Science.gov

Sample records for zno films optical

  1. Structural, optical, and LED characteristics of ZnO and Al doped ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandeep, K. M.; Bhat, Shreesha; Dharmaprakash, S. M.

    2017-05-01

    ZnO (pristine) and Al doped ZnO (AZO) films were prepared using sol-gel spin coating method. The XRD analysis showed the enhanced compressive stress in AZO film. The presence of extended states below the conduction band edge in AZO accounts for the redshift in optical bandgap. The PL spectra of AZO showed significant blue emission due to the carrier recombination from defect states. The TRPL curves showed the dominant DAP recombination in ZnO film, whereas defect related recombination in Al doped ZnO film. Color parameters viz: the dominant wavelength, color coordinates (x,y), color purity, luminous efficiency and correlated color temperature (CCT) of ZnO and AZO films are calculated using 1931 (CIE) diagram. Further, a strong blue emission with color purity more than 96% is observed in both the films. The enhanced blue emission in AZO significantly increased the luminous efficiency (22.8%) compared to ZnO film (10.8%). The prepared films may be used as blue phosphors in white light generation.

  2. Melioration of Optical and Electrical Performance of Ga-N Codoped ZnO Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Nripasree; Deepak, N. K.

    2018-06-01

    Transparent and conducting p-type zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films doped with gallium (Ga) and nitrogen (N) simultaneously were deposited on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique. Phase composition analysis by X-ray diffraction confirmed the polycrystallinity of the films with pure ZnO phase. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis showed excellent incorporation of N in the ZnO matrix by means of codoping. The optical transmittance of N monodoped film was poor but got improved with Ga-N codoping and also resulted in the enhancement of optical energy gap. Hole concentration increased with codoping and consequently, lower resistivity and high stability were obtained.

  3. Effect of K-doping on structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Linhua; Li, Xiangyin; Yuan, Jun

    2008-09-01

    In this work, K-doped ZnO thin films were prepared by a sol-gel method on Si(111) and glass substrates. The effect of different K-doping concentrations on structural and optical properties of the ZnO thin films was studied. The results showed that the 1 at.% K-doped ZnO thin film had the best crystallization quality and the strongest ultraviolet emission ability. When the concentration of K was above 1 at.%, the crystallization quality and ultraviolet emission ability dropped. For the K-doped ZnO thin films, there was not only ultraviolet emission, but also a blue emission signal in their photoluminescent spectra. The blue emission might be connected with K impurity or/and the intrinsic defects (Zn interstitial and Zn vacancy) of the ZnO thin films.

  4. Temperature dependent optical properties of (002) oriented ZnO thin film using surface plasmon resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Shibu; Mehan, Navina; Sreenivas, K.; Gupta, Vinay

    2009-08-01

    Temperature dependent optical properties of c-axis oriented ZnO thin film were investigated using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique. SPR data for double layer (prism-Au-ZnO-air) and single layer (prism-Au-air) systems were taken over a temperature range (300-525 K). Dielectric constant at optical frequency and real part of refractive index of the ZnO film shows an increase with temperature. The bandgap of the oriented ZnO film was found to decrease with rise in temperature. The work indicates a promising application of the system as a temperature sensor and highlights an efficient scientific tool to study optical properties of thin film under varying ambient conditions.

  5. ZnO nanotube waveguide arrays on graphene films for local optical excitation on biological cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Hyeonjun; Kwak, Hankyul; Song, Minho S.; Ha, Go Eun; Park, Jongwoo; Tchoe, Youngbin; Hyun, Jerome K.; Park, Hye Yoon; Cheong, Eunji; Yi, Gyu-Chul

    2017-04-01

    We report on scalable and position-controlled optical nanoprobe arrays using ZnO nanotube waveguides on graphene films for use in local optical excitation. For the waveguide fabrication, position-controlled and well-ordered ZnO nanotube arrays were grown on chemical vapor deposited graphene films with a submicron patterned mask layer and Au prepared between the interspace of nanotubes. Mammalian cells were cultured on the nanotube waveguide arrays and were locally excited by light illuminated through the nanotubes. Fluorescence and optogenetic signals could be excited through the optical nanoprobes. This method offers the ability to investigate cellular behavior with a high spatial resolution that surpasses the current limitation.

  6. Thermal-induced structural and optical investigations of Agsbnd ZnO nanocomposite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. K.; Singhal, R.

    2018-07-01

    In the present paper, we have successfully synthesized Agsbnd ZnO nanocomposite thin films by RF-magnetron sputtering technique at room temperature. Systematic investigations of thermal-induced structural and optical modifications in Agsbnd ZnO thin films have been observed and described. The Agsbnd ZnO thin films were annealed at three different temperatures of 300 °C, 400 °C and 500 °C in vacuum to prevent the oxidation of Ag. The presence and formation of Ag nanoparticles were estimated by transmission electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the structural information about the crystalline quality of ZnO. The crystallinity as well as the crystallite size of the films have been found to be improved with annealing temperatures. The estimated crystallite size was ∼15.8 nm for as-deposited film and 19.0 nm for the film at a higher temperature. The chemical composition and structural analysis of as-deposited film were carried out by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A very sharp absorption band appeared at ∼540 nm for Ag NPs that is associated with the surface plasmon resonance band of Ag. A noticeable red shift of about ∼12 nm has been recorded for films annealed at 500 °C. Atomic force microscopy has been utilized to examine the surface morphology of the as-deposited and annealed films. The grain size was found to be increase with increasing annealing temperature, while no significant changes were observed in the roughness of Agsbnd ZnO thin films. Raman spectroscopy revealed lattice defects and disordering in the films after the thermal annealing.

  7. Temperature dependent optical properties of ZnO thin film using ellipsometry and photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzourâa, M.-B.; Battie, Y.; Dalmasso, S.; Zaïbi, M.-A.; Oueslati, M.; En Naciri, A.

    2018-05-01

    We report the temperature dependence of the dielectric function, the exciton binding energy and the electronic transitions of crystallized ZnO thin film using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and photoluminescence (PL). ZnO layers were prepared by sol-gel method and deposited on crystalline silicon (Si) by spin coating technique. The ZnO optical properties were determined between 300 K and 620 K. Rigorous study of optical responses was achieved in order to demonstrate the quenching exciton of ZnO as a function of temperature. Numerical technique named constrained cubic splines approximation (CCS), Tauc-Lorentz (TL) and Tanguy dispersion models were selected for the ellipsometry data modeling in order to obtain the dielectric function of ZnO. The results reveals that the exciton bound becomes widely flattening at 470 K on the one hand, and on the other that the Tanguy dispersion law is more appropriate for determining the optical responses of ZnO thin film in the temperature range of 300 K-420 K. The Tauc-Lorentz, for its part, reproduces correctly the ZnO dielectric function in 470 K-620 K temperature range. The temperature dependence of the electronic transition given by SE and PL shows that the exciton quenching was observed in 420 K-∼520 K temperature range. This quenching effect can be explained by the equilibrium between the Coulomb force of exciton and its kinetic energy in the film. The kinetic energy was found to induce three degrees of freedom of the exciton.

  8. Synthesis, Optical and Photoluminescence Properties of Cu-Doped Zno Nano-Fibers Thin Films: Nonlinear Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh, V.; Salem, G. F.; Yahia, I. S.; Yakuphanoglu, F.

    2018-03-01

    Different concentrations of copper-doped zinc oxide thin films were coated on a glass substrate by sol-gel/spin-coating technique. The structural properties of pure and Cu-doped ZnO films were characterized by different techniques, i.e., atomic force microscopy (AFM), photoluminescence and UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy. The AFM study revealed that pure and doped ZnO films are formed as nano-fibers with a granular structure. The photoluminescence spectra of these films showed a strong ultraviolet emission peak centered at 392 nm and a strong blue emission peak cantered at 450 nm. The optical band gap of the pure and copper-doped ZnO thin films calculated from optical transmission spectra (3.29-3.23 eV) were found to be increasing with increasing copper doping concentration. The refractive index dispersion curve of pure and Cu-doped ZnO film obeyed the single-oscillator model. The optical dispersion parameters such as E o , E d , and n_{∞}2 were calculated. Further, the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear optical susceptibility were also calculated and interpreted.

  9. Optical absorption edge of ZnO thin films: The effect of substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srikant, V.; Clarke, D. R.

    1997-05-01

    The optical absorption edge and the near-absorption edge characteristics of undoped ZnO films grown by laser ablation on various substrates have been investigated. The band edge of films on C [(0001)] and R-plane [(1102)] sapphire, 3.29 and 3.32 eV, respectively, are found to be very close to the single crystal value of ZnO (3.3 eV) with the differences being accounted for in terms of the thermal mismatch strain using the known deformation potentials of ZnO. In contrast, films grown on fused silica consistently exhibit a band edge ˜0.1 eV lower than that predicted using the known deformation potential and the thermal mismatch strains. This behavior is attributed to the small grain size (50 nm) realized in these films and the effect of electrostatic potentials that exist at the grain boundaries. Additionally, the spread in the tail (E0) of the band edge for the different films is found to be very sensitive to the defect structure in the films. For films grown on sapphire substrates, values of E0 as low as 30 meV can be achieved on annealing in air, whereas films on fused silica always show a value >100 meV. We attribute this difference to the substantially higher density of high-angle grain boundaries in the films on fused silica.

  10. Thickness dependence of crystal and optical characterization on ZnO thin film grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Seung-Hye; Lee, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Sung-Nam

    2018-06-01

    We studied the thickness dependence of the crystallographic and optical properties of ZnO thin films grown on c-plane sapphire substrate using atomic layer deposition. High-resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD) revealed two peaks at 34.5° and 36.2° in the initial growth stage of ZnO on the sapphire substrate, corresponding to the (002) and (101) ZnO planes, respectively. However, as the thickness of the ZnO film increased, the XRD intensity of the (002) ZnO peak increased drastically, compared with that of the (101) ZnO peak. This indicated that (002) and (101) ZnO were simultaneously grown on the c-plane sapphire substrate in the initial growth stage, and that (002) ZnO was predominantly grown with the increase in the thickness of ZnO film. The ZnO thin film presented an anisotropic surface structure at the initial stage, whereas the isotropic surface morphology was developed with an increase in the film thickness of ZnO. These observations were consistent with the HR-XRD results.

  11. Sputtered deposited nanocrystalline ZnO films: A correlation between electrical, optical and microstructural properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Gao, W.; Li, Z.; Hodgson, M.; Metson, J.; Gong, H.; Pal, U.

    2005-05-01

    Zinc oxide thin films were prepared by dc (direct current) and rf (radio frequency) magnetron sputtering on glass substrates. ZnO films produced by dc sputtering have a high resistance, while the films produced using rf sputtering are significantly more conductive. While the conductive films have a compact nodular surface morphology, the resistive films have a relatively porous surface with columnar structures in cross section. Compared to the dc sputtered films, rf sputtered films have a microstructure with smaller d spacing, lower internal stress, higher band gap energy and higher density. Dependence of conductivity on the deposition technique and the resulting d spacing , stress, density, band gap, film thickness and Al doping are discussed. Correlations between the electrical conductivity, microstructural parameters and optical properties of the films have been made.

  12. Structural and optical properties of Na-doped ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akcan, D.; Gungor, A.; Arda, L.

    2018-06-01

    Zn1-xNaxO (x = 0.0-0.05) solutions have been synthesized by the sol-gel technique using Zinc acetate dihydrate and Sodium acetate which were dissolved into solvent and chelating agent. Na-doped ZnO nanoparticles were obtained from solutions to find phase and crystal structure. Na-doped ZnO films have been deposited onto glass substrate by using sol-gel dip coating system. The effects of dopant concentration on the structure, morphology, and optical properties of Na-doped ZnO thin films deposited on glass substrate are investigated. Characterization of Zn1-xNaxO nanoparticles and thin films are examined using differential thermal analysis (DTA)/thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-Ray diffractometer (XRD). Optical properties of Zn1-xNaxO thin films were obtained by using PG Instruments UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer in 190-1100 nm range. The structure, morphology, and optical properties of thin films are presented.

  13. Enhanced photoelectrochemical and optical performance of ZnO films tuned by Cr doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, M.; Akir, S.; Massoudi, I.; Litaiem, Y.; Gaidi, M.; Khirouni, K.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, pure and Cr-doped nanostructured Zinc oxide thin films were synthesized by simple and low cost co-precipitation and spin-coating method with Cr concentration varying between 0.5 and 5 at.%. Crystalline structure of the prepared films was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy techniques. XRD analysis indicated that the films were indexed as the hexagonal phase of wurtzite-type structure and demonstrated a decrease in the crystallite size with increasing Cr doping content. Cr doping revealed a significant effect on the optical measurements such as transmission and photoluminescence properties. The optical measurements indicated that Cr doping decreases the optical band gap and it has been shifted from 3.41 eV for pure ZnO film to 3.31 eV for 5 at.% Cr-doped one. The photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensing characteristics of Cr-doped ZnO layers were investigated. Amongst all photo-anodes with different Cr dopant concentration, the 2 at.% Cr incorporated ZnO films exhibited fast response and higher photoconduction sensitivity.

  14. Enhanced optical band-gap of ZnO thin films by sol-gel technique

    SciT

    Raghu, P., E-mail: dpr3270@gmail.com; Naveen, C. S.; Shailaja, J.

    2016-05-06

    Transparent ZnO thin films were prepared using different molar concentration (0.1 M, 0.2 M & 0.8 M) of zinc acetate on soda lime glass substrates by the sol-gel spin coating technique. The optical properties revealed that the transmittance found to decrease with increase in molar concentration. Absorption edge showed that the higher concentration film has increasingly red shifted. An increased band gap energy of the thin films was found to be direct allowed transition of ∼3.9 eV exhibiting their relevance for photovoltaic applications. The extinction coefficient analysis revealed maximum transmittance with negligible absorption coefficient in the respective wavelengths. The resultsmore » of ZnO thin film prepared by sol-gel technique reveal its suitability for optoelectronics and as a window layer in solar cell applications.« less

  15. Annealing Temperature Dependent Structural and Optical Properties of RF Sputtered ZnO Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shashikant; Varma, Tarun; Asokan, K; Periasamy, C; Boolchandani, Dharmendar

    2017-01-01

    This work investigates the effect of annealing temperature on structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films grown over Si 100 and glass substrates using RF sputtering technique. Annealing temperature has been varied from 300 °C to 600 °C in steps of 100, and different microstructural parameters such as grain size, dislocation density, lattice constant, stress and strain have been evaluated. The structural and surface morphological characterization has been done using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). XRD analysis reveals that the peak intensity of 002 crystallographic orientation increases with increased annealing temperature. Optical characterization of deposited films have been done using UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectrometer. An increase in optical bandgap of deposited ZnO thin films with increasing annealing temperature has been observed. The average optical transmittance was found to be more than 85% for all deposited films. Photoluminiscense spectra (PL) suggest that the crystalline quality of deposited film has increased at higher annealing temperature.

  16. ZnO and MgZnO Nanocrystalline Flexible Films: Optical and Material Properties

    DOE PAGES

    Huso, Jesse; Morrison, John L.; Che, Hui; ...

    2011-01-01

    An emore » merging material for flexible UV applications is Mg x Zn 1 − x O which is capable of tunable bandgap and luminescence in the UV range of ~3.4 eV–7.4 eV depending on the composition x . Studies on the optical and material characteristics of ZnO and Mg 0.3 Zn 0.7 O nanocrystalline flexible films are presented. The analysis indicates that the ZnO and Mg 0.3 Zn 0.7 O have bandgaps of 3.34 eV and 4.02 eV, respectively. The photoluminescence (PL) of the ZnO film was found to exhibit a structural defect-related emission at ~3.316 eV inherent to the nanocrystalline morphology. The PL of the Mg 0.3 Zn 0.7 O film exhibits two broad peaks at 3.38 eV and at 3.95 eV that are discussed in terms of the solubility limit of the ZnO-MgO alloy system. Additionally, external deformation of the film did not have a significant impact on its properties as indicated by the Raman LO-mode behavior, making these films attractive for UV flexible applications.« less

  17. Investigation of the structural, optical and piezoelectric properties of ALD ZnO films on PEN substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagoev, B. S.; Aleksandrova, M.; Terziyska, P.; Tzvetkov, P.; Kovacheva, D.; Kolev, G.; Mehandzhiev, V.; Denishev, K.; Dimitrov, D.

    2018-03-01

    We present the results of studies on the structural, optical and piezoelectric properties of ZnO thin films deposited by ALD on flexible polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates. Changes were observed in the optical transmission and crystal structures as the deposition temperature was varied. The electromechanical behavior, dielectric losses and voltage generated from ZnO flexible devices were investigated and discussed, in order to estimate their suitability for potential application as microgenerators activated by human motion.

  18. Effect of aluminium doping on structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films by sol-gel method

    SciT

    Vijayaprasath, G.; Murugan, R.; Ravi, G., E-mail: raviganesa@rediffmail.com, E-mail: gravicrc@gmail.com

    2015-06-24

    We systematically investigated the structural, morphological and optical properties of 0.05 mol % Al doped ZnO (Al:ZnO) thin films deposited on glass substrates by sol-gel spin coating method. The influences of Al doping in ZnO thin films are characterized by Powder X-ray diffraction study. ZnO and Al:ZnO thin films have showed hexagonal wurtzite structure without any secondary phase in c-axis (002) orientation. The SEM images also proved the hexagonal rod like morphologies for both films. All the films exhibited transmittance of 70-80% in the visible range up to 800 nm and cut-off wavelength observed at ∼390 nm corresponding to the fundamental absorption ofmore » ZnO. The band gap of the ZnO thin films slightly widened with the Al doping. The photoluminescence properties have been studied for Al: ZnO thin films and the results are presented in detail.« less

  19. Influence of Fe doping on the structural, optical and acetone sensing properties of sprayed ZnO thin films

    SciT

    Prajapati, C.S.; Kushwaha, Ajay; Sahay, P.P., E-mail: dr_ppsahay@rediffmail.com

    2013-07-15

    Graphical abstract: All the films are found to be polycrystalline ZnO possessing hexagonal wurtzite structure. The intensities of all the peaks are diminished strongly in the Fe-doped films, indicating their lower crystallinity as compared to the undoped ZnO film. The average crystallite size decreases from 35.21 nm (undoped sample) to 15.43 nm (1 at% Fe-doped sample). - Highlights: • Fe-doped ZnO films show smaller crystallinity with crystallite size: 15–26 nm. • Optical band gap in ZnO films decreases on Fe doping. • Fe-doped films exhibit the normal dispersion for the wavelength range 450–600 nm. • PL spectra of the Fe-dopedmore » films show quenching of the broad green-orange emission. • Acetone response of the Fe-doped films increases considerably at 300 °C. - Abstract: The ZnO thin films (undoped and Fe-doped) deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis technique have been analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results show that all the films possess hexagonal wurtzite structure of zinc oxide having crystallite sizes in the range 15–36 nm. On 1 at% Fe doping, the surface roughness of the film increases which favors the adsorption of atmospheric oxygen on the film surface and thereby increase in the gas response. Optical studies reveal that the band gap decreases due to creation of some defect energy states below the conduction band edge, arising out of the lattice disorder in the doped films. The refractive index of the films decreases on Fe doping and follows the Cauchy relation of normal dispersion. Among all the films examined, the 1 at% Fe-doped film exhibits the maximum response (∼72%) at 300 °C for 100 ppm concentration of acetone in air.« less

  20. Longitudinal optical phonon-plasmon coupled modes of degenerate Al-doped ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, K.; Hu, Q. C.; Lin, W. W.; Huang, J. K.; Huang, F.

    2012-07-01

    We have investigated the interaction between carriers and polar phonons by using Raman scattering spectroscopy in highly conductive Al-doped ZnO films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Different from the longitudinal optical phonon-plasmon coupled modes (LOPPCM) observed in nondegenerate ZnO, an A1(LO)-like mode appears at the low frequency side of the uncoupled A1(LO) mode, and it monotonically shifts to higher frequencies and approaches to the uncoupled A1(LO) mode as Al composition increases. Based on line shape calculations, the A1(LO)-like mode is assigned to the large wave-vector LOPPCM arising from nonconserving scattering dominated by the Al impurity-induced Fröhlich mechanism. Benefiting from the nonmonotonic Al composition dependence of the electron density, it is revealed that the LOPPCM depends mainly on the doping level but not the carrier concentration.

  1. Acceptor-modulated optical enhancements and band-gap narrowing in ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Ali; Jin, Yuhua; Irfan, Muhammad; Jiang, Yijian

    2018-03-01

    Fermi-Dirac distribution for doped semiconductors and Burstein-Moss effect have been correlated first time to figure out the conductivity type of ZnO. Hall Effect in the Van der Pauw configuration has been applied to reconcile our theoretical estimations which evince our assumption. Band-gap narrowing has been found in all p-type samples, whereas blue Burstein-Moss shift has been recorded in the n-type films. Atomic Force Microscopic (AFM) analysis shows that both p-type and n-type films have almost same granular-like structure with minor change in average grain size (˜ 6 nm to 10 nm) and surface roughness rms value 3 nm for thickness ˜315 nm which points that grain size and surface roughness did not play any significant role in order to modulate the conductivity type of ZnO. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) have been employed to perform the structural, chemical and elemental analysis. Hexagonal wurtzite structure has been observed in all samples. The introduction of nitrogen reduces the crystallinity of host lattice. 97% transmittance in the visible range with 1.4 × 107 Ω-1cm-1 optical conductivity have been detected. High absorption value in the ultra-violet (UV) region reveals that NZOs thin films can be used to fabricate next-generation high-performance UV detectors.

  2. Fabrication of thin ZnO films with wide-range tuned optical properties by reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydova, A.; Tselikov, G.; Dilone, D.; Rao, K. V.; Kabashin, A. V.; Belova, L.

    2018-02-01

    We report the manufacturing of thin zinc oxide films by reactive magnetron sputtering at room temperature, and examine their structural and optical properties. We show that the partial oxygen pressure in DC mode can have dramatic effect on absorption and refractive index (RI) of the films in a broad spectral range. In particular, the change of the oxygen pressure from 7% to 5% can lead to either conventional crystalline ZnO films having low absorption and characteristic descending dependence of RI from 2.4-2.7 RIU in the visible to 1.8-2 RIU in the near-infrared (1600 nm) range, or to untypical films, composed of ZnO nano-crystals embedded into amorphous matrix, exhibiting unexpectedly high absorption in the visible-infrared region and ascending dependence of RI with values varying from 1.5 RIU in the visible to 4 RIU in the IR (1600 nm), respectively. Untypical optical characteristics in the second case are explained by defects in ZnO structure arising due to under-oxidation of ZnO crystals. We also show that the observed defect-related film structure remains stable even after annealing of films under relatively high temperatures (30 min under 450 °C). We assume that both types of films can be of importance for photovoltaic (as contact or active layers, respectively), as well as for chemical or biological sensing, optoelectronics etc.

  3. Variation of microstructural and optical properties in SILAR grown ZnO thin films by thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Valanarasu, S; Dhanasekaran, V; Chandramohan, R; Kulandaisamy, I; Sakthivelu, A; Mahalingam, T

    2013-08-01

    The influence of thermal treatment on the structural and morphological properties of the ZnO films deposited by double dip Successive ionic layer by adsorption reaction is presented. The effect of annealing temperature and time in air ambient is presented in detail. The deposited films were annealed from 200 to 400 degrees C in air and the structural properties were determined as a function of annealing temperature by XRD. The studies revealed that films were exhibiting preferential orientation along (002) plane. The other structural parameters like the crystallite size (D), micro strain (epsilon), dislocation density (delta) and stacking fault (alpha) of as-deposited and annealed ZnO films were evaluated and reported. The optical properties were also studied and the band gap of the ZnO thins films varied from 3.27 to 3.04 eV with the annealing temperature. SEM studies revealed that the hexagonal shaped grains with uniformly distributed morphology in annealed ZnO thin films. It has been envisaged using EDX analysis that the near stoichiometric composition of the film can be attained by thermal treatment during which microstructural changes do occur.

  4. Structural, Electrical and Optical Properties of Cd Doped ZnO Thin Films by Reactive dc Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A. Guru Sampath; Obulapathi, L.; Sarmash, T. Sofi; Rani, D. Jhansi; Maddaiah, M.; Rao, T. Subba; Asokan, K.

    2015-04-01

    Thin films of cadmium (Cd) (0 wt.%, 2 wt.%, 4 wt.% and 10 wt.%) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) have been deposited on a glass substrate by reactive DC magnetron sputtering. The synthesized films are characterized by glancing angle x-ray diffraction (GAXRD), UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy, four probe resistivity measurement, Hall measurement system, field emission-scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis by x-rays. A systematic study has been made on the structure, electrical and optical properties of Cd doped ZnO thin films as a function of Cd concentration (0 wt.%, 2 wt.%, 4 wt.% and 10 wt.%). All these films have a hexagonal wurtzite ZnO structure with (0 0 2) orientation without any Cd related phase from the GAXRD patterns. The grain size was increased and maximum appears at 4 wt.% Cd concentration. The electrical resistivity of the films decreased with the Cd doping and minimum resistivity was observed at 4 wt.% Cd concentration. UV-Vis-NIR studies showed that the optical band gap of ZnO (3.37 eV) was reduced to 3.10 eV which is at 4 wt.% Cd concentration.

  5. Plasmonic enhanced optical characteristics of Ag nanostructured ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Arijit; Gogurla, Narendar; Shivakiran Bhaktha, B. N.; Ray, Samit K.

    2016-04-01

    We have demonstrated the enhanced photoluminescence and photoconducting characteristics of plasmonic Ag-ZnO films due to the light scattering effect from Ag nanoislands. Ag nanoislands have been prepared on ITO-coated glass substrates by thermal evaporation followed by annealing. Plasmonic Ag-ZnO films have been fabricated by depositing ZnO over Ag nanoislands by sol-gel process. The band-edge emission of ZnO is enhanced for 170 nm sized Ag nanoislands in ZnO as compared to pure ZnO. The defect emission is also found to be quenched simultaneously for plasmonic Ag-ZnO films. The enhancement and quenching of photoluminescence at different wavelengths for Ag-ZnO films can be well understood from the localized surface plasmon resonance of Ag nanoislands. The Ag-ZnO M-S-M photoconductor device showed a tenfold increment in photocurrent and faster photoresponse as compared to the control ZnO device. The enhancement in photoresponse of the device is due to the increased photon absorption in ZnO films via scattering of the incident illumination.

  6. Optical characterization of Mg-doped ZnO thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering technique

    SciT

    Singh, Satyendra Kumar; Tripathi, Shweta; Hazra, Purnima

    2016-05-06

    This paper reports the in-depth analysis on optical characteristics of magnesium (Mg) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films grown on p-silicon (Si) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technique. The variable angle ellipsometer is used for the optical characterization of as-deposited thin films. The optical reflectance, transmission spectra and thickness of as-deposited thin films are measured in the spectral range of 300-800 nm with the help of the spectroscopic ellipsometer. The effect of Mg-doping on optical parameters such as optical bandgap, absorption coefficient, absorbance, extinction coefficient, refractive Index and dielectric constant for as-deposited thin films are extracted to show its application inmore » optoelectronic and photonic devices.« less

  7. Effect of pressure-assisted thermal annealing on the optical properties of ZnO thin films.

    PubMed

    Berger, Danielle; Kubaski, Evaldo Toniolo; Sequinel, Thiago; da Silva, Renata Martins; Tebcherani, Sergio Mazurek; Varela, José Arana

    2013-01-01

    ZnO thin films were prepared by the polymeric precursor method. The films were deposited on silicon substrates using the spin-coating technique, and were annealed at 330 °C for 32 h under pressure-assisted thermal annealing and under ambient pressure. Their structural and optical properties were characterized, and the phases formed were identified by X-ray diffraction. No secondary phase was detected. The ZnO thin films were also characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, photoluminescence and ultraviolet emission intensity measurements. The effect of pressure on these thin films modifies the active defects that cause the recombination of deep level states located inside the band gap that emit yellow-green (575 nm) and orange (645 nm) photoluminescence. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Rietveld-refinement and optical study of the Fe doped ZnO thin film by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Arun; Dhiman, Pooja; Singh, M.

    2017-05-01

    Fe Doped ZnO Dilute Magnetic Semiconductor thin film prepared by RF magnetron sputtering on glass substrate and Influence of 3% Fe-doping on structural and Optical properties has been studied. The Rietveld-refinement analysis shows that Fe doping has a significant effect on crystalline structure, grain size and strain in the thin film. Two dimensional and three-dimensional atom probe tomography of the thin film shows that Fe ions are randomly distributed which is supported by Xray Diffraction (XRD). Fe-doping is found to effectively modify the band gap energy up to 3.5 eV.

  9. Correlated effects of preparation parameters and thickness on morphology and optical properties of ZnO very thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliot, Mickaël; Hadjadj, Aomar

    2015-08-01

    Nano-granular ZnO layers have been grown using a sol-gel synthesis and spin-coating deposition process. Thin films with thicknesses ranging from 15 to 150 nm have been obtained by varying the number of deposition cycles and prepared with different synthesis conditions. Morphologies and optical properties have been carefully investigated by joint spectroscopic ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy. A correlation between the evolution of optical properties and grains morphology has been observed. It is shown that both synthesis temperature and concentration similarly allow us to change the correlated growth and properties evolution rate. Thickness variation associated to choice of synthesis parameters could be a useful way to tune morphology and optical properties of the nanostructured ZnO layers.

  10. Effect of Annealing Temperature on Structural and Optical Properties of Sol-Gel-Derived ZnO Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif, Mohd.; Sanger, Amit; Vilarinho, Paula M.; Singh, Arun

    2018-04-01

    Nanocrystalline ZnO thin films were deposited on glass substrate via sol-gel dip-coating technique then annealed at 300°C, 400°C, and 500°C for 1 h. Their optical, structural, and morphological properties were studied using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD diffraction revealed that the crystalline nature of the thin films increased with increasing annealing temperature. The c-axis orientation improved, and the grain size increased, as indicated by increased intensity of the (002) plane peak at 2θ = 34.42° corresponding to hexagonal ZnO crystal. The average crystallite size of the thin films ranged from 13 nm to 23 nm. Increasing the annealing temperature resulted in larger crystallite size and higher crystallinity with increased surface roughness. The grain size according to SEM analysis was in good agreement with the x-ray diffraction data. The optical bandgap of the thin films narrowed with increasing annealing temperature, lying in the range of 3.14 eV to 3.02 eV. The transmission of the thin films was as high as 94% within the visible region. The thickness of the thin films was 400 nm, as measured by ellipsometry, after annealing at the different temperatures of 300°C, 400°C, and 500°C.

  11. Surface plasmon optical sensor with enhanced sensitivity using top ZnO thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Ming; Li, Ge; Jiang, Dongmei; Cheng, Wenjuan; Ma, Xueming

    2012-05-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is one of the most sensitive label-free detection methods and has been used in a wide range of chemical and biochemical sensing. Upon using a 200 nm top layer of dielectric film with a high value of the real part ɛ' of the dielectric function, on top of an SPR sensor in the Kretschmann configuration, the sensitivity is improved. The refractive index effect of dielectric film on sensitivity is usually ignored. Dielectric films with different refractive indices were prepared by radio frequency magnetron (RF) sputtering and measured with spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). The imaginary part ɛ'' of the top nanolayer permittivity needs to be small enough in order to reduce the losses and get sharper dips. The stability of the sensor is also improved because the nanolayer is protecting the Ag film from interacting with the environment. The response curves of the Ag/ZnO chips were obtained by using SPR sensor. Theoretical analysis of the sensitivity of the SPR sensors with different ZnO film refractive indices is presented and studied. Both experimental and simulation results show that the Ag/ZnO films exhibit an enhanced SPR over the pure Ag film with a narrower full width at half maximum (FWHM). It shows that the top ZnO layer is effective in enhancing the surface plasmon resonance and thus its sensitivity.

  12. Effect of stress, strain and optical properties in vacuum and normal annealed ZnO thin films using RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, B. Santhosh; Purvaja, K.; Harinee, N.; Venkateswaran, C.

    2018-05-01

    Zinc oxide thin films have been deposited on quartz substrate using RF magnetron sputtering. The deposited films were subjected to different annealing atmosphere at a fixed temperature of 500 °C for 5h. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns reveals the shift in the peak of both normal annealed and vacuum annealed thin films when compared to as-deposited ZnO film. The crystallite size, intrinsic stress and other parameters were calculated from XRD data. The surface morphology of the obtained films were studied using Atomic force microscopy (AFM). From Uv-Visible spectroscopy, the peak at 374 nm of all the films is characteristics of ZnO. The structural, thermal stability and optical properties of the annealed ZnO films are discussed in detail.

  13. Electrochemical modification of properties of ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Koji; Okubo, Takamasa; Ishikawa, Hirohito

    2017-12-01

    The properties of Al-doped ZnO films and Li- and Al-doped ZnO films were modified by electrochemical treatment. A constant current was applied between a ZnO film and a Pt electrode in an electrolyte solution. The sheet resistance of the ZnO film increased and decreased depending on the direction of current flow during the electrochemical treatment. When the ZnO film was used as a cathode (forward biased condition), the sheet resistance of the ZnO film decreased with increasing treatment time. The optical bandgap of the H2-annealed ZnO film also depended on the direction of current flow and increased under the forward biased condition. The electrochemical treatment caused the Burstein-Moss effect.

  14. Deposition of undoped and Al doped ZnO thin films using RF magnetron sputtering and study of their structural, optical and electrical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvathy Venu, M.; Shrisha B., V.; Balakrishna, K. M.; Naik, K. Gopalakrishna

    2017-05-01

    Undoped ZnO and Al doped ZnO thin films were deposited on glass and p-Si(100) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technique at room temperature using homemade targets. ZnO target containing 5 at% of Al2O3 as doping source was used for the growth of Al doped ZnO thin films. XRD revealed that the films have hexagonal wurtzite structure with high crystallinity. Morphology and chemical composition of the films have been indicated by FESEM and EDAX studies. A blue shift of the band gap energy and higher optical transmittance has been observed in the case of Al doped ZnO (ZnO:Al) thin films with respect to the ZnO thin films. The as deposited films on p-Si were used to fabricate n-ZnO/p-Si(100) and n-ZnO:Al/p-Si(100) heterojunction diodes and their room temperature current-voltage characteristics were studied.

  15. Multifunctional transparent ZnO nanorod films.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Geunjae; Jung, Sungmook; Yong, Kijung

    2011-03-18

    Transparent ZnO nanorod (NR) films that exhibit extreme wetting states (either superhydrophilicity or superhydrophobicity through surface chemical modification), high transmittance, UV protection and antireflection have been prepared via the facile ammonia hydrothermal method. The periodic 1D ZnO NR arrays showed extreme wetting states as well as antireflection properties due to their unique surface structure and prevented the UVA region from penetrating the substrate due to the unique material property of ZnO. Because of the simple, time-efficient and low temperature preparation process, ZnO NR films with useful functionalities are promising for fabrication of highly light transmissive, antireflective, UV protective, antifogging and self-cleaning optical materials to be used for optical devices and photovoltaic energy devices.

  16. Enhancement of fiber-optic low-coherence Fabry-Pérot interferometer with ZnO ALD films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Marzena; Listewnik, Paulina; Jedrzejewska-Szczerska, Małgorzata

    2018-04-01

    In this paper investigation of the enhanced fiber-optic low coherence Fabry-Pérot interferometer with zinc oxide (ZnO) film deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) was presented. Model of the interferometer, which was constructed of single-mode optical fiber with applied ZnO ALD films, was built. The interferometer was also examined by means of experiment. Measurements were performed for both reflective and transmission modes, using wavelengths of 1300 nm and 1500 nm. The measurements with the air cavity showed the best performance in terms of a visibility of the interference signal can be achieved for small cavity lengths ( 50μm) in both configurations. Combined with the enhancement of reflectance of the interferometer mirrors due to the ALD film, proposed construction could be successfully applied in refractive index (RI) sensor that can operate with improved visibility of the signal even in 1.3-1.5 RI range as well as with small volume samples, as shown by the modeling.

  17. Influence of baking method and baking temperature on the optical properties of ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Zi-Neng; Chan, Kah-Yoong

    2015-04-01

    In this work, sol-gel spin coating technique was utilised to coat ZnO thin films on glass substrates. During the intermediate 3 minutes baking process, either hotplate or convection oven was employed to bake the samples. The temperature for the baking process was varied from 150°C to 300°C for both instruments. Avantes Optical Spectrophotometer was used to characterise the optical property. The optical transmittances of hotplate-baked and oven-baked samples showed different trends with increasing baking temperatures, ranging from below 50% transmittance to over 90% transmittance in the visible range of wavelength. The difference in baking mechanisms using hotplate and convection oven will be discussed in this paper.

  18. Influence of baking method and baking temperature on the optical properties of ZnO thin films

    SciT

    Ng, Zi-Neng; Chan, Kah-Yoong

    In this work, sol-gel spin coating technique was utilised to coat ZnO thin films on glass substrates. During the intermediate 3 minutes baking process, either hotplate or convection oven was employed to bake the samples. The temperature for the baking process was varied from 150°C to 300°C for both instruments. Avantes Optical Spectrophotometer was used to characterise the optical property. The optical transmittances of hotplate-baked and oven-baked samples showed different trends with increasing baking temperatures, ranging from below 50% transmittance to over 90% transmittance in the visible range of wavelength. The difference in baking mechanisms using hotplate and convection ovenmore » will be discussed in this paper.« less

  19. Effect of Pre-Annealing on Thermal and Optical Properties of ZnO and Al-ZnO Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, P.; Gnanavelbabu, A.; Pandiaraj, P.

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple solution route method using zinc acetate as the precursor and ethanol as the solvent. At a temperature of 60∘C, a clear homogenous solution is heated to 100∘C for ethanol evaporation. Then the obtained precursor powder is annealed at 600∘C for the formation of ZnO nanocrystalline structure. Doped ZnO particle is also prepared by using aluminum nitrate nonahydrate to produce aluminum (Al)-doped nanoparticles using the same solution route method followed by annealing. Thin film fabrication is done by air evaporation method using the polymer polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). To analyze the optical and thermal properties for undoped and doped ZnO nanocrystalline thin film by precursor annealing, characterizations such as UV, FTIR, AFM, TGA/DTA, XRD, EDAX and Photoluminescence (PL) were also taken. It was evident that precursor annealing had great influence on thermal and optical properties of thin films while ZnO and AZO film showed low crystallinity and intensity than in the powder form. TGA/DTA suggests pre-annealing effect improves the thermal stability, which ensures that Al ZnO nanoparticle can withstand at high temperature too which is the crucial advantage in the semiconductor devices. UV spectroscopy confirmed the presence of ZnO nanoparticles in the thin film by an absorbance peak observed at 359nm with an energy bandgap of 3.4eV. A peak obtained at 301nm with an energy bandgap of 4.12eV shows a blue shift due to the presence of Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles. Both ZnO and AZO bandgap increased due to precursor annealing. In this research, PL spectrum is also studied in order to determine the optical property of the nanoparticle embedded thin film. From PL spectrum, it is observed that the intensity of the doped ZnO is much more enhanced as the dopant concentration is increased to 1wt.% and 2wt.% of Al in ZnO.

  20. The electrical, elemental, optical, and surface properties of Si-doped ZnO thin films prepared by thermionic vacuum arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadigharehbagh, Reza; Özen, Soner; Yudar, Hafizittin Hakan; Pat, Suat; Korkmaz, Şadan

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the properties of Si-doped ZnO (SZO) thin films, which were prepared using the non-reactive thermionic vacuum arc technique. The analysis of the elemental, optical, and surface properties of ZnO:Si thin films was carried out using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, UV-VIS spectrophotometry, atomic force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The current-voltage measurement was employed in order to study the electrical properties of the films. The effect of Si doping on the physical properties of ZnO films was investigated. The film thicknesses were measured as 55 and 35 nm for glass and PET substrates, respectively. It was clearly observed from the x-ray diffraction results that the Si and ZnO peaks were present in the coated SZO films for all samples. The morphological studies showed that the deposited surfaces are homogenous, dense, and have a uniform surface, with the existence of some cracks only on the glass substrate. The elemental composition has confirmed the existence of Zn, Si, and O elements within the prepared films. Using a UV-VIS spectrophotometer, the optical parameters such as transmittance, absorbance, refractive index, and reflectance were calculated. It should be noted that the transparency and refractive indices obtained from the measurements decrease with increasing Si concentration. The obtained optical bandgap values using transmittance spectra were determined to be 3.74 and 3.84 eV for the glass and PET substrates, respectively. An increase in the bandgap results demonstrates that the Si doping concentration is comparable to the pure ZnO thin films. The current versus voltage curves revealed the ohmic nature of the films. Subsequently, the development and fabrication of excellent transparent conducting electrodes enabled the appropriate use of Si-doped ZnO thin films.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO thin films

    SciT

    Anilkumar, T. S., E-mail: anil24march@gmail.com; Girija, M. L., E-mail: girija.ml.grt1@gmail.com; Venkatesh, J., E-mail: phph9502@yahoo.com

    2016-05-06

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) Thin films were deposited on glass substrate using Spin coating method. Zinc acetate dehydrate, Carbinol and Mono-ethanolamine were used as the precursor, solvent and stabilizer respectively to prepare ZnO Thin-films. The molar ratio of Monoethanolamine to Zinc acetate was maintained as approximately 1. The thickness of the films was determined by Interference technique. The optical properties of the films were studied by UV Vis-Spectrophotometer. From transmittance and absorbance curve, the energy band gap of ZnO is found out. Electrical Conductivity measurements of ZnO are carried out by two probe method and Activation energy for the electrical conductivitymore » of ZnO are found out. The crystal structure and orientation of the films were analyzed by XRD. The XRD patterns show that the ZnO films are polycrystalline with wurtzite hexagonal structure.« less

  2. Electrical, optical, and photoluminescence properties of ZnO films subjected to thermal annealing and treatment in hydrogen plasma

    SciT

    Abdullin, Kh. A.; Gabdullin, M. T.; Gritsenko, L. V.

    The photoluminescence and optical absorption spectra and electrical properties of ZnO films grown by the metal–organic chemical vapor deposition and hydrothermal techniques, subjected to heat treatments and plasma treatment in a hydrogen atmosphere, are studied. It is shown that the adsorption of oxygen at grain boundaries upon annealing in an oxidizing atmosphere determines the electrical properties of the films. Vacuum annealing improves the electrical properties of the samples after degradation induced by annealing in air. Treatment in hydrogen plasma passivates surface states at the grain boundaries. The intrinsic photoluminescence intensity after plasma treatment is higher in the case of increasedmore » amounts of oxygen adsorbed at grain surfaces upon annealing in air. Surface states involving oxygen and hydrogen atoms are responsible for the high-intensity intrinsic photoluminescence band.« less

  3. Thermal, optical and gas sensing properties of ZnO films prepared by different techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, Sonik; Verma, Neha; Aggarwal, Munish

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, for environmental protection, the use of portable gas sensor is essential to detect toxic gases. To control this problem of hazardous gases, metal oxide based sensors plays a vital role. In this recent study, Indium (2 at.wt.%) doped ZnO films has been prepared by sol gel spin coating and thermal evaporation techniques on glass substrates. To enhance the sensing properties, indium (In) was used as dopant and their annealing effect of temperature was observed. Thermal properties have shown the fruitful result that prepared films are useful for the fabrication of solar cell. Electrical properties revealed that capacitance and dielectric constant decreases with increase in frequency. X-ray Diffraction showed hexagonal wurtzite structure highly oriented along (1 0 1) plane. Field emission scanning electron microscope of these synthesis films prepared by different have shown the morphology as nanospheres having size of the order of 40-60 nm. 2.0 at.% of indium as modifier resulted in highest response and selectivity towards 5 ppm of NO2 gas at different operating temperature (50-200 °C). Highest sensitivity was obtained at operating temperature of 150 °C. Prepared films have quick response and recovery time in the range of 14-27 s and 67-63 s. The highest response and recovery time of gas sensor was explained by valence ion mechanism.

  4. Structural, morphological and optical studies of ripple-structured ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navin, Kumar; Kurchania, Rajnish

    2015-11-01

    Ripple-structured ZnO thin films were prepared on Si (100) substrate by sol-gel spin-coating method with different heating rates during preheating process and finally sintered at 500 °C for 2 h in ambient condition. The structural, morphological and photoluminescence (PL) properties of the nanostructured films were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and PL spectroscopy. XRD analysis revealed that films have hexagonal wurtzite structure and texture coefficient increases along (002) plane with preheating rate. The faster heating rate produced higher crystallization and larger average crystallite size. The AFM and SEM images indicate that all the films have uniformly distributed ripple structure with skeletal branches. The number of ripples increases, while the rms roughness, amplitude and correlation length of the ripple structure decrease with preheating rates. The PL spectra show the presence of different defects in the structure. The ultraviolet emission improved with the heating rate which indicates its better crystallinity.

  5. Structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films prepared by RF sputtering at different thicknesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammad, Ahmed H.; Abdel-wahab, M. Sh.; Vattamkandathil, Sajith; Ansari, Akhalakur Rahman

    2018-07-01

    Hexagonal nanocrystallites of ZnO in the form of thin films were prepared by radio frequency sputtering technique. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals two prominent diffraction planes (002) and (103) at diffraction angles around 34.3 and 62.8°, respectively. The crystallite size increases through (103) plane from 56.1 to 64.8 Å as film thickness changed from 31 nm up to 280 nm while crystallites growth through (002) increased from 124 to 136 Å as film thickness varies from 31 to 107 nm and dropped to 115.8 Å at thickness 280 nm. The particle shape changes from spherical to longitudinal form. The particle size is 25 nm for films of thickness below 107 nm and increases at higher thicknesses (134 and 280 nm) from 30 to 40 nm, respectively. Optical band gap is deduced to be direct with values varied from 3.22 to 3.28 eV and the refractive index are evaluated based on the optical band values according to Moss, Ravindra-Srivastava, and Dimitrov-Sakka models. All refractive index models gave values around 2.3.

  6. Modifying Optical Properties of ZnO Films by Forming Zn[subscript 1-x] Co[subscript x]O Solid Solutions via Spray Pyrolysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Anne K.; Weaver, Gabriela C.; Russell, Cianan B.; Fornes, William L.; Choi, Kyoung-Shin; Shih, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    A simple and cost-effective experiment for the development and characterization of semiconductors using Uv-vis spectroscopy is described. The study shows that the optical properties of ZnO films can be easily modified by forming Zn[subscript 1-x] Co[subscript x]O solid solutions via spray pyrolysis.

  7. Electrical and optical properties of p-type codoped ZnO thin films prepared by spin coating technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Trilok Kumar; Kumar, Vinod; Swart, H. C.; Purohit, L. P.

    2016-03-01

    Undoped, doped and codoped ZnO thin films were synthesized on glass substrates using a spin coating technique. Zinc acetate dihydrate, ammonium acetate and aluminum nitrate were used as precursor for zinc, nitrogen and aluminum, respectively. X-ray diffraction shows that the thin films have a hexagonal wurtzite structure for the undoped, doped and co-doped ZnO. The transmittance of the films was above 80% and the band gap of the film varied from 3.20 eV to 3.24 eV for undoped and doped ZnO. An energy band diagram to describe the photoluminescence from the thin films was also constructed. This diagram includes the various defect levels and possible quasi-Fermi levels. A minimum resistivity of 0.0834 Ω-cm was obtained for the N and Al codoped ZnO thin films with p-type carrier conductivity. These ZnO films can be used as a window layer in solar cells and in UV lasers.

  8. Influence of electron beam irradiation on nonlinear optical properties of Al doped ZnO thin films for optoelectronic device applications in the cw laser regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antony, Albin; Pramodini, S.; Poornesh, P.; Kityk, I. V.; Fedorchuk, A. O.; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2016-12-01

    We present the studies on third-order nonlinear optical properties of Al doped ZnO thin films irradiated with electron beam at different dose rate. Al doped ZnO thin films were deposited on a glass substrate by spray pyrolysis deposition technique. The thin films were irradiated using the 8 MeV electron beam from microtron ranging from 1 kG y to 5 kG y. Nonlinear optical studies were carried out by employing the single beam Z-scan technique to determine the sign and magnitude of absorptive and refractive nonlinearities of the irradiated thin films. Continuous wave He-Ne laser operating at 633 nm was used as source of excitation. The open aperture Z-scan measurements indicated the sample displays reverse saturable absorption (RSA) process. The negative sign of the nonlinear refractive index n2 was noted from the closed aperture Z-scan measurements indicates, the films exhibit self-defocusing property due to thermal nonlinearity. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility χ(3) varies from 8.17 × 10-5 esu to 1.39 × 10-3 esu with increase in electron beam irradiation. The present study reveals that the irradiation of electron beam leads to significant changes in the third-order optical nonlinearity. Al doped ZnO displays good optical power handling capability with optical clamping of about ∼5 mW. The irradiation study endorses that the Al doped ZnO under investigation is a promising candidate photonic device applications such as all-optical power limiting.

  9. Influence of Sn doping on structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films prepared by cost effective sol-gel process.

    PubMed

    Vishwas, M; Narasimha Rao, K; Arjuna Gowda, K V; Chakradhar, R P S

    2012-09-01

    Tin (Sn) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were synthesized by sol-gel spin coating method using zinc acetate di-hydrate and tin chloride di-hydrate as the precursor materials. The films were deposited on glass and silicon substrates and annealed at different temperatures in air ambient. The agglomeration of grains was observed by the addition of Sn in ZnO film with an average grain size of 60 nm. The optical properties of the films were studied using UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer. The optical band gap energies were estimated at different concentrations of Sn. The MOS capacitors were fabricated using Sn doped ZnO films. The capacitance-voltage (C-V), dissipation vs. voltage (D-V) and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics were studied and the electrical resistivity and dielectric constant were estimated. The porosity and surface area of the films were increased with the doping of Sn which makes these films suitable for opto-electronic applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Structural and optical properties of DC magnetron sputtered ZnO films on glass substrate and their modification by Ag ions implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, R.; Afzal, Naveed; Amjad, U.; Jabbar, S.; Hussain, T.; Hussnain, A.

    2017-07-01

    This work is focused on investigating the effects of deposition time and Ag ions implantation on structural and optical properties of ZnO film. The ZnO film was prepared on glass substrate by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering of pure Zn target in reactive oxygen environment for 2 h, 3 h, 4 h and 5 h respectively. X-ray diffraction results revealed polycrystalline ZnO film whose crystallinity was improved with increase of the deposition time. The morphological features indicated agglomeration of smaller grains into larger ones by increasing the deposition time. The UV-vis spectroscopy analysis depicted a small decrease in the band gap of ZnO from 3.36 eV to 3.27 eV with increase of deposition time. The Ag ions implantation in ZnO films deposited for 5 h on glass was carried out by using Pelletron Accelerator at different ions fluences ranging from 1  ×  1011 ions cm-2 to 2  ×  1012 ions cm-2. XRD patterns of Ag ions implanted ZnO did not show significant change in crystallite size by increasing ions fluence from 1  ×  1011 ions cm-2 to 5  ×  1011 ions cm-2. However, with further increase of the ions fluence, the crystallite size was decreased. The band gap of Ag ions implanted ZnO indicated anomalous variations with increase of the ions fluence.

  11. Structural, optical, morphological and electrical properties of undoped and Al-doped ZnO thin films prepared using sol—gel dip coating process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukhenoufa, N.; Mahamdi, R.; Rechem, D.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, sol—gel dip-coating technique was used to elaborate ZnO pure and ZnO/Al films. The impact of Al-doped concentration on the structural, optical, surface morphological and electrical properties of the elaborated samples was investigated. It was found that better electrical and optical performances have been obtained for an Al concentration equal to 5%, where the ZnO thin films exhibit a resistivity value equal to 1.64104 Ω·cm. Moreover, highest transparency has been recorded for the same Al concentration value. The obtained results from this investigation make the developed thin film structure a potential candidate for high optoelectronic performance applications.

  12. Structural, linear and nonlinear optical properties of co-doped ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaaban, E. R.; El-Hagary, M.; Moustafa, El Sayed; Hassan, H. Shokry; Ismail, Yasser A. M.; Emam-Ismail, M.; Ali, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    Different compositions of Co-doped zinc oxide [(Zn(1- x)Co x O) ( x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.10)] thin films were evaporated onto highly clean glass substrates by thermal evaporation technique using a modified source. The structural properties investigated by X-ray diffraction revealed hexagonal wurtzite ZnO-type structure. The crystallite size of the films was found to decrease with increasing Co content. The optical characterization of the films has been carried out using spectral transmittance and reflectance obtained in the wavelength range from 300 to 2500 nm. The refractive index has been found to increase with increasing Co content. It was further found that optical energy gap decreases from 3.28 to 3.03 eV with increasing Co content from x = 0 to x = 0.10, respectively. The dispersion of refractive index has been analyzed in terms of Wemple-DiDomenico (WDD) single-oscillator model. The oscillator parameters, the single-oscillator energy ( E o), the dispersion energy ( E d), and the static refractive index ( n 0), were determined. The nonlinear refractive index of the Zn(1- x)Co x O thin films was calculated and revealed well correlation with the linear refractive index and WDD parameters which in turn depend on the density and molar volume of the system.

  13. An integrated optic ethanol vapor sensor based on a silicon-on-insulator microring resonator coated with a porous ZnO film.

    PubMed

    Yebo, Nebiyu A; Lommens, Petra; Hens, Zeger; Baets, Roel

    2010-05-24

    Optical structures fabricated on silicon-on-insulator technology provide a convenient platform for the implementation of highly compact, versatile and low cost devices. In this work, we demonstrate the promise of this technology for integrated low power and low cost optical gas sensing. A room temperature ethanol vapor sensor is demonstrated using a ZnO nanoparticle film as a coating on an SOI micro-ring resonator of 5 microm in radius. The local coating on the ring resonators is prepared from colloidal suspensions of ZnO nanoparticles of around 3 nm diameter. The porous nature of the coating provides a large surface area for gas adsorption. The ZnO refractive index change upon vapor adsorption shifts the microring resonance through evanescent field interaction. Ethanol vapor concentrations down to 100 ppm are detected with this sensing configuration and a detection limit below 25 ppm is estimated.

  14. Effect of substrates and thickness on optical properties in atomic layer deposition grown ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Dipayan; Singhal, Jaya; Mathur, Aakash; Singh, Ajaib; Dutta, Surjendu; Zollner, Stefan; Chattopadhyay, Sudeshna

    2017-11-01

    Atomic Layer Deposition technique was used to grow high quality, very low roughness, crystalline, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films on silicon (Si) and fused quartz (SiO2) substrates to study the optical properties. Spectroscopic ellipsometry results of ZnO/Si system, staggered type-II quantum well, demonstrate that there is a significant drop in the magnitudes of both the real and imaginary parts of complex dielectric constants and in near-band gap absorption along with a blue shift of the absorption edge with decreasing film thickness at and below ∼20 nm. Conversely, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy of ZnO/SiO2, thin type-I quantum well, consisting of a narrower-band gap semiconductor grown on a wider-band gap (insulator) substrate, shows the similar thickness dependent blue-shift of the absorption edge but with an increase in the magnitude of near-band gap absorption with decreasing film thickness. Thickness dependent blue shift, energy vs. 1/d2, in two different systems, ZnO/Si and ZnO/SiO2, show a difference in their slopes. The observed phenomena can be consistently explained by the corresponding exciton (or carrier/s) deconfinement and confinement effects at the ZnO/Si and ZnO/SiO2 interface respectively, where Tanguy-Elliott amplitude pre-factor plays the key role through the electron-hole overlap factor at the interface.

  15. Effect of sintering on optical, structural and photoluminescence properties of ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel process.

    PubMed

    Vishwas, M; Narasimha Rao, K; Arjuna Gowda, K V; Chakradhar, R P S

    2010-09-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been deposited on glass substrates via sol-gel technique using zinc acetate dihydrate as precursor by spin coating of the sol at 2000 rpm. Effects of annealing temperature on optical, structural and photo luminescence properties of the deposited ZnO films have been investigated. The phase transition from amorphous to polycrystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure was observed at an annealing temperature of 400 degrees C. An average transmittance of 87% in the visible region has been obtained at room temperature. The optical transmittance has slightly increased with increase of annealing temperature. The band gap energy was estimated by Tauc's method and found to be 3.22 eV at room temperature. The optical band gap energy has decreased with increasing annealing temperature. The photoluminescence (PL) intensity increased with annealing temperature up to 200 degrees C and decreased at 300 degrees C. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Co doping concentration on structural properties and optical parameters of Co-doped ZnO thin films by sol-gel dip-coating method.

    PubMed

    Nam, Giwoong; Yoon, Hyunsik; Kim, Byunggu; Lee, Dong-Yul; Kim, Jong Su; Leem, Jae-Young

    2014-11-01

    The structural and optical properties of Co-doped ZnO thin films prepared by a sol-gel dip-coating method were investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the thin films were grown with a c-axis preferred orientation. The position of the (002) peak was almost the same in all samples, irrespective of the Co concentration. It is thus clear that Co doping had little effect on the position of the (002) peak. To confirm that Co2+ was substituted for Zn2+ in the wurtzite structure, optical measurements were conducted at room temperature by a UV-visible spectrometer. Three absorption peaks are apparent in the Co-doped ZnO thin films that do not appear for the undoped ZnO thin film. As the Co concentration was increased, absorption related to characteristic Co2+ transitions increased because three absorption band intensities and the area underneath the absorption wells between 500 and 700 nm increased with increasing Co concentration. The optical band gap and static dielectric constant decreased and the Urbach energy and extinction coefficient increased with increasing Co concentration.

  17. Enhancing Optical and Electrical Properties of La- and Al-Codoped ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Method -La Codoping Effect.

    PubMed

    He-Yan, Hai

    2017-07-10

    Backgroud: The transparent conductive ZnO film is widely used in solar cell. Enhancing the transmittance and electrical conductivity of the films is attracting many attentions to improve cell efficiency. This work focuses on the fabrication and potential application of the various cation-doped ZnO materials in recent patents and literature and then presents the La codoping effects of Al-doped ZnO films. Films were deposited by a sol-gel route and characterized by various techniques including X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, UV-vis and luminescent spectroscopies, and electrical conduction analysis. The UV-vis. transmittance and band gap increased and then decreased, whereas the resistivity decreased and then slightly increased with the increase in La/Al ratio. The La/Al ratio of 0.0105 led to a maximal transmittance, a widest band gap, and a minimal resistivity. The films also illustrated a near band gap emission and some intrinsic defect-related emissions with varied intensity with La/Al ratio. This work reveal that the electrical and optical properties of the ZnO:Al films can be well enhanced by La codoping. This is significant to the applications of the ZnO:Al materials. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Studies on morphology, electrical and optical characteristics of Al-doped ZnO thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li; Chen, Xinliang; Zhou, Zhongxin; Guo, Sheng; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Xiaodan

    2018-03-01

    Al doped ZnO (AZO) films deposited on glass substrates through the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique are investigated with various temperatures from 100 to 250 °C and different Zn : Al cycle ratios from 20 : 0 to 20 : 3. Surface morphology, structure, optical and electrical properties of obtained AZO films are studied in detail. The Al composition of the AZO films is varied by controlling the ratio of Zn : Al. We achieve an excellent AZO thin film with a resistivity of 2.14 × 10‑3 Ω·cm and high optical transmittance deposited at 150 °C with 20 : 2 Zn : Al cycle ratio. This kind of AZO thin films exhibit great potential for optoelectronics device application. Project supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Nos. 2011CBA00706, 2011CBA00707) and the Tianjin Applied Basic Research Project and Cutting-Edge Technology Research Plan (No. 13JCZDJC26900).

  19. The structural and optical properties of Y (Y  =  Al, B, Si and Ti)-doped ZnO nano thin films from the first principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenshu; Hu, Huijun; Zhang, Caili; Li, Jianguo; Li, Yuping; Ling, Lixia; Han, Peide

    2017-12-01

    Based on the density functional theory, the structural stability and optical properties of undoped and Y (Y  =  Al, B, Si and Ti)-doped ZnO nano thin films are investigated. The good stability of the films based on the ZnO (0 0 0 1) can be obtained when the layer is larger than 12. Moreover, the dielectric function, refractive index, absorption, and reflectivity of doped ZnO nano thin films have been analyzed in detail. In the visible light range, the values of ZnO films from 12 to 24 layers are all smaller than those of the bulk. And with the augment of the layers, the values keep increasing. All the results signify that the nano film of 12 layers possesses the lowest reflectivity and weakest absorption. In addition, there is an evident impact of some doped element on the properties of nano films. The absorption and reflectivity of Ti, Si-doped ZnO nano thin films are higher than those of the clean films, while Al, B-doped are lower, especially B-doped. Moreover, the conductivity of the doped structure is better than that of the bulk. Thus, the B-doped ZnO nano thin films could be potential candidate materials of transparent conductive films.

  20. Effect of doping on structural, optical and electrical properties of nanostructure ZnO films deposited onto a-Si:H/Si heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sali, S.; Boumaour, M.; Kermadi, S.; Keffous, A.; Kechouane, M.

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the structural; optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films as the n-type semiconductor for silicon a-Si:H/Si heterojunction photodiodes. The ZnO film forms the front contact of the super-strata solar cell and has to exhibit good electrical (high conductivity) and optical (high transmittance) properties. In this paper we focused our attention on the influence of doping on device performance. The results show that the X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra revealed a preferred orientation of the crystallites along c-axis. SEM images show that all films display a granular, polycrystalline morphology and the ZnO:Al exhibits a better grain uniformity. The transmittance of the doped films was found to be higher when compared to undoped ZnO. A low resistivity of the order of 2.8 × 10-4 Ω cm is obtained for ZnO:Al using 0.4 M concentration of zinc acetate. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra exhibit a blue band with two peaks centered at 442 nm (2.80 eV) and 490 nm (2.53 eV). It is noted that after doping the ZnO films a shift of the band by 22 nm (0.15 eV) is recorded and a high luminescence occurs when using Al as a dopant. Dark I-V curves of ZnO/a-Si:H/Si structure showed large difference, which means there is a kind of barrier to current flow between ZnO and a-Si:H layer. Doping films was applied and the turn-on voltages are around 0.6 V. Under reverse bias, the current of the ZnO/a-Si:H/Si heterojunction is larger than that of ZnO:Al/a-Si:H/Si. The improvement with ZnO:Al is attributed to a higher number of generated carriers in the nanostructure (due to the higher transmittance and a higher luminescence) that increases the probability of collisions.

  1. Effect of sputtering power on crystallinity, intrinsic defects, and optical and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO transparent conducting thin films for optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yu Min; Li, Jung Yu; Chen, Nai Yun; Chen, Chih Yu; Han, Tai Chun; Yu, Chin Chung

    2017-02-01

    The crystallinity and intrinsic defects of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films have a high impact on their optical and electrical properties and therefore on the performance of devices incorporating such films, including flat panel displays, electro-optical devices, and solar cells. The optical and electrical properties of TCO films can be modified by tailoring their deposition parameters, which makes proper understanding of these parameters crucial. Magnetron sputtering is the most adaptable method for preparing TCO films used in industrial applications. In this study, we investigate the direct and inter-property correlation effects of sputtering power (PW) on the crystallinity, intrinsic defects, and optical and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) TCO films. All of the films were preferentially c-axis-oriented with a wurtzite structure and had an average transmittance of over 80% in the visible wavelength region. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed significantly increased AZO film grain sizes for PW ≥ 150 W, which may lead to increased conductivity, carrier concentration, and optical band gaps but decreased carrier mobility and in-plane compressive stress in AZO films. Photoluminescence results showed that, with increasing PW, the near band edge emission gradually dominates the defect-related emissions in which zinc interstitial (Zni), oxygen vacancy (VO), and oxygen interstitial (Oi) are possibly responsible for emissions at 3.08, 2.8, and 2.0 eV, respectively. The presence of Zni- and Oi-related emissions at PW ≥ 150 W indicates a slight increase in the presence of Al atoms substituted at Zn sites (AlZn). The presence of Oi at PW ≥ 150 W was also confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results. These results clearly show that the crystallinity and intrinsic-defect type of AZO films, which dominate their optical and electrical properties, may be controlled by PW. This understanding may facilitate the development of TCO

  2. The Effects of Zr Doping on the Optical, Electrical and Microstructural Properties of Thin ZnO Films Deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Herodotou, Stephania; Treharne, Robert E.; Durose, Ken; Tatlock, Gordon J.; Potter, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs), with high optical transparency (≥85%) and low electrical resistivity (10−4 Ω·cm) are used in a wide variety of commercial devices. There is growing interest in replacing conventional TCOs such as indium tin oxide with lower cost, earth abundant materials. In the current study, we dope Zr into thin ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) to target properties of an efficient TCO. The effects of doping (0–10 at.% Zr) were investigated for ~100 nm thick films and the effect of thickness on the properties was investigated for 50–250 nm thick films. The addition of Zr4+ ions acting as electron donors showed reduced resistivity (1.44 × 10−3 Ω·cm), increased carrier density (3.81 × 1020 cm−3), and increased optical gap (3.5 eV) with 4.8 at.% doping. The increase of film thickness to 250 nm reduced the electron carrier/photon scattering leading to a further reduction of resistivity to 7.5 × 10−4 Ω·cm and an average optical transparency in the visible/near infrared (IR) range up to 91%. The improved n-type properties of ZnO: Zr films are promising for TCO applications after reaching the targets for high carrier density (>1020 cm−3), low resistivity in the order of 10−4 Ω·cm and high optical transparency (≥85%). PMID:28793633

  3. Structural, Electrical and Optical Properties of Sputtered-Grown InN Films on ZnO Buffered Silicon, Bulk GaN, Quartz and Sapphire Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, Umar; Hassan, Zainuriah; Ahmed, Naser M.; Afzal, Naveed

    2018-05-01

    Indium nitride (InN) films were grown on Si (111), bulk GaN, quartz and sapphire substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Prior to the film deposition, a zinc oxide (ZnO) buffer layer was deposited on all the substrates. The x-ray diffraction patterns of InN films on ZnO-buffered substrates indicated c-plane-oriented films whereas the Raman spectroscopy results indicated A1 (LO) and E2 (high) modes of InN on all the substrates. The crystalline quality of InN was found to be better on sapphire and quartz than on the other substrates. The surface roughness of InN was studied using an atomic force microscope. The results indicated higher surface roughness of the film on sapphire as compared to the others; however, roughness of the film was lower than 8 nm on all the substrates. The electrical properties indicated higher electron mobility of InN (20.20 cm2/Vs) on bulk GaN than on the other substrates. The optical band gap of InN film was more than 2 eV in all the cases and was attributed to high carrier concentration in the film.

