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Sample records for zn1-x thin films

  1. Effect of composition on SILAR deposited CdxZn1-xS thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashith V., K.; Gowrish Rao, K.

    2018-04-01

    In the group of II-VI compound semiconductor, cadmium zinc sulphide (CdxZn1-xS) thin films have broad application in photovoltaic, optoelectronic devices etc. For heterojunction aspects, CdxZn1-xS thin film can be used as heterojunction partner for CdTe as the absorber layer. In this work, CdZnS thin films prepared on glass substrates by Successive Ion Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method by varying the composition. The XRD patterns of deposited films showed polycrystalline with the hexagonal phase. The crystallite size of the films was estimated from W-H plot. The bond length of the film varied w.r.to the composition of the CdxZn1-xS films. The urbach energy of the films was calcualted from absorbance data.

  2. Bandgap tuning in highly c-axis oriented Zn1-xMgxO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Parmod; Malik, Hitendra K.; Ghosh, Anima; Thangavel, R.; Asokan, K.

    2013-06-01

    We propose Mg doping in zinc oxide (ZnO) films for realizing wider optical bandgap in highly c-axis oriented Zn1-xMgxO (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.3) thin films. A remarkable enhancement of 25% in the bandgap by 30% Mg doping was achieved. The bandgap was tuned between 3.25 eV (ZnO) and 4.06 eV (Zn0.7Mg0.3O), which was further confirmed by density functional theory based wien2k simulation employing a combined generalized gradient approximation with scissor corrections. The change of stress and crystallite size in these films were found to be the causes for the observed blueshift in the bandgap.

  3. Structural and optical properties of magnetron sputtered MgxZn1-xO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Gupte, Vinay; Sreenivas, K.

    2006-04-01

    MgxZn1-xO (MZO) thin films prepared by an rf magnetron sputtering technique are reported. The films were grown at room temperature and at relatively low rf power of 50 W. MZO thin films were found to possess preferred c-axis orientation and exhibited hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO up to a Mg concentration of 42 mol%. A small variation in the c-axis lattice parameter of around 0.3% was observed with increasing Mg composition, showing the complete solubility of Mg in ZnO. The band gap of the MZO films in the wurtzite phase varied linearly with the Mg concentration and a maximum band gap ~4.19 eV was achieved at x = 0.42. The refractive indices of the MgO films were found to decrease with increasing Mg content. The observed optical dispersion data are in agreement with the single oscillator model. A photoluminescence study revealed a blue shift in the near band edge emission peak with increasing Mg content in the MZO films. The results show the potential of MZO films in various opto-electronic applications.

  4. Growth of ternary CdxZn1-xO thin films in oxygen ambient using pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sugandha; Saini, Basant; Kaur, Ravinder; Gupta, Vinay; Tomar, Monika; Kapoor, Avinashi

    2018-05-01

    This study reports the growth of cadmium alloyed zinc (CdxZn1-xO) oxide thin films using pulsed laser deposition. The films are deposited on Corning glass substrates at different oxygen pressures of 5, 20, and 40 mTorr. High resolution X-ray diffraction studies reveal mixed phase (hexagonal and cubic) for films deposited at 20 and 40 mTorr, while a cubic phase for film deposited at 5 mTorr pressure. Optical transmittance studies indicate red-shifting of transmission edge as oxygen pressure decreases to 5 mTorr from 20 mTorr, hinting at a possible increase in cadmium content in thin films. Minimum band gap energy is obtained at growth pressure of 5 mTorr. Resistivity measurements have been performed using Hall effect measurement set up at 298 K.

  5. Zn1-xAlxO:Cu2O transparent metal oxide composite thin films by sol gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlHammad, M. S.

    2017-05-01

    We have synthesized undoped zinc oxide (ZnO) and Cu2O doped Zn1-XAlXO (AZO; Al/Zn = 1.5 at.%) metal oxide films by sol-gel spin coating method. Atomic force microscopy results indicate that the Zn1-xAlxO:Cu2O is are formed form the fibers. The surface morphology of the films is found to depend on the concentration of Cu2O. The optical constants such as band gap, Urbach energy, refractive index, extinction coefficient and dielectric constants of the films were determined. The transmittance spectra shows that all the films are highly transparent. The study revealed that undoped ZnO film has direct bang gap of 3.29 eV and the optical band gap of films is increased with doping content. The hot probe measurements indicate that Zn1-xAlxO:Cu2O transparent metal oxide composite thin films exhibited p-type electrical conductivity.

  6. Investigations on structural and electrical parameters of p-Si/ MgxZn1-xO thin film heterojunction diodes grown by RF magnetron sputtering technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Satyendra Kumar; Hazra, Purnima

    2018-05-01

    This work reports fabrication and characterization of p-Si/ MgxZn1-xO thin film heterojunction diodes grown by RF magnetron sputtering technique. In this work, ZnO powder was mixed with MgO powder at per their weight percentage from 0 to 10% to prepare MgxZn1-xO target. The microstructural, surface morphological and optical properties of as-deposited p-Si/MgxZn1-xO heterostructure thin films have been studied using X-ray Diffraction, atomic force microscopy and variable angle ellipsometer. XRD spectra exhibit that undoped ZnO thin films has preferred crystal orientation in (002) plane. However, with increase in Mg-doping, ZnO (101) crystal plane is enhanced progressively due to phase segregation, even though preferred growth orientation of ZnO crystals is still towards (002) plane. The electrical characteristics of Si/ MgxZn1-xO heterojunction diodes with large area Al/Ti ohmic contacts are evaluated using semiconductor parameter analyzer. With rectification ratio of 27894, reverse saturation current of 20.5 nA and barrier height of 0.724 eV, Si/Mg0.5Zn0.95O thin film heterojunction diode is believed to have potential to be used in wider bandgap nanoelectronic device applications.

  7. Enhanced dielectric and piezoelectric responses in Zn 1 -xMg xO thin films near the phase separation boundary

    DOE PAGES

    Kang, Xiaoyu; Shetty, Smitha; Garten, Lauren; ...

    2017-01-23

    Dielectric and piezoelectric properties for Zn 1-xMg xO (ZMO) thin films are reported as a function of MgO composition up to and including the phase separation region. Zn 1-xMg xO (0.25 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) thin films with c-axis textures were deposited by pulsed laser deposition on platinized sapphire substrates. The films were phase pure wurtzite for MgO concentrations up to 40%; above that limit, a second phase with rocksalt structure evolves with strong {100} texture. With increasing MgO concentration, the out-of-plane ( d33,f) and in-plane ( e31,f) piezoelectric coefficients increase by 360% and 290%, respectively. The increase in piezoelectricmore » coefficients is accompanied by a 35% increase in relative permittivity. Loss tangent values fall monotonically with increasing MgO concentration, reaching a minimum of 0.001 for x ≥ 0.30, at which point the band gap is reported to be 4 eV. As a result, the enhanced piezoelectric response, the large band gap, and the low dielectric loss make Zn 1-xMg xO an interesting candidate for thin film piezoelectric devices, and demonstrate that compositional phase transformations provide opportunities for property engineering.« less

  8. Efficiency enhancement using a Zn1- x Ge x -O thin film as an n-type window layer in Cu2O-based heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minami, Tadatsugu; Nishi, Yuki; Miyata, Toshihiro

    2016-05-01

    Efficiency enhancement was achieved in Cu2O-based heterojunction solar cells fabricated with a zinc-germanium-oxide (Zn1- x Ge x -O) thin film as the n-type window layer and a p-type Na-doped Cu2O (Cu2O:Na) sheet prepared by thermally oxidizing Cu sheets. The Ge content (x) dependence of the obtained photovoltaic properties of the heterojunction solar cells is mainly explained by the conduction band discontinuity that results from the electron affinity difference between Zn1- x Ge x -O and Cu2O:Na. The optimal value of x in Zn1- x Ge x -O thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition was observed to be 0.62. An efficiency of 8.1% was obtained in a MgF2/Al-doped ZnO/Zn0.38Ge0.62-O/Cu2O:Na heterojunction solar cell.

  9. Local Structure and Surface Properties of CoxZn1-xO Thin Films for Ozone Gas Sensing.

    PubMed

    Catto, Ariadne C; Silva, Luís F da; Bernardi, Maria Inês B; Bernardini, Sandrine; Aguir, Khalifa; Longo, Elson; Mastelaro, Valmor R

    2016-10-05

    A detailed study of the structural, surface, and gas-sensing properties of nanostructured Co x Zn 1-x O films is presented. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed a decrease in the crystallization degree with increasing Co content. The X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies (XPS) revealed that the Co 2+ ions preferentially occupied the Zn 2+ sites and that the oxygen vacancy concentration increased as the amount of cobalt increased. Electrical measurements showed that the Co dopants not only enhanced the sensor response at low ozone levels (ca. 42 ppb) but also led to a decrease in the operating temperature and improved selectivity. The enhancement in the gas-sensing properties was attributed to the presence of oxygen vacancies, which facilitated ozone adsorption.

  10. Automated electrochemical synthesis and photoelectrochemical characterization of Zn1-xCo(x)O thin films for solar hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Thomas F; Baeck, Sung-Hyeon; Kleiman-Shwarsctein, Alan; Choi, Kyoung-Shin; Stucky, Galen D; McFarland, Eric W

    2005-01-01

    High-throughput electrochemical methods have been developed for the investigation of Zn1-xCo(x)O films for photoelectrochemical hydrogen production from water. A library of 120 samples containing 27 different compositions (0 films, with Zn0.956Co0.044O exhibiting a 4-fold improvement over pure ZnO with no external bias. Flat-band potential, bias-dependent photocurrent, and action spectra were also measured automatically with the high-throughput screening system. The 200-nm-thick films were subsequently characterized by numerous techniques, including SEM, XRD, XPS, and UV-vis, which show that the depositions are well-controlled. Zn/Co stoichiometry in the films was controlled by the ratio of the Zn and Co precursors in each deposition bath. All films exhibited the wurtzite structure typical of pure ZnO, and the Co2+ appears to substitute Zn2+, forming a single-phase solid solution. Band gaps of the solid solutions were systematically lower than the 3.2-eV band gap typical of ZnO.

  11. Influence of Y doping concentration on the properties of nanostructured MxZn1-xO (M=Y) thin film deposited by nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariappan, R.; Ponnuswamy, V.; Chandra Bose, A.; Suresh, R.; Ragavendar, M.

    2014-09-01

    Yttrium doped Zinc Oxide (YxZn1-xO) thin films deposited at a substrate temperature 400 °C. The effect of substrate temperature on the structural, surface morphology, compositional, optical and electrical properties of YxZn1-xO thin films was studied. X-ray diffraction studies show that all films are polycrystalline in nature with hexagonal crystal structure having highly textured (002) plane parallel to the surface of the substrate. The structural parameters, such as lattice constants (a and c), crystallite size (D), dislocation density (δ), microstrain (σ) and texture coefficient were calculated for different yttrium doping concentrations (x). High resolution scanning electron microscopy measurements reveal that the surface morphology of the films change from platelet like grains to hexagonal structure with grain size increase due to the yttrium doping. Energy dispersive spectroscopy confirms the presence of Y, Zn and O elements in the films prepared. Optical studies showed that all samples have a strong optical transmittance higher than 70% in the visible range. A slight shift of the absorption edge towards the large wavelengths was observed as the Y doping concentration increased. This result shows that the band gap is slightly decreased from 3.10 to 2.05 eV with increase of the yttrium doping concentrations (up to 7.5%) and then slightly increased. Room temperature PL measurements were done and the band-to-band emission energies of films were determined and reported. The complex impedance of the 10%Y doped ZnO film shows two distinguished semicircles and the diameter of the arcs got decreased in diameter as the temperature increases from 70 to 175 °C.

  12. Structural and magnetic characterization of mixed valence Co(II, III)xZn1-xO epitaxial thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negi, D. S.; Loukya, B.; Dileep, K.; Sahu, R.; Shetty, S.; Kumar, N.; Ghatak, J.; Pachauri, N.; Gupta, A.; Datta, R.

    2014-03-01

    In this article, we report on the Co atom incorporation, secondary phase formation and composition-dependent magnetic and optical properties of mixed valence Co(II, III)xZn1-xO epitaxial thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition. The intended total Co concentration is varied between ~6-60 at.% with relatively higher concentration of +3 over +2 charge state. Mixed valence Co(II, III) shows high solubility in ZnO (up to 38 at.%) and ferromagnetism is observed in samples with total Co incorporation of ~29 and 38 at.%. Electron diffraction pattern and high resolution transmission electron microscopy images reveal single crystalline nature of the thin films with wurtzite structure. Co oxide interlayer, with both rock salt and spinel structure, are observed to be formed between the substrate and wurtzite film for total Co concentration at ~17 at.% and above. Magnetization shows composition dependence with a saturation moment value of ~93 emu cm-3 and a coercive field of ~285 Oe observed for ~38 at.% Co:ZnO films. Ferromagnetism was not observed for films with Co concentration 17 and 9 at.%. The Co oxide interlayer does not show any ferromagnetism. All the films are n-type with carrier concentration ~1019 cm-3. The observed magnetism is probably resulting from direct antiferromagntic exchange interaction between Co2+ and Co3+ ions favored by heavy Co alloying giving rise to ferrimagnetism in the system.

  13. Nanostructured GdxZn1-xO thin films by nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique: Role of doping concentration on the structural and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariappan, R.; Ponnuswamy, V.; Suresh, P.; Suresh, R.; Ragavendar, M.

    2013-07-01

    Nanostructured GdxZn1-xO thin films with different Gd concentration from 0% to 10% deposited at 400 °C using the NSP technique. The films were characterized by structural, surface and optical properties, respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the Gd doped ZnO films have lattice parameters a = 3.2497 Å and c = 5.2018 Å with hexagonal structure and preferential orientation along (0 0 2) plane. The estimated values compare well with the standard values. When film thickness increases from 222 to 240 nm a high visible region transmittance (>70%) is observed. The optical band gap energy, optical constants (n and k), complex dielectric constants (ɛr and ɛi) and optical conductivities (σr and σi) were calculated from optical transmittance data. The optical band gap energy is 3.2 eV for pure ZnO film and 3.6 eV for Gd0.1Zn0.9O film. The PL studies confirm the presence of a strong UV emission peak at 399 nm. Besides, the UV emission of ZnO films decreases with the increase of Gd doping concentration correspondingly the ultra-violet emission is replaced by blue and green emissions.

  14. Resonant Raman scattering study of BexZn1-xO thin films grown on sapphire by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-Chao; Su, Long-Xing; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Jian-Feng; Shen, Zheng-Chuan; Feng, Yu-Hua; Wu, Tian-Zhun; Tang, Zi-Kang

    2017-07-01

    Resonance Raman spectra of BexZn1-xO alloy materials were studied using 325 nm Laser. The research showed that the Raman spectra of BexZn1-xO alloys presents a dual-mode vibration. Compare BexZn1-xO alloy with ZnO single crystal, the A1 (LO) phonon vibration mode of BexZn1-xO alloy moved to the larger wave number direction. The position of A1 (LO) phonon vibration modes of Be0.08Zn0.92O and Be0.12Zn0.88O was 580 cm-1 and 582 cm-1, respectively. In addition, the temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy was employed for Be0.12Zn0.88O, and the phonon mode frequency shift with temperature was studied in detail. Finally, the stability of the polar and nonpolar BexZn1-xO alloy materials was studied using resonance Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that the A1 (LO) phonon mode frequency of polar BexZn1-xO alloy remained in the same position, while the nonpolar BexZn1-xO alloys moved nearly 3.5 cm-1 to larger direction after being placed in the air for two years. The reason may be that the stability of the nonpolar BexZn1-xO alloy is relatively poor upon interaction with molecule such as H2O, O2 in the air.

  15. Effect of Zn/Sn molar ratio on the microstructural and optical properties of Cu2Zn1-xSnxS4 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiruvenkadam, S.; Prabhakaran, S.; Sujay Chakravarty; Ganesan, V.; Vasant Sathe; Santhosh Kumar, M. C.; Leo Rajesh, A.

    2018-03-01

    Quaternary kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) compound is one of the most promising semiconductor materials consisting of abundant and eco-friendly elements for absorption layer in thin film solar cells. The effect of Zn/Sn ratio on Cu2Zn1-xSnxS4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) thin films were studied by deposited by varying molar volumes in the precursor solution of zinc and tin was carried out in proportion of (1-x) and x respectively onto soda lime glass substrates kept at 573 K by using chemical spray pyrolysis technique. The GIXRD pattern revealed that the films having composites of Cu2ZnSnS4, Cu2SnS3, Sn2S3, CuS and ZnS phases. The crystallinity and grain size were found to increase by increasing the x value and the preferential orientation along (103), (112), (108) and (111) direction corresponding to CZTS, Cu2SnS3, CuS, and ZnS phases respectively. Micro-Raman spectra exposed a prominent peak at 332 cm-1 corresponding to the CZTS phase. Atomic force microscopy was employed to study the grain size and roughness of the deposited thin films. The optical band gap was found to lie between 1.45 and 2.25 eV and average optical absorption coefficient was found to be greater than 105 cm-1. Hall measurements exhibited that all the deposited Cu2Zn1-xSnxS4 films were p type and the resistivity lies between 10.9 ×10-2Ωcm and 149.6 × 10-2Ωcm .

  16. FABRICATION AND OPTOELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF MgxZn1-xO ULTRATHIN FILMS BY LANGMUIR-BLODGETT TECHNOLOGY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Dongyan; Feng, Qian; Jiang, Enying; He, Baozhu

    2012-08-01

    By transferring MgxZn1-xO sol and stearic acid onto a hydrophilic silicon wafer or glass plate, the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) multilayers of MgxZn1-xO (x:0, 0.2, 0.4) were deposited. After calcinations at 350°C for 0.5 h and at 500°C for 3 h, MgxZn1-xO ultrathin films were fabricated. The optimized parameters for monolayer formation and multilayer deposition were determined by the surface pressure-surface (Π-A) area and the transfer coefficient, respectively. The expended areas of stearic acid with MgxZn1-xO sols under Π-A isotherms inferred the interaction of stearic acid with MgxZn1-xO sols during the formation of monolayer at air-water interface. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to determine the crystal structures of MgxZn1-xO nanoparticles and ultrathin films. The surface morphologies of MgxZn1-xO ultrathin films were observed by scanning probe microscopy (AFM). And the optoelectronic properties of MgxZn1-xO were detected and discussed based on photoluminescence (PL) spectra.

  17. Deep-Ultraviolet Luminescence of Rocksalt-Structured Mg x Zn1-x O (x > 0.5) Films on MgO Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Kentaro; Tsumura, Keiichi; Ishii, Kyohei; Onuma, Takayoshi; Honda, Tohru; Fujita, Shizuo

    2018-04-01

    Rocksalt-structured Mg x Zn1-x O films with Mg composition x of 0.47, 0.57, and 0.64 were grown on (100)-oriented MgO substrates using mist chemical vapor deposition. Cathodoluminescence measurements showed deep ultraviolet (DUV) emission peaking at 4.88 eV (254 nm), 5.15 eV (241 nm), and 5.21 eV (238 nm), respectively, at 12 K. The peak energies were lower than the band gap energies by ca. 1 eV, suggesting that the deep ultraviolet (DUV) emission may be recognized as near band edge luminescence but is associated with impurities, defects, or band fluctuations. The use of carbon-free precursors in the growth is suggested to eliminate carbon impurities and to improve the optical properties of Mg x Zn1-x O.

  18. Pulsed laser deposited BexZn1-xO1-ySy quaternary alloy films: structure, composition, and band gap bowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wuzhong; Xu, Maji; Zhang, Mi; Cheng, Hailing; Li, Mingkai; Zhang, Qingfeng; Lu, Yinmei; Chen, Jingwen; Chen, Changqing; He, Yunbin

    2018-03-01

    In this work, c-axis preferentially oriented BexZn1-xO1-ySy (BeZnOS) quaternary alloy films were prepared successfully on c-plane sapphire by pulsed laser deposition for the first time. By appropriate adjustment of O2 pressure during the deposition, the grown films exhibited a single-phase hexagonal structure and good crystalline quality. The solid solubility of S in BexZn1-xO1-ySy quaternary alloy was significantly expanded (y ≤ 0.17 or y ≥ 0.35) as a result of simultaneous substitution of cation Zn2+ by smaller Be2+ and anion O2- by bigger S2-. Besides, due to the introduction of BeO with a wide band gap, BeZnOS quaternary films exhibited wider band gaps than the ternary ZnOS films with similar S contents. As the O2 pressure increased from 0.05 Pa to 6 Pa, the band gap of BeZnOS displayed an interesting bowing behavior. The variation range of the band gap was between 3.55 eV and 3.10 eV. The BeZnOS films with a wide band gap show potential applications in fabricating optoelectronic devices such as UV-detectors.

  19. Growth of transparent Zn1 - xSrxO (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.08) films by facile wet chemical method: Effect of Sr doping on the structural, optical and sensing properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Amit Kumar; Das, Rajasree; Kumar, Yogendra; Sen, Somaditya; Shirage, Parasharam M.

    2016-08-01

    Zn1 - xSrxO (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.08) nano-rods thin films are prepared using simple wet chemical technique on transparent flexible substrate. Effect of Sr-doping on structural and optical properties of ZnO is systematically investigated. SEM and TEM confirm the nano-rods like morphology with single crystalline nature of all the samples. Rietveld refinement of XRD shows the samples belongs to P63mc space group, furthermore, a gradual increment in lattice parameters and change in Zn/oxygen occupancy ratio is observed with Sr doping. SIMS and XPS confirm the doping of Sr in the ZnO nanostructures. XPS measurements shows that increase in Sr doping creates more oxygen associated defects, which is further supported by the photoluminescence spectra indicating the gradual change in Zn vacancy (Vzn) and oxygen interstitial (Oin) point defect intensities in the films. Near band edge emission peak shows to shift toward higher wavelength in the doped films. Pure ZnO film shows Raman peaks around 99 (E2low), 333 (E2high - E2low) , 382 (A1 (TO)), 438 (E2high) and 582 (A1 (LO) +E1 (TO)) cm-1, whereas two additional defect driven vibrational modes (at 277 and 663 cm-1) are appeared in the Sr-doped films. The sensing property of the ZnO is enhanced by Sr doping and replicates as a promising material for future toxic and flammable gas sensor applications as well as for opto-electronic devices.

  20. Magnetic state of a Zn1 - x Cr x Se bulk crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinin, S. F.; Sokolov, V. I.; Korolev, A. V.; Teploukhov, S. G.; Chukalkin, Yu. G.; Parkhomenko, V. D.; Gruzdev, N. B.

    2008-06-01

    The spin system of a Zn1 - x Cr x Se bulk crystal ( x = 0.045) was studied using thermal-neutron diffraction and magnetic measurements. Previously, it was reported in the literature that thin films (˜200 nm thick) of this type of semiconductors exhibit a ferromagnetic order. In this study, the ferromagnetic order is found to be absent in the bulk crystal.

  1. Effect of cadmium incorporation on the properties of zinc oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharath, S. P.; Bangera, Kasturi V.; Shivakumar, G. K.

    2018-02-01

    Cd x Zn1- x O (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.20) thin films are deposited on soda lime glass substrates using spray pyrolysis technique. To check the thermal stability, Cd x Zn1- x O thin films are subjected to annealing. Both the as-deposited and annealed Cd x Zn1- x O thin films are characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) to check the structural, surface morphological and compositional properties, respectively. XRD analysis reveals that the both as-deposited and annealed Cd x Zn1- x O thin films are (002) oriented with wurtzite structure. SEM studies confirm that as-deposited, as well as annealed Cd x Zn1- x O thin films are free from pinholes and cracks. Compositional analysis shows the deficiency in Cd content after annealing. Optical properties evaluated from UV-Vis spectroscopy shows red shift in the band gap for Cd x Zn1- x O thin films. Electrical property measured using two probe method shows a decrease in the resistance after Cd incorporation. The results indicate that cadmium can be successfully incorporated in zinc oxide thin films to achieve structural changes in the properties of films.

  2. Role of defects in ferromagnetism in Zn1-xCoxO : A hybrid density-functional study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, C. H.

    2006-10-01

    Experimental studies of Zn1-xCoxO as thin films or nanocrystals have found ferromagnetism and Curie temperatures above room temperature and that p - or n -type doping of Zn1-xCoxO can change its magnetic state. Bulk Zn1-xCoxO with a low defect density and x in the range used in experimental thin-film studies exhibits ferromagnetism only at very low temperatures. Therefore defects in thin-film samples or nanocrystals may play an important role in promoting magnetic interactions between Co ions in Zn1-xCoxO . The mechanism of exchange coupling induced by defect states is considered and compared to a model for ferromagnetism in dilute magnetic semiconductors [T. Dietl , Science 287, 1019 (2000)]. The electronic structures of Co substituted for Zn in ZnO, Zn, and O vacancies, substituted N, and interstitial Zn in ZnO were calculated using the B3LYP hybrid density functional in a supercell. The B3LYP functional predicts a band gap of 3.34eV for bulk ZnO, close to the experimental value of 3.47eV . Occupied minority-spin Co 3d levels are at the top of the valence band and unoccupied levels lie above the conduction-band minimum. Majority-spin Co 3d levels hybridize strongly with bulk ZnO states. The neutral O vacancy defect level is predicted to lie deep in the band gap, and interstitial Zn is predicted to be a deep donor. The Zn vacancy is a deep acceptor, and the acceptor level for substituted N is at midgap. The possibility that p - or n -type dopants promote exchange coupling of Co ions was investigated by computing the total energies of magnetic states of ZnO supercells containing two Co ions and an oxygen vacancy, substituted N, or interstitial Zn in various charge states. The neutral N defect and the singly positively charged O vacancy are the only defects which strongly promote ferromagnetic exchange coupling of Co ions at intermediate range. Total energy calculations on supercells containing two O vacancies and one Zn vacancy clearly show that pairs of singly

  3. Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorshidi, Zahra; Bahari, Ali; Gholipur, Reza

    2014-11-01

    Effect of annealing temperature on the characteristics of sol-gel-driven Ta ax La(1- a) x O y thin film spin-coated on Si substrate as a high- k gate dielectric was studied. Ta ax La(1- a) x O y thin films with different amounts of a were prepared (as-prepared samples). X-ray diffraction measurements of the as-prepared samples indicated that Ta0.3 x La0.7 x Oy film had an amorphous structure. Therefore, Ta0.3 x La0.7 x O y film was chosen to continue the present studies. The morphology of Ta0.3 x La0.7 x O y films was studied using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy techniques. The obtained results showed that the size of grain boundaries on Ta0.3 x La0.7 x O y film surfaces was increased with increasing annealing temperature. Electrical and optical characterizations of the as-prepared and annealed films were investigated as a function of annealing temperature using capacitance-voltage ( C- V) and current density-voltage ( J- V) measurements and the Tauc method. The obtained results demonstrated that Ta0.3 x La0.7 x O y films had high dielectric constant (≈27), wide band gap (≈4.5 eV), and low leakage current density (≈10-6 A/cm2 at 1 V).

  4. Optical and thermogravimetric analysis of Zn1-xCuxS/PVA nanocomposite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Mohamed Bakr; Heiba, Zein K.; Imam, N. G.

    2018-07-01

    Cu doped ZnS nanoparticles with cubic blend structure had been prepared successfully through thermolysis route and then composited with poly vinyl alcohol using casting method. Zn1-xCuxS/PVA nanocomposites were characterized using different characterization techniques. The quantum dot nature of the ZnS:Cu phase was confirmed by transmission electron microscope technique. Thermal stability was studied by thermogravimetric analysis. The ultra violet measurements illustrated that addition of Zn1-xCuxS nanoparticles to PVA matrix increased the film absorbance. Furthermore, the energy gap and refractive index of the composites were obtained from ultra violet and photoluminescence spectrophotometers. The photoluminescence spectra of ZnS:Cu/PVA nanocomposite films demonstrated a quite broad emission peak at 435 nm with highest photoluminescence intensity in nanocomposite doped with 1% Cu.

  5. Magnetic properties of Zn1-xNixO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, A.; Giri, N.; Sarkar, S.; Ray, Ruma

    2018-05-01

    Ni doped ZnO (Zn1-xNixO for 0.01 ≤ x ≤ 0.11) have been prepared by chemical precipitation method. X-ray diffraction corroborates a hexagonal wurzite structure without any impurity phases upto 11% Ni doping. Morphology of the particles is investigated by FE-SEM which exhibits either rod or tube like structure depending on the dopant concentration. Magnetization of Zn1-xNixO for 0.03 ≤ x ≤ 0.11 measured at room temperature infers the paramagnetic behavior. Zero field cooled and field cooled magnetization for x = 0.11 follows Curie-Weiss behavior above 122 K with effective paramagnetic moment 3.9μB. The non-linear magnetic hysteresis loop at 2 K with a small coercivity (300 Oe) indicates signature of ferromagnetic ordering.

  6. Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies on ZnCdO thin films with different Cd concentrations grown by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuai; Li, Qingxuan; Ferguson, Ian; Lin, Tao; Wan, Lingyu; Feng, Zhe Chuan; Zhu, Liping; Ye, Zhizhen

    2017-11-01

    A set of Zn1-xCdxO thin films with different Cd concentrations was deposited on quartz substrates by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD). The properties of these films were investigated by variable angle and temperature dependent spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). The experimental Zn1-xCdxO thin films showed a red shift in the absorption edge with increasing Cd contents at room temperature. For ZnCdO films with the similar Cd concentration, it has been found that the film thickness has important effects on the optical constants (n, k). The variations of optical constants (n, k) and the band gap, E0, with temperature (T) in 25 °C-600 °C for a typical Zn0.95Cd0.05O sample were obtained. The E0 vs T relationship is described by a T- quadratic equation.

  7. Improved Heterojunction Quality in Cu2O-based Solar Cells Through the Optimization of Atmospheric Pressure Spatial Atomic Layer Deposited Zn1-xMgxO

    PubMed Central

    Ievskaya, Yulia; Hoye, Robert L. Z.; Sadhanala, Aditya; Musselman, Kevin P.; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure spatial atomic layer deposition (AP-SALD) was used to deposit n-type ZnO and Zn1-xMgxO thin films onto p-type thermally oxidized Cu2O substrates outside vacuum at low temperature. The performance of photovoltaic devices featuring atmospherically fabricated ZnO/Cu2O heterojunction was dependent on the conditions of AP-SALD film deposition, namely, the substrate temperature and deposition time, as well as on the Cu2O substrate exposure to oxidizing agents prior to and during the ZnO deposition. Superficial Cu2O to CuO oxidation was identified as a limiting factor to heterojunction quality due to recombination at the ZnO/Cu2O interface. Optimization of AP-SALD conditions as well as keeping Cu2O away from air and moisture in order to minimize Cu2O surface oxidation led to improved device performance. A three-fold increase in the open-circuit voltage (up to 0.65 V) and a two-fold increase in the short-circuit current density produced solar cells with a record 2.2% power conversion efficiency (PCE). This PCE is the highest reported for a Zn1-xMgxO/Cu2O heterojunction formed outside vacuum, which highlights atmospheric pressure spatial ALD as a promising technique for inexpensive and scalable fabrication of Cu2O-based photovoltaics. PMID:27500923

  8. Tuning the third-order nonlinear optical properties of In:ZnO thin films by 8 MeV electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shettigar, Nayana; Pramodini, S.; Kityk, I. V.; Abd-Lefdil, M.; Eljald, E. M.; Regragui, M.; Antony, Albin; Rao, Ashok; Sanjeev, Ganesh; Ajeyakashi, K. C.; Poornesh, P.

    2017-11-01

    We report the third-order nonlinear optical properties of electron beam treated Indium doped ZnO (Zn1-xInxO (x = 0.03) thin films at different dose rate. Zn1-xInxO (x = 0.03) thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis deposition technique were irradiated using 8 MeV electron beam at dose rates ranging from 1 kGy to 4 kGy. X-ray diffraction patterns were obtained to examine the structural changes, The transformation from sphalerite to wurtzite structure of ZnO was observed which indicates occurrence of structural changes due to irradiation. Morphology of irradiated thin films examined using atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique indicates the surface roughness varying with irradiation dose rate. The switching over from Saturable Absorption (SA) to Reverse Saturable Absorption (RSA) behaviour was noted when the irradiation dose rate was increased from 1 kGy to 4 kGy. The significant changes observed in the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility χ(3) of the Zn1-xInxO (x = 0.03) thin films is attributed mainly due to electron beam irradiation. The study indicates that nonlinear optical parameters can be controlled by electron beam irradiation by choosing appropriate dose rate which is very much essential for device applications. Hence Zn1-xInxO (x = 0.03) materialize as a promising material for use in nonlinear optical device applications.

  9. SHI irradiation effect on pure and Mn doped ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khawal, H. A.; Raskar, N. D.; Dole, B. N.

    2017-05-01

    Investigated the structural, surface, electrical and modifications induced by Swift Heavy Ions (SHI) irradiation on pure and Mn substituted ZnO thin films were observed. Thin films of Zn1-xMnxO (x = 0.00, 0.04) were synthesized using the dip coating technique. All thin films irradiated by Li3+ swift heavy ions with fluence 5 × 1013 ions/cm2. The XRD peak reveals that all the samples exhibit wurtzite structures. Surface morphology of samples was investigated by SEM, it was observed that pristine samples of ZnO thin film shows spherical shape but for 4 % Mn substituted ZnO thin film with 5 × 1013 ions/cm2 fluence, it reveals that big grain spherical morphology like structure respectively. I-V characteristics were recorded in the voltage range -5 to 5 V. All curves were passed through origin and nearly linear exhibit ohmic in nature for the films.

  10. Pyrolyzed thin film carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor); Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

  11. Ceramic Composite Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dikin, Dmitriy A. (Inventor); Nguyen, SonBinh T. (Inventor); Ruoff, Rodney S. (Inventor); Stankovich, Sasha (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A ceramic composite thin film or layer includes individual graphene oxide and/or electrically conductive graphene sheets dispersed in a ceramic (e.g. silica) matrix. The thin film or layer can be electrically conductive film or layer depending the amount of graphene sheets present. The composite films or layers are transparent, chemically inert and compatible with both glass and hydrophilic SiOx/silicon substrates. The composite film or layer can be produced by making a suspension of graphene oxide sheet fragments, introducing a silica-precursor or silica to the suspension to form a sol, depositing the sol on a substrate as thin film or layer, at least partially reducing the graphene oxide sheets to conductive graphene sheets, and thermally consolidating the thin film or layer to form a silica matrix in which the graphene oxide and/or graphene sheets are dispersed.

  12. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, Y.T.; Poli, A.A.; Meltser, M.A.

    1999-03-23

    A thin film hydrogen sensor includes a substantially flat ceramic substrate with first and second planar sides and a first substrate end opposite a second substrate end; a thin film temperature responsive resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the first substrate end; a thin film hydrogen responsive metal resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the fist substrate end and proximate to the temperature responsive resistor; and a heater on the second planar side of the substrate proximate to the first end. 5 figs.

  13. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, Yang-Tse; Poli, Andrea A.; Meltser, Mark Alexander

    1999-01-01

    A thin film hydrogen sensor, includes: a substantially flat ceramic substrate with first and second planar sides and a first substrate end opposite a second substrate end; a thin film temperature responsive resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the first substrate end; a thin film hydrogen responsive metal resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the fist substrate end and proximate to the temperature responsive resistor; and a heater on the second planar side of the substrate proximate to the first end.

  14. Multifunctional thin film surface

    DOEpatents

    Brozik, Susan M.; Harper, Jason C.; Polsky, Ronen; Wheeler, David R.; Arango, Dulce C.; Dirk, Shawn M.

    2015-10-13

    A thin film with multiple binding functionality can be prepared on an electrode surface via consecutive electroreduction of two or more aryl-onium salts with different functional groups. This versatile and simple method for forming multifunctional surfaces provides an effective means for immobilization of diverse molecules at close proximities. The multifunctional thin film has applications in bioelectronics, molecular electronics, clinical diagnostics, and chemical and biological sensing.

  15. Thin film tritium dosimetry

    DOEpatents

    Moran, Paul R.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for tritium dosimetry. A dosimeter comprising a thin film of a material having relatively sensitive RITAC-RITAP dosimetry properties is exposed to radiation from tritium, and after the dosimeter has been removed from the source of the radiation, the low energy electron dose deposited in the thin film is determined by radiation-induced, thermally-activated polarization dosimetry techniques.

  16. Structural, linear and nonlinear optical properties of co-doped ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaaban, E. R.; El-Hagary, M.; Moustafa, El Sayed; Hassan, H. Shokry; Ismail, Yasser A. M.; Emam-Ismail, M.; Ali, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    Different compositions of Co-doped zinc oxide [(Zn(1- x)Co x O) ( x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.10)] thin films were evaporated onto highly clean glass substrates by thermal evaporation technique using a modified source. The structural properties investigated by X-ray diffraction revealed hexagonal wurtzite ZnO-type structure. The crystallite size of the films was found to decrease with increasing Co content. The optical characterization of the films has been carried out using spectral transmittance and reflectance obtained in the wavelength range from 300 to 2500 nm. The refractive index has been found to increase with increasing Co content. It was further found that optical energy gap decreases from 3.28 to 3.03 eV with increasing Co content from x = 0 to x = 0.10, respectively. The dispersion of refractive index has been analyzed in terms of Wemple-DiDomenico (WDD) single-oscillator model. The oscillator parameters, the single-oscillator energy ( E o), the dispersion energy ( E d), and the static refractive index ( n 0), were determined. The nonlinear refractive index of the Zn(1- x)Co x O thin films was calculated and revealed well correlation with the linear refractive index and WDD parameters which in turn depend on the density and molar volume of the system.

  17. Thin film temperature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, H. P.; Przybyszewski, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    Thin film surface temperature sensors were developed. The sensors were made of platinum-platinum/10 percent rhodium thermocouples with associated thin film-to-lead wire connections and sputtered on aluminum oxide coated simulated turbine blades for testing. Tests included exposure to vibration, low velocity hydrocarbon hot gas flow to 1250 K, and furnace calibrations. Thermal electromotive force was typically two percent below standard type S thermocouples. Mean time to failure was 42 hours at a hot gas flow temperature of 1250 K and an average of 15 cycles to room temperature. Failures were mainly due to separation of the platinum thin film from the aluminum oxide surface. Several techniques to improve the adhesion of the platinum are discussed.

  18. Thin film resonator technology.

    PubMed

    Lakin, Kenneth M

    2005-05-01

    Advances in wireless systems have placed increased demands on high performance frequency control devices for operation into the microwave range. With spectrum crowding, high bandwidth requirements, miniaturization, and low cost requirements as a background, the thin film resonator technology has evolved into the mainstream of applications. This technology has been under development for over 40 years in one form or another, but it required significant advances in integrated circuit processing to reach microwave frequencies and practical manufacturing for high-volume applications. This paper will survey the development of the thin film resonator technology and describe the core elements that give rise to resonators and filters for today's high performance wireless applications.

  19. Thin film ceramic thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Otto (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave (Inventor); Wrbanek, John (Inventor); You, Tao (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A thin film ceramic thermocouple (10) having two ceramic thermocouple (12, 14) that are in contact with each other in at least on point to form a junction, and wherein each element was prepared in a different oxygen/nitrogen/argon plasma. Since each element is prepared under different plasma conditions, they have different electrical conductivity and different charge carrier concentration. The thin film thermocouple (10) can be transparent. A versatile ceramic sensor system having an RTD heat flux sensor can be combined with a thermocouple and a strain sensor to yield a multifunctional ceramic sensor array. The transparent ceramic temperature sensor that could ultimately be used for calibration of optical sensors.

  20. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Catalano, Anthony W.; Bhushan, Manjul

    1982-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids.

  1. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Catalano, A.W.; Bhushan, M.

    1982-08-03

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids. 5 figs.

  2. Epitaxial thin films

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, Andrew Tye; Deshpande, Girish; Lin, Wen-Yi; Jan, Tzyy-Jiuan

    2006-04-25

    Epitatial thin films for use as buffer layers for high temperature superconductors, electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), gas separation membranes or dielectric material in electronic devices, are disclosed. By using CCVD, CACVD or any other suitable deposition process, epitaxial films having pore-free, ideal grain boundaries, and dense structure can be formed. Several different types of materials are disclosed for use as buffer layers in high temperature superconductors. In addition, the use of epitaxial thin films for electrolytes and electrode formation in SOFCs results in densification for pore-free and ideal gain boundary/interface microstructure. Gas separation membranes for the production of oxygen and hydrogen are also disclosed. These semipermeable membranes are formed by high-quality, dense, gas-tight, pinhole free sub-micro scale layers of mixed-conducting oxides on porous ceramic substrates. Epitaxial thin films as dielectric material in capacitors are also taught herein. Capacitors are utilized according to their capacitance values which are dependent on their physical structure and dielectric permittivity. The epitaxial thin films of the current invention form low-loss dielectric layers with extremely high permittivity. This high permittivity allows for the formation of capacitors that can have their capacitance adjusted by applying a DC bias between their electrodes.

  3. Transparent conducting ZnO-CdO thin films deposited by e-beam evaporation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, H. A.; Ali, H. M.; Mohamed, S. H.; Abd El-Raheem, M. M.

    2006-04-01

    Thin films of Zn{1-x} Cd{x}O with x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 at.% were deposited by electron-beam evaporation technique. It has been found that, for as-deposited films, both the transmittance and electrical resistivity decreased with increasing the Cd content. To improve the optical and electrical properties of these films, the effect of annealing temperature and time were taken into consideration for Zn{1-x} Cd{x}O film with x = 0.2. It was found that, the optical transmittance and the electrical conductivity were improved significantly with increasing the time of annealing. At fixed temperature of 300 °C, the transmittance increased with increasing the time of annealing and reached its maximum values of 81% in the visible region and 94% in the NIR region at annealing time of 120 min. The low electrical resistivity of 3.6 × 10-3 Ω cm was achieved at the same conditions. Other parameters named free carrier concentrations, refractive index, extinction coefficient, plasma frequency, and relaxation time were studied as a function of annealing temperature and time for 20% Cd content.

  4. Thin film solar cell workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Joe; Jeffrey, Frank

    1993-01-01

    A summation of responses to questions posed to the thin-film solar cell workshop and the ensuing discussion is provided. Participants in the workshop included photovoltaic manufacturers (both thin film and crystalline), cell performance investigators, and consumers.

  5. Thin-film optical initiator

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, Kenneth L.

    2001-01-01

    A thin-film optical initiator having an inert, transparent substrate, a reactive thin film, which can be either an explosive or a pyrotechnic, and a reflective thin film. The resultant thin-film optical initiator system also comprises a fiber-optic cable connected to a low-energy laser source, an output charge, and an initiator housing. The reactive thin film, which may contain very thin embedded layers or be a co-deposit of a light-absorbing material such as carbon, absorbs the incident laser light, is volumetrically heated, and explodes against the output charge, imparting about 5 to 20 times more energy than in the incident laser pulse.

  6. NMR characterization of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Gerald II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2010-06-15

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  7. NMR characterization of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2008-11-25

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  8. Protein thin film machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federici, Stefania; Oliviero, Giulio; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly; Bergese, Paolo

    2010-12-01

    We report the first example of microcantilever beams that are reversibly driven by protein thin film machines fuelled by cycling the salt concentration of the surrounding solution. We also show that upon the same salinity stimulus the drive can be completely reversed in its direction by introducing a surface coating ligand. Experimental results are throughout discussed within a general yet simple thermodynamic model.

  9. Thin film photovoltaic cell

    DOEpatents

    Meakin, John D.; Bragagnolo, Julio

    1982-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic cell having a transparent electrical contact and an opaque electrical contact with a pair of semiconductors therebetween includes utilizing one of the electrical contacts as a substrate and wherein the inner surface thereof is modified by microroughening while being macro-planar.

  10. Black thin film silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koynov, Svetoslav; Brandt, Martin S.; Stutzmann, Martin

    2011-08-01

    "Black etching" has been proposed previously as a method for the nanoscale texturing of silicon surfaces, which results in an almost complete suppression of reflectivity in the spectral range of absorption relevant for photovoltaics. The method modifies the topmost 150 to 300 nm of the material and thus also is applicable for thin films of silicon. The present work is focused on the optical effects induced by the black-etching treatment on hydrogenated amorphous and microcrystalline silicon thin films, in particular with respect to their application in solar cells. In addition to a strong reduction of the reflectivity, efficient light trapping within the modified thin films is found. The enhancement of the optical absorption due to the light trapping is investigated via photometric measurements and photothermal deflection spectroscopy. The correlation of the texture morphology (characterized via atomic force microscopy) with the optical effects is discussed in terms of an effective medium with gradually varying optical density and in the framework of the theory of statistical light trapping. Photoconductivity spectra directly show that the light trapping causes a significant prolongation of the light path within the black silicon films by up to 15 μm for ˜1 μm thick films, leading to a significant increase of the absorption in the red.

  11. Structural and dielectric properties of Zn1-xAlxO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, N.; Mondal, A.; Sarkar, S.; Ray, R.

    2018-05-01

    Aluminium doped ZnO (AZO) nano-crystalline sample has been synthesized using chemical precipitation method with different doping concentrations. Detailed structural and morphological investigations of Zn1-xAlxO have been carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FE-SEM, respectively. Dependence of grain size of AZO with dopant concentration has been studied. Ac conductivity, dielectric constant and dielectric loss of Zn1-xAlxO (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1) are investigated as a function of frequency (ω) and doping concentration (x) at room temperature.

  12. [Spectral emissivity of thin films].

    PubMed

    Zhong, D

    2001-02-01

    In this paper, the contribution of multiple reflections in thin film to the spectral emissivity of thin films of low absorption is discussed. The expression of emissivity of thin films derived here is related to the thin film thickness d and the optical constants n(lambda) and k(lambda). It is shown that in the special case d-->infinity the emissivity of thin films is equivalent to that of the bulk material. Realistic numerical and more precise general numerical results for the dependence of the emissivity on d, n(lambda) and k(lambda) are given.

  13. Thin film superconductor magnetic bearings

    DOEpatents

    Weinberger, Bernard R.

    1995-12-26

    A superconductor magnetic bearing includes a shaft (10) that is subject to a load (L) and rotatable around an axis of rotation, a magnet (12) mounted to the shaft, and a stator (14) in proximity to the shaft. The stator (14) has a superconductor thin film assembly (16) positioned to interact with the magnet (12) to produce a levitation force on the shaft (10) that supports the load (L). The thin film assembly (16) includes at least two superconductor thin films (18) and at least one substrate (20). Each thin film (18) is positioned on a substrate (20) and all the thin films are positioned such that an applied magnetic field from the magnet (12) passes through all the thin films. A similar bearing in which the thin film assembly (16) is mounted on the shaft (10) and the magnet (12) is part of the stator (14) also can be constructed.

  14. Advanced thin film thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreider, K. G.; Semancik, S.; Olson, C.

    1984-01-01

    The fabrication, materials characterization, and performance of thin film platinum rhodium thermocouples on gas turbine alloys was investigated. The materials chosen for the study were the turbine blade alloy systems MAR M200+Hf with NiCoCrAlY and FeCrAlY coatings, and vane alloy systems MAR M509 with FeCrAlY. Research was focussed on making improvements in the problem areas of coating substrate stability, adhesion, and insulation reliability and durability. Diffusion profiles between the substrate and coating with and without barrier coatings of Al2O3 are reported. The relationships between fabrication parameters of thermal oxidation and sputtering of the insulator and its characterization and performance are described. The best thin film thermocouples were fabricated with the NiCoCrAlY coatings which were thermally oxidized and sputter coated with Al2O3.

  15. Dewetting of Thin Polymer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, P. S.; Sorensen, J. L.; Kent, M.; Jeon, H. S.

    2001-03-01

    DEWETTING OF THIN POLYMER FILMS P. S. Dixit,(1) J. L. Sorensen,(2) M. Kent,(2) H. S. Jeon*(1) (1) Department of Petroleum and Chemical Engineering, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801, jeon@nmt.edu (2) Department 1832, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM. Dewetting of thin polymer films is of technological importance for a variety of applications such as protective coatings, dielectric layers, and adhesives. Stable and smooth films are required for the above applications. Above the glass transition temperature (Tg) the instability of polymer thin films on a nonwettable substrate can be occurred. The dewetting mechanism and structure of polypropylene (Tg = -20 ^circC) and polystyrene (Tg = 100 ^circC) thin films is investigated as a function of film thickness (25 Åh < 250 Åand quenching temperature. Contact angle measurements are used in conjunction with optical microscope to check the surface homogeneity of the films. Uniform thin films are prepared by spin casting the polymer solutions onto silicon substrates with different contact angles. We found that the stable and unstable regions of the thin films as a function of the film thickness and quenching temperature, and then constructed a stability diagram for the dewetting of thin polymer films. We also found that the dewetting patterns of the thin films are affected substantially by the changes of film thickness and quenching temperature.

  16. Thin film mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Ryan C.

    This doctoral thesis details the methods of determining mechanical properties of two classes of novel thin films suspended two-dimensional crystals and electron beam irradiated microfilms of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Thin films are used in a variety of surface coatings to alter the opto-electronic properties or increase the wear or corrosion resistance and are ideal for micro- and nanoelectromechanical system fabrication. One of the challenges in fabricating thin films is the introduction of strains which can arise due to application techniques, geometrical conformation, or other spurious conditions. Chapters 2-4 focus on two dimensional materials. This is the intrinsic limit of thin films-being constrained to one atomic or molecular unit of thickness. These materials have mechanical, electrical, and optical properties ideal for micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems with truly novel device functionality. As such, the breadth of applications that can benefit from a treatise on two dimensional film mechanics is reason enough for exploration. This study explores the anomylously high strength of two dimensional materials. Furthermore, this work also aims to bridge four main gaps in the understanding of material science: bridging the gap between ab initio calculations and finite element analysis, bridging the gap between ab initio calculations and experimental results, nanoscale to microscale, and microscale to mesoscale. A nonlinear elasticity model is used to determine the necessary elastic constants to define the strain-energy density function for finite strain. Then, ab initio calculations-density functional theory-is used to calculate the nonlinear elastic response. Chapter 2 focuses on validating this methodology with atomic force microscope nanoindentation on molybdenum disulfide. Chapter 3 explores the convergence criteria of three density functional theory solvers to further verify the numerical calculations. Chapter 4 then uses this model to investigate

  17. Cd-doped ZnO nano crystalline thin films prepared at 723K by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joishy, Sumanth; Rajendra B., V.

    2018-04-01

    Ternary Zn1-xCdxO(x=0.10, 0.40, 0.70 at.%) thin films of 0.025M precursor concentration have been successfully deposited on preheated (723K) glass substrates using spray pyrolysis route. The structure, morphology and optical properties of deposited films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and UV-Visible spectrophotometry. X-ray diffraction study shows that the prepared films are polycrystalline in nature. 10% Cd doped ZnO film belongs to the hexagonal wurtzite system and 70% Cd doped ZnO film belongs to the cubic system, although mixed phases were formed for 40% Cd doped ZnO film. The optical transmittance spectra has shown red shift with increasing cadmium content. Optical energy band gap has been reduced with cadmium dopant.

  18. Room-temperature ferromagnetic Zn1- x Ni x S nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunapalli, Chaitanya Kumar; Shaik, Kaleemulla

    2018-05-01

    Nickel-doped zinc sulfide nanoparticles (Zn1- x Ni x S) at x = 0.00, 0.02, 0.05, 0.08 and 0.10 were synthesized by solid-state reaction. The (nickel sulfide) NiS and (zinc sulfide) ZnS nanoparticles in desired ratios were taken, mixed and ground for 6 h at a speed rate of 300 rpm using a planetary ball mill. The milled nanoparticles were sintered at 600 °C for 8 h using a high-temperature vacuum furnace. The structural, optical, luminescence and magnetic properties of the Zn1- x Ni x S nanoparticles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis-NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). No change in crystal structure was observed from XRD by substitution of Ni into ZnS lattice. The mean crystallite size was found to be 37 nm. The band gap of Zn1- x Ni x S nanoparticles decreased from 3.57 to 3.37 eV on increasing the dopant concentration. The room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra of Zn1- x Ni x S nanoparticles showed two broad and intense emission peaks at 420 and 438 nm with excitation wavelength of 330 nm. The Zn1- x Ni x S nanoparticles showed ferromagnetism at 100 K and at room temperature (300 K) and also the strength of magnetization increased with Ni concentration. The maximum magnetization value of 0.18 emu/g was observed for x = 0.10 at 100 K. The strength of the magnetization observed at 100 K was higher than that of magnetization observed at 300 K.

  19. Synthesis and Magnetic Properties of Ni-DOPED ZnO Thin Films: Experimental and AB INITIO Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouchdi, M.; Salmani, E.; Hat, A. El; Hassanain, N.; Mzerd, A.

    Structural and magnetic properties of Zn1-xNixO thin films and diluted magnetic semiconductors have been investigated. This sample has been synthesized using a spray pyrolysis technique with a stoechiometric mixture of zinc acetate (C4H6O4Znṡ2H2O) and Nickel acetate (C4H6O4Niṡ 2H2O) on a heated glass substrate at 450∘C. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis spectrophotometry and Hall Effect measurements. These films of ZnO crystallized in the hexagonal Wurtzite structure. The optical study showed that the band-gap energy was increased, from 3.3eV to 3.5eV, with increasing the Ni concentration. The film resistivity was affected by Ni-doping, and the best resistivity value 1.15×10-2 (Ω cm) was obtained for the film doped with 2 at.% Ni. The electronic structure and optical properties of the Wurtzite structure Zn1-xNixO were obtained by first-principles calculations using the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method combined with the coherent potential approximation (CPA), as well as CPA confirm our results.

  20. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Fleming, Pamela H.

    1994-01-01

    A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed.

  1. Microstructure of Thin Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-07

    Proceedings, Thin film Technologies II, 652, 256-263, (1986) B. Schmitt, J.P. Borgogno, G. Albrand and E. Pelletier, "In situ and air index measurements...34 SPIE Proceedings, "Optical Components and Systems", 805, 128 (1987) 11 B. Schmitt, J.P. Borgogno, G. Albrand and E. Pelletier. "In situ and air index...aT , m..a, lot,, o ,,f,02,d I4 k -1-1..... autocovariance lengths, less than 0.5 um, indicate that , 514n, ob0 o p’,Ofclllc....,,o,,oy0,1- agua sblrt

  2. Nonlinear optical thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leslie, Thomas M.

    1993-01-01

    A focused approach to development and evaluation of organic polymer films for use in optoelectronics is presented. The issues and challenges that are addressed include: (1) material synthesis, purification, and the tailoring of the material properties; (2) deposition of uniform thin films by a variety of methods; (3) characterization of material physical properties (thermal, electrical, optical, and electro-optical); and (4) device fabrication and testing. Photonic materials, devices, and systems were identified as critical technology areas by the Department of Commerce and the Department of Defense. This approach offers strong integration of basic material issues through engineering applications by the development of materials that can be exploited as the active unit in a variety of polymeric thin film devices. Improved materials were developed with unprecedented purity and stability. The absorptive properties can be tailored and controlled to provide significant improvement in propagation losses and nonlinear performance. Furthermore, the materials were incorporated into polymers that are highly compatible with fabrication and patterning processes for integrated optical devices and circuits. By simultaneously addressing the issues of materials development and characterization, keeping device design and fabrication in mind, many obstacles were overcome for implementation of these polymeric materials and devices into systems. We intend to considerably improve the upper use temperature, poling stability, and compatibility with silicon based devices. The principal device application that was targeted is a linear electro-optic modulation etalon. Organic polymers need to be properly designed and coupled with existing integrated circuit technology to create new photonic devices for optical communication, image processing, other laser applications such as harmonic generation, and eventually optical computing. The progression from microscopic sample to a suitable film

  3. First Thin Film Festival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samson, Philippe

    2005-05-01

    The constant evolution of the satellite market is asking for better technical performances and reliability for a reduced cost. Solar array is in front line of this challenge.This can be achieved by present technologies progressive improvement in cost reduction or by technological breakthrough.To reach an effective End Of Live performance100 W/kg of solar array is not so easy, even if you suppose that the mass of everything is nothing!Thin film cells are potential candidate to contribute to this challenge with certain confidence level and consequent development plan validation and qualification on ground and flight.Based on a strong flight heritage in flexible Solar Array design, the work has allowed in these last years, to pave the way on road map of thin film technologies . This is encouraged by ESA on many technological contracts put in concurrent engineering.CISG was selected cell and their strategy of design, contributions and results will be presented.Trade-off results and Design to Cost solutions will discussed.Main technical drivers, system design constraints, market access, key technologies needed will be detailed in this paper and the resulting road-map and development plan will be presented.

