge the value of biphasic hydroxylapatite-βMgTCP recovered from Atlantic salmon vertebrae as a bioceramic.

  15. Osteoclastogenesis and Osteoclastic Resorption of Tricalcium Phosphate: Effect of Strontium and Magnesium Doping

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Mangal; Bose, Susmita

    2012-01-01

    Bone substitute materials are required to support the remodeling process, which consists of osteoclastic resorption and osteoblastic synthesis. Osteoclasts, the bone resorbing cells, generate from differentiation of hemopoietic mononuclear cells. In the present study we have evaluated the effects of 1.0 wt% strontium (Sr) and 1.0 wt% magnesium (Mg) doping in beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) on the differentiation of mononuclear cells into osteoclast-like cells and its resorptive activity. In vitro osteoclast-like cell formation, adhesion, and resorption were studied using osteoclast precursor RAW 264.7 cell, supplemented with receptor activator of nuclear factor κβ ligand (RANKL). Osteoclast-like cell formation was noticed on pure and Sr doped β-TCP samples at day 8 which was absent on Mg doped β-TCP samples indicating decrease in initial osteoclast differentiation due to Mg doping. After 21 days of culture, osteoclast-like cell formation was evident on all samples with osteoclastic markers such as actin ring, multiple nuclei, and presence of vitronectin receptor αvβ3 integrin. After osteoclast differentiation, all substrates showed osteoclast-like cell mediated degradation, however; significantly restricted for Mg doped β-TCP samples. Our present results indicated substrate chemistry controlled osteoclast differentiation and resorptive activity which can be used in designing TCP based resorbable bone substitutes with controlled degradation properties. PMID:22566212

  16. Raloxifene microsphere-embedded collagen/chitosan/β-tricalcium phosphate scaffold for effective bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Lei; Cheng, Ji; Xiao, Ye-Chen; Yin, Ruo-Feng; Feng, Xu

    2017-02-25

    Engineering novel scaffolds that can mimic the functional extracellular matrix (ECM) would be a great achievement in bone tissue engineering. This paper reports the fabrication of novel collagen/chitosan/β-tricalcium phosphate (CCTP) based tissue engineering scaffold. In order to improve the regeneration ability of scaffold, we have embedded raloxifene (RLX)-loaded PLGA microsphere in the CCTP scaffold. The average pore of scaffold was in the range of 150-200μm with ideal mechanical strength and swelling/degradation characteristics. The release rate of RLX from the microsphere (MS) embedded scaffold was gradual and controlled. Also a significantly enhanced cell proliferation was observed in RLX-MS exposed cell group suggesting that microsphere/scaffold could be an ideal biomaterial for bone tissue engineering. Specifically, RLX-MS showed a significantly higher Alizarin red staining indicating the higher mineralization capacity of this group. Furthermore, a high alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity for RLX-MS exposed group after 15days incubation indicates the bone regeneration capacity of MC3T3-E1 cells. Overall, present study showed that RLX-loaded microsphere embedded scaffold has the promising potential for bone tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Engineering a vascularized collagen-β-tricalcium phosphate graft using an electrochemical approach.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yunqing; Mochizuki, Naoto; Khademhosseini, Ali; Fukuda, Junji; Yang, Yunzhi

    2015-01-01

    Vascularization of three-dimensional large synthetic grafts for tissue regeneration remains a significant challenge. Here we demonstrate an electrochemical approach, named the cell electrochemical detachment (CED) technique, to form an integral endothelium and use it to prevascularize a collagen-β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) graft. The CED technique electrochemically detached an integral endothelium from a gold-coated glass rod to a collagen-infiltrated, channeled, macroporous β-TCP scaffold, forming an endothelium-lined microchannel containing graft upon removal of the rod. The in vitro results from static and perfusion culture showed that the endothelium robustly emanated microvascular sprouting and prevascularized the entire collagen/β-TCP integrated graft. The in vivo subcutaneous implantation studies showed that the prevascularized collagen/β-TCP grafts established blood flow originating from the endothelium-lined microchannel within a week, and the blood flow covered more areas in the graft over time. In addition, many blood vessels invaded the prevascularized collagen/β-TCP graft and the in vitro preformed microvascular networks anastomosed with the host vasculature, while collagen alone without the support of rigid ceramic scaffold showed less blood vessel invasion and anastomosis. These results suggest a promising strategy for effectively vascularizing large tissue-engineered grafts by integrating multiple hydrogel-based CED-engineered endothelium-lined microchannels into a rigid channeled macroporous scaffold. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterisation of β-tricalcium phosphate-based bone substitute materials by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matković, Ivo; Maltar-Strmečki, Nadica; Babić-Ivančić, Vesna; Dutour Sikirić, Maja; Noethig-Laslo, Vesna

    2012-10-01

    β-TCP based materials are frequently used as dental implants. Due to their resorption in the body and direct contact with tissues, in order to inactivate bacteria, fungal spores and viruses, they are usually sterilized by γ-irradiation. However, the current literature provides little information about effects of the γ-irradiation on the formation and stability of the free radicals in the bone graft materials during and after sterilization procedure. In this work five different bone graft substitution materials, composed of synthetic beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HAP) present in the market were characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Paramagnetic species Mn2+, Fe3+, trapped H-atoms and CO2- radicals were detected in the biphasic material (60% HAP, 40% β-TCP), while in β-TCP materials only Mn2+ andor trapped hydrogen atoms were detected. EPR analysis revealed the details of the structure of these materials at the atomic level. The results have shown that EPR spectroscopy is a method which can be used to improve the quality control of bone graft materials after syntering, processing and sterilization procedure.

  19. Evaluation of suitable porosity for sintered porous {beta}-tricalcium phosphate as a bone substitute

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jin-Hong; Bae, Ji-Yong; Shim, Jaebum

    2012-09-15

    Structural and mechanical characterization is performed for sintered porous beta tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) to determine the appropriate porosity for use as a bone substitute. Four different types of porous {beta}-TCP specimen with different porosities are fabricated through a sintering process. For structural characterization, scanning electron microscopy and a Microfocus X-ray computed tomography system are used to investigate the pore openings on the specimen's surface, pore size, pore distribution, and pore interconnections. Compression tests of the specimens are performed, and mechanical properties such as the elastic modulus and compressive strength are obtained. Also, the geometric shape and volume of the {beta}-TCPmore » around the contact region of two pores, which need to be initially resolved after implantation in order to increase the size of the pore openings, are evaluated through simple calculations. The results show that porous {beta}-TCP with 42.1% porosity may be a suitable bone substitute candidate in terms of sustaining external loads, and inducing and cultivating bone cells. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural and mechanical characterization was performed for sintered porous {beta}-TCP specimens. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For structural characterization, SEM and Microfocus X-ray CT system were used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For mechanical characterization, compression tests were performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Porous {beta}-TCP with 42.1% porosity may be a suitable bone substitute.« less

  20. Adsorption kinetics of ion of Pb2+ using Tricalcium Phosphate particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadli, A.; Yenti, S. R.; Akbar, F.; Maihendra; Mawarni, F.

    2018-04-01

    One of the heavy metals that can pollute water is Pb2+. The concentration of ion Pb2+ can be removed using the adsorption method. The purpose of this research is to determine the adsorption kinetics model of ions Pb2+ using tricalcium phosphate (TCP) particles with variation of the temperature and adsorbent dosage. Five hundred mililiter Pb2+ solution with of 3 mg/L were added 0,5 gr, 1 gr and 1,5 gr of TCP in a glass beaker and stirred with rate of 300 rpm at a temperature of 30 °C, 40 °C and 50 °C. Pb2+ concentration in solution was analyzed by AAS (Atomic Adsorption Spectroscopy). The results showed that the rate of adsorption increased with the increasing of the temperature and adsorbent dosage. Minimum constant value of adsorption kinetic was 1,720 g/mg.min obtained at temperature of 30 °C and adsorbent dosageof 0,5 gr. The maximum value of adsorption kinetic constant was 9,755 g/mg.min obtained at temperature of 50 °C and adsorbent dosage of 1,5 gr. The appropriate model for adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo second order.

  1. Synthesis and cytotoxicity evaluation of granular magnesium substituted β-tricalcium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Débora dos Santos; Castro, Leticia de Oliveira; Soares, Gloria Dulce de Almeida; Alves, Gutemberg Gomes; Granjeiro, José Mauro

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to produce dense granules of tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and magnesium (Mg) substituted β-TCP, also known as β-TCMP (Mg/Ca=0.15 mol), in order to evaluate the impact of Mg incorporation on the physicochemical parameters and in vitro biocompatibility of this novel material. The materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), electron microscopy and inductively coupled plasma (ICP). Biocompatibility was assayed according to ISO 10993-12:2007 and 7405:2008, by two different tests of cell survival and integrity (XTT and CVDE). The XRD profile presented the main peaks of β-TCP (JCPDS 090169) and β-TCMP (JCPDS 130404). The characteristic absorption bands of TCP were also identified by FTIR. The ICP results of β-TCMP granules extract showed a precipitation of calcium and release of Mg into the culture medium. Regarding the cytotoxicity assays, β-TCMP dense granules did not significantly affect the mitochondrial activity and relative cell density in relation to β-TCP dense granules, despite the release of Mg from granules into the cell culture medium. β-TCMP granules were successfully produced and were able to release Mg into media without cytotoxicity, indicating the suitability of this promising material for further biological studies on its adequacy for bone therapy.

  2. Osteoclastogenesis and osteoclastic resorption of tricalcium phosphate: effect of strontium and magnesium doping.

    PubMed

    Roy, Mangal; Bose, Susmita

    2012-09-01

    Bone substitute materials are required to support the remodeling process, which consists of osteoclastic resorption and osteoblastic synthesis. Osteoclasts, the bone-resorbing cells, generate from differentiation of hemopoietic mononuclear cells. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of 1.0 wt % strontium (Sr) and 1.0 wt % magnesium (Mg) doping in beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) on the differentiation of mononuclear cells into osteoclast-like cells and its resorptive activity. In vitro osteoclast-like cell formation, adhesion, and resorption were studied using osteoclast precursor RAW 264.7 cell, supplemented with receptor activator of nuclear factor κβ ligand (RANKL). Osteoclast-like cell formation was noticed on pure and Sr-doped β-TCP samples at day 8, which was absent on Mg-doped β-TCP samples indicating decrease in initial osteoclast differentiation due to Mg doping. After 21 days of culture, osteoclast-like cell formation was evident on all samples with osteoclastic markers such as actin ring, multiple nuclei, and presence of vitronectin receptor α(v)β(3) integrin. After osteoclast differentiation, all substrates showed osteoclast-like cell-mediated degradation, however, significantly restricted for Mg-doped β-TCP samples. Our present results indicated that substrate chemistry controlled osteoclast differentiation and resorptive activity, which can be used in designing TCP-based resorbable bone substitutes with controlled degradation properties. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Biodegradation performance of a chitosan coated magnesium-zinc-tricalcium phosphate composite as an implant.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Chen, Liangjian; Yu, Kun; Chen, Chang; Dai, Yilong; Qiao, Xueyan; Yan, Yang

    2014-09-01

    A Mg-Zn-tricalcium phosphate composite with a chitosan coating was prepared in this investigation to study its biodegradation performance both in vitro and in vivo conditions. The in vitro test results show that the immersion corrosion rate, the pH values of the simulated body fluids and the released metal ion concentration of the chitosan coated composite are all lower than those of the uncoated composite. The in vitro cytotoxicity test shows that the chitosan coated specimens is safe for cellular applications. When the chitosan coated composite is tested in vivo, the concentration of metal ions from the composite observed in the venous blood of Zelanian rabbits is less than the uncoated composite specimens. The chitosan coating slows down the in vivo degradation of the composite after surgery. In vivo testing also indicates that the chitosan coated composite is harmless to important visceral organs, including the heart, kidneys, and liver of the rabbits. The new bone formation surrounding the chitosan coated composite implant shows that the composite improves the concrescence of the bone tissues. The chitosan coating is an effective corrosion resistant layer that reduces the hydrogen release of the implant composite, thereby decreasing the subcutaneous gas bubbles formed.

  4. [Single cell gel electrophoresis of a magnesium alloy coated with beta-tricalcium phosphate].

    PubMed

    Hao, Yu-quan; Tan, Li-li; Yan, Ting-ting; Yan, Xiu-lin; Yang, Ke; Ai, Hong-jun

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate the genotoxicity of a magnesium alloy coated with beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP). Four groups were designed. In the first group, AZ31B magnesium alloy surface was coated with beta-TCP using chemical bath deposition, and in the second group magnesium alloy was tested. The other two groups were negative control (pure titanium) and positive control groups (0.5 mg/L bleomycin). Single cell gel electrophoresis was adopted to investigate genotoxicity of the alloy samples in different groups, and 60 cells from each group were analysed. Tail moment and tail DNA percentage were used as reliable indicators to show DNA damage in lymphocytes induced by every testing sample. Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) test was used to compare results from 4 groups. There were no significant differences in tail moment and tail DNA percentage between magnesium alloy group [(0.52 +/- 0.12), (6.82 +/- 1.81)%] and magnesium alloy coated with beta-TCP group [(0.51 +/- 0.12), (6.89 +/- 1.93)%, P > 0.05]. Tail moment and tail DNA percentage in negative group were (0.47 +/- 0.14) and (6.29 +/- 1.64)%, and tail moment and tail DNA percentage in positive group were (5.17 +/- 1.23) and (22.09 +/- 4.51)%. No significant increase was found in DNA damage in lymphocytes induced by magnesium alloy coated with beta-TCP.

  5. Impregnation of β-tricalcium phosphate robocast scaffolds by in situ polymerization.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Vázquez, Francisco J; Perera, Fidel H; van der Meulen, Inge; Heise, Andreas; Pajares, Antonia; Miranda, Pedro

    2013-11-01

    Ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone (ε-CL) and L-lactide (LLA) was performed to impregnate β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds fabricated by robocasting. Concentrated colloidal inks prepared from β-TCP commercial powders were used to fabricate porous structures consisting of a 3D mesh of interpenetrating rods. ε-CL and LLA were in situ polymerized within the ceramic structure by using a lipase and stannous octanoate, respectively, as catalysts. The results show that both the macropores inside the ceramic mesh and the micropores within the ceramic rods are full of polymer in either case. The mechanical properties of scaffolds impregnated by in situ polymerization (ISP) are significantly increased over those of the bare structures, exhibiting similar values than those obtained by other, more aggressive, impregnation methods such as melt-immersion (MI). ISP using enzymatic catalysts requires a reduced processing temperature which could facilitate the incorporation of growth factors and other drugs into the polymer composition, thus enhancing the bioactivity of the composite scaffold. The implications of these results for the optimization of the mechanical and biological performance of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Behavior of Osteoblast-Like Cells on a β-Tricalcium Phosphate Synthetic Scaffold Coated With Calcium Phosphate and Magnesium.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki-Deog; Jung, Young-Suk; Lee, Kyung-Ku; Park, Hong-Ju

    2016-06-01

    Tricalcium phosphate (TCP) is one of the most useful synthetic scaffolds for bone grafts and has several advantages. However, the rapid degradation of TCP makes it less osteoconductive than the other candidates, and represents a major shortcoming. To overcome this problem, the authors investigated magnesium (Mg) and/or hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on a β-TCP substrate using a sputtering technique. Biocompatibility tests were carried out on β-TCP discs that were either uncoated (TCP), coated with HA by radio frequency magnetron sputtering (HA-TCP), coated with Mg by DC sputtering (Mg-TCP), or multicoated with Mg and HA by DC and radio frequency magnetron sputtering (MgHA-TCP). Cells showed similar morphology in all 4 groups, and were widely spread, had flattened elongated shapes, and were connected to adjacent cells by pseudopods. An MTT assay revealed higher cell proliferation on HA-TCP, Mg-TCP, and MgHA-TCP compared with TCP at 3 and 5 days. MgHA-TCP also showed significantly higher alkaline phosphatase activity levels compared with TCP, HA-TCP, and Mg-TCP (P < 0.05). Results suggest that Mg-coated β-TCP could have great potential as a bone graft material for future applications in hard tissue regeneration.

  7. Long-term absorption of beta-tricalcium phosphate poly-L-lactic acid interference screws.

    PubMed

    Barber, F Alan; Dockery, William D

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term in vivo degradation of biodegradable interference screws made of poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP). Twenty patients undergoing patellar tendon autograft anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction fixed at both the femur and tibia with beta-TCP-PLLA screws at least 44 months earlier were evaluated by physical, radiographic, and computed tomography (CT) evaluations. This study was approved by the institutional review board. Lysholm, Tegner, Cincinnati, and International Knee Documentation Committee scores were also obtained. CT data were measured in Hounsfield units. We evaluated 13 male and 7 female patients at a mean of 50 months after surgery (range, 44 to 56 months). CT scans and radiographs showed the bone plug fused to the tunnel wall with no beta-TCP-PLLA screw remaining. The screws were replaced with clearly calcified non-trabecular material, denser than soft tissue. Osteoconductivity was present in 75% of the tunnels and complete in 10%. No positive pivot-shift tests were found. Lysholm, Tegner, and Cincinnati scores improved from 60.4, 3.7, and 53.3, respectively, preoperatively to 90.8, 5.8, and 86.4, respectively, at follow-up. The mean side-to-side difference determined by use of the KT arthrometer (MEDmetric, San Diego, CA) was 0.4 mm. The beta-TCP-PLLA interference screw (Bilok; ArthroCare, Sunnyvale, CA) completely degraded, and no remnant was present 4 years after insertion. Osteoconductivity was confirmed by CT scans at 75% of the screw sites and completely filled the site in 10%. The addition of beta-TCP to PLLA results in a biocomposite interference screw that is osteoconductive. Level IV, therapeutic case series.

  8. Comparison of osteoblast-like cell responses to calcium silicate and tricalcium phosphate ceramics in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ni, Siyu; Chang, Jiang; Chou, Lee; Zhai, Wanyin

    2007-01-01

    Calcium silicate ceramics have been proposed as new bone repair biomaterials, since they have proved to be bioactive, degradable, and biocompatible. Beta-tricalcium phosphate ceramic is a well-known degradable material for bone repair. This study compared the effects of CaSiO3 (alpha-, and beta-CaSiO3) and beta-Ca3(PO4)2 (beta-TCP) ceramics on the early stages of rat osteoblast-like cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. Osteoblast-like cells were cultured directly on CaSiO3 (alpha-, and beta-CaSiO3) and beta-TCP ceramics. Attachment of a greater number of cells was observed on CaSiO3 (alpha-, and beta-CaSiO3) ceramics compared with beta-TCP ceramics after incubation for 6 h. SEM observations showed an intimate contact between cells and the substrates, significant cells adhesion, and that the cells spread and grew on the surfaces of all the materials. In addition, the proliferation rate and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of the cells on the CaSiO3 (alpha-, and beta-CaSiO3) ceramics were improved when compared with the beta-TCP ceramics. In the presence of CaSiO3, elevated levels of calcium and silicon in the culture medium were observed throughout the 7-day culture period. In conclusion, the results of the present study revealed that CaSiO3 ceramics showed greater ability to support cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation than beta-TCP ceramic. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Relevance of the setting reaction to the injectability of tricalcium phosphate pastes.

    PubMed

    Montufar, E B; Maazouz, Y; Ginebra, M P

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present work was to analyze the influence of the setting reaction on the injectability of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) pastes. Even if the injection was performed early after mixing powder and liquid, powder reactivity was shown to play a significant role in the injectability of TCP pastes. Significant differences were observed between the injection behavior of non-hardening β-TCP pastes and that of self-hardening α-TCP pastes. The differences were more marked at low liquid-to-powder ratios, using fine powders and injecting through thin needles. α-TCP was, in general, less injectable than β-TCP and required higher injection loads. Moreover, clogging was identified as a mechanism hindering or even preventing injectability, different and clearly distinguishable from the filter-pressing phenomenon. α-TCP pastes presented transient clogging episodes, which were not observed in β-TCP pastes with equivalent particle size distribution. Different parameters affecting powder reactivity were also shown to affect paste injectability. Thus, whereas powder calcination resulted in an increased injectability due to lower particle reactivity, the addition of setting accelerants, such as hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, tended to reduce the injectability of the TCP pastes, especially if adjoined simultaneously with a Na2HPO4 solution. Although, as a general trend, faster-setting pastes were less injectable, some exceptions to this rule were found. For example, whereas in the absence of setting accelerants fine TCP powders were more injectable than the coarse ones, in spite of their shorter setting times, this trend was inverted when setting accelerants were added, and coarse powders were more injectable than the fine ones. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Microsphere-Based Scaffolds Encapsulating Tricalcium Phosphate And Hydroxyapatite For Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vineet; Lyne, Dina V.; Barragan, Marilyn; Berkland, Cory J.; Detamore, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Bioceramic mixtures of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) are widely used for bone regeneration because of their excellent cytocompatibility, osteoconduction, and osteoinduction. Therefore, we hypothesized that incorporation of a mixture of TCP and HAp in microsphere-based scaffolds would enhance osteogenesis of rat bone marrow stromal cells (rBMSCs) compared to a positive control of scaffolds with encapsulated bone-morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2). Poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microsphere-based scaffolds encapsulating TCP and HAp mixtures in two different ratios (7:3 and 1:1) were fabricated with the same net ceramic content (30 wt%) to evaluate how incorporation of these ceramic mixtures would affect the osteogenesis in rBMSCs. Encapsulation of TCP/HAp mixtures impacted microsphere morphologies and the compressive moduli of the scaffolds. Additionally, TCP/HAp mixtures enhanced the end-point secretion of extracellular matrix (ECM) components relevant to bone tissue compared to the “blank” (PLGA-only) microsphere-based scaffolds as evidenced by the biochemical, gene expression, histology, and immunohistochemical characterization. Moreover, the TCP/HAp mixture groups even surpassed the BMP-2 positive control group in some instances in terms of matrix synthesis and gene expression. Lastly, gene expression data suggested that the rBMSCs responded differently to different TCP/HAp ratios presented to them. Altogether, it can be concluded that TCP/HAp mixtures stimulated the differentiation of rBMSCs toward an osteoblastic phenotype, and therefore may be beneficial in gradient microsphere-based scaffolds for osteochondral regeneration. PMID:27272903

  11. Fabrication and evaluation of interconnected porous carbonate apatite from alpha tricalcium phosphate spheres.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Kunio; Arifta, Tya Indah; Hayashi, Koichiro; Tsuru, Kanji

    2018-03-26

    Carbonate apatite (CO 3 Ap) blocks have attracted considerable attention as an artificial bone substitute material because CO 3 Ap is a component of and shares properties with bone, including high osteoconductivity and replacement by bone similar to autografts. In this study, we fabricated an interconnected porous CO 3 Ap block using α-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) spheres and evaluated the tissue response to this material in a rabbit tibial bone defect model. Interconnected porous α-TCP, the precursor of interconnected porous CO 3 Ap, could not be fabricated directly by sintering α-TCP spheres. It was therefore made via a setting reaction with α-TCP spheres, yielding interconnected porous calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite that was subjected to heat treatment. Immersing the interconnected porous α-TCP in Na-CO 3 -PO 4 solution produced CO 3 Ap, which retained the interconnected porous structure after the dissolution-precipitation reaction. The diametral tensile strength and porosity of the porous CO 3 Ap were 1.8 ± 0.4 MPa and 55% ± 3.2%, respectively. Both porous and dense (control) CO 3 Ap showed excellent tissue response and good osteoconductivity. At 4 weeks after surgery, approximately 15% ± 4.9% of the tibial bone defect was filled with new bone when reconstruction was performed using porous CO 3 Ap; this amount was five times greater than that obtained with dense CO 3 Ap. At 12 weeks after surgery, for porous CO 3 Ap, approximately 47% of the defect was filled with new bone as compared to 16% for dense CO 3 Ap. Thus, the interconnected porous CO 3 Ap block is a promising artificial bone substitute material for the treatment of bone defects caused by large fractures or bone tumor resection. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Osteoimmunomodulatory properties of magnesium scaffolds coated with β-tricalcium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zetao; Mao, Xueli; Tan, Lili; Friis, Thor; Wu, Chengtie; Crawford, Ross; Xiao, Yin

    2014-10-01

    The osteoimmunomodulatory property of bone biomaterials is a vital property determining the in vivo fate of the implants. Endowing bone biomaterials with favorable osteoimmunomodulatory properties is of great importance in triggering desired immune response and thus supports the bone healing process. Magnesium (Mg) has been recognized as a revolutionary metal for applications in orthopedics due to it being biodegradable, biocompatible, and having osteoconductive properties. However, Mg's high rate of degradation leads to an excessive inflammatory response and this has restricted its application in bone tissue engineering. In this study, β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) was used to coat Mg scaffolds in an effort to modulate the detrimental osteoimmunomodulatory properties of Mg scaffolds, due to the reported favorable osteoimmunomodulatory properties of β-TCP. It was noted that macrophages switched to the M2 extreme phenotype in response to the Mg-β-TCP scaffolds, which could be due to the inhibition of the toll like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway. VEGF and BMP2 were significantly upregulated in the macrophages exposed to Mg-β-TCP scaffolds, indicating pro-osteogenic properties of macrophages in β-TCP modified Mg scaffolds. This was further demonstrated by the macrophage-mediated osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). When BMSCs were stimulated by conditioned medium from macrophages cultured on Mg-β-TCP scaffolds, osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs was significantly enhanced; whereas osteoclastogenesis was inhibited, as indicated by the downregualtion of MCSF, TRAP and inhibition of the RANKL/RANK system. These findings suggest that β-TCP coating of Mg scaffolds can modulate the scaffold's osteoimmunomodulatory properties, shift the immune microenvironment towards one that favors osteogenesis over osteoclastogenesis. Endowing bone biomaterials with favorable osteoimmunomodulatory properties can be a highly valuable strategy for

  13. Release characteristics and bioactivity of gelatin-tricalcium phosphate membranes covalently immobilized with nerve growth factors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Ru; Chen, Ming-Hong; Lin, Feng-Huei; Su, Wen-Yu

    2005-11-01

    The gelatin-tricalcium phosphate membranes were cross-linking with low concentration glutaraldehyde solution (GTG). This material has good mechanical property, biocompatibility, and is feasible for surgical manipulation. For axonal regeneration, nerve growth factors (NGF) were immobilized onto the composite (GTG) with carbodiimide. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the release characteristics and bioactivity of NGF after covalent immobilization onto the GTG membranes (GEN). NGF immobilized onto and released from the composite was quantified using ELISA method. PC 12 cells were cultured on the GTG and GEN composites. Cell survival, cytotoxicity, and cellular activity were evaluated by total protein content, LDH activity, and MTT assay respectively. Neurite outgrowth assay was used to evaluate the biological activity of NGF released from GEN composite. From ELISA measurement, the releasing curve for NGF showing two distinctive parts with different slopes indicated that NGF were released from the composite in diffusion-controlled mechanism and degradation-controlled mechanism respectively. While culturing with PC 12 cells, LDH leakage results implied that whether GTG composite cross-linked with NGF or not showed little cytotoxicity. The total protein content and cellular activity of PC 12 cells were lower on GTG and GEN membranes than control group. However, 56%+/-3.98 of PC 12 cells showed significant neurite outgrowth on GEN membranes which was statistically higher than GTG without NGF immobilization. In addition, sustained release of bioactive NGF for two months had been demonstrated by neurite outgrowth assay. From these experiments, it can be concluded that the technique used in the present study is capable of immobilizing NGF onto GTG membranes covalently and remaining the bioactivity of NGF. Therefore, GEN composite can be materials for sustained release of bioactive NGF and a candidate for future therapeutic application in nerve repair.

  14. An in vivo study of tricalcium phosphate and glutaraldehyde crosslinking gelatin conduits in peripheral nerve repair.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Hong; Chen, Pei-Ru; Chen, Mei-Hsiu; Hsieh, Sung-Tsang; Huang, Jing-Shan; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2006-04-01

    In order to modulate the mechanical properties of gelatin, we previously developed a biodegradable composite composed by tricalcium phosphate and glutaraldehyde crosslinking gelatin (GTG) feasible for surgical manipulation. In this study, we evaluated the in vivo applications of GTG conduit for peripheral nerve repair. The effect of sciatic nerve reconstruction was compared between resorbable permeable GTG conduits and durable impermeable silicone tubes. Traditional methods of assessing nerve recovery following peripheral nerve repair including histomorphometric and electrophysiologic features were conducted in our study. In addition, autotomy score and sciatic function index (SFI) in walking tract analysis were used as additional parameters for assessing the return of nerve function. Twenty-four weeks after sciatic nerve repair, the GTG conduits were harvested. Microscopically, regeneration of nerves was observed in the cross-section at the mid portion of all implanted GTG conduits. The cross-sectional area of regenerated nerve of the GTG group was significant larger than that of the silicone group. In the compound muscle action potentials (CMAP), the mean recovery index of CMAP amplitude was 0.24 +/- 0.02 for the silicone group, 0.41 +/- 0.07 for the GTG group. The mean SFI increased with time in the GTG group during the evaluation period until 24 weeks. Walking tract analysis showed a higher SFI score in the GTG group at both 12 and 24 weeks. The difference reached a significant level at 24 weeks. Thus, the histomorphometric, electrophysiologic, and functional assessments demonstrate that GTG can be a candidate for peripheral nerve repair.

  15. Effect of Doping on beta-Tricalcium Phosphate Bioresorbable Bulk Material and Thin Film Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, Suhaila

    Magnesium has emerged as a revolutionary biodegradable metal for use as an orthopedic material, it has several advantages over the current metallic materials in use, including eliminating the effects of stress shielding, improving biocompatibility and inhibiting degradation rates, thus removing the requirement of a second surgery for implant removal. Due to the rapid degradation of magnesium, it is necessary to control the corrosion rates of the materials to match the rates of bone healing. This dissertation reports on the effect of doping on the properties of beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP). It also reports on its application as a thin film coating on magnesium alloys for implant applications. Adding various dopants to beta-TCP significantly influences critical properties. In this study, discs were fabricated in two compositions: (i) undoped beta-TCP, (ii) beta-TCP doped with 1.0 wt % MgO, 0.5 wt % ZnO, and 1.0 wt % TiO2. Films were fabricated from these compositions using the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. These coatings were then characterized for corrosive, hardness, and cytocompatibility. The XRD patterns of the coating confirm the amorphous nature of the films. The presence of the metal oxides in beta-TCP improved ceramic densification. The application of these doped coatings was also found to increase the hardness by 88 %, the modulus of elasticity by 66 %, and improve corrosion resistance of the magnesium alloy substrate; with a 2.4 % improvement in Ecorr and 95 % decrease in icorr. Cell viability was studied using an osteoblast precursor cell line MC3T3-E1 to assure that the biocompatibility of these ceramics was not altered due to the dopants. Long-term biodegradation studies were conducted by measuring weight change and surface microstructure as a function of time in simulated body fluid. The results suggest that these coatings could be used for bioresorbable implants with improved corrosion resistance and increased hardness.

  16. Vascularization of repaired limb bone defects using chitosan-β-tricalcium phosphate composite as a tissue engineering bone scaffold.

    PubMed

    Yang, Le; Wang, Qinghua; Peng, Lihua; Yue, Hong; Zhang, Zhendong

    2015-08-01

    Ensuring histocompatibility in the tissue engineering of bones is a complex issue. The aim of this study was to observe the feasibility of chitosan-β-tricalcium phosphate composite in repairing limb bone defects, and to evaluate the therapeutic effects on osteogenesis. Beagle mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were divided into an experimental group that was cultured with an injectable form of chitosan-β-tricalcium phosphate composite and a control group. The effect of the composite on bone tissue growth was evaluated by MTT assay. In addition, 12-month-old beagles were subjected to 15-mm femur defects and subsequently implanted with scaffolds to observe the effects on osteogenesis and vascularization. The dogs were subdivided into two groups of five animals: Group A, which was implanted with scaffold-MSC compounds, and Group B, which was implanted with scaffolds alone. The dogs were observed on the 2nd, 4th, 8th and 12th weeks post-implantation. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that the composite was compatible with MSCs, with similar outcomes in the control and experimental groups. MTT analysis additionally showed that the MSCs in the experimental group grew in a similar manner to those in the control group. The composite did not significantly affect the MSC growth or proliferation. In combination with MSCs, the scaffold materials were effective in the promotion of osteogenesis and vascularization. In conclusion, the chitosan-β-tricalcium phosphate composite was compatible with the MSCs and did not affect cellular growth or proliferation, therefore proving to be an effective injectable composite for tissue engineered bone. Simultaneous implantation of stem cells with a carrier composite proved to function effectively in the repair of bone defects.

  17. Bone regeneration with osteogenic matrix cell sheet and tricalcium phosphate: An experimental study in sheep.

    PubMed

    Kira, Tsutomu; Akahane, Manabu; Omokawa, Shohei; Shimizu, Takamasa; Kawate, Kenji; Onishi, Tadanobu; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2017-10-18

    To determine the effects of a cell sheet created from sheep bone marrow and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) on osteogenesis. Bone marrow cells were harvested from a sheep and cultured in a minimal essential medium (MEM) containing ascorbic acid phosphate (AscP) and dexamethasone (Dex). After 2 wk, the formed osteogenic matrix cell sheet was lifted from the culture dish using a scraper. Additionally, harvested bone marrow cells were cultured in MEM only as a negative control group, and in MEM with AscP, Dex, and β-glycerophosphate as a positive control group. For in vitro evaluation, we measured the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin (OC) content in the media of the cultured cells from each group. For in vivo analysis, a porous TCP ceramic was used as a scaffold. We prepared an experimental group comprising TCP scaffolds wrapped with the osteogenic matrix cell sheets and a control group consisting of the TCP scaffold only. The constructs were implanted subcutaneously into athymic rats and the cell donor sheep, and bone formation was confirmed by histology after 4 wk. In the in vitro part, the mean ALP activity was 0.39 ± 0.03 mg/well in the negative control group, 0.67 ± 0.04 mg/well in the sheet group, and 0.65 ± 0.07 mg/well in the positive control group. The mean OC levels were 1.46 ± 0.33 ng/well in the negative control group, 3.92 ± 0.16 ng/well in the sheet group, and 4.4 ± 0.47 ng/well in the positive control group, respectively. The ALP activity and OC levels were significantly higher in the cell sheet and positive control groups than in the negative control group ( P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in ALP activity or OC levels between the cell sheet group and the positive control group ( P > 0.05). TCP constructs wrapped with cell sheets prior to implantation showed bone formation, in contrast to TCP scaffolds alone, which exhibited poor bone formation when implanted, in the subcutaneous layer both in athymic rats and in the

  18. Improved degradation and bioactivity of amorphous aerosol derived tricalcium phosphate nanoparticles in poly(lactide-co-glycolide)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loher, Stefan; Reboul, Valentine; Brunner, Tobias J.; Simonet, Marc; Dora, Claudio; Neuenschwander, Peter; Stark, Wendelin J.

    2006-04-01

    The industrially used flame synthesis of silica polymer fillers was extended to amorphous tricalcium phosphate (a-TCP) nanoparticles and resulted in a similar morphology as the traditionally used polymer fillers. Doping of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) with such highly agglomerated a-TCP was investigated for mechanical properties, increased in vitro biodegradation and the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of the nanocomposite. PLGA films with particle loadings ranging from 0 to 30 wt% were prepared by solvent casting. Degradation in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C under sterile conditions for up to 42 days was followed by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal analysis and tensile tests. The presence of nanoparticles in the PLGA matrix slightly increased the Young's modulus up to 30% compared to pure polymer reference materials. The nanoparticle doped films showed a significantly increased loss of polymer mass during degradation. Scanning electron microscopy images of doped films showed that the SBF degraded the PLGA by corrosion as facilitated by the incorporation of nanoparticulate calcium phosphate. Raman spectroscopy revealed that the deposition of about 10 nm sized hydroxyapatite crystallites on the surface of doped PLGA films was strongly increased by the addition of tricalcium phosphate fillers. The combination of increased hydroxyapatite formation and enhanced polymer degradation may suggest the use of such amorphous, aerosol derived a-TCP fillers for applications in non-load-bearing implant sites.

  19. Synthesis and mechanical behavior of β-tricalcium phosphate/titania composites addressed to regeneration of long bone segments.

    PubMed

    Sprio, Simone; Guicciardi, Stefano; Dapporto, Massimiliano; Melandri, Cesare; Tampieri, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Bioactive tricalcium phosphate/titania ceramic composites were synthesized by pressureless air sintering of mixed hydroxyapatite and titania (TiO2) powders. The sintering process was optimized to achieve dense ceramic bodies consisting in a bioactive/bioresorbable matrix (β-tricalcium phosphate) reinforced with defined amounts of sub-micron sized titania particles. Extensive chemico-physical and mechanical characterization was carried out on the resulting composites, which displayed values of flexural strength, fracture toughness and elastic modulus in the range or above the typical ranges of values manifested by human cortical bone. It was shown that titania particles provided a toughening effect to the calcium-phosphate matrix and a reinforcement in fracture strength, in comparison with sintered hydroxyapatite bodies characterized by similar relative density. The characteristics of the resulting composites, i.e. bioactivity/bioresorbability and ability of manifesting biomimetic mechanical behavior, are features that can promote processes of bone regeneration in load-bearing sites. Hence, in the perspective of developing porous bone scaffolds with high bioactivity and improved biomechanical behavior, TCP/TiO2 composites with controlled composition can be considered as very promising biomaterials for application in a field of orthopedics where no acceptable clinical solutions still exist. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Platelet rich fibrin (Prf) and β-tricalcium phosphate with coronally advanced flap for the management of grade-II furcation defect.

    PubMed

    Sambhav, Jain; Rohit, Rai; Ranjana, Mohan; Shalabh, Mehrotra

    2014-07-01

    Multirooted teeth offer unique and challenging problems due to the furcation area, creates situations in which routine periodontal procedures are somewhat limited and special procedures are generally required. The present case was showing the management of grade II furcation defect by platelet rich fibrin (PRF) and β-Tricalcium phosphate with coronally advanced flap. Platelet rich fibrin and β-Tricalcium phosphate with coronally advanced flap have been shown to be a promising and successful approach for the treatment of furcation defect. Its gaining clinical attachment significantly manages both the gingival recession and furcation involvement simultaneously.

  1. A randomised study to compare salivary pH, calcium, phosphate and calculus formation after using anticavity dentifrices containing Recaldent(®) and functionalized tri-calcium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ena; Vishwanathamurthy, Ramesh Alampalli; Nadella, Manjari; Savitha, A N; Gundannavar, Gayatri; Hussain, M Ahad

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the pH of saliva, concentration of calcium and inorganic phosphate, and calculus formation before and after usage of Recaldent(®) (GC Tooth Mousse Plus™), Functionalized Tricalcium Phosphate (3M ESPE ClinPro™ Tooth Crème) and standard dentifrice (Colgate dental cream). Randomized double-blind study. A total of 50 subjects were recruited, the subjects were assessed at their first visit, on the 21(st) day and on the 42(nd) day. At the first visit, scaling was carried out and oral hygiene instructions were given. After 21 days, the subjects were given coded dentifrices where the operator and the subjects both were unaware of the type of dentifrice. Clinical parameters assessed were Plaque index, Gingival index, and Calculus index. Salivary samples were obtained to measure calcium, phosphate levels, and pH at 21(st) day and 42(nd) day. ANOVA test, t-test, Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test. The mean salivary calcium level and mean salivary phosphate level were higher in Group III (functionalized tricalcium phosphate (3M ESPE ClinPro™ Tooth Creme) as compared to Group II (Recaldent(®) GC Tooth Mousse Plus™) and Group I (Colgate dental cream) on the 42(nd) day after using dentifrices, which was statistically significant. This showed that the usage of remineralizing dentifrices led to an increase in the salivary calcium, phosphate, and pH but it did not reach the level of super saturation of the ions caused by elevated pH which could lead to calculus formation. Thought here was a statistically significant increase in salivary calcium and phosphate level in all three groups from baseline to 42(nd) day, there was no calculus formation.

  2. Bioactive Molecules Release and Cellular Responses of Alginate-Tricalcium Phosphate Particles Hybrid Gel

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Sumi; Zhang, Shengmin

    2017-01-01

    In this article, a hybrid gel has been developed using sodium alginate (Alg) and α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) particles through ionic crosslinking process for the application in bone tissue engineering. The effects of pH and composition of the gel on osteoblast cells (MC3T3) response and bioactive molecules release have been evaluated. At first, a slurry of Alg and α-TCP has been prepared using an ultrasonicator for the homogeneous distribution of α-TCP particles in the Alg network and to achieve adequate interfacial interaction between them. After that, CaCl2 solution has been added to the slurry so that ionic crosslinked gel (Alg-α-TCP) is formed. The developed hybrid gel has been physico-chemically characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a swelling study. The SEM analysis depicted the presence of α-TCP micro-particles on the surface of the hybrid gel, while cross-section images signified that the α-TCP particles are fully embedded in the porous gel network. Different % swelling ratio at pH 4, 7 and 7.4 confirmed the pH responsiveness of the Alg-α-TCP gel. The hybrid gel having lower % α-TCP particles showed higher % swelling at pH 7.4. The hybrid gel demonstrated a faster release rate of bovine serum albumin (BSA), tetracycline (TCN) and dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) at pH 7.4 and for the grade having lower % α-TCP particles. The MC3T3 cells are viable inside the hybrid gel, while the rate of cell proliferation is higher at pH 7.4 compared to pH 7. The in vitro cytotoxicity analysis using thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT), bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and neutral red assays ascertained that the hybrid gel is non-toxic for MC3T3 cells. The experimental results implied that the non-toxic and biocompatible Alg-α-TCP hybrid gel could be used as scaffold in bone tissue engineering. PMID:29135939

  3. ENHANCING REMINERALIZATION OF PRIMARY ENAMEL LESIONS WITH FLUORIDE DENTIFRICE CONTAINING TRICALCIUM PHOSPHATE.

    PubMed

    Rirattanapong, Praphasri; Vongsavan, Kadkao; Saengsirinavin, Chavengkiat; Waidee, Sumana

    2017-03-01

    Fluoride dentifrice is effective in preventive dental caries but may cause fluorosis, especially in young children. Reducing the concentration of fluoride from the regular concentration of 1,000 parts per million (ppm) to 500 ppm can reduce the risk for fluorosis but increases the risk of caries. Adding tricalcium phosphate (TCP) to the dentifrices may improve the efficacy of remineralization possibly allowing for a lower concentration of fluoride to reduce the risk of fluorosis. We studied this to inform future caries prevention efforts in children. We immersed 40 sound primary incisors into demineralizing solution (pH=4.4) for 96 hours at 37°C to create demineralized lesions. The 40 teeth were then divided into 4 groups of 10 teeth each. Group A: control (treated with deionized water only); Group B: treated with fluoride dentifrice at a concentration of 1,000 ppm; Group C: treated with fluoride dentifrice at a concentration of 500 ppm and 500 ppm TCP, and Group D: treated with fluoride dentifrice at a concentration of 1,000 ppm and 500 ppm TCP. The teeth were each subjected to 7 days of pH-cycling and the studied dentifrice was applied for one minute, 3 times daily during the 7 day period. After the 7 day period the teeth were each sectioned and examined with polarized light microscopy. The depths of demineralized areas were measured using Image-Pro plus software. A pair t-test was used to compare lesion depths before and after dentifrice treatment. Differences in mean lesion depths within each group were analyzed using the One-way ANOVA and LSD tests; a 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The mean lesion depths in all the groups before dentifrice treatment were not significantly different (p=0.143). The mean demineralized lesion depths after dentifrice treatment were significantly different by group (p=0.00). The mean demineralized lesion depth in Group A significantly deeper than the other groups (p=0.00). Group D had the shallowest depth, significantly

  4. [Osteoconductive behaviour of beta-tricalcium phosphate ceramics in osteoporotic, metaphyseal bone defects of the distal radius].

    PubMed

    Hainich, J; von Rechenberg, B; Jakubietz, R G; Jakubietz, M G; Giovanoli, P; Grünert, J G

    2014-02-01

    Surgical treatment of osteoporotic distal radius fractures with locking plates does not completely prevent loss of reduction. Additional bone deficit stabilisation with the use of bone substitute materials is receiving increased attention. Most knowledge on the in vivo behavior of bone substitutes originates from a small number of animal models after its implantation in young, good vascularized bone. This paper investigates the osteoconductivity, resorption and biocompatibility of beta-tricalcium phosphate as a temporary bone replacement in osteoporotic type distal radius fractures. 15 bone samples taken from the augmented area of the distal radius of elderly people during metal removal were examined. The material was found to be osteoconductive, good degradable, and biocompatible. Degrading process and remodelling to woven bone seem to require more time than in available comparative bioassays. The material is suitable for temporary replacement of lost, distal radius bone from the histological point of view. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Investigation of the Genotoxicity of Aluminum Oxide, β-Tricalcium Phosphate, and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Akbaba, Giray Buğra; Türkez, Hasan

    The aim of this study was to investigate the genotoxicity of aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ), β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) (Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 ), and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) that were 4.175, 9.058, and 19.8 nm sized, respectively, on human peripheral blood lymphocytes using micronucleus (MN) and chromosome aberration (CA) techniques. Aluminum oxide and β-TCP NPs did not show genotoxic effects on human peripheral blood cultures in vitro, even at the highest concentrations; therefore, these materials may be suitable for use as biocompatible materials. It was observed that, even at a very low dose (≥12.5 ppm), ZnO NPs had led to genotoxicity. In addition, at high concentrations (500 ppm and above), ZnO NPs caused mortality of lymphocytes. For these reasons, it was concluded that ZnO NPs are not appropriate for using as a biocompatible biomaterial.

  6. Histologic effect of pure-phase beta-tricalcium phosphate on bone regeneration in human artificial jawbone defects.

    PubMed

    Trisi, Paolo; Rao, Walter; Rebaudi, Alberto; Fiore, Peter

    2003-02-01

    The effect of the pure-phase beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) Cerasorb on bone regeneration was evaluated in hollow titanium cylinders implanted in the posterior jaws of five volunteers. Beta-TCP particles were inserted inside the cylinders and harvested 6 months after placement. The density of the newly formed bone inside the bone-growing chambers measured 27.84% +/- 24.67% in test and 17.90% +/- 4.28% in control subjects, without a statistically significant difference. Analysis of the histologic specimens revealed that the density of the regenerated bone was related to the density of the surrounding bone. The present study demonstrates the spontaneous healing of infrabony artificial defects, 2.5 mm diameter, in the jaw. The pure beta-TCP was resorbed simultaneously with new bone formation, without interference with the bone matrix formation.

  7. Spark Plasma Sintering of Load-Bearing Iron-Carbon Nanotube-Tricalcium Phosphate CerMets for Orthopaedic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montufar, Edgar B.; Horynová, Miroslava; Casas-Luna, Mariano; Diaz-de-la-Torre, Sebastián; Celko, Ladislav; Klakurková, Lenka; Spotz, Zdenek; Diéguez-Trejo, Guillermo; Fohlerová, Zdenka; Dvorak, Karel; Zikmund, Tomáš; Kaiser, Jozef

    2016-04-01

    Recently, ceramic-metallic composite materials (CerMets) have been investigated for orthopaedic applications with promising results. This first generation of bio-CerMets combine the bioactivity of hydroxyapatite with the mechanical stability of titanium to fabricate bioactive, tough and biomechanically more biocompatible osteosynthetic devices. Nonetheless, these first CerMets are not biodegradable materials and a second surgery is required to remove the implant after bone healing. The present work aims to develop the next generation bio-CerMets, which are potential biodegradable materials. The process to produce the new biodegradable CerMet consisted of mixing powder of soluble and osteoconductive alpha tricalcium phosphate with biocompatible and biodegradable iron with consolidation through spark plasma sintering (SPS). The microstructure, composition and mechanical strength of the new CerMet were studied by metallography, x-ray diffraction and diametral tensile strength tests, respectively. The results show that SPS produces CerMet with higher mechanical performance (120 MPa) than the ceramic component alone (29 MPa) and similar mechanical strength to the pure metallic component (129 MPa). Nonetheless, although a short sintering time (10 min) was used, partial transformation of the alpha tricalcium phosphate into its allotropic and slightly less soluble beta phase was observed. Cell adhesion tests show that osteoblasts are able to attach to the CerMet surface, presenting spread morphology regardless of the component of the material with which they are in contact. However, the degradation process restricted to the small volume of the cell culture well quickly reduces the osteoblast viability.

  8. Maxillary Sinus Lift with Beta-Tricalcium Phosphate (β-TCP) in Edentulous Patients: A Nanotomographic and Raman Study.

    PubMed

    Pascaretti-Grizon, Florence; Guillaume, Bernard; Terranova, Lisa; Arbez, Baptiste; Libouban, Hélène; Chappard, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Sinus lift elevation restores bone mass at the maxilla in edentulate patients before the placement of dental implants. It consists of opening the lateral side of the sinus and grafting beta-tricalcium phosphate granules (β-TCP) under the olfactory membrane. Bone biopsies were obtained in five patients after 60 weeks. They were embedded undecalcified in poly(methyl methacrylate) (pMMA); blocks were analyzed by nanocomputed tomography (nanoCT); specific areas were studied by Raman microspectroscopy. Remnants of β-TCP were osseointegrated and covered with mineralized bone; osteoid tissue was also filling the inner porosity. Macrophages having engulfed numerous β-TCP grains were observed in marrow spaces. β-TCP was identified by nanoCT as osseointegrated particles and as granules in the cytoplasm of macrophages. Raman microspectroscopy permitted to compare the spectra of β-TCP and bone in different areas. The ratio of the ~820 cm -1 band of pMMA (-CH 2 groups) on the ν1 phosphate band at 960 cm -1 reflected tissue hydration because water was substituted by MMA during histological processing. In bone, the ratio of the ~960 cm -1 phosphate to the amide 1 band and the ratio ν2 phosphate band by the 1240-1250 amide III band reflect the mineralization degree. Specific bands of β-TCP were found in osseointegrated β-TCP granules and in the grains phagocytized by the macrophages. The hydration degree was maximal for β-TCP phagocytized by macrophages. Raman microspectroscopy associated with nanoCT is a powerful tool in the analysis of the biomaterial degradation and osseointegration.

  9. Novel self-gelling injectable hydrogel/alpha-tricalcium phosphate composites for bone regeneration: Physiochemical and microcomputer tomographical characterization.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Timothy E L; Schietse, Josefien; Zima, Aneta; Gorodzha, Svetlana; Parakhonskiy, Bogdan V; KhaleNkow, Dmitry; Shkarin, Roman; Ivanova, Anna; Baumbach, Tilo; Weinhardt, Venera; Stevens, Christian V; Vanhoorne, Valérie; Vervaet, Chris; Balcaen, Lieve; Vanhaecke, Frank; Slośarczyk, Anna; Surmeneva, Maria A; Surmenev, Roman A; Skirtach, Andre G

    2018-03-01

    Mineralized hydrogels are increasingly gaining attention as biomaterials for bone regeneration. The most common mineralization strategy has been addition of preformed inorganic particles during hydrogel formation. This maintains injectability. One common form of bone cement is formed by mixing particles of the highly reactive calcium phosphate alpha-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) with water to form hydroxyapatite (HA). The calcium ions released during this reaction can be exploited to crosslink anionic, calcium-binding polymers such as the polysaccharide gellan gum (GG) to induce hydrogel formation. In this study, three different amounts of α-TCP particles were added to GG polymer solution to generate novel, injectable hydrogel-inorganic composites. Distribution of the inorganic phase in the hydrogel was studied by high resolution microcomputer tomography (µCT). Gelation occurred within 30 min. α-TCP converted to HA. µCT revealed inhomogeneous distribution of the inorganic phase in the composites. These results demonstrate the potential of the composites as alternatives to traditional α-TCP bone cement and pave the way for incorporation of biologically active substances and in vitro and in vivo testing. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 822-828, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Effect of freezing conditions on β-Tricalcium Phosphate /Camphene scaffold with micro sized particles fabricated by freeze casting.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurdev; Soundarapandian, S

    2018-03-01

    The long standing need of the implant manufacturing industries is to fabricate multi-matrix, customized porous scaffold as cost-effectively. In recent years, freeze casting has shown greater opportunity in the fabrication of porous scaffolds (tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, bioglass, alumina, etc.) such as at ease and good control over pore size, porosity, a range of materials and economic feasibility. In particular, tricalcium phosphate (TCP) has proved as it possesses good biocompatible (osteoinduction, osteoconduction, etc.) and biodegradability hence beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP, particle size of 10µm) was used as base material and camphene was used as a freezing vehicle in this study. Both freezing conditions such as constant freezing temperature (CFT) and constant freezing rate (CFR) were used for six different conditional samples (CFT: 30, 35 and 40vol% solid loading; similarly CFR: 30, 35 and 40vol% solid loading) to study and understand the effect of various properties (pore size, porosity and compressive strength) of the freeze-cast porous scaffold. It was observed that the average size of the pore was varying linearly as from lower to higher when the solid loading was varying higher to lower. With the help of scanning electron micrographs (SEM), it was observed that the average size of pore during CFR (9.7/ 6.5/ 4.9µm) was comparatively higher than the process of CFT (6.0/ 4.8/ 2.6µm) with respect to the same solid loading (30/ 35/ 40vol%) conditions. From the Gas pycnometer analysis, it was found that the porosity in both freezing conditions (CFT, CFR) were almost near values such as 32.8% and 28.5%. Further to be observed that with the increase in solid loading, the total porosity value has decreased due to the reduction in the concentration of the freezing vehicle. Hence, the freezing vehicle was found as responsible for the formation of appropriate size and orientation of pores during freeze casting. The compressive strength (CS

  11. High strength, biodegradable and cytocompatible alpha tricalcium phosphate-iron composites for temporal reduction of bone fractures.

    PubMed

    Montufar, E B; Casas-Luna, M; Horynová, M; Tkachenko, S; Fohlerová, Z; Diaz-de-la-Torre, S; Dvořák, K; Čelko, L; Kaiser, J

    2018-04-01

    In this work alpha tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP)/iron (Fe) composites were developed as a new family of biodegradable, load-bearing and cytocompatible materials. The composites with composition from pure ceramic to pure metallic samples were consolidated by pulsed electric current assisted sintering to minimise processing time and temperature while improving their mechanical performance. The mechanical strength of the composites was increased and controlled with the Fe content, passing from brittle to ductile failure. In particular, the addition of 25 vol% of Fe produced a ceramic matrix composite with elastic modulus much closer to cortical bone than that of titanium or biodegradable magnesium alloys and specific compressive strength above that of stainless steel, chromium-cobalt alloys and pure titanium, currently used in clinic for internal fracture fixation. All the composites studied exhibited higher degradation rate than their individual components, presenting values around 200 μm/year, but also their compressive strength did not show a significant reduction in the period required for bone fracture consolidation. Composites showed preferential degradation of α-TCP areas rather than β-TCP areas, suggesting that α-TCP can produce composites with higher degradation rate. The composites were cytocompatible both in indirect and direct contact with bone cells. Osteoblast-like cells attached and spread on the surface of the composites, presenting proliferation rate similar to cells on tissue culture-grade polystyrene and they showed alkaline phosphatase activity. Therefore, this new family of composites is a potential alternative to produce implants for temporal reduction of bone fractures. Biodegradable alpha-tricalcium phosphate/iron (α-TCP/Fe) composites are promising candidates for the fabrication of temporal osteosynthesis devices. Similar to biodegradable metals, these composites can avoid implant removal after bone fracture healing, particularly in

  12. Comparison of CPP-ACP, Tri-Calcium Phosphate and Hydroxyapatite on Remineralization of Artificial Caries Like Lesions on Primary Enamel -An in vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Meghna; Poornima, P; Praveen, S; Nagaveni, N B; Roopa, K B; Neena, I E; Bharath, K P

    To compare CPP-ACP, Tri-calcium phosphate and Hydroxyapatite on remineralization of artificial caries like lesions on primary enamel. Ten extracted Primary molars coated with nail varnish, leaving a window of 2×4 mm on buccal and lingual surface were immersed in demineralizing solution for 96 hours and sectioned longitudinally to obtain 40 sections (4 sections per tooth) and were randomly divided into 4 groups (A to D) n=10; Group A: negative control, Group B: CPP-ACP, Group C: Tri-calcium phosphate, Group D: Hydroxyapatite. Sections were subjected to pH cycling for 10 days and were evaluated by polarized light microscope before and after treatment. Intra group comparison of demineralization and remineralization was done by paired t-test. One way ANOVA was used for multiple group comparisons followed by post HOC TUKEY'S Test for group wise comparisons. Remineralization was found more with Group D followed by Group B, C and A. Hydroxyapatite showed better remineralization when compared to CPP-ACP and Tri-calcium phosphate.

  13. Microporous pure beta-tricalcium phosphate implants for press-fit fixation of anterior cruciate ligament grafts: strength and healing in a sheep model.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Hermann O; Dietrich, Markwart; Fraedrich, Franz; Hube, Robert; Nerlich, Andreas; von Eisenhart-Rothe, Rüdiger; Hein, Werner; Bernstein, Anke

    2009-09-01

    A sheep study was conducted to test a press-fit technique using microporous pure beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) dowels for fixation of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft. Microporous (5 mum) cylindrical plugs of beta-TCP (diameter, 7 mm; length, 25 mm) with interconnecting pores were used. The material featured a novel configuration of structure and surface geometry. Implants were tested by use of press-fit fixation of ACL grafts with and without bone blocks in 42 sheep over a period of 24 weeks. Biomechanical, radiologic, histologic, and immunohistochemical evaluations were performed. In load-to-failure tests at 6, 12, and 24 weeks after surgery, the intra-articular graft always failed, not the fixation. Grafts showed bony fixation in the tunnel at 6 weeks and primary healing at the junction of the tunnel and joint after 24 weeks. Tricalcium phosphate was resorbed and simultaneously replaced by bone. Remodeling was still incomplete at 24 weeks. In the sheep model microporous beta-TCP implants used with press-fit fixation of ACL grafts permit early functional rehabilitation. After 6 weeks, the graft is fixed by woven bone or bony integration. Implanted microporous tricalcium phosphate is resorbed and replaced by bone. In a sheep model we showed that primary healing of ACL grafts with resorption and bony replacement of the fixating implant can be achieved by means of press-fit fixation with pure beta-TCP.

  14. Effects of Titanium Mesh Surfaces-Coated with Hydroxyapatite/β-Tricalcium Phosphate Nanotubes on Acetabular Bone Defects in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thuy-Duong Thi; Bae, Tae-Sung; Yang, Dae-hyeok; Park, Myung-sik; Yoon, Sun-jung

    2017-01-01

    The management of severe acetabular bone defects in revision reconstructive orthopedic surgery is challenging. In this study, cyclic precalcification (CP) treatment was used on both nanotube-surface Ti-mesh and a bone graft substitute for the acetabular defect model, and its effects were assessed in vitro and in vivo. Nanotube-Ti mesh coated with hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP) was manufactured by an anodizing and a sintering method, respectively. An 8 mm diameter defect was created on each acetabulum of eight rabbits, then treated by grafting materials and covered by Ti meshes. At four and eight weeks, postoperatively, biopsies were performed for histomorphometric analyses. The newly-formed bone layers under cyclic precalcified anodized Ti (CP-AT) meshes were superior with regard to the mineralized area at both four and eight weeks, as compared with that under untreated Ti meshes. Active bone regeneration at 2–4 weeks was stronger than at 6–8 weeks, particularly with treated biphasic ceramic (p < 0.05). CP improved the bioactivity of Ti meshes and biphasic grafting materials. Moreover, the precalcified nanotubular Ti meshes could enhance early contact bone formation on the mesh and, therefore, may reduce the collapse of Ti meshes into the defect, increasing the sufficiency of acetabular reconstruction. Finally, cyclic precalcification did not affect bone regeneration by biphasic grafting materials in vivo. PMID:28686210

  15. [Clinical use of beta-tricalcium phosphate ceramics with patient's own bone in maxillary elevation with osteotome].

    PubMed

    Chen, Lu; Zhou, Wen-qing; Wu, Yan-ping; Lu, Jing-hua

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical value of using the patient's autogenous bone mixed with beta-tricalcium phosphate ceramics(β-TCP) for maxillary sinus lift with simultaneous implantation. Patients with loss of posterior teeth and bone height of maxillary sinus floor between 4-10mm underwent internal sinus floor elevation, the proportion of bone to β-TCP was 1:1 and the mixture was inserted into the sinus floor. All cases had simultaneously placed ITI implants.The final crown fabrication was taken 4-6 months after implanting. Twenty-one implants were inserted in 16 cases, the mean increase height was 4.2mm(2-6mm). There was clinical complaint of maxillary sinus inflammation in 1 case within 2 weeks, but the symptoms disappeared after antibiotic therapy. The remaining of 20 implants had no obvious complications. All implants had loaded for 32 months and were stable and well osseointegration on X-ray film. Maxillary sinus elevation with simultaneous implantation is an easy procedure. Implants can be stable for a long time.

  16. Fabrication of porous beta-tricalcium phosphate with microchannel and customized geometry based on gel-casting and rapid prototyping.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Bian, W; Li, D; Lian, Q; Jin, Z

    2011-03-01

    The tissue engineering scaffolds with three-dimensional porous structure are regarded to be beneficial to facilitate a sufficient supply of nutrients and enable cell ingrowth in bone reconstruction. However, the pores in scaffolds tend to be blocked by the cell ingrowth and result in a restraint of nutrient supply in the further side of the scaffold. An indirect approach of combining the rapid prototyping and gel-casting technique is introduced in this study to fabricate beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) scaffolds which not only have interconnected porous structure, but also have a microchannel network inside. The scaffold was designed with customized geometry that matches the defect area, and a double-scale (micropores-microchannel) porous structure inside that is beneficial for cell ingrowth. The scaffolds fabricated have an open, uniform, and interconnected porous architecture with a pore size of 200-400 microm, and posses an internal channel network with a diameter of 600 microm. The porosity was controllable. The compressive yield strength was 4.5 MPa with a porosity of 70 per cent. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that these fabrication processes do not change the crystal structure and chemical composition of beta-TCP. With this technique, it was also possible to fabricate porous scaffolds with desired pore size, porosity, and microchannel, as well as customized geometries by other bioceramics.