  4. Comparative study of textured and epitaxial ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Y. R.; Zhu, S.; Wrobel, J. M.; Jeong, H. M.; Miceli, P. F.; White, H. W.

    2000-06-01

    ZnO films were synthesized by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on GaAs and α-Al 2O 3 substrates. The properties of ZnO films on GaAs and α-Al 2O 3 have been investigated to determine the differences between epitaxial and textured ZnO films. ZnO films on GaAs show very strong emission features associated with exciton transitions as do ZnO films on α-Al 2O 3, while the crystalline structural qualities for ZnO films on α-Al 2O 3 are much better than those for ZnO films on GaAs. The properties of ZnO films are studied by comparing highly oriented, textured ZnO films on GaAs with epitaxial ZnO films on α-Al 2O 3 synthesized along the c-axis.

  5. Characterization of second and third order optical nonlinearities of ZnO sputtered films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larciprete, M. C.; Haertle, D.; Belardini, A.; Bertolotti, M.; Sarto, F.; Günter, P.

    2006-03-01

    We measured the second and third order optical nonlinearity of zinc oxide, grown on glass substrates by the ion beam sputtering technique. Second and third harmonic generation measurements were performed by means of the rotational Maker fringes technique for different polarization configurations, thus allowing the determination of all non-zero components of the second order susceptibility at three different fundamental beam wavelengths, i.e., 1064 nm, 1542 nm and 1907 nm. The dispersion of the nonlinear optical coefficients has been evaluated, while the nonlinear optical coefficients were found to range between 0.9 pm/V and 0.16 pm/V for d33, 0.53 pm/V and 0.08 pm/V for |d15|, 0.31 and 0.08 pm/V for |d31|, with increasing wavelength. Finally, one third order susceptibility, χijkl (3), has been determined by third harmonic generation measurements at a fundamental wavelength λ=1907 nm and a value for χ3333 (3) of 185×10-20 m2/V2 has been found.

  6. Development of nanostructured ZnO thin film via electrohydrodynamic atomization technique and its photoconductivity characteristics.

    PubMed

    Duraisamy, Navaneethan; Kwon, Ki Rin; Jo, Jeongdai; Choi, Kyung-Hyun

    2014-08-01

    This article presents the non-vacuum technique for the preparation of nanostructured zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film on glass substrate through electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) technique. The detailed process parameters for achieving homogeneous ZnO thin films are clearly discussed. The crystallinity and surface morphology of ZnO thin film are investigated by X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The result shows that the deposited ZnO thin film is oriented in the wurtzite phase with void free surface morphology. The surface roughness of deposited ZnO thin film is found to be ~17.8 nm. The optical properties of nanostructured ZnO thin films show the average transmittance is about 90% in the visible region and the energy band gap is found to be 3.17 eV. The surface chemistry and purity of deposited ZnO thin films are analyzed by fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, conforming the presence of Zn-O in the deposited thin films without any organic moiety. The photocurrent measurement of nanostructured ZnO thin film is examined in the presence of UV light illumination with wavelength of 365 nm. These results suggest that the deposited nanostructured ZnO thin film through EHDA technique possess promising applications in the near future.

  7. Nanoporous structures on ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gür, Emre; Kılıç, Bayram; Coşkun, C.; Tüzemen, S.; Bayrakçeken, Fatma

    2010-01-01

    Porous structures were formed on ZnO thin films which were grown by an electrochemical deposition (ECD) method. The growth processes were carried out in a solution of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) zinc perchlorate, Zn(ClO 4) 2, at 120 ∘C on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates. Optical and structural characterizations of electrochemically grown ZnO thin films have shown that the films possess high (0002) c-axis orientation, high nucleation, high intensity and low FWHM of UV emission at the band edge region and a sharp UV absorption edge. Nanoporous structures were formed via self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of hexanethiol (C 6SH) and dodecanethiol (C 12SH). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurements showed that while a nanoporous structure (pore radius 20 nm) is formed on the ZnO thin films by hexanathiol solution, a macroporous structure (pore radius 360 nm) is formed by dodecanethiol solution. No significant variation is observed in X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements on the ZnO thin films after pore formation. However, photoluminescence (PL) measurements showed that green emission is observed as the dominant emission for the macroporous structures, while no variation is observed for the thin film nanoporous ZnO sample.

  8. Sequential PLD in oxygen/argon gas mixture of Al-doped ZnO thin films with improved electrical and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coman, Tudor; Timpu, Daniel; Nica, Valentin; Vitelaru, Catalin; Rambu, Alicia Petronela; Stoian, George; Olaru, Mihaela; Ursu, Cristian

    2017-10-01

    Highly conductive transparent Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films were obtained at room temperature through sequential PLD (SPLD) from Zn and Al metallic targets in an oxygen/argon gas mixture. We have investigated the structural, electrical and optical properties as a function of the oxygen/argon pressure ratio in the chamber. The measured Hall carrier concentration was found to increase with argon injection from 1.3 × 1020 to 6.7 × 1020 cm-3, while the laser shots ratio for Al/Zn targets ablation was kept constant. This increase was attributed to an enhancement of the substitution doping into the ZnO lattice. The argon injection also leads to an increase of the Hall mobility up to 20 cm2 V-1 s-1, attributed to a reduction of interstitial-type defects. Thus, the approach of using an oxygen/argon gas mixture during SPLD from metallic targets allows obtaining at room temperature AZO samples with high optical transmittance (about 90%) and low electrical resistivity (down to 5.1 × 10-4 Ω cm).

  9. Effect of Fe incorporation on the optical behavior of ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel derived spin coating techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakkesh, R. Ajay; Malathi, R.; Balakumar, S.

    2013-02-01

    In this work, Fe doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films were fabricated on the glass substrate by sol-gel derived spin coating technique. X-ray Diffraction studies revealed that the obtained pure and Fe doped ZnO thin films were in the wurtzite and spinel phase respectively. The three well defined Raman lines at 432, 543 and 1091 cm-1 also confirmed the lattice structure of the ZnO thin film has wurtzite symmetry. While doping Fe atoms in the ZnO, there was a significant change in the phase from wurtzite to spinel structure; owing to Fe (III) ions being incorporated into the lattice through substitution of Zn (II) ions. Room temperature PL spectra showed that the role of defect mediated red emissions at 612 nm was due to radial recombination of a photogenerated hole with an electron that belongs to the Fe atoms, which were discussed in detail.

  10. Improved luminescence intensity and stability of thermal annealed ZnO incorporated Alq3 composite films.

    PubMed

    Cuba, M; Muralidharan, G

    2015-11-01

    The 30 wt% of ZnO (weight percentage of ZnO has been optimised) incorporated tris- (8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) has been synthesised and coated on to glass substrates using dip coating method. The structural and optical properties of the Alq3/ZnO composite film after thermal annealing from 50 to 300 °C insteps 50° has been studied and reported. XRD pattern reveals the presence of crystalline ZnO in all the annealed films. The films annealed above 150 °C reveal the presence of crystalline Alq3 along with crystalline ZnO. The FTIR spectra confirm the presence of hydroxyquinoline and ZnO vibration in all the annealed composite films. The composite films annealed above 150 °C show a partial sublimation and degradation of hydroxyquinoline compounds. The ZnO incorporated composite films (Alq3/ZnO) exhibit two emission peaks, one corresponding to ZnO at 487 nm and another at 513 nm due to Alq3. The films annealed at 200 °C exhibit maximum photoluminescence (PL) intensity than pristine film at 513 nm when excited at 390 nm.

  11. Optical and structural properties of Al-doped ZnO thin films by sol gel process.

    PubMed

    Jun, Min-Chul; Koh, Jung-Hyuk

    2013-05-01

    Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) materials with high transmittance and good electrical conductivity have been attracted much attention due to the development of electronic display and devices such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Aluminum doped zinc oxide thin films (AZO) have been well known for their use as TCO materials due to its stability, cost-effectiveness, good optical transmittance and electrical properties. Especially, AZO thin film, which have low resistivity of 2-4 x 10(-4) omega x cm which is similar to that of ITO films with wide band gap semiconductors. The AZO thin films were deposited on glass substrates by sol-gel spin-coating process. As a starting material, zinc acetate dihydrate (Zn(CH3COO)2 x 2H2O) and aluminum chloride hexahydrate (AlCl3 6H2O) were used. 2-methoxyethanol and monoethanolamine (MEA) were used as solvent and stabilizer, respectively. After deposited, the films were preheated at 300 degrees C on a hotplate and post-heated at 650 degrees C for 1.5 hrs in the furnace. We have studied the structural and optical properties as a function of Al concentration (0-2.5 mol.%).

  12. ZnO Thin Film Electronics for More than Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Jose Israel

    discharging time constants. Finally, to circumvent fabrication challenges on predetermined complex shapes, like curved mirror optics, a technique to transfer electronics from a rigid substrate to a flexible substrate is used. This technique allows various thin films, regardless of their deposition temperature, to be transferred to flexible substrates. Finally, ultra-low power operation of ZnO TFT gas sensors was demonstrated. The ZnO ozone sensors were optimized to operate with excellent electrical stability in ambient conditions, without using elevated temperatures, while still providing good gas sensitivity. This was achieved by using a post-deposition anneal and by partially passivating the contact regions while leaving the semiconductor sensing area open to the ambient. A novel technique to reset the gas sensor using periodic pulsing of a UV light over the sensor results in less than 25 milliseconds recovery time. A pathway to achieve gas selectivity by using organic thin-film layers as filters deposited over the gas sensors tis demonstrated. The ZnO ozone sensor TFTs and the UV light operate at room temperature with an average power below 1 muW.

  13. Comparison on electrically pumped random laser actions of hydrothermal and sputtered ZnO films

    SciT

    Wang, Canxing; Jiang, Haotian; Li, Yunpeng

    2013-10-07

    Random lasing (RL) in polycrystalline ZnO films is an intriguing research subject. Here, we have comparatively investigated electrically pumped RL behaviors of two metal-insulator-semiconductor structured devices using the hydrothermal and sputtered ZnO films as the semiconductor components, i.e., the light-emitting layers, respectively. It is demonstrated that the device using the hydrothermal ZnO film exhibits smaller threshold current and larger output optical power of the electrically pumped RL. The morphological characterization shows that the hydrothermal ZnO film is somewhat porous and is much rougher than the sputtered one, suggesting that in the former stronger multiple light scattering can occur. Moreover, themore » photoluminescence characterization indicates that there are fewer defects in the hydrothermal ZnO film than in the sputtered one, which means that the photons can pick up larger optical gain through stimulated emission in the hydrothermal ZnO film. Therefore, it is believed that the stronger multiple light scattering and larger optical gain contribute to the improved performance of the electrically pumped RL from the device using the hydrothermal ZnO film.« less

  14. Effect of concentration and irradiation on the optical and structural properties of ZnO thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeoye Victor, Babalola

    2017-12-01

    This study involves the preparation of ZnO thin films by spray pyrolysis and to investigate the effect of concentration of the film and irradiation on ZnO thin film deposited by spray pyrolysis method deposited at 350 ± 5 °C. The precursor for zinc oxide was produced from zinc acetate (Zn(CH3COO))2. The samples were annealed at 500 °C for 6 h and irradiated using 137Cs 90.998 mCi radiation. They were then characterised using ultra violet-visible spectrophotometry, X-ray Diffractometry (XRD) with Cu-Kα radiation to determine the structure of the film, Four-point probe for electrical properties and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) were used for the composition of the film. XRD diffraction peaks observed for 0.05 M ZnO were (1 0 0), (0 0 2), (1 0 1) and (1 1 0) planes for the annealed and irradiated annealed ZnO films with no preferential orientation. The as-deposited films have low peaks belonging to (1 0 0), (0 0 2), (1 0 1), (1 1 0) plane and other peaks such as (1 1 2), (2 0 0) and (2 0 1). The results are explained with regard to the irradiation damage introduced to the samples. The as-deposited, annealed and irradiated-annealed films are highly transparent in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum with an average percent transmittance values of 85% and present a sharp ultraviolet cut-off at approximately 380 nm for the ZnO thin film.

  15. Ultraviolet emission enhancement in ZnO thin films modified by nanocrystalline TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Gaige; Lu, Xi; Qian, Liming; Xian, Fenglin

    2017-05-01

    In this study, nanocrystalline TiO2 modified ZnO thin films were prepared by electron beam evaporation. The structural, morphological and optical properties of the samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), UV-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, respectively. The composition of the films was examined by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The photoluminescent spectrum shows that the pure ZnO thin film exhibits an ultraviolet (UV) emission peak and a strong green emission band. Surface analysis indicates that the ZnO thin film contains many oxygen vacancy defects on the surface. After the ZnO thin film is modified by the nanocrystalline TiO2 layer, the UV emission of ZnO is largely enhanced and the green emission is greatly suppressed, which suggests that the surface defects such as oxygen vacancies are passivated by the TiO2 capping layer. As for the UV emission enhancement of the ZnO thin film, the optimized thickness of the TiO2 capping layer is ∼16 nm. When the thickness is larger than 16 nm, the UV emission of the ZnO thin film will decrease because the TiO2 capping layer absorbs most of the excitation energy. The UV emission enhancement in the nanocrystalline TiO2 modified ZnO thin film can be attributed to surface passivation and flat band effect.

  16. Effects of Na Doping on Structural, Optical, and Electronic Properties of ZnO Thin Films Fabricated by Sol-Gel Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Heliang; Yao, Zhen; Xu, Cheng; Wang, Xinqiang; Yu, Zhichao

    2018-04-01

    Undoped and Na-doped ZnO thin films were fabricated by sol-gel technique on quartz glass substrates and annealed at 500°C for 1 h. The structural properties of the films were characterized using x-ray diffraction analysis, which revealed hexagonal wurtzite structure with no peaks corresponding to Na2O or other Na phases being found. Surface morphology observations by scanning electron microscopy revealed that the crystallite size and topographical properties of the ZnO films were influenced by the Na doping concentration. X-ray photoelectron spectra revealed presence of Na+ in ZnO regime. The transmittance spectra indicated that the average transmittance of Na-doped ZnO film was above 80% in the visible range, superior to that of the undoped film. There was a blue-shift in the ultraviolet absorption edge with increase of the Na content. Photoluminescence spectra illustrated two peaks, corresponding to ultraviolet near-band-edge and visible emission.

  17. Effect of ZnO buffer layer on phase transition properties of vanadium dioxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Huiqun; Li, Lekang; Li, Chunbo

    2016-03-01

    VO2 thin films were prepared on ZnO buffer layers by DC magnetron sputtering at room temperature using vanadium target and post annealing at 400 °C. The ZnO buffer layers with different thickness deposited on glass substrates by magnetron sputtering have a high visible and near infrared optical transmittance. The electrical resistivity and the phase transition properties of the VO2/ZnO composite thin films in terms of temperature were investigated. The results showed that the resistivity variation of VO2 thin film with ZnO buffer layer deposited for 35 min was 16 KΩ-cm. The VO2/ZnO composite thin films exhibit a reversible semiconductor-metal phase transition at 48 °C.

  18. Optical Properties of Al-Doped ZnO Films in the Infrared Region and Their Absorption Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hua; Zhang, Rong-Jun; Li, Da-Hai; Chen, Xin; Wang, Song-You; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Li, Meng-Jiao; Hu, Zhi-Gao; Dai, Ning; Chen, Liang-Yao

    2018-05-01

    The optical properties of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films were calculated rapidly and accurately by point-by-point analysis from spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) data. It was demonstrated that there were two different physical mechanisms, i.e., the interfacial effect and crystallinity, for the thickness-dependent permittivity in the visible and infrared regions. In addition, there was a blue shift for the effective plasma frequency of AZO when the thickness increased, and the effective plasma frequency did not exist for AZO ultrathin films (< 25 nm) in the infrared region, which demonstrated that AZO ultrathin films could not be used as a negative index metamaterial. Based on detailed permittivity research, we designed a near-perfect absorber at 2-5 μm by etching AZO-ZnO alternative layers. The alternative layers matched the phase of reflected light, and the void cylinder arrays extended the high absorption range. Moreover, the AZO absorber demonstrated feasibility and applicability on different substrates.

  19. Effect of Mg doping in ZnO buffer layer on ZnO thin film devices for electronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, Pushpa; Chakrabarti, P.

    2016-05-01

    Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films have been grown on p-silicon (Si) substrate using magnesium doped ZnO (Mg: ZnO) buffer layer by radio-frequency (RF) sputtering method. In this paper, we have optimized the concentration of Mg (0-5 atomic percent (at. %)) ZnO buffer layer to examine its effect on ZnO thin film based devices for electronic and optoelectronic applications. The crystalline nature, morphology and topography of the surface of the thin film have been characterized. The optical as well as electrical properties of the active ZnO film can be tailored by varying the concentration of Mg in the buffer layer. The crystallite size in the active ZnO thin film was found to increase with the Mg concentration in the buffer layer in the range of 0-3 at. % and subsequently decrease with increasing Mg atom concentration in the ZnO. The same was verified by the surface morphology and topography studies carried out with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic electron microscopy (AFM) respectively. The reflectance in the visible region was measured to be less than 80% and found to decrease with increase in Mg concentration from 0 to 3 at. % in the buffer region. The optical bandgap was initially found to increase from 3.02 eV to 3.74 eV by increasing the Mg content from 0 to 3 at. % but subsequently decreases and drops down to 3.43 eV for a concentration of 5 at. %. The study of an Au:Pd/ZnO Schottky diode reveals that for optimum doping of the buffer layer the device exhibits superior rectifying behavior. The barrier height, ideality factor, rectification ratio, reverse saturation current and series resistance of the Schottky diode were extracted from the measured current voltage (I-V) characteristics.

  20. Slow positron beam study of hydrogen ion implanted ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yi; Xue, Xudong; Wu, Yichu

    2014-08-01

    The effects of hydrogen related defect on the microstructure and optical property of ZnO thin films were investigated by slow positron beam, in combination with x-ray diffraction, infrared and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The defects were introduced by 90 keV proton irradiation with doses of 1×1015 and 1×1016 ions cm-2. Zn vacancy and OH bonding (VZn+OH) defect complex were identified in hydrogen implanted ZnO film by positron annihilation and infrared spectroscopy. The formation of these complexes led to lattice disorder in hydrogen implanted ZnO film and suppressed the luminescence process.

  1. Investigation on structural and optical properties of ZnO film prepared by simple wet chemical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sholehah, Amalia; Mulyadi, Rendi; Haryono, Didied; Muttakin, Imamul; Rusbana, Tb Bahtiar; Mardiyanto

    2018-04-01

    ZnO thin layer has a broad potential application in electronic and optoelectronic devices. In this study, vertically align ZnO layers were deposited on ITO glass using wet chemistry method. The seed layers were prepared using electrodeposition technique at 3°C. The growing process was carried out using chemical bath deposition at 90°C. To improve the structural properties, two different hydrothermal treatment variations were applied separately. From the experiment, it is shown that the hydrothermal process using N2 gas has given the best result, with average diameter, crystallite size, and band-gap energy of 68.83 nm; 56.37 nm; and 3.16 eV, respectively.

  2. Nucleant layer effect on nanocolumnar ZnO films grown by electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolosa, Maria D. Reyes; Damonte, Laura C.; Brine, Hicham; Bolink, Henk J.; Hernández-Fenollosa, María A.

    2013-03-01

    Different ZnO nanostructured films were electrochemically grown, using an aqueous solution based on ZnCl2, on three types of transparent conductive oxides grow on commercial ITO (In2O3:Sn)-covered glass substrates: (1) ZnO prepared by spin coating, (2) ZnO prepared by direct current magnetron sputtering, and (3) commercial ITO-covered glass substrates. Although thin, these primary oxide layers play an important role on the properties of the nanostructured films grown on top of them. Additionally, these primary oxide layers prevent direct hole combination when used in optoelectronic devices. Structural and optical characterizations were carried out by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and optical transmission spectroscopy. We show that the properties of the ZnO nanostructured films depend strongly on the type of primary oxide-covered substrate used. Previous studies on different electrodeposition methods for nucleation and growth are considered in the final discussion.

  3. Nucleant layer effect on nanocolumnar ZnO films grown by electrodeposition.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, Maria D Reyes; Damonte, Laura C; Brine, Hicham; Bolink, Henk J; Hernández-Fenollosa, María A

    2013-03-23

    Different ZnO nanostructured films were electrochemically grown, using an aqueous solution based on ZnCl2, on three types of transparent conductive oxides grow on commercial ITO (In2O3:Sn)-covered glass substrates: (1) ZnO prepared by spin coating, (2) ZnO prepared by direct current magnetron sputtering, and (3) commercial ITO-covered glass substrates. Although thin, these primary oxide layers play an important role on the properties of the nanostructured films grown on top of them. Additionally, these primary oxide layers prevent direct hole combination when used in optoelectronic devices. Structural and optical characterizations were carried out by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and optical transmission spectroscopy. We show that the properties of the ZnO nanostructured films depend strongly on the type of primary oxide-covered substrate used. Previous studies on different electrodeposition methods for nucleation and growth are considered in the final discussion.

  4. Nucleant layer effect on nanocolumnar ZnO films grown by electrodeposition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Different ZnO nanostructured films were electrochemically grown, using an aqueous solution based on ZnCl2, on three types of transparent conductive oxides grow on commercial ITO (In2O3:Sn)-covered glass substrates: (1) ZnO prepared by spin coating, (2) ZnO prepared by direct current magnetron sputtering, and (3) commercial ITO-covered glass substrates. Although thin, these primary oxide layers play an important role on the properties of the nanostructured films grown on top of them. Additionally, these primary oxide layers prevent direct hole combination when used in optoelectronic devices. Structural and optical characterizations were carried out by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and optical transmission spectroscopy. We show that the properties of the ZnO nanostructured films depend strongly on the type of primary oxide-covered substrate used. Previous studies on different electrodeposition methods for nucleation and growth are considered in the final discussion. PMID:23522332

  5. Influence Al doped ZnO nanostructure on structural and optical properties

    SciT

    Ramelan, Ari Handono, E-mail: aramelan@mipa.uns.ac.id; Wahyuningsih, Sayekti; Chasanah, Uswatul

    2016-04-19

    The preparation of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films prepared by the spin-coating method was reported. Preparation of AZO was conducted by annealing treatment at a temperature of 700°C. While the spin-coating process of AZO thin films were done at 2000 and 3000 rpm respectively. The structural properties of ZnO were determined by X- ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. ZnOnanostructure was formed after annealed at atemperature of 400°C.The morphology of ZnO was determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed the irregular morphology about 30-50µm in size. Al doped on ZnO influenced the optical properties of those material. Increasing Al contain on ZnO causemore » of shifting to the lower wavelength. The optical properties of the ZnO as well as AZO films showed that higher reflectance on the ultraviolet region so those materials were used as anti-reflecting agent.Al addition significantly enhance the optical transparency and induce the blue-shift in optical bandgap of ZnO films.« less

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Molybdenum Doped ZnO Thin Films by SILAR Deposition Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radha, R.; Sakthivelu, A.; Pradhabhan, D.

    2016-08-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on the glass substrate by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) deposition method. The effect of Mo dopant concentration of 5, 6.6 and 10 mol% on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of n-type Mo doped ZnO films was studied. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirmed that the Mo doped ZnO thin films were polycrystalline with wurtzite structure. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) studies shows that the surface morphology of the films changes with Mo doping. A blue shift of the optical band gap was observed in the optical studies. Effect of Mo dopant concentration on electrical conductivity was studied and it shows comparatively high electrical conductivity at 10 mol% of Mo doping concentration.

  7. Enhanced photoluminescence properties of Al doped ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. X.; Ding, J. J.

    2018-01-01

    Al doped ZnO films are fabricated by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. In general, visible emission is related to various defects in ZnO films. However, too much defects will cause light emission quench. So it is still a controversial issue to control appropriate defect concentrations. In this paper, based on our previous results, appropriate Al doping concentration is chosen to introduce more both interstitial Zn and O vacancy defects, which is responsible for main visible emission of ZnO films. A strong emission band located at 405 nm and a long tail peak is observed in the samples. As Al is doped in ZnO films, the intensity of emission peaks increases. Zn interstitial might increase with the increasing Al3+ substitute because ZnO was a self-assembled oxide compound. So Zn interstitial defect concentration in Al doped ZnO films will increase greatly, which results in the intensity of emission peaks increases.

  8. Study of Doped ZnO Films Synthesized by Combining Vapor Gases and Pulsed Laser Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Shen; Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, Sandor L.; George, M. A.

    2000-01-01

    The properties and structure of the ZnO material are similar to those of the GaN. Since an excitonic binding energy of ZnO is about 60 meV, it has strong potential for excitonic lasing at the room temperature. This makes synthesizing ZnO films for applications attractive. However, there are several hurdles in fabricating electro-optical devices from ZnO. One of those is in growing doped p-type ZnO films. Although techniques have been developed for the doping of both p-type and n-type ZnO, this remains an area that can be improved. In this presentation, we will report the experimental results of using both thermal vapor and pulsed laser deposition to grow doped ZnO films. The films are deposited on (0001) sapphire, (001) Si and quartz substrates by ablating a ZnO target. The group III and V elements are introduced into the growth chamber using inner gases. Films are characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning probe microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and electrical measurements. The full width at half maximum of theta rocking curves for epitaxial films is less than 0.5 deg. In textured films, it rises to several degrees. Film surface morphology reveals an island growth pattern, but the size and density of these islands vary with the composition of the reactive gases. The electrical resistivity also changes with the doped elements. The relationship between the doping elements, gas composition, and film properties will be discussed.

  9. Impact of nanostructured thin ZnO film in ultraviolet protection

    PubMed Central

    Sasani Ghamsari, Morteza; Alamdari, Sanaz; Han, Wooje; Park, Hyung-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Nanoscale ZnO is one of the best choices for ultraviolet (UV) protection, not only because of its antimicrobial properties but also due to its potential application for UV preservation. However, the behavior of nanostructured thin ZnO films and long-term effects of UV-radiation exposure have not been studied yet. In this study, we investigated the UV-protection ability of sol gel-derived thin ZnO films after different exposure times. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and UV-visible optical spectroscopy were carried out to study the structure and optical properties of the ZnO films as a function of the UV-irradiation time. The results obtained showed that the prepared thin ZnO films were somewhat transparent under the visible wavelength region and protective against UV radiation. The UV-protection factor was 50+ for the prepared samples, indicating that they were excellent UV protectors. The deposited thin ZnO films demonstrated promising antibacterial potential and significant light absorbance in the UV range. The experimental results suggest that the synthesized samples have potential for applications in the health care field. PMID:28096668

  10. Impact of nanostructured thin ZnO film in ultraviolet protection.

    PubMed

    Sasani Ghamsari, Morteza; Alamdari, Sanaz; Han, Wooje; Park, Hyung-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Nanoscale ZnO is one of the best choices for ultraviolet (UV) protection, not only because of its antimicrobial properties but also due to its potential application for UV preservation. However, the behavior of nanostructured thin ZnO films and long-term effects of UV-radiation exposure have not been studied yet. In this study, we investigated the UV-protection ability of sol gel-derived thin ZnO films after different exposure times. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and UV-visible optical spectroscopy were carried out to study the structure and optical properties of the ZnO films as a function of the UV-irradiation time. The results obtained showed that the prepared thin ZnO films were somewhat transparent under the visible wavelength region and protective against UV radiation. The UV-protection factor was 50+ for the prepared samples, indicating that they were excellent UV protectors. The deposited thin ZnO films demonstrated promising antibacterial potential and significant light absorbance in the UV range. The experimental results suggest that the synthesized samples have potential for applications in the health care field.

  11. High-Performance Spray-Deposited Indium Doped ZnO Thin Film: Structural, Morphological, Electrical, Optical, and Photoluminescence Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asl, Hassan Zare; Rozati, Seyed Mohammad

    2018-03-01

    In this study, high-quality indium doped zinc oxide thin films were deposited using the spray pyrolysis technique, and the substrate temperature varied from 450°C to 550°C with steps of 25°C with the aim of investigating the effect of substrate temperature. It was found that as the temperature increased, the resistivity of the films decreased to the extent that it was as low as 5.34 × 10-3 Ω cm for the one deposited at 500°C; however, it slightly increased for the resulting film at 550°C. Although the carrier concentration mostly increased with temperature, it appeared that the carrier mobility was the parameter mainly governing the conductivity variation. In addition, the average transparency of the deposited films at 500°C, 525°C and 550°C was around 87% (400-800 nm), which makes them outstanding transparent conductive oxide films. Moreover, the crystallite size and strain of the resulting films were estimated via the Williamson-Hall method. The results revealed a considerable reduction in the crystallite size and strain up to 500°C followed by a rise at higher substrate temperature. Based on both the surface and cross-section field emission scanning electron microscope images, the film resulting at 500°C was highly compacted and crack free, which can explain the enlargement of the carrier mobility (10.9 cm2 V-1 s-1) in this film. Finally, a detailed photoluminescence study revealed several peaks in the spectrum and the variation of the two major peaks appeared to have correlation with the carrier concentration.

  12. Influence of Dopants in ZnO Films on Defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Cheng-Xiao; Weng, Hui-Min; Zhang, Yang; Ma, Xing-Ping; Ye, Bang-Jiao

    2008-12-01

    The influence of dopants in ZnO films on defects is investigated by slow positron annihilation technique. The results show S that parameters meet SAl > Sun > SAg for Al-doped ZnO films, undoped and Ag-doped ZnO films. Zinc vacancies are found in all ZnO films with different dopants. According to S parameter and the same defect type, it can be induced that the zinc vacancy concentration is the highest in the Al-doped ZnO film, and it is the least in the Ag-doped ZnO film. When Al atoms are doped in the ZnO films grown on silicon substrates, Zn vacancies increase as compared to the undoped and Ag-doped ZnO films. The dopant concentration could determine the position of Fermi level in materials, while defect formation energy of zinc vacancy strongly depends on the position of Fermi level, so its concentration varies with dopant element and dopant concentration.

  13. Variable range hopping in ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Nasir; Ghosh, Subhasis

    2018-04-01

    We report the variable range hopping in ZnO films grown by RF magnetron sputtering in different argon and oxygen partial pressure. It has been found that Mott variable range hopping dominant over Efros variable range hopping in all ZnO films. It also has been found that hopping distance and energy increases with increasing oxygen partial pressure.

  14. Effect of copper doping on the photocatalytic activity of ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidani, T.; Zaabat, M.; Aida, M. S.; Boudine, B.

    2015-12-01

    In the present work, we prepared undoped and copper doped ZnO thin films by the sol-gel dip coating method on glass substrates from zinc acetate dissolved in a solution of ethanol. The objective of our work is to study the effect of Cu doping with different concentrations on structural, morphological, optical properties and photocatalytic activity of ZnO thin films. For this purpose, we have used XRD to study the structural properties, and AFM to determine the morphology of the surface of the ZnO thin films. The optical properties and the photocatalytic degradation of the films were examined by UV-visibles spectrophotometer. The Tauc method was used to estimate the optical band gap. The XRD spectra indicated that the films have an hexagonal wurtzite structure, which gradually deteriorated with increasing Cu concentration. The results showed that the incorporation of Cu decreases the crystallite size. The AFM study showed that an increase of the concentration of Cu causes the decrease of the surface roughness, which passes from 20.2 for Un-doped ZnO to 12.16 nm for doped ZnO 5 wt% Cu. Optical measurements have shown that all the deposited films show good optical transmittance (77%-92%) in the visible region and increases the optical gap with increasing Cu concentration. The presence of copper from 1% to 5 wt% in the ZnO thin films is found to decelerate the photocatalytic process.

  15. Highly textured and transparent RF sputtered Eu2O3 doped ZnO films

    PubMed Central

    Sreedharan, Remadevi Sreeja; Ganesan, Vedachalaiyer; Sudarsanakumar, Chellappan Pillai; Bhavsar, Kaushalkumar; Prabhu, Radhakrishna; Mahadevan Pillai, Vellara Pappukutty Pillai

    2015-01-01

    Background Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide, direct band gap II-VI oxide semiconductor. ZnO has large exciton binding energy at room temperature, and it is a good host material for obtaining visible and infrared emission of various rare-earth ions. Methods Europium oxide (Eu2O3) doped ZnO films are prepared on quartz substrate using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering with doping concentrations 0, 0.5, 1, 3 and 5 wt%. The films are annealed in air at a temperature of 773 K for 2 hours. The annealed films are characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Results XRD patterns show that the films are highly c-axis oriented exhibiting hexagonalwurtzite structure of ZnO. Particle size calculations using Debye-Scherrer formula show that average crystalline size is in the range 15–22 nm showing the nanostructured nature of the films. The observation of low- and high-frequency E2 modes in the Raman spectra supports the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO in the films. The surface morphology of the Eu2O3 doped films presents dense distribution of grains. The films show good transparency in the visible region. The band gaps of the films are evaluated using Tauc plot model. Optical constants such as refractive index, dielectric constant, loss factor, and so on are calculated using the transmittance data. The PL spectra show both UV and visible emissions. Conclusion Highly textured, transparent, luminescent Eu2O3 doped ZnO films have been synthesized using RF magnetron sputtering. The good optical and structural properties and intense luminescence in the ultraviolet and visible regions from the films suggest their suitability for optoelectronic applications. PMID:25765728

  16. Doping induced c-axis oriented growth of transparent ZnO thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistry, Bhaumik V.; Joshi, U. S.

    2018-04-01

    c-Axis oriented In doped ZnO (IZO) transparent conducting thin films were optimized on glass substrate using sol gel spin coating method. The Indium content in ZnO was varied systematically and the structural parameters were studied. Along with the crystallographic properties, the optoelectronic and electrical properties of IZO thin films were investigated in detail. The IZO thin films revealed hexagonal wurtzite structure. It was found that In doping in ZnO promotes the c-axis oriented growth of the thin films deposited on amorphous substrate. The particle size of the IZO films were increase as doping content increases from 2% to 5%. The 2% In doped ZnO film show electrical resistivity of 0.11 Ω cm, which is far better than the reported value for ZnO thin film. Better than 75% average optical transmission was estimated in the wavelength range from 400-800 nm. Systematic variartions in the electron concentration and band gap was observed with increasing In doping. Note worthy finding is that, with suitable amount of In doping improves not only transparency and conductivity but also improves the preferred orientation of the oxide thin film.

  17. Nanostructured ZnO Films for Room Temperature Ammonia Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhivya Ponnusamy; Sridharan Madanagurusamy

    2014-09-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been deposited by a reactive dc magnetron sputtering technique onto a thoroughly cleaned glass substrate at room temperature. X-ray diffraction revealed that the deposited film was polycrystalline in nature. The field emission scanning electron micrograph (FE-SEM) showed the uniform formation of a rugby ball-shaped ZnO nanostructure. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) confirmed that the film was stoichiometric and the direct band gap of the film, determined using UV-Vis spectroscopy, was 3.29 eV. The ZnO nanostructured film exhibited better sensing towards ammonia (NH3) at room temperature (˜30°C). The fabricated ZnO film based sensor was capable of detecting NH3 at as low as 5 ppm, and its parameters, such as response, selectivity, stability, and response/recovery time, were also investigated.

  18. A comparative study of physico-chemical properties of CBD and SILAR grown ZnO thin films

    SciT

    Jambure, S.B.; Patil, S.J.; Deshpande, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic model indicating ZnO nanorods by CBD (Z{sub 1}) and nanograins by SILAR (Z{sub 2}). - Highlights: • Simple methods for the synthesis of ZnO thin films. • Comparative study of physico-chemical properties of ZnO thin films prepared by CBD and SILAR methods. • CBD outperforms SILAR method. - Abstract: In the present work, nanocrystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been successfully deposited onto glass substrates by simple and economical chemical bath deposition (CBD) and successive ionic layer adsorption reaction (SILAR) methods. These films were further characterized for their structural, optical, surface morphological and wettability properties. Themore » X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns for both CBD and SILAR deposited ZnO thin films reveal the highly crystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure. From optical studies, band gaps obtained are 2.9 and 3.0 eV for CBD and SILAR deposited thin films, respectively. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) patterns show growth of well defined randomly oriented nanorods and nanograins on the CBD and SILAR deposited samples, respectively. The resistivity of CBD deposited films (10{sup 2} Ω cm) is lower than that of SILAR deposited films (10{sup 5} Ω cm). Surface wettability studies show hydrophobic nature for both films. From the above results it can be concluded that CBD grown ZnO thin films show better properties as compared to SILAR method.« less

  19. Cd-doped ZnO nano crystalline thin films prepared at 723K by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joishy, Sumanth; Rajendra B., V.

    2018-04-01

    Ternary Zn1-xCdxO(x=0.10, 0.40, 0.70 at.%) thin films of 0.025M precursor concentration have been successfully deposited on preheated (723K) glass substrates using spray pyrolysis route. The structure, morphology and optical properties of deposited films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and UV-Visible spectrophotometry. X-ray diffraction study shows that the prepared films are polycrystalline in nature. 10% Cd doped ZnO film belongs to the hexagonal wurtzite system and 70% Cd doped ZnO film belongs to the cubic system, although mixed phases were formed for 40% Cd doped ZnO film. The optical transmittance spectra has shown red shift with increasing cadmium content. Optical energy band gap has been reduced with cadmium dopant.

  20. Growth and characterization of highly conducting Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films for optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardana, Sanjay K.; Singh, Anil; Srivastava, Sanjay K.; Pandya, Dinesh K.

    2018-05-01

    A comparative study of undoped ZnO and Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films deposited on glass substrate by spray pyrolysis has been carried out at various aqueous molar concentration of zinc acetate. The thin films deposited on glass shows the wurtzite phase of ZnO, confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The optical study shows the high transmittance over 80% in the visible regime. The band gap of AZO thin films shows a blue shift as compared to undoped ZnO, which has been attributed to Burstein-Moss shift. Heat treatment of these samples in vacuum showed the improved conductivity in compared to as-deposited thin films. The electric study shows the minimum resistivity of 8 x 10-3 Ω-cm and carrier concentration of 6.5 × 1019 /cm3 correspond to AZO thin films.

  1. Role of vacancy defects in Al doped ZnO thin films for optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotella, H.; Mazel, Y.; Brochen, S.; Valla, A.; Pautrat, A.; Licitra, C.; Rochat, N.; Sabbione, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Nolot, E.

    2017-12-01

    We report on the electrical, optical and photoluminescence properties of industry-ready Al doped ZnO thin films grown by physical vapor deposition, and their evolution after annealing under vacuum. Doping ZnO with Al atoms increases the carrier density but also favors the formation of Zn vacancies, thereby inducing a saturation of the conductivity mechanism at high aluminum content. The electrical and optical properties of these thin layered materials are both improved by annealing process which creates oxygen vacancies that releases charge carriers thus improving the conductivity. This study underlines the effect of the formation of extrinsic and intrinsic defects in Al doped ZnO compound during the fabrication process. The quality and the optoelectronic response of the produced films are increased (up to 1.52 mΩ \\cdotcm and 3.73 eV) and consistent with the industrial device requirements.

  2. Seedless-grown of ZnO thin films for photoelectrochemical water splitting application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Aidahani; Hamid, Muhammad Azmi Abdul; Chiu, W. S.

    2018-04-01

    We developed a seedless hydrothermal method to grow a flower like ZnO nanorods. Prior to the growth, a layer of Au thin film is sputtered onto the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate. The morphological, structural and optical properties of the ZnO nanostructures were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and diffuse reflection measurement to understand the growth process of the working thin film. The photoelectrochemical (PEC) results suggest that the deposition of ZnO nanorods on Au nanoparticles plays an important role in enhancing the photoelectrode activity. H2 evolution from photo-splitting of water over Au-incorporated ZnO in the 0.1M NaOH liquid system was enhanced, compared to that over bare ZnO; particularly, the production of 15.5 µL of H2 gas after twenty five minutes exposure of ZnO grown on Au-coated thin film.

  3. Effect of Er3+ doping on structural, morphological and photocatalytical properties of ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouhouche, S.; Bensouici, F.; Toubane, M.; Azizi, A.; Otmani, A.; Chebout, K.; Kezzoula, F.; Tala-Ighil, R.; Bououdina, M.

    2018-05-01

    In this research work, structure, microstructure, optical and photocatalytic properties of undoped and Erbium doped nanostructured ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel dip-coating are investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates that the deposited films crystallize within the hexagonal wurtzite-type structure with a preferential growth orientation along (002) plane. Morphological observations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal important influence of Er concentration; displaying homogeneous and dense aspect for undoped to 0.3% then grid-like morphology for 0.4 and 0.5%. UV/vis/NIR transmittance spectroscopy spectra display a transmittance over 70%, and small variation in the energy gap energy 3.263–3.278 eV. Wettability test of ZnO thin films surface ranges from hydrophilic aspect for pure ZnO to hydrophobic one for Er doped ZnO, and the contact angle is found to increase from 58.7° for pure ZnO up to 98.4° for 0.4% Er doped ZnO. The photocatalytic activity measurements evaluated using the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV light irradiation demonstrate that undoped ZnO film shows higher photocatalytic activity compared to Er doped ZnO films, which may be attributed to the deterioration of films’crystallinity resulting in lower transmittance.

  4. Effects of substrate heating and vacuum annealing on optical and electrical properties of alumina-doped ZnO films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Chien-Jen; Wang, Chun-Yuan; Jaing, Cheng-Chung

    2011-10-01

    Alumina-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films have wide range of applications in optical and optoelectronic devices. AZO films have advantage in high transparency, high stability to hydrogen plasma and low cost to alternative ITO film. AZO film was prepared by direct-current (DC) magnetron sputtering from ceramic ZnO:Al2O3 target. The AZO films were compared in two different conditions. The first is substrate heating process, in which AZO film was deposited by different substrate temperature, room temperature, 150 °C and 250 °C. The second is vacuum annealing process, in which AZO film with deposited at room temperature have been annealed at 250 °C and 450 °C in vacuum. The optical properties, electrical properties, grain size and surface structure properties of the films were studied by UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer, Hall effect measurement equipment, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The resistivity, carrier mobility, carrier concentration, and grain size of AZO films were 1.92×10-3 Ω-cm, 6.38 cm2/Vs, 5.08×1020 #/cm3, and 31.48 nm respectively, in vacuum annealing of 450 °C. The resistivity, carrier mobility, carrier concentration, and grain size of AZO films were 8.72×10-4 Ω-cm, 6.32 cm2/Vs, 1.13×1021 #/cm3, and 31.56 nm, respectively, when substrate temperature was at 250 °C. Substrate heating process is better than vacuum annealed process for AZO film deposited by DC Magnetron Sputtering.

  5. Synthesis and annealing study of RF sputtered ZnO thin film

    SciT

    Singh, Shushant Kumar, E-mail: singhshushant86@gmail.com; Sharma, Himanshu; Singhal, R.

    2016-05-23

    In this paper, we have investigated the annealing effect on optical and structural properties of ZnO thin films, synthesized by RF magnetron sputtering. ZnO thin films were deposited on glass and silicon substrates simultaneously at a substrate temperature of 300 °C using Argon gas in sputtering chamber. Thickness of as deposited ZnO thin film was found to be ~155 nm, calculated by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). These films were annealed at 400 °C and 500 °C temperature in the continuous flow of oxygen gas for 1 hour in tube furnace. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of hexagonal wurtzite structuremore » of ZnO thin film along the c-axis (002) orientation. Transmittance of thin films was increased with increasing the annealing temperature estimated by UV-visible transmission spectroscopy. Quality and texture of the thin films were improved with annealing temperature, estimated by Raman spectroscopy.« less

  6. Growth of pure ZnO thin films prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayouchi, R.; Martin, F.; Leinen, D.; Ramos-Barrado, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    Structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis from zinc acetate (Zn(CH 3COO) 2 2H 2O) aqueous solutions, on polished Si(1 0 0), and fused silica substrates for optical characterization, have been studied in terms of deposition time and substrate temperature. The growth of the films present three regimes depending on the substrate temperature, with increasing, constant and decreasing growth rates at lower, middle, and higher-temperature ranges, respectively. Growth rate higher than 15 nm min -1 can be achieved at Ts=543 K. ZnO film morphological and electrical properties have been related to these growth regimes. The films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  7. The investigation of the Cr doped ZnO thin films deposited by thermionic vacuum arc technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadigharehbagh, Reza; Pat, Suat; Musaoglu, Caner; Korkmaz, Şadan; Özen, Soner

    2018-02-01

    Cr doped ZnO thin films were prepared onto glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates using thermionic vacuum arc. XRD patterns show the polycrystalline nature of the films. Cr, Zn, ZnO and Cr2O3 were detected in the layers. The mean crystallite sizes of the films were calculated about 20 nm for the films onto glass and PET substrates. The maximum dislocation density and internal strain values of the films are calculated. According to the optical analysis, the average transmittance and reflectance of the films were found to be approximately 53% and 16% for glass and PET substrates, respectively. The mean refractive index of the layer decreased to 2.15 from 2.38 for the PET substrate. The band gap values of the Cr-doped ZnO thin films were determined as 3.10 and 3.13 eV for glass and PET substrates.

  8. Electronic and Optical Properties of Atomic Layer-Deposited ZnO and TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ates, H.; Bolat, S.; Oruc, F.; Okyay, A. K.

    2018-05-01

    Metal oxides are attractive for thin film optoelectronic applications. Due to their wide energy bandgaps, ZnO and TiO2 are being investigated by many researchers. Here, we have studied the electrical and optical properties of ZnO and TiO2 as a function of deposition and post-annealing conditions. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a novel thin film deposition technique where the growth conditions can be controlled down to atomic precision. ALD-grown ZnO films are shown to exhibit tunable optical absorption properties in the visible and infrared region. Furthermore, the growth temperature and post-annealing conditions of ZnO and TiO2 affect the electrical properties which are investigated using ALD-grown metal oxide as the electron transport channel on thin film field-effect devices.

  9. Characterization and device applications of ZnO films deposited by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partridge, J. G.; Mayes, E. L. H.; McDougall, N. L.; Bilek, M. M. M.; McCulloch, D. G.

    2013-04-01

    ZnO films have been reactively deposited on sapphire substrates at 300 °C using a high impulse power magnetron sputtering deposition system and characterized structurally, optically and electronically. The unintentionally doped n-type ZnO films exhibit high transparency, moderate carrier concentration (˜5 × 1018 cm-3) and a Hall mobility of 8.0 cm2 V-1 s-1, making them suitable for electronic device applications. Pt/ZnO Schottky diodes formed on the HiPIMS deposited ZnO exhibited rectification ratios up to 104 at ±2 V and sensitivity to UV light.

  10. Effect of copper and nickel doping on the optical and structural properties of ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muǧlu, G. Merhan; Sarıtaş, S.; ćakıcı, T.; Şakar, B.; Yıldırım, M.

    2017-02-01

    The present study is focused on the Cu doped ZnO and Ni doped ZnO dilute magnetic semiconductor thin films. ZnO:Cu and ZnO:Ni thin films were grown by Chemically Spray Pyrolysis (CSP) method on glass substrates. Optical analysis of the films was done spectral absorption and transmittance measurements by UV-Vis double beam spectrophotometer technique. The structure, morphology, topology and elemental analysis of ZnO:Cu and ZnO:Ni dilute magnetic thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques, respectively. Also The magnetic properties of the ZnO:Ni thin film was investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) method. VSM measurements of ZnO:Ni thin film showed that the ferromagnetic behavior.

  11. Synthesis of p-type ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Y. R.; Zhu, S.; Look, D. C.; Wrobel, J. M.; Jeong, H. M.; White, H. W.

    2000-06-01

    p-Type ZnO obtained by arsenic (As) doping is reported for the first time. Arsenic-doped ZnO (ZnO : As) films have been deposited on (0 0 1)-GaAs substrates by pulsed laser ablation. The process of synthesizing p-type ZnO : As films was performed in an ambient gas of ultra-pure (99.999%) oxygen. The ambient gas pressure was 35 mTorr with the substrate temperature in the range 300-450°C. ZnO films grown at 400°C and 450°C are p-type and As is a good acceptor. The acceptor peak is located at 3.32 eV and its binding energy is about 100 meV. Acceptor concentrations of As atoms in ZnO films were in the range from high 10 17 to high 10 21 atoms/cm 3 as determined by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and Hall effect measurements.

  12. Effects of Rapid Thermal Annealing on the Structural, Electrical, and Optical Properties of Zr-Doped ZnO Thin Films Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jingjin; Zhao, Yinchao; Zhao, Ce Zhou; Yang, Li; Lu, Qifeng; Zhang, Qian; Smith, Jeremy; Zhao, Yongming

    2016-08-13

    The 4 at. % zirconium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Zr) films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) were annealed at various temperatures ranging from 350 to 950 °C. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) treated ZnO:Zr films have been evaluated to find out the stability limit. It was found that the grain size increased at 350 °C and decreased between 350 and 850 °C, while creeping up again at 850 °C. UV-vis characterization shows that the optical band gap shifts towards larger wavelengths. The Hall measurement shows that the resistivity almost keeps constant at low annealing temperatures, and increases rapidly after treatment at 750 °C due to the effect of both the carrier concentration and the Hall mobility. The best annealing temperature is found in the range of 350-550 °C. The ZnO:Zr film-coated glass substrates show good optical and electrical performance up to 550 °C during superstrate thin film solar cell deposition.

  13. Effects of Rapid Thermal Annealing on the Structural, Electrical, and Optical Properties of Zr-Doped ZnO Thin Films Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jingjin; Zhao, Yinchao; Zhao, Ce Zhou; Yang, Li; Lu, Qifeng; Zhang, Qian; Smith, Jeremy; Zhao, Yongming

    2016-01-01

    The 4 at. % zirconium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Zr) films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) were annealed at various temperatures ranging from 350 to 950 °C. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) treated ZnO:Zr films have been evaluated to find out the stability limit. It was found that the grain size increased at 350 °C and decreased between 350 and 850 °C, while creeping up again at 850 °C. UV–vis characterization shows that the optical band gap shifts towards larger wavelengths. The Hall measurement shows that the resistivity almost keeps constant at low annealing temperatures, and increases rapidly after treatment at 750 °C due to the effect of both the carrier concentration and the Hall mobility. The best annealing temperature is found in the range of 350–550 °C. The ZnO:Zr film-coated glass substrates show good optical and electrical performance up to 550 °C during superstrate thin film solar cell deposition. PMID:28773816

  14. Synergistic effect of indium and gallium co-doping on the properties of RF sputtered ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaheera, M.; Girija, K. G.; Kaur, Manmeet; Geetha, V.; Debnath, A. K.; Karri, Malvika; Thota, Manoj Kumar; Vatsa, R. K.; Muthe, K. P.; Gadkari, S. C.

    2018-04-01

    ZnO thin films were synthesized using RF magnetron sputtering, with simultaneous incorporation of Indium (In) and Gallium (Ga). The structural, optical, chemical composition and surface morphology of the pure and co-doped (IGZO) thin films were characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible spectroscopy, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), and Raman spectroscopy. XRD revealed that these films were oriented along c-axis with hexagonal wurtzite structure. The (002) diffraction peak in the co-doped sample was observed at 33.76° with a slight shift towards lower 2θ values as compared to pure ZnO. The surface morphology of the two thin films was observed to differ. For pure ZnO films, round grains were observed and for IGZO thin films round as well as rod type grains were observed. All thin films synthesized show excellent optical properties with more than 90% transmission in the visible region and band gap of the films is observed to decrease with co-doping. The co doping of In and Ga is therefore expected to provide a broad range optical and physical properties of ZnO thin films for a variety of optoelectronic applications.

  15. Electrodeposition and characterization of ZnO thin films using sodium thiosulfate as an additive for photovoltaic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahal, Hassiba; Kihal, Rafiaa; Affoune, Abed Mohamed; Ghers, Mokhtar; Djazi, Faycal

    2017-06-01

    Zinc oxide thin films have been grown by electrodeposition technique onto Cu and ITO-coated glass substrates from an aqueous zinc nitrate solution with addition of sodium thiosulfate at 90 °C. The effects of sodium thiosulfate on the electrochemical deposition of ZnO were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry techniques. Deposited films were obtained at -0.60 V vs. SCE and characterized by XRD, SEM, FTIR, optical, photoelectrochemical and electrical measurements. Thickness of the deposited film was measured to be 357 nm. X-ray diffraction results indicated that the synthesized ZnO has a pure hexagonal wurtzite structure with a marked preferential orientation along (002) plane. FTIR results confirmed the presence of ZnO films at peak 558 cm-1. SEM images showed uniform, compact morphology without any cracks and films composed of large flower-like ZnO agglomerates with star-shape. Optical properties of ZnO reveal a high optical transmission (> 80 % ) and high absorption coefficient (α > {10}5 {{cm}}-1) in visible region. The optical energy band gap was found to be 3.28 eV. Photoelectrochemical measurements indicated that the ZnO films had n-type semiconductor conduction. Electrical properties of ZnO films showed a low electrical resistivity of 6.54 {{Ω }}\\cdot {cm}, carrier concentration of -1.3× {10}17 {{cm}}-3 and mobility of 7.35 cm2 V-1 s-1. Project supported by the Algerian Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Algeria (No. J0101520090018).

  16. Preparation, structural and luminescent properties of nanocrystalline ZnO films doped Ag by close space sublimation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomchenko, Viktoriya; Mazin, Mikhail; Sopinskyy, Mykola; Lytvyn, Oksana; Dan'ko, Viktor; Piryatinskii, Yurii; Demydiuk, Pavlo

    2018-05-01

    The simple way for silver doping of ZnO films is presented. The ZnO films were prepared by reactive rf-magnetron sputtering on silicon and sapphire substrates. Ag doping is carried out by sublimation of the Ag source located at close space at atmospheric pressure in air. Then the ZnO and ZnO-Ag films were annealed in wet media. The microstructure and optical properties of the films were compared and studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL). XRD results indicated that all the ZnO films have a polycrystalline hexagonal structure and a preferred orientation with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. The annealing and Ag doping promote increasing grain's sizes and modification of grain size distribution. The effect of substrate temperature, substrate type, Ag doping and post-growth annealing of the films was studied by PL spectroscopy. The effect of Ag doping was obvious and identical for all the films, namely the wide visible bands of PL spectra are suppressed by Ag doping. The intensity of ultraviolet band increased 15 times as compared to their reference films on sapphire substrate. The ultraviolet/visible emission ratio was 20. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) for a 380 nm band was 14 nm, which is comparable with that of epitaxial ZnO. The data implies the high quality of ZnO-Ag films. Possible mechanisms to enhance UV emission are discussed.

  17. Manipulation of ZnO composition affecting electrical properties of MEH-PPV: ZnO nanocomposite thin film via spin coating for OLEDs application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar, N. E. A.; Shariffudin, S. S.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    Recent investigations of the promising materials for optoelectronic have been demonstrated by introducing n-type inorganic material into conjugated polymer. Morphology, optical and electrical of nanocomposites thin films based on poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanotetrapods with various ZnO composition (0 wt% to 0.4 wt%) have been investigated. The MEH-PPV: ZnO nanocomposite thin film was deposited using spin-coating method. Surface morphology was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy and shows the uniform dispersion of MEH-PPV and ZnO phases for sample deposited at 0.2 wt%. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra shows the visible emission intensities increased when the ZnO composition increased. The current-voltage (I-V) measurement shows the highest conductivity of nanocomposite thin film deposited at 0.2 wt% of ZnO is 7.40 × 10-1 S. cm-1. This study will provide better performance and suitable for optoelectronic device especially OLEDs application.

  18. Transparent and conducting ZnO films grown by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjeris, Lazhar; Herissi, Labidi; Badreddine Assouar, M.; Easwarakhanthan, Thomas; Bougdira, Jamal; Attaf, Nadhir; Salah Aida, M.

    2009-03-01

    ZnO films were prepared using the simple, flexible and cost-effective spray pyrolysis technique at different substrate temperatures and precursor molarity values. The films' structural, optical and electrical properties were investigated by x-ray diffraction, UV-VIS transmittance spectroscopy, profilometry and voltage-current-temperature (VIT) measurements. The films prepared at substrate temperatures above 400 °C appear better crystallized with (0 0 2) preferred orientation and exhibit higher visible transmittance (65-80%), higher electrical n-type semiconductor conductivity (10-50 (Ω cm)-1), lower activation energy (<0.35 eV) and smaller Urbach energy (80 meV). These results indicate that such sprayed ZnO films are chemically purer and have many fewer defects and less disorder owing to an almost complete chemical decomposition of the precursor droplets. ZnO films having desired optical and electrical properties for cheaper large-area solar cells may thus be tailored through the substrate temperature and the precursor molarity.

  19. Effect of co-doping process on topography, optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanostructured

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, R.; Mamat, M. H.; Malek, M. F.; Ismail, A. S.; Yusoff, M. M.; Syamsir, S. A.; Khusaimi, Z.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    We investigated of Undoped ZnO and Magnesium (Mg)-Aluminium (Al) co-doped Zinc Oxide (MAZO) nanostructured films were prepared by sol gel spin coating technique. The surface topography was analyzed using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Based on the AFM results, Root Mean Square (RMS) of MAZO films have rougher surface compared to pure ZnO films. The optical and electrical properties of thin film samples were characterized using Uv-Vis spectroscopy and two point probes, current-voltage (I-V) measurements. The transmittance spectra for both thin samples was above 80% in the visible wavelength. The MAZO film shows the highest conductivity compared to pure ZnO films. This result indicates that the improvement of carrier mobility throughout doping process and possibly contribute by extra ion charge.

  20. Nanostructured hybrid ZnO thin films for energy conversion

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We report on hybrid films based on ZnO/organic dye prepared by electrodeposition using tetrasulfonated copper phthalocyanines (TS-CuPc) and Eosin-Y (EoY). Both the morphology and porosity of hybrid ZnO films are highly dependent on the type of dyes used in the synthesis. High photosensitivity was observed for ZnO/EoY films, while a very weak photoresponse was obtained for ZnO/TS-CuPc films. Despite a higher absorption coefficient of TS-CuPc than EoY, in ZnO/EoY hybrid films, the excited photoelectrons between the EoY levels can be extracted through ZnO, and the porosity of ZnO/EoY can also be controlled. PMID:21711909

  1. Microstructure of ZnO Thin Films Deposited by High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2015-0185 MICROSTRUCTURE OF ZNO THIN FILMS DEPOSITED BY HIGH POWER IMPULSE MAGNETRON SPUTTERING (POSTPRINT) A. N. Reed...COVERED (From – To) 29 January 2013 – 16 February 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MICROSTRUCTURE OF ZNO THIN FILMS DEPOSITED BY HIGH POWER IMPULSE MAGNETRON...ABSTRACT High power impulse magnetron sputtering was used to deposit thin (~100 nm) zinc oxide (ZnO) films from a ceramic ZnO target onto substrates

  2. Effect of internal stress on the electro-optical behaviour of Al-doped ZnO transparent conductive thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proost, J.; Henry, F.; Tuyaerts, R.; Michotte, S.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we will report on scientific efforts aimed at unraveling the quantitative effect of elastic strain on the electro-optical behaviour of Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO). AZO thin films have been deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering to thicknesses from 300 to 500 nm, both on extra-clear glass substrates as well as on oxidised Si wafers. This resulted in both cases in polycrystalline, strongly textured (002) films. During deposition, the internal stress evolution in the growing film was monitored in-situ using high resolution curvature measurements. The resulting growth-induced elastic strain, which was found to depend heavily on the oxygen partial pressure, could further be modulated by appropriately choosing the deposition temperature. The latter also induces an additional extrinsic thermal stress component, whose sign depends on the substrate used. As such, a wide range of biaxial internal stresses could be achieved, from -600 MPa in compression up to 800 MPa in tension. The resulting charge carrier mobilities, obtained independently from room temperature Hall measurements, were found to range between 5 and 25 cm2/V s. Interestingly, the maximum mobility occurred at the zero-stress condition, and together with a charge carrier concentration of about 8 × 1020 cm-3, this gave rise to a resistivity of only 300 μΩ cm. From the stress-dependent optical transmission spectra in the range of 200-1000 nm, the pressure coefficient of the optical bandgap was estimated from the corresponding Tauc plots to be 31 meV/GPa, indicating a very high strain-sensitivity as well.

  3. Band-Gap Engineering in ZnO Thin Films: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawar, Vani; Jha, Pardeep K.; Panda, S. K.; Jha, Priyanka A.; Singh, Prabhakar

    2018-05-01

    Zinc oxide thin films are synthesized and characterized using x-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and optical spectroscopy. Our results reveal that the structural, morphological, and optical properties are closely related to the stress of the sample provided that the texture of the film remains the same. The anomalous results are obtained once the texture is altered to a different orientation. We support this experimental observation by carrying out first-principles hybrid functional calculations for two different orientations of the sample and show that the effect of quantum confinement is much stronger for the (100) surface than the (001) surface of ZnO. Furthermore, our calculations provide a route to enhance the band gap of ZnO by more than 50% compared to the bulk band gap, opening up possibilities for wide-range industrial applications.

  4. Effects of Annealing Temperature on Properties of Ti-Ga-Doped ZnO Films Deposited on Flexible Substrates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao-Hsing; Chen, Ting-You

    2015-11-03

    An investigation is performed into the optical, electrical, and microstructural properties of Ti-Ga-doped ZnO films deposited on polyimide (PI) flexible substrates and then annealed at temperatures of 300 °C, 400 °C, and 450 °C, respectively. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis results show that all of the films have a strong (002) Ga doped ZnO (GZO) preferential orientation. As the annealing temperature is increased to 400 °C, the optical transmittance increases and the electrical resistivity decreases. However, as the temperature is further increased to 450 °C, the transmittance reduces and the resistivity increases due to a carbonization of the PI substrate. Finally, the crystallinity of the ZnO film improves with an increasing annealing temperature only up to 400 °C and is accompanied by a smaller crystallite size and a lower surface roughness.

  5. Spectroscopic Study of Deep Level Emissions from Acceptor Defects in ZnO Thin Films with Oxygen Rich Stoichiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyas, Usman; Rawat, R. S.; Tan, T. L.

    2013-10-01

    This paper reports the tailoring of acceptor defects in oxygen rich ZnO thin films at different post-deposition annealing temperatures (500-800°C) and Mn doping concentrations. The XRD spectra exhibited the nanocrystalline nature of ZnO thin films along with inconsistent variation in lattice parameters suggesting the temperature-dependent activation of structural defects. Photoluminescence emission spectra revealed the temperature dependent variation in deep level emissions (DLE) with the presence of acceptors as dominating defects. The concentration of native defects was estimated to be increased with temperature while a reverse trend was observed for those with increasing doping concentration. A consistent decrease in DLE spectra, with increasing Mn content, revealed the quenching of structural defects in the optical band gap of ZnO favorable for good quality thin films with enhanced optical transparency.

  6. REVIEW ARTICLE: Structure, microstructure and physical properties of ZnO based materials in various forms: bulk, thin film and nano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Shubra; Thiyagarajan, P.; Mohan Kant, K.; Anita, D.; Thirupathiah, S.; Rama, N.; Tiwari, Brajesh; Kottaisamy, M.; Ramachandra Rao, M. S.

    2007-10-01

    ZnO is a unique material that offers about a dozen different application possibilities. In spite of the fact that the ZnO lattice is amenable to metal ion doping (3d and 4f), the physics of doping in ZnO is not completely understood. This paper presents a review of previous research works on ZnO and also highlights results of our research activities on ZnO. The review pertains to the work on Al and Mg doping for conductivity and band gap tuning in ZnO followed by a report on transition metal (TM) ion doped ZnO. This review also highlights the work on the transport and optical studies of TM ion doped ZnO, nanostructured growth (ZnO polycrystalline and thin films) by different methods and the formation of unique nano- and microstructures obtained by pulsed laser deposition and chemical methods. This is followed by results on ZnO encapsulated Fe3O4 nanoparticles that show promising trends suitable for various applications. We have also reviewed the non-linear characteristic studies of ZnO based heterostructures followed by an analysis on the work carried out on ZnO based phosphors, which include mainly the nanocrystalline ZnO encapsulated SiO2, a new class of phosphor that is suitable for white light emission.

  7. Studies on visible light photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of nanostructured cobalt doped ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel spin coating method.

    PubMed

    Poongodi, G; Anandan, P; Kumar, R Mohan; Jayavel, R

    2015-09-05

    Nanostructured cobalt doped ZnO thin films were deposited on glass substrate by sol-gel spin coating technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The XRD results showed that the thin films were well crystalline with hexagonal wurtzite structure. The results of EDAX and XPS revealed that Co was doped into ZnO structure. FESEM images revealed that the films possess granular morphology without any crack and confirm that Co doping decreases the grain size. UV-Vis transmission spectra show that the substitution of Co in ZnO leads to band gap narrowing. The Co doped ZnO films were found to exhibit improved photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue dye under visible light in comparison with the undoped ZnO film. The decrease in grain size and extending light absorption towards the visible region by Co doping in ZnO film contribute equally to the improved photocatalytic activity. The bactericidal efficiency of Co doped ZnO films were investigated against a Gram negative (Escherichia coli) and a Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. The optical density (OD) measurement showed better bactericidal activity at higher level of Co doping in ZnO. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Improvement of Flame-made ZnO Nanoparticulate Thick Film Morphology for Ethanol Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Liewhiran, Chaikarn; Phanichphantandast, Sukon

    2007-01-01

    ZnO nanoparticles were produced by flame spray pyrolysis using zinc naphthenate as a precursor dissolved in toluene/acetonitrile (80/20 vol%). The particles properties were analyzed by XRD, BET. The ZnO particle size and morphology was observed by SEM and HR-TEM revealing spheroidal, hexagonal, and rod-like morphologies. The crystallite sizes of ZnO spheroidal and hexagonal particles ranged from 10-20 nm. ZnO nanorods were ranged from 10-20 nm in width and 20-50 nm in length. Sensing films were produced by mixing the nanoparticles into an organic paste composed of terpineol and ethyl cellulose as a vehicle binder. The paste was doctor-bladed onto Al2O3 substrates interdigitated with Au electrodes. The morphology of the sensing films was analyzed by optical microscopy and SEM analysis. Cracking of the sensing films during annealing process was improved by varying the heating conditions. The gas sensing of ethanol (25-250 ppm) was studied at 400 °C in dry air containing SiC as the fluidized particles. The oxidation of ethanol on the surface of the semiconductor was confirmed by mass spectroscopy (MS). The effect of micro-cracks was quantitatively accounted for as a provider of extra exposed edges. The sensitivity decreased notably with increasing crack of sensing films. It can be observed that crack widths were reduced with decreasing heating rates. Crack-free of thick (5 μm) ZnO films evidently showed higher sensor signal and faster response times (within seconds) than cracked sensor. The sensor signal increased and the response time decreased with increasing ethanol concentration.