  4. Structure, magnetic, and electrical properties of Zn1-xMnxO material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebayang, P.; Hulu, S. F.; Nasruddin, Aryanto, D.; Kurniawan, C.; Subhan, A.; Sudiro, T.; Ginting, M.

    2017-07-01

    ZnO and MnO2 powder were synthesized using solid state reaction method to produce Zn1-xMnxO materials. Effect of dopant concentrations at the material of Zn1-xMnxO (x = 0.015, 0.02, 0.025) to the change of crystal structure, electrical and magnetic properties was studied. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) result of the samples that were doped with Mn showed a hexagonal wurtzite polycrystalline structure. The addition of Mn dopant resulting the decrease of lattice parameters and peaks intensity. The significant increase of the peak intensity occurred at x = 0.02, which also indicated an increase in the crystal quality of ZnO. The change of the ZnO structure affected the electrical and magnetic properties of the samples.

  5. Zn(1-x)MnxTe diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Zaleszczyk, Wojciech; Janik, Elzbieta; Presz, Adam; Dłuzewski, Piotr; Kret, Sławomir; Szuszkiewicz, Wojciech; Morhange, Jean-François; Dynowska, Elzbieta; Kirmse, Holm; Neumann, Wolfgang; Petroutchik, Aleksy; Baczewski, Lech T; Karczewski, Grzegorz; Wojtowicz, Tomasz

    2008-11-01

    It is shown that the growth of II-VI diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires is possible by the catalytically enhanced molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Zn(1-x)MnxTe NWs with manganese content up to x=0.60 were produced by this method. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and temperature dependent photoluminescence measurements confirm the incorporation of Mn(2+) ions in the cation substitutional sites of the ZnTe matrix of the NWs.

  6. Polymer Thin Film Stabilization.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, A. C.; Oslanec, R.; Composto, R. J.; Vlcek, P.

    1998-03-01

    We study the dewetting dynamics of thin polystyrene (PS) films deposited on silicon oxide surfaces using optical (OM) and atomic force (AFM) microscopes. Quantitative analysis of the hole diameter as a function of annealing time at 175^oC shows that blending poly(styrene-block-methyl-methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) with PS acts to dramatically slow down the dewetting rate and even stops holes growth before they impinge. AFM studies show that the hole floor is smooth for a pure PS film but contains residual polymer for the blend. At 5% vol., a PS-b-PMMA with high molar mass and low PMMA is a more effective stabilizing agent than a low molar mass/high PMMA additive. The optimum copolymer concentration is 3% vol. beyond which film stability doesn't improve. Although dewetting is slowed down relative to pure PS, PS/PS-b-PMMA bilayers dewet at a faster rate than blends having the same overall additive concentration.

  7. Thin film atomic hydrogen detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruber, C. L.

    1977-01-01

    Thin film and bead thermistor atomic surface recombination hydrogen detectors were investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Devices were constructed on a thin Mylar film substrate. Using suitable Wheatstone bridge techniques sensitivities of 80 microvolts/2x10 to the 13th power atoms/sec are attainable with response time constants on the order of 5 seconds.

  8. Thin film ion conducting coating

    DOEpatents

    Goldner, Ronald B.; Haas, Terry; Wong, Kwok-Keung; Seward, George

    1989-01-01

    Durable thin film ion conducting coatings are formed on a transparent glass substrate by the controlled deposition of the mixed oxides of lithium:tantalum or lithium:niobium. The coatings provide durable ion transport sources for thin film solid state storage batteries and electrochromic energy conservation devices.

  9. Development of biodegradable Zn-1X binary alloys with nutrient alloying elements Mg, Ca and Sr.

    PubMed

    Li, H F; Xie, X H; Zheng, Y F; Cong, Y; Zhou, F Y; Qiu, K J; Wang, X; Chen, S H; Huang, L; Tian, L; Qin, L

    2015-05-29

    Biodegradable metals have attracted considerable attentions in recent years. Besides the early launched biodegradable Mg and Fe metals, Zn, an essential element with osteogenic potential of human body, is regarded and studied as a new kind of potential biodegradable metal quite recently. Unfortunately, pure Zn is soft, brittle and has low mechanical strength in the practice, which needs further improvement in order to meet the clinical requirements. On the other hand, the widely used industrial Zn-based alloys usually contain biotoxic elements (for instance, ZA series contain toxic Al elements up to 40 wt.%), which subsequently bring up biosafety concerns. In the present work, novel Zn-1X binary alloys, with the addition of nutrition elements Mg, Ca and Sr were designed (cast, rolled and extruded Zn-1Mg, Zn-1Ca and Zn-1Sr). Their microstructure and mechanical property, degradation and in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility were studied systematically. The results demonstrated that the Zn-1X (Mg, Ca and Sr) alloys have profoundly modified the mechanical properties and biocompatibility of pure Zn. Zn-1X (Mg, Ca and Sr) alloys showed great potential for use in a new generation of biodegradable implants, opening up a new avenue in the area of biodegradable metals.

  10. Development of biodegradable Zn-1X binary alloys with nutrient alloying elements Mg, Ca and Sr

    PubMed Central

    Li, H. F.; Xie, X. H.; Zheng, Y. F.; Cong, Y.; Zhou, F. Y.; Qiu, K. J.; Wang, X.; Chen, S. H.; Huang, L.; Tian, L.; Qin, L.

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable metals have attracted considerable attentions in recent years. Besides the early launched biodegradable Mg and Fe metals, Zn, an essential element with osteogenic potential of human body, is regarded and studied as a new kind of potential biodegradable metal quite recently. Unfortunately, pure Zn is soft, brittle and has low mechanical strength in the practice, which needs further improvement in order to meet the clinical requirements. On the other hand, the widely used industrial Zn-based alloys usually contain biotoxic elements (for instance, ZA series contain toxic Al elements up to 40 wt.%), which subsequently bring up biosafety concerns. In the present work, novel Zn-1X binary alloys, with the addition of nutrition elements Mg, Ca and Sr were designed (cast, rolled and extruded Zn-1Mg, Zn-1Ca and Zn-1Sr). Their microstructure and mechanical property, degradation and in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility were studied systematically. The results demonstrated that the Zn-1X (Mg, Ca and Sr) alloys have profoundly modified the mechanical properties and biocompatibility of pure Zn. Zn-1X (Mg, Ca and Sr) alloys showed great potential for use in a new generation of biodegradable implants, opening up a new avenue in the area of biodegradable metals. PMID:26023878

  11. Fe induced optical limiting properties of Zn1-xFexS nanospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vineeshkumar, T. V.; Raj, D. Rithesh; Prasanth, S.; Unnikrishnan, N. V.; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P.; Sudarasanakumar, C.

    2018-02-01

    Zn1-xFexS (x = 0.00, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05) nanospheres were synthesized by polyethylene glycol assisted hydrothermal method. XRD studies revealed that samples of all concentrations exhibited cubic structure with crystallite grain size 7-9 nm. TEM and SEM show the formation of nanospheres by dense aggregation of smaller particles. Increasing Zn/Fe ratio tune the band gap from 3.4 to 3.2 eV and also quenches the green luminescence. FTIR spectra reveal the presence of capping agent, intensity variation and shifting of LO and TO phonon modes confirm the presence of Fe ions. Nonlinear optical properties were measured using open and closed aperture z-scan techniques, employing frequency doubled 532 nm pumping sources which indicated reverse saturable absorption (RSA) process. The nonlinear optical coefficients are obtained by two photon absorption (2PA). Composition dependent nonlinear optical coefficients ;β;, nonlinear refractive index, third order susceptibility and optical limiting threshold were estimated. The sample shows good nonlinear absorption and enhancement of optical limiting behavior with increasing Fe volume fraction. Contribution of RSA on optical nonlinearity of Zn1-xFexS nanospheres are also investigated using three different input energies. Zn1-xFexS with comparatively small limiting threshold value is a promising candidate for optical power limiting applications.

  12. Structural, electronic, magnetic and optical properties of semiconductor Zn1-xMoxTe compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhong-Ying; Zhang, Jian-Min

    2018-03-01

    The structural, electronic, magnetic and optical properties of the Zn1-xMoxTe (x = 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00) have been investigated by the spin-polarized first-principles calculations. The Zn0.50Mo0.50Te has tetragonal structure while the Zn1-xMoxTe (x = 0.00, 0.25, 0.75, 1.00) crystallize in cubic structures. For Zn1-xMoxTe (x = 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00) alloys, the lattice constant and the volume are found larger than those of pure ZnTe alloy. The Zn1-xMoxTe (x = 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00) is magnetic and the Mo element is found dominant in the bands crossing the Fermi level in the spin-up channel. The Zn0.75Mo0.25Te and MoTe have half-metallic (HM) behavior. In spin-down channel of the Zn0.75Mo0.25Te, the Zn atom mainly contributed to the conduction band minimum (CBM), while the valence band maximum (VBM) appears mainly due to contribution of Te element. A positive spin splitting and crystal field splitting of d-states of Mo atom has been observed for Zn0.75Mo0.25Te alloy. The maximum values of the absorption coefficients αMAX(ω) of the Zn0.50Mo0.50Te alloy along a or b axes are smaller than the absorption coefficient along c axis. The first absorption peak appearing in the energy range of 0.000-1.000 eV for Zn1-xMoxTe (x = 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 or 1.00) alloys is the new peak which is not observed in ZnTe.

  13. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, R.J.; Hoffheins, B.S.; Fleming, P.H.

    1994-11-22

    A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed. 6 figs.

  14. Ferromagnetic thin films

    DOEpatents

    Krishnan, K.M.

    1994-12-20

    A ferromagnetic [delta]-Mn[sub 1[minus]x]Ga[sub x] thin film having perpendicular anisotropy is described which comprises: (a) a GaAs substrate, (b) a layer of undoped GaAs overlying said substrate and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 50 to about 100 nanometers, (c) a layer of [delta]-Mn[sub 1[minus]x]Ga[sub x] overlying said layer of undoped GaAs and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 20 to about 30 nanometers, and (d) a layer of GaAs overlying said layer of [delta]-Mn[sub 1[minus]x]Ga[sub x] and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 2 to about 5 nanometers, wherein x is 0.4[+-]0.05. 7 figures.

  15. Polyimide Aerogel Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann; Guo, Haiquan

    2012-01-01

    Polyimide aerogels have been crosslinked through multifunctional amines. This invention builds on "Polyimide Aerogels With Three-Dimensional Cross-Linked Structure," and may be considered as a continuation of that invention, which results in a polyimide aerogel with a flexible, formable form. Gels formed from polyamic acid solutions, end-capped with anhydrides, and cross-linked with the multifunctional amines, are chemically imidized and dried using supercritical CO2 extraction to give aerogels having density around 0.1 to 0.3 g/cubic cm. The aerogels are 80 to 95% porous, and have high surface areas (200 to 600 sq m/g) and low thermal conductivity (as low as 14 mW/m-K at room temperature). Notably, the cross-linked polyimide aerogels have higher modulus than polymer-reinforced silica aerogels of similar density, and can be fabricated as both monoliths and thin films.

  16. Charge transfer transitions in the photoluminescence spectra of Zn1-xMexO (Me = Mn, Ni, Co) oxide compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, V. I.; Gruzdev, N. B.; Pustovarov, V. A.; Churmanov, V. N.

    2013-01-01

    Crystals of Zn1-xCoxO and Zn1-xNixO are studied by photoluminescence at temperatures of 8 and 90 K. By resolving the spectra into sums of gaussian distributions and using the known positions of donor and acceptor levels of 3d-impurities relative to the edges of the allowed bands, the observed peaks in the photoluminescence spectra are interpreted in terms of radiative recombination through donor and acceptor levels of nickel and cobalt ions. These results are compared with previously observed features of the photoluminescence spectra of Zn1-xMnxO crystals.

  17. The dielectric behavior of Zn1-xNixO/NiO two-phase composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, D. C.; Thota, S.; Nayak, S.; Harish, D. D.; Mahesh, P.; Kumar, A.; Pamu, D.; Qureshi, Md

    2014-10-01

    The effect of nickel content on the dielectric permittivity ‘ɛr’ and the ac-electrical conductivity of Zn1-xNixO/NiO (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.55) two-phase composites were investigated. The antiferro to the paramagnetic Néel temperature TN (~ 523 K) of the NiO associated with the structural phase transition from the rhombohedral to the cubic phase has been exploited to realize a dielectric anomaly across 523-541 K in the Zn1-xNixO/NiO composite system. Also, a giant dielectric peak across 410 °C in pure NiO was observed together with an anomaly across TN. The formation of tiny polar clusters due to the compositional heterogeneity for the samples with x ≥ 0.16 drove the system to exhibit a weakly coupled relaxor-like behavior with a locally varying maximum temperature of T* (~ 530 K at 106 Hz), obeying the Vogel-Fulcher law and the Uchino-Nomura criteria. The values of the diffuseness-exponent ‘γ’ (1.91) and the shape-parameter ‘δ’ (88 °C) were determined by using the empirical scaling relation (ɛA/ɛr = 1 + 0.5 (T - TA)2/ δ2), which is often used to describe relaxor-like behavior. Our results provide strong evidence for the variable-range-hopping of charge carriers between the localized states. The effects of non-ohmic sample-electrode contact impedance and negative-capacitance on the global dielectric behavior of a Zn1-xNixO/NiO composite system are discussed.

  18. Interference Colors in Thin Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, H. L.

    1979-01-01

    Explains interference colors in thin films as being due to the removal, or considerable reduction, of a certain color by destructive inteference that results in the complementary color being seen. (GA)

  19. Formation of highly luminescent Zn1-xCdxSe nanocrystals using CdSe and ZnSe seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruili; Yang, Ping

    2013-05-01

    High-quality colloidal Zn1-xCdxSe nanocrystals (NCs) with tunable photoluminescence (PL) from blue to orange were synthesized using oleic acid as a capping agent. The Zn1-xCdxSe NCs were prepared through two approaches: using CdSe or ZnSe seeds. In the case of CdSe NCs as seeds, Zn1-xCdxSe NCs were fabricated by the reaction of Zn, Cd, and Se precursors in the coordinating solvent system at high temperature. The Zn1-xCdxSe NCs revealed orange emitting. A significant blue-shift of absorption and PL spectra were observed with time, indicating the formation of ternary NCs. In contrast, Zn1-xCdxSe NCs revealed blue to green PL for ZnSe NCs as seeds. This is ascribed to an embryonic nuclei-induced alloying process. With increasing time, the Zn1-xCdxSe NCs exhibited a red-shift both in their absorption and PL spectra. This is attributed to the engineering in band gap energy via the control of NC composition. The PL properties of as-prepared alloyed NCs are comparable or even better than those for the parent binary systems. The PL peak wavelength of the Zn1-xCdxSe NCs depended strongly on reaction time and the molar ratio of Cd/Zn. The Zn1-xCdxSe NCs revealed a spherical morphology and exhibited a wurtzite structure according to transmission electron microscopy observation and an X-ray diffraction analysis.

  20. thin film capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodeux, Romain; Gervais, Monique; Wolfman, Jérôme; Gervais, François

    2014-09-01

    CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on Pt and La0.9Sr1.1NiO4 (LSNO) bottom electrodes. The electrical characteristics of the CCTO/Pt and CCTO/LSNO Schottky junctions have been analyzed by impedance spectroscopy, capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current-voltage (I-V) measurements as a function of frequency (40 Hz-1 MHz) and temperature (300-475 K). Similar results were obtained for the two Schottky diodes. The conduction mechanism through the Schottky junctions was described using a thermionic emission model and the electrical parameters were determined. The strong deviation from the ideal I-V characteristics and the increase in capacitance at low frequency for -0.5 V bias are in agreement with the presence of traps near the interfaces. Results point toward the important effect of defects generated at the interface by deposition of CCTO.

  1. Thin film cell development workshop report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodyard, James R.

    1991-01-01

    The Thin Film Development Workshop provided an opportunity for those interested in space applications of thin film cells to debate several topics. The unique characteristics of thin film cells as well as a number of other issues were covered during the discussions. The potential of thin film cells, key research and development issues, manufacturing issues, radiation damage, substrates, and space qualification of thin film cells were discussed.

  2. Thin-Film Power Transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R.

    1995-01-01

    Transformer core made of thin layers of insulating material interspersed with thin layers of ferromagnetic material. Flux-linking conductors made of thinner nonferromagnetic-conductor/insulator multilayers wrapped around core. Transformers have geometric features finer than those of transformers made in customary way by machining and mechanical pressing. In addition, some thin-film materials exhibit magnetic-flux-carrying capabilities superior to those of customary bulk transformer materials. Suitable for low-cost, high-yield mass production.

  3. Vapor deposition of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Smith, David C.; Pattillo, Stevan G.; Laia, Jr., Joseph R.; Sattelberger, Alfred P.

    1992-01-01

    A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl).sub.3, iridium(allyl).sub.3, molybdenum(allyl).sub.4, tungsten(allyl).sub.4, rhenium(allyl).sub.4, platinum(allyl).sub.2, or palladium(allyl).sub.2 are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of three-dimensional transition metal ions doped zinc oxide based dilute magnetic semiconductor thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Kousik

    Dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS), especially 3d-transition metal (TM) doped ZnO based DMS materials are the most promising candidates for optoelectronics and spintronics applications; e.g. in spin light emitting diode (SLED), spin transistors, and spin field effect transistors (SFET), etc. In the present dissertation, thin films of Zn1-xTMxO (TM = Co2+, Cu2+, and Mn2+) were grown on (0001) oriented Al2O3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The films were highly c-axis oriented, nearly single crystalline, and defects free for a limited concentration of the dilution of transition metal ions. In particular, we have obtained single crystalline phases of Zn1-xTMxO thin films for up to 10, 3, and 5 stoichiometric percentages of Co2+, Cu2+, and Mn2+ respectively. Raman micro-probe system was used to understand the structural and lattice dynamical properties at different physical conditions. The confinement of optical phonons in the disorder lattice was explained by alloy potential fluctuation (APF) using a spatial correlation (SC) model. The detailed analysis of the optical phonon behavior in disorder lattice confirmed the substitution of the transition metal ions in Zn 2+ site of the ZnO host lattice. The secondary phases of ZnCo 2O4, CuO, and ZnMn2O4 were detected in higher Co, Cu, and Mn doped ZnO thin films respectively; where as, XRD did not detect these secondary phases in the same samples. Room temperature ferromagnetism was observed in Co2+ and Cu2+ ions doped ZnO thin films with maximum saturation magnetization (Ms) of 1.0 and 0.76 muB respectively. The origin of the observed ferromagnetism in Zn1-xCoxO thin films was tested by the controlled introduction of shallow donors (Al) in Zn0.9-x Co0.1O:Alx (x = 0.005 and 0.01) thin films. The saturation magnetization for the 10% Co-doped ZnO (1.0 muB /Co) at 300K reduced (˜0.25 muB/Co) due to Al doping. The observed ferromagnetism and the reduction due to Al doping can be explained by the Bound

  5. The Thin Oil Film Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, James L.; Naughton, Jonathan W.

    1999-01-01

    A thin film of oil on a surface responds primarily to the wall shear stress generated on that surface by a three-dimensional flow. The oil film is also subject to wall pressure gradients, surface tension effects and gravity. The partial differential equation governing the oil film flow is shown to be related to Burgers' equation. Analytical and numerical methods for solving the thin oil film equation are presented. A direct numerical solver is developed where the wall shear stress variation on the surface is known and which solves for the oil film thickness spatial and time variation on the surface. An inverse numerical solver is also developed where the oil film thickness spatial variation over the surface at two discrete times is known and which solves for the wall shear stress variation over the test surface. A One-Time-Level inverse solver is also demonstrated. The inverse numerical solver provides a mathematically rigorous basis for an improved form of a wall shear stress instrument suitable for application to complex three-dimensional flows. To demonstrate the complexity of flows for which these oil film methods are now suitable, extensive examination is accomplished for these analytical and numerical methods as applied to a thin oil film in the vicinity of a three-dimensional saddle of separation.

  6. Thin-film metal hydrides.

    PubMed

    Remhof, Arndt; Borgschulte, Andreas

    2008-12-01

    The goal of the medieval alchemist, the chemical transformation of common metals into nobel metals, will forever be a dream. However, key characteristics of metals, such as their electronic band structure and, consequently, their electric, magnetic and optical properties, can be tailored by controlled hydrogen doping. Due to their morphology and well-defined geometry with flat, coplanar surfaces/interfaces, novel phenomena may be observed in thin films. Prominent examples are the eye-catching hydrogen switchable mirror effect, the visualization of solid-state diffusion and the formation of complex surface morphologies. Thin films do not suffer as much from embrittlement and/or decrepitation as bulk materials, allowing the study of cyclic absorption and desorption. Therefore, thin-metal hydride films are used as model systems to study metal-insulator transitions, for high throughput combinatorial research or they may be used as indicator layers to study hydrogen diffusion. They can be found in technological applications as hydrogen sensors, in electrochromic and thermochromic devices. In this review, we discuss the effect of hydrogen loading of thin niobium and yttrium films as archetypical examples of a transition metal and a rare earth metal, respectively. Our focus thereby lies on the hydrogen induced changes of the electronic structure and the morphology of the thin films, their optical properties, the visualization and the control of hydrogen diffusion and on the study of surface phenomena and catalysis.

  7. Drop dynamics on a thin film: Thin film rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Andreas; Kim, Pilnam; Stone, Howard A.

    2011-11-01

    The spreading of a water drop on an oil film that covers a solid substrate is a common event in many industrial processes. We study in experiments the dynamics of a water drop on a thin silicone oil film and quantify its interaction with the solid substrate that supports the film. The oil film becomes unstable and ruptures for solids that are hydrophilic. We determine the ``waiting time,'' the time it takes the water drop to drain the silicone film. This timescale is found to highly depend on how well water wets the solid, illustrating the interplay between intermolecular and hydrodynamic forces in the phenomenon. A phase diagram for the thin film stability is extracted based on waters equilibrium contact angle on the solid, which shows that we can either promote or inhibit de-wetting. As water comes in direct contact with the solid, it spreads and peels off the silicone film. We show the influence of viscosity, equilibrium contact angle and film height on the opening radius of the hole formed as the solid de-wets.

  8. Contactless electroreflectance studies of free exciton binding energy in Zn1-xMgxO epilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wełna, M.; Kudrawiec, R.; Kaminska, A.; Kozanecki, A.; Laumer, B.; Eickhoff, M.; Misiewicz, J.

    2013-12-01

    Contactless electroreflectance (CER) has been applied to study optical transitions in Zn1-xMgxO layers with magnesium concentration ≤44%. CER resonances related to free exciton and band-to-band transitions were clearly observed at room temperature. For ZnO the two transitions are separated by the energy of ˜65 meV, which is attributed to the free exciton binding energy in ZnO. Due to magnesium incorporation, the CER resonances broaden and shift to blue. The energy separation between excitonic and band-to-band transitions increases up to ˜100 meV when the magnesium concentration reaches 22%. For larger magnesium concentrations, CER resonances are significantly broadened and the excitonic transition is no longer resolved in the CER spectrum.

  9. Magnetization and heat-capacity measurements on Zn1-xCrxTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekarek, T. M.; Luning, J. E.; Miotkowski, I.; Crooker, B. C.

    1994-12-01

    We have taken magnetization and calorimetric measurements on Zn1-xCrxTe (x=0.003). The heat-capacity measurements show a Schottky peak indicating an energy-level splitting of 3.1 K between the ground and first excited states. Above 1.5 K we observe additional heat capacity, which indicates the presence of additional low-energy vibronic excitations. The magnetization data reveal a small anisotropy (~7%) with the (111) direction giving the largest value. The magnetization data were fit with a model including a static Jahn-Teller distortion proposed previously in these materials [J. T. Vallin, G. A. Slack, S. Roberts, and A. E. Hughes, Phys. Rev. B 2, 4313 (1970)]. Reasonable agreement was found with the data for a spin-orbit parameter of -59 cm-1 and a Jahn-Teller energy of 320 cm-1.

  10. Low work function, stable thin films

    DOEpatents

    Dinh, Long N.; McLean, II, William; Balooch, Mehdi; Fehring, Jr., Edward J.; Schildbach, Marcus A.

    2000-01-01

    Generation of low work function, stable compound thin films by laser ablation. Compound thin films with low work function can be synthesized by simultaneously laser ablating silicon, for example, and thermal evaporating an alkali metal into an oxygen environment. For example, the compound thin film may be composed of Si/Cs/O. The work functions of the thin films can be varied by changing the silicon/alkali metal/oxygen ratio. Low work functions of the compound thin films deposited on silicon substrates were confirmed by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The compound thin films are stable up to 500.degree. C. as measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Tests have established that for certain chemical compositions and annealing temperatures of the compound thin films, negative electron affinity (NEA) was detected. The low work function, stable compound thin films can be utilized in solar cells, field emission flat panel displays, electron guns, and cold cathode electron guns.

  11. Thin film-coated polymer webs

    DOEpatents

    Wenz, Robert P.; Weber, Michael F.; Arudi, Ravindra L.

    1992-02-04

    The present invention relates to thin film-coated polymer webs, and more particularly to thin film electronic devices supported upon a polymer web, wherein the polymer web is treated with a purifying amount of electron beam radiation.

  12. Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Dittmer, Janke J.; Huynh, Wendy U.; Milliron, Delia

    2014-06-17

    The invention described herein provides for thin films and methods of making comprising inorganic semiconductor-nanocrystals dispersed in semiconducting-polymers in high loading amounts. The invention also describes photovoltaic devices incorporating the thin films.

  13. Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Dittmer, Janke J.; Huynh, Wendy U.; Milliron, Delia

    2010-08-17

    The invention described herein provides for thin films and methods of making comprising inorganic semiconductor-nanocrystals dispersed in semiconducting-polymers in high loading amounts. The invention also describes photovoltaic devices incorporating the thin films.

  14. Aging in Thin Metallic Films.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-01

    NSWC/WOL TR 77-178 SUMMARY This raport gives measurements of changes in the magnetic properties of thin films due to oxidation. Evaporated NiFe ...Fi lm An i sotropy NiFe Thi n Fi lm Th in Fi lm Magnetos triction Magnetic Fi lm Aging - Magnetic Film Anneal ing — ~~~~. A BSTRACT CenhSnu. on r.v...rs• .Id. I nsc•ss y ond Idsnhl~ b block me.eb.r) _ . .—~~ Low magnetostriction NiFe and NiFe based’ ternary films 220A to 340A thick were prepared by

  15. Optical evidence of strong coupling between valence-band holes and d -localized spins in Zn1-xMnxO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, V. I.; Druzhinin, A. V.; Gruzdev, N. B.; Dejneka, A.; Churpita, O.; Hubicka, Z.; Jastrabik, L.; Trepakov, V.

    2010-04-01

    We report on optical-absorption study of Zn1-xMnxO (x=0-0.06) films on fused silica substrates taking special attention to the spectral range of the fundamental absorption edge (3.1-4 eV). Well-pronounced excitonic lines observed in the region 3.40-3.45 eV were found to shift to higher energies with increasing Mn concentration. The optical band-gap energy increases with x too, reliably evidencing strong coupling between oxygen holes and localized spins of manganese ions. In the 3.1-3.3 eV region the optical-absorption curve in the manganese-contained films was found to shift to lower energies with respect to that for undoped ZnO. The additional absorption observed in this range is interpreted as a result of splitting of a localized Zhang-Rice-type state into the band gap.

  16. Nanocrystal thin film fabrication methods and apparatus

    SciT

    Kagan, Cherie R.; Kim, David K.; Choi, Ji-Hyuk

    Nanocrystal thin film devices and methods for fabricating nanocrystal thin film devices are disclosed. The nanocrystal thin films are diffused with a dopant such as Indium, Potassium, Tin, etc. to reduce surface states. The thin film devices may be exposed to air during a portion of the fabrication. This enables fabrication of nanocrystal-based devices using a wider range of techniques such as photolithography and photolithographic patterning in an air environment.

  17. Thin films and uses

    DOEpatents

    Baskaran, Suresh; Graff, Gordon L.; Song, Lin

    1998-01-01

    The invention provides a method for synthesizing a titanium oxide-containing film comprising the following steps: (a) preparing an aqueous solution of a titanium chelate with a titanium molarity in the range of 0.01M to 0.6M. (b) immersing a substrate in the prepared solution, (c) decomposing the titanium chelate to deposit a film on the substrate. The titanium chelate maybe decomposed acid, base, temperature or other means. A preferred method provides for the deposit of adherent titanium oxide films from C2 to C5 hydroxy carboxylic acids. In another aspect the invention is a novel article of manufacture having a titanium coating which protects the substrate against ultraviolet damage. In another aspect the invention provides novel semipermeable gas separation membranes, and a method for producing them.

  18. Hybrid thin-film amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleveland, G.

    1977-01-01

    Miniature amplifier for bioelectronic instrumentation consumes only about 100 mW and has frequency response flat to within 0.5 dB from 0.14 to 450 Hz. Device consists of five thin film substrates, which contain eight operational amplifiers and seven field-effect transistor dice.

  19. Thin Film Solid Lubricant Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoy, Patricia A.

    1997-01-01

    Tribological coatings for high temperature sliding applications are addressed. A sputter-deposited bilayer coating of gold and chromium is investigated as a potential solid lubricant for protection of alumina substrates during sliding at high temperature. Evaluation of the tribological properties of alumina pins sliding against thin sputtered gold films on alumina substrates is presented.

  20. Thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Derzon, Dora K.; Arnold, Jr., Charles; Delnick, Frank M.

    1996-01-01

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolyte, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities .apprxeq.10.sup.-3 .OMEGA..sup.-1 cm.sup.-1 are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  1. Thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Derzon, D.K.; Arnold, C. Jr.; Delnick, F.M.

    1996-12-31

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolytes, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities {approx_equal}10{sup {minus}3}{Omega}{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1} are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries. 1 fig.

  2. Photoluminescence spectroscopy and positron annihilation spectroscopy probe of alloying and annealing effects in nonpolar m-plane ZnMgO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, A. L.; Song, H. P.; Liang, D. C.; Wei, H. Y.; Liu, X. L.; Jin, P.; Qin, X. B.; Yang, S. Y.; Zhu, Q. S.; Wang, Z. G.

    2010-04-01

    Temperature-dependent photoluminescence characteristics of non-polar m-plane ZnO and ZnMgO alloy films grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition have been studied. The enhancement in emission intensity caused by localized excitons in m-plane ZnMgO alloy films was directly observed and it can be further improved after annealing in nitrogen. The concentration of Zn vacancies in the films was increased by alloying with Mg, which was detected by positron annihilation spectroscopy. This result is very important to directly explain why undoped Zn1-xMgxO thin films can show p-type conduction by controlling Mg content, as discussed by Li et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 232115 (2007)].

  3. Temperature Behavior of Thin Film Varactor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Temperature Behavior of Thin Film Varactor By Richard X. Fu ARL-TR-5905 January 2012...Thin Film Varactor Richard X. Fu Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL...DD-MM-YYYY) January 2012 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Temperature Behavior of Thin Film Varactor 5a

  4. Mechanics of Thin Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-06

    dependence of the dimensions H, D of the results of Lau et al. [14] in which the angular the plastic zone on the hardening exponent n for variation of the...01 0. 03 04MMS 10I Trh~knea (m) l| Thcrm (a-) FIG. 8. Variation of k., and t/kf, vst for EBE TiO1/AO at5- and 10-g films deposited on silicon [Table

  5. Ferroelectric Thin Film Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-10

    under the same processing parameters, are discussed for comparison purposes. Next, 75 ITO and In2O3/ Ga2O3 (IGO) are discussed as transparent top...Once a constant rate of 0.2 Å/s is obtained, a thin (2 nm) Ga2O3 layer is deposited to keep the In2O3 out of direct contact with the PZT. As...the In source is heated until the total rate is 1 Å/s. A 20:80 ratio of Ga2O3 to In2O3 is reported to have a work function close to 5 eV. [62] The

  6. Structural and Magnetic Properties of Transition-Metal-Doped Zn 1-x Fe x O.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Baset, T A; Fang, Yue-Wen; Anis, B; Duan, Chun-Gang; Abdel-Hafiez, Mahmoud

    2016-12-01

    The ability to produce high-quality single-phase diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) is the driving factor to study DMS for spintronics applications. Fe-doped ZnO was synthesized by using a low-temperature co-precipitation technique producing Zn 1-x Fe x O nanoparticles (x= 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, and 0.1). Structural, Raman, density functional calculations, and magnetic studies have been carried out in studying the electronic structure and magnetic properties of Fe-doped ZnO. The results show that Fe atoms are substituted by Zn ions successfully. Due to the small ionic radius of Fe ions compared to that of a Zn ions, the crystal size decreases with an increasing dopant concentration. First-principle calculations indicate that the charge state of iron is Fe (2+) and Fe (3+) with a zinc vacancy or an interstitial oxygen anion, respectively. The calculations predict that the exchange interaction between transition metal ions can switch from the antiferromagnetic coupling into its quasi-degenerate ferromagnetic coupling by external perturbations. This is further supported and explains the observed ferromagnetic bahaviour at magnetic measurements. Magnetic measurements reveal that decreasing particle size increases the ferromagnetism volume fraction. Furthermore, introducing Fe into ZnO induces a strong magnetic moment without any distortion in the geometrical symmetry; it also reveals the ferromagnetic coupling.

  7. Electronic and magnetic properties of Zn1-xFexSe alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatta, Swati; Tripathi, S. K.; Prakash, Satya

    2017-12-01

    The spin polarized density functional theory along with self consistent plane wave pseudopotential method is used to investigate electronic and magnetic properties of ternary Zn1-xFexSe alloys with x = 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75. The exchange-correlation potential treated within generalized gradient approximation is used. The calculated spin-polarized band structures, partial and total density of states reveal that Zn0.875Fe0.125Se and Zn0.75Fe0.25Se exhibit half metallic ferromagnetic characteristics and Zn0.50Fe0.50Se is nearly half metallic in nature. The half metallic band gaps for x = 0.125 and 0.25 are 0.69 and 0.39 eV respectively, while the corresponding band gaps are 0.86 and 0.81 eV. The p-d hybridization reduces the magnetic moment of Fe atoms from its free space charge value of 4 μB and induces the small magnetic moments on Zn and Se sites. The results are compared with available experimental data.

  8. Thin film buried anode battery

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Se-Hee [Lakewood, CO; Tracy, C Edwin [Golden, CO; Liu, Ping [Denver, CO

    2009-12-15

    A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

  9. Thin film concentrator panel development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, D. K.

    1982-01-01

    The development and testing of a rigid panel concept that utilizes a thin film reflective surface for application to a low-cost point-focusing solar concentrator is discussed. It is shown that a thin film reflective surface is acceptable for use on solar concentrators, including 1500 F applications. Additionally, it is shown that a formed steel sheet substrate is a good choice for concentrator panels. The panel has good optical properties, acceptable forming tolerances, environmentally resistant substrate and stiffeners, and adaptability to low to mass production rates. Computer simulations of the concentrator optics were run using the selected reflector panel design. Experimentally determined values for reflector surface specularity and reflectivity along with dimensional data were used in the analysis. The simulations provided intercept factor and net energy into the aperture as a function of aperture size for different surface errors and pointing errors. Point source and Sun source optical tests were also performed.

  10. Structural and optical characterization of 1 µm of ternary alloy ZnCuSe thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaaban, E. R.; Hassan, H. Shokry; Aly, S. A.; Elshaikh, H. A.; Mahasen, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    Different compositions of Cu-doped ZnSe in ternary alloy Zn1- x Cu x Se thin films (with x = 0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075 and 0.10) were evaporated (thickness 1 µm) onto glass substrate using electron beam evaporation method. The X-ray diffraction analysis for both powder and films indicated their polycrystalline nature with zinc blende (cubic) structure. The crystallite size was found to increase, while the lattice microstrain was decreased with increasing Cu dopant. The optical characterization of films was carried out using the transmittance spectra, where the refractive indices have been evaluated in transparent and medium transmittance regions using the envelope method, suggested by Swanepoel. The refractive index has been found to increase with increasing Cu content. The dispersion of refractive index has been analyzed in terms of the Wemple-DiDomenico single-oscillator model. The oscillator parameters, the single-oscillator energy E o, the dispersion energy E d and the static refractive index n 0, were estimated. The optical band gap was determined in strong absorption region of transmittance spectra and was found to increase from 2.702 to 2.821 eV with increasing the Cu content. This increase in the band gap was well explained by the Burstein-Moss effect.

  11. Modeling Thin Film Oxide Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Quentin

    Thin film oxidation is investigated using two modeling techniques in the interest of better understanding the roles of space charge and non-equilibrium effects. An electrochemical phase-field model of an oxide-metal interface is formulated in one dimension and studied at equilibrium and during growth. An analogous sharp interface model is developed to validate the phase-field model in the thick film limit. Electrochemical profiles across the oxide are shown to deviate from the sharp interface prediction when the oxide film is thin compared to the Debye length, however no effect on the oxidation kinetics is found. This is attributed to the simple thermodynamic and kinetic models used therein. The phase-field model provides a framework onto to which additional physics can be added to better model thin film oxidation. A model for solute trapping during the oxidation of binary alloys is developed to study non-equilibrium effects during the early stages of oxide growth. The model is applied to NiCr alloys, and steady-state interfacial composition maps are presented for the growth of an oxide with the rock salt structure. No detailed experimental data is available to verify the predictions of the solute trapping model, however it is shown to be consistent with the trends observed during the early stages of NiCr oxidation. Lastly, experimental studies of the wet infiltration technique for decorating solid oxide fuel cell anodes with nickel nanoparticles are presented. The effect of nickel nitrate calcination parameters on the resulting nickel oxide microstructures are studied on both porous and planar substrates. Decreasing the calcination temperature and dwell time, as well as a dehydration step after nickel nitrate infiltration, are all shown to decrease the initial nickel oxide particle size, but other factors such as geometry and nickel loading per unit area also affected the final nickel particle size and morphology upon reduction.

  12. Method of producing amorphous thin films

    DOEpatents

    Brusasco, Raymond M.

    1992-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of producing thin films by sintering which comprises: a. coating a substrate with a thin film of an inorganic glass forming parulate material possessing the capability of being sintered, and b. irridiating said thin film of said particulate material with a laser beam of sufficient power to cause sintering of said material below the temperature of liquidus thereof. Also disclosed is the article produced by the method claimed.

  13. Method of producing amorphous thin films

    DOEpatents

    Brusasco, R.M.

    1992-09-01

    Disclosed is a method of producing thin films by sintering which comprises: (a) coating a substrate with a thin film of an inorganic glass forming material possessing the capability of being sintered; and (b) irradiating said thin film of said particulate material with a laser beam of sufficient power to cause sintering of said material below the temperature of liquidus thereof. Also disclosed is the article produced by the method claimed. 4 figs.

  14. MCP performance improvement using alumina thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuzhen; Yan, Baojun; Liu, Shulin; Zhao, Tianchi; Yu, Yang; Wen, Kaile; Li, Yumei; Qi, Ming

    2017-10-01

    The performance improvement using alumina thin film on a dual microchannel plate (MCP) detector for single electron counting was investigated. The alumina thin film was coated on all surfaces of the MCPs by atomic layer deposition method. It was found that the gain, the single electron resolution and the peak-to-valley ratio of the dual MCP detector were significantly enhanced by coating the alumina thin film. The optimum operating conditions of the new dual MCP detector have been studied.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and ferromagnetic properties of Zn1-xMnxO (x ≤ 0.05) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuruangrat, Anukorn; Thongtem, Titipun; Thongtem, Somchai

    2018-06-01

    Zn1-xMnxO (x ≤ 0.05) nanoparticles were synthesized by a combination of room temperature precipitation and high temperature calcination. Pure hexagonal wurtzite ZnO nanoparticles with the size of ≤100 nm and a dominant vibrational peak at 437 cm-1 of E2H non-polar optical phonon mode were detected. The present research was succeeded in doping of ZnO lattice by Mn2+ ions, including the detection of an additional peak at 528 cm-1 associated with lattice defects. Magnetic properties of Zn1-xMnxO (x ≤ 0.05) nanoparticles were controlled by correlated spin of Mn-O-Mn exchange couple and lattice disorder. The saturation magnetization of ferromagnetic Zn0.97Mn0.03O was the highest at 51.49 × 10-3 emu/g.

  16. Synthesis of Zn1-xCdxO Nanoparticles by Co-Precipitation: Structural, Optical and Photodetection Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Anju Anna; Balakrishnan, L.; Meher, S. R.; Shambavi, K.; Alex, Z. C.

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide bandgap semiconductor with excellent photoresponse in ultra-violet (UV) regime. Tuning the bandgap of ZnO by alloying with cadmium can shift its absorption cutoff wavelength from UV to visible (Vis) region. Our work aims at synthesis of Zn1-xCdxO nanoparticles by co-precipitation method for the fabrication of photodetector. The properties of nanoparticles were analyzed using X-ray diffractometer, UV-Vis spectrometer, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometer. The incorporation of cadmium without altering the wurtzite structure resulted in the red shift in the absorption edge of ZnO. Further, the photoresponse characteristics of Zn1-xCdxO nanopowders were investigated by fabricating photodetectors. It has been found that with Cd alloying the photosensitivity was increased in the UVA-violet as well in the blue region.

  17. Analysis of Hard Thin Film Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Dashen

    1998-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is interested in developing hard thin film coating for bearings. The wearing of the bearing is an important problem for space flight engine. Hard thin film coating can drastically improve the surface of the bearing and improve the wear-endurance of the bearing. However, many fundamental problems in surface physics, plasma deposition, etc, need further research. The approach is using Electron Cyclotron Resonance Chemical Vapor Deposition (ECRCVD) to deposit hard thin film on stainless steel bearing. The thin films in consideration include SiC, SiN and other materials. An ECRCVD deposition system is being assembled at MSFC.

  18. Analysis of Hard Thin Film Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Dashen

    1998-01-01

    MSFC is interested in developing hard thin film coating for bearings. The wearing of the bearing is an important problem for space flight engine. Hard thin film coating can drastically improve the surface of the bearing and improve the wear-endurance of the bearing. However, many fundamental problems in surface physics, plasma deposition, etc, need further research. The approach is using electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECRCVD) to deposit hard thin film an stainless steel bearing. The thin films in consideration include SiC, SiN and other materials. An ECRCVD deposition system is being assembled at MSFC.

  19. A thin film nitinol heart valve.

    PubMed

    Stepan, Lenka L; Levi, Daniel S; Carman, Gregory P

    2005-11-01

    In order to create a less thrombogenic heart valve with improved longevity, a prosthetic heart valve was developed using thin film nitinol (NiTi). A "butterfly" valve was constructed using a single, elliptical piece of thin film NiTi and a scaffold made from Teflon tubing and NiTi wire. Flow tests and pressure readings across the valve were performed in vitro in a pulsatile flow loop. Bio-corrosion experiments were conducted on untreated and passivated thin film nitinol. To determine the material's in vivo biocompatibility, thin film nitinol was implanted in pigs using stents covered with thin film NiTi. Flow rates and pressure tracings across the valve were comparable to those through a commercially available 19 mm Perimount Edwards tissue valve. No signs of corrosion were present on thin film nitinol samples after immersion in Hank's solution for one month. Finally, organ and tissue samples explanted from four pigs at 2, 3, 4, and 6 weeks after thin film NiTi implantation appeared without disease, and the thin film nitinol itself was without thrombus formation. Although long term testing is still necessary, thin film NiTi may be very well suited for use in artificial heart valves.

  20. Thin film solar energy collector

    DOEpatents

    Aykan, Kamran; Farrauto, Robert J.; Jefferson, Clinton F.; Lanam, Richard D.

    1983-11-22

    A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass, stainless steel or aluminum-containing ferritic alloy; (2) a solar absorptive layer comprising silver, copper oxide, rhodium/rhodium oxide and 0-15% by weight of platinum; (3) an interlayer comprising silver or silver/platinum; and (4) an optional external anti-reflective coating, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of silver or silver/platinum to obtain an improved conductor-dielectric tandem.

  1. Surface functionalized Cu2Zn1- x Cd x SnS4 quinternary alloyed nanostructure for DNA sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibraheam, A. S.; Al-Douri, Y.; Voon, C. H.; Foo, K. L.; Azizah, N.; Gopinath, S. C. B.; Ameri, M.; Ibrahim, Sattar S.

    2017-03-01

    A sensing plate of extended Cu2Zn1- x Cd x SnS4 quinternary alloy nanostructures, fabricated on an oxidized silicon substrate by the sol-gel method, is reported in this paper. The fabricated device was characterized and analyzed via field emission-scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and photoluminescence (PL). The XRD peaks shifted towards the lower angle side alongside increasing concentration of cadmium. The average diameter of the Cu2Zn1- x Cd x SnS4 quinternary alloy nanostructures falls between 21.55 and 43.12 nm, while the shift of the PL bandgap was from 1.81 eV ( x = 0) to 1.72 eV ( x = 1). The resulting Cu2Zn1- x Cd x SnS4 quinternary alloy nanostructures components were functionalized with oligonucleotides probe DNA molecules and interacted with the target, exhibiting good sensing capabilities due to its large surface-to-volume ratio. The fabrication, immobilization, and hybridization processes were analyzed via representative current-voltage ( I- V) plots. Its electrical profile shows that the device is capable to distinguish biomolecules. Its high performance was evident from the linear relationship between the probe DNA from cervical cancer and the target DNA, showing its applicability for medical applications.

  2. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    DOEpatents

    Mickelsen, Reid A.; Chen, Wen S.

    1985-01-01

    A compositionally uniform thin film of a mixed metal compound is formed by simultaneously evaporating a first metal compound and a second metal compound from independent sources. The mean free path between the vapor particles is reduced by a gas and the mixed vapors are deposited uniformly. The invention finds particular utility in forming thin film heterojunction solar cells.

  3. Memristive Properties of Thin Film Cuprous Oxide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Equation Chapter 1 Section 1 MEMRISTIVE PROPERTIES OF THIN FILM CUPROUS OXIDE THESIS Brett C...Force Base, Ohio APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED The views expressed in this thesis are those of the...MEMRISTIVE PROPERTIES OF THIN FILM CUPROUS OXIDE THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Engineering Physics Graduate School of

  4. Electrostatic thin film chemical and biological sensor

    SciT

    Prelas, Mark A.; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Tompson, Jr., Robert V.

    A chemical and biological agent sensor includes an electrostatic thin film supported by a substrate. The film includes an electrostatic charged surface to attract predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A charge collector associated with said electrostatic thin film collects charge associated with surface defects in the electrostatic film induced by the predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A preferred sensing system includes a charge based deep level transient spectroscopy system to read out charges from the film and match responses to data sets regarding the agents of interest. A method for sensing biological and chemical agents includesmore » providing a thin sensing film having a predetermined electrostatic charge. The film is exposed to an environment suspected of containing the biological and chemical agents. Quantum surface effects on the film are measured. Biological and/or chemical agents can be detected, identified and quantified based on the measured quantum surface effects.« less

  5. Cellulose triacetate, thin film dielectric capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Jow, T. Richard (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Very thin films of cellulose triacetate are cast from a solution containing a small amount of high boiling temperature, non-solvent which evaporates last and lifts the film from the casting surface. Stretched, oriented, crystallized films have high electrical breakdown properties. Metallized films less than about 2 microns in thickness form self-healing electrodes for high energy density, pulsed power capacitors. Thicker films can be utilized as a dielectric for a capacitor.

  6. Cellulose triacetate, thin film dielectric capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Jow, T. Richard (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Very thin films of cellulose triacetate are cast from a solution containing a small amount of high boiling temperature, non-solvent which evaporates last and lifts the film from the casting surface. Stretched, oriented, crystallized films have high electrical breakdown properties. Metallized films less than about 2 microns in thickness form self-healing electrodes for high energy density, pulsed power capacitors. Thicker films can be utilized as a dielectric for a capacitor.

  7. Structural and optical properties of Na-doped ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akcan, D.; Gungor, A.; Arda, L.

    2018-06-01

    Zn1-xNaxO (x = 0.0-0.05) solutions have been synthesized by the sol-gel technique using Zinc acetate dihydrate and Sodium acetate which were dissolved into solvent and chelating agent. Na-doped ZnO nanoparticles were obtained from solutions to find phase and crystal structure. Na-doped ZnO films have been deposited onto glass substrate by using sol-gel dip coating system. The effects of dopant concentration on the structure, morphology, and optical properties of Na-doped ZnO thin films deposited on glass substrate are investigated. Characterization of Zn1-xNaxO nanoparticles and thin films are examined using differential thermal analysis (DTA)/thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-Ray diffractometer (XRD). Optical properties of Zn1-xNaxO thin films were obtained by using PG Instruments UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer in 190-1100 nm range. The structure, morphology, and optical properties of thin films are presented.

  8. BDS thin film damage competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolz, Christopher J.; Thomas, Michael D.; Griffin, Andrew J.

    2008-10-01

    A laser damage competition was held at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium in order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state-of-the-art of high laser resistance coatings since they are all tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. A normal incidence high reflector multilayer coating was selected at a wavelength of 1064 nm. The substrates were provided by the submitters. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials, and layer count will also be shared.

  9. Wrinkle motifs in thin films

    PubMed Central

    Budrikis, Zoe; Sellerio, Alessandro L.; Bertalan, Zsolt; Zapperi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    On length scales from nanometres to metres, partial adhesion of thin films with substrates generates a fascinating variety of patterns, such as ‘telephone cord’ buckles, wrinkles, and labyrinth domains. Although these patterns are part of everyday experience and are important in industry, they are not completely understood. Here, we report simulation studies of a previously-overlooked phenomenon in which pairs of wrinkles form avoiding pairs, focusing on the case of graphene over patterned substrates. By nucleating and growing wrinkles in a controlled way, we characterize how their morphology is determined by stress fields in the sheet and friction with the substrate. Our simulations uncover the generic behaviour of avoiding wrinkle pairs that should be valid at all scales. PMID:25758174

  10. Thin film bioreactors in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; Scheld, H. W.

    1989-01-01

    Studies from the Skylab, SL-3 and D-1 missions have demonstrated that biological organisms grown in microgravity have changes in basic cellular functions such as DNA, mRNA and protein synthesis, cytoskeleton synthesis, glucose utilization, and cellular differentiation. Since microgravity could affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells at a subcellular and molecular level, space offers an opportunity to learn more about basic biological systems with one inmportant variable removed. The thin film bioreactor will facilitate the handling of fluids in microgravity, under constant temperature and will allow multiple samples of cells to be grown with variable conditions. Studies on cell cultures grown in microgravity would make it possible to identify and quantify changes in basic biological function in microgravity which are needed to develop new applications of orbital research and future biotechnology.

  11. Dynamic delamination of patterned thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandula, Soma S. V.; Tran, Phuong; Geubelle, Philippe H.; Sottos, Nancy R.

    2008-12-01

    We investigate laser-induced dynamic delamination of a patterned thin film on a substrate. Controlled delamination results from our insertion of a weak adhesion region beneath the film. The inertial forces acting on the weakly bonded portion of the film lead to stable propagation of a crack along the film/substrate interface. Through a simple energy balance, we extract the critical energy for interfacial failure, a quantity that is difficult and sometimes impossible to characterize by more conventional methods for many thin film/substrate combinations.

  12. Infrared radiation of thin plastic films.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tien, C. L.; Chan, C. K.; Cunnington, G. R.

    1972-01-01

    A combined analytical and experimental study is presented for infrared radiation characteristics of thin plastic films with and without a metal substrate. On the basis of the thin-film analysis, a simple analytical technique is developed for determining band-averaged optical constants of thin plastic films from spectral normal transmittance data for two different film thicknesses. Specifically, the band-averaged optical constants of polyethylene terephthalate and polyimide were obtained from transmittance measurements of films with thicknesses in the range of 0.25 to 3 mil. The spectral normal reflectance and total normal emittance of the film side of singly aluminized films are calculated by use of optical constants; the results compare favorably with measured values.

  13. Thin spray film thickness measuring technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, G.; Kurtz, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Thin spray film application depths, in the 0.0002 cm to 0.002 cm range, are measured by portable, commercially available, light density measuring device used in conjunction with glass plate or photographic film. Method is automated by using mechanical/electrical control for shutting off film applicator at desired densitometer reading.

  14. Method of producing thin cellulose nitrate film

    DOEpatents

    Lupica, S.B.

    1975-12-23

    An improved method for forming a thin nitrocellulose film of reproducible thickness is described. The film is a cellulose nitrate film, 10 to 20 microns in thickness, cast from a solution of cellulose nitrate in tetrahydrofuran, said solution containing from 7 to 15 percent, by weight, of dioctyl phthalate, said cellulose nitrate having a nitrogen content of from 10 to 13 percent.

  15. VUV thin films, chapter 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zukic, Muamer; Torr, Douglas G.

    1993-01-01

    The application of thin film technology to the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) wavelength region from 120 nm to 230 nm has not been fully exploited in the past because of absorption effects which complicate the accurate determination of the optical functions of dielectric materials. The problem therefore reduces to that of determining the real and imaginary parts of a complex optical function, namely the frequency dependent refractive index n and extinction coefficient k. We discuss techniques for the inverse retrieval of n and k for dielectric materials at VUV wavelengths from measurements of their reflectance and transmittance. Suitable substrate and film materials are identified for application in the VUV. Such applications include coatings for the fabrication of narrow and broadband filters and beamsplitters. The availability of such devices open the VUV regime to high resolution photometry, interferometry and polarimetry both for space based and laboratory applications. This chapter deals with the optics of absorbing multilayers, the determination of the optical functions for several useful materials, and the design of VUV multilayer stacks as applied to the design of narrow and broadband reflection and transmission filters and beamsplitters. Experimental techniques are discussed briefly, and several examples of the optical functions derived for selected materials are presented.

  16. Gas Permeation in Thin Glassy Polymer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Donald

    2011-03-01

    The development of asymmetric and composite membranes with very thin dense ``skins'' needed to achieve high gas fluxes enabled the commercial use of membranes for molecular level separations. It has been generally assumed that these thin skins, with thicknesses of the order of 100 nm, have the same permeation characteristics as films with thicknesses of 25 microns or more. Thick films are easily made in the laboratory and have been used extensively for measuring permeation characteristics to evaluate the potential of new polymers for membrane applications. There is now evidence that this assumption can be in very significant error, and use of thick film data to select membrane materials or predict performance should be done with caution. This presentation will summarize our work on preparing films of glassy polymers as thin as 20 nm and characterizing their behavior by gas permeation, ellipsometry and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. Some of the most important polymers used commercially as gas separation membranes, i.e., Matrimid polyimide, polysulfone (PSF) and poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO), have been made into well-defined thin films in our laboratories by spin casting techniques and their properties studied using the techniques we have developed. These thin films densify (or physically age) much faster than thicker films, and, as result, the permeability decreases, sometimes by several-fold over weeks or months for thin films. This means that the properties of these thin films can be very different from bulk films. The techniques, interpretations and implications of these observations will be discussed. In a broader sense, gas permeation measurements can be a powerful way of developing a better understanding of the effects of polymer chain confinement and/or surface mobility on the behavior of thin films.

  17. Structural, optical and enhanced power filtering application of PEG capped Zn1-xCoxS quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vineeshkumar, T. V.; Prasanth, S.; Pragash, R.; Unnikrishnan, N. V.; Sudarsanakumar, C.