  17. Effects of Iron on Physical and Mechanical Properties, and Osteoblast Cell Interaction in β-Tricalcium Phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Vahabzadeh, Sahar; Bose, Susmita

    2017-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is a vital element and its deficiency causes abnormal bone metabolism. We investigated the effects of Fe and its concentration in β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) on physicomechanical properties and in vitro proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. Our results showed that Fe addition at concentrations of 0.5 wt. % (0.5 Fe-TCP) and 1.0 wt. % (1.0 Fe-TCP) inhibits the β-TCP to α-TCP phase transformation at sintering temperature of 1250 °C. Addition of 0.25 wt. % Fe (0.25 Fe-TCP) increased the compressive strength of β-TCP from 167.27±16.2 MPa to 227.10±19.3 MPa. After 3 days of culture, surfaces of 0.5 Fe-TCP and 1.0 Fe-TCP samples were covered by osteoblast cells, compared to that of pure and 0.25 Fe-TCP. Cells grew to confluency on all Fe-doped samples after 7 days of culture and monolayer sheetlike cellular structure was found at 11 days. Optical cell density and alkaline phosphatase activity were significantly higher on Fe-doped samples and the highest values were found in 0.5 Fe-TCP samples. Our results show that Fe concentration had significant effect on physical and mechanical properties of TCP ceramics, and also on the in vitro osteoblast cellular interactions in TCP ceramics. PMID:27896489

  18. Doped Tricalcium Phosphate Scaffolds by Thermal Decomposition of Naphthalene: Mechanical Properties and In vivo Osteogenesis in a Rabbit Femur Model

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Dongxu; Dernell, William; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2015-01-01

    Tricalcium phosphate (TCP) is a bioceramic that is widely used in orthopedic and dental applications. TCP structures show excellent biocompatibility as well as biodegradability. In this study, porous β-TCP scaffolds were prepared by thermal decomposition of naphthalene. Scaffolds with 57.64 ± 3.54 % density and a maximum pore size around 100 μm were fabricated via removing 30% naphthalene at 1150°C. The compressive strength for these scaffolds was 32.85 ± 1.41 MPa. Furthermore, by mixing 1 wt % SrO and 0.5 wt % SiO2, pore interconnectivity improved, but the compressive strength decreased to 22.40 ± 2.70 MPa. However, after addition of polycaprolactone (PCL) coating layers, the compressive strength of doped scaffolds increased to 29.57 ± 3.77 MPa. Porous scaffolds were implanted in rabbit femur defects to evaluate their biological property. The addition of dopants triggered osteoinduction by enhancing osteoid formation, osteocalcin expression and bone regeneration, especially at the interface of the scaffold and host bone. This study showed processing flexibility to make interconnected porous scaffolds with different pore size and volume fraction porosity with high compressive mechanical strength and better bioactivity. Results show that SrO/SiO2 doped porous TCP scaffolds have excellent potential to be used in bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:25504889

  19. Bone remodeling in onlay beta-tricalcium phosphate and coral grafts to rat calvaria: microcomputerized tomography analysis.

    PubMed

    Anavi, Yakir; Avishai, Gal; Calderon, Shlomo; Allon, Dror M

    2011-08-01

    This study was conducted to establish the efficiency of microcomputerized tomography (micro-CT) in detection of trabecular bone remodeling of onlay grafts in a rodent calvaria model, and to compare bone remodeling after onlay grafts with beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) or coral calcium carbonate. Ten rats received calvarial onlay blocks-5 with TCP and 5 with coral calcium carbonate. The grafts were fixed with a titanium miniplate screw and were covered with a collagen resorbable membrane. Three months after surgery, the calvaria were segmented, and a serial 3-dimensional micro-CT scan of the calvarium and grafted bone block at 16-micrometer resolution was performed. Image analysis software was used to calculate the percentage of newly formed bone from the total block size. Newly formed bone was present adjacent to the calvarium and screw in all specimens. The mean area of newly formed bone of the total block size ranged from 34.67%-38.34% in the TCP blocks, and from 32.41%-34.72% in the coral blocks. In the TCP blocks, bone remodeling was found to be slightly higher than in the coral blocks. Micro-CT appears to be a precise, reproducible, specimen-nondestructive method of analysis of bone formation in onlay block grafts to rat calvaria.

  20. Osteogenic effect of tricalcium phosphate substituted by magnesium associated with Genderm® membrane in rat calvarial defect model.

    PubMed

    Costa, Neusa M F; Yassuda, Debora H; Sader, Marcia S; Fernandes, Gustavo V O; Soares, Glória D A; Granjeiro, José M

    2016-04-01

    Beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) is one of the most widely employed bioresorbable materials for bone repair since it shows excellent biological compatibility, osteoconductivity and resorbability. The incorporation of divalent cations such as magnesium onto the β-TCP structure (β-TCMP) may improve the biological response to the material through the release of bioactive ions. The objective of this study was to evaluate, on a rat calvarial critical size grafting model, the bone regeneration process using β-TCP and β-TMCP granules by histomorphometric analysis. Results demonstrated that six months after bone grafting, the association of GBR (guided bone regeneration) using a membrane (GenDerm®) and granules of β-TCP and β-TCMP significantly improves bone repair in the treatment of critical-size defect in rat skulls, in comparison to untreated defects or GBR alone, leading to a bone level approximately four to five-fold greater than in the blood clot group. The β-TCMP+GenDerm® membrane group presented 40.5% of the defect area filled by newly-formed bone, even at the central part of the defect, rather than only at the border, as seen in the other experimental groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Fabrication of β-tricalcium phosphate composite ceramic sphere-based scaffolds with hierarchical pore structure for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    He, Fupo; Qian, Guowen; Ren, Weiwei; Li, Jiyan; Fan, Peirong; Shi, Haishan; Shi, Xuetao; Deng, Xin; Wu, Shanghua; Ye, Jiandong

    2017-04-24

    Polymer sphere-based scaffolds, which are prepared by bonding the adjacent spheres via sintering the randomly packed spheres, feature uniform pore structure, full three-dimensional (3D) interconnection, and considerable mechanical strength. However, bioceramic sphere-based scaffolds fabricated by this method have never been reported. Due to high melting temperature of bioceramic, only limited diffusion rate can be achieved when sintering the bioceramic spheres, which is far from enough to form robust bonding between spheres. In the present study, for the first time we fabricated 3D interconnected β-tricalcium phosphate ceramic sphere-based (PG/TCP) scaffolds by introducing phosphate-based glass (PG) as sintering additive and placing uniaxial pressure during the sintering process. The sintering mechanism of PG/TCP scaffolds was unveiled. The PG/TCP scaffolds had hierarchical pore structure, which was composed by interconnected macropores (>200 μm) among spheres, pores (20–120 μm) in the interior of spheres, and micropores (1–3 μm) among the grains. During the sintering process, partial PG reacted with β-TCP, forming β-Ca2P2O7; metal ions from PG substituted to Ca2+ sites of β-TCP. The mechanical properties (compressive strength 2.8–10.6 MPa; compressive modulus 190–620 MPa) and porosity (30%–50%) of scaffolds could be tailored by manipulating the sintering temperatures. The introduction of PG accelerated in vitro degradation of scaffolds, and the PG/TCP scaffolds showed good cytocompatibility. This work may offer a new strategy to prepare bioceramic scaffolds with satisfactory physicochemical properties for application in bone regeneration.

  2. Gradient coatings of strontium hydroxyapatite/zinc β-tricalcium phosphate as a tool to modulate osteoblast/osteoclast response.

    PubMed

    Boanini, Elisa; Torricelli, Paola; Sima, Felix; Axente, Emanuel; Fini, Milena; Mihailescu, Ion N; Bigi, Adriana

    2018-06-01

    The chemistry, structure and morphology of the implant surface have a great influence on the integration of an implant material with bone tissue. In this work, we applied Combinatorial Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (C-MAPLE) to deposit gradient thin films with variable compositions of Sr-substituted hydroxyapatite (SrHA) and Zn-substituted β-tricalcium phosphate (ZnTCP) on Titanium substrates. Five samples with different SrHA/ZnTCP composition ratios were fabricated by a single step laser procedure. SrHA was synthesized in aqueous medium, whereas ZnTCP was obtained by reaction at high temperature. Both powders were separately suspended in deionized water, frozen at liquid nitrogen temperature and used as targets for C-MAPLE experiments, which proceed via simultaneous laser vaporization of two distinct material targets. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyses confirmed that the coatings contain the same crystalline phases as the as-prepared powder samples, with a homogeneous distribution of the two phosphates along deposited thin films. Human osteoclast precursor 2T-110 and human osteoblast-like cells MG63 were co-cultured on the coatings. The results indicate that osteoblast viability and production of osteocalcin were promoted by the presence of ZnTCP. On the other hand, SrHA inhibited osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast differentiation, as demonstrated by the observed increase of the osteoprotegerin/RANKL ratio and decrease of the number of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells when increasing SrHA amount in the coatings. The results indicate that the possibility to tailor the composition of the coatings provides materials able to modulate bone growth and bone resorption. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ectopic bone formation cannot occur by hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate bioceramics in green fluorescent protein chimeric mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Lijia; Duan, Xin; Xiang, Zhou; Shi, Yujun; Lu, Xiaofeng; Ye, Feng; Bu, Hong

    2012-12-01

    Many studies have shown that calcium phosphate ceramics (CP) have osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties; however, the exact mechanism of bone induction has not yet been reported. This study was performed to investigate if destroying immunological function will influence osteogenesis, to explain the mechanism which is unclear. In this study, twenty C57BL/6 mice were divided into two groups (n = 10), in group 1, a hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP) ceramic was implanted into both the left and right leg muscles of each mouse; in group 2, ten mice experienced lethal irradiation, then were injected bone marrow (BM) cells from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice by tail veil, after bone marrow transplantation (BMT), heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, and muscle were harvested for biological analysis, after the GFP chimera model was established successfully, the same HA/β-TCP ceramic was implanted into both leg muscles of each mouse immediately after irradiation. 45 and 90 days after implantation, the ceramics of the two groups were harvested to perform with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining; the results showed that there was no bone formation in group 2, while new bone tissues were detected in group 1. Our findings suggest that the BM cell from GFP transgenic mice is a good biomarker and it could set a good platform for chimera model; it also shows that BM cell is one of cell resources of bone induction, and destruction of immune function will impede osteoinduction by CP. Overall, our results may shed light on clear mechanism study of bone induction in the future.

  4. An Evaluation of Two Configurations of Tricalcium Phosphate for Treating Craniotomies,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    parietal bones, using a trephine in a dental rotary handpiece with copious sterile saline irrigation. Circular UTCP or OTCP implants of identical...PHOSPHATE FOR TREATINO CMAIOTORIES(U) AM INST OF DENTAL RESEARCH WASHINGTON DC J 0 HOLLINGER ET AL. MM03LMOSIFIE0 1366 F/O 6/𔃿 AL E ?9 E VL NOCNI H...Distributionunli2ited Institute of Dental Research Washington, DC 20307-5300 - V." **Department of Biochemistry m University of Texas’Health Science Center San Antonio

  5. Anorganic bovine-derived hydroxyapatite vs β-tricalcium phosphate in sinus augmentation: a comparative histomorphometric study.

    PubMed

    Kurkcu, Mehmet; Benlidayi, M Emre; Cam, Burcu; Sertdemir, Yasar

    2012-09-01

    The choice of augmentation material is a crucial factor in sinus augmentation surgery. Bovine-derived hydroxyapatite (BHA) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) have been used successfully in sinus augmentation procedures. Choosing one of these materials for sinus augmentation is still controversial. The aim of this clinical study was to compare the biological performance of the new BHA graft material and the well-known synthetic β-TCP material in the sinus augmentation procedure. The study consisted of 23 patients (12 male and 11 female) who were either edentulous or partially edentulous in the posterior maxilla and required implant placement. A total of 23 two-step sinus-grafting procedures were performed. BHA was used in 13 patients, and β-TCP was used in 10 patients. After an average of 6.5 months of healing, bone biopsies were taken from the grafted areas. Undecalcified sections were prepared for histomorphometric analysis. The mean new bone formation was 30.13% ± 3.45% in the BHA group and 21.09% ± 2.86% in the β-TCP group (P = .001). The mean percentage of residual graft particle area was 31.88% ± 6.05% and 34.05% ± 3.01% for the BHA group and β-TCP group, respectively (P = .047). The mean percentage of soft-tissue area was 37.99% ± 5.92% in the BHA group and 44.86% ± 4.28% in the β-TCP group (P = .011). Both graft materials demonstrated successful biocompatibility and osteoconductivity in the sinus augmentation procedure. However, BHA appears to be more efficient in osteoconduction when compared with β-TCP.

  6. Anorganic bovine-derived hydroxyapatite versus β-tricalcium phosphate in sinus augmentation. A comparative histomorphometric study.

    PubMed

    Kurkcu, Mehmet; Benlidayi, Mehmet Emre; Cam, Burcu; Sertdemir, Yasar

    2012-05-22

    Abstract AbstractIntroduction: The choice of augmentation material is a crucial factor in sinus augmentation surgery. Bovine-derived hydroxyapatite (BHA) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) have been used successfully in sinus augmentation procedures. Choosing one of these materials for sinus augmentation is still controversial. The aim of this clinical study was to compare the biological performance of the new BHA graft material and the well known synthetic β-TCP material in sinus augmentation procedure.Material and Methods: The study consisted of 23 patients (12 male and 11 female) who were either edentulous or partially edentulous in the posterior maxilla and required implant placement. A total of 23 two-step sinus grafting procedures were performed. BHA was used in 13 patients and β-TCP was used in 10 patients. After average of 6.5 months of healing bone biopsies were taken from the grafted areas. Undecalcified sections were prepared for histomorphometric analysis. Results: The mean new bone formation was 30.13±3.45% in BHA group and 21.09±2.86% in β-TCP group (p=0.001). The mean percentage of residual graft particle area was 31.88±6.05% and 34.05±3.01% for BHA group and β-TCP group, respectively (p=0.047). The mean percentage of soft tissue area was 37.99±5.92% in BHA group and 44.86±4.28% in β-TCP group (p=0.011).Conclusion: Both graft materials demonstrated successful biocompatibility and osteoconductivity in sinus augmentation procedure. However, BHA appears to be more efficient in osteoconduction when compared to β-TCP.

  7. Osteogenesis and angiogenesis properties of dental pulp cell on novel injectable tricalcium phosphate cement by silica doped.

    PubMed

    Su, Ying-Fang; Lin, Chi-Chang; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Chou, Ming-Yung; Yang, Jaw-Ji; Shie, Ming-You

    2014-09-01

    β-Tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) is an osteoconductive material in clinical. In this study, we have doped silica (Si) into β-TCP and enhanced its bioactive and osteostimulative properties. To check its effectiveness, a series of Si-doped with different ratios were prepared to make new bioactive and biodegradable biocomposites for bone repair. Formation of the diametral tensile strength, ions released and weight loss of cements was considered after immersion. In addition, we also examined the behavior of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) cultured on Si-doped β-TCP cements. The results showed that setting time and injectability of the Si-doped β-TCP cements were decreased as the Si content was increased. At the end of the immersion point, weight losses of 30.1%, 36.9%, 48.1%, and 55.3% were observed for the cement doping 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% Si into β-TCP cements, respectively. In vitro cell experiments show that the Si-rich cements promote human dental pulp cell (hDPC) proliferation and differentiation. However, when the Si-doped in the cement is more than 20%, the amount of cells and osteogenesis protein of hDPCs was stimulated by Si released from Si-doped β-TCP cements. The degradation of β-TCP and osteogenesis of Si gives a strong reason to believe that these Si-doped β-TCP cements may prove to be promising bone repair materials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Doped tricalcium phosphate bone tissue engineering scaffolds using sucrose as template and microwave sintering: enhancement of mechanical and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Ke, Dongxu; Bose, Susmita

    2017-09-01

    β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) is a widely used biocompatible ceramic in orthopedic and dental applications. However, its osteoinductivity and mechanical properties still require improvements. In this study, porous β-TCP and MgO/ZnO-TCP scaffolds were prepared by the thermal decomposition of sucrose. Crack-free cylindrical scaffolds could only be prepared with the addition of MgO and ZnO due to their stabilization effects. Porous MgO/ZnO-TCP scaffolds with a density of 61.39±0.66%, an estimated pore size of 200μm and a compressive strength of 24.96±3.07MPa were prepared by using 25wt% sucrose after conventional sintering at 1250°C. Microwave sintering further increased the compressive strength to 37.94±6.70MPa, but it decreased the open interconnected porosity to 8.74±1.38%. In addition, the incorporation of polycaprolactone (PCL) increased 22.36±3.22% of toughness while maintaining its compressive strength at 25.45±2.21MPa. Human osteoblast cell line was seeded on scaffolds to evaluate the effects of MgO/ZnO and PCL on the biological property of β-TCP in vitro. Both MgO/ZnO and PCL improved osteoinductivity of β-TCP. PCL also decreased osteoblastic apoptosis due to its particular surface chemistry. This novel porous MgO/ZnO-TCP scaffold with PCL shows improved mechanical and biological properties, which has great potential in bone tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Mechanical and biological evaluations of beta-tricalcium phosphate/silicone rubber composite as a novel soft-tissue implant.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-ming; Wang, Shao-liang; Lei, Ze-yuan; Fan, Dong-li

    2009-09-01

    Although silicone rubber (SR) implants are most commonly used and effective for soft-tissue augmentation, they still have been implicated in many adverse reactions. To overcome this problem, a novel composite beta-tricalcium phosphate/silicone rubber (beta-TCP/SR) was prepared by adding beta-TCP into a SR matrix. This study was to evaluate its application potential by investigating the mechanical properties and biocompatibility of beta-TCP/SR. Mechanical properties, including Shore A hardness and tensile strength, were evaluated with 3-mm-thick samples and a universal testing machine. Cytocompatibility tests were conducted in vitro using 0.2-mm-thick beta-TCP/SR samples by seeding fibroblasts onto different samples. Soft-tissue response to beta-TCP/SR and pull-out measurements were investigated 4 weeks and 24 weeks after implantation. The main mechanical properties were all significantly changed after mixing beta-TCP into the SR matrix, except for tearing strength. The cytocompatibility test showed enhanced adhesion and proliferation of fibroblasts onto beta-TCP/SR. Fibrous tissue ingrowth after resorption of beta-TCP was observed by in vivo histologic analysis. The peri-implant capsules in the beta-TCP/SR group were thinner than in the SR group 24 weeks after implantation. In a 24-week test, the maximum force required to pull out the beta-TCP/SR sheet was about six times greater than that needed for SR. Although some mechanical properties were significantly changed, the results of the cytocompatibility test and in vivo animal study still suggest that beta-TCP/SR may be more suitable as a soft-tissue implant than SR and has the potential to be used in plastic surgery.

  10. Tricalcium phosphate and glutaraldehyde crosslinked gelatin incorporating bone morphogenetic protein--a viable scaffold for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu-Hua; Hsu, Chung-King; Wang, Kuo-Cheng; Hou, Sheng-Mou; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2005-07-01

    Bone defects caused by various etiologies must be filled with suitable substances to promote bone repair. Autogenous iliac crest graft is most frequently used, but is often associated with morbidities. Several bone graft substitutes have been developed to provide osteoconductive matrices as well as to enhance osteoinductivity. A tricalcium phosphate and glutaraldehyde crosslinked gelatin (GTG) scaffold, incorporated with bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), was developed to provide an alternative mean of bone tissue engineering. This study investigated differences between GTG and BMP-4 immobilized GTG (GTG-BMP) scaffolds on neonatal rat calvaria osteoblast activities. The GTG scaffold possessed an average pore size of 200 microm and a porosity of 75%. HE staining revealed uniform cell distribution throughout the scaffold 24 h post cell seeding. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of the GTG samples increased initially and then stabilized at 3 weeks postseeding. ALP activity of the GTG-BMP samples was similar to that of the GTG samples in the second and third weeks, but it continued increasing and became significantly greater than that of the GTG samples by the fourth week. Gla-type osteocalcin (Gla-OC) activity of the GTG-BMP samples was initially lower, but also became significantly greater than that of the GTG samples by the fourth week. An HE stain revealed greater numbers of attached cells and a richer matrix deposits in the GTG-BMP samples. A von Kossa stain showed larger mineralizing nodules, in greater numbers, after 4 weeks of in vitro cultivation. These findings suggest that the GTG scaffold provides an excellent porous structure, conductive to greater cell attachment and osteoblast differentiation, and that utility can be significantly enhanced by the inclusion of BMPs. A GTG-BMP scaffold holds promise as a superior bioactive material for bone tissue engineering. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Biomimetic evaluation of β tricalcium phosphate prepared by hot isostatic pressing

    PubMed Central

    Mateescu, Mihaela; Rguitti, Emmanuelle; Ponche, Arnaud; Descamps, Michel; Anselme, Karine

    2012-01-01

    Two types of completely densified β-TCP tablets were synthesized from a stoichiometric β-TCP powder. The first ones (TCP) were conventionally sintered, while the second ones (TCP-T) were sintered and treated by hot isostatic process (HIP). The HIP produced completely densified materials with relative densities greater than 99.9% and a transparent appearance of tablets. Samples were immersed in culture medium with (CM) or without serum (NCM) in static and dynamic conditions for a biomimetic evaluation. Similarly, SaOs-2 cells were cultured on samples in a static or dynamic flow perfusion system. The results of surface transformation in absence of cells showed that the dynamic condition increased the speed of calcium phosphate precipitations compared with the static condition. The morphology of precipitates was different with nature of tablets. The immersion in CM did impede this precipitation. XPS analysis of TCP-T tablets showed the presence of hydroxyapatite (HA) precipitates after incubation in NCM while octacalcium phosphate (OCP) precipitates were formed after incubation in CM. The analysis of the response of SaOs-2 cells on surfaces showed that the two types of materials are biocompatible. However, the dynamic mode of culture stimulated the differentiation of cells. Finally, it appears that the HIP treatment of TCP produces highly densified and transparent samples that display a good in vitro biocompatibility in static and dynamic culture conditions. Moreover, an interesting result of this work is the relationship between the presence of proteins in the immersion medium and the quality of precipitates formed on hipped TCP surface. PMID:23507861

  12. Influence of Si substitution on the reactivity of α-tricalcium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Motisuke, Mariana; Mestres, Gemma; Renó, Caroline O; Carrodeguas, Raúl G; Zavaglia, Cecília A C; Ginebra, Maria-Pau

    2017-06-01

    Silicon substituted calcium phosphates have been widely studied over the last ten years due to their enhanced osteogenic properties. Notwithstanding, the role of silicon on α-TCP reactivity is not clear yet. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the reactivity and the properties of Si-α-TCP in comparison to α-TCP. Precursor powders have similar properties regarding purity, particle size distribution and specific surface area, which allowed a better comparison of the Si effects on their reactivity and cements properties. Both Si-α-TCP and α-TCP hydrolyzed to a calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite when mixed with water but their conversion rates were different. Si-α-TCP exhibited a slower setting rate than α-TCP, i.e. k SSA for Si-TCP (0.021g·m -2 ·h -1 ) was almost four times lower than for α-TCP (0.072g·m -2 ·h -1 ). On the other hand, the compressive strength of the CPC resulting from fully reacted Si-α-TCP was significantly higher (12.80±0.38MPa) than that of α-TCP (11.44±0.54MPa), due to the smaller size of the entangled precipitated apatite crystals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Long-term degradation of a poly-lactide co-glycolide/β-tricalcium phosphate biocomposite interference screw.

    PubMed

    Barber, F Alan; Dockery, W D; Hrnack, Scott A

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the long-term in vivo degradation of biodegradable interference screws made of poly-L-lactide co-glycolide (poly-L-lactic acid [PLLA]/polyglycolic acid [PGA]) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP). To study in vivo the biological behavior of a PLLA/PGA/β-TCP biocomposite screw (Milagro; DePuy Mitek, Raynham, MA), an institutional review board-approved program using anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) interference fixation screws was initiated in 2005. Thirteen patients who had bone-patellar tendon-bone ACL reconstruction fixed at both the femur and tibia with PLLA/PGA/β-TCP screws at least 24 months earlier were evaluated by physical, radiographic, and computed tomography (CT) evaluations. Lysholm, Tegner, Cincinnati, and International Knee Documentation Committee scores were also obtained. Radiographs and CT scans of the operated knee were obtained. CT scan data measured in Hounsfield units (HU) evaluated the material density at the screw and bone plug sites. Soft-tissue and cancellous and cortical bone site readings were also taken. Osteoconductivity scores were determined at the screw sites by use of an ossification quality score (range, 1 to 4). Eleven men and two women were evaluated at a mean of 38 months after surgery (range, 24 to 49 months). CT scans and radiographs showed the bone plug fused to the tunnel wall with no PLLA/PGA/β-TCP screw remaining. The screws were replaced with material that was calcified and non-trabecular. Osteoconductivity was present in 21 of 26 tunnels (81%) and complete (type 4 ossification) in 5 of 26 (19%). Mean screw site densities (femoral, 159 HU; tibial, 157 HU) were not different from the mean cancellous bone density (femoral, 146 HU; tibial, 140 HU). No positive pivot-shift tests were found. Lysholm, Tegner, and Cincinnati scores improved from 44, 3.7, and 37 preoperatively to 93, 6, and 87 at follow-up, respectively. The mean KT arthrometer (MEDmetric, San Diego, CA) difference was 0.8 mm. The PLLA

  14. Exosomes/tricalcium phosphate combination scaffolds can enhance bone regeneration by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jieyuan; Liu, Xiaolin; Li, Haiyan; Chen, Chunyuan; Hu, Bin; Niu, Xin; Li, Qing; Zhao, Bizeng; Xie, Zongping; Wang, Yang

    2016-09-20

    Recently, accumulating evidence has shown that exosomes, the naturally secreted nanocarriers of cells, can exert therapeutic effects in various disease models in the absence of parent cells. However, application of exosomes in bone defect repair and regeneration has been rarely reported, and little is known regarding their underlying mechanisms. Exosomes derived from human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hiPS-MSC-Exos) were combined with tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) to repair critical-sized calvarial bone defects, and the efficacy was assessed by histological examination. We evaluated the in vitro effects of hiPSC-MSC-Exos on the proliferation, migration, and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) by cell-counting, scratch assays, and qRT-PCR, respectively. Gene expression profiling and bioinformatics analyses were also used to identify the underlying mechanisms in the repair. We found that the exosome/β-TCP combination scaffolds could enhance osteogenesis as compared to pure β-TCP scaffolds. In vitro assays showed that the exosomes could release from β-TCP and could be internalized by hBMSCs. In addition, the internalization of exosomes into hBMSCs could profoundly enhance the proliferation, migration, and osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs. Furthermore, gene expression profiling and bioinformatics analyses demonstrated that exosome/β-TCP combination scaffolds significantly altered the expression of a network of genes involved in the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Functional studies further confirmed that the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway was the critical mediator during the exosome-induced osteogenic responses of hBMSCs. We propose that the exosomes can enhance the osteoinductivity of β-TCP through activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway of hBMSCs, which means that the exosome/β-TCP combination scaffolds possess better osteogenesis activity than pure β-TCP scaffolds. These

  15. Beta-tricalcium phosphate plugs for press-fit fixation in ACL reconstruction--a mechanical analysis in bovine bone.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Hermann O; Hube, Robert; Bernstein, Anke; Seibt, Alexander B; Hein, Werner; von Eisenhart-Rothe, Ruediger

    2007-06-01

    The goal of this study was to test fixation properties of microporous pure beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) plugs (porosity 40%) for press-fit fixation of the ACL graft using patellar tendons with and without bone blocks. We set out to establish whether it is possible, in this way, to obtain results comparable with those of interference screw fixation of bone-tendon-bone (BTB) grafts in terms of cyclic loading and load-to-failure. In a bovine model 30 ACL grafts were fixed in tibial drill holes, divided into three groups: 10 BTB grafts fixed with TCP press-fit plugs (7x25 mm), 10 pure patellar tendon grafts with TCP press-fit plugs (7x25 mm), and 10 BTB grafts with metal interference screws (7x25 mm). All grafts were tested by cyclic loading (50-200 N) and loaded until failure in a tensiometer. Under cyclic loading one interference screw fixation failed. None of the TCP plug fixations failed. After 1500 cycles the displacement of the graft in the drill hole for BTB fixed with screws was 3.6+/-7.8 mm, for BTB/TCP plugs 1.6+/-3.4 mm, and for the pure tendon/TCP grafts 1.4+/-0.4 mm. Regarding cyclic loading the pure tendon/TCP system was significantly superior to BTB (p=0.007). The load-to-failure for the BTB/interference screw group was 908+/-539 N with a stiffness of 94+/-36 N/mm, 936+/-245 N for the BTB/TCP cylinder group with a stiffness of 98+/-12 N/mm, and 673+/-159 N for the pure tendon/TCP group with a stiffness of 117+/-9 N/mm. In terms of pull-out load the BTB/TCP system was significantly better than the pure tendon/TCP group (p=0.011). However, pure tendon/TCP grafts achieved significantly greater stiffness (p=0.002) than the BTB system. Press-fit fixation with microporous pure beta-TCP plugs of BTB grafts or patellar tendon grafts without bone blocks for ACL reconstruction leads to primary stability comparable with that achieved by fixation with metal interference screws in case of BTB grafts.

  16. Effect of Silver Nitrate and Sodium Fluoride with Tri-Calcium Phosphate on Streptococcus mutans and Demineralised Dentine.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ollie Yiru; Zhao, Irene Shuping; Mei, May Lei; Lo, Edward Chin-Man; Chu, Chun-Hung

    2018-04-25

    This study investigated the effect of 25% silver nitrate (AgNO₃) and 5% sodium fluoride (NaF) varnish with functionalized tri-calcium phosphate (fTCP) on a Streptococcus mutans ( S. mutans ) biofilm and dentine caries lesion. Demineralised dentine specimens were treated with 25% AgNO₃ and 5% NaF + fTCP (Group 1), 25% AgNO₃ and 5% NaF (Group 2), 25% AgNO₃ (Group 3), or water (Group 4). The specimens were subjected to a S. mutans biofilm challenge after treatment. The biofilm was then studied via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and colony forming units (CFU). The specimens were assessed by micro-computed tomography, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). SEM and CLSM revealed less biofilm in Groups 1 to 3. The log 10 CFU of Groups 1 to 4 were 4.5 ± 0.7, 4.4 ± 0.9, 4.4 ± 0.9, and 6.7 ± 1.0, respectively (Groups 1, 2, 3 < 4, p < 0.001). The lesion depths of Groups 1 to 4 were 212.6 ± 20.1 µm, 280.8 ± 51.6 µm, 402.5 ± 61.7 µm, and 497.4 ± 67.2 µm, respectively (Groups 1 < 2 < 3 < 4, p < 0.001). XRD demonstrated silver chloride formation in Groups 1, 2, and 3. FTIR found the amide I: HPO₄ 2− values of the four groups were 0.22 ± 0.05, 0.25 ± 0.05, 0.41 ± 0.12, and 0.64 ± 0.14, respectively (Groups 1, 2 < 3 < 4; p < 0.001). In conclusion, this study revealed that AgNO₃ and NaF + fTCP reduced the damage of dentine caries by cariogenic biofilm.

  17. Modulation of mesenchymal stem cell behavior by nano- and micro-sized β-tricalcium phosphate particles in suspension and composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smoak, Mollie; Hogan, Katie; Kriegh, Lisa; Chen, Cong; Terrell, LeKeith B.; Qureshi, Ammar T.; Todd Monroe, W.; Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Hayes, Daniel J.

    2015-04-01

    Interest has grown in the use of microparticles and nanoparticles for modifying the mechanical and biological properties of synthetic bone composite structures. Micro- and nano-sized calcium phosphates are of interest for their osteoinductive behavior. Engineered composites incorporating polymers and ceramics, such as poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), for bone tissue regeneration have been well investigated for their proliferative and osteoinductive abilities. Only limited research has been done to investigate the effects of different sizes of β-TCP particles on human mesenchymal stromal cell behavior. As such, the aim of this study was to investigate the modulations of human adipose-derived stem cell (hASCs) behavior within cell/particle and cell/composite systems as functions of particle size, concentration, and exposure time. The incorporation of nanoscale calcium phosphate resulted in improved mechanical properties and osteogenic behavior within the scaffold compared to the microscale calcium phosphate additives. Particle exposure results indicate that cytotoxicity on hASCs correlates inversely with particle size and increases with the increasing exposure time and particle concentration. Composites with increasing β-TCP content, whether microparticles or nanoparticles, were less toxic than colloidal micro- and nano-sized β-TCP particles directly supplied to hASCs. The difference in viability observed as a result of varying exposure route is likely related to the increased cell-particle interactions in the direct exposure compared to the particles becoming trapped within the scaffold/polymer matrix.

  18. Optimization of culture conditions for osteogenically-induced mesenchymal stem cells in β-tricalcium phosphate ceramics with large interconnected channels.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Anne; Lode, Anja; Peters, Fabian; Gelinsky, Michael

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize culture conditions for human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in β-tricalcium phosphate ceramics with large interconnected channels. Fully interconnected macrochannels comprising pore diameters of 750 µm and 1400 µm were inserted into microporous β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds by milling. Human bone marrow-derived MSCs were seeded into the scaffolds and cultivated for up to 3 weeks in both static and perfusion culture in the presence of osteogenic supplements (dexamethasone, β-glycerophosphate, ascorbate). It was confirmed by scanning electron microscopic investigations and histological staining that the perfusion culture resulted in uniform distribution of cells inside the whole channel network, whereas the statically cultivated cells were primarily found at the surface of the ceramic samples. It was also determined that perfusion with standard medium containing 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) led to a strong increase (seven-fold) of cell numbers compared with static cultivation observed after 3 weeks. Perfusion with low-serum medium (2% FCS) resulted in moderate proliferation rates which were comparable to those achieved in static culture, although the specific alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity increased by a factor of more than 3 compared to static cultivation. Gene expression analysis of the ALP gene also revealed higher levels of ALP mRNA in low-serum perfused samples compared to statically cultivated constructs. In contrast, gene expression of the late osteogenic marker bone sialoprotein II (BSPII) was decreased for perfused samples compared to statically cultivated samples. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Periodontal tissue engineering by nano beta-tricalcium phosphate scaffold and fibroblast growth factor-2 in one-wall infrabony defects of dogs.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, K; Miyaji, H; Kato, A; Kosen, Y; Momose, T; Yoshida, T; Nishida, E; Miyata, S; Murakami, S; Takita, H; Fugetsu, B; Sugaya, T; Kawanami, M

    2016-12-01

    Nanoparticle bioceramics are being investigated for biomedical applications. We fabricated a regenerative scaffold comprising type I collagen and beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) nanoparticles. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is a bioeffective signaling molecule that stimulates cell proliferation and wound healing. This study examined the effects, on bioactivity, of a nano-β-TCP/collagen scaffold loaded with FGF-2, particularly on periodontal tissue wound healing. Beta-tricalcium phosphate was pulverized into nanosize particles (84 nm) and was then dispersed. A nano-β-TCP scaffold was prepared by coating the surface of a collagen scaffold with a nanosize β-TCP dispersion. Scaffolds were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, compressive testing, cell seeding and rat subcutaneous implant testing. Then, nano-β-TCP scaffold, nano-β-TCP scaffold loaded with FGF-2 and noncoated collagen scaffold were implanted into a dog one-wall infrabony defect model. Histological observations were made at 10 d and 4 wk postsurgery. Scanning electron microscopy images show that TCP nanoparticles were attached to collagen fibers. The nano-β-TCP scaffold showed higher compressive strength and cytocompatibility compared with the noncoated collagen scaffold. Rat subcutaneous implant tests showed that the DNA contents of infiltrating cells in the nano-β-TCP scaffold and the FGF-2-loaded scaffold were approximately 2.8-fold and 3.7-fold greater, respectively, than in the collagen scaffold. Histological samples from the periodontal defect model showed about five-fold greater periodontal tissue repair following implantation of the nano-β-TCP scaffold loaded with FGF-2 compared with the collagen scaffold. The β-TCP nanoparticle coating strongly improved the collagen scaffold bioactivity. Nano-β-TCP scaffolds containing FGF-2 are anticipated for use in periodontal tissue engineering. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Assessment of bone repair in critical-size defect in the calvarium of rats after the implantation of tricalcium phosphate beta (β-TCP).

    PubMed

    de Freitas Silva, Leonardo; de Carvalho Reis, Erik Neiva Ribeiro; Barbara, Tânia Aparecida; Bonardi, João Paulo; Garcia, Idelmo Rangel; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Perri; Ponzoni, Daniela

    2017-07-01

    Evaluating the osteoconductive property of tricalcium phosphate beta (β-TCP) in comparison to that of inorganic bovine bone for repair in a critical-size defect in the rat calvarium. Critical-size defects of 7mm were made with a trephine in the calvaria of 48 Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups, and the defects in each group were filled with tricalcium phosphate beta (β-TCP), inorganic bovine bone (Bio-Oss), autogenous bone, or left empty. The animals were euthanized at two different time points (30 and 60days post-operation). All defects were recovered with a absorbable membrane of bovine cortical bone. Histological, histometric, and immunohistochemical (osteocalcin) assessments were carried out at 30 and 60days post-operation. At 30days post-operation, all groups showed areas of bone formation, predominantly when autogenous grafts were used. However, there were no statistically significant differences between the treatment groups (p>0.05). After 60days, there were similarities in the bone formation patterns between the β-TCP (26.32±) and Bio-Oss (17.35±) groups (p=0.549). In terms of the immunohistochemical assessment of osteocalcin, the clot group showed light to moderate staining at 30 and 60days. The autogenous group showed moderate staining at 30days and moderate to intense staining after 60days. The Bio-Oss group showed light to moderate staining after 30days and intense staining at 60days. The β-TCP group showed moderate staining at 30 and 60days post-operation. β-TCP is a good osteoconductive material with similar effects to those of inorganic bovine bone graft and is suitable for utilization in the repair of bone defects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Fabrication of interconnected porous β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) based on a setting reaction of β-TCP granules with HNO3 followed by heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Kunio; Putri, Tansza Setiana; Tsuchiya, Akira; Tanaka, Keisuke; Tsuru, Kanji

    2018-03-01

    β-Tricalcium phosphate [β-TCP] is the typical bone substitute due to its excellent osteoconductivity and bioresorbability. One of the keys to improve its potential as bone substitute is to introduce porous structure and its regulation. In this study, interconnected porous β-TCP blocks were fabricated through a setting reaction of β-TCP granules and subsequent heat treatment. First, β-TCP granules were mixed with HNO 3 . Upon mixing, β-TCP granules were bridged with dicalcium phosphate dihydrate [DCPD: CaHPO 4 ·2H 2 O] containing Ca(NO 3 ) 2 . Then, the DCPD-bridged β-TCP was heated at 1100°C. During the heating process, DCPD containing Ca(NO 3 ) 2 transformed into β-TCP and bonded with β-TCP granules. As a result, an interconnected porous β-TCP block formed. The diametral tensile strength and porosity of the interconnected porous β-TCP block fabricated from 200-300-μm β-TCP granules and 5 N HNO 3 and then heated at 1,100°C were 1.4 ± 0.2 MPa and 57% ± 2%, respectively. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 797-804, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Enhanced In Vivo Bone and Blood Vessel Formation by Iron Oxide and Silica Doped 3D Printed Tricalcium Phosphate Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Bose, Susmita; Banerjee, Dishary; Robertson, Samuel; Vahabzadeh, Sahar

    2018-05-04

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics show significant promise towards bone graft applications because of the compositional similarity to inorganic materials of bone. With 3D printing, it is possible to create ceramic implants that closely mimic the geometry of human bone and can be custom-designed for unusual injuries or anatomical sites. The objective of the study was to optimize the 3D-printing parameters for the fabrication of scaffolds, with complex geometry, made from synthesized tricalcium phosphate (TCP) powder. This study was also intended to elucidate the mechanical and biological effects of the addition of Fe +3 and Si +4 in TCP implants in a rat distal femur model for 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Doped with Fe +3 and Si +4 TCP scaffolds with 3D interconnected channels were fabricated to provide channels for micronutrients delivery and improved cell-material interactions through bioactive fixation. Addition of Fe +3 into TCP enhanced early-stage new bone formation by increasing type I collagen production. Neovascularization was observed in the Si +4 doped samples after 12 weeks. These findings emphasize that the additive manufacturing of scaffolds with complex geometry from synthesized ceramic powder with modified chemistry is feasible and may serve as a potential candidate to introduce angiogenic and osteogenic properties to CaPs, leading to accelerated bone defect healing.

  3. Controlling Blue and Red Light Emissions from Europium (Eu2+)/Manganese (Mn2+)-Codoped Beta-Tricalcium Phosphate [β-Ca3(PO4)2 (TCP)] Phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van, Hoang Nhu; Hoan, Bui Thi; Nguyen, Khoi Thi; Tam, Phuong Dinh; Huy, Pham Thanh; Pham, Vuong-Hung

    2018-03-01

    Tunable light emission from europium (Eu2+)/manganese (Mn2+)-codoped beta-tricalcium phosphate [β-Ca3(PO4)2 (TCP)] has been investigated as a function of the Mn2+ and Eu2+ concentrations and annealing temperature. Eu2+/Mn2+-doped TCP phosphor (Eu/Mn-TCP) was synthesized by coprecipitation method followed by thermal annealing at temperature up to 1100°C. The Eu2+/Mn2+-doped TCP particles have diameter of about 1 μm. The light emission from TCP is enhanced in the sample with 7.5 mol.% Mn2+ and 0.3 mol.% Eu2+ annealed in Ar + 5% H2 atmosphere at 1100°C. The blue band at 430 nm is attributed to the 4f 6 5d 1-4f 7 transition of Eu2+. The sharp peak at 660 nm is ascribed to the 4T1-6A1 transition of Mn2+ in TCP. These results suggest codoping of Eu2+/Mn2+ to TCP phosphor to obtain β-Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+,Mn2+ phosphors with tunable luminescence, having potential applications in agricultural lighting.

  4. High porous titanium scaffolds showed higher compatibility than lower porous beta-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds for regulating human osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Makoto; Hayakawa, Tohru; Shima, Takaki; Ametani, Akihiro; Tohnai, Iwai

    2015-04-01

    We compared osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation when using beta-tricalcium phosphate (βTCP) and titanium scaffolds by investigating human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and osteoclast progenitor cell activities. hMSCs were cultured for 7, 14, and 21days on titanium scaffolds with 60%, 73%, and 87% porosity and on βTCP scaffolds with 60% and 75% porosity. Human osteoclast progenitor cells were cultured with osteoblast for 14 and 21days on 87% titanium and 75% βTCP scaffolds. Viable cell numbers with 60% and 73% titanium were higher than with 87% titanium and βTCP scaffolds (P<0.05). An 87% titanium scaffold resulted in the highest osteocalcin production with calcification on day 14 (P<0.01) in titanium scaffolds. All titanium scaffolds resulted in higher osteocalcin production on days 7 and 14 compared to βTCP scaffolds (P<0.01). Osteoblasts cultured on 87% titanium scaffolds suppressed osteoclast differentiation on day 7 but enhanced osteoclast differentiation on day 14 compared to 75% βTCP scaffolds (P<0.01). These findings concluded that high porosity titanium scaffolds could enhance progression of hMSC/osteoblast differentiation and regulated osteoclast differentiation cooperating with osteoblast differentiation for calcification as compared with lower porous βTCP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Bone formation in vivo induced by Cbfa1-carrying adenoviral vectors released from a biodegradable porous β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uemura, Toshimasa; Kojima, Hiroko

    2011-06-01

    Overexpression of Cbfa1 (a transcription factor indispensable for osteoblastic differentiation) is expected to induce the formation of bone directly and indirectly in vivo by accelerating osteoblastic differentiation. Adenoviral vectors carrying the cDNA of Cbfa1/til-1(Adv-Cbf1) were allowed to be adsorbed onto porous blocks of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), a biodegradable ceramic, which were then implanted subcutaneously and orthotopically into bone defects. The adenoviral vectors were released sustainingly by biodegradation, providing long-term expression of the genes. Results of the subcutaneous implantation of Adv-Cbfa1-adsorbed β-TCP/osteoprogenitor cells suggest that a larger amount of bone formed in the pores of the implant than in the control material. Regarding orthotopic implantation into bone defects, the released Adv-Cbfa1 accelerated regeneration in the cortical bone, whereas it induced bone resorption in the marrow cavity. A safer gene transfer using a smaller amount of the vector was achieved using biodegradable porous β-TCP as a carrier.

  6. Bone formation in vivo induced by Cbfa1-carrying adenoviral vectors released from a biodegradable porous β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) material.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Toshimasa; Kojima, Hiroko

    2011-06-01

    Overexpression of Cbfa1 (a transcription factor indispensable for osteoblastic differentiation) is expected to induce the formation of bone directly and indirectly in vivo by accelerating osteoblastic differentiation. Adenoviral vectors carrying the cDNA of Cbfa1/til-1(Adv-Cbf1) were allowed to be adsorbed onto porous blocks of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), a biodegradable ceramic, which were then implanted subcutaneously and orthotopically into bone defects. The adenoviral vectors were released sustainingly by biodegradation, providing long-term expression of the genes. Results of the subcutaneous implantation of Adv-Cbfa1-adsorbed β-TCP/osteoprogenitor cells suggest that a larger amount of bone formed in the pores of the implant than in the control material. Regarding orthotopic implantation into bone defects, the released Adv-Cbfa1 accelerated regeneration in the cortical bone, whereas it induced bone resorption in the marrow cavity. A safer gene transfer using a smaller amount of the vector was achieved using biodegradable porous β-TCP as a carrier.

  7. The promotion of angiogenesis induced by three-dimensional porous beta-tricalcium phosphate scaffold with different interconnection sizes via activation of PI3K/Akt pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xin; Wang, Wei; Liu, Dong; Zhang, Haoqiang; Gao, Peng; Geng, Lei; Yuan, Yulin; Lu, Jianxi; Wang, Zhen

    2015-03-01

    The porous architectural characteristics of biomaterials play an important role in scaffold revascularization. However, no consensus exists regarding optimal interconnection sizes for vascularization and its scaffold bioperformance with different interconnection sizes. Therefore, a series of disk-type beta-tricalcium phosphates with the same pore sizes and variable interconnections were produced to evaluate how the interconnection size influenced biomaterial vascularization in vitro and in vivo. We incubated human umbilical vein endothelial cells on scaffolds with interconnections of various sizes. Results showed that scaffolds with a 150 μm interconnection size ameliorated endothelial cell function evidenced by promoting cell adhesion and migration, increasing cell proliferation and enhancing expression of platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecules and vascular endothelial growth factor. In vivo study was performed on rabbit implanted with scaffolds into the bone defect on femoral condyles. Implantation with scaffolds with 150 μm interconnection size significantly improved neovascularization as shown by micro-CT as compared to scaffolds with 100 and 120 μm interconnection sizes. Moreover, the aforementioned positive effects were abolished by blocking PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway with LY-294002. Our study explicitly demonstrates that the scaffold with 150 μm interconnection size improves neovascularization via the PI3K/Akt pathway and provides a target for biomaterial inner structure modification to attain improved clinical performance in implant vascularization.

  8. Heterotopic bone formation in the musculus latissimus dorsi of sheep using β-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds: evaluation of an extended prefabrication time on bone formation and matrix degeneration.

    PubMed

    Spalthoff, S; Jehn, P; Zimmerer, R; Möllmann, U; Gellrich, N-C; Kokemueller, H

    2015-06-01

    We previously generated viable heterotopic bone in living animals and found that 3 months of intrinsic vascularization improved bone formation and matrix degeneration. In this study, we varied the pre-vascularization time to determine its effects on the kinetics of bone formation and ceramic degradation. Two 25-mm-long cylindrical β-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds were filled intraoperatively with autogenous iliac crest bone marrow and implanted in the latissimus dorsi muscle in six sheep. To examine the effect of axial perfusion, one scaffold was surgically implanted with (group C) or without (group D) a central vascular bundle. All animals were sacrificed 6 months postoperatively and histomorphometric measurements were compared to previous results. All implanted scaffolds exhibited ectopic bone growth. However, bone growth was not significantly different between the 3-month (group A, 0.191±0.097 vs. group C, 0.237±0.075; P=0.345) and 6-month (group B, 0.303±0.105 vs. group D, 0.365±0.258; P=0.549) pre-vascularization durations, regardless of vessel supply; early differences between surgically and extrinsically vascularized constructs disappeared after 6 months. Here, we describe a reliable procedure for generating ectopic bone in vivo. A 3-month pre-vascularization duration appears sufficient and ceramic degradation proceeds in accordance with bone generation, supporting the hypothesis of cell-mediated resorption. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of silica and zinc oxide doping on mechanical and biological properties of 3D printed tricalcium phosphate tissue engineering scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Fielding, Gary A; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of silica (SiO(2)) (0.5 wt%) and zinc oxide (ZnO) (0.25 wt%) dopants on the mechanical and biological properties of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds with three dimensionally (3D) interconnected pores. Scaffolds were created with a commercial 3D printer. Post sintering phase analysis was determined by X-ray diffraction. Surface morphology of the scaffolds was examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Mechanical strength was evaluated with a screw driven universal testing machine. MTT assay was used for cellular proliferation characteristics and cellular morphology was examined by FESEM. Addition of dopants into TCP increased the average density of pure TCP from 90.8 ± 0.8% to 94.1 ± 1.6% and retarded the β to α phase transformation at high sintering temperatures, which resulted in up to 2.5 fold increase in compressive strength. In vitro cell-materials interaction studies, carried out using hFOB cells, confirmed that the addition of SiO(2) and ZnO to the scaffolds facilitated faster cell proliferation when compared to pure TCP scaffolds. Addition of SiO(2) and ZnO dopants to the TCP scaffolds showed increased mechanical strength as well as increased cellular proliferation. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Immunohistochemical response in rats of beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) with or without BMP-2 in the production of collagen matrix critical defects.

    PubMed

    Luvizuto, Eloá Rodrigues; de Oliveira, Júlio César Silva; Gomes-Ferreira, Pedro Henrique Silva; Pereira, Cassiano Costa Silva; Faverani, Leonardo Perez; Antoniali, Cristina; Okamoto, Roberta

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the biological response of BMP-2 (bone morphogenetic protein-2) in supplementation with β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) as a carrier in the bone healing of surgical defects in rats' calvaria. A critical-size defect (5mm in diameter) was filled with β-TCP alone or added with that plus 5mg of BMP-2 at 5, 15, and 30 postoperative days. Histomorphometric and immunohistochemical (osteocalcin, collagen type I, and metalloproteinase-9) analysis was performed to assess the features of bone healing. Histological behavior and collagen type I labeling showed increased formation of the collagen matrix, leading to a higher percentage of newly formed bone and biomaterial for tissue and more total mineralization of pure TCP when compared to the other groups. The supplementation with BMP-2 promoted faster TCP remodeling; however, there was no statistically significant difference for the bone formed in both groups (P>0.05). Collagen-matrix formation and new bone formation reached maximum levels when the defects were filled with pure TCP, even exceeding the levels from BMP-2 supplementation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effect of Interferon-γ and Zoledronate Treatment on Alpha-Tricalcium Phosphate/Collagen Sponge-Mediated Bone-Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peiqi; Hashimoto, Yoshiya; Honda, Yoshitomo; Arima, Yoshiyuki; Matsumoto, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory responses are frequently associated with the expression of inflammatory cytokines and severe osteoclastogenesis, which significantly affect the efficacy of biomaterials. Recent findings have suggested that interferon (IFN)-γ and zoledronate (Zol) are effective inhibitors of osteoclastogenesis. However, little is known regarding the utility of IFN-γ and Zol in bone tissue engineering. In this study, we generated rat models by generating critically sized defects in calvarias implanted with an alpha-tricalcium phosphate/collagen sponge (α-TCP/CS). At four weeks post-implantation, the rats were divided into IFN-γ, Zol, and control (no treatment) groups. Compared with the control group, the IFN-γ and Zol groups showed remarkable attenuation of severe osteoclastogenesis, leading to a significant enhancement in bone mass. Histomorphometric data and mRNA expression patterns in IFN-γ and Zol-injected rats reflected high bone-turnover with increased bone formation, a reduction in osteoclast numbers, and tumor necrosis factor-α expression. Our results demonstrated that the administration of IFN-γ and Zol enhanced bone regeneration of α-TCP/CS implants by enhancing bone formation, while hampering excess bone resorption. PMID:26516841

  12. Preparation of a new composite combining strengthened β-tricalcium phosphate with platelet-rich plasma as a potential scaffold for the repair of bone defects

    PubMed Central

    WANG, CHENGGONG; ZHONG, DA; ZHOU, XING; YIN, KE; LIAO, QIANDE; KONG, LINGYU; LIU, ANSONG

    2014-01-01

    β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) are commonly used in bone tissue engineering. In the present study, a new composite combining strengthened β-TCP and PRP was prepared and its morphological and mechanical properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and material testing. The biocompatibility was evaluated by measuring the adhesion rate and cytotoxicity of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). The strengthened β-TCP/PRP composite had an appearance like the fungus Boletus kermesinus with the PRP gel distributed on the surface of the micropores. The maximum load and load intensity were 945.6±86.4 N and 13.1±0.5 MPa, which were significantly higher than those of β-TCP (110.1±14.3 N and 1.6±0.2 MPa; P<0.05). The BMSC adhesion rate on the strengthened β-TCP/PRP composite was >96% after 24 h, with a cell cytotoxicity value of zero. SEM micrographs revealed that following seeding of BMSCs onto the composite in high-glucose Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium culture for two weeks, the cells grew well and exhibited fusiform, spherical and polygonal morphologies, as well as pseudopodial connections. The strengthened β-TCP/PRP composite has the potential to be used as a scaffold in bone tissue engineering due to its effective biocompatibility and mechanical properties. PMID:25187800

  13. Nano-hydroxyapatite-coated metal-ceramic composite of iron-tricalcium phosphate: Improving the surface wettability, adhesion and proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Surmeneva, Maria A; Kleinhans, Claudia; Vacun, Gabriele; Kluger, Petra Juliane; Schönhaar, Veronika; Müller, Michaela; Hein, Sebastian Boris; Wittmar, Alexandra; Ulbricht, Mathias; Prymak, Oleg; Oehr, Christian; Surmenev, Roman A

    2015-11-01

    Thin radio-frequency magnetron sputter deposited nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) films were prepared on the surface of a Fe-tricalcium phosphate (Fe-TCP) bioceramic composite, which was obtained using a conventional powder injection moulding technique. The obtained nano-hydroxyapatite coated Fe-TCP biocomposites (nano-HA-Fe-TCP) were studied with respect to their chemical and phase composition, surface morphology, water contact angle, surface free energy and hysteresis. The deposition process resulted in a homogeneous, single-phase HA coating. The ability of the surface to support adhesion and the proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) was studied using biological short-term tests in vitro. The surface of the uncoated Fe-TCP bioceramic composite showed an initial cell attachment after 24h of seeding, but adhesion, proliferation and growth did not persist during 14 days of culture. However, the HA-Fe-TCP surfaces allowed cell adhesion, and proliferation during 14 days. The deposition of the nano-HA films on the Fe-TCP surface resulted in higher surface energy, improved hydrophilicity and biocompatibility compared with the surface of the uncoated Fe-TCP. Furthermore, it is suggested that an increase in the polar component of the surface energy was responsible for the enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation in the case of the nano-HA-Fe-TCP biocomposites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. SiO2 and ZnO dopants in three-dimensionally printed tricalcium phosphate bone tissue engineering scaffolds enhance osteogenesis and angiogenesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fielding, Gary; Bose, Susmita

    2013-11-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) scaffolds with three-dimensionally-interconnected pores play an important role in mechanical interlocking and biological fixation in bone implant applications. CaPs alone, however, are only osteoconductive (able to guide bone growth). Much attention has been given to the incorporation of biologics and pharmacologics to add osteoinductive (able to cause new bone growth) properties to CaP materials. Because biologics and pharmacologics are generally delicate compounds and also subject to increased regulatory scrutiny, there is a need to investigate alternative methods to introduce osteoinductivity to CaP materials. In this study silica (SiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) have been incorporated into three-dimensional printed β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds to investigate their potential to trigger osteoinduction in vivo. Silicon and zinc are trace elements that are common in bone and have also been shown to have many beneficial properties, from increased bone regeneration to angiogenesis. Implants were placed in bicortical femur defects introduced to a murine model for up to 16 weeks. The addition of dopants into TCP increased the capacity for new early bone formation by modulating collagen I production and osteocalcin production. Neovascularization was found to be up to three times more than the pure TCP control group. The findings from this study indicate that the combination of SiO2 and ZnO dopants in TCP may be a viable alternative to introducing osteoinductive properties to CaPs. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of Partial O₂ Pressure on the Adhesion, Proliferation, and Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells on β-Tricalcium Phosphate Scaffold.

    PubMed

    Viña-Almunia, Jose; Mas-Bargues, Cristina; Borras, Consuelo; Gambini, Juan; El Alami, Marya; Sanz-Ros, Jorge; Peñarrocha, Miguel; Vina, Jose

    To analyze, in vitro, the influence of O₂ pressure on the adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) on β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffold. DPSC, positive for the molecular markers CD133, Oct4, Nestin, Stro-1, and CD34, and negative for CD45, were isolated from extracted third molars. Experiments were started by seeding 200,000 cells on β-TCP cultured under 3% or 21% O₂ pressure. No osteogenic medium was used. Eight different cultures were performed at each time point under each O₂ pressure condition. Cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation over the biomaterial were evaluated at 7, 13, 18, and 23 days of culture. Cell adhesion was determined by light microscopy, proliferation by DNA quantification, and osteogenic differentiation by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity analysis. DPSC adhered to β-TCP with both O₂ conditions. Cell proliferation was found from day 7 of culture. Higher values were recorded at 3% O₂ in each time point. Statistically significant differences were recorded at 23 days of culture (P = .033). ALP activity was not detectable at 7 days. There was, however, an increase in ALP activity over time in both groups. At 13, 18, and 23 days of culture, higher ALP activity was recorded under 3% O₂ pressure. Statistical differences were found at day 23 (P = .014). DPSC display capacity of adhering to β-TCP under 3% or 21% O₂ pressure conditions. Cell proliferation on β-TCP phosphate is significantly higher at 3% than at 21% O₂ pressure, the most frequently used O₂ tension. β-TCP can itself promote osteogenic differentiation of DPSC and is enhanced under 3% O₂ compared with 21%.

  16. Implantation of Tetrapod-Shaped Granular Artificial Bones or β-Tricalcium Phosphate Granules in a Canine Large Bone-Defect Model

    PubMed Central

    CHOI, Sungjin; LIU, I-Li; YAMAMOTO, Kenichi; HONNAMI, Muneki; SAKAI, Takamasa; OHBA, Shinsuke; ECHIGO, Ryosuke; SUZUKI, Shigeki; NISHIMURA, Ryouhei; CHUNG, Ung-il; SASAKI, Nobuo; MOCHIZUKI, Manabu

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT We investigated biodegradability and new bone formation after implantation of tetrapod-shaped granular artificial bone (Tetrabone®) or β-tricalcium phosphate granules (β-TCP) in experimental critical-size defects in dogs, which were created through medial and lateral femoral condyles. The defect was packed with Tetrabone® (Tetrabone group) or β-TCP (β-TCP group) or received no implant (control group). Computed tomography (CT) was performed at 0, 4 and 8 weeks after implantation. Micro-CT and histological analysis were conducted to measure the non-osseous tissue rate and the area and distribution of new bone tissue in the defect at 8 weeks after implantation. On CT, β-TCP was gradually resorbed, while Tetrabone® showed minimal resorption at 8 weeks after implantation. On micro-CT, non-osseous tissue rate of the control group was significantly higher compared with the β-TCP and Tetrabone groups (P<0.01), and that of the β-TCP group was significantly higher compared with the Tetrabone group (P<0.05). On histology, area of new bone tissue of the β-TCP group was significantly greater than those of the Tetrabone and control groups (P<0.05), and new bone distribution of the Tetrabone group was significantly greater than those of the β-TCP and control groups (P<0.05). These results indicate differences in biodegradability and connectivity of intergranule pore structure between study samples. In conclusion, Tetrabone® may be superior for the repair of large bone defects in dogs. PMID:24161964

  17. Implantation of tetrapod-shaped granular artificial bones or β-tricalcium phosphate granules in a canine large bone-defect model.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sungjin; Liu, I-Li; Yamamoto, Kenichi; Honnami, Muneki; Sakai, Takamasa; Ohba, Shinsuke; Echigo, Ryosuke; Suzuki, Shigeki; Nishimura, Ryouhei; Chung, Ung-Il; Sasaki, Nobuo; Mochizuki, Manabu

    2014-03-01

    We investigated biodegradability and new bone formation after implantation of tetrapod-shaped granular artificial bone (Tetrabone®) or β-tricalcium phosphate granules (β-TCP) in experimental critical-size defects in dogs, which were created through medial and lateral femoral condyles. The defect was packed with Tetrabone® (Tetrabone group) or β-TCP (β-TCP group) or received no implant (control group). Computed tomography (CT) was performed at 0, 4 and 8 weeks after implantation. Micro-CT and histological analysis were conducted to measure the non-osseous tissue rate and the area and distribution of new bone tissue in the defect at 8 weeks after implantation. On CT, β-TCP was gradually resorbed, while Tetrabone® showed minimal resorption at 8 weeks after implantation. On micro-CT, non-osseous tissue rate of the control group was significantly higher compared with the β-TCP and Tetrabone groups (P<0.01), and that of the β-TCP group was significantly higher compared with the Tetrabone group (P<0.05). On histology, area of new bone tissue of the β-TCP group was significantly greater than those of the Tetrabone and control groups (P<0.05), and new bone distribution of the Tetrabone group was significantly greater than those of the β-TCP and control groups (P<0.05). These results indicate differences in biodegradability and connectivity of intergranule pore structure between study samples. In conclusion, Tetrabone® may be superior for the repair of large bone defects in dogs.