  9. Photoelectrochemical properties of highly mobilized Li-doped ZnO thin films.

    PubMed

    Shinde, S S; Bhosale, C H; Rajpure, K Y

    2013-03-05

    Li-doped ZnO thin films with preferred (002) orientation have been prepared by spray pyrolysis technique in aqueous medium on to the corning glass substrates. The effect of Li-doping on to the photoelectrochemical, structural, morphological, optical, luminescence, electrical and thermal properties has been investigated. XRD and Raman study indicates that the films have hexagonal crystal structure. The transmittance, reflectance, refractive index, extinction coefficient and bandgap have been analyzed by optical study. PL spectra consist of a near band edge and visible emission due to the electronic defects, which are related to deep level emissions, such as oxide antisite (OZn), interstitial zinc (Zni), interstitial oxygen (Oi) and zinc vacancy (VZn). The Li-doped ZnO films prepared for 1at% doping possesses the highest electron mobility of 102cm(2)/Vs and carrier concentration of 3.62×10(19)cm(-3). Finally, degradation of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene using Li-doped ZnO thin films has been reported. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Ag doping on the properties of ZnO thin films for UV stimulated emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razeen, Ahmed S.; Gadallah, A.-S.; El-Nahass, M. M.

    2018-06-01

    Ag doped ZnO thin films have been prepared using sol-gel spin coating method, with different doping concentrations. Structural and morphological properties of the films have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Thin films have been optically pumped and stimulated emission has been observed with strong peaks in the UV region. The UV stimulated emission is found to be due to exciton-exciton scattering, and Ag doping promoted this process by increasing the excitons concentrations in the ZnO lattice. Output-input intensity relation and peak emission, FWHM, and quantum efficiency relations with pump intensity have been reported. The threshold for which stimulated emission started has been evaluated to be about 18 MW/cm2 with quantum efficiency of about 58.7%. Mechanisms explaining the role of Ag in enhancement of stimulated emission from ZnO thin films have been proposed.

  11. Structure and thermoelectric properties of Al-doped ZnO films prepared by thermal oxidization under high magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shiying; Peng, Sunjuan; Ma, Jun; Li, Guojian; Qin, Xuesi; Li, Mengmeng; Wang, Qiang

    2017-04-01

    This paper studies the effects of high magnetic field (HMF) on the structure, optical and thermoelectric properties of the doped ZnO thin films. The results show that both Al dopant and application of HMF can affect the crystal structure, surface morphology, elemental distribution and so on. The particles of the thin films become small and regular by doping Al. The ZnO films oxidized from the Au/Zn bilayer have needle structure. The ZnO films oxidized from the Au/Zn-Al bilayer transform to spherical from hexagonal due to the application of HMF. The transmittance decreases with doping Al because of the opaque of Al element and decreases with the application of HMF due to the dense structure obtained under HMF. Electrical resistivity (ρ) of the ZnO films without Al decreases with increasing measurement temperature (T) and is about 1.5 × 10-3 Ω·m at 210 °C. However, the ρ of the Al-doped ZnO films is less than 10-5 Ω·m. The Seebeck coefficient (S) of the films oxidized from the Au/Zn-Al films reduces with increasing T. The S values oxidized under 0 T and 12 T conditions are 2.439 μV/K and -3.415 μV/K at 210 °C, respectively. Power factor reaches the maximum value (3.198 × 10-4 W/m·K2) at 210 °C for the film oxidized under 12 T condition. These results indicate that the Al dopant and the application of HMF can be used to control structure and thermoelectric properties of doped ZnO films.

  12. Annealing induced reorientation of crystallites in Sn doped ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravichandran, K.; Vasanthi, M.; Thirumurugan, K.; Sakthivel, B.; Karthika, K.

    2014-11-01

    Tin doped ZnO thin films were prepared by employing a simplified spray pyrolysis technique using a perfume atomizer and subsequently annealed under different temperatures from 350 °C to 500 °C in steps of 50 °C. The structural, optical, electrical, photoluminescence and surface morphological properties of the as-deposited films were studied and compared with that of the annealed films. The X-ray diffraction studies showed that as-deposited film exhibits preferential orientation along the (0 0 2) plane and it changes in favour of (1 0 0) plane after annealing. The increase in crystallite size due to annealing is explained on the basis of Ostwald ripening effect. It is found that the optical transmittance and band gap increases with increase in annealing temperature. A slight decrease in resistivity caused by annealing is discussed in correlation with annealing induced defect modifications and surface morphology.

  13. Highly stable precursor solution containing ZnO nanoparticles for the preparation of ZnO thin film transistors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Heh-Chang; Hsieh, Tsung-Eong

    2010-07-23

    ZnO particles with an average size of about 5 nm were prepared via a sol-gel chemical route and the silane coupling agent, (3-glycidyloxypropyl)-trimethoxysilane (GPTS), was adopted to enhance the dispersion of the ZnO nanoparticles in ethyl glycol (EG) solution. A ZnO surface potential as high as 66 mV was observed and a sedimentation test showed that the ZnO precursor solution remains transparent for six months of storage, elucidating the success of surface modification on ZnO nanoparticles. The ZnO thin films were then prepared by spin coating the precursor solution on a Si wafer and annealing treatments at temperatures up to 500 degrees C were performed for subsequent preparation of ZnO thin film transistors (TFTs). Microstructure characterization revealed that the coalescence of ZnO nanoparticles occurs at temperatures as low as 200 degrees C to result in a highly uniform, nearly pore-free layer. However, annealing at higher temperatures was required to remove organic residues in the ZnO layer for satisfactory device performance. The 500 degrees C-annealed ZnO TFT sample exhibited the best electrical properties with on/off ratio = 10(5), threshold voltage = 17.1 V and mobility (micro) = 0.104 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1).

  14. UV-Enhanced Ethanol Sensing Properties of RF Magnetron-Sputtered ZnO Film.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jinyu; Du, Yu; Wang, Quan; Zhang, Hao; Geng, Youfu; Li, Xuejin; Tian, Xiaoqing

    2017-12-26

    ZnO film was deposited by the magnetron sputtering method. The thickness of ZnO film is approximately 2 μm. The influence of UV light illumination on C₂H₅OH sensing properties of ZnO film was investigated. Gas sensing results revealed that the UV-illuminated ZnO film displays excellent C₂H₅OH characteristics in terms of high sensitivity, excellent selectivity, rapid response/recovery, and low detection limit down to 0.1 ppm. The excellent sensing performance of the sensor with UV activation could be attributed to the photocatalytic oxidation of ethanol on the surface of the ZnO film, the planar film structure with high utilizing efficiency of UV light, high electron mobility, and a good surface/volume ratio of of ZnO film with a relatively rough and porous surface.

  15. Enhanced ultraviolet photo-response in Dy doped ZnO thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Ranveer; Pandey, Praveen C.

    2018-02-01

    In the present work, a Dy doped ZnO thin film deposited by the spin coating method has been studied for its potential application in a ZnO based UV detector. The investigations on the structural property and surface morphology of the thin film ensure that the prepared samples are crystalline and exhibit a hexagonal crystal structure of ZnO. A small change in crystallite size has been observed due to Dy doping in ZnO. AFM analysis ascertains the grain growth and smooth surface of the thin films. The Dy doped ZnO thin film exhibits a significant enhancement in UV region absorption as compared to the pure ZnO thin film, which suggests that Dy doped ZnO can be used as a UV detector. Under UV irradiation of wavelength 325 nm, the photocurrent value of Dy doped ZnO is 105.54 μA at 4.5 V, which is 31 times greater than that of the un-doped ZnO thin film (3.39 μA). The calculated value of responsivity is found to increase significantly due to the incorporation of Dy in the ZnO lattice. The observed higher value of photocurrent and responsivity could be attributed to the substitution of Dy in the ZnO lattice, which enhances the conductivity, electron mobility, and defects in ZnO and benefits the UV sensing property.

  16. Ultraviolet electroluminescence from hetero p-n junction between a single ZnO microsphere and p-GaN thin film.

    PubMed

    Tetsuyama, Norihiro; Fusazaki, Koshi; Mizokami, Yasuaki; Shimogaki, Tetsuya; Higashihata, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Daisuke; Okada, Tatsuo

    2014-04-21

    We report ultraviolet electroluminescence from a hetero p-n junction between a single ZnO microsphere and p-GaN thin film. ZnO microspheres, which have high crystalline quality, have been synthesized by ablating a ZnO sintered target. It was found that synthesized ZnO microspheres had a high-optical property and exhibit the laser action in the whispering gallery mode under pulsed optical pumping. A hetero p-n junction was formed between the single ZnO microsphere/ p-GaN thin film, and a good rectifying property with a turn-on voltage of approximately 6 V was observed in I-V characteristic across the junction. Ultraviolet and visible electroluminescence were observed under forward bias.

  17. UV-screening, transparency and water barrier properties of semi refined iota carrageenan packaging film incorporated with ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoirunnisa, Assifa Rahma; Joni, I. Made; Panatarani, Camellia; Rochima, Emma; Praseptiangga, Danar

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to develop film for food packaging application with high UV-screening, transparency and water barrier properties. Semi refined iota carrageenan (SRiC) nanocomposite films prepared by addition of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles as nanofiller using solution casting method. The effect of nanofiller with different concentration (0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% w/w carrageenan) on UV-screening, transparency and water barrier properties of films were tested. The water barrier properties of the films were studied by measuring water vapor permeability (WVP) and the optical properties of the films were studied by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer at 280 nm for UV-screening test and at 660 nm for transparency test. WVP value of carrageenan films with addition of ZnO is low compared to a control carrageenan film and the lowest WVP value was found for the film with addition of 1.5% of ZnO. These result indicate that the addition of ZnO had a positive effect on the water barrier properties of the carrageenan matrix. Increase in the concentration of nanofiller leads to an increase in the UV-screening properties. Among all the films, carrageenan film with 1.5% ZnO has the highest UV-screening. The result showed that adding 0.5% and 1.0% of ZnO was insignificantly affect transparency of the films, however the transparency decreased sligthly when 1.5% ZnO was added. In conclusion, incorporating no more than 1.0% of ZnO to the films can obtain films with high UV-screening, transparency and water barrier properties and suitable for food packaging application.

  18. Effect of growth parameters on crystallinity and properties of ZnO films grown by plasma assisted MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losurdo, M.; Giangregorio, M. M.; Sacchetti, A.; Capezzuto, P.; Bruno, G.; Malandrino, G.; Fragalà, I. L.

    2007-07-01

    Thin films of ZnO have been grown by plasma assisted metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (PA-MOCVD) using a 13.56 MHz O 2 plasma and the Zn(TTA)•tmed (HTTA=2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone, TMED=N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylendiamine) precursor. The effects of growth parameters such as the plasma activation, the substrate, the surface temperature, and the ratio of fluxes of precursors on the structure, morphology, and optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films have been studied. Under a very low plasma power of 20 W, c-axis oriented hexagonal ZnO thin films are grown on hexagonal sapphire (0001), cubic Si(001) and amorphous quartz substrates. The substrate temperature mainly controls grain size.

  19. Oxygen vacancy-induced ferromagnetism in un-doped ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Peng; Wang, Weipeng; Liu, Can; Hu, Yang; Li, Zhengcao; Zhang, Zhengjun; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Baoyi; Cao, Xingzhong

    2012-02-01

    ZnO films became ferromagnetic when defects were introduced by thermal-annealing in flowing argon. This ferromagnetism, as shown by the photoluminescence measurement and positron annihilation analysis, was induced by the singly occupied oxygen vacancy with a saturated magnetization dependent positively on the amount of this vacancy. This study clarified the origin of the ferromagnetism of un-doped ZnO thin films and provides possibly an alternative way to prepare ferromagnetic ZnO films.

  20. Zinc interstitial threshold in Al-doped ZnO film: Effect on microstructure and optoelectronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Chetan C.; Panda, Emila

    2018-04-01

    In order to know the threshold quantity of the zinc interstitials that contributes to an increase in carrier concentration in the Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films and their effect on the overall microstructure and optoelectronic properties of these films, in this work, Zn-rich-AZO and ZnO thin films are fabricated by adding excess zinc (from a zinc metallic target) during their deposition in RF magnetron sputtering and are then investigated using a wide range of experimental techniques. All these films are found to grow in a ZnO hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure with strong (002) orientation of the crystallites, with no indication of Al2O3, metallic Zn, and Al. The excessively introduced zinc in these AZO and/or ZnO films is found to increase the shallow donor level defects (i.e., zinc interstitials and oxygen-related electronic defect states), which is found to significantly increase the carrier concentration in these films. Additionally, aluminum is seen to enhance the creation of these electronic defect states in these films, thereby contributing more to the overall carrier concentration of these films. However, carrier mobility is found to decrease when the carrier concentration values are higher than 4 × 1020 cm-3, because of the electron-electron scattering. Whereas the optical band gap of the ZnO films is found to increase with increasing carrier concentration because of the Burstein-Moss shift, these decrease for the AZO films due to the band gap narrowing effect caused by excess carrier concentration.

  1. A study of H and D doped ZnO epitaxial films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. J.; Kaspar, T. C.; Droubay, T. C.; Joly, A. G.; Nachimuthu, P.; Zhu, Z.; Shutthanandan, V.; Chambers, S. A.

    2008-09-01

    We examine the crystal structure and electrical and optical properties of ZnO epitaxial films grown by pulsed laser deposition in a H2 or D2 ambient. n-type electrical conductivity is enhanced by three orders of magnitude as a result of growing in H2 (D2) compared to ZnO films grown in O2. Hall effect measurements reveal very small carrier activation energies and carrier concentrations in the mid-1018 cm-3 range. Optical absorption measurements show that the enhanced conductivity is not a result of ZnO reduction and interstitial Zn formation. Photoluminescence spectra suggest excitonic emission associated with exciton-hydrogen donor complex formation and show no evidence for midgap emission resulting from defects. We have modeled the transport properties of H (D) doped ZnO films using variable range hopping and surface layer conductivity models, but our data do not fit well with these models. Rather, it appears that growth in H2 (D2) promotes the formation of an exceedingly shallow donor state not seen in ZnO crystals annealed in H2 after growth. This new state may be associated with H (D) substitution at O sites in the lattice.

  2. Optical reflectance of solution processed quasi-superlattice ZnO and Al-doped ZnO (AZO) channel materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Darragh; McCormack, Robert; O'Dwyer, Colm

    2017-04-01

    The angle-resolved reflectance of high crystalline quality, c-axis oriented ZnO and AZO single and periodic quasi-superlattice (QSL) spin-coated TFT channels materials are presented. The data is analysed using an adapted model to accurately determine the spectral region for optical thickness and corresponding reflectance. The optical thickness agrees very well with measured thickness of 1-20 layered QSL thin films determined by transmission electron microscopy if the reflectance from lowest interference order is used. Directional reflectance for single layers or homogeneous QSLs of ZnO and AZO channel materials exhibit a consistent degree of anti-reflection characteristics from 30 to 60° (~10-12% reflection) for thickness ranging from ~40 nm to 500 nm. The reflectance of AZO single layer thin films is  <10% from 30 to 75° at 514.5 nm, and  <6% at 632.8 nm from 30-60°. The data show that ZnO and AZO with granular or periodic substructure behave optically as dispersive, continuous thin films of similar thickness, and angle-resolved spectral mapping provides a design rule for transparency or refractive index determination as a function of film thickness, substructure (dispersion) and viewing angle.

  3. Nonlinear optical thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leslie, Thomas M.

    1993-01-01

    A focused approach to development and evaluation of organic polymer films for use in optoelectronics is presented. The issues and challenges that are addressed include: (1) material synthesis, purification, and the tailoring of the material properties; (2) deposition of uniform thin films by a variety of methods; (3) characterization of material physical properties (thermal, electrical, optical, and electro-optical); and (4) device fabrication and testing. Photonic materials, devices, and systems were identified as critical technology areas by the Department of Commerce and the Department of Defense. This approach offers strong integration of basic material issues through engineering applications by the development of materials that can be exploited as the active unit in a variety of polymeric thin film devices. Improved materials were developed with unprecedented purity and stability. The absorptive properties can be tailored and controlled to provide significant improvement in propagation losses and nonlinear performance. Furthermore, the materials were incorporated into polymers that are highly compatible with fabrication and patterning processes for integrated optical devices and circuits. By simultaneously addressing the issues of materials development and characterization, keeping device design and fabrication in mind, many obstacles were overcome for implementation of these polymeric materials and devices into systems. We intend to considerably improve the upper use temperature, poling stability, and compatibility with silicon based devices. The principal device application that was targeted is a linear electro-optic modulation etalon. Organic polymers need to be properly designed and coupled with existing integrated circuit technology to create new photonic devices for optical communication, image processing, other laser applications such as harmonic generation, and eventually optical computing. The progression from microscopic sample to a suitable film

  4. Nanostructured ZnO films with various morphologies prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis and its growing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, H. L.; Liu, Z. W.; Zeng, D. C.; Zhong, M. L.; Yu, H. Y.; Mikmekova, E.

    2013-10-01

    Nanostructured ZnO films were prepared by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method using Zn(CH3COO)2·2H2O as a precursor. The effects of substrate temperature (Ts) on the morphology and properties were systematically studied. As the Ts increased from 430 °C to 610 °C, the morphology of the film transforms from closed packed nanosheets to dense nanocrystalline film and then to hexagonal nanorod array. The dense film formed at a temperature of 550 °C has the lowest electric resistivity and highest carrier concentration. The optical transmittance for all prepared samples was higher than 90%. The photoluminescence (PL) properties varied with the Ts due to the internal defect difference. The growth mechanism of ZnO film involves island growth and diffusion, which was evident by observing the samples prepared at various times.

  5. Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance in Au Nanoparticles Embedded dc Sputtered ZnO Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Patra, Anuradha; Balasubrahmaniyam, M; Lahal, Ranjit; Malar, P; Osipowicz, T; Manivannan, A; Kasiviswanathan, S

    2015-02-01

    The plasmonic behavior of metallic nanoparticles is explicitly dependent on their shape, size and the surrounding dielectric space. This study encompasses the influence of ZnO matrix, morphology of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) and their organization on the optical behavior of ZnO/AuNPs-ZnO/ZnO/GP structures (GP: glass plate). These structures have been grown by a multiple-step physical process, which includes dc sputtering, thermal evaporation and thermal annealing. Different analytical techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, glancing angle X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and optical absorption have been used to study the structures. In-situ rapid thermal treatment during dc sputtering of ZnO film has been found to induce subtle changes in the morphology of AuNPs, thereby altering the profile of the plasmon band in the absorption spectra. The results have been contrasted with a recent study on the spectral response of dc magnetron sputtered ZnO films embedded with AuNPs. Initial simulation results indicate that AuNPs-ZnO/Au/GP structure reflects/absorbs UV and infrared radiations, and therefore can serve as window coatings.

  6. Nanostructured ZnO films on stainless steel are highly safe and effective for antimicrobial applications.

    PubMed

    Shim, Kyudae; Abdellatif, Mohamed; Choi, Eunsoo; Kim, Dongkyun

    2017-04-01

    The safety and effectiveness of antimicrobial ZnO films must be established for general applications. In this study, the antimicrobial activity, skin irritation, elution behavior, and mechanical properties of nanostructured ZnO films on stainless steel were evaluated. ZnO nanoparticle (NP) and ZnO nanowall (NW) structures were prepared with different surface roughnesses, wettability, and concentrations using an RF magnetron sputtering system. The thicknesses of ZnO NP and ZnO NW were approximately 300 and 620 nm, respectively, and ZnO NW had two diffraction directions of [0002] and [01-10] based on high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The ZnO NW structure demonstrated 99.9% antimicrobial inhibition against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Penicillium funiculosum, and no skin irritation was detected using experimental rabbits. Approximately 27.2 ± 3.0 μg L -1 Zn ions were eluted from the ZnO NW film at 100 °C for 24 h, which satisfies the WHO guidelines for drinking water quality. Furthermore, the Vickers hardness and fracture toughness of ZnO NW films on stainless steel were enhanced by 11 and 14% compared to those of the parent stainless steel. Based on these results, ZnO NW films on STS316L sheets are useful for household supplies, such as water pipes, faucets, and stainless steel containers.

  7. Non-polar a-plane ZnO films grown on r-Al2O3 substrates using GaN buffer layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C. X.; Chen, W.; Pan, X. H.; Chen, S. S.; Ye, Z. Z.; Huang, J. Y.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, GaN buffer layer has been used to grow non-polar a-plane ZnO films by laser-assisted and plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The thickness of GaN buffer layer ranges from ∼3 to 12 nm. The GaN buffer thickness effect on the properties of a-plane ZnO thin films is carefully investigated. The results show that the surface morphology, crystal quality and optical properties of a-plane ZnO films are strongly correlated with the thickness of GaN buffer layer. It was found that with 6 nm GaN buffer layer, a-plane ZnO films display the best crystal quality with X-ray diffraction rocking curve full-width at half-maximum of only 161 arcsec for the (101) reflection.

  8. Effect of gamma radiation on the optical and structural properties of ZnO nanowires with various diameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyhani, A.; Gholizadeh, A.; vahedi, V.; Khanlary, M. R.

    2018-01-01

    The effects of gamma-irradiation are studied on the morphology and structural properties of ZnO nanowire with various diameters. The ZnO nanowires are grown using Zn thin films at various initial thicknesses including 125, 250 and 500 nm in air ambient. The results illustrate dramatic effects of Gamma-irradiation on the deformation of ZnO nanowires. Thus, radiation induce ripple ZnO surfaces instead ZnO nanowires. Gamma-irradiation has also been effective on the optical and crystalline properties of the nanowires. X-ray diffraction attests that size of the ZnO nano-structures has changed and (l00) crystalline direction related to Zn metal has been created after irradiation. UV-Visible spectra display two areas for transmittance of irradiated ZnO nanowires, one in the Visible-light and the other in IR sub-region. In the Visible-light area, the layer gets thicker from 125 to 500 nm; the difference between the layer transmittance spectra is reduced before and after gamma irradiation. In the IR-light region, with increasing of ZnO initial thickness, the difference between the layer transmittance spectra is increased before and after gamma irradiation. The photoluminescence spectroscopy displays that intensity of green-yellow band improves in compared to near-band-edge emission due to formation of Zn metal and oxygen vacancies after gamma irradiation.

  9. Effect of growth parameters on the optical properties of ZnO nanostructures grown by simple solution methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothari, Anjana

    2017-05-01

    ZnO, a wide band gap semiconductor is of significant interest for a range of practical applications. One of the highly attractive features of ZnO is to grow variety of nanostructures by using low-cost techniques. In this paper, we report deposition of ZnO nanostructure rod-arrays (NRA) via low-temperature, solution-based deposition techniques such as chemical bath deposition (CBD) and microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition (MACBD). A detailed study of film deposition parameters such as variation in concentration of precursors and deposition temperature has been carried out. Compositional and structural study of the films has been done by X-ray Diffractometer to know the phase and purity of the final product. Morphological study of these structures has been carried out by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Optical study such as transmittance and diffuse reflectance of the films has been carried out as a function of growth parameters.

  10. Achieving highly-enhanced UV photoluminescence and its origin in ZnO nanocrystalline films

    DOE PAGES

    Thapa, Dinesh; Huso, Jesse; Morrison, John L.; ...

    2016-06-14

    ZnO is an efficient luminescent material in the UV-range ~3.4 eV with a wide range of applications in optical technologies. Sputtering is a cost-effective and relatively straightforward growth technique for ZnO films; however, most as-grown films are observed to contain intrinsic defects which can significantly diminish the desirable UV-emission. In this research the defect dynamics and optical properties of ZnO sputtered films were studied via post-growth annealing in Ar or O 2 ambient, with X-ray diffraction (XRD), imaging, transmission and Urbach analysis, Raman scattering, and photoluminescence (PL). The imaging, XRD, Raman and Urbach analyses indicate significant improvement in crystal morphologymore » and band-edge characteristics upon annealing, which is nearly independent of the annealing environment. The native defects specific to the as-grown films, which were analyzed via PL, are assigned to Zn i related centers that luminesce at 2.8 eV. Their presence is attributed to the nature of the sputtering growth technique, which supports Zn-rich growth conditions. After annealing, in either environment the 2.8 eV center diminished accompanied by morphology improvement, and the desirable UV-PL significantly increased. The O 2 ambient was found to introduce nominal O i centers while the Ar ambient was found to be the ideal environment for the enhancement of the UV-light emission: an enhancement of ~40 times was achieved. The increase in the UV-PL is attributed to the reduction of Zn i-related defects, the presence of which in ZnO provides a competing route to the UV emission. Also, the effect of the annealing was to decrease the compressive stress in the films. Lastly, the dominant UV-PL at the cold temperature regime is attributed to luminescent centers not associated with the usual excitons of ZnO, but rather to structural defects.« less

  11. Achieving highly-enhanced UV photoluminescence and its origin in ZnO nanocrystalline films

    SciT

    Thapa, Dinesh; Huso, Jesse; Morrison, John L.

    ZnO is an efficient luminescent material in the UV-range ~3.4 eV with a wide range of applications in optical technologies. Sputtering is a cost-effective and relatively straightforward growth technique for ZnO films; however, most as-grown films are observed to contain intrinsic defects which can significantly diminish the desirable UV-emission. In this research the defect dynamics and optical properties of ZnO sputtered films were studied via post-growth annealing in Ar or O 2 ambient, with X-ray diffraction (XRD), imaging, transmission and Urbach analysis, Raman scattering, and photoluminescence (PL). The imaging, XRD, Raman and Urbach analyses indicate significant improvement in crystal morphologymore » and band-edge characteristics upon annealing, which is nearly independent of the annealing environment. The native defects specific to the as-grown films, which were analyzed via PL, are assigned to Zn i related centers that luminesce at 2.8 eV. Their presence is attributed to the nature of the sputtering growth technique, which supports Zn-rich growth conditions. After annealing, in either environment the 2.8 eV center diminished accompanied by morphology improvement, and the desirable UV-PL significantly increased. The O 2 ambient was found to introduce nominal O i centers while the Ar ambient was found to be the ideal environment for the enhancement of the UV-light emission: an enhancement of ~40 times was achieved. The increase in the UV-PL is attributed to the reduction of Zn i-related defects, the presence of which in ZnO provides a competing route to the UV emission. Also, the effect of the annealing was to decrease the compressive stress in the films. Lastly, the dominant UV-PL at the cold temperature regime is attributed to luminescent centers not associated with the usual excitons of ZnO, but rather to structural defects.« less

  12. Enhanced Performance in Al-Doped ZnO Based Transparent Flexible Transparent Thin-Film Transistors Due to Oxygen Vacancy in ZnO Film with Zn-Al-O Interfaces Fabricated by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Yao, Rui; Wang, Huanhuan; Wu, Xiaoming; Wu, Jinzhu; Wu, Xiaohong; Qin, Wei

    2017-04-05

    Highly conductive and optical transparent Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin film composed of ZnO with a Zn-Al-O interface was fabricated by thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) method. The as-prepared AZO thin film exhibits excellent electrical and optical properties with high stability and compatibility with temperature-sensitive flexible photoelectronic devices; film resistivity is as low as 5.7 × 10 -4 Ω·cm, the carrier concentration is high up to 2.2 × 10 21 cm -3 . optical transparency is greater than 80% in a visible range, and the growth temperature is below 150 °C on the PEN substrate. Compared with the conventional AZO film containing by a ZnO-Al 2 O 3 interface, we propose that the underlying mechanism of the enhanced electrical conductivity for the current AZO thin film is attributed to the oxygen vacancies deficiency derived from the free competitive growth mode of Zn-O and Al-O bonds in the Zn-Al-O interface. The flexible transparent transistor based on this AZO electrode exhibits a favorable threshold voltage and I on /I off ratio, showing promising for use in high-resolution, fully transparent, and flexible display applications.

  13. Size dependent nonlinear optical properties of spin coated zinc oxide-polystyrene nanocomposite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeeju, Pullarkat P.; Jayalekshmi, S.; Chandrasekharan, K.; Sudheesh, P.

    2012-11-01

    Using simple wet chemical method at room temperature, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles embedded in polystyrene (PS) matrix were synthesized. The size of the ZnO nanoparticles could be varied by varying the precursor concentration, reaction time and stirring speed. Transparent films of ZnO/PS nanocomposites of thickness around 1 μm were coated on ultrasonically cleaned glass substrates by spin coating. The optical absorptive nonlinearity in ZnO/PS nanocomposite films was investigated using open aperture Z-scan technique with nanosecond laser pulses at 532 nm. The results indicate optical limiting type nonlinearity in the films due to two-photon absorption in ZnO. These films also show a self-defocusing type negative nonlinear refraction in closed aperture Z-scan experiment. The observed nonlinear absorption is strongly dependent on particle size and the normalized transmittance could be reduced to as low as 0.43 by the suitable choice of the ZnO nanoparticle size. These composite films can hence be used as efficient optical limiters for sensor protection. The much-pronounced nonlinear response of these composite films, compared to pure ZnO, combined with the improved stability of ZnO nanoparticles in the PS matrix offer prospects of application of these composite films in the fabrication of stable non-linear optical devices.

  14. Hydrothermal-electrochemical growth of heterogeneous ZnO: Co films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Ceren; Unal, Ugur

    2017-10-01

    This study demonstrates the preparation of heterogeneous ZnO: Co nanostructures via hydrothermal-electrochemical deposition at 130 °C and -1.1 V (vs Ag/AgCl (satd)) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-H2O mixture. Under the stated conditions, ZnO: Co nanostructures grow preferentially along (002) direction. Strength of directional growth progressively increases with the increasing concentration of Co(II) in the deposition bath. Films are composed of hexagonal Wurtzite ZnO, metallic cobalt, and mixed cobalt oxide on the surface and cobalt(II) oxide in deeper levels. Increasing the Co(II) concentration in the deposition bath results in different morphological features as well as phase separation. Platelets, sponge-like structures, cobalt-rich spheres, microislands of cobalt-rich spheres which are interconnected by ZnO network can be synthesized by adjusting [Co(II)]: [Zn(II)] ratio. Growth mechanisms giving rise to these particular structures, surface morphology, crystal structure, phase purity, chemical binding characteristics, and optical properties of the deposits are discussed in detail.

  15. Nonlinear absorption properties of ZnO and Al doped ZnO thin films under continuous and pulsed modes of operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandeep, K. M.; Bhat, Shreesha; Dharmaprakash, S. M.

    2018-06-01

    In the present investigation, we present the variations in nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of undoped and Al doped ZnO (AZO) films under two different off-resonant regimes using continuous and pulsed mode lasers. Z-scan open aperture experiment is performed to quantify nonlinear absorption constant and imaginary component of third order susceptibility. Reverse saturable absorption (RSA) and saturable absorption (SA) behaviors are noticed in both undoped and AZO films under pulsed mode and continuous wavelength (CW) regime respectively. The RSA and SA behavior observed in the films are attributed to two photon absorption (TPA) and thermal lensing properties respectively. The thermal lensing is assisted by the thermo-optic effects within the films due to the continuous illumination of the laser.

  16. Estimation of electron–phonon coupling and Urbach energy in group-I elements doped ZnO nanoparticles and thin films by sol–gel method

    SciT

    Vettumperumal, R.; Kalyanaraman, S., E-mail: mayura_priya2003@yahoo.co.in; Santoshkumar, B.

    Highlights: • Comparison of group-I elements doped ZnO nanoparticles and thin films. • Calculation of electron–phonon coupling and phonon lifetime from Raman spectroscopy. • Estimation of interband states from Urbach energy. - Abstract: Group-I (Li, Na, K & Cs) elements doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) and thin films were prepared using sol–gel method. XRD data and TEM images confirm the absence of any other secondary phase different from wurtzite type ZnO. Spherical shapes of grains are observed from the surfaces of doped ZnO films by atomic force microscope images (AFM) and presences of dopants are confirmed from energy dispersive X-ray spectra.more » The Raman active E{sub 2} (high), E{sub 2} (low), E{sub 1} and A{sub 1} (LO) modes are observed from both ZnO NPs and thin films. First-order longitudinal optical (LO) phonon is found to have contributions from direct band transition and localized excitons. Electron–phonon coupling, phonon lifetime and deformation energy of ZnO are calculated based on the effect of dopants with respect to the multiple Raman LO phonon scattering. Presence of localized interbands states in doped ZnO NPs and thin films are found from the Urbach energy calculations.« less

  17. Structure and optical properties of ZnO with silver nanoparticles

    SciT

    Lyadov, N. M., E-mail: nik061287@mail.ru; Gumarov, A. I.; Kashapov, R. N.

    Textured nanocrystalline ZnO thin films are synthesized by ion beam assisted deposition. According to X-ray diffraction data, the crystallite size is ∼25 nm. Thin (∼15 nm) ZnO layers containing Ag nanoparticles are formed in a thin surface region of the films by the implantation of Ag ions with an energy of 30 keV and a dose in the range (0.25–1) × 10{sup 17} ion/cm{sup 2}. The structure and optical properties of the layers are studied. Histograms of the size distribution of Ag nanoparticles are obtained. The average size of the Ag nanoparticles varies from 0.5 to 1.5–2 nm depending onmore » the Ag-ion implantation dose. The optical transmittance of the samples in the visible and ultraviolet regions increases, as the implantation dose is increased. The spectra of the absorption coefficient of the implanted films are calculated in the context of the (absorbing film)/(transparent substrate) model. It is found that the main changes in the optical-density spectra occur in the region of ∼380 nm, in which the major contribution to absorption is made by Ag nanoparticles smaller than 0.75 nm in diameter. In this spectral region, absorption gradually decreases, as the Ag-ion irradiation dose is increased. This is attributed to an increase in the average size of the Ag nanoparticles. It is established that the broad surface-plasmon-resonance absorption bands typical of nanocomposite ZnO films with Ag nanoparticles synthesized by ion implantation are defined by the fact that the size of the nanoparticles formed does not exceed 1.5–2 nm.« less

  18. Influence of annealing temperature on optical properties of Al doped ZnO nanoparticles via sol-gel methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Affa Rozana Abd; Hazwani, Tuan Nur; Mukhtar, Wan Maisarah; Taib, Nur Athirah Mohd

    2018-06-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have become technologically important materials due to their wide range of electrical and optical properties. The characteristics can be further adjusted by adequate doping processes. The effect of dopant concentration of Al, heating treatment and annealing in reducing atmosphere on the optical properties of the thin films is discussed. Undoped and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films are prepared by the sol-gel method. Zinc acetate dihydrate, 2-methoxyethanol and monoethanolamine are used as precursor, solvent and stabilizer. In the case of AZO, aluminum nitrate nanohydrate is added to the precursor solution with an atomic percentage equal to 0 %, 1 %, 2 % and 3 % of Al. The multi thin layers are transformed into ZnO upon annealing at 450 °C and 500 °C. The optical properties such as transmittance, absorbance, band gap and refractive index of the thin films have been investigated by using UV-Visible Spectroscopy (UV-Vis). The results show that the effect of aluminium dopant concentration on the optical properties is depend on the post-heat treatment of the films. By doping with Al, the transmittance spectra in visible range increased and widen the band gap of ZnO which might due to Burstein-moss effects.

  19. Defect-induced magnetic order in pure ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, M.; Ziese, M.; Setzer, A.; Esquinazi, P.; Lorenz, M.; Hochmuth, H.; Grundmann, M.; Spemann, D.; Butz, T.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Fischer, G.; Adeagbo, W. A.; Hergert, W.; Ernst, A.

    2009-07-01

    We have investigated the magnetic properties of pure ZnO thin films grown under N2 pressure on a -, c -, and r -plane Al2O3 substrates by pulsed-laser deposition. The substrate temperature and the N2 pressure were varied from room temperature to 570°C and from 0.007 to 1.0 mbar, respectively. The magnetic properties of bare substrates and ZnO films were investigated by SQUID magnetometry. ZnO films grown on c - and a -plane Al2O3 substrates did not show significant ferromagnetism. However, ZnO films grown on r -plane Al2O3 showed reproducible ferromagnetism at 300 K when grown at 300-400°C and 0.1-1.0 mbar N2 pressure. Positron annihilation spectroscopy measurements as well as density-functional theory calculations suggest that the ferromagnetism in ZnO films is related to Zn vacancies.

  20. Realizing luminescent downshifting in ZnO thin films by Ce doping with enhancement of photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Nripasree; Deepak, N. K.

    2018-04-01

    ZnO thin films doped with Ce at different concentration were deposited on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique. XRD analysis revealed the phase purity and polycrystalline nature of the films with hexagonal wurtzite geometry and the composition analysis confirmed the incorporation of Ce in the ZnO lattice in the case of doped films. Crystalline quality and optical transmittance diminished while electrical conductivity enhanced with Ce doping. Ce doping resulted in a red-shift of optical energy gap due to the downshift of the conduction band minimum after merging with Ce related impurity bands formed below the conduction band in the forbidden gap. In the room temperature photoluminescence spectra, UV emission intensity of the doped films decreased while the intensity of the visible emission band increased drastically implying the degradation in crystallinity as well as the incorporation of defect levels capable of luminescence downshifting. Ce doping showed improvement in photocatalytic efficiency by effectively trapping the free carriers and then transferring for dye degradation. Thus Ce doped ZnO thin films are capable of acting as luminescent downshifters as well as efficient photocatalysts.

  1. Micro-patterned ZnO semiconductors for high performance thin film transistors via chemical imprinting with a PDMS stamp.

    PubMed

    Seong, Kieun; Kim, Kyongjun; Park, Si Yun; Kim, Youn Sang

    2013-04-07

    Chemical imprinting was conducted on ZnO semiconductor films via a chemical reaction at the contact regions between a micro-patterned PDMS stamp and ZnO films. In addition, we applied the chemical imprinting on Li doped ZnO thin films for high performance TFTs fabrication. The representative micro-patterned Li doped ZnO TFTs showed a field effect mobility of 4.2 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) after sintering at 300 °C.

  2. Substrate effect on the room-temperature ferromagnetism in un-doped ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Peng; Wang, Weipeng; Xie, Zheng; Li, Zhengcao; Zhang, Zhengjun; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Baoyi; Cao, Xingzhong

    2012-07-01

    Room-temperature ferromagnetism was achieved in un-doped ZnO films on silicon and quartz substrates. Photoluminescence measurement and positron annihilation analysis suggested that the ferromagnetism was originated from singly occupied oxygen vacancies (roughly estimated as ˜0.55 μB/vacancy), created in ZnO films by annealing in argon. The saturated magnetization of ZnO films was enhanced from ˜0.44 emu/g (on quartz) to ˜1.18 emu/g (on silicon) after annealing at 600 °C, as silicon acted as oxygen getter and created more oxygen vacancies in ZnO films. This study clarified the origin of ferromagnetism in un-doped ZnO and provides an idea to enhance the ferromagnetism.

  3. Effect of copper doping sol-gel ZnO thin films: physical properties and sensitivity to ethanol vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukaous, Chahra; Benhaoua, Boubaker; Telia, Azzedine; Ghanem, Salah

    2017-10-01

    In the present paper, the effect of copper doping ZnO thin films, deposited using a sol-gel dip-coating technique, on the structural, optical and ethanol vapor-sensing properties, was investigated. The range of the doping content is 0 wt. %-5 wt. % Cu/Zn and the films’ properties were studied using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and a UV-vis spectrophotometer. The obtained results indicated that undoped and copper-doped zinc oxide thin films have polycrystalline wurtzite structure with (1 0 1) preferred orientation. All samples have a smooth and dense structure free of pinholes. A decrease in the band gap with Cu concentration in the ZnO network was observed. The influence of the dopant on ethanol vapor-sensing properties shows an increase in the film sensitivity to the ethanol vapor within the Cu concentration.

  4. Thin-film optical initiator

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, Kenneth L.

    2001-01-01

    A thin-film optical initiator having an inert, transparent substrate, a reactive thin film, which can be either an explosive or a pyrotechnic, and a reflective thin film. The resultant thin-film optical initiator system also comprises a fiber-optic cable connected to a low-energy laser source, an output charge, and an initiator housing. The reactive thin film, which may contain very thin embedded layers or be a co-deposit of a light-absorbing material such as carbon, absorbs the incident laser light, is volumetrically heated, and explodes against the output charge, imparting about 5 to 20 times more energy than in the incident laser pulse.

  5. Structural, optical, and electrical properties of Ni-doped ZnO nanorod arrays prepared via sonicated sol-gel immersion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, A. S.; Mamat, M. H.; Malek, M. F.; Saidi, S. A.; Yusoff, M. M.; Mohamed, R.; Sin, N. D. Md; Suriani, A. B.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    Nickel (Ni)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod array films were synthesised using sonicated sol-gel immersion method. The FESEM images showed that the Ni-doped ZnO nanorod arrays possess hexagonal shape with average diameter about 120 nm and thickness about 1.10 µm. The Ni-doped ZnO nanorod arrays possess better transmittance properties with 3.27 eV of optical band gap energy and 40 meV of urbach energy. The current-voltage (I-V) measurement indicated that the conductivity of ZnO film slightly improved with Ni-doping. The doped film displayed good humidity sensing performance with sensitivity of 1.21.

  6. The roles of buffer layer thickness on the properties of the ZnO epitaxial films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Kun; Huang, Shimin; Gu, Shulin; Zhu, Shunming; Ye, Jiandong; Xu, Zhonghua; Zheng, Youdou

    2016-12-01

    In this article, the authors have investigated the optimization of the buffer thickness for obtaining high-quality ZnO epi-films on sapphire substrates. The growth mechanism of the buffers with different thickness has been clearly revealed, including the initial nucleation and vertical growth, the subsequent lateral growth with small grain coalescence, and the final vertical growth along the existing larger grains. Overall, the quality of the buffer improves with increasing thickness except the deformed surface morphology. However, by a full-scale evaluation of the properties for the epi-layers, the quality of the epi-film is briefly determined by the surface morphology of the buffer, rather than the structural, optical, or electrical properties of it. The best quality epi-layer has been grown on the buffer with a smooth surface and well-coalescent grains. Meanwhile, due to the huge lattice mismatch between sapphire and ZnO, dislocations are inevitably formed during the growth of buffers. More importantly, as the film grows thicker, the dislocations may attracting other smaller dislocations and defects to reduce the total line energy and thus result in the formation of V-shape defects, which are connected with the bottom of the threading dislocations in the buffers. The V-defects appear as deep and large hexagonal pits from top view and they may act as electron traps which would affect the free carrier concentration of the epi-layers.

  7. Fabrication of nanostructured Al-doped ZnO thin film for methane sensing applications

    SciT

    Shafura, A. K., E-mail: shafura@ymail.com; Azhar, N. E. I.; Uzer, M.

    2016-07-06

    CH{sub 4} gas sensor was fabricated using spin-coating method of the nanostructured ZnO thin film. Effect of annealing temperature on the electrical and structural properties of the film was investigated. Dense nanostructured ZnO film are obtained at higher annealing temperature. The optimal condition of annealing temperature is 500°C which has conductivity and sensitivity value of 3.3 × 10{sup −3} S/cm and 11.5%, respectively.

  8. Impact of Substrate Types on Structure and Emission of ZnO Nanocrystalline Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballardo Rodriguez, I. Ch.; El Filali, B.; Díaz Cano, A. I.; Torchynska, T. V.

    2018-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) films were simultaneously synthesized by an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) method on p-type Si (100), silicon carbide polytype [6H-SiC (0001)], porous 6H-SiC and amorphous glass substrates with the aim of studying the impact of substrate types on the structure and emission of ZnO nanocrystalline films. Porous silicon carbide (P-SiC) was prepared by the electrochemical anodization method at a constant potential of 20 V and etching time of 12 min. ZnO films grown on the SiC and P-SiC substrates are characterized by a wurtzite crystal structure with preferential growth along the (002) direction and with grain sizes of 90-180 and 70-160 nm, respectively. ZnO films grown on the Si substrate have just some small irregular hexagonal islands. The amorphous glass substrate did not promote the formation of any regular crystal forms. The obtained x-ray diffraction and photoluminescence (PL) results have shown that the better ZnO film crystallinity and high PL intensity of near-band edge emissions were achieved in the films grown on the porous SiC and SiC substrates. The preferential growth and crystalline nature of ZnO films on the SiC substrate have been discussed from the point of view of the lattice parameter compatibility between ZnO and SiC crystals.

  9. Preparation of Ga-doped ZnO films by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering with cylindrical rotating target for thin film solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Beom-Ki; Lee, Tae-Il; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Park, Kang-Il; Ahn, Kyung-Jun; Park, Sung-Kee; Lee, Woong; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2011-11-01

    Applicability of Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films for thin film solar cells (TFSCs) was investigated by preparing GZO films via pulsed dc magnetron sputtering (PDMS) with rotating target. The GZO films showed improved crystallinity and increasing degree of Ga doping with increasing thickness to a limit of 1000 nm. The films also fulfilled requirements for the transparent electrodes of TFSCs in terms of electrical and optical properties. Moreover, the films exhibited good texturing potential based on etching studies with diluted HCl, which yielded an improved light trapping capability without significant degradation in electrical propreties. It is therefore suggested that the surface-textured GZO films prepared via PDMS and etching are promising candidates for indium-free transparent electrodes for TFSCs.

  10. Study of the effect of ZnO film on some properties of clear and color window glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamead, Alaa A. Abdul; Ahmed, Sura S.; Khdheer, Mena F.

    2018-05-01

    In the current research, a samples of transparent color and colorless window glass were prepared, (includes metal transition oxides) for construction applications. A nano-film layer of zinc oxide ZnO was deposited by spray pyrolysis technique for use in sustainability applications prepared. Structural properties (x-ray diffraction XRD, scanning electron microscopy SEM and atomic force microscopy AFM), and thermal properties, as well as optical properties and the effect of weathering conditions on applied film on clear and colored glass were examined. The results showed that the deposition film had a thickness of less than 90nm and that it was crystallized with high optical transparently, that was not significantly affected after deposited the ZnO nano film. While thermal insulation decreased significantly after deposition, and the effect of the weather conditions was very low as the ZnO coating was not affected, as the thermal insulation did not change after exposure to accelerated air conditions. Make it suitable in glass applications for buildings in vertical construction.

  11. Characterization of a new transparent-conducting material of ZnO doped ITO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, H. M.

    2005-11-01

    Thin films of indium tin oxide (ITO) doped with zinc oxide have the remarkable properties of being conductive yet still highly transparent in the visible and near-IR spectral ranges. The Electron beam deposi- tion technique is one of the simplest and least expensive ways of preparing. High-quality ITO thin films have been deposited on glass substrates by Electron beam evaporation technique. The effect of doping and substrate deposition temperature was found to have a significant effect on the structure, electrical and optical properties of ZnO doped ITO films. The average optical transmittance has been increased with in- creasing the substrate temperature. The maximum value of transmittance is greater than 84% in the visible region and 85% in the NIR region obtained for film with Zn/ITO = 0.13 at substrate temperature 200 °C. The dielectric constant, average excitation energy for electronic transitions (E o), the dispersion energy (E d), the long wavelength refractive index (n ), average oscillator wave length ( o) and oscillator strength S o for the thin films were determined and presented in this work.

  12. Elemental, morphological, structural, optical, and magnetic properties of erbium doped ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poornaprakash, B.; Chalapathi, U.; Purusottam Reddy, B.; Prabhakar Vattikuti, S. V.; Siva Pratap Reddy, M.; Park, Si-Hyun

    2018-03-01

    The sensible tuning of the structural, optical, and magnetic properties of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) with suitable doping can enhance their applicability in diverse fields. In this study, we synthesized ZnO NPs with Er (0-4 at%) doping and their elemental, structural, optical, and magnetic properties were studied. Both field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) studies of the suspensions consist of hexagonal shaped NPs. All the prepared NPs exhibited hexagonal phase as demonstrated by powder x-ray diffraction studies. A blue shift was observed in the Er doped ZnO NPs compared to pure ZnO, indicating the increased optical bandgap. Vibrating sample magnetometer studies exhibited the pure ZnO NPs was typical diamagnetic feature whereas all the Er doped ZnO NPs were paramagnetic feature at 300 K. This is the first paramagnetic report on Er doped ZnO NPs.

  13. Synthesis of ZnO thin film by sol-gel spin coating technique for H2S gas sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimbalkar, Amol R.; Patil, Maruti G.

    2017-12-01

    In this present work, zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film synthesized by a simple sol-gel spin coating technique. The structural, morphology, compositional, microstructural, optical, electrical and gas sensing properties of the film were studied by using XRD, FESEM, EDS, XPS, HRTEM, Raman, FTIR and UV-vis techniques. The ZnO thin film shows hexagonal wurtzite structure with a porous structured morphology. Gas sensing performance of synthesized ZnO thin film was tested initially for H2S gas at different operating temperatures as well as concentrations. The maximum gas response is achieved towards H2S gas at 300 °C operating temperature, at 100 ppm gas concentration as compared to other gases like CH3OH, Cl2, NH3, LPG, CH3COCH3, and C2H5OH with a good stability.

  14. Comparative study of ZnO nanorods and thin films for chemical and biosensing applications and the development of ZnO nanorods based potentiometric strontium ion sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khun, K.; Ibupoto, Z. H.; Chey, C. O.; Lu, Jun.; Nur, O.; Willander, M.

    2013-03-01

    In this study, the comparative study of ZnO nanorods and ZnO thin films were performed regarding the chemical and biosensing properties and also ZnO nanorods based strontium ion sensor is proposed. ZnO nanorods were grown on gold coated glass substrates by the hydrothermal growth method and the ZnO thin films were deposited by electro deposition technique. ZnO nanorods and thin films were characterised by field emission electron microscopy [FESEM] and X-ray diffraction [XRD] techniques and this study has shown that the grown nanostructures are highly dense, uniform and exhibited good crystal quality. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy [TEM] was used to investigate the quality of ZnO thin film and we observed that ZnO thin film was comprised of nano clusters. ZnO nanorods and thin films were functionalised with selective strontium ionophore salicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone [ST] membrane, galactose oxidase, and lactate oxidase for the detection of strontium ion, galactose and L-lactic acid, respectively. The electrochemical response of both ZnO nanorods and thin films sensor devices was measured by using the potentiometric method. The strontium ion sensor has exhibited good characteristics with a sensitivity of 28.65 ± 0.52 mV/decade, for a wide range of concentrations from 1.00 × 10-6 to 5.00 × 10-2 M, selectivity, reproducibility, stability and fast response time of 10.00 s. The proposed strontium ion sensor was used as indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of strontium ion versus ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid [EDTA]. This comparative study has shown that ZnO nanorods possessed better performance with high sensitivity and low limit of detection due to high surface area to volume ratio as compared to the flat surface of ZnO thin films.

  15. Optical characterization of pure and Al-doped ZnO prepared by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belka, Radosław; Keczkowska, Justyna; Kasińska, Justyna

    2016-09-01

    In this paper the preparation process and optical characterization of pure and Al3+ doped zinc oxide (Al:ZnO) coatings will be presented. ZnO based materials have been studied extensively due to their potential applications in optoelectronic devices as conductive gas sensors, transparent conductive, electrodes, solar cell windows, varistors, UVfilters or photovoltaic cells. It is II-VI semiconductor with wide-band gap of 3.37 eV and large exciton binding energy of 60meV. It is possible to improve the conductivity of ZnO coating by intentionally doping ZnO with aluminium ions during preparation process. Such transparent and conducting thin films, known as AZO (Aluminium Zinc Oxide) films, are very good candidate for application as transparent conducting materials in many optoelectronic devices. The well-known sol-gel method is used for preparation of solution, coated on glass substrates by dip coating process. Prepared samples were investigated by Raman and UV-VIS spectroscopy. Transmittance as well as specular and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy methods were used for studies of optical parameters. We found that Al admixture influences on optical bandgap of ZnO.

  16. Synthesis of nanocrystalline ZnO thin films by electron beam evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondkar, V.; Rukade, D.; Bhattacharyya, V.

    2018-05-01

    Nanocrystalline ZnO thin films have potential for applications in variety of optoelectronic devices. In the present study, nanocrystalline thin films of ZnO are grown on fused silica substrate using electron beam (e-beam) evaporation technique. Phase identification is carried out using Glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GAXRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopic analysis is carried out to calculate energy band gap of the ZnO film. Surface morphology of the film is investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Highly quality nanocrystalline thin films of hexagonal wurtzite ZnO are synthesized using e-beam evaporation technique.

  17. Fabrication of Vertical Organic Light-Emitting Transistor Using ZnO Thin Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Iizuka, Masaaki; Kudo, Kazuhiro

    2007-04-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) combined with thin film transistor (TFT) are well suitable elements for low-cost, large-area active matrix displays. On the other hand, zinc oxide (ZnO) is a transparent material and its electrical conductivity is controlled from conductive to insulating by growth conditions. The drain current of ZnO FET is 180 μA. The OLED uses ZnO thin film (Al-doped) for the electron injection layer and is controlled by radio frequency (rf) and direct current (dc) sputtering conditions, such as Al concentration and gas pressure. Al concentration in the ZnO film and deposition rate have strong effects on electron injection. Furthermore, the OLED driven by ZnO FET shows a luminance of 13 cd/m2, a luminance efficiency of 0.7 cd/A, and an on-off ratio of 650.

  18. Formation of p-type ZnO thin film through co-implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Yao-Teng; Liou, Jhe-Wei; Woon, Wei-Yen

    2017-01-01

    We present a study on the formation of p-type ZnO thin film through ion implantation. Group V dopants (N, P) with different ionic radii are implanted into chemical vapor deposition grown ZnO thin film on GaN/sapphire substrates prior to thermal activation. It is found that mono-doped ZnO by N+ implantation results in n-type conductivity under thermal activation. Dual-doped ZnO film with a N:P ion implantation dose ratio of 4:1 is found to be p-type under certain thermal activation conditions. Higher p-type activation levels (1019 cm-3) under a wider thermal activation range are found for the N/P dual-doped ZnO film co-implanted by additional oxygen ions. From high resolution x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy it is concluded that the observed p-type conductivities are a result of the promoted formation of PZn-4NO complex defects via the concurrent substitution of nitrogen at oxygen sites and phosphorus at zinc sites. The enhanced solubility and stability of acceptor defects in oxygen co-implanted dual-doped ZnO film are related to the reduction of oxygen vacancy defects at the surface. Our study demonstrates the prospect of the formation of stable p-type ZnO film through co-implantation.

  19. Praseodymium - A Competent Dopant for Luminescent Downshifting and Photocatalysis in ZnO Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Nripasree; Deepak, N. K.

    2018-05-01

    Highly transparent and conducting Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films doped with Praseodymium (Pr) were deposited on glass substrates by using the spray pyrolysis method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the polycrystallinity of the deposited films with a hexagonal wurtzite structure, whereas the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis confirmed the incorporation of Pr in the films. The optical energy gap decreased by Pr doping due to the merging of the conduction band with the impurity bands formed within the forbidden gap. The room temperature photoluminescence spectra of the Pr-doped film showed enhancement of visible emission, suggesting efficient luminescent downshifting. The photocatalytic activity of the Pr-doped films is higher than that of undoped films due to the effective suppression of the rapid recombination of the photo-generated electron-hole pairs. The impurity levels formed within the forbidden gap act as efficient luminescent centers and electron traps, which lead to luminescent downshifting and enhanced photocatalytic activity.

  20. Correlation of structural properties with energy transfer of Eu-doped ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel process and magnetron reactive sputtering

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Julien; Brimont, Christelle; Gallart, Mathieu; Schmerber, Guy; Gilliot, Pierre; Ulhaq-Bouillet, Corinne; Rehspringer, Jean-Luc; Colis, Silviu; Becker, Claude; Slaoui, Abdelillah; Dinia, Aziz

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the structural and optical properties of Eu-doped ZnO thin films made by sol-gel technique and magnetron reactive sputtering on Si (100) substrate. The films elaborated by sol-gel process are polycrystalline while the films made by sputtering show a strongly textured growth along the c-axis. X-ray diffraction patterns and transmission electron microscopy analysis show that all samples are free of spurious phases. The presence of Eu2+ and Eu3+ into the ZnO matrix has been confirmed by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. This means that a small fraction of Europium substitutes Zn2+ as Eu2+ into the ZnO matrix; the rest of Eu being in the trivalent state. This is probably due to the formation of Eu2O3 oxide at the surface of ZnO particles. This is at the origin of the strong photoluminescence band observed at 2 eV, which is characteristic of the 5D0→7F2 Eu3+ transition. In addition the photoluminescence excitonic spectra showed efficient energy transfer from the ZnO matrix to the Eu3+ ion, which is qualitatively similar for both films although the sputtered films have a better structural quality compared to the sol-gel process grown films. PMID:20644657

  1. Internal stress induced natural self-chemisorption of ZnO nanostructured films

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Po-Wei; Su, Chih-Wei; Wei, Da-Hua

    2017-01-01

    The energetic particles bombardment can produce large internal stress in the zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film, and it can be used to intentionally modify the surface characteristics of ZnO films. In this article, we observed that the internal stress increased from −1.62 GPa to −0.33 GPa, and the naturally wettability of the textured ZnO nanostructured films changed from hydrophobicity to hydrophilicity. According to analysis of surface chemical states, the naturally controllable wetting behavior can be attributed to hydrocarbon adsorbates on the nanostructured film surface, which is caused by tunable internal stress. On the other hand, the interfacial water molecules near the surface of ZnO nanostructured films have been identified as hydrophobic hydrogen structure by Fourier transform infrared/attenuated total reflection. Moreover, a remarkable near-band-edge emission peak shifting also can be observed in PL spectra due to the transition of internal stress state. Furthermore, our present ZnO nanostructured films also exhibited excellent transparency over 80% with a wise surface wetting switched from hydrophobic to hydrophilic states after exposing in ultraviolet (UV) surroundings. Our work demonstrated that the internal stress of the thin film not only induced natural wettability transition of ZnO nanostructured films, but also in turn affected the surface properties such as surface chemisorption. PMID:28233827

  2. Internal stress induced natural self-chemisorption of ZnO nanostructured films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Po-Wei; Su, Chih-Wei; Wei, Da-Hua

    2017-02-01

    The energetic particles bombardment can produce large internal stress in the zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film, and it can be used to intentionally modify the surface characteristics of ZnO films. In this article, we observed that the internal stress increased from -1.62 GPa to -0.33 GPa, and the naturally wettability of the textured ZnO nanostructured films changed from hydrophobicity to hydrophilicity. According to analysis of surface chemical states, the naturally controllable wetting behavior can be attributed to hydrocarbon adsorbates on the nanostructured film surface, which is caused by tunable internal stress. On the other hand, the interfacial water molecules near the surface of ZnO nanostructured films have been identified as hydrophobic hydrogen structure by Fourier transform infrared/attenuated total reflection. Moreover, a remarkable near-band-edge emission peak shifting also can be observed in PL spectra due to the transition of internal stress state. Furthermore, our present ZnO nanostructured films also exhibited excellent transparency over 80% with a wise surface wetting switched from hydrophobic to hydrophilic states after exposing in ultraviolet (UV) surroundings. Our work demonstrated that the internal stress of the thin film not only induced natural wettability transition of ZnO nanostructured films, but also in turn affected the surface properties such as surface chemisorption.

  3. Internal stress induced natural self-chemisorption of ZnO nanostructured films.

    PubMed

    Chi, Po-Wei; Su, Chih-Wei; Wei, Da-Hua

    2017-02-24

    The energetic particles bombardment can produce large internal stress in the zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film, and it can be used to intentionally modify the surface characteristics of ZnO films. In this article, we observed that the internal stress increased from -1.62 GPa to -0.33 GPa, and the naturally wettability of the textured ZnO nanostructured films changed from hydrophobicity to hydrophilicity. According to analysis of surface chemical states, the naturally controllable wetting behavior can be attributed to hydrocarbon adsorbates on the nanostructured film surface, which is caused by tunable internal stress. On the other hand, the interfacial water molecules near the surface of ZnO nanostructured films have been identified as hydrophobic hydrogen structure by Fourier transform infrared/attenuated total reflection. Moreover, a remarkable near-band-edge emission peak shifting also can be observed in PL spectra due to the transition of internal stress state. Furthermore, our present ZnO nanostructured films also exhibited excellent transparency over 80% with a wise surface wetting switched from hydrophobic to hydrophilic states after exposing in ultraviolet (UV) surroundings. Our work demonstrated that the internal stress of the thin film not only induced natural wettability transition of ZnO nanostructured films, but also in turn affected the surface properties such as surface chemisorption.

  4. Photoconductive ZnO Films Printed on Flexible Substrates by Inkjet and Aerosol Jet Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winarski, D. J.; Kreit, E.; Heckman, E. M.; Flesburg, E.; Haseman, M.; Aga, R. S.; Selim, F. A.

    2018-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have remarkable versatility in sensor applications. Here, we report simple ink synthesis and printing methods to deposit ZnO photodetectors on a variety of flexible and transparent substrates, including polyimide (Kapton), polyethylene terephthalate, cyclic olefin copolymer (TOPAS), and quartz. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the dependence of the film orientation on the substrate type and sintering method, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption measurements revealed a band edge near 380 nm. van der Pauw technique was used to measure the resistivity of undoped ZnO and indium/gallium-codoped ZnO (IGZO) films. IGZO films showed lower resistivity and larger average grain size compared with undoped ZnO films due to addition of In3+ and Ga3+, which act as donors. A 365-nm light-emitting diode was used to photoirradiate the films to study their photoconductive response as a function of light intensity at 300 K. The results revealed that ZnO films printed by aerosol jet and inkjet techniques exhibited five orders of magnitude photoconductivity, indicating that such films are viable options for use in flexible photodetectors.

  5. ZnO nanoparticles based fiber optic gas sensor

    SciT

    Narasimman, S.; Sivacoumar, R.; Alex, Z. C.

    In this work, ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by simple aqueous chemical route method. The synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. The sensitivity of the nanoparticles was studied for different gases like acetone, ammonia and ethanol in terms of variation in spectral light intensity. The XRD and SEM analysis confirms the formation of hexagonal wurtzite structure with the grain size of 11.2 nm. The small cladding region of the optical fiber was replaced with the synthesized nanoparticles. The light spectrum was recorded for different gas concentrations. The synthesized nanoparticles showed high sensitivity towards ammonia in lowmore » ppm level and acetone in high ppm level.« less

  6. Sol-gel derived Al-Ga co-doped transparent conducting oxide ZnO thin films

    SciT

    Serrao, Felcy Jyothi, E-mail: jyothiserrao@gmail.com; Department of Physics, Karnataka Government Research centre SCEM, Mangalore, 575007; Sandeep, K. M.

    2016-05-23

    Transparent conducting ZnO doped with Al, Ga and co-doped Al and Ga (1:1) (AGZO) thin films were grown on glass substrates by cost effective sol-gel spin coating method. The XRD results showed that all the films are polycrystalline in nature and highly textured along the (002) plane. Enhanced grain size was observed in the case of AGZO thin films. The transmittance of all the films was more than 83% in the visible region of light. The electrical properties such as carrier concentration and mobility values are increased in case of AGZO compared to that of Al and Ga doped ZnOmore » thin films. The minimum resistivity of 2.54 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm was observed in AGZO thin film. The co-doped AGZO thin films exhibited minimum resistivity and high optical transmittance, indicate that co-doped ZnO thin films could be used in transparent electronics mainly in display applications.« less

  7. Growth mechanism, surface and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures deposited on various Au-seeded thickness obtained by mist-atomization

    SciT

    Afaah, A. N., E-mail: afaahabdullah@yahoo.com; Aadila, A., E-mail: aadilaazizali@gmail.com; Asib, N. A. M., E-mail: amierahasib@yahoo.com

    2016-07-06

    In this paper, growth mechanisms of ZnO nanostructures on non-seeded glass, 6 nm and 12 nm Au seed layer obtained by mist-atomization was proposed. ZnO films were successfully deposited on glass substrate with different thickness of Au seed layer i.e. 6 nm and 12 nm. The surface and optical properties of the prepared samples were investigated using Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and photoluminescence (PL). FESEM micrograph show that ZnO nanostructure deposited on 6 nm Au seed layer has uniform formation and well distributed. From PL spectroscopy, the UV emission shows that ZnO deposited on 6 nm Au seedmore » layer has the more intense UV intensity which proved that high crystal quality of nanostructured ZnO deposited on 6 nm Au seed layer.« less

  8. Defect studies of thin ZnO films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlček, M.; Čížek, J.; Procházka, I.; Novotný, M.; Bulíř, J.; Lančok, J.; Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.; Mosnier, J.-P.

    2014-04-01

    Thin ZnO films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on four different substrates: sapphire (0 0 0 1), MgO (1 0 0), fused silica and nanocrystalline synthetic diamond. Defect studies by slow positron implantation spectroscopy (SPIS) revealed significantly higher concentration of defects in the studied films when compared to a bulk ZnO single crystal. The concentration of defects in the films deposited on single crystal sapphire and MgO substrates is higher than in the films deposited on amorphous fused silica substrate and nanocrystalline synthetic diamond. Furthermore, the effect of deposition temperature on film quality was investigated in ZnO films deposited on synthetic diamond substrates. Defect studies performed by SPIS revealed that the concentration of defects firstly decreases with increasing deposition temperature, but at too high deposition temperatures it increases again. The lowest concentration of defects was found in the film deposited at 450° C.

  9. Structure and morphology of magnetron sputter deposited ultrathin ZnO films on confined polymeric template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ajaib; Schipmann, Susanne; Mathur, Aakash; Pal, Dipayan; Sengupta, Amartya; Klemradt, Uwe; Chattopadhyay, Sudeshna

    2017-08-01

    The structure and morphology of ultra-thin zinc oxide (ZnO) films with different film thicknesses on confined polymer template were studied through X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). Using magnetron sputter deposition technique ZnO thin films with different film thicknesses (<10 nm) were grown on confined polystyrene with ∼2Rg film thickness, where Rg ∼ 20 nm (Rg is the unperturbed radius of gyration of polystyrene, defined by Rg = 0.272 √M0, and M0 is the molecular weight of polystyrene). The detailed internal structure, along the surface/interfaces and the growth direction of the system were explored in this study, which provides insight into the growth procedure of ZnO on confined polymer and reveals that a thin layer of ZnO, with very low surface and interface roughness, can be grown by DC magnetron sputtering technique, with approximately full coverage (with bulk like electron density) even in nm order of thickness, in 2-7 nm range on confined polymer template, without disturbing the structure of the underneath template. The resulting ZnO-polystyrene hybrid systems show strong ZnO near band edge (NBE) and deep-level (DLE) emissions in their room temperature photoluminescence spectra, where the contribution of DLE gets relatively stronger with decreasing ZnO film thickness, indicating a significant enhancement of surface defects because of the greater surface to volume ratio in thinner films.

  10. Structural characterization of ZnO thin films grown on various substrates by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotný, M.; Čížek, J.; Kužel, R.; Bulíř, J.; Lančok, J.; Connolly, J.; McCarthy, E.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Mosnier, J.-P.; Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.