    2018-04-01

    Zn1-xCoxS (x= 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2) quantum dots were synthesized successfully using co precipitation technique in polyethylene glycol (PEG) matrix. The PEG acted as a capping agent as well as a reducing agent. The structural and optical properties of the samples were studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD), TEM analysis and UV-Visible absorption. Nonlinear optical properties were measured using open aperture z-scan technique, employing frequency doubled (532 nm) pumping sources.

  18. Nature of the abnormal band gap narrowing in highly crystalline Zn1-xCoxO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Xiaoqing; Li, Liping; Li, Guangshe

    2006-03-01

    Highly crystalline Zn1-xCoxO nanorods were prepared using a hydrothermal method. With increasing Co2+ dopant concentration, the lattice volume enlarged considerably, which is associated with the enhanced repulsive interactions of defect dipole moments on the wall surfaces. This lattice modification produced a significant decrease in band gap energies with its magnitude that followed the relationship, ΔEg=ΔE0•(e-x/B-1), where x and B are Co2+ dopant concentration and a constant, respectively. The abnormal band gap energies were indicated to originate from the sp-d exchange interactions that are proportional to the square of lattice volume.

  19. INFLUENCE OF THE CHEMICAL POTENTIAL ON THE CARRIER EFFECTIVE MASS IN THE THERMOELECTRIC SOLID SOLUTION Cu2Zn1-xFexGeSe4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeier, Wolfgang G.; Day, Tristan; Schechtel, Eugen; Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we describe the synthesis and characterization of the solid solution Cu2Zn1-xFexGeSe4. Electronic transport data have been analyzed using a single parabolic band model and have been compared to Cu2+xZn1-xGeSe4. The effective mass of these undoped, intrinsically hole conducting materials increases linearly with increasing carrier concentration, showing a non-parabolic transport behavior within the valence band.

  20. Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudney, N. J.; Bates, J. B.; Lubben, D.

    1994-11-01

    Small thin-film rechargeable cells have been fabricated with a lithium phosphorus oxynitride electrolyte, Li metal anode, and Li(1-x)Mn2O4 as the cathode film. The cathode films were fabricated by several different techniques resulting in both crystalline and amorphous films. These were compared by observing the cell discharge behavior. Estimates have been made for the scale-up of such a thin-film battery to meet the specifications for the electric vehicle application. The specific energy, energy density, and cycle life are expected to meet the USABC mid-term criteria. However, the areas of the thin-films needed to fabricate such a cell are very large. The required areas could be greatly reduced by operating the battery at temperatures near 100 C or by enhancing the lithium ion transport rate in the cathode material.

  1. Thermal conductivity model for nanoporous thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Congliang; Zhao, Xinpeng; Regner, Keith; Yang, Ronggui

    2018-03-01

    Nanoporous thin films have attracted great interest because of their extremely low thermal conductivity and potential applications in thin thermal insulators and thermoelectrics. Although there are some numerical and experimental studies about the thermal conductivity of nanoporous thin films, a simplified model is still needed to provide a straightforward prediction. In this paper, by including the phonon scattering lifetimes due to film thickness boundary scattering, nanopore scattering and the frequency-dependent intrinsic phonon-phonon scattering, a fitting-parameter-free model based on the kinetic theory of phonon transport is developed to predict both the in-plane and the cross-plane thermal conductivities of nanoporous thin films. With input parameters such as the lattice constants, thermal conductivity, and the group velocity of acoustic phonons of bulk silicon, our model shows a good agreement with available experimental and numerical results of nanoporous silicon thin films. It illustrates that the size effect of film thickness boundary scattering not only depends on the film thickness but also on the size of nanopores, and a larger nanopore leads to a stronger size effect of the film thickness. Our model also reveals that there are different optimal structures for getting the lowest in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities.

  2. Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project NREL's Thin Film Photovoltaic (PV) Partnership Project led R&D on emerging thin-film solar technologies in the National Laboratory developed low-cost transparent encapsulation schemes for CIGS cells that reduced power

  3. Permanent laser conditioning of thin film optical materials

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, C.R.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Campbell, J.H.; Staggs, M.; Rainer, F.

    1995-12-05

    The invention comprises a method for producing optical thin films with a high laser damage threshold and the resulting thin films. The laser damage threshold of the thin films is permanently increased by irradiating the thin films with a fluence below an unconditioned laser damage threshold. 9 figs.

  4. Permanent laser conditioning of thin film optical materials

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, C. Robert; Kozlowski, Mark R.; Campbell, John H.; Staggs, Michael; Rainer, Frank

    1995-01-01

    The invention comprises a method for producing optical thin films with a high laser damage threshold and the resulting thin films. The laser damage threshold of the thin films is permanently increased by irradiating the thin films with a fluence below an unconditioned laser damage threshold.

  5. Thin film production method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Loutfy, Raouf O.; Moravsky, Alexander P.; Hassen, Charles N.

    2010-08-10

    A method for forming a thin film material which comprises depositing solid particles from a flowing suspension or aerosol onto a filter and next adhering the solid particles to a second substrate using an adhesive.

  6. Thermo-optically tunable thin film devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domash, Lawrence H.

    2003-10-01

    We report advances in tunable thin film technology and demonstration of multi-cavity tunable filters. Thin film interference coatings are the most widely used optical technology for telecom filtering, but until recently no tunable versions have been known except for mechanically rotated filters. We describe a new approach to broadly tunable components based on the properties of semiconductor thin films with large thermo-optic coefficients. The technology is based on amorphous silicon deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), a process adapted for telecom applications from its origins in the flat-panel display and solar cell industries. Unlike MEMS devices, tunable thin films can be constructed in sophisticated multi-cavity, multi-layer optical designs.

  7. Thin wetting film lensless imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allier, C. P.; Poher, V.; Coutard, J. G.; Hiernard, G.; Dinten, J. M.

    2011-03-01

    Lensless imaging has recently attracted a lot of attention as a compact, easy-to-use method to image or detect biological objects like cells, but failed at detecting micron size objects like bacteria that often do not scatter enough light. In order to detect single bacterium, we have developed a method based on a thin wetting film that produces a micro-lens effect. Compared with previously reported results, a large improvement in signal to noise ratio is obtained due to the presence of a micro-lens on top of each bacterium. In these conditions, standard CMOS sensors are able to detect single bacterium, e.g. E.coli, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus thuringiensis, with a large signal to noise ratio. This paper presents our sensor optimization to enhance the SNR; improve the detection of sub-micron objects; and increase the imaging FOV, from 4.3 mm2 to 12 mm2 to 24 mm2, which allows the detection of bacteria contained in 0.5μl to 4μl to 10μl, respectively.

  8. Flush Mounting Of Thin-Film Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas C., Sr.

    1992-01-01

    Technique developed for mounting thin-film sensors flush with surfaces like aerodynamic surfaces of aircraft, which often have compound curvatures. Sensor mounted in recess by use of vacuum pad and materials selected for specific application. Technique involves use of materials tailored to thermal properties of substrate in which sensor mounted. Together with customized materials, enables flush mounting of thin-film sensors in most situations in which recesses for sensors provided. Useful in both aircraft and automotive industries.

  9. Epitaxial thin film growth in outer space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignatiev, Alex; Chu, C. W.

    1988-01-01

    A new concept for materials processing in space exploits the ultravacuum component of space for thin-film epitaxial growth. The unique LEO space environment is expected to yield 10-ftorr or better pressures, semiinfinite pumping speeds, and large ultravacuum volume (about 100 cu m) without walls. These space ultravacuum properties promise major improvement in the quality, unique nature, and throughput of epitaxially grown materials, including semiconductors, magnetic materials, and thin-film high-temperature superconductors.

  10. Thin-film reliability and engineering overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The reliability and engineering technology base required for thin film solar energy conversions modules is discussed. The emphasis is on the integration of amorphous silicon cells into power modules. The effort is being coordinated with SERI's thin film cell research activities as part of DOE's Amorphous Silicon Program. Program concentration is on temperature humidity reliability research, glass breaking strength research, point defect system analysis, hot spot heating assessment, and electrical measurements technology.

  11. Thin-film reliability and engineering overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1984-10-01

    The reliability and engineering technology base required for thin film solar energy conversions modules is discussed. The emphasis is on the integration of amorphous silicon cells into power modules. The effort is being coordinated with SERI's thin film cell research activities as part of DOE's Amorphous Silicon Program. Program concentration is on temperature humidity reliability research, glass breaking strength research, point defect system analysis, hot spot heating assessment, and electrical measurements technology.

  12. Carbon Nanotube Thin-Film Antennas.

    PubMed

    Puchades, Ivan; Rossi, Jamie E; Cress, Cory D; Naglich, Eric; Landi, Brian J

    2016-08-17

    Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) dipole antennas have been successfully designed, fabricated, and tested. Antennas of varying lengths were fabricated using flexible bulk MWCNT sheet material and evaluated to confirm the validity of a full-wave antenna design equation. The ∼20× improvement in electrical conductivity provided by chemically doped SWCNT thin films over MWCNT sheets presents an opportunity for the fabrication of thin-film antennas, leading to potentially simplified system integration and optical transparency. The resonance characteristics of a fabricated chlorosulfonic acid-doped SWCNT thin-film antenna demonstrate the feasibility of the technology and indicate that when the sheet resistance of the thin film is >40 ohm/sq no power is absorbed by the antenna and that a sheet resistance of <10 ohm/sq is needed to achieve a 10 dB return loss in the unbalanced antenna. The dependence of the return loss performance on the SWCNT sheet resistance is consistent with unbalanced metal, metal oxide, and other CNT-based thin-film antennas, and it provides a framework for which other thin-film antennas can be designed.

  13. Printable CIGS thin film solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiaojuan

    2014-03-01

    Among the various thin film solar cells in the market, CuInGaSe thin film cells have been considered as the most promising alternatives to silicon solar cells because of their high photo-electricity efficiency, reliability, and stability. However, many fabrication of CIGS thin film are based on vacuum processes such as evaporation sputtering techniques which are not cost efficient. This work develops a method using paste or ink liquid spin-coated on glass that would be to conventional ways in terms of cost effective, non-vacuum needed, quick processing. A mixture precursor was prepared by dissolving appropriate amounts of chemicals. After the mixture solution was cooled, a viscous paste prepared and ready for spin-coating process. A slight bluish CIG thin film substrate was then put in a tube furnace with evaporation of metal Se by depositing CdS layer and ZnO nanoparticle thin film coating to a solar cell fabrication. Structure, absorption spectrum, and photo-conversion efficiency for the as-grown CIGS thin film solar cell under study.

  14. Nanosphere lithography applied to magnetic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, Russell

    Magnetic nanostructures have widespread applications in many areas of physics and engineering, and nanosphere lithography has recently emerged as promising tool for the fabrication of such nanostructures. The goal of this research is to explore the magnetic properties of a thin film of ferromagnetic material deposited onto a hexagonally close-packed monolayer array of polystyrene nanospheres, and how they differ from the magnetic properties of a typical flat thin film. The first portion of this research focuses on determining the optimum conditions for depositing a monolayer of nanospheres onto chemically pretreated silicon substrates (via drop-coating) and the subsequent characterization of the deposited nanosphere layer with scanning electron microscopy. Single layers of permalloy (Ni80Fe20) are then deposited on top of the nanosphere array via DC magnetron sputtering, resulting in a thin film array of magnetic nanocaps. The coercivities of the thin films are measured using a home-built magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) system in longitudinal arrangement. MOKE measurements show that for a single layer of permalloy (Py), the coercivity of a thin film deposited onto an array of nanospheres increases compared to that of a flat thin film. In addition, the coercivity increases as the nanosphere size decreases for the same deposited layer. It is postulated that magnetic exchange decoupling between neighboring nanocaps suppresses the propagation of magnetic domain walls, and this pinning of the domain walls is thought to be the primary source of the increase in coercivity.

  15. Thin-Film Nanocapacitor and Its Characterization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, David N.; Pickering, Shawn L.; Jia, Dongdong

    2007-01-01

    An undergraduate thin-film nanotechnology laboratory was designed. Nanocapacitors were fabricated on silicon substrates by sputter deposition. A mask was designed to form the shape of the capacitor and its electrodes. Thin metal layers of Au with a 80 nm thickness were deposited and used as two infinitely large parallel plates for a capacitor.…

  16. Thin Metallic Films from Solvated Metal Atoms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-14

    platinium , and especially indium are discussed. N, ; ,, -- !, : N) By Dist , , . N S f1 -- ~~r, 821-19 C[ Thin metallic films from solvated metal atoms...metallic films. Cold, palladium, platinium , and especially indium are discussed. 1- INTRQDUCTION In the field of chemistry an active and broad area of

  17. Flexible Thin Metal Film Thermal Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomsen, Donald Laurence (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A flexible thin metal film thermal sensing system is provided. A thermally-conductive film made from a thermally-insulating material is doped with thermally-conductive material. At least one layer of electrically-conductive metal is deposited directly onto a surface of the thermally-conductive film. One or more devices are coupled to the layer(s) to measure an electrical characteristic associated therewith as an indication of temperature.

  18. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Dudney, N. J.; Bates, J. B.; Lubben, D.

    1995-06-01

    Thin film rechargeable lithium batteries using ceramic electrolyte and cathode materials have been fabricated by physical deposition techniques. The lithium phosphorous oxynitride electrolyte has exceptional electrochemical stability and a good lithium conductivity. The lithium insertion reaction of several different intercalation materials, amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, amorphous LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and crystalline LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} films, have been investigated using the completed cathode/electrolyte/lithium thin film battery.

  19. Reflow dynamics of thin patterned viscous films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leveder, T.; Landis, S.; Davoust, L.

    2008-01-01

    This letter presents a study of viscous smoothening dynamics of a nanopatterned thin film. Ultrathin film manufacturing processes appearing to be a key point of nanotechnology engineering and numerous studies have been recently led in order to exhibit driving parameters of this transient surface motion, focusing on time scale accuracy method. Based on nanomechanical analysis, this letter shows that controlled shape measurements provided much more detailed information about reflow mechanism. Control of reflow process of any complex surface shape, or measurement of material parameter as thin film viscosity, free surface energy, or even Hamaker constant are therefore possible.

  20. Barium ferrite thin-film recording media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Xiaoyu; Scherge, Matthias; Kryder, Mark H.; Snyder, John E.; Harris, Vincent G.; Koon, Norman C.

    1996-03-01

    Both longitudinal and perpendicular barium ferrite thin films are being pursued as overcoatless magnetic recording media. In this paper, prior research on thin-film Ba ferrite is reviewed and the most recent results are presented. Self-textured high-coercivity longitudinal Ba ferrite thin films have been achieved using conventional rf diode sputtering. Microstructural studies show that c-axis in-plane oriented grains have a characteristic acicular shape, while c-axis perpendicularly oriented grains have a platelet shape. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements indicate that the crystal orientations are predetermined by the structural anisotropy in the as-sputtered 'amorphous' state. Recording tests on 1500 Oe coercivity longitudinal Ba ferrite disks show performance comparable with that of a 1900 Oe Co alloy disk. To further improve the recording performance, both grain size and aspect ratio need to be reduced. Initial tribological tests indicate high hardness of Ba ferrite thin films. However, surface roughness needs to be reduced. For future ultrahigh-density contact recording, it is believed that perpendicular recording may be used. A thin Pt underlayer has been found to be capable of producing Ba ferrite thin films with excellent c-axis perpendicular orientation.

  1. High density nonmagnetic cobalt in thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banu, Nasrin; Singh, Surendra; Basu, Saibal; Roy, Anupam; Movva, Hema C. P.; Lauter, V.; Satpati, B.; Dev, B. N.

    2018-05-01

    Recently high density (HD) nonmagnetic cobalt has been discovered in a nanoscale cobalt thin film, grown on Si(111) single crystal. This form of cobalt is not only nonmagnetic but also superconducting. These promising results have encouraged further investigations of the growth of the nonmagnetic (NM) phase of cobalt. In the original investigation, the cobalt film had a natural cobalt oxide at the top. We have investigated whether the growth of HD NM cobalt layers in the thin film depends on (i) a capping layer on the cobalt film, (ii) the thickness of the cobalt film and (iii) the nature of the substrate on which the cobalt film is grown. The results of such investigations indicate that for cobalt films capped with a thin gold layer, and for various film thicknesses, HD NM cobalt layers are formed. However, instead of a Si substrate, when the cobalt films are grown on oxide substrates, such as silicon oxide or cobalt oxide, HD NM cobalt layers are not formed. The difference is attributed to the nature—crystalline or amorphous—of the substrate.

  2. Thin film absorber for a solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, William G.

    1985-01-01

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  3. Simulated Thin-Film Growth and Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillaci, Michael

    2001-06-01

    Thin-films have become the cornerstone of the electronics, telecommunications, and broadband markets. A list of potential products includes: computer boards and chips, satellites, cell phones, fuel cells, superconductors, flat panel displays, optical waveguides, building and automotive windows, food and beverage plastic containers, metal foils, pipe plating, vision ware, manufacturing equipment and turbine engines. For all of these reasons a basic understanding of the physical processes involved in both growing and imaging thin-films can provide a wonderful research project for advanced undergraduate and first-year graduate students. After producing rudimentary two- and three-dimensional thin-film models incorporating ballsitic deposition and nearest neighbor Coulomb-type interactions, the QM tunneling equations are used to produce simulated scanning tunneling microscope (SSTM) images of the films. A discussion of computational platforms, languages, and software packages that may be used to accomplish similar results is also given.

  4. Tungsten-doped thin film materials

    DOEpatents

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Chang, Hauyee; Gao, Chen; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Schultz, Peter G.

    2003-12-09

    A dielectric thin film material for high frequency use, including use as a capacitor, and having a low dielectric loss factor is provided, the film comprising a composition of tungsten-doped barium strontium titanate of the general formula (Ba.sub.x Sr.sub.1-x)TiO.sub.3, where X is between about 0.5 and about 1.0. Also provided is a method for making a dielectric thin film of the general formula (Ba.sub.x Sr.sub.1-x)TiO.sub.3 and doped with W, where X is between about 0.5 and about 1.0, a substrate is provided, TiO.sub.2, the W dopant, Ba, and optionally Sr are deposited on the substrate, and the substrate containing TiO.sub.2, the W dopant, Ba, and optionally Sr is heated to form a low loss dielectric thin film.

  5. Method for making thin polypropylene film

    DOEpatents

    Behymer, R.D.; Scholten, J.A.

    1985-11-21

    An economical method is provided for making uniform thickness polypropylene film as thin as 100 Angstroms. A solution of polypropylene dissolved in xylene is formed by mixing granular polypropylene and xylene together in a flask at an elevated temperature. A substrate, such as a glass plate or microscope slide is immersed in the solution. When the glass plate is withdrawn from the solution at a uniform rate, a thin polypropylene film forms on a flat surface area of the glass plate as the result of xylene evaporation. The actual thickness of the polypropylene film is functional of the polypropylene in xylene solution concentration, and the particular withdrawal rate of the glass plate from the solution. After formation, the thin polypropylene film is floated from the glass plate onto the surface of water, from which it is picked up with a wire hoop.

  6. Ambient pressure process for preparing aerogel thin films reliquified sols useful in preparing aerogel thin films

    DOEpatents

    Brinker, Charles Jeffrey; Prakash, Sai Sivasankaran

    1999-01-01

    A method for preparing aerogel thin films by an ambient-pressure, continuous process. The method of this invention obviates the use of an autoclave and is amenable to the formation of thin films by operations such as dip coating. The method is less energy intensive and less dangerous than conventional supercritical aerogel processing techniques.

  7. Unraveling the mechanism of ultraviolet-induced optical gating in Zn1-x Mg x O nanocrystal solid solution field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngjun; Cho, Seongeun; Park, Byoungnam

    2018-03-01

    We report ultraviolet (UV)-induced optical gating in a Zn1-x Mg x O nanocrystal solid solution (NCSS) field effect transistor (FET) through a systematic study in which UV-induced charge transport properties are probed as a function of Mg composition. Change in the electrical properties of Zn1-x Mg x O NCSS associated with electronic traps is investigated by field effect-modulated current-voltage characteristic curves in the dark and under illumination. Under UV illumination, significant threshold voltage shift to a more negative value in an n-channel Zn1-x Mg x O NCSS FET is observed. Importantly, as the Mg composition increases, the effect of UV illumination on the threshold voltage shift is alleviated. We found that threshold voltage shift as a function of Mg composition in the dark and under illumination is due to difference in the deep trap density in the Zn1-x Mg x O NCSS. This is supported by Mg composition dependent photoluminescence intensity in the visible range and reduced FET mobility with Mg addition. The presence of the deep traps and the corresponding trap energy levels in the Zn1-x Mg x O NCSS are ensured by photoelectron spectroscopy in air.

  8. Electrochemical Analysis of Conducting Polymer Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Ritesh N.; Wang, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayers built via the layer-by-layer (LbL) method has been one of the most promising systems in the field of materials science. Layered structures can be constructed by the adsorption of various polyelectrolyte species onto the surface of a solid or liquid material by means of electrostatic interaction. The thickness of the adsorbed layers can be tuned precisely in the nanometer range. Stable, semiconducting thin films are interesting research subjects. We use a conducting polymer, poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV), in the preparation of a stable thin film via the LbL method. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy have been used to characterize the ionic conductivity of the PPV multilayer films. The ionic conductivity of the films has been found to be dependent on the polymerization temperature. The film conductivity can be fitted to a modified Randle’s circuit. The circuit equivalent calculations are performed to provide the diffusion coefficient values. PMID:20480052

  9. AC impedance analysis of polypyrrole thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penner, Reginald M.; Martin, Charles R.

    1987-01-01

    The AC impedance spectra of thin polypyrrole films were obtained at open circuit potentials from -0.4 to 0.4 V vs SCE. Two limiting cases are discussed for which simplified equivalent circuits are applicable. At very positive potentials, the predominantly nonfaradaic AC impedance of polypyrrole is very similar to that observed previously for finite porous metallic films. Modeling of the data with the appropriate equivalent circuit permits effective pore diameter and pore number densities of the oxidized film to be estimated. At potentials from -0.4 to -0.3 V, the polypyrrole film is essentially nonelectronically conductive and diffusion of polymer oxidized sites with their associated counterions can be assumed to be linear from the film/substrate electrode interface. The equivalent circuit for the polypyrrole film at these potentials is that previously described for metal oxide, lithium intercalation thin films. Using this model, counterion diffusion coefficients are determined for both semi-infinite and finite diffusion domains. In addition, the limiting low frequency resistance and capacitance of the polypyrrole thin fims was determined and compared to that obtained previously for thicker films of the polymer. The origin of the observed potential dependence of these low frequency circuit components is discussed.

  10. Mirrorlike pulsed laser deposited tungsten thin film.

    PubMed

    Mostako, A T T; Rao, C V S; Khare, Alika

    2011-01-01

    Mirrorlike tungsten thin films on stainless steel substrate deposited via pulsed laser deposition technique in vacuum (10(-5) Torr) is reported, which may find direct application as first mirror in fusion devices. The crystal structure of tungsten film is analyzed using x-ray diffraction pattern, surface morphology of the tungsten films is studied with scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. The film composition is identified using energy dispersive x-ray. The specular and diffuse reflectivities with respect to stainless steel substrate of the tungsten films are recorded with FTIR spectra. The thickness and the optical quality of pulsed laser deposition deposited films are tested via interferometric technique. The reflectivity is approaching about that of the bulk for the tungsten film of thickness ∼782 nm.

  11. Hall effect of copper nitride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, G. H.; Liu, J. Z.; Li, M.; Yuan, X. M.; Yan, P. X.; Liu, J. L.

    2005-08-01

    The Hall effect of copper nitride (Cu3N) thin films was investigated in our work. Cu3N films were deposited on glass substrates by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering at different temperatures using pure copper as the sputtering target. The Hall coefficients of the films are demonstrated to be dependent on the deposition gas flow rate and the measuring temperature. Both the Hall coefficient and resistance of the Cu3N films increase with the nitrogen gas flow rate at room temperature, while the Hall mobility and the carrier density of the films decrease. As the temperature changed from 100 K to 300 K, the Hall coefficient and the resistivity of the films decreased, while the carrier density increased and Hall mobility shows no great change. The energy band gap of the Cu3N films deduced from the curve of the common logarithm of the Hall coefficient against 1/T is 1.17-1.31 eV.

  12. Magnetowetting of Ferrofluidic Thin Liquid Films

    PubMed Central

    Tenneti, Srinivas; Subramanian, Sri Ganesh; Chakraborty, Monojit; Soni, Gaurav; DasGupta, Sunando

    2017-01-01

    An extended meniscus of a ferrofluid solution on a silicon surface is subjected to axisymmetric, non-uniform magnetic field resulting in significant forward movement of the thin liquid film. Image analyzing interferometry is used for accurate measurement of the film thickness profile, which in turn, is used to determine the instantaneous slope and the curvature of the moving film. The recorded video, depicting the motion of the film in the Lagrangian frame of reference, is analyzed frame by frame, eliciting accurate information about the velocity and acceleration of the film at any instant of time. The application of the magnetic field has resulted in unique changes of the film profile in terms of significant non-uniform increase in the local film curvature. This was further analyzed by developing a model, taking into account the effect of changes in the magnetic and shape-dependent interfacial force fields. PMID:28303971

  13. Thin film dielectric composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Jia, Quanxi; Gibbons, Brady J.; Findikoglu, Alp T.; Park, Bae Ho

    2002-01-01

    A dielectric composite material comprising at least two crystal phases of different components with TiO.sub.2 as a first component and a material selected from the group consisting of Ba.sub.1-x Sr.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.3 to 0.7, Pb.sub.1-x Ca.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.4 to 0.7, Sr.sub.1-x Pb.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.2 to 0.4, Ba.sub.1-x Cd.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.02 to 0.1, BaTi.sub.1-x Zr.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.2 to 0.3, BaTi.sub.1-x Sn.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.15 to 0.3, BaTi.sub.1-x Hf.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.24 to 0.3, Pb.sub.1-1.3x La.sub.x TiO.sub.3+0.2x where x is from 0.23 to 0.3, (BaTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbFeo.sub.0.5 Nb.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.75 to 0.9, (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.- (PbCo.sub.0.5 W.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.1 to 0.45, (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbMg.sub.0.5 W.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.2 to 0.4, and (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbFe.sub.0.5 Ta.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0 to 0.2, as the second component is described. The dielectric composite material can be formed as a thin film upon suitable substrates.

  14. Development of High Resistive and High Magnetization Soft Thin Film and Fabrication of Thin Film Inductors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-01

    properties of Co- doped ZnO nanocluster films", .J. of Appl. Phys. in press, 2005 2. Presentations (contributed): Conference Contributions: 1) Y. Qiang...gigahertz band applications. The effects of substrates bias, sputter parameters, and seed-layer have thoroughly been investigated. The magnetic...Adequate properties of soft magnetic thin film were evaluated by an analytical calculation [1] to meet the requirement for gigahertz band thin-film

  15. Thin polymeric films for building biohybrid microrobots.

    PubMed

    Ricotti, Leonardo; Fujie, Toshinori

    2017-03-06

    This paper aims to describe the disruptive potential that polymeric thin films have in the field of biohybrid devices and to review the recent efforts in this area. Thin (thickness  <  1 mm) and ultra-thin (thickness  <  1 µm) matrices possess a series of intriguing features, such as large surface area/volume ratio, high flexibility, chemical and physical surface tailorability, etc. This enables the fabrication of advanced bio/non-bio interfaces able to efficiently drive cell-material interactions, which are the key for optimizing biohybrid device performances. Thin films can thus represent suitable platforms on which living and artificial elements are coupled, with the aim of exploiting the unique features of living cells/tissues. This may allow to carry out certain tasks, not achievable with fully artificial technologies. In the paper, after a description of the desirable chemical/physical cues to be targeted and of the fabrication, functionalization and characterization procedures to be used for thin and ultra-thin films, the state-of-the-art of biohybrid microrobots based on micro/nano-membranes are described and discussed. The research efforts in this field are rather recent and they focus on: (1) self-beating cells (such as cardiomyocytes) able to induce a relatively large deformation of the underlying substrates, but affected by a limited controllability by external users; (2) skeletal muscle cells, more difficult to engineer in mature and functional contractile tissues, but featured by a higher controllability. In this context, the different materials used and the performances achieved are analyzed. Despite recent interesting advancements and signs of maturity of this research field, important scientific and technological steps are still needed. In the paper some possible future perspectives are described, mainly concerning thin film manipulation and assembly in multilayer 3D systems, new advanced materials to be used for the fabrication

  16. Zn1-xCdxSe/ZnSe multiple quantum well photomodulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jiuyao; Kawakami, Yoichi; Fujita, Shizuo; Fujita, Shigeo

    1996-10-01

    ZnCdSe/ZnSe multiple quantum well (MQW) transmission and reflection photomodulators operating at room temperature were fabricated employing quantum-confined Stark effect on the exciton absorption. Samples were grown on p-type GaAs substrates by MBE with an i-Zn0.87Cd0.13Se/ZnSe MQW heterostructure sandwiched by a ZnSe p-n junction. The transmission modulator was constructed with a Zn0.87Cd0.13Se/ZnSe MQW glued onto a piece of ITO film-covered glass with silver paste and epoxy. To avoid absorption in GaAs substrates, a window with a diameter of about 2 mm was opened using a selective etch. For the reflective use an Al mirror was deposited on the glass back surface, the device then operates in reflection with the light to be modulated making a double pass through the active quantum well region, thereby increasing the modulation amplitude. Measurement results are given in this paper for transmission, reflection, differential transmission, differential absorption, and differential reflection as a function of the incident photon wavelength and the applied field.

  17. Thouless length and valley degeneracy factor of ZnMnO thin films with anisotropic, highly conductive surface layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vegesna, Sahitya V.; Bürger, Danilo; Patra, Rajkumar; Abendroth, Barbara; Skorupa, Ilona; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Schmidt, Heidemarie

    2017-06-01

    Isothermal magnetoresistance (MR) of n-type conducting Zn1-xMnxO thin films on a sapphire substrate with a Mn content of 5 at. % has been studied in in-plane and out-of-plane magnetic fields up to 6 T in the temperature range of 5 K to 300 K. During pulsed laser deposition of the ZnMnO thin films, we controlled the thickness and roughness of a highly conductive ZnMnO surface layer. The measured MR has been modeled with constant s-d exchange (0.2 eV in ZnMnO) and electron spin (S = 5/2 for Mn2+) for samples with a single two dimensional (2D) ZnMnO layer, a single three dimensional (3D) ZnMnO layer, or a 2D and 3D (2D + 3D) ZnMnO layer in parallel. The temperature dependence of modeled Thouless length LTh (LTh ˜ T-0.5) is in good agreement with the theory [Andrearczyk et al., Phys. Rev. B 72, 121309(R) (2005)]. The superimposed positive and negative MR model for ZnCoO thin films [Xu et al., Phys. Rev. B 76, 134417 (2007)] has been extended in order to account for the increase in the density of states close to the Fermi level of n-ZnMnO due to substitutional Mn2+ ions and their effect on the negative MR in ZnMnO.

  18. Method for synthesizing thin film electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Boyle, Timothy J [Albuquerque, NM

    2007-03-13

    A method for making a thin-film electrode, either an anode or a cathode, by preparing a precursor solution using an alkoxide reactant, depositing multiple thin film layers with each layer approximately 500 1000 .ANG. in thickness, and heating the layers to above 600.degree. C. to achieve a material with electrochemical properties suitable for use in a thin film battery. The preparation of the anode precursor solution uses Sn(OCH.sub.2C(CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.2 dissolved in a solvent in the presence of HO.sub.2CCH.sub.3 and the cathode precursor solution is formed by dissolving a mixture of (Li(OCH.sub.2C(CH.sub.3).sub.3)).sub.8 and Co(O.sub.2CCH.sub.3).H.sub.2O in at least one polar solvent.

  19. Vibration welding system with thin film sensor

    DOEpatents

    Cai, Wayne W; Abell, Jeffrey A; Li, Xiaochun; Choi, Hongseok; Zhao, Jingzhou

    2014-03-18

    A vibration welding system includes an anvil, a welding horn, a thin film sensor, and a process controller. The anvil and horn include working surfaces that contact a work piece during the welding process. The sensor measures a control value at the working surface. The measured control value is transmitted to the controller, which controls the system in part using the measured control value. The thin film sensor may include a plurality of thermopiles and thermocouples which collectively measure temperature and heat flux at the working surface. A method includes providing a welder device with a slot adjacent to a working surface of the welder device, inserting the thin film sensor into the slot, and using the sensor to measure a control value at the working surface. A process controller then controls the vibration welding system in part using the measured control value.

  20. Thin film ferroelectric electro-optic memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita (Inventor); Thakoor, Anilkumar P. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An electrically programmable, optically readable data or memory cell is configured from a thin film of ferroelectric material, such as PZT, sandwiched between a transparent top electrode and a bottom electrode. The output photoresponse, which may be a photocurrent or photo-emf, is a function of the product of the remanent polarization from a previously applied polarization voltage and the incident light intensity. The cell is useful for analog and digital data storage as well as opto-electric computing. The optical read operation is non-destructive of the remanent polarization. The cell provides a method for computing the product of stored data and incident optical data by applying an electrical signal to store data by polarizing the thin film ferroelectric material, and then applying an intensity modulated optical signal incident onto the thin film material to generate a photoresponse therein related to the product of the electrical and optical signals.

  1. Thin Film Transistors On Plastic Substrates

    DOEpatents

    Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Sigmon, Thomas W.; Aceves, Randy C.

    2004-01-20

    A process for formation of thin film transistors (TFTs) on plastic substrates replaces standard thin film transistor fabrication techniques, and uses sufficiently lower processing temperatures so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The silicon based thin film transistor produced by the process includes a low temperature substrate incapable of withstanding sustained processing temperatures greater than about 250.degree. C., an insulating layer on the substrate, a layer of silicon on the insulating layer having sections of doped silicon, undoped silicon, and poly-silicon, a gate dielectric layer on the layer of silicon, a layer of gate metal on the dielectric layer, a layer of oxide on sections of the layer of silicon and the layer of gate metal, and metal contacts on sections of the layer of silicon and layer of gate metal defining source, gate, and drain contacts, and interconnects.

  2. AZO nanorods thin films by sputtering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosli, A. B.; Shariffudin, S. S.; Awang, Z.; Herman, S. H.

    2018-05-01

    Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanorods thin film were deposited on Au catalyst using RF sputtering at 300 °C. The 15 nm thickness Au catalyst were deposited on glass substrates by sputtering method followed by annealing for 15 min at 500 °C to form Au nanostructures on the glass substrate. The AZO thin films were then deposited on Au catalyst at different RF power ranging from 50 - 200 W. The morphology of AZO was characterized using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy while X-ray Diffraction was used to examine crystallinity of AZO thin films. From this work, the AZO nanorods was found grow at 200 W RF power.

  3. Thin film oxygen partial pressure sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wortman, J. J.; Harrison, J. W.; Honbarrier, H. L.; Yen, J.

    1972-01-01

    The development is described of a laboratory model oxygen partial pressure sensor using a sputtered zinc oxide thin film. The film is operated at about 400 C through the use of a miniature silicon bar. Because of the unique resistance versus temperature relation of the silicon bar, control of the operational temperature is achieved by controlling the resistance. A circuit for accomplishing this is described. The response of sputtered zinc oxide films of various thicknesses to oxygen, nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide, and water vapor caused a change in the film resistance. Over a large range, film conductance varied approximately as the square root of the oxygen partial pressure. The presence of water vapor in the gas stream caused a shift in the film conductance at a given oxygen partial pressure. A theoretical model is presented to explain the characteristic features of the zinc oxide response to oxygen.

  4. A generalized theory of thin film growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Feng; Huang, Hanchen

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports a theory of thin film growth that is generalized for arbitrary incidence angle during physical vapor deposition in two dimensions. The accompanying kinetic Monte Carlo simulations serve as verification. A special theory already exists for thin film growth with zero incidence angle, and another theory also exists for nanorod growth with a glancing angle. The theory in this report serves as a bridge to describe the transition from thin film growth to nanorod growth. In particular, this theory gives two critical conditions in analytical form of critical coverage, ΘI and ΘII. The first critical condition defines the onset when crystal growth or step dynamics stops following the wedding cake model for thin film growth. The second critical condition defines the onset when multiple-layer surface steps form to enable nanorod growth. Further, this theory also reveals a critical incidence angle, below which nanorod growth is impossible. The critical coverages, together with the critical incidence angle, defines a phase diagram of thin growth versus nanorod growth.

  5. Diamond Thin-Film Thermionic Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clewell, J. M.; Ordonez, C. A.; Perez, J. M.

    1997-03-01

    Since the eighteen-hundreds scientists have sought to develop the highest thermal efficiency in heat engines such as thermionic generators. Modern research in the emerging diamond film industry has indicated the work functions of diamond thin-films can be much less than one electron volt, compelling fresh investigation into their capacity as thermionic generators and inviting new methodology for determining that efficiency. Our objective is to predict the efficiency of a low-work-function, degenerate semiconductor (diamond film) thermionic generator operated as a heat engine between two constant-temperature thermal reservoirs. Our presentation will focus on a theoretical model which predicts the efficiency of the system by employing a Monte Carlo computational technique from which we report results for the thermal efficiency and the thermionic current densities of diamond thin-films.

  6. Thin Film Electrodes for Rare Event Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odgers, Kelly; Brown, Ethan; Lewis, Kim; Giordano, Mike; Freedberg, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    In detectors for rare physics processes, such as neutrinoless double beta decay and dark matter, high sensitivity requires careful reduction of backgrounds due to radioimpurities in detector components. Ultra pure cylindrical resistors are being created through thin film depositions onto high purity substrates, such as quartz glass or sapphire. By using ultra clean materials and depositing very small quantities in the films, low radioactivity electrodes are produced. A new characterization process for cylindrical film resistors has been developed through analytic construction of an analogue to the Van Der Pauw technique commonly used for determining sheet resistance on a planar sample. This technique has been used to characterize high purity cylindrical resistors ranging from several ohms to several tera-ohms for applications in rare event detectors. The technique and results of cylindrical thin film resistor characterization will be presented.

  7. Feasibility Study of Thin Film Thermocouple Piles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sisk, R. C.

    2001-01-01

    Historically, thermopile detectors, generators, and refrigerators based on bulk materials have been used to measure temperature, generate power for spacecraft, and cool sensors for scientific investigations. New potential uses of small, low-power, thin film thermopiles are in the area of microelectromechanical systems since power requirements decrease as electrical and mechanical machines shrink in size. In this research activity, thin film thermopile devices are fabricated utilizing radio frequency sputter coating and photoresist lift-off techniques. Electrical characterizations are performed on two designs in order to investigate the feasibility of generating small amounts of power, utilizing any available waste heat as the energy source.

  8. Emittance Theory for Thin Film Selective Emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Lowe, Roland A.; Good, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Thin films of high temperature garnet materials such as yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) doped with rare earths are currently being investigated as selective emitters. This paper presents a radiative transfer analysis of the thin film emitter. From this analysis the emitter efficiency and power density are calculated. Results based on measured extinction coefficients for erbium-YAG and holmium-YAG are presented. These results indicated that emitter efficiencies of 50 percent and power densities of several watts/sq cm are attainable at moderate temperatures (less than 1750 K).

  9. Superconducting thin films on potassium tantalate substrates

    DOEpatents

    Feenstra, Roeland; Boatner, Lynn A.

    1992-01-01

    A superconductive system for the lossless transmission of electrical current comprising a thin film of superconducting material Y.sub.1 Ba.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x epitaxially deposited upon a KTaO.sub.3 substrate. The KTaO.sub.3 is an improved substrate over those of the prior art since the it exhibits small lattice constant mismatch and does not chemically react with the superconducting film.

  10. Annealed CVD molybdenum thin film surface

    DOEpatents

    Carver, Gary E.; Seraphin, Bernhard O.

    1984-01-01

    Molybdenum thin films deposited by pyrolytic decomposition of Mo(CO).sub.6 attain, after anneal in a reducing atmosphere at temperatures greater than 700.degree. C., infrared reflectance values greater than reflectance of supersmooth bulk molybdenum. Black molybdenum films deposited under oxidizing conditions and annealed, when covered with an anti-reflecting coating, approach the ideal solar collector characteristic of visible light absorber and infrared energy reflector.

  11. Thin Metallic Films From Solvated Metal Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivino, Galo C.; Klabunde, Kenneth J.; Dale, Brock

    1988-02-01

    Metals were evaporated under vacuum and the metal atoms solvated by excess organic solvents at low temperature. Upon warming stable colloidal metal particles were formed by controlled metal atom clustering. The particles were stabilized toward flocculation by solvation and electrostatic effects. Upon solvent removal the colloidal particles grew to form thin films that were metallic in appearance, but showed higher resistivities than pure metallic films. Gold, palladium, platinium, and especially indium are discussed.

  12. Dynamics and stability of thin liquid films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craster, R. V.; Matar, O. K.

    2009-07-01

    The dynamics and stability of thin liquid films have fascinated scientists over many decades: the observations of regular wave patterns in film flows down a windowpane or along guttering, the patterning of dewetting droplets, and the fingering of viscous flows down a slope are all examples that are familiar in daily life. Thin film flows occur over a wide range of length scales and are central to numerous areas of engineering, geophysics, and biophysics; these include nanofluidics and microfluidics, coating flows, intensive processing, lava flows, dynamics of continental ice sheets, tear-film rupture, and surfactant replacement therapy. These flows have attracted considerable attention in the literature, which have resulted in many significant developments in experimental, analytical, and numerical research in this area. These include advances in understanding dewetting, thermocapillary- and surfactant-driven films, falling films and films flowing over structured, compliant, and rapidly rotating substrates, and evaporating films as well as those manipulated via use of electric fields to produce nanoscale patterns. These developments are reviewed in this paper and open problems and exciting research avenues in this thriving area of fluid mechanics are also highlighted.

  13. Center for Thin Film Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-22

    highly oriented pyrolitic graphite ( HOPG ) for detailed studies of nucleation and of the development of surface roughness. Using a shadowing technique, we...laser to a temperature of approximately 600’C, a polycrystalline film resulted, as indicated b x-ray diffraction ( XRD ) data shown in Fig. 4. vI Figure 4...stress level rose in films deposited at colder temperatures. Development of second harmonic generation as a technique for evaluation of anisotropy in

  14. Thin Film Research. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-30

    Hard Sphere Model *.......... 46 ao *o32 2. Relaxation and Mobility ..... . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 33 3. Extensions of the Program...Source - One possible means of increasing adatom mobility on the growing film surface is irradiation by ultraviolet light. Toward this end, a 1000-W...that increasing the mobility of adatoms in the growing film leads to a denser, less porous, structure for many materials. Presumably, this leads to

  15. Mesoscale simulations of confined Nafion thin films.

    PubMed

    Vanya, P; Sharman, J; Elliott, J A

    2017-12-07

    The morphology and transport properties of thin films of the ionomer Nafion, with thicknesses on the order of the bulk cluster size, have been investigated as a model system to explain the anomalous behaviour of catalyst/electrode-polymer interfaces in membrane electrode assemblies. We have employed dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) to investigate the interaction of water and fluorocarbon chains, with carbon and quartz as confining materials, for a wide range of operational water contents and film thicknesses. We found confinement-induced clustering of water perpendicular to the thin film. Hydrophobic carbon forms a water depletion zone near the film interface, whereas hydrophilic quartz results in a zone with excess water. There are, on average, oscillating water-rich and fluorocarbon-rich regions, in agreement with experimental results from neutron reflectometry. Water diffusivity shows increasing directional anisotropy of up to 30% with decreasing film thickness, depending on the hydrophilicity of the confining material. A percolation analysis revealed significant differences in water clustering and connectivity with the confining material. These findings indicate the fundamentally different nature of ionomer thin films, compared to membranes, and suggest explanations for increased ionic resistances observed in the catalyst layer.

  16. Mesoscale simulations of confined Nafion thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanya, P.; Sharman, J.; Elliott, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    The morphology and transport properties of thin films of the ionomer Nafion, with thicknesses on the order of the bulk cluster size, have been investigated as a model system to explain the anomalous behaviour of catalyst/electrode-polymer interfaces in membrane electrode assemblies. We have employed dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) to investigate the interaction of water and fluorocarbon chains, with carbon and quartz as confining materials, for a wide range of operational water contents and film thicknesses. We found confinement-induced clustering of water perpendicular to the thin film. Hydrophobic carbon forms a water depletion zone near the film interface, whereas hydrophilic quartz results in a zone with excess water. There are, on average, oscillating water-rich and fluorocarbon-rich regions, in agreement with experimental results from neutron reflectometry. Water diffusivity shows increasing directional anisotropy of up to 30% with decreasing film thickness, depending on the hydrophilicity of the confining material. A percolation analysis revealed significant differences in water clustering and connectivity with the confining material. These findings indicate the fundamentally different nature of ionomer thin films, compared to membranes, and suggest explanations for increased ionic resistances observed in the catalyst layer.

  17. Thin-Film Material Science and Processing | Materials Science | NREL

    , a prime example of this research is thin-film photovoltaics (PV). Thin films are important because have developed a quantitative high-throughput technique that can measure many barriers in parallel with

  18. Surface Plasmon Waves on Thin Metal Films.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Alan Ellsworth

    Surface-plasmon polaritons propagating on thin metal films bounded by dielectrics of nearly equal refractive indexes comprise two bound modes. Calculations indicate that, while the modes are degenerate on thick films, both the real and the imaginary components of the propagation constants for the modes split into two branches on successively thinner films. Considering these non-degenerate modes, the mode exhibiting a symmetric (antisymmetric) transverse profile of the longitudinally polarized electric field component, has propagation constant components both of which increase (decrease) with decreasing film thickness. Theoretical propagation constant eigenvalue (PCE) curves have been plotted which delineate this dependence of both propagation constant components on film thickness. By means of a retroreflecting, hemispherical glass coupler in an attenuated total reflection (ATR) configuration, light of wavelength 632.8 nm coupled to the modes of thin silver films deposited on polished glass substrates. Lorentzian lineshape dips in the plots of reflectance vs. angle of incidence indicate the presence of the plasmon modes. The real and imaginary components of the propagation constraints (i.e., the propagation constant and loss coefficient) were calculated from the angular positions and widths of the ATR resonances recorded. Films of several thicknesses were probed. Results which support the theoretically predicted curves were reported.

  19. Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Xin; Wu, Nai-Juan; Ignatiev, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The development of thin-film solid oxide fuel cells (TFSOFCs) and a method of fabricating them have progressed to the prototype stage. This can result in the reduction of mass, volume, and the cost of materials for a given power level.

  20. Flexoelectricity in barium strontium titanate thin film

    SciT

    Kwon, Seol Ryung; Huang, Wenbin; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo

    2014-10-06

    Flexoelectricity, the linear coupling between the strain gradient and the induced electric polarization, has been intensively studied as an alternative to piezoelectricity. Especially, it is of interest to develop flexoelectric devices on micro/nano scales due to the inherent scaling effect of flexoelectric effect. Ba{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}TiO{sub 3} thin film with a thickness of 130 nm was fabricated on a silicon wafer using a RF magnetron sputtering process. The flexoelectric coefficients of the prepared thin films were determined experimentally. It was revealed that the thin films possessed a transverse flexoelectric coefficient of 24.5 μC/m at Curie temperature (∼28 °C) and 17.44 μC/m at 41 °C. Themore » measured flexoelectric coefficients are comparable to that of bulk BST ceramics, which are reported to be 10–100 μC/m. This result suggests that the flexoelectric thin film structures can be effectively used for micro/nano-sensing devices.« less

  1. Preliminary Measurements of Thin Film Solar Cells

    1967-06-21

    George Mazaris, works with an assistant to obtain the preliminary measurements of cadmium sulfide thin-film solar cells being tested in the Space Environmental Chamber at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center. Lewis’ Photovoltaic Fundamentals Section was investigating thin-film alternatives to the standard rigid and fragile solar cells. The cadmium sulfide semiconductors were placed in a light, metallized substrate that could be rolled or furled during launch. The main advantage of the thin-film solar cells was their reduced weight. Lewis researchers, however, were still working on improving the performance of the semiconductor. The new thin-film solar cells were tested in a space simulation chamber in the CW-6 test cell in the Engine Research Building. The chamber created a simulated altitude of 200 miles. Sunlight was simulated by a 5000-watt xenon light. Some two dozen cells were exposed to 15 minutes of light followed by 15 minutes of darkness to test their durability in the constantly changing illumination of Earth orbit. This photograph was taken for use in a NASA recruiting publication.

  2. Thin film hydrous metal oxide catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Dosch, Robert G.; Stephens, Howard P.

    1995-01-01

    Thin film (<100 nm) hydrous metal oxide catalysts are prepared by 1) synthesis of a hydrous metal oxide, 2) deposition of the hydrous metal oxide upon an inert support surface, 3) ion exchange with catalytically active metals, and 4) activating the hydrous metal oxide catalysts.

  3. Welding Wires To Thin Thermocouple Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holanda, Raymond; Kim, Walter S.; Danzey, Gerald A.; Pencil, Eric; Wadel, Mary

    1993-01-01

    Parallel-gap resistance welding yields joints surviving temperatures of about 1,000 degrees C. Much faster than thermocompression bonding. Also exceeds conductive-paste bonding and sputtering thin films through porous flame-sprayed insulation on prewelded lead wires. Introduces no foreign material into thermocouple circuit and does not require careful control of thickness of flame-sprayed material.

  4. UV absorption control of thin film growth

    DOEpatents

    Biefeld, Robert M.; Hebner, Gregory A.; Killeen, Kevin P.; Zuhoski, Steven P.

    1991-01-01

    A system for monitoring and controlling the rate of growth of thin films in an atmosphere of reactant gases measures the UV absorbance of the atmosphere and calculates the partial pressure of the gases. The flow of reactant gases is controlled in response to the partial pressure.

  5. Semiconductor cooling by thin-film thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tick, P. A.; Vilcans, J.

    1970-01-01

    Thin-film, metal alloy thermocouple junctions do not rectify, change circuit impedance only slightly, and require very little increase in space. Although they are less efficient cooling devices than semiconductor junctions, they may be applied to assist conventional cooling techniques for electronic devices.

  6. Intelligent Processing of Ferroelectric Thin Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-31

    unsatisfactory. To detect the electroopic effects of thin films deposited on opaque substrates a waveguide refractometry of category 3 was reported. An advantage...of the waveguide refractometry is its capability of resolving the change in ordinary index from the change in the extraordinary index. Some successes

  7. Nernst Energy Conversion in Thin Films,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    equations describing the performance of a Nernst energy converter were developed in a macroscopic analysis of irreversible conduction processes in...The feasibility of practical Nernst energy conversion was investigated. The galvanomagnetic and thermomagnetic effects were reviewed. The theoretical...solids. Semimetals were determined to be the best available materials for the Nernst application. A thin film Nernst generator was constructed from

  8. Rechargeable Thin-film Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bates, J. B.; Gruzalski, G. R.; Dudney, N. J.; Luck, C. F.; Yu, Xiaohua

    1993-08-01

    Rechargeable thin film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have recently been developed. The batteries, which are typically less than 6 {mu}m thick, can be fabricated to any specified size, large or small, onto a variety of substrates including ceramics, semiconductors, and plastics. The cells that have been investigated include Li TiS{sub 2}, Li V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5, 3.6, and 4.2, respectively. The development of these batteries would not have been possible without the discovery of a new thin film lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride, that is stable in contact with metallic lithium at these potentials. Deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in N{sub 2}, this material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25{degrees}C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The maximum practical current density obtained from the thin film cells is limited to about 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} due to a low diffusivity of Li{sup +} ions in the cathodes. In this work, the authors present a short review of their work on rechargeable thin film lithium batteries.

  9. Rim instability of bursting thin smectic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trittel, Torsten; John, Thomas; Tsuji, Kinko; Stannarius, Ralf

    2013-05-01

    The rupture of thin smectic bubbles is studied by means of high speed video imaging. Bubbles of centimeter diameter and film thicknesses in the nanometer range are pierced, and the instabilities of the moving rim around the opening hole are described. Scaling laws describe the relation between film thickness and features of the filamentation process of the rim. A flapping motion of the retracting smectic film is assumed as the origin of the observed filamentation instability. A comparison with similar phenomena in soap bubbles is made. The present experiments extend studies on soap films [H. Lhuissier and E. Villermaux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 054501 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.054501] to much thinner, uniform films of thermotropic liquid crystals.

  10. Dielectric loss of strontium titanate thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalberth, Mark Joseph

    1999-12-01

    Interest in strontium titanate (STO) thin films for microwave device applications continues to grow, fueled by the telecommunications industry's interest in phase shifters and tunable filters. The optimization of these devices depends upon increasing the phase or frequency tuning and decreasing the losses in the films. Currently, the dielectric response of thin film STO is poorly understood through lack of data and a theory to describe it. We have studied the growth of STO using pulsed laser deposition and single crystal substrates like lanthanum aluminate and neodymium gallate. We have researched ways to use ring resonators to accurately measure the dielectric response as a function of temperature, electric field, and frequency from low radio frequencies to a few gigahertz. Our films grown on lanthanum aluminate show marked frequency dispersion in the real part of the dielectric constant and hints of thermally activated loss behavior. We also found that films grown with conditions that optimized the dielectric constant showed increased losses. In an attempt to simplify the system, we developed a technique called epitaxial lift off, which has allowed us to study films removed from their growth substrates. These free standing films have low losses and show obvious thermally activated behavior. The "amount of tuning," as measured by a figure of merit, KE, is greater in these films than in the films still attached to their growth substrates. We have developed a theory that describes the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant. The theory models the real part using a mean field description of the ionic motion in the crystal and includes the loss by incorporating the motion of charged defects in the films.

  11. MISSE 5 Thin Films Space Exposure Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Gale A.; Kinard, William H.; Jones, James L.

    2007-01-01

    The Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is a set of space exposure experiments using the International Space Station (ISS) as the flight platform. MISSE 5 is a co-operative endeavor by NASA-LaRC, United Stated Naval Academy, Naval Center for Space Technology (NCST), NASA-GRC, NASA-MSFC, Boeing, AZ Technology, MURE, and Team Cooperative. The primary experiment is performance measurement and monitoring of high performance solar cells for U.S. Navy research and development. A secondary experiment is the telemetry of this data to ground stations. A third experiment is the measurement of low-Earth-orbit (LEO) low-Sun-exposure space effects on thin film materials. Thin films can provide extremely efficacious thermal control, designation, and propulsion functions in space to name a few applications. Solar ultraviolet radiation and atomic oxygen are major degradation mechanisms in LEO. This paper is an engineering report of the MISSE 5 thm films 13 months space exposure experiment.

  12. Thin-film cadmium telluride photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compaan, A. D.; Bohn, R. G.

    1994-09-01

    This report describes work to develop and optimize radio-frequency (RF) sputtering for the deposition of thin films of cadmium telluride (CdTe) and related semiconductors for thin-film solar cells. Pulsed laser physical vapor deposition was also used for exploratory work on these materials, especially where alloying or doping are involved, and for the deposition of cadmium chloride layers. The sputtering work utilized a 2-in diameter planar magnetron sputter gun. The film growth rate by RF sputtering was studied as a function of substrate temperature, gas pressure, and RF power. Complete solar cells were fabricated on tin-oxide-coated soda-lime glass substrates. Currently, work is being done to improve the open-circuit voltage by varying the CdTe-based absorber layer, and to improve the short-circuit current by modifying the CdS window layer.

  13. Dynamics in thin folded polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croll, Andrew; Rozairo, Damith

    Origami and Kirigami inspired structures depend on a complex interplay between geometry and material properties. While clearly important to the overall function, very little attention has focused on how extreme curvatures and singularities in real materials influence the overall dynamic behaviour of folded structures. In this work we use a set of three polymer thin films in order to closely examine the interaction of material and geometry. Specifically, we use polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polystyrene (PS) and polycarbonate (PC) thin films which we subject to loading in several model geometries of varying complexity. Depending on the material, vastly different responses are noted in our experiments; D-cones can annihilate, cut or lead to a crumpling cascade when pushed through a film. Remarkably, order can be generated with additional perturbation. Finally, the role of adhesion in complex folded structures can be addressed. AFOSR under the Young Investigator Program (FA9550-15-1-0168).