  18. The synergistic effects of Chinese herb and injectable calcium silicate/β-tricalcium phosphate composite on an osteogenic accelerator in vitro.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ming-Hsien; Kao, Chia-Tze; Chen, Yi-Wen; Hsu, Tuan-Ti; Shieh, Den-En; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Shie, Ming-You

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the physicochemical and biological effects of traditional Chinese medicines on the β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP)/calcium silicate (CS) composites of bone cells using human dental pulp cell. CS is an osteoconductive and bioactive material. For this research we have combined β-TCP and CS and check its effectiveness, a series of β-TCP/CS composites with different ratios of Xu Duan (XD) were prepared to make new bioactive and biodegradable biocomposites for bone repair. XD has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for hundreds of years as an antiosteoporosis, tonic and antiaging agent for the therapy of low back pain, traumatic hematoma, threatened abortion and bone fractures. Formation of bone-like apatite, the diametral tensile strength, and weight loss of composites were considered before and after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). In addition, we also examined the effects of XD released from β-TCP/CS composites and in vitro human dental pulp cell (hDPCs) and studied its behavior. The results show the XD-contained paste did not give any demixing when the weight ratio of XD increased to 5-10 % due to the filter-pressing effect during extrusion through the syringe. After immersion in SBF, the microstructure image showed a dense bone-like apatite layer covered on the β-TCP/CS/XD composites. In vitro cell experiments shows that the XD-rich composites promote human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) proliferation and differentiation. However, when the XD quantity in the composite is more than 5 %, the amount of cells and osteogenesis protein of hDPCs were stimulated by XD released from β-TCP/CS composites. The combination of XD in degradation of β-TCP and osteogenesis of CS gives strong reason to believe that these calcium-based composite cements may prove to be promising bone repair materials.

  19. Histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analysis of human maxillary sinus-floor augmentation using porous β-tricalcium phosphate for dental implant treatment.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Shinji; Shinmyouzu, Kouhei; Miyamoto, Ikuya; Takeshita, Kenji; Terada, Toshihisa; Takahashi, Tetsu

    2013-08-01

    This study utilized the constitution and expression of Runx2/Cbfa1 to conduct 6-month-post-operation histomorphometrical and histochemical analysis of osteocalcin in bone regeneration following sinus-floor augmentation procedures using β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and autogenous cortical bone. Thirteen sinuses of nine patients were treated with sinus-floor augmentation using 50% β-TCP and 50% autogenous cancellous bone harvested from the ramus of the mandible. Biopsies of augmented sinuses were taken at 6 months for histomorphometric and immunohistochemical measurements. Runx2/Cbfa1- and osteocalcin-positive cells were found around TCP particles and on the bone surface. Approximately 60% of cells found around TCP particles stained positive for Runx2/Cbfa1. Fewer cells stained positive for osteocalcin. These positive cells decreased apically with increasing vertical distance from the maxillary bone surface. Histomorphometric analysis showed that the augmented site close to residual bone and periosteum contained approximately 42% bony tissue and 42% soft connective tissue, and the remaining 16% consisted of TCP particles. On the other hand, the augmented bone far from residual bone and periosteum contained 35% bony tissue and 50% soft connective tissue. Our data suggest that TCP particles attract osteoprogenitor cells that migrate into the interconnecting micropores of the bone-substitute material by 6 months. The augmented site close to residual bone contained a higher proportion of bony tissue and a lower proportion of soft connective tissue than did the augmented site far from residual bone. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Use of autogenous bone and beta-tricalcium phosphate in maxillary sinus lifting: histomorphometric study and immunohistochemical assessment of RUNX2 and VEGF.

    PubMed

    Pereira, R S; Gorla, L F; Boos, F B J D; Okamoto, R; Garcia Júnior, I R; Hochuli-Vieira, E

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the use of beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) (chronOS) with autogenous bone grafts alone in maxillary sinus elevation surgery. The test samples were β-TCP alone, β-TCP mixed with autogenous bone grafts (1:1), and autogenous bone grafts alone. Twelve maxillary sinuses were grafted with β-TCP (group 1), nine with β-TCP+autogenous bone graft (group 2), and 12 with autogenous bone graft (group 3). After 6 months, biopsies were obtained concurrent to the placement of dental implants; these were subjected to histomorphometric analysis and immunohistochemical analysis for runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The average bone formation in group 1 was 46.3±11.6% in the pristine bone region, 47.6±9.9% in the intermediate region, and 44.8±22.1% in the apical region; in group 2, values were 35.0±15.8%, 32.5±13.7%, and 32.8±16.0%, respectively; in group 3, values were 43.1±16.0%, 31.0±13.0%, and 46.1±16.3%, respectively. Immunostaining of samples in group 2 showed high cellular activity and immature bone; this differed from groups 1 and 3, in which mature bone was demonstrated. Thus, this study showed that β-TCP presents the same behaviour as autogenous bone graft, which makes it a good bone substitute. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Beta-tricalcium phosphate granules improve osteogenesis in vitro and establish innovative osteo-regenerators for bone tissue engineering in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng; Zhang, Haoqiang; Liu, Yun; Fan, Bo; Li, Xiaokang; Xiao, Xin; Lan, Pingheng; Li, Minghui; Geng, Lei; Liu, Dong; Yuan, Yulin; Lian, Qin; Lu, Jianxi; Guo, Zheng; Wang, Zhen

    2016-03-22

    The drawbacks of traditional bone-defect treatments have prompted the exploration of bone tissue engineering. This study aimed to explore suitable β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) granules for bone regeneration and identify an efficient method to establish β-TCP-based osteo-regenerators. β-TCP granules with diameters of 1 mm and 1-2.5 mm were evaluated in vitro. The β-TCP granules with superior osteogenic properties were used to establish in vivo bioreactors, referred to as osteo-regenerators, which were fabricated using two different methods. Improved proliferation of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), glucose consumption and ALP activity were observed for 1-2.5 mm β-TCP compared with 1-mm granules (P < 0.05). In addition, BMSCs incubated with 1-2.5 mm β-TCP expressed significantly higher levels of the genes for runt-related transcription factor-2, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, osteopontin, and collagen type-1 and the osteogenesis-related proteins alkaline phosphatase, collagen type-1 and runt-related transcription factor-2 compared with BMSCs incubated with 1 mm β-TCP (P < 0.05). Fluorochrome labelling, micro-computed tomography and histological staining analyses indicated that the osteo-regenerator with two holes perforating the femur promoted significantly greater bone regeneration compared with the osteo-regenerator with a periosteum incision (P < 0.05). This study provides an alternative to biofunctionalized bioreactors that exhibits improved osteogenesis.

  2. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a new nanocomposite, containing high density polyethylene, tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, and magnesium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pourdanesh, Fereydoun; Jebali, Ali; Hekmatimoghaddam, Seyedhossein; Allaveisie, Azra

    2014-07-01

    In this study, a new nanocomposite, which contained high density polyethylene (HDPE), tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) nanoparticles (TCP NPs), hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HA NPs), and magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NPs) was prepared. As in vitro experiment, human osteoblasts (HOB) cells were exposed to pristine HDPE and its nanocomposite for a period of 1, 4, and 7 days at 37 °C, and then different assays were carried out, including osteoblast cell proliferation, Trypan blue staining, cell viability, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and cell adhesion. Antibacterial property of pristine HDPE and its nanocomposite was evaluated, and also their mechanical properties were measured after 2 and 4 months. As in vivo experiment, pristine HDPE and its nanocomposite were separately implanted on calvarium bone of rabbits, and tissue inflammation and osteogenesis were investigated after 2, 4, and 6 months. In case of HOB cells treated with HDPE or nanocomposite, as incubation time was increased, cell proliferation, live/dead ratio, and cell viability were decreased. But, the ALP activity and cell adhesion of HOB cells which treated with nanocomposite were raised after increase of incubation time. This study demonstrated that although the mechanical properties of nanocomposite were similar to HDPE sheet, but their antibacterial property was not similar. The in vivo experiment showed that both pristine HDPE and its nanocomposite had same inflammation responses. Interestingly, osteogenesis was observed after 2 months at bone/nanocomposite interface, and was highly increased after 4 and 6 months. It must be noted that such pattern was not seen at bone/HDPE interface. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of biomimetic zinc-containing tricalcium phosphate (Zn-TCP) on the growth and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chou, Joshua; Hao, Jia; Hatoyama, Hirokazu; Ben-Nissan, Besim; Milthorpe, Bruce; Otsuka, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    Several studies have shown the effectiveness of zinc-tricalcium phosphate (Zn-TCP) for bone tissue engineering. In this study, marine calcareous foraminifera possessing uniform pore size distribution were hydrothermally converted to Zn-TCP. The ability of a scaffold to combine effectively with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a key tissue-engineering aim. In order to demonstrate the osteogenic ability of MSCs with Zn-TCP, the scaffolds were cultured in an osteogenic induction medium to elicit an osteoblastic response. The physicochemical properties of Zn-TCP were characterized by XRD, FT-IR and ICP-MS. MSCs were aspirated from rat femurs and cultured for 3 days before indirectly placing four samples into each respective well. After culture for 7, 10 and 14 days, osteoblastic differentiation was evaluated using alizarin red S stain, measurement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, cell numbers and cell viability. XRD and FT-IR patterns both showed the replacement of CO(3)(2-) with PO(4)(3-). Chemical analysis showed zinc incorporation of 5 mol%. Significant increases in cell numbers were observed at 10 and 14 days in the Zn-TCP group, while maintaining high levels of cell viability (> 90%). ALP activity in the Zn-TCP group was statistically higher at 10 days. Alizarin red S staining also showed significantly higher levels of calcium mineralization in Zn-TCP compared with the control groups. This study showed that MSCs in the presence of biomimetically derived Zn-TCP can accelerate their differentiation to osteoblasts and could potentially be useful as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Effect of intermittent administration of teriparatide on the mechanical and histological changes in bone grafted with β-tricalcium phosphate using a rabbit bone defect model

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Jun; Nagura, Nana; Iwase, Hideaki; Igarashi, Mamoru; Ohbayashi, Osamu; Nagaoka, Isao; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2018-01-01

    Grafting β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) is a well-established method for restoring bone defects; however, there is concern that the mechanical stability of the grafted β-TCP is not maintained during bone translation. Teriparatide has an anabolic effect, stimulating bone formation and increasing bone mineral density for the treatment of osteoporosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of intermittent teriparatide treatment on changes in bone grafted with β-TCP using a rabbit bone defect model. Bone defects (5×15 mm) were created in the distal femoral condyle of Japanese white rabbits, and β-TCP granules of two different total porosities were manually grafted. Teriparatide (40 µg/kg) or 0.2% rabbit serum albumin solution as a vehicle control was subcutaneously injected three times per week following the surgery. At 4 or 8 weeks post-surgery, serum samples were obtained and the levels of γ-carboxylated osteocalcin (Gla-OC) were quantified using ELISA. Histomorphometry was also performed using sections of graft sites following staining for tartrate resistant acid phosphatase. Activity and mechanical strength (maximum shear strength, maximum shear stiffness and total energy absorption) were evaluated using an axial push-out load to failure test. Teriparatide treatment significantly increased (P<0.05) the serum levels of Gla-OC, a specific marker for bone formation, suggesting that teriparatide enhances bone formation in β-TCP-grafted rabbits. Furthermore teriparatide increased the degradation of β-TCP by bone remodeling (P<0.05) and promoted the formation of new bone following application of the graft compared with the control group (P<0.01). Furthermore, teriparatide suppressed the reduction in mechanical strength (P<0.05) during bone translation in bone defects grafted with β-TCP. The results of the present study demonstrate that teriparatide is effective in maintaining the mechanical stability of grafted β-TCP, possibly by promoting new

  5. Assessment of tricalcium phosphate/collagen (TCP/collagene)nanocomposite scaffold compared with hydroxyapatite (HA) on healing of segmental femur bone defect in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Mohseni, Mahmoud; Jahandideh, Alireza; Abedi, Gholamreza; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Hesaraki, Saeed

    2018-03-01

    Bone regeneration is an important objective in clinical practice and has been used for different applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of nanocomposite tricalcium phosphate (TCP)/collagen scaffolds combined with hydroxyapatite scaffold for bone healing in surgery of femoral defects in rabbits. In this study, 45 mature male New Zealand white rabbits between 6 and 8 months old and weighting between 3 and 3.5 kg were examined. Rabbits were divided into three groups. Surgical procedures were performed after intramuscular injection of Ketamine 10% (ketamine hydrochloride, 50 mg/kg) and Rompun 5% (xylazine, 5 mg/kg). Then an approximately 6 mm diameter-5 mm cylinder bone defect was created in the femur of one of the hind limbs. After inducing the surgical wound, all rabbits were coloured and randomly divided into three experimental groups of 15 animals each. Group 1 received pure medical nanocomposite TCP/collagen granules, group 2 received hydroxyapatite, and third group was a control group which received no treatment. Histopathological evaluation was performed on days 15, 30, and 45 after surgery. On days 15, 30, and 45 after surgery, the quantity and the velocity of stages of bone formation at the healing site in nanocomposite TCP/collagen group were better than HA and control groups and the quantity of newly formed lamellar bone at the healing site in nanocomposite TCP/collagen group were better than onward compared with HA and control groups. In conclusion, it seems that TCP/collagen nanocomposite has a significant role in the reconstruction of bone defects and can be used as scaffold in bone fractures.

  6. A tricalcium phosphate/polyether ether ketone anchor bionic fixation device for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: Safety and efficacy in a beagle model.

    PubMed

    Mao, Genwen; Qin, Zili; Li, Zheng; Li, Xiang; Qiu, Yusheng; Bian, Weiguo

    2018-05-02

    The goal of this study was to develop a bionic fixation device based on the use of a tricalcium phosphate/polyether ether ketone anchor and harvesting of the ulnar carpal flexor muscle tendon for application as a ligament graft in a beagle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction model, with the goal of accelerating the ligament graft-to-bone tunnel healing and providing a robust stability through exploration of this new kind of autologous ligament graft. The safety and efficacy of this fixation device were explored 3 and 6 months after surgery in a beagle ACL reconstruction model using biomechanical tests and comprehensive histological observation. The data were compared using a two-tailed Student's t test and a paired t test. A p value <0.05 was defined as statistically significant. All the models were successfully established. This fixation device possessed the excellent mechanical properties for ACL reconstruction. A comprehensive histological observation revealed that a cartilage layer was visible in the transition zone between the tendon and bone interface at both 3 and 6 months postoperation. The trabecular of the new bone was observed six months after surgery and was found to be similar to a direct connection. This fixation technique provided not only a robust primary mechanical fixation but also a bionic fixation for long-term knee joint stability by accelerating the healing of the tendon to the bone tunnel, showing a high potential for use in clinical practice. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. SrO- and MgO-doped microwave sintered 3D printed tricalcium phosphate scaffolds: mechanical properties and in vivo osteogenesis in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Tarafder, Solaiman; Dernell, William S; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2015-04-01

    The presence of interconnected macro pores allows guided tissue regeneration in tissue engineering scaffolds. However, highly porous scaffolds suffer from having poor mechanical strength. Previously, we showed that microwave sintering could successfully be used to improve mechanical strength of macro porous tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds. This study reports the presence of SrO and MgO as dopants in TCP scaffolds improves mechanical and in vivo biological performance. We have used direct three dimensional printing (3DP) technology for scaffold fabrication. These 3DP scaffolds possessed multiscale porosity, that is, 3D interconnected designed macro pores along with intrinsic micro pores. A significant increase in mechanical strength, between 37 and 41%, was achieved due to SrO and MgO doping in TCP as compared with pure TCP. Maximum compressive strengths of 9.38 ± 1.86 MPa and 12.01 ± 1.56 MPa were achieved by conventional and microwave sintering, respectively, for SrO-MgO-doped 3DP scaffolds with 500 μm designed pores. Histomorphological and histomorphometric analysis revealed a significantly higher osteoid, bone and haversian canal formation induced by the presence of SrO and MgO dopants in 3DP TCP as compared with pure TCP scaffolds when tested in rabbit femoral condyle defect model. Increased osteon and thus enhanced network of blood vessel formation, and osteocalcin expression were observed in the doped TCP scaffolds. Our results show that these 3DP SrO-MgO-doped TCP scaffolds have the potential for early wound healing through accelerated osteogenesis and vasculogenesis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Ridge Preservation After Tooth Extraction With Buccal Bone Plate Deficiency Using Tunnel Structured β-Tricalcium Phosphate Blocks: A 2-Month Histologic Pilot Study in Beagle Dogs.

    PubMed

    Ikawa, Takahiro; Akizuki, Tatsuya; Matsuura, Takanori; Hoshi, Shu; Ammar, Shujaa Addin; Kinoshita, Atsuhiro; Oda, Shigeru; Izumi, Yuichi

    2016-02-01

    Reduction in alveolar ridge volume is a direct consequence of tooth extraction. Tunnel β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) blocks were manufactured from randomly organized tunnel-shaped β-TCP ceramic. Efficacy of these blocks compared to extraction alone for alveolar ridge preservation after tooth extraction with buccal bone deficiency was evaluated. Maxillary first premolars of six beagle dogs were extracted after removing the buccal bone, and bone defects of 4 × 4 × 5 mm (mesio-distal width × bucco-palatal width × depth) were created. Fresh extraction sockets with buccal bone defects were filled with tunnel β-TCP blocks at test sites. Two months after the operation, histologic and histometric evaluations were performed. Regarding histologic sections, coronal and middle horizontal widths of the alveolar ridge were significantly greater at test sites (3.2 ± 0.5 and 3.6 ± 0.4 mm, respectively) than at control sites (1.2 ± 0.3 and 2.0 ± 0.6 mm, respectively). The amount of woven bone was significantly greater at test sites (62.4% ± 7.9%) than at control sites (26.8% ± 5.3%), although that of connective tissue and bone marrow was significantly greater at control sites (38.1% ± 6.2% and 16.0% ± 6.9%, respectively) than at test sites (10.7% ± 5.7% and 4.1% ± 2.2%, respectively). Regarding basic multicellular units, no statistically significant difference was found between the test and control sites (0.5% ± 0.1% and 0.6% ± 0.1%, respectively). Tunnel β-TCP blocks represent an effective bone-graft material for alveolar ridge preservation in fresh extraction sockets with buccal bone defects.

  9. A new technique for cranioplasty with L-shaped titanium plates and combination ceramic implants composed of hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate (Ceratite).

    PubMed

    Miyake, H; Ohta, T; Tanaka, H

    2000-02-01

    The use of hydroxyapatite-based ceramics for cranioplasties has recently increased in Japan, because of the good cosmetic outcomes, biocompatibility, strength, osteoconductive properties, and lack of risk of disease transmission associated with these materials. However, miniplate fixation has not been possible for ceramic implants. We describe a new technique for miniplate fixation of ceramic implants. Combination ceramic implants composed of hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate (Ceratite; NGK Spark Plug Co., Aichi, Japan) were used for cranioplasties. A slot and a pair of holes were cut in each Ceratite implant, for use as a fixation unit. We have also developed a new L-shaped titanium plate (HOMS Engineering Inc., Nagano, Japan) that fits into the fixation unit. We first insert an L-shaped titanium plate through the slot from the back surface of the Ceratite implant. We then bend the plate outward at the front surface of the Ceratite implant and fix it to the cranium of the patient with titanium screws. The Ceratite implant is usually firmly fixed to the cranium of the patient with three L-shaped titanium plates. Using L-shaped titanium plates and Ceratite implants, we successfully performed cranioplasties for seven patients with cranial defects resulting from external decompression craniotomies. The Ceratite implant exactly fit the bone window for each patient. Surgical maneuvers were simple and easy for all patients, permitting shorter operating times. All Ceratite implants were firmly fixed, and no postoperative infections have occurred. Our new technique for cranioplasty is simple and allows rigid fixation of Ceratite implants.

  10. Comparison between a β-tricalcium phosphate and an absorbable collagen sponge carrier technology for rhGDF-5-stimulated periodontal wound healing/regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Taek; Wikesjö, Ulf M E; Jung, Ui-Won; Lee, Jung-Seok; Kim, Tae-Gyun; Kim, Chong-Kwan

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study is to compare a candidate β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) carrier technology with the absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) benchmark to support recombinant human growth/differentiation factor-5 (rhGDF-5)-stimulated periodontal wound healing/regeneration. Routine, bilateral, critical-size (5-mm), 1-wall, intrabony periodontal defects were surgically created in the mandibular premolar region in 10 beagle dogs. Five animals received rhGDF-5/β-TCP and five animals received rhGDF-5/ACS, with a total of 20 μg rhGDF-5 per defect. The animals were euthanized for histologic and histometric analyses at 8 weeks postsurgery. Both rhGDF-5/ACS and rhGDF-5/β-TCP stimulated the formation of functionally oriented periodontal ligament, cellular mixed fiber cementum, and woven/lamellar bone. Bone regeneration (height and area) was significantly greater for the rhGDF-5/β-TCP construct than for the rhGDF-5/ACS (3.26 ± 0.30 mm versus 2.22 ± 0.82 mm, P <0.01; and 10.45 ± 2.26 mm(2) versus 5.62 ± 2.39 mm(2), P <0.01, respectively). Cementum formation ranged from 3.83 ± 0.73 mm to 3.03 ± 1.18 mm without significant differences between groups. Root resorption/ankylosis was not observed. The β-TCP carrier technology significantly enhanced rhGDF-5-stimulated bone formation compared with the ACS benchmark in this discriminating periodontal defect model. The structural integrity of the β-TCP carrier, preventing compression while providing a framework for bone ingrowth, may account for the observed results.

  11. Carbothermic Reduction Kinetics of Phosphorous Vaporization from Tri-calcium Phosphate (TCP) Under Microwave Rapid Heating With/Without the Presence of Fe3O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Noboru; Sunako, Manami; Kawahira, Keita; Suzuki, Koki; Miyamoto, Kazunori; Taniguchi, Shoji

    2018-06-01

    The kinetics of vapor phase dephosphorization from tri-calcium phosphate (TCP) by carbothermic reduction was studied with and without the presence of Fe3O4. Microwave heating was utilized to obtain large variations in the heating rate (HR). In the reduction of TCP alone, the phosphorous removal fraction (RF; equal to ΔP2O5/P2O 5 0 , where ΔP2O5 is the weight change and P2O 5 0 is the P2O5 weight before heating) decreased as the HR increased. In other words, a shorter residence time at a high temperature resulted in a smaller reduction fraction of TCP. An apparently third-order reaction was postulated to account for the kinetics using a fitting simulation based on the additive law of the reaction progress. On the other hand, the phosphorous removal (dephosphorization) rate (RR; equal to ΔP2O3/ t MW, where tMW is the microwave heating time period) increased as the HR increased above 1200 °C. The reduction ratio of Fe3O4 above 1100 °C is higher than 97 pct regardless of the heating rate. The reduction of TCP in the presence of Fe3O4 showed that RF increased slightly with increasing HR despite a shorter residence time at a high temperature. The RR also increased with the HR even though RF decreased to half of the values observed in the cases without Fe3O4 for temperatures above 1200 °C. The practicality and optimal operation conditions of phosphorus vapor removal were discussed.

  12. Effects of concomitant use of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 with beta-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) on the beagle dog 1-wall periodontal defect model

    SciTech Connect

    Anzai, Jun, E-mail: anzai_jun@kaken.co.jp; Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871; Kitamura, Masahiro, E-mail: kitamura@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp

    Research highlights: {yields} Concomitant use of FGF-2 and {beta}-TCP (an osteo-conductive scaffold) significantly promotes periodontal regeneration in the severe periodontitis model (1-wall defect model) of beagle dog. {yields} FGF-2 enhanced new bone formation via {beta}-TCP at the defects. {yields} In particular, FGF-2 dramatically regenerated new periodontal ligament and cementum formations at the defects, that is one of the most important healing outcomes during the process of periodontal regeneration. {yields} Epithelial downgrowth (undesirable wound healing) was decreased by administration of FGF-2. {yields} This manuscript indicates for the first time that concomitant use of FGF-2 and {beta}-TCP is efficacious in regenerating periodontalmore » tissue following severe destruction of the tissue by progression of periodontitis. -- Abstract: The effects of concomitant use of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and beta-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) on periodontal regeneration were investigated in the beagle dog 1-wall periodontal defect model. One-wall periodontal defects were created in the mesial portion of both sides of the mandibular first molars, and 0.3% FGF-2 plus {beta}-TCP or {beta}-TCP alone was administered. Radiographic evaluation was performed at 0, 3, and 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, the periodontium with the defect site was removed and histologically analyzed. Radiographic findings showed that co-administration of FGF-2 significantly increased bone mineral contents of the defect sites compared with {beta}-TCP alone. Histologic analysis revealed that the length of the regenerated periodontal ligament, the cementum, distance to the junctional epithelium, new bone height, and area of newly formed bone were significantly increased in the FGF-2 group. No abnormal inflammatory response or ankylosis was observed in either group. These findings indicate the efficacy of concomitant use of FGF-2 and {beta}-TCP as an osteoconductive material for periodontal

  13. Upregulation of cell proliferation via Shc and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling in SaOS-2 osteoblasts grown on magnesium alloy surface coating with tricalcium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tianlong; Guo, Lei; Ni, Shenghui; Zhao, Yuyan

    2015-04-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys have been demonstrated to be viable orthopedic implants because of mechanical and biocompatible properties similar to natural bone. In order to improve its osteogenic properties, a porous β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) was coated on the Mg-3AI-1Zn alloy by alkali-heat treatment technique. The human bone-derived cells (SaOS-2) were cultured on (β-TCP)-Mg-3AI-1Zn in vitro, and the osteoblast response, the morphology and the elements on this alloy surface were investigated. Also, the regulation of key intracellular signalling proteins was investigated in the SaOS-2 cells cultured on alloy surface. The results from scanning electron microscope and immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that (β-TCP)-Mg-3AI-1Zn induced significant osteogenesis. SaOS-2 cell proliferation was improved by β-TCP coating. Moreover, the (β-TCP)-Mg-3AI-1Zn surface induced activation of key intracellular signalling proteins in SaOS-2 cells. We observed an enhanced activation of Src homology and collagen (Shc), a common point of integration between bone morphogenetic protein 2, and the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. ERK1/2 MAP kinase activation was also upregulated, suggesting a role in mediating osteoblastic cell interactions with biomaterials. The signalling pathway involving c-fos (member of the activated protein-1) was also shown to be upregulated in osteoblasts cultured on the (β-TCP)-Mg-3AI-1Zn. These results suggest that β-TCP coating may contribute to successful osteoblast function on Mg alloy surface. (β-TCP)-Mg-3AI-1Zn may upregulate cell proliferation via Shc and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling in SaOS-2 osteoblasts grown on Mg alloy surface.

  14. Beta-tricalcium phosphate granules improve osteogenesis in vitro and establish innovative osteo-regenerators for bone tissue engineering in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Peng; Zhang, Haoqiang; Liu, Yun; Fan, Bo; Li, Xiaokang; Xiao, Xin; Lan, Pingheng; Li, Minghui; Geng, Lei; Liu, Dong; Yuan, Yulin; Lian, Qin; Lu, Jianxi; Guo, Zheng; Wang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    The drawbacks of traditional bone-defect treatments have prompted the exploration of bone tissue engineering. This study aimed to explore suitable β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) granules for bone regeneration and identify an efficient method to establish β-TCP-based osteo-regenerators. β-TCP granules with diameters of 1 mm and 1–2.5 mm were evaluated in vitro. The β-TCP granules with superior osteogenic properties were used to establish in vivo bioreactors, referred to as osteo-regenerators, which were fabricated using two different methods. Improved proliferation of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), glucose consumption and ALP activity were observed for 1–2.5 mm β-TCP compared with 1-mm granules (P < 0.05). In addition, BMSCs incubated with 1–2.5 mm β-TCP expressed significantly higher levels of the genes for runt-related transcription factor-2, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, osteopontin, and collagen type-1 and the osteogenesis-related proteins alkaline phosphatase, collagen type-1 and runt-related transcription factor-2 compared with BMSCs incubated with 1 mm β-TCP (P < 0.05). Fluorochrome labelling, micro-computed tomography and histological staining analyses indicated that the osteo-regenerator with two holes perforating the femur promoted significantly greater bone regeneration compared with the osteo-regenerator with a periosteum incision (P < 0.05). This study provides an alternative to biofunctionalized bioreactors that exhibits improved osteogenesis. PMID:27000963

  15. Tissue-engineered bone with 3-dimensionally printed β-tricalcium phosphate and polycaprolactone scaffolds and early implantation: an in vivo pilot study in a porcine mandible model.

    PubMed

    Konopnicki, Sandra; Sharaf, Basel; Resnick, Cory; Patenaude, Adam; Pogal-Sussman, Tracy; Hwang, Kyung-Gyun; Abukawa, Harutsugi; Troulis, Maria J

    2015-05-01

    Deep bone penetration into implanted scaffolds remains a challenge in tissue engineering. The purpose of this study was to evaluate bone penetration depth within 3-dimensionally (3D) printed β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds, seeded with porcine bone marrow progenitor cells (pBMPCs), and implanted early in vivo. Scaffolds were 3D printed with 50% β-TCP and 50% PCL. The pBMPCs were harvested, isolated, expanded, and differentiated into osteoblasts. Cells were seeded into the scaffolds and constructs were incubated in a rotational oxygen-permeable bioreactor system for 14 days. Six 2- × 2-cm defects were created in each mandible (N = 2 minipigs). In total, 6 constructs were placed within defects and 6 defects were used as controls (unseeded scaffolds, n = 3; empty defects, n = 3). Eight weeks after surgery, specimens were harvested and analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), and CD31 staining. Analysis included cell counts, bone penetration, and angiogenesis at the center of the specimens. All specimens (N = 12) showed bone formation similar to native bone at the periphery. Of 6 constructs, 4 exhibited bone formation in the center. Histomorphometric analysis of the H&E-stained sections showed an average of 22.1% of bone in the center of the constructs group compared with 1.87% in the unseeded scaffolds (P < .05). The 2 remaining constructs, which did not display areas of mature bone in the center, showed massive cell penetration depth by DAPI staining, with an average of 2,109 cells/0.57 mm(2) in the center compared with 1,114 cells/0.57 mm(2) in the controls (P < .05). CD31 expression was greater in the center of the constructs compared with the unseeded scaffolds (P < .05). 3D printed β-TCP and PCL scaffolds seeded with pBMPCs and implanted early into porcine mandibular defects display good bone penetration depth. Further study with a larger sample and larger bone defects should be

  16. Physicomechanical, In Vitro and In Vivo Performance of 3D Printed Doped Tricalcium Phosphate Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering and Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarafder, Solaiman

    Although tricalcium phosphate (TCP) is widely used in bone tissue engineering, the strength degradation kinetics is not well controlled. This study focuses on the underlying mechanism of strength degradation kinetics by incorporating trace elements in TCP. The objective of this research is to modify the mechanical properties of TCP to achieve the desired degradation rate for the specific need, and improve the in vivo bioactivity for early wound healing by incorporating trace elements such as strontium (Sr2+), magnesium (Mg2+) and silicon (Si4+) as dopants. The hypothesis of this research is that the presence of different trace elements in TCP will influence its phase stability, microstructure, mechanical strength, and both in vitro and in vivo bioactivity. Direct three dimensional printing (3DP) was used to fabricate designed interconnected macroporous pure and doped TCP scaffolds. Microwave sintering as opposed to conventional sintering was also used for better densification and higher mechanical strength. A maximum compressive strength of 10.95 +/- 1.28 MPa and 12.01 +/- 1.56 MPa were achieved for pure and Sr2+-Mg2+ doped TCP scaffolds with 500 microm designed pores (˜400 microm after sintering) sintered in microwave furnace, respectively. Substitution of Mg2+ and Sr2+ into calcium (Ca2+) sites of TCP crystal lattice contributed to phase stability and controlled gradual degradation. On the other hand, Si4+ substitution into phosphorous (P5+) sites destabilized the crystal structure and accelerated degradation of TCP. Interconnected macroporous beta-TCP scaffolds facilitated in vivo guided bone tissue regeneration through infiltration of cells and extracellular matrix into the designed pores. Presence of Sr2+, Mg2+ and Si4+ into beta-TCP induced increased in vivo early bone formation and better bone remodeling through increased extracellular matrix production such as, collagen and osteocalcin, when tested in rat and rabbit distal femur model. The presence of Si4

  17. Effects of polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 and dog mesenchymal stem cells on bone formation: pilot study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Jong; Kim, Myung-Rae; Oh, Jin-Sub; Han, Inho; Shin, Sang-Wan

    2009-12-31

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival, proliferation, and bone formation of dog mesenchymal stem cells (dMSCs) in the graft material by using Polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate (PCL-TCP), auto-fibrin glue (AFG), recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), and dMSCs after a transplantation to the scapula of adult beagle dogs. The subjects were two beagle dogs. Total dose of rhBMP-2 on each block was 10 microg with 50 microg/mg concentration. The cortical bone of the scapula of the dog was removed which was the same size of PCL-TCP block (Osteopore International Pte, Singapore; 5.0x5.0x8.0 mm in size), and the following graft material then was fixed with orthodontic mini-implant, Dual-top (Titanium alloy, Jeil Co. Seoul, Korea). Four experimental groups were prepared for this study, Group 1: PCL-TCP + aFG; Group 2: PCL-TCP + aFG + dMSCs; Group 3: PCL-TCP + aFG + dMSCs + rhBMP-2; Group 4: PCL-TCP + aFG + dMSCs + rhBMP-2 + PCL membrane. The survival or proliferation of dMSCs cells was identified with an extracted tissue through a fluorescence microscope, H-E staining and Von-Kossa staining in two weeks and four weeks after the transplantation. The survival and proliferation of dMSCs were identified through a fluorescence microscope from both Group 1 and Group 2 in two weeks and four weeks after the transplantation. Histological observation also found that the injected cells were proliferating well in the G2, G3, and G4 scaffolds. This study concluded that bone ingrowth occurred in PCL-TCP scaffold which was transplanted with rhBMP-2, and MSCs did not affect bone growth. More sufficient healing time would be needed to recognize effects of dMSCs on bone formation.

  18. Biotin-avidin mediates the binding of adipose-derived stem cells to a porous β-tricalcium phosphate scaffold: Mandibular regeneration

    PubMed Central

    FENG, ZIHAO; LIU, JIAQI; SHEN, CONGCONG; LU, NANHANG; ZHANG, YONG; YANG, YANWEN; QI, FAZHI

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the properties of a promising bone scaffold for bone repair, which consisted of a novel composite of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) attached to a porous β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffold with platelet-rich plasma (PRP). The β-TCP powder was synthesized and its composition was determined using X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The surface morphology and microstructure of the fabricated porous β-TCP scaffold samples were analyzed using light and scanning electron microscopy, and their porosity and compressive strength were also evaluated. In addition, the viability of rabbit ADSCs incubated with various concentrations of the β-TCP extraction fluid was analyzed. The rate of attachment and the morphology of biotinylated ADSCs (Bio-ADSCs) on avidin-coated β-TCP (Avi-β-TCP), and untreated ADSCs on β-TCP, were compared. Furthermore, in vivo bone-forming abilities were determined following the implantation of group 1 (Bio-ADSCs/Avi-β-TCP) and group 2 (Bio-ADSCs/Avi-β-TCP/PRP) constructs using computed tomography, and histological osteocalcin (OCN) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression analyses in a rabbit model of mandibulofacial defects. The β-TCP scaffold exhibited a high porosity (71.26±0.28%), suitable pore size, and good mechanical strength (7.93±0.06 MPa). Following incubation with β-TCP for 72 h, 100% of viable ADSCs remained. The avidin-biotin binding system significantly increased the initial attachment rate of Bio-ADSCs to Avi-β-TCP in the first hour (P<0.01). Following the addition of PRP, group 2 exhibited a bony-union and mandibular body shape, newly formed bone and increased expression levels of OCN and ALP in the mandibulofacial defect area, as compared with group 1 (P<0.05). The results of the present study suggested that the novel Bio-ADSCs/Avi-β-TCP/PRP composite may have potential application in bone repair and bone tissue engineering. PMID:26997987

  19. A prospective, randomized pilot study on the safety and efficacy of recombinant human growth and differentiation factor-5 coated onto β-tricalcium phosphate for sinus lift augmentation.

    PubMed

    Koch, Felix P; Becker, Jürgen; Terheyden, Hendrik; Capsius, Björn; Wagner, Wilfried

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this prospective, randomized clinical trial was to investigate the potential of recombinant human growth and differentiation factor-5 (rhGDF-5) coated onto β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) (rhGDF-5/β-TCP) to support bone formation after sinus lift augmentation. In total, 31 patients participated in this multicenter clinical trial. They required a two-stage unilateral maxillary sinus floor augmentation (residual bone height <5 mm). According to a parallel-group design, the patients were randomized to three treatment groups: (a) augmentation with rhGDF-5/β-TCP and a 3-month healing period, (b) augmentation with rhGDF-5/β-TCP and a 4-month healing period and (c) medical device β-TCP mixed with autologous bone and a 4-month healing period. The primary study objective was the area of newly formed bone within the augmented area as assessed by histomorphometric evaluation of trephine bur biopsies. The osseous regeneration was similar in each treatment group; the amount of newly formed bone ranged between 28% (± 15.5%) and 31.8% (± 17.9%). Detailed analysis of histological data will be published elsewhere. As secondary efficacy variables, the augmentation height at the surgery site was measured by radiography. The largest augmentation was radiologically achieved in the rhGDF-5/β-TCP - 3-month and the rhGDF-5/β-TCP - 4-month treatment groups. As safety parameters, adverse events were recorded and anti-drug antibody levels were evaluated. Most of the adverse events were judged as unrelated to the study medication. Four out of 47 (8.5%) implants failed in patients treated with rhGDF-5/β-TCP, a result that is in agreement with the general implant failure rate of 5-15%. Transiently very low amounts of anti-rhGDF-5 antibodies were detected in some patients who received rhGDF-5, which was not related to the bone formation outcome. rhGDF-5/β-TCP was found to be effective and safe as the control treatment with autologous bone mixed β-TCP in sinus floor

  20. Ridge augmentation using recombinant human fibroblast growth factor-2 with biodegradable gelatin sponges incorporating β-tricalcium phosphate: a preclinical study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, S; Akizuki, T; Matsuura, T; Ikawa, T; Kinoshita, A; Oda, S; Tabata, Y; Matsui, M; Izumi, Y

    2016-02-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) regulates the proliferation and differentiation of osteogenic cells, resulting in the promotion of bone formation. Biodegradable gelatin sponges incorporating β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) have been reported as a scaffold, which has the ability to control growth factor release, offering sufficient mechanical strength and efficient migration of mesenchymal cells. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the combined use of recombinant human FGF-2 (rhFGF-2) and gelatin/β-TCP sponge on ridge augmentation in dogs. Six male beagle dogs were used in this study. Twelve wk after tooth extraction, bilateral 10 × 5 mm (width × depth) saddle-type defects were created 3 mm apart from the mesial side of the maxillary canine. At the experimental sites, the defects were filled with gelatin/β-TCP sponge infiltrated with 0.3% rhFGF-2, whereas gelatin/β-TCP sponge infiltrated with saline was applied to the control sites. Eight wk after surgery, qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed. There were no signs of clinical inflammation at 8 wk after surgery. Histometric measurements revealed that new bone height at the experimental sites (2.98 ± 0.65 mm) was significantly greater than that at the control sites (1.56 ± 0.66 mm; p = 0.004). The total tissue height was greater at the experimental sites (6.62 ± 0.66 mm) than that at the control sites (5.95 ± 0.74 mm), although there was no statistical significant difference (p = 0.051). Cast model measurements revealed that the residual defect height at the experimental sites (2.31 ± 0.50 mm) was significantly smaller than that at the control sites (3.51 ± 0.78 mm; p = 0.012). The combined use of rhFGF-2 and gelatin/β-TCP sponge promotes ridge augmentation in canine saddle-type bone defects. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Synthesis and characterizations of alginate-α-tricalcium phosphate microparticle hybrid film with flexibility and high mechanical property as a biomaterial.

    PubMed

    Das, Dipankar; Zhang, Shengmin; Noh, Insup

    2018-01-24

    A biocompatible hybrid film has been fabricated using alginate (Alg), α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) microparticle and calcium chloride through ionic crosslinking as a biomaterial. The 'screeding method' (like a concrete finishing process) has been employed to develop the Alg-α-TCP film. For this method, the Alg/α-TCP blend has been prepared using an ultra-sonicator and then put on a glass slide. After that, the excess volume of blend has been cut off by skidding another slide along with the surface of the blend to achieve proper grade and flatness. The mechanical strength and flexibility of the film (Alg-α-TCP) has been controlled by changing its compositions. The crosslinking phenomenon has been confirmed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), x-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analyses. The ATR-FTIR and 13 C NMR analysis results suggest that carboxylate groups of the alginate are ionically cross-linked with Ca 2+ ions, while the α-TCP particles reside in the network by physical interaction. The micro-fatigue test results imply high tensile strength (up to 257 MPa) and flexibility (up to 13% elongation) of the Alg-α-TCP hybrid films. The SEM analysis suggests the α-TCP particles are homogeneously distributed on the surface of Alg-α-TCP films, whereas cross-sectional images confirmed the presence of α-TCP in the cross-linked network. TGA results demonstrated that thermal stability of the hybrid film was enhanced due to ionic crosslinking and interfacial interaction between alginate and α-TCP. The incorporation of α-TCP particles diminished the swelling ratio of the hybrid film. The in vitro bone cell (MC3T3) culture and cytotoxicity tests showed that the hybrid film is biocompatible. The hybrid film releases bovine serum albumin and dimethyloxaloylglycine in a controlled way at pH 7 and 7.4, and 37 °C. Overall, the biocompatible Alg-α-TCP hybrid film with

  2. Anterior cervical fusion with interbody cage containing β-tricalcium phosphate augmented with plate fixation: a prospective randomized study with 2-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lei-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    A variety of bone graft substitutes, interbody cages, and anterior plates have been used in cervical interbody fusion, but no controlled study was conducted on the clinical performance of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and the effect of supplemented anterior plate fixation. The objective of this prospective, randomized clinical study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implanting interbody fusion cage containing β-TCP for the treatment of cervical radiculopathy and/or myelopathy, and the fusion rates and outcomes in patients with or without randomly assigned plate fixation. Sixty-two patients with cervical radiculopathy and/or myelopathy due to soft disc herniation or spondylosis were treated with one- or two-level discectomy and fusion with interbody cages containing β-TCP. They were randomly assigned to receive supplemented anterior plate (n = 33) or not (n = 29). The patients were followed up for 2 years postoperatively. The radiological and clinical outcomes were assessed during a 2-year follow-up. The results showed that the fusion rate (75.0%) 3 months after surgery in patients treated without anterior cervical plating was significantly lower than that (97.9%) with plate fixation (P < 0.05), but successful bone fusion was achieved in all patients of both groups at 6-month follow-up assessment. Patients treated without anterior plate fixation had 11 of 52 (19.2%) cage subsidence at last follow-up. No difference (P > 0.05) was found regarding improvement in spinal curvature as well as neck and arm pain, and recovery rate of JOA score at all time intervals between the two groups. Based on the findings of this study, interbody fusion cage containing β-TCP following one- or two-level discectomy proved to be an effective treatment for cervical spondylotic radiculopathy and/or myelopathy. Supplemented anterior plate fixation can promote interbody fusion and prevent cage subsidence but do not improve the 2-year outcome when compared with those treated

  3. Ectopic bone regeneration by human bone marrow mononucleated cells, undifferentiated and osteogenically differentiated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in beta-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xinhai; Yin, Xiaofan; Yang, Dawei; Tan, Jian; Liu, Guangpeng

    2012-07-01

    Tissue engineering approaches using the combination of porous ceramics and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) represent a promising bone substitute for repairing large bone defects. Nevertheless, optimal conditions for constructing tissue-engineered bone have yet to be determined. It remains unclear if transplantation of predifferentiated BMSCs is superior to undifferentiated BMSCs or freshly isolated bone marrow mononucleated cells (BMNCs) in terms of new bone formation in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of in vitro osteogenic differentiation (β-glycerophosphate, dexamethasone, and l-ascorbic acid) of human BMSCs on the capability to form tissue-engineered bone in unloaded conditions after subcutaneous implantation in nude mice. After isolation from human bone marrow aspirates, BMNCs were divided into three parts: one part was seeded onto porous beta-tricalcium phosphate ceramics immediately and transplanted in a heterotopic nude mice model; two parts were expanded in vitro to passage 2 before cell seeding and in vivo transplantation, either under osteogenic conditions or not. Animals were sacrificed for micro-CT and histological evaluation at 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks postimplantation. The results showed that BMSCs differentiated into osteo-progenitor cells after induction, as evidenced by the altered cell morphology and elevated alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition, but their clonogenicity, proliferating rate, and seeding efficacy were not significantly affected by osteogenic differentiation, compared with undifferentiated cells. Extensive new bone formed in the pores of all the scaffolds seeded with predifferentiated BMSCs at 4 weeks after implantation, and maintained for 20 weeks. On the contrary, scaffolds containing undifferentiated BMSCs revealed limited bone formation only in 1 out of 6 cases at 8 weeks, and maintained for 4 weeks. For scaffolds with BMNCs, woven bone was observed sporadically only in one

  4. Construction of osteochondral-like tissue graft combining β-tricalcium phosphate block and scaffold-free centrifuged chondrocyte cell sheet.

    PubMed

    Niyama, Kouhei; Ide, Naoto; Onoue, Kaori; Okabe, Takahiro; Wakitani, Shigeyuki; Takagi, Mutsumi

    2011-09-01

    The combination of a β-tricalcium phosphate (βTCP) block with a scaffold-free chondrocyte sheet formed by the centrifugation of chondrocytes in a well was investigated with the aim of constructing an osteochondral-like structure. Human and porcine articular cartilage chondrocytes were respectively centrifuged in a 96-well plate or cell culture insert (0.32 cm(2)) that was set in a 24-well plate, cultivated in the respective vessel for 3 weeks, and the cell sheets were harvested. In some cases, a cylindrical βTCP block (diameter 5 mm, height 3 mm) was placed on the sheet on days 1-7. The sheet size, cell number, and sulfated glycosaminoglycan accumulation were determined. The use of a 96-well plate for not suspension but adhesion culture and the initial centrifugation of a well containing cells were crucial to obtaining a uniformly thick cell sheet. The glycosaminoglycan density of the harvested cell sheet was comparable to that of the pellet culture. An inoculum cell number of more than 31 × 10(5) cells tended to result in a curved cell sheet. Culture involving 18.6 × 10(5) cells and the 96-well plate for adhesion culture showed no curving of the cell sheet (thickness of 0.85 mm), and these were found to be the best of the culture conditions tested. The timing of the addition of a βTCP block to the cell sheet (1-7 days) markedly affected the balance between the thickness of cell sheet parts on and in the βTCP block. Centrifugation and subsequent cultivation of chondrocytes (18.6 × 10(5) cells) in a 96-well plate for adhesion culture led to the production of a scaffold-free cartilage-like cell sheet with a thickness of 0.85 mm. A combined osteochondral-like structure was produced by putting a βTCP block on the cell sheet. The thickness of the cell sheet on the βTCP block and the binding strength between the cell sheet and the βTCP block could be optimized by adjusting the inoculum cell number and timing of βTCP block addition.

  5. Effect of PDGF-BB and beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) on bone formation around dental implants: a pilot study in sheep.

    PubMed

    Choo, Tina; Marino, Victor; Bartold, P Mark

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of a combination of purified recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor (rhPDGF-BB) mixed with a synthetic beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) on bone healing around dental implants with critical size circumferential defects. Three critical size circumferential defects were prepared in the ilium of six sheep. Three dental implants were placed into the centre of each defect and the 3.25 mm circumferential gap was filled with (a) blood clot alone; (b) β-TCP; (c) rhPDGF-BB (0.3 mg/ml) with β-TCP. All the defects in each group were covered with a Bio-Gide(®) resorbable barrier membrane. The sheep were sacrificed at 2 and 4 weeks and histological and histomorphometric analyses were performed to determine the percentage of new mineralized bone formation and residual β-TCP graft particles in the defects. Defects filled with rhPDGF-BB/β-TCP showed the highest rate of bone formation after 2 and 4 weeks with limited degradation of the β-TCP particles over 4 weeks. Defects filled with β-TCP showed the least bone fill after 2 and 4 weeks, and faster degradation of the β-TCP particles over 4 weeks compared with defects filled with rhPDGF-BB/β-TCP. Percentage of new mineralized bone was comparable in defects to blood clot alone and β-TCP after 4 weeks of healing, but there was a collapse in the defect area in defects with blood clot alone. In comparison, the space was maintained when β-TCP was used in defects at 4 weeks. Defects which had β-TCP alone showed an inhibition in bone healing at 2 and 4 weeks; however, the combination of rhPDGF-BB with β-TCP enhanced bone regeneration in these peri-implant bone defects at the same time intervals. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. [Mechanical properties of polylactic acid/beta-tricalcium phosphate composite scaffold with double channels based on three-dimensional printing technique].

    PubMed

    Lian, Qin; Zhuang, Pei; Li, Changhai; Jin, Zhongmin; Li, Dichen

    2014-03-01

    To improve the poor mechanical strength of porous ceramic scaffold, an integrated method based on three-dimensional (3-D) printing technique is developed to incorporate the controlled double-channel porous structure into the polylactic acid/beta-tricalcium phosphate (PLA/beta-TCP) reinforced composite scaffolds (double-channel composite scaffold) to improve their tissue regeneration capability and the mechanical properties. The designed double-channel structure inside the ceramic scaffold consisted of both primary and secondary micropipes, which parallel but un-connected. The set of primary channels was used for cell ingrowth, while the set of secondary channels was used for the PLA perfusion. Integration technology of 3-D printing technique and gel-casting was firstly used to fabricate the double-channel ceramic scaffolds. PLA/beta-TCP composite scaffolds were obtained by the polymer gravity perfusion process to pour PLA solution into the double-channel ceramic scaffolds through the secondary channel set. Microscope, porosity, and mechanical experiments for the standard samples were used to evaluate the composite properties. The ceramic scaffold with only the primary channel (single-channel scaffold) was also prepared as a control. Morphology observation results showed that there was no PLA inside the primary channels of the double-channel composite scaffolds but a dense interface layer between PLA and beta-TCP obviously formed on the inner wall of the secondary channels by the PLA penetration during the perfusion process. Finite element simulation found that the compressive strength of the double-channel composite scaffold was less than that of the single-channel scaffold; however, mechanical tests found that the maximum compressive strength of the double-channel composite scaffold [(21.25 +/- 1.15) MPa] was higher than that of the single-channel scaffold[ (9.76 +/- 0.64) MPa]. The double-channel composite scaffolds fabricated by 3-D printing technique have

  7. The effect of particle size on the in vivo degradation of poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)/α-tricalcium phosphate micro- and nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Sarah M; Arumugam, Meera; Wilberforce, Samuel; Enea, Davide; Rushton, Neil; Zhang, Xiang C; Best, Serena M; Cameron, Ruth E; Brooks, Roger A

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports the effect of particle size within a resorbable composite on the in vivo degradation rate and host response. Resorbable composites based on poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) reinforced with tricalcium phosphate (TCP) have shown suitable degradation, biological and mechanical properties for bone repair. Composites with nano-sized TCP particles degrade more homogenously in vitro than equivalent composites with micro-sized particles. In this study, PLGA and PLGA/TCP composites containing micro- or nano-sized α-TCP particles were implanted into an ovine distal femoral condyle defect and harvested at 6, 12, 18 and 24weeks. An intimate interface was observed between the new bone tissue and degrading implants. Visual scoring of histological images and semi-automated segmentation of X-ray images were used to quantify implant degradation and the growth of new bone tissue in the implant site. Bone growth into the implant site occurred at a similar rate for both composites and the PLGA control. However, the in vivo degradation rate of the nanocomposite was slower than that of the microcomposite and consequently more closely matched the rate of bone growth. For the first 6weeks, the rate of in vivo degradation matched that of in vitro degradation, but lagged significantly at longer time points. These results point to the potential use of ceramic particle size in controlling composite degradation whilst maintaining good bone formation. This paper concerns degradable composites for orthopaedic application. The effect of particle size on implant degradation in vivo is not yet well characterised and these results give the first opportunity to directly compare in vitro and in vivo degradation rates for composites with micro- and nano-sized particles. This type of data is vital for the validation of models of composite degradation behaviour, which will lead to the design and manufacture of composites with a tailored, predictable degradation profile. The

  8. Comparison of 3D-Printed Poly-ɛ-Caprolactone Scaffolds Functionalized with Tricalcium Phosphate, Hydroxyapatite, Bio-Oss, or Decellularized Bone Matrix.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Ethan; Rindone, Alexandra; Dorafshar, Amir; Grayson, Warren L

    2017-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D)-printing facilitates rapid, custom manufacturing of bone scaffolds with a wide range of material choices. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential for 3D-printing bioactive (i.e., osteo-inductive) scaffolds for use in bone regeneration applications. In this study, we 3D-printed porous poly-ɛ-caprolactone (PCL) scaffolds using a fused deposition modeling (FDM) process and functionalized them with mineral additives that have been widely used commercially and clinically: tricalcium phosphate (TCP), hydroxyapatite (HA), Bio-Oss (BO), or decellularized bone matrix (DCB). We assessed the "print quality" of the composite scaffolds and found that the print quality of PCL-TCP, PCL-BO, and PCL-DCB measured ∼0.7 and was statistically lower than PCL and PCL-HA scaffolds (∼0.8). We found that the incorporation of mineral particles did not significantly decrease the compressive modulus of the graft, which was on the order of 260 MPa for solid blocks and ranged from 32 to 83 MPa for porous scaffolds. Raman spectroscopy revealed the surfaces of the scaffolds maintained the chemical profile of their dopants following the printing process. We evaluated the osteo-inductive properties of each scaffold composite by culturing adipose-derived stromal/stem cells in vitro and assessing their differentiation into osteoblasts. The calcium content (normalized to DNA) increased significantly in PCL-TCP (p < 0.05), PCL-BO (p < 0.001), and PCL-DCB (p < 0.0001) groups relative to PCL only. The calcium content also increased in PCL-HA but was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Collagen 1 expression was 10-fold greater than PCL in PCL-BO and PCL-DCB (p < 0.05) and osteocalcin expression was 10-fold greater in PCL-BO and PCL-DCB (p < 0.05) as measured by quantitative-real time-polymerase chain reaction. This study suggests that PCL-BO and PCL-DCB hybrid material may be advantageous for bone healing applications over PCL-HA or PCL

  9. Studies on sintering additives for hydroxyapatite, and controlled porosity structures of calcium aluminates and polypropylene-tricalcium phosphate for bone graft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Samar Jyoti

    Tissue engineering has made a significant contribution in developing new biomaterials that can restore the structural features and physiological functions of natural tissues. Various materials, such as metals, ceramics, polymers and composites have been developed for their use in hard tissue engineering applications. Part A of this thesis describes my research on HAp ceramics. HAp, a bioactive ceramic, is known for its osteoconductivity, but shows poor mechanical performance. This program aimed at improving mechanical performance of synthetic HAp by introducing small quantities of various sintering additives. A range of oxide-based sintering additives were selected and prepared. Dense compacts were prepared using a uniaxial press with an average green density of 1.6 g/cc. Results showed that some of these sintering additives improved densification, hardness and compression strength of synthetic HAp compared to the pure composition. A maximum bulk density of 3.06 g/cc was achieved for 2.5 wt% addition of MgO. A Microhardness of 4.9 GPa (505 HV) was measured for 2.5 wt% addition of BaO, and the highest compression strength (220MPa) was reported for 2.5 wt% addition of CaO. Cytotoxicity and cell proliferation studies with a modified human osteoblast (HOB) cell-line (OPC1) proved most of these materials non-toxic and biocompatible. Microscopic observation revealed that bone cells were attached and grew well on most of these ceramic matrices. Part B describes my work on development of controlled porosity polypropylene-tricalcium phosphate composite scaffolds via the fused deposition modeling (FDM) process. Hg-porosimetry was performed to determine pore size and their distribution. Uniaxial compression testing performed on samples with 36 vol% porosity and pore size of 160 mum showed the best compressive strength of 12.7 MPa. Part C includes my research on development of "3-D honeycomb" porous calcium aluminate structures via the indirect FDM process. Samples of 29% and

  10. Do laser/LED phototherapies influence the outcome of the repair of surgical bone defects grafted with biphasic synthetic microgranular HA + β-tricalcium phosphate? A Raman spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Soares, Luiz Guilherme Pinheiro; Marques, Aparecida Maria Cordeiro; Aciole, Jouber Mateus Santos; da Guarda, Milena Góes; Cangussú, Maria Cristina Teixeira; Silveira, Landulfo; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa

    2014-09-01

    The treatment of bone loss is difficult. Many techniques are proposed to improve repair, including biomaterials and, recently, phototherapies. This work studied bone mineralization by Raman spectroscopy assessing intensities of Raman peaks of both inorganic (∼ 960, ∼ 1,070 cm(-1)) and organic (∼ 1,454 cm(-1)) contents in animal model. Six groups were studied: clot, laser, light-emitting diode (LED), biomaterial (HA + β-tricalcium phosphate), laser + biomaterial, and LED + biomaterial. Defects at right tibia were performed with a drill. When indicated, defects were further irradiated at a 48-h interval during 2 weeks. At the 15th and 30th days, the tibias were withdrawn and analyzed. The ∼ 960-cm(-1) peak was significantly affected by phototherapy on both clot- and biomaterial-filled defects. The ∼ 1,070-cm(-1) peak was affected by both time and the use of the LED light on clot-filled defects. On biomaterial-filled defects, only the use of the laser light significantly influenced the outcome. No significant influence of either the time or the use of the light was detected on clot-filled defects as regards the ∼ 1,454-cm(-1) peak. Raman intensities of both mineral and matrix components indicated that the use of laser and LED phototherapies improved the repair of bone defects grafted or not with biphasic synthetic microgranular HA + β-tricalcium phosphate.

  11. Biochemical changes on the repair of surgical bone defects grafted with biphasic synthetic micro-granular HA + β-tricalcium phosphate induced by laser and LED phototherapies assessed by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz B.; Soares, Luiz Guilherme P.; Marques, Aparecida Maria C.; Silveira, Landulfo

    2016-03-01

    This work aimed the assessment of the biochemical changes during bone mineralization induced by laser and LED irradiation in an animal model of bone repair using a spectral model based on Raman spectroscopy. Six groups were studied: Clot, Laser (λ780 nm, 70 mW), LED (λ850 nm +/- 10 nm, 150 mW), Biomaterial (biphasic synthetic microgranular hydroxyapatite (HA) + β-tricalcium phosphate), Laser + Biomaterial and LED + Biomaterial. When indicated, defects were further irradiated at 48 h interval during 2 wks, 20 J/cm2 per session. At 15th and 30th days, femurs were dissected and spectra of the defects were collected. Raman spectra were submitted to a model to estimate the relative amount of collagen, phosphate HA and carbonate HA, by using spectra of pure collagen, biomaterial and basal bone, respectively. At 15th days, the use of biomaterial associated to phototherapy reduced the collagen formation, whereas the amount of carbonate HA was not different in all groups. The phosphate HA was higher in the groups that received biomaterial grafts. At 30th days, it was observed an increase of collagen for the group Laser + Biomaterial, and a reduction in the carbonate HA for the LED + Biomaterial. The phosphate HA was higher for the groups LED + Biomaterial and Laser + Biomaterial, while decreased for the group Biomaterial. These results indicated that the use of Laser and LED phototherapies improved the repair of bone defects grafted with the biomaterial by increasing the collagen deposition and phosphate HA.

  12. Long-Term Degradation of Self-Reinforced Poly-Levo (96%)/Dextro (4%)-Lactide/β-Tricalcium Phosphate Biocomposite Interference Screws.

