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Sample records for zno layers grown

  1. Effect of an Electrochemically Oxidized ZnO Seed Layer on ZnO Nanorods Grown by using Electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Woosung; Leem, Jae-Young

    2018-05-01

    ZnO nanorods were prepared on a Si substrate with and without a ZnO seed layer formed by electro-oxidation to investigate the effect of the seed layer on their growth. The ZnO nanorods grown on the ZnO seed layer had top surfaces that were flat whereas those grown without it had rough top surfaces, as observed in field-emission scanning electron microscopy images. In the Xray diffraction analysis, all ZnO nanorods showed preferential orientation with the (002) plane. In the case of ZnO nanorods prepared with a ZnO seed layer, the residual stress decreased, and the full width at half maximum of the ZnO (002) plane peak decreased. The photoluminescence spectra show a strong and narrow near-band-edge emission peak and high near-band-edge emission to deep-level emission peak ratio for the ZnO nanorods prepared with the seed layer. With respect to the photoresponse properties, the ZnO nanorods grown with the ZnO seed layer showed higher responsivity and faster rise/decay curves than those grown without it. Thus, the ZnO seed layer formed by electro-oxidation improves the structural, optical, and photoresponse properties of the ZnO nanorods formed on it. This method could serve as a new route for improving the properties of optoelectronic devices.

  2. Effect of ZnO seed layer on the morphology and optical properties of ZnO nanorods grown on GaN buffer layers

    SciT

    Nandi, R., E-mail: rajunandi@iitb.ac.in; Mohan, S., E-mail: rajunandi@iitb.ac.in; Major, S. S.

    2014-04-24

    ZnO nanorods were grown by chemical bath deposition on sputtered, polycrystalline GaN buffer layers with and without ZnO seed layer. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction show that the ZnO nanorods on GaN buffer layers are not vertically well aligned. Photoluminescence spectrum of ZnO nanorods grown on GaN buffer layer, however exhibits a much stronger near-band-edge emission and negligible defect emission, compared to the nanorods grown on ZnO buffer layer. These features are attributed to gallium incorporation at the ZnO-GaN interface. The introduction of a thin (25 nm) ZnO seed layer on GaN buffer layer significantly improves the morphology andmore » vertical alignment of ZnO-NRs without sacrificing the high optical quality of ZnO nanorods on GaN buffer layer. The presence of a thick (200 nm) ZnO seed layer completely masks the effect of the underlying GaN buffer layer on the morphology and optical properties of nanorods.« less

  3. Nucleant layer effect on nanocolumnar ZnO films grown by electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolosa, Maria D. Reyes; Damonte, Laura C.; Brine, Hicham; Bolink, Henk J.; Hernández-Fenollosa, María A.

    2013-03-01

    Different ZnO nanostructured films were electrochemically grown, using an aqueous solution based on ZnCl2, on three types of transparent conductive oxides grow on commercial ITO (In2O3:Sn)-covered glass substrates: (1) ZnO prepared by spin coating, (2) ZnO prepared by direct current magnetron sputtering, and (3) commercial ITO-covered glass substrates. Although thin, these primary oxide layers play an important role on the properties of the nanostructured films grown on top of them. Additionally, these primary oxide layers prevent direct hole combination when used in optoelectronic devices. Structural and optical characterizations were carried out by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and optical transmission spectroscopy. We show that the properties of the ZnO nanostructured films depend strongly on the type of primary oxide-covered substrate used. Previous studies on different electrodeposition methods for nucleation and growth are considered in the final discussion.

  4. Nucleant layer effect on nanocolumnar ZnO films grown by electrodeposition.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, Maria D Reyes; Damonte, Laura C; Brine, Hicham; Bolink, Henk J; Hernández-Fenollosa, María A

    2013-03-23

    Different ZnO nanostructured films were electrochemically grown, using an aqueous solution based on ZnCl2, on three types of transparent conductive oxides grow on commercial ITO (In2O3:Sn)-covered glass substrates: (1) ZnO prepared by spin coating, (2) ZnO prepared by direct current magnetron sputtering, and (3) commercial ITO-covered glass substrates. Although thin, these primary oxide layers play an important role on the properties of the nanostructured films grown on top of them. Additionally, these primary oxide layers prevent direct hole combination when used in optoelectronic devices. Structural and optical characterizations were carried out by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and optical transmission spectroscopy. We show that the properties of the ZnO nanostructured films depend strongly on the type of primary oxide-covered substrate used. Previous studies on different electrodeposition methods for nucleation and growth are considered in the final discussion.