  14. Magnetic and photocatalytic studies on Zn1-xMgxFe2O4 nanocolloids synthesized by solvothermal reflux method.

    PubMed

    Manohar, A; Krishnamoorthi, C

    2017-12-01

    Biocompatible magnetic semiconductor Zn 1-x Mg x Fe 2 O 4 (x=0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 & 0.7) nanoparticles of around 10nm diameter were synthesized by solvothermal reflux method. The method produces well separated and narrow size distributed nanoparticles. Crystal structure, morphology, particles surface properties, surfactant quantity, colloidal stability, magnetic properties and photocatalytic properties of the synthesized nanoparticles were studied. Different characterizations confirmed that all compounds were single crystals and superparamagnetic at room temperature. Saturation mass magnetization (M s =57.5emu/g) enhances with substituent Mg 2+ concentration due to promotion of mixed spinel (normal and inverse) structure. Photocatalytic activity of all synthesized magnetic semiconductor nanoparticles were studied through methylene blue degradation. The degradation of 98% methylene blue was observed on 60 min irradiation of light. It is observed that photocatalytic activity slightly enhances with substituent Mg 2+ concentration. The synthesized biocompatible magnetic semiconductor nanoparticles can be utilized as photocatalysts and could also be recycled and separated by applying an external magnetic field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. First-principles study on half-metallic ferromagnetic properties of Zn1- x V x Se ternary alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatta, Swati; Tripathi, S. K.; Prakash, Satya

    2017-09-01

    The spin-polarised density functional theory along with self-consistent plane-wave pseudopotential is used to investigate the half-metallic ferromagnetic properties of ternary alloys Zn1- x V x Se. The generalized gradient approximation is used for exchange-correlation potential. The equilibrium lattice constants, bulk modulus, and its derivatives are calculated. The calculated spin-polarised energy-band structures reveal that these alloys are half-metallic for x = 0.375 and 0.50 and nearly half-metallic for other values of x. The estimated direct and indirect bandgaps may be useful for the magneto-optical absorption experiments. It is found that there is strong Zn 4s, Se 4p, and V 3d orbital hybridization in the conduction bands of both the spins, while Se 4p and V 3d orbital hybridization predominates in the valence bands of both the spins. The s, p-d, and p-d orbital hybridization reduces the local magnetic moment of V atoms and small local magnetic moments are produced on Zn and Se atoms which get coupled with V atoms in ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases, respectively. The conduction and valence-band-edge splittings and exchange constants predict the ferromagnetism in these alloys. The conduction band-impurity (s and p-d) exchange interaction is more significant for ferromagnetism in these alloys than the valence band-impurity (p-d) exchange interaction.

  16. Structure and properties of hopeites (Mg xZn 1- x) 3(PO 4) 2 · 4H 2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haussühl, S.; Middendorf, B.; Dörffel, M.

    1991-07-01

    Mg-hopeites (Mg xZn 1- x) 3(PO 4) 2 · 4H 2O were prepared by crystallization from hot aqueous solutions (70°C). The structure of (Mg 0.206Zn 0.794) 3(PO 4) 2 · 4H 2O has been determined from 1612 unique reflections (MoKα, R = 0.033): Pnma, a1 = 10.594(2), a2 = 18.333(2), a3 = 5.029(2)Å, Z = 4, Dcalc = 2.943g cm -3. The structure resembles that of pure hopeite. However, the magnesium atoms occupy only the sixcoordinated site. The thermal behavior of hopeites is strongly influenced by the substitution of Zn by Mg. The dehydration range is shifted to higher temperatures with increasing Mg content. A strongly anisotropic thermal expansion was measured by X-ray diffraction in a temperature range of -40° to 50°C. Experiments to substitute Zn by Ca, Sr, and Ba in the hopeite failed. A hitherto unknown monoclinic phase with the composition BaZn 2(PO 4) 2 · H 2O and a1 = 4.707(2), a2 = 7.840(2), a3 = 8.061(3)Å, and α 2 = 88.99(4)° was found.

  17. Colloidal ZnO and Zn(1-x)Co(x)O tetrapod nanocrystals with tunable arm lengths.

    PubMed

    Hodges, James M; Fenton, Julie L; Gray, Jennifer L; Schaak, Raymond E

    2015-10-28

    Tetrapod-shaped ZnO nanocrystals exhibit exceptional optoelectronic properties, including intense ultraviolet photoluminescence emission, that make them attractive for applications that include lasers, sensors, and photocatalysts. However, synthetic methods that produce ZnO tetrapods typically include high-temperature vapor-deposition approaches that do not readily achieve characteristic dimensions of less than 100 nm or colloidal methods that require added metal dopants, which modify the inherent properties of ZnO. Here, we report a robust, modified solution-phase synthetic protocol for generating colloidal ZnO tetrapods that does not require the use of metal dopants. The ZnO tetrapod arm lengths can be tuned from 10 to 25 nm by adjusting the amount of Zn reagent used in the reaction. Subsequent seeded-growth produced even larger colloidal ZnO tetrapods with 62 nm arms. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements confirm that the tetrapods are of high crystalline quality, and the ultraviolet PL emission wavelengths that are observed fall between those of previously reported metal-doped colloidal ZnO tetrapods, which exhibit dopant-induced red- or blue-shifts. Furthermore, the reaction strategy can be modified to produce cobalt-substituted ZnO, offering a chemical pathway to tetrapod-shaped Zn1-xCoxO nanocrystals.

  18. Critical Temperature of Randomly Diluted Two-Dimensional Heisenberg Ferromagnet, K2CuxZn(1-x)F4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuda, Yuichi; Tohi, Yasuto; Yamada, Isao; Haseda, Taiichiro

    1980-09-01

    The susceptibility of randomly diluted two-dimensional Heisenberg-like ferromagnet K2CuxZn(1-x)F4 was measured down to 50 mK, using the 3He-4He dilution refrigerator and a SQUID magnetometer. The ferromagnetic critical temperature Tc(x) was obtained for x{=}0.98, 0.94, 0.85, 0.82, 0.68, 0.60, 0.54, 0.50 and 0.42. The value of [1/Tc(1)][(d/dx)Tc(x)]x=1 was approximately 3.0. The critical temperature versus x curve exhibits a noticeable tail near the critical concentration, which may stem from the second nearest-neighbor interaction. The critical concentration xc, below which concentration there is no long range order down to T{=}0 K, was estimated to be 0.45˜0.50. The susceptibility of sample with x{=}0.42 behaves as if it obeys the Curie law down to 50 mK.

  19. Substrate spacing and thin-film yield in chemical bath deposition of semiconductor thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias-Carbajal Reádigos, A.; García, V. M.; Gomezdaza, O.; Campos, J.; Nair, M. T. S.; Nair, P. K.

    2000-11-01

    Thin-film yield in the chemical bath deposition technique is studied as a function of separation between substrates in batch production. Based on a mathematical model, it is proposed and experimentally verified in the case of CdS thin films that the film thickness reaches an asymptotic maximum with increase in substrate separation. It is shown that at a separation less than 1 mm between substrates the yield, i.e. percentage in moles of a soluble cadmium salt deposited as a thin film of CdS, can exceed 50%. This behaviour is explained on the basis of the existence of a critical layer of solution near the substrate, within which the relevant ionic species have a higher probability of interacting with the thin-film layer than of contributing to precipitate formation. The critical layer depends on the solution composition and the temperature of the bath as well as the duration of deposition. An effective value for the critical layer thickness has been defined as half the substrate separation at which 90% of the maximum film thickness for the particular bath composition, bath temperature and duration of deposition is obtained. In the case of CdS thin films studied as an example, the critical layer is found to extend from 0.5 to 2.5 mm from the substrate surface, depending on the deposition conditions.

  20. Magnon dispersion in thin magnetic films.

    PubMed

    Balashov, T; Buczek, P; Sandratskii, L; Ernst, A; Wulfhekel, W

    2014-10-01

    Although the dispersion of magnons has been measured in many bulk materials, few studies deal with the changes in the dispersion when the material is in the form of a thin film, a system that is of interest for applications. Here we review inelastic tunneling spectroscopy studies of magnon dispersion in Mn/Cu3Au(1 0 0) and present new studies on Co and Ni thin films on Cu(1 0 0). The dispersion in Mn and Co films closely follows the dispersion of bulk samples with negligible dependence on thickness. The lifetime of magnons depends slightly on film thickness, and decreases considerably as the magnon energy increases. In Ni/Cu(1 0 0) films the thickness dependence of dispersion is much more pronounced. The measurements indicate a considerable mode softening for thinner films. Magnon lifetimes decrease dramatically near the edge of the Brillouin zone due to a close proximity of the Stoner continuum. The experimental study is supported by first-principles calculations.

  1. Thin Film Research. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-30

    Order (FECO) ......... 23 3. X -Ray Diffraction ............................... 26 4. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) ............... 26 5...remained amorphous after bombardment, as evidenced by X - ray diffraction, and showed no other changes. 0 (2) For Sb203, the crystallite size was reduced...main effect on MgF2 was the reduction in crystallite size. The films were too thir. for meaningful x - ray diffraction analysis. Durability and

  2. Electrolyte and Electrode Passivation for Thin Film Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, W.; Whitacre, J.; Ratnakumar, B.; Brandon, E.; Blosiu, J.; Surampudi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Passivation films for thin film batteries have been prepared and the conductivity and voltage stability window have been measured. Thin films of Li2CO3 have a large voltage stability window of 4.8V, which facilitates the use of this film as a passivation at both the lithium anode-electrolyte interface at high cathodic potentials.

  3. Thin-film semiconductor rectifier has improved properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Cadmium selenide-zinc selenide film is used as a thin film semiconductor rectifier. The film is vapor-deposited in a controlled concentration gradient into a glass substrate to form the required junctions between vapor-deposited gold electrodes.

  4. Thin film bismuth iron oxides useful for piezoelectric devices

    DOEpatents

    Zeches, Robert J.; Martin, Lane W.; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2016-05-31

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising a thin film of BiFeO.sub.3 having a thickness ranging from 20 nm to 300 nm, a first electrode in contact with the BiFeO.sub.3 thin film, and a second electrode in contact with the BiFeO.sub.3 thin film; wherein the first and second electrodes are in electrical communication. The composition is free or essentially free of lead (Pb). The BFO thin film is has the piezoelectric property of changing its volume and/or shape when an electric field is applied to the BFO thin film.

  5. Physical Vapor Deposition of Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahan, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A unified treatment of the theories, data, and technologies underlying physical vapor deposition methods With electronic, optical, and magnetic coating technologies increasingly dominating manufacturing in the high-tech industries, there is a growing need for expertise in physical vapor deposition of thin films. This important new work provides researchers and engineers in this field with the information they need to tackle thin film processes in the real world. Presenting a cohesive, thoroughly developed treatment of both fundamental and applied topics, Physical Vapor Deposition of Thin Films incorporates many critical results from across the literature as it imparts a working knowledge of a variety of present-day techniques. Numerous worked examples, extensive references, and more than 100 illustrations and photographs accompany coverage of: * Thermal evaporation, sputtering, and pulsed laser deposition techniques * Key theories and phenomena, including the kinetic theory of gases, adsorption and condensation, high-vacuum pumping dynamics, and sputtering discharges * Trends in sputter yield data and a new simplified collisional model of sputter yield for pure element targets * Quantitative models for film deposition rate, thickness profiles, and thermalization of the sputtered beam

  6. Nanocomposite thin films for triggerable drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Vannozzi, Lorenzo; Iacovacci, Veronica; Menciassi, Arianna; Ricotti, Leonardo

    2018-05-01

    Traditional drug release systems normally rely on a passive delivery of therapeutic compounds, which can be partially programmed, prior to injection or implantation, through variations in the material composition. With this strategy, the drug release kinetics cannot be remotely modified and thus adapted to changing therapeutic needs. To overcome this issue, drug delivery systems able to respond to external stimuli are highly desirable, as they allow a high level of temporal and spatial control over drug release kinetics, in an operator-dependent fashion. Areas covered: On-demand drug delivery systems actually represent a frontier in this field and are attracting an increasing interest at both research and industrial level. Stimuli-responsive thin films, enabled by nanofillers, hold a tremendous potential in the field of triggerable drug delivery systems. The inclusion of responsive elements in homogeneous or heterogeneous thin film-shaped polymeric matrices strengthens and/or adds intriguing properties to conventional (bare) materials in film shape. Expert opinion: This Expert Opinion review aims to discuss the approaches currently pursued to achieve an effective on-demand drug delivery, through nanocomposite thin films. Different triggering mechanisms allowing a fine control on drug delivery are described, together with current challenges and possible future applications in therapy and surgery.

  7. Flexible magnetic thin films and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Ping; Wang, Baomin; Li, Runwei

    2018-01-01

    Flexible electronic devices are highly attractive for a variety of applications such as flexible circuit boards, solar cells, paper-like displays, and sensitive skin, due to their stretchable, biocompatible, light-weight, portable, and low cost properties. Due to magnetic devices being important parts of electronic devices, it is essential to study the magnetic properties of magnetic thin films and devices fabricated on flexible substrates. In this review, we mainly introduce the recent progress in flexible magnetic thin films and devices, including the study on the stress-dependent magnetic properties of magnetic thin films and devices, and controlling the properties of flexible magnetic films by stress-related multi-fields, and the design and fabrication of flexible magnetic devices. Project supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2016YFA0201102), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51571208, 51301191, 51525103, 11274321, 11474295, 51401230), the Youth Innovation Promotion Association of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. 2016270), the Key Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. KJZD-EW-M05), the Ningbo Major Project for Science and Technology (No. 2014B11011), the Ningbo Science and Technology Innovation Team (No. 2015B11001), and the Ningbo Natural Science Foundation (No. 2015A610110).

  8. Stress and plasticity in Cu thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihnacht, Volker; Brückner, Winfried

    1999-11-01

    Aim of the work was to get more detailed knowledge about the processes of plasticity in thin Cu films. For this purpose, stress measurements and microstructural investigations have been done on 535nm thick Cu films on oxidized Si substrates. The film stress was measured by wafer-curvature technique using a home-made laser-optical apparatus. This apparatus allowed four-point bending experiments additionally to thermal cycling. It turned out that applied bending strains even higher than 0.5% did not leave significant plastic strains after relief of bending stress. It is concluded, that the elastic interaction of parallel dislocations at the film-substrate interface may play an important role in strain hardening even after small plastic strains.

  9. Center for Thin Film Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-15

    well as oxygen and nitrogen ). Summaries of the results for these 1: materials follow. 7 0 @U Metal Oxides - Alumina and Titania0 Bombardment of alumina...the common gas employed for IAD, due to its moderate man d low price it is possible to bombard the film with other noble gasse and nitrogen to permit...profiling with "N analysis beams requires production of substantial beams of doubly ionized 1N++ in order to cover the desired 6 MeV - 10 MeV energy

  10. Center for Thin Film Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-31

    techniques, and to investigate the simultaneous use of ion bombardment and substrate cooling for production of low-loss, stable ZnS material. 7 0.14 q(a) N...films indicate that even implanted argon is firmly embedded and shows no tendency to evolve. When the ions are reactive (e.g., oxygen or nitrogen ...oxygen ions can result in very good oxide layers. Nitrogen is another compound-forming gas which lacks sufficient reactivity to have been a useful

  11. All-Ceramic Thin Film Battery

    SciT

    BOYLE, TIMOTHY J.; INGERSOLL, DAVID; CYGAN, RANDALL T.

    2002-11-01

    We have undertaken the synthesis of a thin film ''All Ceramic Battery'' (ACB) using solution route processes. Based on the literature and experimental results, we selected SnO{sub 2}, LiCoO{sub 2}, and LiLaTiO{sub 3} (LLT) as the anode, cathode, and electrolyte, respectively. Strain induced by lattice mismatch between the cathode and bottom electrode, as estimated by computational calculations, indicate that thin film orientations for batteries when thicknesses are as low as 500 {angstrom} are strongly controlled by surface energies. Therefore, we chose platinized silicon as the basal platform based on our previous experience with this material. The anode thin films weremore » generated by standard spin-cast methods and processing using a solution of [Sn(ONep)]{sub 8} and HOAc which was found to form Sn{sub 6}(O){sub 4}(ONep){sub 4}. Electrochemical evaluation showed that the SnO{sub 2} was converted to Sn{sup o} during the first cycle. The cathode was also prepared by spin coating using the novel [Li(ONep)]{sub 8} and Co(OAc){sub 2}. The films could be electrochemically cycled (i.e., charged/discharged), with all of the associated structural changes being observable by XRD. Computational models indicated that the LLT electrolyte would be the best available ceramic material for use as the electrolyte. The LLT was synthesized from [Li(ONep)]{sub 8}, [Ti(ONep){sub 4}]{sub 2}, and La(DIP){sub 3}(py){sub 3} with RTP processing at 900 C being necessary to form the perovskite phase. Alternatively, a novel route to thin films of the block co-polymer ORMOLYTE was developed. The integration of these components was undertaken with each part of the assembly being identifiably by XRD analysis (this will allow us to follow the progress of the charge/discharge cycles of the battery during use). SEM investigations revealed the films were continuous with minimal mixing. All initial testing of the thin-film cathode/electrolyte/anode ACB devices revealed electrical shorting

  12. Temperature dependence of LRE-HRE-TM thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zuoyi; Cheng, Xiaomin; Lin, Gengqi; Li, Zhen; Huang, Zhixin; Jin, Fang; Wang, Xianran; Yang, Xiaofei

    2003-04-01

    Temperature dependence of the properties of RE-TM thin films is very important for MO recording. In this paper, we studied the temperature dependence of the magnetic and magneto-optical properties of the amorphous LRE-HRE-TM single layer thin films and LRE-HRE-TM/HRE-TM couple-bilayered thin films. For LRE-HRE-TM single layer thin films, the temperature dependence of the magnetization was investigated by using the mean field theory. The experimental and theoretical results matched very well. With the LRE substitution in HRE-TM thin film, the compensation temperature Tcomp decreased and the curie temperature Tc remained unchanged. Kerr rotation angle became larger and the saturation magnetization Ms at room temperature increased. For LRE-HRE-TM/HRE-TM couple-bilayered thin films, comparisons of the temperature dependences of the coercivities and Kerr rotation angles were made between isolated sublayers and couple-bilayered thin film.

  13. Electrical properties of CZTS thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, M. C.; Kumar, M. Seshu; Lakshmi, K.; Rao, K. Koteswara; Parimala, M. P. D.; Basha, S. K. Shahenoor

    2018-05-01

    CZTS (Cu2ZnSnS4) thin films have been coated on to FTO and MO glass substrates by single step electro deposition process. Different characterization techniques were performed on to the prepared samples such as DSC and Raman studies. The Phase transition and weight loss of the precursors can be measured by DSC analysis. Raman spectrum is used to identify the functional groups and chemical structure involved in the materials. Electrical measurements confirm the nature of the film and also depend on the charge concentration present in the samples.

  14. Study of microstructure and electroluminescence of zinc sulfide thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao-hong, Liu; Yu-jiang, Wang; Mou-zhi, Chen; Zhen-xiang, Chen; Shu-nong, Sun; Mei-chun, Huang

    1998-03-01

    The electroluminscent zinc sulfide thin film doped with erbium, fabricated by thermal evaporation with two boats, are examined. The surface and internal electronic states of ZnS thin film are measured by means of x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The information on the relations between electroluminescent characteristics and internal electronic states of the film is obtained. And the effects of the microstructure of thin film doped with rare earth erbium on electroluminescence are discussed as well.

  15. Electrostatic Discharge Effects on Thin Film Resistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Michael J.; Hull, Scott M.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, open circuit failures of individual elements in thin film resistor networks have been attributed to electrostatic discharge (ESD) effects. This paper will discuss the investigation that came to this conclusion and subsequent experimentation intended to characterize design factors that affect the sensitivity of resistor elements to ESD. The ESD testing was performed using the standard human body model simulation. Some of the design elements to be evaluated were: trace width, trace length (and thus width to length ratio), specific resistivity of the trace (ohms per square) and resistance value. However, once the experiments were in progress, it was realized that the ESD sensitivity of most of the complex patterns under evaluation was determined by other design and process factors such as trace shape and termination pad spacing. This paper includes pictorial examples of representative ESD failure sites, and provides some options for designing thin film resistors that are ESD resistant. The risks of ESD damage are assessed and handling precautions suggested.

  16. Thin film photovoltaic panel and method

    DOEpatents

    Ackerman, Bruce; Albright, Scot P.; Jordan, John F.

    1991-06-11

    A thin film photovoltaic panel includes a backcap for protecting the active components of the photovoltaic cells from adverse environmental elements. A spacing between the backcap and a top electrode layer is preferably filled with a desiccant to further reduce water vapor contamination of the environment surrounding the photovoltaic cells. The contamination of the spacing between the backcap and the cells may be further reduced by passing a selected gas through the spacing subsequent to sealing the backcap to the base of the photovoltaic panels, and once purged this spacing may be filled with an inert gas. The techniques of the present invention are preferably applied to thin film photovoltaic panels each formed from a plurality of photovoltaic cells arranged on a vitreous substrate. The stability of photovoltaic conversion efficiency remains relatively high during the life of the photovoltaic panel, and the cost of manufacturing highly efficient panels with such improved stability is significantly reduced.

  17. Domain switching of fatigued ferroelectric thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tak Lim, Yun; Yeog Son, Jong; Shin, Young-Han

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the domain wall speed of a ferroelectric PbZr0.48Ti0.52O3 (PZT) thin film using an atomic force microscope incorporated with a mercury-probe system to control the degree of electrical fatigue. The depolarization field in the PZT thin film decreases with increasing the degree of electrical fatigue. We find that the wide-range activation field previously reported in ferroelectric domains result from the change of the depolarization field caused by the electrical fatigue. Domain wall speed exhibits universal behavior to the effective electric field (defined by an applied electric field minus the depolarization field), regardless of the degree of the electrical fatigue.

  18. Techniques for Connecting Superconducting Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mester, John; Gwo, Dz-Hung

    2006-01-01

    Several improved techniques for connecting superconducting thin films on substrates have been developed. The techniques afford some versatility for tailoring the electronic and mechanical characteristics of junctions between superconductors in experimental electronic devices. The techniques are particularly useful for making superconducting or alternatively normally conductive junctions (e.g., Josephson junctions) between patterned superconducting thin films in order to exploit electron quantum-tunneling effects. The techniques are applicable to both low-Tc and high-Tc superconductors (where Tc represents the superconducting- transition temperature of a given material), offering different advantages for each. Most low-Tc superconductors are metallic, and heretofore, connections among them have been made by spot welding. Most high-Tc superconductors are nonmetallic and cannot be spot welded. These techniques offer alternatives to spot welding of most low-Tc superconductors and additional solutions to problems of connecting most high-Tc superconductors.

  19. Triboelectric Nanogenerator Using Lithium Niobate Thin Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Juan; Zhang, Xinzheng; Kong, Yongfa; Xu, Jingjun

    2017-06-01

    We present a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) using a lithium niobate thin film, as one of the triboelectric pairs which was grown on a silicon substrate by laser molecule beam epitaxy (LMBE). The designed TENG has the advantages of simple structure, easy fabrication, small size (1.1*1.0*0.15 cm3). An open-circuit voltage of 136 V and a short-circuit current of 8.40 μA have been achieved. The maximum output power is 307.5μW under the load resistance of 10MΩ. This is the first time to use lithium niobate thin film as one of the friction pair, which may make it possible to expand the application of triboelectric nanogenerator to optical field.

  20. Thin film strain gage development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, H. P.; Przybyszewski, J. S.; Anderson, W. L.; Claing, R. G.

    1983-01-01

    Sputtered thin-film dynamic strain gages of 2 millimeter (0.08 in) gage length and 10 micrometer (0.0004 in) thickness were fabricated on turbojet engine blades and tested in a simulated compressor environment. Four designs were developed, two for service to 600 K (600 F) and two for service to 900 K (1200 F). The program included a detailed study of guidelines for formulating strain-gage alloys to achieve superior dynamic and static gage performance. The tests included gage factor, fatigue, temperature cycling, spin to 100,000 G, and erosion. Since the installations are 30 times thinner than conventional wire strain gage installations, and any alteration of the aerodynamic, thermal, or structural performance of the blade is correspondingly reduced, dynamic strain measurement accuracy higher than that attained with conventional gages is expected. The low profile and good adherence of the thin film elements is expected to result in improved durability over conventional gage elements in engine tests.

  1. Thin Film Sensors for Surface Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Lisa C.; Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.

    2001-01-01

    Advanced thin film sensors that can provide accurate surface temperature, strain, and heat flux measurements have been developed at NASA Glenn Research Center. These sensors provide minimally intrusive characterization of advanced propulsion materials and components in hostile, high-temperature environments as well as validation of propulsion system design codes. The sensors are designed for applications on different material systems and engine components for testing in engine simulation facilities. Thin film thermocouples and strain gauges for the measurement of surface temperature and strain have been demonstrated on metals, ceramics and advanced ceramic-based composites of various component configurations. Test environments have included both air-breathing and space propulsion-based engine and burner rig environments at surface temperatures up to 1100 C and under high gas flow and pressure conditions. The technologies developed for these sensors as well as for a thin film heat flux gauge have been integrated into a single multifunctional gauge for the simultaneous real-time measurement of surface temperature, strain, and heat flux. This is the first step toward the development of smart sensors with integrated signal conditioning and high temperature electronics that would have the capability to provide feedback to the operating system in real-time. A description of the fabrication process for the thin film sensors and multifunctional gauge will be provided. In addition, the material systems on which the sensors have been demonstrated, the test facilities and the results of the tests to-date will be described. Finally, the results will be provided of the current effort to demonstrate the capabilities of the multifunctional gauge.

  2. Packaging material for thin film lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B.; Dudney, Nancy J.; Weatherspoon, Kim A.

    1996-01-01

    A thin film battery including components which are capable of reacting upon exposure to air and water vapor incorporates a packaging system which provides a barrier against the penetration of air and water vapor. The packaging system includes a protective sheath overlying and coating the battery components and can be comprised of an overlayer including metal, ceramic, a ceramic-metal combination, a parylene-metal combination, a parylene-ceramic combination or a parylene-metal-ceramic combination.

  3. Thin-film optical shutter. Final report

    SciT

    Matlow, S.L.

    1981-02-01

    A specific embodiment of macroconjugated macromolecules, the poly (p-phenylene)'s, has been chosen as the one most likely to meet all of the requirements of the Thin Film Optical Shutter project (TFOS). The reason for this choice is included. In order to be able to make meaningful calculations of the thermodynamic and optical properties of the poly (p-phenylene)'s a new quantum mechanical method was developed - Equilibrium Bond Length (EBL) Theory. Some results of EBL Theory are included.

  4. Thin films for gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, Jose Miguel Alves Correia

    Nos ultimos anos tem-se assistido a um aumento dos investimentos na investigacao de novos materiais para aplicacao em sensores. Apesar de ja existir um bom numero de dispositivos explorados comercialmente, muitas vezes, quer devido aos elevados custos de producao, quer devido a uma crescente exigencia do ponto de vista das caracteristicas de funcionamento, continua a ser necessario procurar novos materiais ou novas formas de producao que permitam baixar os custos e melhorar o desempenho dos dispositivos. No campo dos sensores de gases tem-se verificado continuos avancos nos ultimos anos. Continua todavia a ser necessario conhecer melhor, tanto os processos de producao dos materiais, como os mecanismos que regulam a sensibilidade dos dispositivos aos gases, de modo a orientar adequadamente a investigacao dos novos materiais, nomeadamente no que se refere a optimizacao dos parâmetros que nao satisfazem ainda os requisitos do mercado. Um dos materiais que tem mostrado melhores qualidades para aplicacao em sensores de gases de tipo resistivo e o dioxido de estanho. Este material tem sido produzido sob diversas formas e usando diferentes tecnicas, como sejam: sol-gel [1], pulverizacao catodica (sputtering) por magnetrao [2-4], sinterizacao de pos [5, 6], ablacao laser [7] ou RGTO [8]. Os resultados obtidos revelam que as caracteristicas dos dispositivos sao muito dependentes das tecnicas usadas na sua producao. A deposicao usando sputtering reactivo por magnetrao e uma tecnica que permite obter filmes finos de oxido de estanho com diferentes caracteristicas, quer do ponto de vista da estrutura, quer da composicao, e por isso, tambem, com diferentes sensibilidades aos gases. No âmbito deste trabalho, foram produzidos filmes de SnO2 usando sputtering DC reactivo com diferentes condicoes de deposicao. Os substratos usados foram lâminas de vidro e o alvo foi estanho com 99.9% de pureza. Foi estudada a influencia da atmosfera de deposicao, da pressao parcial do O2, da

  5. Confinement effects on thin polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalnoki-Veress, Karoly J. T.

    We present the results of four projects investigating the effects of confinement on polymeric systems. The first study dealt with polymer blends that are quenched using a spincoating technique rather than a temperature quench. The mass fraction of two blends was varied to determine the effect of the substrate-blend interface on the thin film phase separation morphology. Quantitative measurements of the morphology on three different substrates revealed significant differences in the phase separation morphology as a result of the different wetting properties of the polymer blend on the substrates. The second project dealt with the effect of mechanical confinement on the phase separation of polymer blend thin films. We measured the phase separation morphology of polystyrene/poly (methyl methacrylate) (PS/PMMA) blend films of thickness h on a silicon oxide (SiOx) substrate with a SiOx capping layer. A novel phase separation morphology was observed for small capping layer thicknesses L as well as a transition from lateral to lamellar morphology as L is increased. A simple model is presented which explains the observed lateral morphology, and the morphology transition, in terms of a balance between the free energy increase associated with forming the interfaces between PS-rich and PMMA-rich domains, and the free energy increase associated with the elastic bending of the SiOx capping layer. Direct control of the amplitude and period of the deformation is achieved by varying h and L. Reasonable agreement is obtained between the predicted amplitude of the rippling of the film surface and that measured directly using atomic force microscopy. For temperatures greater than the glass transition temperature Tg, thin freely-standing polymer films are unstable to the formation of holes. In the third project, we have studied the formation and growth of two types of holes: those which form spontaneously when the films are heated above Tg, and those purposely nucleated using a heated

  6. Preventing Thin Film Dewetting via Graphene Capping.

    PubMed

    Cao, Peigen; Bai, Peter; Omrani, Arash A; Xiao, Yihan; Meaker, Kacey L; Tsai, Hsin-Zon; Yan, Aiming; Jung, Han Sae; Khajeh, Ramin; Rodgers, Griffin F; Kim, Youngkyou; Aikawa, Andrew S; Kolaczkowski, Mattew A; Liu, Yi; Zettl, Alex; Xu, Ke; Crommie, Michael F; Xu, Ting

    2017-09-01

    A monolayer 2D capping layer with high Young's modulus is shown to be able to effectively suppress the dewetting of underlying thin films of small organic semiconductor molecule, polymer, and polycrystalline metal, respectively. To verify the universality of this capping layer approach, the dewetting experiments are performed for single-layer graphene transferred onto polystyrene (PS), semiconducting thienoazacoronene (EH-TAC), gold, and also MoS 2 on PS. Thermodynamic modeling indicates that the exceptionally high Young's modulus and surface conformity of 2D capping layers such as graphene and MoS 2 substantially suppress surface fluctuations and thus dewetting. As long as the uncovered area is smaller than the fluctuation wavelength of the thin film in a dewetting process via spinodal decomposition, the dewetting should be suppressed. The 2D monolayer-capping approach opens up exciting new possibilities to enhance the thermal stability and expands the processing parameters for thin film materials without significantly altering their physical properties. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Collective Behavior of Amoebae in Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Albert

    2005-03-01

    We have discovered new aspects of social behavior in Dictyostelium discoideum by culturing high density colonies in liquid media depleted of nutrients in confined geometries by using three different preparations: I. thin (15-40um thick) and II. ultrathin (<3um) films of liquid media with a mineral oil overlayer, and III. microfluidic chambers fabricated in PDMS (˜7um tall). We find greatly reduced, if not eliminated, cell on cell layering in the microfluidic system when compared to the wetting layer preparations. The ultrathin films reveal robust behavior of cells despite flattening that increased their areas by over an order of magnitude. We also observed that the earliest synchronized response of cells following the onset of starvation, a precursor to aggregation, was hastened by reducing the thickness of the aqueous culture layer. We were surprised to find that the threshold concentration for aggregation was raised by thin film confinement when compared to bulk behavior. Finally, both the ultra thin and microfluidic preparations reveal, with new clarity, vortex states of aggregation.

  8. Photocurrent spectroscopy of pentacene thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breban, Mihaela

    We demonstrate the application of photocurrent modulation spectroscopy in characterizing the performance of organic thin-film transistors. A parallel analysis of the direct current and photocurrent voltage characteristics provides a model free determination of the field-effect mobility and the density of free carriers in the transistor channel as a function of the applied gate voltage. Applying this technique to pentacene thin-film transistors demonstrates that the mobility increases as V1/3g . The free-carrier density is approximately 1/10 of the expected capacitive charge, and the mobility increases monotonically with the free carrier density, consistent with the trap and release model of transport. Also, the modulated photocurrent spectroscopy can be used as a probe of defect states in pentacene thin film transistors, measuring simultaneously the magnitude and the phase of the photocurrent as a function of the modulation frequency. This is accomplished by modeling the photo-carrier generation process as exciton dissociation via interaction with localized traps. Experimental data reveal a Gaussian distribution of localized states centered around 0.3 eV above the highest occupied molecular orbital. We also investigated the effect of the gate dielectric material with our probe and found that the position of the extracted Gaussian slightly shifts, consistent with the expected image charge effect for Pn through the dielectric substrate. Also shifts in the Gaussian position for samples fabricated with variable deposition conditions are correlated with changes in Pn morphology. The morphological differences between Pn films were also detected in current-voltage characteristics and photocurrent spectra. However, the origin of the ubiquitous 0.3 eV defect in Pn seems to be unrelated to structural differences in Pn films.

  9. Multiferroic RMnO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontcuberta, Josep

    2015-03-01

    Multiferroic materials have received an astonishing attention in the last decades due to expectations that potential coupling between distinct ferroic orders could inspire new applications and new device concepts. As a result, a new knowledge on coupling mechanisms and materials science has dramatically emerged. Multiferroic RMnO3 perovskites are central to this progress, providing a suitable platform to tailor spin-spin and spin-lattice interactions. With views towards applications, the development of thin films of multiferroic materials have also progressed enormously and nowadays thin-film manganites are available, with properties mimicking those of bulk compounds. Here we review achievements on the growth of hexagonal and orthorhombic RMnO3 epitaxial thin films and the characterization of their magnetic and ferroelectric properties, we discuss some challenging issues, and we suggest some guidelines for future research and developments. En ce qui concerne les applications, le développement de films minces de matériaux multiferroïques a aussi énormément progressé, et de nos jours des films minces de manganites avec des propriétés similaires à celles des matériaux massifs existent. Nous passons en revue ici les résultats obtenus dans le domaine de la croissance de couches minces épitaxiés de RMnO3 hexagonal et orthorhombique et de la caractérisation de leurs propriétés magnétiques et ferroélectriques. Nous discutons certains enjeux et proposons quelques idées pour des recherches et développements futurs.

  10. Additives to silane for thin film silicon photovoltaic devices

    DOEpatents

    Hurley, Patrick Timothy; Ridgeway, Robert Gordon; Hutchison, Katherine Anne; Langan, John Giles

    2013-09-17

    Chemical additives are used to increase the rate of deposition for the amorphous silicon film (.alpha.Si:H) and/or the microcrystalline silicon film (.mu.CSi:H). The electrical current is improved to generate solar grade films as photoconductive films used in the manufacturing of Thin Film based Photovoltaic (TFPV) devices.

  11. Fibronectin-based multilayer thin films.

    PubMed

    Gand, Adeline; Tabuteau, Maud; Chat, Coline; Ladam, Guy; Atmani, Hassan; Van Tassel, Paul R; Pauthe, Emmanuel

    2017-08-01

    Thin films mimicking the structure and composition of the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) are potentially attractive as biomaterials for cell contacting applications. Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of a biological polycation, poly(l-lysine) (PLL), and a common ECM protein, fibronectin (Fn), was employed here to construct nanoscale, ECM mimicking films. Incremental film thickness and interfacial charge magnitude are observed to diminish with layer number, resulting in sub-linear film growth scaling and saturation after about 10 layers. Infrared spectroscopy and electron microscopy together reveal the formation of Fn containing aggregates, whose presence correlates with diminished charge reversal and suppressed LbL assembly. PLL-Fn films induce a significantly greater murine MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblastic cell proliferation, while maintaining a much higher proportion of Fn in the molecular (as opposed to fibrillar) state, compared to a Fn monolayer, suggesting the enhanced Fn content of these ECM-mimicking films to significantly, and positively, affect cell behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Active superconducting devices formed of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Martens, Jon S.; Beyer, James B.; Nordman, James E.; Hohenwarter, Gert K. G.

    1991-05-28

    Active superconducting devices are formed of thin films of superconductor which include a main conduction channel which has an active weak link region. The weak link region is composed of an array of links of thin film superconductor spaced from one another by voids and selected in size and thickness such that magnetic flux can propagate across the weak link region when it is superconducting. Magnetic flux applied to the weak link region will propagate across the array of links causing localized loss of superconductivity in the links and changing the effective resistance across the links. The magnetic flux can be applied from a control line formed of a superconducting film deposited coplanar with the main conduction channel and weak link region on a substrate. The devices can be formed of any type to superconductor but are particularly well suited to the high temperature superconductors since the devices can be entirely formed from coplanar films with no overlying regions. The devices can be utilized for a variety of electrical components, including switching circuits, amplifiers, oscillators and modulators, and are well suited to microwave frequency applications.

  13. Deposition and characterization of ZnSe nanocrystalline thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temel, Sinan; Gökmen, F. Özge; Yaman, Elif; Nebi, Murat

    2018-02-01

    ZnSe nanocrystalline thin films were deposited at different deposition times by using the Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) technique. Effects of deposition time on structural, morphological and optical properties of the obtained thin films were characterized. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was used to study the structural properties of ZnSe nanocrystalline thin films. It was found that ZnSe thin films have a cubic structure with a preferentially orientation of (111). The calculated average grain size value was about 28-30 nm. The surface morphology of these films was studied by the Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). The surfaces of the thin films were occurred from small stacks and nano-sized particles. The band gap values of the ZnSe nanocrystalline thin films were determined by UV-Visible absorption spectrum and the band gap values were found to be between 2.65-2.86 eV.

  14. Thin Film Deposition Using Energetic Ions

    PubMed Central

    Manova, Darina; Gerlach, Jürgen W.; Mändl, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    One important recent trend in deposition technology is the continuous expansion of available processes towards higher ion assistance with the subsequent beneficial effects to film properties. Nowadays, a multitude of processes, including laser ablation and deposition, vacuum arc deposition, ion assisted deposition, high power impulse magnetron sputtering and plasma immersion ion implantation, are available. However, there are obstacles to overcome in all technologies, including line-of-sight processes, particle contaminations and low growth rates, which lead to ongoing process refinements and development of new methods. Concerning the deposited thin films, control of energetic ion bombardment leads to improved adhesion, reduced substrate temperatures, control of intrinsic stress within the films as well as adjustment of surface texture, phase formation and nanotopography. This review illustrates recent trends for both areas; plasma process and solid state surface processes. PMID:28883323

  15. Role of modified Becke-Johnson potential in computation of electronic and optical properties of mixed crystals CdxZn1-xSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talreja, Sonal; Ahuja, B. L.

    2015-08-01

    Electronic and optical properties of CdxZn1-xSe (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1) compounds are investigated using the first-principles full potential linearized augmented plane wave method. In particular, we have used modified version of the exchange potential of Becke and Johnson, so called mBJ potential. We have discussed the energy bands, density of states, and optical properties such as dielectric constants, refractive indices, reflection spectra, extinction coefficients of all the CdxZn1-xSe compounds. Our mBJ potential based data are found to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental data, which unambiguously validates the applicability of orbital independent exchange-correlation potential in mixed semiconductor crystals. The optical properties are discussed in terms of applicability of Cd-Zn-Se system in light-emitting diodes, UV detectors and filters, etc.

  16. Thin Crystal Film Polarizer for Display Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paukshto, Michael

    2003-03-01

    Optiva Inc. has pioneered the development of nano-thin crystalline film (TCF) optical coatings for use in information displays and other applications. TCF is a material based on water-based dichroic dye solutions. Disk-like dye molecules aggregate in a ``plane-to-plane" manner; this self-assembly results in formation of highly anisometric rod-like stacks. These stacks have an aspect ratio of approximately 200:1. At a certain threshold of dye concentration, a nematic ordering of the rod-like stacks appears. Such a system acquires polarizing properties according to the following mechanism. Flow-induced alignment is known to occur in the lyotropic systems in a shear flow. In our case, the material undergoes shear alignment while being coated onto a glass or plastic substrate. In the coated thin film, the long molecular stacks are oriented in the flow direction parallel to the flow direction and substrate plane. The planes of the dye molecules are perpendicular to the substrate plane with the optical transition oscillators lying in the molecule plane. After the coating, as the thin film dries, crystallization occurs due to water evaporation. In a dry film, the molecular planes maintain their orthogonal orientation with respect to the substrate surface. TCF is known to possess properties of an E-mode polarizer. TCF technology has now migrated out of the R stage into manufacturing and is currently being incorporated into new display products. This presentation will provide an overview of TCF technology. The first part of the presentation will describe material structure, optical properties and characterization, material processing and associated coating equipment. This will be followed by a presentation on optical modeling and simulation of display performance with TCF components. Comparisons of display performance will be made for exemplar configurations of a variety of LCDs, including TN, STN and AMLCD designs in both transmissive and reflective modes.

  17. Synthesis of basalt fiber@Zn1-xMgxO core/shell nanostructures for selective photoreduction of CO2 to CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Byeong Sub; Kim, Kang Min; Park, Sun-Min; Kang, Misook

    2017-06-01

    This study focused on the development of a catalyst for converting carbon dioxide, the main cause of global warming, into a beneficial energy source. Core@shell structured particles, BF@ZnO and BF@Zn1-xMgxO, are synthesized in order to selectively obtain CO gas from the photoreduction of CO2. A modified sol-gel process is used to synthesize the core@shell structures with a three-dimensional microstructure, which are subsequently characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDAX), ultraviolet (UV)-vis absorption, photoluminescence (PL), and photocurrent density analysis. The CO2 adsorption abilities of the core@shell particles are estimated through CO2-temperature programmed desorption (TPD). The core@shell structured BF@Zn1-xMgxO particles including the Mg ingredient significantly increased the adsorption of CO2 gas at the microfiber/nanoparticle interface. Both the BF@ZnO and BF@Zn1-xMgxO particles selectively reduce the carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, with almost no other reduced products being observed. These results are attributed to the effective adsorption of CO2 gas and inhibited recombination of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs. BF@Zn0.75Mg0.25O exhibited superior photocatalytic behavior and selectively produced 5.0 μmolgcat-1 L-1 of CO gas after 8 h of reaction.

  18. STRUCTURAL, SURFACE MORPHOLOGICAL AND MAGNETIC STUDIES OF Zn1-xFexS (x=0.00-0.10) DILUTED MAGNETIC SEMICONDUCTORS GROWN BY CO-PRECIPITATION METHOD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, M.; Ghazanfar, M.; Arooj, N.; Riaz, S.; Hussain, S. Sajjad; Naseem, S.

    We have fabricated Zn1-xFexS (x=0.00, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.10) diluted magnetic semiconductors using co-precipitation method. X-ray diffraction patterns depict that Zn1-xFexS appears as a dominant phase with cubic zinc blende structure and nanoscale crystallite size. In addition, a secondary phase of rhombohedral ZnS also appears; however, no additional phase arises that primarily belongs to Fe dopant. Using Debye-Scherrer relation, the crystallite size is found to be in the range of 20-27nm, which is in good agreement with the crystallite size calculated using the Williamson-Hall (WH) plot method. The appearance of secondary phase provoked to study the residual strain using Stokes-Wilson equation, which is nearly consistent to that observed using WH plot method. The surface morphology, revealed using scanning electron microscopy, depicts non-uniform surface structure with a variety of grains and void dimensions. Hysteresis loops measured for Zn1-xFexS at room temperature (RT) illustrate a paramagnetic behavior at higher fields; however, small ferromagnetic behavior is evident due to the small openings of the measured hysteresis loops around the origin. The measured RT ferromagnetism reveals the potential spintronic device applications of the studied diluted magnetic semiconductors.

  19. Investigating the interfacial dynamics of thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbaum, Aaron W.

    This thesis probes the interfacial dynamics and associated phenomena of thin films. Surface specific tools were used to study the self-assembly of alkanethiols, the mono- and bilayer dynamics of SF6, and the surface motion of poly(methyl methacrylate). Non-pertubative helium atom scattering was the principal technique used to investigate these systems. A variety of other complementary tools, including scanning tunneling microscopy, electron diffraction, Auger spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and ellipsometry were used in tandem with the neutral atom scattering studies. Controlling the spontaneous assembly of alkanethiols on Au(111) requires a better fundamental understanding of the adsorbate-adsorbate and substrate-adsorbate interactions. Our characterization focused on two key components, the surface structure and adsorbate vibrations. The study indicates that the Au(111) reconstruction plays a larger role than anticipated in the low-density phase of alkanethiol monolayers. A new structure is proposed for the 1-decanethiol monolayer that impacts the low-energy vibrational mode. Varying the alkane chain lengths imparts insight into the assembly process via characterization of a dispersionless phonon mode. Studies of SF6 physisorbed on Au(111) bridge surface research on rare gas adsorbates with complicated dynamical organic thin films. Mono- and bilayer coverages of SF6/Au(111) were studied at cryogenic temperatures. Our experiments probed the surface properties of SF6 yielding insights into substrate and coverage effects. The study discovered a dispersionless Einstein oscillation with multiple harmonic overtones. A second layer of SF6 softened the mode, but did not show any indications of bulk or cooperative interactions. The vibrational properties of SF 6 showed both striking similarities and differences when compared with physisorbed rare gases. Lastly, this thesis will discuss studies of thin film poly(methyl methacrylate) on Si. The non-pertubative and

  20. Modeling liquid organic thin films on substrates

    SciT

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Myers, Tanya L.

    We present the rationale, methods, and results of modeling of thin film organic liquids on various substrates. These liquids may coat surfaces (substrates) either as a result of their production, dispersal via aerosols or spills. Identification of unknown coated surfaces using either reflectance or emittance spectroscopy cannot be accomplished simply through reference to reflectance signature libraries since neither the thickness of the liquid layer nor the substrate type is known beforehand and both contribute to the signature. Liquid spectral libraries offer the complex index of refraction (n,k) as a function of wavelength which by itself is useful only for thickmore » (bulk) liquid layers via computation of reflectance and transmittance coefficients using the Fresnel equations. Thin liquid layers both reflect and refract incident light in combination with reflectance from the substrate. We show modeling of various organic liquids on substrates using commercial thin film design and modeling software, as well as Monte Carlo ray tracing software to demonstrate the variety of potential signatures encountered that depend on the thickness of the liquid layer as well as the characteristics of the substrate (metal or dielectric). These substrates give rise to transflectance behavior, while many dielectric substrates have rich absorption features that provide complex signatures that combine attributes of both the liquid and the substrate. Knowledge of the complex index of refraction of both target liquids and substrates is essential in order to synthesize spectra necessary in the application of target identification algorithms.« less

  1. Self-Limited Growth in Pentacene Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Pentacene is one of the most studied organic semiconducting materials. While many aspects of the film formation have already been identified in very thin films, this study provides new insight into the transition from the metastable thin-film phase to bulk phase polymorphs. This study focuses on the growth behavior of pentacene within thin films as a function of film thickness ranging from 20 to 300 nm. By employing various X-ray diffraction methods, combined with supporting atomic force microscopy investigations, one crystalline orientation for the thin-film phase is observed, while three differently tilted bulk phase orientations are found. First, bulk phase crystallites grow with their 00L planes parallel to the substrate surface; second, however, crystallites tilted by 0.75° with respect to the substrate are found, which clearly dominate the former in ratio; third, a different bulk phase polymorph with crystallites tilted by 21° is found. The transition from the thin-film phase to the bulk phase is rationalized by the nucleation of the latter at crystal facets of the thin-film-phase crystallites. This leads to a self-limiting growth of the thin-film phase and explains the thickness-dependent phase behavior observed in pentacene thin films, showing that a large amount of material is present in the bulk phase much earlier during the film growth than previously thought. PMID:28287698

  2. Self-Limited Growth in Pentacene Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Pachmajer, Stefan; Jones, Andrew O F; Truger, Magdalena; Röthel, Christian; Salzmann, Ingo; Werzer, Oliver; Resel, Roland

    2017-04-05

    Pentacene is one of the most studied organic semiconducting materials. While many aspects of the film formation have already been identified in very thin films, this study provides new insight into the transition from the metastable thin-film phase to bulk phase polymorphs. This study focuses on the growth behavior of pentacene within thin films as a function of film thickness ranging from 20 to 300 nm. By employing various X-ray diffraction methods, combined with supporting atomic force microscopy investigations, one crystalline orientation for the thin-film phase is observed, while three differently tilted bulk phase orientations are found. First, bulk phase crystallites grow with their 00L planes parallel to the substrate surface; second, however, crystallites tilted by 0.75° with respect to the substrate are found, which clearly dominate the former in ratio; third, a different bulk phase polymorph with crystallites tilted by 21° is found. The transition from the thin-film phase to the bulk phase is rationalized by the nucleation of the latter at crystal facets of the thin-film-phase crystallites. This leads to a self-limiting growth of the thin-film phase and explains the thickness-dependent phase behavior observed in pentacene thin films, showing that a large amount of material is present in the bulk phase much earlier during the film growth than previously thought.

  3. Low-Cost Detection of Thin Film Stress during Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nabors, Sammy A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a simple, cost-effective optical method for thin film stress measurements during growth and/or subsequent annealing processes. Stress arising in thin film fabrication presents production challenges for electronic devices, sensors, and optical coatings; it can lead to substrate distortion and deformation, impacting the performance of thin film products. NASA's technique measures in-situ stress using a simple, noncontact fiber optic probe in the thin film vacuum deposition chamber. This enables real-time monitoring of stress during the fabrication process and allows for efficient control of deposition process parameters. By modifying process parameters in real time during fabrication, thin film stress can be optimized or controlled, improving thin film product performance.

  4. Metallic Thin-Film Bonding and Alloy Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peotter, Brian S. (Inventor); Fryer, Jack Merrill (Inventor); Campbell, Geoff (Inventor); Droppers, Lloyd (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion bonding a stack of aluminum thin films is particularly challenging due to a stable aluminum oxide coating that rapidly forms on the aluminum thin films when they are exposed to atmosphere and the relatively low meting temperature of aluminum. By plating the individual aluminum thin films with a metal that does not rapidly form a stable oxide coating, the individual aluminum thin films may be readily diffusion bonded together using heat and pressure. The resulting diffusion bonded structure can be an alloy of choice through the use of a carefully selected base and plating metals. The aluminum thin films may also be etched with distinct patterns that form a microfluidic fluid flow path through the stack of aluminum thin films when diffusion bonded together.

  5. Synthesis, characterization, and photocatalytic properties of nanocrystalline NZO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryanto, D.; Hastuti, E.; Husniya, N.; Sudiro, T.; Nuryadin, B. W.

    2018-03-01

    Nanocrystalline Ni-doped ZnO (NZO) thin films were synthesized on glass substrate using sol-gel spin coating methods. The effect of annealing on the structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline thin film was studied using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), UV-VIS spectrophotometry, and photoluminescence (PL). The results showed that the annealing temperature strongly influenced the physical properties of nanocrystalline NZO thin films. The photocatalytic properties of nanocrystalline NZO thin films were evaluated using an aqueous solution of Rhodamine-B. The photocatalytic activity of nanocrystalline NZO thin films increased with the increase of annealing temperature. The results indicated that the structure, morphology, and band gap energy of nanocrystalline NZO thin films played an important role in photocatalytic activity.

  6. PZT Thin Film Piezoelectric Traveling Wave Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Dexin; Zhang, Baoan; Yang, Genqing; Jiao, Jiwei; Lu, Jianguo; Wang, Weiyuan

    1995-01-01

    With the development of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), its various applications are attracting more and more attention. Among MEMS, micro motors, electrostatic and electromagnetic, are the typical and important ones. As an alternative approach, the piezoelectric traveling wave micro motor, based on thin film material and integrated circuit technologies, circumvents many of the drawbacks of the above mentioned two types of motors and displays distinct advantages. In this paper we report on a lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) piezoelectric thin film traveling wave motor. The PZT film with a thickness of 150 micrometers and a diameter of 8 mm was first deposited onto a metal substrate as the stator material. Then, eight sections were patterned to form the stator electrodes. The rotor had an 8 kHz frequency power supply. The rotation speed of the motor is 100 rpm. The relationship of the friction between the stator and the rotor and the structure of the rotor on rotation were also studied.

  7. Silicon surface passivation by polystyrenesulfonate thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianhui; Shen, Yanjiao; Guo, Jianxin; Chen, Bingbing; Fan, Jiandong; Li, Feng; Liu, Haixu; Xu, Ying; Mai, Yaohua

    2017-02-01

    The use of polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) thin films in a high-quality passivation scheme involving the suppression of minority carrier recombination at the silicon surface is presented. PSS has been used as a dispersant for aqueous poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene. In this work, PSS is coated as a form of thin film on a Si surface. A millisecond level minority carrier lifetime on a high resistivity Si wafer is obtained. The film thickness, oxygen content, and relative humidity are found to be important factors affecting the passivation quality. While applied to low resistivity silicon wafers, which are widely used for photovoltaic cell fabrication, this scheme yields relatively shorter lifetime, for example, 2.40 ms on n-type and 2.05 ms on p-type wafers with a resistivity of 1-5 Ω.cm. However, these lifetimes are still high enough to obtain high implied open circuit voltages (Voc) of 708 mV and 697 mV for n-type and p-type wafers, respectively. The formation of oxides at the PSS/Si interface is suggested to be responsible for the passivation mechanism.

  8. Spreading Resistance on Thin Film Contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Lau, Y. Y.; Hung, D.; Gilgenbach, R. M.

    2012-10-01

    Electrical contact [1] is important to wire-array z-pinches, metal-insulator-vacuum junctions, and high power microwave sources, etc. Contact problems account for 40 percent of all electrical failures, from small scale consumer electronics to large scale defense and aerospace systems. The crowding of the current lines at contacts leads to enhanced localized heating, a measure of which is the spreading resistance (Rs). For a microscopic area of contact (the ``a-spot'' [1]) on a thin film, we calculate Rs in both Cartesian and cylindrical geometries [2]. In the limit of small film thickness, h, the normalized thin film spreading resistance converges to the finite values, 2.77 for the Cartesian case and 0.28 for the cylindrical case. These same finite limits are found to be applicable to the a-spot between bulk solids in the high frequency limit if the skin depth is identified with h. Extension to a general a-spot geometry is proposed [2]. [4pt] [1] R. Holm, Electric Contacts, 4th ed., Springer (1967). [0pt] [2] P. Zhang et al., IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 59, 1936 (2012).

  9. Nanomechanics of Ferroelectric Thin Films and Heterostructures

    SciT

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Chen , L.Q.