    2012-06-01

    ZnO thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on three different substrates: sapphire (0 0 0 1), MgO (1 0 0) and fused silica (FS). The structure and morphology of the films were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and defect studies were carried out using slow positron implantation spectroscopy (SPIS). Films deposited on all substrates studied in this work exhibit the wurtzite ZnO structure and are characterized by an average crystallite size of 20-100 nm. However, strong differences in the microstructure of films deposited on various substrates were found. The ZnO films deposited on MgO and sapphire single-crystalline substrates exhibit local epitaxy, i.e. a well-defined relation between film crystallites and the substrate. Domains with different orientation relationships with the substrate were found in both films. On the other hand, the film deposited on the FS substrate exhibits fibre texture with random lateral orientation of crystallites. Extremely high compressive in-plane stress of σ ˜ 14 GPa was determined in the film deposited on the MgO substrate, while the film deposited on sapphire is virtually stress-free, and the film deposited on the FS substrate exhibits a tensile in-plane stress of σ ˜ 0.9 GPa. SPIS investigations revealed that the concentration of open-volume defects in the ZnO films is substantially higher than that in a bulk ZnO single crystal. Moreover, the ZnO films deposited on MgO and sapphire single-crystalline substrates exhibit a significantly higher density of defects than the film deposited on the amorphous FS substrate.

  11. Surface-emitting stimulated emission in high-quality ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. Q.; Suemune, Ikuo; Kumano, H.; Wang, J.; Huang, S. H.

    2004-10-01

    High-quality ZnO thin films were grown by plasma-enhanced molecular-beam epitaxy on sapphire substrates. Three excitonic transitions associated with the valence bands A, B, and C were clearly revealed in the reflectance spectrum measured at 33K. This result indicates that the ZnO thin films have the wurtzite crystalline structure. The emission spectra were measured with backscattering geometry at room temperature. When the excitation exceeded a certain value, linewidth narrowing, nonlinear rise of emission intensity, and the shortening of the carrier lifetime were clearly observed and these demonstrate the onset of stimulated emission. Together with the ZnO thickness dependence, we conclude that the observation of a stimulated emission in a direction perpendicular to the film surface is predominantly due to scattering of the in-plane stimulated emission by slightly remaining surface undulations in the ZnO films.

  12. Optical Properties of ZnO-Alloyed Nanocrystalline Films

    DOE PAGES

    Che, Hui; Huso, Jesse; Morrison, John L.; ...

    2012-01-01

    ZnO is emore » merging as one of the materials of choice for UV applications. It has a deep excitonic energy level and a direct bandgap of ~3.4 eV. Alloying ZnO with certain atomic constituents adds new optical and electronic functionalities to ZnO. This paper presents research on M g x Z n 1 − x O and Z n S 1 − x O x nanocrystalline flexible films, which enable tunable optical properties in the deep-UV and in the visible range. The ZnO and Mg 0 .3 Zn 0 .7 O films were found to have bandgaps at 3.35 and 4.02 eV, respectively. The photoluminescence of the Mg 0 .3 Zn 0 .7 O exhibited a bandedge emission at 3.95 eV, and at lower energy 3.38 eV due to the limited solubility inherent to these alloys. ZnS 0 .76 O 0 .24 and ZnS 0 .16 O 0 .84 were found to have bandgaps at 3.21 and 2.65 eV, respectively. The effect of nitrogen doping on ZnS 0 .16 O 0 .84 is discussed in terms of the highly lattice mismatched nature of these alloys and the resulting valence-band modification.« less

  13. Experimental study of optical and electrical properties of ZnO nano composites electrodeposited on n-porous silicon substrate for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selmane, Naceur; Cheknane, Ali; Gabouze, Nourddine; Maloufi, Nabila; Aillerie, Michel

    2017-11-01

    ZnO films deposited on silicon porous substrates (PS) were prepared by electro-deposition anodization on n type (100) silicon wafer. This ZnO/PS structure combines substrates having specific structural and optical properties (IR emission), with nano-composites of ZnO potentially interesting due to their functional properties (UV emission) to be integrated as constitutive elements of devices in various optoelectronic applications mainly in blue light emitters. With this combined structure, the blue shift in the PL peak is possible and easy to obtain (467nm). The vibration modes of PS and ZnO films on PS substrates (ZnO /PS) were investigated by infrared (FTIR) measurements and their behaviors were analyzed and discussed by considering the structural properties characterized by X-ray diffraction (DRX) and scanning electronic microscopy (MEB).

  14. Electrodeposition of ZnO nanorod arrays on ZnO substrate with tunable orientation and optical properties.

    PubMed

    Jehl, Z; Rousset, J; Donsanti, F; Renou, G; Naghavi, N; Lincot, D

    2010-10-01

    The electrodeposition of ZnO nanorods on ZnO:Al films with different orientations is reported. The influence of the total charge exchanged during electrodeposition on the nanorod's geometry (length, diameter, aspect ratio and surface density) and the optical transmission properties of the nanorod arrays is studied on a [0001]-oriented ZnO:Al substrate. The nanorods are highly vertically oriented along the c axis, following the lattice matching with the substrate. The growth on a [1010] and [1120] ZnO:Al-oriented substrate with c axis parallel to the substrate leads to a systematic deviation angle of 55 degrees from the perpendicular direction. This finding has been explained by the occurrence of a minority orientation with the [1011] planes parallel to the surface, with a preferential growth on corresponding [0001] termination. Substrate crystalline orientation is thereby found to be a major parameter in finely tuning the orientation of the nanorod array. This new approach allows us to optimize the light scattering properties of the films.

  15. SHI irradiation effect on pure and Mn doped ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khawal, H. A.; Raskar, N. D.; Dole, B. N.

    2017-05-01

    Investigated the structural, surface, electrical and modifications induced by Swift Heavy Ions (SHI) irradiation on pure and Mn substituted ZnO thin films were observed. Thin films of Zn1-xMnxO (x = 0.00, 0.04) were synthesized using the dip coating technique. All thin films irradiated by Li3+ swift heavy ions with fluence 5 × 1013 ions/cm2. The XRD peak reveals that all the samples exhibit wurtzite structures. Surface morphology of samples was investigated by SEM, it was observed that pristine samples of ZnO thin film shows spherical shape but for 4 % Mn substituted ZnO thin film with 5 × 1013 ions/cm2 fluence, it reveals that big grain spherical morphology like structure respectively. I-V characteristics were recorded in the voltage range -5 to 5 V. All curves were passed through origin and nearly linear exhibit ohmic in nature for the films.

  16. Structural, electrical and optical properties of Al-Sn codoped ZnO transparent conducting layer deposited by spray pyrolysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedia, A.; Bedia, F. Z.; Aillerie, M.; Maloufi, N.

    2017-11-01

    Low cost Al-Sn codoped ZnO (ATZO) Transparent Conductive Oxide films were deposited by spray pyrolysis on glass substrate. The influence of Al-Sn codoping on the structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films was studied by comparing the same properties obtained in undoped ZnO, Al doped ZnO (AZO) and Sn doped ZnO (TZO) thin films. The so-obtained films crystallized in hexagonal wurtzite structure. The morphology and structural defects have been investigated by both High resolution Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Raman spectroscopy at 532 nm excitation source. In the visible region, the undoped and doped films show an average transmittance of the order of 85%, while for ATZO thin film, it is of the order of 72%, which points out a degradation of the optical properties due to the co-doping. The optical band gap of ATZO thin film achieves 3.31eV and this shift, compared to the referred samples is attributed to the Burstein-Moss (BM) and band gap narrowing (BGN) opposite effects which is due to the increase of the carrier concentration in degenerate semiconductors. Within all the samples, the ATZO thin film exhibits the lowest electrical resistivity of 4.56 × 10-3 Ωcm with a Hall mobility equal to 2.13 cm2 V-1s-1, and the highest carrier concentration of 6.41 × 1020 cm-3. The performance of ATZO transparent conductive oxide film are determined by its figure of merit (φTC), found equal to 1.69 10-4 Ω-1, which is a suitable value for potentially high-performance solar cell applications.

  17. Al-/Ga-Doped ZnO Window Layers for Highly Efficient Cu₂ZnSn(S,Se)₄ Thin Film Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Seo, Se Won; Seo, Jung Woo; Kim, Donghwan; Cheon, Ki-Beom; Lee, Doh-Kwon; Kim, Jin Young

    2018-09-01

    The successful use of Al-/Ga-doped ZnO (AGZO) thin films as a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layer of a Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) thin film solar cell is demonstrated. The AGZO thin films were prepared by radio frequency (RF) sputtering. The structural, crystallographic, electrical, and optical properties of the AGZO thin films were systematically investigated. The photovoltaic properties of CZTSSe thin film solar cells incorporating the AGZO-based TCO layer were also reported. It has been found that the RF power and substrate temperature of the AGZO thin film are important factors determining the electrical, optical, and structural properties. The optimization process involving the RF power and the substrate temperature leads to good electrical and optical transmittance of the AGZO thin films. Finally, the CZTSSe solar cell with the AGZO TCO layer demonstrated a high conversion efficiency of 9.68%, which is higher than that of the conventional AZO counterpart by 12%.

  18. Effect of morphology evolution on the thermoelectric properties of oxidized ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shiying; Li, Guojian; Xiao, Lin; Jia, Baohai; Gao, Yang; Wang, Qiang

    2018-04-01

    The effects of nanowire content on the thermoelectric properties of ZnO films were investigated. The nanowire content of ZnO films was tuned by thermal oxidation of evaporated Zn films. The results showed that hexagonal and polyhedral morphologies on the surface of Zn films can be used to tune the nanowire content of ZnO films. Hexagonal nanoplates with a diameter of 100-350 nm readily grew ZnO nanowires with c-axis preferential orientation. Conversely, it was difficult to grow nanowires on polyhedral nanoparticles with diameters of 500-750 nm because the meeting of ZnO (101) and (001) facets suppressed nanowire growth. Thermoelectric parameters were strongly affected by nanowire content. In particular, carrier concentration increased with nanowire content. Carrier mobility also increased with nanowire content because the nanowires behaved as channels for electronic migration. The band gap of the films narrowed with increasing nanowire content because the binding energy of O 1s electrons with oxygen vacancies decreased. The maximum power factor of the film with high nanowire content (8.80 μW/m K2 at 530 K) was approximately 300% higher than that of the film with low nanowire content.

  19. Franz-Keldysh effect in epitaxial ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridoux, G.; Villafuerte, M.; Ferreyra, J. M.; Guimpel, J.; Nieva, G.; Figueroa, C. A.; Straube, B.; Heluani, S. P.

    2018-02-01

    Photoconductance spectroscopy has been studied in epitaxial ZnO thin films with different thicknesses that range between 136 and 21 nm. We report a systematic decrease in photoconductivity and a red shift in band edge photoconductance spectra when the thickness is reduced. For thinner films, it is found that the effective energy gap value diminishes. By time dependent photoconductivity measurements, we found an enhanced contribution of the slow relaxation times for thicker films. These effects are interpreted in terms of a band-bending contribution where the Franz-Keldysh effect and the polarization of ZnO play a major role in thinner films.

  20. ZrO{sub 2}-ZnO composite thin films for humidity sensing

    SciT

    Velumani, M., E-mail: velumanimohan@gmail.com; Sivacoumar, R.; Alex, Z. C.

    2016-05-23

    ZrO{sub 2}-ZnO composite thin films were grown by reactive DC magnetron sputtering. X-ray diffraction studies reveal the composite nature of the films with separate ZnO and ZrO{sub 2} phase. Scanning electron microscopy studies confirm the nanocrystalline structure of the films. The films were studied for their impedometric relative humidity (RH) sensing characteristics. The complex impedance plot was fitted with a standard equivalent circuit consisting of an inter-granular resistance and a capacitance in parallel. The DC resistance was found to be decreasing with increase in RH.

  1. Performance improvement for solution-processed high-mobility ZnO thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha Li, Chen; Li, Yu Ning; Wu, Yi Liang; Ong, Beng S.; Loutfy, Rafik O.

    2008-06-01

    The fabrication technology of stable, non-toxic, transparent, high performance zinc oxide (ZnO) thin-film semiconductors via the solution process was investigated. Two methods, which were, respectively, annealing a spin-coated precursor solution and annealing a drop-coated precursor solution, were compared. The prepared ZnO thin-film semiconductor transistors have well-controlled, preferential crystal orientation and exhibit superior field-effect performance characteristics. But the ZnO thin-film transistor (TFT) fabricated by annealing a drop-coated precursor solution has a distinctly elevated linear mobility, which further approaches the saturated mobility, compared with that fabricated by annealing a spin-coated precursor solution. The performance of the solution-processed ZnO TFT was further improved when substituting the spin-coating process by the drop-coating process.

  2. Growth of ZnO films in sol-gel electrophoretic deposition by different solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallajzadeh, Amir Mohammad; Abdizadeh, Hossein; Taheri, Mahtab; Golobostanfard, Mohammad Reza

    2018-01-01

    This article introduces a process to fabricate zinc oxide (ZnO) films through combining sol preparation and electrophoretic deposition (EPD). The experimental results have proved that the EPD process is a powerful route to fabricate ZnO films with desire thickness from stable colloidal suspension under a direct current (DC) electric field. In this method, ZnO sol is prepared by dissolving zinc acetate dehydrate (ZAD) as the main precursor and diethanolamine (DEA) as the additive in various solvents such as methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH), and 2-proponal (2-PrOH). The deposition was performed under a constant voltage of 30 V for 2 min. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) were used to characterize ZnO films. XRD pattern of the ZnO film prepared by MeOH shows the highest degree of preferential orientation and this is mainly attributed to the higher dielectric constant of the MeOH which results in higher current density in electrophoretic deposit ion. The SEM cross section images also show that the thickness of the ZnO film enhances by decreasing the solvent chain length. According to SEM results, as the viscosity of the medium increased, more compact layers are formed, which can be attributed to the lower deposition rates in heavier alcohols.

  3. Superhydrophobic Ag decorated ZnO nanostructured thin film as effective surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayram, Naidu Dhanpal; Sonia, S.; Poongodi, S.; Kumar, P. Suresh; Masuda, Yoshitake; Mangalaraj, D.; Ponpandian, N.; Viswanathan, C.

    2015-11-01

    The present work is an attempt to overcome the challenges in the fabrication of super hydrophobic silver decorated zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructure thin films via thermal evaporation process. The ZnO nanowire thin films are prepared without any surface modification and show super hydrophobic nature with a contact angle of 163°. Silver is further deposited onto the ZnO nanowire to obtain nanoworm morphology. Silver decorated ZnO (Ag@ZnO) thin films are used as substrates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) studies. The formation of randomly arranged nanowire and silver decorated nanoworm structure is confirmed using FESEM, HR-TEM and AFM analysis. Crystallinity and existence of Ag on ZnO are confirmed using XRD and XPS studies. A detailed growth mechanism is discussed for the formation of the nanowires from nanobeads based on various deposition times. The prepared SERS substrate reveals a reproducible enhancement of 3.082 × 107 M for Rhodamine 6G dye (R6G) for 10-10 molar concentration per liter. A higher order of SERS spectra is obtained for a contact angle of 155°. Thus the obtained thin films show the superhydrophobic nature with a highly enhanced Raman spectrum and act as SERS substrates. The present nanoworm morphology shows a new pathway for the construction of semiconductor thin films for plasmonic studies and challenges the orderly arranged ZnO nanorods, wires and other nano structure substrates used in SERS studies.

  4. Optical absorption enhancement by inserting ZnO optical spacer in plasmonic organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N'Konou, Kekeli; Torchio, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Optical absorption enhancement (AE) using coupled optical spacer and plasmonic effects in standard and inverted organic solar cells (OSCs) are demonstrated using the finite-difference time-domain numerical method. The influence of an added zinc oxide (ZnO) optical spacer layer inserted below the active layer in standard architecture is first theoretically investigated while the influence of varying the ZnO cathodic buffer layer thickness in inverted design is studied on AE. Then, the embedding of a square periodic array of core-shell silver-silica nanospheres (Ag@SiO2 NSs) at different positions in standard and inverted OSCs is performed while AE and short-circuit current density (Jsc) are calculated. As a result of previous combined effects, the optimized standard plasmonic OSCs present 15% and 79.45% enhancement in J over the reference with and without ZnO optical spacer layer, respectively, and a 16% increase of AE when Ag@SiO2 NSs are placed on top of the PEDOT:PSS layer. Compared to the inverted OSC reference, the plasmonic OSCs present 26% and 27% enhancement in J and AE, respectively, when the Ag@SiO2 NSs are located on top of the ZnO layer. Furthermore, the spatial position of these NSs in such OSCs is a key parameter for increasing light absorption via enhanced electromagnetic field distribution.

  5. Room temperature synthesis and optical properties of small diameter (5 nm) ZnO nanorod arrays.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seungho; Jang, Ji-Wook; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2010-10-01

    We report a simple wet-chemical synthesis of ∼5 nm diameter ZnO nanorod arrays at room temperature (20 °C) and normal atmospheric pressure (1 atm) and their optical properties. They were single crystalline in nature, and grew in the [001] direction. These small diameter ZnO nanorod arrays can also be synthesized at 0 °C. Control experiments were also conducted. On the basis of the results, we propose a mechanism for the spontaneous growth of the small diameter ZnO structures. The optical properties of the 5 nm diameter ZnO nanorod arrays synthesized using this method were probed by UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. A clear blue-shift, relative to the absorption band from 50 nm diameter ZnO nanorod arrays, was attributed to the quantum confinement effects caused by the small nanocrystal size in the 5 nm diameter ZnO nanorods.

  6. Controlling of ZnO nanostructures by solute concentration and its effect on growth, structural and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Yogendra; Rana, Amit Kumar; Bhojane, Prateek; Pusty, Manojit; Bagwe, Vivas; Sen, Somaditya; Shirage, Parasharam M.

    2015-10-01

    ZnO nanostructured films were prepared by a chemical bath deposition method on glass substrates without any assistance of either microwave or high pressure autoclaves. The effect of solute concentration on the pure wurtzite ZnO nanostructure morphologies is studied. The control of the solute concentration helps to control the nanostructure to form nano-needles, and -rods. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies revealed highly c-axis oriented thin films. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirms the modification of the nanostructure dependent on the concentration. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show the single crystalline electron diffraction pattern, indicating high quality nano-material. UV-vis results show the variation in the band gap from 3.20 eV to 3.14 eV with increasing concentration as the nanostructures change from needle- to rod-like. Photoluminescence (PL) data indicate the existence of defects in the nanomaterials emitting light in the yellow-green region, with broad UV and visible spectra. A sharp and strong peak is observed at ˜438 cm-1 by Raman spectroscopy, assigned to the {{{{E}}}2}{{high}} optical mode of ZnO, the characteristic peak for the highly-crystalline wurtzite hexagonal phase. The solute concentration significantly affects the formation of defect states in the nanostructured films, and as a result, it alters the structural and optical properties. Current-voltage characteristics alter with the measurement environment, indicating potential sensor applications.

  7. Photoluminescence quenching processes by NO2 adsorption in ZnO nanostructured films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cretı, A.; Valerini, D.; Taurino, A.; Quaranta, F.; Lomascolo, M.; Rella, R.

    2012-04-01

    The optical response by NO2 gas adsorption at different concentrations has been investigated, at room temperature, in ZnO nanostructured films grown by controlled vapor phase deposition. The variation (quenching) in the photoluminescence signal from excitonic and defects bands, due to the interactions between the oxidizing gas molecules and the sample surface, has been detected and dynamic responses and calibration curves as a function of gas concentration have been obtained and analyzed for each band. We showed that the sensing response results larger in excitonic band than in defect one and that the emission signal rises from two different quenchable and unquenchable states. A simple model was proposed in order to explain the quenching processes on the emission intensity and to correlate them to the morphological features of the samples. Finally, the reversibility of the quenching effects has also been tested at high gas concentration.

  8. Influence of oxygen partial pressure on the microstructural and magnetic properties of Er-doped ZnO thin films

    SciT

    Chen, Wei-Bin; Li, Fei; Chen, Hong-Ming

    2015-06-15

    Er-doped ZnO thin films have been prepared by using inductively coupled plasma enhanced physical vapor deposition at different O{sub 2}:Ar gas flow ratio (R = 0:30, 1:30, 1:15, 1:10 and 1:6). The influence of oxygen partial pressure on the structural, optical and magnetic properties was studied. It is found that an appropriate oxygen partial pressure (R=1:10) can produce the best crystalline quality with a maximum grain size. The internal strain, estimated by fitting the X-ray diffraction peaks, varied with oxygen partial pressure during growth. PL measurements show that plenty of defects, especially zinc vacancy, exist in Er-doped ZnO films. Allmore » the samples show room-temperature ferromagnetism. Importantly, the saturation magnetization exhibits similar dependency on oxygen partial pressure with the internal strain, which indicates that internal strain has an important effect on the magnetic properties of Er-doped ZnO thin films.« less

  9. Investigation of room temperature UV emission of ZnO films with different defect densities induced by laser irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Jiang, Yijian

    2010-08-01

    We studied the room temperature UV emission of ZnO films with different defect densities which is fabricated by KrF laser irradiation process. It is shown room temperature UV photoluminescence of ZnO film is composed of contribution from free-exciton (FX) recombination and its longitudinal-optical phonon replica (FX-LO) (1LO, 2LO). With increase of the defect density, the FX emission decreased and FX-LO emission increased dramatically; and the relative strengths of FX to FX-LO emission intensities determine the peak position and intensity of UV emission. What is more, laser irradiation with moderate energy density could induce the crystalline ZnO film with very flat and smooth surface. This investigation indicates that KrF laser irradiation could effectively modulate the exciton emission and surface morphology, which is important for the application of high performance of UV emitting optoelectronic devices. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Epitaxial ZnO/LiNbO{sub 3}/ZnO stacked layer waveguide for application to thin-film Pockels sensors

    SciT

    Akazawa, Housei, E-mail: akazawa.housei@lab.ntt.co.jp; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    We produced slab waveguides consisting of a LiNbO{sub 3} (LN) core layer that was sandwiched with Al-doped ZnO cladding layers. The ZnO/LN/ZnO stacked layers were grown on sapphire C-planes by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma sputtering and were subjected to structural, electrical, and optical characterizations. X-ray diffraction confirmed that the ZnO and LN layers were epitaxial without containing misoriented crystallites. The presence of 60°-rotational variants of ZnO and LN crystalline domains were identified from X-ray pole figures. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy images revealed a c-axis orientated columnar texture for LN crystals, which ensured operation as electro-optic sensors based on opticalmore » anisotropy along longitudinal and transversal directions. The interfacial roughness between the LN core and ZnO bottom layers as well as that between the ZnO top and the LN core layers was less than 20 nm, which agreed with surface images observed with atomic force microscopy. Outgrowth of triangular LN crystalline domains produced large roughness at the LN film surface. The RMS roughness of the LN film surface was twice that of the same structure grown on sapphire A-planes. Vertical optical transmittance of the stacked films was higher than 85% within the visible and infrared wavelength range. Following the approach adopted by Teng and Man [Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1734 (1990)], ac Pockels coefficients of r{sub 33} = 24-28 pm/V were derived for c-axis oriented LN films grown on low-resistive Si substrates. Light propagation within a ZnO/LN/ZnO slab waveguide as well as within a ZnO single layer waveguide was confirmed. The birefringence of these waveguides was 0.11 for the former and 0.05 for the latter.« less

  11. Cu-Doped ZnO Thin Films Grown by Co-deposition Using Pulsed Laser Deposition for ZnO and Radio Frequency Sputtering for Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hyun Wook; Son, Jong Yeog

    2018-05-01

    Cu-doped ZnO (CZO) thin films were fabricated on single-crystalline (0001) Al2O3 substrates by co-deposition using pulsed laser deposition for ZnO and radio frequency sputtering for Cu. CZO thin films with 0-20% molar concentrations are obtained by adjusting the deposition rates of ZnO and Cu. The CZO thin films exhibit room temperature ferromagnetism, and CZO with 5% Cu molar concentration has maximum remanent magnetization, which is consistent with theoretical results.

  12. Hydrogen induced electric conduction in undoped ZnO and Ga-doped ZnO thin films: Creating native donors via reduction, hydrogen donors, and reactivating extrinsic donors

    SciT

    Akazawa, Housei, E-mail: akazawa.housei@lab.ntt.co.jp

    2014-09-01

    The manner in which hydrogen atoms contribute to the electric conduction of undoped ZnO and Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films was investigated. Hydrogen atoms were permeated into these films through annealing in an atmospheric H{sub 2} ambient. Because the creation of hydrogen donors competes with the thermal annihilation of native donors at elevated temperatures, improvements to electric conduction from the initial state can be observed when insulating ZnO films are used as samples. While the resistivity of conductive ZnO films increases when annealing them in a vacuum, the degree of increase is mitigated when they are annealed in H{sub 2}. Hydrogenationmore » of ZnO crystals was evidenced by the appearance of OH absorption signals around a wavelength of 2700 nm in the optical transmittance spectra. The lowest resistivity that was achieved by H{sub 2} annealing was limited to 1–2 × 10{sup −2} Ω cm, which is one order of magnitude higher than that by native donors (2–3 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm). Hence, all native donors are converted to hydrogen donors. In contrast, GZO films that have resistivities yet to be improved become more conductive after annealing in H{sub 2} ambient, which is in the opposite direction of GZO films that become more resistive after vacuum annealing. Hydrogen atoms incorporated into GZO crystals should assist in reactivating Ga{sup 3+} donors.« less

  13. Influence of C or In buffer layer on photoluminescence behaviour of ultrathin ZnO film

    SciT

    Saravanan, K., E-mail: saravanan@igcar.gov.in; Jayalakshmi, G.; Krishnan, R.

    We study the effect of the indium or carbon buffer layer on the photoluminescence (PL) property of ZnO ultrathin films deposited on a Si(100) substrate. The surface morphology of the films obtained using scanning tunnelling microscopy shows spherical shaped ZnO nanoparticles of size ∼8 nm in ZnO/C/Si and ∼22 nm in ZnO/Si samples, while the ZnO/In/Si sample shows elliptical shaped ZnO particles. Further, the ZnO/C/Si sample shows densely packed ZnO nanoparticles in comparison with other samples. Strong band edge emission has been observed in the presence of In or C buffer layer, whereas the ZnO/Si sample exhibits poor PL emission. The influencemore » of C and In buffer layers on the PL behaviour of ZnO films is studied in detail using temperature dependent PL measurements in the range of 4 K–300 K. The ZnO/C/Si sample exhibits a multi-fold enhancement in the PL emission intensity with well-resolved free and bound exciton emission lines. Our experimental results imply that the ZnO films deposited on the C buffer layer showed higher particle density and better exciton emission desired for optoelectronic applications.« less

  14. ZnO thin film piezoelectric micromachined microphone with symmetric composite vibrating diaphragm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junhong; Wang, Chenghao; Ren, Wei; Ma, Jun

    2017-05-01

    Residual stress is an important factor affecting the sensitivity of piezoelectric micromachined microphone. A symmetric composite vibrating diaphragm was adopted in the micro electro mechanical systems piezoelectric microphone to decrease the residual stress and improve the sensitivity of microphone in this paper. The ZnO film was selected as piezoelectric materials of microphone for its higher piezoelectric coefficient d 31 and lower relative dielectric constant. The thickness optimization of piezoelectric film on square diaphragm is difficult to be fulfilled by analytic method. To optimize the thickness of ZnO films, the stress distribution in ZnO film was analyzed by finite element method and the average stress in different thickness of ZnO films was given. The ZnO films deposited using dc magnetron sputtering exhibits a densely packed structure with columnar crystallites preferentially oriented along (002) plane. The diaphragm of microphone fabricated by micromachining techniques is flat and no wrinkling at corners, and the sensitivity of microphone is higher than 1 mV Pa-1. These results indicate the diaphragm has lower residual stress.

  15. Low resistivity and low compensation ratio Ga-doped ZnO films grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng-Yu; Hsiao, Li-Han; Chyi, Jen-Inn

    2015-09-01

    In this study, Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) thin films were deposited on GaN templates by using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. To obtain low resistivity GZO films, in-situ post-annealing under Zn overpressure was carried out to avoid the generation of acceptor-liked Zn vacancies. The resultant films showed optical transparency over 95% in the visible spectral range. By reducing the acceptor-like defects, GZO films with compensation ratio near 0.4 and resistivity simultaneously lower than 1×10-4 Ω cm have been successfully demonstrated.

  16. Role of Ni doping on transport properties of ZnO thin films

    SciT

    Dar, Tanveer Ahmad, E-mail: tanveerphysics@gmail.com; Agrawal, Arpana; Sen, Pratima

    2015-06-24

    Nickel doped (Ni=0.05) and undoped Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films have been prepared by Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The structural analysis of the films was done by X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies which reveal absence of any secondary phase in the prepared samples. UV transmission spectra show that Ni doping reduces the transparency of the films. X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) also shows the presence of metallic Ni along with +2 oxidation state in the sample. Low temperature magneto transport properties of the ZnO and NiZnO films are also discussed in view of Khosla fisher model. Ni doping in ZnO resultsmore » in decrease in magnitude of negative MR.« less

  17. Study of vanadium doped ZnO films prepared by dc reactive magnetron sputtering at different substrate temperatures.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lijian; Teixeira, Vasco; Dos Santos, M P

    2013-02-01

    ZnO films doped with vanadium (ZnO:V) have been prepared by dc reactive magnetron sputtering technique at different substrate temperatures (RT-500 degrees C). The effects of the substrate temperature on ZnO:V films properties have been studied. XRD measurements show that only ZnO polycrystalline structure has been obtained, no V2O5 or VO2 crystal phase can be observed. It has been found that the film prepared at low substrate temperature has a preferred orientation along the (002) direction. As the substrate temperature is increased, the (002) peak intensity decreases. When the substrate temperature reaches the 500 degrees C, the film shows a random orientation. SEM measurements show a clear formation of the nano-grains in the sample surface when the substrate temperature is higher than 400 degrees C. The optical properties of the films have been studied by measuring the specular transmittance. The refractive index has been calculated by fitting the transmittance spectra using OJL model combined with harmonic oscillator.

  18. Effect of N2 flow during deposition on p-type ZnO film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chiung-Wei; Liu, Bor-Chang

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the influence of a nitrogen source on p-type conductive ZnO films was studied. Rapid thermal oxidation was conducted to oxidize ZnN films and convert them to ZnO films. When an as-deposited ZnN film was prepared at a high nitrogen gas flow rate, the converted ZnO film possessed many acceptors and showed stable p-type conduction. This p-type conduction was attributed to the nitrogen gas flow providing many “No” states, which act as acceptors within the processed ZnO film. It was found that the as-deposited ZnN film prepared at a high nitrogen gas flow rate is oxidized slightly so that only a few nitrogen atoms were replaced by oxygen. The carrier concentration and mobility of the optimized oxidized ZnN film were 9.76 × 1017 cm-3 and 62.78 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. A good rectified current-voltage characteristic with a turn-on voltage of 3.65 V was achieved for the optimized ZnO:N/ZnO junction.

  19. Optimization of pulsed laser deposited ZnO thin-film growth parameters for thin-film transistors (TFT) application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Manisha; Chowdhury, Fatema Rezwana; Barlage, Douglas; Tsui, Ying Yin

    2013-03-01

    In this work we present the optimization of zinc oxide (ZnO) film properties for a thin-film transistor (TFT) application. Thin films, 50±10 nm, of ZnO were deposited by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) under a variety of growth conditions. The oxygen pressure, laser fluence, substrate temperature and annealing conditions were varied as a part of this study. Mobility and carrier concentration were the focus of the optimization. While room-temperature ZnO growths followed by air and oxygen annealing showed improvement in the (002) phase formation with a carrier concentration in the order of 1017-1018/cm3 with low mobility in the range of 0.01-0.1 cm2/V s, a Hall mobility of 8 cm2/V s and a carrier concentration of 5×1014/cm3 have been achieved on a relatively low temperature growth (250 °C) of ZnO. The low carrier concentration indicates that the number of defects have been reduced by a magnitude of nearly a 1000 as compared to the room-temperature annealed growths. Also, it was very clearly seen that for the (002) oriented films of ZnO a high mobility film is achieved.

  20. Effect of Doping Materials on the Low-Level NO Gas Sensing Properties of ZnO Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çorlu, Tugba; Karaduman, Irmak; Yildirim, Memet Ali; Ateş, Aytunç; Acar, Selim

    2017-07-01

    In this study, undoped, Cu-doped, and Ni-doped ZnO thin films have been successfully prepared by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method. The structural, compositional, and morphological properties of the thin films are characterized by x-ray diffractometer, energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX), and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Doping effects on the NO gas sensing properties of these thin films were investigated depending on gas concentration and operating temperature. Cu-doped ZnO thin film exhibited a higher gas response than undoped and Ni-doped ZnO thin film at the operating temperature range. The sensor with Cu-doped ZnO thin film gave faster responses and recovery speeds than other sensors, so that is significant for the convenient application of gas sensor. The response and recovery speeds could be associated with the effective electron transfer between the Cu-doped ZnO and the NO molecules.

  1. High performance thin film transistor with ZnO channel layer deposited by DC magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Moon, Yeon-Keon; Moon, Dae-Yong; Lee, Sang-Ho; Jeong, Chang-Oh; Park, Jong-Wan

    2008-09-01

    Research in large area electronics, especially for low-temperature plastic substrates, focuses commonly on limitations of the semiconductor in thin film transistors (TFTs), in particular its low mobility. ZnO is an emerging example of a semiconductor material for TFTs that can have high mobility, while a-Si and organic semiconductors have low mobility (<1 cm2/Vs). ZnO-based TFTs have achieved high mobility, along with low-voltage operation low off-state current, and low gate leakage current. In general, ZnO thin films for the channel layer of TFTs are deposited with RF magnetron sputtering methods. On the other hand, we studied ZnO thin films deposited with DC magnetron sputtering for the channel layer of TFTs. After analyzing the basic physical and chemical properties of ZnO thin films, we fabricated a TFT-unit cell using ZnO thin films for the channel layer. The field effect mobility (micro(sat)) of 1.8 cm2/Vs and threshold voltage (Vth) of -0.7 V were obtained.

  2. Cr2O3-modified ZnO thick film resistors as LPG sensors.

    PubMed

    Patil, D R; Patil, L A

    2009-02-15

    Thick films of pure ZnO were obtained by screen-printing technique. Surface functionalized ZnO thick films by Cr(2)O(3) were obtained by dipping pure ZnO thick films into 0.01M aqueous solution of chromium trioxide (CrO(3)). The dipped films were fired at 500 degrees C for 30 min. Upon firing, the CrO(3) would reduce to Cr(2)O(3). Cr(2)O(3)-activated (0.47 mass%) ZnO thick films resulted in LPG sensor. Upon exposure to 100 ppm LPG, the barrier height between Cr(2)O(3) and ZnO grains decreases markedly, leading to a drastic decrease in resistance. The sensor was found to sense LPG at 350 degrees C and no cross sensitivity was observed to other hazardous, polluting and inflammable gases. The quick response ( approximately 18s) and fast recovery ( approximately 42s) are the main features of this sensor. The effects of microstructures and dopant concentrations on the gas sensing performance of the sensor were studied and discussed.

  3. Hydrothermal temperature effect on crystal structures, optical properties and electrical conductivity of ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhafina, Wan Almaz; Salleh, Hasiah; Daud, Mohd Zalani; Ghazali, Mohd Sabri Mohd; Ghazali, Salmah Mohd

    2017-09-01

    ZnO is an wide direct band gap semiconductor and possess rich family of nanostructures which turned to be a key role in the nanotechnology field of applications. Hydrothermal method was proven to be simple, robust and low cost among the reported methods to synthesize ZnO nanostructures. In this work, the properties of ZnO nanostructures were altered by varying temperatures of hydrothermal process. The changes in term of morphological, crystal structures, optical properties and electrical conductivity were investigated. A drastic change of ZnO nanostructures morphology and decreases of 002 diffraction peak were observed as the hydrothermal temperature increased. The band gap of samples decreased as the size of ZnO nanostructure increased, whereas the electrical conductivity had no influence on the band gap value but more on the morphology of ZnO nanostructures instead.

  4. Synthesis of stable ZnO nanocolloids with enhanced optical limiting properties via simple solution method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramya, M.; Nideep, T. K.; Vijesh, K. R.; Nampoori, V. P. N.; Kailasnath, M.

    2018-07-01

    In present work, we report the synthesis of stable ZnO nanocolloids through a simple solution method which exhibit enhanced optical limiting threshold. The influences of reaction temperature on the crystal structure as well as linear and nonlinear optical properties of prepared ZnO nanoparticles were carried out. The XRD and Raman analysis reveal that the prepared ZnO nanoparticles retain the hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure. HRTEM analysis confirms the effect of reaction temperature, solvent effect on crystallinity as well as nanostructure of ZnO nanoparticles. It has been found that crystallinity and average diameter increase with reaction temperature where ethylene glycol act as both solvent and growth inhibiter. EDS spectra shows formation of pure ZnO nanoparticles. The direct energy band gap of the nanoparticles increases with decrease in particle size due to quantum confinement effect. The third order nonlinear optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles were investigated by z scan technique using a frequency doubled Nd-YAG nanosecond laser at 532 nm wavelength. The z-scan result reveals that the prepared ZnO nanoparticles exhibit self - defocusing nonlinearity. The two photon absorption coefficient and third - order nonlinear optical susceptibility increases with increasing particle size. The third-order susceptibility of the ZnO nanoparticles is found to be in the order of 10-10 esu, which is at least three order magnitude greater than the bulk ZnO. The optical limiting threshold of the nanoparticles varies in the range of 54 to 17 MW/cm2. The results suggest that ZnO nanoparticles considered as a promising candidates for the future photonic devices.

  5. Graphene doped ZnO films for photoelectrowetting on microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Aribe, Khaled; Knopf, George K.

    2017-02-01

    Photoelectrowetting on dielectric surfaces can be used to drive droplets of liquid along reconfigurable paths on a microfluidic chip using controlled optical signals. These electrostatically activated surfaces along the desired path eliminate the need for precision molded channels and discrete functional components such as microvalves and micropumps. The photoelectrowetting effect exploits the surface tension of the droplet to maintain its volume during the transportation pathway and the photoelectric properties of the substrate surface are used to induce reversible fluidic flow. The active light-driven substrate is structured from graphene doped zinc-oxide (ZnO-G) films deposited on ITO coated glass. This substrate is coated from the ZnO-G side with Ruthenium-based dye (N719) to maximize its absorbability. The light triggers two forces that enable the droplet to be transported along the substrate. The first arises from the induced hydrophobicity gradient formed across the droplet contact area with the substrate surface. Exposing the ZnO-G film to a broad spectrum white light source alters the surface's electric potential which induces a change in the droplet's contact angle and the associated hydrophobicity. Once the hydrophobicity gradient is generated the droplet will start to move in the direction of the wetting zone. The second force is also created by the optical input when the absorbed light generates a photoelectric potential that produces a piezo-electrical effect on the ZnO-G film. The light triggered piezo-electrical behavior of the ZnO-G film can be used to generate the erasable microchannels that can guide droplet movement through a microfluidic chip. Preliminary experiments are performed to investigate the photoelectric potential of light activated ZnO-G films.

  6. Structural, Optical, and Vibrational Properties of ZnO Microrods Deposited on Silicon Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahlouh, Bashar I.; Ikhmayies, Shadia J.; Juwhari, Hassan K.

    2018-03-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) microrod films deposited by spray pyrolysis on silicon substrate at 350 ± 5°C have been studied and evaluated, and compared with thin films deposited by electron beam to confirm the identity of the studied samples. The films were characterized using different techniques. The microrod structure was studied and confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis confirmed successful deposition of ZnO thin films with the expected wurtzite structure. Reflectance data showed a substantial drop across the whole studied wavelength range. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the studied samples showed a peak at ˜ 360 nm, representing a signature of ZnO. The shift in the PL peak position is due to defects and other species present in the films, as confirmed by FTIR and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy results.

  7. Pulsed laser deposited hexagonal wurzite ZnO thin-film nanostructures/nanotextures for nanophotonics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John Chelliah, Cyril Robinson Azariah; Swaminathan, Rajesh

    2018-01-01

    The high-quality and transparent thin-film zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures/nanotextures deposited on glass and silicon substrates using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique are reported. A solid-state, Nd-YAG laser was used for the PLD process. The films were deposited (i) at room temperature of 25°C (as deposited), (ii) at 150°C, (iii) at 300°C, (iv) at 450°C, and (v) at 600°C and annealed in the vacuum chamber. The depositions were also carried out at different laser repetition rates such as 10 and 5 Hz. UV spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy were carried out for optical studies. X-ray diffraction studies were carried out for all samples and analyzed the effects of the laser repetition rate, deposition, and annealing temperatures on the structural properties. Field-emission scanning electron microscope images are recorded for the best-structured samples. The electrical parameters were calibrated using the Hall effect measurement system and the IV characterization was performed using a CHI Electrochemical workstation. The deposition temperature has a significant effect on the microstrain and dislocation density of the ZnO thin film and optical phenomena with various electrical parameters, including the electron mobility, conductivity, and magnetoresistance. These promising results are suitable conditions for nanophotonics applications.

  8. Effect of Ag doping on the structural, electrical and optical properties of ZnO grown by MOCVD at different substrate temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ievtushenko, A.; Karpyna, V.; Eriksson, J.; Tsiaoussis, I.; Shtepliuk, I.; Lashkarev, G.; Yakimova, R.; Khranovskyy, V.

    2018-05-01

    ZnO films and nanostructures were deposited on Si substrates by MOCVD using single source solid state zinc acetylacetonate (Zn(AA)) precursor. Doping by silver was realized in-situ via adding 1 and 10 wt. % of Ag acetylacetonate (Ag(AA)) to zinc precursor. Influence of Ag on the microstructure, electrical and optical properties of ZnO at temperature range 220-550 °C was studied by scanning, transmission electron and Kelvin probe force microscopy, photoluminescence and four-point probe electrical measurements. Ag doping affects the ZnO microstructure via changing the nucleation mode into heterogeneous and thus transforming the polycrystalline films into a matrix of highly c-axis textured hexagonally faceted nanorods. Increase of the work function value from 4.45 to 4.75 eV was observed with Ag content increase, which is attributed to Ag behaviour as a donor impurity. It was observed, that near-band edge emission of ZnO NS was enhanced with Ag doping as a result of quenching deep-level emission. Upon high doping of ZnO by Ag it tends to promote the formation of basal plane stacking faults defect, as it was observed by HR TEM and PL study in the case of 10 wt.% of Ag. Based on the results obtained, it is suggested that NS deposition at lower temperatures (220-300 °C) is more favorable for p-type doping of ZnO.

  9. C-Axis-Oriented Hydroxyapatite Film Grown Using ZnO Buffer Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakoishi, Yasuhiro; Iguchi, Ryo; Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Hontsu, Shigeki; Hayami, Takashi; Kusunoki, Masanobu

    2013-11-01

    A method of fabricating c-axis-oriented hydroxyapatite film on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor was investigated. ZnO was used as a template to obtain a hexagonal hydroxyapatite crystal of uniaxial orientation. The ZnO was grown as a c-axis film on a Au/quartz with the surface structure of a QCM sensor. Under optimized conditions, hydroxyapatite was deposited by pulsed laser deposition. X-ray diffraction showed the hydroxyapatite film to be oriented along the c-axis. Because Au and ZnO are applied to many devices, the anisotropic properties of hydroxyapatite may be incorporated into these devices as well as QCM sensors.

  10. Anisotropic magnetism and spin-dependent transport in Co nanoparticle embedded ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D. Y.; Zeng, Y. J.; Pereira, L. M. C.; Batuk, D.; Hadermann, J.; Zhang, Y. Z.; Ye, Z. Z.; Temst, K.; Vantomme, A.; Van Bael, M. J.; Van Haesendonck, C.

    2013-07-01

    Oriented Co nanoparticles were obtained by Co ion implantation in crystalline ZnO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of elliptically shaped Co precipitates with nanometer size, which are embedded in the ZnO thin films, resulting in anisotropic magnetic behavior. The low-temperature resistance of the Co-implanted ZnO thin films follows the Efros-Shklovskii type variable-range-hopping. Large negative magnetoresistance (MR) exceeding 10% is observed in a magnetic field of 1 T at 2.5 K and the negative MR survives up to 250 K (0.3%). The negative MR reveals hysteresis as well as anisotropy that correlate well with the magnetic properties, clearly demonstrating the presence of spin-dependent transport.

  11. Third generation biosensing matrix based on Fe-implanted ZnO thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Shibu; Gupta, Vinay; Sreenivas, K.; Tan, H. H.; Jagadish, C.

    2010-09-01

    Third generation biosensor based on Fe-implanted ZnO (Fe-ZnO) thin film has been demonstrated. Implantation of Fe in rf-sputtered ZnO thin film introduces redox center along with shallow donor level and thereby enhance its electron transfer property. Glucose oxidase (GOx), chosen as model enzyme, has been immobilized on the surface of the matrix. Cyclic voltammetry and photometric assay show that the prepared bioelectrode, GOx/Fe-ZnO/ITO/Glass is sensitive to the glucose concentration with enhanced response of 0.326 μA mM-1 cm-2 and low Km of 2.76 mM. The results show promising application of Fe-implanted ZnO thin film as an attractive matrix for third generation biosensing.

  12. Pure and Sn-doped ZnO films produced by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmelund, E.; Schou, J.; Tougaard, S.; Larsen, N. B.

    2002-09-01

    A new technique, metronome doping, has been used for doping of films during pulsed laser deposition (PLD). This technique makes it possible to dope continuously during film growth with different concentrations of a dopant in one deposition sequence. Films of pure and doped ZnO have been produced with Sn concentrations up to 16%. The specific resistivity is found to increase and the transmission of visible light to decrease with increasing Sn concentration.

  13. Development of Room Temperature Excitonic Lasing From ZnO and MgZnO Thin Film Based Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suja, Mohammad Zahir Uddin

    Room temperature excitonic lasing is demonstrated and developed by utilizing metal-semiconductor-metal devices based on ZnO and MgZnO materials. At first, Cu-doped p-type ZnO films are grown on c-sapphire substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Photoluminescence (PL) experiments reveal a shallow acceptor state at 0.15 eV above the valence band edge. Hall effect results indicate that a growth condition window is found for the formation of p-type ZnO thin films and the best conductivity is achieved with a high hole concentration of 1.54x1018 cm-3, a low resistivity of 0.6 O cm and a moderate mobility of 6.65 cm2 V -1 s-1 at room temperature. Metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) capacitor devices have been fabricated on the Cu-doped ZnO films and the characteristics of capacitance-voltage measurements demonstrate that the Cu-doped ZnO thin films under proper growth conditions are p-type. Seebeck measurements on these Cu-doped ZnO samples lead to positive Seebeck coefficients and further confirm the p-type conductivity. Other measurements such as XRD, XPS, Raman and absorption are also performed to elucidate the structural and optical characteristics of the Cu-doped p-type ZnO films. The p-type conductivity is explained to originate from Cu substitution of Zn with a valency of +1 state. However, all p-type samples are converted to n-type over time, which is mostly due to the carrier compensation from extrinsic defects of ZnO. To overcome the stability issue of p-type ZnO film, alternate devices other than p-n junction has been developed. Electrically driven plasmon-exciton coupled random lasing is demonstrated by incorporating Ag nanoparticles on Cu-doped ZnO metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) devices. Both photoluminescence and electroluminescence studies show that emission efficiencies have been enhanced significantly due to coupling between ZnO excitons and Ag surface plasmons. With the incorporation of Ag nanoparticles on ZnO MSM structures, internal quantum

  14. Ferroelectric enhancement in heterostructured ZnO /BiFeO3-PbTiO3 film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shengwen; Chen, Rui; Zhang, Guanjun; Cheng, Jinrong; Meng, Zhongyan

    2006-11-01

    The authors have prepared heterostructured ZnO /BiFeO3-PbTiO3 (BFO-PT) composite film and BFO-PT film on Pt /Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by pulsed-laser deposition. The structure and morphologies of the films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope. XRD results show that both films are perovskite structured last with different orientations. The leakage current density in the ZnO /BFO-PT film was found to be nearly two orders of magnitude lower. This could be due to the introduced ZnO layer behaving as a Schottky barrier between the BFO-PT film and top electrodes. The dramatic ferroelectric enhancement in ZnO /BFO-PT film is mostly ascribed to the improved insulation.

  15. Disposable urea biosensor based on nanoporous ZnO film fabricated from omissible polymeric substrate.

    PubMed

    Rahmanian, Reza; Mozaffari, Sayed Ahmad; Abedi, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, a facile and simple fabrication method of a semiconductor based urea biosensor was reported via three steps: (i) producing a ZnO-PVA composite film by means of a polymer assisted electrodeposition of zinc oxide (ZnO) on the F-doped SnO2 conducting glass (FTO) using water soluble polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), (ii) obtaining a nanoporous ZnO film by PVA omission via a subsequent post-treatment by annealing of the ZnO-PVA film, and (iii) preparation of a FTO/ZnO/Urs biosensor by exploiting a nanoporous ZnO film as an efficient and excellent platform area for electrostatic immobilization of urease enzyme (Urs) which was forced by the difference in their isoelectric point (IEP). The characterization techniques focused on the analysis of the ZnO-PVA film surfaces before and after annealing, which had a prominent effect on the porosity of the prepared ZnO film. The surface characterization of the nanostructured ZnO film by a field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), exhibited a film surface area as an effective bio-sensing matrix for enzyme immobilization. The structural characterization and monitoring of the biosensor fabrication was performed using UV-Vis, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Raman Spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The impedimetric results of the FTO/ZnO/Urs biosensor showed a high sensitivity for urea detection within 8.0-110.0mg dL(-1) with the limit of detection as 5.0mg dL(-1). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Electron mobility enhancement in ZnO thin films via surface modification by carboxylic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalenka, Josef W.; Gopalan, Padma; Katz, Howard E.; Evans, Paul G.

    2013-01-01

    Modifying the surface of polycrystalline ZnO films using a monolayer of organic molecules with carboxylic acid attachment groups increases the field-effect electron mobility and zero-bias conductivity, resulting in improved transistors and transparent conductors. The improvement is consistent with the passivation of defects via covalent bonding of the carboxylic acid and is reversible by exposure to a UV-ozone lamp. The properties of the solvent used for the attachment are crucial because solvents with high acid dissociation constants (Ka) for carboxylic acids lead to high proton activities and etching of the nanometers-thick ZnO films, masking the electronic effect.

  17. Microwave Characterization of Ba-Substituted PZT and ZnO Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Tierno, Davide; Dekkers, Matthijn; Wittendorp, Paul; Sun, Xiao; Bayer, Samuel C; King, Seth T; Van Elshocht, Sven; Heyns, Marc; Radu, Iuliana P; Adelmann, Christoph

    2018-05-01

    The microwave dielectric properties of (Ba 0.1 Pb 0.9 )(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 (BPZT) and ZnO thin films with thicknesses below were investigated. No significant dielectric relaxation was observed for both BPZT and ZnO up to 30 GHz. The intrinsic dielectric constant of BPZT was as high as 980 at 30 GHz. The absence of strong dielectric dispersion and loss peaks in the studied frequency range can be linked to the small grain diameters in these ultrathin films.

  18. Physical and electrochemical properties of ZnO films fabricated from highly cathodic electrodeposition potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Abdul Hadi; Abdullah, Abdul Halim; Sulaiman, Yusran

    2017-03-01

    The physical and electrochemical properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) film electrode that were prepared electrochemically were studied. ZnO was electrodeposited on ITO glass substrate by applying three different highly cathodic potentials (-1.3 V, -1.5 V, -1.7 V) in a solution containing 70 mM of Zn(NO3)2.xH2O and 0.1 M KCl with bath temperatures of 70 °C and 80 °C. The presence of ZnO was asserted from XRD analysis where the corresponding peaks in the spectra were assigned. SEM images revealed the plate-like hexagonal morphology of ZnO which is in agreement with the XRD analysis. The areal capacitance of the ZnO was observed to increase when the applied electrodeposition potential is increased from -1.3 V to -1.5 V. However, the areal capacitance is found to decrease when the applied electrodeposition potential is further increased to -1.7 V. The resistance of charge transfer (Rct) of the ZnO decreased when the applied electrodeposition potential varies from -1.3 V to -1.7 V due to the decreased particle size of ZnO when more cathodic electrodeposition potential is applied.

  19. ZnO synthesized in air by fs laser irradiation on metallic Zn thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esqueda-Barrón, Y.; Herrera, M.; Camacho-López, S.

    2018-05-01

    We present results on rapid femtosecond laser synthesis of nanostructured ZnO. We used metallic Zn thin films to laser scan along straight tracks, until forming nanostructured ZnO. The synthesis dependence on laser irradiation parameters such as the per pulse fluence, integrated fluence, laser scan speed, and number of scans were explored carefully. SEM characterization showed that the morphology of the obtained ZnO is dictated by the integrated fluence and the laser scan speed; micro Raman and XRD results allowed to identify optimal laser processing conditions for getting good quality ZnO; and cathodoluminescence measurements demonstrated that a single laser scan at high per pulse laser fluence, but a medium integrated laser fluence and a medium laser scan speed favors a low density of point-defects in the lattice. Electrical measurements showed a correlation between resistivity of the laser produced ZnO and point-defects created during the synthesis. Transmittance measurements showed that, the synthesized ZnO can reach down to the supporting fused silica substrate under the right laser irradiation conditions. The physical mechanism for the formation of ZnO, under ultrashort pulse laser irradiation, is discussed in view of the distinct times scales given by the laser pulse duration and the laser pulse repetition rate.

  20. Reflectometric measurement of n-hexane adsorption on ZnO2 nanohybrid film modified by hydrophobic gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebők, Dániel; Csapó, Edit; Ábrahám, Nóra; Dékány, Imre

    2015-04-01

    Zinc-peroxide/poly(styrenesulfonate) nanohybrid thin films (containing 20 bilayers: [ZnO2/PSS]20, d ∼ 500 nm) were prepared using layer-by-layer (LbL) method. The thin film surface was functionalized by different surface modifying agents (silanes, alkylthiols and hydrophobized nanoparticles). Based on the experimental results of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and contact angle measurements (as prequalifications) the octanethiol covered gold nanoparticles (OT-AuNPs) were selected for further vapour adsorption studies. Reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS) was used to measure n-hexane vapour adsorption on the original and modified nanohybrid films in a gas flow platform. The thin film provides only the principle of the measurement (by interference phenomenon), the selectivity and hydrophobicity is controlled and enhanced by surface functionalization (by dispersion interaction between the alkyl chains). The interference pattern shift (Δλ) caused by the increase of the optical thickness of the thin film due to vapour adsorption was investigated. It was found that due to the surface functionalization by hydrophobic nanoparticles the effect of water vapour adsorption decreased significantly, while for n-hexane opposite tendency was observed (the effective refractive index and thus the interference pattern shift increased drastically). The correlation between QCM technique and optical method (RIfS) was specified: linear specific adsorbed amount vs. wavelength shift calibration curves were determined in the pr = 0-0.4 relative vapour pressure range. The thin film is suitable for sensorial application (e.g. volatile organic compound/VOC sensor).

  1. Reversible superhydrophobic-superhydrophilic transition of ZnO nanorod/epoxy composite films.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Lin, Ziyin; Lin, Wei; Moon, Kyoung Sik; Wong, C P

    2012-08-01

    Tuning the surface wettability is of great interest for both scientific research and practical applications. We demonstrated reversible transition between superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity on a ZnO nanorod/epoxy composite film. The epoxy resin serves as an adhesion and stress relief layer. The ZnO nanorods were exposed after oxygen reactive ion etching of the epoxy matrix. A subsequent chemcial treatment with fluoroalkyl and alkyl silanes resulted in a superhydrophobic surface with a water contact angle up to 158.4° and a hysteresis as low as 1.3°. Under UV irradiation, the water contact angle decreased gradually, and the surface eventually became superhydrophilic because of UV induced decomposition of alkyl silanes and hydroxyl absorption on ZnO surfaces. A reversible transition of surface wettability was realized by alternation of UV illumination and surface treatment. Such ZnO nanocomposite surface also showed improved mechanical robustness.

  2. Effect of polyvinyl alcohol on electrochemically deposited ZnO thin films for DSSC applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marimuthu, T.; Anandhan, N.

    2017-05-01

    Nanostructures of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film are electrochemically deposited in the absence and presence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the formation of hexagonal structure of ZnO. The film prepared in the presence of PVA showed a better crystallinity and its crystalline growth along the (002) plane orientation. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) images display nanowire arrays (NWAs) and sponge like morphology for films prepared in the absence and presence of PVA, respectively. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra depict the film prepared in the presence PVA having less atomic defects with good crystal quality compared with other film. Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is constructed using low cost eosin yellow dye and current-voltage (J-V) curve is recorded for optimized sponge like morphology based solar cell.

  3. Effect of Li doping on the electric and pyroelectric properties of ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinca, L. M.; Galca, A. C.; Boni, A. G.; Botea, M.; Pintilie, L.

    2018-01-01

    Un-doped ZnO (UDZO) and Li-doped ZnO (LZO) polycrystalline thin films were grown on platinized silicon by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The electrical properties were investigated on as-grown and annealed UDZO and LZO films with capacitor configuration, using top and bottom platinum electrodes. In the case of the as-grown films it was found that the introduction of Li increases the resistivity of ZnO and induces butterfly shape in the C-V characteristic, suggesting ferroelectric-like behavior in LZO films. The properties of LZO samples does not significantly changes after thermal annealing while the properties of UDZO samples show significant changes upon annealing, manifested in a butterfly shape of the C-V characteristic and resistive-like switching. However, the butterfly shape disappears if long delay time is used in the C-V measurement, the characteristic remaining non-linear. Pyroelectric signal could be measured only on annealed films. Comparing the UDZO results with those obtained in the case of Li:ZnO, it was found that the pyroelectric properties are considerably enhanced by Li doping, leading to pyroelectric signal with about one order of magnitude larger at low modulation frequencies than for un-doped samples. Although the results of this study hint towards a ferroelectric-like behavior of Li doped ZnO, the presence of real ferroelectricity in this material remains controversial.

  4. Li diffusion in epitaxial (11 $bar 2$ 0) ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, P.; Zhong, J.; Emanetoglu, N. W.; Chen, Y.; Muthukumar, S.; Lu, Y.

    2004-06-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) possesses many interesting properties, such as a wide energy bandgap, large photoconductivity, and high excitonic binding energy. Chemical-vapor-deposition-grown ZnO films generally show n-type conductivity. A compensation doping process is needed to achieve piezoelectric ZnO, which is needed for surface acoustic wave (SAW), bulk acoustic wave, and micro-electromechanical system devices. In this work, a gas-phase diffusion process is developed to achieve piezoelectric (11bar 20) ZnO films. Comparative x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements confirmed that high crystal quality and good surface morphology were preserved after diffusion. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements show a broad band emission with a peak wavelength at ˜580 nm, which is associated with Li doping. The SAW, including both Rayleigh-wave and Love-wave modes, is achieved along different directions in piezoelectric (11bar 20) ZnO films grown on an r-plane sapphire substrate.

  5. A 128×96 Pixel Stack-Type Color Image Sensor: Stack of Individual Blue-, Green-, and Red-Sensitive Organic Photoconductive Films Integrated with a ZnO Thin Film Transistor Readout Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hokuto; Aihara, Satoshi; Watabe, Toshihisa; Ohtake, Hiroshi; Sakai, Toshikatsu; Kubota, Misao; Egami, Norifumi; Hiramatsu, Takahiro; Matsuda, Tokiyoshi; Furuta, Mamoru; Hirao, Takashi

    2011-02-01

    A color image was produced by a vertically stacked image sensor with blue (B)-, green (G)-, and red (R)-sensitive organic photoconductive films, each having a thin-film transistor (TFT) array that uses a zinc oxide (ZnO) channel to read out the signal generated in each organic film. The number of the pixels of the fabricated image sensor is 128×96 for each color, and the pixel size is 100×100 µm2. The current on/off ratio of the ZnO TFT is over 106, and the B-, G-, and R-sensitive organic photoconductive films show excellent wavelength selectivity. The stacked image sensor can produce a color image at 10 frames per second with a resolution corresponding to the pixel number. This result clearly shows that color separation is achieved without using any conventional color separation optical system such as a color filter array or a prism.

  6. Development and surface characterization of a glucose biosensor based on a nanocolumnar ZnO film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, A.; Castegnaro, M. V.; Arguello, J.; Alves, M. C. M.; Morais, J.

    2017-04-01

    Highly oriented nanostructured ZnO films were grown on the surface of stainless steel plates (ZnO/SS) by chemical bath deposition (CBD). The films consisted of vertically aligned ZnO nanocolumns, ∼1 μm long and ∼80 nm wide, as observed by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and FIB (focused ion beam). XRD (X-ray diffraction) confirmed the c-axis preferred orientation of the ZnO columns, which were functionalized with the glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme into a biosensor of glucose. The electrochemical response studied by CV (cyclic voltammetry) proved that the biosensor was capable of detecting glucose from 1.5 up to 16 mM concentration range. XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) analysis, excited with synchrotron radiation, probed the atom specific chemical environment at the electrode's surface and shed some light on the nature of the ZnO-GOx interaction.

  7. Induced conductivity in sol-gel ZnO films by passivation or elimination of Zn vacancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winarski, D. J.; Anwand, W.; Wagner, A.; Saadatkia, P.; Selim, F. A.; Allen, M.; Wenner, B.; Leedy, K.; Allen, J.; Tetlak, S.; Look, D. C.

    2016-09-01

    Undoped and Ga- and Al- doped ZnO films were synthesized using sol-gel and spin coating methods and characterized by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical spectroscopy and Hall-effect measurements. SEM measurements reveal an average grain size of 20 nm and distinct individual layer structure. Measurable conductivity was not detected in the unprocessed films; however, annealing in hydrogen or zinc environment induced significant conductivity (˜10-2 Ω .cm) in most films. Positron annihilation spectroscopy measurements provided strong evidence that the significant enhancement in conductivity was due to hydrogen passivation of Zn vacancy related defects or elimination of Zn vacancies by Zn interstitials which suppress their role as deep acceptors. Hydrogen passivation of cation vacancies is shown to play an important role in tuning the electrical conductivity of ZnO, similar to its role in passivation of defects at the Si/SiO2 interface that has been essential for the successful development of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices. By comparison with hydrogen effect on other oxides, we suggest that hydrogen may play a universal role in oxides passivating cation vacancies and modifying their electronic properties.

  8. Self-assembled Ag nanoparticle network passivated by a nano-sized ZnO layer for transparent and flexible film heaters

    SciT

    Seo, Ki-Won; Kim, Han-Ki, E-mail: imdlhkkim@khu.ac.kr; Kim, Min-Yi

    2015-12-15

    We investigated a self-assembled Ag nanoparticle network electrode passivated by a nano-sized ZnO layer for use in high-performance transparent and flexible film heaters (TFFHs). The low temperature atomic layer deposition of a nano-sized ZnO layer effectively filled the uncovered area of Ag network and improved the current spreading in the self-assembled Ag network without a change in the sheet resistance and optical transmittance as well as mechanical flexibility. The time-temperature profiles and heat distribution analysis demonstrate that the performance of the TFTH with the ZnO/Ag network is superior to that of a TFFH with Ag nanowire electrodes. In addition, themore » TFTHs with ZnO/Ag network exhibited better stability than the TFFH with a bare Ag network due to the effective current spreading through the nano-sized ZnO layer.« less

  9. Electroless controllable growth of ZnO films and their morphology-dependent antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Ruíz-Gómez, M A; Figueroa-Torres, M Z; Alonso-Lemus, I L; Vega-Becerra, O E; González-López, J R; Zaldívar-Cadena, A A

    2018-04-05

    An electroless deposition process was used to synthesize with a controlled morphology, polycrystalline ZnO on glass substrates as antimicrobial coatings. The influence of deposition temperature (T dep ) on the physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of the ZnO films was analyzed. The results indicated that a change in deposition temperature greatly affected the morphology and the degree of crystallinity of the films. Scanning electron microscope images show that the film surface is porous at a deposition temperature of 40 and 50 °C, whereas hexagonal-plate shaped morphology predominated at 60 °C and finally at 70 and 80 °C the films consisted of rod-like particles. The films showed good transparency in the visible region. All ZnO films presented notable antimicrobial activity against the gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli) and the gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). It was found that the antimicrobial efficiency is strongly dependent on morphology and structural properties. The best antimicrobial performance was recorded for the films consisting of rod-like morphology with a high degree of crystallinity. The procedure used in this investigation is strongly recommended for the development of functional surfaces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Al doping on performance of ZnO thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Junchen; Han, Dedong; Li, Huijin; Yu, Wen; Zhang, Shendong; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Yi

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we investigate the Aluminum-doped Zinc Oxide (AZO) thin films and their feasibility as the active layer for thin film transistors (TFTs). A comparison on performance is made between the AZO TFTs and ZnO TFTs. The electrical properties such as saturation mobility, subthreshold swing, and on-to-off current ratio are improved when AZO is utilized as the active layer. Oxygen component of the thin film materials indicates that Al is the suppressor for oxygen defect in active layer, which improves the subthreshold swing. Moreover, based on band structure analyzation, we observe that the carrier concentration of AZO is higher than ZnO, leading to the enhancement of saturation mobility. The microstructure of the thin films convey that the AZO films exhibit much smaller grain boundaries than ZnO films, which results in the lower off-state current and higher on-to-off current ratio of AZO TFTs. The AZO thin films show huge potential to be the active layer of TFTs.

  11. Rapid synthesis of Co, Ni co-doped ZnO nanoparticles: Optical and electrochemical properties

    SciT

    Romeiro, Fernanda C.; Marinho, Juliane Z.; Lemos, Samantha C.S.