    PubMed

    Barber, F Alan; Dockery, W D

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the long-term in vivo degradation of biocomposite interference screws made with self-reinforced poly-levo (96%)/dextro (4%)-lactide/β-tricalcium phosphate [SR-PL(96)/D(4)LA/β-TCP]. A study of the in vivo biologic behavior of an SR-PL(96)/D(4)LA/β-TCP biocomposite interference screw was initiated in 2011 using an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction model. Eight patients undergoing a bone-patellar tendon-bone ACL reconstruction fixed at both the femur and tibia with an SR-PL(96)/D(4)LA/β-TCP screw at least 36 months earlier were evaluated by physical, radiographic, and computed tomography (CT) evaluations. Lysholm, Tegner, Cincinnati, and International Knee Documentation Committee scores were obtained. After incomplete degradation was observed in these 8 patients, a subsequent series of 17 patients were evaluated at a minimum of 48 months after surgery. By use of CT scans, Hounsfield unit (HU) data were obtained at the femoral and tibial screw and other bone sites. An ossification quality score (range, 1 to 4) was used to determine osteoconductivity at the screw sites. Eleven male and 6 female patients evaluated by CT scan and radiographs at a mean of 50 months (range, 48 to 61 months) after surgery showed bone plug healing to the tunnel wall and the SR-PL(96)/D(4)LA/β-TCP screws were replaced with material that was calcified and non-trabecular. Osteoconductivity was present in 24 of 34 tunnels (70.58%) and nearly complete or complete (type 3 or 4 ossification) in 11 of 34 (32.35%). Mean screw site densities (femoral, 242 HU; tibial, 240 HU) were consistent with cancellous bone density. One positive pivot-shift test was found. Lysholm, Cincinnati, Tegner, and International Knee Documentation Committee activity scores improved from 44.5, 40.7, 2.3, and 1.4, respectively, preoperatively to 92, 92.4, 5.7, and 3.3, respectively, at follow-up (P < .0001). The average postoperative Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation score was 92. The mean KT

  13. Effect of controlled zinc release on bone mineral density from injectable Zn-containing beta-tricalcium phosphate suspension in zinc-deficient diseased rats.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Makoto; Ohshita, Yuko; Marunaka, Sunao; Matsuda, Yoshihia; Ito, Atsuo; Ichinose, Noboru; Otsuka, Kuniko; Higuchi, William I

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of zinc (Zn)-containing beta-tricalcium phosphate (Zn-TCP) in correcting the bone mineral deficiency noted in osteoporosis using ovariectomized rat model. Four rats were used for each of the four experimental groups: D0, D10, D20, and N10. The rats in D0, D10, and D20 groups were ovariectomized, and fed a vitamin D-, Ca-, and Zn-deficient diet, and induced Zn-deficient osteoporoses for 9 weeks. In contrast, the N10 group was the normal rats fed normal healthy diet for 9 weeks. D0 group was injected with pure beta-TCP suspension, D10 and D20 groups were injected with suspensions containing 10 mg of 10 mol % (6.17 wt % Zn) and 20 mol % (12.05 wt % Zn) Zn-TCP, respectively, and the healthy group, N10 were injected with 10 mol %. Zn-TCP suspensions. Injections were administered intramuscularly in the left thigh once a week in all rats, and fed a vitamin D- and Zn-deficient diet for 9 weeks. The plasma calcium (Ca) and Zn levels, plasma alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar vertebra and femora were measured. The plasma Zn levels in all the rats were between 1.1 and 2.8 microg/mL. The areas under the curves for the Ca, Zn, and ALP (Ca-AUC, Zn-AUC, and ALP-AUC) levels between 0 and 63 days were calculated. Results for the AUCs were as follows: (1) the Zn-AUCs were in the order of N10 = D20 > D10 > D0; (2) the Ca-AUCs for D0, D10 groups were significantly lower than that for the N10 group; (3) the ALP-AUCs for the D10 and D20 groups were significantly higher than that for the N10 group, and that of the D0 group was in between those. The body weight of D10 and D20 groups significantly increased with time, that of the D0 group increased slightly, and that of the N10 group remained unchanged for the entire experimental period. The BMD of the lumbar vertebrae of the D10 and D20 groups (about 100 mg/cm(2)) was significantly higher than that of the D0 group but lower than that of

  14. Properties of Tricalcium Silicate Sealers.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Issam; Naaman, Alfred; Camilleri, Josette

    2016-10-01

    Sealers based on tricalcium silicate cement aim at an interaction of the sealer with the root canal wall, alkalinity with potential antimicrobial activity, and the ability to set in a wet field. The aim of this study was to characterize and investigate the properties of a new tricalcium silicate-based sealer and verify its compliance to ISO 6876 (2012). A new tricalcium silicate-based sealer (Bio MM; St Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon), BioRoot RCS (Septodont, St Maure de Fosses, France), and AH Plus (Dentsply, DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany) were investigated. Characterization using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis was performed. Furthermore, sealer setting time, flow, film thickness, and radiopacity were performed following ISO specifications. pH and ion leaching in solution were assessed by pH analysis and inductively coupled plasma. Bio MM and BioRoot RCS were both composed of tricalcium silicate and tantalum oxide in Bio MM and zirconium oxide in BioRoot RCS. In addition, the Bio MM contained calcium carbonate and a phosphate phase. The inorganic components of AH Plus were calcium tungstate and zirconium oxide. AH Plus complied with the ISO norms for both flow and film thickness. BioRoot RCS and Bio MM exhibited a lower flow and a higher film thickness than that specified for sealer cements in ISO 6876. All test sealers exhibited adequate radiopacity. Bio MM interacted with physiologic solution, thus showing potential for bioactivity. Sealer properties were acceptable and comparable with other sealers available clinically. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of enamel matrix derivative and basic fibroblast growth factor with μ-tricalcium phosphate on periodontal regeneration in one-wall intrabony defects: an experimental study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Shirakata, Yoshinori; Takeuchi, Naoshi; Yoshimoto, Takehiko; Taniyama, Katsuyoshi; Noguchi, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of enamel matrix derivative (EMD) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) with μ-tricalcium phosphate (μ-TCP) on periodontal healing in intrabony defects in dogs. One-wall intrabony defects created in dogs were treated with μ-TCP alone (μ-TCP), EMD with μ-TCP (EMD/μ-TCP), bFGF with μ-TCP (bFGF/μ-TCP), and a combination of each (EMD/bFGF/μ-TCP). The amount of new bone formation was not significant for any group. The EMD/bFGF/μ-TCP group induced significantly greater new cementum formation than the μ-TCP and bFGF/μ-TCP groups and, although not significantly, formed more new cementum than the EMD/μ-TCP group. These findings indicate that EMD/bFGF/μ-TCP treatment is effective for cementum regeneration.

  16. Biochemical changes on the repair of surgical bone defects grafted with biphasic synthetic micro-granular HA + β-tricalcium phosphate induced by laser and LED phototherapies and assessed by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Antônio Luiz Barbosa; Soares, Luiz Guilherme Pinheiro; Marques, Aparecida Maria Cordeiro; Cangussú, Maria Cristina Teixeira; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu Tavares; Silveira, Landulfo

    2017-04-01

    This work aimed the assessment of biochemical changes induced by laser or LED irradiation during mineralization of a bone defect in an animal model using a spectral model based on Raman spectroscopy. Six groups were studied: clot, laser (λ = 780 nm; 70 mW), LED (λ = 850 ± 10 nm; 150 mW), biomaterial (biphasic synthetic micro-granular hydroxyapatite (HA) + β-tricalcium phosphate), biomaterial + laser, and biomaterial + LED. When indicated, defects were further irradiated at a 48-h interval during 2 weeks (20 J/cm 2 per session). At the 15th and 30th days, femurs were dissected and spectra of the defects were collected. Raman spectra were submitted to a model to estimate the relative amount of collagen, phosphate HA, and carbonate HA by using the spectra of pure collagen and biomaterials composed of phosphate and carbonate HA, respectively. The use of the biomaterial associated to phototherapy did not change the collagen formation at both 15 and 30 days. The amount of carbonate HA was not different in all groups at the 15th day. However, at the 30th day, there was a significant difference (ANOVA, p = 0.01), with lower carbonate HA for the group biomaterial + LED compared to biomaterial (p < 0.05). The phosphate HA was higher in the groups that received biomaterial grafts at the 15th day compared to clot (significant for the biomaterial; p < 0.01). At the 30th day, the phosphate HA was higher for the group biomaterial + laser, while this was lower for all the other groups. These results indicated that the use of laser phototherapy improved the repair of bone defects grafted with the biomaterial by increasing the deposition of phosphate HA.

  17. Effect of a Particulate and a Putty-Like Tricalcium Phosphate-Based Bone-grafting Material on Bone Formation, Volume Stability and Osteogenic Marker Expression after Bilateral Sinus Floor Augmentation in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Knabe, Christine; Adel Khattab, Doaa; Kluk, Esther; Struck, Rainer; Stiller, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the effect of a hyaluronic acid (HyAc) containing tricalcium phosphate putty scaffold material (TCP-P) and of a particulate tricalcium phosphate (TCP-G) graft on bone formation, volume stability and osteogenic marker expression in biopsies sampled 6 months after bilateral sinus floor augmentation (SFA) in 7 patients applying a split-mouth design. 10% autogenous bone chips were added to the grafting material during surgery. The grain size of the TCP granules was 700 to 1400 µm for TCP-G and 125 to 250 µm and 500 to 700 µm (ratio 1:1) for TCP-P. Biopsies were processed for immunohistochemical analysis of resin-embedded sections. Sections were stained for collagen type I (Col I), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC) and bone sialoprotein (BSP). Furthermore, the bone area and biomaterial area fraction were determined histomorphometrically. Cone-beam CT data recorded after SFA and 6 months later were used for calculating the graft volume at these two time points. TCP-P displayed more advantageous surgical handling properties and a significantly greater bone area fraction and smaller biomaterial area fraction. This was accompanied by significantly greater expression of Col I and BSP and in osteoblasts and osteoid and a less pronounced reduction in grafting volume with TCP-P. SFA using both types of materials resulted in formation of sufficient bone volume for facilitating stable dental implant placement with all dental implants having been in function without any complications for 6 years. Since TCP-P displayed superior surgical handling properties and greater bone formation than TCP-G, without the HyAc hydrogel matrix having any adverse effect on bone formation or graft volume stability, TCP-P can be regarded as excellent grafting material for SFA in a clinical setting. The greater bone formation observed with TCP-P may be related to the difference in grain size of the TCP granules and/or the addition of the HyAc. PMID:28758916

  18. Evaluation of human recession defects treated with coronally advanced flaps and either purified recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB with beta tricalcium phosphate or connective tissue: a histologic and microcomputed tomographic examination.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Michael K; Scheyer, Todd; Nevins, Myron; Schupbach, Peter

    2009-02-01

    The current study examined the histologic and microcomputed tomographic (micro CT) outcomes of the treatment of gingival recession defects with either a subepithelial connective tissue graft (CTG) or 0.3 mg/mL recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor (rhPDGF-BB) on a beta tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) matrix. Gingival recession defects were surgically created in six premolar teeth with no more than 3 mm of keratinized marginal tissue, an osseous crest 2 to 3 mm apical to the newly created gingival margin, and recession depth of at least 3 mm. The defects were left untouched for 2 months; then, four defects were grafted with rhPDGF-BB + beta-TCP + a wound healing dressing, and two defects received CTGs. A coronally advanced flap covered each grafted site. Nine months later, sections were obtained for examination. All four sites treated with rhPDGF-BB + beta-TCP showed connective tissue fibers (Sharpey fibers) perpendicularly inserting into newly formed cementum and alveolar bone. In the two sites treated with CTGs, a long junctional epithelium was seen coronal to the osseous crest and connective tissue fibers ran parallel to the adjacent root surfaces, with no evidence of insertion into cementum or bone. There was no evidence of regeneration of cementum, inserting connective tissue fibers, or supporting alveolar bone. Regeneration of the periodontium in gingival recession defects is possible through growth factor-mediated therapy.

  19. Fabrication of a three-dimensional β-tricalcium-phosphate/gelatin containing chitosan-based nanoparticles for sustained release of bone morphogenetic protein-2: Implication for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Bastami, Farshid; Paknejad, Zahrasadat; Jafari, Maissa; Salehi, Majid; Rezai Rad, Maryam; Khojasteh, Arash

    2017-03-01

    Fabrication of an ideal scaffold having proper composition, physical structure and able to have sustained release of growth factors still is challenging for bone tissue engineering. Current study aimed to design an appropriate three-dimensional (3-D) scaffold with suitable physical characteristics, including proper compressive strength, degradation rate, porosity, and able to sustained release of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2), for bone tissue engineering. A highly porous 3-D β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds, inside of which two perpendicular canals were created, was fabricated using foam-casting technique. Then, scaffolds were coated with gelatin layer. Next, BMP2-loaded chitosan (CS) nanoparticles were dispersed into collagen hydrogel and filled into the scaffold canals. Physical characteristics of fabricated constructs were evaluated. Moreover, the capability of given construct for bone regeneration has been evaluated in vitro in interaction with human buccal fat pad-derived stem cells (hBFPSCs). The results showed that gelatin-coated TCP scaffold with rhBMP2 delivery system not only could act as a mechanically and biologically compatible framework, but also act as an osteoinductive graft by sustained delivering of rhBMP2 in a therapeutic window for differentiation of hBFPSCs towards the osteoblast lineage. The proposed scaffold model can be suggested for delivering of cells and other growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), alone or in combination, for future investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Tricalcium phosphate solubilization and nitrogen fixation by newly isolated Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus CKMV1 from rhizosphere of Valeriana jatamansi and its growth promotional effect.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Anjali; Guleria, Shiwani; Balgir, Praveen P; Walia, Abhishek; Mahajan, Rishi; Mehta, Preeti; Shirkot, Chand Karan

    Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus strain CKMV1 was isolated from rhizosphere of Valeriana jatamansi and possessed multiple plant growth promoting traits like production of phosphate solubilization (260mg/L), nitrogen fixation (202.91nmolethylenemL -1 h -1 ), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) (8.1μg/mL), siderophores (61.60%), HCN (hydrogen cyanide) production and antifungal activity. We investigated the ability of isolate CKMV1 to solubilize insoluble P via mechanism of organic acid production. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) study showed that isolate CKMV1 produced mainly gluconic (1.34%) and oxalic acids. However, genetic evidences for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization by organic acid production have been reported first time for A. aneurinilyticus strain CKMV1. A unique combination of glucose dehydrogenase (gdh) gene and pyrroloquinoline quinone synthase (pqq) gene, a cofactor of gdh involved in phosphate solubilization has been elucidated. Nitrogenase (nif H) gene for nitrogen fixation was reported from A. aneurinilyticus. It was notable that isolate CKMV1 exhibited highest antifungal against Sclerotium rolfsii (93.58%) followed by Fusarium oxysporum (64.3%), Dematophora necatrix (52.71%), Rhizoctonia solani (91.58%), Alternaria sp. (71.08%) and Phytophthora sp. (71.37%). Remarkable increase was observed in seed germination (27.07%), shoot length (42.33%), root length (52.6%), shoot dry weight (62.01%) and root dry weight (45.7%) along with NPK (0.74, 0.36, 1.82%) content of tomato under net house condition. Isolate CKMV1 possessed traits related to plant growth promotion, therefore, could be a potential candidate for the development of biofertiliser or biocontrol agent and this is the first study to include the Aneurinibacillus as PGPR. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Single-dose local administration of parathyroid hormone (1-34, PTH) with β-tricalcium phosphate/collagen (β-TCP/COL) enhances bone defect healing in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Tao, Zhou-Shan; Zhou, Wan-Shu; Wu, Xin-Jing; Wang, Lin; Yang, Min; Xie, Jia-Bing; Xu, Zhu-Jun; Ding, Guo-Zheng

    2018-02-01

    Parathyroid hormone (1-34, PTH) combined β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) achieves stable bone regeneration without cell transplantation in previous studies. Recently, with the development of tissue engineering slow release technology, PTH used locally to promote bone defect healing become possible. This study by virtue of collagen with a combination of drugs and has a slow release properties, and investigated bone regeneration by β-TCP/collagen (β-TCP/COL) with the single local administration of PTH. After the creation of a rodent critical-sized femoral metaphyseal bone defect, β-TCP/COL was prepared by mixing sieved granules of β-TCP and atelocollagen for medical use, then β-TCP/COL with dripped PTH solution (1.0 µg) was implanted into the defect of OVX rats until death at 4 and 8 weeks. The defected area in distal femurs of rats was harvested for evaluation by histology, micro-CT, and biomechanics. The results of our study show that single-dose local administration of PTH combined local usage of β-TCP/COL can increase the healing of defects in OVX rats. Furthermore, treatments with single-dose local administration of PTH and β-TCP/COL showed a stronger effect on accelerating the local bone formation than β-TCP/COL used alone. The results from our study demonstrate that combination of single-dose local administration of PTH and β-TCP/COL had an additive effect on local bone formation in osteoporosis rats.

  2. Periodontal wound healing/regeneration following implantation of recombinant human growth/differentiation factor-5 in a beta-tricalcium phosphate carrier into one-wall intrabony defects in dogs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Seok; Wikesjö, Ulf M E; Jung, Ui-Won; Choi, Seong-Ho; Pippig, Susanne; Siedler, Michael; Kim, Chong-Kwan

    2010-04-01

    Recombinant human growth/differentiation factor-5 (rhGDF-5) is being evaluated as a candidate therapy in support of periodontal regeneration. The objective of this study was to evaluate periodontal wound healing/regeneration following the application of rhGDF-5 on a particulate beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) carrier using an established defect model. Bilateral 4 x 5 mm (width x depth), one-wall, critical-size, intrabony periodontal defects were surgically created at the mandibular second and fourth pre-molar teeth in 15 Beagle dogs. Unilateral defects in five animals received rhGDF-5/beta-TCP (Scil Technology GmbH); five animals received beta-TCP solo; and five animals served as sham-surgery controls. Contralateral sites received treatments reported elsewhere. The animals were sacrificed following an 8-week healing interval for histological examination. Clinical healing was generally uneventful. Sites implanted with rhGDF-5/beta-TCP exhibited greater enhanced cementum and bone formation compared with beta-TCP and sham-surgery controls; cementum regeneration averaged (+/- SD) 3.83 +/- 0.73 versus 1.65 +/- 0.82 and 2.48 +/- 1.28 mm for the controls (p<0.05). Corresponding values for bone regeneration height averaged 3.26 +/- 0.30 versus 1.70 +/- 0.66 and 1.68 +/- 0.49 mm (p<0.05), and bone area 10.45 +/- 2.26 versus 6.31 +/- 2.41 and 3.00 +/- 1.97 mm(2) (p<0.05). Cementum regeneration included cellular/acellular cementum with or without a functionally oriented periodontal ligament. A non-specific connective tissue attachment was evident in the sham-surgery control. Controls exhibited mostly woven bone with primary osteons, whereas rhGDF-5/beta-TCP sites showed a noticeable extent of lamellar bone. Sites receiving rhGDF-5/beta-TCP or beta-TCP showed some residual beta-TCP granules apparently undergoing biodegradation without obvious differences between the sites. Sites receiving beta-TCP alone commonly showed residual beta-TCP granules sequestered in the

  3. Chemical treatment of low-grade uranium ores. Extraction of uranium from tricalcium phosphate; TRAITEMENT CHIMIQUE DES MINERAIS PAUVRES D'URANIUM. EXTRACTION DE L'URANIUM DU PHOSPHATE TRICALCIQUE (in French)

    SciTech Connect

    Mechelynck, Ph.

    1958-07-15

    After an examination of the different processes for the treatment of uranium minerals, it is concluded that the extraction of uranium by ion exchange is not applicable to hydrochloric acid solutions of phosphates. A sulfuric or phosphoric solution can be used. For solvent extraction of uranium, sulfuric or phosphoric solutions are the best, but hydrochloric solutions can be used. The cost of the solvents used would determine the cost of the operation. It is necessary, in the case of liquid-liquid extraction, to filter or decant the solution before extraction. (tr-auth)

  4. Influence of Temperature on the Biomechanical Stability of Titanium, PEEK, Poly-L-Lactic Acid, and β-Tricalcium Phosphate Poly-L-Lactic Acid Suture Anchors Tested on Human Humeri In Vitro in a Wet Environment.

    PubMed

    Güleçyüz, Mehmet F; Mazur, Alexandra; Schröder, Christian; Braun, Christian; Ficklscherer, Andreas; Roßbach, Björn P; Müller, Peter E; Pietschmann, Matthias F

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the biomechanical integrity of suture anchors of different materials (titanium, PEEK [polyether ether ketone], poly-L-lactic acid [PLLA], and β-tricalcium phosphate PLLA) and almost identical design for rotator cuff repair in human humeri positioned in a water bath at room and body temperature undergoing cyclic loading rather than single-pull or static tests. Four different anchor models (n = 6) were tested using healthy human cadaveric humeri in a water bath thermostatically regulated at 20°C and 37°C. A cyclic testing protocol was used. The maximum failure load, the system displacement, and the respective mode of failure were recorded. There were no significant differences regarding the maximum failure load values between the 20°C groups and 37°C groups for the 4 different anchor materials. The displacement values for the 20°C groups and 37°C groups also were not statistically significant. Anchor and suture dislocations were the predominant modes of failure; suture ruptures were observed in few cases. This study shows that there are no significantly relevant differences regarding the maximum failure loads and the displacement values of the tested suture anchor systems in a wet environment at 20°C or 37°C. The temperature differences do not seem to affect the modes of failure either. Titanium, PEEK, PLLA, and β-tricalcium phosphate PLLA suture anchors for rotator cuff repair can be expected-on the basis of this investigation comparing laboratory temperature with body temperature and a wet environment-to perform in vivo similar to in vitro testing. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Real-time-guided bone regeneration around standardized critical size calvarial defects using bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and collagen membrane with and without using tricalcium phosphate: an in vivo micro-computed tomographic and histologic experiment in rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Hezaimi, Khalid; Ramalingam, Sundar; Al-Askar, Mansour; ArRejaie, Aws S; Nooh, Nasser; Jawad, Fawad; Aldahmash, Abdullah; Atteya, Muhammad; Wang, Cun-Yu

    2016-03-30

    The aim of the present real time in vivo micro-computed tomography (µCT) and histologic experiment was to assess the efficacy of guided bone regeneration (GBR) around standardized calvarial critical size defects (CSD) using bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), and collagen membrane (CM) with and without tricalcium phosphate (TCP) graft material. In the calvaria of nine female Sprague-Dawley rats, full-thickness CSD (diameter 4.6 mm) were created under general anesthesia. Treatment-wise, rats were divided into three groups. In group 1, CSD was covered with a resorbable CM; in group 2, BMSCs were filled in CSD and covered with CM; and in group 3, TCP soaked in BMSCs was placed in CSD and covered with CM. All defects were closed using resorbable sutures. Bone volume and bone mineral density of newly formed bone (NFB) and remaining TCP particles and rate of new bone formation was determined at baseline, 2, 4, 6, and 10 weeks using in vivo µCT. At the 10th week, the rats were killed and calvarial segments were assessed histologically. The results showed that the hardness of NFB was similar to that of the native bone in groups 1 and 2 as compared to the NFB in group 3. Likewise, values for the modulus of elasticity were also significantly higher in group 3 compared to groups 1 and 2. This suggests that TCP when used in combination with BMSCs and without CM was unable to form bone of significant strength that could possibly provide mechanical "lock" between the natural bone and NFB. The use of BMSCs as adjuncts to conventional GBR initiated new bone formation as early as 2 weeks of treatment compared to when GBR is attempted without adjunct BMSC therapy.

  6. Bone Regeneration in Critical Bone Defects Using Three-Dimensionally Printed β-Tricalcium Phosphate/Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds Is Enhanced by Coating Scaffolds with Either Dipyridamole or BMP-2

    PubMed Central

    Ishack, Stephanie; Mediero, Aranzazu; Wilder, Tuere; Ricci, John L.; Cronstein, Bruce N.

    2017-01-01

    Bone defects resulting from trauma or infection need timely and effective treatments to restore damaged bone. Using specialized three-dimensional (3-D) printing technology we have created custom 3-D scaffolds of hydroxyapatite (HA)/Beta-Tri-Calcium Phosphate (β-TCP) to promote bone repair. To further enhance bone regeneration we have coated the scaffolds with dipyridamole, an agent that increases local adenosine levels by blocking cellular uptake of adenosine. 15% HA:85% β-TCP scaffolds were designed using Robocad software, fabricated using a 3-D Robocasting system, and sintered at 1100°C for 4h. Scaffolds were coated with BMP-2 (200ng/ml), Dypiridamole 100µM or saline and implanted in C57B6 and adenosine A2A receptor knockout (A2AKO) mice with 3mm cranial critical bone defects for 2-8 weeks. Dipyridamole release from scaffold was assayed spectrophotometrically. MicroCT and histological analysis were performed. micro-computed tomography (microCT) showed significant bone formation and remodeling in HA/β-TCP- dipyridamole and HA/β-TCP -BMP-2 scaffolds when compared to scaffolds immersed in vehicle at 2, 4 and 8 weeks (n=5 per group; p≤ 0.05, p≤ 0.05 and p≤ 0.01, respectively). Histological analysis showed increased bone formation and a trend toward increased remodeling in HA/β-TCP- dipyridamole and HA/β-TCP-BMP-2 scaffolds. coating scaffolds with dipyridamole did not enhance bone regeneration in A2AKO mice. In conclusion, scaffolds printed with HA/β-TCP promote bone regeneration in critical bone defects and coating these scaffolds with agents that stimulate A2A receptors and growth factors can further enhance bone regeneration. These coated scaffolds may be very useful for treating critical bone defects due to trauma, infection or other causes. PMID:26513656

  7. Bone regeneration in critical bone defects using three-dimensionally printed β-tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite scaffolds is enhanced by coating scaffolds with either dipyridamole or BMP-2.

    PubMed

    Ishack, Stephanie; Mediero, Aranzazu; Wilder, Tuere; Ricci, John L; Cronstein, Bruce N

    2017-02-01

    Bone defects resulting from trauma or infection need timely and effective treatments to restore damaged bone. Using specialized three-dimensional (3D) printing technology we have created custom 3D scaffolds of hydroxyapatite (HA)/beta-tri-calcium phosphate (β-TCP) to promote bone repair. To further enhance bone regeneration we have coated the scaffolds with dipyridamole, an agent that increases local adenosine levels by blocking cellular uptake of adenosine. Nearly 15% HA:85% β-TCP scaffolds were designed using Robocad software, fabricated using a 3D Robocasting system, and sintered at 1100°C for 4 h. Scaffolds were coated with BMP-2 (200 ng mL -1 ), dypiridamole 100 µM or saline and implanted in C57B6 and adenosine A2A receptor knockout (A2AKO) mice with 3 mm cranial critical bone defects for 2-8 weeks. Dipyridamole release from scaffold was assayed spectrophotometrically. MicroCT and histological analysis were performed. Micro-computed tomography (microCT) showed significant bone formation and remodeling in HA/β-TCP-dipyridamole and HA/β-TCP-BMP-2 scaffolds when compared to scaffolds immersed in vehicle at 2, 4, and 8 weeks (n = 5 per group; p ≤ 0.05, p ≤ 0.05, and p ≤ 0.01, respectively). Histological analysis showed increased bone formation and a trend toward increased remodeling in HA/β-TCP- dipyridamole and HA/β-TCP-BMP-2 scaffolds. Coating scaffolds with dipyridamole did not enhance bone regeneration in A2AKO mice. In conclusion, scaffolds printed with HA/β-TCP promote bone regeneration in critical bone defects and coating these scaffolds with agents that stimulate A2A receptors and growth factors can further enhance bone regeneration. These coated scaffolds may be very useful for treating critical bone defects due to trauma, infection or other causes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 366-375, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Structure of liquid tricalcium aluminate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewitt, James W. E.; Barnes, Adrian C.; Jahn, Sandro; Kohn, Simon C.; Walter, Michael J.; Novikov, Alexey N.; Neuville, Daniel R.; Fischer, Henry E.; Hennet, Louis

    2017-02-01

    The atomic-scale structure of aerodynamically levitated and laser-heated liquid tricalcium aluminate (Ca3Al2O6 ) was measured at 2073(30) K by using the method of neutron diffraction with Ca isotope substitution (NDIS). The results enable the detailed resolution of the local coordination environment around calcium and aluminum atoms, including the direct determination of the liquid partial structure factor, SCaCa(Q ) , and partial pair distribution function, gCaCa(r ) . Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) refinement methods were employed to obtain a detailed atomistic model of the liquid structure. The composition Ca3Al2O6 lies at the CaO-rich limit of the CaO:Al2O3 glass-forming system. Our results show that, although significantly depolymerized, liquid Ca3Al2O6 is largely composed of AlO4 tetrahedra forming an infinite network with a slightly higher fraction of bridging oxygen atoms than expected for the composition. Calcium-centered polyhedra exhibit a wide distribution of four- to sevenfold coordinated sites, with higher coordinated calcium preferentially bonding to bridging oxygens. Analysis of the MD configuration reveals the presence of ˜10 % unconnected AlO4 monomers and Al2O7 dimers in the liquid. As the CaO concentration increases, the number of these isolated units increases, such that the upper value for the glass-forming composition of CaO:Al2O3 liquids could be described in terms of a percolation threshold at which the glass can no longer support the formation of an infinitely connected AlO4 network.

  9. Calcium phosphates: what is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Larsson, Sune

    2010-03-01

    A number of different calcium phosphate compounds such as calcium phosphate cements and solid beta-tricalcium phosphate products have been introduced during the last decade. The chemical composition mimics the mineral phase of bone and as a result of this likeness, the materials seem to be remodeled as for normal bone through a cell-mediated process that involves osteoclastic activity. This is a major difference when compared with, for instance, calcium sulphate compounds that after implantation dissolve irrespective of the new bone formation rate. Calcium phosphates are highly biocompatible and in addition, they act as synthetic osteoconductive scaffolds after implantation in bone. When placed adjacent to bone, osteoid is formed directly on the surface of the calcium phosphate with no soft tissue interposed. Remodeling is slow and incomplete, but by adding more and larger pores, like in ultraporous beta-tricalcium phosphate, complete or nearly complete resorption can be achieved. The indications explored so far include filling of metaphyseal fracture voids or bone cysts, a volume expander in conjunction with inductive products, and as a carrier for various growth factors and antibiotics. Calcium phosphate compounds such as calcium phosphate cement and beta-tricalcium phosphate will most certainly be part of the future armamentarium when dealing with fracture treatment. It is reasonable to believe that we have so far only seen the beginning when it comes to clinical applications.

  10. Microstructure and physical properties of laser Zn modified amorphous-nanocrystalline coating on a titanium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia-Ning; Gong, Shui-Li; Shi, Yi-Ning; Suo, Hong-Bo; Wang, Xi-Chang; Deng, Yun-Hua; Shan, Fei-Hu; Li, Jian-Quan

    2014-02-01

    A Zn modified amorphous-nanocrystalline coating was fabricated on a Ti-6Al-4V alloy by laser cladding of the Co-Ti-B4C-Zn-Y2O3 mixed powders. Such coating was researched by means of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), etc. Experimental results indicated that the Co5Zn21 and TiB2 nanocrystalline phases were produced through in situ metallurgical reactions, which blocked the motion of dislocation, and TiB2 grew along (010), (111) and (024). The Co5Zn21 nanocrystals were produced attached to the ceramics, which mainly consisted of the Co nanoparticles embedded in a heterogeneous zinc, and had varied crystalline orientations.

  11. An experimental technique to repair cracked teeth using calcium phosphate, melted by a laser beam: an in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Levy, G C; Koubi, G F

    1993-11-01

    Using a neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser beam to seal vertical root fracture lines with tricalcium phosphate paste represents an alternative treatment for cracked teeth with noted clinical results. This article describes a study of the permeability of molten crystals of hydroxyapatite in the dentin of a cracked root after crack lines have been filled with a preparation of tricalcium phosphate melted by a neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser beam. The morphology of the sealed cracks was analyzed under a scanning electron microscope that showed a deep fusion of tricalcium phosphate along crack lines.

  12. [Phosphate-solubilizing activity of aerobic methylobacteria].

    PubMed

    Agafonova, N V; Kaparullina, E N; Doronina, N V; Trotsenko, Iu A

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate-solubilizing activity was found in 14 strains of plant-associated aerobic methylobacteria belonging to the genera Methylophilus, Methylobacillus, Methylovorus, Methylopila, Methylobacterium, Delftia, and Ancyclobacter. The growth of methylobacteria on medium with methanol as the carbon and energy source and insoluble tricalcium phosphate as the phosphorus source was accompanied by a decrease in pH due to the accumulation of up to 7 mM formic acid as a methanol oxidation intermediate and by release of 120-280 μM phosphate ions, which can be used by both bacteria and plants. Phosphate-solubilizing activity is a newly revealed role of methylobacteria in phytosymbiosis.

  13. Multiscale understanding of tricalcium silicate hydration reactions.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, Ana; Zea-Garcia, Jesus D; Londono-Zuluaga, Diana; De la Torre, Angeles G; Santacruz, Isabel; Vallcorba, Oriol; Dapiaggi, Monica; Sanfélix, Susana G; Aranda, Miguel A G

    2018-06-04

    Tricalcium silicate, the main constituent of Portland cement, hydrates to produce crystalline calcium hydroxide and calcium-silicate-hydrates (C-S-H) nanocrystalline gel. This hydration reaction is poorly understood at the nanoscale. The understanding of atomic arrangement in nanocrystalline phases is intrinsically complicated and this challenge is exacerbated by the presence of additional crystalline phase(s). Here, we use calorimetry and synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction to quantitatively follow tricalcium silicate hydration process: i) its dissolution, ii) portlandite crystallization and iii) C-S-H gel precipitation. Chiefly, synchrotron pair distribution function (PDF) allows to identify a defective clinotobermorite, Ca 11 Si 9 O 28 (OH) 2 . 8.5H 2 O, as the nanocrystalline component of C-S-H. Furthermore, PDF analysis also indicates that C-S-H gel contains monolayer calcium hydroxide which is stretched as recently predicted by first principles calculations. These outcomes, plus additional laboratory characterization, yielded a multiscale picture for C-S-H nanocomposite gel which explains the observed densities and Ca/Si atomic ratios at the nano- and meso- scales.

  14. Effect of mineral phosphates on growth and nitrogen fixation of diazotrophic cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis and Westiellopsis prolifica.

    PubMed

    Yandigeri, Mahesh S; Yadav, Arvind K; Meena, Kamlesh Kumar; Pabbi, Sunil

    2010-03-01

    The nitrogen fixing cyanobacterial strains namely Anabaena variabilis (Nostocales, Nostocaceae) and Westiellopsis prolifica (Nostocales, Hapalosiphonaceae) were evaluated for their nitrogen fixation and growth potential in response to different concentrations (10, 20 and 30 mg P) of the alternate insoluble P-sources Mussorie Rock Phosphate and Tricalcium Phosphate. Distinct and significant intergeneric differences were observed with respect to nitrogen fixation measured as Acetylene Reduction Activity (ARA) and growth potential as soluble proteins, total carbohydrate content, dry weight and total chlorophyll content in response to different concentrations of Mussorie Rock Phosphate and Tricalcium Phosphate. Both the strains showed higher soluble protein content at 20 mg P (Mussorie Rock Phosphate) that increased with time of incubation in A. variabilis. Both cyanobacteria recorded maximum Acetylene Reduction Activity at 20 mg P (Tricalcium Phosphate) followed by activity in presence of soluble phosphate (K2HPO4). The mean activity at all concentrations of insoluble phosphate (Mussorie Rock Phosphate and Tricalcium Phosphate) was more than in the presence of soluble phosphate.

  15. In situ high temperature MAS NMR study of the mechanisms of catalysis. Ethane aromatization on Zn-modified zeolite BEA.

    PubMed

    Arzumanov, Sergei S; Gabrienko, Anton A; Freude, Dieter; Stepanov, Alexander G

    2009-04-01

    Ethane conversion into aromatic hydrocarbons over Zn-modified zeolite BEA has been analyzed by high-temperature MAS NMR spectroscopy. Information about intermediates (Zn-ethyl species) and reaction products (mainly toluene and methane), which were formed under the conditions of a batch reactor, was obtained by (13)C MAS NMR. Kinetics of the reaction, which was monitored by (1)H MAS NMR in situ at the temperature of 573K, provided information about the reaction mechanism. Simulation of the experimental kinetics within the frames of the possible kinetic schemes of the reaction demonstrates that a large amount of methane evolved under ethane aromatization arises from the stage of direct ethane hydrogenolysis.

  16. Application of Calcium Phosphate Materials in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sanabani, Jabr S.; Al-Sanabani, Fadhel A.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium phosphate materials are similar to bone in composition and in having bioactive and osteoconductive properties. Calcium phosphate materials in different forms, as cements, composites, and coatings, are used in many medical and dental applications. This paper reviews the applications of these materials in dentistry. It presents a brief history, dental applications, and methods for improving their mechanical properties. Notable research is highlighted regarding (1) application of calcium phosphate into various fields in dentistry; (2) improving mechanical properties of calcium phosphate; (3) biomimetic process and functionally graded materials. This paper deals with most common types of the calcium phosphate materials such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate which are currently used in dental and medical fields. PMID:23878541

  17. Calcium phosphate ceramics in drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Susmita; Tarafder, Solaiman; Edgington, Joe; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2011-04-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) particulates, cements and scaffolds have attracted significant interest as drug delivery vehicles. CaP systems, including both hydroxyapaptite and tricalcium phosphates, possess variable stoichiometry, functionality and dissolution properties which make them suitable for cellular delivery. Their chemical similarity to bone and thus biocompatibility, as well as variable surface charge density contribute to their controlled release properties. Among specific research areas, nanoparticle size, morphology, surface area due to porosity, and chemistry controlled release kinetics are the most active. This article discusses CaP systems in their particulate, cements, and scaffold forms for drug, protein, and growth factor delivery toward orthopedic and dental applications.

  18. Impact of welan gum on tricalcium aluminate-gypsum hydration

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Lei, E-mail: malei198713@163.com; Zhao Qinglin, E-mail: zhaoqinglin@whut.edu.cn; Yao Chukang

    The retarding effect of welan gum on tricalcium aluminate-gypsum hydration, as a partial system of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) hydration, was investigated with several methods. The tricalcium aluminate-gypsum hydration behavior in the presence or absence of welan gum was researched by field emission gun scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and zeta potential analysis. Meanwhile, we studied the surface electrochemical properties and adsorption characteristics of welan gum by utilizing a zeta potential analyzer and UV-VIS absorption spectrophotometer. By adding welan gum, the morphology change of ettringite and retardation of hydration stages in tricalcium aluminate-gypsum system was observed. Moreover, we detected themore » adsorption behavior and zeta potential inversion of tricalcium aluminate and ettringite, as well as a rapid decrease in the zeta potential of tricalcium aluminate-gypsum system. The reduction on nucleation rate of ettringite and hydration activity of C{sub 3}A was also demonstrated. Thus, through the adsorption effect, welan gum induces a retarding behavior in tricalcium aluminate-gypsum hydration. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adsorption characteristics of welan gum on C{sub 3}A and ettringite have been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C{sub 3}A-gypsum hydration behavior and the hydration products are examined in L/S = 3. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Welan gum retards the process of C{sub 3}A-gypsum hydration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The addition of welan gum changes the nucleation growth of ettringite.« less

  19. Mechanism of H adatoms improving the O2 reduction reaction on the Zn-modified anatase TiO2 (101) surface studied by first principles calculation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liangliang; Li, Chongyang; Jiang, Man; Li, Xiaodong; Huang, Xiaowei; Wang, Zhu; Jia, Yu

    2018-06-05

    First principles calculations were performed to cast insight into the mechanism of the improvement of O2 reduction reaction (ORR) activity by Zn and H interstitials on the anatase TiO2 (101) surface. For the Zn-modified anatase TiO2 (101) surface, both surface and subsurface Zn interstitials could contribute to O2 adsorption and dissociation, but the dissociation barriers of O2 molecules are still too high, which limits the ORR activity. After a H adatom is introduced onto the Zn-modified anatase TiO2 (101) surface, the highest energy barriers are greatly reduced compared with those of the Zn-modified surface. Meanwhile, it is observed that the dissociation barriers decrease almost linearly with the increase of the charge difference of adsorption O2 between initial and transition state configurations. Specifically, subsurface Zn and surface H interstitials facilitate O2 dissociation and subsequent oxidation reactions, and further frequency analysis shows that these dissociation processes are frequent even at the room temperature of 300 K. In a word, this work provides a theoretical support to design a high ORR activity catalyst of the TiO2 nanocrystal comparable to precious Pt catalysts.

  20. Evaluation of the Ca ion release, pH and surface apatite formation of a prototype tricalcium silicate cement.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, S; Han, L; Noiri, Y; Okiji, T

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the Ca 2+ -releasing, alkalizing and apatite-like surface precipitate-forming abilities of a prototype tricalcium silicate cement, which was mainly composed of synthetically prepared tricalcium silicate and zirconium oxide radiopacifier. The prototype tricalcium silicate cement, white ProRoot MTA (WMTA) and TheraCal LC (a light-cured resin-modified calcium silicate-filled material) were examined. The chemical compositions were analysed with a wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy electron probe microanalyser with an image observation function (SEM-EPMA). The pH and Ca 2+ concentrations of water in which the set materials had been immersed were measured, and the latter was assessed with the EDTA titration method. The surface precipitates formed on the materials immersed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were analysed with SEM-EPMA and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Kruskal-Wallis tests followed by Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni correction were used for statistical analysis (α = 0.05). The prototype cement contained Ca, Si and Zr as major elemental constituents, whereas it did not contain some metal elements that were detected in the other materials. The Ca 2+ concentrations and pH of the immersion water samples exhibited the following order: WMTA = prototype cement > TheraCal LC (P < 0.05). All three materials produced Ca- and P-containing surface precipitates after PBS immersion, and the precipitates produced by TheraCal LC displayed lower Ca/P ratios than those formed by the other materials. XRD peaks corresponding to hydroxyapatite were detected in the precipitates produced by the prototype cement and WMTA. The prototype tricalcium silicate cement exhibited similar Ca 2+ -releasing, alkalizing and apatite-like precipitate-forming abilities to WMTA. The Ca 2+ -releasing, alkalizing and apatite-like precipitate-forming abilities of TheraCal LC were lower than those of the other materials. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published

  1. [Advances in research and application of beta-tricalcium phosphate, collagen and beta-tricalcium phosphate/collagen composite in bone tissue engineering].

    PubMed

    Han, Xiang-Yong; Fu, Yuan-Fei; Zhang, Fu-Qiang

    2007-02-01

    Bone defects in oral and maxillofacial region was a common problem. To repair the defect, bone grafts including autograft, allograft and artificial bone graft were used in clinic despite of their disadvantages. Nowadays, bone tissue engineering has become a commonly used method to repair bone defect. This paper reviewed the application of beta-TCP, collagen and beta-TCP/collagen composite in bone tissue engineering. It was concluded that beta-TCP/collagen composite was a promising materials in bone tissue engineering.

  2. Discrimination between biologically relevant calcium phosphate phases by surface-analytical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleine-Boymann, Matthias; Rohnke, Marcus; Henss, Anja; Peppler, Klaus; Sann, Joachim; Janek, Juergen

    2014-08-01

    The spatially resolved phase identification of biologically relevant calcium phosphate phases (CPPs) in bone tissue is essential for the elucidation of bone remodeling mechanisms and for the diagnosis of bone diseases. Analytical methods with high spatial resolution for the discrimination between chemically quite close phases are rare. Therefore the applicability of state-of-the-art ToF-SIMS, XPS and EDX as chemically specific techniques was investigated. The eight CPPs hydroxyapatite (HAP), β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP), octacalcium phosphate (OCP), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), dicalcium phosphate (DCP), monocalcium phosphate (MCP) and amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) were either commercial materials in high purity or synthesized by ourselves. The phase purity was proven by XRD analysis. All of the eight CPPs show different mass spectra and the phases can be discriminated by applying the principal component analysis method to the mass spectrometric data. The Ca/P ratios of all phosphates were determined by XPS and EDX. With both methods some CPPs can be distinguished, but the obtained Ca/P ratios deviate systematically from their theoretical values. It is necessary in any case to determine a calibration curve, respectively the ZAF values, from appropriate standards. In XPS also the O(1s)-satellite signals are correlated to the CPPs composition. Angle resolved and long-term XPS measurements of HAP clearly prove that there is no phosphate excess at the surface. Decomposition due to X-ray irradiation has not been observed.

  3. The self-setting properties and in vitro bioactivity of tricalcium silicate.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenyuan; Wang, Junying; Zhai, Wanyin; Wang, Zheng; Chang, Jiang

    2005-11-01

    In this study, tricalcium silicate (Ca(3)SiO(5)), as a new promising injectable bioactive material, was employed to investigate its physical and chemical properties for an injectable bioactive cement filler. The workable Ca(3)SiO(5) pastes with a liquid to powder (L/P) ratio of 0.8--.2 mlg(-1)could be injected for 15--60 min (nozzle diameter 2.0mm). The setting process yielded cellular structures with compressive strength of 6.4--20.2 MPa after 2--28 days. The in vitro bioactivity of Ca(3)SiO(5) paste was investigated by soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various periods. The result showed that the Ca(3)SiO(5) paste could induce hydroxyapatite (HA) formation and dissolve slowly in SBF. The result of indirect cytotoxicity evaluation indicated that Ca(3)SiO(5) paste had a stimulatory effect on cell growth in a certain concentration range. The exothermic process showed that Ca(3)SiO(5) had lower heat evolution rate during the hydration as compared to calcium phosphate cement (CPC). Our results indicated that Ca(3)SiO(5) paste was bioactive and dissolvable, and it is a progressive candidate for further investigation as injectable tissue repairing substitute.

  4. Effect of in vitro degradation of poly(D,L-lactide)/beta-tricalcium composite on its shape-memory properties.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaotong; Zhou, Shaobing; Yu, Xiongjun; Li, Xiaohong; Feng, Bo; Qu, Shuxin; Weng, Jie

    2008-07-01

    The in vitro degradation characteristic and shape-memory properties of poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA)/beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) composites were investigated because of their wide application in biomedical fields. In this article, PDLLA and crystalline beta-TCP were compounded and interesting shape-memory behaviors of the composite were first investigated. Then, in vitro degradation of the PDLLA/beta-TCP composites with weight ratios of 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1 was performed in phosphate buffer saline solution (PBS) (154 mM, pH 7.4) at 37 degrees C. The effect of in vitro degradation time for PDLLA/beta-TCP composites on shape-memory properties was studied by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The changes of structural morphology, glass transition temperature (T(g)), molecular weight, and weight loss of composites matrix and pH change of degradation medium indicated that shape-memory effects at different degradation time were nonlinearly influenced because of the breaking down of polymer chain and the formation of degradation products. Furthermore, the results from XRD and FTIR implied that the degradation products, for example, hydroxyapatite (HA), calcium hydrogen phosphate (CaHPO(4)), and calcium pyrophosphate (Ca(2)P(2)O(7)) phases also had some effects on shape-memory properties during the degradation. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. In vitro bioactivity of novel tricalcium silicate ceramics.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenyuan; Chang, Jiang; Wang, Junying; Zhai, Wanyin; Wang, Zheng

    2007-05-01

    In this study, bone-like apatite-formation ability of tricalcium silicate (Ca(3)SiO(5)) ceramics in simulated body fluid (SBF) was evaluated and the in vitro degradability was investigated by soaking in Ringer's solution. The effect of ionic products from Ca(3)SiO(5) dissolution on osteobalsts proliferation was investigated. The result indicated that hydroxyapatite (HA) was formed on the surface of the Ca(3)SiO(5) ceramics after soaking in SBF for 1 day, and Ca(3)SiO(5) ceramics could degraded in Ringer's solution. The Si ions from Ca(3)SiO(5) dissolution at certain concentration range significantly stimulated osteoblasts proliferation. Our results show that Ca(3)SiO(5) ceramics possess bone-like apatite-formation ability and degradability, and can release soluble ionic products to stimulate cell proliferation.

  6. Zinc incorporation improves biological activity of beta-tricalcium silicate resin-based cement.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Raquel; Yamauti, Monica; Sauro, Salvatore; Watson, Tim F; Toledano, Manuel

    2014-11-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibition may improve endodontic treatment prognosis. The purpose of this study was to determine if zinc incorporation into experimental resin cements containing bioactive fillers may modulate MMP-mediated collagen degradation of dentin. Human dentin samples untreated and demineralized using 10% phosphoric acid or 0.5 mol/L EDTA were infiltrated with the following experimental resins: (1) unfilled resin, (2) resin with Bioglass 45S5 particles (OSspray, London, UK), (3) resin with beta-tricalcium silicate particles (βTCS), (4) resin with zinc-doped Bioglass 45S5, and (5) resin with zinc-doped βTCS particles. The specimens were stored in artificial saliva (for 24 hours, 1 week, and 4 weeks) and submitted to radioimmunoassay to quantify C-terminal telopeptide. Scanning electron microscopy analysis was also undertaken on dentin samples after 4 weeks of storage. Collagen degradation was prominent both in phosphoric acid and EDTA-treated dentin. Resin infiltration strongly reduced MMP activity in demineralized dentin. Resin containing Bioglass 45S5 particles exerted higher and stable protection of collagen. The presence of zinc in βTCS particles increases MMP inhibition. Different mineral precipitation was attained in dentin infiltrated with the resin cements containing bioactive fillers. MMP degradation of dentin collagen is strongly reduced after resin infiltration of dentin. Zinc incorporation in βTCS particles exerted an additional protection against MMP-mediated collagen degradation. However, it did not occur in resin containing Bioglass 45S5 particles, probably because of the formation of phosphate-zinc compounds. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of temperature on hydration kinetics and polymerization of tricalcium silicate in stirred suspensions of CaO-saturated solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, Steven A.; Boitnott, Ginger E.; Korhonen, Charles J.

    2006-04-15

    Tricalcium silicate was hydrated at 274, 278, 283, 298, and 313 K in stirred suspensions of saturated CaO solutions under a nitrogen-gas atmosphere until the end of deceleratory period. The suspension conductivities and energy flows were measured continuously. The individual reaction rates for tricalcium silicate dissolution, calcium silicate hydrate precipitation, and calcium hydroxide precipitation were calculated from these measurements. The results suggest that the proportion of tricalcium silicate dissolved was determined by the rate of tricalcium silicate dissolution and the time to very rapid calcium hydroxide precipitation. The time to very rapid calcium hydroxide precipitation was more sensitive to changesmore » in temperature than was the rate of tricalcium silicate dissolution, so that the proportion of tricalcium silicate hydration dissolved by the deceleratory period increased with decreasing temperature. The average chain length of the calcium silicate hydrate ascertained by magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy increased with increasing temperature.« less

  8. Ionic Substitutions in Non-Apatitic Calcium Phosphates

    PubMed Central

    Laskus, Aleksandra; Kolmas, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Calcium phosphate materials (CaPs) are similar to inorganic part of human mineralized tissues (i.e., bone, enamel, and dentin). Owing to their high biocompatibility, CaPs, mainly hydroxyapatite (HA), have been investigated for their use in various medical applications. One of the most widely used ways to improve the biological and physicochemical properties of HA is ionic substitution with trace ions. Recent developments in bioceramics have already demonstrated that introducing foreign ions is also possible in other CaPs, such as tricalcium phosphates (amorphous as well as α and β crystalline forms) and brushite. The purpose of this paper is to review recent achievements in the field of non-apatitic CaPs substituted with various ions. Particular attention will be focused on tricalcium phosphates (TCP) and “additives” such as magnesium, zinc, strontium, and silicate ions, all of which have been widely investigated thanks to their important biological role. This review also highlights some of the potential biomedical applications of non-apatitic substituted CaPs. PMID:29186932

  9. Comparative study on in vitro biocompatibility of synthetic octacalcium phosphate and calcium phosphate ceramics used clinically.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Shinji; Anada, Takahisa; Honda, Yoshitomo; Suzuki, Osamu

    2012-08-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the extent to which calcium phosphate bone substitute materials, including osteoconductive octacalcium phosphate (OCP), display cytotoxic and inflammatory responses based on their dissolution in vitro. Hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ceramics, which are clinically used, as well as dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and synthesized OCP were compared. The materials were well characterized by chemical analysis, x-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Calcium and phosphate ion concentrations and the pH of culture media after immersion of the materials were determined. The colony forming rate of Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts was estimated with extraction of the materials. Proliferation of bone marrow stromal ST-2 cells and inflammatory cytokine TNF-α production by THP-1 cells grown on the material-coated plates were examined. The materials had characteristics that corresponded to those reported. DCPD was shown to dissolve the most in the culture media, with a marked increase in phosphate ion concentration and a reduction in pH. ST-2 cells proliferated well on the materials, with the exception of DCPD, which markedly inhibited cellular growth. The colony forming capacity was the lowest on DCPD, while that of the other calcium phosphates was not altered. In contrast, TNF-α was not detected even in cells grown on DCPD, suggesting that calcium phosphate materials are essentially non-inflammatory, while the solubility of the materials can affect osteoblastic and fibroblastic cellular attachment. These results indicate that OCP is biocompatible, which is similar to the materials used clinically, such as HA. Therefore, OCP could be clinically used as a biocompatible bone substitute material.

  10. A Comparative Evaluation of the Mechanical Properties of Two Calcium Phosphate/Collagen Composite Materials and Their Osteogenic Effects on Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Wang, Tong; Zhang, Gui-feng; Yu, Xin; Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Gang; Tang, Zhi-hui

    2016-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are ideal seed cells for use in bone tissue engineering and they have many advantages over other stem cells. In this study, two kinds of calcium phosphate/collagen composite scaffolds were prepared and their effects on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs were investigated. The hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP) composite scaffolds (HTPSs), which have an additional β-tricalcium phosphate, resulted in better proliferation of ADSCs and showed osteogenesis-promoting effects. Therefore, such composite scaffolds, in combination with ADSCs or on their own, would be promising for use in bone regeneration and potential clinical therapy for bone defects. PMID:27239204

  11. Scaffolds with a standardized macro-architecture fabricated from several calcium phosphate ceramics using an indirect rapid prototyping technique

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, C. E.; van Blitterswijk, C. A.; Verbout, A. J.; de Bruijn, J. D.

    2010-01-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics, commonly applied as bone graft substitutes, are a natural choice of scaffolding material for bone tissue engineering. Evidence shows that the chemical composition, macroporosity and microporosity of these ceramics influences their behavior as bone graft substitutes and bone tissue engineering scaffolds but little has been done to optimize these parameters. One method of optimization is to place focus on a particular parameter by normalizing the influence, as much as possible, of confounding parameters. This is difficult to accomplish with traditional fabrication techniques. In this study we describe a design based rapid prototyping method of manufacturing scaffolds with virtually identical macroporous architectures from different calcium phosphate ceramic compositions. Beta-tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite (at two sintering temperatures) and biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds were manufactured. The macro- and micro-architectures of the scaffolds were characterized as well as the influence of the manufacturing method on the chemistries of the calcium phosphate compositions. The structural characteristics of the resulting scaffolds were remarkably similar. The manufacturing process had little influence on the composition of the materials except for the consistent but small addition of, or increase in, a beta-tricalcium phosphate phase. Among other applications, scaffolds produced by the method described provide a means of examining the influence of different calcium phosphate compositions while confidently excluding the influence of the macroporous structure of the scaffolds. PMID:21069558

  12. A novel biphasic calcium phosphate derived from fish otoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montañez-Supelano, N. D.; Sandoval-Amador, A.; Estupiñan-Durán, H. A.; Y Peña-Ballesteros, D.

    2017-12-01

    Calcium phosphates are bioceramics that have been widely used as bone substitutes because they encourage the formation of bone on their surface and can improve the healing of the bone. Hydroxyapatite HA (calcium/phosphorus ratio of 1.67) and tricalcium phosphate TCP (calcium/phosphorus ratio of 1.50) are the most common calcium phosphates. Natural materials have begun to be tested to make HA or TCP such as shells of cardiidae (family of mollusks) and eggshells. The calcium phosphate obtained has a high ability to precipitate apatite. In this work, the mixed phase ceramic of beta-Tri-calcium phosphate / hydroxyapatite (β-TCP/HA) was synthesized by aqueous precipitation from fish otoliths, which are monomineralic species composed of aragonite. Otoliths of the specie Plagioscion squamosissimus, commonly called the river croaker, were used. Techniques such as DRX, Raman spectroscopy and SEM-EDS were used to characterize the raw material and the obtained material. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the presence of two crystalline phases of calcium phosphates with 86.2% crystallinity. SEM micrographs showed agglomeration of particles with porous structure and submicron particle sizes.

  13. [Biodiversity of phosphate-dissolving and plant growth--promoting endophytic bacteria of two crops].

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Sheng, Xiafang; He, Linyan

    2010-06-01

    We isolated and characterized phosphate-dissolving endophytic bacteria from two commonly cultivated crops. Phosphate-dissolving endophytic bacteria were isolated by plating and screening from interior tissues of rape and maize plants on NBRIP medium with tricalcium phosphate as sole phosphate source. Bacteria were characterized regarding characteristics that may be relevant for a beneficial plant-microbe interaction-indoleacetic acid, siderophore and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase production,and further classified by restriction analysis of 16S rDNA. Eleven typical strains were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Thirty-two phosphate-dissolving endophytic bacteria were isolated from maize and rape plants and classified by restriction analysis of 16S rDNA in 8 different taxonomic groups at the similarity level of 76%. All the isolates could release phosphate from tricalcium phosphate and decrease the pH of the medium. The maximum phosphate content (537.6 mg/L) in the solution was obtained with strain M1L5. Thirteen isolates isolated from rape produced indoleacetic acid and siderophore, 68.4% and 63.2% of the strains isolated from maize produced indoleacetic acid and siderophore,respectively. 63.2% of the strains isolated from maize were able to grow on 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid as the sole nitrogen source. The eleven strains belonged to five different genera including Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, Acinetobacter and Ralstonia. Phosphate-dissolving endophytic bacteria isolated from rape and maize plants have abundant characteristics relative to promoting plant growth and genetic diversity.

  14. Mechanical properties of experimental composites with different calcium phosphates fillers.

    PubMed

    Okulus, Zuzanna; Voelkel, Adam

    2017-09-01

    Calcium phosphates (CaPs)-containing composites have already shown good properties from the point of view of dental restorative materials. The purpose of this study was to examine the crucial mechanical properties of twelve hydroxyapatite- or tricalcium phosphate-filled composites. The raw and surface-treated forms of both CaP fillers were applied. As a reference materials two experimental glass-containing composites and one commercial dental restorative composite were applied. Nano-hardness, elastic modulus, compressive, flexural and diametral tensile strength of all studied materials were determined. Application of statistical methods (one-way analysis of variance and cluster agglomerative analysis) allowed for assessing the similarities between examined materials according to the values of studied parameters. The obtained results show that in almost all cases the mechanical properties of experimental CaPs-composites are comparable or even better than mechanical properties of examined reference materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Bioactivity of calcium phosphate bioceramic coating fabricated by laser cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yizhi; Liu, Qibin; Xu, Peng; Li, Long; Jiang, Haibing; Bai, Yang

    2016-05-01

    There were always strong expectations for suitable biomaterials used for bone regeneration. In this study, to improve the biocompatiblity of titanium alloy, calcium phosphate bioceramic coating was obtained by laser cladding technology. The microstructure, phases, bioactivity, cell differentiation, morphology and resorption lacunae were investigated by optical microscope (OM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and scanning electronic microscope (SEM), respectively. The results show that bioceramic coating consists of three layers, which are a substrate, an alloyed layer and a ceramic layer. Bioactive phases of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA) were found in ceramic coating. Osteoclast precursors have excellent proliferation on the bioceramic surface. The bioceramics coating could be digested by osteoclasts, which led to the resorption lacunae formed on its surface. It revealed that the gradient bioceramic coating has an excellent bioactivity.

  16. Modified tricalcium silicate cement formulations with added zirconium oxide.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Yoshihara, Kumiko; De Munck, Jan; Cokic, Stevan; Pongprueksa, Pong; Putzeys, Eveline; Pedano, Mariano; Chen, Zhi; Van Landuyt, Kirsten; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of modifying tricalcium silicate (TCS) cements on three key properties by adding ZrO 2 . TCS powders were prepared by adding ZrO 2 at six different concentrations. The powders were mixed with 1 M CaCl 2 solution at a 3:1 weight ratio. Biodentine (contains 5 wt.% ZrO 2 ) served as control. To evaluate the potential effect on mechanical properties, the mini-fracture toughness (mini-FT) was measured. Regarding bioactivity, Ca release was assessed using ICP-AES. The component distribution within the cement matrix was evaluated by Feg-SEM/EPMA. Cytotoxicity was assessed using an XTT assay. Adding ZrO 2 to TCS did not alter the mini-FT (p = 0.52), which remained in range of that of Biodentine (p = 0.31). Ca release from TSC cements was slightly lower than that from Biodentine at 1 day (p > 0.05). After 1 week, Ca release from TCS 30 and TCS 50 increased to a level that was significantly higher than that from Biodentine (p < 0.05). After 1 month, Ca release all decreased (p < 0.05), yet TCS 0 and TCS 50 released comparable amounts of Ca as at 1 day (p > 0.05). EPMA revealed a more even distribution of ZrO 2 within the TCS cements. Particles with an un-reacted core were surrounded by a hydration zone. The 24-, 48-, and 72-h extracts of TCS 50 were the least cytotoxic. ZrO 2 can be added to TCS without affecting the mini-FT; Ca release was reduced initially, to reach a prolonged release thereafter; adding ZrO 2 made TCS cements more biocompatible. TCS 50 is a promising cement formulation to serve as a biocompatible hydraulic calcium silicate cement.