    2016-08-31

    The focus of this chapter is to provide basic concepts of how external strains/stresses altering ferroelectric property of a material and how to evaluate quantitatively the effect of strains/stresses on phase stability, domain structure, and material ferroelectric properties using the phase-field method. The chapter starts from a brief introduction of ferroelectrics and the Landau-Devinshire description of ferroelectric transitions and ferroelectric phases in a homogeneous ferroelectric single crystal. Due to the fact that ferroelectric transitions involve crystal structure change and domain formation, strains and stresses can be produced inside of the material if a ferroelectric transition occurs and it is confined.more » These strains and stresses affect in turn the domain structure and material ferroelectric properties. Therefore, ferroelectrics and strains/stresses are coupled to each other. The ferroelectric-mechanical coupling can be used to engineer the material ferroelectric properties by designing the phase and structure. The followed section elucidates calculations of the strains/stresses and elastic energy in a thin film containing a single domain, twinned domains to complicated multidomains constrained by its underlying substrate. Furthermore, a phase field model for predicting ferroelectric stable phases and domain structure in a thin film is presented. Examples of using substrate constraint and temperature to obtain interested ferroelectric domain structures in BaTiO3 films are demonstrated b phase field simulations.« less

  10. Electron Damage Effects on Carbon Nanotube Thin Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    ELECTRON DAMAGE EFFECTS ON CARBON NANOTUBE THIN FILMS THESIS Jeremy S. Best, Captain, USMC AFIT-ENP-13-M-37 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR...Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENP-13-M-37 ELECTRON DAMAGE EFFECTS ON CARBON NANOTUBE THIN FILMS...M-37 ELECTRON DAMAGE EFFECTS ON CARBON NANOTUBE THIN FILMS Jeremy S. Best, BS Aerospace Engineering Captain, USMC Approved: Dr. John McClory

  11. Unlocking the Structure and Dynamics of Thin Polymeric Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-13

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0092 Unlocking the Structure and Dynamics of Thin Polymeric Films Andrew Whittaker THE UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND Final Report 11...Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To)  15 Jun 2015 to 16 Jun 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Unlocking the Structure and Dynamics of Thin Polymeric Films 5a...the interfacial structure that are inherent in thin films affects how polymers behave. A number of technically relevant polymeric systems were

  12. Polycrystalline-thin-film thermophotovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    1996-02-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells convert thermal energy to electricity. Modularity, portability, silent operation, absence of moving parts, reduced air pollution, rapid start-up, high power densities, potentially high conversion efficiencies, choice of a wide range of heat sources employing fossil fuels, biomass, and even solar radiation are key advantages of TPV cells in comparison with fuel cells, thermionic and thermoelectric convertors, and heat engines. The potential applications of TPV systems include: remote electricity supplies, transportation, co-generation, electric-grid independent appliances, and space, aerospace, and military power applications. The range of bandgaps for achieving high conversion efficiencies using low temperature (1000-2000 K) black-body or selective radiators is in the 0.5-0.75 eV range. Present high efficiency convertors are based on single crystalline materials such as In1-xGaxAs, GaSb, and Ga1-xInxSb. Several polycrystalline thin films such as Hg1-xCdxTe, Sn1-xCd2xTe2, and Pb1-xCdxTe, etc., have great potential for economic large-scale applications. A small fraction of the high concentration of charge carriers generated at high fluences effectively saturates the large density of defects in polycrystalline thin films. Photovoltaic conversion efficiencies of polycrystalline thin films and PV solar cells are comparable to single crystalline Si solar cells, e.g., 17.1% for CuIn1-xGaxSe2 and 15.8% for CdTe. The best recombination-state density Nt is in the range of 10-15-10-16 cm-3 acceptable for TPV applications. Higher efficiencies may be achieved because of the higher fluences, possibility of bandgap tailoring, and use of selective emitters such as rare earth oxides (erbia, holmia, yttria) and rare earth-yttrium aluminium garnets. As compared to higher bandgap semiconductors such as CdTe, it is easier to dope the lower bandgap semiconductors. TPV cell development can benefit from the more mature PV solar cell and opto

  13. Rechargeable thin-film electrochemical generator

    DOEpatents

    Rouillard, Roger; Domroese, Michael K.; Hoffman, Joseph A.; Lindeman, David D.; Noel, Joseph-Robert-Gaetan; Radewald, Vern E.; Ranger, Michel; Sudano, Anthony; Trice, Jennifer L.; Turgeon, Thomas A.

    2000-09-15

    An improved electrochemical generator is disclosed. The electrochemical generator includes a thin-film electrochemical cell which is maintained in a state of compression through use of an internal or an external pressure apparatus. A thermal conductor, which is connected to at least one of the positive or negative contacts of the cell, conducts current into and out of the cell and also conducts thermal energy between the cell and thermally conductive, electrically resistive material disposed on a vessel wall adjacent the conductor. The thermally conductive, electrically resistive material may include an anodized coating or a thin sheet of a plastic, mineral-based material or conductive polymer material. The thermal conductor is fabricated to include a resilient portion which expands and contracts to maintain mechanical contact between the cell and the thermally conductive material in the presence of relative movement between the cell and the wall structure. The electrochemical generator may be disposed in a hermetically sealed housing.

  14. Fluorination of amorphous thin-film materials with xenon fluoride

    DOEpatents

    Weil, R.B.

    1987-05-01

    A method is disclosed for producing fluorine-containing amorphous semiconductor material, preferably comprising amorphous silicon. The method includes depositing amorphous thin-film material onto a substrate while introducing xenon fluoride during the film deposition process.

  15. Fluorination of amorphous thin-film materials with xenon fluoride

    DOEpatents

    Weil, Raoul B.

    1988-01-01

    A method is disclosed for producing fluorine-containing amorphous semiconductor material, preferably comprising amorphous silicon. The method includes depositing amorphous thin-film material onto a substrate while introducing xenon fluoride during the film deposition process.

  16. Uncooled thin film pyroelectric IR detector with aerogel thermal isolation

    DOEpatents

    Ruffner, Judith A.; Bullington, Jeff A.; Clem, Paul G.; Warren, William L.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Tuttle, Bruce A.; Schwartz, Robert W.

    1999-01-01

    A monolithic infrared detector structure which allows integration of pyroelectric thin films atop low thermal conductivity aerogel thin films. The structure comprises, from bottom to top, a substrate, an aerogel insulating layer, a lower electrode, a pyroelectric layer, and an upper electrode layer capped by a blacking layer. The aerogel can offer thermal conductivity less than that of air, while providing a much stronger monolithic alternative to cantilevered or suspended air-gap structures for pyroelectric thin film pixel arrays. Pb(Zr.sub.0.4 Ti.sub.0.6)O.sub.3 thin films deposited on these structures displayed viable pyroelectric properties, while processed at 550.degree. C.

  17. Piezoelectric thin films and their applications for electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshino, Yukio

    2009-03-01

    ZnO and AlN piezoelectric thin films have been studied for applications in bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonator. This article introduces methods of forming ZnO and AlN piezoelectric thin films by radio frequency sputtering and applications of BAW resonators considering the relationship between the crystallinity of piezoelectric thin films and the characteristics of the BAW resonators. Using ZnO thin films, BAW resonators were fabricated for a contour mode at 3.58 MHz and thickness modes from 200 MHz to 5 GHz. The ZnO thin films were combined with various materials, substrates, and thin films to minimize the temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF). The minimum TCF of BAW resonators was approximately 2 ppm/°C in the range -20 to 80 °C. The electromechanical coupling coefficient (k2) in a 1.9 GHz BAW resonator was 6.9%. Using AlN thin films, 5-20 GHz BAW resonators with an ultrathin membrane were realized. The membrane thickness of a 20 GHz BAW resonator was about 200 nm, k2 was 6.1%, and the quality factor (Q) was about 280. Q decreased with increasing resonant frequency. The value of k2 is almost the same for 5-20 GHz resonators. This result could be obtained by improving the thickness uniformity, by controlling internal stress of thin films, and by controlling the crystallinity of AlN piezoelectric thin film.

  18. Thin-Film Photovoltaics: Status and Applications to Space Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    1991-01-01

    The potential applications of thin film polycrystalline and amorphous cells for space are discussed. There have been great advances in thin film solar cells for terrestrial applications; transfer of this technology to space applications could result in ultra low weight solar arrays with potentially large gains in specific power. Recent advances in thin film solar cells are reviewed, including polycrystalline copper iridium selenide and related I-III-VI2 compounds, polycrystalline cadmium telluride and related II-VI compounds, and amorphous silicon alloys. The possibility of thin film multi bandgap cascade solar cells is discussed.

  19. Characterization of aluminum selenide bi-layer thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boolchandani, Sarita; Soni, Gyanesh; Srivastava, Subodh; Vijay, Y. K.

    2018-05-01

    The Aluminum Selenide (AlSe) bi-layer thin films were grown on glass substrate using thermal evaporation method under high vacuum condition. The morphological characterization was done using SEM. Electrical measurement with temperature variation shows that thin films exhibit the semiconductor nature. The optical properties of prepared thin films have also been characterized by UV-VIS spectroscopy measurements. The band gap of composite thin films has been calculated by Tauc's relation at different temperature ranging 35°C-100°C.

  20. Rechargeable thin film battery and method for making the same

    DOEpatents

    Goldner, Ronald B.; Liu, Te-Yang; Goldner, Mark A.; Gerouki, Alexandra; Haas, Terry E.

    2006-01-03

    A rechargeable, stackable, thin film, solid-state lithium electrochemical cell, thin film lithium battery and method for making the same is disclosed. The cell and battery provide for a variety configurations, voltage and current capacities. An innovative low temperature ion beam assisted deposition method for fabricating thin film, solid-state anodes, cathodes and electrolytes is disclosed wherein a source of energetic ions and evaporants combine to form thin film cell components having preferred crystallinity, structure and orientation. The disclosed batteries are particularly useful as power sources for portable electronic devices and electric vehicle applications where high energy density, high reversible charge capacity, high discharge current and long battery lifetimes are required.

  1. TEM characterization of nanodiamond thin films.

    SciT

    Qin, L.-C.; Zhou, D.; Krauss, A. R.

    The microstructure of thin films grown by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) from fullerene C{sub 60} precursors has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), bright-field electron microscopy, high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM), and parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy (PEELS). The films are composed of nanosize crystallites of diamond, and no graphitic or amorphous phases were observed. The diamond crystallite size measured from lattice images shows that most grains range between 3-5 nm, reflecting a gamma distribution. SAED gave no evidence of either sp2-bonded glassy carbon or sp3-bonded diamondlike amorphous carbon. The sp2-bonded configuration found inmore » PEELS was attributed to grain boundary carbon atoms, which constitute 5-10% of the total. Occasionally observed larger diamond grains tend to be highly faulted.« less

  2. Exchange stiffness in thin film Co alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyrich, C.; Huttema, W.; Arora, M.; Montoya, E.; Rashidi, F.; Burrowes, C.; Kardasz, B.; Girt, E.; Heinrich, B.; Mryasov, O. N.; From, M.; Karis, O.

    2012-04-01

    The exchange stiffness (Aex) is one of the key parameters controlling magnetization reversal in magnetic materials. We used a method based on the spin spiral formation in two ferromagnetic films antiferromagnetically coupled across a non-magnetic spacer layer and Brillouin scattering to measure Aex for a series of Co1-δXδ (X = Cr, Ni, Ru, Pd, Pt) thin film alloys. The results show that Aex of Co alloys does not necessarily scale with Ms; Aex approximately decreases at the rate of 1.1%, 1.5%, 2.1%, 3.5%, and 5.6%, while Ms decreases at the rate of 1.1%, 0.5%, 1.1%, 3.7%, and 2.5% per addition of 1 at % of Pt, Ni, Pd, Cr, and Ru, respectively.

  3. Process for making dense thin films

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2005-07-26

    Provided are low-cost, mechanically strong, highly electronically conductive porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, techniques for forming these structures, and devices incorporating the structures. The invention provides solid state electrochemical device substrates of novel composition and techniques for forming thin electrode/membrane/electrolyte coatings on the novel or more conventional substrates. In particular, in one embodiment the invention provides techniques for firing of device substrate to form densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick. In another embodiment, densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick may be formed on a pre-sintered substrate by a constrained sintering process. In some cases, the substrate may be a porous metal, alloy, or non-nickel cermet incorporating one or more of the transition metals Cr, Fe, Cu and Ag, or alloys thereof.

  4. Robust, Thin Optical Films for Extreme Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The environment of space presents scientists and engineers with the challenges of a harsh, unforgiving laboratory in which to conduct their scientific research. Solar astronomy and X-ray astronomy are two of the more challenging areas into which NASA scientists delve, as the optics for this high-tech work must be extremely sensitive and accurate, yet also be able to withstand the battering dished out by radiation, extreme temperature swings, and flying debris. Recent NASA work on this rugged equipment has led to the development of a strong, thin film for both space and laboratory use.

  5. Polydiacetylene thin films for nonlinear optical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paley, Mark S.

    1993-01-01

    One very promising class of organic compounds for nonlinear optical (NLO) applications are polydiacetylenes, which are novel in that they are highly conjugated polymers which can also be crystalline. Polydiacetylenes offer several advantages over other organic materials: because of their highly conjugated electronic structures, they are capable of possessing large optical nonlinearities with fast response times; because they are crystalline, they can be highly ordered, which is essential for optimizing their NLO properties; and, last, because they are polymeric, they can be formed as thin films, which are useful for device fabrication. We have actively been carrying out ground-based research on several compounds of interest.

  6. Thin film photovoltaic device with multilayer substrate

    DOEpatents

    Catalano, Anthony W.; Bhushan, Manjul

    1984-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic device which utilizes at least one compound semiconductor layer chosen from Groups IIB and VA of the Periodic Table is formed on a multilayer substrate The substrate includes a lowermost support layer on which all of the other layers of the device are formed. Additionally, an uppermost carbide or silicon layer is adjacent to the semiconductor layer. Below the carbide or silicon layer is a metal layer of high conductivity and expansion coefficient equal to or slightly greater than that of the semiconductor layer.

  7. Infrared control coating of thin film devices

    SciT

    Berland, Brian Spencer; Stowell, Jr., Michael Wayne; Hollingsworth, Russell

    Systems and methods for creating an infrared-control coated thin film device with certain visible light transmittance and infrared reflectance properties are disclosed. The device may be made using various techniques including physical vapor deposition, chemical vapor deposition, thermal evaporation, pulsed laser deposition, sputter deposition, and sol-gel processes. In particular, a pulsed energy microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process may be used. Production of the device may occur at speeds greater than 50 Angstroms/second and temperatures lower than 200.degree. C.

  8. Thin-Film Photovoltaic Device Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scofield, John H.

    2003-01-01

    This project will primarily involve the fabrication and characterization of thin films and devices for photovoltaic applications. The materials involved include Il-VI materials such as zinc oxide, cadmium sulfide, and doped analogs. The equipment ot be used will be sputtering and physical evaporations. The types of characterization includes electrical, XRD, SEM and CV and related measurements to establish the efficiency of the devices. The faculty fellow will be involved in a research team composed of NASA and University researchers as well as students and other junior researchers.

  9. Fabrication of thin film heat flux sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, Herbert

    1991-01-01

    Thin-film heat-flux sensors have been constructed in the form of arrays of thermocouples on upper and lower surfaces of an insulating layer, so that flux values are proportional to the temperature difference across the upper and lower surface of the insulation material. The sensor thermocouples are connected in thermopile arrangement, and the structure is patterned with photolithographic techniques. Both chromel-alumel and Pt-Pt/Rh thermocouples have been devised; the later produced 28 microvolts when exposed to the radiation of a 1000 C furnace.

  10. Methods for producing thin film charge selective transport layers

    SciT

    Hammond, Scott Ryan; Olson, Dana C.; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria

    Methods for producing thin film charge selective transport layers are provided. In one embodiment, a method for forming a thin film charge selective transport layer comprises: providing a precursor solution comprising a metal containing reactive precursor material dissolved into a complexing solvent; depositing the precursor solution onto a surface of a substrate to form a film; and forming a charge selective transport layer on the substrate by annealing the film.

  11. Vapor deposition routes to conformal polymer thin films

    PubMed Central

    Moni, Priya; Al-Obeidi, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Vapor phase syntheses, including parylene chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and initiated CVD, enable the deposition of conformal polymer thin films to benefit a diverse array of applications. This short review for nanotechnologists, including those new to vapor deposition methods, covers the basic theory in designing a conformal polymer film vapor deposition, sample preparation and imaging techniques to assess film conformality, and several applications that have benefited from vapor deposited, conformal polymer thin films. PMID:28487816

  12. Complex oxide thin films for microelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suvorova, Natalya

    The rapid scaling of the device dimensions, namely in metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET), is reaching its fundamental limit which includes the increase in allowable leakage current due to direct tunneling with decrease of physical thickness of SiO2 gate dielectric. The significantly higher relative dielectric constant (in the range 9--25) of the gate dielectric beyond the 3.9 value of silicon dioxide will allow increasing the physical thickness. Among the choices for the high dielectric constant (K) materials for future generation MOSFET application, barium strontium titanate (BST) and strontium titanate (STO) possess one of the highest attainable K values making them the promising candidates for alternative gate oxide. However, the gate stack engineering does not imply the simple replacement of the SiO2 with the new dielectric. Several requirements should be met for successful integration of a new material. The major one is a production of high level of interface states (Dit) compared to that of SiO 2 on Si. An insertion of a thin SiO2 layer prior the growth of high-K thin film is a simple solution that helps to limit reaction with Si substrate and attains a high quality interface. However, the combination of two thin films reduces the overall K of the dielectric stack. An optimization of the SiO2 underlayer in order to maintain the interface quality yet minimize the effect on K is the focus of this work. The results from our study are presented with emphasis on the key process parameters that improve the dielectric film stack. For in-situ growth characterization of BST and STO films sputter deposited on thermally oxidized Si substrates spectroscopic ellipsometry in combination with time of flight ion scattering and recoil spectrometry have been employed. Studies of material properties have been complemented with analytical electron microscopy. To evaluate the interface quality the electrical characterization has been employed using

  13. Dimensional scaling of perovskite ferroelectric thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keech, Ryan R.

    Dimensional size reduction has been the cornerstone of the exponential improvement in silicon based logic devices for decades. However, fundamental limits in the device physics were reached ˜2003, halting further reductions in clock speed without significant penalties in power consumption. This has motivated the research into next generation transistors and switching devices to reinstate the scaling laws for clock speed. This dissertation aims to support the scaling of devices that are based on ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity and to provide a roadmap for the corresponding materials performance. First, a scalable growth process to obtain highly {001}-oriented lead magnesium niobate - lead titanate (PMN-PT) thin films was developed, motivated by the high piezoelectric responses observed in bulk single crystals. It was found that deposition of a 2-3 nm thick PbO buffer layer on {111} Pt thin film bottom electrodes, prior to chemical solution deposition of PMN-PT reduces the driving force for Pb diffusion from the PMN-PT to the bottom electrode, and facilitates nucleation of {001}-oriented perovskite grains. Energy dispersive spectroscopy demonstrated that up to 10% of the Pb from a PMN-PT precursor solution may diffuse into the bottom electrode. PMN-PT grains with a mixed {101}/{111} orientation in a matrix of Pb-deficient pyrochlore phase were then promoted near the interface. When this is prevented, phase pure films with {001} orientation with Lotgering factors of 0.98-1.0, can be achieved. The resulting films of only 300 nm in thickness exhibit longitudinal effective d33,f coefficients of ˜90 pm/V and strain values of ˜1% prior to breakdown. 300 nm thick epitaxial and polycrystalline lead magnesium niobate - lead titanate (70PMN-30PT) blanket thin films were studied for the relative contributions to property thickness dependence from interfacial and grain boundary low permittivity layers. Epitaxial PMN-PT films were grown on SrRuO 3 /(001)SrTiO3, while

  14. Recent progress of obliquely deposited thin films for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Motofumi; Itoh, Tadayoshi; Taga, Yasunori

    1999-06-01

    More than 10 years ago, birefringent films of metal oxides were formed by oblique vapor deposition and investigated with a view of their application to optical retardation plates. The retardation function of the films was explained in terms of the birefringence caused by the characteristic anisotropic nanostructure inside the films. These films are now classified in the genre of the so-called sculptured thin films. However, the birefringent films thus prepared are not yet industrialized even now due to the crucial lack of the durability and the yield of products. In this review paper, we describe the present status of application process of the retardation films to the information systems such as compact disc and digital versatile disc devices with a special emphasis on the uniformity of retardation properties in a large area and the stability of the optical properties of the obliquely deposited thin films. Finally, further challenges for wide application of the obliquely deposited thin films are also discussed.

  15. Sputtered (barium(x), strontium(1-x))titanate, BST, thin films on flexible copper foils for use as a non-linear dielectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laughlin, Brian James

    O in this system. The study revealed the work of adhesion of Cu-BST, WCu-BSTa ≈ 0.60 J m-2, an intermediate value relative to noble metals commonly used as electrodes and substrates for electroceramics. Examination of metallic Zn-BST adhesion revealed a dramatic decrease of WZn-BSTa ≈ 0.13 J m-2, while increasing the content of Zn in metallic (Cux,Zn1-x) alloys monotonically reduced WCux,Zn1-x -BSTa . Conversely, a Cu-ZnO interface showed a large work of adhesion, WCu-ZnOa = 2.0 J m-2. These results indicate that a ZnO interlayer between the substrate Cu and the BST thin film provides adequate adhesion for robust films on flexible copper foil substrates. Additionally, this study provided characterization of adhesion for Zn-Al2O3 and Zn-BST; data that does not exist in the open literature. A process has been developed for preparing ultra-smooth copper foils by evaporation and subsequent peel-off of copper metal layers from glass slides. These 15 mum thick substrates exhibited roughness values between 1 and 2 nm RMS and 9 nm RMS over 25 mum2 and 100 mum2 analysis areas, respectively. The deposition and crystallization of BST layers on these ultra-smooth foils is demonstrated. The fully processed dielectric layers exhibited field tunability >5:1, and could withstand fields >750 kV cm-1. High field loss tangents below 0.007 were observed, making these materials excellent candidates for microwave devices. Finally, a process of lamination and contact lithography was used to demonstrate patterning of micron-scale features suitable for microwave circuit element designs.

  16. Thin Film Synthesis of New Complex Titanates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador, Paul

    2008-03-01

    Thin film deposition methods allow for one to synthesize rationally specific compositions in targeted crystal structures. Because most of the thermodynamic and kinetic variables that control the range of materials that can be synthesized are unknown for specific compounds/processes, epitaxial stabilization and design of artificially layered crystals are driven through empirical investigations. Using examples taken primarily from the family of complex titanates, which exhibit a range of interesting physicochemical behaviors, the thermodynamic and kinetic factors that control materials design using thin film deposition are discussed. The phase competition between the pyrochlore and the (110) layered perovskite structure in the RE2Ti2O7 family (RE = rare-earth, Bi) will be explored, using pulsed laser deposition as a synthesis method. For RE = Gd, Sm, Nd, and La, the phase stability over a wide range of conditions is dictated entirely by substrate choice, indicating that the free energies of the phases are similar enough such that by controlling nucleation one controls the phase formation. In a related fashion, the growth of AETi2O5 films (AE = Ba or Sr) will be discussed with respect to the formation of single-phase films or films that phase separate into AETiO3 and TiO2. The entire Ba1-xSrxTi2O5 series was grown and will be discussed with respect to growth technique (using MBE and PLD) and/or substrate choice. In this case, rock-salt substrates, which are not expected to interact strongly with any phase in the system, allow for the formation of single-phase films. Finally, several examples will be discussed with respect to the (SrO)m(TiO2)n system, which includes the perovskite SrTiO3 and the Ruddlesden-Popper phase Sr2TiO4, grown using layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy. The solid phase epitaxial formation of the perovskite SrTiO3 from superlattices of rock-salt SrO and anatase TiO2 is discussed from both a kinetic and thermodynamic perspective by exploring the

  17. Apparatus for laser assisted thin film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E.; McLean, II, William

    1996-01-01

    A pulsed laser deposition apparatus uses fiber optics to deliver visible output beams. One or more optical fibers are coupled to one or more laser sources, and delivers visible output beams to a single chamber, to multiple targets in the chamber or to multiple chambers. The laser can run uninterrupted if one of the deposition chambers ceases to operate because other chambers can continue their laser deposition processes. The laser source can be positioned at a remote location relative to the deposition chamber. The use of fiber optics permits multi-plexing. A pulsed visible laser beam is directed at a generally non-perpendicular angle upon the target in the chamber, generating a plume of ions and energetic neutral species. A portion of the plume is deposited on a substrate as a thin film. A pulsed visible output beam with a high pulse repetition frequency is used. The high pulse repetition frequency is greater than 500 Hz, and more preferably, greater than about 1000 Hz. Diamond-like-carbon (DLC) is one of the thin films produced using the apparatus.

  18. Stable organic thin-film transistors

    SciT

    Jia, Xiaojia; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Wang, Cheng-Yin

    2018-01-01

    Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) can be fabricated at moderate temperatures and through cost-effective solution-based processes on a wide range of low-cost flexible and deformable substrates. Although the charge mobility of state-of-the-art OTFTs is superior to that of amorphous silicon and approaches that of amorphous oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs), their operational stability generally remains inferior and a point of concern for their commercial deployment. We report on an exhaustive characterization of OTFTs with an ultrathin bilayer gate dielectric comprising the amorphous fluoropolymer CYTOP and an Al2O3:HfO2 nanolaminate. Threshold voltage shifts measured at room temperatureovertimeperiods upto5.9×105 s do not vary monotonically andmore » remain below 0.2 V in microcrystalline OTFTs (mc-OTFTs) with field-effect carrier mobility values up to 1.6 cm2 V−1 s−1. Modeling of these shifts as a function of time with a double stretched-exponential (DSE) function suggests that two compensating aging mechanisms are at play and responsible for this high stability. The measured threshold voltage shifts at temperatures up to 75°C represent at least a one-order-of-magnitude improvement in the operational stability over previous reports, bringing OTFT technologies to a performance level comparable to that reported in the scientific literature for other commercial TFTs technologies.« less

  19. Apparatus for laser assisted thin film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; McLean, W. II

    1996-02-13

    A pulsed laser deposition apparatus uses fiber optics to deliver visible output beams. One or more optical fibers are coupled to one or more laser sources, and delivers visible output beams to a single chamber, to multiple targets in the chamber or to multiple chambers. The laser can run uninterrupted if one of the deposition chambers ceases to operate because other chambers can continue their laser deposition processes. The laser source can be positioned at a remote location relative to the deposition chamber. The use of fiber optics permits multi-plexing. A pulsed visible laser beam is directed at a generally non-perpendicular angle upon the target in the chamber, generating a plume of ions and energetic neutral species. A portion of the plume is deposited on a substrate as a thin film. A pulsed visible output beam with a high pulse repetition frequency is used. The high pulse repetition frequency is greater than 500 Hz, and more preferably, greater than about 1000 Hz. Diamond-like-carbon (DLC) is one of the thin films produced using the apparatus. 9 figs.

  20. Stable organic thin-film transistors

    SciT

    Jia, Xiaojia; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Wang, Cheng-Yin

    Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) can be fabricated at moderate temperatures and through cost-effective solution-based processes on a wide range of low-cost flexible and deformable substrates. Although the charge mobility of state-of-the-art OTFTs is superior to that of amorphous silicon and approaches that of amorphous oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs), their operational stability generally remains inferior and a point of concern for their commercial deployment. We report on an exhaustive characterization of OTFTs with an ultrathin bilayer gate dielectric comprising the amorphous fluoropolymer CYTOP and an Al2O3:HfO2 nanolaminate. Threshold voltage shifts measured at room temperatureovertimeperiods upto5.9×105 s do not vary monotonically andmore » remain below 0.2 V in microcrystalline OTFTs (mc-OTFTs) with field-effect carrier mobility values up to 1.6 cm2 V-1 s-1. Modeling of these shifts as a function of time with a double stretched-exponential (DSE) function suggests that two compensating aging mechanisms are at play and responsible for this high stability. The measured threshold voltage shifts at temperatures up to 75°C represent at least a one-order-of-magnitude improvement in the operational stability over previous reports, bringing OTFT technologies to a performance level comparable to that reported in the scientific literature for other commercial TFTs technologies.« less

  1. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bates, J. B.; Gruzalski, G. R.; Dudney, N. J.; Luck, C. F.; Yu, X.

    1993-11-01

    Rechargeable thin films batteries with lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have been fabricated and characterized. The cathodes include TiS{sub 2}, the {omega} phase of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and the cubic spinel Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5 V, 3.7 V, and 4.2 V, respectively. The development of these robust cells, which can be cycled thousands of times, was possible because of the stability of the amorphous lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride. This material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25 C of 2 {mu}S/cm. Thin film cells have been cycled at 100% depth of discharge using current densities of 2 to 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. The polarization resistance of the cells is due to the slow insertion rate of Li{sup +} ions into the cathode. Chemical diffusion coefficients for Li{sup +} ions in the three types of cathodes have been estimated from the analysis of ac impedance measurements.

  2. Stable organic thin-film transistors

    DOE PAGES

    Jia, Xiaojia; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Wang, Cheng-Yin; ...

    2018-01-12

    Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) can be fabricated at moderate temperatures and through cost-effective solution-based processes on a wide range of low-cost flexible and deformable substrates. Although the charge mobility of state-of-the-art OTFTs is superior to that of amorphous silicon and approaches that of amorphous oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs), their operational stability generally remains inferior and a point of concern for their commercial deployment. We report on an exhaustive characterization of OTFTs with an ultrathin bilayer gate dielectric comprising the amorphous fluoropolymer CYTOP and an Al2O3:HfO2 nanolaminate. Threshold voltage shifts measured at room temperatureovertimeperiods upto5.9×105 s do not vary monotonically andmore » remain below 0.2 V in microcrystalline OTFTs (mc-OTFTs) with field-effect carrier mobility values up to 1.6 cm2 V-1 s-1. Modeling of these shifts as a function of time with a double stretched-exponential (DSE) function suggests that two compensating aging mechanisms are at play and responsible for this high stability. The measured threshold voltage shifts at temperatures up to 75°C represent at least a one-order-of-magnitude improvement in the operational stability over previous reports, bringing OTFT technologies to a performance level comparable to that reported in the scientific literature for other commercial TFTs technologies.« less

  3. Stable organic thin-film transistors

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xiaojia; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Wang, Cheng-Yin; Park, Youngrak; Kippelen, Bernard

    2018-01-01

    Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) can be fabricated at moderate temperatures and through cost-effective solution-based processes on a wide range of low-cost flexible and deformable substrates. Although the charge mobility of state-of-the-art OTFTs is superior to that of amorphous silicon and approaches that of amorphous oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs), their operational stability generally remains inferior and a point of concern for their commercial deployment. We report on an exhaustive characterization of OTFTs with an ultrathin bilayer gate dielectric comprising the amorphous fluoropolymer CYTOP and an Al2O3:HfO2 nanolaminate. Threshold voltage shifts measured at room temperature over time periods up to 5.9 × 105 s do not vary monotonically and remain below 0.2 V in microcrystalline OTFTs (μc-OTFTs) with field-effect carrier mobility values up to 1.6 cm2 V−1 s−1. Modeling of these shifts as a function of time with a double stretched-exponential (DSE) function suggests that two compensating aging mechanisms are at play and responsible for this high stability. The measured threshold voltage shifts at temperatures up to 75°C represent at least a one-order-of-magnitude improvement in the operational stability over previous reports, bringing OTFT technologies to a performance level comparable to that reported in the scientific literature for other commercial TFTs technologies. PMID:29340301

  4. Method of improving field emission characteristics of diamond thin films

    DOEpatents

    Krauss, Alan R.; Gruen, Dieter M.

    1999-01-01

    A method of preparing diamond thin films with improved field emission properties. The method includes preparing a diamond thin film on a substrate, such as Mo, W, Si and Ni. An atmosphere of hydrogen (molecular or atomic) can be provided above the already deposited film to form absorbed hydrogen to reduce the work function and enhance field emission properties of the diamond film. In addition, hydrogen can be absorbed on intergranular surfaces to enhance electrical conductivity of the diamond film. The treated diamond film can be part of a microtip array in a flat panel display.

  5. Method of improving field emission characteristics of diamond thin films

    DOEpatents

    Krauss, A.R.; Gruen, D.M.

    1999-05-11

    A method of preparing diamond thin films with improved field emission properties is disclosed. The method includes preparing a diamond thin film on a substrate, such as Mo, W, Si and Ni. An atmosphere of hydrogen (molecular or atomic) can be provided above the already deposited film to form absorbed hydrogen to reduce the work function and enhance field emission properties of the diamond film. In addition, hydrogen can be absorbed on intergranular surfaces to enhance electrical conductivity of the diamond film. The treated diamond film can be part of a microtip array in a flat panel display. 3 figs.

  6. Tensile testing of thin-film microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greek, Staffan; Johansson, Stefan A. I.

    1997-09-01

    The mechanical properties of thin film microstructures depend on size and shape and on the film manufacturing process. Hence, the test structures that are used to measure mechanical properties should have dimensions of the same order of magnitude as an application structure. The microstructures are easily monitored in a scanning electron microscope (SEM), but to be handled and tested in situ a micromanipulator was developed. The parts of the micromanipulator essential to the tests are two independently moveable tables driven by electric motors. The test structures and a testing unit are mounted on the tables. A testing unit was designed to measure force and displacement with high resolution. The testing unit consists of an arm actuated by a piezoelectric element and equipped with a probe. An optical encoder measures the movement of the arm, while strain gauges measure the force in the arm. Test structures consist typically of a released beam fixed at one end with a ring at the other. The micromanipulator is used to position the probe of the testing unit in the ring. The testing unit then executed a tensile test of the beam. Test structures of polysilicon films produced under various process conditions were used to verify the possibility of measuring Young's modulus with an accuracy of +/- 5 percent, as well as fracture strength.Young's modulus is calculated using the difference in elongation for different beam lengths. The fracture strength of the beams was evaluated with Weibull statistics.

  7. Microstructural and mechanical characteristics of Ni–Cr thin films

    SciT

    Petley, Vijay; Sathishkumar, S.; Thulasi Raman, K.H.

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Ni–Cr thin films of varied composition deposited by DC magnetron co-sputtering. • Thin film with Ni–Cr: 80–20 at% composition exhibits most distinct behavior. • The films were tensile tested and exhibited no cracking till the substrate yielding. - Abstract: Ni–Cr alloy thin films have been deposited using magnetron co-sputtering technique at room temperature. Crystal structure was evaluated using GIXRD. Ni–Cr solid solution upto 40 at% of Cr exhibited fcc solid solution of Cr in Ni and beyond that it exhibited bcc solid solution of Ni in Cr. X-ray diffraction analysis shows formation of (1 1 1) fiber texturemore » in fcc and (2 2 0) fiber texture in bcc Ni–Cr thin films. Electron microscopy in both in-plane and transverse direction of the film surface revealed the presence of columnar microstructure for films having Cr upto 40 at%. Mechanical properties of the films are evaluated using nanoindentation. The modulus values increased with increase of Cr at% till the film is fcc. With further increase in Cr at% the modulus values decreased. Ni–Cr film with 20 at% Ni exhibits reduction in modulus and is correlated to the poor crystallization of the film as reflected in XRD analysis. The Ni–Cr thin film with 80 at% Ni and 20 at% Cr exhibited the most distinct columnar structure with highest electrical resistivity, indentation hardness and elastic modulus.« less

  8. Applications of Thin Film Thermocouples for Surface Temperature Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Lisa C.; Holanda, Raymond

    1994-01-01

    Thin film thermocouples provide a minimally intrusive means of measuring surface temperature in hostile, high temperature environments. Unlike wire thermocouples, thin films do not necessitate any machining of the surface, therefore leaving intact its structural integrity. Thin films are many orders of magnitude thinner than wire, resulting in less disruption to the gas flow and thermal patterns that exist in the operating environment. Thin film thermocouples have been developed for surface temperature measurement on a variety of engine materials. The sensors are fabricated in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Thin Film Sensor Lab, which is a class 1000 clean room. The thermocouples are platinum-13 percent rhodium versus platinum and are fabricated by the sputtering process. Thin film-to-leadwire connections are made using the parallel-gap welding process. Thermocouples have been developed for use on superalloys, ceramics and ceramic composites, and intermetallics. Some applications of thin film thermocouples are: temperature measurement of space shuttle main engine turbine blade materials, temperature measurement in gas turbine engine testing of advanced materials, and temperature and heat flux measurements in a diesel engine. Fabrication of thin film thermocouples is described. Sensor durability, drift rate, and maximum temperature capabilities are addressed.

  9. Stretchable, adhesive and ultra-conformable elastomer thin films.

    PubMed

    Sato, Nobutaka; Murata, Atsushi; Fujie, Toshinori; Takeoka, Shinji

    2016-11-16

    Thermoplastic elastomers are attractive materials because of the drastic changes in their physical properties above and below the glass transition temperature (T g ). In this paper, we report that free-standing polystyrene (PS, T g : 100 °C) and polystyrene-polybutadiene-polystyrene triblock copolymer (SBS, T g : -70 °C) thin films with a thickness of hundreds of nanometers were prepared by a gravure coating method. Among the mechanical properties of these thin films determined by bulge testing and tensile testing, the SBS thin films exhibited a much lower elastic modulus (ca. 0.045 GPa, 212 nm thickness) in comparison with the PS thin films (ca. 1.19 GPa, 217 nm thickness). The lower elastic modulus and lower thickness of the SBS thin films resulted in higher conformability and thus higher strength of adhesion to an uneven surface such as an artificial skin model with roughness (R a = 10.6 μm), even though they both have similar surface energies. By analyzing the mechanical properties of the SBS thin films, the elastic modulus and thickness of the thin films were strongly correlated with their conformability to a rough surface, which thus led to a high adhesive strength. Therefore, the SBS thin films will be useful as coating layers for a variety of materials.

  10. Tools to Synthesize the Learning of Thin Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas, Roberto; Fuster, Gonzalo; Slusarenko, Viktor

    2011-01-01

    After a review of textbooks written for undergraduate courses in physics, we have found that discussions on thin films are mostly incomplete. They consider the reflected and not the transmitted light for two instead of the four types of thin films. In this work, we complement the discussion in elementary textbooks, by analysing the phase…

  11. Piezoelectric MEMS: Ferroelectric thin films for MEMS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanno, Isaku

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have attracted attention as next-generation functional microdevices. Typical applications of piezoelectric MEMS are micropumps for inkjet heads or micro-gyrosensors, which are composed of piezoelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films and have already been commercialized. In addition, piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters (PVEHs), which are regarded as one of the key devices for Internet of Things (IoT)-related technologies, are promising future applications of piezoelectric MEMS. Significant features of piezoelectric MEMS are their simple structure and high energy conversion efficiency between mechanical and electrical domains even on the microscale. The device performance strongly depends on the function of the piezoelectric thin films, especially on their transverse piezoelectric properties, indicating that the deposition of high-quality piezoelectric thin films is a crucial technology for piezoelectric MEMS. On the other hand, although the difficulty in measuring the precise piezoelectric coefficients of thin films is a serious obstacle in the research and development of piezoelectric thin films, a simple unimorph cantilever measurement method has been proposed to obtain precise values of the direct or converse transverse piezoelectric coefficient of thin films, and recently this method has become to be the standardized testing method. In this article, I will introduce fundamental technologies of piezoelectric thin films and related microdevices, especially focusing on the deposition of PZT thin films and evaluation methods for their transverse piezoelectric properties.

  12. Magnetic damping phenomena in ferromagnetic thin-films and multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzawi, S.; Hindmarch, A. T.; Atkinson, D.

    2017-11-01

    Damped ferromagnetic precession is an important mechanism underpinning the magnetisation processes in ferromagnetic materials. In thin-film ferromagnets and ferromagnetic/non-magnetic multilayers, the role of precession and damping can be critical for spintronic device functionality and as a consequence there has been significant research activity. This paper presents a review of damping in ferromagnetic thin-films and multilayers and collates the results of many experimental studies to present a coherent synthesis of the field. The terms that are used to define damping are discussed with the aim of providing consistent definitions for damping phenomena. A description of the theoretical basis of damping is presented from early developments to the latest discussions of damping in ferromagnetic thin-films and multilayers. An overview of the time and frequency domain methods used to study precessional magnetisation behaviour and damping in thin-films and multilayers is also presented. Finally, a review of the experimental observations of magnetic damping in ferromagnetic thin-films and multilayers is presented with the most recent explanations. This brings together the results from many studies and includes the effects of ferromagnetic film thickness, the effects of composition on damping in thin-film ferromagnetic alloys, the influence of non-magnetic dopants in ferromagnetic films and the effects of combining thin-film ferromagnets with various non-magnetic layers in multilayered configurations.

  13. Atomic-scale visualization of oxide thin-film surfaces.

    PubMed

    Iwaya, Katsuya; Ohsawa, Takeo; Shimizu, Ryota; Okada, Yoshinori; Hitosugi, Taro

    2018-01-01

    The interfaces of complex oxide heterostructures exhibit intriguing phenomena not observed in their constituent materials. The oxide thin-film growth of such heterostructures has been successfully controlled with unit-cell precision; however, atomic-scale understandings of oxide thin-film surfaces and interfaces have remained insufficient. We examined, with atomic precision, the surface and electronic structures of oxide thin films and their growth processes using low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. Our results reveal that oxide thin-film surface structures are complicated in contrast to the general perception and that atomically ordered surfaces can be achieved with careful attention to the surface preparation. Such atomically ordered oxide thin-film surfaces offer great opportunities not only for investigating the microscopic origins of interfacial phenomena but also for exploring new surface phenomena and for studying the electronic states of complex oxides that are inaccessible using bulk samples.

  14. Room temperature ferroelectricity in continuous croconic acid thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xuanyuan; Lu, Haidong; Yin, Yuewei; Zhang, Xiaozhe; Wang, Xiao; Yu, Le; Ahmadi, Zahra; Costa, Paulo S.; DiChiara, Anthony D.; Cheng, Xuemei; Gruverman, Alexei; Enders, Axel; Xu, Xiaoshan

    2016-09-01

    Ferroelectricity at room temperature has been demonstrated in nanometer-thin quasi 2D croconic acid thin films, by the polarization hysteresis loop measurements in macroscopic capacitor geometry, along with observation and manipulation of the nanoscale domain structure by piezoresponse force microscopy. The fabrication of continuous thin films of the hydrogen-bonded croconic acid was achieved by the suppression of the thermal decomposition using low evaporation temperatures in high vacuum, combined with growth conditions far from thermal equilibrium. For nominal coverages ≥20 nm, quasi 2D and polycrystalline films, with an average grain size of 50-100 nm and 3.5 nm roughness, can be obtained. Spontaneous ferroelectric domain structures of the thin films have been observed and appear to correlate with the grain patterns. The application of this solvent-free growth protocol may be a key to the development of flexible organic ferroelectric thin films for electronic applications.

  15. Tailoring Thin Film-Lacquer Coatings for Space Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Wanda C.; Harris, George; Miller, Grace; Petro, John

    1998-01-01

    Thin film coatings have the capability of obtaining a wide range of thermal radiative properties, but the development of thin film coatings can sometimes be difficult and costly when trying to achieve highly specular surfaces. Given any space mission's thermal control requirements, there is often a need for a variation of solar absorptance (Alpha(s)), emittance (epsilon) and/or highly specular surfaces. The utilization of thin film coatings is one process of choice for meeting challenging thermal control requirements because of its ability to provide a wide variety of Alpha(s)/epsilon ratios. Thin film coatings' radiative properties can be tailored to meet specific thermal control requirements through the use of different metals and the variation of dielectric layer thickness. Surface coatings can be spectrally selective to enhance radiative coupling and decoupling. The application of lacquer to a surface can also provide suitable specularity for thin film application without the cost and difficulty associated with polishing.

  16. Method of producing solution-derived metal oxide thin films

    DOEpatents

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Ingersoll, David

    2000-01-01

    A method of preparing metal oxide thin films by a solution method. A .beta.-metal .beta.-diketonate or carboxylate compound, where the metal is selected from groups 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 of the Periodic Table, is solubilized in a strong Lewis base to form a homogeneous solution. This precursor solution forms within minutes and can be deposited on a substrate in a single layer or a multiple layers to form a metal oxide thin film. The substrate with the deposited thin film is heated to change the film from an amorphous phase to a ceramic metal oxide and cooled.

  17. Compositions of Mg and Se, surface morphology, roughness and Raman property of Zn1-xMgxSeyTe1-y layers grown at various substrate temperatures or dopant transport rates by MOVPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio, Mitsuhiro; Saito, Katsuhiko; Urata, Kensuke; Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Daichi; Araki, Yasuhiro; Abiru, Masakatsu; Mori, Eiichiro; Tanaka, Tooru; Guo, Qixin

    2015-03-01

    The growth of undoped and phosphorus (P)-doped Zn1-xMgxSeyTe1-y layers on (100) ZnTe substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy was carried out. The compositions of Mg and Se, surface morphology, roughness and Raman property were characterized as a function of substrate temperature. Not only the compositions of Mg and Se but also the crystal quality of undoped Zn1-xMgxSeyTe1-y layer strongly depended upon the substrate temperature. Furthermore, the growth of Zn1-xMgxSeyTe1-y layer nearly-lattice-matched to ZnTe substrate was achieved independent of the transport rate of trisdimethylaminophosphorus. Undoped Zn1-xMgxSeyTe1-y layer nearly-lattice-matched to ZnTe led to improvement of surface roughness. On the other hand, P doping brought about deterioration of crystalline quality.

  18. Specific features of the structural and magnetic states of a Zn1 - x Ni x Se crystal ( x = 0.0025) at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinin, S. F.; Sokolov, V. I.; Parkhomenko, V. D.; Teploukhov, S. G.; Gruzdev, N. B.

    2008-12-01

    The magnetic state and the structure of a Zn1 - x Ni x Se ( x = 0.0025) bulk crystal were studied at low temperatures. It is revealed that the magnetic and crystal structures below T ≅ 15 K are dependent on the cooling rate of this dilute semiconductor. For example, on fast cooling to 4.2 K, about 10% hexagonal ferromagnetic phase is formed in the crystal. During heating, the phase disappears at T ≅ 15 K. The results obtained are discussed with allowance for the specific features of the Jahn-Teller distortions in this compound.

  19. An overview of thin film nitinol endovascular devices.

    PubMed

    Shayan, Mahdis; Chun, Youngjae

    2015-07-01

    Thin film nitinol has unique mechanical properties (e.g., superelasticity), excellent biocompatibility, and ultra-smooth surface, as well as shape memory behavior. All these features along with its low-profile physical dimension (i.e., a few micrometers thick) make this material an ideal candidate in developing low-profile medical devices (e.g., endovascular devices). Thin film nitinol-based devices can be collapsed and inserted in remarkably smaller diameter catheters for a wide range of catheter-based procedures; therefore, it can be easily delivered through highly tortuous or narrow vascular system. A high-quality thin film nitinol can be fabricated by vacuum sputter deposition technique. Micromachining techniques were used to create micro patterns on the thin film nitinol to provide fenestrations for nutrition and oxygen transport and to increase the device's flexibility for the devices used as thin film nitinol covered stent. In addition, a new surface treatment method has been developed for improving the hemocompatibility of thin film nitinol when it is used as a graft material in endovascular devices. Both in vitro and in vivo test data demonstrated a superior hemocompatibility of the thin film nitinol when compared with commercially available endovascular graft materials such as ePTFE or Dacron polyester. Promising features like these have motivated the development of thin film nitinol as a novel biomaterial for creating endovascular devices such as stent grafts, neurovascular flow diverters, and heart valves. This review focuses on thin film nitinol fabrication processes, mechanical and biological properties of the material, as well as current and potential thin film nitinol medical applications. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Novel photon management for thin-film photovoltaics

    SciT

    Menon, Rajesh

    2016-11-11

    The objective of this project is to enable commercially viable thin-film photovoltaics whose efficiencies are increased by over 10% using a novel optical spectral-separation technique. A thin planar diffractive optic is proposed that efficiently separates the solar spectrum and assigns these bands to optimal thin-film sub-cells. An integrated device that is comprised of the optical element, an array of sub-cells and associated packaging is proposed.

  1. Altering properties of cerium oxide thin films by Rh doping

    SciT

    Ševčíková, Klára, E-mail: klarak.sevcikova@seznam.cz; NIMS Beamline Station at SPring-8, National Institute for Materials Science, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148; Nehasil, Václav, E-mail: nehasil@mbox.troja.mff.cuni.cz

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Thin films of ceria doped by rhodium deposited by RF magnetron sputtering. • Concentration of rhodium has great impact on properties of Rh–CeO{sub x} thin films. • Intensive oxygen migration in films with low concentration of rhodium. • Oxygen migration suppressed in films with high amount of Rh dopants. - Abstract: Ceria containing highly dispersed ions of rhodium is a promising material for catalytic applications. The Rh–CeO{sub x} thin films with different concentrations of rhodium were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and were studied by soft and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, Temperature programmed reaction and X-ray powder diffractionmore » techniques. The sputtered films consist of rhodium–cerium mixed oxide where cerium exhibits a mixed valency of Ce{sup 4+} and Ce{sup 3+} and rhodium occurs in two oxidation states, Rh{sup 3+} and Rh{sup n+}. We show that the concentration of rhodium has a great influence on the chemical composition, structure and reducibility of the Rh–CeO{sub x} thin films. The films with low concentrations of rhodium are polycrystalline, while the films with higher amount of Rh dopants are amorphous. The morphology of the films strongly influences the mobility of oxygen in the material. Therefore, varying the concentration of rhodium in Rh–CeO{sub x} thin films leads to preparing materials with different properties.« less

  2. Thin film coatings for space electrical power system applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, Daniel A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines some of the ways in which thin film coatings can play a role in aerospace applications. Space systems discussed include photovoltaic and solar dynamic electric power generation systems, including applications in environmental protection, thermal energy storage, and radiator emittance enhancement. Potential applications of diamondlike films to both atmospheric and space based systems are examined. Also, potential uses of thin films of the recently discovered high-temperature superconductive materials are discussed.

  3. Thin film coatings for space electrical power system applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, Daniel A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines some of the ways in which thin film coatings can play a role in aerospace applications. Space systems discussed include photovoltaic and solar dynamic electric power generation systems, including applications in environmental protection, thermal energy storage, and radiator emittance enhancement. Potential applications of diamondlike films to both atmospheric and space based systems are examined. Also, potential uses of thin films of the recently discovered high-temperature superconductive materials are discussed.

  4. Patterns and conformations in molecularly thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basnet, Prem B.

    Molecularly thin films have been a subject of great interest for the last several years because of their large variety of industrial applications ranging from micro-electronics to bio-medicine. Additionally, molecularly thin films can be used as good models for biomembrane and other systems where surfaces are critical. Many different kinds of molecules can make stable films. My research has considered three such molecules: a polymerizable phospholipid, a bent-core molecules, and a polymer. One common theme of these three molecules is chirality. The phospolipid molecules studied here are strongly chiral, which can be due to intrinsically chiral centers on the molecules and also due to chiral conformations. We find that these molecules give rise to chiral patterns. Bent-core molecules are not intrinsically chiral, but individual molecules and groups of molecules can show chiral structures, which can be changed by surface interactions. One major, unconfirmed hypothesis for the polymer conformation at surface is that it forms helices, which would be chiral. Most experiments were carried out at the air/water interface, in what are called Langmuir films. Our major tools for studying these films are Brewster Angle Microscopy (BAM) coupled with the thermodynamic information that can be deduced from surface pressure isotherms. Phospholipids are one of the important constituents of liposomes -- a spherical vesicle com-posed of a bilayer membrane, typically composed of a phospholipid and cholesterol bilayer. The application of liposomes in drug delivery is well-known. Crumpling of vesicles of polymerizable phospholipids has been observed. With BAM, on Langmuir films of such phospholipids, we see novel spiral/target patterns during compression. We have found that both the patterns and the critical pressure at which they formed depend on temperature (below the transition to a i¬‘uid layer). Bent-core liquid crystals, sometimes knows as banana liquid crystals, have drawn

  5. Thin film femtosecond laser damage competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolz, Christopher J.; Ristau, Detlev; Turowski, Marcus; Blaschke, Holger

    2009-10-01

    In order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors, a damage competition was started at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state of the art of high laser resistance coatings since they are tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. In 2009 a high reflector coating was selected at a wavelength of 786 nm at normal incidence at a pulse length of 180 femtoseconds. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials and layer count, and spectral results will also be shared.

  6. Resonant Raman spectra of diindenoperylene thin films.

    PubMed

    Scholz, R; Gisslén, L; Schuster, B-E; Casu, M B; Chassé, T; Heinemeyer, U; Schreiber, F

    2011-01-07

    Resonant and preresonant Raman spectra obtained on diindenoperylene (DIP) thin films are interpreted with calculations of the deformation of a relaxed excited molecule with density functional theory (DFT). The comparison of excited state geometries based on time-dependent DFT or on a constrained DFT scheme with observed absorption spectra of dissolved DIP reveals that the deformation pattern deduced from constrained DFT is more reliable. Most observed Raman peaks can be assigned to calculated A(g)-symmetric breathing modes of DIP or their combinations. As the position of one of the laser lines used falls into a highly structured absorption band, we have carefully analyzed the Raman excitation profile arising from the frequency dependence of the dielectric tensor. This procedure gives Raman cross sections in good agreement with the observed relative intensities, both in the fully resonant and in the preresonant case.

  7. Multiferroics and magnetoelectrics: thin films and nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, L. W.; Crane, S. P.; Chu, Y.-H.; Holcomb, M. B.; Gajek, M.; Huijben, M.; Yang, C.-H.; Balke, N.; Ramesh, R.

    2008-10-01

    Multiferroic materials, or materials that simultaneously possess two or more ferroic order parameters, have returned to the forefront of materials research. Driven by the desire to achieve new functionalities—such as electrical control of ferromagnetism at room temperature—researchers have undertaken a concerted effort to identify and understand the complexities of multiferroic materials. The ability to create high quality thin film multiferroics stands as one of the single most important landmarks in this flurry of research activity. In this review we discuss the basics of multiferroics including the important order parameters and magnetoelectric coupling in materials. We then discuss in detail the growth of single phase, horizontal multilayer, and vertical heterostructure multiferroics. The review ends with a look to the future and how multiferroics can be used to create new functionalities in materials.

  8. Room temperature ferroelectricity in fluoroperovskite thin films.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Kc, Amit; Garcia-Castro, A C; Borisov, Pavel; Bousquet, E; Lederman, David; Romero, Aldo H; Cen, Cheng

    2017-08-03

    The NaMnF 3 fluoride-perovskite has been found, theoretically, to be ferroelectric under epitaxial strain becoming a promising alternative to conventional oxides for multiferroic applications. Nevertheless, this fluoroperovskite has not been experimentally verified to be ferroelectric so far. Here we report signatures of room temperature ferroelectricity observed in perovskite NaMnF 3 thin films grown on SrTiO 3 . Using piezoresponse force microscopy, we studied the evolution of ferroelectric polarization in response to external and built-in electric fields. Density functional theory calculations were also performed to help understand the strong competition between ferroelectric and paraelectric phases as well as the profound influences of strain. These results, together with the magnetic order previously reported in the same material, pave the way to future multiferroic and magnetoelectric investigations in fluoroperovskites.

  9. Nonlinear optics of astaxanthin thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esser, A.; Fisch, Herbert; Haas, Karl-Heinz; Haedicke, E.; Paust, J.; Schrof, Wolfgang; Ticktin, Anton

    1993-02-01

    Carotinoids exhibit large nonlinear optical properties due to their extended (pi) -electron system. Compared to other polyenes which show a broad distribution of conjugation lengths, carotinoids exhibit a well defined molecular structure, i.e. a well defined conjugation length. Therefore the carotinoid molecules can serve as model compounds to study the relationship between structure and nonlinear optical properties. In this paper the synthesis of four astaxanthins with C-numbers ranging from 30 to 60, their preparation into thin films, wavelength dispersive Third Harmonic Generation (THG) measurements and some molecular modelling calculations will be presented. Resonant (chi) (3) values reach 1.2(DOT)10-10 esu for C60 astaxanthin. In the nonresonant regime a figure of merit (chi) (3)/(alpha) of several 10-13 esu-cm is demonstrated.

  10. Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortunato, E.; Barquinha, P.; Pimentel, A.; Gonçalves, A.; Marques, A.; Pereira, L.; Martins, R.