    We report for the first time a rapid preparation of Zn{sub 1−2x}Co{sub x}Ni{sub x}O nanoparticles via a versatile and environmentally friendly route, microwave-assisted hydrothermal (MAH) method. The Co, Ni co-doped ZnO nanoparticles present an effect on photoluminescence and electrochemical properties, exhibiting excellent electrocatalytic performance compared to undoped ZnO sample. Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements indicated the reduction of the green–orange–red visible emission region after adding Co and Ni ions, revealing the formation of alternative pathways for the generated recombination. The presence of these metallic ions into ZnO creates different defects, contributing to a local structural disorder, as revealed by Raman spectra. Electrochemicalmore » experiments revealed that the electrocatalytic oxidation of dopamine on ZnO attached to multi-walled carbon nanotubes improved significantly in the Co, Ni co-doped ZnO samples when compared to pure ZnO. - Graphical abstract: Rapid synthesis of Co, Ni co-doped ZnO nanoparticles: optical and electrochemical properties. Co, Ni co-doped ZnO hexagonal nanoparticles with optical and electrocatalytic properties were successfully prepared for the first time using a microwave hydrothermal method at mild conditions. - Highlights: • Co{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} into ZnO lattice obtained a mild and environmentally friendly process. • The heating method strongly influences in the growth and shape of the particles. • Short-range defects generated by the ions insertion affects the photoluminescence. • Doped ZnO nanoparticles improve the electrocatalytic properties of pure oxide.« less

  12. High Performance and Highly Reliable ZnO Thin Film Transistor Fabricated by Atomic Layer Deposition for Next Generation Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-19

    zinc oxide ( ZnO ) thin film as an active channel layer in TFT has become of great interest owing to their specific...630-0192 Japan Phone: +81-743-72-6060 Fax: +81-743-72-6069 E-mail: uraoka@ms.naist.jp Keywords: zinc oxide , thin film transistors , atomic layer...deposition Symposium topic: Transparent Semiconductors Oxides [Abstract] In this study, we fabricated TFTs using ZnO thin film as the

  13. Direct synthesis and characterization of optically transparent conformal zinc oxide nanocrystalline thin films by rapid thermal plasma CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Joachim D.; Esposito, Heather J.; Teh, Kwok Siong

    2011-10-01

    We report a rapid, self-catalyzed, solid precursor-based thermal plasma chemical vapor deposition process for depositing a conformal, nonporous, and optically transparent nanocrystalline ZnO thin film at 130 Torr (0.17 atm). Pure solid zinc is inductively heated and melted, followed by ionization by thermal induction argon/oxygen plasma to produce conformal, nonporous nanocrystalline ZnO films at a growth rate of up to 50 nm/min on amorphous and crystalline substrates including Si (100), fused quartz, glass, muscovite, c- and a-plane sapphire (Al2O3), gold, titanium, and polyimide. X-ray diffraction indicates the grains of as-deposited ZnO to be highly textured, with the fastest growth occurring along the c-axis. The individual grains are observed to be faceted by (103) planes which are the slowest growth planes. ZnO nanocrystalline films of nominal thicknesses of 200 nm are deposited at substrate temperatures of 330°C and 160°C on metal/ceramic substrates and polymer substrates, respectively. In addition, 20-nm- and 200-nm-thick films are also deposited on quartz substrates for optical characterization. At optical spectra above 375 nm, the measured optical transmittance of a 200-nm-thick ZnO film is greater than 80%, while that of a 20-nm-thick film is close to 100%. For a 200-nm-thick ZnO film with an average grain size of 100 nm, a four-point probe measurement shows electrical conductivity of up to 910 S/m. Annealing of 200-nm-thick ZnO films in 300 sccm pure argon at temperatures ranging from 750°C to 950°C (at homologous temperatures between 0.46 and 0.54) alters the textures and morphologies of the thin film. Based on scanning electron microscope images, higher annealing temperatures appear to restructure the ZnO nanocrystalline films to form nanorods of ZnO due to a combination of grain boundary diffusion and bulk diffusion. PACS: films and coatings, 81.15.-z; nanocrystalline materials, 81.07.Bc; II-VI semiconductors, 81.05.Dz.

  14. Synthesis and Magnetic Properties of Ni-DOPED ZnO Thin Films: Experimental and AB INITIO Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouchdi, M.; Salmani, E.; Hat, A. El; Hassanain, N.; Mzerd, A.

    Structural and magnetic properties of Zn1-xNixO thin films and diluted magnetic semiconductors have been investigated. This sample has been synthesized using a spray pyrolysis technique with a stoechiometric mixture of zinc acetate (C4H6O4Znṡ2H2O) and Nickel acetate (C4H6O4Niṡ 2H2O) on a heated glass substrate at 450∘C. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis spectrophotometry and Hall Effect measurements. These films of ZnO crystallized in the hexagonal Wurtzite structure. The optical study showed that the band-gap energy was increased, from 3.3eV to 3.5eV, with increasing the Ni concentration. The film resistivity was affected by Ni-doping, and the best resistivity value 1.15×10-2 (Ω cm) was obtained for the film doped with 2 at.% Ni. The electronic structure and optical properties of the Wurtzite structure Zn1-xNixO were obtained by first-principles calculations using the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method combined with the coherent potential approximation (CPA), as well as CPA confirm our results.

  15. Optical properties of P ion implanted ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pong, Bao-Jen; Chou, Bo-Wei; Pan, Ching-Jen; Tsao, Fu-Chun; Chi, Gou-Chung

    2006-02-01

    Red and green emissions are observed from P ion implanted ZnO. Red emission at ~680 nm (1.82 eV) is associated with the donor-acceptor pair (DAP) transition, where the corresponding donor and acceptor are interstitial zinc (Zn i) and interstitial oxygen (O i), respectively. Green emission at ~ 516 nm (2.40 eV) is associated with the transition between the conduction band and antisite oxygen (O Zn). Green emission at ~516nm (2.403 eV) was observed for ZnO annealed at 800 oC under ambient oxygen, whereas, it was not visible when it was annealed in ambient nitrogen. Hence, the green emission is most likely not related to oxygen vacancies on ZnO sample, which might be related to the cleanliness of ZnO surface, a detailed study is in progress. The observed micro-strain is larger for N ion implanted ZnO than that for P ion implanted ZnO. It is attributed to the larger straggle of N ion implanted ZnO than that of P ion implanted ZnO. Similar phenomenon is also observed in Be and Mg ion implanted GaN.

  16. Near band edge emission characteristics of sputtered nano-crystalline ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunj, Saurabh; Sreenivas, K.

    2016-05-01

    Sputtered zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films deposited on unheated glass substrate under different sputtering gas mixtures (Ar+O2) have been investigated using X-ray diffraction and photo luminescence spectroscopy. Earlier reported studies on ZnO films prepared by different techniques exhibit either a sharp/broad near band edge (NBE) emission peak depending on the crystalline quality of the film. In the present study zinc oxide films, grown on unheated substrates, are seen to possess a preferred (002) orientation with a microstructure consisting of clustered nano-sized crystallites. The splitting in the near band edge emission (NBE) into three characteristic peaks is attributed to quantum confinement effect, and is observed specifically under an excitation of 270 nm. Deep level emission (DLE) in the range 400 to 700 nm is not observed indicating absence of deep level radiative defects.

  17. Al decorated ZnO thin-film photoanode for SPR-enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongxia; Li, Xin; Dong, Wei; Xi, Junhua; Wu, Xin

    2018-06-01

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting has been considered to be a promising approach to ease the energy and environmental crisis. Herein, Al decorated ZnO thin films are successfully achieved through a facile dc magnetron-sputtering method followed with Al evaporation for further enhanced PEC performance. The Al/ZnO thin film with 60 s Al evaporating time exhibits the highest photocurrent density under AM1.5G and visible light irradiation, which are more than 5 and 3 times as the pure ZnO film, respectively. Such surface modification by Al not only enlarges the visible light absorption based on surface plasmonic resonance effect, but facilitates the charge separation and transportation at the electrode/electrolyte interface. Finally, a possible mechanism is proposed for the photocatalytic activity enhancement of Al/ZnO thin film photoanode.

  18. Origins of conductivity improvement in fluoride-enhanced silicon doping of ZnO films.

    PubMed

    Rashidi, Nazanin; Vai, Alex T; Kuznetsov, Vladimir L; Dilworth, Jonathan R; Edwards, Peter P

    2015-06-07

    Fluoride in spray pyrolysis precursor solutions for silicon-doped zinc oxide (SiZO) transparent conductor thin films significantly improves their electrical conductivity by enhancing silicon doping efficiency and not, as previously assumed, by fluoride doping. Containing only earth-abundant elements, SiZO thus prepared rivals the best solution-processed indium-doped ZnO in performance.

  19. Influence of annealing to the defect of inkjet-printed ZnO thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Van-Thai; Wei, Yuefan; Zhan, Zhaoyao; Du, Hejun

    2018-03-01

    The advantages of additive manufacturing for electronic devices have led to the demand of printing functional material in search of a replacement for the conventional subtractive fabrication process. Zinc oxide (ZnO), thanks to its interesting properties for the electronic and photonic applications, has gathered many attentions in the effort to fabricate functional devices additively. Although many potential methods have been proposed, most of them focus on the lowtemperature processing of the printed material to be compatible with the polymer substrate. These low-temperature fabrication processes could establish a high concentration of defects in printed ZnO which significantly affect the performance of the device. In this study, ZnO thin film for UV photodetector application was prepared by inkjet printing of zinc acetate dihydrate solution following by different heat treatment schemes. The effects of annealing to the intrinsic defect of printed ZnO and photoresponse characteristics under UV illumination were investigated. A longer response/decay time and higher photocurrent were observed after the annealing at 350°C for 30 minutes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis suggests that the reducing of defect concentration, such as oxygen vacancy, and excess oxygen species in printed ZnO is the main mechanism for the variation in photoresponse. The result provides a better understanding on the defect of inkjet-printed ZnO and could be applied in engineering the properties of the printed oxide-based semiconductor.

  20. Effect of time varying phosphorus implantation on optoelectronics properties of RF sputtered ZnO thin-films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murkute, Punam; Ghadi, Hemant; Saha, Shantanu; Chavan, Vinayak; Chakrabarti, Subhananda

    2018-03-01

    ZnO has potential application in the field of short wavelength devices like LED's, laser diodes, UV detectors etc, because of its wide band gap (3.34 eV) and high exciton binding energy (60 meV). ZnO possess N-type conductivity due to presence of defects arising from oxygen and zinc interstitial vacancies. In order to achieve P-type or intrinsic carrier concentration an implantation study is preferred. In this report, we have varied phosphorous implantation time and studied its effect on optical as well structural properties of RF sputtered ZnO thin-films. Implantation was carried out using Plasma Immersion ion implantation technique for 10 and 20 s. These films were further annealed at 900°C for 10 s in oxygen ambient to activate phosphorous dopants. Low temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra measured two distinct peaks at 3.32 and 3.199 eV for 20 s implanted sample annealed at 900°C. Temperature dependent PL measurement shows slightly blue shift in peak position from 18 K to 300 K. 3.199 eV peak can be attributed to donoracceptor pair (DAP) emission and 3.32 eV peak corresponds to conduction-band-to-acceptor (eA0) transition. High resolution x-ray diffraction revels dominant (002) peak from all samples. Increasing implantation time resulted in low peak intensity suggesting a formation of implantation related defects. Compression in C-axis with implantation time indicates incorporation of phosphorus in the formed film. Improvement in surface quality was observed from 20 s implanted sample which annealed at 900°C.

  1. Tuning the nanostructures and optical properties of undoped and N-doped ZnO by supercritical fluid treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yaping; Wang, Hui-Qiong; Chu, Tian-Jian; Li, Yu-Chiuan; Li, Xiaojun; Liao, Xiaxia; Wang, Xiaodan; Zhou, Hua; Kang, Junyong; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Chang, Ting-Chang; Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Zheng, Jin-Cheng

    2018-05-01

    Treatment of ZnO films in a supercritical fluid (SCF) has been reported to improve the performance of devices in which the treated ZnO films are incorporated; however, the mechanism of this improvement remains unclear. In this paper, we study the transformation of the surface morphologies and emission properties of ZnO films before and after SCF treatment, establishing the relationship between the treated and untreated structures and thereby enabling tuning of the catalytic or opto-electronic performance of ZnO films or ZnO-film-based devices. Both undoped and N-doped ZnO nanostructures generated by SCF treatment of films are investigated using techniques to characterize their surface morphology (scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM)) as well as room-temperature photoluminescence (RT-PL) spectroscopy. The water-mixed supercritical CO2 (W-SCCO2) technology was found to form nanostructures in ZnO films through a self-catalyzed process enabled by the Zn-rich conditions in the ZnO films. The W-SCCO2 was also found to promote the inhibition of defect luminescence by introducing -OH groups onto the films. Two models are proposed to explain the effects of the treatment with W-SCCO2. This work demonstrates that the W-SCCO2 technology can be used as an effective tool for the nanodesign and property enhancement of functional metal oxides.

  2. A comparison of ZnO films deposited on indium tin oxide and soda lime glass under identical conditions

    SciT

    Deka, Angshuman; Nanda, Karuna Kar

    2013-06-15

    ZnO films have been grown via a vapour phase transport (VPT) on soda lime glass (SLG) and indium-tin oxide (ITO) coated glass. ZnO film on ITO had traces of Zn and C which gives them a dark appearance while that appears yellowish-white on SLG. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies confirm the traces of C in the form of C-O. The photoluminescence studies reveal a prominent green luminescence band for ZnO film on ITO.

  3. The properties of plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) ZnO thin films and comparison with thermal ALD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Doyoung; Kang, Hyemin; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Hyungjun

    2011-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were prepared by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) using oxygen plasma as a reactant and the properties were compared with those of thermal atomic layer deposition (TH-ALD) ZnO thin films. While hexagonal wurzite phase with preferential (0 0 2) orientation was obtained for both cases, significant differences were observed in various aspects of film properties including resistivity values between these two techniques. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements have shown that high resistivity of PE-ALD ZnO thin films is due to the oxygen interstitials at low growth temperature of 200 °C, whose amount decreases with increasing growth temperature. Thin film transistors (TFT) using TH- and PE-ALD ZnO as an active layer were also fabricated and the device properties were evaluated comparatively.

  4. Photoluminescence and photoconductivity studies on amorphous and crystalline ZnO thin films obtained by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valverde-Aguilar, G.; Manríquez Zepeda, J. L.

    2015-03-01

    Amorphous and crystalline ZnO thin films were obtained by the sol-gel process. A precursor solution of ZnO was synthesized by using zinc acetate dehydrate as inorganic precursor at room temperature. The films were spin-coated on silicon and glass wafers and gelled in humid air. The films were calcined at 450 °C for 15 min to produce ZnO nanocrystals with a wurtzite structure. Crystalline ZnO film exhibits an absorption band located at 359 nm (3.4 eV). Photoconductivity technique was used to determine the charge transport mechanism on both kinds of films. Experimental data were fitted with straight lines at darkness and under illumination at 355 and 633 nm wavelengths. This indicates an ohmic behavior. The photovoltaic and photoconductivity parameters were determined from the current density versus the applied electrical field results.

  5. Bipolar charge storage characteristics in copper and cobalt co-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Herng, Tun Seng; Zeng, Kaiyang; Ding, Jun

    2012-10-24

    The bipolar charge phenomenon in Cu and Co co-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) film samples has been studied using scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques. Those ZnO samples are made using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. It is found that the addition of Cu and Co dopants suppresses the electron density in ZnO and causes a significant change in the work function (Fermi level) value of the ZnO film; this results in the ohmic nature of the contact between the electrode (probe tip) and codoped sample, whereas this contact exhibits a Schottky nature in the undoped and single-element-doped samples. These results are verified by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) measurements. It is also found that the co-doping (Cu and Co) can stabilize the bipolar charge, whereas Cu doping only stabilizes the positive charge in ZnO thin films.

  6. Synergistic effects of Mo and F doping on the quality factor of ZnO thin films prepared by a fully automated home-made nebulizer spray technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravichandran, K.; Dineshbabu, N.; Arun, T.; Manivasaham, A.; Sindhuja, E.

    2017-01-01

    Transparent conducting oxide films of undoped, Mo doped, Mo + F co-doped ZnO were deposited using a facile homemade nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique. The effects of Mo and F doping on the structural, optical, electrical and surface morphological properties were investigated using XRD, UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy, I-V and Hall probe techniques, FESEM and AFM, and XPS, respectively. The XRD analysis confirms that all the films are well crystallized with hexagonal wurtzite structure. All the synthesized samples exhibit high transmittance (above 85%) in the visible region. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics show the ohmic conduction nature of the films. The Hall probe measurements show that the synergistic effects of Mo and F doping cause desirable improvements in the quality factor of the ZnO films. A minimum resistivity of 5.12 × 10-3 Ω cm with remarkably higher values of mobility and carrier concentration is achieved for Mo (2 at.%) + F (15 at.%) co-doped ZnO films. A considerable variation in the intensity of deep level emission caused by Mo and F doping is observed in the photoluminescence (PL) studies. The presence of the constituent elements in the samples is confirmed by XPS analysis.

  7. Effects of ZnO nanoparticle-coated packaging film on pork meat quality during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Suo, Biao; Li, Huarong; Wang, Yuexia; Li, Zhen; Pan, Zhili; Ai, Zhilu

    2017-05-01

    There has been limited research on the use of ZnO nanoparticle-coated film for the quality preservation of pork meat under low temperature. In the present study, ZnO nanoparticles were mixed with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na) to form a nanocomposite film, to investigate the effect of ZnO nanoparticle-coated film on pork meat quality and the growth of bacteria during storage under low temperature. When ZnO nanoparticle-coated film was used as the packaging material for pork meat for 14 days of cold storage at 4 °C, the results demonstrated a significant effect on restricting the increases in total volatile basic nitrogen and pH levels, limiting the decreases of lightness (increased L* value) and redness (increased a* value), and maintaining the water-holding capacity compared to the control pork samples (P < 0.05). The present study also discovered that the ZnO nanoparticle-coated film restrained the increase in total plate count (TPC). When Staphylococcus aureus was used as the representative strain, scanning electron microscopy revealed that ZnO nanoparticles increased the occurrence of cell membrane rupture under cold conditions. ZnO nanoparticle-coated film helps retain the quality of pork meat during cold storage by increasing the occurrence of microorganism injury. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Effects of Substrate and Post-Growth Treatments on the Microstructure and Properties of ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haseman, Micah; Saadatkia, P.; Winarski, D. J.; Selim, F. A.; Leedy, K. D.; Tetlak, S.; Look, D. C.; Anwand, W.; Wagner, A.

    2016-12-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) thin films were synthesized by atomic layer deposition on silicon, quartz and sapphire substrates and characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, optical spectroscopy, conductivity mapping, Hall effect measurements and positron annihilation spectroscopy. XRD showed that the as-grown films are of single-phase ZnO wurtzite structure and do not contain any secondary or impurity phases. The type of substrate was found to affect the orientation and degree of crystallinity of the films but had no effect on the defect structure or the transport properties of the films. High conductivity of 10-3 Ω cm, electron mobility of 20 cm2/Vs and carrier density of 1020 cm-3 were measured in most films. Thermal treatments in various atmospheres induced a large effect on the thickness, structure and electrical properties of the films. Annealing in a Zn and nitrogen environment at 400°C for 1 h led to a 16% increase in the thickness of the film; this indicates that Zn extracts oxygen atoms from the matrix and forms new layers of ZnO. On the other hand, annealing in a hydrogen atmosphere led to the emergence of an Al2O3 peak in the XRD pattern, which implies that hydrogen and Al atoms compete to occupy Zn sites in the ZnO lattice. Only ambient air annealing had an effect on film defect density and electrical properties, generating reductions in conductivity and electron mobility. Depth-resolved measurements of positron annihilation spectroscopy revealed short positron diffusion lengths and high concentrations of defects in all as-grown films. However, these defects did not diminish the electrical conductivity in the films.

  9. Electrochemical Synthesis of Highly Oriented, Transparent, and Pinhole-Free ZnO and Al-Doped ZnO Films and Their Use in Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Donghyeon; Lee, Dongho; Choi, Kyoung-Shin

    2016-10-04

    Electrochemical synthesis conditions using nonaqueous solutions were developed to prepare highly transparent (T > 90%) and crystalline ZnO and Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films for use in solar energy conversion devices. A focused effort was made to produce pinhole-free films in a reproducible manner by identifying a key condition to prevent the formation of cracks during deposition. The polycrystalline domains in the resulting films had a uniform orientation (i.e., the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate), which enhanced the electron transport properties of the films. Furthermore, electrochemical Al doping of ZnO using nonaqueous media, which was demonstrated for the first time in this study, effectively increased the carrier density and raised the Fermi level of ZnO. These films were coupled with an electrodeposited p-type Cu 2 O to construct p-n heterojunction solar cells to demonstrate the utilization of these films for solar energy conversion. The resulting n-ZnO/p-Cu 2 O and n-AZO/p-Cu 2 O cells showed excellent performance compared with previously reported n-ZnO/p-Cu 2 O cells prepared by electrodeposition. In particular, replacing ZnO with AZO resulted in simultaneous enhancements in short circuit current and open circuit potential, and the n-AZO/p-Cu 2 O cell achieved an average power conversion efficiency (η) of 0.92 ± 0.09%. The electrodeposition condition reported here will offer a practical and versatile way to produce ZnO or AZO films, which play key roles in various solar energy conversion devices, with qualities comparable to those prepared by vacuum-based techniques.

  10. Residual stress and bending strength of ZnO films deposited on polyimide sheet by RF sputtering system

    SciT

    Kusaka, Kazuya, E-mail: kusaka@tokushima-u.ac.jp; Maruoka, Yutaka, E-mail: ymaruoka1116@gmail.com; Matsue, Tatsuya, E-mail: tmatsue@mat.niihama-nct.ac.jp

    2016-05-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) films were deposited on a soft polyimide sheet substrate by radio frequency sputtering with a ZnO powder target, and the films' crystal orientations and residual stress were investigated using x-ray diffraction as a function of substrate temperature. C-axis oriented ZnO films were achieved using this ZnO powder target method. The ZnO films exhibited high compressive residual stresses between −0.7 and −1.4 GPa. Finally, the authors examined the strength of the obtained film by applying tensile bending loads. No cracks were observed on the surfaces of the ZnO films after a bending test using cylinders with diameters >25 mm. Aftermore » a bending test using a cylinder with a diameter of 19 mm, large cracks were formed on the films. Therefore, the authors concluded that the tensile bending strength of the obtained films was greater than ∼420 MPa.« less

  11. Optical properties of anodically degraded ZnO

    SciT

    Messerschmidt, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.messerschmidt@bosch.com; Gnehr, Wolf-Michael; Eberhardt, Jens

    2014-03-07

    We discuss the optical properties of non-degraded and anodically degraded boron-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:B) deposited by low-pressure chemical vapour deposition on soda-lime glass. The optical model used to simulate the infrared reflectance in the wavelength range between 1.2 and 25 μm is based on the Maxwell-Garnett effective-medium theory. The model is sensitive to the conditions at the grain boundaries of the investigated polycrystalline ZnO:B films. We confirm that the presence of defect-rich grain boundaries, especially after degradation, causes a highly resistive ZnO:B film. Furthermore, indications of a degraded zinc oxide layer next to the ZnO:B/glass interface with different refractive index aremore » found. We present evidence for the creation of oxygen vacancies, based on Raman investigations, which correlate with a shift of the optical absorption edge of the ZnO:B. Investigations with scanning and transmission electron microscopy show microvoids at the grain boundaries after anodic degradation. This indicates that the grain/grain interfaces are the principle location of defects after degradation.« less

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of High c-axis ZnO Thin Film by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition System and its UV Photodetector Application

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Chung-Hua; Wei, Da-Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films with high c-axis (0002) preferential orientation have been successfully and effectively synthesized onto silicon (Si) substrates via different synthesized temperatures by using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system. The effects of different synthesized temperatures on the crystal structure, surface morphologies and optical properties have been investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicated that the intensity of (0002) diffraction peak became stronger with increasing synthesized temperature until 400 oC. The diffraction intensity of (0002) peak gradually became weaker accompanying with appearance of (10-10) diffraction peak as the synthesized temperature up to excess of 400 oC. The RT photoluminescence (PL) spectra exhibited a strong near-band-edge (NBE) emission observed at around 375 nm and a negligible deep-level (DL) emission located at around 575 nm under high c-axis ZnO thin films. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images revealed the homogeneous surface and with small grain size distribution. The ZnO thin films have also been synthesized onto glass substrates under the same parameters for measuring the transmittance. For the purpose of ultraviolet (UV) photodetector application, the interdigitated platinum (Pt) thin film (thickness ~100 nm) fabricated via conventional optical lithography process and radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. In order to reach Ohmic contact, the device was annealed in argon circumstances at 450 oC by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) system for 10 min. After the systematic measurements, the current-voltage (I-V) curve of photo and dark current and time-dependent photocurrent response results exhibited a good responsivity and reliability, indicating that the high c-axis ZnO thin film is a suitable sensing layer for UV photodetector application. PMID:26484561

  13. Hydrothermally Grown In-doped ZnO Nanorods on p-GaN Films for Color-tunable Heterojunction Light-emitting-diodes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Geun Chul; Hwang, Soo Min; Lee, Seung Muk; Choi, Jun Hyuk; Song, Keun Man; Kim, Hyun You; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Eum, Sung-Jin; Jung, Seung-Boo; Lim, Jun Hyung; Joo, Jinho

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of doping elements in ZnO nanostructures plays an important role in adjusting the optical and electrical properties in optoelectronic devices. In the present study, we fabricated 1-D ZnO nanorods (NRs) doped with different In contents (0% ~ 5%) on p-GaN films using a facile hydrothermal method, and investigated the effect of the In doping on the morphology and electronic structure of the NRs and the electrical and optical performances of the n-ZnO NRs/p-GaN heterojunction light emitting diodes (LEDs). As the In content increased, the size (diameter and length) of the NRs increased, and the electrical performance of the LEDs improved. From the electroluminescence (EL) spectra, it was found that the broad green-yellow-orange emission band significantly increased with increasing In content due to the increased defect states (oxygen vacancies) in the ZnO NRs, and consequently, the superposition of the emission bands centered at 415 nm and 570 nm led to the generation of white-light. These results suggest that In doping is an effective way to tailor the morphology and the optical, electronic, and electrical properties of ZnO NRs, as well as the EL emission property of heterojunction LEDs. PMID:25988846

  14. Hydrothermally Grown In-doped ZnO Nanorods on p-GaN Films for Color-tunable Heterojunction Light-emitting-diodes.

    PubMed

    Park, Geun Chul; Hwang, Soo Min; Lee, Seung Muk; Choi, Jun Hyuk; Song, Keun Man; Kim, Hyun You; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Eum, Sung-Jin; Jung, Seung-Boo; Lim, Jun Hyung; Joo, Jinho

    2015-05-19

    The incorporation of doping elements in ZnO nanostructures plays an important role in adjusting the optical and electrical properties in optoelectronic devices. In the present study, we fabricated 1-D ZnO nanorods (NRs) doped with different In contents (0% ~ 5%) on p-GaN films using a facile hydrothermal method, and investigated the effect of the In doping on the morphology and electronic structure of the NRs and the electrical and optical performances of the n-ZnO NRs/p-GaN heterojunction light emitting diodes (LEDs). As the In content increased, the size (diameter and length) of the NRs increased, and the electrical performance of the LEDs improved. From the electroluminescence (EL) spectra, it was found that the broad green-yellow-orange emission band significantly increased with increasing In content due to the increased defect states (oxygen vacancies) in the ZnO NRs, and consequently, the superposition of the emission bands centered at 415 nm and 570 nm led to the generation of white-light. These results suggest that In doping is an effective way to tailor the morphology and the optical, electronic, and electrical properties of ZnO NRs, as well as the EL emission property of heterojunction LEDs.

  15. Effect of precursor on epitaxially grown of ZnO thin film on p-GaN/sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrate by hydrothermal technique

    SciT

    Sahoo, Trilochan; Ju, Jin-Woo; Kannan, V.

    2008-03-04

    Single crystalline ZnO thin film on p-GaN/sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrate, using two different precursors by hydrothermal route at a temperature of 90 deg. C were successfully grown. The effect of starting precursor on crystalline nature, surface morphology and optical emission of the films were studied. ZnO thin films were grown in aqueous solution of zinc acetate and zinc nitrate. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that all the thin films were single crystalline in nature and exhibited wurtzite symmetry and c-axis orientation. The thin films obtained with zinc nitrate had a more pitted rough surface morphology compared to the filmmore » grown in zinc acetate. However the thickness of the films remained unaffected by the nature of the starting precursor. Sharp luminescence peaks were observed from the thin films almost at identical energies but deep level emission was slightly prominent for the thin film grown in zinc nitrate.« less

  16. Effect of indium on photovoltaic property of n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunction device prepared using solution-synthesized ZnO nanowire film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathalingam, Adaikalam; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Park, Hyung-Moo; Valanarasu, Santiyagu; Mahalingam, Thaiyan

    2015-01-01

    Preparation of n-ZnO/p-Si heterostructures using solution-synthesized ZnO nanowire films and their photovoltaic characterization is reported. The solution-grown ZnO nanowire film is characterized using scanning electron microscope, electron dispersive x-ray, and optical absorption studies. Electrical and photovoltaic properties of the fabricated heterostructures are studied using e-beam-evaporated aluminum as metal contacts. In order to use transparent contact and to simultaneously collect the photogenerated carriers, sandwich-type solar cells were fabricated using ZnO nanorod films grown on p-silicon and indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass as ITO/n-ZnO NR/p-Si. The electrical properties of these structures are analyzed from current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. ZnO nanowire film thickness-dependent photovoltaic properties are also studied. Indium metal was also deposited over the ZnO nanowires and its effects on the photovoltaic response of the devices were studied. The results demonstrated that all the samples exhibit a strong rectifying behavior indicating the diode nature of the devices. The sandwich-type ITO/n-ZnO NR/p-Si solar cells exhibit improved photovoltaic performance over the Al-metal-coated n-ZnO/p-Si structures. The indium deposition is found to show enhancement in photovoltaic behavior with a maximum open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.3 V and short-circuit current (Isc) of 70×10-6 A under ultraviolet light excitation.

  17. Effect of ZnO seed layer on the morphology and optical properties of ZnO nanorods grown on GaN buffer layers

    SciT

    Nandi, R., E-mail: rajunandi@iitb.ac.in; Mohan, S., E-mail: rajunandi@iitb.ac.in; Major, S. S.

    2014-04-24

    ZnO nanorods were grown by chemical bath deposition on sputtered, polycrystalline GaN buffer layers with and without ZnO seed layer. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction show that the ZnO nanorods on GaN buffer layers are not vertically well aligned. Photoluminescence spectrum of ZnO nanorods grown on GaN buffer layer, however exhibits a much stronger near-band-edge emission and negligible defect emission, compared to the nanorods grown on ZnO buffer layer. These features are attributed to gallium incorporation at the ZnO-GaN interface. The introduction of a thin (25 nm) ZnO seed layer on GaN buffer layer significantly improves the morphology andmore » vertical alignment of ZnO-NRs without sacrificing the high optical quality of ZnO nanorods on GaN buffer layer. The presence of a thick (200 nm) ZnO seed layer completely masks the effect of the underlying GaN buffer layer on the morphology and optical properties of nanorods.« less

  18. Heavily-doped ZnO:Al thin films prepared by using magnetron Co-sputtering: Optical and electrical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Eun-A.; Jun, Young-Kil; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Lee, Woo-Sun

    2016-07-01

    Photovoltaic applications require transparent conducting-oxide (TCO) thin films with high optical transmittance in the visible spectral region (380 - 780 nm), low resistivity, and high thermal/chemical stability. The ZnO thin film is one of the most common alternatives to the conventional indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin film TCO. Highly transparent and conductive ZnO thin films can be prepared by doping with group III elements. Heavily-doped ZnO:Al (AZO) thin films were prepared by using the RF magnetron co-sputtering method with ZnO and Al targets to obtain better characteristics at a low cost. The RF sputtering power to each target was varied to control the doping concentration in fixed-thickness AZO thin films. The crystal structures of the AZO thin films were analyzed by using X-ray diffraction. The morphological microstructure was observed by using scanning electron microscopy. The optical transmittance and the band gap energy of the AZO thin films were examined with an UV-visible spectrophotometer in the range of 300 - 1800 nm. The resistivity and the carrier concentration were examined by using a Hall-effect measurement system. An excellent optical transmittance > 80% with an appropriate band gap energy (3.26 - 3.27 eV) and an improved resistivity (~10 -1 Ω·cm) with high carrier concentration (1017 - 1019 cm -3) were demonstrated in 350-nm-thick AZO thin films for thin-film photovoltaic applications.

  19. Optical and structural properties of individual Co-doped ZnO microwires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomys, O. F.; Strelchuk, V. V.; Rarata, S. V.; Hayn, R.; Savoyant, A.; Giovannelli, F.; Delorme, F.; Tkach, V.

    2018-06-01

    The Co-doped ZnO microwires (MWs) were grown using the optical furnace method. We used Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarized micro-Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) and optical absorption spectroscopy to systematic investigation of the optical and structural properties of Co-doped ZnO MWs. The SEM analysis reveals that Co-doped ZnO MWs has hexagonal facets and cavity inside. The EDS results confirmed the presence and non-uniform distribution of Co impurities in the samples. Co doping of ZnO MWs leads to the decreased intensity, drastically broadening and high-energy shift of the NBE PL band. The red emission band at 1.85 eV originates from 2E(2G) → 4A2 (4F) intra-3d-transition of Co2+ in the ZnO lattice has been observed. The intense structured absorption bands within the near infrared ranges 3800-4800 and 5500-9000 cm-1 are caused by electronic spin-allowed transitions 4T2(F) ← 4A2(F) and 4T1(F) ← 4A2(F) of the tetrahedrally coordinated Co2+ (3 d7) ions substituting Zn2+ ions in Co-doped ZnO MWs. Micro-Raman studies of Co doped ZnO MWs show doping/disorder induced additional modes as compared to the undoped sample. The resonant enhancement of the additional local Co-related A1-symmetry Raman mode is observed in the parallel polarization geometry y(z , z) ybar . For the Co doped ZnO MWs, the enhancement of the additional Co-related local vibration mode with an increase in the excitation photon energy is also observed in the Raman spectra.

  20. Structural, optical and nonlinear optical studies of AZO thin film prepared by SILAR method for electro-optic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edison, D. Joseph; Nirmala, W.; Kumar, K. Deva Arun; Valanarasu, S.; Ganesh, V.; Shkir, Mohd.; AlFaify, S.

    2017-10-01

    Aluminium doped (i.e. 3 at%) zinc oxide (AZO) thin films were prepared by simple successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method with different dipping cycles. The structural and surface morphology of AZO thin films were studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The optical parameters such as, transmittance, band gap, refractive index, extinction coefficient, dielectric constant and nonlinear optical properties of AZO films were investigated. XRD pattern revealed the formation of hexagonal phase ZnO and the intensity of the film was found to increase with increasing dipping cycle. The crystallite size was found to be in the range of 29-37 nm. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images show the presence of small sized grains, revealing that the smoothest surface was obtained at all the films. The EDAX spectrum of AZO conforms the presence of Zn, O and Al. The optical transmittance in the visible region is high 87% and the band gap value is 3.23 eV. The optical transmittance is decreased with respect to dipping cycles. The room temperature PL studies revealed that the AZO films prepared at (30 cycles) has good film quality with lesser defect density. The third order nonlinear optical parameters were also studied using Z-scan technique to know the applications of deposited films in nonlinear devices. The third order nonlinear susceptibility value is found to be 1.69 × 10-7, 3.34 × 10-8, 1.33 × 10-7and 2.52 × 10-7 for AZO films deposited after 15, 20, 25 and 30 dipping cycles.

  1. Preparation and characterization of ALD deposited ZnO thin films studied for gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyadjiev, S. I.; Georgieva, V.; Yordanov, R.; Raicheva, Z.; Szilágyi, I. M.

    2016-11-01

    Applying atomic layer deposition (ALD), very thin zinc oxide (ZnO) films were deposited on quartz resonators, and their gas sensing properties were studied using the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) method. The gas sensing of the ZnO films to NO2 was tested in the concentration interval between 10 and 5000 ppm. On the basis of registered frequency change of the QCM, for each concentration the sorbed mass was calculated. Further characterization of the films was carried out by various techniques, i.e. by SEM-EDS, XRD, ellipsometry, and FTIR spectroscopy. Although being very thin, the films were gas sensitive to NO2 already at room temperature and could register very well as low concentrations as 100 ppm, while the sorption was fully reversible. Our results for very thin ALD ZnO films show that the described fast, simple and cost-effective technology could be implemented for producing gas sensors working at room temperature and being capable to detect in real time low concentrations of NO2.

  2. Improvement in LPG sensing response by surface activation of ZnO thick films with Cr2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastir, Anita; Virpal, Kaur, Jasmeet; Singh, Gurpreet; Kohli, Nipin; Singh, Onkar; Singh, Ravi Chand

    2015-05-01

    Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) sensing response of pure and Cr2O3 activated ZnO has been investigated in this study. Zinc oxide was synthesized by co-precipitation route and deposited as a thick film on an alumina substrate. The surface of ZnO sensor was activated by chromium oxide on surface oxidation by chromium chloride. The concentration of chromium chloride solution used to activate the ZnO sensor surface has been varied from 0 to 5 %. It is observed that response to LPG has improved as compared to pure ZnO.

  3. Annealing effect on the structural, morphological and electrical properties of TiO2/ZnO bilayer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. I.; Imran, S.; Shahnawaz; Saleem, Muhammad; Ur Rehman, Saif

    2018-03-01

    The effect of annealing temperature on the structural, morphological and electrical properties of TiO2/ZnO (TZ) thin films has been observed. Bilayer thin films of TiO2/ZnO are deposited on FTO glass substrate by spray pyrolysis method. After deposition, these films are annealed at 573 K, 723 K and 873 K. XRD shows that TiO2 is present in anatase phase only and ZnO is present in hexagonal phase. No other phases of TiO2 and ZnO are present. Also, there is no evidence of other compounds like Zn-Ti etc. It also shows that the average grain size of TiO2/ZnO films is increased by increasing annealing temperature. AFM (Atomic force microscope) showed that the average roughness of TiO2/ZnO films is decreased at temperature 573-723 K and then increased at 873 K. The calculated average sheet resistivity of thin films annealed at 573 K, 723 K and 873 K is 152.28 × 102, 75.29 × 102 and 63.34 × 102 ohm-m respectively. This decrease in sheet resistivity might be due to the increment of electron concentration with increasing thickness and the temperature of thin films.

  4. Structural, magnetic and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures converted from ZnS nanoparticles

    SciT

    Patel, Prayas Chandra; Ghosh, Surajit; Srivastava, P.C., E-mail: pcsrivastava50@gmail.com

    Graphical abstract: The phase conversion of ZnS to highly crystalline hexagonal ZnO was done by heat treatment. - Highlights: • Phase change of cubic ZnS to hexagonal ZnO via heat treatment. • Band gap was found to decrease with increasing calcinations temperature. • ZnO samples have higher magnetic moment than ZnS. • Blocking Temperature of the samples is well above room temperature. • Maximum negative%MR with saturation value ∼38% was found for sample calcined at 600° C. - Abstract: The present work concentrates on the synthesis of cubic ZnS and hexagonal ZnO semiconducting nanoparticle from same precursor via co-precipitation method.more » The phase conversion of ZnS to highly crystalline hexagonal ZnO was done by heat treatment. From the analysis of influence of calcination temperature on the structural, optical and vibrational properties of the samples, an optimum temperature was found for the total conversion of ZnS nanoparticles to ZnO. Role of quantum confinement due to finite size is evident from the blue shift of the fundamental absorption in UV–vis spectra only in the ZnS nanoparticles. The semiconducting nature of the prepared samples is confirmed from the UV–vis, PL study and transport study. From the magnetic and transport studies, pure ZnO phase was found to be more prone to magnetic field.« less

  5. Enhanced ZnO Thin-Film Transistor Performance Using Bilayer Gate Dielectrics.

    PubMed

    Alshammari, Fwzah H; Nayak, Pradipta K; Wang, Zhenwei; Alshareef, Husam N

    2016-09-07

    We report ZnO TFTs using Al2O3/Ta2O5 bilayer gate dielectrics grown by atomic layer deposition. The saturation mobility of single layer Ta2O5 dielectric TFT was 0.1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), but increased to 13.3 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) using Al2O3/Ta2O5 bilayer dielectric with significantly lower leakage current and hysteresis. We show that point defects present in ZnO film, particularly VZn, are the main reason for the poor TFT performance with single layer dielectric, although interfacial roughness scattering effects cannot be ruled out. Our approach combines the high dielectric constant of Ta2O5 and the excellent Al2O3/ZnO interface quality, resulting in improved device performance.

  6. Defect characterization and magnetic properties in un-doped ZnO thin film annealed in a strong magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Shuai; Zhan, Peng; Wang, Wei-Peng; Li, Zheng-Cao; Zhang, Zheng-Jun

    2014-12-01

    Highly c-axis oriented un-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films, each with a thickness of ~ 100 nm, are deposited on Si (001) substrates by pulsed electron beam deposition at a temperature of ~ 320 °C, followed by annealing at 650 °C in argon in a strong magnetic field. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), positron annihilation analysis (PAS), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) characterizations suggest that the major defects generated in these ZnO films are oxygen vacancies. Photoluminescence (PL) and magnetic property measurements indicate that the room-temperature ferromagnetism in the un-doped ZnO film originates from the singly ionized oxygen vacancies whose number depends on the strength of the magnetic field applied in the thermal annealing process. The effects of the magnetic field on the defect generation in the ZnO films are also discussed.

  7. Spectroscopic and fiber optic ethanol sensing properties Gd doped ZnO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Noel, J L; Udayabhaskar, R; Renganathan, B; Muthu Mariappan, S; Sastikumar, D; Karthikeyan, B

    2014-11-11

    We report the structural, optical and gas sensing properties of prepared pure and Gd doped ZnO nanoparticles through solgel method at moderate temperature. Structural studies are carried out by X-ray diffraction method confirms hexagonal wurtzite structure and doping induced changes in lattice parameters is observed. Optical absorption spectral studies shows red shift in the absorption peak corresponds to band-gap from 3.42 eV to 3.05 eV and broad absorption in the visible range after Gd doping is observed. Scanning electron microscopic studies shows increase in particle size where the particle diameters increase from few nm to micrometers after Gd doping. The clad modified ethanol fiber-optic sensor studies for ethanol sensing exhibits best sensitivity for the 3% Gd doped ZnO nanoparticles and the sensitivity get lowered incase of higher percentage of Gd doped ZnO sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Highly conductive and transparent thin ZnO films prepared in situ in a low pressure system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ataev, B. M.; Bagamadova, A. M.; Mamedov, V. V.; Omaev, A. K.; Rabadanov, M. R.

    1999-03-01

    Sucessful preparation of ZnO : M epitaxial thin films (ETF) in situ doped with donor impurity M=Ga, Sn by chemical vapor despsition in a low-pressure system is reported. Highly conductive (up to 10 -4 Ω cm) and transparent ( T>85%) ZnO : M ETF have been successfully produced on single crystal (1012) sapphire substrates. Electrical properties of the films as well as their excition luminescence were studied.

  9. Enhancement of the Ultraviolet Photoresponsivity of Al-doped ZnO Thin Films Prepared by using the Sol-gel Spin-coating Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wookbin; Leem, Jae-Young

    2018-03-01

    We report the structural, morphological, optical, and ultraviolet (UV) photoresponse properties of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films prepared on silicon substrates with different Al doping concentrations by using the sol-gel spin-coating method. An analysis of the X-ray diffraction patterns of the AZO thin films revealed that the average grain size decreased and the c-axis lattice constant increased with Al content. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy images showed that with Al doping, the grain size decreased, but the film density increased with increasing Al doping concentration from 0% to 3%. These results indicate that the surface area of the film increased with increasing Al doping. The absorbance spectra revealed that the UV absorbance of the AZO thin films increased with increasing Al doping concentration and that the absorption onset shifted towards lower energies. The photoluminescence spectra revealed that with increasing Al doping, the intensity of the visible emission greatly decreased and the visible emission peak shifted forward lower energy (a red shift). The UV sensor based on the AZO thin films exhibited a higher responsivity than that based on the undoped ZnO thin film. Therefore, this study provides a facile method for improving the photoresponsivity of UV sensors.

  10. ZnO thin film piezoelectric MEMS vibration energy harvesters with two piezoelectric elements for higher output performance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peihong; Du, Hejun

    2015-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based vibration energy harvesters with two different designs are presented. These harvesters consist of a silicon cantilever, a silicon proof mass, and a ZnO piezoelectric layer. Design I has a large ZnO piezoelectric element and Design II has two smaller and equally sized ZnO piezoelectric elements; however, the total area of ZnO thin film in two designs is equal. The ZnO thin film is deposited by means of radio-frequency magnetron sputtering method and is characterized by means of XRD and SEM techniques. These ZnO energy harvesters are fabricated by using MEMS micromachining. The natural frequencies of the fabricated ZnO energy harvesters are simulated and tested. The test results show that these two energy harvesters with different designs have almost the same natural frequency. Then, the output performance of different ZnO energy harvesters is tested in detail. The effects of series connection and parallel connection of two ZnO elements on the load voltage and power are also analyzed. The experimental results show that the energy harvester with two ZnO piezoelectric elements in parallel connection in Design II has higher load voltage and higher load power than the fabricated energy harvesters with other designs. Its load voltage is 2.06 V under load resistance of 1 MΩ and its maximal load power is 1.25 μW under load resistance of 0.6 MΩ, when it is excited by an external vibration with frequency of 1300.1 Hz and acceleration of 10 m/s(2). By contrast, the load voltage of the energy harvester of Design I is 1.77 V under 1 MΩ resistance and its maximal load power is 0.98 μW under 0.38 MΩ load resistance when it is excited by the same vibration.

  11. Characteristics of surface acoustic waves in (11\\bar 2 0)ZnO film/ R-sapphire substrate structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, ShuYi; Xu, Jing; Xie, YingCai; Lan, XiaoDong

    2018-02-01

    (11\\bar 2 0)ZnO film/ R-sapphire substrate structure is promising for high frequency acoustic wave devices. The propagation characteristics of SAWs, including the Rayleigh waves along [0001] direction and Love waves along [1ī00] direction, are investigated by using 3 dimensional finite element method (3D-FEM). The phase velocity ( v p), electromechanical coupling coefficient ( k 2), temperature coefficient of frequency ( TCF) and reflection coefficient ( r) of Rayleigh wave and Love wave devices are theoretically analyzed. Furthermore, the influences of ZnO films with different crystal orientation on SAW properties are also investigated. The results show that the 1st Rayleigh wave has an exceedingly large k 2 of 4.95% in (90°, 90°, 0°) (11\\bar 2 0)ZnO film/ R-sapphire substrate associated with a phase velocity of 5300 m/s; and the 0th Love wave in (0°, 90°, 0°) (11\\bar 2 0)ZnO film/ R-sapphire substrate has a maximum k 2 of 3.86% associated with a phase velocity of 3400 m/s. And (11\\bar 2 0)ZnO film/ R-sapphire substrate structures can be used to design temperature-compensated and wide-band SAW devices. All of the results indicate that the performances of SAW devices can be optimized by suitably selecting ZnO films with different thickness and crystal orientations deposited on R-sapphire substrates.

  12. Reflection Properties of Metallic Gratings on ZnO Films over GaAs Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickernell, Fred S.; Kim, Yoonkee; Hunt, William D.

    1994-01-01

    A potential application for piezoelectric film deposited on GaAs substrates is the monolithic integration of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices with GaAs electronics. Metallic gratings are basic elements required for the construction of such devices, and analyzing the reflectivity and the velocity change due to metallic gratings is often a critical design parameter. In this article, Datta and Hunsinger technique is extended to the case of a multilayered structure, and the developed technique is applied to analyze shorted and open gratings on ZnO films sputtered over (001)-cut (110)-propagating GaAs substrates. The analysis shows that zero reflectivity of shorted gratings can be obtained by a combination of the ZnO film and the metal thickness and the metalization ratio of the grating. Experiments are performed on shorted and an open gratings (with the center frequency of about 180 MHz) for three different metal thicknesses over ZnO films which are 0.8 and 2.6 micrometers thick. From the experiments, zero reflectivity at the resonant frequency of the grating is observed for a reasonable thickness (h/Alpha = 0.5%) of aluminum metalization. The velocity shift between the shorted and the open grating is also measured to be 0.18 MHz and 0.25 MHz for 0.8 and 1.6 micrometers respectively. The measured data show relatively good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  13. Structural, Optical, and Photocatalytic Properties of Quasi-One-Dimensional Nanocrystalline ZnO, ZnOC:nC Composites, and C-doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalaeva, E. V.; Gyrdasova, O. I.; Krasilnikov, V. N.; Melkozerova, M. A.; Baklanova, I. V.; Buldakova, L. Yu.

    Various thermolysis rotes of zinc glicolate complexes are considered for the synthesis of quasi-one-dimensional nanostructured aggregates ZnO and Zn-O-C used as photocatalysts. Structural features of quasi-one-dimensional aggregates Zn-O-C and ZnO are investigated in detail. Transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy methods demonstrate that the aggregates Zn-O-C have either composite structure (ZnO crystallites in amorphous carbon matrix) or a C-doped ZnO single-phase structure depending on heat treatment conditions, and that all the aggregates exhibit as a rule a tubular morphology, a nanocrystalline structure with a high specific surface area, and a high concentration of singly charged oxygen vacancies. The mechanism of the nanocrystalline structure formation is discussed and the effect of thermolysis condition on the formation of the textured structure of aggregates is investigated. The results of examination of the photocatalytic and optical absorption properties of the synthesized aggregates are presented. The photocatalytic activity for the hydroquinone oxidation reaction under ultraviolet and visible light increases in the series: the reference ZnO powder, quasi-one-dimensional ZnO, quasi-one-dimensional aggregates C-doped ZnO, and this tendency correlates with the reduction of the optical gap width. As a result of our studies, we have arrived at an important conclusion that thermal treatment of ZnO:nC composites allows a C-doped ZnO with high catalytic activity. This increasing photoactivity of C-doped ZnO aggregates is attributed to the optimal specific surface area and electron-energy spectrum restructuring to be produced owing to the presence of singly charged oxygen vacancies and carbon dissolved in the ZnO lattice.

  14. Internal stress and opto-electronic properties of ZnO thin films deposited by reactive sputtering in various oxygen partial pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuyaerts, Romain; Poncelet, Olivier; Raskin, Jean-Pierre; Proost, Joris

    2017-10-01

    In this article, we propose ZnO thin films as a suitable material for piezoresistors in transparent and flexible electronics. ZnO thin films have been deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering at room temperature at various oxygen partial pressures. All the films have a wurtzite structure with a strong (0002) texture measured by XRD and are almost stoichiometric as measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The effect of oxygen concentration on grain growth has been studied by in-situ multi-beam optical stress sensor, showing internal stress going from 350 MPa to -1.1 GPa. The transition between tensile and compressive stress corresponds to the transition between metallic and oxidized mode of reactive sputtering. This transition also induces a large variation in optical properties—from absorbent to transparent, and in the resistivity—from 4 × 10 - 2 Ω .cm to insulating. Finally, the piezoresistance of the thin film has been studied and showed a gauge factor (ΔR/R)/ɛ comprised between -5.8 and -8.5.

  15. Vacuum-annealing induced enhancements in the transparent conducting properties of Mo  +  F doped ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dineshbabu, N.; Ravichandran, K.

    2017-09-01

    The decisive aim of the present study is to enhance the transparent conducting properties of Mo  +  F co-doped ZnO films through annealing. In this work, Mo  +  F co-doped ZnO (MFZO) films were deposited on glass substrates at a deposition temperature of 350 °C using a home-made nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique and the prepared samples were annealed under air and vacuum atmosphere at 400 °C for 2 h. The structural, electrical, optical, surface morphological and elemental properties of as-deposited, air-annealed and vacuum-annealed samples were compared using various analytical techniques. The vacuum-annealed sample shows lowest resistivity of 1.364  ×  10-3 Ω cm and high transmittance of 90% in the visible region with high ohmic conducting nature. The optical bandgap of the sample was found to be increased to 3.36 eV after vacuum annealing treatment. The XRD patterns of the films confirmed the polycrystalline nature. The PL measurements show the defect levels of the deposited films. The FESEM and AFM studies show an increase in the grain size and roughness of the films, respectively, after vacuum-annealing treatment. The presence of the elements before and after annealing treatment was confirmed using XPS analysis.

  16. Transparency Film for Demonstration of Biaxial Optics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Paul R.

    1994-01-01

    Explains why transparency film demonstrates biaxial optical properties. Provides detailed descriptions of the procedure and equipment needed for large-scale optics demonstrations of the polarization interference pattern produced by biaxial crystals. (DDR)

  17. Application of thin dielectric films in low coherence fiber-optic Fabry-Pérot sensing interferometers: comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Marzena; Wierzba, Paweł; Jedrzejewska-Szczerska, Małgorzata

    2016-11-01

    We examine the application of selected thin dielectric films, deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD), in a low coherence fiber-optic Fabry-Pérot interferometer designed for sensing applications. Such films can be deposited on the end-face of a single mode optical fiber (SMF-28) in order to modify the reflectivity of the Fabry-Pérot cavity, to provide protection of the fibers from aggressive environments or to create a multi-cavity interferometric sensor. Spectral reflectance of films made from zinc oxide (ZnO), titanium dioxide (TiO2), aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and boron nitride (BN) was calculated for various thickness of the films and compared. The results show that the most promising materials for use in fiber-optic Fabry-Pérot interferometer are TiO2 and ZnO, although Al2O3 is also suitable for this application.

  18. ZnO thin film as MSG for sensitive biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iftimie, N.; Savin, A.; Steigmann, R.; Faktorova, D.; Salaoru, I.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate the cholesterol sensors consisting of a mixture of cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were grown on ITO/glass substrates by vacuum thermal evaporation method and their sensing characteristics are examined in air. Also, the interest in surface waves appeared due to evanescent waves in the metallic strip grating in sub-wavelength regime. Before testing the transducer with metamaterials lens in the sub-wavelength regime, a simulation of the evanescent wave's formation has been performed at the edge of Ag strips, with thicknesses in the range of micrometers.

  19. Defect free C-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) films grown at room temperature using RF magnetron sputtering

    SciT

    Kunj, Saurabh, E-mail: saurabhkunj22@gmail.com; Sreenivas, K.

    2016-05-23

    Radio frequency Magnetron sputtering technique was employed to fabricate ZnO thin films on quartz substrate at room temperature. The effect of varying oxygen to argon (O{sub 2}/Ar) gas ratio on the structural and photoluminescence properties of the film is analyzed.X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra reveals the formation of hexagonal wurtzite structured ZnO thin films with preferred orientation along (002) plane. Photoluminescence (PL) characterization reveals the preparation of highly crystalline films exhibiting intense Ultraviolet (UV) emission with negligible amount of defects as indicated by the absence of Deep Level Emission (DLE) in the PL spectra.

  20. Defect free C-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) films grown at room temperature using RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunj, Saurabh; Sreenivas, K.

    2016-05-01

    Radio frequency Magnetron sputtering technique was employed to fabricate ZnO thin films on quartz substrate at room temperature. The effect of varying oxygen to argon (O2/Ar) gas ratio on the structural and photoluminescence properties of the film is analyzed.X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra reveals the formation of hexagonal wurtzite structured ZnO thin films with preferred orientation along (002) plane. Photoluminescence (PL) characterization reveals the preparation of highly crystalline films exhibiting intense Ultraviolet (UV) emission with negligible amount of defects as indicated by the absence of Deep Level Emission (DLE) in the PL spectra.

  1. ZnO-PVA nanocomposite films for low threshold optical limiting applications

    SciT

    Viswanath, Varsha; Beenakumari, C.; Muneera, C. I.

    Zinc oxide-PVA nanocomposite films were fabricated adopting a simple method based on solution-casting, incorporating small weight percentages (<1.2 wt%) of ZnO in PVA (∼0.625×10{sup −3}M to 7×10{sup −3}M), and their structure, morphology, linear and low threshold nonlinear optical properties were investigated. The films were characterized as nanostructured ZnO encapsulated between the molecules/chains of the semicrystalline host polymer PVA. The samples exhibited low threshold nonlinear absorption and negative nonlinear refraction, as studied using the Z-scan technique. A switchover from SA to RSA was observed as the concentration of ZnO was increased. The optical limiting of 632.8 nm CW laser light displayedmore » by these nanocomposite films is also demonstrated. The estimated values of the effective coefficients of nonlinear absorption, nonlinear refraction and third-order nonlinear susceptibility, |χ{sup (3)}|, compared to those reported for continuous wave laser light excitation, measure up to the highest among them. The results show that the ZnO-PVA nanocomposite films have great potential applications in future optical and photonic devices.« less

  2. Perovskite solar cells based on nanocolumnar plasma-deposited ZnO thin films.

    PubMed

    Ramos, F Javier; López-Santos, Maria C; Guillén, Elena; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Grätzel, Michael; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin R; Ahmad, Shahzada

    2014-04-14

    ZnO thin films having a nanocolumnar microstructure are grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at 423 K on pre-treated fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates. The films consist of c-axis-oriented wurtzite ZnO nanocolumns with well-defined microstructure and crystallinity. By sensitizing CH3NH3PbI3 on these photoanodes a power conversion of 4.8% is obtained for solid-state solar cells. Poly(triarylamine) is found to be less effective when used as the hole-transport material, compared to 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD), while the higher annealing temperature of the perovskite leads to a better infiltration in the nanocolumnar structure and an enhancement of the cell efficiency. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. The epitaxial growth of wurtzite ZnO films on LiNbO 3 (0 0 0 1) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, J.; Liu, Z. G.; Liu, H.; Wang, X. S.; Zhu, T.; Liu, J. M.

    2000-12-01

    ZnO epitaxial films were deposited on LiNbO 3 (0 0 0 1) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The smaller lattice misfit (-8.5%) between ZnO along <1 0 1¯ 0>- direction and LiNbO 3 (0 0 0 1) along <1 1 2¯ 0>- direction, as compared with that in the case of normally used sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrates, favored the epitaxial growth of ZnO films. The transmittance spectra of ZnO films deposited in vacuum after annealed in pure oxygen show a sharp absorption edge at 375.6 nm (E g=3.31 eV) .

  4. ZnO thin-film transistors with a polymeric gate insulator built on a polyethersulfone substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyung, Gun Woo; Park, Jaehoon; Koo, Ja Ryong; Choi, Kyung Min; Kwon, Sang Jik; Cho, Eou Sik; Kim, Yong Seog; Kim, Young Kwan

    2012-03-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with a cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) (c-PVA) insulator are fabricated on a polyethersulfone substrate. The ZnO film, formed by atomic layer deposition, shows a polycrystalline hexagonal structure with a band gap energy of about 3.37 eV. The fabricated ZnO TFT exhibits a field-effect mobility of 0.38 cm2/Vs and a threshold voltage of 0.2 V. The hysteresis of the device is mainly caused by trapped electrons at the c-PVA/ZnO interface, whereas the positive threshold voltage shift occurs as a consequence of constant positive gate bias stress after 5000 s due to an electron injection from the ZnO film into the c-PVA insulator.

  5. Physical deoxygenation of graphene oxide paper surface and facile in situ synthesis of graphene based ZnO films

    SciT

    Ding, Jijun; Wang, Minqiang, E-mail: mqwang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Xiangyu

    2014-12-08

    In-situ sputtering ZnO films on graphene oxide (GO) paper are used to fabricate graphene based ZnO films. Crystal structure and surface chemical states are investigated. Results indicated that GO paper can be effectively deoxygenated by in-situ sputtering ZnO on them without adding any reducing agent. Based on the principle of radio frequency magnetron sputtering, we propose that during magnetron sputtering process, plasma streams contain large numbers of electrons. These electrons not only collide with argon atoms to produce secondary electrons but also they are accelerated to bombard the substrates (GO paper) resulting in effective deoxygenation of oxygen-containing functional groups. In-situmore » sputtering ZnO films on GO paper provide an approach to design graphene-semiconductor nanocomposites.« less

  6. Effect of ZnO on the Physical Properties and Optical Band Gap of Soda Lime Silicate Glass

    PubMed Central

    Zaid, Mohd Hafiz Mohd; Matori, Khamirul Amin; Aziz, Sidek Hj. Abdul; Zakaria, Azmi; Ghazali, Mohd Sabri Mohd

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript reports on the physical properties and optical band gap of five samples of soda lime silicate (SLS) glass combined with zinc oxide (ZnO) that were prepared by a melting and quenching process. To understand the role of ZnO in this glass structure, the density, molar volume and optical band gaps were investigated. The density and absorption spectra in the Ultra-Violet-Visible (UV-Visible) region were recorded at room temperature. The results show that the densities of the glass samples increased as the ZnO weight percentage increased. The molar volume of the glasses shows the same trend as the density: the molar volume increased as the ZnO content increased. The optical band gaps were calculated from the absorption edge, and it was found that the optical band gap decreased from 3.20 to 2.32 eV as the ZnO concentration increased. PMID:22837711

  7. The investigation of Ce doped ZnO crystal: The electronic, optical and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jun-Qing; Zhang, Jian-Min; Qiu, Ze-Gang; Yang, Xu; Li, Zhi-Qin

    2018-04-01

    The electronic, optical and magnetic properties of Ce doped ZnO crystal have been studied by using first principles method. The research of formation energies show that Ce doped ZnO is energetically stable, and the formation energies reduce from 6.25% to 12.5% for Ce molar percentage. The energy band is still direct band gap after Ce doped, and band gap increases with the increase of Cesbnd Ce distance. The Fermi level moves upward into conduction band and the DOS moves to lower energy with the increase of Ce concentration, which showing the properties of n-type semiconductor. The calculated optical properties imply that Ce doped causes a red-shift of absorption peaks, and enhances the absorption of the visible light. The transition from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic has been found in Ce doped ZnO.

  8. Thermoelectric Properties of Al-Doped ZnO Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, S.; Mele, P.; Honda, H.; Matsumoto, K.; Miyazaki, K.; Ichinose, A.

    2014-06-01

    We have prepared 2 % Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films on SrTiO3 substrates by a pulsed laser deposition technique at various deposition temperatures ( T dep = 300-600 °C). The thermoelectric properties of AZO thin films were studied in a low temperature range (300-600 K). Thin film deposited at 300 °C is fully c-axis-oriented and presents electrical conductivity 310 S/cm with Seebeck coefficient -65 μV/K and power factor 0.13 × 10-3 Wm-1 K-2 at 300 K. The performance of thin films increases with temperature. For instance, the power factor is enhanced up to 0.55 × 10-3 Wm-1 K-2 at 600 K, surpassing the best AZO film previously reported in the literature.

  9. Nanocomposite films based on CMC, okra mucilage and ZnO nanoparticles: Physico mechanical and antibacterial properties.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Hamid; Kamkar, Abolfazl; Misaghi, Ali

    2018-02-01

    This work examined the physico mechanical parameters and antibacterial activity of CMC/okra mucilage (OM) blend films containing ZnO nanoparticles (NPs). Different proportions of CMC and okra mucilage (100/0; 70/30; 60/40 and 50/50 respectively), were mixed and casted to posterior analysis of formed films. The more colored films were obtained by higher contents of okra mucilage and adding ZnO nanoparticles. The incorporation of ZnO NPs into CMC film decreased the elongation at the break (EB) value of the films and increased the tensile strength (TS) value of the film. With increase in CMC concentration in the films, higher water vapor permeability and higher solubility in water were achieved. Microstructure analysis using SEM showed a smooth and compact surface morphology, homogeneous structure, and a rough surface for CMC, CMC+ZnO, and CMC/OM30%+ZnO, respectively. Nanocomposite films presented antibacterial activity against tested bacteria. Films contained okra mucilage showed more antibacterial activity. The inhibitory activities of resultant films were stronger against S. aureus than E. coli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Activation like behaviour on the temperature dependence of the carrier density in In2O3-ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K, Makise; B, Shinozaki; T, Asano; K, Yano; H, Nakamura

    2012-12-01

    We study the effect of annealing in high vacuum on the transport properties for In2O3-ZnO films. We prepared indium zinc oxide films by the DC-magnetron sputtering method using an In2O3-ZnO target (89.3 wt % In2O3 and 10.7 wt % ZnO). The annealing temperature is from 373 to 773K. From the XRD analysis, we find that all as deposited films are amorphous. In addition we find that amorphous films are crystallized by annealing at a temperature above 773 K over 2 hours. The temperature dependence of resistivity ρ of all amorphous films shows metallic behaviour. On the other hand, ρ(T) of poly In2O3-ZnO films shows semi-conducting behaviour. We carry out a detailed analysis of the temperature dependence of Hall mobility. The activation energy Ed has been obtained from the slope of the carrier concentration Ne vs. the inverse temperature plot at high temperatures. We found that the Ed takes values between 0.43 and 0.19 meV. Meanwhile, temperature dependence of Ne for poly-In2O3-ZnO films did not show activation-like behaviour. This behaviour is thought to be causally related to impurity conduction band.

  11. Effect of precursor solutions on ZnO film via solution precursor plasma spray and corresponding gas sensing performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Z. X.; Ma, Y. Z.; Zhao, Y. L.; Huang, J. B.; Wang, W. Z.; Moliere, M.; Liao, H. L.

    2017-08-01

    Solution precursor plasma spraying (SPPS) as a novel thermal spray method was employed to deposit nano-structured ZnO thin film using different formulations of the precursor solution. This article focuses on the influence of the solution composition on the preferential orientation of crystal growth, on crystal size and surface morphology of the resulting ZnO films. The trend of preferential growth along (002) lattice plane of ZnO film was studied by slow scanning X-ray diffraction using a specific coefficient P(002). It appears that the thermal spray process promotes the buildup of ZnO films preferentially oriented along the c-axis. The shape of single particle tends to change from round shaped beads to hexagonal plates by increasing the volume ratio of ethanol in the solvent. Both cauliflower and honeycomb-like surface morphologies featuring high specific surface area and roughness were obtained through the SPPS process by varying solution composition. These ZnO films are hydrophobic with contact angle as high as 136°, which is seemingly associated with micro reliefs developing high surface specific area. Then the gas sensing performances of ZnO films preferentially oriented along (002) face were tentatively predicted using the "first principle calculation method" and were compared with those of conventional films that are mainly oriented along the (101) face. The (002) face displays better hydrogen adsorption capability than the (101) face with much larger resulting changes in electrical resistance. In conclusion, the c-axis oriented ZnO films obtained through SSPS have favorable performances to be used as sensitive layer in gas sensing applications.