  17. Three-dimensional culture of dental pulp stem cells in direct contact to tricalcium silicate cements.

    PubMed

    Widbiller, M; Lindner, S R; Buchalla, W; Eidt, A; Hiller, K-A; Schmalz, G; Galler, K M

    2016-03-01

    Calcium silicate cements are biocompatible dental materials applicable in contact with vital tissue. The novel tricalcium silicate cement Biodentine™ offers properties superior to commonly used mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Objective of this study was to evaluate its cytocompatibility and ability to induce differentiation and mineralization in three-dimensional cultures of dental pulp stem cells after direct contact with the material. Test materials included a new tricalcium silicate (Biodentine™, Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France), MTA (ProRoot® MTA, DENSPLY Tulsa Dental Specialities, Johnson City, TN, USA), glass ionomer (Ketac™ Molar Aplicap™, 3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany), human dentin disks and polystyrene. Magnetic activated cell sorting for to the surface antigen STRO-1 was performed to gain a fraction enriched with mesenchymal stem cells. Samples were allowed to set and dental pulp stem cells in collagen carriers were placed on top. Scanning electron microscopy of tricalcium silicate cement surfaces with and without cells was conducted. Cell viability was measured for 14 days by MTT assay. Alkaline phosphatase activity was evaluated (days 3, 7, and 14) and expression of mineralization-associated genes (COL1A1, ALP, DSPP, and RUNX2) was quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. Nonparametric statistical analysis for cell viability and alkaline phosphatase data was performed to compare different materials as well as time points (Mann-Whitney U test, α = 0.05). Cell viability was highest on tricalcium silicate cement, followed by MTA. Viability on glass ionomer cement and dentin disks was significantly lower. Alkaline phosphatase activity was lower in cells on new tricalcium silicate cement compared to MTA, whereas expression patterns of marker genes were alike. Increased cell viability and similar levels of mineralization-associated gene expression in three-dimensional cell cultures on the novel tricalcium silicate cement and mineral

  18. Optimization of calcium phosphate fine ceramic powders preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezanova, K.; Tepavitcharova, S.; Rabadjieva, D.; Gergulova, R.; Ilieva, R.

    2013-12-01

    The effect of biomimetic synthesis method, reaction medium and further precursor treatments on the chemical and phase composition, crystal size and morphology of calcium phosphates was examined. Nanosized calcium phosphate precursors were biomimetically precipitated by the method of continuous precipitation in three types of reaction media at pH 8: (i) SBF as an inorganic electrolyte system; (ii) organic (glycerine) modified SBF (volume ratio of 1:1); (iii) polymer (10 g/l xanthan gum or 10 g/l guar gum) modified SBF (volume ratio of 1:1). After maturation (24 h) the samples were lyophilized, calcinated at 300°C for 3 hours, and washed with water, followed by new gelation, lyophilization and step-wise (200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000°C, each for 3 hours) sintering. The reaction medium influenced the chemical composition and particle size but not the morphology of the calcium phosphate powders. In all studied cases bi-phase calcium phosphate fine powders with well-shaped spherical grains, consisting of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA) with a Ca/P ratio of 1.3 - 1.6 were obtained. The SBF modifiers decreased the particle size of the product in the sequence guar gum ˜ xanthan gum < glycerin < SBF medium.

  19. Biomimetic fabrication of antibacterial calcium phosphates mediated by polydopamine.

    PubMed

    Forte, Lucia; Torricelli, Paola; Bonvicini, Francesca; Boanini, Elisa; Gentilomi, Giovanna Angela; Lusvardi, Gigliola; Della Bella, Elena; Fini, Milena; Vecchio Nepita, Edoardo; Bigi, Adriana

    2018-01-01

    In this work we developed new antibacterial composite materials using polydopamine (PDA) to trigger the deposition of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) onto calcium phosphates, namely octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and α-tricalcium phosphate (αTCP). Functionalization of OCP and αTCP with a self-polymerized polydopamine layer was obtained by soaking the calcium phosphates in dopamine solution. The PDA surface of functionalized calcium phosphates (OCPd and αTCPd) promoted the deposition of AgNPs by reducing silver ions when soaked in a silver nitrate solution. The amount of deposited AgNPs can be modulated by varying the concentration of silver nitrate solution and the type of substrate. The results of in vitro tests carried out with osteoblast-like MG63 cells indicate that the combination of AgNPs with OCP provides more biocompatible materials than those obtained using αTCP as substrate. In particular, the study of osteoblast activity and differentiation was focused on the samples OCPdAg5 (silver content=8.2wt%) and αTCPdAg5 (silver content=4.7wt%), which did not show any cytotoxicity, and compared with those obtained on pure OCP and αTCP. The results demonstrate that the AgNPs loaded materials support osteoblast viability and differentiation, whereas they significantly inhibit the growth of relevant antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fiber-enriched double-setting calcium phosphate bone cement.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Luís Alberto; Carrodéguas, Raúl Garcia; Boschi, Anselmo Ortega; Fonseca de Arruda, Antônio Celso

    2003-05-01

    Calcium phosphate bone cements are useful in orthopedics and traumatology, their main advantages being their biocompatibility and bioactivity, which render bone tissue osteoconductive, providing in situ hardening and easy handling. However, their low mechanical strength, which, in the best of cases, is equal to the trabecular bone, and their very low toughness are disadvantages. Calcium phosphate cement compositions with mechanical properties more closely resembling those of human bone would broaden the range of applications, which is currently limited to sites subjected to low loads. This study investigated the influence of added polypropylene, nylon, and carbon fibers on the mechanical properties of double setting alpha-tricalcium phosphate-based cement, using calcium phosphate cement added to an in situ polymerizable acrylamide-based system recently developed by the authors. Although the addition of fibers was found to reduce the compression strength of the double-setting calcium phosphate cement because of increased porosity, it strongly increased the cement's toughness (J(IC)) and tensile strength. The composites developed in this work, therefore, have a potential application in shapes subjected to flexure. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Preparation and Properties of Nanoparticles of Calcium Phosphates With Various Ca/P Ratios.

    PubMed

    Sun, Limin; Chow, Laurence C; Frukhtbeyn, Stanislav A; Bonevich, John E

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at preparing and studying the properties of nanoparticles of calcium phosphate (nCaP) with Ca/P ratios ranging from 1.0 to 1.67 using a spray-drying technique. Micro-structural analyses suggested that the nCaPs with Ca/P ratios of 1.67 to 1.33 were nano-sized amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) containing varying amounts of acid phosphate and carbonate. The nCaP with Ca/P ratio of 1 contained only nano-sized low crystalline dicalcium phosphate (DCP). BET measurements of the nCaPs showed specific surface areas of (12 ± 2 to 50 ± 1) m(2)/g, corresponding to estimated equivalent spherical diameters of (38 to 172) nm. However, dynamic light scattering measurements revealed much larger particles of (380 ± 49 to 768 ± 111) nm, owing to agglomeration of the smaller primary nano particles as revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thermodynamic solubility measurements showed that the nCaPs with Ca/P ratio of 1.33 - 1.67 all have similar solubility behavior. The materials were more soluble than the crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) at pH greater than about 4.7, and more soluble than β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and DCP at pH above 5.5. Their solubility approached that of α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) at about pH 7. These nCaPs, which cannot be readily prepared by other currently available methods for nanoparticle preparation, have potential biomedical applications.

  2. Preparation and Properties of Nanoparticles of Calcium Phosphates With Various Ca/P Ratios

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Limin; Chow, Laurence C.; Frukhtbeyn, Stanislav A.; Bonevich, John E.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at preparing and studying the properties of nanoparticles of calcium phosphate (nCaP) with Ca/P ratios ranging from 1.0 to 1.67 using a spray-drying technique. Micro-structural analyses suggested that the nCaPs with Ca/P ratios of 1.67 to 1.33 were nano-sized amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) containing varying amounts of acid phosphate and carbonate. The nCaP with Ca/P ratio of 1 contained only nano-sized low crystalline dicalcium phosphate (DCP). BET measurements of the nCaPs showed specific surface areas of (12 ± 2 to 50 ± 1) m2/g, corresponding to estimated equivalent spherical diameters of (38 to 172) nm. However, dynamic light scattering measurements revealed much larger particles of (380 ± 49 to 768 ± 111) nm, owing to agglomeration of the smaller primary nano particles as revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thermodynamic solubility measurements showed that the nCaPs with Ca/P ratio of 1.33 – 1.67 all have similar solubility behavior. The materials were more soluble than the crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) at pH greater than about 4.7, and more soluble than β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and DCP at pH above 5.5. Their solubility approached that of α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) at about pH 7. These nCaPs, which cannot be readily prepared by other currently available methods for nanoparticle preparation, have potential biomedical applications. PMID:21037948

  3. Synthesis of spherical calcium phosphate particles for dental and orthopedic applications

    PubMed Central

    Bohner, Marc; Tadier, Solène; van Garderen, Noémie; de Gasparo, Alex; Döbelin, Nicola; Baroud, Gamal

    2013-01-01

    Calcium phosphate materials have been used increasingly in the past 40 years as bone graft substitutes in the dental and orthopedic fields. Accordingly, numerous fabrication methods have been proposed and used. However, the controlled production of spherical calcium phosphate particles remains a challenge. Since such particles are essential for the synthesis of pastes and cements delivered into the host bone by minimally-invasive approaches, the aim of the present document is to review their synthesis and applications. For that purpose, production methods were classified according to the used reagents (solutions, slurries, pastes, powders), dispersion media (gas, liquid, solid), dispersion tools (nozzle, propeller, sieve, mold), particle diameters of the end product (from 10 nm to 10 mm), and calcium phosphate phases. Low-temperature calcium phosphates such as monetite, brushite or octacalcium phosphate, as well as high-temperature calcium phosphates, such as hydroxyapatite, β-tricalcium phosphate or tetracalcium phosphate, were considered. More than a dozen production methods and over hundred scientific publications were discussed. PMID:23719177

  4. Phosphate Solubilization Potentials of Rhizosphere Isolates from Central Anatolia (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogut, M.; Er, F.

    2009-04-01

    Plant available-phosphorus (P) is usually low in Anatolian soils due mainly to the precipitation as calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) phosphates in alkaline conditions. Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) can enhance plant P-availability by dissolving the hardly soluble-P within the rhizosphere, which is the zone that surrounds the plant roots. PSM's can be used as seed- or soil-inocula to increase plant P-uptake and the overall growth. A total of 162 PSM's were isolated from the rhizosphere of wheat plants excavated from different fields located along a 75 km part of a highway in Turkey. The mean, the standart deviation, and the median for solubilized-P (ppm) in a 24 h culture in a tricalcium phosphate broth were 681, 427, and 400 for glucose; 358, 266, and 236 for sucrose; and 102, 117, and 50 for starch, respectively. There was not a linear relationship between the phosphate solubilized in the liquid cultures and the solubilization index obtained in the Pikovskaya's agar. Nine isolates representing both weak and strong solubilizers [Bacillus megaterium (5), Bacillus pumilis (1), Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolica (1), Pseudomonas fluorescens (1), Arthrobacter aurescens (1) as determined by the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis] were further studied in a five day incubation. Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolica solubilized statistically (P<0.05) higher phosphate (409 ppm) than all the other strains did. There was not a statistically significant (P<0.05) difference in solubilized-P among the Bacillus strains. The pH of the medium fell to the levels between 4 and 5 from the initial neutrality. The phosphate solubilizing strains variably produced gluconic, 2-keto-D-gluconic, glycolic, acetic and butyric acids. The organic acids produced by these microorganisms seem to be the major source of phosphate solubilization in vitro.

  5. Study on different characteristics of doped tri calcium phosphate at different sintering temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Samanta, Sujan Krishna, E-mail: itssujan@rediffmail.com; Chanda, Abhijit, E-mail: abhijitchanda.biomed@gmail.com

    2016-04-13

    Pure β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), Zn-doped (3wt %) β-TCP and Mg- doped (3wt %) β-TCP samples were prepared by using a wet chemical precipitation synthesis technique, followed by calcination at 800 °C in air. The developed materials were subjected to sintering at different temperatures. Density and porosity were compared. The X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR) spectrometer were used to examine the changes in crystalline phases and presence of functional groups of TCP ceramics. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study the pore formation, pore size, grain size.

  6. Osteoblast adhesion on novel machinable calcium phosphate/lanthanum phosphate composites for orthopedic applications.

    PubMed

    Ergun, Celaletdin; Liu, Huinan; Webster, Thomas J

    2009-06-01

    Lanthanum phosphate (LaPO(4), LP) was combined with either hydroxyapatite (HA) or tricalcium phosphate (TCP) to form novel composites for orthopedic applications. In this study, these composites were prepared by wet chemistry synthesis and subsequent powder mixing. These HA/LP and TCP/LP composites were characterized in terms of phase stability and microstructure evolution during sintering using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Their machinability was evaluated using a direct drilling test. For HA/LP composites, LP reacted with HA during sintering and formed a new phase, Ca(8)La(2)(PO(4))(6)O(2), as a reaction by-product. However, TCP/LP composites showed phase stability and the formation of a weak interface between TCP and LP machinability when sintered at 1100 degrees C, which is crucial for achieving desirable properties. Thus, these novel TCP/LP composites fulfilled the requirements for machinability, a key consideration for manufacturing orthopedic implants. Moreover, the biocompatibility of these novel LP composites was studied, for the first time, in this paper. In vitro cell culture tests demonstrated that the LP and its composites supported osteoblast (bone-forming cell) adhesion similar to natural bioceramics (such as HA and TCP). In conclusion, these novel LP composites should be further studied and developed for more effectively treating bone related diseases or injuries. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Preparation of in situ hardening composite microcarriers: Calcium phosphate cement combined with alginate for bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung-Hui; Lee, Eun-Jung; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2014-01-01

    Novel microcarriers consisting of calcium phosphate cement and alginate were prepared for use as three-dimensional scaffolds for the culture and expansion of cells that are effective for bone tissue engineering. The calcium phosphate cement-alginate composite microcarriers were produced by an emulsification of the composite aqueous solutions mixed at varying ratios (calcium phosphate cement powder/alginate solution = 0.8–1.2) in an oil bath and the subsequent in situ hardening of the compositions during spherodization. Moreover, a porous structure could be easily created in the solid microcarriers by soaking the produced microcarriers in water and a subsequent freeze-drying process. Bone mineral-like apatite nanocrystallites were shown to rapidly develop on the calcium phosphate cement–alginate microcarriers under moist conditions due to the conversion of the α-tricalcium phosphate phase in the calcium phosphate cement into a carbonate–hydroxyapatite. Osteoblastic cells cultured on the microspherical scaffolds were proven to be viable, with an active proliferative potential during 14 days of culture, and their osteogenic differentiation was confirmed by the determination of alkaline phosphatase activity. The in situ hardening calcium phosphate cement–alginate microcarriers developed herein may be used as potential three-dimensional scaffolds for cell delivery and tissue engineering of bone. PMID:23836845

  8. Phosphate Solubilization Potential and Phosphatase Activity Of Rhizospheric Trichoderma Spp.

    PubMed Central

    Anil, Kapri; Lakshmi, Tewari

    2010-01-01

    Trichoderma sp., a well known biological control agent against several phytopathogens, was tested for its phosphate (P) solubilizing potential. Fourteen strains of Trichoderma sp. were isolated from the forest tree rhizospheres of pinus, deodar, bamboo, guava and oak on Trichoderma selective medium. The isolates were tested for their in-vitro P-solubilizing potential using National Botanical Research Institute Phosphate (NBRIP) broth containing tricalcium phosphate (TCP) as the sole P source, and compared with a standard culture of T. harzianum. All the cultures were found to solubilize TCP but with varying potential. The isolate DRT-1 showed maximum amount of soluble phosphate (404.07 εg.ml-1), followed by the standard culture of T. harzianum (386.42 εg.ml-1) after 96 h of incubation at 30±10C. Extra-cellular acid and alkaline phosphatases of the fungus were induced only in the presence of insoluble phosphorus source (TCP). High extra-cellular alkaline phosphatase activity was recorded for the isolate DRT-1 (14.50 U.ml-1) followed by the standard culture (13.41 U.ml-1) at 72h. The cultures showed much lesser acid phosphatase activities. Under glasshouse conditions, Trichoderma sp. inoculation increased chickpea (Cicer arietinum) growth parameters including shoot length, root length, fresh and dry weight of shoot as well as roots, in P-deficient soil containing only bound phosphate (TCP). Shoot weight was increased by 23% and 33% by inoculation with the isolate DRT-1 in the soil amended with 100 and 200 mg TCP kg-1 soil, respectively, after 60 d of sowing. The study explores high P-solubilizing potential of Trichoderma sp., which can be exploited for the solubilization of fixed phosphates present in the soil, thereby enhancing soil fertility and plant growth. PMID:24031556

  9. Probing the limit of magnesium uptake by β-tricalcium phosphate in biphasic mixtures formed from calcium deficient apatites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P. Nandha; Mishra, Sandeep K.; Kannan, S.

    2015-11-01

    A series of magnesium doped non-stoichiometric calcium deficient apatites were synthesized through an aqueous precipitation route. The resultant structural changes during heat treatment were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy and Rietveld refinement. The results confirmed the formation of biphasic mixtures comprising Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 and β-Ca3(PO4)2 after heat treatment at 1000 °C with the preferential occupancy of Mg2+ at the crystal lattice of β-Ca3(PO4)2. The concentration of Mg2+ uptake in β-Ca3(PO4)2 is limited till reaching the stoichiometric ratio of (Ca+Mg)/P=1.67 and beyond this stoichiometric value [(Ca+Mg)/P>1.67], Mg2+ precipitates as Mg(OH)2 and thereafter gets converted to MgO during heat treatment. Any kind of Mg2+ uptake in the crystal lattice of Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 is discarded from the investigation.

  10. Probing the limit of magnesium uptake by β-tricalcium phosphate in biphasic mixtures formed from calcium deficient apatites

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, P. Nandha; Mishra, Sandeep K.; Kannan, S., E-mail: para_kanna@yahoo.com

    2015-11-15

    A series of magnesium doped non-stoichiometric calcium deficient apatites were synthesized through an aqueous precipitation route. The resultant structural changes during heat treatment were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy and Rietveld refinement. The results confirmed the formation of biphasic mixtures comprising Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2} and β-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} after heat treatment at 1000 °C with the preferential occupancy of Mg{sup 2+} at the crystal lattice of β-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}. The concentration of Mg{sup 2+} uptake in β-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} is limited till reaching the stoichiometric ratio of (Ca+Mg)/P=1.67 and beyond this stoichiometricmore » value [(Ca+Mg)/P>1.67], Mg{sup 2+} precipitates as Mg(OH){sub 2} and thereafter gets converted to MgO during heat treatment. Any kind of Mg{sup 2+} uptake in the crystal lattice of Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2} is discarded from the investigation. - Highlights: • Aqueous co-precipitation of calcium deficient apatites with excess magnesium (Mg{sup 2+}) additions. • Heat treatments beyond 800 °C results in the formation of biphasic apatite mixtures. • Mg{sup 2+} gets accommodated at the β-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} lattice of biphasic mixtures. • Mg{sup 2+} additions exceeding stoichiometric value (Ca/P>1.67) results in its formation as MgO. • Mg{sup 2+} occupancy at β-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} lattice delays its allotropic conversion α-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} till 1350 °C.« less

  11. Fabrication of polycaprolactone-silanated β-tricalcium phosphate-heparan sulfate scaffolds for spinal fusion applications.

    PubMed

    Bhakta, Gajadhar; Ekaputra, Andrew K; Rai, Bina; Abbah, Sunny A; Tan, Tuan Chun; Le, Bach Quang; Chatterjea, Anindita; Hu, Tao; Lin, Tingxuan; Arafat, M Tarik; van Wijnen, Andre J; Goh, James; Nurcombe, Victor; Bhakoo, Kishore; Birch, William; Xu, Li; Gibson, Ian; Wong, Hee-Kit; Cool, Simon M

    2018-05-01

    Interbody spinal fusion relies on the use of external fixation and the placement of a fusion cage filled with graft materials (scaffolds) without regard for their mechanical performance. Stability at the fusion site is instead reliant on fixation hardware combined with a selected cage. Ideally, scaffolds placed into the cage should both support the formation of new bone and contribute to the mechanical stability at the fusion site. We recently developed a scaffold consisting of silane-modified PCL-TCP (PCL-siTCP) with mechanical properties that can withstand the higher loads generated in the spine. To ensure the scaffold more closely mimicked the bone matrix, we incorporated collagen (Col) and a heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan sugar (HS3) with increased affinity for heparin-binding proteins such as bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). The osteostimulatory characteristic of this novel device delivering exogenous BMP2 was assessed in vitro and in vivo as a prelude to future spinal fusion studies with this device. A combination of cell-free assays (BMP2 release), progenitor cell-based assays (BMP2 bioactivity, cell proliferation and differentiation), and rodent ectopic bone formation assays was used to assess the osteostimulatory characteristics of the PCL-siTCP-based scaffolds. Freshly prepared rat mesenchymal stem cells were used to determine reparative cell proliferation and differentiation on the PCL-siTCP-based scaffolds over a 28-day period in vitro. The bioactivity of BMP2 released from the scaffolds was assessed on progenitor cells over a 28-day period using ALP activity assays and release kinetics as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For ectopic bone formation, intramuscular placement of scaffolds into Sprague Dawley rats (female, 4 weeks old, 120-150 g) was achieved in five animals, each receiving four treatments randomized for location along the limb. The four groups tested were (1) PCL-siTCP/Col (5-mm diameter×1-mm thickness), PCL-siTCP/Col/BMP2 (5 µg), (3) PCL-siTCP/Col/HS3 (25 µg), and (4) PCL-siTCP/Col/HS3/BMP2 (25 and 5 µg, respectively). Bone formation was evaluated at 8 weeks post implantation by microcomputed tomography (µCT) and histology. Progenitor cell-based assays (proliferation, mRNA transcripts, and ALP activity) confirmed that BMP2 released from PCL-siTCP/Col/HS3 scaffolds increased ALP expression and mRNA levels of the osteogenic biomarkers Runx2, Col1a2, ALP, and bone gla protein-osteocalcin compared with devices without HS3. When the PCL-siTCP/Col/HS3/BMP2 scaffolds were implanted into rat hamstring muscle, increased bone formation (as determined by two-dimensional and three-dimensional µCTs and histologic analyses) was observed compared with scaffolds lacking BMP2. More consistent increases in the amount of ectopic bone were observed for the PCL-siTCP/Col/HS3/BMP2 implants compared with PCL-siTCP/Col/BMP2. Also, increased mineralizing tissue within the pores of the scaffold was seen with modified-tetrachrome histology, a result confirmed by µCT, and a modest but detectable increase in both the number and the thickness of ectopic bone structures were observed with the PCL-siTCP/Col/HS3/BMP2 implants. The combination of PCL-siTCP/Col/HS3/BMP2 thus represents a promising avenue for further development as a bone graft alternative for spinal fusion surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. β-Tricalcium phosphate/poly(glycerol sebacate) scaffolds with robust mechanical property for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai; Zhang, Jing; Ma, Xiaoyu; Ma, Yifan; Kan, Chao; Ma, Haiyan; Li, Yulin; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Changsheng

    2015-11-01

    Despite good biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, porous β-TCP scaffolds still lack the structural stability and mechanical robustness, which greatly limit their application in the field of bone regeneration. The hybridization of β-TCP with conventional synthetic biodegradable PLA and PCL only produced a limited toughening effect due to the plasticity of the polymers in nature. In this study, a β-TCP/poly(glycerol sebacate) scaffold (β-TCP/PGS) with well interconnected porous structure and robust mechanical property was prepared. Porous β-TCP scaffold was first prepared with polyurethane sponge as template and then impregnated into PGS pre-polymer solution with moderate viscosity, followed by in situ heat crosslinking and freezing-drying process. The results indicated that the freezing-drying under vacuum process could further facilitate crosslinking of PGS and formation of Ca(2+)-COO(-) ionic complexing and thus synergistically improved the mechanical strength of the β-TCP/PGS with in situ heat crosslinking. Particularly, the β-TCP/PGS with 15% PGS content after heat crosslinking at 130°C and freezing-drying at -50°C under vacuum exhibited an elongation at break of 375±25% and a compressive strength of 1.73MPa, 3.7-fold and 200-fold enhancement compared to the β-TCP, respectively. After the abrupt drop of compressive load, the β-TCP/PGS scaffolds exhibited a full recovery of their original shape. More importantly, the PGS polymer in the β-TCP/PGS scaffolds could direct the biomineralization of Ca/P from particulate shape into a nanofiber-interweaved structure. Furthermore, the β-TCP/PGS scaffolds allowed for cell penetration and proliferation, indicating a good cytobiocompatibility. It is believed that β-TCP/PGS scaffolds have great potential application in rigid tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation for rock phosphate solubilization in fermentation and soil-plant system using a stress-tolerant phosphate-solubilizing Aspergillus niger WHAK1.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chunqiao; Zhang, Huaxiang; Fang, Yujuan; Chi, Ruan

    2013-01-01

    A strain WHAK1, identified as Aspergillus niger, was isolated from Yichang phosphate mines in Hubei province of China. The fungus developed a phosphate solubilization zone on modified National Botanical Research Institute's phosphate growth (NBRIP) agar medium, supplemented with tricalcium phosphate. The fungus was applied in a repeated-batch fermentation process in order to test its effect on solubilization of rock phosphate (RP). The results showed that A. niger WHAK1 could effectively solubilize RP in NBRIP liquid medium and released soluble phosphate in the broth, which can be illustrated by the observation of scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Acidification of the broth seemed to be the major mechanism for RP solubilization by the fungus. Indeed, multiple organic acids (mainly gluconic acid) were detected in the broth by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. These organic acids caused a significant drop of pH and an obvious rise of titratable acidity in the broth. The fungus also exhibited high levels of tolerance against temperature, pH, salinity, and desiccation stresses, although a significant decline in the fungal growth and release of soluble phosphate was marked under increasing intensity of stress parameters. Further, the fungus was introduced into the soil supplemented with RP to analyze its effect on plant growth and phosphate uptake of wheat plants. The result revealed that inoculation of A. niger WHAK1 significantly increased the growth and phosphate uptake of wheat plants in the RP-amended soil compared to the control soil.

  14. Method of coating a substrate with a calcium phosphate compound

    DOEpatents

    Gao, Yufei; Campbell, Allison A.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a method of coating a substrate with a calcium phosphate compound using plasma enhanced MOCVD. The substrate is a solid material that may be porous or non-porous, including but not limited to metal, ceramic, glass and combinations thereof. The coated substrate is preferably used as an implant, including but not limited to orthopaedic, dental and combinations thereof. Calcium phosphate compound includes but is not limited to tricalcium phosphate (TCP), hydroxyapatite (HA) and combinations thereof. TCP is preferred on a titanium implant when implant resorbability is desired. HA is preferred when the bone bonding of new bone tissue into the structure of the implant is desired. Either or both of TCP and/or HA coated implants may be placed into a solution with an agent selected from the group of protein, antibiotic, antimicrobial, growth factor and combinations thereof that can be adsorbed into the coating before implantation. Once implanted, the release of TCP will also release the agent to improve growth of new bone tissues and/or to prevent infection.

  15. Mechanical properties of calcium phosphate scaffolds fabricated by robocasting.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Pedro; Pajares, Antonia; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P; Guiberteau, Fernando

    2008-04-01

    The mechanical behavior under compressive stresses of beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds fabricated by direct-write assembly (robocasting) technique is analyzed. Concentrated colloidal inks prepared from beta-TCP and HA commercial powders were used to fabricate porous structures consisting of a 3-D tetragonal mesh of interpenetrating ceramic rods. The compressive strength and elastic modulus of these model scaffolds were determined by uniaxial testing to compare the relative performance of the selected materials. The effect of a 3-week immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) on the strength of the scaffolds was also analyzed. The results are compared with those reported in the literature for calcium phosphate scaffolds and human bone. The robocast calcium phosphate scaffolds were found to exhibit excellent mechanical performances in terms of strength, especially the HA structures after SBF immersion, indicating a great potential of this type of scaffolds for use in load-bearing bone tissue engineering applications. Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Laser induced hierarchical calcium phosphate structures.

    PubMed

    Kurella, Anil; Dahotre, Narendra B

    2006-11-01

    The surface properties of biomedical implant materials control the dynamic interactions at tissue-implant interfaces. At such interfaces, if the nanoscale features influence protein interactions, those of the microscale and mesoscale aid cell orientation and provide tissue integration, respectively. It seems imperative that the synthetic materials expected to replace natural hard tissues are engineered to mimic the complexity of their hierarchical assembly. However, the current surface engineering approaches are single scaled. It is demonstrated that using laser surface engineering a controlled multiscale surface can be synthesized for bioactive functions. A systematic organization of bioactive calcium phosphate coating with multiphase composition on Ti-alloy substrate ranging from nano- to mesoscale has been achieved by effectively controlling the thermo physical interactions during laser processing. The morphology of the coating consisted of a periodic arrangement of Ti-rich and Ca-P-deficient star-like phases uniformly distributed inside a Ca-P-rich self-assembled cellular structure with the presence of CaO, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, CaTiO(3), TiO(2) and Ti phase in the coating matrix. The cellular structures ranged in diameter from 2.5 microm to 10 microm as an assembly of cuboid shaped particles of dimensions of approximately 200 nm x 1 microm. The multiscale texture also included nanoscale particles that are the precursors for many of these phases. The rapid cooling associated with the laser processing resulted in formation, organization and controlling dimensions of the Ca-P-rich glassy phase into a micron scale cellular morphology and submicron scale clusters of CaTiO(3) phase inside the cellular structures. The self-assembly of the coating into multiscale structure was influenced by chemical and physical interactions among the multiphases that evolved during laser processing.

  17. Microbial solubilization of phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, R.D.; Wolfram, J.H.

    1993-10-26

    A process is provided for solubilizing phosphate from phosphate containing ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of phosphate ore, microorganisms operable for solubilizing phosphate from the phosphate ore and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the microbial solubilization process. An aqueous solution containing soluble phosphorus can be separated from the reacted mixture by precipitation, solvent extraction, selective membrane, exchange resin or gravity methods to recover phosphate from the aqueous solution. 6 figures.

  18. Microbial solubilization of phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Robert D.; Wolfram, James H.

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for solubilizing phosphate from phosphate containing ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of phosphate ore, microorganisms operable for solubilizing phosphate from the phosphate ore and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the microbial solubilization process. An aqueous solution containing soluble phosphorous can be separated from the reacted mixture by precipitation, solvent extraction, selective membrane, exchange resin or gravity methods to recover phosphate from the aqueous solution.

  19. Crystal Analysis of Multi Phase Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles Containing Different amount of Magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozalian, Afsaneh; Behnamghader, Ali Asghar; Moshkforoush, Arash

    In this study, Mg doped hydroxyapatite [(Ca, Mg)10(PO4)6(OH)2] and β-tricalcium phosphate nanoparticles were synthesized via sol gel method. Triethyl phosphite, calcium nitrate tetrahydrate and magnesium nitrate hexahydrate were used as P, Ca and Mg precursors. The ratio of (Ca+Mg)/P and the amount of magnesium (x) were kept constant at 1.67 and ranging x = 0 up to 3 in molecular formula of Ca10-xMgx (PO4)6(OH)2, respectively. Phase composition and chemical structure were performed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). Phase percentages, crystallite size, degree of crystallinity and lattice parameters were investigated. The presence of magnesium led to form the Mg doped tricalcium phosphate (β-TCMP) and Mg doped hydroxyapatite (Mg-HA). Based on the results of this study, lattice parameters, degree of crystallinity and crystallite size decreased with magnesium content. In addition, with increasing magnesium content, the amount of CaO phase decreased whereas the amount of MgO phase increased significantly. Obtained results can be used for new biomaterials design.

  20. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003671.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a protein that helps ...

  1. Characterization of calcium phosphate coatings deposited by Nd:YAG laser ablation at 355 nm: influence of thickness.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pradas, J M; Clèries, L; Sardin, G; Morenza, J L

    2002-05-01

    Calcium phosphate coatings were deposited by pulsed laser ablation with a radiation of 355 nm from a Nd:YAG laser. All the coatings were obtained at the same conditions, but deposition was stopped after different number of pulses to get coatings with different thickness. The influence of thickness in the structural and mechanical properties of the coatings was investigated. Coatings structure was characterised by scanning electron microscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy. The mechanical properties were evaluated by scratch test. The morphology of the coatings is dominated by the presence of droplets. The coatings are composed mainly of hydroxyapatite, alpha tricalcium phosphate and amorphous calcium phosphate. Thinner coatings withstand higher loads of failure in the scratch test.

  2. Studying metal impurities (Mn2+, Cu2+, Fe3+) in calcium phosphates by electron paramagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskhakova, K.; Murzakhanov, F.; Mamin, G.; Putlyaev, V.; Klimashina, E.; Fadeeva, I.; Fomin, A.; Barinov, S.; Maltsev, A.; Bakhteev, S.; Yusupov, R.; Gafurov, M.; Orlinskii, S.

    2018-05-01

    Calcium phosphates (CaP) are exploited in many fields of science, including geology, chemistry, biology and medicine due to their abundance in the nature and presence in the living organism. Various analytical and biochemical methods are used for controlling their chemical content, structure, morphology, etc. Unfortunately, magnetic resonance techniques are usually not even considered as necessary tools for CaP inspection. Some aspects of application of the commercially realized electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) approaches for characterization of CaP powders and ceramics (including the nanosized materails) such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphates of biogenic and synthetic origins containing intrinsic impurities or intentional dopants are demonstrated. The key features and advantages of the EPR techniques for CaP based materials characterization that could compliment the data obtained with the recognized analytical methods are pointed out.

  3. Conservative approach of a symptomatic carious immature permanent tooth using a tricalcium silicate cement (Biodentine): a case report

    PubMed Central

    Grosgogeat, Brigitte; Seux, Dominique; Farge, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The restorative management of deep carious lesions and the preservation of pulp vitality of immature teeth present real challenges for dental practitioners. New tricalcium silicate cements are of interest in the treatment of such cases. This case describes the immediate management and the follow-up of an extensive carious lesion on an immature second right mandibular premolar. Following anesthesia and rubber dam isolation, the carious lesion was removed and a partial pulpotomy was performed. After obtaining hemostasis, the exposed pulp was covered with a tricalcium silicate cement (Biodentine, Septodont) and a glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX extra, GC Corp.) restoration was placed over the tricalcium silicate cement. A review appointment was arranged after seven days, where the tooth was asymptomatic with the patient reporting no pain during the intervening period. At both 3 and 6 mon follow up, it was noted that the tooth was vital, with normal responses to thermal tests. Radiographic examination of the tooth indicated dentin-bridge formation in the pulp chamber and the continuous root formation. This case report demonstrates a fast tissue response both at the pulpal and root dentin level. The use of tricalcium silicate cement should be considered as a conservative intervention in the treatment of symptomatic immature teeth. PMID:24303363

  4. Bioactivity tests of calcium phosphates with variant molar ratios of main components.

    PubMed

    Pluta, Klaudia; Sobczak-Kupiec, Agnieszka; Półtorak, Olga; Malina, Dagmara; Tyliszczak, Bożena

    2018-03-09

    Calcium phosphates constitute attractive materials of biomedical applications. Among them particular attention is devoted to bioactive hydroxyapatite (HAp) and bioresorbable tricalcium phosphate (TCP) that possess ability to bind to living bones and can be used clinically as important bone substitutes. Notably, in vivo bone bioactivity can be predicted from apatite formation of bone immersed in SBF fluids. Thus, analyses of behavior of calcium phosphates immersed in various bio fluids are of great importance. Recently, stoichiometric HAp and TCP structures have been widely studied, whereas only limited number of publications have been devoted to analyses of nonstoichiometric calcium phosphates. Here, we report physicochemical analysis of natural and synthetic phosphates with variable Ca/P molar ratios. Subsequently attained structures were subjected to incubation in either artificial saliva or Ringer's fluids. Both pH and conductivity of such fluids were determined before and after incubation. Furthermore, the influence of the Ca/P values on such parameters was exemplified. Physicochemical analysis of received materials was performed by XRD and FT-IR characterization techniques. Their potential antibacterial activity and behavior in the presence of infectious microorganisms as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was also evaluated. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Evaluation of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria for phosphate solubilization.

    PubMed

    Jayashree, Shanmugam; Vadivukkarasi, Ponnusamy; Anand, Kirupanithi; Kato, Yuko; Seshadri, Sundaram

    2011-08-01

    Thirteen pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic (PPFM) strains isolated from Adyar and Cooum rivers in Chennai and forest soil samples in Tamil Nadu, India, along with Methylobacterium extorquens, M. organophilum, M. gregans, and M. komagatae were screened for phosphate solubilization in plates. P-solubilization index of the PPFMs grown on NBRIP-BPB plates for 7 days ranged from 1.1 to 2.7. The growth of PPFMs in tricalcium phosphate amended media was found directly proportional to the glucose concentration. Higher phosphate solubilization was observed in four strains MSF 32 (415 mg l(-l)), MDW 80 (301 mg l(-l)), M. komagatae (279 mg l(-l)), and MSF 34 (202 mg l(-l)), after 7 days of incubation. A drop in the media pH from 6.6 to 3.4 was associated with an increase in titratable acidity. Acid phosphatase activity was more pronounced in the culture filtrate than alkaline phosphatase activity. Adherence of phosphate to densely grown bacterial surface was observed under scanning electron microscope after 7-day-old cultures. Biochemical characterization and screening for methanol dehydrogenase gene (mxaF) confirmed the strains as methylotrophs. The mxaF gene sequence from MSF 32 clustered towards M. lusitanum sp. with 99% similarity. This study forms the first detailed report on phosphate solubilization by the PPFMs.

  6. Quasielastic and inelastic neutron scattering study of the hydration of monoclinic and triclinic tricalcium silicate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Vanessa K.; Brown, Craig M.; Livingston, Richard A.

    2006-08-01

    The hydration of Mg-stabilized triclinic and monoclinic tricalcium silicate samples were studied using quasielastic neutron scattering to follow the fixation of hydrogen into the reaction products and by applying hydration models to the data. The quantity of Ca(OH) 2 produced during hydration was also determined using inelastic neutron scattering. The monoclinic form was found to be intrinsically less reactive that the triclinic form. The monoclinic form was also confirmed to produce more product than the triclinic form after 50 h, a process found to occur through a longer, rather than earlier, nucleation and growth regime. Results indicated an increase in the permeability of the hydration layer product relative to the triclinic form and the increase in the length of the nucleation and growth regime was thus attributed to an alteration in morphology or structure of the hydration layer product, extending the time for diffusion limited mechanics to be reached.

  7. Radiopacifier Particle Size Impacts the Physical Properties of Tricalcium Silicate–based Cements

    PubMed Central

    Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Gutmann, James L.; Orangi, Jafar; Asatourian, Armen; Sheibani, Nader

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of radiopaque additive, bismuth oxide, particle size on the physical properties, and radiopacity of tricalcium silicate–based cements. Methods Six types of tricalcium silicate cement (CSC) including CSC without bismuth oxide, CSC + 10% (wt%) regular bismuth oxide (particle size 10 μm), CSC + 20% regular bismuth oxide (simulating white mineral trioxide aggregate [WMTA]) as a control, CSC + 10% nano bismuth oxide (particle size 50–80 nm), CSC + 20% nano-size bismuth oxide, and nano WMTA (a nano modification of WMTA comprising nanoparticles in the range of 40–100 nm) were prepared. Twenty-four samples from each group were divided into 4 groups and subjected to push-out, surface microhardness, radiopacity, and compressive strength tests. Data were analyzed by 1-way analysis of variance with the post hoc Tukey test. Results The push-out and compressive strength of CSC without bismuth oxide and CSC with 10% and 20% nano bismuth oxide were significantly higher than CSC with 10% or 20% regular bismuth oxide (P < .05). The surface micro-hardness of CSC without bismuth oxide and CSC with 10% regular bismuth oxide had the lowest values (P < .05). The lowest radiopacity values were seen in CSC without bismuth oxide and CSC with 10% nano bismuth oxide (P < .05). Nano WMTA samples showed the highest values for all tested properties (P < .05) except for radiopacity. Conclusions The addition of 20% nano bismuth oxide enhanced the physical properties of CSC without any significant changes in radiopacity. Regular particle-size bismuth oxide reduced the physical properties of CSC material for tested parameters. PMID:25492489

  8. The thermal stability of hydroxyapatite in biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics.

    PubMed

    Nilen, R W N; Richter, P W

    2008-04-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics (BCP) comprising a mix of non-resorbable hydroxyapatite (HA) and resorbable beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) are particularly suitable materials for synthetic bone substitute applications. In this study, HA synthesised by solid state reaction was mechanically mixed with beta-TCP, then sintered to form a suite of BCP materials with a wide range of HA/beta-TCP phase content ratios. The influence of sintering temperature and composition on the HA thermal stability was quantified by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The pre-sinter beta-TCP content was found to strongly affect the post-sinter HA/beta-TCP ratio by promoting the thermal decomposition of HA to beta-TCP, even at sintering temperatures as low as 850 degrees C. For BCP material with pre-sinter HA/beta-TCP = 40/60 wt%, approximately 80% of the HA decomposed to beta-TCP during sintering at 1000 degrees C. Furthermore, the HA content appeared to influence the reverse transformation of alpha-TCP to beta-TCP expected upon gradual cooling from sintering temperatures greater than 1125 degrees C. Because the HA/beta-TCP ratio dominantly determines the rate and extent of BCP resorption in vivo, the possible thermal decomposition of HA during BCP synthesis must be considered, particularly if high temperature treatments are involved.

  9. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  10. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  11. Synthesis, characterization, and in-vitro cytocompatibility of amorphous β-tri-calcium magnesium phosphate ceramics.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satish S; Roy, Abhijit; Lee, Boeun; Banerjee, Ipsita; Kumta, Prashant N

    2016-10-01

    Biphasic mixtures of crystalline β-tricalcium magnesium phosphate (β-TCMP) and an amorphous calcium magnesium phosphate have been synthesized and reported to support enhanced hMSC differentiation in comparison to β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) due to the release of increased amounts of bioactive ions. In the current study, completely amorphous β-TCMP has been synthesized which is capable of releasing increased amounts of Mg(2+) and PO4(3-) ions, rather than a biphasic mixture as earlier reported. The amorphous phase formed was observed to crystallize between temperatures of 400-600°C. The scaffolds prepared with amorphous β-TCMP were capable of supporting enhanced hMSC proliferation and differentiation in comparison to commercially available β-TCP. However, a similar gene expression of mature osteoblast markers, OCN and COL-1, in comparison to biphasic β-TCMP was observed. To further study the role of Mg(2+) and PO4(3-) ions in regulating hMSC osteogenic differentiation, the capability of hMSCs to mineralize in growth media supplemented with Mg(2+) and PO4(3-) ions was studied. Interestingly, 5mM PO4(3-) supported mineralization while the addition of 5mM Mg(2+) to 5mM PO4(3-) inhibited mineralization. It was therefore concluded that the release of Ca(2+) ions from β-TCMP scaffolds also plays a role in regulating osteogenic differentiation on these scaffolds and it is noted that further work is required to more accurately determine the exact role of Mg(2+) in regulating hMSC osteogenic differentiation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Phosphate solubilization and promotion of maize growth by Penicillium oxalicum P4 and Aspergillus niger P85 in a calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhongwei; Shi, Fachao; Jiang, Hongmei; Roberts, Daniel P; Chen, Sanfeng; Fan, Bingquan

    2015-12-01

    Alternative tactics for improving phosphorus nutrition in crop production are needed in China and elsewhere, as the overapplication of phosphatic fertilizers can adversely impact agricultural sustainability. Penicillium oxalicum P4 and Aspergillus niger P85 were isolated from a calcareous soil in China that had been exposed to excessive application of phosphatic fertilizer for decades. Each isolate excreted a number of organic acids into, acidified, and solubilized phosphorus in a synthetic broth containing insoluble tricalcium phosphate or rock phosphate. Isolate P4, applied as a seed treatment, increased maize fresh mass per plant when rock phosphate was added to the calcareous soil in greenhouse pot studies. Isolate P85 did not increase maize fresh mass per plant but did significantly increase total phosphorus per plant when rock phosphate was added. Significant increases in 7 and 4 organic acids were detected in soil in association with isolates P4 and P85, respectively, relative to the soil-only control. The quantity and (or) number of organic acids produced by these isolates increased when rock phosphate was added to the soil. Both isolates also significantly increased available phosphorus in soil in the presence of added rock phosphate and effectively colonized the maize rhizosphere. Studies reported here indicate that isolate P4 is adapted to and capable of promoting maize growth in a calcareous soil. Plant-growth promotion by this isolate is likely due, at least in part, to increased phosphorus availability resulting from the excretion of organic acids into, and the resulting acidification of, this soil.

  13. CADMIUM PHOSPHATE GLASS

    DOEpatents

    Carpenter, H.W.; Johnson, P.D.

    1963-04-01

    A method of preparing a cadmium phosphate glass that comprises providing a mixture of solid inorganic compounds of cadmuim and phosphate having vaporizable components and heating the resulting composition to a temperature of at least 850 un. Concent 85% C is presented. (AEC)

  14. Effect of Tricalcium Magnesium Silicate Coating on the Electrochemical and Biological Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Hadipour, Mohammadreza; Nadernezhad, Ali; Aghaie, Ermia; Behnamian, Yashar; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, a sol-gel-synthesized tricalcium magnesium silicate powder was coated on Ti-6Al-4V alloys using plasma spray method. Composition of feed powder was evaluated by X-ray diffraction technique before and after the coating process. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to study the morphology of coated substrates. The corrosion behaviors of bare and coated Ti-6Al-4V alloys were examined using potentiodynamic polarization test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in stimulated body fluids. Moreover, bare and coated Ti-6Al-4V alloys were characterized in vitro by culturing osteoblast and mesenchymal stem cells for several days. Results demonstrated a meaningful improvement in the corrosion resistance of Ti-6Al-4V alloys coated with tricalcium magnesium silicate compared with the bare counterparts, by showing a decrease in corrosion current density from 1.84 μA/cm2 to 0.31 μA/cm2. Furthermore, the coating substantially improved the bioactivity of Ti-6Al-4Valloys. Our study on corrosion behavior and biological response of Ti-6Al-4V alloy coated by tricalcium magnesium silicate proved that the coating has considerably enhanced safety and applicability of Ti-6Al-4V alloys, suggesting its potential use in permanent implants and artificial joints. PMID:26383641

  15. [Screening, identification and phosphate-solubilizing characteristics of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria strain D2 (Pantoea sp.)in rhizosphere of Pinus tabuliformis in iron tailings yard.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun Juan; Yan, Ai Hua; Wang, Wei; Li, Ji Quan; Li, Yu Ling

    2016-11-18

    Two strains of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere of Pinus tabuliformis in iron tailings vegetation restoration areas in Malan Town, Qianan City, Hebei Pro-vince. The bacterial strain D2 with strong phosphate-solubilizing capacity was obtained via screening with plate and shake flask. Based on the morphology, physiology and biochemistry, and the sequence analysis of 16S rDNA, the D2 was identified as a member of Pantoea sp. A fermentation experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of carbon and nitrogen sources on the phosphate-solubilizing capacity of the strain D2; under different nitrogen sources, the organic acids in liquid culture, as well as their types and contents were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that the strain D2 was capable of efficiently solubilizing tricalcium phosphate, and the highest value of available phosphorus was up to 392.13 mg·L -1 in liquid culture. The strain D2 displayed the strongest phosphate-solubilizing capability when glucose and ammonium sulfate were used as carbon and nitrogen sources in the culture media, respectively. Under varied nitrogen sources, the resulting organic acids and their types and contents were different. When the nitrogen source in culture media was ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride, potassium nitrate, sodium nitrate or ammonium nitrate, all four organic acids, including oxalic acid, formic acid, acetic acid and citric acid, were produced. In addition, malic acid was uniquely produced when ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride or ammonium nitrate was used as the nitrogen source. By Pearson's correlation analysis, a significant positive correlation between the acetic acid content and the available phosphorus content was found (r=0.886, P<0.05), suggesting that acetic acid produced by strain D2 played an important role in promoting inorganic phosphorus dissolution, which was most likely to be one of the important phosphate

  16. Short-term implantation effects of a DCPD-based calcium phosphate cement.

    PubMed

    Frayssinet, P; Gineste, L; Conte, P; Fages, J; Rouquet, N

    1998-06-01

    Calcium phosphate cements can be handled in paste form and set in a wet medium after precipitation of calcium phosphate crystals in the implantation site. Depending on the products entering into the chemical reaction leading to the precipitation of calcium phosphates, different phases can be obtained with different mechanical properties, setting times and injectability. We tested a cement composed of a powder, containing beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) and sodium pyrophosphate mixed with a solution of phosphoric and sulphuric acids. The cement set under a dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD)-based matrix containing beta-TCP particles. This was injected with a syringe into a defect drilled in rabbit condyles, the control being an identical defect left empty in the opposite condyle. The condyles were analysed histologically 2, 6 and 18 weeks after implantation. After injection into the bone defect the cement set and formed a porous calcium phosphate structure. Two different calcium phosphate phases with different solubility rates could be identified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. The less-soluble fragments could be degraded by cell phagocytosis in cell compartments of low pH or integrated in the newly formed bone matrix. The degradation rate of the material was relatively high but compatible with the ingrowth of bone trabeculae within the resorbing material. The ossification process was different from the creeping substitution occurring at the ceramic contact. Bone did not form directly at the cement surface following the differentiation of osteoblasts at the material surface. The trabeculae came to the material surface from the edges of the implantation site. Bone formation in the implantation site was significantly higher than in the control region during the first week of implantation. In conclusion, this material set in situ was well tolerated, inducing a mild foreign-body reaction, which did not impair its replacement by newly formed

  17. Hierarchically porous structure, mechanical strength and cell biological behaviors of calcium phosphate composite scaffolds prepared by combination of extrusion and porogen burnout technique and enhanced by gelatin.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shenglei; He, Fupo; Ye, Jiandong

    2018-01-01

    In this study, hierarchically porous calcium phosphate scaffolds (HTCP) with unidirectional pores, transversely interconnected pores, and micropores were fabricated by the combination of extrusion and porogen burnout technique. Gelatin was incorporated into the HTCP scaffolds by vacuum-impregnation of gelatin solution and subsequent freeze-drying. The phase composition, microstructure, physical and cytobiological properties were analyzed. The results showed that the HTCP scaffolds were composed of β-tricalcium phosphate with minor hydroxyapatite. The HTCP scaffolds had unidirectional pores (~400μm), transversely interconnected pores (~130μm) and micropores (~1μm). The incorporation of gelatin significantly increased the compressive strength, toughness, and cell seeding of the HTCP scaffolds. The composite scaffolds showed excellent cytocompatibility. The hierarchically porous calcium phosphate composite scaffolds may have potential application prospects in bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Surface Modification of Zirconia Substrate by Calcium Phosphate Particles Using Sol-Gel Method.

    PubMed

    Jin, So Dam; Um, Sang Cheol; Lee, Jong Kook

    2015-08-01

    Surface modification with a biphasic composition of hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) was performed on a zirconia substrate using a sol-gel method. An initial calcium phosphate sol was prepared by mixing a solution of Ca(NO3)2 · 4H20 and (C2H5O)3P(O), while both porous and dense zirconia were used as substrates. The sol-gel coating was performed using a spin coater. The coated porous zirconia substrate was re-sintered at 1350 °C 2 h, while coated dense zirconia substrate was heat-treated at 750 °C 1 h. The microstructure of the resultant HA/TCP coatings was found to be dependent on the type of zirconia substrate used. With porous zirconia as a starting substrate, numerous isolated calcium phosphate particles (TCP and HA) were uniformly dispersed on the surface, and the particle size and covered area were dependent on the viscosity of the calcium phosphate sol. Conversely, when dense zirconia was used as a starting substrate, a thick film of nano-sized HA particles was obtained after heat treatment, however, substantial agglomeration and cracking was also observed.

  19. Ectopic Osteoid and Bone Formation by Three Calcium-Phosphate Ceramics in Rats, Rabbits and Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liao; Zhang, Bi; Bao, Chongyun; Habibovic, Pamela; Hu, Jing; Zhang, Xingdong

    2014-01-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics with specific physicochemical properties have been shown to induce de novo bone formation upon ectopic implantation in a number of animal models. In this study we explored the influence of physicochemical properties as well as the animal species on material-induced ectopic bone formation. Three bioceramics were used for the study: phase-pure hydroxyapatite (HA) sintered at 1200°C and two biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramics, consisting of 60 wt.% HA and 40 wt.% TCP (β-Tricalcium phosphate), sintered at either 1100°C or 1200°C. 108 samples of each ceramic were intramuscularly implanted in dogs, rabbits, and rats for 6, 12, and 24 weeks respectively. Histological and histomorphometrical analyses illustrated that ectopic bone and/or osteoid tissue formation was most pronounced in BCP sintered at 1100°C and most limited in HA, independent of the animal model. Concerning the effect of animal species, ectopic bone formation reproducibly occurred in dogs, while in rabbits and rats, new tissue formation was mainly limited to osteoid. The results of this study confirmed that the incidence and the extent of material-induced bone formation are related to both the physicochemical properties of calcium phosphate ceramics and the animal model. PMID:25229501

  20. Development of calcium phosphate cement using chitosan and citric acid for bone substitute materials.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Atsuro; Yamamoto, Satoru; Kawasaki, Takao; Kohgo, Takao; Nakasu, Masanori

    2002-02-01

    We developed a calcium phosphate cement that could be molded into any desired shape due to its chewing-gum-like consistency after mixing. The powder component of the cement consists of alpha-tricalcium phosphate and tetracalcium phosphate, which were made by decomposition of hydroxyapatite ceramic blocks. The liquid component consists of citric acid, chitosan and glucose solution. In this study, we used 20% citric acid (group 20) and 45% citric acid (group 45). The mechanical properties and biocompatibility of this new cement were investigated. The setting times of cements were 5.5 min, in group 20 and 6.4 min, in group 45. When incubated in physiological saline, the cements were transformed to hydroxyapatite at 3, and 6 weeks, the compressive strengths were 15.6 and 20.7 MPa, in group 45 and group 20, respectively. The inflammatory response around the cement implanted on the bone and in the subcutaneous tissue in rats was more prominent in group 45 than in group 20 at 1 week after surgery. After 4 weeks, the inflammation disappeared and the cement had bound to bone in both groups. These results indicate that this new calcium phosphate cement is a suitable bone substitute material and that the concentration of citric acid in the liquid component affects its mechanical properties and biocompatibility.

  1. Phosphate dissolving fungi: Mechanism and application in alleviation of salt stress in wheat.

    PubMed

    Gaind, Sunita

    2016-12-01

    The present investigation reveals the solubilization efficiency of tri-calcium phosphate (TCP), Udaipur rock phosphate (URP), aluminium phosphate (AP) and ferric phosphate (FP) by Aspergillus niger (ITCC 6719) and Trichoderma harzianum (ITCC 6721) as function of carbon concentrations. Increasing glucose concentration from 1 to 7% in the growth medium, though improved the phosphorus (P) solubilization significantly but each fungal strain preferred different optimum carbon concentrations for mediating solubilization of different P sources. The two fungi employed different mechanisms to reduce medium pH for release of P from TCP, AP and FP. However, URP was solubilized solely through fungal production of citric, succinic, propionic, malic and acetic acid. A linear increase in citric acid production with increasing carbon concentration was recorded during FP solubilization by T. harzianum. The cell free culture filtrate of A. niger detected high phytase and low acid phosphatase activity titre whereas results were vice versa for T. harzianum. Both the fungal strains possessed plant growth promoting attributes such as auxin and sidreophore production and could solubilize Zn. In hydroponic system (with 60mM of sodium chloride concentration), supplementation with culture filtrate from each fungal strain increased the shoot growth of wheat seedlings significantly compared to non culture filtrate control. Use of A.niger as bio-inoculant could be a sustainable approach to improve soil P availability, promote plant growth and alleviate adverse effect of salt stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Silver-Doped Calcium Phosphate Bone Cements with Antibacterial Properties

    PubMed Central

    Rau, J. V.; Fosca, M.; Graziani, V.; Egorov, A. A.; Zobkov, Yu. V.; Fedotov, A. Yu.; Ortenzi, M.; Caminiti, R.; Baranchikov, A. E.; Komlev, V. S.

    2016-01-01

    Calcium phosphate bone cements (CPCs) with antibacterial properties are demanded for clinical applications. In this study, we demonstrated the use of a relatively simple processing route based on preparation of silver-doped CPCs (CPCs-Ag) through the preparation of solid dispersed active powder phase. Real-time monitoring of structural transformations and kinetics of several CPCs-Ag formulations (Ag = 0 wt %, 0.6 wt % and 1.0 wt %) was performed by the Energy Dispersive X-ray Diffraction technique. The partial conversion of β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) phase into the dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) took place in all the investigated cement systems. In the pristine cement powders, Ag in its metallic form was found, whereas for CPC-Ag 0.6 wt % and CPC-Ag 1.0 wt % cements, CaAg(PO3)3 was detected and Ag (met.) was no longer present. The CPC-Ag 0 wt % cement exhibited a compressive strength of 6.5 ± 1.0 MPa, whereas for the doped cements (CPC-Ag 0.6 wt % and CPC-Ag 1.0 wt %) the reduced values of the compressive strength 4.0 ± 1.0 and 1.5 ± 1.0 MPa, respectively, were detected. Silver-ion release from CPC-Ag 0.6 wt % and CPC-Ag 1.0 wt % cements, measured by the Atomic Emission Spectroscopy, corresponds to the average values of 25 µg/L and 43 µg/L, respectively, rising a plateau after 15 days. The results of the antibacterial test proved the inhibitory effect towards pathogenic Escherichia coli for both CPC-Ag 0.6 wt % and CPC-Ag 1.0 wt % cements, better performances being observed for the cement with a higher Ag-content. PMID:27096874

  3. In Situ Soft X-ray Spectromicroscopy of Early Tricalcium Silicate Hydration

    DOE PAGES

    Bae, Sungchul; Kanematsu, Manabu; Hernandez-Cruz, Daniel; ...

    2016-12-01

    The understanding and control of early hydration of tricalcium silicate (C 3S) is of great importance to cement science and concrete technology. However, traditional characterization methods are incapable of providing morphological and spectroscopic information about in situ hydration at the nanoscale. Using soft X-ray spectromicroscopy, we report the changes in morphology and molecular structure of C 3S at an early stage of hydration. In situ C 3S hydration in a wet cell, beginning with induction (~1 h) and acceleration (~4 h) periods of up to ~8 h, was studied and compared with ex situ measurements in the deceleration period aftermore » 15 h of curing. Analysis of the near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure showed that the Ca binding energy and energy splitting of C 3S changed rapidly in the early age of hydration and exhibited values similar to calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H). The formation of C–S–H nanoseeds in the C 3S solution and the development of a fibrillar C–S–H morphology on the C 3S surface were visualized. Following this, silicate polymerization accompanied by C–S–H precipitation produced chemical shifts in the peaks of the main Si K edge and in multiple scattering. However, the silicate polymerization process did not significantly affect the Ca binding energy of C–S–H.« less

  4. Minimising reversion, using seawater and magnesium chloride, caused by the dissolution of tricalcium aluminate hexahydrate.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Sara J; Frost, Ray L; Smith, Matthew K

    2011-01-15

    The increase in pH and aluminium concentration after the neutralisation of bauxite refinery residues is commonly known as reversion. This investigation reports the extent of reversion in synthetic supernatant liquor and possible methods to reduce reversion. This work is based on bauxite refinery residues produced from alumina refineries, where reversion is a real life situation in neutralised refinery residues. Tricalcium aluminate hexahydrate, a common phase in bauxite refinery residues, has been found to cause reversion. It has been established that reductions in both pH and aluminium from the seawater neutralisation process are due to the formation of 'Bayer' hydrotalcite Mg(7)Al(2)(OH)(18)(CO(3)(2-),SO(4)(2-))·xH(2)O. This is the primary mechanism involved in the removal of aluminium from solution. Increasing the volume of seawater used for the neutralisation process minimises the extent of reversion for both synthetic supernatant liquor and red mud slurry. The addition of MgCl(2)·6H(2)O also showed a reduction in reversion and confirmed that the decrease in aluminium and hydroxyl ions is due to the formation of Bayer hydrotalcite and not simply a dilution effect. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. In Situ Soft X-ray Spectromicroscopy of Early Tricalcium Silicate Hydration

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sungchul; Kanematsu, Manabu; Hernández-Cruz, Daniel; Moon, Juhyuk; Kilcoyne, David; Monteiro, Paulo J. M.

    2016-01-01

    The understanding and control of early hydration of tricalcium silicate (C3S) is of great importance to cement science and concrete technology. However, traditional characterization methods are incapable of providing morphological and spectroscopic information about in situ hydration at the nanoscale. Using soft X-ray spectromicroscopy, we report the changes in morphology and molecular structure of C3S at an early stage of hydration. In situ C3S hydration in a wet cell, beginning with induction (~1 h) and acceleration (~4 h) periods of up to ~8 h, was studied and compared with ex situ measurements in the deceleration period after 15 h of curing. Analysis of the near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure showed that the Ca binding energy and energy splitting of C3S changed rapidly in the early age of hydration and exhibited values similar to calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H). The formation of C–S–H nanoseeds in the C3S solution and the development of a fibrillar C–S–H morphology on the C3S surface were visualized. Following this, silicate polymerization accompanied by C–S–H precipitation produced chemical shifts in the peaks of the main Si K edge and in multiple scattering. However, the silicate polymerization process did not significantly affect the Ca binding energy of C–S–H. PMID:28774096

  6. Push-out bond strength of different tricalcium silicate-based filling materials to root dentin.

    PubMed

    Stefaneli Marques, Jorge Henrique; Silva-Sousa, Yara Teresinha Corrêa; Rached-Júnior, Fuad Jacob Abi; Macedo, Luciana Martins Domingues de; Mazzi-Chaves, Jardel Francisco; Camilleri, Josette; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião

    2018-03-08

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of different triccalcium silicate cements to retrograde cavity using a push out test. Thirty maxillary central incisors were shaped using #80 hand files and sectioned transversally. Root slices were obtained from the apical 4 mm after eliminating the apical extremity. The specimens were embedded in acrylic resin and positioned at 45° to the horizontal plane for preparation of root-end cavities with a diamond ultrasonic retrotip. The samples were divided into three groups according to the root-end filling material (n = 10): MTA Angelus, ProRoot MTA and Biodentine. A gutta-percha cone (#80) was tugged-back at the limit between the canal and the root-end cavity. The root-end cavity was filled and the gutta-percha cone was removed after complete setting of the materials. The specimens were placed in an Instron machine with the root-end filling turned downwards. The push-out shaft was inserted in the space previously occupied by the gutta-percha cone and push out testing was performed at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. There was no statistically significant difference in resistance to push out by the materials tested (p > 0.01). MTA Angelus and ProRoot MTA showed predominantly mixed failure while Biodentine exhibited mixed and cohesive failures. The tricalcium silicate-based root-end filling materials showed similar bond strength retrograde cavity.