    ZnO thin film transistors (ZnO-TFT) have been fabricated by rf magnetron sputtering at room temperature with a bottom-gate configuration. The ZnO-TFT operates in the enhancement mode with a threshold voltage of 21 V, a field effect mobility of 20 cm2/Vs, a gate voltage swing of 1.24 V/decade and an on/off ratio of 2×105. The ZnO-TFT present an average optical transmission (including the glass substrate) of 80 % in the visible part of the spectrum. The combination of transparency, high channel mobility and room temperature processing makes the ZnO-TFT a very promising low cost optoelectronic device for the next generation of invisible and flexible electronics. Moreover, the processing technology used to fabricate this device is relatively simple and it is compatible with inexpensive plastic/flexible substrate technology.

  11. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    DOEpatents

    Mickelsen, R.A.; Chen, W.S.

    1985-06-11

    Disclosed is a thin film heterojunction solar cell, said heterojunction comprising a p-type I-III-IV[sub 2] chalcopyrite substrate and an overlying layer of an n-type ternary mixed metal compound wherein said ternary mixed metal compound is applied to said substrate by introducing the vapor of a first metal compound to a vessel containing said substrate from a first vapor source while simultaneously introducing a vapor of a second metal compound from a second vapor source of said vessel, said first and second metals comprising the metal components of said mixed metal compound; independently controlling the vaporization rate of said first and second vapor sources; reducing the mean free path between vapor particles in said vessel, said gas being present in an amount sufficient to induce homogeneity of said vapor mixture; and depositing said mixed metal compound on said substrate in the form of a uniform composition polycrystalline mixed metal compound. 5 figs.

  12. Photonic Diagnostic Technique For Thin Photoactive Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita

    1996-01-01

    Photonic diagnostic technique developed for use in noninvasive, rapid evaluation of thin paraelectric/ferroelectric films. Method proves useful in basic research, on-line monitoring for quality control at any stage of fabrication, and development of novel optoelectronic systems. Used to predict imprint-prone memory cells, and to study time evolution of defects in ferroelectric memories during processing. Plays vital role in enabling high-density ferroelectric memory manufacturing. One potential application lies in use of photoresponse for nondestructive readout of polarization memory states in high-density, high-speed memory devices. In another application, extension of basic concept of method makes possible to develop specially tailored ferrocapacitor to act as programmable detector, wherein remanent polarization used to modulate photoresponse. Large arrays of such detectors useful in optoelectronic processing, computing, and communication.

  13. Resonant Raman spectra of diindenoperylene thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, R.; Gisslén, L.; Schuster, B.-E.; Casu, M. B.; Chassé, T.; Heinemeyer, U.; Schreiber, F.

    2011-01-01

    Resonant and preresonant Raman spectra obtained on diindenoperylene (DIP) thin films are interpreted with calculations of the deformation of a relaxed excited molecule with density functional theory (DFT). The comparison of excited state geometries based on time-dependent DFT or on a constrained DFT scheme with observed absorption spectra of dissolved DIP reveals that the deformation pattern deduced from constrained DFT is more reliable. Most observed Raman peaks can be assigned to calculated A_g-symmetric breathing modes of DIP or their combinations. As the position of one of the laser lines used falls into a highly structured absorption band, we have carefully analyzed the Raman excitation profile arising from the frequency dependence of the dielectric tensor. This procedure gives Raman cross sections in good agreement with the observed relative intensities, both in the fully resonant and in the preresonant case.

  14. PZT thin film actuated elastic fin micromotor.

    PubMed

    Dubois, M A; Muralt, P

    1998-01-01

    A piezoelectric elastic fin micromotor based on a PbZr(0.53 )Ti(0.47)O(3) thin film driving a micromachined silicon membrane was fabricated and studied. The stator was characterized by interferometry, and a laser set-up was used to measure the angular velocity and acceleration of the motor. The torque, the output power, and the efficiency of the device were extracted from these measurements. Values up to 1020 rpm and 0.94 microNm were observed for the velocity and the torque, respectively, which would be sufficient for a wristwatch application. The present version exhibited an efficiency of 0.17%, which could theoretically be increased to 4.8%

  15. Glow discharge plasma deposition of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Weakliem, Herbert A.; Vossen, Jr., John L.

    1984-05-29

    A glow discharge plasma reactor for deposition of thin films from a reactive RF glow discharge is provided with a screen positioned between the walls of the chamber and the cathode to confine the glow discharge region to within the region defined by the screen and the cathode. A substrate for receiving deposition material from a reactive gas is positioned outside the screened region. The screen is electrically connected to the system ground to thereby serve as the anode of the system. The energy of the reactive gas species is reduced as they diffuse through the screen to the substrate. Reactive gas is conducted directly into the glow discharge region through a centrally positioned distribution head to reduce contamination effects otherwise caused by secondary reaction products and impurities deposited on the reactor walls.

  16. Simple turbulence measurements with azopolymer thin films.

    PubMed

    Barillé, Regis; Pérez, Darío G; Morille, Yohann; Zielińska, Sonia; Ortyl, Ewelina

    2013-04-01

    A simple method to measure the influence on the laser beam propagation by a turbid medium is proposed. This measurement is based on the inscription of a surface relief grating (SRG) on an azopolymer thin film. The grating obtained with a single laser beam after propagation into a turbulent medium is perturbed and directly analyzed by a CCD camera through its diffraction pattern. Later, by scanning the surface pattern with an atomic force microscope, the inscribed SRG is analyzed with the Radon transform. This method has the advantage of using a single beam to remotely inscribe a grating detecting perturbations during the beam path. A method to evaluate the refractive index constant structure is developed.

  17. Transferable and flexible thin film devices for engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutyala, Madhu Santosh K.; Zhou, Jingzhou; Li, Xiaochun

    2014-05-01

    Thin film devices can be of significance for manufacturing, energy conversion systems, solid state electronics, wireless applications, etc. However, these thin film sensors/devices are normally fabricated on rigid silicon substrates, thus neither flexible nor transferrable for engineering applications. This paper reports an innovative approach to transfer polyimide (PI) embedded thin film devices, which were fabricated on glass, to thin metal foils. Thin film thermocouples (TFTCs) were fabricated on a thin PI film, which was spin coated and cured on a glass substrate. Another layer of PI film was then spin coated again on TFTC/PI and cured to obtain the embedded TFTCs. Assisted by oxygen plasma surface coarsening of the PI film on the glass substrate, the PI embedded TFTC was successfully transferred from the glass substrate to a flexible copper foil. To demonstrate the functionality of the flexible embedded thin film sensors, they were transferred to the sonotrode tip of an ultrasonic metal welding machine for in situ process monitoring. The dynamic temperatures near the sonotrode tip were effectively measured under various ultrasonic vibration amplitudes. This technique of transferring polymer embedded electronic devices onto metal foils yield great potentials for numerous engineering applications.

  18. The Characterization of Thin Film Nickel Titanium Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris Odum, Nicole Latrice

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) are able to recover their original shape through the appropriate heat or stress exposure after enduring mechanical deformation at a low temperature. Numerous alloy systems have been discovered which produce this unique feature like TiNb, AgCd, NiAl, NiTi, and CuZnAl. Since their discovery, bulk scale SMAs have undergone extensive material property investigations and are employed in real world applications. However, its thin film counterparts have been modestly investigated and applied. Researchers have introduced numerous theoretical microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices; yet, the research community's overall unfamiliarity with the thin film properties has delayed growth in this area. In addition, it has been difficult to outline efficient thin film processing techniques. In this dissertation, NiTi thin film processing and characterization techniques will be outlined and discussed. NiTi thin films---1 mum thick---were produced using sputter deposition techniques. Substrate bound thin films were deposited to analysis the surface using Scanning Electron Microscopy; the film composition was obtained using Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy; the phases were identified using X-ray diffraction; and the transformation temperatures acquired using resistivity testing. Microfabrication processing and sputter deposition were employed to develop tensile membranes for membrane deflection experimentation to gain insight on the mechanical properties of the thin films. The incorporation of these findings will aid in the movement of SMA microactuation devices from theory to fruition and greatly benefit industries such as medicinal and aeronautical.

  19. Thin Film Approaches to the SRF Cavity Problem Fabrication and Characterization of Superconducting Thin Films

    SciT

    Beringer, Douglas

    Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities are responsible for the acceleration of charged particles to relativistic velocities in most modern linear accelerators, such as those employed at high-energy research facilities like Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory’s CEBAF and the LHC at CERN. Recognizing SRF as primarily a surface phenomenon enables the possibility of applying thin films to the interior surface of SRF cavities, opening a formidable tool chest of opportunities by combining and designing materials that offer greater performance benefit. Thus, while improvements in radio frequency cavity design and refinements in cavity processing techniques have improved accelerator performance and efficiency – 1.5more » GHz bulk niobium SRF cavities have achieved accelerating gradients in excess of 35 MV/m – there exist fundamental material bounds in bulk superconductors limiting the maximally sustained accelerating field gradient (≈ 45 MV/m for Nb) where inevitable thermodynamic breakdown occurs. With state of the art Nb based cavity design fast approaching these theoretical limits, novel material innovations must be sought in order to realize next generation SRF cavities. One proposed method to improve SRF performance is to utilize thin film superconducting-insulating-superconducting (SIS) multilayer structures to effectively magnetically screen a bulk superconducting layer such that it can operate at higher field gradients before suffering critically detrimental SRF losses. This dissertation focuses on the production and characterization of thin film superconductors for such SIS layers for radio frequency applications. Correlated studies on structure, surface morphology and superconducting properties of epitaxial Nb and MgB2 thin films are presented.« less

  20. Titanium nitride thin films for minimizing multipactoring

    DOEpatents

    Welch, Kimo M.

    1979-01-01

    Applying a thin film coating to the surface of a workpiece, in particular, applying a coating of titanium nitride to a klystron window by means of a crossed-field diode sputtering array. The array is comprised of a cohesive group of numerous small hollow electrically conducting cylinders and is mounted so that the open ends of the cylinders on one side of the group are adjacent a titanium cathode plate. The workpiece is mounted so as to face the open ends of the other side of the group. A magnetic field is applied to the array so as to be coaxial with the cylinders and a potential is applied across the cylinders and the cathode plate, the cylinders as an anode being positive with respect to the cathode plate. The cylinders, the cathode plate and the workpiece are situated in an atmosphere of nitrogen which becomes ionized such as by field emission because of the electric field between the cylinders and cathode plate, thereby establishing an anode-cathode discharge that results in sputtering of the titanium plate. The sputtered titanium coats the workpiece and chemically combines with the nitrogen to form a titanium nitride coating on the workpiece. Gas pressure, gas mixtures, cathode material composition, voltages applied to the cathode and anode, the magnetic field, cathode, anode and workpiece spacing, and the aspect ratio (ratio of length to inner diameter) of the anode cylinders, all may be controlled to provide consistent optimum thin film coatings of various compositions and thicknesses. Another facet of the disclosure is the coating of microwave components per se with titanium nitride to reduce multipactoring under operating conditions of the components.

  1. Effect of current injection into thin-film Josephson junctions

    DOE PAGES

    Kogan, V. G.; Mints, R. G.

    2014-11-11

    New thin-film Josephson junctions have recently been tested in which the current injected into one of the junction banks governs Josephson phenomena. One thus can continuously manage the phase distribution at the junction by changing the injected current. Our method of calculating the distribution of injected currents is also proposed for a half-infinite thin-film strip with source-sink points at arbitrary positions at the film edges. The strip width W is assumed small relative to Λ=2λ 2/d;λ is the bulk London penetration depth of the film material and d is the film thickness.

  2. Integrated thin film cadmium sulfide solar cell module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickelsen, R. A.; Abbott, D. D.

    1971-01-01

    The design, development, fabrication and tests of flexible integrated thin-film cadmium sulfide solar cells and modules are discussed. The development of low cost and high production rate methods for interconnecting cells into large solar arrays is described. Chromium thin films were applied extensively in the deposited cell structures as a means to: (1) achieve high adherence between the cadmium sulfide films and the vacuum-metallized copper substrates, (2) obtain an ohmic contact to the cadmium sulfide films, and (3) improve the adherence of gold films as grids or contact areas.

  3. Sensing of volatile organic compounds by copper phthalocyanine thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridhi, R.; Saini, G. S. S.; Tripathi, S. K.

    2017-02-01

    Thin films of copper phthalocyanine have been deposited by thermal evaporation technique. We have subsequently exposed these films to the vapours of methanol, ethanol and propanol. Optical absorption, infrared spectra and electrical conductivities of these films before and after exposure to chemical vapours have been recorded in order to study their sensing mechanisms towards organic vapours. These films exhibit maximum sensing response to methanol while low sensitivities of the films towards ethanol and propanol have been observed. The changes in sensitivities have been correlated with presence of carbon groups in the chemical vapours. The effect of different types of electrodes on response-recovery times of the thin film with organic vapours has been studied and compared. The electrodes gap distance affects the sensitivity as well as response-recovery time values of the thin films.

  4. Thin Film Approaches to the SRF Cavity Problem: Fabrication and Characterization of Superconducting Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beringer, Douglas B.

    Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities are responsible for the acceleration of charged particles to relativistic velocities in most modern linear accelerators, such as those employed at high-energy research facilities like Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory's CEBAF and the LHC at CERN. Recognizing SRF as primarily a surface phenomenon enables the possibility of applying thin films to the interior surface of SRF cavities, opening a formidable tool chest of opportunities by combining and designing materials that offer greater benefit. Thus, while improvements in radio frequency cavity design and refinements in cavity processing techniques have improved accelerator performance and efficiency - 1.5 GHz bulk niobium SRF cavities have achieved accelerating gradients in excess of 35 MV/m - there exist fundamental material bounds in bulk superconductors limiting the maximally sustained accelerating field gradient (approximately 45 MV/m for Niobium) where inevitable thermodynamic breakdown occurs. With state of the art niobium based cavity design fast approaching these theoretical limits, novel material innovations must be sought in order to realize next generation SRF cavities. One proposed method to improve SRF performance is to utilize thin film superconducting-insulating-superconducting (SIS) multilayer structures to effectively magnetically screen a bulk superconducting layer such that it can operate at higher field gradients before suffering critically detrimental SRF losses. This dissertation focuses on the production and characterization of thin film superconductors for such SIS layers for radio-frequency applications.

  5. Broadly tunable thin-film intereference coatings: active thin films for telecom applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domash, Lawrence H.; Ma, Eugene Y.; Lourie, Mark T.; Sharfin, Wayne F.; Wagner, Matthias

    2003-06-01

    Thin film interference coatings (TFIC) are the most widely used optical technology for telecom filtering, but until recently no tunable versions have been known except for mechanically rotated filters. We describe a new approach to broadly tunable TFIC components based on the thermo-optic properties of semiconductor thin films with large thermo-optic coefficients 3.6X10[-4]/K. The technology is based on amorphous silicon thin films deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), a process adapted for telecom applications from its origins in the flat-panel display and solar cell industries. Unlike MEMS devices, tunable TFIC can be designed as sophisticated multi-cavity, multi-layer optical designs. Applications include flat-top passband filters for add-drop multiplexing, tunable dispersion compensators, tunable gain equalizers and variable optical attenuators. Extremely compact tunable devices may be integrated into modules such as optical channel monitors, tunable lasers, gain-equalized amplifiers, and tunable detectors.

  6. Fabrication of Thin Film Heat Flux Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, Herbert A.

    1992-01-01

    Prototype thin film heat flux sensors have been constructed and tested. The sensors can be applied to propulsion system materials and components. The sensors can provide steady state and fast transient heat flux information. Fabrication of the sensor does not require any matching of the mounting surface. Heat flux is proportional to the temperature difference across the upper and lower surfaces of an insulation material. The sensor consists of an array of thermocouples on the upper and lower surfaces of a thin insulating layer. The thermocouples for the sensor are connected in a thermopile arrangement. A 100 thermocouple pair heat flux sensor has been fabricated on silicon wafers. The sensor produced an output voltage of 200-400 microvolts when exposed to a hot air heat gun. A 20 element thermocouple pair heat flux sensor has been fabricated on aluminum oxide sheet. Thermocouples are Pt-Pt/Rh with silicon dioxide as the insulating material. This sensor produced an output of 28 microvolts when exposed to the radiation of a furnace operating at 1000 C. Work is also underway to put this type of heat flux sensor on metal surfaces.

  7. Polymer Based Thin Film Screen Preparation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valais, I.; Michail, C.; Fountzoula, C.; Fountos, G.; Saatsakis, G.; Karabotsos, A.; Panayiotakis, G. S.; Kandarakis, I.

    2017-11-01

    Phosphor screens, mainly prepared by electrophoresis, demonstrate brightness equal to the standard sedimentation on glass or quartz substrate process and are capable of very high resolution. Nevertheless, they are very fragile, the shape of the screen is limited to the substrate shape and in order to achieve adequate surface density for application in medical imaging, a significant quantity of the phosphor will be lost. Fluorescent films prepared by the dispersion of phosphor particles into a polymer matrix could solve the above disadvantages. The aim of this study is to enhance the stability of phosphor screens via the incorporation of phosphor particles into a PMMA (PolyMethyl MethAcrylate) matrix. PMMA is widely used as a plastic optical fiber, it shows almost nearly no dispersion effects and it is transparent in the whole visible spectral range. Different concentrations of PMMA in MMA (Methyl Methacrylate) were examined and a 37.5 % w/w solution was used for the preparation of the thin polymer film, since optical quality characteristics were found to depend on PMMA in MMA concentration. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images of the polymer screens demonstrated high packing density and uniform distribution of the phosphor particles. This method could be potentially used for phosphor screen preparation of any size and shape.

  8. Transparent conducting thin films for spacecraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Malave-Sanabria, Tania; Hambourger, Paul; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Roig, David; Degroh, Kim K.; Hung, Ching-Cheh

    1994-01-01

    Transparent conductive thin films are required for a variety of optoelectronic applications: automotive and aircraft windows, and solar cells for space applications. Transparent conductive coatings of indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-magnesium fluoride (MgF2) and aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) at several dopant levels are investigated for electrical resistivity (sheet resistance), carrier concentration, optical properties, and atomic oxygen durability. The sheet resistance values of ITO-MgF2 range from 10(exp 2) to 10(exp 11) ohms/square, with transmittance of 75 to 86 percent. The AZO films sheet resistances range from 10(exp 7) to 10(exp 11) ohms/square with transmittances from 84 to 91 percent. It was found that in general, with respect to the optical properties, the zinc oxide (ZnO), AZO, and the high MgF2 content ITO-MgF2 samples, were all durable to atomic oxygen plasma, while the low MgF2 content of ITO-MgF2 samples were not durable to atomic oxygen plasma exposure.

  9. Transparent conducting thin films for spacecraft applications

    SciT

    Perez-Davis, M.E.; Malave-Sanabria, T.; Hambourger, P.

    1994-01-01

    Transparent conductive thin films are required for a variety of optoelectronic applications: automotive and aircraft windows, and solar cells for space applications. Transparent conductive coatings of indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-magnesium fluoride (MgF2) and aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) at several dopant levels are investigated for electrical resistivity (sheet resistance), carrier concentration, optical properties, and atomic oxygen durability. The sheet resistance values of ITO-MgF2 range from 10[sup 2] to 10[sup 11] ohms/square, with transmittance of 75 to 86 percent. The AZO films sheet resistances range from 10[sup 7] to 10[sup 11] ohms/square with transmittances from 84 to 91 percent. It was found thatmore » in general, with respect to the optical properties, the zinc oxide (ZnO), AZO, and the high MgF2 content ITO-MgF2 samples, were all durable to atomic oxygen plasma, while the low MgF2 content of ITO-MgF2 samples were not durable to atomic oxygen plasma exposure.« less

  10. Mechanics of evolving thin film structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jim

    In the Stranski-Krastanov system, the lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate causes the film to break into islands. During annealing, both the surface energy and the elastic energy drive the islands to coarsen. Motivated by several related studies, we suggest that stable islands should form when a stiff ceiling is placed at a small gap above the film. We show that the role of elasticity is reversed: with the ceiling, the total elastic energy stored in the system increases as the islands coarsen laterally. Consequently, the islands select an equilibrium size to minimize the combined elastic energy and surface energy. In lithographically-induced self-assembly, when a two-phase fluid confined between parallel substrates is subjected to an electric field, one phase can self-assemble into a triangular lattice of islands in another phase. We describe a theory of the stability of the island lattice. The islands select the equilibrium diameter to minimize the combined interface energy and electrostatic energy. Furthermore, we study compressed SiGe thin film islands fabricated on a glass layer, which itself lies on a silicon wafer. Upon annealing, the glass flows, and the islands relax. A small island relaxes by in-plane expansion. A large island, however, wrinkles at the center before the in-plane relaxation arrives. The wrinkles may cause significant tensile stress in the island, leading to fracture. We model the island by the von Karman plate theory and the glass layer by the Reynolds lubrication theory. Numerical simulations evolve the in-plane expansion and the wrinkles simultaneously. We determine the critical island size, below which in-plane expansion prevails over wrinkling. Finally, in devices that integrate dissimilar materials in small dimensions, crack extension in one material often accompanies inelastic deformation in another. We analyze a channel crack advancing in an elastic film under tension, while an underlayer creeps. We use a two

  11. Subtractive fabrication of ferroelectric thin films with precisely controlled thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ievlev, Anton V.; Chyasnavichyus, Marius; Leonard, Donovan N.; Agar, Joshua C.; Velarde, Gabriel A.; Martin, Lane W.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Maksymovych, Petro; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.

    2018-04-01

    The ability to control thin-film growth has led to advances in our understanding of fundamental physics as well as to the emergence of novel technologies. However, common thin-film growth techniques introduce a number of limitations related to the concentration of defects on film interfaces and surfaces that limit the scope of systems that can be produced and studied experimentally. Here, we developed an ion-beam based subtractive fabrication process that enables creation and modification of thin films with pre-defined thicknesses. To accomplish this we transformed a multimodal imaging platform that combines time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry with atomic force microscopy to a unique fabrication tool that allows for precise sputtering of the nanometer-thin layers of material. To demonstrate fabrication of thin-films with in situ feedback and control on film thickness and functionality we systematically studied thickness dependence of ferroelectric switching of lead-zirconate-titanate, within a single epitaxial film. Our results demonstrate that through a subtractive film fabrication process we can control the piezoelectric response as a function of film thickness as well as improve on the overall piezoelectric response versus an untreated film.

  12. Subtractive fabrication of ferroelectric thin films with precisely controlled thickness

    DOE PAGES

    Ievlev, Anton; Chyasnavichyus, Marius; Leonard, Donovan N.; ...

    2018-02-22

    The ability to control thin-film growth has led to advances in our understanding of fundamental physics as well as to the emergence of novel technologies. However, common thin-film growth techniques introduce a number of limitations related to the concentration of defects on film interfaces and surfaces that limit the scope of systems that can be produced and studied experimentally. Here, we developed an ion-beam based subtractive fabrication process that enables creation and modification of thin films with pre-defined thicknesses. To accomplish this we transformed a multimodal imaging platform that combines time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry with atomic force microscopy tomore » a unique fabrication tool that allows for precise sputtering of the nanometer-thin layers of material. To demonstrate fabrication of thin-films with in situ feedback and control on film thickness and functionality we systematically studied thickness dependence of ferroelectric switching of lead-zirconate-titanate, within a single epitaxial film. Lastly, our results demonstrate that through a subtractive film fabrication process we can control the piezoelectric response as a function of film thickness as well as improve on the overall piezoelectric response versus an untreated film.« less

  13. Subtractive fabrication of ferroelectric thin films with precisely controlled thickness

    SciT

    Ievlev, Anton; Chyasnavichyus, Marius; Leonard, Donovan N.

    The ability to control thin-film growth has led to advances in our understanding of fundamental physics as well as to the emergence of novel technologies. However, common thin-film growth techniques introduce a number of limitations related to the concentration of defects on film interfaces and surfaces that limit the scope of systems that can be produced and studied experimentally. Here, we developed an ion-beam based subtractive fabrication process that enables creation and modification of thin films with pre-defined thicknesses. To accomplish this we transformed a multimodal imaging platform that combines time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry with atomic force microscopy tomore » a unique fabrication tool that allows for precise sputtering of the nanometer-thin layers of material. To demonstrate fabrication of thin-films with in situ feedback and control on film thickness and functionality we systematically studied thickness dependence of ferroelectric switching of lead-zirconate-titanate, within a single epitaxial film. Lastly, our results demonstrate that through a subtractive film fabrication process we can control the piezoelectric response as a function of film thickness as well as improve on the overall piezoelectric response versus an untreated film.« less

  14. Subtractive fabrication of ferroelectric thin films with precisely controlled thickness.

    PubMed

    Ievlev, Anton V; Chyasnavichyus, Marius; Leonard, Donovan N; Agar, Joshua C; Velarde, Gabriel A; Martin, Lane W; Kalinin, Sergei V; Maksymovych, Petro; Ovchinnikova, Olga S

    2018-04-02

    The ability to control thin-film growth has led to advances in our understanding of fundamental physics as well as to the emergence of novel technologies. However, common thin-film growth techniques introduce a number of limitations related to the concentration of defects on film interfaces and surfaces that limit the scope of systems that can be produced and studied experimentally. Here, we developed an ion-beam based subtractive fabrication process that enables creation and modification of thin films with pre-defined thicknesses. To accomplish this we transformed a multimodal imaging platform that combines time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry with atomic force microscopy to a unique fabrication tool that allows for precise sputtering of the nanometer-thin layers of material. To demonstrate fabrication of thin-films with in situ feedback and control on film thickness and functionality we systematically studied thickness dependence of ferroelectric switching of lead-zirconate-titanate, within a single epitaxial film. Our results demonstrate that through a subtractive film fabrication process we can control the piezoelectric response as a function of film thickness as well as improve on the overall piezoelectric response versus an untreated film.

  15. Effect of reducing atmosphere on the magnetism of Zn(1-x)Co(x)O (0≤x≤0.10) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Naeem, M; Hasanain, S K; Kobayashi, M; Ishida, Y; Fujimori, A; Buzby, Scott; Shah, S Ismat

    2006-05-28

    We report the crystal structure and magnetic properties of Zn(1-x)Co(x)O (0≤x≤0.10) nanoparticles synthesized by heating metal acetates in organic solvent. The nanoparticles were crystallized in the wurtzite ZnO structure after annealing in air and in a forming gas (Ar95% + H5%). The x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) data for different Co content show clear evidence for the Co(2+) ions in tetrahedral symmetry, indicating the substitution of Co(2+) in the ZnO lattice. However, samples with x = 0.08 and higher cobalt content also indicate the presence of Co metal clusters. Only those samples annealed in the reducing atmosphere of the forming gas, that showed the presence of oxygen vacancies, exhibited ferromagnetism at room temperature. The air annealed samples remained non-magnetic down to 77 K. The essential ingredient in achieving room temperature ferromagnetism in these Zn(1-x)Co(x)O nanoparticles was found to be the presence of additional carriers generated by the presence of the oxygen vacancies.

  16. Spin canting and magnetic transition in NixZn1-xFe2O4 (x=0.0, 0.5 and 1.0) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Stuti; Raghav, Dharmendra Singh; Yadav, Prashant; Varma, G. D.

    2018-04-01

    Nanoparticles of NixZn1-xFe2O4(x=0.0, 0.5 and 1.0) have been synthesized via co-precipitation method and studied thestructural and magnetic properties. Rietveld refinement of X ray diffraction data of as synthesized samples revealthat the samples have mixed spinel structure with space group Fd-3m. The lattice parameter of the samples decreases as doping concentration of Ni ions increases. Magnetic measurements show paramagnetic to ferrimagnetic transition at room temperature on Ni doping in ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles. The magnetic measurements also show spin canting in samples possibly due to their nanocrystalline nature. The spin canting angles have been calculated with the help of Yafet-Kittel (Y-K) model. Furthermore, the Law of approach (LA) fitting of M-H curves indicates that the samples are highly anisotropicin nature. The Arrot plots of as synthesized samples also indicate the paramagnetic to ferrimagnetic transition. The correlation between the structural and observed magnetic properties of NixZn1-xFe2O4(x=0.0, 0.5 and 1.0) nanocrystals will be described and discussed in this paper.

  17. Thin film thermocouples for high temperature measurement on ceramic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holanda, Raymond

    1992-01-01

    Thin film thermocouples have been developed for use on metal parts in jet engines to 1000 C. However, advanced propulsion systems are being developed that will use ceramic materials and reach higher temperatures. The purpose of this work is to develop thin film thermocouples for use on ceramic materials. The thin film thermocouples are Pt13Rh/Pt fabricated by the sputtering process. Lead wires are attached using the parallel-gap welding process. The ceramic materials are silicon nitride, silicon carbide, aluminum oxide, and mullite. Both steady state and thermal cycling furnace tests were performed in the temperature range to 1500 C. High-heating-rate tests were performed in an arc lamp heat-flux-calibration facility. The fabrication of the thin film thermocouples is described. The thin film thermocouple output was compared to a reference wire thermocouple. Drift of the thin film thermocouples was determined, and causes of drift are discussed. The results of high-heating-rate tests up to 2500 C/sec are presented. The stability of the ceramic materials is examined. It is concluded that Pt13Rh/Pt thin film thermocouples are capable of meeting lifetime goals of 50 hours or more up to temperatures of 1500 C depending on the stability of the particular ceramic substrate.

  18. Thermoelectric effects of amorphous Ga-Sn-O thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Tokiyoshi; Uenuma, Mutsunori; Kimura, Mutsumi

    2017-07-01

    The thermoelectric effects of an amorphous Ga-Sn-O (a-GTO) thin film have been evaluated as a physical parameter of a novel oxide semiconductor. Currently, a-GTO thin films are greatly desired not only because they do not contain rare metals and are therefore free from problems on the exhaustion of resources and the increase in cost but also because their initial characteristics and performance stabilities are excellent when they are used in thin-film transistors. In this study, an a-GTO thin film was deposited on a quartz substrate by RF magnetron sputtering and postannealing was performed in air at 350 °C for 1 h using an annealing furnace. The Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity of the a-GTO thin film were -137 µV/K and 31.8 S/cm at room temperature, and -183 µV/K and 43.8 S/cm at 397 K, respectively, and as a result, the power factor was 1.47 µW/(cm·K2) at 397 K; these values were roughly as high as those of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) thin films. Therefore, a-GTO thin films will be a candidate material for thermoelectric devices fabricated in a large area at a low cost by controlling the carrier mobility, carrier density, device structures, and so forth.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured bismuth selenide thin films.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhengliang; Liufu, Shengcong; Chen, Lidong

    2010-12-07

    Nanostructured bismuth selenide thin films have been successfully fabricated on a silicon substrate at low temperature by rational design of the precursor solution. Bi(2)Se(3) thin films were constructed of coalesced lamella in the thickness of 50-80 nm. The nucleation and growth process of Bi(2)Se(3) thin films, as well as the influence of solution chemistry on the film structure were investigated in detail. As one of the most promising thermoelectric materials, the thermoelectric properties of the prepared Bi(2)Se(3) thin films were also investigated. The power factor increased with increasing carrier mobility, coming from the enlarged crystallites and enhanced coalesced structure, and reached 1 μW cm(-1) K(-1).

  20. Method for making surfactant-templated thin films

    DOEpatents

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Lu, Yunfeng; Fan, Hong You

    2010-08-31

    An evaporation-induced self-assembly method to prepare a porous, surfactant-templated, thin film by mixing a silica sol, a solvent, a surfactant, and an interstitial compound, evaporating a portion of the solvent to form a liquid, crystalline thin film mesophase material, and then removal of the surfactant template. Coating onto a substrate produces a thin film with the interstitial compound either covalently bonded to the internal surfaces of the ordered or disordered mesostructure framework or physically entrapped within the ordered or disordered mesostructured framework. Particles can be formed by aerosol processing or spray drying rather than coating onto a substrate. The selection of the interstitial compound provides a means for developing thin films for applications including membranes, sensors, low dielectric constant films, photonic materials and optical hosts.

  1. Method for making surfactant-templated thin films

    DOEpatents

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Lu, Yunfeng; Fan, Hongyou

    2002-01-01

    An evaporation-induced self-assembly method to prepare a porous, surfactant-templated, thin film by mixing a silica sol, a solvent, a surfactant, and an interstitial compound, evaporating a portion of the solvent to form a liquid, crystalline thin film mesophase material, and then removal of the surfactant template. Coating onto a substrate produces a thin film with the interstitial compound either covalently bonded to the internal surfaces of the ordered or disordered mesostructure framework or physically entrapped within the ordered or disordered mesostructured framework. Particles can be formed by aerosol processing or spray drying rather than coating onto a substrate. The selection of the interstitial compound provides a means for developing thin films for applications including membranes, sensors, low dielectric constant films, photonic materials and optical hosts.

  2. Electrochemical Deposition of Lanthanum Telluride Thin Films and Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Su (Ike); Farias, Stephen; Cammarata, Robert

    2013-03-01

    Tellurium alloys are characterized by their high performance thermoelectric properties and recent research has shown nanostructured tellurium alloys display even greater performance than bulk equivalents. Increased thermoelectric efficiency of nanostructured materials have led to significant interests in developing thin film and nanowire structures. Here, we report on the first successful electrodeposition of lanthanum telluride thin films and nanowires. The electrodeposition of lanthanum telluride thin films is performed in ionic liquids at room temperature. The synthesis of nanowires involves electrodepositing lanthanum telluride arrays into anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanoporous membranes. These novel procedures can serve as an alternative means of simple, inexpensive and laboratory-environment friendly methods to synthesize nanostructured thermoelectric materials. The thermoelectric properties of thin films and nanowires will be presented to compare to current state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials. The morphologies and chemical compositions of the deposited films and nanowires are characterized using SEM and EDAX analysis.

  3. Effect of solution concentration on MEH-PPV thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affendi, I. H. H.; Sarah, M. S. P.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    MEH-PPV thin films were prepared with a mixture of THF (tetrahydrofuran) solution deposited by spin coating method. The surface topology of MEH-PPV thin film were characterize by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical properties of absorption spectra were characterized by using Ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-Vis-NIR). The MEH-PPV concentration variation affects the surface and optical properties of the thin film where 0.5 mg/ml MEH-PPV concentration have a good surface topology provided the same film also gives the highest absorption coefficient were then deposited to a TiO2 thin film forming composite layer. The composite layer then shows low current flow of short circuit current of Isc = -5.313E-7 A.

  4. Effects of high temperature and film thicknesses on the texture evolution in Ag thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshaghi, F.; Zolanvari, A.

    2017-04-01

    In situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction techniques were used to study the effect of high temperatures (up to 600°C) on the texture evolution in silver thin films. Ag thin films with different thicknesses of 40, 80, 120 and 160nm were sputtered on the Si(100) substrates at room temperature. Then, microstructure of thin films was determined using X-ray diffraction. To investigate the influence of temperature on the texture development in the Ag thin films with different thicknesses, (111), (200) and (220) pole figures were evaluated and orientation distribution functions were calculated. Minimizing the total energy of the system which is affected by competition between surface and elastic strain energy was a key factor in the as-deposited and post annealed thin films. Since sputtering depositions was performed at room temperature and at the same thermodynamic conditions, the competition growth caused the formation of the {122} < uvw \\rangle weak fiber texture in as-deposited Ag thin films. It was significantly observed that the post annealed Ag thin films showed {111} < uvw \\rangle orientations as their preferred orientations, but their preferred fiber texture varied with the thickness of thin films. Increasing thin film thickness from 40nm to 160nm led to decreasing the intensity of the {111} < uvw \\rangle fiber texture.

  5. Suppression of copper thin film loss during graphene synthesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Alvin L; Tao, Li; Akinwande, Deji

    2015-01-28

    Thin metal films can be used to catalyze the growth of nanomaterials in place of the bulk metal, while greatly reducing the amount of material used. A big drawback of copper thin films (0.5-1.5 μm thick) is that, under high temperature/vacuum synthesis, the mass loss of films severely reduces the process time due to discontinuities in the metal film, thereby limiting the time scale for controlling metal grain and film growth. In this work, we have developed a facile method, namely "covered growth" to extend the time copper thin films can be exposed to high temperature/vacuum environment for graphene synthesis. The key to preventing severe mass loss of copper film during the high temperature chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process is to have a cover piece on top of the growth substrate. This new "covered growth" method enables the high-temperature annealing of the copper film upward of 4 h with minimal mass loss, while increasing copper film grain and graphene domain size. Graphene was then successfully grown on the capped copper film with subsequent transfer for device fabrication. Device characterization indicated equivalent physical, chemical, and electrical properties to conventional CVD graphene. Our "covered growth" provides a convenient and effective solution to the mass loss issue of thin films that serve as catalysts for a variety of 2D material syntheses.

  6. Properties of thin silver films with different thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Pei; Su, Weitao; Wang, Reng; Xu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Fengshan

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate optical properties of silver films with different film thickness, multilayer composed of thin silver film sandwiched between ZnS films are sputtered on the float glass. The crystal structures, optical and electrical properties of films are characterized by various techniques, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), spectrum analysis, etc. The optical constants of thin silver film are calculated by fitting the transmittance ( T) and reflectance ( R) spectrum of the multilayer. Electrical and optical properties of silver films thinner than 6.2 nm exhibit sharp change. However, variation becomes slow as film thickness is larger than 6.2 nm. The experimental results indicate that 6.2 nm is the optimum thickness for properties of silver.

  7. Germanium Lift-Off Masks for Thin Metal Film Patterning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Ari

    2012-01-01

    A technique has been developed for patterning thin metallic films that are, in turn, used to fabricate microelectronics circuitry and thin-film sensors. The technique uses germanium thin films as lift-off masks. This requires development of a technique to strip or undercut the germanium chemically without affecting the deposited metal. Unlike in the case of conventional polymeric lift-off masks, the substrate can be exposed to very high temperatures during processing (sputter deposition). The reason why polymeric liftoff masks cannot be exposed to very high temperatures (greater than 100 C) is because (a) they can become cross linked, making lift-off very difficult if not impossible, and (b) they can outgas nitrogen and oxygen, which then can react with the metal being deposited. Consequently, this innovation is expected to find use in the fabrication of transition edge sensors and microwave kinetic inductance detectors, which use thin superconducting films deposited at high temperature as their sensing elements. Transition edge sensors, microwave kinetic inductance detectors, and their circuitry are comprised of superconducting thin films, for example Nb and TiN. Reactive ion etching can be used to pattern these films; however, reactive ion etching also damages the underlying substrate, which is unwanted in many instances. Polymeric lift-off techniques permit thin-film patterning without any substrate damage, but they are difficult to remove and the polymer can outgas during thin-film deposition. The outgassed material can then react with the film with the consequence of altered and non-reproducible materials properties, which, in turn, is deleterious for sensors and their circuitry. The purpose of this innovation was to fabricate a germanium lift-off mask to be used for patterning thin metal films.

  8. Multifunctional Parylene-C Microfibrous Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chindam, Chandraprakash

    Towards sustainable development, multifunctional products have many advantageous over single-function products: reduction in number of parts, raw material, assembly time, and cost involved in a product's life cycle. My goal for this thesis was to demonstrate the multifunctionalities of Parylene-C microfibrous thin films. To achieve this goal, I chose Parylene C, a polymer, because the fabrication of periodic mediums of Parylene C in the form of microfibrous thin films (muFTFs) was already established. A muFTFs is a parallel arrangement of identical micrometer-sized fibers of shapes cylindrical, chevronic, or helical. Furthermore, Parylene C had three existing functions: in medical-device industries as corrosion-resistive coatings, in electronic industries as electrically insulating coatings, and in biomedical research for tissue-culture substrates. As the functionalities of a material are dependent on the microstructure and physical properties, the investigation made for this thesis was two-fold: (1) Experimentally, I determined the wetting, mechanical, and dielectric properties of columnar muFTFs and examined the microstructural and molecular differences between bulk films and muFTFs. (2) Using physical properties of bulk film, I computationally determined the elastodynamic and determined the electromagnetic filtering capabilities of Parylene-C muFTFs. Several columnar muFTFs of Parylene C were fabricated by varying the monomer deposition angle. Following are the significant experimental findings: 1. Molecular and microstructural characteristics: The dependence of the microfiber inclination angle on the monomer deposition angle was classified into four regimes of two different types. X-ray diffraction experiments indicated that the columnar muFTFs contain three crystal planes not evident in bulk Parylene-C films and that the columnar muFTFs are less crystalline than bulk films. Infrared absorbance spectra revealed that the atomic bonding is the same in all

  9. Development of Thin Film Ceramic Thermocouples for High Temperature Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Farmer, Serene C.; Sayir, Ali; Blaha, Charles A.; Gonzalez, Jose M.

    2004-01-01

    The maximum use temperature of noble metal thin film thermocouples of 1100 C (2000 F) may not be adequate for use on components in the increasingly harsh conditions of advanced aircraft and next generation launch technology. Ceramic-based thermocouples are known for their high stability and robustness at temperatures exceeding 1500 C, but are typically found in the form of rods or probes. NASA Glenn Research Center is investigating the feasibility of ceramics as thin film thermocouples for extremely high temperature applications to take advantage of the stability and robustness of ceramics and the non-intrusiveness of thin films. This paper will discuss the current state of development in this effort.

  10. A proposal for epitaxial thin film growth in outer space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignatiev, Alex; Chu, C. W.

    1988-01-01

    A new concept for materials processing in space exploits the ultravacuum component of space for thin film epitaxial growth. The unique low earth orbit space environment is expected to yield 10 to the -14th torr or better pressures, semiinfinite pumping speeds, and large ultravacuum volume without walls. These space ultravacuum properties promise major improvement in the quality, unique nature, and the throughput of epitaxially grown materials. Advanced thin film materials to be epitaxially grown in space include semiconductors, magnetic materials, and thin film high temperature superconductors.

  11. The state of the art of thin-film photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surek, T.

    1993-10-01

    Thin-film photovoltaic technologies, based on materials such as amorphous or polycrystalline silicon, copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and gallium arsenide, offer the potential for significantly reducing the cost of electricity generated by photovoltaics. The significant progress in the technologies, from the laboratory to the marketplace, is reviewed. The common concerns and questions raised about thin films are addressed. Based on the progress to date and the potential of these technologies, along with continuing investments by the private sector to commercialize the technologies, one can conclude that thin-film PV will provide a competitive alternative for large-scale power generation in the future.

  12. Magnetoresistance measurements of superconducting molybdenum nitride thin films

    SciT

    Baskaran, R., E-mail: baskaran@igcar.gov.in; Arasu, A. V. Thanikai; Amaladass, E. P.

    2016-05-23

    Molybdenum nitride thin films have been deposited on aluminum nitride buffered glass substrates by reactive DC sputtering. GIXRD measurements indicate formation of nano-crystalline molybdenum nitride thin films. The transition temperature of MoN thin film is 7.52 K. The transition width is less than 0.1 K. The upper critical field Bc{sub 2}(0), calculated using GLAG theory is 12.52 T. The transition width for 400 µA current increased initially upto 3 T and then decreased, while that for 100 µA current transition width did not decrease.

  13. Plasma polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane thin films for corrosion protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saloum, S.; Alkhaled, B.; Alsadat, W.; Kakhia, M.; Shaker, S. A.

    2018-01-01

    This study focused on the corrosion protection performance of plasma polymerized HMDSO thin films in two different corrosive medias, 0.3M NaCl and 0.3M H2SO4. The pp-HMDSO thin films were deposited on steel substrates for electrochemical tests using the potentiodynamic polarization technique, they were deposited also on aluminum and silicon substrates to investigate their resistance to corrosion, through the analysis of the degradation of microhardness and morphology, respectively, after immersion of the substrates for one week in the corrosive media. The results showed promising corrosion protection properties of the pp-HMDSO thin films.

  14. Graphene-silica composite thin films as transparent conductors.

    PubMed

    Watcharotone, Supinda; Dikin, Dmitriy A; Stankovich, Sasha; Piner, Richard; Jung, Inhwa; Dommett, Geoffrey H B; Evmenenko, Guennadi; Wu, Shang-En; Chen, Shu-Fang; Liu, Chuan-Pu; Nguyen, SonBinh T; Ruoff, Rodney S

    2007-07-01

    Transparent and electrically conductive composite silica films were fabricated on glass and hydrophilic SiOx/silicon substrates by incorporation of individual graphene oxide sheets into silica sols followed by spin-coating, chemical reduction, and thermal curing. The resulting films were characterized by SEM, AFM, TEM, low-angle X-ray reflectivity, XPS, UV-vis spectroscopy, and electrical conductivity measurements. The electrical conductivity of the films compared favorably to those of composite thin films of carbon nanotubes in silica.

  15. Polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors on quartz fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, Yuta; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Yano, Hiroshi; Hatayama, Tomoaki; Fuyuki, Takashi; Nakamura, Toshihiro; Toda, Sadayuki; Koaizawa, Hisashi; Mimura, Akio; Suzuki, Kenkichi

    2007-11-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin-film transistors (TFTs) on a thin quartz fiber for the first time. The poly-Si used in the active layer of the TFTs was prepared by excimer laser annealing of an amorphous Si thin film deposited on the fiber. Top-gated TFTs were fabricated on the fiber, and a field effect mobility of 10cm2/Vs was obtained. The proposed TFTs on a thin quartz fiber, named fiber TFTs, have potential application in microelectronic devices using TFTs fabricated on one-dimensional substrates.

  16. Drop impact onto a thin film: Miscibility effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ningli; Chen, H.; Amirfazli, A.

    2017-09-01

    In this work a systematic experimental study was performed to understand the process of liquid drop impact onto a thin film made of a different liquid from drop. The drop and film liquids can be miscible or immiscible. Three general outcomes of deposition, crown formation without splashing, and splashing, were observed in the advancing phase of the drop impact onto a solid surface covered by either a miscible or an immiscible thin film. However, for a miscible film, a larger Weber number and film thickness are needed for the formation of a crown and splashing comparing with immiscible cases. The advancing phase of drop impact onto a thin immiscible film with a large viscosity is similar to that of drop impact onto a dry surface; for a miscible film viscous film, the behavior is far from that of a dry surface. The behavior of liquid lamella in the receding phase of drop impact onto a thin miscible film is reported for the first time. The results show that immiscibility is not a necessary condition for the existence of a receding phase. The existence of a receding phase is highly dependent on the interfacial tension between the drop and the film. The miscibility can significantly affect the receding morphology as it will cause mixing of the two liquids.

  17. Thin-Film Photovoltaic Solar Array Parametric Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, David J.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Jacobs, Mark K.; Ponnusamy, Deva

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes a study that had the objective to develop a model and parametrically determine the circumstances for which lightweight thin-film photovoltaic solar arrays would be more beneficial, in terms of mass and cost, than arrays using high-efficiency crystalline solar cells. Previous studies considering arrays with near-term thin-film technology for Earth orbiting applications are briefly reviewed. The present study uses a parametric approach that evaluated the performance of lightweight thin-film arrays with cell efficiencies ranging from 5 to 20 percent. The model developed for this study is described in some detail. Similar mass and cost trends for each array option were found across eight missions of various power levels in locations ranging from Venus to Jupiter. The results for one specific mission, a main belt asteroid tour, indicate that only moderate thin-film cell efficiency (approx. 12 percent) is necessary to match the mass of arrays using crystalline cells with much greater efficiency (35 percent multi-junction GaAs based and 20 percent thin-silicon). Regarding cost, a 12 percent efficient thin-film array is projected to cost about half is much as a 4-junction GaAs array. While efficiency improvements beyond 12 percent did not significantly further improve the mass and cost benefits for thin-film arrays, higher efficiency will be needed to mitigate the spacecraft-level impacts associated with large deployed array areas. A low-temperature approach to depositing thin-film cells on lightweight, flexible plastic substrates is briefly described. The paper concludes with the observation that with the characteristics assumed for this study, ultra-lightweight arrays using efficient, thin-film cells on flexible substrates may become a leading alternative for a wide variety of space missions.

  18. Thin Semiconductor/Metal Films For Infrared Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, James L.; Nagendra, Channamallappa L.

    1995-01-01

    Spectral responses of absorbers and reflectors tailored. Thin cermet films composites of metals and semiconductors undergoing development for use as broadband infrared reflectors and absorbers. Development extends concepts of semiconductor and dielectric films used as interference filters for infrared light and visible light. Composite films offer advantages over semiconductor films. Addition of metal particles contributes additional thermal conductivity, reducing thermal gradients and associated thermal stresses, with resultant enhancements of thermal stability. Because values of n in composite films made large, same optical effects achieved with lesser thicknesses. By decreasing thicknesses of films, one not only decreases weights but also contributes further to reductions of thermal stresses.

  19. Glass transition dynamics of stacked thin polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukao, Koji; Terasawa, Takehide; Oda, Yuto; Nakamura, Kenji; Tahara, Daisuke

    2011-10-01

    The glass transition dynamics of stacked thin films of polystyrene and poly(2-chlorostyrene) were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. The glass transition temperature Tg of as-stacked thin polystyrene films has a strong depression from that of the bulk samples. However, after annealing at high temperatures above Tg, the stacked thin films exhibit glass transition at a temperature almost equal to the Tg of the bulk system. The α-process dynamics of stacked thin films of poly(2-chlorostyrene) show a time evolution from single-thin-film-like dynamics to bulk-like dynamics during the isothermal annealing process. The relaxation rate of the α process becomes smaller with increase in the annealing time. The time scale for the evolution of the α dynamics during the annealing process is very long compared with that for the reptation dynamics. At the same time, the temperature dependence of the relaxation time for the α process changes from Arrhenius-like to Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann dependence with increase of the annealing time. The fragility index increases and the distribution of the α-relaxation times becomes smaller with increase in the annealing time for isothermal annealing. The observed change in the α process is discussed with respect to the interfacial interaction between the thin layers of stacked thin polymer films.

  20. Cratering Studies in Thin Plastic Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Anthony; Bugiel, S.; Gruen, E.; Horanyi, M.; Munsat, T.; Srama, R.; Colorado CenterLunar Dust; Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS) Team

    2013-10-01

    Thin plastic films, such as Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF), have been used as protective coatings or dust detectors on a number of missions including the Dust Counter and Mass Analyzer (DUCMA) instrument on Vega 1 and 2, the High Rate Detector (HRD) on the Cassini Mission, and the Student Dust Counter (SDC) on New Horizons. These types of detectors can be used on the lunar surface or in lunar orbit to detect dust grain size distributions and velocities. Due to their low power requirements and light weight, large surface area detectors can be built for observing low dust fluxes. The SDC dust detector is made up of a permanently polarized layer of PVDF coated on both sides with a thin layer (≈ 1000 Å) of aluminum nickel. The operation principle is that a micrometeorite impact removes a portion of the metal surface layer exposing the permanently polarized PVDF underneath. This causes a local potential near the crater changing the surface charge of the metal layer. The dimensions of the crater determine the strength of the potential and thus the signal generated by the PVDF. The theoretical basis for signal interpretation uses a crater diameter scaling law which was not intended for use with PVDF. In this work, a crater size scaling law has been experimentally determined, and further simulation work is being done to enhance our understanding of the mechanisms of crater formation. Two Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) codes are being evaluated for use as a simulator for hypervelocity impacts: Ansys Autodyn and LS-Dyna from the Livermore Software Technology Corp. SPH is known to be well suited to the large deformities found in hypervelocity impacts. It is capable of incorporating key physics phenomena, including fracture, heat transfer, melting, etc. Furthermore, unlike Eulerian methods, SPH is gridless allowing large deformities without the inclusion of unphysical erosion algorithms. Experimental results and preliminary simulation results and conclusions will be

  1. Ferroelectric thin-film active sensors for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Bin; Giurgiutiu, Victor; Yuan, Zheng; Liu, Jian; Chen, Chonglin; Jiang, Jiechao; Bhalla, Amar S.; Guo, Ruyan

    2007-04-01

    Piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) have been proven a valuable tool in structural health monitoring. Piezoelectric wafer active sensors are able to send and receive guided Lamb/Rayleigh waves that scan the structure and detect the presence of incipient cracks and structural damage. In-situ thin-film active sensor deposition can eliminate the bonding layer to improve the durability issue and reduce the acoustic impedance mismatch. Ferroelectric thin films have been shown to have piezoelectric properties that are close to those of single-crystal ferroelectrics but the fabrication of ferroelectric thin films on structural materials (steel, aluminum, titanium, etc.) has not been yet attempted. In this work, in-situ fabrication method of piezoelectric thin-film active sensors arrays was developed using the nano technology approach. Specification for the piezoelectric thin-film active sensors arrays was based on electro-mechanical-acoustical model. Ferroelectric BaTiO3 (BTO) thin films were successfully deposited on Ni tapes by pulsed laser deposition under the optimal synthesis conditions. Microstructural studies by X-ray diffractometer and transmission electron microscopy reveal that the as-grown BTO thin films have the nanopillar structures with an average size of approximately 80 nm in diameter and the good interface structures with no inter-diffusion or reaction. The dielectric and ferroelectric property measurements exhibit that the BTO films have a relatively large dielectric constant, a small dielectric loss, and an extremely large piezoelectric response with a symmetric hysteresis loop. The research objective is to develop the fabrication and optimum design of thin-film active sensor arrays for structural health monitoring applications. The short wavelengths of the micro phased arrays will permit the phased-array imaging of smaller parts and smaller damage than is currently not possible with existing technology.

  2. Ideal glass transitions in thin films: An energy landscape perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truskett, Thomas M.; Ganesan, Venkat

    2003-07-01

    We introduce a mean-field model for the potential energy landscape of a thin fluid film confined between parallel substrates. The model predicts how the number of accessible basins on the energy landscape and, consequently, the film's ideal glass transition temperature depend on bulk pressure, film thickness, and the strength of the fluid-fluid and fluid-substrate interactions. The predictions are in qualitative agreement with the experimental trends for the kinetic glass transition temperature of thin films, suggesting the utility of landscape-based approaches for studying the behavior of confined fluids.

  3. Soft Magnetic Multilayered Thin Films for HF Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loizos, George; Giannopoulos, George; Serletis, Christos; Maity, Tuhin; Roy, Saibal; Lupu, Nicoleta; Kijima, Hanae; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Niarchos, Dimitris

    Multilayered thin films from various soft magnetic materials were successfully prepared by magnetron sputtering in Ar atmosphere. The magnetic properties and microstructure were investigated. It is found that the films show good soft magnetic properties: magnetic coercivity of 1-10 Oe and saturation magnetization higher than 1T. The initial permeability of the films is greater than 300 and flattens up to 600 MHz. The multilayer thin film properties in combination with their easy, fast and reproducible fabrication indicate that they are potential candidates for high frequency applications.

  4. Superparamagnetic behavior of Fe70Dy30 granular thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekala, Laxman; Muhammed Shameem P., V.; Kumar, M. Senthil

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, the structural and magnetic properties of the Fe70Dy30 thin films are investigated. The Fe70Dy30 thin film with a thickness of 250 Å is fabricated using a dc magnetron sputtering system. Structural and temperature dependent magnetic properties indicate the granular nature of the film. The nonsaturation of the magnetization curves even at high fields of 50 kOe and the obtained very low coercivity in the temperature range 50 - 300 K reveal that films are superparamagnetic (SPM). The decreasing blocking temperature (Tb) with increasing an external magnetic field in temperature dependent magnetization curves are exposed qualitatively.