  5. Nucleant layer effect on nanocolumnar ZnO films grown by electrodeposition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Different ZnO nanostructured films were electrochemically grown, using an aqueous solution based on ZnCl2, on three types of transparent conductive oxides grow on commercial ITO (In2O3:Sn)-covered glass substrates: (1) ZnO prepared by spin coating, (2) ZnO prepared by direct current magnetron sputtering, and (3) commercial ITO-covered glass substrates. Although thin, these primary oxide layers play an important role on the properties of the nanostructured films grown on top of them. Additionally, these primary oxide layers prevent direct hole combination when used in optoelectronic devices. Structural and optical characterizations were carried out by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and optical transmission spectroscopy. We show that the properties of the ZnO nanostructured films depend strongly on the type of primary oxide-covered substrate used. Previous studies on different electrodeposition methods for nucleation and growth are considered in the final discussion. PMID:23522332

  6. Surface potential driven dissolution phenomena of [0 0 0 1]-oriented ZnO nanorods grown from ZnO and Pt seed layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Youngmi; Kim, Jung Hyeun

    2011-06-01

    Highly oriented ZnO nanorods are synthesized hydrothermally on ZnO and Pt seed layers, and they are dissolved in KOH solution. The rods grown on ZnO seed layer show uniform dissolution, but those grown on Pt seed layer are rod-selectively dissolved. The ZnO nanorods from both seed layers show the same crystalline structure through XRD and Raman spectrometer data. However, the surface potential analysis reveals big difference for ZnO and Pt seed cases. The surface potential distribution is very uniform for the ZnO seed case, but it is much fluctuated on the Pt seed case. It suggests that the rod-selective dissolution phenomena on Pt seed case are likely due to the surface energy difference.

  7. Thickness dependence of crystal and optical characterization on ZnO thin film grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Seung-Hye; Lee, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Sung-Nam

    2018-06-01

    We studied the thickness dependence of the crystallographic and optical properties of ZnO thin films grown on c-plane sapphire substrate using atomic layer deposition. High-resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD) revealed two peaks at 34.5° and 36.2° in the initial growth stage of ZnO on the sapphire substrate, corresponding to the (002) and (101) ZnO planes, respectively. However, as the thickness of the ZnO film increased, the XRD intensity of the (002) ZnO peak increased drastically, compared with that of the (101) ZnO peak. This indicated that (002) and (101) ZnO were simultaneously grown on the c-plane sapphire substrate in the initial growth stage, and that (002) ZnO was predominantly grown with the increase in the thickness of ZnO film. The ZnO thin film presented an anisotropic surface structure at the initial stage, whereas the isotropic surface morphology was developed with an increase in the film thickness of ZnO. These observations were consistent with the HR-XRD results.

  8. A metal-semiconductor-metal detector based on ZnO nanowires grown on a graphene layer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiang; Cheng, Qijin; Zhong, Jinxiang; Cai, Weiwei; Zhang, Zifeng; Wu, Zhengyun; Zhang, Fengyan

    2014-02-07

    High quality ZnO nanowires (NWs) were grown on a graphene layer by a hydrothermal method. The ZnO NWs revealed higher uniform surface morphology and better structural properties than ZnO NWs grown on SiO2/Si substrate. A low dark current metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector based on ZnO NWs with Au Schottky contact has also been fabricated. The photodetector displays a low dark current of 1.53 nA at 1 V bias and a large UV-to-visible rejection ratio (up to four orders), which are significantly improved compared to conventional ZnO NW photodetectors. The improvement in UV detection performance is attributed to the existence of a surface plasmon at the interface of the ZnO and the graphene.

  9. ZnO nanostructures directly grown on paper and bacterial cellulose substrates without any surface modification layer.

    PubMed

    Costa, Saionara V; Gonçalves, Agnaldo S; Zaguete, Maria A; Mazon, Talita; Nogueira, Ana F

    2013-09-21

    In this report, hierarchical ZnO nano- and microstructures were directly grown for the first time on a bacterial cellulose substrate and on two additional different papers by hydrothermal synthesis without any surface modification layer. Compactness and smoothness of the substrates are two important parameters that allow the growth of oriented structures.