  12. Nano/microstructure and optical properties of ZnO particles precipitated from zinc acetylacetonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, Željka; Ristić, Mira; Musić, Svetozar; Fabián, Martin

    2015-06-01

    The influence of experimental conditions on the nano/microstructure and optical properties of ZnO particles produced by rapid hydrolysis of zinc acetylacetonate, followed by aging of the precipitation system at 160 °C, was investigated. Samples were characterized by XRD, FE scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), FT-IR, UV/Vis/NIR and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies. XRD patterns of all samples were assigned to the hexagonal ZnO phase (wurtzite-type), as well as the corresponding FT-IR spectra. FE-SEM inspection showed a high dependence of the ZnO nano/microstructure on the chemical composition of the reaction mixture and autoclaving time after the rapid hydrolysis of zinc acetylacetonate. Microstructural differences were noticed between C2H5OH/H2O and H2O media, as well as under the influence of NH4OH addition. Measurements of nanocrystallite sizes showed no significant preferential orientation in the (1 0 0) and (0 0 2) directions relative to the (1 0 1) and (1 1 0) directions. Somewhat smaller crystallite sizes were noticed for ZnO samples synthesized by adding the NH4OH solution. Dissolution/recrystallization of ZnO particles played an important role in the formation of different ZnO nano/microstructures. The band gap values for prepared ZnO samples were calculated on the basis of recorded UV/Vis spectra. PL spectra were recorded for ZnO samples in powder form and their suspensions in pure ethanol. Noticed differences are discussed.

  13. First-principles characterization of native-defect-related optical transitions in ZnO

    SciT

    Lyons, J. L.; Varley, J. B.; Steiauf, D.

    We investigate the electrical and optical properties of oxygen vacancies (VO), zinc vacancies (V Zn), hydrogenated V Zn, and isolated dangling bonds in ZnO using hybrid functional calculations. While the formation energy of V O is high in n-type ZnO, indicating that this center is unlikely to form, our results for optical absorption signals associated with V O are consistent with those observed in irradiated samples, and give rise to emission with a peak at less than 1 eV. Under realistic growth conditions, we find that VZn is the lowest-energy native defect in n-type ZnO, acting as an acceptor thatmore » is likely to compensate donor doping. Turning to optical transitions, we first examine N O as a case study, since N-related transitions have been identified in experiments on ZnO. Here, we also examine how hydrogen, often unintentionally present in ZnO, forms stable complexes with V Zn and modifies its optical properties. Compared with isolated V Zn, V Zn-H complexes have charge-state transition levels lower in the band gap as well as have lower formation energies. These complexes also lead to characteristic vibrational frequencies which compare favorably with experiment. Oxygen dangling bonds show behavior mostly consistent with V Zn, while zinc dangling bonds give rise to transition levels near the ZnO conduction-band minimum and emission peaking near 2.4 eV. Lastly, we discuss our results in view of the available experimental literature.« less

  14. First-principles characterization of native-defect-related optical transitions in ZnO

    DOE PAGES

    Lyons, J. L.; Varley, J. B.; Steiauf, D.; ...

    2017-07-21

    We investigate the electrical and optical properties of oxygen vacancies (VO), zinc vacancies (V Zn), hydrogenated V Zn, and isolated dangling bonds in ZnO using hybrid functional calculations. While the formation energy of V O is high in n-type ZnO, indicating that this center is unlikely to form, our results for optical absorption signals associated with V O are consistent with those observed in irradiated samples, and give rise to emission with a peak at less than 1 eV. Under realistic growth conditions, we find that VZn is the lowest-energy native defect in n-type ZnO, acting as an acceptor thatmore » is likely to compensate donor doping. Turning to optical transitions, we first examine N O as a case study, since N-related transitions have been identified in experiments on ZnO. Here, we also examine how hydrogen, often unintentionally present in ZnO, forms stable complexes with V Zn and modifies its optical properties. Compared with isolated V Zn, V Zn-H complexes have charge-state transition levels lower in the band gap as well as have lower formation energies. These complexes also lead to characteristic vibrational frequencies which compare favorably with experiment. Oxygen dangling bonds show behavior mostly consistent with V Zn, while zinc dangling bonds give rise to transition levels near the ZnO conduction-band minimum and emission peaking near 2.4 eV. Lastly, we discuss our results in view of the available experimental literature.« less

  15. Analysis of stability improvement in ZnO thin film transistor with dual-gate structure under negative bias stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Ho-Jin; Kim, Young-Su; Jeong, Kwang-Seok; Kim, Yu-Mi; Yang, Seung-dong; Lee, Hi-Deok; Lee, Ga-Won

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we fabricated dual-gate zinc oxide thin film transistors (ZnO TFTs) without additional processes and analyzed their stability characteristics under a negative gate bias stress (NBS) by comparison with conventional bottom-gate structures. The dual-gate device shows superior electrical parameters, such as subthreshold swing (SS) and on/off current ratio. NBS of VGS = -20 V with VDS = 0 was applied, resulting in a negative threshold voltage (Vth) shift. After applying stress for 1000 s, the Vth shift is 0.60 V in a dual-gate ZnO TFT, while the Vth shift is 2.52 V in a bottom-gate ZnO TFT. The stress immunity of the dual-gate device is caused by the change in field distribution in the ZnO channel by adding another gate as the technology computer aided design (TCAD) simulation shows. Additionally, in flicker noise analysis, a lower noise level with a different mechanism is observed in the dual-gate structure. This can be explained by the top side of the ZnO film having a larger crystal and fewer grain boundaries than the bottom side, which is revealed by the enhanced SS and XRD results. Therefore, the improved stability of the dual-gate ZnO TFT is greatly related to the E-field cancellation effect and crystal quality of the ZnO film.

  16. ZnO Nanorod-Based Non-Enzymatic Optical Glucose Biosensor.

    PubMed

    Sarangi, Sachindra Nath; Nozaki, Shinji; Sahu, Surendra Nath

    2015-06-01

    The highly sensitive, interference-free and non-enzymatic optical sensing of glucose has been made possible for the first time using the hydrothermally synthesized ZnO nanorods. The UV irradiation of glucose-treated ZnO nanorods decomposes glucose into hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and gluconic acid by UV oxidation. The ZnO nanorods play the role of a catalyst similar to the oxidase used in the enzymatic glucose sensors. The photoluminescence (PL) intensity of the near-band edge emission of the ZnO nanorods linearly decreased with the increased concentration of H2O2. Therefore, the glucose concentration is monitored over the wide range of 0.5-30 mM, corresponding to 9-540 mg/dL. The concentration range of the linear region in the calibration curve is suitable for its clinical use as a glucose sensor, because the glucose concentration of human serum is typically in the range of 80-120 mg/dL. In addition, the optical glucose sensor made of the ZnO nanorods is free from interference by bovin serum albumin, ascorbic acid or uric acid, which are also present in human blood. The non-enzymatic ZnO-nanorod sensor has been demonstrated with human serum samples from both normal persons and diabetic patients. There is a good agreement between the glucose concentrations measured by the PL quenching and standard clinical methods.

  17. An investigation on the In doping of ZnO thin films by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahesh, Devika; Kumar, M. C. Santhosh

    2018-04-01

    Indium doped zinc oxide (IGZO)thin films are gaining much interest owing to its commercial application as transparent conductive oxide thin films. In the current study thin films indium doped ZnO thin films have been deposited on glass substrates by chemical spray pyrolysis technique with an indium concentration of 1, 2.5 and 4% in Zinc source. The films show a peak shift in the X-Ray Diffraction patterns with varying indium doping concentration. The (101) peak was enhanced for the 2.5 % indium doped films and variation in grain size with the different doping levels was studied. The as-deposited films are uniform and shown high transparency (>90%) in the visible region. Average thicknesses of films are found to be 800nm, calculated using the envelope method. The film with 2.5 % of indium content was found to be highly conducting than the rest, since for the lower and higher concentrations the conductivity was possibly halted by the limit in carrier concentration and indium segregation in the grain boundaries respectively. The enhancement of mobility and carrier concentration was clearly seen in the optimum films.

  18. Electrical, optical and structural properties of transparent conducting Al doped ZnO (AZO) deposited by sol-gel spin coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonny, Kaniz Naila; Rafique, Rosaleena; Sharmin, Afrina; Bashar, Muhammad Shahriar; Mahmood, Zahid Hasan

    2018-06-01

    Al doped ZnO (AZO) films are fabricated by using sol-gel spin coating method and changes in electrical, optical and structural properties due to variation in film thickness is studied. AZO films provide c-axis orientation along the (002) plane and peak sharpness increased with film thickness is evident from XRD analysis. Conductivity (σ) of AZO films has increased from 2.34 (Siemens/cm) to 20156.27 (Siemens/cm) whereas sheet resistance (Rsh) decreases from 606300 (ohms/sq.) to 2.08 (ohm/sq.) with increase of film thickness from 296 nm to 1030 nm. Optical transmittance (T%) of AZO films is decreased from around 82% to 62% in the visible region. And grain size (D) of AZO thin films has been found to increase from 19.59 nm to 25.25 nm with increase of film thickness. Figure of Merit is also calculated for prepared sample of AZO. Among these four sample of AZO thin films, L-15 sample (having thickness in 895 nm) has provided highest figure of merit which is 5.49*10^-4 (Ω-1).

  19. Significant mobility enhancement in extremely thin highly doped ZnO films

    SciT

    Look, David C., E-mail: david.look@wright.edu; Wyle Laboratories, Inc., 2601 Mission Point Blvd., Dayton, Ohio 45431; Air Force Research Laboratory Sensors Directorate, 2241 Avionics Circle, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433

    2015-04-13

    Highly Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films of thicknesses d = 5, 25, 50, and 300 nm, grown on 160-nm ZnO buffer layers by molecular beam epitaxy, had 294-K Hall-effect mobilities μ{sub H} of 64.1, 43.4, 37.0, and 34.2 cm{sup 2}/V-s, respectively. This extremely unusual ordering of μ{sub H} vs d is explained by the existence of a very high-mobility Debye tail in the ZnO, arising from the large Fermi-level mismatch between the GZO and the ZnO. Scattering theory in conjunction with Poisson analysis predicts a Debye-tail mobility of 206 cm{sup 2}/V-s at the interface (z = d), falling to 58 cm{sup 2}/V-s at z = d + 2 nm. Excellent fits to μ{sub H}more » vs d and sheet concentration n{sub s} vs d are obtained with no adjustable parameters.« less

  20. Effect of Material of Metal Sublayer and Deposition Configuration on the Texture Formation in the Piezoactive ZnO Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselov, A. G.; Elmanov, V. I.; Kiryasova, O. A.; Nikulin, Yu. V.

    2018-01-01

    Effect of material of metal sublayer (aluminum, vanadium, chromium, iron, cobalt, nickel, and copper) and deposition configuration on the formation of the oblique and straight texture in the ZnO films is studied. The films that are synthesized in a dc magnetron sputtering system. It is shown that the piezoactive ZnO films with oblique texture that can generate shear waves are formed on the Cr and V metal sublayers in the shifted deposition configuration when the substrate is shifted relative to the magnetron axis toward the region of the target erosion. The piezoactive ZnO films with the straight structure that can generate longitudinal waves are formed on a chemically pure Al sublayer in the symmetric deposition configuration when the substrate is centered with respect to the target. Changes of the sublayer material in both deposition configurations or preliminary oxidation of the sublayer lead to the formation of the piezoactive ZnO films with mixed texture that excite shear and longitudinal waves. Chemical etching is used to show that the ZnO films with the oblique and straight textures exhibit piezoactive properties and can generate hypersound at thicknesses of no less than about 0.3 and about 0.9 μm, respectively.

  1. Comparative study for highly Al and Mg doped ZnO thin films elaborated by sol gel method for photovoltaic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hallani, G.; Nasih, S.; Fazouan, N.; Liba, A.; Khuili, M.; Sajieddine, M.; Mabrouki, M.; Laanab, L.; Atmani, E. H.

    2017-04-01

    Transparent conducting oxides such as ZnO doped with Al or Mg are commonly used in solar cells, light emitting diodes, photodetectors, and ultraviolet laser diodes. In our work, we focus on a comparative study of the structural, optical, and electrical properties of ZnO films highly doped with Al (AZO) and Mg (MZO). These films are deposited on glass substrates by the sol-gel spin coating method. The doping concentrations for Al and Mg are fixed to 5%-30%. The XRD spectra indicate that all the samples are polycrystalline with hexagonal wurtzite structures, exhibiting a preferred orientation along the (002) plane. Low degradation in crystallinity was observed for MZO even at a Mg concentration of 30%. The MgO phase started to appear compared to Al-doped layers where smaller grains are formed inducing a deterioration in the films just after doping but no new phase appeared. This result is in agreement with other experimental results [J. K. Rath, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 76, 431-487 (2003); Morris et al., J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1079-1087 (1990)]. By AFM analysis, the results indicate a significantly rough surface for MZO compared to AZO films. For equal Al and Mg dopant concentrations, we observe that the transmittance spectra of MZO thin films are wider than those of AZO, indicating a shift toward shorter wavelengths with an optical gap energy equal to 3.67 eV. The electrical measurements of AZO and MZO thin films were made using the I-V characteristic obtained by the four probe method. All the films present an ohmic behavior. The conductivity and the mobility of AZO films were found to be better than those of MZO.

  2. Velocity surface measurements for ZnO films over /001/-cut GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Yoonkee; Hunt, William D.; Liu, Yongsheng; Jen, Cheng-Kuei

    1994-01-01

    A potential application for a piezoelectic film deposited on a GaAs substrate is the monolithic integration of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices with GaAs electronics. Knowledge of the SAW properties of the filmed structure is critical for the optimum design of such devices. In this article, the measurements of the velocity surface, which directly affects the SAW diffraction, on the bare and metallized ZnO/SiO2 or Si3N4/GaAs /001/-cut samples are reported using two different techniques: (1) knife-edge laser probe, (2) line-focus-beam scanning acoustic microscope. Comparisons, such as measurement accuracy and tradeoffs, between the former (dry) and the latter (wet) method are given. It is found that near the group of zone axes (110) propagation direction the autocollimating SAW property of the bare GaAs changes into a noncollimating one for the layered structure, but a reversed phenomenon exists near the group of zone axes (100) direction. The passivation layer of SiO2 or Si3N4 (less than 0.2 micrometer thick) and the metallization layer change the relative velocity but do not significantly affect the velocity surface. On the other hand, the passivation layer reduces the propagation loss by 0.5-1.3 dB/microseconds at 240 MHz depending upon the ZnO film thickness. Our SAW propagation measurements agree well with theorectical calculations. We have also obtained the anisotropy factors for samples with ZnO films of 1.6, 2.8, and 4.0 micrometer thickness. Comparisons concerning the piezoelectric coupling and acoustic loss between dc triode and rf magnetron sputtered ZnO films are provided.

  3. The crystalline structure of copper phthalocyanine films on ZnO(1100).

    PubMed

    Cruickshank, Amy C; Dotzler, Christian J; Din, Salahud; Heutz, Sandrine; Toney, Michael F; Ryan, Mary P

    2012-09-05

    The structure of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) thin films (5-100 nm) deposited on single-crystal ZnO(1100) substrates by organic molecular beam deposition was determined from grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction reciprocal space maps. The crystal structure was identified as the metastable polymorph α-CuPc, but the molecular stacking was found to vary depending on the film thickness: for thin films, a herringbone arrangement was observed, whereas for films thicker than 10 nm, coexistence of both the herringbone and brickstone arrangements was found. We propose a modified structure for the herringbone phase with a larger monoclinic β angle, which leads to intrastack Cu-Cu distances closer to those in the brickstone phase. This structural basis enables an understanding of the functional properties (e.g., light absorption and charge transport) of (opto)electronic devices fabricated from CuPc/ZnO hybrid systems.

  4. Percentage of different aluminum doping influence the morphological and optical properties of ZnO nanostructured growth for sensor application

    SciT

    Mohamed, R., E-mail: ruziana12@gmail.com; NANO-SciTech Centre, Institue of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor; Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA Pahang, 26400 Bandar Tun Razak Jengka, Pahang

    In this work, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) with different aluminum (Al) doping percentage was synthesis by sol gel immersion method. Al doped ZnO at various doping percentage from 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. It was found that with different Al percentage influence the morphological and optical properties of ZnO growth. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) image showed the use of different Al doping causes the difference in geometry and size of ZnO nanorods growth. Based on UV-Vis spectroscopy, the transmittance at 1% Al doping has the highest spectrum.

  5. Field Effect Transistors Based on Composite Films of Poly(4-vinylphenol) with ZnO Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boughias, Ouiza; Belkaid, Mohammed Said; Zirmi, Rachid; Trigaud, Thierry; Ratier, Bernard; Ayoub, Nouh

    2018-04-01

    In order to adjust the characteristic of pentacene thin film transistor, we modified the dielectric properties of the gate insulator, poly(4-vinylphenol), or PVP. PVP is an organic polymer with a low dielectric constant, limiting the performance of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). To increase the dielectric constant of PVP, a controlled amount of ZnO nanoparticles was homogeneously dispersed in a dielectric layer. The effect of the concentration of ZnO on the relative permittivity of PVP was measured using impedance spectroscopy and it has been demonstrated that the permittivity increases from 3.6 to 5.5 with no percolation phenomenon even at a concentration of 50 vol.%. The performance of OTFTs in terms of charge carrier mobility, threshold voltage and linkage current was evaluated. The results indicate a dramatic increase in both the field effect mobility and the linkage current by a factor of 10. It has been demonstrated that the threshold voltage can be adjusted. It shifts from 8 to 0 when the volume concentration of ZnO varied from 0 vol.% to 50 vol.%.

  6. Structural, optical and field emission properties of urchin-shaped ZnO nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Al-Heniti, Saleh; Umar, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    In this work, well-crystallized urchin-shaped ZnO structures were synthesized on silicon substrate by simple non-catalytic thermal evaporation process by using metallic zinc powder in the presence of oxygen as source materials for zinc and oxygen, respectively. The synthesized ZnO structures were characterized in detail in terms of their morphological, structural, optical and field emission properties. The detailed morphological investigations revealed that the synthesized structures possess urchin-shape and grown in high-density over the substrate surface. The detailed structural and optical characterizations revealed that the synthesized urchin-shaped ZnO structures are well-crystallized and exhibiting good optical properties. The field emission analysis for urchin-shaped ZnO structures exhibits a turn-on field of 4.6 V/microm. The emission current density reached to 0.056 mA/cm2 at an applied electrical field of 6.4 V/microm and shows no saturation. The calculated field enhancement factor 'beta', from the F-N plot, was found to be approximately 2.2 x 10(3).

  7. Effects of mechanical strain on optical properties of ZnO nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazinishayan, Ali; Lambada, Dasaradha Rao; Yang, Shuming; Zhang, Guofeng; Cheng, Biyao; Woldu, Yonas Tesfaye; Shafique, Shareen; Wang, Yiming; Anastase, Ndahimana

    2018-02-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the influences of mechanical strain on optical properties of ZnO nanowire (NW) before and after embedding ZnS nanowire into the ZnO nanowire, respectively. For this work, commercial finite element modeling (FEM) software package ABAQUS and three-dimensional (3D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) methods were utilized to analyze the nonlinear mechanical behavior and optical properties of the sample, respectively. Likewise, in this structure a single focused Gaussian beam with wavelength of 633 nm was used as source. The dimensions of ZnO nanowire were defined to be 12280 nm in length and 103.2 nm in diameter with hexagonal cross-section. In order to investigate mechanical properties, three-point bending technique was adopted so that both ends of the model were clamped with mid-span under loading condition and then the physical deformation model was imported into FDTD solutions to study optical properties of ZnO nanowire under mechanical strain. Moreover, it was found that increase in the strain due to the external load induced changes in reflectance, transmittance and absorptance, respectively.

  8. Synthesis of highly efficient antibacterial agent Ag doped ZnO nanorods: Structural, Raman and optical properties

    SciT

    Jan, Tariq; Iqbal, Javed, E-mail: javed.saggu@iiu.edu.pk; Ismail, Muhammad

    Here, synthesis, structural, morphological, Raman, optical properties and antibacterial activity of undoped and Ag doped ZnO nanorods by chemical co-precipitation technique have been reported. Structural analysis has revealed that Ag doping cannot deteriorate the structure of ZnO and wurtzite phase is maintained. Lattice constants are found to be decreased with the Ag doping. Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy also confirm the X-ray diffraction results. Scanning electron microscopy results have demonstrated the formation of ZnO nanorods with average diameter and length of 96 nm and 700 nm, respectively. Raman spectroscopy results suggest that the Ag doping enhances the number of defects inmore » ZnO crystal. It has been found from optical study that Ag doping results in positional shift of band edge absorption peak. This is attributed to the successful incorporation of Ag dopant into ZnO host matrix. The antibacterial activity of prepared nanorods has been determined by two different methods and compared to that of undoped ZnO nanorods. Ag doped ZnO nanorods exhibit excellent antibacterial activity as compared to that of undoped ZnO nanorods. This excellent antibacterial activity may be attributed to the presence of oxygen vacancies and Zn{sup 2+} interstitial defects. Our preliminary findings suggest that Ag doped ZnO nanorods can be used externally to control the spreading of infections related with tested bacterial strains.« less

  9. Physical Property Evaluation of ZnO Thin Film Fabricated by Low-Temperature Process for Flexible Transparent TFT.

    PubMed

    Khafe, Adie Bin Mohd; Watanabe, Hiraku; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Kuniyoshi, Shigekazu; Iizuka, Masaaki; Sakai, Masatoshi; Kudo, Kazuhiro

    2016-04-01

    The usual silicon-based display back planes require fairly high process temperature and thus the development of a low temperature process is needed on flexible plastic substrates. A new type of flexible organic light emitting transistor (OLET) had been proposed and investigated in the previous work. By using ultraviolet/ozone (UV/O3) assisted thermal treatments on wet processed zinc oxide field effect transistor (ZnO-FET), through low-process temperature, ZnO-FETs were fabricated which succeeded to achieve target drain current value and mobility. In this study, physical property evaluation of ZnO was conducted in term of their crystallinity, the increase composition of ZnO formed inside the thin film and the decrease of the carbon impurities originated from aqueous solution of the ZnO itself. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) evaluation showed UV/03 assisted thermal treatment has no obvious effect towards crystallinity of ZnO in the range of low process temperature. Moreover, through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) evaluation and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy evaluation, more carbon impurities disappeared from the ZnO thin film and the increase of composition amount of ZnO, when the thin film was subjected to UV/O3 assisted thermal treatment. Therefore, UV/O3 assisted thermal treatment contributed in carbon impurities elimination and accelerate ZnO formation in ZnO thin film, which led to the improvement in the electrical property of ZnO-FET in the low-process temperature.

  10. Precursor-route ZnO films from a mixed casting solvent for high performance aqueous electrolyte-gated transistors.

    PubMed

    Althagafi, Talal M; Algarni, Saud A; Al Naim, Abdullah; Mazher, Javed; Grell, Martin

    2015-12-14

    We significantly improved the performance of precursor-route semiconducting zinc oxide (ZnO) films in electrolyte-gated thin film transistors (TFTs). We find that the organic precursor to ZnO, zinc acetate (ZnAc), dissolves more readily in a 1 : 1 mixture of ethanol (EtOH) and acetone than in pure EtOH, pure acetone, or pure isopropanol. XPS and SEM characterisation show improved morphology of ZnO films converted from a mixed solvent cast ZnAc precursor compared to the EtOH cast precursor. When gated with a biocompatible electrolyte, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), ZnO thin film transistors (TFTs) derived from mixed solvent cast ZnAc give 4 times larger field effect current than similar films derived from ZnAc cast from pure EtOH. The sheet resistance at VG = VD = 1 V is 30 kΩ □(-1), lower than for any organic TFT, and lower than for any electrolyte-gated ZnO TFT reported to date.

  11. Effect of self-organization, defects, impurities, and autocatalytic processes on the parameters of ZnO films and nanorods

    SciT

    Mezdrogina, M. M., E-mail: Margaret.M@mail.ioffe.ru; Eremenko, M. V.; Levitskii, V. S.

    The effects of the parameters of ZnO-film deposition onto different substrates using the method of ac magnetron sputtering in a gas mixture of argon and oxygen hare studied. The phenomenon of self-organization is observed, which leads to invariability of the surface morphology of the ZnO films upon a variation in the substrate materials and deposition parameters. The parameters of the macro- and micro-photoluminescence spectra of the films differ insignificantly from the parameters of the photoluminescence spectra of bulk ZnO crystals obtained by the method of hydrothermal growth. The presence of intense emission with a narrow full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) inmore » different regions of the spectrum allows ZnO films obtained by magnetron sputtering doped with rare-earth metal impurities (REIs) to be considered as a promising material for the creation of optoelectronic devices working in a broad spectral range. The possibility of the implementation of magnetic ordering upon legierung with REIs significantly broadens the functional possibilities of ZnO films. The parameters of the photoluminescence spectra of ZnO nanorods are determined by their geometrical parameters and by the concentration and type of the impurities introduced.« less

  12. Nonlinear optical parameters of nanocrystalline AZO thin film measured at different substrate temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jilani, Asim; Abdel-wahab, M. Sh; Al-ghamdi, Attieh A.; Dahlan, Ammar sadik; Yahia, I. S.

    2016-01-01

    The 2.2 wt% of aluminum (Al)-doped zinc oxide (AZO) transparent and preferential c-axis oriented thin films were prepared by using radio frequency (DC/RF) magnetron sputtering at different substrate temperature ranging from room temperature to 200 °C. For structural analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Atomic Force Electron Microscope (AFM) was used for morphological studies. The optical parameters such as, optical energy gap, refractive index, extinction coefficient, dielectric loss, tangent loss, first and third order nonlinear optical properties of transparent films were investigated. High transmittance above 90% and highly homogeneous surface were observed in all samples. The substrate temperature plays an important role to get the best transparent conductive oxide thin films. The substrate temperature at 150 °C showed the growth of highly transparent AZO thin film. Energy gap increased with the increased in substrate temperature of Al doped thin films. Dielectric constant and loss were found to be photon energy dependent with substrate temperature. The change in substrate temperature of Al doped thin films also affect the non-liner optical properties of thin films. The value of χ(3) was found to be changed with the grain size of the thin films that directly affected by the substrate temperature of the pure and Al doped ZnO thin films.

  13. Enhanced luminescence in Eu-doped ZnO nanocrystalline films

    SciT

    Suzuki, Keigo, E-mail: ksuzuki@murata.com; Murayama, Koji; Tanaka, Nobuhiko

    We found an enhancement of Eu{sup 3+} emissions in Eu-doped ZnO nanocrystalline films fabricated by microemulsion method. The Eu{sup 3+} emission intensities were increased by reducing annealing temperatures from 633 K to 533 K. One possible explanation for this phenomenon is that the size reduction enhances the energy transfer from ZnO nanoparticles to Eu{sup 3+} ions. Also, the shift of the charge-transfer band into the low-energy side of the absorption edge is found to be crucial, which seems to expedite the energy transfer from O atoms to Eu{sup 3+} ions. These findings will be useful for the material design of Eu-doped ZnOmore » phosphors.« less

  14. ZnO buffer layer for metal films on silicon substrates

    DOEpatents

    Ihlefeld, Jon

    2014-09-16

    Dramatic improvements in metallization integrity and electroceramic thin film performance can be achieved by the use of the ZnO buffer layer to minimize interfacial energy between metallization and adhesion layers. In particular, the invention provides a substrate metallization method utilizing a ZnO adhesion layer that has a high work of adhesion, which in turn enables processing under thermal budgets typically reserved for more exotic ceramic, single-crystal, or metal foil substrates. Embodiments of the present invention can be used in a broad range of applications beyond ferroelectric capacitors, including microelectromechanical systems, micro-printed heaters and sensors, and electrochemical energy storage, where integrity of metallized silicon to high temperatures is necessary.

  15. Fabrication Method Study of ZnO Nanocoated Cellulose Film and Its Piezoelectric Property

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Hyun-U; Kim, Hyun Chan; Kim, Jung Woong; Zhai, Lindong; Kim, Jaehwan

    2017-01-01

    Recently, a cellulose-based composite material with a thin ZnO nanolayer—namely, ZnO nanocoated cellulose film (ZONCE)—was fabricated to increase its piezoelectric charge constant. However, the fabrication method has limitations to its application in mass production. In this paper, a hydrothermal synthesis method suitable for the mass production of ZONCE (HZONCE) is proposed. A simple hydrothermal synthesis which includes a hydrothermal reaction is used for the production, and the reaction time is controlled. To improve the piezoelectric charge constant, the hydrothermal reaction is conducted twice. HZONCE fabricated by twice-hydrothermal reaction shows approximately 1.6-times improved piezoelectric charge constant compared to HZONCE fabricated by single hydrothermal reaction. Since the fabricated HZONCE has high transparency, dielectric constant, and piezoelectric constant, the proposed method can be applied for continuous mass production. PMID:28772971

  16. Exciton and core-level electron confinement effects in transparent ZnO thin films

    PubMed Central

    Mosquera, Adolfo A.; Horwat, David; Rashkovskiy, Alexandr; Kovalev, Anatoly; Miska, Patrice; Wainstein, Dmitry; Albella, Jose M.; Endrino, Jose L.

    2013-01-01

    The excitonic light emission of ZnO films have been investigated by means of photoluminescence measurements in ultraviolet-visible region. Exciton confinement effects have been observed in thin ZnO coatings with thickness below 20 nm. This is enhanced by a rise of the intensity and a blue shift of the photoluminescence peak after extraction of the adsorbed species upon annealing in air. It is found experimentally that the free exciton energy (determined by the photoluminescence peak) is inversely proportional to the square of the thickness while core-level binding energy is inversely proportional to the thickness. These findings correlate very well with the theory of kinetic and potential confinements.

  17. Electric field modulated ferromagnetism in ZnO films deposited at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Jianpei; Liu, Xinran; Hao, Yanming; Zhou, Guangjun; Cheng, Bin; Huang, Wei; Xie, Jihao; Zhang, Heng; Qin, Hongwei; Hu, Jifan

    2018-04-01

    The ZnO film deposited at room temperature, which is composed of the amorphous-phase background plus a few nanograins or nanoclusters (about 1-2 nm), exhibits room temperature ferromagnetism (FM). Such FM is found to be connected with oxygen vacancies. For the Ta/ZnO/Pt device based on the medium layer ZnO deposited at room temperature, the saturation magnetization not only is modulated between high and low resistive states by electric voltage with DC loop electric current but also increases/decreases through adjusting the magnitudes of positive/negative DC sweeping voltage. Meanwhile, the voltage-controlled conductance quantization is observed in Ta/ZnO/Pt, accompanying the voltage-controlled magnetization. However, the saturation magnetization of the Ta/ZnO/Pt device becomes smaller under positive electric voltage and returns in some extent under negative electric voltage, when the DC loop electric current is not applied.

  18. Contact resistance reduction of ZnO thin film transistors (TFTs) with saw-shaped electrode.

    PubMed

    Park, Woojin; Shaikh, Sohail F; Min, Jung-Wook; Lee, Sang Kyung; Lee, Byoung Hun; Hussain, Muhammad M

    2018-08-10

    We report on a saw-shaped electrode architecture ZnO thin film transistor (TFT), which effectively increases the channel width. The contact line of the saw-shaped electrode is almost twice as long at the contact metal/ZnO channel junction. We experimentally observed an enhancement in the output drive current by 50% and a reduction in the contact resistance by over 50%, when compared to a typically shaped electrode ZnO TFT consuming the same chip area. This performance enhancement is attributed to the extension of the channel width. This technique can contribute to device performance enhancement, and in particular reduce the contact resistance, which is a serious challenge.

  19. Influence of solution viscosity on hydrothermally grown ZnO thin films for DSSC applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marimuthu, T.; Anandhan, N.; Thangamuthu, R.; Surya, S.

    2016-10-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire arrays (NWAs) were grown onto zinc oxide-titanium dioxide (ZnO-TiO2) seeded fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) conductive substrate by hydrothermal technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns depict that ZnO thin films are preferentially oriented along the (002) plane with hexagonal wurtzite structure. Viscosity measurements reveal that viscosity of the solutions linearly increases as the concentrations of the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) increase in the growth solution. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) images show that the NWAs are vertically grown to seeded FTO substrate with hexagonal structure, and the growth of NWAs decreases as the concentration of the PVA increases. Stylus profilometer and atomic force microscopic (AFM) studies predict that the thickness and roughness of the films decrease with increasing the PVA concentrations. The NWAs prepared at 0.1% of PVA exhibits a lower transmittance and higher absorbance than that of the other films. The band gap of the optimized films prepared at 0.0 and 0.1% of PVA is found to be 3.270 and 3.268 eV, respectively. The photo to current conversion efficiency of the DSSC based on photoanodes prepared at 0.0 and 0.1% of PVA exhibits about 0.64 and 0.82%, respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectra reveal that the DSSC based on photoanode prepared at 0.1% of PVA has the highest charge transfer recombination resistance.

  20. Microstructure study of ZnO thin films on Si substrate grown by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jingyun; Ye, Zhizhen; Lu, Huanming; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Binghui; Li, Xianhang

    2007-08-01

    The microstructure of zinc oxide thin films on silicon substrates grown by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) was characterized. The cross-sectional bright-field transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image showed that small ZnO columnar grains were embedded into large columnar grains, and the selected-area electron diffraction pattern showed that the ZnO/Si thin films were nearly c-axis oriented. The deviation angle along the ZnO (0 0 0 1) direction with respect to the growth direction of Si (1 0 0) was no more than 5°. The [0 0 0 1]-tilt grain boundaries in ZnO/Si thin films were investigated symmetrically by plan-view high resolution TEM. The boundaries can be classified into three types: low-angle boundaries described as an irregular array of edge dislocations, boundaries of near 30° angle with (1\\,0\\,\\bar{1}\\,0) facet structures and large-angle boundaries with symmetric structure which could be explained by a low Σ coincident site lattice structure mode. The research was useful to us for finding optimized growth conditions to improve ZnO/Si thin film quality.

  1. Effect of cobalt doping on structural and optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles

    SciT

    Singh, J.; Chanda, A., E-mail: anupamamatsc@gmail.com; Gupta, S.

    Cobalt doped ZnO nanoparticles of uniform sizes were prepared by a chemical method using ZnCl{sub 2} and NaOH as the source materials. The formation of Co-doped ZnO nanoparticles was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HR-TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) studies. The optical properties of obtained products were examined using room temperature UV-visible and FTIR spectroscopy. SAED of cobalt doped ZnO nanoparticles shows homogeneous distribution of nanoparticles with hexagonal structure. The HRTEM image of the Co-doped ZnO nanoparticles reveals a clear lattice spacing of 0.52 nm corresponding to the interplanar spacing of wurtzite ZnO (002) plane.more » The absorption band at 857 cm{sup −1} in FTIR spectra confirmed the tetrahedral coordination of Zn and a shift of absorption peak to shorter wavelength region and decrease in absorbance with Co doping.is observed in UV-Visible spectra.« less

  2. The Effect of Thickness of ZnO Thin Films on Hydrophobic Self-Cleaning Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mufti, N.; Arista, D.; Diantoro, M.; Fuad, A.; Taufiq, A.; Sunaryono

    2017-05-01

    Glass coating can be conducted by using ZnO-photocatalyst based semiconductor material since it is preeminent in decomposing organics compound and dangerous bacteria which often contaminates the environment. If there are dirt containing organics compound on the glass, the ZnO photocatalyst coat can be applied as self-cleaning, usually called self-cleaning glass. It depends on the coating thickness which can be controlled by setting the speed of spin coating. In this research, the various rotating speeds of spin coating were conducted at 2000 rpm, 3000 rpm, and 4000 rpm to control the thickness. The raw materials used in this research were Zn(CH3COOH)2.2H2O (PA 99,5%), Ethylene glycol, Diethanolamine (PA 99%), Isopropanol Alkohol, Glycerol, and Ashton. Synthesis methods used were sol-gel prior to spin coating technic were applied. The results of the film were characterized by using SEM, XRD, and UV-Spectrophotometer. The crystal structure was analyzed by using Highscore plus and GSAS software, the size crystal was calculated by using Scherrer equation, a contact angle with ImageJ software. It was shown that ZnO thin film had been successfully synthesized with the crystal size around 21 nm up to 26 nm. The absorption value is higher due to the increasing of coat thickness with bandgap ± 3.2 eV. The test result of hydrophobic and hydrophilic characteristics show that all samples of ZnO thin film with the thickness ± 1.050 μm, ± 0.450 μm, ± 0.250 μm can be applied as self-cleaning glass. The best result was gained with the thickness of thin film ± 1.050 μm.

  3. ZnO thin films and nanostructures for emerging optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, D. J.; Teherani, F. H.; Sandana, V. E.; Razeghi, M.

    2010-02-01

    ZnO-based thin films and nanostructures grown by PLD for various emerging optoelectronic applications. AZO thin films are currently displacing ITO for many TCO applications due to recent improvements in attainable AZO conductivity combined with processing, cost and toxicity advantages. Advances in the channel mobilities and Id on/off ratios in ZnO-based TTFTs have opened up the potential for use as a replacement for a-Si in AM-OLED and AM-LCD screens. Angular-dependent specular reflection measurements of self-forming, moth-eye-like, nanostructure arrays grown by PLD were seen to have <0.5% reflectivity over the whole visible spectrum for angles of incidence between 10 and 60 degrees. Such nanostructures may be useful for applications such as AR coatings on solar cells. Compliant ZnO layers on mismatched/amorphous substrates were shown to have potential for MOVPE regrowth of GaN. This approach could be used as a means to facilitate lift-off of GaN-based LEDs from insulating sapphire substrates and could allow the growth of InGaN-based solar cells on cheap substrates. The green gap in InGaN-based LEDs was combated by substituting low Ts PLD n-ZnO for MOCVD n-GaN in inverted hybrid heterojunctions. This approach maintained the integrity of the InGaN MQWs and gave LEDs with green emission at just over 510 nm. Hybrid n-ZnO/p-GaN heterojunctions were also seen to have the potential for UV (375 nm) EL, characteristic of ZnO NBE emission. This suggests that there was significant hole injection into the ZnO and that such LEDs could profit from the relatively high exciton binding energy of ZnO.

  4. Electromechanical coupling coefficient k15 of polycrystalline ZnO films with the c-axes lie in the substrate plane.

    PubMed

    Yanagitani, Takahiko; Mishima, Natsuki; Matsukawa, Mami; Watanabe, Yoshiaki

    2007-04-01

    The (1120) textured polycrystalline ZnO films with a high shear mode electromechanical coupling coefficient k15 are obtained by sputter deposition. An over-moded resonator, a layered structure of metal electrode film/(1120) textured ZnO piezoelectric film/metal electrode film/silica glass substrate was used to characterize k15 by a resonant spectrum method. The (1120) textured ZnO piezoelectric films with excellent crystallite c-axis alignment showed an electromechanical coupling coefficient k15 of 0.24. This value was 92% of k15 value in single-crystal (k15 = 0.26).

  5. Dopant-driven enhancements in the optoelectronic properties of laser ablated ZnO: Ga thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Ali; Jin, Yuhua; Chao, Feng; Irfan, Muhammad; Jiang, Yijian

    2018-04-01

    Theoretically and experimentally evaluated optoelectronic properties of GZO (Ga-doped zinc oxide) were correlated in the present article. Density functional theory and Hubbard U (DFT + Ud + Up) first-principle calculations were used for the theoretical study. The pulsed laser deposition technique was used to fabricate GZO thin films on p-GaN, Al2O3, and p-Si substrates. X-ray diffraction graphs show single crystal growth of GZO thin films with (002) preferred crystallographic orientation. The chemical composition was studied via energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and no other unwanted impurity-related peaks were found, which indicated the impurity-free thin film growth of GZO. Field emission scanning electron microscopic micrographs revealed noodle-, seed-, and granular-like structures of GZO/GaN, GZO/Al2O3, and GZO/Si, respectively. Uniform growth of GZO/GaN was found due to fewer mismatches between ZnO and GaN (0.09%). Hall effect measurements in the van der Pauw configuration were used to check electrical properties. The highest mobility (53 cm2/Vs) with a high carrier concentration was found with low laser shots (1800). A 5-fold photoluminescence enhancement in the noodle-like structure of GZO/GaN compared with GZO/Al2O3 and GZO/Si was detected. This points toward shape-driven optical properties because the noodle-like structure is more favorable for optical enhancements in GZO thin films. Theoretical (3.539 eV) and experimental (3.54 eV) values of the band-gap were also found to be comparable. Moreover, the lowest resistivity (3.5 × 10-4 Ωcm) with 80% transmittance is evidence that GZO is a successful alternate of ITO.

  6. Surface structure, optoelectronic properties and charge transport in ZnO nanocrystal/MDMO-PPV multilayer films.

    PubMed

    Lian, Qing; Chen, Mu; Mokhtar, Muhamad Z; Wu, Shanglin; Zhu, Mingning; Whittaker, Eric; O'Brien, Paul; Saunders, Brian R

    2018-05-07

    Blends of semiconducting nanocrystals and conjugated polymers continue to attract major research interest because of their potential applications in optoelectronic devices, such as solar cells, photodetectors and light-emitting diodes. In this study we investigate the surface structure, morphological and optoelectronic properties of multilayer films constructed from ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) and poly[2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MDMO-PPV). The effects of layer number and ZnO concentration (C ZnO ) used on the multilayer film properties are investigated. An optimised solvent blend enabled well-controlled layers to be sequentially spin coated and the construction of multilayer films containing six ZnO NC (Z) and MDMO-PPV (M) layers (denoted as (ZM) 6 ). Contact angle data showed a strong dependence on C ZnO and indicated distinct differences in the coverage of MDMO-PPV by the ZnO NCs. UV-visible spectroscopy showed that the MDMO-PPV absorption increased linearly with the number of layers in the films and demonstrates highly tuneable light absorption. Photoluminescence spectra showed reversible quenching as well as a surprising red-shift of the MDMO-PPV emission peak. Solar cells were constructed to probe vertical photo-generated charge transport. The measurements showed that (ZM) 6 devices prepared using C ZnO = 14.0 mg mL -1 had a remarkably high open circuit voltage of ∼800 mV. The device power conversion efficiency was similar to that of a control bilayer device prepared using a much thicker MDMO-PPV layer. The results of this study provide insight into the structure-optoelectronic property relationships of new semiconducting multilayer films which should also apply to other semiconducting NC/polymer combinations.

  7. Exploring excitonic signal in optical conductivity of ZnO through first-order electron-hole vertex correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoirunnisa, Humaira; Aziz Majidi, Muhammad

    2018-04-01

    The emergence of exitonic signal in the optical response of a wide band-gap semiconductor has been a common knowledge in physics. There have been numerous experimental studies exploring the important role of excitons on influencing both the transport and optical properties of the materials. Despite the existence of much information on excitonic effects, there has not been much literature that explores detailed theoretical explanation on how the exitonic signal appears and how it evolves with temperature. Here, we propose a theoretical study on the optical conductivity of ZnO, a well-known wide band-gap semiconductor that we choose as a case study. ZnO has been known to exhibit excitonic states in its optical spectra in the energy range of ∼3.13-3.41 eV, with a high exciton binding energy of ∼60 meV. An experimental study on ZnO in 2014 revealed such a signal in its optical conductivity spectrum. We present a theoretical investigation on the appearance of excitonic signal in optical conductivity of ZnO. We model the wurtzite ZnO within an 8-band k.p approximation. We calculate the optical conductivity by incorporating the first-order vertex correction derived from the Feynman diagrams. Our calculation up to the first-order correction spectrum qualitatively confirms the existence of excitons in wurtzite ZnO.

  8. Optical Field Confinement Enhanced Single ZnO Microrod UV Photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ming; Xu, Chun-Xiang; Qin, Fei-Fei; Gowri Manohari, Arumugam; Lu, Jun-Feng; Zhu, Qiu-Xiang

    2017-07-01

    ZnO microrods are synthesized using the vapor phase transport method, and the magnetron sputtering is used to decorate the Al nanoparticles (NPs) on a single ZnO microrod. The micro-PL and I-V responses are measured before and after the decoration of Al NPs. The FDTD stimulation is also carried out to demonstrate the optical field distribution around the decoration of Al NPs on the surface of a ZnO microrod. Due to an implementation of Al NPs, the ZnO microrod exhibits an improved photoresponse behavior. In addition, Al NPs induced localized surface plasmons (LSPs) as well as improved optical field confinement can be ascribed to an enhancement of ultraviolet (UV) response. This research provides a method for improving the responsivity of photodetectors. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos 61475035 and 61275054, the Science and Technology Support Program of Jiangsu Province under Grant No BE2016177, and the Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology.

  9. Effect of angle of deposition on the Fractal properties of ZnO thin film surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, R. P.; Agarwal, D. C.; Kumar, Manvendra; Rajput, Parasmani; Tomar, D. S.; Pandey, S. N.; Priya, P. K.; Mittal, A. K.

    2017-09-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were prepared by atom beam sputtering at various deposition angles in the range of 20-75°. The deposited thin films were examined by glancing angle X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Scaling law analysis was performed on AFM images to show that the thin film surfaces are self-affine. Fractal dimension of each of the 256 vertical sections along the fast scan direction of a discretized surface, obtained from the AFM height data, was estimated using the Higuchi's algorithm. Hurst exponent was computed from the fractal dimension. The grain sizes, as determined by applying self-correlation function on AFM micrographs, varied with the deposition angle in the same manner as the Hurst exponent.

  10. Influence of Te and Se doping on ZnO films growth by SILAR method

    SciT

    Güney, Harun, E-mail: harunguney25@hotmail.com; Duman, Çağlar, E-mail: caglarduman@erzurum.edu.tr

    2016-04-18

    The AIP Successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) is an economic and simple method to growth thin films. In this study, SILAR method is used to growth Selenium (Se) and Tellurium (Te) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films with different doping rates. For characterization of the films X-ray diffraction (XRD), absorbance and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used. XRD results are showed well-defined strongly (002) oriented crystal structure for all samples. Also, absorbance measurements show, Te and Se concentration are proportional and inversely proportional with band gap energy, respectively. SEM measurements show that the surface morphology and thickness ofmore » the material varied with Se and/or Te and varying concentrations.« less

  11. Synthesis of ZnO nanowires for thin film network transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalal, S. H.; Unalan, H. E.; Zhang, Y.; Hiralal, Pritesh; Gangloff, L.; Flewitt, Andrew J.; Amaratunga, Gehan A. J.; Milne, William I.

    2008-08-01

    Zinc oxide nanowire networks are attractive as alternatives to organic and amorphous semiconductors due to their wide bandgap, flexibility and transparency. We demonstrate the fabrication of thin film transistors (TFT)s which utilize ZnO nanowires as the semiconducting channel. These thin film transistors can be transparent and flexible and processed at low temperatures on to a variety of substrates. The nanowire networks are created using a simple contact transfer method that is easily scalable. Apparent nanowire network mobility values can be as high as 3.8 cm2/Vs (effective thin film mobility: 0.03 cm2/Vs) in devices with 20μm channel lengths and ON/OFF ratios of up to 104.

  12. Influence of Te and Se doping on ZnO films growth by SILAR method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güney, Harun; Duman, Ćaǧlar

    2016-04-01

    The AIP Successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) is an economic and simple method to growth thin films. In this study, SILAR method is used to growth Selenium (Se) and Tellurium (Te) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films with different doping rates. For characterization of the films X-ray diffraction (XRD), absorbance and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used. XRD results are showed well-defined strongly (002) oriented crystal structure for all samples. Also, absorbance measurements show, Te and Se concentration are proportional and inversely proportional with band gap energy, respectively. SEM measurements show that the surface morphology and thickness of the material varied with Se and/or Te and varying concentrations.

  13. Enhanced stimulated emission in ZnO thin films using microdisk top-down structuring

    SciT

    Nomenyo, K.; Kostcheev, S.; Lérondel, G.

    2014-05-05

    Microdisks were fabricated in zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films using a top-down approach combining electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching. These microdisk structured thin films exhibit a stimulated surface emission between 3 and 7 times higher than that from a reference film depending on the excitation power density. Emission peak narrowing, reduction in lasing threshold and blue-shifting of the emission wavelength were observed along with enhancement in the emitted intensity. Results indicate that this enhancement is due to an increase in the internal quantum efficiency combined with an amplification of the stimulated emission. An analysis in terms of waveguidingmore » is presented in order to explain these effects. These results demonstrate that very significant gains in emission can be obtained through conventional microstructuration without the need for more onerous top-down nanostructuration techniques.« less

  14. Ultrasonic vibration imposed on nanoparticle-based ZnO film improves the performance of the ensuing perovskite solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Yihe; Du, Peng; Wang, Zhiyu; Chen, Qianli; Eslamian, Morteza

    2018-02-01

    This work focuses on the development of nearly annealing-free ZnO-based perovskite solar cells (PSCs), suitable for low-cost manufacturing of PSCs on flexible substrates. To this end, thin film of ZnO nanoparticles is employed as the electron transporting layer (ETL), because of its low-temperature solution-processability and high electron mobility. In order to remove the structural and surface defects, ultrasonic vibration is imposed on the substrate of the as-spun wet ZnO films for a short duration of 3 min. It is shown that the ultrasonic excitation bridges the ZnO nanoparticles (cold sintering), and brings about significant improvement in the ZnO film nanostructure and functionality. In addition, ethyl acetate (EA), as an emerging volatile anti-solvent, is employed to deposit the methylammonium (MA) lead halide perovskite thin film atop the ZnO ETL, in order to prepare perovskite layers that only need an annealing time of 30 s. The ZnO-based PSCs, with a simple structure and free of additional treatments, except for the ultrasonic vibration, exhibit a promising performance with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of over 11%, 40% higher than that of the control device. The ultrasonic vibration treatment is facile, low-cost, environmentally friendly, and compatible with the scalable coating and printing techniques, such as spray and blade coating.

  15. Effect of substrate on thermoelectric properties of Al-doped ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mele, P.; Saini, S.; Honda, H.; Matsumoto, K.; Miyazaki, K.; Hagino, H.; Ichinose, A.

    2013-06-01

    We have prepared 2% Al doped ZnO (AZO) thin films on SrTiO3 (STO) and Al2O3 substrates by Pulsed Laser Deposition technique at various deposition temperatures (Tdep = 300 °C-600 °C). Transport and thermoelectric properties of AZO thin films were studied in low temperature range (300 K-600 K). AZO/STO films present superior performance respect to AZO/Al2O3 films deposited at the same temperature, except for films deposited at 400 °C. Best film is the fully c-axis oriented AZO/STO deposited at 300 °C, which epitaxial strain and dislocation density are the lowest: electrical conductivity 310 S/cm, Seebeck coefficient -65 μV/K, and power factor 0.13 × 10-3 W m-1 K-2 at 300 K. Its performance increases with temperature. For instance, power factor is enhanced up to 0.55 × 10-3 W m-1 K-2 at 600 K, surpassing the best AZO film previously reported in literature.

  16. Electrical and optical properties of molybdenum doped zinc oxide films prepared by reactive RF magnetron sputtering

    SciT

    Reddy, R. Subba; Sreedhar, A.; Uthanna, S., E-mail: uthanna@rediffmail.com

    Molybdenum doped zinc oxide (MZO) films were deposited on to glass substrates held at temperatures in the range from 303 to 673 K by reactive RF magnetron sputtering method. The chemical composition, crystallographic structure and surface morphology, electrical and optical properties of the films were determined. The films contained the molybdenum of 2.7 at. % in ZnO. The films deposited at 303 K were of X-ray amorphous. The films formed at 473 K were of nanocrystalline in nature with wurtzite structure. The crystallite size of the films was increased with the increase of substrate temperature. The optical transmittance of the films was inmore » the visible range was 80–85%. The molybdenum (2.7 at %) doped zinc oxide films deposited at substrate temperature of 573 K were of nanocrystalline with electrical resistivity of 7.2×10{sup −3} Ωcm, optical transmittance of 85 %, optical band gap of 3.35 eV and figure of merit 30.6 Ω{sup −1}cm{sup −1}.« less

  17. Different magnetic origins of (Mn, Fe)-codoped ZnO powders and thin films

    SciT

    Fan, Jiuping; Jiang, Fengxian; Quan, Zhiyong

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: The effects of the sample forms, fabricated methods, and process conditions on the structural and magnetic properties of (Mn, Fe)-codoped ZnO powders and films were systematically studied. The origins of ferromagnetism in the vacuum-annealed powder and PLD-deposited film are different. The former originates from the impurities of magnetic clusters, whereas the latter comes from the almost homogenous phase. Highlights: ► The magnetic natures of Zn{sub 0.98}Mn{sub 0.01}Fe{sub 0.01}O powders and thin films come from different origins. ► The ferromagnetism of the powder is mainly from the contribution of magnetic clusters. ► Whereas the ferromagnetic behavior of the filmmore » comes from the almost homogenous phase. -- Abstract: The structural and magnetic properties of (Mn, Fe)-codoped ZnO powders as well as thin films were investigated. The X-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements indicated that the higher sintering temperature facilitates more Mn and Fe incorporation into ZnO. Magnetic measurements indicated that the powder sintered in air at 800 °C showed paramagnetic, but it exhibited obvious room temperature ferromagnetism after vacuum annealing at 600 °C. The results revealed that magnetic clusters were the major contributors to the observed ferromagnetism in vacuum-annealed Zn{sub 0.98}Mn{sub 0.01}Fe{sub 0.01}O powder. Interestingly, the room temperature ferromagnetism was also observed in the Zn{sub 0.98}Mn{sub 0.01}Fe{sub 0.01}O film deposited via pulsed laser deposition from the air-sintered paramagnetic target, but the secondary phases in the film were not detected from X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and zero-field cooling and field cooling. Apparently, the magnetic natures of powders and films come from different origins.« less

  18. Facile one-step synthesis of magnesium-doped ZnO nanoparticles: optical properties and their device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Ji-Young; Lim, Sang-Chul; Ahn, Seong Deok; Lee, Sang Seok; Cho, Kyoung-Ik; Bon Koo, Jae; Choi, Rino; Hasan, Musarrat

    2013-07-01

    In this study, magnesium-doped (Mg-doped) zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by a sonochemical process under mild conditions. The x-ray diffraction pattern indicated that the Mg-doped ZnO nanoparticles maintain a wurtzite structure without impurities. We observed a blue-shift of the bandgap of the Mg-doped ZnO nanoparticles as the Mg-doping ratio increased. We also fabricated thin-film transistor (TFT) devices with the doped-ZnO nanoparticles. Devices using Mg-doped ZnO nanoparticles as a channel layer showed insensibility to white-light irradiation compared with undoped ZnO TFTs.

  19. Exploration of Al-Doped ZnO in Photovoltaic Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciccarino, Christopher; Sahiner, M. Alper

    The electrical properties of Al doped ZnO-based thin films represent a potential advancement in the push for increasing solar cell efficiency. Doping with Aluminum will theoretically decrease resistivity of the film and therefore achieve this potential as a viable option in the P-N junction phase of photovoltaic cells. The n-type semi-conductive characteristics of the ZnO layer will theoretically be optimized with the addition of Aluminum carriers. In this study, Aluminum doping concentrations ranging from 1-3% by mass were produced, analyzed, and compared. Films were developed onto ITO coated glass using the Pulsed Laser Deposition technique. Target thickness was 250 nm and ellipsometry measurements showed uniformity and accuracy in this regard. Active dopant concentrations were determined using Hall Effect measurements. Efficiency measurements showed possible applications of this doped compound, with upwards of 7% efficiency measured, using a Keithley 2602 SourceMeter set-up. XRD scans showed highly crystalline structures, with effective Al intertwining of the hexagonal wurtzile ZnO molecular structure. This alone indicates a promising future of collaboration between these two materials.

  20. Intrinsic and spatially nonuniform ferromagnetism in Co-doped ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, L. T.; Suter, A.; Wang, Y. R.; Xiang, F. X.; Bian, P.; Ding, X.; Tseng, A.; Hu, H. L.; Fan, H. M.; Zheng, R. K.; Wang, X. L.; Salman, Z.; Prokscha, T.; Suzuki, K.; Liu, R.; Li, S.; Morenzoni, E.; Yi, J. B.

    2017-09-01

    Co doped ZnO films have been deposited by a laser-molecular beam epitaxy system. X-ray diffraction and UV spectra analysis show that Co effectively substitutes the Zn site. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis indicate that there are no clusters. Co dopants are uniformly distributed in ZnO film. Ferromagnetic ordering is observed in all samples deposited under an oxygen partial pressure, PO2=10-3 , 10-5, and 10-7 torr, respectively. However, the magnetization of PO2=10-3 and 10-5 is very small at room temperature. At low temperature, the ferromagnetic ordering is enhanced. Muon spin relaxation (μ SR ) measurements confirm the ferromagnetism in all samples, and the results are consistent with magnetization measurements. From μ SR and TEM analysis, the film deposited under PO2=10-7 torr shows intrinsic ferromagnetism. However, the volume fraction of the ferromagnetism phase is approximately 70%, suggesting that the ferromagnetism is not carrier mediated. Resistivity versus temperature measurements indicate Efros variable range hopping dominates the conductivity. From the above results, we can confirm that a bound magnetic polaron is the origin of the ferromagnetism.

  1. Tear film measurement by optical reflectometry technique

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hui; Wang, Michael R.; Wang, Jianhua; Shen, Meixiao

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Evaluation of tear film is performed by an optical reflectometer system with alignment guided by a galvanometer scanner. The reflectometer system utilizes optical fibers to deliver illumination light to the tear film and collect the film reflectance as a function of wavelength. Film thickness is determined by best fitting the reflectance-wavelength curve. The spectral reflectance acquisition time is 15 ms, fast enough for detecting film thickness changes. Fast beam alignment of 1 s is achieved by the galvanometer scanner. The reflectometer was first used to evaluate artificial tear film on a model eye with and without a contact lens. The film thickness and thinning rate have been successfully quantified with the minimum measured thickness of about 0.3 μm. Tear films in human eyes, with and without a contact lens, have also been evaluated. A high-contrast spectral reflectance signal from the precontact lens tear film is clearly observed, and the thinning dynamics have been easily recorded from 3.69 to 1.31 μm with lipid layer thickness variation in the range of 41 to 67 nm. The accuracy of the measurement is better than ±0.58% of the film thickness at an estimated tear film refractive index error of ±0.001. The fiber-based reflectometer system is compact and easy to handle. PMID:24500519

  2. Effect of Mg doping in the gas-sensing performance of RF-sputtered ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinoth, E.; Gowrishankar, S.; Gopalakrishnan, N.

    2018-06-01

    Thin films of Mg-free and Mg-doped (3, 10 and 20 mol%) ZnO thin films have been deposited on Si (100) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering for gas-sensing application. Preferential orientation along (002) plane with hexagonal wurtzite structure has been observed in X-ray diffraction analysis. The conductivity, resistivity, and mobility of the deposited films have been measured by Hall effect measurement. The bandgap of the films has been calculated from the UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy. It has been found that the bandgap was increased from 3.35 to 3.91 eV with Mg content in ZnO due to the radiative recombination of excitons. The change in morphology of the grown films has been investigated by scanning electron microscope. Gas-sensing measurements have been conducted for fabricated films. The sensor response, selectivity, and stability measurement were done for the fabricated films. Though better response was found towards ethanol, methanol, and ammonia for MZ2 (Mg at 10 mol%) film and maximum gas response was observed towards ammonia. The selectivity measurement reveals maximum sensitivity about 42% for ammonia. The low response time of 123 s and recovery time of 152 s towards ammonia were observed for MZ2 (Mg at 10 mol%). Stability of the Mg-doped ZnO thin film confirmed by the continuous sensing measurements for 4 months.

  3. Alternate deposition and hydrogen doping technique for ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myong, Seung Yeop; Lim, Koeng Su

    2006-08-01

    We propose an alternate deposition and hydrogen doping (ADHD) technique for polycrystalline hydrogen-doped ZnO thin films, which is a sublayer-by-sublayer deposition based on metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and mercury-sensitized photodecomposition of hydrogen doping gas. Compared to conventional post-deposition hydrogen doping, the ADHD process provides superior electrical conductivity, stability, and surface roughness. Photoluminescence spectra measured at 10 K reveal that the ADHD technique improves ultraviolet and violet emissions by suppressing the green and yellow emissions. Therefore, the ADHD technique is shown to be very promising aid to the manufacture of improved transparent conducting electrodes and light emitting materials.

  4. Thin film ferroelectric electro-optic memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita (Inventor); Thakoor, Anilkumar P. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An electrically programmable, optically readable data or memory cell is configured from a thin film of ferroelectric material, such as PZT, sandwiched between a transparent top electrode and a bottom electrode. The output photoresponse, which may be a photocurrent or photo-emf, is a function of the product of the remanent polarization from a previously applied polarization voltage and the incident light intensity. The cell is useful for analog and digital data storage as well as opto-electric computing. The optical read operation is non-destructive of the remanent polarization. The cell provides a method for computing the product of stored data and incident optical data by applying an electrical signal to store data by polarizing the thin film ferroelectric material, and then applying an intensity modulated optical signal incident onto the thin film material to generate a photoresponse therein related to the product of the electrical and optical signals.

  5. Nanostructured GdxZn1-xO thin films by nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique: Role of doping concentration on the structural and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariappan, R.; Ponnuswamy, V.; Suresh, P.; Suresh, R.; Ragavendar, M.

    2013-07-01

    Nanostructured GdxZn1-xO thin films with different Gd concentration from 0% to 10% deposited at 400 °C using the NSP technique. The films were characterized by structural, surface and optical properties, respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the Gd doped ZnO films have lattice parameters a = 3.2497 Å and c = 5.2018 Å with hexagonal structure and preferential orientation along (0 0 2) plane. The estimated values compare well with the standard values. When film thickness increases from 222 to 240 nm a high visible region transmittance (>70%) is observed. The optical band gap energy, optical constants (n and k), complex dielectric constants (ɛr and ɛi) and optical conductivities (σr and σi) were calculated from optical transmittance data. The optical band gap energy is 3.2 eV for pure ZnO film and 3.6 eV for Gd0.1Zn0.9O film. The PL studies confirm the presence of a strong UV emission peak at 399 nm. Besides, the UV emission of ZnO films decreases with the increase of Gd doping concentration correspondingly the ultra-violet emission is replaced by blue and green emissions.

  6. Time resolved optical diagnostics of ZnO plasma plumes in air

    SciT

    Gupta, Shyam L.; Singh, Ravi Pratap; Thareja, Raj K.

    2013-10-15

    We report dynamical evolution of laser ablated ZnO plasma plumes using interferometry and shadowgraphy; 2-D fast imaging and optical emission spectroscopy in air ambient at atmospheric pressure. Recorded interferograms using Nomarski interferometer and shadowgram images at various time delays show the presence of electrons and neutrals in the ablated plumes. The inference drawn from sign change of fringe shifts is consistent with two dimensional images of the plume and optical emission spectra at varying time delays with respect to ablating pulse. Zinc oxide plasma plumes are created by focusing 1.06 μm radiation on to ZnO target in air and 532more » nm is used as probe beam.« less

  7. Structural and optical properties of magnetron sputtered MgxZn1-xO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Gupte, Vinay; Sreenivas, K.

    2006-04-01

    MgxZn1-xO (MZO) thin films prepared by an rf magnetron sputtering technique are reported. The films were grown at room temperature and at relatively low rf power of 50 W. MZO thin films were found to possess preferred c-axis orientation and exhibited hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO up to a Mg concentration of 42 mol%. A small variation in the c-axis lattice parameter of around 0.3% was observed with increasing Mg composition, showing the complete solubility of Mg in ZnO. The band gap of the MZO films in the wurtzite phase varied linearly with the Mg concentration and a maximum band gap ~4.19 eV was achieved at x = 0.42. The refractive indices of the MgO films were found to decrease with increasing Mg content. The observed optical dispersion data are in agreement with the single oscillator model. A photoluminescence study revealed a blue shift in the near band edge emission peak with increasing Mg content in the MZO films. The results show the potential of MZO films in various opto-electronic applications.

  8. Friction and wear behavior of nitrogen-doped ZnO thin films deposited via MOCVD under dry contact

    DOE PAGES

    Mbamara, U. S.; Olofinjana, B.; Ajayi, O. O.; ...

    2016-02-01

    Most researches on doped ZnO thin films are tilted toward their applications in optoelectronics and semiconductor devices. Research on their tribological properties is still unfolding. In this work, nitrogen-doped ZnO thin films were deposited on 304 L stainless steel substrate from a combination of zinc acetate and ammonium acetate precursor by MOCVD technique. Compositional and structural studies of the films were done using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The frictional behavior of the thin film coatings was evaluated using a ball-on-flat configuration in reciprocating sliding under dry contact condition. After friction test, the flat and ball counter-facemore » surfaces were examined to assess the wear dimension and failure mechanism. In conclusion, both friction behavior and wear (in the ball counter-face) were observed to be dependent on the crystallinity and thickness of the thin film coatings.« less

  9. High-performance optical projection controllable ZnO nanorod arrays for microweighing sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongbo; Jiang, Shulan; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Bingjun; Chen, Duoli; Yang, Weiqing; Qian, Linmao

    2018-03-08

    Optical microweighing sensors are an essential component of micro-force measurements in physical, chemical, and biological detection fields, although, their limited detection range (less than 15°) severely hinders their wide application. Such a limitation is mainly attributed to the essential restrictions of traditional light reflection and optical waveguide modes. Here, we report a high-performance optical microweighing sensor based on the synergistic effects of both a new optical projection mode and a ZnO nanorod array sensor. Ascribed to the unique configuration design of this sensing method, this optical microweighing sensor has a wide detection range (more than 80°) and a high sensitivity of 90 nA deg -1 , which is much larger than that of conventional microcantilever-based optical microweighing sensors. Furthermore, the location of the UV light source can be adjusted within a few millimeters, meaning that the microweighing sensor does not need repetitive optical calibration. More importantly, for low height and small incident angles of the UV light source, we can obtain highly sensitive microweighing properties on account of the highly sensitive ZnO nanorod array-based UV sensor. Therefore, this kind of large detection range, non-contact, and non-destructive microweighing sensor has potential applications in air quality monitoring and chemical and biological detection.

  10. Optical Characterization of Molecular Contaminant Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visentine, James T.

    2007-01-01

    A semi-empirical method of optical characterization of thin contaminant films on surfaces of optical components has been conceived. The method was originally intended for application to films that become photochemically deposited on such optical components as science windows, lenses, prisms, thinfilm radiators, and glass solar-cell covers aboard spacecraft and satellites in orbit. The method should also be applicable, with suitable modifications, to thin optical films (whether deposited deliberately or formed as contaminants) on optical components used on Earth in the computer microchip laser communications and thin-film industries. The method is expected to satisfy the need for a means of understanding and predicting the reductions in spectral transmittance caused by contaminant films and the consequent deterioration of performances of sensitive optical systems. After further development, this method could become part of the basis of a method of designing optical systems to minimize or compensate for the deleterious effects of contaminant films. In the original outer-space application, these deleterious effects are especially pronounced because after photochemical deposition, the films become darkened by further exposure to solar vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation. In this method, thin contaminant films are theoretically modeled as thin optical films, characterized by known or assumed values of thickness, index of refraction, and absorption coefficient, that form on the outer surfaces of the original antireflection coating on affected optical components. The assumed values are adjusted as needed to make actual spectral transmittance values approximate observed ones as closely as possible and to correlate these values with amounts of VUV radiation to which the optical components have been exposed. In an initial study, the method was applied in correlating measured changes in transmittance of high-purity fused silica photochemically coated with silicone films of

  11. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Effect of Annealing Conditions on Properties of Sol-Gel Derived Al-Doped ZnO Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Mei-Zhen; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Jing; Sun, Hui-Na

    2009-08-01

    Transparent conductive Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films are prepared on normal glass substrates by the sol-gel spin coating method. The effects of drying conditions, annealing temperature and cooling rate on the structural, electrical and optical properties of AZO films are investigated by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, the four-point probe method and UV-VIS spectrophotometry, respectively. The deposited films show a hexagonal wurtzite structure and high preferential c-axis orientation. As the drying temperature increases from 100°C to 300°C the resistivity of AZO films decreases dramatically. In contrast to the annealed films cooled in a furnace and in air, the resistivity of the annealed film which is cooled at -15°C is greatly reduced. Increasing the cooling rate dramatically increases the electrical conductivity of AZO films.