  7. Early Age Carbonation Heat and Products of Tricalcium Silicate Paste Subject to Carbon Dioxide Curing.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; He, Zhen; Shao, Yixin

    2018-05-04

    This paper presents a study on the carbonation reaction heat and products of tricalcium silicate (C₃S) paste exposed to carbon dioxide (CO₂) for rapid curing. Reaction heat was measured using a retrofitted micro-calorimeter. The highest heat flow of a C₃S paste subject to carbonation curing was 200 times higher than that by hydration, and the cumulative heat released by carbonation was three times higher. The compressive strength of a C₃S paste carbonated for 2 h and 24 h was 27.5 MPa and 62.9 MPa, respectively. The 24-h carbonation strength had exceeded the hydration strength at 28 days. The CO₂ uptake of a C₃S paste carbonated for 2 h and 24 h was 17% and 26%, respectively. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive spectrometer (TEM-EDS), and 29 Si magic angle spinning⁻nuclear magnetic resonance ( 29 Si MAS-NMR) results showed that the products of a carbonated C₃S paste were amorphous silica (SiO₂) and calcite crystal. There was no trace of calcium silicate hydrate (C⁻S⁻H) or other polymorphs of calcium carbonate (CaCO₃) detected.

  8. Early Age Carbonation Heat and Products of Tricalcium Silicate Paste Subject to Carbon Dioxide Curing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen; He, Zhen; Shao, Yixin

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the carbonation reaction heat and products of tricalcium silicate (C3S) paste exposed to carbon dioxide (CO2) for rapid curing. Reaction heat was measured using a retrofitted micro-calorimeter. The highest heat flow of a C3S paste subject to carbonation curing was 200 times higher than that by hydration, and the cumulative heat released by carbonation was three times higher. The compressive strength of a C3S paste carbonated for 2 h and 24 h was 27.5 MPa and 62.9 MPa, respectively. The 24-h carbonation strength had exceeded the hydration strength at 28 days. The CO2 uptake of a C3S paste carbonated for 2 h and 24 h was 17% and 26%, respectively. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive spectrometer (TEM-EDS), and 29Si magic angle spinning–nuclear magnetic resonance (29Si MAS-NMR) results showed that the products of a carbonated C3S paste were amorphous silica (SiO2) and calcite crystal. There was no trace of calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H) or other polymorphs of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) detected. PMID:29734681

  9. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-04-21

    Jordan leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. This image was acquired by NASA Terra satellite on September 17, 2005.

  10. Metal-phosphate binders

    DOEpatents

    Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

    2009-05-12

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  11. Fabrication and characterization of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid)/zirconia-hybridized amorphous calcium phosphate composites

    PubMed Central

    WHITED, BRYCE M.; GOLDSTEIN, AARON S.; SKRTIC, DRAGO; LOVE, BRIAN J.

    2010-01-01

    Several minerals, such as hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate, have been incorporated into bioresorbable polyester bone scaffolds to increase the osteoconductivity both in vitro and in vivo. More soluble forms of calcium phosphate that release calcium and phosphate ions have been postulated as factors that increase osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. Recently, a zirconia-hybridized pyrophosphate-stabilized amorphous calcium phosphate (Zr-ACP) has been synthesized allowing controlled release of calcium and phosphate ions. When incorporated into bioresorbable scaffolds, Zr-ACP has the potential to induce osteoconductivity. In this study, 80–90% (w/v) porous poly(DL-LActic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds were formed by thermal phase separation from dioxane while incorporating Zr-ACP. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a highly porous structure with a pore size ranging from a few μm to about 100 μm, smaller than we had hoped for. Zr-ACP particles were evenly dispersed in the composite structure and incorporated into the pore walls. The amorphous structure of the Zr-ACP was maintained during composite fabrication, as found by X-ray diffraction. Composite scaffolds had larger compressive yield strengths and moduli compared to pure polymer scaffolds. These initial efforts demonstrate that PLGA/Zr-ACP composites can be formed in ways that ultimately serve as promising bone scaffolds in tissue engineering. PMID:16768292

  12. Fabrication of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate-coated β-TCP granules and evaluation of their osteoconductivity using experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Shariff, Khairul Anuar; Tsuru, Kanji; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2017-06-01

    β-Tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) has attracted much attention as an artificial bone substitute owing to its biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. In this study, osteoconductivity of β-TCP bone substitute was enhanced without using growth factors or cells. Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), which is known to possess the highest solubility among calcium phosphates, was coated on β-TCP granules by exposing their surface with acidic calcium phosphate solution. The amount of coated DCPD was regulated by changing the reaction time between β-TCP granules and acidic calcium phosphate solution. Histomorphometry analysis obtained from histological results revealed that the approximately 10mol% DCPD-coated β-TCP granules showed the largest new bone formation compared to DCPD-free β-TCP granules, approximately 2.5mol% DCPD-coated β-TCP granules, or approximately 27mol% DCPD-coated β-TCP granules after 2 and 4weeks of implantation. Based on this finding, we demonstrate that the osteoconductivity of β-TCP granules could be improved by coating their surface with an appropriate amount of DCPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Microshear Bond Strength of Tri-Calcium Silicate-based Cements to Different Restorative Materials.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Esra; Ulusoy, Nuran

    To evaluate the microshear bond strength of tri-calcium silicate-based materials to different restorative materials. Thirty-five disks of TheraCal LC and Biodentine were fabricated using teflon molds according to manufacturers' instructions. Then the specimens were randomly divided into 7 groups according to the materials applied: Fuji IX, Fuji II, Equia Fil, Vertise Flow, Filtek Bulk Fill Posterior Restorative, Filtek Z250 with Prime&Bond NT and with Clearfil SE Bond. All restorative materials were placed onto the disks using tygon tubes. Following a storage period, the specimens underwent microshear bond strength testing in a universal testing machine, and fracture modes were analyzed. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test. For all restorative materials, TheraCal LC showed significantly higher μSBS values compared to Biodentine. GIC based materials showed the lowest μSBS for TheraCal and Biodentine. For Biodentine, Filtek Z250 applied with Prime&Bond NT and Filtek Bulk Fill Posterior Restorative applied with Scotchbond Universal Adhesive exhibited the highest μSBS, while Filtek Z250 applied with Clearfil SE Bond revealed the highest bond strength to TheraCal LC. For all restorative materials tested in this study, TheraCal LC showed higher μSBS compared to Biodentine. For both TheraCal LC and Biodentine, the placement of GIC-based materials prior to composite resin restorations might decrease the bond strength. Composite resins applied with self-etching adhesives increased the bond strength of TheraCal LC; however, for Biodentine, application of etch-and-rinse adhesives may improve the adhesion of composite resins.

  14. Efficacy of tooth whitening with different calcium phosphate-based formulations.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jian; Xu, Xiaohui; Lai, Guangyun; Kunzelmann, Karl-Heinz

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the efficacy of tooth whitening using different calcium phosphate-based formulations. Teeth were treated with three different hydroxyapatite preparations at different concentrations and with two control preparations; each tooth was treated a total of three times. After application of the last material, hydrodynamic shear force was applied to mimic mechanical loading. After each treatment, tooth color was measured using a dental spectrophotometer, and the mean changes in L*a*b* values between different measurements were expressed as ∆E. The results indicated significant differences between the materials, but neither dose- nor time-dependent associations were found. The suspension containing tricalcium phosphate (10 wt%) showed the most obvious color change (∆E = 2.20 ± 0.90), while the suspension containing zinc-carbonate-apatite (20 wt%) showed the least obvious color change (∆E = 0.91 ± 0.50). Calcium phosphate-based formulations that can adhere to the enamel surface and contribute to tooth whitening have promising tooth-whitening potential. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  15. In vitro testing of calcium phosphate (HA, TCP, and biphasic HA-TCP) whiskers.

    PubMed

    Jalota, Sahil; Bhaduri, Sarit B; Tas, A Cuneyt

    2006-09-01

    Calcium phosphate [single-phase hydroxyapatite (HA, Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)(OH)(2)), single-phase tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP, Ca(3)(PO(4))(2)), and biphasic HA-TCP] whiskers were formed by using a novel microwave-assisted molten salt mediated process. Aqueous solutions containing NaNO(3), HNO(3), Ca(NO(3))(2) x 4H(2)O, and KH(2)PO(4) (with or without urea) were used as starting reagents. These solutions were irradiated in a household microwave oven for 5 min. As-recovered precursors were then simply stirred in water at room temperature for 1 h to obtain the whiskers of the desired calcium phosphate (CaP) bioceramics. These whiskers were evaluated, respectively, in vitro by (1) soaking those in synthetic body fluid (SBF) solutions at 37 degrees C for one week, and (2) performing cell attachment and total protein assay tests on the neat whiskers by using a mouse osteoblast cell line (7F2). beta-TCP, HA, and HA-TCP biphasic whiskers were all found to possess apatite-inducing ability when soaked in SBF. SBF-soaked whiskers were found to have BET surface areas ranging from 45 to 112 m(2)/g. Although the osteoblast viability and protein concentrations were found to be the highest on the neat HA whiskers, cells were attached and proliferated on all the whiskers.

  16. Influence of strontium on the synthesis and surface properties of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) bioceramics.

    PubMed

    Kanchana, Ponnusamy; Sekar, Chinnathambi

    2010-01-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramics are suitable for synthetic bone applications. The strontium substituted calcium phosphate ceramics have potential for use in orthopedic surgeries. Aim of the present work is to introduce strontium into BCP (composed of hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate) ceramics and to study their bioactivity and mechanical properties. BCP ceramics have been synthesized at room temperature under the physiological pH of 7.4 by gel method in the presence of strontium (5, 10 M %). The appropriate choice of anhydrous CaCl₂ as precursor solution has promoted the formation of BCP instead of pure HA for CaCl₂.2H₂O. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of BCP with different HA and ß -TCP ratios depending upon the Sr content. The presence of Sr has reduced the nucleation and growth rate of BCP when compared to pure system. The SEM micrographs showed that the microstructural morphology of BCP changes from fibrous to platelet. Nanoindentation studies indicate a significant decrease in the hardness and elastic modulus values of BCP ceramics due to Sr doping. In vitro bioactivity study has revealed the formation of apatite layer on the Sr doped BCP samples and the doping enhanced its bioactivity.

  17. Effect of the calcium to phosphorus ratio on the setting properties of calcium phosphate bone cements.

    PubMed

    Vlad, M D; Gómez, S; Barracó, M; López, J; Fernández, E

    2012-09-01

    α-Tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) has become the main reactant of most experimental and commercial ceramic bone cements. It has calcium-to-phosphorus (Ca/P) ratio of 1.50. The present study expands and reports on the microstructures and mechanical properties of calcium phosphate (CP) cements containing sintered monolithic reactants obtained in the interval 1.29 < Ca/P < 1.77. The study focuses on their cement setting and hardening properties as well as on their microstructure and crystal phase evolution. The results showed that: (a) CP-cements made with reactants with Ca/P ratio other than 1.50 have longer setting and lower hardening properties; (b) CP-cements reactivity was clearly affected by the Ca/P ratio of the starting reactant; (c) reactants with Ca/P < 1.50 were composed of several phases, calcium pyrophosphate and α- and β-TCP. Similarly, reactants with Ca/P > 1.50 were composed of α-TCP, tetracalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite; (d) only the reactant with Ca/P = 1.50 was monophasic and was made of α-TCP, which transformed during the setting into calcium deficient hydroxyapatite; (e) CP-cements developed different crystal microstructures with specific features depending on the Ca/P ratio of the starting reactant.

  18. Influences of the steam sterilization on the properties of calcium phosphate porous bioceramics.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangfeng; Guo, Bo; Xiao, Yumei; Yuan, Tun; Fan, Yujiang; Zhang, Xingdong

    2016-01-01

    The influences of steam sterilization on the physicochemical properties of calcium phosphate (Ca-P) porous bioceramics, including β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA) are investigated. After being steam sterilized in an autoclave (121 °C for 40 min), the porous bioceramics are dried and characterized. The steam sterilization has no obvious effects on the phase composition, thermal stability, pH value and dissolubility of β-TCP porous bioceramic, but changes its morphology and mechanical strength. Meanwhile, the steam sterilization leads to the significant changes of the morphology, phase composition, pH value and dissolubility of BCP porous bioceramic. The increase of dissolubility and mechanical strength, the decrease of pH value of the immersed solution and partial oriented growth of crystals are also observed in HA porous bioceramic after steam sterilization. These results indicate that the steam sterilization can result in different influences on the physicochemical properties of β-TCP, BCP and HA porous bioceramics, thus the application of the steam sterilization on the three kinds of Ca-P porous bioceramics should be considered carefully based on the above changed properties.

  19. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium).

    The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  20. Material Properties of a Tricalcium Silicate-containing, a Mineral Trioxide Aggregate-containing, and an Epoxy Resin-based Root Canal Sealer.

    PubMed

    Prüllage, Raquel-Kathrin; Urban, Kent; Schäfer, Edgar; Dammaschke, Till

    2016-12-01

    The aim was to compare the solubility, radiopacity, and setting times of a tricalcium silicate-containing (BioRoot RCS; Septodont, St Maur-des-Fossés, France) and a mineral trioxide aggregate-containing sealer (MTA Fillapex; Angelus, Londrina, Brazil) with an epoxy resin-based sealer (AH Plus; Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany). Solubility in distilled water, radiopacity, and setting time were evaluated in accordance with ISO 6876:2012. The solubility was also measured after soaking the materials in phosphate-buffered saline buffer (PBS). All data were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance and the Student-Newman-Keuls test. After immersion for 1 minute in distilled water, BioRoot RCS was significantly less soluble than AH Plus and MTA Fillapex (P < .05). At all other exposure times, AH Plus was significantly less soluble than BioRoot RCS, whereas BioRoot RCS was significantly more soluble than the other 2 sealers (P < .05). All sealers had the same solubility in PBS and distilled water, except for BioRoot RCS after 28 days. At this exposure time, BioRoot RCS was significantly less soluble in PBS than in distilled water and less soluble than MTA Fillapex (P < .05). All BioRoot RCS specimens immersed in PBS had a surface precipitate after 14 and 28 days. The radiopacity of all sealers was greater than 3 mm aluminum with no statistical significant difference between the sealers (P > .05). The final setting time was 324 (±1) minutes for BioRoot RCS and 612 (±4) minutes for AH Plus. The difference was statistically significant (P < .05). MTA Fillapex did not set completely even after 1 week. The solubility and radiopacity of the sealers were in accordance with ISO 6876:2012. PBS decreased the solubility of BioRoot RCS. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Phosphate removal and hemodialysis conditions.

    PubMed

    Pohlmeier, R; Vienken, J

    2001-02-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is frequently found in hemodialysis patients, and the association with an increased risk of mortality has been demonstrated. Other authors have linked hyperphosphatemia to increased cardiovascular mortality. The normalization of phosphate plasma levels is therefore an important goal in the treatment of end-stage renal disease patients. Absorption of phosphate from the food exceeds the elimination through a hemodialysis treatment, and this leads to a chronic phosphate load for the majority of hemodialysis patients. This imbalance should be improved by either a reduction of phosphate absorption or an increased removal of phosphate. A reduction of phosphate absorption can be achieved by reducing the amount of phosphate in the diet or by the administration of phosphate binders. Unfortunately, these measures imply practical difficulties, for example, a lack of patient compliance or other side effects. When considering modifications of the hemodialysis treatment, an essential understanding of the kinetics of dialytic phosphate removal is mandatory. Phosphate is unevenly distributed in different compartments of the body. Only a very small amount of phosphate is present in the easily accessible plasma compartment. The major part of phosphate removed during hemodialysis originates from the cytoplasm of cells. A transfer from intracellular space to the plasma and further from the plasma to the dialysate is necessary. However, if we consider improvement to phosphate removal by dialysis procedures, full dialyzer clearance is effective in only the initial phase of the dialysis treatment. After this initial phase, the transfer rate for phosphate from the intracellular space to the plasma becomes the rate-limiting step for phosphate transport. Attempts to improve this transfer rate have recently been investigated by acidosis correction, but turned out not to be consistently successful. Furthermore, modifications of the treatment schedule have been described in

  2. Radioactivity contents in dicalcium phosphate and the potential radiological risk to human populations.

    PubMed

    Casacuberta, N; Masqué, P; Garcia-Orellana, J; Bruach, J M; Anguita, M; Gasa, J; Villa, M; Hurtado, S; Garcia-Tenorio, R

    2009-10-30

    Potentially harmful phosphate-based products derived from the wet acid digestion of phosphate rock represent one of the most serious problems facing the phosphate industry. This is particularly true for dicalcium phosphate (DCP), a food additive produced from either sulphuric acid or hydrochloric acid digestion of raw rock material. This study determined the natural occurring radionuclide concentrations of 12 DCP samples and 4 tricalcium phosphate (TCP) samples used for animal and human consumption, respectively. Metal concentrations (Al, Fe, Zn, Cd, Cr, As, Hg, Pb and Mg) were also determined. Samples were grouped into three different clusters (A, B, C) based on their radionuclide content. Whereas group A is characterized by high activities of 238U, 234U (approximately 10(3) Bq kg(-1)), 210Pb (2 x 10(3) Bq kg(-1)) and (210)Po ( approximately 800 Bq kg(-1)); group B presents high activities of (238)U, (234)U and (230)Th (approximately 10(3) Bq kg(-1)). Group C was characterized by very low activities of all radionuclides (< 50 Bq kg(-1)). Differences between the two groups of DCP samples for animal consumption (groups A and B) were related to the wet acid digestion method used, with group A samples produced from hydrochloric acid digestion, and group B samples produced using sulphuric acid. Group C includes more purified samples required for human consumption. High radionuclide concentrations in some DCP samples (reaching 2 x 10(3) and 10(3) Bq kg(-1) of 210Pb and 210Po, respectively) may be of concern due to direct or indirect radiological exposure via ingestion. Our experimental results based on 210Pb and 210Po within poultry consumed by humans, suggest that the maximum radiological doses are 11 +/- 2 microSv y(-1). While these results suggest that human health risks are small, additional testing should be conducted.

  3. Preparation and characterization of calcium phosphate ceramics and composites as bone substitutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xing

    Marine CaCO3 skeletons have tailored architectures created by nature, which give them structural support and other functions. For example, seashells have dense lamellar structures, while coral, cuttlebone and sea urchin spines have interconnected porous structures. In our experiments, seashells, coral and cuttlebone were hydrothermally converted to hydroxyapatite (HAP), and sea urchin spines were converted to Mg-substituted tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCMP), while maintaining their original structures. Partially converted shell samples have mechanical strength, which is close to that of compact human bone. After implantation of converted shell and spine samples in rat femoral defects for 6 weeks, there was newly formed bone growth up to and around the implants. Some new bone was found to migrate through the pores of converted spine samples and grow inward. These results show good bioactivity and osteoconductivity of the implants, indicating the converted shell and spine samples can be used as bone defect fillers. Calcium phosphate powders were prepared through different synthesis methods. Micro-size HAP rods were synthesized by hydrothermal method through a nucleation-growth mechanism. On the other hand, HAP particles, which have good crystallinity, were prepared by wet precipitation with further hydrothermal treatment. beta-TCP or beta-TCMP powders were prepared by a two-step process: wet precipitation of apatitic tricalcium phosphate ('precursor') and calcination of the precursor at 800°C for 3 hours. beta-TCMP or beta-TCP powders were also prepared by solid-state reactions from CaHPO4 and CaCO 3 with/without MgO. Biphasic calcium phosphate, which is mixture of HAP and beta-TCP, can be prepared though mechanical mixing of HAP and beta-TCP powders synthesized as above. Dense beta-TCP and beta-TCMP ceramics can be produced by pressing green bodies at 100MPa and further sintering above 1100°C for 2 hours. beta-TCMP ceramics ˜99.4% relative dense were prepared by

  4. Gene Expression Profiling and Molecular Signaling of Various Cells in Response to Tricalcium Silicate Cements: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Rathinam, Elanagai; Rajasekharan, Sivaprakash; Chitturi, Ravi Teja; Declercq, Heidi; Martens, Luc; De Coster, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to present a systematic review investigating the gene expression of various cells (other than dental pulp cells) in response to different variants of tricalcium silicate cements (TSCs). A systematic search of the literature was performed by 2 independent reviewers followed by article selection and data extraction. Studies analyzing any cell type except dental pulp stem cells and any variant of tricalcium silicate cement either as the experimental or as the control group were included. A total of 41 relevant articles were included in this review. Among the included studies, ProRoot MTA (Dentsply, Tulsa, OK) was the most commonly studied (69.1%) TSC variant, and 11 cell types were identified, with 13 articles investigating gene expression in osteoblasts. A total of 39 different genes/molecules expressed were found in the selected studies. The experimental group (irrespective of the TSC variant) was identified to express significantly increased gene expression compared with the control group (untreated) in all included studies. Recent studies have provided useful insight into the gene expression and molecular signaling of various cells in response to TSCs, and new elements have been supplied on the pathways activated in this process. TSCs are capable of eliciting a favorable cellular response in periapical regeneration. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Domestic phosphate deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKelvey, V.E.; Cathcart, J.B.; Altschuler, Z.S.; Swanson, R.W.; Lutz, Katherine

    1953-01-01

    Most of the worlds phosphate deposits can be grouped into six types: 1) igneous apatite deposits; 2) marine phosphorites; 3) residual phosphorites; 4) river pebble deposits; 5) phosphatized rock; and 6) guano. The igneous apatites and marine phosphorites form deposits measurable in millions or billions of tons; the residual deposits are measurable in thousands or millions; and the other types generally only in thousands of tons. Igneous apatite deposits have been mined on a small scale in New York, New Jersey, and Virginia. Marine phosphorites have been mined in Montana, Idaho, Utah, Wyoming, Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. Residual phosphorites have been mined in Tennessee, Pennsylvania, and Florida. River pebble has been produced in South Carolina and Florida; phosphatized rock in Tennessee and Florida; and guano in New Mexico and Texas. Present production is limited almost entirely to Florida, Tennessee, Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming. Incomplete but recently partly revised estimates indicate the presence of about 5 billion tons of phosphate deposits in the United States that is minable under present economic conditions. Deposits too lean in quality or thickness to compete with those in the western and southeastern fields probably contain tens of billions of tons.

  6. Physicochemical and osteoplastic characteristics of 3D printed bone grafts based on synthetic calcium phosphates and natural polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nezhurina, E. K.; Karalkin, P. A.; Komlev, V. S.; Sviridova, I. K.; Kirsanova, V. A.; Akhmedova, S. A.; Shanskiy, Ya D.; Fedotov, A. Yu; Barinov, S. M.; Sergeeva, N. S.

    2018-04-01

    A creation of personalized implants for regeneration of bone tissue seems to be a very promising biomedical technological approach. We have studied the physicochemical characteristics, cyto- and biocompatibility of three-dimensional constructs based on sodium alginate and gelatin in combination with 2 types of calcium phosphate (tricalcium phosphate or octacalcium phosphate) obtained by inkjet 3D printing. In our experiments, we have studied the physical and chemical properties of the constructs – their porosity, chemical composition, microarchitecture of the surface and mechanical elasticity. The cytocompatibility of 3D constructs and matrix-for-cell properties were investigated in vitro on a model of human osteosarcoma MG-63 cell line by means of MTT assay. The biocompatibility of 3D constructs was studied on the model of subcutaneous implantation in mice up to 12 weeks. All types of 3D constructs were cytocompatible in vitro, demonstrated good matrix-for-cells properties, and had supported cell proliferation for 2 weeks. In results of subcutaneous in vivo test all constructs demonstrated biocompatibility with slow bioresorption of organic and inorganic components. Osteogenesis proceeded more actively in rat tibia model defects (marginal excision), substituted by 3D printed 3-component implants based on alginate, gelatin and octacalcium phosphate.

  7. "Fabrication of arbitrarily shaped carbonate apatite foam based on the interlocking process of dicalcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate".

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Yuki; Tsuru, Kanji; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2017-08-01

    Carbonate apatite (CO 3 Ap) foam with an interconnected porous structure is highly attractive as a scaffold for bone replacement. In this study, arbitrarily shaped CO 3 Ap foam was formed from α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) foam granules via a two-step process involving treatment with acidic calcium phosphate solution followed by hydrothermal treatment with NaHCO 3 . The treatment with acidic calcium phosphate solution, which is key to fabricating arbitrarily shaped CO 3 Ap foam, enables dicalcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) crystals to form on the α-TCP foam granules. The generated DCPD crystals cause the α-TCP granules to interlock with each other, inducing an α-TCP/DCPD foam. The interlocking structure containing DCPD crystals can survive hydrothermal treatment with NaHCO 3 . The arbitrarily shaped CO 3 Ap foam was fabricated from the α-TCP/DCPD foam via hydrothermal treatment at 200 °C for 24 h in the presence of a large amount of NaHCO 3 .

  8. Cloning and expression of delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli DH5α improves phosphate solubilization.

    PubMed

    Gong, Mingbo; Tang, Chaoxi; Zhu, Changxiong

    2014-11-01

    A primary cDNA library of Penicillium oxalicum I1 was constructed using the switching mechanism at the 5' end of the RNA transcript (SMART) technique. A total of 106 clones showed halos in tricalcium phosphate (TCP) medium, and clone I-40 showed clear halos. The full-length cDNA of clone I-40 was 1355 bp with a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 1032 bp, encoding a protein of 343 amino acids. Multiple alignment analysis revealed a high degree of homology between the ORF of clone I-40 and delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5CDH) of other fungi. The ORF expression vector was constructed and transformed into Escherichia coli DH5α. The transformant (ORF-1) with the P5CDH gene secreted organic acid in medium with TCP as the sole source of phosphate. Acetic acid and α-ketoglutarate were secreted in 4 and 24 h, respectively. ORF-1 decreased the pH of the medium from 6.62 to 3.45 and released soluble phosphate at 0.172 mg·mL(-1) in 28 h. Expression of the P. oxalicum I1 p5cdh gene in E. coli could enhance organic acid secretion and phosphate-solubilizing ability.

  9. Effect of organic acids production and bacterial community on the possible mechanism of phosphorus solubilization during composting with enriched phosphate-solubilizing bacteria inoculation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuquan; Zhao, Yue; Shi, Mingzi; Cao, Zhenyu; Lu, Qian; Yang, Tianxue; Fan, Yuying; Wei, Zimin

    2018-01-01

    Enriched phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) agent were acquired by domesticated cultivation, and inoculated into kitchen waste composting in different stages. The effect of different treatments on organic acids production, tricalcium phosphate (TCP) solubilization and their relationship with bacterial community were investigated during composting. Our results pointed out that inoculation affected pH, total acidity and the production of oxalic, lactic, citric, succinic, acetic and formic acids. We also found a strong advantage in the solubilization of TCP and phosphorus (P) availability for PSB inoculation especially in the cooling stage. Redundancy analysis and structural equation models demonstrated inoculation by different methods changed the correlation of the bacterial community composition with P fractions as well as organic acids, and strengthened the cooperative function related to P transformation among species during composting. Finally, we proposed a possible mechanism of P solubilization with enriched PSB inoculation, which was induced by bacterial community and organic acids production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biocomposite coatings based on Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate)/calcium phosphates obtained by MAPLE for bone tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raşoga, O.; Sima, L.; Chiriţoiu, M.; Popescu-Pelin, G.; Fufǎ, O.; Grumezescu, V.; Socol, M.; Stǎnculescu, A.; Zgurǎ, I.; Socol, G.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of our research was to synthesize and investigate the physico-chemical and biological features of composite coatings based on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and commercial calcium phosphates (CaPs), hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate, obtained by means of matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique. In this respect, laser fluence and dropcast studies were performed for pristine polymer and PHBV-CaPs composites. The microstructure of the synthesized coatings was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, while for the chemical structure and functional integrity we performed Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy comparative analysis. By using the X-ray diffraction measurements we experimentally evaluated the crystalline nature of the obtained composite materials, while relevant data regarding the hydrophilic/hydrophobic behavior of the synthesized coatings were obtained by performing static CA measurements. The biocompatibility of PHBV/CaPs coatings was evaluated by performing cellular adhesion and differentiation in vitro assays on mesenchymal stem cells.

  11. The effect of mixing method on tricalcium silicate-based cement.

    PubMed

    Duque, J A; Fernandes, S L; Bubola, J P; Duarte, M A H; Camilleri, J; Marciano, M A

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of three methods of mixing on the physical and chemical properties of tricalcium silicate-based cements. The materials evaluated were MTA Angelus and Portland cement with 20% zirconium oxide (PC-20-Zr). The cements were mixed using a 3 : 1 powder-to-liquid ratio. The mixing methods were manual (m), trituration (tr) and ultrasonic (us) activation. The materials were characterized by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Flowability was analysed according to ANSI/ADA 57/2012. Initial and final setting times were assessed following ASTM C266/08. Volume change was evaluated using a micro-CT volumetric method. Solubility was analysed according to ADA 57/2012. pH and calcium ion release were measured after 3, 24, 72 and 168 h. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way analysis of variance. The level of significance was set at P = 0.05. The SEM analysis revealed that ultrasonic activation was associated with a homogeneous distribution of particles. Flowability, volume change and initial setting time were not influenced by the mixing method (P > 0.05). Solubility was influenced by the mixing method (P < 0.05). For pH, at 168 h, significant differences were found between MTA-m and PC-20-Zr-m (P < 0.05). For calcium ion release, PC-20-Zr-tr had higher values than MTA-m at 3 h, and MTA-tr had higher values than PC-20-Zr-m at 168 h (P < 0.05). The ultrasonic and trituration methods led to higher calcium ion release and pH compared with manual mixing for all cements, whilst the ultrasonic method produced smaller particles for the PC-20-Zr cement. Flow, setting times and volume change were not influenced by the mixing method used; however, it did have an impact on solubility. © 2017 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Kinetics of calcium sulfoaluminate formation from tricalcium aluminate, calcium sulfate and calcium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xuerun, E-mail: xuerunli@163.com; Zhang, Yu; Shen, Xiaodong, E-mail: xdshen@njut.edu.cn

    The formation kinetics of tricalcium aluminate (C{sub 3}A) and calcium sulfate yielding calcium sulfoaluminate (C{sub 4}A{sub 3}more » $$) and the decomposition kinetics of calcium sulfoaluminate were investigated by sintering a mixture of synthetic C{sub 3}A and gypsum. The quantitative analysis of the phase composition was performed by X-ray powder diffraction analysis using the Rietveld method. The results showed that the formation reaction 3Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6} + CaSO{sub 4} → Ca{sub 4}Al{sub 6}O{sub 12}(SO{sub 4}) + 6CaO was the primary reaction < 1350 °C with and activation energy of 231 ± 42 kJ/mol; while the decomposition reaction 2Ca{sub 4}Al{sub 6}O{sub 12}(SO{sub 4}) + 10CaO → 6Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6} + 2SO{sub 2} ↑ + O{sub 2} ↑ primarily occurred beyond 1350 °C with an activation energy of 792 ± 64 kJ/mol. The optimal formation region for C{sub 4}A{sub 3}$$ was from 1150 °C to 1350 °C and from 6 h to 1 h, which could provide useful information on the formation of C{sub 4}A{sub 3}$ containing clinkers. The Jander diffusion model was feasible for the formation and decomposition of calcium sulfoaluminate. Ca{sup 2+} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} were the diffusive species in both the formation and decomposition reactions. -- Highlights: •Formation and decomposition of calcium sulphoaluminate were studied. •Decomposition of calcium sulphoaluminate combined CaO and yielded C{sub 3}A. •Activation energy for formation was 231 ± 42 kJ/mol. •Activation energy for decomposition was 792 ± 64 kJ/mol. •Both the formation and decomposition were controlled by diffusion.« less

  13. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic (MgHPO4·3H2O...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic (MgHPO4·3H2O, CAS Reg. No. 7782-0975...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic...

  18. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    DOEpatents

    Goldstein, A.H.; Rogers, R.D.

    1999-06-15

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed. 13 figs.

  19. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    DOEpatents

    Goldstein, Alan H.; Rogers, Robert D.

    1999-01-01

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed.

  20. Interlaboratory studies on in vitro test methods for estimating in vivo resorption of calcium phosphate ceramics.

    PubMed

    Ito, Atsuo; Sogo, Yu; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Aizawa, Mamoru; Osaka, Akiyoshi; Hayakawa, Satoshi; Kikuchi, Masanori; Yamashita, Kimihiro; Tanaka, Yumi; Tadokoro, Mika; de Sena, Lídia Ágata; Buchanan, Fraser; Ohgushi, Hajime; Bohner, Marc

    2015-10-01

    A potential standard method for measuring the relative dissolution rate to estimate the resorbability of calcium-phosphate-based ceramics is proposed. Tricalcium phosphate (TCP), magnesium-substituted TCP (MgTCP) and zinc-substituted TCP (ZnTCP) were dissolved in a buffer solution free of calcium and phosphate ions at pH 4.0, 5.5 or 7.3 at nine research centers. Relative values of the initial dissolution rate (relative dissolution rates) were in good agreement among the centers. The relative dissolution rate coincided with the relative volume of resorption pits of ZnTCP in vitro. The relative dissolution rate coincided with the relative resorbed volume in vivo in the case of comparison between microporous MgTCPs with different Mg contents and similar porosity. However, the relative dissolution rate was in poor agreement with the relative resorbed volume in vivo in the case of comparison between microporous TCP and MgTCP due to the superimposition of the Mg-mediated decrease in TCP solubility on the Mg-mediated increase in the amount of resorption. An unambiguous conclusion could not be made as to whether the relative dissolution rate is predictive of the relative resorbed volume in vivo in the case of comparison between TCPs with different porosity. The relative dissolution rate may be useful for predicting the relative amount of resorption for calcium-phosphate-based ceramics having different solubility under the condition that the differences in the materials compared have little impact on the resorption process such as the number and activity of resorbing cells. The evaluation and subsequent optimization of the resorbability of calcium phosphate are crucial in the use of resorbable calcium phosphates. Although the resorbability of calcium phosphates has usually been evaluated in vivo, establishment of a standard in vitro method that can predict in vivo resorption is beneficial for accelerating development and commercialization of new resorbable calcium phosphate

  1. Kidney and Phosphate Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The serum phosphorus level is maintained through a complex interplay between intestinal absorption, exchange intracellular and bone storage pools, and renal tubular reabsorption. The kidney plays a major role in regulation of phosphorus homeostasis by renal tubular reabsorption. Type IIa and type IIc Na+/Pi transporters are important renal Na+-dependent inorganic phosphate (Pi) transporters, which are expressed in the brush border membrane of proximal tubular cells. Both are regulated by dietary Pi intake, vitamin D, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and parathyroid hormone. The expression of type IIa Na+/Pi transporter result from hypophosphatemia quickly. However, type IIc appears to act more slowly. Physiological and pathophysiological alteration in renal Pi reabsorption are related to altered brush border membrane expression/content of the type II Na+/Pi cotransporter. Many studies of genetic and acquired renal phosphate wasting disorders have led to the identification of novel genes. Two novel Pi regulating genes, PHEX and FGF23, play a role in the pathophysiology of genetic and acquired renal phosphate wasting disorders and studies are underway to define their mechanism on renal Pi regulation. In recent studies, sodium-hydrogen exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1) is reported as another new regulator for Pi reabsorption mechanism. PMID:24459526

  2. Dysregulation of phosphate metabolism and conditions associated with phosphate toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ronald B; Razzaque, Mohammed S

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate homeostasis is coordinated and regulated by complex cross-organ talk through delicate hormonal networks. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), secreted in response to low serum calcium, has an important role in maintaining phosphate homeostasis by influencing renal synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, thereby increasing intestinal phosphate absorption. Moreover, PTH can increase phosphate efflux from bone and contribute to renal phosphate homeostasis through phosphaturic effects. In addition, PTH can induce skeletal synthesis of another potent phosphaturic hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), which is able to inhibit renal tubular phosphate reabsorption, thereby increasing urinary phosphate excretion. FGF23 can also fine-tune vitamin D homeostasis by suppressing renal expression of 1-alpha hydroxylase (1α(OH)ase). This review briefly discusses how FGF23, by forming a bone–kidney axis, regulates phosphate homeostasis, and how its dysregulation can lead to phosphate toxicity that induces widespread tissue injury. We also provide evidence to explain how phosphate toxicity related to dietary phosphorus overload may facilitate incidence of noncommunicable diseases including kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, cancers and skeletal disorders. PMID:26131357

  3. Assessment laser phototherapy on bone defects grafted or not with biphasic synthetic micro-granular HA + β-tricalcium phosphate: histological study in an animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Luiz Guilherme P.; Marques, Aparecida M. C.; Aciole, Jouber Mateus S.; Trindade, Renan; Santos, Jean N.; Pinheiro, Antônio Luiz B.

    2014-02-01

    Beside of biomaterials, Laser phototherapy has shown positive results as auxiliary therapy on bone repair. The aim of this study was to evaluate, through histological analysis, the influence of Laser phototherapy in the process of repair of bone defects grafted or not with Hydroxyapatite. Forty rats were divided into 4 groups each subdivided into 2 subgroups according to the time of sacrifice. Surgical bone defects were made on femur of each animal with a trephine drill. On animals of group Clot the defect was filled only by blood, on group Laser the defect filled with the clot and further irradiated. In group Biomaterial the defect was filled with HA + β-TCP graft. In group Laser + Biomaterial, the defect was filled with biomaterial and further irradiated. The irradiation protocols were performed every 48 hours during for 15 days. Animal death occurred after 15 and 30 days. The specimens were routinely processed and evaluated by light microscopy. Qualitative analysis showed that group Laser + Biomaterial was in a more advanced stage of repair at the end of the experimental time. It was concluded that the Laser irradiation improved the repair of bone defects grafted or not.

  4. The expression of cytokines and β -defensin 2, - 3, -4 in rabbit bone tissue after hydroxyapatite (HAp), α- Tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vamze, J.; Pilmane, M.; Skagers, A.

    2012-08-01

    Bone loss induced by inflammation is one of the complications after biomaterial implantation. There is no much data on expression of cytokines and defensins into the bone tissue around the implants in literature. The aim of this work was to investigate the distribution and appearance of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and (β - defensin (BD)-2, BD-3, BD-4 after the implantation of different biomaterials. Bone developing zones, signs of bone-implant contact and low expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1, IL-6 and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in experimental tissue with pure HAp and unburned HAp implants indicate a potential advantage of this material in terms of its biocompatibility over the other materials used in our study.

  5. Integrated Utilization of Sewage Sludge and Coal Gangue for Cement Clinker Products: Promoting Tricalcium Silicate Formation and Trace Elements Immobilization

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhenzhou; Zhang, Yingyi; Liu, Lili; Seetharaman, Seshadri; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2016-01-01

    The present study firstly proposed a method of integrated utilization of sewage sludge (SS) and coal gangue (CG), two waste products, for cement clinker products with the aim of heat recovery and environment protection. The results demonstrated that the incremental amounts of SS and CG addition was favorable for the formation of tricalcium silicate (C3S) during the calcinations, but excess amount of SS addition could cause the impediment effect on C3S formation. Furthermore, it was also observed that the C3S polymorphs showed the transition from rhombohedral to monoclinic structure as SS addition was increased to 15 wt %. During the calcinations, most of trace elements could be immobilized especially Zn and cannot be easily leached out. Given the encouraging results in the present study, the co-process of sewage sludge and coal gangue in the cement kiln can be expected with a higher quality of cement products and minimum pollution to the environment. PMID:28773400

  6. Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal Rapid Synthesis of Calcium Phosphates: Structural Control and Application in Protein Adsorption

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhu-Yun; Peng, Fan; Zi, Yun-Peng; Chen, Feng; Qian, Qi-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic calcium phosphate (CaP)-based materials have attracted much attention in the biomedical field. In this study, we have investigated the effect of pH values on CaP nanostructures prepared using a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The hierarchical nanosheet-assembled hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanostructure was prepared under weak acidic conditions (pH 5), while the HAP nanorod was prepared under neutral (pH 7) and weak alkali (pH 9) condition. However, when the pH value increases to 11, a mixed product of HAP nanorod and tri-calcium phosphate nanoparticle was obtained. The results indicated that the pH value of the initial reaction solution played an important role in the phase and structure of the CaP. Furthermore, the protein adsorption and release performance of the as-prepared CaP nanostructures were investigated by using hemoglobin (Hb) as a model protein. The sample that was prepared at pH = 11 and consisted of mixed morphologies of nanorods and nanoprisms showed a higher Hb protein adsorption capacity than the sample prepared at pH 5, which could be explained by its smaller size and dispersed structure. The results revealed the relatively high protein adsorption capacity of the as-prepared CaP nanostructures, which show promise for applications in various biomedical fields such as drug delivery and protein adsorption. PMID:28347064

  7. Thermal spraying of functionally graded calcium phosphate coatings for biomedical implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Khor, K. A.; Cheang, P.

    1998-03-01

    Biomedical requirements in a prosthesis are often complex and diverse in nature. Biomaterials for implants have to display a wide range of adaptability to suit the various stages of the bio-integration process of any foreign material into the human body. Often, a combination of materials is needed. The preparation of a functionally graded bioceramic coating composed of essentially calcium phosphate compounds is explored. The coating is graded in accordance to adhesive strength, bioactivity, and bioresorbability. The bond coat on the Ti-6Al-4V stub is deposited with a particle range of the hydroxyapatite (HA) that will provide a high adhesive strength and bioactivity but have poor bioresorption properties. The top coat, however, is composed of predominantly α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) that is highly bioresorbable. This arrangement has the propensity of allowing accelerated bio-integration of the coating by the body tissues as the top layer is rapidly resorbed, leaving the more bioactive intermediate layer to facilitate the much needed bioactive properties for proper osteoconduction. The processing steps and problems are highlighted, as well as the results of post-spray heat treatment.

  8. Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal Rapid Synthesis of Calcium Phosphates: Structural Control and Application in Protein Adsorption.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhu-Yun; Peng, Fan; Zi, Yun-Peng; Chen, Feng; Qian, Qi-Rong

    2015-07-31

    Synthetic calcium phosphate (CaP)-based materials have attracted much attention in the biomedical field. In this study, we have investigated the effect of pH values on CaP nanostructures prepared using a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The hierarchical nanosheet-assembled hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanostructure was prepared under weak acidic conditions (pH 5), while the HAP nanorod was prepared under neutral (pH 7) and weak alkali (pH 9) condition. However, when the pH value increases to 11, a mixed product of HAP nanorod and tri-calcium phosphate nanoparticle was obtained. The results indicated that the pH value of the initial reaction solution played an important role in the phase and structure of the CaP. Furthermore, the protein adsorption and release performance of the as-prepared CaP nanostructures were investigated by using hemoglobin (Hb) as a model protein. The sample that was prepared at pH = 11 and consisted of mixed morphologies of nanorods and nanoprisms showed a higher Hb protein adsorption capacity than the sample prepared at pH 5, which could be explained by its smaller size and dispersed structure. The results revealed the relatively high protein adsorption capacity of the as-prepared CaP nanostructures, which show promise for applications in various biomedical fields such as drug delivery and protein adsorption.

  9. Laser engineered multilayer coating of biphasic calcium phosphate/titanium nanocomposite on metal substrates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Martin Yi; Ye, Chang; Erasquin, Uriel Joseph; Huynh, Toan; Cai, Chengzhi; Cheng, Gary J

    2011-02-01

    In this work, laser coating of biphasic calcium phosphate/titanium (BCP/Ti) nanocomposite on Ti-6Al-4 V substrates was developed. A continuous wave neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser was used to form a robust multilayer of BCP/Ti nanocomposite starting from hydroxyapatite and titanium nanoparticles. In this process, low power coating is realized because of the strong laser-nanoparticle interaction and good sinterability of nanosized titanium. To guide the optimization of laser processing conditions for the coating process, a multiphysics model coupling electromagnetic module with heat transfer module was developed. This model was validated by laser coating experiments. Important features of the coated samples, including microstructures, chemical compositions, and interfacial bonding strength, were characterized. We found that a multilayer of BCP, consisting of 72% hydroxyapatite (HA) and 28% beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), and titanium nanocomposite was formed on Ti-6Al-4 V substrates. Significantly, the coating/substrate interfacial bonding strength was found to be two times higher than that of the commercial plasma sprayed coatings. Preliminary cell culture studies showed that the resultant BCP/Ti nanocomposite coating supported the adhesion and proliferation of osteoblast-like UMR-106 cells.

  10. Calcium phosphate ceramic systems in growth factor and drug delivery for bone tissue engineering: A review

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Susmita; Tarafder, Solaiman

    2012-01-01

    Calcium phosphates (CaPs) are the most widely used bone substitutes in bone tissue engineering due to their compositional similarities to bone mineral and excellent biocompatibility. In recent years, CaPs, especially hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate, have attracted significant interest in simultaneous use as bone substitute and drug delivery vehicle, adding a new dimension to their application. CaPs are more biocompatible than many other ceramic and inorganic nanoparticles. Their biocompatibility and variable stoichiometry, thus surface charge density, functionality, and dissolution properties, make them suitable for both drug and growth factor delivery. CaP matrices and scaffolds have been reported to act as delivery vehicles for growth factors and drugs in bone tissue engineering. Local drug delivery in musculoskeletal disorder treatments can address some of the critical issues more effectively and efficiently than the systemic delivery. CaPs are used as coatings on metallic implants, CaP cements, and custom designed scaffolds to treat musculoskeletal disorders. This review highlights some of the current drug and growth factor delivery approaches and critical issues using CaP particles, coatings, cements, and scaffolds towards orthopedic and dental applications. PMID:22127225

  11. Effect of enzymatic degradation of chitosan in polyhydroxybutyrate/chitosan/calcium phosphate composites on in vitro osteoblast response.

    PubMed

    Giretova, Maria; Medvecky, Lubomir; Stulajterova, Radoslava; Sopcak, Tibor; Briancin, Jaroslav; Tatarkova, Monika

    2016-12-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate/chitosan/calcium phosphate composites are interesting biomaterials for utilization in regenerative medicine and they may by applied in reconstruction of deeper subchondral defects. Insufficient informations were found in recent papers about the influence of lysozyme degradation of chitosan in calcium phosphate/chitosan based composites on in vitro cytotoxicity and proliferation activity of osteoblasts. The effect of enzymatic chitosan degradation on osteoblasts proliferation was studied on composite films in which the porosity of origin 3D scaffolds was eliminated and the surface texture was modified. The significantly enhanced proliferation activity with faster population growth of osteoblasts were found on enzymatically degraded biopolymer composite films with α-tricalcium phosphate and nanohydroxyapatite. No cytotoxicity of composite films prepared from lysozyme degraded scaffolds containing a large fraction of low molecular weight chitosans (LMWC), was revealed after 10 days of cultivation. Contrary to above in the higher cytotoxicity origin untreated nanohydroxyapatite films and porous composite scaffolds. The results showed that the synergistic effect of surface distribution, morphology of nanohydroxyapatite particles, microtopography and the presence of LMWC due to chitosan degradation in composite films were responsible for compensation of the cytotoxicity of nanohydroxyapatite composite films or porous composite scaffolds.

  12. Growth promotion of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) plants by single and mixed cultures of efficient phosphate solubilizing bacteria that are tolerant to abiotic stress and pesticides.

    PubMed

    Anzuay, María Soledad; Ciancio, María Gabriela Ruiz; Ludueña, Liliana Mercedes; Angelini, Jorge Guillermo; Barros, Germán; Pastor, Nicolás; Taurian, Tania

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were, to analyze in vitro phosphate solubilization activity of six native peanut bacteria and to determine the effect of single and mixed inoculation of these bacteria on peanut and maize plants. Ability to produce organic acids and cofactor PQQ, to solubilize FePO 4 and AlPO 4 and phosphatase activity were analyzed. Also, the ability to solubilize phosphate under abiotic stress and in the presence of pesticides of the selected bacteria was determined. The effect of single and mixed bacterial inocula was analyzed on seed germination, maize plant growth and in a crop rotation plant assay with peanut and maize. The six strains produced gluconic acid and five released cofactor PQQ into the medium. All bacteria showed ability to solubilize phosphate from FePO 4 and AlPO 4 and phosphatase activity. The ability of the bacteria to solubilize tricalcium phosphate under abiotic stress and in presence of pesticides indicated encouraging results. Bacterial inoculation on peanut and maize increased seed germination, plant́s growth and P content. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria used in this study showed efficient phosphate mineralizing and solubilization ability and would be potential P-biofertilizers for peanut and maize. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Inositol phosphates in the environment.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Benjamin L; Papházy, Michael J; Haygarth, Philip M; McKelvie, Ian D

    2002-01-01

    The inositol phosphates are a group of organic phosphorus compounds found widely in the natural environment, but that represent the greatest gap in our understanding of the global phosphorus cycle. They exist as inositols in various states of phosphorylation (bound to between one and six phosphate groups) and isomeric forms (e.g. myo, D-chiro, scyllo, neo), although myo-inositol hexakisphosphate is by far the most prevalent form in nature. In terrestrial environments, inositol phosphates are principally derived from plants and accumulate in soils to become the dominant class of organic phosphorus compounds. Inositol phosphates are also present in large amounts in aquatic environments, where they may contribute to eutrophication. Despite the prevalence of inositol phosphates in the environment, their cycling, mobility and bioavailability are poorly understood. This is largely related to analytical difficulties associated with the extraction, separation and detection of inositol phosphates in environmental samples. This review summarizes the current knowledge of inositol phosphates in the environment and the analytical techniques currently available for their detection in environmental samples. Recent advances in technology, such as the development of suitable chromatographic and capillary electrophoresis separation techniques, should help to elucidate some of the more pertinent questions regarding inositol phosphates in the natural environment. PMID:12028785

  14. Light weight phosphate cements

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.; Natarajan, Ramkumar,; Kahn, David

    2010-03-09

    A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

  15. Phosphate base laser glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Izumitani, T.; Tsuru, M.

    1980-12-16

    A phosphate base laser glass comprising 55-70% P2O5, 1-15% Al2O3, 0-25% Li2O, 0-25% Na2O, 0-8% K2O, the total proportion of Li2O, Na2O, and K2O being 10-25%, 0-15% BaO, 0-15% ZnO, 0-15% CaO , 0-15%, sro, 0-15% MgO, the total proportion of BaO, ZnO, CaO, SrO, and MgO being 5-15%, 0-5% Y2O3, 0-5% La2O3, 0-5% GeO2, 0-5% CeO2, 0-3% Nb2O5, 0-3% MnO2, 0-2% Ta2O5, 0-1% Sb2O3, and 0.01-5% Nd2O3, all % being mole %. The phosphate base laser glass of this invention has a high induced emission cross section, a low non-linear refractive index coefficient, and excellent acid resistance and divitrificationmore » resistance. By replacing partially or wholely one or more of LiO2, Na2O, K2O, BaO, ZnO, CaO, SrO, MgO or Al2O3 by LiF, NaF, KF , BaF2ZnF2, CaF2, SrF2, MgF2 or AlF3, respectively, the above properties of the laser glass are further improved.« less

  16. Calcium phosphate coating on titanium using laser and plasma spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Mangal

    Though calcium phosphate (CaP) coated implants are commercially available, its acceptance is still not wide spread due to challenges related to weaker interfacial bonding between metal and ceramic, and low crystallinity of hydroxyapatite (HA). The objectives of this research are to improve interfacial strength, crystallinity, phase purity and bioactivity of CaP coated metallic implants for orthopaedic applications. The rationale is that forming a diffuse and gradient metal-ceramic interface will improve the interfacial strength. Moreover, reducing CaP particles exposure to high temperature during coating preparation, can lead to improvement in both crystallinity and phase purity of CaP. In this study, laser engineered net shaping (LENS(TM)) was used to coat Ti metal with CaP. LENS(TM) processing enabled generation of Ti+TCP (tricalcium phosphate) composite coating with diffused interface, that also increased the coating hardness to 1049+/-112 Hv compared to a substrate hardness of 200+/-15 Hv. In vitro bone cell-material interaction studies confirmed the bioactivity of TCP coatings. Antimicrobial properties of the TCP coatings were improved by silver (Ag) electrodeposition. Along with LENS(TM), radio frequency induction plasma spray, equipped with supersonic plasma nozzle, was used to prepare HA coatings on Ti with improved crystallinity and phase purity. The coating was made of multigrain HA particles of ˜200 nm in size, which consisted of 15--20 nm HA grains. In vitro bone cell-material interaction and in vivo rat model studies confirmed the HA coatings to be bioactive. Furthermore, incorporation of Sr2+ improved bone cell of HA coatings interaction. A combination of LENS(TM) and plasma spray was used to fabricate a compositionally graded HA coatings on Ti where the microstructure varied from pure HA at the surface to pure Ti substrate with a diffused Ti+TCP composite region in between. The plasma spray system was used to synthesize spherical HA nano powder from

  17. Porous hydroxyapatite and biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics promote ectopic osteoblast differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lingli; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Maeda, Megumi; Minowa, Takashi; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Fan, Hongsong; Zhang, Xingdong

    2009-04-01

    Because calcium phosphate (Ca-P) ceramics have been used as bone substitutes, it is necessary to investigate what effects the ceramics have on osteoblast maturation. We prepared three types of Ca-P ceramics with different Ca-P ratios, i.e. hydroxyapatite (HA), beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramics with dense-smooth and porous structures. Comprehensive gene expression microarray analysis of mouse osteoblast-like cells cultured on these ceramics revealed that porous Ca-P ceramics considerably affected the gene expression profiles, having a higher potential for osteoblast maturation. In the in vivo study that followed, porous Ca-P ceramics were implanted into rat skeletal muscle. Sixteen weeks after the implantation, more alkaline-phosphatase-positive cells were observed in the pores of hydroxyapatite and BCP, and the expression of the osteocalcin gene (an osteoblast-specific marker) in tissue grown in pores was also higher in hydroxyapatite and BCP than in β-TCP. In the pores of any Ca-P ceramics, 16 weeks after the implantation, we detected the expressions of marker genes of the early differentiation stage of chondrocytes and the complete differentiation stage of adipocytes, which originate from mesenchymal stem cells, as well as osteoblasts. These marker gene expressions were not observed in the muscle tissue surrounding the implanted Ca-P ceramics. These observations indicate that porous hydroxyapatite and BCP had a greater potential for promoting the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts than β-TCP.

  18. CaCl 2 -Accelerated Hydration of Tricalcium Silicate: A STXM Study Combined with 29 Si MAS NMR

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Qinfei; Ge, Yong; Geng, Guoqing; ...

    2015-01-01

    Tmore » he effect of calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ) on tricalcium silicate (C 3 S) hydration was investigated by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (SXM) with Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectra and 29 Si MAS NMR. SXM is demonstrated to be a powerful tool for studying the chemical composition of a cement-based hydration system. he Ca L 3,2 -edge NEXAFS spectra obtained by examining C 3 S hydration in the presence of CaCl 2 showed that this accelerator does not change the coordination of calcium in the calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H), which is the primary hydration product. O K-edge NEXAFS is also very useful in distinguishing the chemical components in hydrated C 3 S. Based on the Ca L 3,2 -edge spectra and chemical component mapping, we concluded that CaCl 2 prefers to coexist with unhydrated C 3 S instead of C-S-H. In Si K-edge NEXAFS analysis, CaCl 2 increases the degree of silicate polymerization of C-S-H in agreement with the 29 Si CP/MAS NMR results, which show that the presence of CaCl 2 in hydrated C 3 S considerably accelerates the formation of middle groups ( Q 2 ) and branch sites ( Q 3 ) in the silicate chains of C-S-H gel at 1-day hydration.« less

  19. The efficiency of child formula dentifrices containing different calcium and phosphate compounds on artificial enamel caries.

    PubMed

    Rirattanapong, Praphasri; Vongsavan, Kadkao; Saengsirinavin, Chavengkiat; Khumsub, Ploychompoo

    2016-01-01

    Fluoride toothpaste has been extensively used to prevent dental caries. However, the risk of fluorosis is concerning, especially in young children. Calcium phosphate has been an effective remineralizing agent and is present in commercial dental products, with no risk of fluorosis to users. This in vitro study aimed to compare the effects of different calcium phosphate compounds and fluoride-containing dentifrices on artificial caries in primary teeth. Fifty sound primary incisors were coated with nail varnish, leaving two 1 mm 2 windows on the labial surface before immersion in demineralizing solution for 96 hours to produce artificial enamel lesions. Subsequently, one window from each tooth was coated with nail varnish, and all 50 teeth were divided into five groups ( n = 10); group A - deionized water; group B - casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste (Tooth Mousse); group C - 500 ppm F (Colgate Spiderman ® ); group D - nonfluoridated toothpaste with triple calcium phosphate (Pureen ® ); and group E - tricalcium phosphate (TCP). Polarized light microscopy and Image-Pro ® Plus software were used to evaluate lesions. After a 7-day pH-cycle, mean lesion depths in groups A, B, C, D, and E had increased by 57.52 ± 10.66%, 33.28 ± 10.16%, 17.04 ± 4.76%, 32.51 ± 8.99%, and 21.76 ± 8.15%, respectively. All data were processed by the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (version 16.0) software package. Comparison of percentage changes using one-way analysis of variance and Fisher's least squares difference tests at a 95% level of confidence demonstrated that group A was significantly different from the other groups ( P < 0.001). Lesions in groups B and D had a significant lesion progression when compared with groups C and E. All toothpastes in this study had the potential to delay the demineralization progression of artificial enamel caries in primary teeth. The fluoride 500 ppm and TCP toothpastes were equal in the deceleration of

  20. The efficiency of child formula dentifrices containing different calcium and phosphate compounds on artificial enamel caries

    PubMed Central

    Rirattanapong, Praphasri; Vongsavan, Kadkao; Saengsirinavin, Chavengkiat; Khumsub, Ploychompoo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Fluoride toothpaste has been extensively used to prevent dental caries. However, the risk of fluorosis is concerning, especially in young children. Calcium phosphate has been an effective remineralizing agent and is present in commercial dental products, with no risk of fluorosis to users. This in vitro study aimed to compare the effects of different calcium phosphate compounds and fluoride-containing dentifrices on artificial caries in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Fifty sound primary incisors were coated with nail varnish, leaving two 1 mm2 windows on the labial surface before immersion in demineralizing solution for 96 hours to produce artificial enamel lesions. Subsequently, one window from each tooth was coated with nail varnish, and all 50 teeth were divided into five groups (n = 10); group A – deionized water; group B – casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP–ACP) paste (Tooth Mousse); group C – 500 ppm F (Colgate Spiderman®); group D – nonfluoridated toothpaste with triple calcium phosphate (Pureen®); and group E – tricalcium phosphate (TCP). Polarized light microscopy and Image-Pro® Plus software were used to evaluate lesions. Results: After a 7-day pH-cycle, mean lesion depths in groups A, B, C, D, and E had increased by 57.52 ± 10.66%, 33.28 ± 10.16%, 17.04 ± 4.76%, 32.51 ± 8.99%, and 21.76 ± 8.15%, respectively. All data were processed by the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (version 16.0) software package. Comparison of percentage changes using one-way analysis of variance and Fisher's least squares difference tests at a 95% level of confidence demonstrated that group A was significantly different from the other groups (P < 0.001). Lesions in groups B and D had a significant lesion progression when compared with groups C and E. Conclusions: All toothpastes in this study had the potential to delay the demineralization progression of artificial enamel caries in primary teeth. The

  1. Medium pH, carbon and nitrogen concentrations modulate the phosphate solubilization efficiency of Penicillium purpurogenum through organic acid production.

    PubMed

    Scervino, J M; Papinutti, V L; Godoy, M S; Rodriguez, M A; Della Monica, I; Recchi, M; Pettinari, M J; Godeas, A M

    2011-05-01

    To study phosphate solubilization in Penicillium purpurogenum as function of medium pH, and carbon and nitrogen concentrations. Tricalcium phosphate (CP) solubilization efficiency of P. purpurogenum was evaluated at acid or alkaline pH using different C and N sources. Glucose- and (NH(4) )(2) SO(4) -based media showed the highest P solubilization values followed by fructose. P. purpurogenum solubilizing ability was higher in cultures grown at pH 6·5 than cultures at pH 8·5. Organic acids were detected in both alkaline and neutral media, but the relative percentages of each organic acid differed. Highest P release coincided with the highest organic acids production peak, especially gluconic acid. When P. purpurogenum grew in alkaline media, the nature and concentration of organic acids changed at different N and C concentrations. A factorial categorical experimental design showed that the highest P-solubilizing activity, coinciding with the highest organic acid production, corresponded to the highest C concentration and lowest N concentration. The results described in the present study show that medium pH and carbon and nitrogen concentrations modulate the P solubilization efficiency of P. purpurogenum through the production of organic acids and particularly that of gluconic acid. In the P solubilization optimization studies, glucose and (NH(4) )(2) SO(4) as C and N sources allowed a higher solubilization efficiency at high pH. This organism is a potentially proficient soil inoculant, especially in P-poor alkaline soils where other P solubilizers fail to release soluble P. Further work is necessary to elucidate whether these results can be extrapolated to natural soil ecosystems, where different pH values are present. Penicillium purpurogenum could be used to develop a bioprocess for the manufacture of phosphatic fertilizer with phosphate calcium minerals. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Co-delivery of cisplatin and doxorubicin from calcium phosphate beads/matrix scaffolds for osteosarcoma therapy.