  10. Seed layer effect on different properties and UV detection capability of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods over SiO2/p-Si substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sannakashappanavar, Basavaraj S.; Byrareddy, C. R.; Kumar, Pesala Sudheer; Yadav, Aniruddh Bahadur

    2018-05-01

    Hydrothermally grown one dimensional ZnO nanostructures are among the most widely used semiconductor materials to build high-efficiency electronic devices for various applications. Few researchers have addressed the growth mechanism and effect of ZnO seed layer on different properties of ZnO nanorods grown by hydrothermal method, instead, no one has synthesized ZnO nanorod over SiO2/p-Si substrate. The aim of this study is to study the effect of ZnO seed layer and the growth mechanism of ZnO nanorods over SiO2/p-Si substrate. To achieve the goal, we have synthesized ZnO nanorods over different thickness ZnO seed layers by using the hydrothermal method on SiO2/p-Si substrate. The effects of c-plane area ratio were identified for the growth rate of c-plane, reaction rate constant and stagnant layer thickness also calculated by using a modified rate growth equation. We have identified maximum seed layer thickness for the growth of vertical ZnO nanorod. A step dislocation in the ZnO nanorods grown on 150and 200 nm thick seed layers was observed, the magnitude of Burges vector was calculated for this disorder. The seed layer and ZnO nanorods were characterized by AFM, XPS, UV-visible, XRD (X-ray diffraction, and SEM(scanning electron microscope). To justify the application of the grown ZnO nanorods Ti/Au was deposited over ZnO nanorods grown over all seed layers for the fabrication of photoconductor type UV detector.

  11. C-Axis-Oriented Hydroxyapatite Film Grown Using ZnO Buffer Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakoishi, Yasuhiro; Iguchi, Ryo; Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Hontsu, Shigeki; Hayami, Takashi; Kusunoki, Masanobu

    2013-11-01

    A method of fabricating c-axis-oriented hydroxyapatite film on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor was investigated. ZnO was used as a template to obtain a hexagonal hydroxyapatite crystal of uniaxial orientation. The ZnO was grown as a c-axis film on a Au/quartz with the surface structure of a QCM sensor. Under optimized conditions, hydroxyapatite was deposited by pulsed laser deposition. X-ray diffraction showed the hydroxyapatite film to be oriented along the c-axis. Because Au and ZnO are applied to many devices, the anisotropic properties of hydroxyapatite may be incorporated into these devices as well as QCM sensors.

  12. Flower-like ZnO nanorod arrays grown on HF-etched Si (111): constraining relation between ZnO seed layer and Si (111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahma, Sanjaya; Liu, C.-W.; Huang, R.-J.; Chang, S.-J.; Lo, K.-Y.

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate the formation of self-assembled homogenous flower-like ZnO nanorods over a ZnO seed layer deposited on a HF-etched Si (111) substrate. The typical flower-like morphology of ZnO nanorod arrays is ascribed to the formation of the island-like seed layer which is deposited by the drop method followed by annealing at 300 °C. The island-like ZnO seed layer consists of larger ZnO grains, and is built by constraining of the Si (111) surface due to pattern matching. Pattern matching of Si with ZnO determines the shape and size of the seed layer and this controls the final morphology of ZnO nanorods to be either flower like or vertically aligned. The high quality of the island-like ZnO seed layer enhances the diameter and length of ZnO nanorods. Besides, while the amorphous layer formed during the annealing process would influence the strained ZnO grain, that subsequent amorphous layer will not block the constraining between the ZnO grain and the substrate.

  13. Quantitative and simultaneous analysis of the polarity of polycrystalline ZnO seed layers and related nanowires grown by wet chemical deposition.

    PubMed

    Guillemin, Sophie; Parize, Romain; Carabetta, Joseph; Cantelli, Valentina; Albertini, David; Gautier, Brice; Brémond, Georges; Fong, Dillon D; Renevier, Hubert; Consonni, Vincent