  5. Film and membrane-model thermodynamics of free thin liquid films.

    PubMed

    Radke, C J

    2015-07-01

    In spite of over 7 decades of effort, the thermodynamics of thin free liquid films (as in emulsions and foams) lacks clarity. Following a brief review of the meaning and measurement of thin-film forces (i.e., conjoining/disjoining pressures), we offer a consistent analysis of thin-film thermodynamics. By carefully defining film reversible work, two distinct thermodynamic formalisms emerge: a film model with two zero-volume membranes each of film tension γ(f) and a membrane model with a single zero-volume membrane of membrane tension 2γ(m). In both models, detailed thermodynamic analysis gives rise to thin-film Gibbs adsorption equations that allow calculation of film and membrane tensions from measurements of disjoining-pressure isotherms. A modified Young-Laplace equation arises in the film model to calculate film-thickness profiles from the film center to the surrounding bulk meniscus. No corresponding relation exists in the membrane model. Illustrative calculations of disjoining-pressure isotherms for water are presented using square-gradient theory. We report considerable deviations from Hamaker theory for films less than about 3 nm in thickness. Such thin films are considerably more attractive than in classical Hamaker theory. Available molecular simulations reinforce this finding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Interactions of polymer surfaces and thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Hongbo

    2007-12-01

    Characterization of the adhesion, tribological properties and dynamics of polymer surfaces has been of great interest for many years since polymers are commonly used as adhesive and lubricant coatings to produce both high and low adhesion or friction. Improving our fundamental understanding of the interactions of polymer surfaces at the molecular level is needed to develop further techniques in materials science and chemical engineering. The objectives of my research were to correlate the nano- and micro-scale properties of various polymer thin film and surface phenomena: adhesion, adhesion hysteresis, friction, lubrication, surface deformations, coalescence, spreading, and wear, and identify the fundamental physical forces and mechanisms at the molecular and micro-scales. I studied the adhesion of polymer films at temperatures ranging from below to above the glass transition temperature, Tg. The adhesion hysteresis was found to peak somewhere around Tg, but to also depend on the load, contact time and detachment rate. The results revealed some new scaling relations for the dynamic (rate-dependent) adhesion forces and effective surface energies of polymers. I studied the way polymer surfaces deform during adhesion (coalescence), spreading (wetting) and separation (detachment, rupture, fracture and failure) processes, and characterized the differences (and transition) between liquid-like and solid-like behavior during these processes, e.g., the transition from liquid-to-viscoelastic-to-ductile-to-brittle behavior. Complex and novel transient (dynamic) surface shape changes were found to occur during transitions that involved highly-ordered or disordered fingers, ripples, waves or cracks. A full picture has emerged for the transition from viscous liquid-like to brittle solid-like behavior of adhering and detaching interfaces. Finally, I developed a new experiment technique whereby an electric field can be applied across the two surfaces in a Surface Force Apparatus

  7. Developing Multilayer Thin Film Strain Sensors With High Thermal Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Gonzalez, Jose M., III

    2006-01-01

    A multilayer thin film strain sensor for large temperature range use is under development using a reactively-sputtered process. The sensor is capable of being fabricated in fine line widths utilizing the sacrificial-layer lift-off process that is used for micro-fabricated noble-metal sensors. Tantalum nitride films were optimized using reactive sputtering with an unbalanced magnetron source. A first approximation model of multilayer resistance and temperature coefficient of resistance was used to set the film thicknesses in the multilayer film sensor. Two multifunctional sensors were fabricated using multilayered films of tantalum nitride and palladium chromium, and tested for low temperature resistivity, TCR and strain response. The low temperature coefficient of resistance of the films will result in improved stability in thin film sensors for low to high temperature use.

  8. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Albright, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.

    1997-10-07

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells. 13 figs.

  9. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Albright, Scot P.; Chamberlin, Rhodes

    1999-02-09

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells.

  10. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Albright, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.

    1999-02-09

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells. 13 figs.

  11. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Albright, Scot P.; Chamberlin, Rhodes

    1997-10-07

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells.

  12. TI--CR--AL--O thin film resistors

    DOEpatents

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Schmid, Anthony P.

    2000-01-01

    Thin films of Ti--Cr--Al--O are used as a resistor material. The films are rf sputter deposited from ceramic targets using a reactive working gas mixture of Ar and O.sub.2. Resistivity values from 10.sup.4 to 10.sup.10 Ohm-cm have been measured for Ti--Cr--Al--O film <1 .mu.m thick. The film resistivity can be discretely selected through control of the target composition and the deposition parameters. The application of Ti--Cr--Al--O as a thin film resistor has been found to be thermodynamically stable, unlike other metal-oxide films. The Ti--Cr--Al--O film can be used as a vertical or lateral resistor, for example, as a layer beneath a field emission cathode in a flat panel display; or used to control surface emissivity, for example, as a coating on an insulating material such as vertical wall supports in flat panel displays.

  13. Self-Assembling Process for Fabricating Tailored Thin Films

    Sandia

    2017-12-09

    A simple, economical nanotechnology coating process that enables the development of nanoparticle thin films with architectures and properties unattainable by any other processing method. 2007 R&D 100 winner (SAND2007-1878P)

  14. Test of a Nb thin film superconducting detector

    SciT

    Lacquaniti, V.; Maggi, S.; Menichetti, E.

    1993-08-01

    Results from tests of several Nb thin film microstrip superconducting detectors are reported. A preliminary measurement of critical radius of the hot spot generated by 5 MeV [alpha]-particles is compared with simple model predictions.

  15. Low thermal diffusivity measurements of thin films using mirage technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, P. K.; Fung, P. C. W.; Tam, H. L.

    1998-12-01

    Mirage technique is proved to be powerful in measurements of thermal diffusivity. Its contactless nature makes it suitable for delicate samples such as thin films and single crystals. However, as the damping of the thermal wave profile increases progressively upon the decrease in thermal diffusivity of the medium, mirage technique becomes more difficult to be applied to low thermal diffusivity measurements. Moreover influences from substrate signals make analysis difficult when the samples are thermally thin. Recently a thermal-wave-coupling method for mirage signal analysis [P. K. Wong, P. C. W. Fung, H. L. Tam, and J. Gao, Phys. Rev. B 51, 523 (1995)] was reported for thermal diffusivity measurements of thin film down to 60 nm thick. In this article we apply the thermal-wave-coupling method to thin films of low thermal diffusivity, especially polymer films. A new lower limit of thermal diffusivity measurable by mirage technique has been reached.

  16. In-space fabrication of thin-film structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lippman, M. E.

    1972-01-01

    A conceptual study of physical vapor-deposition processes for in-space fabrication of thin-film structures is presented. Potential advantages of in-space fabrication are improved structural integrity and surface reflectivity of free-standing ultra-thin films and coatings. Free-standing thin-film structures can find use as photon propulsion devices (solar sails). Other applications of the concept involve free-standing shadow shields, or thermal control coatings of spacecraft surfaces. Use of expendables (such as booster and interstage structures) as source material for the physical vapor deposition process is considered. The practicability of producing thin, textured, aluminum films by physical vapor deposition and subsequent separation from a revolving substrate is demonstrated by laboratory experiments. Heating power requirement for the evaporation process is estimated for a specific mission.

  17. Nanocrystalline silicon thin films and grating structures for solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juneja, Sucheta; Sudhakar, Selvakumar; Khonina, Svetlana N.; Skidanov, Roman V.; Porfirevb, Alexey P.; Moissev, Oleg Y.; Kazanskiy, Nikolay L.; Kumar, Sushil

    2016-03-01

    Enhancement of optical absorption for achieving high efficiencies in thin film silicon solar cells is a challenge task. Herein, we present the use of grating structure for the enhancement of optical absorption. We have made grating structures and same can be integrated in hydrogenated micro/nanocrystalline silicon (μc/nc-Si: H) thin films based p-i-n solar cells. μc/nc-Si: H thin films were grown using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method. Grating structures integrated with μc/nc-Si: H thin film solar cells may enhance the optical path length and reduce the reflection losses and its characteristics can be probed by spectroscopic and microscopic technique with control design and experiment.

  18. Preparation of silver-activated zinc sulfide thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, C.; Swindells, F. E.

    1968-01-01

    Silver improves luminescence and reduces contamination of zinc sulfide phosphors. The silver is added after the zinc sulfide phosphors are deposited in thin films by vapor evaporation, but before calcining, by immersion in a solution of silver salt.

  19. A thin film hydroponic system for plant studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Robert; Prince, Ralph; Muller, Eldon; Schuerger, Andrew

    1990-01-01

    The Land Pavillion, EPCOT Center, houses a hydroponic, thin film growing system identical to that residing in NASA's Biomass Production Chamber at Kennedy Space Center. The system is targeted for plant disease and nutrition studies. The system is described.

  20. PREFACE: Innovations in Thin Film Processing and Characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrion, Gérard; Belmahi, Mohammed; Andrieu, Stéphane

    2010-07-01

    This special issue contains selected papers which were presented as invited or contributed communications at the 4th International Conference on Innovation in Thin Film Processing and Characterization (ITFPC'09) which was held on 17-20 November, 2009 in Nancy (France) Jointly organized by the French Vacuum Society and the Institut Jean Lamour-a joint research unit specialized in materials, metallurgy, nano-sciences, plasmas and surfaces-the ITFPC conferences aim at providing an open forum to discuss the progress and latest developments in thin film processing and engineering. Invited lectures aim particularly at providing overviews on scientific topics while contributed communications focus on particular cutting-edge aspects of thin film science and technology, including CVD, PVD and ion beam assisted processes. The 2009 conference was organized along the 6 main following topics: Thin films processing and surface engineering Numerical simulation and thin film characterization Protective applications of thin films Energy, environment and health applications of thin films Micro- and nano-patterning of thin films New properties and applications resulting from patterned thin films which were completed by a special half day session devoted to industry-supported innovation. 180 scientists from 20 worldwide countries attended the different sessions along with the 9 invited lectures and 130 contributions were given. Besides the outstanding scientific program, a half-day tutorial session preceded the conference. During the short courses, emphasis was laid on: Lithography for thin film patterning Mechanical properties of thin films Principles and applications of reactive sputtering processes. The French Vacuum Society granted financial aid to PhD students who applied for it in order to encourage the participation of young scientists. The 19 papers published in this volume were accepted for publication after peerreviewal as for regular papers. As chairmen of this conference

  1. Product reliability and thin-film photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaston, Ryan; Feist, Rebekah; Yeung, Simon; Hus, Mike; Bernius, Mark; Langlois, Marc; Bury, Scott; Granata, Jennifer; Quintana, Michael; Carlson, Carl; Sarakakis, Georgios; Ogden, Douglas; Mettas, Adamantios

    2009-08-01

    Despite significant growth in photovoltaics (PV) over the last few years, only approximately 1.07 billion kWhr of electricity is estimated to have been generated from PV in the US during 2008, or 0.27% of total electrical generation. PV market penetration is set for a paradigm shift, as fluctuating hydrocarbon prices and an acknowledgement of the environmental impacts associated with their use, combined with breakthrough new PV technologies, such as thin-film and BIPV, are driving the cost of energy generated with PV to parity or cost advantage versus more traditional forms of energy generation. In addition to reaching cost parity with grid supplied power, a key to the long-term success of PV as a viable energy alternative is the reliability of systems in the field. New technologies may or may not have the same failure modes as previous technologies. Reliability testing and product lifetime issues continue to be one of the key bottlenecks in the rapid commercialization of PV technologies today. In this paper, we highlight the critical need for moving away from relying on traditional qualification and safety tests as a measure of reliability and focus instead on designing for reliability and its integration into the product development process. A drive towards quantitative predictive accelerated testing is emphasized and an industrial collaboration model addressing reliability challenges is proposed.

  2. Thin Film Technology Development for the Powersphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simburger, Edward J.; Matsumoto, James H.; Giants, Thomas W.; Garcia, Alexander, III; Liu, Simon; Rawal, Suraj P.; Perry, Alan R.; Marshall, Craig H.; Lin, John K.; Scarborough, Stephen; hide

    2003-01-01

    The Aerospace Corporation, NASA Glenn Research Center, Lockheed-Martin, and ILC Dover over the past two years have been engaged in developing a Multifunctional Inflatable Structure for the Powersphere Concept under contract with NASA (NAS3-01115). The Powersphere concept consists of a relatively large spherical solar array, which would be deployed from a microsatellite. The Powersphere structure and the deployment method was patented by the Aerospace Corporation (U.S. Patent Numbers 6,284,966 B 1 and 6,3 18,675). The work on this project has resulted in a number of technological innovations in the state of the art for integrating flexible thin-film solar cells with flex circuit harness technology and inflatable ultraviolet-light-rigidizable structures. The specific power, specific volume, for the Powersphere are presented in Figures 1 and 2 as a function of solar cell technology and efficiency. The Powersphere will enable microsatellite missions across NASA enterprises and DoD missions by providing ample electric power at an affordable cost. The Powersphere design provides attitude-independent electric power and thermal control for an enclosed microsatellite payload. The design is scalable, robust in high radiation environments and provides sufficient electric power to allow the use of electric propulsion. Electric propulsion enables precise positioning of microsatellites which is required for inspectors that would be deployed to inspect the International Space Station, Space Shuttle or large unmanned spacecraft. The Powersphere allows for efficient launch packaging versus deployed volume as shown in Figure 3.

  3. Thin transparent conducting films of cadmium stannate

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Xuanzhi; Coutts, Timothy J.

    2001-01-01

    A process for preparing thin Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 films. The process comprises the steps of RF sputter coating a Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 layer onto a first substrate; coating a second substrate with a CdS layer; contacting the Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 layer with the CdS layer in a water- and oxygen-free environment and heating the first and second substrates and the Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 and CdS layers to a temperature sufficient to induce crystallization of the Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 layer into a uniform single-phase spinel-type structure, for a time sufficient to allow full crystallization of the Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 layer at that temperature; cooling the first and second substrates to room temperature; and separating the first and second substrates and layers from each other. The process can be conducted at temperatures less than 600.degree. C., allowing the use of inexpensive soda lime glass substrates.

  4. Inverse bilayer magnetoelectric thin film sensor

    SciT

    Yarar, E.; Piorra, A.; Quandt, E., E-mail: eq@tf.uni-kiel.de

    2016-07-11

    Prior investigations on magnetoelectric (ME) thin film sensors using amorphous FeCoSiB as a magnetostrictive layer and AlN as a piezoelectric layer revealed a limit of detection (LOD) in the range of a few pT/Hz{sup 1/2} in the mechanical resonance. These sensors are comprised of a Si/SiO{sub 2}/Pt/AlN/FeCoSiB layer stack, as dictated by the temperatures required for the deposition of the layers. A low temperature deposition route of very high quality AlN allows the reversal of the deposition sequence, thus allowing the amorphous FeCoSiB to be deposited on the very smooth Si substrate. As a consequence, the LOD could be enhancedmore » by almost an order of magnitude reaching 400 fT/Hz{sup 1/2} at the mechanical resonance of the sensor. Giant ME coefficients (α{sub ME}) as high as 5 kV/cm Oe were measured. Transmission electron microscopy investigations revealed highly c-axis oriented growth of the AlN starting from the Pt-AlN interface with local epitaxy.« less

  5. Nanostructured refractory thin films for solar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollier, E.; Dunoyer, N.; Dellea, O.; Szambolics, H.

    2014-08-01

    Selective solar absorbers are key elements of all solar thermal systems. Solar thermal panels and Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) systems aim respectively at producing heat and electricity. In both cases, a surface receives the solar radiation and is designed to have the highest optical absorption (lowest optical reflectivity) of the solar radiation in the visible wavelength range where the solar intensity is the highest. It also has a low emissivity in the infrared (IR) range in order to avoid radiative thermal losses. Current solutions in the state of the art usually consist in deposited interferential thin films or in cermets [1]. Structured surfaces have been proposed and have been simulated because they are supposed to be more efficient when the solar radiation is not normal to the receiving surface and because they could potentially be fabricated with refractory materials able to sustain high operating temperatures. This work presents a new method to fabricate micro/nanostructured surfaces on molybdenum (refractory metal with a melting temperature of 2623°C). This method now allows obtaining a refractory selective surface with an excellent optical selectivity and a very high absorption in the visible range. This high absorption performance was obtained by achieving a double structuration at micro and nano scales thanks to an innovative process flow.

  6. Superconducting fluctuations in molybdenum nitride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskaran, R.; Thanikai Arasu, A. V.; Amaladass, E. P.; Vaidhyanathan, L. S.; Baisnab, D. K.

    2018-02-01

    MoN thin films have been deposited using reactive sputtering. The change in resistance near superconducting transition temperature at various magnetic fields has been analyzed based on superconducting fluctuations in the system. The Aslamazov and Larkin scaling theory has been utilized to analyze the conductance change. The results indicate that most of the measurements show two dimensional (2D) nature and exhibit scaling behavior at lower magnetic fields (<7T), while a cross over to three dimensional (3D) nature has been clearly observed in measurements at higher fields (>7T). We have also analyzed our data based on the model in which there is no explicit dependence of Tc. These analyses also substantiate a crossover from a 2D nature to a 3D at larger fields. Analysis using lowest Landau level scaling theory for a 2D system exhibit scaling behavior and substantiate our observations. The broadening at low resistance part has been explained based on thermally activated flux flow model and show universal behavior. The dependence of Uo on magnetic field indicates both single and collective vortex behavior.

  7. Drop impact on thin liquid films using TIRM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pack, Min; Ying Sun Team

    2015-11-01

    Drop impact on thin liquid films is relevant to a number of industrial processes such as pesticide spraying and repellent surface research such as self-cleaning applications. In this study, we systematically investigate the drop impact dynamics on thin liquid films on plain glass substrates by varying the film thickness, viscosity and impact velocity. High speed imaging is used to track the droplet morphology and trajectory over time as well as observing instability developments at high Weber number impacts. Moreover, the air layer between the drop and thin film upon drop impact is probed by total internal reflection microscopy (TIRM) where the grayscale intensity is used to measure the air layer thickness and spreading radius over time. For low We impact on thick films (We ~ 10), the effect of the air entrainment is pronounced where the adhesion of the droplet to the wall is delayed by the air depletion and liquid film drainage, whereas for high We impact (We >100) the air layer is no longer formed and instead, the drop contact with the wall is limited only to the film drainage for all film thicknesses. In addition, the maximum spreading radius of the droplet is analyzed for varying thin film thickness and viscosity.

  8. Synthesizing skyrmion bound pairs in Fe-Gd thin films

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, J. C. T.; Chess, J. J.; Montoya, S. A.; ...

    2016-07-11

    Here, we show that properly engineered amorphous Fe-Gd alloy thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy exhibit bound pairs of like-polarity, opposite helicity skyrmions at room temperature. Magnetic mirror symmetry planes present in the stripe phase, instead of chiral exchange, determine the internal skyrmion structure and the net achirality of the skyrmion phase. Our study shows that stripe domain engineering in amorphous alloy thin films may enable the creation of skyrmion phases with technologically desirable properties.

  9. Microstructural study of the polymorphic transformation in pentacene thin films.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Yosuke; Tomiya, Shigetaka; Koshitani, Naoki; Kudo, Yoshihiro; Satori, Kotaro; Itabashi, Masao; Kobayashi, Norihito; Nomoto, Kazumasa

    2009-10-02

    We have observed, by high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, the first direct evidence of polymorphic transformation in pentacene thin films deposited on silicon oxide substrates. Polymorphic transformation from the thin-film phase to the bulk phase occurred preferentially near polycrystalline grain boundaries, which exhibit concave surfaces. This process is thought to be driven by compressive stress caused by the grain boundaries. In addition to this stress, lattice mismatch between the two phases also results in structural defect formation.

  10. Thin Film Materials and Devices for Resistive Temperature Sensing Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-21

    materials are metals, their alloys, semiconducting materials, and thermistor materials such as spinels of manganese, cobalt and nickel oxides. 16 10...improved by doping of the thin films to increase the available carriers for transport. In the case of SiGe:H thin films, Ajmera et al. and Saint John et al...Conference, Freiburg, Fed. Rep. of Germany, 1989. [55] M. Stutzmann, J. Stuke and H. Dersch, "Electron Spin Resonance of Doped Glow-discharge

  11. Electrochemically synthesized nanocrystalline spinel thin film for high performance supercapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Vinay; Gupta, Shubhra; Miura, Norio

    Spinels are not known for their supercapacitive nature. Here, we have explored electrochemically synthesized nanostructured NiCo 2O 4 spinel thin-film electrode for electrochemical supercapacitors. The nanostructured NiCo 2O 4 spinel thin film exhibited a high specific capacitance value of 580 F g -1 and an energy density of 32 Wh kg -1 at the power density of 4 kW kg -1, accompanying with good cyclic stability.

  12. Silver nanowire-based transparent, flexible, and conductive thin film

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The fabrication of transparent, conductive, and uniform silver nanowire films using the scalable rod-coating technique is described in this study. Properties of the transparent conductive thin films are investigated, as well as the approaches to improve the performance of transparent silver nanowire electrodes. It is found that silver nanowires are oxidized during the coating process. Incubation in hydrogen chloride (HCl) vapor can eliminate oxidized surface, and consequently, reduce largely the resistivity of silver nanowire thin films. After HCl treatment, 175 Ω/sq and approximately 75% transmittance are achieved. The sheet resistivity drops remarkably with the rise of the film thickness or with the decrease of transparency. The thin film electrodes also demonstrated excellent flexible stability, showing < 2% resistance change after over 100 bending cycles. PMID:21711602

  13. Formation of diamond nanoparticle thin films by electrophoretic deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Yosuke; Ohishi, Fujio; Tanaka, Kuniaki; Usui, Hiroaki

    2016-03-01

    Thin films of diamond nanoparticles were prepared by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) using 0.5 wt % dispersions in water, ethanol, and 2-propanol. The film growth rate increased with increasing voltage applied to the electrodes. However, an excessive increase in voltage caused the degradation of film morphology. The optimum voltage was 4 V with an electrode separation of 5 mm. The film growth rate was higher in organic solvents than in water. The deposited film had a smooth surface with an average surface roughness comparable to the size of primary particles of the source material. It is notable that the EPD films had a considerably higher physical stability than spin-coated and cast films. The stability was further improved by thermally annealing the films. IR analysis revealed that the diamond nanoparticles have carboxy and amino groups on their surfaces. It is considered that the stability of the EPD films originate from a chemical reaction between these functional groups.

  14. Young's modulus measurement of aluminum thin film with cantilever structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, ByoungChan; Lee, SangHun; Lee, Hwasu; Shin, Hyungjae

    2001-09-01

    Micromachined cantilever structures are commonly used for measuring mechanical properties of thin film materials in MEMS. The application of conventional cantilever theory in experiment raises severe problem. The deformation of the supporting post and flange is produced by the applied electrostatic force and lead to more reduced measurement value than real Young's modulus of thin film materials. In order to determine Young's modulus of aluminum thin film robustly and reproducibly, the modified cantilever structure is proposed. Two measurement methods, which are cantilever tip deflection measurement and resonant frequency measurement, are used for confirming the reliability of the proposed cantilever structure as well. Measured results indicate that the proposed measurement scheme provides useful and credible Young's modulus value for thin film materials with sub-micron thickness. The proved validation of the proposed scheme makes sure that in addition to Young's modulus of aluminum thin film, that of other thin film materials which are aluminum alloy, metal, and so forth, can be extracted easily and clearly.

  15. Methods for preparing colloidal nanocrystal-based thin films

    DOEpatents

    Kagan, Cherie R.; Fafarman, Aaron T.; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Koh, Weon-kyu; Kim, David K.; Oh, Soong Ju; Lai, Yuming; Hong, Sung-Hoon; Saudari, Sangameshwar Rao; Murray, Christopher B.

    2016-05-10

    Methods of exchanging ligands to form colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) with chalcogenocyanate (xCN)-based ligands and apparatuses using the same are disclosed. The ligands may be exchanged by assembling NCs into a thin film and immersing the thin film in a solution containing xCN-based ligands. The ligands may also be exchanged by mixing a xCN-based solution with a dispersion of NCs, flocculating the mixture, centrifuging the mixture, discarding the supernatant, adding a solvent to the pellet, and dispersing the solvent and pellet to form dispersed NCs with exchanged xCN-ligands. The NCs with xCN-based ligands may be used to form thin film devices and/or other electronic, optoelectronic, and photonic devices. Devices comprising nanocrystal-based thin films and methods for forming such devices are also disclosed. These devices may be constructed by depositing NCs on to a substrate to form an NC thin film and then doping the thin film by evaporation and thermal diffusion.

  16. Emergent Topological Phenomena in Thin Films of Pyrochlore Iridates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bohm-Jung; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2014-06-01

    Because of the recent development of thin film and artificial superstructure growth techniques, it is possible to control the dimensionality of the system, smoothly between two and three dimensions. In this Letter we unveil the dimensional crossover of emergent topological phenomena in correlated topological materials. In particular, by focusing on the thin film of pyrochlore iridate antiferromagnets grown along the [111] direction, we demonstrate that the thin film can have a giant anomalous Hall conductance, proportional to the thickness of the film, even though there is no Hall effect in 3D bulk material. Moreover, in the case of ultrathin films, a quantized anomalous Hall conductance can be observed, despite the fact that the system is an antiferromagnet. In addition, we uncover the emergence of a new topological phase, the nontrivial topological properties of which are hidden in the bulk insulator and manifest only in thin films. This shows that the thin film of correlated topological materials is a new platform to search for unexplored novel topological phenomena.

  17. Application of surface analytical methods in thin film analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xingu

    Self-assembly and the sol-gel process are two promising methods for the preparation of novel materials and thin films. In this research, these two methods were utilized to prepare two types of thin films: self-assembled monolayers of peptides on gold and SiO2 sol-gel thin films modified with Ru(II) complexes. The properties of the resulting thin films were investigated by several analytical techniques in order to explore their potential applications in biomaterials, chemical sensors, nonlinear optics and catalysis. Among the analytical techniques employed in the study, surface analytical techniques, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and grazing angle reflection absorption Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (RA-FTIR), are particularly useful in providing information regarding the compositions and structures of the thin films. In the preparation of peptide thin films, monodisperse peptides were self-assembled on gold substrate via the N-terminus-coupled lipoic acid. The film compositions were investigated by XPS and agreed well with the theoretical values. XPS results also revealed that the surface coverage of the self-assembled films was significantly larger than that of the physisorbed films and that the chemisorption between the peptides and gold surface was stable in solvent. Studies by angle dependent XPS (ADXPS) and grazing angle RA-FTIR indicated that the peptides were on average oriented at a small angle from the surface normal. By using a model of orientation distribution function, both the peptide tilt angle and film thickness can be well calculated. Ru(II) complex doped SiO2 sol-gel thin films were prepared by low temperature sol-gel process. The ability of XPS coupled with Ar + ion sputtering to provide both chemical and compositional depth profile information of these sol-gel films was evaluated. This technique, together with UV-VIS and electrochemical measurements, was used to investigate the stability of Ru complexes in the composite

  18. Front and backside processed thin film electronic devices

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Paul G [Madison, WI; Lagally, Max G [Madison, WI; Ma, Zhenqiang [Middleton, WI; Yuan, Hao-Chih [Lakewood, CO; Wang, Guogong [Madison, WI; Eriksson, Mark A [Madison, WI

    2012-01-03

    This invention provides thin film devices that have been processed on their front- and backside. The devices include an active layer that is sufficiently thin to be mechanically flexible. Examples of the devices include back-gate and double-gate field effect transistors, double-sided bipolar transistors and 3D integrated circuits.

  19. Geometric shape control of thin film ferroelectrics and resulting structures

    DOEpatents

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick J.

    2000-01-01

    A monolithic crystalline structure and a method of making involves a semiconductor substrate, such as silicon, and a ferroelectric film, such as BaTiO.sub.3, overlying the surface of the substrate wherein the atomic layers of the ferroelectric film directly overlie the surface of the substrate. By controlling the geometry of the ferroelectric thin film, either during build-up of the thin film or through appropriate treatment of the thin film adjacent the boundary thereof, the in-plane tensile strain within the ferroelectric film is relieved to the extent necessary to permit the ferroelectric film to be poled out-of-plane, thereby effecting in-plane switching of the polarization of the underlying substrate material. The method of the invention includes the steps involved in effecting a discontinuity of the mechanical restraint at the boundary of the ferroelectric film atop the semiconductor substrate by, for example, either removing material from a ferroelectric film which has already been built upon the substrate, building up a ferroelectric film upon the substrate in a mesa-shaped geometry or inducing the discontinuity at the boundary by ion beam deposition techniques.

  20. Interplay of 3 d - and 5 d -sublattice magnetism in the double perovskite substitution series La2Zn1 -xCoxIrO6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogl, M.; Corredor, L. T.; Dey, T.; Morrow, R.; Scaravaggi, F.; Wolter, A. U. B.; Aswartham, S.; Wurmehl, S.; Büchner, B.

    2018-01-01

    We report on the interplay of 3 d - and 5 d -sublattice magnetism in polycrystalline samples of the double perovskite substitution series La2Zn1 -xCoxIrO6 . Powder x-ray diffraction reveals no major structural changes within the series. In magnetization measurements, a gradual shift of the transition temperature from TN ≈91 K for the Co parent compound to TN ≈8.7 K for the Zn parent compound is observed. The data on the Zn-rich members of the substitution series indicate that this is accompanied by changing roles of the 3 d sublattice of Co2 + and the strongly spin-orbit coupled 5 d -sublattice of Ir4 + with its jeff=1 /2 ground state, as a function of the Co/Zn ratio. Temperature-dependent specific-heat studies revealed a reduced magnetic entropy, pointing towards a large spin-orbit coupling and orbital contribution in the system.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and hemolysis studies of Zn(1-x)CaxFe2O4 ferrites synthesized by sol-gel for hyperthermia treatment applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasso-Terán, Rosario Argentina; Cortés-Hernández, Dora Alicia; Sánchez-Fuentes, Héctor Javier; Reyes-Rodríguez, Pamela Yajaira; de-León-Prado, Laura Elena; Escobedo-Bocardo, José Concepción; Almanza-Robles, José Manuel

    2017-04-01

    The synthesis of Zn(1-x)CaxFe2O4 nanoparticles, x=0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0, was performed by sol-gel method followed by a heat treatment at 400 °C for 30 min. These ferrites showed nanometric sizes and nearly superparamagnetic behavior. The Zn0.50Ca0.50Fe2O4 and CaFe2O4 ferrites presented a size within the range of 12-14 nm and appropriate heating ability for hyperthermia applications. Hemolysis testing demonstrated that Zn0.50Ca0.50Fe2O4 ferrite was not cytotoxic when using 10 mg of ferrite/mL of solution. According to the results obtained, Zn0.50Ca0.50Fe2O4 is a potential material for cancer treatment by magnetic hyperthermia therapy.

  2. Single-valley quantum Hall ferromagnet in a dilute Mg xZn 1-xO/ZnO strongly correlated two-dimensional electron system

    DOE PAGES

    Kozuka, Y.; Tsukazaki, A.; Maryenko, D.; ...

    2012-02-03

    We investigate the spin susceptibility (g*m*) of dilute two-dimensional (2D) electrons confined at the Mg xZn 1-xO/ZnO heterointerface. Magnetotransport measurements show a four-fold enhancement of g*m*, dominated by the increase in the Landé g-factor. The g-factor enhancement leads to a ferromagnetic instability of the electron gas as evidenced by sharp resistance spikes. At high magnetic field, the large g*m* leads to full spin polarization, where we found sudden increase in resistance around the filling factors of half-integer, accompanied by complete disappearance of fractional quantum Hall (QH) states. Along with its large effective mass and the high electron mobility, our resultmore » indicates that the ZnO 2D system is ideal for investigating the effect of electron correlations in the QH regime.« less

  3. Polycrystalline Superconducting Thin Films: Texture Control and Critical Current Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Feng

    1995-01-01

    The growth processes of polycrystalline rm YBa_2CU_3O_{7-X} (YBCO) and yttria-stabilized-zirconia (YSZ) thin films have been developed. The effectiveness of YSZ buffer layers on suppression of the reaction between YBCO thin films and metallic substrates was carefully studied. Grown on the chemically inert surfaces of YSZ buffer layers, YBCO thin films possessed good quality of c-axis alignment with the c axis parallel to the substrate normal, but without any preferred in-plane orientations. This leads to the existence of a large percentage of the high-angle grain boundaries in the YBCO films. The critical current densities (rm J_{c}'s) found in these films were much lower than those in single crystal YBCO thin films, which was the consequence of the weak -link effect of the high-angle grain boundaries in these films. It became clear that the in-plane alignment is vital for achieving high rm J_{c }s in polycrystalline YBCO thin films. To induce the in-plane alignment, ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) technique was integrated into the conventional pulsed laser deposition process for the growth of the YSZ buffer layers. It was demonstrated that using IBAD the in-plane orientations of the YSZ grains could be controlled within a certain range of a common direction. This ion -bombardment induced in-plane texturing was explained using the anisotropic sputtering yield theory. Our observations and analyses have provided valuable information on the optimization of the IBAD process, and shed light on the texturing mechanism in YSZ. With the in-plane aligned YSZ buffer layers, YBCO thin films grown on metallic substrates showed improved rm J_{c}s. It was found that the in-plane alignment of YSZ and that of YBCO were closely related. A direct correlation was revealed between the rm J_{c} value and the degree of the in-plane alignment for the YBCO thin films. To explain this correlation, a numerical model was applied to multi-grain superconducting paths with different

  4. Enhanced magnetic fluid hyperthermia by micellar magnetic nanoclusters composed of Mn(x)Zn(1-x)Fe(2)O(4) nanoparticles for induced tumor cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yang; Li, Jianbo; Ren, Jie; Leng, Junzhao; Lin, Chao; Shi, Donglu

    2014-10-08

    Monodispersed MnxZn1-xFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles of 8 nm are synthesized and encapsulated in amphiphilic block copolymer for development of the hydrophilic magnetic nanoclusters (MNCs). These MNCs exhibit superparamagnetic characteristics, high specific absorption rate (SAR), large saturation magnetization (Ms), excellent stability, and good biocompatibility. MnFe2O4 and Mn0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4 are selected as optimum compositions for the MNCs (MnFe2O4/MNC and Mn0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4/MNC) and employed for magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) in vitro. To ensure biosafety of MFH, the parameters of alternating magnetic field (AMF) and exposure time are optimized with low frequency, f, and strength of applied magnetic field, Happlied. Under optimized conditions, MFH of MnFe2O4/MNC and Mn0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4/MNC result in cancer cell death rate up to 90% within 15 min. The pathway of cancer cell death is identified as apoptosis, which occurs in mild hyperthermia near 43 °C. Both MnFe2O4/MNC and Mn0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4/MNC show similar efficiencies on drug-sensitive and drug-resistant cancer cells. On the basis of these findings, those MnxZn1-xFe2O4 nanoclusters can serve as a promising candidate for effective targeting, diagnosis, and therapy of cancers. The multimodal cancer treatment is also possible as amphiphilic block copolymer can encapsulate, in a similar fashion, different nanoparticles, hydrophobic drugs, and other functional molecules.

  5. Structural and Electrochemical Characterization of Zn1-xFexO-Effect of Aliovalent Doping on the Li⁺ Storage Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Giuli, Gabriele; Eisenmann, Tobias; Bresser, Dominic; Trapananti, Angela; Asenbauer, Jakob; Mueller, Franziska; Passerini, Stefano

    2017-12-29

    In order to further improve the energy and power density of state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), new cell chemistries and, therefore, new active materials with alternative storage mechanisms are needed. Herein, we report on the structural and electrochemical characterization of Fe-doped ZnO samples with varying dopant concentrations, potentially serving as anode for LIBs (Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries). The wurtzite structure of the Zn 1-x Fe x O samples (with x ranging from 0 to 0.12) has been refined via the Rietveld method. Cell parameters change only slightly with the Fe content, whereas the crystallinity is strongly affected, presumably due to the presence of defects induced by the Fe 3+ substitution for Zn 2+ . XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) data recorded ex situ for Zn 0.9 Fe 0.1 O electrodes at different states of charge indicated that Fe, dominantly trivalent in the pristine anode, partially reduces to Fe 2+ upon discharge. This finding was supported by a detailed galvanostatic and potentiodynamic investigation of Zn 1-x Fe x O-based electrodes, confirming such an initial reduction of Fe 3+ to Fe 2+ at potentials higher than 1.2 V (vs. Li⁺/Li) upon the initial lithiation, i.e., discharge. Both structural and electrochemical data strongly suggest the presence of cationic vacancies at the tetrahedral sites, induced by the presence of Fe 3+ (i.e., one cationic vacancy for every two Fe 3+ present in the sample), allowing for the initial Li⁺ insertion into the ZnO lattice prior to the subsequent conversion and alloying reaction.

  6. Magnetic hysteresis measurements of thin films under isotropic stress.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Patrick; Dubey, Archana; Geerts, Wilhelmus

    2000-10-01

    Nowadays, ferromagnetic thin films are widely applied in devices for information technology (credit cards, video recorder tapes, floppies, hard disks) and sensors (air bags, anti-breaking systems, navigation systems). Thus, with the increase in the use of magnetic media continued investigation of magnetic properties of materials is necessary to help in determining the useful properties of materials for new or improved applications. We are currently interested in studying the effect of applied external stress on Kerr hysteresis curves of thin magnetic films. The Ni and NiFe films were grown using DC magnetron sputtering with Ar as the sputter gas (pAr=4 mTorr; Tsub=55-190 C). Seed and cap layers of Ti were used on all films for adhesion and oxidation protection, respectively. A brass membrane pressure cell was designed to apply in-plane isotropic stress to thin films. In this pressure cell, gas pressure is used to deform a flexible substrate onto which a thin magnetic film has been sputtered. The curvature of the samples could be controlled by changing the gas pressure to the cell. Magneto-Optical in-plane hysteresis curves at different values of strain were measured. The results obtained show that the stress sensitivity is dependent on the film thickness. For the 500nm NiFe films, the coercivity strongly decreased as a function of the applied stress.

  7. Thin film processing of photorefractive BaTiO3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, Paul R.; Potember, Richard S.

    1991-01-01

    The principle objectives of this ongoing research involve the preparation and characterization of polycrystalline single-domain thin films of BaTiO3 for photorefractive applications. These films must be continuous, free of cracks, and of high optical quality. The two methods proposed are sputtering and sol-gel related processing.

  8. Cratering Studies in Thin Plastic Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, A. J.; Bugiel, S.; Gruen, E.; Horanyi, M.; Munsat, T. L.; Srama, R.

    2014-12-01

    Thin plastic films, such as Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF), have been used as protective coatings or dust detectors on a number of missions including the Dust Counter and Mass Analyzer (DUCMA) instrument on Vega 1 and 2, the High Rate Detector (HRD) on the Cassini Mission, and the Student Dust Counter (SDC) on New Horizons. These types of detectors can be used on the lunar surface or in lunar orbit to detect dust grain size distributions and velocities. Due to their low power requirements and light weight, large surface area detectors can be built for observing low dust fluxes. The SDC dust detector is made up of a permanently polarized layer of PVDF coated on both sides with a thin layer (≈ 1000 Å) of aluminum nickel. The operation principle is that a micrometeorite impact removes a portion of the metal surface layer exposing the permanently polarized PVDF underneath. This causes a local potential near the crater changing the surface charge of the metal layer. The dimensions and shape of the crater determine the strength of the potential and thus the signal generated by the PVDF. The theoretical basis for signal interpretation uses a crater diameter scaling law which was not intended for use with PVDF. In this work, a crater size scaling law has been experimentally determined, and further simulation work is being done to enhance our understanding of the mechanisms of crater formation. LS-Dyna, a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code from the Livermore Software Technology Corp. was chosen to simulate micrometeorite impacts. It is capable of incorporating key physics phenomena, including fracture, heat transfer, melting, etc. Furthermore, unlike Eulerian methods, SPH is gridless allowing large deformities without the inclusion of unphysical erosion algorithms. Material properties are accounted for using the Grüneisen Equation of State. The results of the SPH model can then be fed into electrostatic relaxation models to enhance the fidelity of interpretation

  9. Cratering Studies in Thin Plastic Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, A. J.; Bugiel, S.; Gruen, E.; Hillier, J.; Horanyi, M.; Munsat, T. L.; Srama, R.

    2013-12-01

    Thin plastic films, such as Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF), have been used as protective coatings or dust detectors on a number of missions including the Dust Counter and Mass Analyzer (DUCMA) instrument on Vega 1 and 2, the High Rate Detector (HRD) on the Cassini Mission, and the Student Dust Counter (SDC) on New Horizons. These types of detectors can be used on the lunar surface or in lunar orbit to detect dust grain size distributions and velocities. Due to their low power requirements and light weight, large surface area detectors can be built for observing low dust fluxes. The SDC dust detector is made up of a permanently polarized layer of PVDF coated on both sides with a thin layer (≈ 1000 Å) of aluminum nickel. The operation principle is that a micrometeorite impact removes a portion of the metal surface layer exposing the permanently polarized PVDF underneath. This causes a local potential near the crater changing the surface charge of the metal layer. The dimensions and shape of the crater determine the strength of the potential and thus the signal generated by the PVDF. The theoretical basis for signal interpretation uses a crater diameter scaling law which was not intended for use with PVDF. In this work, a crater size scaling law has been experimentally determined, and further simulation work is being done to enhance our understanding of the mechanisms of crater formation. LS-Dyna, a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code from the Livermore Software Technology Corp. was chosen to simulate micrometeorite impacts. SPH is known to be well suited to the large deformities found in hypervelocity impacts. It is capable of incorporating key physics phenomena, including fracture, heat transfer, melting, etc. Furthermore, unlike Eulerian methods, SPH is gridless allowing large deformities without the inclusion of unphysical erosion algorithms. Material properties are accounted for using the Grüneisen Equation of State. The results of the SPH model can

  10. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO thin films

    SciT

    Anilkumar, T. S., E-mail: anil24march@gmail.com; Girija, M. L., E-mail: girija.ml.grt1@gmail.com; Venkatesh, J., E-mail: phph9502@yahoo.com

    2016-05-06

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) Thin films were deposited on glass substrate using Spin coating method. Zinc acetate dehydrate, Carbinol and Mono-ethanolamine were used as the precursor, solvent and stabilizer respectively to prepare ZnO Thin-films. The molar ratio of Monoethanolamine to Zinc acetate was maintained as approximately 1. The thickness of the films was determined by Interference technique. The optical properties of the films were studied by UV Vis-Spectrophotometer. From transmittance and absorbance curve, the energy band gap of ZnO is found out. Electrical Conductivity measurements of ZnO are carried out by two probe method and Activation energy for the electrical conductivitymore » of ZnO are found out. The crystal structure and orientation of the films were analyzed by XRD. The XRD patterns show that the ZnO films are polycrystalline with wurtzite hexagonal structure.« less

  11. The Chemical Vapor Deposition of Thin Metal Oxide Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurie, Angus Buchanan

    1990-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is an important method of preparing thin films of materials. Copper (II) oxide is an important p-type semiconductor and a major component of high T_{rm c} superconducting oxides. By using a volatile copper (II) chelate precursor, copper (II) bishexafluoroacetylacetonate, it has been possible to prepare thin films of copper (II) oxide by low temperature normal pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. In the metalorganic CVD (MOCVD) production of oxide thin films, oxygen gas saturated with water vapor has been used mainly to reduce residual carbon and fluorine content. This research has investigated the influence of water-saturated oxygen on the morphology of thin films of CuO produced by low temperature chemical vapor deposition onto quartz, magnesium oxide and cubic zirconia substrates. ZnO is a useful n-type semiconductor material and is commonly prepared by the MOCVD method using organometallic precursors such as dimethyl or diethylzinc. These compounds are difficult to handle under atmospheric conditions. In this research, thin polycrystalline films of zinc oxide were grown on a variety of substrates by normal pressure CVD using a zinc chelate complex with zinc(II) bishexafluoroacetylacetonate dihydrate (Zn(hfa)_2.2H _2O) as the zinc source. Zn(hfa) _2.2H_2O is not moisture - or air-sensitive and is thus more easily handled. By operating under reduced-pressure conditions (20-500 torr) it is possible to substantially reduce deposition times and improve film quality. This research has investigated the reduced-pressure CVD of thin films of CuO and ZnO. Sub-micron films of tin(IV) oxide (SnO _2) have been grown by normal pressure CVD on quartz substrates by using tetraphenyltin (TPT) as the source of tin. All CVD films were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA).

  12. The effect of Argon pressure dependent V thin film on the phase transition process of (020) VO2 thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Yifan; Huang, Kang; Tang, Zhou; Xu, Xiaofeng; Tan, Zhiyong; Liu, Qian; Wang, Chunrui; Wu, Binhe; Wang, Chang; Cao, Juncheng

    2018-01-01

    It has been proved challenging to fabricate the single crystal orientation of VO2 thin film by a simple method. Based on chemical reaction thermodynamic and crystallization analysis theory, combined with our experimental results, we find out that when stoichiometric number of metallic V in the chemical equation is the same, the ratio of metallic V thin film surface average roughness Ra to thin film average particle diameter d decreases with the decreasing sputtering Argon pressure. Meanwhile, the oxidation reaction equilibrium constant K also decreases, which will lead to the increases of oxidation time, thereby the crystal orientation of the VO2 thin film will also become more uniform. By sputtering oxidation coupling method, metallic V thin film is deposited on c-sapphire substrate at 1 × 10-1 Pa, and then oxidized in the air with the maximum oxidation time of 65s, high oriented (020) VO2 thin film has been fabricated successfully, which exhibits ∼4.6 orders sheet resistance change across the metal-insulator transition.

  13. Femtosecond timing measurement and control using ultrafast organic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naruse, Makoto; Mitsu, Hiroyuki; Furuki, Makoto; Iwasa, Izumi; Sato, Yasuhiro; Tatsuura, Satoshi; Tian, Minquan

    2003-12-01

    We show a femtosecond timing measurement and control technique using a squarylium dye J-aggregate film, which is an organic thin film that acts as an ultrafast two-dimensional optical switch. Optical pulse timing is directly mapped to space-domain position on the film, and the large area and ultrafast response offer a femtosecond-resolved, large dynamic range, real-time, multichannel timing measurement capability. A timing fluctuation (jitter, wander, and skew) reduction architecture is presented and experimentally demonstrated.

  14. Thin film deposition using rarefied gas jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Sahadev, , Dr.

    2017-01-01

    The rarefied gas jet of aluminium is studied at Mach number Ma =(U_j /√{ kbTj / m }) in the range .01 thin film with uniform thickness and strong adhesion on the surface of the substrate in the form of ionic plasma, so that the substrate can be protected from corrosion and oxidation and thereby enhance the lifetime and safety, and to introduce the desired surface properties for a given application. Here, H is the characteristic dimension, U_j and T_j are the jet velocity and temperature, n_d is the number density of the jet, m and d are the molecular mass and diameter, and kb is the Boltzmann constant. An important finding is that the capture width (cross-section of the gas jet deposited on the substrate) is symmetric around the centerline of the substrate, and decreases with increased Mach number due to an increase in the momentum of the gas molecules. DSMC simulation results reveals that at low Knudsen number ((Kn =0.01); shorter mean free paths), the atoms experience more collisions, which direct them toward the substrate. However, the atoms also move with lower momentum at low Mach number ,which allows scattering collisions to rapidly direct the atoms to the substrate.

  15. High-throughput characterization of film thickness in thin film materials libraries by digital holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yiu Wai; Krause, Michael; Savan, Alan; Thienhaus, Sigurd; Koukourakis, Nektarios; Hofmann, Martin R; Ludwig, Alfred

    2011-10-01

    A high-throughput characterization technique based on digital holography for mapping film thickness in thin-film materials libraries was developed. Digital holographic microscopy is used for fully automatic measurements of the thickness of patterned films with nanometer resolution. The method has several significant advantages over conventional stylus profilometry: it is contactless and fast, substrate bending is compensated, and the experimental setup is simple. Patterned films prepared by different combinatorial thin-film approaches were characterized to investigate and demonstrate this method. The results show that this technique is valuable for the quick, reliable and high-throughput determination of the film thickness distribution in combinatorial materials research. Importantly, it can also be applied to thin films that have been structured by shadow masking.

  16. Nucleation of fcc Ta when heating thin films

    DOE PAGES

    Janish, Matthew T.; Mook, William M.; Carter, C. Barry

    2014-10-25

    Thin tantalum films have been studied during in-situ heating in a transmission electron microscope. Diffraction patterns from the as-deposited films were typical of amorphous materials. Crystalline grains were observed to form when the specimen was annealed in-situ at 450°C. Particular attention was addressed to the formation and growth of grains with the face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure. As a result, these observations are discussed in relation to prior work on the formation of fcc Ta by deformation and during thin film deposition.

  17. Ultrafast IR detector response in high Tc superconducting thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindgren, Mikael; Ahlberg, Henrik; Danerud, Martin; Larsson, Anders; Eng, Sverre T.

    1991-01-01

    The response from a high Tc superconducting multielement optical detector made of a laser deposited Y-Ba-Cu-O thin film has been evaluated. Several microscopic and spectroscopic techniques were used to establish the presence of the correct phase of the thin film. Optical pulses from a laser diode at 830 nm and from a Q-switched CO2-laser at 10.6 microns were used. The detector responded to 50 ps (FWHM) pulses. A comparison between dR/dT of the film and the response amplitude as a function of temperature indicated a bolometric response.

  18. Electron transporting water-gated thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Naim, Abdullah; Grell, Martin

    2012-10-01

    We demonstrate an electron-transporting water-gated thin film transistor, using thermally converted precursor-route zinc-oxide (ZnO) intrinsic semiconductors with hexamethyldisilazene (HMDS) hydrophobic surface modification. Water gated HMDS-ZnO thin film transistors (TFT) display low threshold and high electron mobility. ZnO films constitute an attractive alternative to organic semiconductors for TFT transducers in sensor applications for waterborne analytes. Despite the use of an electrolyte as gate medium, the gate geometry (shape of gate electrode and distance between gate electrode and TFT channel) is relevant for optimum performance of water-gated TFTs.

  19. Thin film resists for registration of single-ion impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millar, V.; Pakes, C. I.; Prawer, S.; Rout, B.; Jamieson, D. N.

    2005-06-01

    We demonstrate registration of the location of the impact site of single ions using a thin film polymethyl methacrylate resist on a SiO2/Si substrate. Carbon nanotube-based atomic force microscopy is used to reveal craters in the surface of chemically developed films, consistent with the development of latent damage induced by single-ion impacts. The responses of thin PMMA films to the implantation of He+ and Ga+ ions indicate the role of electronic and nuclear energy loss mechanisms at the single-ion level.

  20. Superconductor—Insulator Transitions in Pure Polycrystalline Nb Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couedo, F.; Crauste, O.; Bergé, L.; Dolgorouky, Y.; Marrache-Kikuchi, C.; Dumoulin, L.

    2012-12-01

    We report on a study of the transport properties of Nb thin films. By varying the thickness of the films from 263 Å to 25 Å, we observed a depression of the superconductivity. Magnetic field was also applied up to 6 T, inducing the disappearance of the superconductivity and the onset of an insulating behavior. The results were compared to those we have already obtained on a highly disordered system, a-NbxSi1-x, to understand whether the same mechanisms for the disappearance of the superconductivity could be at play in pure metallic thin films and in highly disordered systems.

  1. Morphology selection for cupric oxide thin films by electrodeposition.

    PubMed

    Dhanasekaran, V; Mahalingam, T; Chandramohan, R

    2011-10-01

    Polycrystalline cupric oxide thin films were deposited using alkaline solution bath employing cathodic electrodeposition method. The thin films were electrodeposited at various solution pH. The surface morphology and elemental analyzes of the films were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis, respectively. SEM studies revealed that the surface morphology could be tailored suitably by adjusting the pH value during deposition. Mesh average on multiple lattice mode atomic force microscopy image was obtained and reported. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Oxide-based thin film transistors for flexible electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yongli; Wang, Xiangyu; Gao, Ya; Hou, Yahui; Wan, Qing

    2018-01-01

    The continuous progress in thin film materials and devices has greatly promoted the development in the field of flexible electronics. As one of the most common thin film devices, thin film transistors (TFTs) are significant building blocks for flexible platforms. Flexible oxide-based TFTs are well compatible with flexible electronic systems due to low process temperature, high carrier mobility, and good uniformity. The present article is a review of the recent progress and major trends in the field of flexible oxide-based thin film transistors. First, an introduction of flexible electronics and flexible oxide-based thin film transistors is given. Next, we introduce oxide semiconductor materials and various flexible oxide-based TFTs classified by substrate materials including polymer plastics, paper sheets, metal foils, and flexible thin glass. Afterwards, applications of flexible oxide-based TFTs including bendable sensors, memories, circuits, and displays are presented. Finally, we give conclusions and a prospect for possible development trends. Project supported in part by the National Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholars of China (No. 61425020), in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11674162).

  3. Visualizing Nanoscopic Topography and Patterns in Freely Standing Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilixiati, Subinuer; Zhang, Yiran; Pearsall, Collin; Sharma, Vivek

    Thin liquid films containing micelles, nanoparticles, polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes and smectic liquid crystals undergo thinning in a discontinuous, step-wise fashion. The discontinuous jumps in thickness are often characterized by quantifying changes in the intensity of reflected monochromatic light, modulated by thin film interference from a region of interest. Stratifying thin films exhibit a mosaic pattern in reflected white light microscopy, attributed to the coexistence of domains with various thicknesses, separated by steps. Using Interferometry Digital Imaging Optical Microscopy (IDIOM) protocols developed in the course of this study, we spatially resolve for the first time, the landscape of stratifying freestanding thin films. In particular, for thin films containing micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), discontinuous, thickness transitions with concentration-dependent steps of 5-25 nm are visualized and analyzed using IDIOM protocols. We distinguish nanoscopic rims, mesas and craters and show that the non-flat features are sculpted by oscillatory, periodic, supramolecular structural forces that arise in confined fluids

  4. Visualizing Nanoscopic Topography and Patterns in Freely Standing Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vivek; Zhang, Yiran; Yilixiati, Subinuer

    Thin liquid films containing micelles, nanoparticles, polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes and smectic liquid crystals undergo thinning in a discontinuous, step-wise fashion. The discontinuous jumps in thickness are often characterized by quantifying changes in the intensity of reflected monochromatic light, modulated by thin film interference from a region of interest. Stratifying thin films exhibit a mosaic pattern in reflected white light microscopy, attributed to the coexistence of domains with various thicknesses, separated by steps. Using Interferometry Digital Imaging Optical Microscopy (IDIOM) protocols developed in the course of this study, we spatially resolve for the first time, the landscape of stratifying freely standing thin films. We distinguish nanoscopic rims, mesas and craters, and follow their emergence and growth. In particular, for thin films containing micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), these topological features involve discontinuous, thickness transitions with concentration-dependent steps of 5-25 nm. These non-flat features result from oscillatory, periodic, supramolecular structural forces that arise in confined fluids, and arise due to complex coupling of hydrodynamic and thermodynamic effects at the nanoscale.

  5. Composite polymeric film and method for its use in installing a very-thin polymeric film in a device

    DOEpatents

    Duchane, D.V.; Barthell, B.L.

    1982-04-26

    A composite polymeric film and a method for its use in forming and installing a very thin (< 10 ..mu..m) polymeric film are disclosed. The composite film consists of a thin film layer and a backing layer. The backing layer is soluble in a solvent in which the thin film layer is not soluble. In accordance with the method, the composite film is installed in a device in the same position in which it is sought to finally emplace the thin film. The backing layer is then selectiely dissolved in the solvent to leave the insoluble thin film layer as an unbacked film. The method permits a very thin film to e successfully installed in devices where the fragility of the film would preclude handling and installation by conventional methods.

  6. Composite polymeric film and method for its use in installing a very thin polymeric film in a device

    DOEpatents

    Duchane, David V.; Barthell, Barry L.

    1984-01-01

    A composite polymeric film and a method for its use in forming and installing a very thin (<10 .mu.m) polymeric film are disclosed. The composite film consists of a thin film layer and a backing layer. The backing layer is soluble in a solvent in which the thin film layer is not soluble. In accordance with the method, the composite film is installed in a device in the same position in which it is sought to finally emplace the thin film. The backing layer is then selectively dissolved in the solvent to leave the insoluble thin film layer as an unbacked film. The method permits a very thin film to be successfully installed in devices where the fragility of the film would preclude handling and installation by conventional methods.

  7. Preparing thin aluminum films for adhesive bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, T.

    1979-01-01

    Carbonate pretreatment produces highly bondable surface without harming film. Treatment is useful in developing low-cost mirrors and solar concentrators fabricated from metal-coated plastic films. Treatment should cost no more than standard degreasing and rinsing procedures.

  8. Thin Film Ceramic Strain Sensor Development for High Temperature Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Gonzalez, Jose M.; Laster, Kimala L.