    PubMed

    Hess, Ulrike; Shahabi, Shakiba; Treccani, Laura; Streckbein, Philipp; Heiss, Christian; Rezwan, Kurosch

    2017-08-01

    Bone substitute materials with a controlled drug release ability can fill cavities caused by the resection of bone tumours and thereby combat any leftover bone cancer cells. The combined release of different cytostatics seems to enhance their toxicity. In this study, calcium phosphate beads and matrix scaffolds are combined for a long-term co-delivery of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (cisplatin, CDDP) and doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) as clinical relevant model drugs. Tricalcium phosphate/alginate beads as additional drug carrier are produced by droplet extrusion with ionotropic gelation and incorporated in scaffold matrix by freeze gelation without sintering. CDDP shows a short burst release while DOX has a continuous release measurable over the entire study period of 40days. Drug release from matrix is decreased by ~30% compared to release from beads. Nevertheless, all formulations follow the Korsmeyer-Peppas release kinetic model and show Fickian diffusion. Cytotoxic activity was conducted on MG-63 osteosarcoma cells after 1, 4, and 7days with WST-1 cell viability assay. Co-loaded composites enhance activity towards MG-63 cells up to ~75% toxicity while reducing the released drug quantity. The results suggest that co-loaded beads/matrix scaffolds are highly promising for osteosarcoma therapy due to synergistic effects over a long period of more than a month. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fabrication of Carbonate Apatite Block through a Dissolution-Precipitation Reaction Using Calcium Hydrogen Phosphate Dihydrate Block as a Precursor.

    PubMed

    Tsuru, Kanji; Yoshimoto, Ayami; Kanazawa, Masayuki; Sugiura, Yuki; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2017-03-31

    Carbonate apatite (CO₃Ap) block, which is a bone replacement used to repair defects, was fabricated through a dissolution-precipitation reaction using a calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) block as a precursor. When the DCPD block was immersed in NaHCO₃ or Na₂CO₃ solution at 80 °C, DCPD converted to CO₃Ap within 3 days. β-Tricalcium phosphate was formed as an intermediate phase, and it was completely converted to CO₃Ap within 2 weeks when the DCPD block was immersed in Na₂CO₃ solution. Although the crystal structures of the DCPD and CO₃Ap blocks were different, the macroscopic structure was maintained during the compositional transformation through the dissolution-precipitation reaction. CO₃Ap block fabricated in NaHCO₃ or Na₂CO₃ solution contained 12.9 and 15.8 wt % carbonate, respectively. The diametral tensile strength of the CO₃Ap block was 2 MPa, and the porosity was approximately 57% regardless of the carbonate solution. DCPD is a useful precursor for the fabrication of CO₃Ap block.

  4. Calcium Phosphate Cement with Antimicrobial Properties and Radiopacity as an Endodontic Material

    PubMed Central

    Shieh, Tzong-Ming; Hsu, Shih-Ming; Chang, Kai-Chi; Lin, Dan-Jae

    2017-01-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) have several advantages for use as endodontic materials, and such advantages include ease of use, biocompatibility, potential hydroxyapatite-forming ability, and bond creation between the dentin and appropriate filling materials. However, unlike tricalcium silicate (CS)-based materials, CPCs do not have antibacterial properties. The present study doped a nonwashable CPC with 0.25–1.0 wt % hinokitiol and added 0, 5, and 10 wt % CS. The CPCs with 0.25–0.5 wt % hinokitiol showed appreciable antimicrobial properties without alterations in their working or setting times, mechanical properties, or cytocompatibility. Addition of CS slightly retarded the apatite formation of CPC and the working and setting time was obviously reduced. Moreover, addition of CS dramatically increased the compressive strength of CPC. Doping CS with 5 wt % ZnO provided additional antibacterial effects to the present CPC system. CS and hinokitiol exerted a synergic antibacterial effect, and the CPC with 0.25 wt % hinokitiol and 10 wt % CS (doped with 5 wt % ZnO) had higher antibacterial properties than that of pure CS. The addition of 10 wt % bismuth subgallate doubled the CPC radiopacity. The results demonstrate that hinokitiol and CS can improve the antibacterial properties of CPCs, and they can thus be considered for endodontic applications. PMID:29088119

  5. Phosphate toxicity and vascular mineralization.

    PubMed

    Razzaque, Mohammed S

    2013-01-01

    Vascular calcification or mineralization is a major complication seen in patients with advanced stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD), and it is associated with markedly increased morbidity and mortality. Most of the CKD-related vascular mineralization is attributable to abnormal mineral ion metabolism. Elevated serum calcium and phosphate levels, along with increased calcium-phosphorus byproduct, and the use of active vitamin D metabolites are thought to be the predisposing factors for developing vascular mineralization in patients with CKD. Recent experimental studies have shown that vascular mineralization can be suppressed by reducing serum phosphate levels, even in the presence of extremely high serum calcium and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels, indicating that reducing 'phosphate toxicity' should be the important therapeutic priority in CKD patients for minimizing the risk of developing vascular mineralization and the disease progression. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Reverse micelle-mediated synthesis of calcium phosphate nanocarriers for controlled release of bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Sudip; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2009-10-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles with a calcium to phosphorus (Ca:P) molar ratio of 1.5:1 were synthesized using reverse microemulsion. Ca(NO(3))(2).4H(2)O and H(3)PO(4) were used as the aqueous phase, cyclohexane as the organic phase and poly(oxyethylene)(12) nonylphenol ether (NP-12) as the surfactant. Depending on the calcination temperature between 600 and 800 degrees C, CaP nanoparticle showed different phases of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP), particle size between 48 and 69 nm, and a BET specific average surface area between 73 and 57 m(2)g(-1). Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a model protein to study loading and release behavior. The adsorptive property of BSA was investigated by the change in BET surface area of these nanoparticles and the pH of the suspension. At pH 7.5, the maximum amount of BSA was adsorbed onto CaP nanoparticle. The release kinetics of BSA showed a gradual time-dependent increase in pH 4.0 and 6.0 buffer solutions. However, the amount of protein released was significantly smaller at pH 7.2. The BSA release rate also varied depending on the presence of different phases of CaPs in the system, beta-TCP or CDHA. These results suggest that the BSA protein release rate can be controlled by changing the particle size, surface area and phase composition of the CaP nanocarriers.

  7. Reverse Micelle Mediated synthesis of Calcium Phosphate Nanocarriers for Controlled Release of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA)

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Sudip; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2010-01-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticle with calcium to phosphorus (Ca:P) molar ratio of 1.5:1 were synthesized using reverse micro emulsion. Ca(NO3)2.4H2O and H3PO4 were used as aqueous phase, cyclohexane as organic phase, and poly(oxyethylene)12 nonylphenol ether (NP-12) as surfactant. Depending on calcination temperature between 600 and 800 °C, CaP nanoparticle showed different phases calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), particle size between 48 and 69 nm, the BET specific average surface area between 73 m2/g and 57 m2/g. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a model protein to study loading and release behavior. Adsorptive property of BSA was investigated with the change in BET surface area of these nanoparticle and the pH of the suspension. At pH 7.5, maximum amount of BSA was adsorbed onto CaP nanoparticle. The release kinetics of BSA showed a gradual time dependent increase at pH 4.0 and 6.0 buffer solutions. However, the amount of released protein was significantly smaller at pH 7.2. BSA release rate also varied depending on the presence of different phases of CaPs in the system, β-TCP or CDHA. These results suggest that BSA protein release rate can be controlled by changing particle size, surface area and phase composition of CaP nanocarriers. PMID:19435617

  8. In situ synthesis of magnesium-substituted biphasic calcium phosphate and in vitro biodegradation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Tae-Wan; Lee, Hyeong-Shin; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    Highlights: ► Mg–BCP were successfully prepared through in situ aqueous co-precipitation method. ► The amount of β-TCP phase was changed with the magnesium substitution level. ► The substitution of magnesium led to a decrease in the unit cell volume. ► Mg–BCP could be able to develop a new apatite phase on the surface faster than BCP. -- Abstract: In situ preparation of magnesium (Mg) substituted biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) of hydroxyapatite (HAp)/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) were carried out through aqueous co-precipitation method. The concentrations of added magnesium were varied with the calcium in order to obtain constant (Ca + Mg)/P ratiosmore » of 1.602. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure of synthesized magnesium substituted BCP powders. The results have shown that substitution of magnesium in the calcium deficient apatites revealed the formation of biphasic mixtures of different HAp/β-TCP ratios after heating at 1000 °C. The ratios of the formation of phase mixtures were dependent on the content of magnesium. After immersing in Hanks’ balanced salt solution (HBSS) for 1 week, 1 wt% magnesium substituted BCP powders were degraded and precipitation started to be formed with small granules consisting of number of flake-like crystal onto the surface of synthesized powders. On the other hand, in the case of pure BCP powders, the formation of new precipitates was detected after immersion in HBSS for 2 weeks. On the basis of these results, magnesium substituted BCP could be able to develop a new apatite phase on the surface in contact with physiological fluids faster than BCP does. In addition, the retention time to produce the new apatite phase in implantation operation for the BCP powder could be controlled by the amount of magnesium substitution.« less

  9. Topography of calcium phosphate ceramics regulates primary cilia length and TGF receptor recruitment associated with osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingwei; Dalbay, Melis T; Luo, Xiaoman; Vrij, Erik; Barbieri, Davide; Moroni, Lorenzo; de Bruijn, Joost D; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Chapple, J Paul; Knight, Martin M; Yuan, Huipin

    2017-07-15

    The surface topography of synthetic biomaterials is known to play a role in material-driven osteogenesis. Recent studies show that TGFβ signalling also initiates osteogenic differentiation. TGFβ signalling requires the recruitment of TGFβ receptors (TGFβR) to the primary cilia. In this study, we hypothesize that the surface topography of calcium phosphate ceramics regulates stem cell morphology, primary cilia structure and TGFβR recruitment to the cilium associated with osteogenic differentiation. We developed a 2D system using two types of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) ceramic discs with identical chemistry. One sample had a surface topography at micron-scale (TCP-B, with a bigger surface structure dimension) whilst the other had a surface topography at submicron scale (TCP-S, with a smaller surface structure dimension). In the absence of osteogenic differentiation factors, human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) were more spread on TCP-S than on TCP-B with alterations in actin organization and increased primary cilia prevalence and length. The cilia elongation on TCP-S was similar to that observed on glass in the presence of osteogenic media and was followed by recruitment of transforming growth factor-β RII (p-TGFβ RII) to the cilia axoneme. This was associated with enhanced osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs on TCP-S, as shown by alkaline phosphatase activity and gene expression for key osteogenic markers in the absence of additional osteogenic growth factors. Similarly, in vivo after a 12-week intramuscular implantation in dogs, TCP-S induced bone formation while TCP-B did not. It is most likely that the surface topography of calcium phosphate ceramics regulates primary cilia length and ciliary recruitment of p-TGFβ RII associated with osteogenesis and bone formation. This bioengineering control of osteogenesis via primary cilia modulation may represent a new type of biomaterial-based ciliotherapy for orthopedic, dental and maxillofacial surgery

  10. Isolation and characterisation of phosphate solubilising microorganisms from the cold desert habitat of Salix alba Linn. in trans Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Chatli, Anshu S; Beri, Viraj; Sidhu, B S

    2008-06-01

    Phosphate solubilising microorganisms (PSM) (bacteria and fungi) associated with Salix alba Linn. from Lahaul and Spiti valleys of Himachal Pradesh were isolated on Pikovskaya (PVK), modified Pikovskaya (MPVK) and National Botanical Research Institute agar (NBRIP) media by spread plating. The viable colony count of P-solubilising bacteria (PSB) and fungi (PSF) was higher in rhizosphere than that of non-rhizosphere. The frequency of PSM was highest on MPVK followed by NBRIP and PVK agar. The maximum proportion of PSM out of total bacterial and fungal count was found in upper Keylong while the least in Rong Tong. The PSB frequently were Gram-positive, endosporeforming, motile rods and belonged to Bacillus sp. The PSF mainly belonged to Penicillium sp., Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger, A. spp. and non-sporulating sterile. Amongst the isolates with high efficiency for tricalcium phosphate (TCP) solubilisation, seven bacterial and seven fungal isolates dissolved higher amount of P from North Carolina rock phosphate (NCRP) than Mussoorie rock phosphate (MRP) and Udaipur rock phosphate (URP). However, the organisms solubilised higher-P in NBRIP broth than PVK broth. SBC5 (Bacillus sp.) and SBC7 (Bacillus sp.) bacterial isolates exhibited maximun P solubilisation (40 and 33 μg ml(-1) respectively) whereas FC28 (Penicillium sp.) isolate (52.3 μg ml(-1)) amongst fungi while solubilising URP. The amount of P solubilised was positively correlated with the decrease in pH of medium. SBC5 (Bacillus sp.), SBC7 (Bacillus sp.) and SBC4 (Micrococcus) decreased the pH of medium from 6.8 to 6.08 while FC28 (Penicillium sp.) and FC39 (Penicillium sp.) isolates of fungi recorded maximum decrease in pH of medium from 6.8 to 5.96 in NBRIP broth.

  11. Ambient Volatility of Triethyl Phosphate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-08-01

    AMBIENT VOLATILITY OF TRIETHYL PHOSPHATE ECBC-TR-1476 James H. Buchanan John J. Mahle RESEARCH AND...TECHNOLOGY DIRECTORATE David E. Tevault JOINT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, INC. Belcamp, MD 21017-1552 August 2017 Approved for public release...21010-5424 Joint Research and Development, Inc.; 4694 Millennium Drive, Suite 105, Belcamp, MD 21017-1552 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT

  12. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic). (b...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic). (b...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic). (b...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic). (b...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic). (b...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  10. Phosphate bonding to goethite and pyrolusite surfaces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weiner, Eugene R.; Goldberg, M.C.; Boymel, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were obtained from pure and phosphated goethite (??-FeOOH), and pyrolusite (MnO2). The nature of the phosphate-surface bond was determined to be binuclear for goethite and bidentate for pyrolusite.

  11. Trivalent chromium incorporated in a crystalline calcium phosphate matrix accelerates materials degradation and bone formation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rentsch, Barbe; Bernhardt, Anne; Henß, Anja; Ray, Seemun; Rentsch, Claudia; Schamel, Martha; Gbureck, Uwe; Gelinsky, Michael; Rammelt, Stefan; Lode, Anja

    2018-03-15

    Remodeling of calcium phosphate bone cements is a crucial prerequisite for their application in the treatment of large bone defects. In the present study trivalent chromium ions were incorporated into a brushite forming calcium phosphate cement in two concentrations (10 and 50 mmol/mol β-tricalcium phosphate) and implanted into a femoral defect in rats for 3 and 6 month, non-modified brushite was used as reference. Based on our previous in vitro findings indicating both an enhanced osteoclastic activity and cytocompatibility towards osteoprogenitor cells we hypothesized a higher in vivo remodeling rate of the Cr 3+ doped cements compared to the reference. A significantly enhanced degradation of the modified cements was evidenced by micro computed tomography, X-ray and histological examinations. Furthermore the formation of new bone tissue after 6 month of implantation was significantly increased from 29% to 46% during remodeling of cements, doped with the higher Cr 3+ amount. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) of histological sections was applied to investigate the release of Cr 3+ ions from the cement after implantation and to image their distribution in the implant region and the surrounding bone tissue. The relatively weak incorporation of chromium into the newly formed bone tissue is in agreement to the low chromium concentrations which were released from the cements in vitro. The faster degradation of the Cr 3+ doped cements was also verified by ToF-SIMS. The positive effect of Cr 3+ doping on both degradation and new bone formation is discussed as a synergistic effect of Cr 3+ bioactivity on osteoclastic resorption on one hand and improvement of cytocompatibility and solubility by structural changes in the calcium phosphate matrix on the other hand. While biologically active metal ions like strontium, magnesium and zinc are increasingly applied for the modification of ceramic bone graft materials, the present study is the first

  12. Structural and mechanical characterization of boron doped biphasic calcium phosphate produced by wet chemical method and subsequent thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Albayrak, Onder, E-mail: albayrakonder@mersin.edu.tr

    In the current study, boron doped biphasic calcium phosphate bioceramics consisting of a mixture of boron doped hydroxyapatite (BHA) and beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) of varying BHA/β-TCP ratios were obtained after sintering stage. The effects of varying boron contents and different sintering temperatures on the BHA/β-TCP ratios and on the sinterability of the final products were investigated. Particle sizes and morphologies of the obtained precipitates were determined using SEM. XRD and FTIR investigation were conducted to detect the boron formation in the structure of HA and quantitative analysis was performed to determine the BHA/β-TCP ratio before and after sintering stage.more » In order to determine the sinterability of the obtained powders, pellets were prepared and sintered; the rates of densification were calculated and obtained results were correlated by SEM images. Also Vickers microhardness values of the sintered samples were determined. The experimental results verified that boron doped hydroxyapatite powders were obtained after sintering stage and the structure consists of a mixture of BHA and β-TCP. As the boron content used in the precipitation stage increases, β-TCP content of the BHA/β-TCP ratio increases but sinterability, density and microhardness deteriorate. As the sintering temperature increases, β-TCP content, density and microhardness of the samples increase and sinterability improves. - Highlights: • This is the first paper about boron doped biphasic calcium phosphate bioceramics. • Boron doping affects the structural and mechanical properties. • BHA/β-TCP ratio can be adjustable with boron content and sintering temperature.« less

  13. A new iron calcium phosphate material to improve the osteoconductive properties of a biodegradable ceramic: a study in rabbit calvaria.

    PubMed

    Manchón, Angel; Hamdan Alkhraisat, Mohammad; Rueda-Rodriguez, Carmen; Prados-Frutos, Juan Carlos; Torres, Jesús; Lucas-Aparicio, Julia; Ewald, Andrea; Gbureck, Uwe; López-Cabarcos, Enrique

    2015-10-20

    β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) is an osteoconductive and biodegradable material used in bone regeneration procedures, while iron has been suggested as a tool to improve the biological performance of calcium phosphate-based materials. However, the mechanisms of interaction between these materials and human cells are not fully understood. In order to clarify this relationship, we have studied the iron role in β-TCP ceramics. Iron-containing β-TCPs were prepared by replacing CaCO3 with C6H5FeO7 at different molar ratios. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the occurrence of β-TCP as the sole phase in the pure β-TCP and iron-containing ceramics. The incorporation of iron ions in the β-TCP lattice decreased the specific surface area as the pore size was shifted toward meso- and/or macropores. Furthermore, the human osteoblastlike cell line MG-63 was cultured onto the ceramics to determine cell proliferation and viability, and it was observed that the iron-β-TCP ceramics have better cytocompatibility than pure β-TCP. Finally, in vivo assays were performed using rabbit calvaria as a bone model. The scaffolds were implanted for 8 and 12 weeks in the defects created in the skullcap with pure β-TCP as the control. The in vivo behavior, in terms of new bone formed, degradation, and residual graft material were investigated using sequential histological evaluations and histomorphometric analysis. The in vivo implantation of the ceramics showed enhanced bone tissue formation and scaffold degradation for iron-β-TCPs. Thus, iron appears to be a useful tool to enhance the osteoconductive properties of calcium phosphate ceramics.

  14. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.5778 Section 582.5778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  16. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  17. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  18. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  19. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.5778 Section 582.5778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  1. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  2. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  3. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  5. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  6. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  10. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di...

  11. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  12. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  13. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  14. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  16. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  17. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono...

  18. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  20. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  1. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  2. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  4. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  6. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  7. Mineral resource of the month: Phosphate rock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jasinski, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    As a mineral resource, “phosphate rock” is defined as unprocessed ore and processed concentrates that contain some form of apatite, a group of calcium phosphate minerals that is the primary source for phosphorus in phosphate fertilizers, which are vital to agriculture.

  8. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  10. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  11. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  13. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  15. Zirconium Phosphate Supported MOF Nanoplatelets.

    PubMed

    Kan, Yuwei; Clearfield, Abraham

    2016-06-06

    We report a rare example of the preparation of HKUST-1 metal-organic framework nanoplatelets through a step-by-step seeding procedure. Sodium ion exchanged zirconium phosphate, NaZrP, nanoplatelets were judiciously selected as support for layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of Cu(II) and benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (H3BTC) linkers. The first layer of Cu(II) is attached to the surface of zirconium phosphate through covalent interaction. The successive LBL growth of HKUST-1 film is then realized by soaking the NaZrP nanoplatelets in ethanolic solutions of cupric acetate and H3BTC, respectively. The amount of assembled HKUST-1 can be readily controlled by varying the number of growth cycles, which was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and gas adsorption analyses. The successful construction of HKUST-1 on NaZrP was also supported by its catalytic performance for the oxidation of cyclohexene.

  16. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Luzzatto, Lucio; Nannelli, Caterina; Notaro, Rosario

    2016-04-01

    G6PD is a housekeeping gene expressed in all cells. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is part of the pentose phosphate pathway, and its main physiologic role is to provide NADPH. G6PD deficiency, one of the commonest inherited enzyme abnormalities in humans, arises through one of many possible mutations, most of which reduce the stability of the enzyme and its level as red cells age. G6PD-deficient persons are mostly asymptomatic, but they can develop severe jaundice during the neonatal period and acute hemolytic anemia when they ingest fava beans or when they are exposed to certain infections or drugs. G6PD deficiency is a global health issue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Phosphate-a poison for humans?

    PubMed

    Komaba, Hirotaka; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2016-10-01

    Maintenance of phosphate balance is essential for life, and mammals have developed a sophisticated system to regulate phosphate homeostasis over the course of evolution. However, due to the dependence of phosphate elimination on the kidney, humans with decreased kidney function are likely to be in a positive phosphate balance. Phosphate excess has been well recognized as a critical factor in the pathogenesis of mineral and bone disorders associated with chronic kidney disease, but recent investigations have also uncovered toxic effects of phosphate on the cardiovascular system and the aging process. Compelling evidence also suggests that increased fibroblastic growth factor 23 and parathyroid hormone levels in response to a positive phosphate balance contribute to adverse clinical outcomes. These insights support the current practice of managing serum phosphate in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease, although definitive evidence of these effects is lacking. Given the potential toxicity of excess phosphate, the general population may also be viewed as a target for phosphate management. However, the widespread implementation of dietary phosphate intervention in the general population may not be warranted due to the limited impact of increased phosphate intake on mineral metabolism and clinical outcomes. Nonetheless, the increasing incidence of kidney disease or injury in our aging society emphasizes the potential importance of this issue. Further work is needed to more completely characterize phosphate toxicity and to establish the optimal therapeutic strategy for managing phosphate in patients with chronic kidney disease and in the general population. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cu2+, Co2+ and Cr3+ doping of a calcium phosphate cement influences materials properties and response of human mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Schamel, Martha; Bernhardt, Anne; Quade, Mandy; Würkner, Claudia; Gbureck, Uwe; Moseke, Claus; Gelinsky, Michael; Lode, Anja

    2017-04-01

    The application of biologically active metal ions to stimulate cellular reactions is a promising strategy to accelerate bone defect healing. Brushite-forming calcium phosphate cements were modified with low doses of Cu 2+ , Co 2+ and Cr 3+ . The modified cements released the metal ions in vitro in concentrations which were shown to be non-toxic for cells. The release kinetics correlated with the solubility of the respective metal phosphates: 17-45 wt.-% of Co 2+ and Cu 2+ , but <1 wt.-% of Cr 3+ were released within 28days. Moreover, metal ion doping led to alterations in the exchange of calcium and phosphate ions with cell culture medium. In case of cements modified with 50mmol Cr 3+ /mol β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), XRD and SEM analyses revealed a significant amount of monetite and a changed morphology of the cement matrix. Cell culture experiments with human mesenchymal stromal cells indicated that the observed cell response is not only influenced by the released metal ions but also by changed cement properties. A positive effect of modifications with 50mmol Cr 3+ or 10mmol Cu 2+ per mol β-TCP on cell behaviour was observed in indirect and direct culture. Modification with Co 2+ resulted in a clear suppression of cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. In conclusion, metal ion doping of the cement influences cellular activities in addition to the effect of released metal ions by changing properties of the ceramic matrix. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of a phosphate solubilizing and antagonistic strain of Pseudomonas putida (B0) isolated from a sub-alpine location in the Indian Central Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Anita; Trivedi, Pankaj; Kumar, Bhavesh; Palni, Lok Man S

    2006-08-01

    The morphological, biochemical, and physiological characteristics of a phosphate solubilizing and antagonistic bacterial strain, designated as B0, isolated from a sub-alpine Himalayan forest site have been described. The isolate is gram negative, rod shaped, 0.8 x 1.6 microm in size, and psychrotrophic in nature that could grow from 0 to 35 degrees C (optimum temp. 25 degrees C). It exhibited tolerance to a wide pH range (3-12; optimum 8.0) and salt concentration up to 4% (w/v). Although it was sensitive to kanamycin, gentamicin, and streptomycin (<10 microg mL(-1)), it showed resistance to higher concentrations of ampicillin, penicillin, and carbenicillin (>1000 microg mL(-1)). The isolate showed maximum similarity with Pseudomonas putida based on 16S rRNA analysis. It solubilized tricalcium phosphate under in vitro conditions. The phosphate solubilization was estimated along a temperature range (4-28 degrees C), and maximum activity (247 microg mL(-1)) was recorded at 21 degrees C after 15 days of incubation. The phosphate solubilizing activity coincided with a concomitant decrease in pH of the medium. The isolate also exhibited antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi in Petri dish assays and produced chitinase, ss-l,3-glucanase, salicylic acid, siderophore, and hydrogen cyanide. The plant growth promotion and antifungal properties were demonstrated through a maize-based bioassay under greenhouse conditions. Although the bacterial inoculation was found to result in significant increment in plant biomass, it stimulated bacterial and suppressed fungal counts in the rhizosphere. The present study is important with respect to enumerating microbial diversity of the colder regions as well as understanding the potential biotechnological applications of native microbes.

  20. Biological and medical significance of calcium phosphates.

    PubMed

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V; Epple, Matthias

    2002-09-02

    The inorganic part of hard tissues (bones and teeth) of mammals consists of calcium phosphate, mainly of apatitic structure. Similarly, most undesired calcifications (i.e. those appearing as a result of various diseases) of mammals also contain calcium phosphate. For example, atherosclerosis results in blood-vessel blockage caused by a solid composite of cholesterol with calcium phosphate. Dental caries result in a replacement of less soluble and hard apatite by more soluble and softer calcium hydrogenphosphates. Osteoporosis is a demineralization of bone. Therefore, from a chemical point of view, processes of normal (bone and teeth formation and growth) and pathological (atherosclerosis and dental calculus) calcifications are just an in vivo crystallization of calcium phosphate. Similarly, dental caries and osteoporosis can be considered to be in vivo dissolution of calcium phosphates. On the other hand, because of the chemical similarity with biological calcified tissues, all calcium phosphates are remarkably biocompatible. This property is widely used in medicine for biomaterials that are either entirely made of or coated with calcium phosphate. For example, self-setting bone cements made of calcium phosphates are helpful in bone repair and titanium substitutes covered with a surface layer of calcium phosphates are used for hip-joint endoprostheses and tooth substitutes, to facilitate the growth of bone and thereby raise the mechanical stability. Calcium phosphates have a great biological and medical significance and in this review we give an overview of the current knowledge in this subject.

  1. Comparative Efficacies of Collagen-Based 3D Printed PCL/PLGA/β-TCP Composite Block Bone Grafts and Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Bone Substitute for Bone Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kyoung-Sub; Choi, Jae-Won; Kim, Jae-Hun; Chung, Ho Yun; Jin, Songwan; Shim, Jin-Hyung; Yun, Won-Soo; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2017-04-17

    The purpose of this study was to compare bone regeneration and space maintaining ability of three-dimensional (3D) printed bone grafts with conventional biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP). After mixing polycaprolactone (PCL), poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) in a 4:4:2 ratio, PCL/PLGA/β-TCP particulate bone grafts were fabricated using 3D printing technology. Fabricated particulate bone grafts were mixed with atelocollagen to produce collagen-based PCL/PLGA/β-TCP composite block bone grafts. After formation of calvarial defects 8 mm in diameter, PCL/PLGA/β-TCP composite block bone grafts and BCP were implanted into bone defects of 32 rats. Although PCL/PLGA/β-TCP composite block bone grafts were not superior in bone regeneration ability compared to BCP, the results showed relatively similar performance. Furthermore, PCL/PLGA/β-TCP composite block bone grafts showed better ability to maintain bone defects and to support barrier membranes than BCP. Therefore, within the limitations of this study, PCL/PLGA/β-TCP composite block bone grafts could be considered as an alternative to synthetic bone grafts available for clinical use.

  2. The effect of microwave and conventional heating on a modified sol-gel derived biphasic calcium phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herradi, S.; Bouhazma, S.; Khaldi, M.; El Hachadi, A.; El Bali, B.; Lachkar, M.

    2018-03-01

    A facile sol-gel method was used to synthesize either hydroxyapatite (HA) or beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) as the major phase. Herein, we report, on the one hand, the effect of a very low maturation temperature on the final powder composition after drying step, and on the other hand, we compare the effect of calcination of this powder by microwave or electric furnace. It was found that microwave heating has led to the formation of hydroxyapatite phase upon 180°C for 20 minutes, however, XRD patterns show that the powder becomes less crystallized upon 220°C and amorphous upon 230°C. In contrast, furnace heating at 600°C and 700°C converts the as-synthesized powder to β-TCP as the major phase together with HA as the minor phase. This work shows the possibility to obtain the as-prepared BCP at much lower maturation temperature; it also gives an insight into the role, of either microwave or conventional heating, in controlling the ratio between HA and β-TCP in the sintered powder.

  3. Mineral induced formation of sugar phosphates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitsch, S.; Eschenmoser, A.; Gedulin, B.; Hui, S.; Arrhenius, G.

    1995-01-01

    Glycolaldehyde phosphate, sorbed from highly dilute, weakly alkaline solution into the interlayer of common expanding sheet structure metal hydroxide minerals, condenses extensively to racemic aldotetrose-2, 4-diphophates, and aldohexose-2, 4, 6-triphosphates. The reaction proceeds mainly through racemic erythrose-2, 4-phosphate, and terminates with a large fraction of racemic altrose-2, 4, 6-phosphate. In the absence of an inductive mineral phase, no detectable homogeneous reaction takes place in the concentration- and pH range used. The reactant glycolaldehyde phosphate is practically completely sorbed within an hour from solutions with concentrations as low as 50 micron; the half-time for conversion to hexose phosphates is of the order of two days at room temperature and pH 9.5. Total production of sugar phosphates in the mineral interlayer is largely independent of the glycolaldehyde phosphate concentration in the external solution, but is determined by the total amount of GAP offered for sorption up to the capacity of the mineral. In the presence of equimolar amounts of rac-glyceraldehyde-2-phosphate, but under otherwise similar conditions, aldopentose-2, 4, -diphosphates also form, but only as a small fraction of the hexose-2, 4, 6-phosphates.

  4. Biofunctional Ionic-Doped Calcium Phosphates: Silk Fibroin Composites for Bone Tissue Engineering Scaffolding.

    PubMed

    Pina, S; Canadas, R F; Jiménez, G; Perán, M; Marchal, J A; Reis, R L; Oliveira, J M

    2017-01-01

    The treatment and regeneration of bone defects caused by traumatism or diseases have not been completely addressed by current therapies. Lately, advanced tools and technologies have been successfully developed for bone tissue regeneration. Functional scaffolding materials such as biopolymers and bioresorbable fillers have gained particular attention, owing to their ability to promote cell adhesion, proliferation, and extracellular matrix production, which promote new bone growth. Here, we present novel biofunctional scaffolds for bone regeneration composed of silk fibroin (SF) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and incorporating Sr, Zn, and Mn, which were successfully developed using salt-leaching followed by a freeze-drying technique. The scaffolds presented a suitable pore size, porosity, and high interconnectivity, adequate for promoting cell attachment and proliferation. The degradation behavior and compressive mechanical strengths showed that SF/ionic-doped TCP scaffolds exhibit improved characteristics for bone tissue engineering when compared with SF scaffolds alone. The in vitro bioactivity assays using a simulated body fluid showed the growth of an apatite layer. Furthermore, in vitro assays using human adipose-derived stem cells presented different effects on cell proliferation/differentiation when varying the doping agents in the biofunctional scaffolds. The incorporation of Zn into the scaffolds led to improved proliferation, while the Sr- and Mn-doped scaffolds presented higher osteogenic potential as demonstrated by DNA quantification and alkaline phosphatase activity. The combination of Sr with Zn led to an influence on cell proliferation and osteogenesis when compared with single ions. Our results indicate that biofunctional ionic-doped composite scaffolds are good candidates for further in vivo studies on bone tissue regeneration. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Direct deposited porous scaffolds of calcium phosphate cement with alginate for drug delivery and bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gil-Su; Park, Jeong-Hui; Shin, Ueon Sang; Kim, Hae-Won

    2011-08-01

    This study reports the preparation of novel porous scaffolds of calcium phosphate cement (CPC) combined with alginate, and their potential usefulness as a three-dimensional (3-D) matrix for drug delivery and tissue engineering of bone. An α-tricalcium phosphate-based powder was mixed with sodium alginate solution and then directly injected into a fibrous structure in a Ca-containing bath. A rapid hardening reaction of the alginate with Ca(2+) helps to shape the composite into a fibrous form with diameters of hundreds of micrometers, and subsequent pressing in a mold allows the formation of 3-D porous scaffolds with different porosity levels. After transformation of the CPC into a calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite phase in simulated biological fluid the scaffold was shown to retain its mechanical stability. During the process biological proteins, such as bovine serum albumin and lysozyme, used as model proteins, were observed to be effectively loaded onto and released from the scaffolds for up to more than a month, proving the efficacy of the scaffolds as a drug delivering matrix. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were isolated from rat bone marrow and then cultured on the CPC-alginate porous scaffolds to investigate the ability to support proliferation of cells and their subsequent differentiation along the osteogenic lineage. It was shown that MSCs increasingly actively populated and also permeated into the porous network with time of culture. In particular, cells cultured within a scaffold with a relatively high porosity level showed favorable proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. An in vivo pilot study of the CPC-alginate porous scaffolds after implantation into the rat calvarium for 6 weeks revealed the formation of new bone tissue within the scaffold, closing the defect almost completely. Based on these results, the newly developed CPC-alginate porous scaffolds could be potentially useful as a 3-D matrix for drug delivery and tissue engineering of bone

  6. Enhanced Osteogenic and Vasculogenic Differentiation Potential of Human Adipose Stem Cells on Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Scaffolds in Fibrin Gels

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    For bone tissue engineering synthetic biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) with a hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP) ratio of 60/40 (BCP60/40) is successfully clinically applied, but the high percentage of HA may hamper efficient scaffold remodelling. Whether BCP with a lower HA/β-TCP ratio (BCP20/80) is more desirable is still unclear. Vascular development is needed before osteogenesis can occur. We aimed to test the osteogenic and/or vasculogenic differentiation potential as well as degradation of composites consisting of human adipose stem cells (ASCs) seeded on BCP60/40 or BCP20/80 incorporated in fibrin gels that trigger neovascularization for bone regeneration. ASC attachment to BCP60/40 and BCP20/80 within 30 min was similar (>93%). After 11 days of culture BCP20/80-based composites showed increased alkaline phosphatase activity and DMP1 gene expression, but not RUNX2 and osteonectin expression, compared to BCP60/40-based composites. BCP20/80-based composites also showed enhanced expression of the vasculogenic markers CD31 and VEGF189, but not VEGF165 and endothelin-1. Collagen-1 and collagen-3 expression was similar in both composites. Fibrin degradation was increased in BCP20/80-based composites at day 7. In conclusion, BCP20/80-based composites showed enhanced osteogenic and vasculogenic differentiation potential compared to BCP60/40-based composites in vitro, suggesting that BCP20/80-based composites might be more promising for in vivo bone augmentation than BCP60/40-based composites. PMID:27547223

  7. Comparative evaluation of different calcium phosphate-based bone graft granules - an in vitro study with osteoblast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Anne; Lode, Anja; Peters, Fabian; Gelinsky, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Granule-shaped calcium phosphate-based bone graft materials are often required for bone regeneration especially in implant dentistry. Two newly developed bone graft materials are Ceracell(®) , an open-celled highly porous bioceramic from β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) under addition of bioglass and Osseolive(®) , an open porous glass ceramic with the general formula Ca2 KNa(PO4 )2 . The goal of this study was to characterize different modifications of the two bone graft materials in vitro in comparison to already established ceramic bone grafts Cerasorb M(®) , NanoBone(®) and BONIT Matrix(®) . Adhesion and proliferation of SaOS-2 osteoblast-like cells were evaluated quantitatively by determining DNA content and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and qualitatively by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, MTT cell-vitality staining was applied to confirm the attachment of viable cells to the different materials. Osteogenic differentiation was evaluated by measurement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as well as gene expression analysis of osteogenic markers using reverse transcriptase PCR. DNA content and LDH activity revealed good cell attachment and proliferation for Ceracell and Cerasorb M. When pre-incubated with cell-culture medium, also Osseolive showed good cell attachment and proliferation. Attachment and proliferation of osteoblast-like cells on NanoBone and BONIT Matrix was very low, even after pre-incubation with cell-culture medium. Specific ALP activity on Ceracell(®) , Osseolive (®) and Cerasorb M(®) increased with time and expression of bone-related genes ALP, osteonectin, osteopontin and bone sialoprotein II was demonstrated. Ceracell as well as Osseolive granules support proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in vitro and may be promising candidates for in vivo applications. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Pentose phosphates in nucleoside interconversion and catabolism.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Maria G; Camici, Marcella; Mascia, Laura; Sgarrella, Francesco; Ipata, Piero L

    2006-03-01

    Ribose phosphates are either synthesized through the oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway, or are supplied by nucleoside phosphorylases. The two main pentose phosphates, ribose-5-phosphate and ribose-1-phosphate, are readily interconverted by the action of phosphopentomutase. Ribose-5-phosphate is the direct precursor of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, for both de novo and 'salvage' synthesis of nucleotides. Phosphorolysis of deoxyribonucleosides is the main source of deoxyribose phosphates, which are interconvertible, through the action of phosphopentomutase. The pentose moiety of all nucleosides can serve as a carbon and energy source. During the past decade, extensive advances have been made in elucidating the pathways by which the pentose phosphates, arising from nucleoside phosphorolysis, are either recycled, without opening of their furanosidic ring, or catabolized as a carbon and energy source. We review herein the experimental knowledge on the molecular mechanisms by which (a) ribose-1-phosphate, produced by purine nucleoside phosphorylase acting catabolically, is either anabolized for pyrimidine salvage and 5-fluorouracil activation, with uridine phosphorylase acting anabolically, or recycled for nucleoside and base interconversion; (b) the nucleosides can be regarded, both in bacteria and in eukaryotic cells, as carriers of sugars, that are made available though the action of nucleoside phosphorylases. In bacteria, catabolism of nucleosides, when suitable carbon and energy sources are not available, is accomplished by a battery of nucleoside transporters and of inducible catabolic enzymes for purine and pyrimidine nucleosides and for pentose phosphates. In eukaryotic cells, the modulation of pentose phosphate production by nucleoside catabolism seems to be affected by developmental and physiological factors on enzyme levels.

  9. Mineral resource of the month: phosphate rock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jasinski, Stephen M.

    2007-01-01

    Phosphate rock minerals provide the only significant global resources of phosphorus, which is an essential element for plant and animal nutrition. Phosphate rock is used primarily as a principal component of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, but also to produce elemental phosphorus and animal feed.

  10. Clinical applicability of inorganic phosphate measurements.

    PubMed

    Larner, A J

    Many articles have warned of the dangers of too much and/or too little potassium, calcium or sodium in the blood, but phosphate has not received similar attention. Yet, because of its pivotal role in intermediary metabolism and its close solubility product relationship with ionized calcium, disordered phosphate homeostasis can have profound clinical effects.

  11. Calcium Phosphate Transfection of Primary Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    DiBona, Victoria L.; Wu, Qian; Zhang, Huaye

    2013-01-01

    Calcium phosphate precipitation is a convenient and economical method for transfection of cultured cells. With optimization, it is possible to use this method on hard-to-transfect cells like primary neurons. Here we describe our detailed protocol for calcium phosphate transfection of hippocampal neurons cocultured with astroglial cells. PMID:24300106

  12. Calcium phosphate transfection of primary hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Sun, Miao; Bernard, Laura P; Dibona, Victoria L; Wu, Qian; Zhang, Huaye

    2013-11-12

    Calcium phosphate precipitation is a convenient and economical method for transfection of cultured cells. With optimization, it is possible to use this method on hard-to-transfect cells like primary neurons. Here we describe our detailed protocol for calcium phosphate transfection of hippocampal neurons cocultured with astroglial cells.

  13. Cyanotoxins: a poison that frees phosphate.

    PubMed

    Raven, John A

    2010-10-12

    Autotrophic organisms obtain phosphorus from the environment by secreting alkaline phosphatases that act on esters, resulting in inorganic phosphate that is then taken up. New work shows that the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon ovalisporum obtains inorganic phosphate by secreting the cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin, which induces alkaline phosphatase in other phytoplankton species. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Phosphate rock resources of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cathcart, James Bachelder; Sheldon, Richard Porter; Gulbrandsen, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    In 1980, the United States produced about 54 million tons of phosphate rock, or about 40 percent of the world's production, of which a substantial amount was exported, both as phosphate rock and as chemical fertilizer. During the last decade, predictions have been made that easily ruinable, low-cost reserves of phosphate rock would be exhausted, and that by the end of this century, instead of being a major exporter of phosphate rock, the United States might become a net importer. Most analysts today, however, think that exports will indeed decline in the next one or two decades, but that resources of phosphate are sufficient to supply domestic needs for a long time into the future. What will happen in the future depends on the actual availability of low-cost phosphate rock reserves in the United States and in the world. A realistic understanding of future phosphate rock reserves is dependent on an accurate assessment, now, of national phosphate rock resources. Many different estimates of resources exist; none of them alike. The detailed analysis of past resource estimates presented in this report indicates that the estimates differ more in what is being estimated than in how much is thought to exist. The phosphate rock resource classification used herein is based on the two fundamental aspects of a mineral resource(l) the degree of certainty of existence and (2) the feasibility of economic recovery. The comparison of past estimates (including all available company data), combined with the writers' personal knowledge, indicates that 17 billion metric tons of identified, recoverable phosphate rock exist in the United States, of which about 7 billion metric tons are thought to be economic or marginally economic. The remaining 10 billion metric tons, mostly in the Northwestern phosphate district of Idaho, are considered to be subeconomic, ruinable when some increase in the price of phosphate occurs. More than 16 billion metric tons probably exist in the southeastern

  15. Phosphate Biomineralization of Cambrian Microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, David S.; Rozanov, Alexei Yu.; Hoover, Richard B.; Westall, Frances

    1998-01-01

    As part of a long term study of biological markers (biomarkers), we are documenting a variety of features which reflect the previous presence of living organisms. As we study meteorites and samples returned from Mars, our main clue to recognizing possible microbial material may be the presence of biomarkers rather than the organisms themselves. One class of biomarkers consists of biominerals which have either been precipitated directly by microorganisms, or whose precipitation has been influenced by the organisms. Such microbe-mediated mineral formation may include important clues to the size, shape, and environment of the microorganisms. The process of fossilization or mineralization can cause major changes in morphologies and textures of the original organisms. The study of fossilized terrestrial organisms can help provide insight into the interpretation of mineral biomarkers. This paper describes the results of investigations of microfossils in Cambrian phosphate-rich rocks (phosphorites) that were found in Khubsugul, Northern Mongolia.

  16. Nanoporous sorbent material as an oral phosphate binder and for aqueous phosphate, chromate, and arsenate removal

    PubMed Central

    Sangvanich, Thanapon; Ngamcherdtrakul, Worapol; Lee, Richard; Morry, Jingga; Castro, David; Fryxell, Glen E.; Yantasee, Wassana

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate removal is both biologically and environmentally important. Biologically, hyperphosphatemia is a critical condition in end-stage chronic kidney disease patients. Patients with hyperphosphatemia are treated long-term with oral phosphate binders to prevent phosphate absorption to the body by capturing phosphate in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract followed by fecal excretion. Environmentally, phosphate levels in natural water resources must be regulated according to limits set forth by the US Environmental Protection Agency. By utilizing nanotechnology and ligand design, we developed a new material to overcome limitations of traditional sorbent materials such as low phosphate binding capacity, slow binding kinetics, and negative interference by other anions. A phosphate binder based on iron-ethylenediamine on nanoporous silica (Fe-EDA-SAMMS) has been optimized for substrates and Fe(III) deposition methods. The Fe-EDA-SAMMS material had a 4-fold increase in phosphate binding capacity and a broader operating pH window compared to other reports. The material had a faster phosphate binding rate and was significantly less affected by other anions than Sevelamer HCl, the gold standard oral phosphate binder, and AG® 1-X8, a commercially available anion exchanger. It had less cytotoxicity to Caco-2 cells than lanthanum carbonate, another prescribed oral phosphate binder. The Fe-EDA-SAMMS also had high capacity for arsenate and chromate, two of the most toxic anions in natural water. PMID:25554735

  17. Levels of Phosphate Esters in Spirodela

    PubMed Central

    Bieleski, R. L.

    1968-01-01

    The duckweed Spirodela oligorrhiza was grown in sterile nutrient solutions that contained 1 mm phosphate-32P at various specific activities. In solutions with activities higher than 2 μc per μmole per ml, plant growth was inhibited after a time, and the physical appearance of the plants was affected. The critical level of radiation, at which growth was first affected, corresponded to 5 kilorads. Plants were grown for 9 days (5 generations) in a culture solution containing phosphate at 0.5 μc per μmole per ml (radiation load approx 0.5 kilorads) so that all phosphorus-containing materials in the tissue became uniformly labeled. The various radioactive compounds were extracted, chromatographed, identified, and their radioactivity was measured. From this radioactivity plus the specific activity of the supplied phosphate, the amount of each compound was calculated. The data constitute a complete balance-sheet for phosphorus in a plant tissue. The identity of 98% of the phosphorus in the tissue was determined. Inorganic phosphate (32,700 mμmoles/g fr wt) was the predominant phosphorus-containing compound; RNA (5100 mμmoles P/g fr wt) was the main organic phosphate; phosphatidyl choline (1600 mμmoles/g fr wt) was the main phospholipid, and glucose-6-phosphate (500 mμmoles/g fr wt) the main acid-soluble phosphate ester. Amounts of other phosphorus compounds are given. Images PMID:16656910

  18. Remnants of an Ancient Metabolism without Phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Goldford, Joshua E.; Hartman, Hyman; Smith, Temple F.

    Phosphate is essential for all living systems, serving as a building block of genetic and metabolic machinery. However, it is unclear how phosphate could have assumed these central roles on primordial Earth, given its poor geochemical accessibility. We used systems biology approaches to explore the alternative hypothesis that a protometabolism could have emerged prior to the incorporation of phosphate. Surprisingly, we identified a cryptic phosphate-independent core metabolism producible from simple prebiotic compounds. This network is predicted to support the biosynthesis of a broad category of key biomolecules. Its enrichment for enzymes utilizing iron-sulfur clusters, and the fact that thermodynamic bottlenecksmore » are more readily overcome by thioester rather than phosphate couplings, suggest that this network may constitute a ‘‘metabolic fossil’’ of an early phosphate-free nonenzymatic biochemistry. Thus, our results corroborate and expand previous proposals that a putative thioester-based metabolism could have predated the incorporation of phosphate and an RNA-based genetic system.« less

  19. Remnants of an Ancient Metabolism without Phosphate

    DOE PAGES

    Goldford, Joshua E.; Hartman, Hyman; Smith, Temple F.; ...

    2017-03-09

    Phosphate is essential for all living systems, serving as a building block of genetic and metabolic machinery. However, it is unclear how phosphate could have assumed these central roles on primordial Earth, given its poor geochemical accessibility. We used systems biology approaches to explore the alternative hypothesis that a protometabolism could have emerged prior to the incorporation of phosphate. Surprisingly, we identified a cryptic phosphate-independent core metabolism producible from simple prebiotic compounds. This network is predicted to support the biosynthesis of a broad category of key biomolecules. Its enrichment for enzymes utilizing iron-sulfur clusters, and the fact that thermodynamic bottlenecksmore » are more readily overcome by thioester rather than phosphate couplings, suggest that this network may constitute a ‘‘metabolic fossil’’ of an early phosphate-free nonenzymatic biochemistry. Thus, our results corroborate and expand previous proposals that a putative thioester-based metabolism could have predated the incorporation of phosphate and an RNA-based genetic system.« less

  20. Are Polyphosphates or Phosphate Esters Prebiotic Reagents?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, Anthony D.; Miller, Stanley L.

    1995-01-01

    It is widely held that there was a phosphate compound in prebiotic chemistry that played the role of adenosine triphosphate and that the first living organisms had ribose-phosphate in the backbone of their genetic material. However, there are no known efficient prebiotic synthesis of high-energy phosphates or phosphate esters. We review the occurrence of phosphates in nature, the efficiency of the volcanic synthesis of P4O10, the efficiency of polyphosphate synthesis by heating phosphate minerals under geological conditions, and the use of high-energy organic compounds such as cyanamide or hydrogen cyanide. These are shown to be inefficient processes especially when the hydrolysis of the polyphosphates is taken into account. For example, if a whole atmosphere of methane or carbon monoxide were converted to cyanide which somehow synthesized polyphosphates quantitatively, the polyphosphate concentration in the ocean would still have been insignificant. We also attempted to find more efficient high-energy polymerizing agents by spark discharge syntheses, but without success. There may still be undiscovered robust prebiotic syntheses of polyphosphates, or mechanisms for concentrating them, but we conclude that phosphate esters may not have been constituents of the first genetic material. Phosphoanhydrides are also unlikely as prebiotic energy sources.

  1. Pharmacology of the Phosphate Binder, Lanthanum Carbonate

    PubMed Central

    Damment, Stephen JP

    2011-01-01

    Studies were conducted to compare the phosphate-binding efficacy of lanthanum carbonate directly with other clinically used phosphate binders and to evaluate any potential adverse pharmacology. To examine the phosphate-binding efficacy, rats with normal renal function and chronic renal failure received lanthanum carbonate, aluminum hydroxide, calcium carbonate, or sevelamer hydrochloride in several experimental models. Lanthanum carbonate and aluminum hydroxide markedly increased excretion of [32P]-phosphate in feces and reduced excretion in urine in rats with normal renal function (p < 0.05), indicating good dietary phosphate-binding efficacy. In rats with chronic renal failure, lanthanum carbonate and aluminum hydroxide reduced urinary phosphate excretion to a greater degree and more rapidly than calcium carbonate, which in turn was more effective than sevelamer hydrochloride. The potential to induce adverse pharmacological effects was assessed systematically in mice, rats, and dogs with normal renal function using standard in vivo models. There was no evidence of any adverse secondary pharmacological effects of lanthanum carbonate on the central nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory, or gastrointestinal systems. These studies indicate that lanthanum carbonate is the more potent of the currently available dietary phosphate binders. No adverse secondary pharmacological actions were observed in vivo in a systematic evaluation at high doses. PMID:21332344

  2. How do arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi handle phosphate? New insight into fine-tuning of phosphate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ezawa, Tatsuhiro; Saito, Katsuharu

    2018-04-27

    Contents Summary I. Introduction II. Foraging for phosphate III. Fine-tuning of phosphate homeostasis IV. The frontiers: phosphate translocation and export V. Conclusions and outlook Acknowledgements References SUMMARY: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi form symbiotic associations with most land plants and deliver mineral nutrients, in particular phosphate, to the host. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of phosphate acquisition and delivery in the fungi is critical for full appreciation of the mutualism in this association. Here, we provide updates on physical, chemical, and biological strategies of the fungi for phosphate acquisition, including interactions with phosphate-solubilizing bacteria, and those on the regulatory mechanisms of phosphate homeostasis based on resurveys of published genome sequences and a transcriptome with reference to the latest findings in a model fungus. For the mechanisms underlying phosphate translocation and export to the host, which are major research frontiers in this field, not only recent advances but also testable hypotheses are proposed. Lastly, we briefly discuss applicability of the latest tools to gene silencing in the fungi, which will be breakthrough techniques for comprehensive understanding of the molecular basis of fungal phosphate metabolism. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Phosphate-bonded calcium aluminate cements

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for making a rapid-setting phosphate-bonded cementitious material. A powdered aluminous cement is mixed with an aqueous solution of ammonium phosphate. The mixture is allowed to set to form an amorphous cementitious material which also may be hydrothermally treated at a temperature of from about 120.degree. C. to about 300.degree. C. to form a crystal-containing phosphate-bonded material. Also described are the cementitious products of this method and the cement composition which includes aluminous cement and ammonium polyphosphate.

  4. Phosphate-bonded calcium aluminate cements

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1993-09-21

    A method is described for making a rapid-setting phosphate-bonded cementitious material. A powdered aluminous cement is mixed with an aqueous solution of ammonium phosphate. The mixture is allowed to set to form an amorphous cementitious material which also may be hydrothermally treated at a temperature of from about 120 C to about 300 C to form a crystal-containing phosphate-bonded material. Also described are the cementitious products of this method and the cement composition which includes aluminous cement and ammonium polyphosphate. 10 figures.

  5. BISMUTH PHOSPHATE CARRIER PROCESS FOR Pu RECOVERY

    DOEpatents

    Finzel, T.G.

    1959-02-01

    An improvement in the bismuth phosphate carrier precipitation process for recovering plutonium is described. It has been found that a more granular and more easily filterable carrier precipitiite is formed if the addition of the bismuth and phosphate ions is effected by first adding 9/10 of the bismuth ions necessary, then slowly adding all of the source of the phosphate ions to be incorporated in the precipitate, while digesting at 75 C and afterwards incorporating the remainder of the total bismuth ions necessary

  6. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Cappellini, M D; Fiorelli, G

    2008-01-05

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzyme defect, being present in more than 400 million people worldwide. The global distribution of this disorder is remarkably similar to that of malaria, lending support to the so-called malaria protection hypothesis. G6PD deficiency is an X-linked, hereditary genetic defect due to mutations in the G6PD gene, which cause functional variants with many biochemical and clinical phenotypes. About 140 mutations have been described: most are single base changes, leading to aminoacid substitutions. The most frequent clinical manifestations of G6PD deficiency are neonatal jaundice, and acute haemolytic anaemia, which is usually triggered by an exogenous agent. Some G6PD variants cause chronic haemolysis, leading to congenital non-spherocytic haemolytic anaemia. The most effective management of G6PD deficiency is to prevent haemolysis by avoiding oxidative stress. Screening programmes for the disorder are undertaken, depending on the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in a particular community.

  7. Effects of Incorporating High-Volume Fly Ash into Tricalcium Silicate on the Degree of Silicate Polymerization and Aluminum Substitution for Silicon in Calcium Silicate Hydrate

    DOE PAGES

    Bae, Sungchul; Taylor, Rae; Kilcoyne, David; ...

    2017-02-04

    This study assesses the quantitative effects of incorporating high-volume fly ash (HVFA) into tricalcium silicate (C 3S) paste on the hydration, degree of silicate polymerization, and Al substitution for Si in calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H). Thermogravimetric analysis and isothermal conduction calorimetry showed that, although the induction period of C 3S hydration was significantly extended, the degree of hydration of C 3S after the deceleration period increased due to HVFA incorporation. Synchrotron-sourced soft X-ray spectromicroscopy further showed that most of the C 3S in the C 3S-HVFA paste was fully hydrated after 28 days of hydration, while that in the puremore » C 3S paste was not. The chemical shifts of the Si K edge peaks in the near-edge X-ray fine structure of C–S–H in the C 3S-HVFA paste directly indicate that Al substitutes for Si in C–S–H and that the additional silicate provided by the HVFA induces an enhanced degree of silicate polymerization. This new spectromicroscopic approach, supplemented with 27Al and 29Si magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, turned out to be a powerful characterization tool for studying a local atomic binding structure of C–S–H in C 3S-HVFA system and presented results consistent with previous literature.« less

  8. Effects of Incorporating High-Volume Fly Ash into Tricalcium Silicate on the Degree of Silicate Polymerization and Aluminum Substitution for Silicon in Calcium Silicate Hydrate

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Sungchul; Taylor, Rae; Kilcoyne, David

    This study assesses the quantitative effects of incorporating high-volume fly ash (HVFA) into tricalcium silicate (C 3S) paste on the hydration, degree of silicate polymerization, and Al substitution for Si in calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H). Thermogravimetric analysis and isothermal conduction calorimetry showed that, although the induction period of C 3S hydration was significantly extended, the degree of hydration of C 3S after the deceleration period increased due to HVFA incorporation. Synchrotron-sourced soft X-ray spectromicroscopy further showed that most of the C 3S in the C 3S-HVFA paste was fully hydrated after 28 days of hydration, while that in the puremore » C 3S paste was not. The chemical shifts of the Si K edge peaks in the near-edge X-ray fine structure of C–S–H in the C 3S-HVFA paste directly indicate that Al substitutes for Si in C–S–H and that the additional silicate provided by the HVFA induces an enhanced degree of silicate polymerization. This new spectromicroscopic approach, supplemented with 27Al and 29Si magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, turned out to be a powerful characterization tool for studying a local atomic binding structure of C–S–H in C 3S-HVFA system and presented results consistent with previous literature.« less

  9. Effects of Incorporating High-Volume Fly Ash into Tricalcium Silicate on the Degree of Silicate Polymerization and Aluminum Substitution for Silicon in Calcium Silicate Hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sungchul; Taylor, Rae; Kilcoyne, David; Moon, Juhyuk; Monteiro, Paulo J. M.

    2017-01-01

    This study assesses the quantitative effects of incorporating high-volume fly ash (HVFA) into tricalcium silicate (C3S) paste on the hydration, degree of silicate polymerization, and Al substitution for Si in calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H). Thermogravimetric analysis and isothermal conduction calorimetry showed that, although the induction period of C3S hydration was significantly extended, the degree of hydration of C3S after the deceleration period increased due to HVFA incorporation. Synchrotron-sourced soft X-ray spectromicroscopy further showed that most of the C3S in the C3S-HVFA paste was fully hydrated after 28 days of hydration, while that in the pure C3S paste was not. The chemical shifts of the Si K edge peaks in the near-edge X-ray fine structure of C–S–H in the C3S-HVFA paste directly indicate that Al substitutes for Si in C–S–H and that the additional silicate provided by the HVFA induces an enhanced degree of silicate polymerization. This new spectromicroscopic approach, supplemented with 27Al and 29Si magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, turned out to be a powerful characterization tool for studying a local atomic binding structure of C–S–H in C3S-HVFA system and presented results consistent with previous literature. PMID:28772490

  10. Effect of Exposed Surface Area, Volume and Environmental pH on the Calcium Ion Release of Three Commercially Available Tricalcium Silicate Based Dental Cements.

    PubMed

    Rajasekharan, Sivaprakash; Vercruysse, Chris; Martens, Luc; Verbeeck, Ronald

    2018-01-13

    Tricalcium silicate cements (TSC) are used in dental traumatology and endodontics for their bioactivity which is mostly attributed to formation of calcium hydroxide during TSC hydration and its subsequent release of calcium and hydroxide ions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of volume (Vol), exposed surface area (ESA) and pH of surrounding medium on calcium ion release. Three commercially available hydraulic alkaline dental cements were mixed and condensed into cylindrical tubes of varying length and diameter ( n = 6/group). For the effect of ESA and Vol, tubes were immersed in 10 mL of deionized water. To analyze the effect of environmental pH, the tubes were randomly immersed in 10 mL of buffer solutions with varying pH (10.4, 7.4 or 4.4). The solutions were collected and renewed at various time intervals. pH and/or calcium ion release was measured using a pH glass electrode and atomic absorption spectrophotometer respectively. The change of pH, short-term calcium ion release and rate at which calcium ion release reaches maximum were dependent on ESA ( p < 0.05) while maximum calcium ion release was dependent on Vol of TSC ( p < 0.05). Maximum calcium ion release was significantly higher in acidic solution followed by neutral and alkaline solution ( p < 0.05).

  11. Effect of Exposed Surface Area, Volume and Environmental pH on the Calcium Ion Release of Three Commercially Available Tricalcium Silicate Based Dental Cements

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekharan, Sivaprakash; Vercruysse, Chris; Martens, Luc; Verbeeck, Ronald

    2018-01-01

    Tricalcium silicate cements (TSC) are used in dental traumatology and endodontics for their bioactivity which is mostly attributed to formation of calcium hydroxide during TSC hydration and its subsequent release of calcium and hydroxide ions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of volume (Vol), exposed surface area (ESA) and pH of surrounding medium on calcium ion release. Three commercially available hydraulic alkaline dental cements were mixed and condensed into cylindrical tubes of varying length and diameter (n = 6/group). For the effect of ESA and Vol, tubes were immersed in 10 mL of deionized water. To analyze the effect of environmental pH, the tubes were randomly immersed in 10 mL of buffer solutions with varying pH (10.4, 7.4 or 4.4). The solutions were collected and renewed at various time intervals. pH and/or calcium ion release was measured using a pH glass electrode and atomic absorption spectrophotometer respectively. The change of pH, short-term calcium ion release and rate at which calcium ion release reaches maximum were dependent on ESA (p < 0.05) while maximum calcium ion release was dependent on Vol of TSC (p < 0.05). Maximum calcium ion release was significantly higher in acidic solution followed by neutral and alkaline solution (p < 0.05). PMID:29342837

  12. Enzyme activity in dialkyl phosphate ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, M.F.; Dunn, J.; Li, L.-L.