    2017-03-03

    The polarity in ZnO nanowires is an important issue since it strongly affects surface configuration and reactivity, nucleation and growth, electro-optical properties, and nanoscale-engineering device performances. However, measuring statistically the polarity of ZnO nanowire arrays grown by chemical bath deposition and elucidating its correlation with the polarity of the underneath polycrystalline ZnO seed layer grown by the sol-gel process represents a major difficulty. To address that issue, we combine resonant x-ray diffraction (XRD) at Zn K-edge using synchrotron radiation with piezoelectric force microscopy and polarity-sensitive chemical etching to statistically investigate the polarity of more than 10 7 nano-objects both on the macroscopic and local microscopic scales, respectively. By using high temperature annealing under an argon atmosphere, it is shown that the compact, highly c-axis oriented ZnO seed layer is more than 92% Zn-polar and that only a few small O-polar ZnO grains with an amount less than 8% are formed. Correlatively, the resulting ZnO nanowires are also found to be Zn-polar, indicating that their polarity is transferred from the c-axis oriented ZnO grains acting as nucleation sites in the seed layer. These findings pave the way for the development of new strategies to form unipolar ZnO nanowire arrays as a requirement for a number of nanoscale-engineering devices like piezoelectric nanogenerators. They also highlight the great advantage of resonant XRD as a macroscopic, non-destructive method to simultaneously and statistically measure the polarity of ZnO nanowire arrays and of the underneath ZnO seed layer.

  14. Quantitative and simultaneous analysis of the polarity of polycrystalline ZnO seed layers and related nanowires grown by wet chemical deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillemin, Sophie; Parize, Romain; Carabetta, Joseph; Cantelli, Valentina; Albertini, David; Gautier, Brice; Brémond, Georges; Fong, Dillon D.; Renevier, Hubert; Consonni, Vincent

    2017-03-01

    The polarity in ZnO nanowires is an important issue since it strongly affects surface configuration and reactivity, nucleation and growth, electro-optical properties, and nanoscale-engineering device performances. However, measuring statistically the polarity of ZnO nanowire arrays grown by chemical bath deposition and elucidating its correlation with the polarity of the underneath polycrystalline ZnO seed layer grown by the sol-gel process represents a major difficulty. To address that issue, we combine resonant x-ray diffraction (XRD) at Zn K-edge using synchrotron radiation with piezoelectric force microscopy and polarity-sensitive chemical etching to statistically investigate the polarity of more than 107 nano-objects both on the macroscopic and local microscopic scales, respectively. By using high temperature annealing under an argon atmosphere, it is shown that the compact, highly c-axis oriented ZnO seed layer is more than 92% Zn-polar and that only a few small O-polar ZnO grains with an amount less than 8% are formed. Correlatively, the resulting ZnO nanowires are also found to be Zn-polar, indicating that their polarity is transferred from the c-axis oriented ZnO grains acting as nucleation sites in the seed layer. These findings pave the way for the development of new strategies to form unipolar ZnO nanowire arrays as a requirement for a number of nanoscale-engineering devices like piezoelectric nanogenerators. They also highlight the great advantage of resonant XRD as a macroscopic, non-destructive method to simultaneously and statistically measure the polarity of ZnO nanowire arrays and of the underneath ZnO seed layer.

  15. Quantitative and simultaneous analysis of the polarity of polycrystalline ZnO seed layers and related nanowires grown by wet chemical deposition

    SciT

    Guillemin, Sophie; Parize, Romain; Carabetta, Joseph

    The polarity in ZnO nanowires is an important issue since it strongly affects surface configuration and reactivity, nucleation and growth, electro-optical properties, and nanoscaleengineering device performances. However, measuring statistically the polarity of ZnO nanowire arrays grown by chemical bath deposition and elucidating its correlation with the polarity of the underneath polycrystalline ZnO seed layer grown by the sol–gel process represents a major difficulty. To address that issue, we combine resonant x-ray diffraction (XRD) at Zn K-edge using synchrotron radiation with piezoelectric force microscopy and polarity-sensitive chemical etching to statistically investigate the polarity of more than 107 nano-objects both on themore » macroscopic and local microscopic scales, respectively. By using high temperature annealing under an argon atmosphere, it is shown that the compact, highly c-axis oriented ZnO seed layer is more than 92% Zn-polar and that only a few small O-polar ZnO grains with an amount less than 8% are formed. Correlatively, the resulting ZnO nanowires are also found to be Zn-polar, indicating that their polarity is transferred from the c-axis oriented ZnO grains acting as nucleation sites in the seed layer. These findings pave the way for the development of new strategies to form unipolar ZnO nanowire arrays as a requirement for a number of nanoscaleengineering devices like piezoelectric nanogenerators. They also highlight the great advantage of resonant XRD as a macroscopic, non-destructive method to simultaneously and statistically measure the polarity of ZnO nanowire arrays and of the underneath ZnO seed layer.« less