  12. Superior environment resistance of quartz crystal microbalance with anatase TiO2/ZnO nanorod composite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Wei; Wei, Li; Shaodan, Wang; Yu, Bai

    2015-08-01

    The precise measurement of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) in the detection and weighing of organic gas molecules is achieved due to excellent superhydrophobicity of a deposited film composite. Photocatalysis is utilized as a method for the self-cleaning of organic molecules on the QCM for extended long-term stability in the precision of the instrument. In this paper, ZnO nanorod array is prepared via in situ methods on the QCM coated with Au film via hydrothermal process. Subsequently, a TiO2/ZnO composite film is synthesized by surface modification with TiO2 via sol-gel methods. Results show the anatase TiO2/ZnO nanorod composite film with a sharp, pencil-like structure exhibiting excellent superhydrophobicity (water contact angle of 155°), non-sticking water properties, and an autonomous cleaning property under UV irradiation. The anatase TiO2/ZnO nanorod composite film facilitates the precise measurement and extended lifetime of the QCM for the detection of organic gas molecules.

  13. Thermo-optically tunable thin film devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domash, Lawrence H.

    2003-10-01

    We report advances in tunable thin film technology and demonstration of multi-cavity tunable filters. Thin film interference coatings are the most widely used optical technology for telecom filtering, but until recently no tunable versions have been known except for mechanically rotated filters. We describe a new approach to broadly tunable components based on the properties of semiconductor thin films with large thermo-optic coefficients. The technology is based on amorphous silicon deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), a process adapted for telecom applications from its origins in the flat-panel display and solar cell industries. Unlike MEMS devices, tunable thin films can be constructed in sophisticated multi-cavity, multi-layer optical designs.

  14. Fabrication of nanostructured ZnO film as a hole-conducting layer of organic photovoltaic cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyomin; Kwon, Yiseul; Choe, Youngson

    2013-05-01

    We have investigated the effect of fibrous nanostructured ZnO film as a hole-conducting layer on the performance of polymer photovoltaic cells. By increasing the concentration of zinc acetate dihydrate, the changes of performance characteristics were evaluated. Fibrous nanostructured ZnO film was prepared by sol-gel process and annealed on a hot plate. As the concentration of zinc acetate dihydrate increased, ZnO fibrous nanostructure grew from 300 to 600 nm. The obtained ZnO nanostructured fibrous films have taken the shape of a maze-like structure and were characterized by UV-visible absorption, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. The intensity of absorption bands in the ultraviolet region was increased with increasing precursor concentration. The X-ray diffraction studies show that the ZnO fibrous nanostructures became strongly (002)-oriented with increasing concentration of precursor. The bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells were fabricated using poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) and indene-C60 bisadduct as active layer, and their electrical properties were investigated. The external quantum efficiency of the fabricated device increased with increasing precursor concentration.

  15. Fabrication of nanostructured ZnO film as a hole-conducting layer of organic photovoltaic cell

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of fibrous nanostructured ZnO film as a hole-conducting layer on the performance of polymer photovoltaic cells. By increasing the concentration of zinc acetate dihydrate, the changes of performance characteristics were evaluated. Fibrous nanostructured ZnO film was prepared by sol-gel process and annealed on a hot plate. As the concentration of zinc acetate dihydrate increased, ZnO fibrous nanostructure grew from 300 to 600 nm. The obtained ZnO nanostructured fibrous films have taken the shape of a maze-like structure and were characterized by UV-visible absorption, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. The intensity of absorption bands in the ultraviolet region was increased with increasing precursor concentration. The X-ray diffraction studies show that the ZnO fibrous nanostructures became strongly (002)-oriented with increasing concentration of precursor. The bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells were fabricated using poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) and indene-C60 bisadduct as active layer, and their electrical properties were investigated. The external quantum efficiency of the fabricated device increased with increasing precursor concentration. PMID:23680100

  16. Study of cobalt effect on structural and optical properties of Dy doped ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pawan; Pandey, Praveen C.

    2018-05-01

    The present study has been carried out to investigate the effect of Co doping on structural and optical properties of Dy doped ZnO nanoparticles. We have prepared pure Zinc oxide, Dy (1%) doped ZnO and Dy (1%) doped ZnO co-doped with Co(2%) with the help of simple sol-gel combustion method. The structural analysis carried out using X-ray diffraction spectra (XRD) indicates substitution of Dy and Co at Zn site of ZnO crystal structure and hexagonal crystal structure without any secondary phase formation in all the samples. The surface morphology was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Absorption study indicates that Dy doping causes a small shift in band edge, while Co co-doping results significant change is absorption edge as well as introduce defect level absorption in the visible region. The band gap of samples decreases due to Dy and Co doping, which can be attributed to defect level formation below the conduction band in the system.

  17. Optical and Magnetic Resonance Studies of Na-Diffused ZnO Bulk Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, E. R.; Garces, N. Y.; Parmar, N. S.; Lynn, K. G.

    2013-03-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) and optically-detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) at 24 GHz were performed on bulk ZnO crystals after diffusion of Na impurities that were explored as an alternate doping source for p-type conductivity. PL at 2K revealed strong bandedge excitonic recombination at 3.361 eV and a broad ``orange'' PL band at 2.17 eV with FWHM of ~0.5 eV. This ``orange'' emission is very similar to that reported previously[1] from thermoluminescence measurements of intentionally Na-doped bulk ZnO and, thus, strongly suggests the incorporation and activation of the Na-diffused impurities. ODMR performed on this ``orange'' PL revealed two signals. The first was a sharp feature with g-value of ~1.96 and is a well-known ``fingerprint'' of shallow donors in ZnO. The second signal consisted of a pair of lines with an intensity ratio of ~3:1 and with g-tensors (g∥,g⊥ ~2.008-2.029) very similar to ESR signals attributed previously[2] to holes bound to Na impurities located at the axial and non-axial Zn host lattice sites in Na-doped ZnO. Thus, the ``orange'' PL can be tentatively assigned to radiative recombination between residual shallow donors and deep Na-related hole traps.

  18. ZnO nanoparticles obtained by ball milling technique: Structural, micro-structure, optical and photo-catalytic properties

    SciT

    Balamurugan, S., E-mail: scandium.chemistry@gmail.com; Joy, Josny; Godwin, M. Anto

    The ZnO nanoparticles were obtained by ball milling of commercial grade ZnO powder at 250 rpm for 20 h and studied their structural, micro-structure, optical and photo-catalytic properties. Due to ball milling significant decrease in lattice parameters and average crystalline size is noticed for the as-milled ZnO nano powder. The HRSEM images of the as-milled powder consist of agglomerated fine spherical nanoparticles in the range of ~10-20 nm. The room temperature PL spectrum of as-milled ZnO nano powder excited under 320 nm reveals two emission bands at ~406 nm (violet emission) and ~639 nm (green emission). Interestingly about 98 % of photo degradation of methylene (MB)more » by the ZnO catalyst is achieved at 100 minutes of solar light irradiation.« less

  19. ZnO nanostructures as electron extraction layers for hybrid perovskite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaidou, Katerina; Sarang, Som; Tung, Vincent; Lu, Jennifer; Ghosh, Sayantani

    Optimum interaction between light harvesting media and electron transport layers is critical for the efficient operation of photovoltaic devices. In this work, ZnO layers of different morphologies are implemented as electron extraction and transport layers for hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 thin films. These include nanowires, nanoparticles, and single crystalline film. Charge transfer at the ZnO/perovskite interface is investigated and compared through ultra-fast characterization techniques, including temperature and power dependent spectroscopy, and time-resolved photoluminescence. The nanowires cause an enhancement in perovskite emission, which may be attributed to increased scattering and grain boundary formation. However, the ZnO layers with decreasing surface roughness exhibit better electron extraction, as inferred from photoluminescence quenching, reduction in the number of bound excitons, and reduced exciton lifetime in CH3NH3PbI3 samples. This systematic study is expected to provide an understanding of the fundamental processes occurring at the ZnO-CH3NH3PbI3 interface and ultimately, provide guidelines for the ideal configuration of ZnO-based hybrid Perovskite devices. This research was supported by National Aeronautics and Space administration (NASA) Grant No: NNX15AQ01A.

  20. ZnO transparent conductive oxide for thin film silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söderström, T.; Dominé, D.; Feltrin, A.; Despeisse, M.; Meillaud, F.; Bugnon, G.; Boccard, M.; Cuony, P.; Haug, F.-J.; Faÿ, S.; Nicolay, S.; Ballif, C.

    2010-03-01

    There is general agreement that the future production of electric energy has to be renewable and sustainable in the long term. Photovoltaic (PV) is booming with more than 7GW produced in 2008 and will therefore play an important role in the future electricity supply mix. Currently, crystalline silicon (c-Si) dominates the market with a share of about 90%. Reducing the cost per watt peak and energy pay back time of PV was the major concern of the last decade and remains the main challenge today. For that, thin film silicon solar cells has a strong potential because it allies the strength of c-Si (i.e. durability, abundancy, non toxicity) together with reduced material usage, lower temperature processes and monolithic interconnection. One of the technological key points is the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) used for front contact, barrier layer or intermediate reflector. In this paper, we report on the versatility of ZnO grown by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (ZnO LP-CVD) and its application in thin film silicon solar cells. In particular, we focus on the transparency, the morphology of the textured surface and its effects on the light in-coupling for micromorph tandem cells in both the substrate (n-i-p) and superstrate (p-i-n) configurations. The stabilized efficiencies achieved in Neuchâtel are 11.2% and 9.8% for p-i-n (without ARC) and n-i-p (plastic substrate), respectively.

  1. Preparation of a Non-Polar ZnO Film on a Single-Crystal NdGaO3 Substrate by the RF Sputtering Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiwaba, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Sakuma, M.; Abe, T.; Imai, Y.; Kawasaki, K.; Nakagawa, A.; Niikura, I.; Kashiwaba, Y.; Osada, H.

    2018-04-01

    Preparation of non-polar ZnO ( 11\\overline{2} 0 ) films on single-crystal NdGaO3 (NGO) (001) substrates was successfully achieved by the radio frequency (RF) sputtering method. Orientation, deposition rate, and surface roughness of ZnO films strongly depend on the working pressure. Characteristics of ZnO films deposited on single-crystal NGO (001) substrates were compared with those of ZnO films deposited on single-crystal sapphire ( 01\\overline{1} 2 ) substrates. An x-ray diffraction peak of the ZnO ( 11\\overline{2} 0 ) plane was observed on ZnO films deposited on single-crystal NGO (001) substrates under working pressure of less than 0.5 Pa. On the other hand, uniaxially oriented ZnO ( 11\\overline{2} 0 ) films on single-crystal sapphire ( 01\\overline{1} 2 ) substrates were observed under working pressure of 0.1 Pa. The mechanism by which the diffraction angle of the ZnO ( 11\\overline{2} 0 ) plane on single-crystal NGO (001) substrates was shifted is discussed on the basis of anisotropic stress of lattice mismatch. The deposition rate of ZnO films decreased with an increase in working pressure, and the deposition rate on single-crystal NGO (001) substrates was larger than that on single-crystal sapphire ( 01\\overline{1} 2 ) substrates. Root mean square (RMS) roughness of ZnO films increased with an increase in working pressure, and RMS roughness of ZnO films on single-crystal NGO (001) substrates was smaller than that of ZnO films on single-crystal sapphire ( 01\\overline{1} 2 ) substrates even though the film thickness on single-crystal NGO (001) substrates was greater than that on sapphire substrates. It is thought that a single-crystal NGO (001) substrate is useful for deposition of non-polar ZnO ( 11\\overline{2} 0 ) films.

  2. X-ray diffraction analysis of residual stresses in textured ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobročka, E.; Novák, P.; Búc, D.; Harmatha, L.; Murín, J.

    2017-02-01

    Residual stresses are commonly generated in thin films during the deposition process and can influence the film properties. Among a number of techniques developed for stress analysis, X-ray diffraction methods, especially the grazing incidence set-up, are of special importance due to their capability to analyze the stresses in very thin layers as well as to investigate the depth variation of the stresses. In this contribution a method combining multiple {hkl} and multiple χ modes of X-ray diffraction stress analysis in grazing incidence set-up is used for the measurement of residual stress in strongly textured ZnO thin films. The method improves the precision of the stress evaluation in textured samples. Because the measurements are performed at very low incidence angles, the effect of refraction of X-rays on the measured stress is analyzed in details for the general case of non-coplanar geometry. It is shown that this effect cannot be neglected if the angle of incidence approaches the critical angle. The X-ray stress factors are calculated for hexagonal fiber-textured ZnO for the Reuss model of grain-interaction and the effect of texture on the stress factors is analyzed. The texture in the layer is modelled by Gaussian distribution function. Numerical results indicate that in the process of stress evaluation the Reuss model can be replaced by much simpler crystallite group method if the standard deviation of Gaussian describing the texture is less than 6°. The results can be adapted for fiber-textured films of various hexagonal materials.

  3. Composite structure of ZnO films coated with reduced graphene oxide: structural, electrical and electrochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuai, Weiqiang; Hu, Yuehui; Chen, Yichuan; Hu, Keyan; Zhang, Xiaohua; Zhu, Wenjun; Tong, Fan; Lao, Zixuan

    2018-02-01

    ZnO films coated with reduced graphene oxide (RGO-ZnO) were prepared by a simple chemical approach. The graphene oxide (GO) films transferred onto ZnO films by spin coating were reduced to RGO films by two steps (exposed to hydrazine vapor for 12 h and annealed at 600 °C). The crystal structures, electrical and photoluminescence properties of RGO-ZnO films on quartz substrates were systematically studied. The SEM images illustrated that RGO layers have successfully been coated on the ZnO films very tightly. The PL properties of RGO-ZnO were studied. PL spectra show two sharp peaks at 390 nm and a broad visible emission around 490 nm. The resistivity of RGO-ZnO films was measured by a Hall measurement system, RGO as nanofiller considerably decrease the resistivity of ZnO films. An electrode was fabricated, using RGO-ZnO films deposited on Si substrate as active materials, for super capacitor application. By comparison of different results, we conclude that the RGO-ZnO composite material couples possess the properties of super capacitor. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61464005, 51562015), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province (Nos. 20143ACB21004, 20151BAB212008, 20171BAB216015), the Jiangxi Province Foreign Cooperation Projects, China (No. 20151BDH80031), the Leader Training Object Project of Major Disciplines Academic and Technical of Jiangxi Province (No. 20123BCB22002), and the Key Technology R & D Program of the Jiangxi Provine of Science and Technology (No. 20171BBE50053).

  4. Microstructural and electrical characteristics of rare earth oxides doped ZnO varistor films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Lei; Mei, Yunzhu; Xu, Dong; Zhong, Sujuan; Ma, Jia; Zhang, Lei; Bao, Li

    2018-02-01

    ZnO-Bi2O3 varistor films doped with two kinds of rare earth element oxides (Lu2O3 and Yb2O3) were prepared by the sol-gel method. The effects of Lu2O3/Yb2O3 doping on the microstructure and electrical characteristics of ZnO-Bi2O3 varistor films were investigated. All samples show a homogenized morphology and an improved nonlinear relationship between the electric field (E) and current density (I). Both Yb2O3 and Lu2O3 doping can decrease the grain size of ZnO-Bi2O3 varistor films and improve the electrical properties, which have a positive effect on the development of ZnO varistor ceramics. Yb2O3 doping significantly increases the dielectric constant at low frequency. 0.2 mol. % Yb2O3 doped ZnO-Bi2O3 varistor films exhibit the highest nonlinear coefficient (2.5) and the lowest leakage current (328 μA) among Lu2O3/Yb2O3 doped ZnO-Bi2O3 varistor films. Similarly, 0.1 mol. % Lu2O3 doping increases the nonlinear coefficient to 1.9 and decrease the leakage current to 462 μA.

  5. Carrier Compensation Induced by Thermal Annealing in Al-Doped ZnO Films

    PubMed Central

    Koida, Takashi; Kaneko, Tetsuya; Shibata, Hajime

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated carrier compensation induced by thermal annealing in sputtered ZnO:Al (Al2O3: 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 wt %) films. The films were post-annealed in a N2 atmosphere at low (1 × 10−23 atm) and high (1 × 10−4 atm) oxygen partial pressures (PO2). In ZnO:Al films with low Al contents (i.e., 0.25 wt %), the carrier density (n) began to decrease at annealing temperatures (Ta) of 600 °C at low PO2. At higher PO2 and/or Al contents, n values began to decrease significantly at lower Ta (ca. 400 °C). In addition, Zn became desorbed from the films during heating in a high vacuum (i.e., <1 × 10−7 Pa). These results suggest the following: (i) Zn interstitials and Zn vacancies are created in the ZnO lattice during post-annealing treatments, thereby leading to carrier compensation by acceptor-type Zn vacancies; (ii) The compensation behavior is significantly enhanced for ZnO:Al films with high Al contents. PMID:28772501

  6. Heterogeneous nucleation for synthesis of sub-20nm ZnO nanopods and their application to optical humidity sensing.

    PubMed

    Majithia, R; Ritter, S; Meissner, K E

    2014-02-17

    We present a novel method for colloidal synthesis of one-dimensional ZnO nanopods by heterogeneous nucleation on zero-dimensional ZnO nanoparticle 'seeds'. Ultra-small ZnO nanopods, multi-legged structures with sub-20 nm individual leg diameters, can be synthesized by hydrolysis of a Zn2+ precursor growth solution in presence of ∼4 nm ZnO seeds under hydrothermal conditions via microwave-assisted heating in as little as 20 min of reaction time. One-dimensional ZnO nanorods are initially generated in the reaction mixture by heterogeneous nucleation and growth along the [0001] direction of the ZnO crystal. Growth of one-dimensional nanorods subsequently yields to an 'attachment' and size-focusing phase where individual nanorods fuse together to form multi-legged nanopods having diameters ∼15 nm. ZnO nanopods exhibit broad orange-red defect-related photoluminescence in addition to a near-band edge emission at 373 nm when excited above the band-gap at 350 nm. The defect-related photoluminescence of the ZnO nanopods has been applied towards reversible optical humidity sensing at room temperature. The sensors demonstrated a linear response between 22% and 70% relative humidity with a 0.4% increase in optical intensity per % change in relative humidity. Due to their ultra-small dimensions, ZnO nanopods exhibit a large dynamic range and enhanced sensitivity to changes in ambient humidity, thus showcasing their ability as a platform for optical environmental sensing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of atomic layer deposited Al2O3:ZnO alloys on thin-film silicon photovoltaic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul Hadi, Sabina; Dushaq, Ghada; Nayfeh, Ammar

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we present the effects of the Al2O3:ZnO ratio on the optical and electrical properties of aluminum doped ZnO (AZO) layers deposited by atomic layer deposition, along with AZO application as the anti-reflective coating (ARC) layer and in heterojunction configurations. Here, we report complex refractive indices for AZO layers with different numbers of aluminum atomic cycles (ZnO:Al2O3 = 1:0, 39:1, 19:1, and 9:1) and we confirm their validity by fitting models to experimental data. Furthermore, the most conductive layer (ZnO:Al2O3 = 19:1, conductivity ˜4.6 mΩ cm) is used to fabricate AZO/n+/p-Si thin film solar cells and AZO/p-Si heterojunction devices. The impact of the AZO layer on the photovoltaic properties of these devices is studied by different characterization techniques, resulting in the extraction of recombination and energy band parameters related to the AZO layer. Our results confirm that AZO 19:1 can be used as a low cost and effective conductive ARC layer for solar cells. However, AZO/p-Si heterojunctions suffer from an insufficient depletion region width (˜100 nm) and recombination at the interface states, with an estimated potential barrier of ˜0.6-0.62 eV. The work function of AZO (ZnO:Al2O3 = 19:1) is estimated to be in the range between 4.36 and 4.57 eV. These material properties limit the use of AZO as an emitter in Si solar cells. However, the results imply that AZO based heterojunctions could have applications as low-cost photodetectors or photodiodes, operating under relatively low reverse bias.

  8. Influence of amines as surfactant on the optical, thermal, and structural properties of nanostructured ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sehgal, Preeti; Narula, A. K.

    2015-06-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by precipitation method using triethanolamine (TEA) and hexamine (HA) as capping agents, and their effects on the optical, thermal, and morphological properties were analyzed. We have also analyzed the role of solvents on the aforementioned properties of ZnO nanoparticles. The optical properties of capped zinc oxide nanoparticles were investigated by UV-visible and fluorescent techniques. The HA@ZnO and TEA@ZnO that showed blueshift in comparison with ZnO without surfactant revealed the role of surfactant in reducing the trap sites by forming defect-free nanoparticles. TG-DTA curves indicated that optimum annealing temperature for ZnO nanoparticles was in the range of 360-469 °C depending upon the surfactant and solvent; no weight loss was observed above 469 °C. Synthesized ZnO nanoparticles had pure wurtzite structure as elucidated by X-ray diffraction studies (XRD). Scanning electron microscope revealed that the ZnO synthesized in isopropyl alcohol had spherical morphology, whereas ZnO nanoparticles synthesized in methanol had agglomerate sheet-like structure. The average size of the nanocrystal was estimated around 85-169 nm for ZnO.

  9. Structural, electrical, optical and magnetic properties of NiO/ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sushmitha, V.; Maragatham, V.; Raj, P. Deepak; Sridharan, M.

    2018-02-01

    Nickel oxide/Zinc oxide (NiO/ZnO) thin films have been deposited onto thoroughly cleaned glass substrates by reactive direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering technique and subsequently annealed at 300 °C for 3 h in vacuum. The NiO/ZnO thin films were then studied for their structural, optical and electrical properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of ZnO and NiO showed the diffraction planes corresponding to hexagonal and cubic phase respectively. The optical properties showed that with the increase in the deposition time of NiO the energy band gap varied between 3.1 to 3.24 eV. Hence, by changing the deposition time of NiO the tuning of band gap and conductivity were achieved. The magnetic studies revealed the diamagnetic nature of the NiO/ZnO thin films.

  10. Stable and High-Performance Flexible ZnO Thin-Film Transistors by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan-Yu; Hsu, Che-Chen; Tseng, Ming-Hung; Shyue, Jing-Jong; Tsai, Feng-Yu

    2015-10-14

    Passivation is a challenging issue for the oxide thin-film transistor (TFT) technologies because it requires prolonged high-temperature annealing treatments to remedy defects produced in the process, which greatly limits its manufacturability as well as its compatibility with temperature-sensitive materials such as flexible plastic substrates. This study investigates the defect-formation mechanisms incurred by atomic layer deposition (ALD) passivation processes on ZnO TFTs, based on which we demonstrate for the first time degradation-free passivation of ZnO TFTs by a TiO2/Al2O3 nanolaminated (TAO) film deposited by a low-temperature (110 °C) ALD process. By combining the TAO passivation film with ALD dielectric and channel layers into an integrated low-temperature ALD process, we successfully fabricate flexible ZnO TFTs on plastics. Thanks to the exceptional gas-barrier property of the TAO film (water vapor transmission rate (WVTR)<10(-6) g m(-2) day(-1)) as well as the defect-free nature of the ALD dielectric and ZnO channel layers, the TFTs exhibit excellent device performance with high stability and flexibility: field-effect mobility>20 cm2 V(-1) s(-1), subthreshold swing<0.4 V decade(-1) after extended bias-stressing (>10,000 s), air-storage (>1200 h), and bending (1.3 cm radius for 1000 times).

  11. Optical and Nonlinear Optical Response of Light Sensor Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huimin; Rua, Armando; Vasquez, Omar; Vikhnin, Valentin S.; Fernandez, Felix E.; Fonseca, Luis F.; Resto, Oscar; Weisz, Svi Z.

    2005-01-01

    For potential ultrafast optical sensor application, both VO2 thin films and nanocomposite crystal-Si enriched SiO2 thin films grown on fused quartz substrates were successfully prepared using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and RF co-sputtering techniques. In photoluminescence (PL) measurement c-Si/SiO2 film contains nanoparticles of crystal Si exhibits strong red emission with the band maximum ranging from 580 to 750 nm. With ultrashort pulsed laser excitation all films show extremely intense and ultrafast nonlinear optical (NLO) response. The recorded holography from all these thin films in a degenerate-four-wave-mixing configuration shows extremely large third-order response. For VO2 thin films, an optically induced semiconductor-to-metal phase transition (PT) immediately occurred upon laser excitation. it accompanied. It turns out that the fast excited state dynamics was responsible to the induced PT. For c-Si/SiO2 film, its NLO response comes from the contribution of charge carriers created by laser excitation in conduction band of the c-Si nanoparticles. It was verified by introducing Eu3+ which is often used as a probe sensing the environment variations. It turns out that the entire excited state dynamical process associated with the creation, movement and trapping of the charge carriers has a characteristic 500 ps duration.

  12. Effects of silver impurity on the structural, electrical, and optical properties of ZnO nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    1, 3, and 5 wt.% silver-doped ZnO (SZO) nanowires (NWs) are grown by hot-walled pulsed laser deposition. After silver-doping process, SZO NWs show some change behaviors, including structural, electrical, and optical properties. In case of structural property, the primary growth plane of SZO NWs is switched from (002) to (103) plane, and the electrical properties of SZO NWs are variously measured to be about 4.26 × 106, 1.34 × 106, and 3.04 × 105 Ω for 1, 3, and 5 SZO NWs, respectively. In other words, the electrical properties of SZO NWs depend on different Ag ratios resulting in controlling the carrier concentration. Finally, the optical properties of SZO NWs are investigated to confirm p-type semiconductor by observing the exciton bound to a neutral acceptor (A0X). Also, Ag presence in ZnO NWs is directly detected by both X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. These results imply that Ag doping facilitates the possibility of changing the properties in ZnO NWs by the atomic substitution of Ag with Zn in the lattice. PMID:21985620

  13. Preparation of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Thin Film as Transparent Conductive Oxide (TCO) from Zinc Complex Compound on Thin Film Solar Cells: A Study of O2 Effect on Annealing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muslih, E. Y.; Kim, K. H.

    2017-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film as a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) for thin film solar cell application was successfully prepared through two step preparations which consisted of deposition by spin coating at 2000 rpm for 10 second and followed by annealing at 500 °C for 2 hours under O2 and ambient atmosphere. Zinc acetate dehydrate was used as a precursor which dissolved in ethanol and acetone (1:1 mol) mixture in order to make a zinc complex compound. In this work, we reported the O2 effect, reaction mechanism, structure, morphology, optical and electrical properties. ZnO thin film in this work shows a single phase of wurtzite, with n-type semiconductor and has band gap, carrier concentration, mobility, and resistivity as 3.18 eV, 1.21 × 10-19cm3, 11 cm2/Vs, 2.35 × 10-3 Ωcm respectively which is suitable for TCO at thin film solar cell.

  14. Surface plasmon resonance based fiber optic detection of chlorine utilizing polyvinylpyrolidone supported zinc oxide thin films.

    PubMed

    Tabassum, Rana; Gupta, Banshi D

    2015-03-21

    A highly sensitive chlorine sensor for an aqueous medium is fabricated using an optical fiber surface plasmon resonance (OFSPR) system. An OFSPR-based chlorine sensor is designed with a multilayer-type platform by zinc oxide (ZnO) and polyvinylpyrollidone (PVP) film morphology manipulations. Among all the methodologies of transduction reported in the field of solid state chemical and biochemical sensing, our attention is focused on the Kretschmann configuration optical fiber sensing technique using the mechanism of surface plasmon resonance. The optical fiber surface plasmon resonance (SPR) chlorine sensor is developed using a multimode optical fiber with the PVP-supported ZnO film deposited over a silver-coated unclad core of the fiber. A spectral interrogation mode of operation is used to characterize the sensor. In an Ag/ZnO/PVP multilayer system, the absorption of chlorine in the vicinity of the sensing region is performed by the PVP layer and the zinc oxide layer enhances the shift in resonance wavelength. It is, experimentally, demonstrated that the SPR wavelength shifts nonlinearly towards the red side of the visible region with an increase in the chlorine concentration in an aqueous medium while the sensitivity of the sensor decreases linearly with an increase in the chlorine concentration. As the proposed sensor utilizes an optical fiber, it possesses the additional advantages of fiber such as less signal degradation, less susceptibility to electromagnetic interference, possibility of remote sensing, probe miniaturization, probe re-usability, online monitoring, small size, light weight and low cost.

  15. ZnO Nanoparticles/Reduced Graphene Oxide Bilayer Thin Films for Improved NH3-Sensing Performances at Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Huiling; Yuan, Zhen; Zheng, Weijian; Ye, Zongbiao; Liu, Chunhua; Du, Xiaosong

    2016-03-01

    ZnO nanoparticles and graphene oxide (GO) thin film were deposited on gold interdigital electrodes (IDEs) in sequence via simple spraying process, which was further restored to ZnO/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) bilayer thin film by the thermal reduction treatment and employed for ammonia (NH3) detection at room temperature. rGO was identified by UV-vis absorption spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) analyses, and the adhesion between ZnO nanoparticles and rGO nanosheets might also be formed. The NH3-sensing performances of pure rGO film and ZnO/rGO bilayer films with different sprayed GO amounts were compared. The results showed that ZnO/rGO film sensors exhibited enhanced response properties, and the optimal GO amount of 1.5 ml was achieved. Furthermore, the optimal ZnO/rGO film sensor showed an excellent reversibility and fast response/recovery rate within the detection range of 10-50 ppm. Meanwhile, the sensor also displayed good repeatability and selectivity to NH3. However, the interference of water molecules on the prepared sensor is non-ignorable; some techniques should be researched to eliminate the effect of moisture in the further work. The remarkably enhanced NH3-sensing characteristics were speculated to be attributed to both the supporting role of ZnO nanoparticles film and accumulation heterojunction at the interface between ZnO and rGO. Thus, the proposed ZnO/rGO bilayer thin film sensor might give a promise for high-performance NH3-sensing applications.

  16. Role of oxygen on the optical properties of borate glass doped with ZnO

    SciT

    Abdel-Baki, Manal; El-Diasty, Fouad, E-mail: fdiasty@yahoo.com

    2011-10-15

    Lithium tungsten borate glass (0.56-x)B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-0.4Li{sub 2}O-xZnO-0.04WO{sub 3} (0{<=}x{<=}0.1 mol%) is prepared by the melt quenching technique for photonic applications. Small relative values of ZnO are used to improve the glass optical dispersion and to probe as well the role of oxygen electronic polarizability on its optical characteristics. The spectroscopic properties of the glass are determined in a wide spectrum range (200-2500 nm) using a Fresnel-based spectrophotometric technique. Based on the Lorentz-Lorenz theory, as ZnO content increases on the expense of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} the glass molar polarizability increased due to an enhanced unshared oxide ion 2p electron density,more » which increases ionicity of the chemical bonds of glass. The role of oxide ion polarizability is explained in accordance with advanced measures and theories such as optical basicity, O 1s binding energy, the outer most cation binding energy in Yamashita-Kurosawa's interionic interaction parameter and Sun's average single bond strength. FT-IR measurements confirm an increase in bridging oxygen bonds, as a result of replacement of ZnO by B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which increase the UV glass transmission window and transmittance. - Graphical abstract: O1s, Yamashita-Kurosawa's parameter and average single bond strength of charge overlapping between electronic shells are used to explain enhanced oxide ion 2p electron density, which increases refractive index of glasses. Highlights: > New borate glass for photonic application is prepared. > The dispersion property of the glass is effectively controlled using small amounts of ZnO. > ZnO is used to probe the glass structure and investigate the role of oxygen on the obtained optical properties of the glasses. > Modern theories are used to explain enhanced unshared oxide ion 2p electron density, which increases ionicity of chemical bonds of the glass.« less

  17. Optical properties of ZnO powder prepared by using a proteic sol-gel process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Bong-Joon; Woo, Hyun-Joo; Park, Ji-Yeon; Jang, Kiwan; Lim, Seung-Hyuk; Cho, Yong-Hoon

    2013-03-01

    We have studied the optical properties of ZnO powder synthesized by using a proteic sol-gel process with coconut water as the precursor. The energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer and X-ray diffraction results show high purity of the synthesized ZnO powder. From the low-temperature (12 K) and power-dependent PL spectra, the donor-bound exciton, the acceptor-bound exciton, the donor-to-acceptor pair (DAP), and the phonon-replica of the DAP transition have been observed at 3.38, 3.34, 3.26, and 3.19 eV, respectively. The free exciton emission (˜3.3 eV) is also observed at 300 K in the temperature-dependent PL spectra.

  18. Influence of rare earth ions on microstructural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures

    SciT

    Riyajuddin, Sk., E-mail: riyaj5303@gmail.com; Ahmad, Shabbir; Faizan, M.

    2016-05-23

    Pure and 3% rare earth ions (Nd{sup 3+} & Gd{sup 3+}) doped ZnO samples were synthesized by sol-gel method, followed by annealing at temperature 450°C for 2hr. The samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopy. XRD result confirmed single phase nature of all samples with crystalline structure. The average crystallite size of the doped samples found to be decreases as caculated using Debye-Scherrer’s formula. FTIR spectra indicate absorption band centered at 464 cm{sup −1} which is attributed to Zn-O lattice vibration. It confirms the formaton of compounds. UV-visible spectroscopy was used to study the optical properties and band gapmore » of the synthesised materials using Tauc’s relation.« less

  19. Nonlinear Optical Properties of ZnO for BioimagingCell and Cell Destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Ben; Chakki, Samudyatha; Senthilkumar, Os; Senthilkumar, Kasilingam; Fujita, Yasuhisa; Neogi, Arup

    2011-03-01

    As of recent years nanotechnology has been at the forefront of scientific research. It promises to have a broad range of applications from turning unhealthy foods into health foods, making computers faster and curing cancer. We present results on using nonlinear optical processes of ZnO nano-crystals to detect, track and destroy cells. By incorporating ZnO into a hydrophobic nano-hydrogel matrix with trace amounts of H2 O2 , we can attach antibodies or microRNA for specific cell targeting and, using the heat generating properties of the third order nonlinear process, release H2 O2 in the cell causing instant cell death. Theoretically, with the appropriate sequence for microRNA or the appropriate antibodies, we could target cancer cells in the body and destroy them. This presentation gives our results until now.

  20. Significant enhancement of yellow-green light emission of ZnO nanorod arrays using Ag island films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chin-An; Tsai, Dung-Sheng; Chen, Cheng-Ying; He-Hau, Jr.

    2011-03-01

    Surface plasmon (SP) mediated emission from ZnO nanorod arrays (NRAs)/Ag/Si structures has been investigated. The ratio of visible emission to UV emission can be increased by over 30 times via coupling with SP without deterioration of the crystal quality. The fact that the effect of SP crucially depends on the size of Ag island films provides the feasibility to significantly enhance the yellow-green emission of the ZnO nanostructures without sacrificing the crystallinity of ZnO.Surface plasmon (SP) mediated emission from ZnO nanorod arrays (NRAs)/Ag/Si structures has been investigated. The ratio of visible emission to UV emission can be increased by over 30 times via coupling with SP without deterioration of the crystal quality. The fact that the effect of SP crucially depends on the size of Ag island films provides the feasibility to significantly enhance the yellow-green emission of the ZnO nanostructures without sacrificing the crystallinity of ZnO. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00732c

  1. Investigation of Zinc Oxide-Loaded Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Nanocomposite Films in Tailoring Their Structural, Optical and Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslam, Muhammad; Kalyar, Mazhar Ali; Raza, Zulfiqar Ali

    2018-04-01

    Wurtzite ZnO nanoparticles, as a nanofiller, were incorporated in a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) matrix to prepare multipurpose nanocomposite films using a solution casting approach. Some advanced analytical techniques were used to investigate the properties of prepared nanocomposite films. The mediation of ZnO nanofillers resulted in modification of structural, optical and mechanical properties of nanocomposite films. A comprehensive band structure investigation might be useful for designing technological applications like in optoelectronic devices. The experimental results were found to be closely dependent on the nanofiller contents. Some theoretical models like Tauc's and Wemple-DiDomenico, were employed to investigate the band structure parameters. The imaginary part of the dielectric constant was used to investigate the band gap. Then, the Helpin-Tsai model was employed to predict Young's moduli of the prepared nanocomposite films. On 3 wt.% ZnO nanofiller loading, the optical band gap of the PVA-based nanocomposite film was decreased from 5.26 eV to 3 eV, the tensile strength increased from 25.3 MPa to 48 MPa and Young's modulus increased from 144 MPa to 544 MPa.

  2. Investigation of Zinc Oxide-Loaded Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Nanocomposite Films in Tailoring Their Structural, Optical and Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslam, Muhammad; Kalyar, Mazhar Ali; Raza, Zulfiqar Ali

    2018-07-01

    Wurtzite ZnO nanoparticles, as a nanofiller, were incorporated in a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) matrix to prepare multipurpose nanocomposite films using a solution casting approach. Some advanced analytical techniques were used to investigate the properties of prepared nanocomposite films. The mediation of ZnO nanofillers resulted in modification of structural, optical and mechanical properties of nanocomposite films. A comprehensive band structure investigation might be useful for designing technological applications like in optoelectronic devices. The experimental results were found to be closely dependent on the nanofiller contents. Some theoretical models like Tauc's and Wemple-DiDomenico, were employed to investigate the band structure parameters. The imaginary part of the dielectric constant was used to investigate the band gap. Then, the Helpin-Tsai model was employed to predict Young's moduli of the prepared nanocomposite films. On 3 wt.% ZnO nanofiller loading, the optical band gap of the PVA-based nanocomposite film was decreased from 5.26 eV to 3 eV, the tensile strength increased from 25.3 MPa to 48 MPa and Young's modulus increased from 144 MPa to 544 MPa.

  3. Structural, morphological, optical and biological properties of pure ZnO and agar/zinc oxide nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Magesh, G; Bhoopathi, G; Nithya, N; Arun, A P; Ranjith Kumar, E

    2018-05-26

    In this work, ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by in situ chemical precipitation method in the presence of Agar biopolymer. The influence of Agar concentrations on the structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnO have been investigated. The XRD pattern of Pure ZnO and Agar/ZnO nanocomposites indicates the hexagonal wurtzite phase of ZnO. The crystallite size of pure ZnO and Agar/ZnO nanocomposites was found to be in the range of 35.5 to 19.73 nm. Pure ZnO and Agar/ZnO nanocomposites showed nanospheroid and nanopaddy shaped morphology from FESEM studies. The interplanar distance observed from the HRTEM image confirms the plane of the prepared material. The elemental composition of the samples were characterized by EDX. The optical properties of Pure ZnO and Agar/ZnO nanocomposites were characterized by UV, FTIR and PL. The band gap of Agar/ZnO nanocomposites were varied with the Agar concentration. Oxygen vacancy induced photoluminescence of ZnO are observed and its intensity is found to be increased linearly with the Agar concentration. The antibacterial activity of ZnO and Agar/ZnO nanocomposites was evaluated by disc diffusion method against Gram-positive (B.subtilis) and Gram-negative (P. aeruginosa) bacteria. The cytotoxicity of Agar/ZnO nanocomposites was studied against Normal (L929) and Breast cancer cell line (MB231). The result of this investigation reveals that the Agar/ZnO nanocomposites deliver a dose dependent toxicity in normal and cancer cell line. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. The effect of the solution flow rate on the properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films deposited by ultrasonic spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attaf, A.; Benkhetta, Y.; Saidi, H.; Bouhdjar, A.; Bendjedidi, H.; Nouadji, M.; Lehraki, N.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we used a system based on ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. By witch, we have deposited thin films of zinc oxide (ZnO) with the variation of solution flow rate from 50 ml / h to 150 ml / h, and set other parameters such as the concentration of the solution, the deposition time, substrate temperature and the nozzel -substrate distance. In order to study the influence of the solution flow rate on the properties of the films produced, we have several characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction to determine the films structure, the scanning electron microscopy SEM for the morphology of the surfaces, EDS spectroscopy for the chemical composition, UV-Visible-Nir spectroscopy for determination the optical proprieties of thin films.The experimental results show that: the films have hexagonal structure at the type (wurtzite), the average size of grains varies from 20.11 to 32.45 nm, the transmittance of the films equals 80% in visible rang and the band gap is varied between 3.274 and 3.282 eV, when the solution flow rate increases from 50 to 150 ml/h.

  5. Efficient Solar-Induced Photoelectrochemical Response Using Coupling Semiconductor TiO2-ZnO Nanorod Film

    PubMed Central

    Abd Samad, Nur Azimah; Lai, Chin Wei; Lau, Kung Shiuh; Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee

    2016-01-01

    Efficient solar driven photoelectrochemical (PEC) response by enhancing charge separation has attracted great interest in the hydrogen generation application. The formation of one-dimensional ZnO nanorod structure without bundling is essential for high efficiency in PEC response. In this present research work, ZnO nanorod with an average 500 nm in length and average diameter of about 75 nm was successfully formed via electrodeposition method in 0.05 mM ZnCl2 and 0.1 M KCl electrolyte at 1 V for 60 min under 70 °C condition. Continuous efforts have been exerted to further improve the solar driven PEC response by incorporating an optimum content of TiO2 into ZnO nanorod using dip-coating technique. It was found that 0.25 at % of TiO2 loaded on ZnO nanorod film demonstrated a maximum photocurrent density of 19.78 mA/cm2 (with V vs. Ag/AgCl) under UV illumination and 14.75 mA/cm2 (with V vs. Ag/AgCl) under solar illumination with photoconversion efficiency ~2.9% (UV illumination) and ~4.3% (solar illumination). This performance was approximately 3–4 times higher than ZnO film itself. An enhancement of photocurrent density and photoconversion efficiency occurred due to the sufficient Ti element within TiO2-ZnO nanorod film, which acted as an effective mediator to trap the photo-induced electrons and minimize the recombination of charge carriers. Besides, phenomenon of charge-separation effect at type-II band alignment of Zn and Ti could further enhance the charge carrier transportation during illumination. PMID:28774068

  6. Limits of ZnO Electrodeposition in Mesoporous Tin Doped Indium Oxide Films in View of Application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dunkel, Christian; von Graberg, Till; Smarsly, Bernd M.; Oekermann, Torsten; Wark, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Well-ordered 3D mesoporous indium tin oxide (ITO) films obtained by a templated sol-gel route are discussed as conductive porous current collectors. This paper explores the use of such films modified by electrochemical deposition of zinc oxide (ZnO) on the pore walls to improve the electron transport in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Mesoporous ITO film were dip-coated with pore sizes of 20–25 nm and 40–45 nm employing novel poly(isobutylene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymers as structure-directors. After electrochemical deposition of ZnO and sensitization with the indoline dye D149 the films were tested as photoanodes in DSSCs. Short ZnO deposition times led to strong back reaction of photogenerated electrons from non-covered ITO to the electrolyte. ITO films with larger pores enabled longer ZnO deposition times before pore blocking occurred, resulting in higher efficiencies, which could be further increased by using thicker ITO films consisting of five layers, but were still lower compared to nanoporous ZnO films electrodeposited on flat ITO. The major factors that currently limit the application are the still low thickness of the mesoporous ITO films, too small pore sizes and non-ideal geometries that do not allow obtaining full coverage of the ITO surface with ZnO before pore blocking occurs. PMID:28788618

  7. First-principles calculations of optical transitions at native defects and impurities in ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, John L.; Varley, Joel B.; Janotti, Anderson; Van de Walle, Chris G.

    2018-02-01

    Optical spectroscopy is a powerful approach for detecting defects and impurities in ZnO, an important electronic material. However, knowledge of how common optical signals are linked with defects and impurities is still limited. The Cu-related green luminescence is among the best understood luminescence signals, but theoretical descriptions of Cu-related optical processes have not agreed with experiment. Regarding native defects, assigning observed lines to specific defects has proven very difficult. Using first-principles calculations, we calculate the properties of native defects and impurities in ZnO and their associated optical signals. Oxygen vacancies are predicted to give luminescence peaks lower than 1 eV; while related zinc dangling bonds can lead to luminescence near 2.4 eV. Zinc vacancies lead to luminescence peaks below 2 eV, as do the related oxygen dangling bonds. However, when complexed with hydrogen impurities, zinc vacancies can cause higher-energy transitions, up to 2.3 eV. We also find that the Cu-related green luminescence is related to a (+/0) deep donor transition level.

  8. Thin-film optical shutter. Final report

    SciT

    Matlow, S.L.

    1981-02-01

    A specific embodiment of macroconjugated macromolecules, the poly (p-phenylene)'s, has been chosen as the one most likely to meet all of the requirements of the Thin Film Optical Shutter project (TFOS). The reason for this choice is included. In order to be able to make meaningful calculations of the thermodynamic and optical properties of the poly (p-phenylene)'s a new quantum mechanical method was developed - Equilibrium Bond Length (EBL) Theory. Some results of EBL Theory are included.

  9. Investigations of rapid thermal annealing induced structural evolution of ZnO: Ge nanocomposite thin films via GISAXS

    SciT

    Ceylan, Abdullah, E-mail: aceylanabd@yahoo.com; Ozcan, Yusuf; Orujalipoor, Ilghar

    2016-06-07

    In this work, we present in depth structural investigations of nanocomposite ZnO: Ge thin films by utilizing a state of the art grazing incidence small angle x-ray spectroscopy (GISAXS) technique. The samples have been deposited by sequential r.f. and d.c. sputtering of ZnO and Ge thin film layers, respectively, on single crystal Si(100) substrates. Transformation of Ge layers into Ge nanoparticles (Ge-np) has been initiated by ex-situ rapid thermal annealing of asprepared thin film samples at 600 °C for 30, 60, and 90 s under forming gas atmosphere. A special attention has been paid on the effects of reactive and nonreactivemore » growth of ZnO layers on the structural evolution of Ge-np. GISAXS analyses have been performed via cylindrical and spherical form factor calculations for different nanostructure types. Variations of the size, shape, and distributions of both ZnO and Ge nanostructures have been determined. It has been realized that GISAXS results are not only remarkably consistent with the electron microscopy observations but also provide additional information on the large scale size and shape distribution of the nanostructured components.« less

  10. Growth process optimization of ZnO thin film using atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Binbin; Wang, Jingyu; Larson, Preston; Liu, Yingtao

    2016-12-01

    The work reports experimental studies of ZnO thin films grown on Si(100) wafers using a customized thermal atomic layer deposition. The impact of growth parameters including H2O/DiethylZinc (DEZn) dose ratio, background pressure, and temperature are investigated. The imaging results of scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy reveal that the dose ratio is critical to the surface morphology. To achieve high uniformity, the H2O dose amount needs to be at least twice that of DEZn per each cycle. If the background pressure drops below 400 mTorr, a large amount of nanoflower-like ZnO grains would emerge and increase surface roughness significantly. In addition, the growth temperature range between 200 °C and 250 °C is found to be the optimal growth window. And the crystal structures and orientations are also strongly correlated to the temperature as proved by electron back-scattering diffraction and x-ray diffraction results.

  11. Eradication of Multi-drug Resistant Bacteria by Ni Doped ZnO Nanorods: Structural, Raman and optical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jan, Tariq; Iqbal, Javed; Ismail, Muhammad; Mansoor, Qaisar; Mahmood, Arshad; Ahmad, Amaar

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, ZnO nanorods doped with varying amounts of Ni have been prepared by chemical co-precipitation technique. Structural investigations provide the evidence that Ni is successfully doped into ZnO host matrix without having any secondary phases. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images reveal the formation of rodlike structure of undoped ZnO with average length and diameter of 1 μm and 80 nm, respectively. Raman spectroscopy results show that the E1LO phonons mode band shifts to the higher values with Ni doping, which is attributed to large amount of crystal defects. Ni doping is also found to greatly influence the optical properties of ZnO nanorods. The influence of Ni doping on antibacterial characteristics of ZnO nanorods have been studied by measuring the growth curves of Escherichia coli (E. coli), Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) bacteria in the presence of prepared nanorods. ZnO nanorods antibacterial potency is found to increase remarkably with Ni doping against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa microbials, which might possibly be due to the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Interestingly, it is observed that Ni doped ZnO nanorods completely eradicates these multi-drug resistant bacteria.

  12. Passive optical limiting studies of nanostructured Cu doped ZnO-PVA composite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamgadge, Y. S.; Sunatkari, A. L.; Talwatkar, S. S.; Pahurkar, V. G.; Muley, G. G.

    2016-01-01

    We prepared undoped and Cu doped ZnO semiconducting nanoparticles (NPs) by chemical co-precipitation method and obtained Cu doped ZnO-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanocomposite thin films by spin coating to investigate third order nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties under cw laser excitation. Powder samples of NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. XRD pattern and FE-SEM micrograph revealed the presence of hexagonal wurtzite phase ZnO NPs having uniform morphology with average particle size of 20 nm. The presence of excitons and absorption peaks in the range 343-360 nm, revealed by UV-vis study, were attributed to excitons in n = 1 quantum state. Third order NLO properties of all composite thin films were investigated by He-Ne continuous wave (cw) laser of wavelength 632.8 nm using Z-scan technique. Thermally stimulated enhanced values of nonlinear refraction and absorption coefficients were obtained which may be attributed to self-defocusing effect, reverse saturable absorption, weak free carrier absorption and surface states properties originated from thermo optic effect. Optical limiting properties have been studied using cw diode laser of wavelength 808 nm and results are presented.

  13. Effect of Co doping on the structural, optical and magnetic properties of ZnO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hays, J; Reddy, K M; Graces, N Y; Engelhard, M H; Shutthanandan, V; Luo, M; Xu, C; Giles, N C; Wang, C; Thevuthasan, S; Punnoose, A

    2007-07-04

    We report the results of a detailed investigation of sol-gel-synthesized nanoscale Zn(1-x)Co(x)O powders processed at 350 °C with 0≤x≤0.12 to understand how the structural, morphological, optical and magnetic properties of ZnO are modified by Co doping, in addition to searching for the theoretically predicted ferromagnetism. With x increasing to 0.03, both lattice parameters a and c of the hexagonal ZnO decreased, suggesting substitutional doping of Co at the tetrahedral Zn(2+) sites. For x>0.03, these trends reversed and the lattice showed a gradual expansion as x approached 0.12, probably due to additional interstitial incorporation of Co. Raman spectroscopy measurements showed a rapid change in the ZnO peak positions for x>0.03, suggesting significant disorder and changes in the ZnO structure, in support of additional interstitial Co doping possibility. Combined x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy showed clear evidence for tetrahedrally coordinated high-spin Co(2+) ions occupying the lattice sites of ZnO host system, which became saturated for x>0.03. Magnetic measurements showed a paramagnetic behaviour in Zn(1-x)Co(x)O with increasing antiferromagnetic interactions as x increased to 0.10. Surprisingly, a weak ferromagnetic behaviour was observed for the sample with x = 0.12 with a characteristic hysteresis loop showing a coercivity H(c)∼350 Oe, 25% remanence M(r), a low saturation magnetization M(s)∼0.04 emu g(-1) and with a Curie temperature T(c)∼540 K. The XPS data collected from Zn(1-x)Co(x)O samples showed a gradual increase in the oxygen concentration, changing the oxygen-deficient undoped ZnO to an excess oxygen state for x = 0.12. This indicates that such high Co concentrations and appropriate oxygen stoichiometry may be needed to achieve adequate ferromagnetic exchange coupling between the incorporated Co(2+) ions.

  14. A flexible nonvolatile resistive switching memory device based on ZnO film fabricated on a foldable PET substrate.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bai; Zhang, Xuejiao; Zhou, Guangdong; Yu, Tian; Mao, Shuangsuo; Zhu, Shouhui; Zhao, Yong; Xia, Yudong

    2018-06-15

    In this work, a flexible resistive switching memory device based on ZnO film was fabricated using a foldable Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film as substrate while Ag and Ti acts top and bottom electrode. Our as-prepared device represents an outstanding nonvolatile memory behavior with good "write-read-erase-read" stability at room temperature. Finally, a physical model of Ag conductive filament is constructed to understanding the observed memory characteristics. The work provides a new way for the preparation of flexible memory devices based on ZnO films, and especially provides an experimental basis for the exploration of high-performance and portable nonvolatile resistance random memory (RRAM). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ti-doped ZnO Thin Films Prepared at Different Ambient Conditions: Electronic Structures and Magnetic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Zhihua; Liu, Tao; Uruga, Tomoya; Tanida, Hajime; Qi, Dongchen; Rusydi, Andrivo; Wee, Andrew T. S.

    2010-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study on Ti-doped ZnO thin films using X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. Ti K edge XAFS spectra were measured to study the electronic and chemical properties of Ti ions in the thin films grown under different ambient atmospheres. A strong dependence of Ti speciation, composition, and local structures upon the ambient conditions was observed. The XAFS results suggest a major tetrahedral coordination and a 4+ valence state. The sample grown in a mixture of 80% Ar and 20% O2 shows a portion of precipitates with higher coordination. A large distortion was observed by the Ti substitution in the ZnO lattice. Interestingly, the film prepared in 80% Ar, 20% O2 shows the largest saturation magnetic moment of 0.827 ± 0.013 µB/Ti.

  16. Fabrication and Characterization of Fully Transparent ZnO Thin-Film Transistors and Self-Switching Nano-Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y.; Ashida, K.; Sasaki, S.; Koyama, M.; Maemoto, T.; Sasa, S.; Kasai, S.; Iñiguez-de-la-Torre, I.; González, T.

    2015-10-01

    Fully transparent zinc oxide (ZnO) based thin-film transistors (TFTs) and a new type of rectifiers calls self-switching nano-diodes (SSDs) were fabricated on glass substrates at room temperature by using low resistivity and transparent conducting Al- doped ZnO (AZO) thin-films. The deposition conditions of AZO thin-films were optimized with pulsed laser deposition (PLD). AZO thin-films on glass substrates were characterized and the transparency of 80% and resistivity with 1.6*10-3 Ωcm were obtained of 50 nm thickness. Transparent ZnO-TFTs were fabricated on glass substrates by using AZO thin-films as electrodes. A ZnO-TFT with 2 μm long gate device exhibits a transconductance of 400 μS/mm and an ON/OFF ratio of 2.8*107. Transparent ZnO-SSDs were also fabricated by using ZnO based materials and clear diode-like characteristics were observed.

  17. The chemisorption and reactions of formic acid on Cu films on ZnO (000 overline1)-O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludviksson, A.; Zhang, R.; Campbell, Charles T.; Griffiths, K.

    1994-06-01

    The adsorption and reactions of formic acid (HCOOD : HCOOH = 3:1) on the oxygen-terminated ZnO(0001¯)-O surface and on thin Cu films deposited on the ZnO(0001¯)-O surface have been studied with temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and XPS. Small amounts of formic acid dissociate at defect sites on clean ZnO(0001¯)-O to yield surface formate (HCOO). The acid D(H) from this dissociation does not reappear in TPD, and is lost to the ZnO bulk, as confirmed by nuclear reaction analysis. The surface HCOO decomposes to yield nearly simultaneous CO 2 (37%), CO (63%) and H 2 TPD peaks at 560 K. Substantial amounts of D (˜ 20%) are incorporated in this hydrogen TPD peak resulting from formate decomposition at ZnO defects, indicating that bulk D is readily accessible. Submonolayer and multilayer Cu films that are deposited at 130 K and partially cover the ZnO surface as 2D and 3D islands adsorb formic acid and decompose it into formate and hydrogen much like the Cu(110) surface. The surface formate from the Cu film decomposes at 470-500 K to give primarily CO 2 and H 2, also much like Cu(110), although atom-thin Cu islands also give ˜ 40% CO. Annealed Cu films give formate decomposition peaks at 25-50 K lower in temperature, attributed to thickening and ordering of the Cu islands to form Cu(111)-like sites. The acid D(H) atom from the formic acid is partially lost by hydrogen spillover from the Cu islands into the ZnO substrate, especially for thin Cu films. This effect partially desorbs and is enhanced upon preannealing the Cu layers, due to increased H diffusion rates across the annealed Cu islands, and/or the decrease in island size. Bulk D(H) is slowly removed as D 2, HD and H 2 above 400 K in diffusion-limited desorption, catalyzed by Cu.

  18. Electronic transport in highly conducting Si-doped ZnO thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    SciT

    Kuznetsov, Vladimir L.; Vai, Alex T.; Edwards, Peter P., E-mail: peter.edwards@chem.ox.ac.uk

    2015-12-07

    Highly conducting (ρ = 3.9 × 10{sup −4} Ωcm) and transparent (83%) polycrystalline Si-doped ZnO (SiZO) thin films have been deposited onto borosilicate glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition from (ZnO){sub 1−x}(SiO{sub 2}){sub x} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.05) ceramic targets prepared using a sol-gel technique. Along with their structural, chemical, and optical properties, the electronic transport within these SiZO samples has been investigated as a function of silicon doping level and temperature. Measurements made between 80 and 350 K reveal an almost temperature-independent carrier concentration consistent with degenerate metallic conduction in all of these samples. The temperature-dependent Hall mobility has been modeled by considering the varying contribution of grainmore » boundary and electron-phonon scattering in samples with different nominal silicon concentrations.« less

  19. IGZO thin film transistor biosensors functionalized with ZnO nanorods and antibodies.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yi-Chun; Yang, Chun-Hsu; Chen, Shu-Wen; Wu, Shou-Hao; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Huang, Jian-Jang

    2014-04-15

    We demonstrate a biosensor structure consisting of an IGZO (Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide) TFT (thin film transistor) and an extended sensing pad. The TFT acts as the sensing and readout device, while the sensing pad ensures the isolation of biological solution from the transistor channel layer, and meanwhile increases the sensing area. The biosensor is functionalized by first applying ZnO nanorods to increase the surface area for attracting electrical charges of EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) antibodies. The device is able to selectively detect 36.2 fM of EGFR in the total protein solution of 0.1 ng/ml extracted from squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Furthermore, the conjugation duration of the functionalized device with EGFR can be limited to 3 min, implying that the biosensor has the advantage for real-time detection. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. ZnO thin film transistor immunosensor with high sensitivity and selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Pavel Ivanoff; Ku, Chieh-Jen; Duan, Ziqing; Lu, Yicheng; Solanki, Aniruddh; Lee, Ki-Bum

    2011-04-01

    A zinc oxide thin film transistor-based immunosensor (ZnO-bioTFT) is presented. The back-gate TFT has an on-off ratio of 108 and a threshold voltage of 4.25 V. The ZnO channel surface is biofunctionalized with primary monoclonal antibodies that selectively bind with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Detection of the antibody-antigen reaction is achieved through channel carrier modulation via pseudo double-gating field effect caused by the biochemical reaction. The sensitivity of 10 fM detection of pure EGFR proteins is achieved. The ZnO-bioTFT immunosensor also enables selectively detecting 10 fM of EGFR in a 5 mg/ml goat serum solution containing various other proteins.

  1. The magnetic ordering in high magnetoresistance Mn-doped ZnO thin films

    DOE PAGES

    Venkatesh, S.; Baras, A.; Lee, J. -S.; ...

    2016-03-24

    Here, we studied the nature of magnetic ordering in Mn-doped ZnO thin films that exhibited ferromagnetism at 300 K and superparamagnetism at 5 K. We directly inter-related the magnetisation and magnetoresistance by invoking the polaronpercolation theory and variable range of hopping conduction below the metal-to-insulator transition. By obtaining a qualitative agreement between these two models, we attribute the ferromagnetism to the s-d exchange-induced spin splitting that was indicated by large positive magnetoresistance (~40 %). Low temperature superparamagnetism was attributed to the localization of carriers and non-interacting polaron clusters. This analysis can assist in understanding the presence or absence of ferromagnetismmore » in doped/un-doped ZnO.« less

  2. Ferromagnetic mechanism of (Co, Cu)-codoped ZnO films with different Co concentrations investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Huan; Du, Xiaosong; Xu, Ming

    2016-05-01

    Cobalt/copper-codoped ZnO nanoparticles, synthesized with different Co concentrations by a sol-gel method using ethanol as solvent, were studied via XPS. Hexagonal wurtzite structure was found in all samples, with no evidence of any secondary phase. The average crystallite size of the samples was around 20-30 nm, altered significantly with increasing Co concentration. Copper ions and Cobalt ions are indeed substituted into the ZnO lattice at the Zn2+ site, as shown by XRD and XPS. Further studies showed dramatic changes of Cu valence from +2 to +1 as the Co concentration level exceeds 1%, accompanied by a blue-shift of the optical bandgap from 3.01 to 3.13 eV. Ferromagnetism of the Co-doped Zn0.95Cu0.05O thin films was observed and found to be tunable - a phenomenon associated with the valence state of the Cu ions and the existence of some defects like oxygen vacancies in the films.

  3. Comparative optical studies of ZnO and ZnO-TiO2 - Metal oxide nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayalakshmi, R. Vanathi; Asvini, V.; Kumar, P. Praveen; Ravichandran, K.

    2018-05-01

    A comparative study was carried out to show the enhancement in optical activity of bimetal oxide nanoparticle (ZnO - TiO2) than metal oxide nanoparticle (ZnO), which can preferably be used for optical applications. The samples were prepared by wet chemical method and crystalline structure of the samples as hexagonal - primitive for ZnO and tetragonal - bcc for ZnO-TiO2 was confirmed by XRD measurements. The average grain size of ZnO - 19.89nm and ZnO-TiO2- 49.89 nm was calculated by Debye- Scherrer formula. The structure and particle size of the sample was analyzed by FESEM images. The direct band gap energy of ZnO (3.9eV) and ZnO - TiO2(4.68eV) was calculated by Kubelka-Munk Function, from which it is clear that the band gap energy increases in bimetal oxide to a desired level than in its pure form. The photoluminescence study shows that the emitted wavelength of the samples lies exactly around the visible region.

  4. Efficacy of saccharides bio-template on structural, morphological, optical and antibacterial property of ZnO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dhanalakshmi, A; Palanimurugan, A; Natarajan, B

    2018-09-01

    Mono, di and polysaccharides of glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ), sucrose (C 12 H 24 O 12 ) and starch (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) n bio-template ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) has prepared by chemical precipitation method. Saccharides bio-template ZnO (SBts-ZnO) NPs were efficiently prepared for their structural and optical properties were examined by using XRD, FE-SEM, AFM, FTIR, UV and PL techniques. All the samples are polycrystalline nature with a preferential orientation depending on the (1 0 1) plane. The reduction of crystalline size by utilizing glucose, sucrose and starch bio-template of ZnO NPs. FE-SEM images revealed that the spherical and nano-rods like morphologies for ZnO and SBts-ZnO NPs respectively. AFM recorded images shows spherical features that confirmed and also the morphological changes were noticed with the addition of polymers. Interaction of bio-templated saccharides (glucose G 1 , sucrose S 2 & starch S n ) molecules was proved by FTIR study. Optical absorbance and emission behaviours were investigated using UV-Vis and photoluminescence techniques. The antibacterial study revealed that SBts-ZnO have excellent antibacterial effect than ZnO. The S n -ZnO sample has potent antibacterial activity against the Proteus vulgaris followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Electric-field driven insulator-metal transition and tunable magnetoresistance in ZnO thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Le; Chen, Shanshan; Chen, Xiangyang; Ye, Zhizhen; Zhu, Liping

    2018-04-01

    Electrical control of the multistate phase in semiconductors offers the promise of nonvolatile functionality in the future semiconductor spintronics. Here, by applying an external electric field, we have observed a gate-induced insulator-metal transition (MIT) with the temperature dependence of resistivity in ZnO thin films. Due to a high-density carrier accumulation, we have shown the ability to inverse change magnetoresistance in ZnO by ionic liquid gating from 10% to -2.5%. The evolution of photoluminescence under gate voltage was also consistent with the MIT, which is due to the reduction of dislocation. Our in-situ gate-controlled photoluminescence, insulator-metal transition, and the conversion of magnetoresistance open up opportunities in searching for quantum materials and ZnO based photoelectric devices.

  6. Mechano-optic logic gate controlled by third-order nonlinear optical properties in a rotating ZnO:Au thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo-Delgado, C.; García-Gil, C. I.; Trejo-Valdez, M.; Torres-Torres, C.; García-Merino, J. A.; Martínez-Gutiérrez, H.; Khomenko, A. V.; Torres-Martínez, R.

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of the third-order nonlinear optical properties exhibited by a ZnO thin solid film deposited on a SnO2 substrate are presented. The samples were prepared by a spray pyrolysis processing route. Scanning electron microscopy analysis and UV-Vis spectroscopy studies were carried out. The picosecond response at 1064 nm was explored by the z-scan technique. A large optical Kerr effect with two-photon absorption was obtained. The inhibition of the nonlinear optical absorption together with a noticeable enhancement in the optical Kerr effect in the sample was achieved by the incorporation of Au nanoparticles into the ZnO film. Additionally, a two-wave mixing configuration at 532 nm was performed and an optical Kerr effect was identified as the main cause of the nanosecond third-order optical nonlinearity. The relaxation time of the photothermal response of the sample was estimated to be about 1 s when the sample was excited by nanosecond single-shots. The rotation of the sample during the nanosecond two-wave mixing experiments was analyzed. It was stated that a non-monotonic relation between rotating frequency and pulse repetition rate governs the thermal contribution to the nonlinear refractive index exhibited by a rotating film. Potential applications for switching photothermal interactions in rotating samples can be contemplated. A rotary logic system dependent on Kerr transmittance in a two-wave mixing experiment was proposed.

  7. Atomic layer deposition of Nb-doped ZnO for thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, A.; Wrench, J. S.; Jin, J. D.; Whittles, T. J.; Mitrovic, I. Z.; Raja, M.; Dhanak, V. R.; Chalker, P. R.; Hall, S.