    2011-12-01

    The activity of four metagenomic enzymes and an enzyme cloned from the straw mushroom, Volvariellavolvacea were studied in the following ionic liquids, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [mmim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [emim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate, [emim][dep] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [emim][OAc]. Activity was determined by analyzing the hydrolysis of para-nitrobenzene carbohydrate derivatives. In general, the enzymes were most active in the dimethyl phosphate ionic liquids, followed by acetate. Generally speaking, activity decreased sharply for concentrations of [emim][dep] above 10% v/v, while the other ionic liquids showed less impact on activity up to 20% v/v.

  13. Phosphate Dependence of Monosaccharide Transport in Nocardia

    PubMed Central

    Cerbón, Jorge; Ortigoza-Ferado, Jorge

    1968-01-01

    Uptake of the monosaccharides d-glucose and d-mannose by Nocardia asteroides and N. brasiliensis is dependent on the presence of an adequate phosphate concentration in the environment. When phosphate is replaced by solutions of sodium chloride or potassium chloride of identical ionic strength, there is no sugar uptake. In the presence of iso-osmolar concentrations of sodium arsenate, there is, however, sugar uptake activation. When nonmetabolizable 3-O-methyl d-glucose is used, most of the sugar taken up can be shown to be in the cell at a concentration never exceeding that of the external medium. Phosphate, or arsenate, seems to be essential for the actual migration of the sugar through the cell envelope. The transport of the nonmetabolizable 3-O-methyl glucose also requires phosphate, and the transport seems to be of a type that does not require energy. PMID:5640377

  14. Optimization of Porous Pellets for Phosphate Recovery

    EPA Science Inventory

    The poster presents the preliminary adsorption experiment showing that phosphate concentration is decreasing over time as well as presenting the kinetics models that best fit the data collected over 25 days.

  15. Serum phosphate predicts temporary hypocalcaemia following thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Sam, Amir H; Dhillo, W S; Donaldson, M; Moolla, A; Meeran, K; Tolley, N S; Palazzo, F F

    2011-03-01

    Temporary hypocalcaemia occurs in up to 40% of patients following a total thyroidectomy. Serum calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) measurements are currently used to predict post-thyroidectomy hypocalcaemia. However, immediate access to PTH measurement is expensive and not widely available. Serum phosphate responds rapidly to changes in circulating PTH levels, and its measurement is readily available in all hospitals. We evaluated the use of serum phosphate to predict temporary hypocalcaemia post-thyroidectomy. We retrospectively assessed 111 consecutive patients who had total or completion thyroidectomy. Patients had serum calcium and phosphate measured preoperatively, on the evening of surgery (day 0), on the morning of day 1 and over the following week as clinically indicated. Serum PTH was measured on the morning of day 1. Vitamin D levels were measured preoperatively. Seventy-six patients did not develop treatment-demanding hypocalcaemia. In these patients, the mean serum phosphate concentration was lower on the morning of day 1 compared to that on the evening of surgery. Seventeen patients with a vitamin D>25 nmol/l developed hypocalcaemia requiring treatment from day 1 onwards. All had an overnight rise in serum phosphate to >1.44 mmol/l (100% sensitivity and specificity for predicting hypocalcaemia). Twelve patients who had a vitamin D<25 nmol/l also developed hypocalcaemia but had an attenuated rise in serum phosphate. Serum phosphate is a reliable biochemical predictor of post-thyroidectomy hypocalcaemia in patients without vitamin D deficiency. The use of serum phosphate may facilitate safe day 1 discharge of patients undergoing thyroidectomy. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Optimization of Porous Pellets for Phosphate Recovery ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The poster presents the preliminary adsorption experiment showing that phosphate concentration is decreasing over time as well as presenting the kinetics models that best fit the data collected over 25 days. The purpose of this project is to find a better material for adsorption of phosphate from water treatment facilities. The material is made into pellets which allow for adsorption and are easier to remove from the system when capacity is reached.

  17. Blood Organic Phosphate in Hyperthermic Dogs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1959-06-01

    fermenting uptake is then responsible for the previously yeast caused an increase in fezrmentation and a observed fall in plasma inorganic phosphate in...Young. The alcoholic 3. Radigan, L. R., and S. Robinson. Effects of ferment of yast- juice . Proc. Roy. Soc. London environmental heat stress and...4. Kenny, R. A. The effect of hot, humid environ- yeast - juice from hexose and phosphate. Proc. ments on the renal function of West Africans. Roy Soc

  18. Phosphate transporter mediated lipid accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under phosphate starvation conditions.

    PubMed

    James, Antoni W; Nachiappan, Vasanthi

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, when phosphate transporters pho88 and pho86 were knocked out they resulted in significant accumulation (84% and 43%) of triacylglycerol (TAG) during phosphate starvation. However in the presence of phosphate, TAG accumulation was only around 45% in both pho88 and pho86 mutant cells. These observations were confirmed by radio-labeling, fluorescent microscope and RT-PCR studies. The TAG synthesizing genes encoding for acyltransferases namely LRO1 and DGA1 were up regulated. This is the first report for accumulation of TAG in pho88Δ and pho86Δ cells under phosphate starvation conditions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Using phosphate supplementation to reverse hypophosphatemia and phosphate depletion in neurological disease and disturbance.

    PubMed

    Håglin, Lena

    2016-06-01

    Hypophosphatemia (HP) with or without intracellular depletion of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and adenosine triphosphate has been associated with central and peripheral nervous system complications and can be observed in various diseases and conditions related to respiratory alkalosis, alcoholism (alcohol withdrawal), diabetic ketoacidosis, malnutrition, obesity, and parenteral and enteral nutrition. In addition, HP may explain serious muscular, neurological, and haematological disorders and may cause peripheral neuropathy with paresthesias and metabolic encephalopathy, resulting in confusion and seizures. The neuropathy may be improved quickly after proper phosphate replacement. Phosphate depletion has been corrected using potassium-phosphate infusion, a treatment that can restore consciousness. In severe ataxia and tetra paresis, complete recovery can occur after adequate replacement of phosphate. Patients with multiple risk factors, often with a chronic disease and severe HP that contribute to phosphate depletion, are at risk for neurologic alterations. To predict both risk and optimal phosphate replenishment requires assessing the nutritional status and risk for re-feeding hypophosphatemia. The strategy for correcting HP depends on the severity of the underlying disease and the goal for re-establishing a phosphate balance to limit the consequences of phosphate depletion.

  20. AMENDING SOILS WITH PHOSPHATE AS MEANS TO ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ingested soil and surface dust may be important contributors to elevated blood lead (Pb) levels in children exposed to Pb contaminated environments. Mitigation strategies have typically focused on excavation and removal of the contaminated soil. However, this is not always feasible for addressing widely disseminated contamination in populated areas often encountered in urban environments. The rationale for amending soils with phosphate is that phosphate will promote formation of highly insoluble Pb species (e.g., pyromorphite minerals) in soil, which will remain insoluble after ingestion and, therefore, inaccessible to absorption mechanisms in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Amending soil with phosphate might potentially be used in combination with other methods that reduce contact with or migration of contaminated soils, such as covering the soil with a green cap such as sod, clean soil with mulch, raised garden beds, or gravel. These remediation strategies may be less expensive and far less disruptive than excavation and removal of soil. This review evaluates evidence for efficacy of phosphate amendments for decreasing soil Pb bioavailability. Evidence is reviewed for (1) physical and chemical interactions of Pb and phosphate that would be expected to influence bioavailability, (2) effects of phosphate amendments on soil Pb bioaccessibility (i.e., predicted solubility of Pb in the GIT), and (3) results of bioavailability bioassays of amended soils con

  1. Phosphate rock costs, prices and resources interaction.

    PubMed

    Mew, M C

    2016-01-15

    This article gives the author's views and opinions as someone who has spent his working life analyzing the international phosphate sector as an independent consultant. His career spanned two price hike events in the mid-1970's and in 2008, both of which sparked considerable popular and academic interest concerning adequacy of phosphate rock resources, the impact of rising mining costs and the ability of mankind to feed future populations. An analysis of phosphate rock production costs derived from two major industry studies performed in 1983 and 2013 shows that in nominal terms, global average cash production costs increased by 27% to $38 per tonne fob mine in the 30 year period. In real terms, the global average cost of production has fallen. Despite the lack of upward pressure from increasing costs, phosphate rock market prices have shown two major spikes in the 30 years to 2013, with periods of less volatility in between. These price spike events can be seen to be related to the escalating investment cost required by new mine capacity, and as such can be expected to be repeated in future. As such, phosphate rock price volatility is likely to have more impact on food prices than rising phosphate rock production costs. However, as mining costs rise, recycling of P will also become increasingly driven by economics rather than legislation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An environment-friendly phosphate chemical conversion coating on novel Mg-9Li-7Al-1Sn and Mg-9Li-5Al-3Sn-1Zn alloys with remarkable corrosion protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, Rita; Siddiqui, Abdul Rahim; Balani, Kantesh

    2018-06-01

    An environment-friendly phosphate chemical conversion (PCC) coating has been deposited on novel LAT971 (Mg-9 wt%Li-7 wt%Al-1 wt%Sn) and LATZ9531 (Mg-9 wt%Li-5 wt%Al-3 wt%Sn-1 wt%Zn) alloys for improving their corrosion resistance. A dense and homogeneous flower like morphology (∼30 μm thick) was observed on the PCC coated Mg-Li based alloys. The presence of calcium hydrogen phosphate hydrate, tricalcium phosphate and trimagnesium phosphate were confirmed from the X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. A lower corrosion current density of 6.74 × 10-7 mA/cm2 and 5.39 × 10-7 mA/cm2 was obtained for PCC coated alloys in 3.5% NaCl aqueous solution than that of uncoated LAT971 (0.82 mA/cm2) and LATZ9531 (0.34 mA/cm2) alloys, respectively, which offers corrosion protection efficiency of >99%. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has revealed that the inner PCC coating (at coating/substrate interface) delay the direct contact between electrolyte and substrate, which offered higher charge transfer resistance (>4 orders of magnitude) than that of uncoated alloys. Thus, the PCC coating provides an effective corrosion protection to the ultra-lightweight LAT971 and LATZ9531 alloys surface and may be helpful in proving good anchoring with the top organic coatings or paints.

  3. Bioavailable dietary phosphate, a mediator of cardiovascular disease, may be decreased with plant-based diets, phosphate binders, niacin, and avoidance of phosphate additives.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F; DiNicolantonio, James J

    2014-01-01

    Increased fasting serum phosphate within the normal physiological range has been linked to increased cardiovascular risk in prospective epidemiology; increased production of fibroblast growth factor 23, and direct vascular effects of phosphate, may mediate this risk. Although dietary phosphate intake does not clearly influence fasting serum phosphate in individuals with normal renal function, increased phosphate intake can provoke a rise in fibroblast growth factor 23, and in diurnal phosphate levels, and hence may adversely influence vascular health. Dietary phosphate absorption can be moderated by emphasizing plant-based dietary choices (which provide phosphate in less bioavailable forms); avoidance of processed foods containing inorganic phosphate food additives; and by ingestion of phosphate-binder drugs, magnesium supplements, or niacin, which precipitate phosphate or suppress its gastrointestinal absorption. The propensity of dietary phosphate to promote vascular calcification may be opposed by optimal intakes of magnesium, vitamin K, and vitamin D; the latter should also counter the tendency of phosphate to elevate parathyroid hormone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantitative Kinetics Evaluation of Blocks Versus Granules of Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Scaffolds (HA/β-TCP 30/70) by Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Microtomography: A Human Study.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Alessandra; Manescu, Adrian; Mohammadi, Sara; Mazzoni, Serena; Piattelli, Adriano; Mangano, Francesco; Iezzi, Giovanna; Mangano, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    Successful bone regeneration using both granules and blocks of biphasic calcium phosphate materials has been reported in the recent literature, in some clinical applications for maxillary sinus elevation, but the long-term kinetics of bone regeneration has still not been fully investigated. Twenty-four bilateral sinus augmentation procedures were performed and grafted with hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate 30/70, 12 with granules and 12 with blocks. The samples were retrieved at different time points and were evaluated for bone regeneration, graft resorption, neovascularization, and morphometric parameters by computed microtomography and histology. A large amount of newly formed bone was detected in the retrieved specimens, together with a good rate of biomaterial resorption and the formation of a homogeneous and rich net of new vessels. The morphometric values were comparable at 5/6 months from grafting but, 9 months after grafting, revealed that the block-based specimens mimicked slightly better than granule-based samples the healthy native bone of the maxillary site. The scaffold morphology was confirmed to influence the long-term kinetics of bone regeneration.

  5. Role of Phosphate Transport System Component PstB1 in Phosphate Internalization by Nostoc punctiforme

    PubMed Central

    Hudek, L.; Premachandra, D.; Webster, W. A. J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In bacteria, limited phosphate availability promotes the synthesis of active uptake systems, such as the Pst phosphate transport system. To understand the mechanisms that facilitate phosphate accumulation in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme, phosphate transport systems were identified, revealing a redundancy of Pst phosphate uptake systems that exists across three distinct operons. Four separate PstB system components were identified. pstB1 was determined to be a suitable target for creating phenotypic mutations that could result in the accumulation of excessive levels of phosphate through its overexpression or in a reduction of the capacity to accumulate phosphate through its deletion. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), it was determined that pstB1 mRNA levels increased significantly over 64 h in cells cultured in 0 mM added phosphate and decreased significantly in cells exposed to high (12.8 mM) phosphate concentrations compared to the level in cells cultured under normal (0.8 mM) conditions. Possible compensation for the loss of PstB1 was observed when pstB2, pstB3, and pstB4 mRNA levels increased, particularly in cells starved of phosphate. The overexpression of pstB1 increased phosphate uptake by N. punctiforme and was shown to functionally complement the loss of PstB in E. coli PstB knockout (PstB−) mutants. The knockout of pstB1 in N. punctiforme did not have a significant effect on cellular phosphate accumulation or growth for the most part, which is attributed to the compensation for the loss of PstB1 by alterations in the pstB2, pstB3, and pstB4 mRNA levels. This study provides novel in vivo evidence that PstB1 plays a functional role in phosphate uptake in N. punctiforme. IMPORTANCE Cyanobacteria have been evolving over 3.5 billion years and have become highly adept at growing under limiting nutrient levels. Phosphate is crucial for the survival and prosperity of all organisms. In bacteria, limited phosphate availability promotes

  6. Role of Phosphate Transport System Component PstB1 in Phosphate Internalization by Nostoc punctiforme.

    PubMed

    Hudek, L; Premachandra, D; Webster, W A J; Bräu, L

    2016-11-01

    In bacteria, limited phosphate availability promotes the synthesis of active uptake systems, such as the Pst phosphate transport system. To understand the mechanisms that facilitate phosphate accumulation in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme, phosphate transport systems were identified, revealing a redundancy of Pst phosphate uptake systems that exists across three distinct operons. Four separate PstB system components were identified. pstB1 was determined to be a suitable target for creating phenotypic mutations that could result in the accumulation of excessive levels of phosphate through its overexpression or in a reduction of the capacity to accumulate phosphate through its deletion. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), it was determined that pstB1 mRNA levels increased significantly over 64 h in cells cultured in 0 mM added phosphate and decreased significantly in cells exposed to high (12.8 mM) phosphate concentrations compared to the level in cells cultured under normal (0.8 mM) conditions. Possible compensation for the loss of PstB1 was observed when pstB2, pstB3, and pstB4 mRNA levels increased, particularly in cells starved of phosphate. The overexpression of pstB1 increased phosphate uptake by N. punctiforme and was shown to functionally complement the loss of PstB in E. coli PstB knockout (PstB - ) mutants. The knockout of pstB1 in N. punctiforme did not have a significant effect on cellular phosphate accumulation or growth for the most part, which is attributed to the compensation for the loss of PstB1 by alterations in the pstB2, pstB3, and pstB4 mRNA levels. This study provides novel in vivo evidence that PstB1 plays a functional role in phosphate uptake in N. punctiforme IMPORTANCE: Cyanobacteria have been evolving over 3.5 billion years and have become highly adept at growing under limiting nutrient levels. Phosphate is crucial for the survival and prosperity of all organisms. In bacteria, limited phosphate availability promotes the

  7. Novel Development of Phosphate Treated Porous Hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Doi, Kazuya; Abe, Yasuhiko; Kobatake, Reiko; Okazaki, Yohei; Oki, Yoshifumi; Naito, Yoshihito; Prananingrum, Widyasri; Tsuga, Kazuhiro

    2017-12-08

    Phosphoric acid-etching treatment to the hydroxyapatite (HA) surface can modify the solubility calcium structure. The aim of the present study was to develop phosphate treated porous HA, and the characteristic structures and stimulation abilities of bone formation were evaluated to determine its suitability as a new type of bone graft material. Although the phosphoric acid-etching treatment did not alter the three-dimensional structure, a micrometer-scale rough surface topography was created on the porous HA surface. Compared to porous HA, the porosity of phosphate treated porous HA was slightly higher and the mechanical strength was lower. Two weeks after placement of the cylindrical porous or phosphate treated porous HA in a rabbit femur, newly formed bone was detected in both groups. At the central portion of the bone defect area, substantial bone formation was detected in the phosphate treated porous HA group, with a significantly higher bone formation ratio than detected in the porous HA group. These results indicate that phosphate treated porous HA has a superior surface topography and bone formation abilities in vivo owing to the capacity for both osteoconduction and stimulation abilities of bone formation conferred by phosphoric acid etching.

  8. Novel Development of Phosphate Treated Porous Hydroxyapatite

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Kazuya; Abe, Yasuhiko; Kobatake, Reiko; Okazaki, Yohei; Oki, Yoshifumi; Naito, Yoshihito; Prananingrum, Widyasri; Tsuga, Kazuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Phosphoric acid-etching treatment to the hydroxyapatite (HA) surface can modify the solubility calcium structure. The aim of the present study was to develop phosphate treated porous HA, and the characteristic structures and stimulation abilities of bone formation were evaluated to determine its suitability as a new type of bone graft material. Although the phosphoric acid-etching treatment did not alter the three-dimensional structure, a micrometer-scale rough surface topography was created on the porous HA surface. Compared to porous HA, the porosity of phosphate treated porous HA was slightly higher and the mechanical strength was lower. Two weeks after placement of the cylindrical porous or phosphate treated porous HA in a rabbit femur, newly formed bone was detected in both groups. At the central portion of the bone defect area, substantial bone formation was detected in the phosphate treated porous HA group, with a significantly higher bone formation ratio than detected in the porous HA group. These results indicate that phosphate treated porous HA has a superior surface topography and bone formation abilities in vivo owing to the capacity for both osteoconduction and stimulation abilities of bone formation conferred by phosphoric acid etching. PMID:29292788

  9. [Phosphate solubilization of Aureobasidium pullulan F4 and its mechanism].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Zhan, Jing; Sun, Qing-Ye

    2014-07-01

    The Aureobasidium pullulans F4 was isolated from the rhizosphere of Hippochaete ramosissimum in Tongguanshan mine wasteland in Tongling City, Anhui Province. Liquid culture was conducted with four kinds of phosphorus sources, calcium phosphate, aluminum phosphate, ferric phosphate and rock phosphate to determine the pH, dissolved phosphorus, phosphorus in the bacteria and organic acid in the solution. The results showed that the phosphate solubilization by A. pullulans F4 varied with phosphorus sources, which decreased in order of aluminum phosphate > ferric phosphate, calcium phosphate > rock phosphate. The amounts of dissolved phosphorus in the different treatments were all higher than 200 mg x L(-1). The pH of the medium dropped immediately in 48 h, and the aluminum phosphate and ferric phosphate treatments showed a greater decrease in pH than the calcium phosphate and rock phosphate treatments. The organic acid synthesized by A. pullulans F4 included oxalic acid, citric acid and tartaric acid, and oxalic acid, among which oxalic acid was the dominated component. The phosphate dissolving capacity of A. pullulans F4 showed no significant correlation with organic acid, but significantly correlated with the pH. The available phosphorus was significantly improved with the combined application of A. pullulans F4 and glucose, suggesting A. pullulans F4 was a potent candidate for remediation of copper mine wastelands.

  10. Phosphates behaviours in conversion of FP chlorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amamoto, I.; Kofuji, H.; Myochin, M.; Takasaki, Y.; Terai, T.

    2009-06-01

    The spent electrolyte of the pyroprocessing by metal electrorefining method should be considered for recycling after removal of fission products (FP) such as, alkali metals (AL), alkaline earth metals (ALE), and/or rare earth elements (REE), to reduce the volume of high-level radioactive waste. Among the various methods suggested for this purpose is precipitation by converting FP from chlorides to phosphates. Authors have been carrying out the theoretical analysis and experiment showing the behaviours of phosphate precipitates so as to estimate the feasibility of this method. From acquired results, it was found that AL except lithium and ALE are unlikely to form phosphate precipitates. However their conversion behaviours including REE were compatible with the theoretical analysis; in the case of LaPO 4 as one of the REE precipitates, submicron-size particles could be observed while that of Li 3PO 4 was larger; the precipitates were apt to grow larger at higher temperature; etc.

  11. Structural basis for phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Oliver B.; Tomasek, David; Jorge, Carla D.; Dufrisne, Meagan Belcher; Kim, Minah; Banerjee, Surajit; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Hendrickson, Wayne A.; Santos, Helena; Mancia, Filippo

    2015-10-01

    Phosphatidylinositol is critical for intracellular signalling and anchoring of carbohydrates and proteins to outer cellular membranes. The defining step in phosphatidylinositol biosynthesis is catalysed by CDP-alcohol phosphotransferases, transmembrane enzymes that use CDP-diacylglycerol as donor substrate for this reaction, and either inositol in eukaryotes or inositol phosphate in prokaryotes as the acceptor alcohol. Here we report the structures of a related enzyme, the phosphatidylinositol-phosphate synthase from Renibacterium salmoninarum, with and without bound CDP-diacylglycerol to 3.6 and 2.5 Å resolution, respectively. These structures reveal the location of the acceptor site, and the molecular determinants of substrate specificity and catalysis. Functional characterization of the 40%-identical ortholog from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a potential target for the development of novel anti-tuberculosis drugs, supports the proposed mechanism of substrate binding and catalysis. This work therefore provides a structural and functional framework to understand the mechanism of phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis.

  12. Phosphate Solubilization and Gene Expression of Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacterium Burkholderia multivorans WS-FJ9 under Different Levels of Soluble Phosphate.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qingwei; Wu, Xiaoqin; Wang, Jiangchuan; Ding, Xiaolei

    2017-04-28

    Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) have the ability to dissolve insoluble phosphate and enhance soil fertility. However, the growth and mineral phosphate solubilization of PSB could be affected by exogenous soluble phosphate and the mechanism has not been fully understood. In the present study, the growth and mineral phosphate-solubilizing characteristics of PSB strain Burkholderia multivorans WS-FJ9 were investigated at six levels of exogenous soluble phosphate (0, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, and 20 mM). The WS-FJ9 strain showed better growth at high levels of soluble phosphate. The phosphate-solubilizing activity of WS-FJ9 was reduced as the soluble phosphate concentration increased, as well as the production of pyruvic acid. Transcriptome profiling of WS-FJ9 at three levels of exogenous soluble phosphate (0, 5, and 20 mM) identified 446 differentially expressed genes, among which 44 genes were continuously up-regulated when soluble phosphate concentration was increased and 81 genes were continuously down-regulated. Some genes related to cell growth were continuously up-regulated, which would account for the better growth of WS-FJ9 at high levels of soluble phosphate. Genes involved in glucose metabolism, including glycerate kinase, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, and sugar ABC-type transporter, were continuously down-regulated, which indicates that metabolic channeling of glucose towards the phosphorylative pathway was negatively regulated by soluble phosphate. These findings represent an important first step in understanding the molecular mechanisms of soluble phosphate effects on the growth and mineral phosphate solubilization of PSB.

  13. Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and bone-regenerative dual-drug-loaded calcium phosphate nanocarriers-in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Madhumathi, K; Rubaiya, Y; Doble, Mukesh; Venkateswari, R; Sampath Kumar, T S

    2018-05-01

    A dual local drug delivery system (DDS) composed of calcium phosphate bioceramic nanocarriers aimed at treating the antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and bone-regenerative aspects of periodontitis has been developed. Calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA, Ca/P = 1.61) and tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) were prepared by microwave-accelerated wet chemical synthesis method. The phase purity of the nanocarriers was confirmed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), while the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed their nanosized morphology. CDHA was selected as carrier for the antibiotic (tetracycline) while TCP was chosen as the anti-inflammatory drug (ibuprofen) carrier. Combined drug release profile was studied in vitro from CDHA/TCP (CTP) system and compared with a HA/TCP (BCP) biphasic system. The tetracycline and ibuprofen release rate was 71 and 23% from CTP system as compared to 63 and 20% from BCP system. CTP system also showed a more controlled drug release profile compared to BCP system. Modeling of drug release kinetics from CTP system indicated that the release follows Higuchi model with a non-typical Fickian diffusion profile. In vitro biological studies showed the CTP system to be biocompatible with significant antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity. In vivo implantation studies on rat cranial defects showed greater bone healing and new bone formation in the drug-loaded CTP system compared to control (no carrier) at the end of 12 weeks. The in vitro and in vivo results suggest that the combined drug delivery platform can provide a comprehensive management for all bone infections requiring multi-drug therapy.

  14. Printability of calcium phosphate: calcium sulfate powders for the application of tissue engineered bone scaffolds using the 3D printing technique.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zuoxin; Buchanan, Fraser; Mitchell, Christina; Dunne, Nicholas

    2014-05-01

    In this study, calcium phosphate (CaP) powders were blended with a three-dimensional printing (3DP) calcium sulfate (CaSO4)-based powder and the resulting composite powders were printed with a water-based binder using the 3DP technology. Application of a water-based binder ensured the manufacture of CaP:CaSO4 constructs on a reliable and repeatable basis, without long term damage of the printhead. Printability of CaP:CaSO4 powders was quantitatively assessed by investigating the key 3DP process parameters, i.e. in-process powder bed packing, drop penetration behavior and the quality of printed solid constructs. Effects of particle size, CaP:CaSO4 ratio and CaP powder type on the 3DP process were considered. The drop penetration technique was used to reliably identify powder formulations that could be potentially used for the application of tissue engineered bone scaffolds using the 3DP technique. Significant improvements (p<0.05) in the 3DP process parameters were found for CaP (30-110 μm):CaSO4 powders compared to CaP (<20 μm):CaSO4 powders. Higher compressive strength was obtained for the powders with the higher CaP:CaSO4 ratio. Hydroxyapatite (HA):CaSO4 powders showed better results than beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP):CaSO4 powders. Solid and porous constructs were manufactured using the 3DP technique from the optimized CaP:CaSO4 powder formulations. High-quality printed constructs were manufactured, which exhibited appropriate green compressive strength and a high level of printing accuracy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Pumpable/injectable phosphate-bonded ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Dileep; Wagh, Arun S.; Perry, Lamar; Jeong, Seung-Young

    2001-01-01

    A pumpable ceramic composition is provided comprising an inorganic oxide, potassium phosphate, and an oxide coating material. Also provided is a method for preparing pumpable ceramic-based waste forms comprising selecting inorganic oxides based on solubility, surface area and morphology criteria; mixing the selected oxides with phosphate solution and waste to form a first mixture; combining an additive to the first mixture to create a second mixture; adding water to the second mixture to create a reactive mixture; homogenizing the reactive mixture; and allowing the reactive mixture to cure.

  16. Potentially Prebiotic Syntheses of Condensed Phosphates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, Anthony D.; Miller, Stanley L.

    1996-01-01

    In view of the importance of a prebiotic source of high energy phosphates, we have investigated a number of potentially prebiotic processes to produce condensed phosphates from orthophosphate and cyclic trimetaphosphate from tripolyphosphate. The reagents investigated include polymerizing nitriles, acid anhydrides, lactones, hexamethylene tetramine and carbon suboxide. A number of these processes give substantial yields of pyrophosphate from orthophosphate and trimetaphosphate from tripolyphosphate. Although these reactions may have been applicable in local areas, they are not sufficiently robust to have been of importance in the prebiotic open ocean.

  17. Attenuation of Phosphate Starvation Responses by Phosphite in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Ticconi, Carla A.; Delatorre, Carla A.; Abel, Steffen

    2001-01-01

    When inorganic phosphate is limiting, Arabidopsis has the facultative ability to metabolize exogenous nucleic acid substrates, which we utilized previously to identify insensitive phosphate starvation response mutants in a conditional genetic screen. In this study, we examined the effect of the phosphate analog, phosphite (Phi), on molecular and morphological responses to phosphate starvation. Phi significantly inhibited plant growth on phosphate-sufficient (2 mm) and nucleic acid-containing (2 mm phosphorus) media at concentrations higher than 2.5 mm. However, with respect to suppressing typical responses to phosphate limitation, Phi effects were very similar to those of phosphate. Phosphate starvation responses, which we examined and found to be almost identically affected by both anions, included changes in: (a) the root-to-shoot ratio; (b) root hair formation; (c) anthocyanin accumulation; (d) the activities of phosphate starvation-inducible nucleolytic enzymes, including ribonuclease, phosphodiesterase, and acid phosphatase; and (e) steady-state mRNA levels of phosphate starvation-inducible genes. It is important that induction of primary auxin response genes by indole-3-acetic acid in the presence of growth-inhibitory Phi concentrations suggests that Phi selectively inhibits phosphate starvation responses. Thus, the use of Phi may allow further dissection of phosphate signaling by genetic selection for constitutive phosphate starvation response mutants on media containing organophosphates as the only source of phosphorus. PMID:11706178

  18. Enteral administration of monosodium phosphate, monopotassium phosphate and monocalcium phosphate for the treatment of hypophosphataemia in lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Idink, M J; Grünberg, W

    2015-05-09

    Hypohosphataemia is a frequent finding in early lactating and anorectic dairy cows. Sodium phosphate is commonly used for oral phosphorus (P) supplementation, although other phosphate salts may present useful treatment alternatives. Objectives of this study were to compare the efficacy of monopotassium phosphate (KH2PO4) and monocalcium phosphate (Ca(H2PO4)2) to monosodium phosphate (NaH2PO4) in P-depleted cows. Furthermore, the effect of concentrated NaH2PO4 on the reticular groove reflex was studied. Six healthy but P-depleted dairy cows underwent four treatments in randomised order. Treatments consisted of intraruminal administration of NaH2PO4, KH2PO4 and Ca(H2PO4)2 providing the equivalent of 60 g P. A fourth treatment consisting of concentrated NaH2PO4 combined with acetaminophen as a marker substance was administered orally to determine whether the reticular groove reflex could be induced. Intraruminal administration of NaH2PO4 and KH2PO4 resulted in similar increases in plasma Pi concentrations ([Pi]) while intraruminal Ca(H2PO4)2 resulted in lower increases in plasma [Pi]. Oral and intraruminal administration of NaH2PO4 resulted in similar times to peak plasma [Pi] and acetaminophen concentration, indicating that concentrated NaH2PO4 administered orally did not trigger the reticular groove reflex. These results suggest that oral administration of KH2PO4 is equally effective as NaH2PO4. Oral administration of Ca(H2PO4)2 in contrast has a less pronounced effect on the plasma [Pi]. British Veterinary Association.

  19. Octacalcium phosphate: osteoconductivity and crystal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, O

    2010-09-01

    Octacalcium phosphate (OCP), which is structurally similar to hydroxyapatite (HA), is a possible precursor of bone apatite crystals. Although disagreement remains as to whether OCP comprises the initial mineral crystals in the early stage of bone mineralization, the results of recent biomaterial studies using synthetic OCP indicate the potential role of OCP as a bone substitute material, owing to its highly osteoconductive and biodegradable characteristics. OCP tends to convert to HA not only in an in vitro environment, but also as an implant in bone defects. Several lines of evidence from both in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that the conversion process could be involved in the stimulatory capacity of OCP for osteoblastic differentiation and osteoclast formation. However, the osteoconductivity of OCP cannot always be secured if an OCP with distinct crystal characteristics is used, because the stoichiometry and microstructure of OCP crystals greatly affect bone-regenerative properties. Osteoconductivity and stimulatory capabilities may be caused by the chemical characteristics of OCP, which allows the release or exchange of calcium and phosphate ions with the surrounding of this salt, and its tendency to grow towards specific crystal faces, which could be a variable of the synthesis condition. This paper reviews the effect of calcium phosphates on osteoblastic activity and bone regeneration, with a special emphasis on OCP, since OCP seems to be performing better than other calcium phosphates in vivo. 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Etoposide phosphate: what, why, where, and how?

    PubMed

    Schacter, L

    1996-12-01

    The podophyllotoxin derivatives etoposide and teniposide are active in the treatment of a variety of malignant conditions. Both represent chemical modifications of podophyllin, an extract of Podophyllum peltatum (May apple, mandrake, Indian apple, wild lemon, or duck's foot), a plant long used as a folk remedy and recognized in the 19th century to be effective in the treatment of cancer. While etoposide is active in the treatment of many cancers and is widely used, it has a number of limitations due to its lack of water solubility. Etoposide phosphate (Etopophos; Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ) is a water-soluble prodrug of etoposide that is rapidly and completely converted to the parent compound after intravenous dosing. The pharmacokinetic profile of etoposide after treatment with either etoposide or etoposide phosphate is identical. Toxicity and clinical activity also are the same. Because etoposide phosphate is water soluble and can be made up to a concentration of 20 mg/mL, however, it can be given as a 5-minute bolus, in high doses in small volumes, and as a continuous infusion. Furthermore, it is not formulated with polyethylene glycol, polysorbate 80 (Tween; ICI Americas, Wilmington, DE), and ethanol, and does not cause acidosis when given at high doses. The easier-to-use etoposide phosphate represents an improved formulation of etoposide.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... patient homozygous for the L487F mutation in the human GPI gene. Int J Hematol. 2012 Aug;96(2):263- ... PubMed Xu W, Beutler E. The characterization of gene mutations for human glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency associated with chronic hemolytic ...

  2. Issues of natural radioactivity in phosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Schnug, E.; Haneklaus, S.; Schnier, C.

    1996-12-31

    The fertilization of phosphorus (P) fertilizers is essential in agricultural production, but phosphates contain in dependence on their origin different amounts of trace elements. The problem of cadmium (Cd) loads and other heavy metals is well known. However, only a limited number of investigations examined the contamination of phosphates with the two heaviest metals, uranium (U) and thorium (Th), which are radioactive. Also potassium (K) is lightly radioactive. Measurements are done n the radioactivity content of phosphates, P fertilizers and soils. The radiation doses to workers and public as well as possible contamination of soils from phosphate rock or fertilizermore » caused by these elements or their daughter products is of interest with regard to radiation protection. The use of P fertilizers is necessary for a sustainable agriculture, but it involves radioactive contamination of soils. The consequences of the use of P fertilizers is discussed, also with regard to existing and proposed legislation. 11 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.« less

  3. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217 Calcium...

  4. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217 Calcium...

  5. Interaction of cadmium with phosphate on goethite

    SciTech Connect

    Venema, P.; Hiemstra, T.; Riemsdijk, W.H. van

    1997-08-01

    Interactions between different ions are of importance in understanding chemical processes in natural systems. In this study simultaneous adsorption of phosphate and cadmium on goethite is studied in detail. The charge distribution (CD)-multisite complexation (MUSIC) model has been successful in describing extended data sets of cadmium adsorption and phosphate adsorption on goethite. In this study, the parameters of this model for these two data sets were combined to describe a new data set of simultaneous adsorption of cadmium and phosphate on goethite. Attention is focused on the surface speciation of cadmium. With the extra information that can be obtained frommore » the interaction experiments, the cadmium adsorption model is refined. For a perfect description of the data, the singly coordinated surface groups at the 110 face of goethite were assumed to form both monodentate and bidentate surface species with cadmium. The CD-MUSIC model is able to describe data sets of both simultaneous and single adsorption of cadmium and phosphate with the same parameters. The model calculations confirmed the idea that only singly coordinated surface groups are reactive for specific ion binding.« less

  6. 21 CFR 582.5697 - Riboflavin-5-phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5697 Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (a) Product. Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (b) Conditions of use...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5697 - Riboflavin-5-phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5697 Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (a) Product. Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (b) Conditions of use...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5697 - Riboflavin-5-phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5697 Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (a) Product. Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (b) Conditions of use...

  9. Phosphates in some Missouri refractory clays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halley, Robert B.; Foord, Eugene E.; Keller, David J.; Keller, Walter D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes in detail phosphate minerals occurring in refractory clays of Missouri and their effect on the refractory degree of the clays. The minerals identified include carbonate-fluorapatite (francolite), crandallite, goyazite, wavellite, variscite and strengite. It is emphasized that these phosphates occur only in local isolated concentrations, and not generally in Missouri refractory clays.The Missouri fireclay region comprises 2 districts, northern and southern, separated by the Missouri River. In this region, clay constitutes a major part of the Lower Pennsylvanian Cheltenham Formation. The original Cheltenham mud was an argillic residue derived from leaching and dissolution of pre-Pennsylvanian carbonates. The mud accumulated on a karstic erosion surface truncating the pre-Cheltenham rocks. Fireclays of the northern district consist mainly of poorly ordered kaolinite, with variable but minor amounts of illite, chlorite and fine-grained detrital quartz. Clays of the southern district were subjected to extreme leaching that produced well-ordered kaolinite flint clays. Local desilication formed pockets of diaspore, or more commonly, kaolinite, with oolite-like nubs or burls of diaspore (“burley”" clay).The phosphate-bearing materials have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectral analysis (SEM-EDS) and chemical analysis. Calcian goyazite was identified in a sample of diaspore, and francolite in a sample of flint clay. A veinlet of wavellite occurs in flint clay at one locality, and a veinlet of variscite-strengite at another locality.The Missouri flint-clay-hosted francolite could not have formed in the same manner as marine francolite. The evidence suggests that the Cheltenham francolite precipitated from ion complexes in pore water, nearly simultaneously with crystallization of kaolinite flint clay from an alumina-silica gel. Calcian goyazite is an early diagenetic addition to its diaspore

  10. Effects of phosphate binders in moderate CKD.

    PubMed

    Block, Geoffrey A; Wheeler, David C; Persky, Martha S; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Ketteler, Markus; Spiegel, David M; Allison, Matthew A; Asplin, John; Smits, Gerard; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Kooienga, Laura; Thadhani, Ravi; Mannstadt, Michael; Wolf, Myles; Chertow, Glenn M

    2012-08-01

    Some propose using phosphate binders in the CKD population given the association between higher levels of phosphorus and mortality, but their safety and efficacy in this population are not well understood. Here, we aimed to determine the effects of phosphate binders on parameters of mineral metabolism and vascular calcification among patients with moderate to advanced CKD. We randomly assigned 148 patients with estimated GFR=20-45 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) to calcium acetate, lanthanum carbonate, sevelamer carbonate, or placebo. The primary endpoint was change in mean serum phosphorus from baseline to the average of months 3, 6, and 9. Serum phosphorus decreased from a baseline mean of 4.2 mg/dl in both active and placebo arms to 3.9 mg/dl with active therapy and 4.1 mg/dl with placebo (P=0.03). Phosphate binders, but not placebo, decreased mean 24-hour urine phosphorus by 22%. Median serum intact parathyroid hormone remained stable with active therapy and increased with placebo (P=0.002). Active therapy did not significantly affect plasma C-terminal fibroblast growth factor 23 levels. Active therapy did, however, significantly increase calcification of the coronary arteries and abdominal aorta (coronary: median increases of 18.1% versus 0.6%, P=0.05; abdominal aorta: median increases of 15.4% versus 3.4%, P=0.03). In conclusion, phosphate binders significantly lower serum and urinary phosphorus and attenuate progression of secondary hyperparathyroidism among patients with CKD who have normal or near-normal levels of serum phosphorus; however, they also promote the progression of vascular calcification. The safety and efficacy of phosphate binders in CKD remain uncertain.

  11. Effect of calcium phosphate and vitamin D₃ supplementation on bone remodelling and metabolism of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and iron.

    PubMed

    Trautvetter, Ulrike; Neef, Nadja; Leiterer, Matthias; Kiehntopf, Michael; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2014-01-17

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of calcium phosphate and/or vitamin D₃ on bone and mineral metabolism. Sixty omnivorous healthy subjects participated in the double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel designed study. Supplements were tricalcium phosphate (CaP) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D₃). At the beginning of the study (baseline), all subjects documented their normal nutritional habits in a dietary record for three successive days. After baseline, subjects were allocated to three intervention groups: CaP (additional 1 g calcium/d), vitamin D₃ (additional 10 μg/d) and CaP + vitamin D₃. In the first two weeks, all groups consumed placebo bread, and afterwards, for eight weeks, the test bread according to the intervention group. In the last week of each study period (baseline, placebo, after four and eight weeks of intervention), a faecal (three days) and a urine (24 h) collection and a fasting blood sampling took place. Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and iron were determined in faeces, urine and blood. Bone formation and resorption markers were analysed in blood and urine. After four and eight weeks, CaP and CaP + vitamin D₃ supplementations increased faecal excretion of calcium and phosphorus significantly compared to placebo. Due to the vitamin D₃ supplementations (vitamin D₃, CaP + vitamin D₃), the plasma 25-(OH)D concentration significantly increased after eight weeks compared to placebo. The additional application of CaP led to a significant increase of the 25-(OH)D concentration already after four weeks. Bone resorption and bone formation markers were not influenced by any intervention. Supplementation with daily 10 μg vitamin D₃ significantly increases plasma 25-(OH)D concentration. The combination with daily 1 g calcium (as CaP) has a further increasing effect on the 25-(OH)D concentration. Both CaP alone and in combination with vitamin D₃ have no beneficial effect on bone remodelling markers and on

  12. Determination of Phosphates by the Gravimetric Quimociac Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaver, Lee Alan

    2008-01-01

    The determination of phosphates by the classic quimociac gravimetric technique was used successfully as a laboratory experiment in our undergraduate analytical chemistry course. Phosphate-containing compounds are dissolved in acid and converted to soluble orthophosphate ion (PO[subscript 4][superscript 3-]). The soluble phosphate is easily…

  13. 21 CFR 522.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate. 522.1883 Section... § 522.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 20 milligrams (mg) prednisolone sodium phosphate (equivalent to 14.88 mg of prednisolone). (b) Sponsor. See No...

  14. 21 CFR 522.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate. 522.1883 Section... § 522.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 20 milligrams (mg) prednisolone sodium phosphate (equivalent to 14.88 mg of prednisolone). (b) Sponsor. See No...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  16. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b...

  17. Dominant oceanic bacteria secure phosphate using a large extracellular buffer

    PubMed Central

    Zubkov, Mikhail V.; Martin, Adrian P.; Hartmann, Manuela; Grob, Carolina; Scanlan, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitous SAR11 and Prochlorococcus bacteria manage to maintain a sufficient supply of phosphate in phosphate-poor surface waters of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. Furthermore, it seems that their phosphate uptake may counter-intuitively be lower in more productive tropical waters, as if their cellular demand for phosphate decreases there. By flow sorting 33P-phosphate-pulsed 32P-phosphate-chased cells, we demonstrate that both Prochlorococcus and SAR11 cells exploit an extracellular buffer of labile phosphate up to 5–40 times larger than the amount of phosphate required to replicate their chromosomes. Mathematical modelling is shown to support this conclusion. The fuller the buffer the slower the cellular uptake of phosphate, to the point that in phosphate-replete tropical waters, cells can saturate their buffer and their phosphate uptake becomes marginal. Hence, buffer stocking is a generic, growth-securing adaptation for SAR11 and Prochlorococcus bacteria, which lack internal reserves to reduce their dependency on bioavailable ambient phosphate. PMID:26198420

  18. 21 CFR 862.1720 - Triose phosphate isomerase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... isomerase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase in erythrocytes (red blood cells). Triose phosphate isomerase is an enzyme important in glycolysis... this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital triose phosphate isomerase enzyme...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1720 - Triose phosphate isomerase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... isomerase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase in erythrocytes (red blood cells). Triose phosphate isomerase is an enzyme important in glycolysis... this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital triose phosphate isomerase enzyme...

  20. Liesegang banding and multiple precipitate formation in cobalt phosphate systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karam, Tony; El-Rassy, Houssam; Zaknoun, Farah; Moussa, Zeinab; Sultan, Rabih

    2012-02-01

    We study a cobalt phosphate Liesegang pattern from cobalt(II) and phosphate ions in a 1D tube. The system yields a complex, multi-component pattern. Characterization of the different precipitates by FTIR, SEM and XRD reveals that they are cobalt phosphate polymorphs with different degrees of hydration.

  1. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b...

  3. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  5. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. 21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b...

  11. 75 FR 16509 - Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ...)] Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... retarded, by reason of subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of certain potassium... ``phosphate salts''). Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10332 - Lithium metal phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lithium metal phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10332 Lithium metal phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as lithium metal phosphate (PMN P...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10332 - Lithium metal phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lithium metal phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10332 Lithium metal phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as lithium metal phosphate (PMN P...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10332 - Lithium metal phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lithium metal phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10332 Lithium metal phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as lithium metal phosphate (PMN P...

  15. Can features of phosphate toxicity appear in normophosphatemia?

    PubMed

    Osuka, Satoko; Razzaque, Mohammed S

    2012-01-01

    Phosphate is an indispensable nutrient for the formation of nucleic acids and the cell membrane. Adequate phosphate balance is a prerequisite for basic cellular functions ranging from energy metabolism to cell signaling. More than 85% of body phosphate is present in the bones and teeth. The remaining phosphate is distributed in various soft tissues, including skeletal muscle. A tiny amount, around 1% of total body phosphate, is distributed both in the extracellular fluids and within the cells. Impaired phosphate balance can affect the functionality of almost all human systems, including muscular, skeletal, and vascular systems, leading to an increase in morbidity and mortality of the involved patients. Currently, measuring serum phosphate level is the gold standard to estimate the overall phosphate status of the body. Despite the biological and clinical significance of maintaining delicate phosphate balance, serum levels do not always reflect the amount of phosphate uptake and its distribution. This article briefly discusses the potential that some of the early consequences of phosphate toxicity might not be evident from serum phosphate levels.

  16. Can features of phosphate toxicity appear in normophosphatemia?

    PubMed Central

    Osuka, Satoko; Razzaque, Mohammed S.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphate is an indispensable nutrient for the formation of nucleic acids and the cell membrane. Adequate phosphate balance is a prerequisite for basic cellular functions ranging from energy metabolism to cell signaling. More than 85% of body phosphate is present in the bones and teeth. The remaining phosphate is distributed in various soft tissues, including skeletal muscle. A tiny amount, around 1% of total body phosphate, is distributed both in the extracellular fluids and within the cells. Impaired phosphate balance can affect the functionality of almost all human systems, including muscular, skeletal, and vascular systems, leading to an increase in morbidity and mortality of the involved patients. Currently, measuring serum phosphate level is the gold standard to estimate the overall phosphate status of the body. Despite the biological and clinical significance of maintaining delicate phosphate balance, serum levels do not always reflect the amount of phosphate uptake and its distribution. This article briefly discusses the potential that some of the early consequences of phosphate toxicity might not be evident from serum phosphate levels. PMID:22219005

  17. 40 CFR 721.643 - Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.643 Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance... alcohol, phosphated, amine salt (PMN P-96-1478) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  18. 21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  19. 21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  20. 21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  1. 21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  2. 21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  3. 21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  4. 1. NORTH IDAHO PHOSPHATE COMPANY PLANTS. VIEW IS TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTH IDAHO PHOSPHATE COMPANY PLANTS. VIEW IS TO THE NORTHEAST, WITH THE SHIPPING AND STORAGE WAREHOUSE, AMMONIUM PHOSPHATE FERTILIZER PLANT, AND PHOSPHORIC ACID PLANT APPEARING IN SUCCESSION DOWN GOVERNMENT GULCH. - North Idaho Phosphate Company, Silver King Community, Kellogg, Shoshone County, ID

  5. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  9. Microbial electrolysis cell accelerates phosphate remobilisation from iron phosphate contained in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Fabian; Zufferey, Géraldine; Sugnaux, Marc; Happe, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate was remobilised from iron phosphate contained in digested sewage sludge using a bio-electric cell. A significant acceleration above former results was caused by strongly basic catholytes. For these experiments a dual chambered microbial electrolysis cell with a small cathode (40 mL) and an 80 times larger anode (2.5 L) was equipped with a platinum sputtered reticulated vitreous carbon cathode. Various applied voltages (0.2-6.0 V) generated moderate to strongly basic catholytes using artificial waste water with pH close to neutral. Phosphate from iron phosphate contained in digested sewage sludge was remobilised most effectively at pH ∼13 with up to 95% yield. Beside minor electrochemical reduction, hydroxyl substitution was the dominating remobilisation mechanism. Particle-fluid kinetics using the "shrinking core" model allowed us to determine the reaction controlling step. Reaction rates changed with temperature (15-40 °C) and an activation energy of Ea = 55 kJ mol(-1) was found. These analyses indicated chemical and physical reaction control, which is of interest for future scale-up work. Phosphate remobilisation rates increased significantly, yields doubled and recovered PO4(3-) concentrations increased four times using a task specific bio-electric system. The result is a sustainable process for decentralized phosphate mining and a green chemical base generator useful also for many other sustainable processing needs.

  10. Differentiating phosphate-dependent and phosphate-independent systemic phosphate-starvation response networks in Arabidopsis thaliana through the application of phosphite

    PubMed Central

    Jost, Ricarda; Pharmawati, Made; Lapis-Gaza, Hazel R.; Rossig, Claudia; Berkowitz, Oliver; Lambers, Hans; Finnegan, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphite is a less oxidized form of phosphorus than phosphate. Phosphite is considered to be taken up by the plant through phosphate transporters. It can mimic phosphate to some extent, but it is not metabolized into organophosphates. Phosphite could therefore interfere with phosphorus signalling networks. Typical physiological and transcriptional responses to low phosphate availability were investigated and the short-term kinetics of their reversion by phosphite, compared with phosphate, were determined in both roots and shoots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Phosphite treatment resulted in a strong growth arrest. It mimicked phosphate in causing a reduction in leaf anthocyanins and in the expression of a subset of the phosphate-starvation-responsive genes. However, the kinetics of the response were slower than for phosphate, which may be due to discrimination against phosphite by phosphate transporters PHT1;8 and PHT1;9 causing delayed shoot accumulation of phosphite. Transcripts encoding PHT1;7, lipid-remodelling enzymes such as SQD2, and phosphocholine-producing NMT3 were highly responsive to phosphite, suggesting their regulation by a direct phosphate-sensing network. Genes encoding components associated with the ‘PHO regulon’ in plants, such as At4, IPS1, and PHO1;H1, generally responded more slowly to phosphite than to phosphate, except for SPX1 in roots and MIR399d in shoots. Two uncharacterized phosphate-responsive E3 ligase genes, PUB35 and C3HC4, were also highly phosphite responsive. These results show that phosphite is a valuable tool to identify network components directly responsive to phosphate. PMID:25697796

  11. Phosphate additives in food--a health risk.

    PubMed

    Ritz, Eberhard; Hahn, Kai; Ketteler, Markus; Kuhlmann, Martin K; Mann, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Hyperphosphatemia has been identified in the past decade as a strong predictor of mortality in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). For example, a study of patients in stage CKD 5 (with an annual mortality of about 20%) revealed that 12% of all deaths in this group were attributable to an elevated serum phosphate concentration. Recently, a high-normal serum phosphate concentration has also been found to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality in the general population. Therefore, phosphate additives in food are a matter of concern, and their potential impact on health may well have been underappreciated. We reviewed pertinent literature retrieved by a selective search of the PubMed and EU databases (www.zusatzstoffe-online.de, www.codexalimentarius.de), with the search terms "phosphate additives" and "hyperphosphatemia." There is no need to lower the content of natural phosphate, i.e. organic esters, in food, because this type of phosphate is incompletely absorbed; restricting its intake might even lead to protein malnutrition. On the other hand, inorganic phosphate in food additives is effectively absorbed and can measurably elevate the serum phosphate concentration in patients with advanced CKD. Foods with added phosphate tend to be eaten by persons at the lower end of the socioeconomic scale, who consume more processed and "fast" food. The main pathophysiological effect of phosphate is vascular damage, e.g. endothelial dysfunction and vascular calcification. Aside from the quality of phosphate in the diet (which also requires attention), the quantity of phosphate consumed by patients with advanced renal failure should not exceed 1000 mg per day, according to the guidelines. Prospective controlled trials are currently unavailable. In view of the high prevalence of CKD and the potential harm caused by phosphate additives to food, the public should be informed that added phosphate is damaging to health. Furthermore, calls for labeling

  12. Application of Potential Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria and Organic Acids on Phosphate Solubilization from Phosphate Rock in Aerobic Rice

    PubMed Central

    Jusop, Shamshuddin; Naher, Umme Aminun; Othman, Radziah; Razi, Mohd Ismail

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted at Universiti Putra Malaysia to determine the effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and organic acids (oxalic & malic) on phosphate (P) solubilization from phosphate rock (PR) and growth of aerobic rice. Four rates of each organic acid (0, 10, 20, and 30 mM), and PSB strain (Bacillus sp.) were applied to aerobic rice. Total bacterial populations, amount of P solubilization, P uptake, soil pH, and root morphology were determined. The results of the study showed significantly high P solubilization in PSB with organic acid treatments. Among the two organic acids, oxalic acid was found more effective compared to malic acid. Application of oxalic acid at 20 mM along with PSB16 significantly increased soluble soil P (28.39 mg kg−1), plant P uptake (0.78 P pot−1), and plant biomass (33.26 mg). Addition of organic acids with PSB and PR had no influence on soil pH during the planting period. A higher bacterial population was found in rhizosphere (8.78 log10 cfu g−1) compared to the nonrhizosphere and endosphere regions. The application of organic acids along with PSB enhanced soluble P in the soil solution, improved root growth, and increased plant biomass of aerobic rice seedlings without affecting soil pH. PMID:24288473

  13. Dual Mechanism of Ion Permeation through VDAC Revealed with Inorganic Phosphate Ions and Phosphate Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Krammer, Eva-Maria; Vu, Giang Thi; Homblé, Fabrice; Prévost, Martine

    2015-01-01

    In the exchange of metabolites and ions between the mitochondrion and the cytosol, the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) is a key element, as it forms the major transport pathway for these compounds through the mitochondrial outer membrane. Numerous experimental studies have promoted the idea that VDAC acts as a regulator of essential mitochondrial functions. In this study, using a combination of molecular dynamics simulations, free-energy calculations, and electrophysiological measurements, we investigated the transport of ions through VDAC, with a focus on phosphate ions and metabolites. We showed that selectivity of VDAC towards small anions including monovalent phosphates arises from short-lived interactions with positively charged residues scattered throughout the pore. In dramatic contrast, permeation of divalent phosphate ions and phosphate metabolites (AMP and ATP) involves binding sites along a specific translocation pathway. This permeation mechanism offers an explanation for the decrease in VDAC conductance measured in the presence of ATP or AMP at physiological salt concentration. The binding sites occur at similar locations for the divalent phosphate ions, AMP and ATP, and contain identical basic residues. ATP features a marked affinity for a central region of the pore lined by two lysines and one arginine of the N-terminal helix. This cluster of residues together with a few other basic amino acids forms a “charged brush” which facilitates the passage of the anionic metabolites through the pore. All of this reveals that VDAC controls the transport of the inorganic phosphates and phosphate metabolites studied here through two different mechanisms. PMID:25860993

  14. Aluminum phosphate ceramics for waste storage

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun; Maloney, Martin D

    2014-06-03

    The present disclosure describes solid waste forms and methods of processing waste. In one particular implementation, the invention provides a method of processing waste that may be particularly suitable for processing hazardous waste. In this method, a waste component is combined with an aluminum oxide and an acidic phosphate component in a slurry. A molar ratio of aluminum to phosphorus in the slurry is greater than one. Water in the slurry may be evaporated while mixing the slurry at a temperature of about 140-200.degree. C. The mixed slurry may be allowed to cure into a solid waste form. This solid waste form includes an anhydrous aluminum phosphate with at least a residual portion of the waste component bound therein.

  15. International Strategic Minerals Inventory summary report; phosphate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krauss, Ulrich H.; Saam, Henning G.; Schmidt, Helmut

    1984-01-01

    Major world resources of phosphate, a strategic mineral commodity, are described in this summary report of information in the International Strategic Minerals Inventory {ISMI}. ISMI is a cooperative data-collection effort of earth-science and mineral-resource agencies in Australia, Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Republic of South Africa, and the United States of America. This report, designed to be of benefit to policy analysts, contains two parts. Part I presents an overview of the resources and potential supply of phosphate on the basis of inventory information. Part II contains tables of some of the geologic information and mineral-resource and production data that were collected by ISMI participants.

  16. The pentose phosphate pathway and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Krushna C.; Hay, Nissim

    2015-01-01

    The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), which branches from glycolysis at the first committed step of glucose metabolism, is required for the synthesis of ribonucleotides and is a major source of NADPH. NADPH is required for and consumed during fatty acid synthesis and the scavenging of reactive oxygen species. Therefore, the PPP plays a pivotal role in helping glycolytic cancer cells to meet their anabolic demands and combat oxidative stress. Recently, several neoplastic lesions were shown to have evolved to facilitate the flux of glucose into the pentose phosphate pathway. This review summarizes the fundamental functions of the PPP, its regulation in cancer cells, and its importance in cancer cell metabolism and survival. PMID:25037503

  17. Cutaneous manifestations of phosphate solution extravasation.

    PubMed

    Verykiou, S; Aljefri, K; Gopee, H; Taheri, L; Charlton, F; Langtry, J A; Blasdale, C

    2018-01-01

    Extravasation injuries are common in patients receiving multiple intravenous infusions. Although such injuries are closely associated with the infusion of cytotoxic chemotherapy, they have also been been associated with extravasation of noncytotoxic drugs. Extravasation injuries can lead to skin ulceration and nerve and tendon damage, and therefore to permanent disability. We report three cases of phosphate solution extravasation leading to unusual cutaneous manifestations. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  18. Phosphine from rocks: mechanically driven phosphate reduction?

    PubMed

    Glindemann, Dietmar; Edwards, Marc; Morgenstern, Peter

    2005-11-01

    Natural rock and mineral samples released trace amounts of phosphine during dissolution in mineral acid. An order of magnitude more phosphine (average 1982 ng PH3 kg rock and maximum 6673 ng PH3/kg rock) is released from pulverized rock samples (basalt, gneiss, granite, clay, quartzitic pebbles, or marble). Phosphine was correlated to hardness and mechanical pulverization energy of the rocks. The yield of PH3 ranged from 0 to 0.01% of the total P content of the dissolved rock. Strong circumstantial evidence was gathered for reduction of phosphate in the rock via mechanochemical or "tribochemical" weathering at quartz and calcite/marble inclusions. Artificial reproduction of this mechanism by rubbing quartz rods coated with apatite-phosphate to the point of visible triboluminescence, led to detection of more than 70 000 ng/kg PH3 in the apatite. This reaction pathway may be considered a mechano-chemical analogue of phosphate reduction from lightning or electrical discharges and may contribute to phosphine production via tectonic forces and processing of rocks.

  19. Trehalose 6-phosphate phosphatases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Cross, Megan; Biberacher, Sonja; Park, Suk-Youl; Rajan, Siji; Korhonen, Pasi; Gasser, Robin B; Kim, Jeong-Sun; Coster, Mark J; Hofmann, Andreas

    2018-04-24

    The opportunistic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been recognized as an important pathogen of clinical relevance and is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. The presence of a glycolytic enzyme in Pseudomonas, which is known to be inhibited by trehalose 6-phosphate (T6P) in other organisms, suggests that these bacteria may be vulnerable to the detrimental effects of intracellular T6P accumulation. In the present study, we explored the structural and functional properties of trehalose 6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) in P. aeruginosa in support of future target-based drug discovery. A survey of genomes revealed the existence of 2 TPP genes with either chromosomal or extrachromosomal location. Both TPPs were produced as recombinant proteins, and characterization of their enzymatic properties confirmed specific, magnesium-dependent catalytic hydrolysis of T6P. The 3-dimensional crystal structure of the chromosomal TPP revealed a protein dimer arising through β-sheet expansion of the individual monomers, which possess the overall fold of halo-acid dehydrogenases.-Cross, M., Biberacher, S., Park, S.-Y., Rajan, S., Korhonen, P., Gasser, R. B., Kim, J.-S., Coster, M. J., Hofmann, A. Trehalose 6-phosphate phosphatases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  20. Glucose-6-phosphate metabolism in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Preuss, Janina; Jortzik, Esther; Becker, Katja

    2012-07-01

    Malaria is still one of the most threatening diseases worldwide. The high drug resistance rates of malarial parasites make its eradication difficult and furthermore necessitate the development of new antimalarial drugs. Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for severe malaria and therefore of special interest with regard to drug development. Plasmodium parasites are highly dependent on glucose and very sensitive to oxidative stress; two observations that drew interest to the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) with its key enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). A central position of the PPP for malaria parasites is supported by the fact that human G6PD deficiency protects to a certain degree from malaria infections. Plasmodium parasites and the human host possess a complete PPP, both of which seem to be important for the parasites. Interestingly, there are major differences between parasite and human G6PD, making the enzyme of Plasmodium a promising target for antimalarial drug design. This review gives an overview of the current state of research on glucose-6-phosphate metabolism in P. falciparum and its impact on malaria infections. Moreover, the unique characteristics of the enzyme G6PD in P. falciparum are discussed, upon which its current status as promising target for drug development is based. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.