  16. Effects of substrate conductivity on cell morphogenesis and proliferation using tailored, atomic layer deposition-grown ZnO thin films

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won Jin; Jung, Jongjin; Lee, Sujin; Chung, Yoon Jang; Yang, Cheol-Soo; Lee, Young Kuk; Lee, You-Seop; Park, Joung Kyu; Ko, Hyuk Wan; Lee, Jeong-O

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) can be employed as a substrate to explore the effects of electrical conductivity on cell adhesion, proliferation, and morphogenesis. ZnO substrates with precisely tunable electrical conductivity were fabricated on glass substrates using ALD deposition. The electrical conductivity of the film increased linearly with increasing duration of the ZnO deposition cycle (thickness), whereas other physical characteristics, such as surface energy and roughness, tended to saturate at a certain value. Differences in conductivity dramatically affected the behavior of SF295 glioblastoma cells grown on ZnO films, with high conductivity (thick) ZnO films causing growth arrest and producing SF295 cell morphologies distinct from those cultured on insulating substrates. Based on simple electrostatic calculations, we propose that cells grown on highly conductive substrates may strongly adhere to the substrate without focal-adhesion complex formation, owing to the enhanced electrostatic interaction between cells and the substrate. Thus, the inactivation of focal adhesions leads to cell proliferation arrest. Taken together, the work presented here confirms that substrates with high conductivity disturb the cell-substrate interaction, producing cascading effects on cellular morphogenesis and disrupting proliferation, and suggests that ALD-grown ZnO offers a single-variable method for uniquely tailoring conductivity. PMID:25897486

  17. Structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorods on Mg0.2Zn0.8O seed layers grown by hydrothermal method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Su; Kim, Do Yeob; Kim, Sung-O; Leem, Jae-Young

    2013-05-01

    ZnO nanorods were grown on the Mg0.2Zn0.8O seed layers with different thickness by hydrothermal method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and photoluminescence (PL) were carried out to investigate the effects of the Mg0.2Zn0.8O seed layer thickness on the structural and the optical properties of the ZnO nanorods. The residual stress in the Mg0.2Zn0.8O seed layers was depended on the thickness while the texture coefficient of the Mg0.2Zn0.8O seed layers was not affected significantly. The smaller full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the ZnO (002) diffraction and near-band-edge emission (NBE) peak and the larger average grain size were observed from the ZnO nanorods grown on the Mg0.2Zn0.8O seed layers with 5 layers (thickness of 350 nm), which indicate the enhancement the structural and the optical properties of the ZnO nanorods.

  18. Plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of ZnO on in-situ grown GaN/4H-SiC buffer layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adolph, David; Tingberg, Tobias; Andersson, Thorvald; Ive, Tommy

    2015-04-01

    Plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) was used to grow ZnO (0001) layers on GaN(0001)/4H-SiC buffer layers deposited in the same growth chamber equipped with both N- and O-plasma sources. The GaN buffer layers were grown immediately before initiating the growth of ZnO. Using a substrate temperature of 440°C-445°C and an O2 flow rate of 2.0-2.5 sccm, we obtained ZnO layers with smooth surfaces having a root-mean-square roughness of 0.3 nm and a peak-to-valley distance of 3 nm shown by AFM. The FWHM for X-ray rocking curves recorded across the ZnO(0002) and ZnO(10bar 15) reflections were 200 and 950 arcsec, respectively. These values showed that the mosaicity (tilt and twist) of the ZnO film was comparable to corresponding values of the underlying GaN buffer. It was found that a substrate temperature > 450°C and a high Zn-flux always resulted in a rough ZnO surface morphology. Reciprocal space maps showed that the in-plane relaxation of the GaN and ZnO layers was 82.3% and 73.0%, respectively and the relaxation occurred abruptly during the growth. Room-temperature Hall-effect measurements showed that the layers were intrinsically n-type with an electron concentration of 1019 cm-3 and a Hall mobility of 50 cm2·V-1·s-1.