    2016-11-01

    We present physical and electrical characterization of niobium-doped zinc oxide (NbZnO) for thin film transistor (TFT) applications. The NbZnO films were deposited using atomic layer deposition. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that the crystallinity of the NbZnO films reduces with an increase in the Nb content and lower deposition temperature. It was confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy that Nb5+ is present within the NbZnO matrix. Furthermore, photoluminescence indicates that the band gap of the ZnO increases with a higher Nb content, which is explained by the Burstein-Moss effect. For TFT applications, a growth temperature of 175 °C for 3.8% NbZnO provided the best TFT characteristics with a saturation mobility of 7.9 cm2/Vs, the current On/Off ratio of 1 × 108, and the subthreshold swing of 0.34 V/decade. The transport is seen to follow a multiple-trap and release mechanism at lower gate voltages and percolation thereafter.

  8. Synthesis, structural and optical properties of silver nanoparticles uniformly decorated ZnO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ke-Xin; Wen, Xing; Yao, Cheng-Bao; Li, Jin; Zhang, Meng; Li, Qiang-Hua; Sun, Wen-Jun; Wu, Jia-Da

    2018-04-01

    Silver (Ag) nanoparticles decorated Zinc oxide (A-ZnO) nanowires have been successfully synthesized by two-step chemical vapour deposition and magnetron sputtering method. The X-ray diffraction patterns revealed their hexagonal wurtzite structure. SEM images indicated the Ag nanoparticles are distributed uniformly on the surface of A-ZnO nanowires. By extending the sputtering time, the atomic percent of Ag increased gradually. Moreover, the photoluminescence results demonstrated two major emission peaks for the A-ZnO nanowires. Where, the visible emission peaks were stronger than those of unmodified ZnO nanowires. These studies promise their potential applications in multifunctional optical devices.

  9. Selective Dry Etch for Defining Ohmic Contacts for High Performance ZnO TFTs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    scale, high-frequency ZnO thin - film transistors (TFTs) could be fabricated. Molybdenum, tantalum, titanium tungsten 10-90, and tungsten metallic contact... thin - film transistor layout utilized in the thesis research . . . . . 42 3.4 Process Flow Diagram for Optical and e-Beam Devices...TFT thin - film transistor TLM transmission line model UV ultra-violet xvii SELECTIVE DRY ETCH FOR DEFINING OHMIC CONTACTS FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE ZnO TFTs

  10. Origin of high carrier mobility and low residual stress in RF superimposed DC sputtered Al doped ZnO thin film for next generation flexible devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Naveen; Dubey, Ashish; Bahrami, Behzad; Venkatesan, S.; Qiao, Qiquan; Kumar, Mukesh

    2018-04-01

    In this work, the energy and flux of high energetic ions were controlled by RF superimposed DC sputtering process to increase the grain size and suppress grain boundary potential with minimum residual stress in Al doped ZnO (AZO) thin film. AZO thin films were deposited at different RF/(RF + DC) ratios by keeping total power same and were investigated for their electrical, optical, structural and nanoscale grain boundaries potential. All AZO thin film showed high crystallinity and orientation along (002) with peak shift as RF/(RF + DC) ratio increased from 0.0, pure DC, to 1.0, pure RF. This peak shift was correlated with high residual stress in as-grown thin film. AZO thin film grown at mixed RF/(RF + DC) of 0.75 showed high electron mobility, low residual stress and large crystallite size in comparison to other AZO thin films. The nanoscale grain boundary potential was mapped using Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy in all AZO thin film and it was observed that carrier mobility is controlled not only by grains size but also by grain boundary potential. The XPS analysis confirms the variation in oxygen vacancies and zinc interstitials which explain the origin of low grain boundaries potential and high carrier mobility in AZO thin film deposited at 0.75 RF/(RF + DC) ratio. This study proposes a new way to control the grain size and grain boundary potential to further tune the optoelectronic-mechanical properties of AZO thin films for next generation flexible and optoelectronic devices.

  11. Effects of substrate on the structure and orientation of ZnO thin film grown by rf-magnetron sputtering

    SciT

    Liu, H. F.; Chua, S. J.; Hu, G. X.

    2007-10-15

    X-ray diffractions, Nomarski microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and photoluminescence have been used to study the effects of substrate on the structure and orientation of ZnO thin films grown by rf-magnetron sputtering. GaAs(001), GaAs(111), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0002) (c-plane), and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(1102) (r-plane) wafers have been selected as substrates in this study. X-ray diffractions reveal that the ZnO film grown on GaAs(001) substrate is purely textured with a high c-axis orientation while that grown on GaAs(111) substrate is a single ZnO(0002) crystal; a polycrystalline structure with a large-single-crystal area of ZnO(0002) is obtained on a c-plane Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate whilemore » a ZnO(1120) single crystal is formed on an r-plane Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate. There is absence of significant difference between the photoluminescence spectra collected from ZnO/GaAs(001), ZnO/GaAs(111), and ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0002), while the photoluminescence from ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(1102) shows a reduced intensity together with an increased linewidth, which is, likely, due to the increased incorporation of native defects during the growth of ZnO(1120)« less

  12. Surface nanostructuring of thin film composite membranes via grafting polymerization and incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isawi, Heba; El-Sayed, Magdi H.; Feng, Xianshe; Shawky, Hosam; Abdel Mottaleb, Mohamed S.

    2016-11-01

    A new approach for modification of polyamid thin film composite membrane PA(TFC) using synthesized ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) was shown to enhance the membrane performances for reverse osmosis water desalination. First, active layer of synthesis PA(TFC) membrane was activated with an aqueous solution of free radical graft polymerization of hydrophilic methacrylic acid (MAA) monomer onto the surface of the PA(TFC) membrane resulting PMAA-g-PA(TFC). Second, the PA(TFC) membrane has been developed by incorporation of ZnO NPs into the MAA grafting solution resulting the ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) membrane. The surface properties of the synthesized nanoparticles and prepared membranes were investigated using the FTIR, XRD and SEM. Morphology studies demonstrated that ZnO NPs have been successfully incorporated into the active grafting layer over PA(TFC) composite membranes. The zinc leaching from the ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) was minimal, as shown by batch tests that indicated stabilization of the ZnO NPs on the membrane surfaces. Compared with the a pure PA(TFC) and PMAA-g-PA(TFC) membranes, the ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) was more hydrophilic, with an improved water contact angle (∼50 ± 3°) over the PMAA-g-PA(TFC) (63 ± 2.5°). The ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) membrane showed salt rejection of 97% (of the total groundwater salinity), 99% of dissolved bivalent ions (Ca2+, SO42-and Mg2+), and 98% of mono valent ions constituents (Cl- and Na+). In addition, antifouling performance of the membranes was determined using E. coli as a potential foulant. This demonstrates that the ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) membrane can significantly improve the membrane performances and was favorable to enhance the selectivity, permeability, water flux, mechanical properties and the bio-antifouling properties of the membranes for water desalination.

  13. Effect of ion beam irradiation on the structure of ZnO films deposited by a dc arc plasmatron.

    PubMed

    Penkov, Oleksiy V; Lee, Heon-Ju; Plaksin, Vadim Yu; Ko, Min Gook; Joa, Sang Beom; Yim, Chan Joo

    2008-02-01

    The deposition of polycrystalline ZnO film on a cold substrate was performed by using a plasmatron in rough vacuum condition. Low energy oxygen ion beam generated by a cold cathode ion source was introduced during the deposition process. The change of film property on the ion beam energy was checked. It is shown that irradiation by 200 eV ions improves crystalline structure of the film. Increasing of ion beam energy up to 400 eV leads to the degradation of a crystalline structure and decreases the deposition rate.

  14. Optical compensation device for chest film radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Robert G.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.; DeForest, Sherman E.; Schmidt, Gregory W.; Hier, Richard G.

    1990-07-01

    Although chest radiography is the most commonly performed radiographic examination and one of the most valuable and cost-effective studies in medicine it suffers from relatively high error rates in both missing pathology and false positive interpretations. Detectability of lung nodules and other structures in underpenetrated regions of the chest film can be improved by both exposure and optical compensation but current compensation systems require major capital cost or a significant change in normal clinical practice. A new optical compensation system called the " Intelligent X-Ray Illuminator" (IXI) automatically and virtually instantaneously generates a patient-specific optical unsharp mask that is projected directly on a radiograph. When a radiograph is placed on the IXI which looks much like a conventional viewbox it acquires a low-resolution electronic image of this film from which the film transmission is derived. The transmission information is inverted and blurred in an image processor to form an unsharp mask which is fed into a spatial light modulator (SLM) placed between a light source and the radiograph. The SLM tailors the viewbox luminance by decreasing illumination to underexposed (i. e. transmissive) areas of the radiograph presenting the observer with an optically unsharp-masked image. The IXI uses the original radiograph and will allow it to be viewed on demand with conventional (uniform illumination. Potentially the IXI could introduce the known beneficial aspects of optical unsharp masking into radiology at low capital

  15. Doping effect on SILAR synthesized crystalline nanostructured Cu-doped ZnO thin films grown on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates and its characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhaygude, H. D.; Shinde, S. K.; Velhal, Ninad B.; Takale, M. V.; Fulari, V. J.

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, a novel chemical route is used to synthesize the undoped and Cu-doped ZnO thin films in aqueous solution by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The synthesized thin films are characterized by x-ray diffractometer (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDAX), contact angle goniometer and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. XRD study shows that the prepared films are polycrystalline in nature with hexagonal crystal structure. The change in morphology for different doping is observed in the studies of FE-SEM. EDAX spectrum shows that the thin films consist of zinc, copper and oxygen elements. Contact angle goniometer is used to measure the contact angle between a liquid and a solid interface and after detection, the nature of the films is initiated from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. The optical band gap energy for direct allowed transition ranging between 1.60-2.91 eV is observed.

  16. Nonlinear Optical Image Processing with Bacteriorhodopsin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downie, John D.; Deiss, Ron (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The transmission properties of some bacteriorhodopsin film spatial light modulators are uniquely suited to allow nonlinear optical image processing operations to be applied to images with multiplicative noise characteristics. A logarithmic amplitude transmission feature of the film permits the conversion of multiplicative noise to additive noise, which may then be linearly filtered out in the Fourier plane of the transformed image. The bacteriorhodopsin film displays the logarithmic amplitude response for write beam intensities spanning a dynamic range greater than 2.0 orders of magnitude. We present experimental results demonstrating the principle and capability for several different image and noise situations, including deterministic noise and speckle. Using the bacteriorhodopsin film, we successfully filter out image noise from the transformed image that cannot be removed from the original image.

  17. Thin Hydrogel Films for Optical Biosensor Applications

    PubMed Central

    Mateescu, Anca; Wang, Yi; Dostalek, Jakub; Jonas, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogel materials consisting of water-swollen polymer networks exhibit a large number of specific properties highly attractive for a variety of optical biosensor applications. This properties profile embraces the aqueous swelling medium as the basis of biocompatibility, non-fouling behavior, and being not cell toxic, while providing high optical quality and transparency. The present review focuses on some of the most interesting aspects of surface-attached hydrogel films as active binding matrices in optical biosensors based on surface plasmon resonance and optical waveguide mode spectroscopy. In particular, the chemical nature, specific properties, and applications of such hydrogel surface architectures for highly sensitive affinity biosensors based on evanescent wave optics are discussed. The specific class of responsive hydrogel systems, which can change their physical state in response to externally applied stimuli, have found large interest as sophisticated materials that provide a complex behavior to hydrogel-based sensing devices. PMID:24957962

  18. Controlled growth of c-axis oriented ZnO nanorod array films by electrodeposition method and characterization.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Andaç; Hür, Evrim; Ilican, Saliha; Caglar, Yasemin; Caglar, Mujdat

    2014-07-15

    ZnO nanorod array films were deposited from aqueous solution containing different concentrations (1×10(-2) M and 5×10(-3) M) Zn(NO3)2⋅6H2O and C6H12N4 and at different electrodeposition times (i.e., 15 min, 30 min, 60 min, 120 min and 180 min) using chronoamperometry method on p-Si substrate. Surface morphology and crystal structural properties of ZnO films were investigated by XRD and FESEM to select ZnO films which have optimum properties. The highest TC(hkl) value was observed in (002) plane for the film, which is deposited at 1×10(-2) M and 120 min. It is also observed that the highly oriented nanorods in this film are denser. Additionally, the conductivity type was determined by using Mott-Schottky which is electrochemical impedance spectroscopy method (EIS). On the other hand, to investigate the utility of obtained ZnO on p-Si (p-Si/n-ZnO) as supercapacitor electrode active material, the electrochemical storage properties of p-Si/ZnO was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and repeating chronopotentiometry methods. It is suggested from electrochemical tests results that p-Si/ZnO is a promising electrode materials for supercapacitor applications that required low voltage (<10 V). Rectifiying behavior was observed from the I-V characteristic of nanorod array n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunction diode. The n value, Io and the ϕb were found to be 5.48, 1.93×10(-8) A and 0.75 eV, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. ZnO nanopowder induced light scattering for improved visualization of emission sites in carbon nanotube films and arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meško, Marcel; Ou, Qiongrong; Matsuda, Takafumi; Ishikawa, Tomokazu; Veis, Martin; Antoš, Roman; Ogino, Akihisa; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2009-06-01

    We report on ZnO nanopowder induced light scattering for improved visualization of emission sites in carbon nanotube films and arrays. We observed a significant reduction of the internal multiple light scattering phenomena, which are characteristic for ZnO micropowders. The microsized grains of the commercially available ZnO:Zn (P 15) were reduced to the nanometre scale by pulsed laser ablation at an oxygen ambient pressure of 10 kPa. Our investigations show no crystalline change and no shift of the broad green emission peak at 500 nm for the ZnO nanopowder. For the application in field emission displays, we demonstrate the possibility of achieving cathodoluminescence with a fine pitch size of 100 µm of the patterned pixels without requiring additional electron beam focusing and without a black matrix. Moreover, the presented results show the feasibility of employing ZnO nanopowder as a detection material for the phosphorus screen method, which is able to localize emission sites of carbon nanotube films and arrays with an accuracy comparable to scanning anode field emission microscopy.

  20. Acoustoelectric Effect on the Responses of SAW Sensors Coated with Electrospun ZnO Nanostructured Thin Film

    PubMed Central

    Tasaltin, Cihat; Ebeoglu, Mehmet Ali; Ozturk, Zafer Ziya

    2012-01-01

    In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO) was a very good candidate for improving the sensitivity of gas sensor technology. The preparation of an electrospun ZnO nanostructured thin film on a 433 MHz Rayleigh wave based Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensor and the investigation of the acoustoelectric effect on the responses of the SAW sensor are reported. We prepared an electrospun ZnO nanostructured thin film on the SAW devices by using an electrospray technique. To investigate the dependency of the sensor response on the structure and the number of the ZnO nanoparticles, SAW sensors were prepared with different coating loads. The coating frequency shifts were adjusted to fall between 100 kHz and 2.4 MHz. The sensor measurements were performed against VOCs such as acetone, trichloroethylene, chloroform, ethanol, n-propanol and methanol vapor. The sensor responses of n-propanol have opposite characteristics to the other VOCs, and we attributed these characteristics to the elastic effect/acoustoelectric effect.

  1. Reduced graphene oxide-ZnO self-assembled films: tailoring the visible light photoconductivity by the intrinsic defect states in ZnO.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, M K; Gopinath, Pramod; John, Honey

    2015-06-14

    ZnO is a wide direct bandgap semiconductor; its absorption can be tuned to the visible spectral region by controlling the intrinsic defect levels. Combining graphene with ZnO can improve its performance by photo-induced charge separation by ZnO and electronic transport through graphene. When reduced graphene oxide-ZnO is prepared by a hydrothermal method, the photophysical studies indicate that oxygen vacancy defect states are healed out by diffusion of oxygen from GO to ZnO during its reduction. Because of the passivation of oxygen vacancies, the visible light photoconductivity of the hybrid is depleted, compared to pure ZnO. In order to overcome this reduction in photocurrent, a photoelectrode is fabricated by layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly of ZnO and reduced graphene oxide. The multilayer films are fabricated by the electrostatic LBL self-assembly technique using negatively charged poly(sodium 4-styrene sulfonate)-reduced graphene oxide (PSS-rGO) and positively charged polyacrylamide-ZnO (PAM-ZnO) as building blocks. The multilayer films fabricated by this technique will be highly interpenetrating; it will enhance the interaction between the ZnO and rGO perpendicular to the electrode surface. Upon illumination under bias voltage defect assisted excitation occurs in ZnO and the photogenerated charge carriers can transfer to graphene. The electron transferred to graphene sheets can recombine in two ways; either it can recombine with the holes in the valence band of ZnO in its bilayer or the ZnO in the next bilayer. This type of tunnelling of electrons from graphene to the successive bilayers will result in efficient charge transfer. This transfer and propagation of electron will enhance as the number of bilayers increases, which in turn improve the photocurrent of the multilayer films. Therefore this self-assembly technique is an effective approach to fabricate semiconductor-graphene films with excellent conductivity.

  2. Plasmonic materials based on ZnO films and their potential for developing broadband middle-infrared absorbers

    SciT

    Kesim, Yunus E., E-mail: yunus.kesim@bilkent.edu.tr; Battal, Enes; UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara, 06800

    2014-07-15

    Noble metals such as gold and silver have been extensively used for plasmonic applications due to their ability to support plasmons, yet they suffer from high intrinsic losses. Alternative plasmonic materials that offer low loss and tunability are desired for a new generation of efficient and agile devices. In this paper, atomic layer deposition (ALD) grown ZnO is investigated as a candidate material for plasmonic applications. Optical constants of ZnO are investigated along with figures of merit pertaining to plasmonic waveguides. We show that ZnO can alleviate the trade-off between propagation length and mode confinement width owing to tunable dielectricmore » properties. In order to demonstrate plasmonic resonances, we simulate a grating structure and computationally demonstrate an ultra-wide-band (4–15 μm) infrared absorber.« less

  3. Reconstruction of perfect ZnO nanowires facets with high optical quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehani, E.; Hassani, S.; Lusson, A.; Vigneron, J.; Etcheberry, A.; Galtier, P.; Sallet, V.

    2017-07-01

    ZnO nanowires were grown on sapphire substrates using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The samples were subsequently annealed under zinc pressure in a vacuum-sealed ampoule, at temperature ranging from 500 to 800 °C. The originality and the main motivation to provide a zinc-rich atmosphere were to prevent the out-diffusion of zinc from the nanowires. In doing so, the perfect structural properties and the morphology of the nanowires are kept. Interestingly, photoluminescence experiments performed on nanowires annealed in a narrow window of temperature [580-620 °C] show a spectacular improvement of the optical quality, as transitions commonly observable in high quality bulk samples are found. In addition, the intensity of the so-called "surface excitons" (SX) is strongly decreased. To accurately investigate the chemical modifications of the surface, XPS experiments were carried out and show that zinc hydroxide species and/or Zn(OH)2 sublayer were partially removed from the surface. These results suggest that the annealing process in zinc vapor helps to properly reconstruct the surface of ZnO nanowires, and improves the optical quality of their core. Such a thermal treatment at moderate temperature should be beneficial to nanodevices involving surface reaction, e.g. gas sensors.

  4. Influences of Co doping on the structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructured

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majeed Khan, M. A.; Wasi Khan, M.; Alhoshan, Mansour; Alsalhi, M. S.; Aldwayyan, A. S.

    2010-07-01

    Pure and Co-doped ZnO nanostructured samples have been synthesized by a chemical route. We have studied the structural and optical properties of the samples by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), field-emission transmission electron microscope (FETEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and UV-VIS spectroscopy. The XRD patterns show that all the samples are hexagonal wurtzite structures. Changes in crystallite size due to mechanical activation were also determined from X-ray measurements. These results were correlated with changes in particle size followed by SEM and TEM. The average crystallite sizes obtained from XRD were between 20 to 25 nm. The TEM images showed the average particle size of undoped ZnO nanostructure was about 20 nm whereas the smallest average grain size at 3% Co was about 15 nm. Optical parameters such as absorption coefficient ( α), energy band gap ( E g ), the refractive index ( n), and dielectric constants ( σ) have been determined using different methods.

  5. Efficiencies of Eu{sup 3+} ions and hydrogen atoms as donors in ZnO thin films

    SciT

    Akazawa, Housei, E-mail: akazawa.housei@lab.ntt.co.jp

    2016-09-15

    The donor efficiencies of Eu{sup 3+} ions and hydrogen atoms in ZnO crystalline films were investigated with reference to that of Ga{sup 3+} ions. It was found that Eu{sup 3+} ions acted as extrinsic donors in ZnO:Eu films, yielding a resistivity of 1.8 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm at a doping level of 1 at. %. This value is comparable to one for intrinsic donors in undoped ZnO films. The conductivity was maintained as the deposition temperature was increased to 200 °C, and this is evidence for the contribution of extrinsic donors. Deposition of Ga-doped and Eu-doped ZnO films in an H{sub 2}O gasmore » flow produced oxyhydrogenated ZnO:(Ga, H) and ZnO:(Eu, H) films in which the Ga{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} donors were deactivated by oxidization. Nevertheless, hydrogen donors contributed to electrical conduction yielding a resistivity of 1 × 10{sup −2} Ω cm. Postannealing in an H{sub 2} gas ambient alleviated the excessive oxidization of the films and thereby reactivated the donor action of Ga{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} ions, causing the resistivity to recover to 10{sup −3} Ω cm for ZnO:(Ga, H) and 10{sup −2} Ω cm for ZnO:(Eu, H). In contrast, vacuum annealing of ZnO:(Ga, H) and ZnO:(Eu, H) films increased resistivity through removal of hydrogen donors while not affecting the oxidized condition of the samples.« less

  6. Controllable synthesis and optical properties of novel ZnO cone arrays via vapor transport at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Han, Xinhai; Wang, Guanzhong; Jie, Jiansheng; Choy, Wallace C H; Luo, Yi; Yuk, T I; Hou, J G

    2005-02-24

    Novel ZnO cone arrays with controllable morphologies have been synthesized on silicon (100) substrates by thermal evaporation of metal Zn powder at a low temperature of 570 degrees C without a metal catalyst. Clear structure evolutions were observed using scanning electron microscopy: well-aligned ZnO nanocones, double-cones with growing head cones attached by stem cones, and cones with straight hexagonal pillar were obtained as the distance between the source and the substrates was increased. X-ray diffraction shows that all cone arrays grow along the c-axis. Raman and photoluminescence spectra reveal that the optical properties of the buffer layer between the ZnO cone arrays and the silicon substrates are better than those of the ZnO cone arrays due to high concentration of Zn in the heads of the ZnO cone arrays and higher growth temperature of the buffer layer. The growth of ZnO arrays reveals that the cone arrays are synthesized through a self-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process.

  7. Characterization of planar pn heterojunction diodes constructed with Cu2O nanoparticle films and single ZnO nanowires.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Kiyeol; Cho, Kyoungah; Kim, Sangsig

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we fabricate planar pn heterojunction diodes composed of Cu2O nanoparticle (NP) films and single ZnO nanowires (NWs) on SiO2 (300 nm)/Si substrates and investigate their characteristics in the dark and under the illumination of white light and 325 nm wavelength light. The diode at bias voltages of +/- 1 V shows rectification ratios of 10 (in the dark) and 34 (under the illumination of white light). On the other hand, the diode exposed to the 325 nm wavelength light exhibits Ohmic characteristics which are associated with efficient photocurrent generation in both the Cu2O NP film and the single ZnO NW.

  8. Correlation between nano-scale microstructural behavior and the performance of ZnO thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Cheol Hyoun; Lee, Ju Ho; Lee, Jeong Yong; Cho, Hyung Koun

    2014-12-01

    Binary ZnO active layers possessing a polycrystalline structure were deposited with various argon/oxygen flow ratios at 250 degrees C via sputtering. Then ZnO thin-film-transistors (TFTs) were fabricated without additional thermal treatments. As the oxygen content increased during the deposition, the preferred orientation along the (0002) was weakened and the rotation of the grains increased, and furthermore, less conducting films were observed. On the other hand, the reduced oxygen flow rate induced the formation of amorphous-like transition layers during the initial growth due to a high growth rate and high energetic bombardment of the adatoms. As a result, the amorphous phases at the gate dielectric/channel interface were responsible for the formation of a hump shape in the subthreshold region of the TFT transfer curve. In addition, the relationship between the crystal properties and the shift in the threshold voltage was experimentally confirmed by a hysteresis test.

  9. ZnO Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator for the Kinetics Study of Human Blood Coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Da; Zhang, Zhen; Ma, Jilong; Wang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Miniaturized and rapid blood coagulation assay technologies are critical in many clinical settings. In this paper, we present a ZnO film bulk acoustic resonator for the kinetic analysis of human blood coagulation. The resonator operated in thickness shear resonance mode at 1.4 GHz. When the resonator contacted the liquid environment, the viscous loading effect was considered as the additional resistance and inductance in the equivalent circuits, resulting in a linear relationship with a slope of approximately −217 kHz/cP between the liquid viscosity and the frequency of the resonator. The downshift of the resonant frequency and the viscosity change during the blood coagulation were correlated to monitor the coagulation process. The sigmoidal trend was observed in the frequency response for the blood samples activated by thromboplastin and calcium ions. The coagulation kinetics involving sequential phases of steady reaction, growth and saturation were revealed through the time-dependent frequency profiles. The enzymatic cascade time, the coagulation rate, the coagulation time and the clot degree were provided by fitting the time-frequency curves. The prothrombin times were compared with the results measured by a standard coagulometer and show a good correlation. Thanks to the excellent potential of integration, miniaturization and the availability of direct digital signals, the film bulk acoustic resonator has promising application for both clinical and personal use coagulation testing technologies. PMID:28467374

  10. Mango core inner shell membrane template-directed synthesis of porous ZnO films and their application for enzymatic glucose biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yu; Wang, Lei; Ye, Zhizhen; Zhao, Minggang; Cai, Hui; Huang, Jingyun

    2013-11-01

    Micro/nano-porous ZnO films were synthesized through a simple biotemplate-directed method using mango core inner shell membranes as templates. The achieved ZnO films with wrinkles on the surface are combined of large holes and small pores in the bulk. High specific surface area, numerous microspaces, and small channels for fluid circulation provided by this unique structure along with the good biocompatibility and electron communication features of ZnO material make the product an ideal platform for the immobilization of enzymes The fabricated glucose biosensor based on the porous ZnO films exhibits good selective detection ability of analyte with good stability, high sensitivity of 50.58 μA cm-2 mM-1 and a wide linear range of 0.2-5.6 mM along with a low detection limit of 10 μM.

  11. Effect of different coating layer on the topography and optical properties of ZnO nanostructured

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, R.; Mamat, M. H.; Malek, M. F.; Ismail, A. S.; Yusoff, M. M.; Asiah, M. N.; Khusaimi, Z.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and aluminum (Al) co-doped zinc oxide (MAZO) thin films were synthesized on glass substrate by sol-gel spin coating method. MAZO thin films were prepared at different coating layers range from 1 to 9. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to investigate the topography of the thin films. According to the AFM results, Root Means Square (RMS) of MAZO thin films was increased from 0.747 to 6.545 nm, with increase of number coating layer from 1 to 9, respectively. The results shown the variation on structural and topography properties of MAZO seed film when it's deposited at different coating layers on glass substrate. The optical properties was analyzed using UV-Vis spectroscopy. The obtained results show that the transmittance spectra was increased as thin films coating layer increases.

  12. Structural, chemical and optical evaluation of Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by an aqueous solution method

    SciT

    Iribarren, A., E-mail: augusto@imre.oc.uh.cu; Hernández-Rodríguez, E.; Maqueira, L.

    Highlights: • Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles obtained by chemical synthesis. • Substitutional or interstitial Cu into ZnO lead specific structural, chemical, and optical changes. • Incorporation efficiency of Cu atoms in ZnO as a function of the Cu concentration in the precursor dissolution. - Abstract: In this work a study of ZnO and Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles obtained by chemical synthesis in aqueous media was carried out. Structural analysis gave the dominant presence of wurtzite ZnO phase forming a solid solution Zn{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}O. For high Cu doping CuO phase is also present. For low Cu concentration the lattice shrinks due tomore » Cu atoms substitute Zn atoms. For high Cu concentration the lattice enlarges due to predominance of interstitial Cu. From elemental analysis we determined and analyzed the incorporation efficiency of Cu atoms in Zn{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}O as a function of the Cu concentration in the precursor dissolution. Combining structural and chemical results we described the Cu/Zn precursor concentrations r{sub w} in which the solid solution of Cu in ZnO is predominant. In the region located at r{sub w} ≈ 0.2–0.3 it is no longer valid. For Cu/Zn precursor concentration r{sub w} > 0.3 interstitial Cu dominates, and some amount of copper oxide appears. As the Cu concentration increases, the effective size of nanoparticles decreases. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements of the Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles were carried out and analyzed.« less

  13. Polydiacetylene thin films for nonlinear optical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paley, Mark S.

    1993-01-01

    One very promising class of organic compounds for nonlinear optical (NLO) applications are polydiacetylenes, which are novel in that they are highly conjugated polymers which can also be crystalline. Polydiacetylenes offer several advantages over other organic materials: because of their highly conjugated electronic structures, they are capable of possessing large optical nonlinearities with fast response times; because they are crystalline, they can be highly ordered, which is essential for optimizing their NLO properties; and, last, because they are polymeric, they can be formed as thin films, which are useful for device fabrication. We have actively been carrying out ground-based research on several compounds of interest.

  14. Photo-Patternable ZnO Thin Films Based on Cross-Linked Zinc Acrylate for Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Complementary Inverters.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yong Jin; An, Tae Kyu; Yun, Dong-Jin; Kim, Lae Ho; Park, Seonuk; Kim, Yebyeol; Nam, Sooji; Lee, Keun Hyung; Kim, Se Hyun; Jang, Jaeyoung; Park, Chan Eon

    2016-03-02

    Complementary inverters consisting of p-type organic and n-type metal oxide semiconductors have received considerable attention as key elements for realizing low-cost and large-area future electronics. Solution-processed ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs) have great potential for use in hybrid complementary inverters as n-type load transistors because of the low cost of their fabrication process and natural abundance of active materials. The integration of a single ZnO TFT into an inverter requires the development of a simple patterning method as an alternative to conventional time-consuming and complicated photolithography techniques. In this study, we used a photocurable polymer precursor, zinc acrylate (or zinc diacrylate, ZDA), to conveniently fabricate photopatternable ZnO thin films for use as the active layers of n-type ZnO TFTs. UV-irradiated ZDA thin films became insoluble in developing solvent as the acrylate moiety photo-cross-linked; therefore, we were able to successfully photopattern solution-processed ZDA thin films using UV light. We studied the effects of addition of a tiny amount of indium dopant on the transistor characteristics of the photopatterned ZnO thin films and demonstrated low-voltage operation of the ZnO TFTs within ±3 V by utilizing Al2O3/TiO2 laminate thin films or ion-gels as gate dielectrics. By combining the ZnO TFTs with p-type pentacene TFTs, we successfully fabricated organic/inorganic hybrid complementary inverters using solution-processed and photopatterned ZnO TFTs.

  15. Fabrication of tantalum and nitrogen codoped ZnO (Ta, N-ZnO) thin films using the electrospay: twin applications as an excellent transparent electrode and a field emitter.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Khalid; Park, Seung Bin; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2013-05-01

    The realization of stable p-type nitrogen-doped ZnO thin films with durable and controlled growth is important for the fabrication of nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices. ZnO thin films codoped with tantalum and nitrogen (Ta, N-ZnO) were fabricated by using the electrospraying method at an atmospheric pressure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies demonstrated that all the prepared films were polycrystalline in nature with hexagonal wurtzite structure. In addition, a shift in the XRD patterns was observed, and the crystal orientation was changed at a certain amount of nitrogen (>6 at.%) in the starting solution. Analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns and X-ray photoelectron spectra revealed that nitrogen which was combined with the zinc atom (N-Zn) was successfully doped into the ZnO crystal lattice. It was also observed that 2 at.% tantalum and 6 at.% nitrogen (2 at.% Ta and 6 at.% N) were the optimal dopant amounts to achieve the minimum resistivity of about 9.70 × 10(-5) Ω cm and the maximum transmittance of 98% in the visible region. Consequently, the field-emission characteristics of such a Ta, N-ZnO emitter can exhibit the higher current density of 1.33 mA cm(-2), larger field-enhancement factor (β) of 4706, lower turn-on field of 2.6 V μm(-1), and lower threshold field of 3.5 V μm(-1) attributed to the enhanced conductivity and better crystallinity of films. Moreover, the obtained values of resistivity were closest to the lowest resistivity values among the doped ZnO films as well as to the indium tin oxide (ITO) resistivity values that were previously studied. We confirmed that the tantalum and nitrogen atoms substitution in the ZnO lattice induced positive effects in terms of enhancing the free carrier concentration which will further improve the electrical, optical, and field-emission properties. The proposed electrospraying method was well suitable for the fabrication of Ta, N-ZnO thin films at optimum conditions with superior electrical

  16. Modification of opto-electronic properties of ZnO by incorporating metallic tin for buffer layer in thin film solar cells

    SciT

    Deepu, D. R.; Jubimol, J.; Kartha, C. Sudha

    2015-06-24

    In this report, the effect of incorporation of metallic tin (Sn) on opto-electronic properties of ZnO thin films is presented. ZnO thin films were deposited through ‘automated chemical spray pyrolysis’ (CSP) technique; later different quantities of ‘Sn’ were evaporated on it and subsequently annealed. Vacuum annealing showed a positive effect on crystallinity of films. Creation of sub band gap levels due to ‘Sn’ diffusion was evident from the absorption and PL spectra. The tin incorporated films showed good photo response in visible region. Tin incorporated ZnO thin films seem to satisfy the desirable criteria for buffer layer in thin filmmore » solar cells.« less

  17. Contrastive Study on the Structure and the Ultraviolet Absorption Property of Multiple-Doped and Element-Doped ZnO Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yunyun; Zhang, Tao; Lin, Zhenrong; Tian, Yanfeng; Zhou, Shandan

    Sb2O3- and CeO2-doped ZnO thin films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering technique. The influence of Sb2O3 and CeO2 on the structure and ultraviolet (UV) absorption properties was studied by X-ray diffraction and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Results show that multiple doping of films had a prominent effect on the development of crystal grains and the UV absorption property. Ce and Sb exist in many forms in the ZnO film. The multiple-doped films also show enhanced UVA absorption, and the UV absorption peak widens and the absorption intensity increases. Sb plays a dominant role on the structure and UV absorption of ZnO thin films, which are enhanced by Ce.

  18. Mixed metal films with switchable optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, T. J.; Slack, J. L.; Farangis, B.; Rubin, M. D.

    2002-02-01

    Thin, Pd-capped metallic films containing magnesium and first-row transition metals (Mn, Fe, Co) switch reversibly from their initial reflecting state to visually transparent states when exposed to gaseous hydrogen or following cathodic polarization in an alkaline electrolyte. Reversion to the reflecting state is achieved by exposure to air or by anodic polarization. The films were prepared by cosputtering from one magnesium target and one manganese, iron, or cobalt target. Both the dynamic optical switching range and the speed of the transition depend on the magnesium-transition metal ratio. Infrared spectra of films in the transparent, hydrided (deuterided) states support the presence of the intermetallic hydride phases Mg3MnH7, Mg2FeH6, and Mg2CoH5.

  19. Highly transparent and lower resistivity of yttrium doped ZnO thin films grown on quartz glass by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Narinder; Sharma, Sanjeev K.; Kim, Deuk Young; Singh, Narinder

    2016-11-01

    We prepared highly transparent yttrium-doped ZnO (YZO) thin films on quartz glass by a sol-gel method, and then annealed them at 600 °C in vacuum. All samples showed hexagonal wurtzite structure with a preferential orientation along the (002) direction. We observed the average grain size of Y: 2 at% thin film to be in the range of 15-20 nm. We observed blue shift in the optical bandgap (3.29 eV→3.32 eV) by increasing the Y concentration (0-2 at%), due to increasing the number of electrons, and replacing the di-valent (Zn2+) with tri-valent (Y3+) dopants. Replacing the higher ionic radii (Y3+) with smaller ionic radii (Zn2+) expanded the local volume of the lattice, which reduced the lattice defects, and increased the intensity ratio of NBE/DLE emission (INBE/IDLE). We also observed the lowest (172 meV) Urbach energy of Y: 2 at% thin film, and confirmed the high structural quality. Incorporation of the appropriate Y concentration (2 at%) improved the crystallinity of YZO thin films, which led to less carrier scattering and lower resistivity.

  20. Electrical properties of solution-deposited ZnO thin-film transistors by low-temperature annealing.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chul; Oh, Ji Young; Koo, Jae Bon; Park, Chan Woo; Jung, Soon-Won; Na, Bock Soon; Chu, Hye Yong

    2014-11-01

    Flexible oxide thin-film transistors (Oxide-TFTs) have emerged as next generation transistors because of their applicability in electronic device. In particular, the major driving force behind solution-processed zinc oxide film research is its prospective use in printing for electronics. A low-temperature process to improve the performance of solution-processed n-channel ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs) fabricated via spin-coating and inkjet-printing is introduced here. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized using a facile sonochemical method that was slightly modified based on a previously reported method. The influence of the annealing atmosphere on both nanoparticle-based TFT devices fabricated via spin-coating and those created via inkjet printing was investigated. For the inkjet-printed TFTs, the characteristics were improved significantly at an annealing temperature of 150 degrees C. The field effect mobility, V(th), and the on/off current ratios were 3.03 cm2/Vs, -3.3 V, and 10(4), respectively. These results indicate that annealing at 150 degrees C 1 h is sufficient to obtain a mobility (μ(sat)) as high as 3.03 cm2/Vs. Also, the active layer of the solution-based ZnO nanoparticles allowed the production of high-performance TFTs for low-cost, large-area electronics and flexible devices.

  1. Growth stimulation of Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas putida using nanostructured ZnO thin film as transducer element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loukanov, Alexandre; Filipov, Chavdar; Valcheva, Violeta; Lecheva, Marta; Emin, Saim

    2015-04-01

    The semiconductor zinc oxide nanomaterial (ZnO or ZnO:H) is widely used in advanced biosensor technology for the design of highly-sensitive detector elements for various applications. In the attempt to evaluate its effect on common microorganisms, two types of nanostructured transducer films have been used (average diameter 600-1000 nm). They have been prepared by using both wet sol-gel method and magnetron sputtering. Their polycrystalline structure and specific surface features have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope, and atomic force microscope. The assessment of growth stimulation of bacteria was determined using epifluorescent microscope by cell staining with Live/Dead BacLight kit. In our experiments, the growth stimulation of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria on nanostructured ZnO film is demonstrated by Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas putida. These two bacterial species have been selected, because they are well known and studied in biosensor technologies, with structural difference of their cell walls. These pathogens are easy for with common source in the liquid food or some commercial products. Our data has revealed that the method of transducer film preparation influences strongly bacterial inhibition and division. These results present the transforming signal precisely, when ZnO is used in biosensor applications.

  2. Investigation of optical properties of ternary Zn-Ti-O thin films prepared by magnetron reactive co-sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netrvalová, Marie; Novák, Petr; Šutta, Pavol; Medlín, Rostislav

    2017-11-01

    Zn-Ti-O thin films with different concentrations of titanium were deposited by reactive magnetron co-sputtering in a reactive Ar/O2 atmosphere from zinc and titanium targets. It was found that with increasing Ti content the structure of the films gradually changes from a fully crystalline pure ZnO wurtzite structure with a strongly preferred columnar orientation to an amorphous Zn-Ti-O material with 12.5 at.% Ti. The optical parameters (spectral refractive index and extinction coefficient, optical band gap) and thickness of the films were analysed by the combined evaluation of ellipsometric measurements and measurements of transmittance on a UV-vis spectrophotometer. For evaluation of optical parameters was used Cody-Lorentz dispersion model.

  3. Electrical and optical properties of carbon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Pranita

    Carbon and carbon-based materials, including graphite, diamond, and other thin-film structures, are being intensively researched for a wide range of electronic applications. A variety of graphitic, nano-structured carbon materials can be synthesized that have current or potential applications as thin-film transistors, photovoltaics, and supercapacitors. Diamond has been pursued for many years for electronics that can be used in extreme conditions, such as high temperature, high power, high frequency, and radiation environments. In this research study, electronic properties of diamond and graphitic films with crystallite or grain sizes in the nanometer range were investigated. The nano-structured graphitic carbon films were grown using a previously developed method based on the pyrolysis of poly(acrylonitrile) and poly(n-butyl acrylate) block copolymers (PAN-b-PBA). An important characteristic of these films is that the morphology (and therefore other properties) can be controlled by the compositions and processing of the starting block copolymers. Spherical, cylindrical, lamellar, and branched morphologies have been fabricated. The crystallite sizes, optical absorption, and morphology of PAN-b-PBA (containing 17.8% PAN) pyrolyzed between 400 and 600°C were determined and were compared to those derived by pyrolysis of PAN homopolymers at the same temperatures. Hall-effect measurements on pyrolyzed PAN-b-PBA films with spherical, cylindrical, and branched morphologies and homopolymer PAN films pyrolyzed at the same temperatures revealed that both PAN-b-PBA with different morphologies and PAN homopolymer-derived films had n-type conductivity; differences in carrier concentration and mobility values were correlated with the morphological differences of the films. Optical absorption measurements in the ultra-violet through visible wavelength range were also conducted on these films; measurements of the pseudo band-gaps and absorption coefficients were correlated with

  4. Chemical and thermal stability of the characteristics of filtered vacuum arc deposited ZnO, SnO2 and zinc stannate thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çetinörgü, E.; Goldsmith, S.

    2007-09-01

    ZnO, SnO2 and zinc stannate thin films were deposited on commercial microscope glass and UV fused silica substrates using filtered vacuum arc deposition system. During the deposition, the substrate temperature was at room temperature (RT) or at 400 °C. The film structure and composition were determined using x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The transmission of the films in the VIS was 85% to 90%. The thermal stability of the film electrical resistance was determined in air as a function of the temperature in the range 28 °C (RT) to 200 °C. The resistance of ZnO increased from ~ 5000 to 105 Ω when heated to 200 °C, that of SnO2 films increased from 500 to 3900 Ω, whereas that of zinc stannate thin films increased only from 370 to 470 Ω. During sample cooling to RT, the resistance of ZnO and SnO2 thin films continued to rise considerably; however, the increase in the zinc stannate thin film resistance was significantly lower. After cooling to RT, ZnO and SnO2 thin films became practically insulators, while the resistance of zinc stannate was 680 Ω. The chemical stability of the films was determined by immersing in acidic and basic solutions up to 27 h. The SnO2 thin films were more stable in the HCl solution than the ZnO and the zinc stannate thin films; however, SnO2 and zinc stannate thin films that were immersed in the NaOH solution did not dissolve after 27 h.

  5. Investigation of photocalalytic activity of ZnO prepared by spray pyrolis with various precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourfaa, F.; Lamri Zeggar, M.; A, A.; Aida, M. S.; Attaf, N.

    2016-03-01

    Semiconductor photocatalysts such as ZnO has attracted much attention in recent years due to their various applications for the degradation of organic pollutants in water, air and in dye sensitized photovoltaic solar cell. In the present work, ZnO thin films were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis by using different precursors namely: acetate, chloride and zinc nitrate in order to investigate their influence on ZnO photocatalytic activity. The films crystalline structure was studied by mean of X- ray diffraction measurements (XRD) and the films surface morphology by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The films optical properties were studied by mean of UV-visible spectroscopy. The prepared films were tested for the degradation of the red reactive dye largely used in textile industry. As a result, we found that the zinc nitrate is the best precursor to prepare ZnO thin films suitable for a good photocatalytic activity.

  6. Femtosecond optical switches by squarylium dye J-aggregates films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Lyong Sun

    2003-01-01

    Formation of Langmuir and spincoated films containing squarylium dye (SQ) J-aggregates and their femtosecond optical response are described. Pump-probe measurements show that saturable absorption of SQJ-films reveal ultrafast decay with time constants of 100-300 fs. We have applied SQJ-film to new femtosecond time-to-space conversion. A pump (gate) pulse and a train of four probe (signal) pulses were illuminated on the same area of the film in the direction of oblique and normal to the film-plane respectively. Demultiplexing operation for T bps optical signals was demonstrated with femtosecond nonlinear optical response of the SQJ-film.

  7. Gate insulator effects on the electrical performance of ZnO thin film transistor on a polyethersulphone substrate.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Kyu; Choi, Duck-Kyun

    2012-07-01

    Low temperature processing for fabrication of transistor backplane is a cost effective solution while fabrication on a flexible substrate offers a new opportunity in display business. Combination of both merits is evaluated in this investigation. In this study, the ZnO thin film transistor on a flexible Polyethersulphone (PES) substrate is fabricated using RF magnetron sputtering. Since the selection and design of compatible gate insulator is another important issue to improve the electrical properties of ZnO TFT, we have evaluated three gate insulator candidates; SiO2, SiNx and SiO2/SiNx. The SiO2 passivation on both sides of PES substrate prior to the deposition of ZnO layer was effective to enhance the mechanical and thermal stability. Among the fabricated devices, ZnO TFT employing SiNx/SiO2 stacked gate exhibited the best performance. The device parameters of interest are extracted and the on/off current ratio, field effect mobility, threshold voltage and subthreshold swing are 10(7), 22 cm2/Vs, 1.7 V and 0.4 V/decade, respectively.

  8. Effect of Rapid Thermal Annealing on the Electrical Characteristics of ZnO Thin-Film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remashan, Kariyadan; Hwang, Dae-Kue; Park, Seong-Ju; Jang, Jae-Hyung

    2008-04-01

    Thin-film transistors (TFTs) with a bottom-gate configuration were fabricated with an RF magnetron sputtered undoped zinc oxide (ZnO) channel layer and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) grown silicon nitride as a gate dielectric. Postfabrication rapid thermal annealing (RTA) and subsequent nitrous oxide (N2O) plasma treatment were employed to improve the performance of ZnO TFTs in terms of on-current and on/off current ratio. The RTA treatment increases the on-current of the TFT significantly, but it also increases its off-current. The off-current of 2×10-8 A and on/off current ratio of 3×103 obtained after the RTA treatment were improved to 10-10 A and 105, respectively, by the subsequent N2O plasma treatment. The better device performance can be attributed to the reduction of oxygen vacancies at the top region of the channel due to oxygen incorporation from the N2O plasma. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of the TFT samples showed that the RTA-treated ZnO surface has more oxygen vacancies than as-deposited samples, which results in the increased drain current. The XPS study also showed that the subsequent N2O plasma treatment reduces oxygen vacancies only at the surface of ZnO so that the better off-current and on/off current ratio can be obtained.

  9. Qualitative and quantitative differentiation of gases using ZnO thin film gas sensors and pattern recognition analysis.

    PubMed

    Pati, Sumati; Maity, A; Banerji, P; Majumder, S B

    2014-04-07

    In the present work we have grown highly textured, ultra-thin, nano-crystalline zinc oxide thin films using a metal organic chemical vapor deposition technique and addressed their selectivity towards hydrogen, carbon dioxide and methane gas sensing. Structural and microstructural characteristics of the synthesized films were investigated utilizing X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy techniques respectively. Using a dynamic flow gas sensing measurement set up, the sensing characteristics of these films were investigated as a function of gas concentration (10-1660 ppm) and operating temperature (250-380 °C). ZnO thin film sensing elements were found to be sensitive to all of these gases. Thus at a sensor operating temperature of ~300 °C, the response% of the ZnO thin films were ~68, 59, and 52% for hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane gases respectively. The data matrices extracted from first Fourier transform analyses (FFT) of the conductance transients were used as input parameters in a linear unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA) pattern recognition technique. We have demonstrated that FFT combined with PCA is an excellent tool for the differentiation of these reducing gases.

  10. Temperature-dependent phosphorous dopant activation in ZnO thin film deposited using plasma immersion ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murkute, Punam; Ghadi, Hemant; Saha, Shantanu; Chavan, Vinayak; Chakrabarti, Subhananda

    2018-03-01

    High band gap (3.34 eV) and large exciton binding energy (60 meV) at room temperature facilitates ZnO as a useful candidate for optoelectronics devices. Presence of zinc interstitial and oxygen vacancies results in n-type ZnO film. Phosphorus implantation was carried out using plasma immersion ion implantation technique (2kV, 900W) for constant duration (50 s) on RF sputtered ZnO thin films (Sample A). For dopant activation, sample A was subjected to Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) at 700, 800, 900 and 1000°C for 10 s in Oxygen ambient (Sample B, C, D, E). Low temperature (18 K) photoluminescence measurement demonstrated strong donor bound exciton peak for sample A. Dominant donor to acceptor pair peak (DAP) was observed for sample D at around 3.22 eV with linewidth of 131.3 meV. High resolution x-ray diffraction measurement demonstrated (001) and (002) peaks for sample A. (002) peak with high intensity was observed from all annealed samples. Incorporation of phosphorus in ZnO films leads to peak shift towards higher 2θ angle indicate tensile strain in implanted samples. Scanning electron microscopy images reveals improvement in grain size distribution along with reduction of implantation related defects. Raman spectra measured A1(LO) peak at around 576 cm-1 for sample A. Low intensity E2 (high) peak was observed for sample D indicating formation of (PZn+2VZn) complexes. From room temperature Hall measurement, sample D measured 1.17 x 1018 cm -3 carrier concentration with low resistivity of 0.464 Ω.

  11. Visible and UV photo-detection in ZnO nanostructured thin films via simple tuning of solution method.

    PubMed

    Khokhra, Richa; Bharti, Bandna; Lee, Heung-No; Kumar, Rajesh

    2017-11-08

    This study demonstrates significant visible light photo-detection capability of pristine ZnO nanostructure thin films possessing substantially high percentage of oxygen vacancies [Formula: see text] and zinc interstitials [Formula: see text], introduced by simple tuning of economical solution method. The demonstrated visible light photo-detection capability, in addition to the inherent UV light detection ability of ZnO, shows great dependency of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] with the nanostructure morphology. The dependency was evaluated by analyzing the presence/percentage of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] using photoluminescence (PL) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. Morphologies of ZnO viz. nanoparticles (NPs), nanosheets (NSs) and nanoflowers (NFs), as a result of tuning of synthesis method contended different concentrations of defects, demonstrated different photo-detection capabilities in the form of a thin film photodetector. The photo-detection capability was investigated under different light excitations (UV; 380~420 nm, white ; λ > 420 nm and green; 490~570 nm). The as fabricated NSs photodetector possessing comparatively intermediate percentage of [Formula: see text] ~ 47.7% and [Formula: see text] ~ 13.8% exhibited superior performance than that of NPs and NFs photodetectors, and ever reported photodetectors fabricated by using pristine ZnO nanostructures in thin film architecture. The adopted low cost and simplest approach makes the pristine ZnO-NSs applicable for wide-wavelength applications in optoelectronic devices.

  12. Effects of substrate conductivity on cell morphogenesis and proliferation using tailored, atomic layer deposition-grown ZnO thin films

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won Jin; Jung, Jongjin; Lee, Sujin; Chung, Yoon Jang; Yang, Cheol-Soo; Lee, Young Kuk; Lee, You-Seop; Park, Joung Kyu; Ko, Hyuk Wan; Lee, Jeong-O

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) can be employed as a substrate to explore the effects of electrical conductivity on cell adhesion, proliferation, and morphogenesis. ZnO substrates with precisely tunable electrical conductivity were fabricated on glass substrates using ALD deposition. The electrical conductivity of the film increased linearly with increasing duration of the ZnO deposition cycle (thickness), whereas other physical characteristics, such as surface energy and roughness, tended to saturate at a certain value. Differences in conductivity dramatically affected the behavior of SF295 glioblastoma cells grown on ZnO films, with high conductivity (thick) ZnO films causing growth arrest and producing SF295 cell morphologies distinct from those cultured on insulating substrates. Based on simple electrostatic calculations, we propose that cells grown on highly conductive substrates may strongly adhere to the substrate without focal-adhesion complex formation, owing to the enhanced electrostatic interaction between cells and the substrate. Thus, the inactivation of focal adhesions leads to cell proliferation arrest. Taken together, the work presented here confirms that substrates with high conductivity disturb the cell-substrate interaction, producing cascading effects on cellular morphogenesis and disrupting proliferation, and suggests that ALD-grown ZnO offers a single-variable method for uniquely tailoring conductivity. PMID:25897486

  13. Fabrication and electrical properties of low temperature-processed thin-film-transistors with chemical-bath deposited ZnO layer.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Joo-Seob; Kwon, Ji-Hye; Yang, Heesun

    2013-06-01

    ZnO film was grown on ZnO quantum dot seed layer-coated substrate by a low-temperature chemical bath deposition, where sodium citrate serves as a complexing agent for Zn2+ ion. The ZnO film deposited under the optimal condition exhibited a highly uniform surface morphology with a thickness of approimately 30 nm. For the fabrication of thin-film-transistor with a bottom-gate structure, ZnO film was chemically deposited on the transparent substrate of a seed layer-coated SiN(x)/ITO (indium tin oxide)/glass. As-deposited ZnO channel was baked at low temperatures of 60-200 degrees C to investigate the effect of baking temperature on electrical performances. Compared to the device with 60 degrees C-baked ZnO channel, the TFT performances of one with 200 degrees C-baked channel were substantially improved, exhibiting an on-off current ratio of 3.6 x 10(6) and a saturated field-effect mobility of 0.27 cm2/V x s.

  14. Magneto-optical properties and recombination dynamics of isoelectronic bound excitons in ZnO

    SciT

    Chen, S. L.; Chen, W. M.; Buyanova, I. A.

    2014-02-21

    Magneto-optical and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies are employed to evaluate electronic structure of a bound exciton (BX) responsible for the 3.364 eV line (labeled as I{sub 1}{sup *}) in bulk ZnO. From time-resolved PL spectroscopy, I{sub 1}{sup *} is concluded to originate from the exciton ground state. Based on performed magneto-PL studies, the g-factors of the involved electron and hole are determined as being g{sub e} = 1.98 and g{sub h}{sup ∥}(g{sub h}{sup ⊥}) = 1.2(1.62), respectively. These values are nearly identical to the reported g-factors for the I{sup *} line in ZnO (Phys. Rev. B 86, 235205 (2012)), which proves thatmore » I{sub 1}{sup *} should have a similar origin as I{sup *} and should arise from an exciton bound to an isoelectronic center with a hole-attractive potential.« less

  15. Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Studies of Ag and ZnO Thin Films and Their Interfaces for Thin Film Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainju, Deepak

    Many modern optical and electronic devices, including photovoltaic devices, consist of multilayered thin film structures. Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) is a critically important characterization technique for such multilayers. SE can be applied to measure key parameters related to the structural, optical, and electrical properties of the components of multilayers with high accuracy and precision. One of the key advantages of this non-destructive technique is its capability of monitoring the growth dynamics of thin films in-situ and in real time with monolayer level precision. In this dissertation, the techniques of SE have been applied to study the component layer materials and structures used as back-reflectors and as the transparent contact layers in thin film photovoltaic technologies, including hydrogenated silicon (Si:H), copper indium-gallium diselenide (CIGS), and cadmium telluride (CdTe). The component layer materials, including silver and both intrinsic and doped zinc oxide, are fabricated on crystalline silicon and glass substrates using magnetron sputtering techniques. These thin films are measured in-situ and in real time as well as ex-situ by spectroscopic ellipsometry in order to extract parameters related to the structural properties, such as bulk layer thickness and surface roughness layer thickness and their time evolution, the latter information specific to real time measurements. The index of refraction and extinction coefficient or complex dielectric function of a single unknown layer can also be obtained from the measurement versus photon energy. Applying analytical expressions for these optical properties versus photon energy, parameters that describe electronic transport, such as electrical resistivity and electron scattering time, can be extracted. The SE technique is also performed as the sample is heated in order to derive the effects of annealing on the optical properties and derived electrical transport parameters, as well as the

  16. Permanent laser conditioning of thin film optical materials

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, C.R.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Campbell, J.H.; Staggs, M.; Rainer, F.

    1995-12-05

    The invention comprises a method for producing optical thin films with a high laser damage threshold and the resulting thin films. The laser damage threshold of the thin films is permanently increased by irradiating the thin films with a fluence below an unconditioned laser damage threshold. 9 figs.

  17. Permanent laser conditioning of thin film optical materials

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, C. Robert; Kozlowski, Mark R.; Campbell, John H.; Staggs, Michael; Rainer, Frank

    1995-01-01

    The invention comprises a method for producing optical thin films with a high laser damage threshold and the resulting thin films. The laser damage threshold of the thin films is permanently increased by irradiating the thin films with a fluence below an unconditioned laser damage threshold.

  18. The shift of optical band gap in W-doped ZnO with oxygen pressure and doping level

    SciT

    Chu, J.; Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, Chongqing 400714; Peng, X.Y.

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • CVD–PLD co-deposition technique was used. • Better crystalline of the ZnO samples causes the redshift of the optical band gap. • Higher W concentration induces blueshift of the optical band gap. - Abstract: Tungsten-doped (W-doped) zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were synthesized on quartz substrates by pulsed laser and hot filament chemical vapor co-deposition technique under different oxygen pressures and doping levels. We studied in detail the morphological, structural and optical properties of W-doped ZnO by SEM, XPS, Raman scattering, and optical transmission spectra. A close correlation among the oxygen pressure, morphology, W concentrations and the variation of bandmore » gaps were investigated. XPS and Raman measurements show that the sample grown under the oxygen pressure of 2.7 Pa has the maximum tungsten concentration and best crystalline structure, which induces the redshift of the optical band gap. The effect of W concentration on the change of morphology and shift of optical band gap was also studied for the samples grown under the fixed oxygen pressure of 2.7 Pa.« less

  19. Effect of annealing and In content on the properties of electron beam evaporated ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, S. H.; Ali, H. M.; Mohamed, H. A.; Salem, A. M.

    2005-08-01

    The effect of both annealing and In content on the properties of ZnO films prepared by electron beam evaporation were investigated. The evaporation was carried out at room temperature from bulk samples prepared by sintering technique. X-ray diffraction showed that the structure of ZnO-In{2}O{3} films depends on both the In content and annealing temperature. Amorphous, highly transparent and relatively low resistive films which can be suitable for the usage as transparent electrode of organic light-emitting diode were obtained upon annealing at 300 circC. Partially crystalline, highly transparent and highly resistive films which can be used in piezoelectric applications were obtained upon annealing at 500 circC. For each composition the refractive index has no monotonic variation upon increasing annealing temperature.

  20. Optical activity and defect/dopant evolution in ZnO implanted with Er

    SciT

    Azarov, Alexander; Galeckas, Augustinas; Kuznetsov, Andrej

    2015-09-28

    The effects of annealing on the optical properties and defect/dopant evolution in wurtzite (0001) ZnO single crystals implanted with Er ions are studied using a combination of Rutherford backscattering/channeling spectrometry and photoluminescence measurements. The results suggest a lattice recovery behavior dependent on ion dose and involving formation/evolution of an anomalous multipeak defect distribution, thermal stability of optically active Er complexes, and Er outdiffusion. An intermediate defect band occurring between the surface and ion-induced defects in the bulk is stable up to 900 °C and has a photoluminescence signature around 420 nm well corresponding to Zn interstitials. The optical activity of the Ermore » atoms reaches a maximum after annealing at 700 °C but is not directly associated to the ideal Zn site configuration, since the Er substitutional fraction is maximal already in the as-implanted state. In its turn, annealing at temperatures above 700 °C leads to dissociation of the optically active Er complexes with subsequent outdiffusion of Er accompanied by the efficient lattice recovery.« less

  1. Morphological, structural and optical properties of MEH-PPV: PC70BM nanocomposite film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mhamdi, Asya; Sweii, Fatma ben Slama; Saidi, Hamza; Saidi, Faouzi; Bouazizi, Abdelaziz

    2018-05-01

    In this report, the influence of annealing temperature and spin coating speed on the structural and morphological properties of a blend of poly (2-methoxy-5-(2-ethyl-oxy)-p-phenylene-vinylene) (MEH-PPV) and [6-6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM) layer has been investigated. The photoactive layer (MEH-PPV: PC70BM) was deposited on ZnO film deposited on top of indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate by spin-coating. The effect of spin coating speed via atomic force microscope (AFM) leads to conclude that high speed is favorable for a good homogeneity of the film surface and good aggregates dispersion. The optimized structure was studied by varying the annealing temperatures using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD analysis indicates that annealing treatment promoted the ordered aggregation and crystallization of MEH-PPV: PC70BM films. Indeed, the blend ratio effect on the optical properties of MEH-PPV: PC70BM thin film was investigated. While, the effect of incorporation of PC70BM on the optical properties was studied using UV-Vis and photoluminescence (PL) measurement. We conclude that MEH-PPV: PC70BM (1:3) film leads to high charge transfer rate.

  2. Thickness Dependent Nanostructural, Morphological, Optical and Impedometric Analyses of Zinc Oxide-Gold Hybrids: Nanoparticle to Thin Film.

    PubMed

    Perumal, Veeradasan; Hashim, Uda; Gopinath, Subash C B; Haarindraprasad, R; Liu, Wei-Wen; Poopalan, P; Balakrishnan, S R; Thivina, V; Ruslinda, A R

    2015-01-01

    The creation of an appropriate thin film is important for the development of novel sensing surfaces, which will ultimately enhance the properties and output of high-performance sensors. In this study, we have fabricated and characterized zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films on silicon substrates, which were hybridized with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to obtain ZnO-Aux (x = 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 nm) hybrid structures with different thicknesses. Nanoscale imaging by field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed increasing film uniformity and coverage with the Au deposition thickness. Transmission electron microscopy analysis indicated that the AuNPs exhibit an increasing average diameter (5-10 nm). The face center cubic Au were found to co-exist with wurtzite ZnO nanostructure. Atomic force microscopy observations revealed that as the Au content increased, the overall crystallite size increased, which was supported by X-ray diffraction measurements. The structural characterizations indicated that the Au on the ZnO crystal lattice exists without any impurities in a preferred orientation (002). When the ZnO thickness increased from 10 to 40 nm, transmittance and an optical bandgap value decreased. Interestingly, with 50 nm thickness, the band gap value was increased, which might be due to the Burstein-Moss effect. Photoluminescence studies revealed that the overall structural defect (green emission) improved significantly as the Au deposition increased. The impedance measurements shows a decreasing value of impedance arc with increasing Au thicknesses (0 to 40 nm). In contrast, the 50 nm AuNP impedance arc shows an increased value compared to lower sputtering thicknesses, which indicated the presence of larger sized AuNPs that form a continuous film, and its ohmic characteristics changed to rectifying characteristics. This improved hybrid thin film (ZnO/Au) is suitable for a wide range of sensing applications.

  3. Thickness Dependent Nanostructural, Morphological, Optical and Impedometric Analyses of Zinc Oxide-Gold Hybrids: Nanoparticle to Thin Film

    PubMed Central

    Perumal, Veeradasan; Hashim, Uda; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Haarindraprasad, R.; Liu, Wei-Wen; Poopalan, P.; Balakrishnan, S. R.; Thivina, V.; Ruslinda, A. R.

    2015-01-01

    The creation of an appropriate thin film is important for the development of novel sensing surfaces, which will ultimately enhance the properties and output of high-performance sensors. In this study, we have fabricated and characterized zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films on silicon substrates, which were hybridized with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to obtain ZnO-Aux (x = 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 nm) hybrid structures with different thicknesses. Nanoscale imaging by field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed increasing film uniformity and coverage with the Au deposition thickness. Transmission electron microscopy analysis indicated that the AuNPs exhibit an increasing average diameter (5–10 nm). The face center cubic Au were found to co-exist with wurtzite ZnO nanostructure. Atomic force microscopy observations revealed that as the Au content increased, the overall crystallite size increased, which was supported by X-ray diffraction measurements. The structural characterizations indicated that the Au on the ZnO crystal lattice exists without any impurities in a preferred orientation (002). When the ZnO thickness increased from 10 to 40 nm, transmittance and an optical bandgap value decreased. Interestingly, with 50 nm thickness, the band gap value was increased, which might be due to the Burstein-Moss effect. Photoluminescence studies revealed that the overall structural defect (green emission) improved significantly as the Au deposition increased. The impedance measurements shows a decreasing value of impedance arc with increasing Au thicknesses (0 to 40 nm). In contrast, the 50 nm AuNP impedance arc shows an increased value compared to lower sputtering thicknesses, which indicated the presence of larger sized AuNPs that form a continuous film, and its ohmic characteristics changed to rectifying characteristics. This improved hybrid thin film (ZnO/Au) is suitable for a wide range of sensing applications. PMID:26694656

  4. Multiplexed Holographic Optical Data Storage In Thick Bacteriorhodopsin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downie, John D.; Timucin, Dogan A.; Gary, Charles K.; Ozcan, Meric; Smithey, Daniel T.; Crew, Marshall

    1998-01-01

    The optical data storage capacity of photochromic bacteriorhodopsin films is investigated by means of theoretical calculations, numerical simulations, and experimental measurements on sequential recording of angularly multiplexed diffraction gratings inside a thick D85N BR film.

  5. Extraction film for optical waveguide and method of producing same

    SciT

    Tarsa, Eric J.; Durkee, John W.

    2017-05-16

    An optical waveguide includes a waveguide body and a film disposed on a surface of the waveguide body. The film includes a base and a plurality of undercut light extraction elements disposed between the base and the surface.

  6. Cu-Doped ZnO Thin Films Deposited by a Sol-Gel Process Using Two Copper Precursors: Gas-Sensing Performance in a Propane Atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Pozos, Heberto; Arredondo, Emma Julia Luna; Maldonado Álvarez, Arturo; Biswal, Rajesh; Kudriavtsev, Yuriy; Pérez, Jaime Vega; Casallas-Moreno, Yenny Lucero; Olvera Amador, María de la Luz

    2016-01-01

    A study on the propane gas-sensing properties of Cu-doped ZnO thin films is presented in this work. The films were deposited on glass substrates by sol-gel and dip coating methods, using zinc acetate as a zinc precursor, copper acetate and copper chloride as precursors for doping. For higher sensitivity values, two film thickness values are controlled by the six and eight dippings, whereas for doping, three dippings were used, irrespective of the Cu precursor. The film structure was analyzed by X-ray diffractometry, and the analysis of the surface morphology and film composition was made through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), respectively. The sensing properties of Cu-doped ZnO thin films were then characterized in a propane atmosphere, C3H8, at different concentration levels and different operation temperatures of 100, 200 and 300 °C. Cu-doped ZnO films doped with copper chloride presented the highest sensitivity of approximately 6 × 104, confirming a strong dependence on the dopant precursor type. The results obtained in this work show that the use of Cu as a dopant in ZnO films processed by sol-gel produces excellent catalysts for sensing C3H8 gas. PMID:28787885

  7. Cu-Doped ZnO Thin Films Deposited by a Sol-Gel Process Using Two Copper Precursors: Gas-Sensing Performance in a Propane Atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Pozos, Heberto; Arredondo, Emma