    2008-01-01

    The need for sensors to operate in harsh environments is illustrated by the need for measurements in the turbine engine hot section. The degradation and damage that develops over time in hot section components can lead to catastrophic failure. At present, the degradation processes that occur in the harsh hot section environment are poorly characterized, which hinders development of more durable components, and since it is so difficult to model turbine blade temperatures, strains, etc, actual measurements are needed. The need to consider ceramic sensing elements is brought about by the temperature limits of metal thin film sensors in harsh environments. The effort at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to develop high temperature thin film ceramic static strain gauges for application in turbine engines is described, first in the fan and compressor modules, and then in the hot section. The near-term goal of this research effort was to identify candidate thin film ceramic sensor materials and provide a list of possible thin film ceramic sensor materials and corresponding properties to test for viability. A thorough literature search was conducted for ceramics that have the potential for application as high temperature thin film strain gauges chemically and physically compatible with the NASA GRCs microfabrication procedures and substrate materials. Test results are given for tantalum, titanium and zirconium-based nitride and oxynitride ceramic films.

  9. Nanoporous structures on ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gür, Emre; Kılıç, Bayram; Coşkun, C.; Tüzemen, S.; Bayrakçeken, Fatma

    2010-01-01

    Porous structures were formed on ZnO thin films which were grown by an electrochemical deposition (ECD) method. The growth processes were carried out in a solution of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) zinc perchlorate, Zn(ClO 4) 2, at 120 ∘C on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates. Optical and structural characterizations of electrochemically grown ZnO thin films have shown that the films possess high (0002) c-axis orientation, high nucleation, high intensity and low FWHM of UV emission at the band edge region and a sharp UV absorption edge. Nanoporous structures were formed via self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of hexanethiol (C 6SH) and dodecanethiol (C 12SH). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurements showed that while a nanoporous structure (pore radius 20 nm) is formed on the ZnO thin films by hexanathiol solution, a macroporous structure (pore radius 360 nm) is formed by dodecanethiol solution. No significant variation is observed in X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements on the ZnO thin films after pore formation. However, photoluminescence (PL) measurements showed that green emission is observed as the dominant emission for the macroporous structures, while no variation is observed for the thin film nanoporous ZnO sample.

  10. Self-assembly of dodecaphenyl POSS thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handke, Bartosz; Klita, Łukasz; Niemiec, Wiktor

    2017-12-01

    The self-assembly abilities of Dodecaphenyl Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane thin films on Si(1 0 0) surfaces were studied. Due to their thermal properties - relatively low sublimation temperature and preservation of molecular structure - cage type silsesquioxanes are ideal material for the preparation of a thin films by Physical Vapor Deposition. The Ultra-High Vacuum environment and the deposition precision of the PVD method enable the study of early stages of thin film growth and its molecular organization. X-ray Reflectivity and Atomic Force Microscopy measurements allow to pursuit size-effects in the structure of thin films with thickness ranges from less than a single molecular layer up to several tens of layers. Thermal treatment of the thin films triggered phase change: from a poorly ordered polycrystalline film into a well-ordered multilayer structure. Self-assembly of the layers is the effect of the π-stacking of phenyl rings, which force molecules to arrange in a superlattice, forming stacks of alternating organic-inorganic layers.

  11. Structural and electrical properties of CZTS thin films by electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, M. C.; Basha, Sk. Shahenoor

    2018-06-01

    CZTS (Cu2ZnSnS4) thin films were coated on ITO glass substrates by single bath electrodeposition technique. The prepared films were subsequently characterized by XRD, SEM, FTIR, UV-visible spectroscopy and Raman studies. The thickness of the thin films was measured by wedge method. X-ray diffraction studies revealed the formation of polycrystalline phase. The morphological surface of the prepared thin films was examined by SEM and AFM and showed the presence of microcrystals on the surface of the samples. The elemental analysis and their compositional ratios present in the samples were confirmed by the energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Functional groups and the position of band structure involved in the materials were confirmed by FTIR. Optical absorption studies were performed on the prepared thin films in the wavelength ranging from 300 to 1000 nm and the energy bandgap values were found to be in the range from 1.39 to 1.60 eV. Raman spectral peak which was observed at 360 cm-1 correspond to kesterite phase, was formed due to the vibration of the molecules. Electrical measurements confirmed the nature of the thin film depending on the charge concentration present in the samples.

  12. Pulsed photonic fabrication of nanostructured metal oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgeois, Briley B.; Luo, Sijun; Riggs, Brian C.; Adireddy, Shiva; Chrisey, Douglas B.

    2017-09-01

    Nanostructured metal oxide thin films with a large specific surface area are preferable for practical device applications in energy conversion and storage. Herein, we report instantaneous (milliseconds) photonic synthesis of three-dimensional (3-D) nanostructured metal oxide thin films through the pulsed photoinitiated pyrolysis of organometallic precursor films made by chemical solution deposition. High wall-plug efficiency-pulsed photonic irradiation (xenon flash lamp, pulse width of 1.93 ms, fluence of 7.7 J/cm2 and frequency of 1.2 Hz) is used for scalable photonic processing. The photothermal effect of subsequent pulses rapidly improves the crystalline quality of nanocrystalline metal oxide thin films in minutes. The following paper highlights pulsed photonic fabrication of 3-D nanostructured TiO2, Co3O4, and Fe2O3 thin films, exemplifying a promising new method for the low-cost and high-throughput manufacturing of nanostructured metal oxide thin films for energy applications.

  13. Thin film thermocouples for thermoelectric characterization of nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayson, Matthew; Zhou, Chuanle; Varrenti, Andrew; Chyung, Seung Hye; Long, Jieyi; Memik, Seda

    2011-03-01

    The increased use of nanostructured materials as thermoelectrics requires reliable and accurate characterization of the anisotropic thermal coefficients of small structures, such as superlattices and quantum wire networks. Thin evaporated metal films can be used to create thermocouples with a very small thermal mass and low thermal conductivity, in order to measure thermal gradients on nanostructures and thereby measure the thermal conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient of the nanostructure. In this work we confirm the known result that thin metal films have lower Seebeck coefficients than bulk metals, and we also calibrate the Seebeck coefficient of a thin-film Ni/Cr thermocouple with 50 nm thickness, showing it to have about 1/4 the bulk value. We demonstrate reproducibility of this thin-filmSeebeck coefficient on multiple substrates, and we show that this coefficient does, in fact, change as a function of film thickness. We will discuss prototype measurement designs and preliminary work as to how these thin films can be used to study both Seebeck coefficients and thermal conductivities of superlattices in various geometries. The same technology can in principle be used on integrated circuits for thermal mapping, under the name ``Integrated On-Chip Thermocouple Array'' (IOTA).

  14. Electronic Devices Based on Oxide Thin Films Fabricated by Fiber-to-Film Process.

    PubMed

    Meng, You; Liu, Ao; Guo, Zidong; Liu, Guoxia; Shin, Byoungchul; Noh, Yong-Young; Fortunato, Elvira; Martins, Rodrigo; Shan, Fukai

    2018-05-30

    Technical development for thin-film fabrication is essential for emerging metal-oxide (MO) electronics. Although impressive progress has been achieved in fabricating MO thin films, the challenges still remain. Here, we report a versatile and general thermal-induced nanomelting technique for fabricating MO thin films from the fiber networks, briefly called fiber-to-film (FTF) process. The high quality of the FTF-processed MO thin films was confirmed by various investigations. The FTF process is generally applicable to numerous technologically relevant MO thin films, including semiconducting thin films (e.g., In 2 O 3 , InZnO, and InZrZnO), conducting thin films (e.g., InSnO), and insulating thin films (e.g., AlO x ). By optimizing the fabrication process, In 2 O 3 /AlO x thin-film transistors (TFTs) were successfully integrated by fully FTF processes. High-performance TFT was achieved with an average mobility of ∼25 cm 2 /(Vs), an on/off current ratio of ∼10 7 , a threshold voltage of ∼1 V, and a device yield of 100%. As a proof of concept, one-transistor-driven pixel circuit was constructed, which exhibited high controllability over the light-emitting diodes. Logic gates based on fully FTF-processed In 2 O 3 /AlO x TFTs were further realized, which exhibited good dynamic logic responses and voltage amplification by a factor of ∼4. The FTF technique presented here offers great potential in large-area and low-cost manufacturing for flexible oxide electronics.

  15. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries for Implantable Devices

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bates, J. B.; Dudney, N. J.

    1997-05-01

    Thin films of LiCoO{sub 2} have been synthesized in which the strongest x ray reflection is either weak or missing, indicating a high degree of preferred orientation. Thin film solid state batteries with these textured cathode films can deliver practical capacities at high current densities. For example, for one of the cells 70% of the maximum capacity between 4.2 V and 3 V ({approximately}0.2 mAh/cm{sup 2}) was delivered at a current of 2 mA/cm{sup 2}. When cycled at rates of 0.1 mA/cm{sup 2}, the capacity loss was 0.001%/cycle or less. The reliability and performance of Li LiCoO{sub 2} thin film batteries make them attractive for application in implantable devices such as neural stimulators, pacemakers, and defibrillators.

  16. Photoexcited Carrier Dynamics of Cu 2S Thin Films

    DOE PAGES

    Riha, Shannon C.; Schaller, Richard D.; Gosztola, David J.; ...

    2014-11-11

    Copper sulfide is a simple binary material with promising attributes for low-cost thin film photovoltaics. However, stable Cu 2S-based device efficiencies approaching 10% free from cadmium have yet to be realized. In this paper, transient absorption spectroscopy is used to investigate the dynamics of the photoexcited state of isolated Cu 2S thin films prepared by atomic layer deposition or vapor-based cation exchange of ZnS. While a number of variables including film thickness, carrier concentration, surface oxidation, and grain boundary passivation were examined, grain structure alone was found to correlate with longer lifetimes. A map of excited state dynamics is deducedmore » from the spectral evolution from 300 fs to 300 μs. Finally, revealing the effects of grain morphology on the photophysical properties of Cu 2S is a crucial step toward reaching high efficiencies in operationally stable Cu 2S thin film photovoltaics.« less

  17. Pulsed laser deposition of lithium niobate thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canale, L.; Girault-Di Bin, C.; Cosset, F.; Bessaudou, A.; Celerier, A.; Decossas, J.-Louis; Vareille, J.-C.

    2000-12-01

    Pulsed laser deposition of Lithium Niobate thin films onto sapphire (0001) substrates is reported. Thin films composition and structure have been determined using Rutherford Backscattermg Spectroscopy (RBS) and X-ray diffraction ( XRD) experiments. The influe:nce of deposition parameters such as substrate temperature, oxygen pressure and target to substrate distance on the composition and the structure of the films has been studied. Deposition temperature is found to be an important parameter which enables us to grow LiNbO3 films without the Li deficient phase LiNb3O8. Nearly stoichiometric thin fihns have been obtained for an oxygen pressure of 0. 1 Ton and a substrate temperature of 800°C. Under optimized conditions the (001) preferential orientation of growth, suitable for most optical applications, has been obtained.

  18. Buffer layers for high-Tc thin films on sapphire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, X. D.; Foltyn, S. R.; Muenchausen, R. E.; Cooke, D. W.; Pique, A.; Kalokitis, D.; Pendrick, V.; Belohoubek, E.

    1992-01-01

    Buffer layers of various oxides including CeO2 and yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) have been deposited on R-plane sapphire. The orientation and crystallinity of the layers were optimized to promote epitaxial growth of YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) (YBCO) thin films. An ion beam channeling minimum yield of about 3 percent was obtained in the CeO2 layer on sapphire, indicating excellent crystallinity of the buffer layer. Among the buffer materials used, CeO2 was found to be the best one for YBCO thin films on R-plane sapphire. High Tc and Jc were obtained in YBCO thin films on sapphire with buffer layers. Surface resistances of the YBCO films were about 4 mOmega at 77 K and 25 GHz.

  19. Templated electrochemical deposition of zirconia thin films on "recordable CDs.".

    PubMed

    Yu, Hua-Zhong; Rowe, Aaron W; Waugh, Damien M

    2002-11-15

    In this paper, we describe a practical method of using gold films constructed from recordable compact disks (CD-Rs) as simple, inexpensive, and micropatterned conductive substrates for the fabrication of inorganic material microstructures. Extending from their application for the fabrication of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) reported recently, bare and SAM-modified CD-R gold substrates have been used for template-directed electrodeposition of zirconia (ZrO2) thin films (i.e., the controlled formation of zirconia thin films on the different areas of the prefabricated, micrometer mountain-valley CD-R gold substrate surfaces). The present results demonstrate that the variation of the functional groups of the selected SAMs combined with electrodynamic control can be very successful to "customize" the formation and microstructure of functional inorganic thin films, which hold promise for modern technological applications.

  20. Restoration of the third law in spin ice thin films

    PubMed Central

    Bovo, L.; Moya, X.; Prabhakaran, D.; Soh, Yeong-Ah; Boothroyd, A.T.; Mathur, N.D.; Aeppli, G.; Bramwell, S.T.

    2014-01-01

    A characteristic feature of spin ice is its apparent violation of the third law of thermodynamics. This leads to a number of interesting properties including the emergence of an effective vacuum for magnetic monopoles and their currents – magnetricity. Here we add a new dimension to the experimental study of spin ice by fabricating thin epitaxial films of Dy2Ti2O7, varying between 5 and 60 monolayers on an inert substrate. The films show the distinctive characteristics of spin ice at temperatures >2 K, but at lower temperature we find evidence of a zero entropy state. This restoration of the third law in spin ice thin films is consistent with a predicted strain-induced ordering of a very unusual type, previously discussed for analogous electrical systems. Our results show how the physics of frustrated pyrochlore magnets such as spin ice may be significantly modified in thin-film samples. PMID:24619137

  1. Turbine Blade Temperature Measurements Using Thin Film Temperature Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, H. P.; Przybyszewski, J. S.; Claing, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    The development of thin film temperature sensors is discussed. The technology for sputtering 2 micron thin film platinum versus platinum 10 percent rhodium thermocouples on alumina forming coatings was improved and extended to applications on actual turbine blades. Good adherence was found to depend upon achieving a proper morphology of the alumina surface. Problems of adapting fabrication procedures to turbine blades were uncovered, and improvements were recommended. Testing at 1250 K at one atmosphere pressure was then extended to a higher Mach No. (0.5) in combustor flow for 60 hours and 71 thermal cycles. The mean time to failure was 47 hours accumulated during 1 hour exposures in the combustor. Calibration drift was about 0.1 percent per hour, attributable to oxidation of the rhodium in the thin films. An increase in film thickness and application of a protective overcoat are recommended to reduce drift in actual engine testing.

  2. Robust lanthanide emitters in polyelectrolyte thin films for photonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenspon, Andrew S.; Marceaux, Brandt L.; Hu, Evelyn L.

    2018-02-01

    Trivalent lanthanides provide stable emission sources at wavelengths spanning the ultraviolet through the near infrared with uses in telecommunications, lighting, and biological sensing and imaging. We describe a method for incorporating an organometallic lanthanide complex within polyelectrolyte multilayers, producing uniform, optically active thin films on a variety of substrates. These films demonstrate excellent emission with narrow linewidths, stable over a period of months, even when bound to metal substrates. Utilizing different lanthanides such as europium and terbium, we are able to easily tune the resulting wavelength of emission of the thin film. These results demonstrate the suitability of this platform as a thin film emitter source for a variety of photonic applications such as waveguides, optical cavities, and sensors.

  3. Scanning Angle Raman spectroscopy in polymer thin film characterization

    SciT

    Nguyen, Vy H.T.

    The focus of this thesis is the application of Raman spectroscopy for the characterization of thin polymer films. Chapter 1 provides background information and motivation, including the fundamentals of Raman spectroscopy for chemical analysis, scanning angle Raman scattering and scanning angle Raman scattering for applications in thin polymer film characterization. Chapter 2 represents a published manuscript that focuses on the application of scanning angle Raman spectroscopy for the analysis of submicron thin films with a description of methodology for measuring the film thickness and location of an interface between two polymer layers. Chapter 3 provides an outlook and future directionsmore » for the work outlined in this thesis. Appendix A, contains a published manuscript that outlines the use of Raman spectroscopy to aid in the synthesis of heterogeneous catalytic systems. Appendix B and C contain published manuscripts that set a foundation for the work presented in Chapter 2.« less

  4. Thin film encapsulation for flexible AM-OLED: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin-Seong; Chae, Heeyeop; Chung, Ho Kyoon; In Lee, Sang

    2011-03-01

    Flexible organic light emitting diode (OLED) will be the ultimate display technology to customers and industries in the near future but the challenges are still being unveiled one by one. Thin-film encapsulation (TFE) technology is the most demanding requirement to prevent water and oxygen permeation into flexible OLED devices. As a polymer substrate does not offer the same barrier performance as glass, the TFE should be developed on both the bottom and top side of the device layers for sufficient lifetimes. This work provides a review of promising thin-film barrier technologies as well as the basic gas diffusion background. Topics include the significance of the device structure, permeation rate measurement, proposed permeation mechanism, and thin-film deposition technologies (Vitex system and atomic layer deposition (ALD)/molecular layer deposition (MLD)) for effective barrier films.

  5. Dielectric and acoustical high frequency characterisation of PZT thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde, Janine; Muralt, Paul

    2010-02-01

    Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT) is an interesting material for bulk acoustic wave resonator applications due to its high electromechanical coupling constant, which would enable fabrication of large bandwidth frequency filters. The major challenge of the PZT solid solution system is to overcome mechanical losses generally observed in PZT ceramics. To increase the understanding of these losses in textured thin films, thin film bulk acoustic resonators (TFBAR's) based on PZT thin films with compositions either in the tetragonal region or at the morphotropic phase boundary and (111) or {100} textures were fabricated and studied up to 2 GHz. The dielectric and elastic materials coefficients were extracted from impedance measurements at the resonance frequency. The dispersion of the dielectric constant was obtained from impedance measurements up to 2 GHz. The films with varying compositions, textures and deposition methods (sol-gel or sputtering) were compared in terms of dielectric and acoustical properties.

  6. Restoration of the third law in spin ice thin films.

    PubMed

    Bovo, L; Moya, X; Prabhakaran, D; Soh, Yeong-Ah; Boothroyd, A T; Mathur, N D; Aeppli, G; Bramwell, S T

    2014-03-12

    A characteristic feature of spin ice is its apparent violation of the third law of thermodynamics. This leads to a number of interesting properties including the emergence of an effective vacuum for magnetic monopoles and their currents - magnetricity. Here we add a new dimension to the experimental study of spin ice by fabricating thin epitaxial films of Dy2Ti2O7, varying between 5 and 60 monolayers on an inert substrate. The films show the distinctive characteristics of spin ice at temperatures >2 K, but at lower temperature we find evidence of a zero entropy state. This restoration of the third law in spin ice thin films is consistent with a predicted strain-induced ordering of a very unusual type, previously discussed for analogous electrical systems. Our results show how the physics of frustrated pyrochlore magnets such as spin ice may be significantly modified in thin-film samples.

  7. Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries for implantable devices

    SciT

    Bates, J.b.; Dudney, N.J.

    1997-05-01

    Thin films of LiCoO{sub 2} have been synthesized in which the strongest x-ray reflection is either weak or missing, indicating a high degree of preferred orientation. Thin-film solid state batteries with these textured cathode films can deliver practical capacities at high current densities. For example, for one of the cells 70% of the maximum capacity between 4.2 V and 3 V ({approximately}0.2 mAh/cm{sup 2}) was delivered at a current of 2 mA/cm{sup 2}. When cycled at rates of 0.1 mA/cm{sup 2}, the capacity loss was 0.001 %/cycle or less. The reliability and performance of Li-LiCoO{sub 2} thin-film batteries make themmore » attractive for application in implantable devices such as neural stimulators, pacemakers, and defibrillators.« less

  8. Water-Based Peeling of Thin Hydrophobic Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodaparast, Sepideh; Boulogne, François; Poulard, Christophe; Stone, Howard A.

    2017-10-01

    Inks of permanent markers and waterproof cosmetics create elastic thin films upon application on a surface. Such adhesive materials are deliberately designed to exhibit water-repellent behavior. Therefore, patterns made up of these inks become resistant to moisture and cannot be cleaned by water after drying. However, we show that sufficiently slow dipping of such elastic films, which are adhered to a substrate, into a bath of pure water allows for complete removal of the hydrophobic coatings. Upon dipping, the air-water interface in the bath forms a contact line on the substrate, which exerts a capillary-induced peeling force at the edge of the hydrophobic thin film. We highlight that this capillary peeling process is more effective at lower velocities of the air-liquid interface and lower viscosities. Capillary peeling not only removes such thin films from the substrate but also transfers them flawlessly onto the air-water interface.

  9. Thin-Film Solar Array Earth Orbit Mission Applicability Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, David J.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.

    2002-01-01

    This is a preliminary assessment of the applicability and spacecraft-level impact of using very lightweight thin-film solar arrays with relatively large deployed areas for representative Earth orbiting missions. The most and least attractive features of thin-film solar arrays are briefly discussed. A simple calculation is then presented illustrating that from a solar array alone mass perspective, larger arrays with less efficient but lighter thin-film solar cells can weigh less than smaller arrays with more efficient but heavier crystalline cells. However, a proper spacecraft-level systems assessment must take into account the additional mass associated with solar array deployed area: the propellant needed to desaturate the momentum accumulated from area-related disturbance torques and to perform aerodynamic drag makeup reboost. The results for such an assessment are presented for a representative low Earth orbit (LEO) mission, as a function of altitude and mission life, and a geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) mission. Discussion of the results includes a list of specific mission types most likely to benefit from using thin-film arrays. NASA Glenn's low-temperature approach to depositing thin-film cells on lightweight, flexible plastic substrates is also briefly discussed to provide a perspective on one approach to achieving this enabling technology. The paper concludes with a list of issues to be addressed prior to use of thin-film solar arrays in space and the observation that with their unique characteristics, very lightweight arrays using efficient, thin-film cells on flexible substrates may become the best array option for a subset of Earth orbiting missions.

  10. Polycrystalline Thin Film Photovoltaics: Research, Development, and Technologies: Preprint

    SciT

    Ullal, H. S.; Zweibel, K.; von Roedern, B.

    2002-05-01

    II-VI binary thin-film solar cells based on cadmium telluride (CdTe) and I-III-VI ternary thin-film solar cells based on copper indium diselenide (CIS) and related materials have been the subject of intense research and development in the past few years. Substantial progress has been made thus far in the area of materials research, device fabrication, and technology development, and numerous applications based on CdTe and CIS have been deployed worldwide. World record efficiency of 16.5% has been achieved by NREL scientists for a thin-film CdTe solar cell using a modified device structure. Also, NREL scientists achieved world-record efficiency of 21.1% formore » a thin-film CIGS solar cell under a 14X concentration and AM1.5 global spectrum. When measured under a AM1.5 direct spectrum, the efficiency increases to 21.5%. Pathways for achieving 25% efficiency for tandem polycrystalline thin-film solar cells are elucidated. R&D issues relating to CdTe and CIS are reported in this paper, such as contact stability and accelerated life testing in CdTe, and effects of moisture ingress in thin-film CIS devices. Substantial technology development is currently under way, with various groups reporting power module efficiencies in the range of 7.0% to 12.1% and power output of 40.0 to 92.5 W. A number of lessons learned during the scale-up activities of the technology development for fabrication of thin-film power modules are discussed. The major global players actively involved in the technology development and commercialization efforts using both rigid and flexible power modules are highlighted.« less

  11. Optical and Nonlinear Optical Response of Light Sensor Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huimin; Rua, Armando; Vasquez, Omar; Vikhnin, Valentin S.; Fernandez, Felix E.; Fonseca, Luis F.; Resto, Oscar; Weisz, Svi Z.

    2005-01-01

    For potential ultrafast optical sensor application, both VO2 thin films and nanocomposite crystal-Si enriched SiO2 thin films grown on fused quartz substrates were successfully prepared using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and RF co-sputtering techniques. In photoluminescence (PL) measurement c-Si/SiO2 film contains nanoparticles of crystal Si exhibits strong red emission with the band maximum ranging from 580 to 750 nm. With ultrashort pulsed laser excitation all films show extremely intense and ultrafast nonlinear optical (NLO) response. The recorded holography from all these thin films in a degenerate-four-wave-mixing configuration shows extremely large third-order response. For VO2 thin films, an optically induced semiconductor-to-metal phase transition (PT) immediately occurred upon laser excitation. it accompanied. It turns out that the fast excited state dynamics was responsible to the induced PT. For c-Si/SiO2 film, its NLO response comes from the contribution of charge carriers created by laser excitation in conduction band of the c-Si nanoparticles. It was verified by introducing Eu3+ which is often used as a probe sensing the environment variations. It turns out that the entire excited state dynamical process associated with the creation, movement and trapping of the charge carriers has a characteristic 500 ps duration.

  12. Disconnecting structure and dynamics in glassy thin films

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Daniel M.; Cubuk, Ekin D.; Liu, Andrea J.

    2017-01-01

    Nanometrically thin glassy films depart strikingly from the behavior of their bulk counterparts. We investigate whether the dynamical differences between a bulk and thin film polymeric glass former can be understood by differences in local microscopic structure. Machine learning methods have shown that local structure can serve as the foundation for successful, predictive models of particle rearrangement dynamics in bulk systems. By contrast, in thin glassy films, we find that particles at the center of the film and those near the surface are structurally indistinguishable despite exhibiting very different dynamics. Next, we show that structure-independent processes, already present in bulk systems and demonstrably different from simple facilitated dynamics, are crucial for understanding glassy dynamics in thin films. Our analysis suggests a picture of glassy dynamics in which two dynamical processes coexist, with relative strengths that depend on the distance from an interface. One of these processes depends on local structure and is unchanged throughout most of the film, while the other is purely Arrhenius, does not depend on local structure, and is strongly enhanced near the free surface of a film. PMID:28928147

  13. Studies of Niobium Thin Film Produced by Energetic Vacuum Deposition

    SciT

    Genfa Wu; Anne-Marie Valente; H. Phillips

    2004-05-01

    An energetic vacuum deposition system has been used to study deposition energy effects on the properties of niobium thin films on copper and sapphire substrates. The absence of working gas avoids the gaseous inclusions commonly seen with sputtering deposition. A biased substrate holder controls the deposition energy. Transition temperature and residual resistivity ratio of the niobium thin films at several deposition energies are obtained together with surface morphology and crystal orientation measurements by AFM inspection, XRD and TEM analysis. The results show that niobium thin films on sapphire substrate exhibit the best cryogenic properties at deposition energy around 123 eV.more » The TEM analysis revealed that epitaxial growth of film was evident when deposition energy reaches 163 eV for sapphire substrate. Similarly, niobium thin film on copper substrate shows that film grows more oriented with higher deposition energy and grain size reaches the scale of the film thickness at the deposition energy around 153 eV.« less

  14. Nanomechanical Behavior of High Gas Barrier Multilayer Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Humood, Mohammad; Chowdhury, Shahla; Song, Yixuan; Tzeng, Ping; Grunlan, Jaime C; Polycarpou, Andreas A

    2016-05-04

    Nanoindentation and nanoscratch experiments were performed on thin multilayer films manufactured using the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique. These films are known to exhibit high gas barrier, but little is known about their durability, which is an important feature for various packaging applications (e.g., food and electronics). Films were prepared from bilayer and quadlayer sequences, with varying thickness and composition. In an effort to evaluate multilayer thin film surface and mechanical properties, and their resistance to failure and wear, a comprehensive range of experiments were conducted: low and high load indentation, low and high load scratch. Some of the thin films were found to have exceptional mechanical behavior and exhibit excellent scratch resistance. Specifically, nanobrick wall structures, comprising montmorillonite (MMT) clay and polyethylenimine (PEI) bilayers, are the most durable coatings. PEI/MMT films exhibit high hardness, large elastic modulus, high elastic recovery, low friction, low scratch depth, and a smooth surface. When combined with the low oxygen permeability and high optical transmission of these thin films, these excellent mechanical properties make them good candidates for hard coating surface-sensitive substrates, where polymers are required to sustain long-term surface aesthetics and quality.

  15. Sol-gel preparation of silica and titania thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoř, Tomáš; Václavík, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Thin films of silicon dioxide (SiO2) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) for application in precision optics prepared via the solgel route are being investigated in this paper. The sol-gel process presents a low cost approach, which is capable of tailoring thin films of various materials in optical grade quality. Both SiO2 and TiO2 are materials well known for their application in the field of anti-reflective and also highly reflective optical coatings. For precision optics purposes, thickness control and high quality of such coatings are of utmost importance. In this work, thin films were deposited on microscope glass slides substrates using the dip-coating technique from a solution based on alkoxide precursors of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and titanium isopropoxide (TIP) for SiO2 and TiO2, respectively. As-deposited films were studied using spectroscopic ellipsometry to determine their thickness and refractive index. Using a semi-empirical equation, a relationship between the coating speed and the heat-treated film thickness was described for both SiO2 and TiO2 thin films. This allows us to control the final heat-treated thin film thickness by simply adjusting the coating speed. Furthermore, films' surface was studied using the white-light interferometry. As-prepared films exhibited low surface roughness with the area roughness parameter Sq being on average of 0.799 nm and 0.33 nm for SiO2 and TiO2, respectively.

  16. Mechanical and physicochemical properties study on gellan gum thin film prepared using film casting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Nur Arifah; Razali, Mohd Hasmizam; Amin, Khairul Anuar Mat

    2017-09-01

    The GG thin films were prepared by film casting technique using gelzan (GG1) and kelcogel (GG2) respectively. The physical appearances of the thin films were observed and their mechanical and chemical properties were investigated. Chemical characterizations were done by Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), UV-Vis Spectroscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Based on the ATR-FTIR result, GG1 and GG2 thin films show a broad peak in the range of 3600-3200 cm-1 assigned to -OH functional group. A broad peaks also was observed at 3000-2600 cm-1 and 1800-1600 cm-1 which are belong to -CH and C=O functional group, respectively. The UV-Vis Spectroscopy analysis shows that single absorption peak was observed at 260 nm for both films. For mechanical properties, GG1 thin film has high tensile strength (80±12), but low strain at break (2±1), on the other hand GG2 thin film has low tensile strength (3±0.08) but high strain at break (13±0.58). The Water Vapour Transmission Rates (WVTR) and swelling of GG1 and GG2 thin films were (422±113, 415±26) and (987±113, 902±63), respectively.

  17. Feasibility demonstration for electroplating ultra-thin polyimide film. [fabricating film for space erectable structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneier, R.; Braswell, T. V.; Vaughn, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of electrodeposition variables on film thickness was investigated using a dilute polyimide solution as a bath into which aluminum (as foil or as a vapor deposited coating) was immersed. The electrodeposited film was dried for 2 hours at 93 C (primarily to remove solvent) and cured for 18 hours at 186 C. Infrared studies indicate that imide formation (curing) occurs at 149 C under vacuum. From a conceptual viewpoint, satisfactory film metallized on one side can be obtained by this method. The cured ultra thin polyimide film exhibits properties equivalent to those of commercial film, and the surface appearance of the strippable polyimide film compares favorably with that of a sample of commercial film of thicker gauge. The feasibility of manufacturing approximately one million sq m of ultra thin film capable of being joined to fabricate an 800 m by 9 800 m square from starting material 0.5 to 1 m wide for space erectable structures was demonstrated.

  18. Optical properties of diamond like carbon nanocomposite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Md Shahbaz; Mukherjee, Nillohit; Ahmed, Sk. Faruque

    2018-05-01

    The optical properties of silicon incorporated diamond like carbon (Si-DLC) nanocomposite thin films have been reported. The Si-DLC nanocomposite thin film deposited on glass and silicon substrate by radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD) process. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopic analysis revealed the presence of different bonding within the deposited films and deconvolution of FTIR spectra gives the chemical composition i.e., sp3/sp2 ratio in the films. Optical band gap calculated from transmittance spectra increased from 0.98 to 2.21 eV with a variation of silicon concentration from 0 to 15.4 at. %. Due to change in electronic structure by Si incorporation, the Si-DLC film showed a broad photoluminescence (PL) peak centered at 467 nm, i.e., in the visible range and its intensity was found to increase monotonically with at. % of Si.

  19. Low thermal emissivity surfaces using AgNW thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantoja, Elisa; Bhatt, Rajendra; Liu, Anping; Gupta, Mool C.

    2017-12-01

    The properties of silver nanowire (AgNW) films in the optical and infrared spectral regime offer an interesting opportunity for a broad range of applications that require low-emissivity coatings. This work reports a method to reduce the thermal emissivity of substrates by the formation of low-emissivity AgNW coating films from solution. The spectral emissivity was characterized by thermal imaging with an FLIR camera, followed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In a combined experimental and simulation study, we provide fundamental data of the transmittance, reflectance, haze, and emissivity of AgNW thin films. Emissivity values were finely tuned by modifying the concentration of the metal nanowires in the films. The simulation models based on the transfer matrix method developed for the AgNW thin films provided optical values that show a good agreement with the measurements.

  20. Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Polyvinylidene Fluoride Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madivalappa, Shivaraj; Jali, V. M.

    2018-02-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride thin films were synthesized by Sol-Gel method with spin rate of 3000 rpm for 30 sec on ITO glass substrates and were annealed at 170 C. The films were irradiated by Gamma radiation with different doses (10, 30, 40 and 50 kGy). XRD and FTIR spectra have been obtained to identify the presence of α / β phases. Mean crystallite size was calculated by Scherer’s equation. Different vibrational bands were identified and percentage of β phase was determined by FTIR analysis. Optical properties like band gap, refractive index, optical activation energy have been determined. Surface morphology and compositions of pristine and gamma irradiated PVDF thin films were confirmed respectively, by SEM and Energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The comparison of the structural and optical optical properties of pristine PVDF polymer film has been made with those of the Gamma irradiated films.

  1. Enhancement of gaps in thin graphitic films for heterostructure formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hague, J. P.

    2014-04-01

    There are a large number of atomically thin graphitic films with a structure similar to that of graphene. These films have a spread of band gaps relating to their ionicity and, also, to the substrate on which they are grown. Such films could have a range of applications in digital electronics, where graphene is difficult to use. I use the dynamical cluster approximation to show how electron-phonon coupling between film and substrate can enhance these gaps in a way that depends on the range and strength of the coupling. It is found that one of the driving factors in this effect is a charge density wave instability for electrons on a honeycomb lattice that can open a gap in monolayer graphene. The enhancement at intermediate coupling is sufficiently large that spatially varying substrates and superstrates could be used to create heterostructures in thin graphitic films with position-dependent electron-phonon coupling and gaps, leading to advanced electronic components.

  2. Semiconducting boron carbide thin films: Structure, processing, and diode applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Ruqiang

    The high energy density and long lifetime of betavoltaic devices make them very useful to provide the power for applications ranging from implantable cardiac pacemakers to deep space satellites and remote sensors. However, when made with conventional semiconductors, betavoltaic devices tend to suffer rapid degradation as a result of radiation damage. It has been suggested that the degradation problem could potentially be alleviated by replacing conventional semiconductors with a radiation hard semiconducting material like icosahedral boron carbide. The goal of my dissertation was to better understand the fundamental properties and structure of boron carbide thin films and to explore the processes to fabricate boron carbide based devices for voltaic applications. A pulsed laser deposition system and a radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering deposition system were designed and built to achieve the goals. After comparing the experimental results obtained using these two techniques, it was concluded that RF magnetron sputtering deposition technique is a good method to make B4C boron carbide thin films to fabricate repeatable and reproducible voltaic devices. The B4C thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering require in situ dry pre-cleaning to make ohmic contacts for B4C thin films to fabricate the devices. By adding another RF sputtering to pre-clean the substrate and thin films, a process to fabricate B4C / n-Si heterojunctions has been established. In addition, a low energy electron accelerator (LEEA) was built to mimic beta particles emitted from Pm147 and used to characterize the betavoltaic performance of betavoltaic devices as a function of beta energy and beta flux as well as do accelerated lifetime testing for betavoltaic devices. The energy range of LEEA is 20 - 250 keV with the current from several nA to 50 muA. High efficiency Si solar cells were used to demonstrate the powerful capabilities of LEEA, i.e., the characterization of betavoltaic

  3. Optical Thin Film Thickness Measurement for the Single Atom Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Courtney; Frisbie, Dustin; Singh, Jaideep; Spinlab Team

    2017-09-01

    The Single Atom Microscope Project proposes an efficient, selective, and sensitive method to measure the 1022Ne+24 He ->1225 Mg + n reaction. This rare nuclear reaction is a source of neutrons for heavy element development through the slow neutron capture process. This method embeds Magnesium atoms in a solid neon film. The Magnesium atoms exhibit a shifted fluorescence spectrum allowing for the detection of individual fluorescence photons against the excitation light background. Currently, Ytterbium is used in place of Magnesium-25 because it has been more thoroughly studied than Magnesium and we expect it to have a brighter signal. To identify the signal emitted from the Ytterbium atoms, we need to quantify the amount of signal and background per atom in the neon film. We need to know the film thickness to find the number of atoms in the film to determine the amount of light emitted per atom. In preparation for the neon film measurement, I constructed an experiment to advance the understanding of what is required to optically measure a thin film by using a cover glass slide in place of the thin film. This preliminary experiment has determined a measurement method for finding the thickness of a neon thin film on a sapphire substrate. This work is supported by Michigan State University, U.S. National Science Foundation under Grant Number 1654610, and U.S. NSF REU.

  4. YSZ thin films with minimized grain boundary resistivity

    SciT

    Mills, Edmund M.; Kleine-Boymann, Matthias; Janek, Juergen

    2016-03-31

    In recent years, interface engineering of solid electrolytes has been explored to increase their ionic conductivity and improve the performance of solid oxide fuel cells and other electrochemical power sources. It has been observed that the ionic conductivity of epitaxially grown thin films of some electrolytes is dramatically enhanced, which is often attributed to effects (e. g. strain-induced mobility changes) at the heterophase boundary with the substrate. Still largely unexplored is the possibility of manipulation of grain boundary resistivity in polycrystalline solid electrolyte films, clearly a limiting factor in their ionic conductivity. Here we report that the ionic conductivity ofmore » yttria stabilized zirconia thin films with nano-­ columnar grains grown on a MgO substrate nearly reaches that of the corresponding single crystal when the thickness of the films becomes less than roughly 8 nm (smaller by a factor of three at 500°C). Using impedance spectroscopy, the grain boundary resistivity was probed as a function of film thickness. The resistivity of the grain boundaries near the film- substrate interface and film surface (within 4 nm of each) was almost entirely eliminated. This minimization of grain boundary resistivity is attributed to Mg2+ diffusion from the MgO substrate into the YSZ grain boundaries, which is supported by time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements. We suggest grain boundary “design” as an attractive method to obtain highly conductive solid electrolyte thin films.« less

  5. Enhanced electrical properties in bilayered ferroelectric thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Long, WeiJie; Chen, YaQing; Guo, DongJie

    2013-03-01

    Sr2Bi4Ti5O18 (SBTi) single layered and Sr2Bi4Ti5O18/Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3 (SBTi/PZT) bilayered thin films have been prepared on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD). The related structural characterizations and electrical properties have been comparatively investigated. X-ray diffraction reveals that both films have crystallized into perovskite phases and scanning electron microscopy shows the sharp interfaces. Both films show well-saturated ferroelectric hysteresis loops, however, compared with the single layered SBTi films, the SBTi/PZT bilayered films have significantly increased remnant polarization ( P r) and decreased coercive field ( E c), with the applied field of 260 kV/cm. The measured P r and E c of SBTi and SBTi/PZT films were 7.9 μC/cm2, 88.1 kV/cm and 13.0 μC/cm2, 51.2 kV/cm, respectively. In addition, both films showed good fatigue-free characteristics, the switchable polarization decreased by 9% and 11% of the initial values after 2.2×109 switching cycles for the SBTi single layered films and the SBTi/PZT bilayered films, respectively. Our results may provide some guidelines for further optimization of multilayered ferroelectric thin films.

  6. Characterization of fully functional spray-on antibody thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, Jhon; Magaña, Sonia; Lim, Daniel V.; Schlaf, Rudy

    2014-02-01

    The authors recently demonstrated that fully functional Escherichia coli O157:H7 antibody thin films can be prepared using a simple pneumatic nebulizer on glass surface [1]. This paper focuses on the investigation of the morphology and physical properties of these films with the aim to better understand their performance. A series of E. coli O157:H7 antibody spray-on thin films were investigated by ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), immunoassays, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), fluorescence microscopy, atomic force microscope (AFM) and contact angle analysis. These data were compared to measurements on films prepared with the biotin-avidin covalent bonding scheme. The investigation showed that films created by a 2 min pneumatic spray deposition time can capture antigens similar as the avidin-biotin wet-chemical method. The results also suggests that an influential factor for the comparable capture cell ability between sprayed and covalent films is an increased antibody surface coverage for the sprayed films (non-equilibrium technique), which compensates for the lack of its antibody orientation. There was no significant antibody denaturation detected on any of the sprayed films. Both techniques led to the formation of cluster-aggregates, a factor that seems unavoidable due to the natural tendency of protein to cluster. The avidin-biotin bridge films generally had a higher roughness, which manifested itself in a higher wettability compared to the sprayed films.

  7. Polycaprolactone thin films for retinal tissue engineering and drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steedman, Mark Rory

    This dissertation focuses on the development of polycaprolactone thin films for retinal tissue engineering and drug delivery. We combined these thin films with techniques such as micro and nanofabrication to develop treatments for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a disease that leads to the death of rod and cone photoreceptors. Current treatments are only able to slow or limit the progression of the disease, and photoreceptors cannot be regenerated or replaced by the body once lost. The first experiments presented focus on a potential treatment for AMD after photoreceptor death has occurred. We developed a polymer thin film scaffold technology to deliver retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) to the affected area of the eye. Earlier research showed that RPCs destined to become photoreceptors are capable of incorporating into a degenerated retina. In our experiments, we showed that RPC attachment to a micro-welled polycaprolactone (PCL) thin film surface enhanced the differentiation of these cells toward a photoreceptor fate. We then used our PCL thin films to develop a drug delivery device capable of sustained therapeutic release over a multi-month period that would maintain an effective concentration of the drug in the eye and eliminate the need for repeated intraocular injections. We first investigated the biocompatibility of PCL in the rabbit eye. We injected PCL thin films into the anterior chamber or vitreous cavity of rabbit eyes and monitored the animals for up to 6 months. We found that PCL thin films were well tolerated in the rabbit eye, showing no signs of chronic inflammation due to the implant. We then developed a multilayered thin film device containing a microporous membrane. We loaded these devices with lyophilized proteins and quantified drug elution for 10 weeks, finding that both bovine serum albumin and immunoglobulin G elute from these devices with zero order release kinetics. These experiments demonstrate that PCL is an extremely useful

  8. Nanostructured hematite thin films for photoelectrochemical water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maabong, Kelebogile; Machatine, Augusto G. J.; Mwankemwa, Benard S.; Braun, Artur; Bora, Debajeet K.; Toth, Rita; Diale, Mmantsae

    2018-04-01

    Nanostructured hematite thin films prepared by dip coating technique were investigated for their photoelectrochemical activity for generation of hydrogen from water splitting. Structural, morphological and optical analyses of the doped/undoped films were performed by X-ray diffraction, high resolution field emission-scanning electron microscopy, UV-vis spectrophotometry and Raman spectroscopy. The photoelectrochemical measurements of the films showed enhanced photoresponse and cathodic shift of the onset potential upon Ti doping indicating improved transfer of photoholes at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface. Films doped with 1 at% Ti produced 0.72 mA/cm2 at 1.23 V vs RHE which is 2 times higher than current density for the pure film (0.30 mA/cm2, at 1.23 V vs RHE). Gas chromatography analysis of the films also showed enhanced hydrogen evolution at 1 at% Ti with respect to pure film.

  9. SnS2 Thin Film Deposition by Spray Pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaber, Abdallah Yahia; Alamri, Saleh Noaiman; Aida, Mohammed Salah

    2012-06-01

    Tin disulfide (SnS2) thin films have been synthesized using a simplified spray pyrolysis technique using a perfume atomizer. The films were deposited using two different solutions prepared by the dilution of SnCl2 and thiourea in distilled water and in methanol. The obtained films have a microcrystalline structure. The film deposited using methanol as the solvent is nearly stochiometric SnS2 with a spinel phase having a (001) preferential orientation. The film prepared with an aqueous solution is Sn-rich. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) images reveal that the film deposited with the aqueous solution is rough and is formed with large wires. However, the film deposited with methanol is dense and smooth. Conductivity measurements indicate that the aqueous solution leads to an n-type semiconductor, while methanol leads to a p-type semiconductor.

  10. Laser-induced vibration of a thin soap film.

    PubMed

    Emile, Olivier; Emile, Janine

    2014-09-21

    We report on the vibration of a thin soap film based on the optical radiation pressure force. The modulated low power laser induces a counter gravity flow in a vertical free-standing draining film. The thickness of the soap film is then higher in the upper region than in the lower region of the film. Moreover, the lifetime of the film is dramatically increased by a factor of 2. Since the laser beam only acts mechanically on the film interfaces, such a film can be employed in an optofluidic diaphragm pump, the interfaces behaving like a vibrating membrane and the liquid in-between being the fluid to be pumped. Such a pump could then be used in delicate micro-equipment, in chips where temperature variations are detrimental and even in biological systems.

  11. Thin film Heusler compounds manganese nickel gallium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Catherine Ann

    Multiferroic Heusler compounds Mn3--xNi xGa (x=0,1,2) have a tetragonal unit cell that can variously be used for magneto-mechanically coupled shape memory ( x=1,2) and spin-mechanical applications (x=0). The first fabrication of fully epitaxial thin films of these and electronically related compounds by sputtering is discussed. Traditional and custom lab characterization of the magnetic and temperature driven multiferroic behavior is augmented by more detailed synchrotron-based high energy photoemission spectroscopic techniques to describe the atomic and electronic structure. Integration of the MnNi2Ga magnetic shape memory compound in microwave patch antennas and active free-standing structures represents a fraction of the available and promising applications for these compounds. Prototype magnetic tunnel junctions are demonstrated by Mn3Ga electrodes with perpendicular anisotropy for spin torque transfer memory structures. The main body of the work concentrates on the definition and exploration of the material series Mn3--xNi xGa (x=0,1,2) and the relevant multiferroic phenomena exhibited as a function of preparation and external stimuli. Engineering results on each x=0,1,2 are presented with device prototypes where relevant. In the appendices the process of the materials design undertaken with the goal of developing new ternary intermetallics with enhanced properties is presented with a full exploration of the road from band structure calculations to device implementation. Cobalt based compounds in single crystal and nanoparticle form are fabricated with an eye to developing the production methods for new cobalt- and iron-based magnetic shape memory compounds for device applications in different forms. Mn2CoSn, a compound isolectronic and with similar atomic ordering to Mn2NiGa is experimentally determined to be a nearly half-metallic ferromagnet in contrast to the metallic ferrimagnetism in the parent compound. High energy photoemission spectroscopy is shown to

  12. Advanced Thin Film Solar Arrays for Space: The Terrestrial Legacy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila; Hepp, Aloysius; Raffaelle, Ryne; Flood, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    As in the case for single crystal solar cells, the first serious thin film solar cells were developed for space applications with the promise of better power to weight ratios and lower cost. Future science, military, and commercial space missions are incredibly diverse. Military and commercial missions encompass both hundreds of kilowatt arrays to tens of watt arrays in various earth orbits. While science missions also have small to very large power needs there are additional unique requirements to provide power for near sun missions and planetary exploration including orbiters, landers, and rovers both to the inner planets and the outer planets with a major emphasis in the near term on Mars. High power missions are particularly attractive for thin film utilization. These missions are generally those involving solar electric propulsion, surface power systems to sustain an outpost or a permanent colony on the surface of the Moon or Mars, space based lasers or radar, or large Earth orbiting power stations which can serve as central utilities for other orbiting spacecraft, or potentially beaming power to the Earth itself. This paper will discuss the current state of the art of thin film solar cells and the synergy with terrestrial thin film photovoltaic evolution. It will also address some of the technology development issues required to make thin film photovoltaics a viable choice for future space power systems.

  13. Lanthanum aluminum oxide thin-film dielectrics from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Plassmeyer, Paul N; Archila, Kevin; Wager, John F; Page, Catherine J

    2015-01-28

    Amorphous LaAlO3 dielectric thin films were fabricated via solution processing from inorganic nitrate precursors. Precursor solutions contained soluble oligomeric metal-hydroxyl and/or -oxo species as evidenced by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Raman spectroscopy. Thin-film formation was characterized as a function of annealing temperature using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray reflectivity (XRR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and an array of electrical measurements. Annealing temperatures ≥500 °C result in thin films with low leakage-current densities (∼1 × 10(-8) A·cm(-2)) and dielectric constants ranging from 11.0 to 11.5. When incorporated as the gate dielectric layer in a-IGZO thin-film transistors (TFTs), LaAlO3 thin films annealed at 600 °C in air yielded TFTs with relatively low average mobilities (∼4.5 cm(2)·V(-1)·s(-1)) and high turn-on voltages (∼26 V). Interestingly, reannealing the LaAlO3 in 5%H2/95%N2 at 300 °C before deposition of a-IGZO channel layers resulted in TFTs with increased average mobilities (11.1 cm(2)·V(-1)·s(-1)) and lower turn-on voltages (∼6 V).

  14. Electrically Tunable Integrated Thin-Film Magnetoelectric Resonators

    SciT

    El-Ghazaly, Amal; Evans, Joseph T.; Sato, Noriyuki

    Magnetoelectrics have attracted much attention for their ability to control magnetic behavior electrically and electrical behavior magnetically. This feature provides numerous benefits to electronic systems and can potentially serve as the bridge needed to integrate magnetic devices into mainstream electronics. This natural next step is pursued and thin-film integrated magnetoelectric devices are produced for radio-frequency (RF) electronics. The first fully integrated, thin-film magnetoelectric modulators for tunable RF electronics are presented. Moreover, these devices provide electric field control of magnetic permeability in order to change the phase velocity and resonance frequency of coplanar waveguides. During this study, the various thin-film materialmore » phenomena, trade-offs, and integration considerations for composite magnetoelectrics are analyzed and discussed. The fabricated devices achieve reversible tunability of the resonance frequency, characterized by a remarkable converse magnetoelectric coupling coefficient of up to 24 mG cm V -1 using just thin films. Based on this work, suggestions are given for additional optimizations of future designs that will maximize the thin-film magnetoelectric interactions.« less

  15. Magnetoelastic sensor for characterizing properties of thin-film/coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachas, Leonidas G. (Inventor); Barrett, Gary (Inventor); Grimes, Craig A. (Inventor); Kouzoudis, Dimitris (Inventor); Schmidt, Stefan (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An apparatus for determining elasticity characteristics of a thin-film layer. The apparatus comprises a sensor element having a base magnetostrictive element at least one surface of which is at least partially coated with the thin-film layer. The thin-film layer may be of a variety of materials (having a synthetic and/or bio-component) in a state or form capable of being deposited, manually or otherwise, on the base element surface, such as by way of eye-dropper, melting, dripping, brushing, sputtering, spraying, etching, evaporation, dip-coating, laminating, etc. Among suitable thin-film layers for the sensor element of the invention are fluent bio-substances, thin-film deposits used in manufacturing processes, polymeric coatings, paint, an adhesive, and so on. A receiver, preferably remotely located, is used to measure a plurality of values for magneto-elastic emission intensity of the sensor element in either characterization: (a) the measure of the plurality of values is used to identify a magneto-elastic resonant frequency value for the sensor element; and (b) the measure of the plurality of successive values is done at a preselected magneto-elastic frequency.

  16. Electrically Tunable Integrated Thin-Film Magnetoelectric Resonators

    DOE PAGES

    El-Ghazaly, Amal; Evans, Joseph T.; Sato, Noriyuki; ...

    2017-06-14

    Magnetoelectrics have attracted much attention for their ability to control magnetic behavior electrically and electrical behavior magnetically. This feature provides numerous benefits to electronic systems and can potentially serve as the bridge needed to integrate magnetic devices into mainstream electronics. This natural next step is pursued and thin-film integrated magnetoelectric devices are produced for radio-frequency (RF) electronics. The first fully integrated, thin-film magnetoelectric modulators for tunable RF electronics are presented. Moreover, these devices provide electric field control of magnetic permeability in order to change the phase velocity and resonance frequency of coplanar waveguides. During this study, the various thin-film materialmore » phenomena, trade-offs, and integration considerations for composite magnetoelectrics are analyzed and discussed. The fabricated devices achieve reversible tunability of the resonance frequency, characterized by a remarkable converse magnetoelectric coupling coefficient of up to 24 mG cm V -1 using just thin films. Based on this work, suggestions are given for additional optimizations of future designs that will maximize the thin-film magnetoelectric interactions.« less

  17. Room temperature ferroelectricity in continuous croconic acid thin films

    SciT

    Jiang, Xuanyuan; Lu, Haidong; Yin, Yuewei

    2016-09-05

    Ferroelectricity at room temperature has been demonstrated in nanometer-thin quasi 2D croconic acid thin films, by the polarization hysteresis loop measurements in macroscopic capacitor geometry, along with observation and manipulation of the nanoscale domain structure by piezoresponse force microscopy. The fabrication of continuous thin films of the hydrogen-bonded croconic acid was achieved by the suppression of the thermal decomposition using low evaporation temperatures in high vacuum, combined with growth conditions far from thermal equilibrium. For nominal coverages ≥20 nm, quasi 2D and polycrystalline films, with an average grain size of 50–100 nm and 3.5 nm roughness, can be obtained. Spontaneous ferroelectric domain structuresmore » of the thin films have been observed and appear to correlate with the grain patterns. The application of this solvent-free growth protocol may be a key to the development of flexible organic ferroelectric thin films for electronic applications.« less

  18. Tailoring Thin Film-Lacquer Coatings for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Wanda C.; Harris, George; Miller, Grace; Petro, John

    1998-01-01

    Thin film coatings have the capability of obtaining a wide range of thermal radiative properties, but the development of thin film coatings can sometimes be difficult and costly when trying to achieve highly specular surfaces. Given any space mission's then-nal control requirements, there is often a need for a variation of solar absorptance (alpha(sub s)), emittance (epsilon) and/or highly specular surfaces. The utilization of thin film coatings is one process of choice for meeting challenging thermal control requirements because of its ability to provide a wide variety of alpha(sub s)/epsilon ratios. Thin film coatings' radiative properties can be tailored to meet specific thermal control requirements through the use of different metals and the variation of dielectric layer thickness. Surface coatings can be spectrally selective to enhance radiative coupling and decoupling. The application of lacquer to a surface can also provide suitable specularity for thin film application without the cost and difficulty associated with polishing.

  19. Domain epitaxy for thin film growth

    DOEpatents

    Narayan, Jagdish

    2005-10-18

    A method of forming an epitaxial film on a substrate includes growing an initial layer of a film on a substrate at a temperature T.sub.growth, said initial layer having a thickness h and annealing the initial layer of the film at a temperature T.sub.anneal, thereby relaxing the initial layer, wherein said thickness h of the initial layer of the film is greater than a critical thickness h.sub.c. The method further includes growing additional layers of the epitaxial film on the initial layer subsequent to annealing. In some embodiments, the method further includes growing a layer of the film that includes at least one amorphous island.

  20. Bimetallic clustered thin films with variable electro-optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antipov, A.; Bukharov, D.; Arakelyan, S.; Osipov, A.; Lelekova, A.

    2018-01-01

    The drop deposition of colloidal nanoparticles was performed from water-based colloidal solutions. The proposed procedure is based on the agglomeration of colloidal particles in laser-assisted evaporation processes. The evaporation process was resulted in the formation of clustered thin films on a glass substrate. In the experiments with bimetallic Au:Ag solutions, the clustered films are grown, the formation of the clustered films with the average height of 100 nm was achieved. Optical properties of the deposited structures were investigated experimentally. It is shown that the obtained films may become transparent and its properties are defined by its morphology.