  19. Effect of substrates and thickness on optical properties in atomic layer deposition grown ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Dipayan; Singhal, Jaya; Mathur, Aakash; Singh, Ajaib; Dutta, Surjendu; Zollner, Stefan; Chattopadhyay, Sudeshna

    2017-11-01

    Atomic Layer Deposition technique was used to grow high quality, very low roughness, crystalline, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films on silicon (Si) and fused quartz (SiO2) substrates to study the optical properties. Spectroscopic ellipsometry results of ZnO/Si system, staggered type-II quantum well, demonstrate that there is a significant drop in the magnitudes of both the real and imaginary parts of complex dielectric constants and in near-band gap absorption along with a blue shift of the absorption edge with decreasing film thickness at and below ∼20 nm. Conversely, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy of ZnO/SiO2, thin type-I quantum well, consisting of a narrower-band gap semiconductor grown on a wider-band gap (insulator) substrate, shows the similar thickness dependent blue-shift of the absorption edge but with an increase in the magnitude of near-band gap absorption with decreasing film thickness. Thickness dependent blue shift, energy vs. 1/d2, in two different systems, ZnO/Si and ZnO/SiO2, show a difference in their slopes. The observed phenomena can be consistently explained by the corresponding exciton (or carrier/s) deconfinement and confinement effects at the ZnO/Si and ZnO/SiO2 interface respectively, where Tanguy-Elliott amplitude pre-factor plays the key role through the electron-hole overlap factor at the interface.

  20. Characteristics of GaN-based LEDs using Ga-doped or In-doped ZnO transparent conductive layers grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Kuo-Yi; Chiu, Chien-Hua; Hsiao, Chi-Ying; Li, Chun-Wei; Chou, Chien-Hua; Lo, Ko-Ying; Chen, Tzu-Pei; Lin, Chu-Hsien; Lin, Tai-Yuan; Gong, Jyh-Rong

    2014-02-01

    Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) and In-doped ZnO (IZO) films were prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD), and the ALD-grown GZO (or IZO) films with (or without) N2 annealing were employed to serve as transparent conducting layers (TCLs) in InGaN/GaN (multiple quantum well) MQW LEDs. Based on θ-to-2θ X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, the N2-annealed GZO was found to show almost the same lattice constant c as ZnO does, while the lattice constant c of a N2-annealed IZO was detected to be larger than that of the ZnO. It appears that the implementation of N2-annealed ALD-grown GZO (or IZO) in an InGaN/GaN MQW LED allows to enable light extraction and forward voltage reduction of the LED under certain conditions. At 20 mA operating condition, the 400 °C N2-annealed n-GZO-coated and the 600 °C N2-annealed n-IZO-coated InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs were found to exhibit optimized forward voltages of 3.1 and 3.2 V, respectively, with the specific contact resistances of the n-GZO/p-GaN and n-IZO/p-GaN contacts being 4.1×10-3 and 8.8×10-3 Ω-cm2. By comparing with an InGaN/GaN MQW LED structure having a commercial-grade indium tin oxide (ITO) TCL, the 400 °C N2-annealed n-GZO-coated InGaN/GaN MQW LED shows an increment of light output power of 15% at 20 mA. It is believed that the enhanced light extraction of the n-GZO-coated InGaN/GaN MQW LED is due to a higher refractive index of n-GZO than that of ITO along with a comparable optical transmittance of n-GZO to that of ITO.

  1. InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes using Al-doped ZnO grown by atomic layer deposition as a current spreading layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Bo Hyun; Cho, Hyung Koun; Kim, Mi Yang; Choi, Rak Jun; Kim, Bae Kyun

    2011-07-01

    For the fabrication of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well-based blue light emitting diodes (LEDs) showing large area emission, transparent Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films grown by atomic layer deposition at relatively low temperatures were introduced as current spreading layers. These AZO films with an Al content of 3 at% showed a low electrical resistivity of <10 -3-10 -4 Ω cm, a high carrier concentration of >10 20 cm -3, and an excellent optical transmittance of ˜85%, in spite of the low growth temperature. The deposition of the AZO film induced an intense blue emission from the whole surface of the p-GaN and weak ultraviolet emission from the n-AZO and p-GaN junction. At an injection current of 50 mA, the output powers of the blue LEDs were 1760 and 1440 mcd for the samples with AZO thicknesses of 100 and 300 nm, respectively.

  2. Observation of dopant-profile independent electron transport in sub-monolayer TiO{sub x} stacked ZnO thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    SciT

    Saha, D., E-mail: sahaphys@gmail.com, E-mail: pmisra@rrcat.gov.in; Misra, P., E-mail: sahaphys@gmail.com, E-mail: pmisra@rrcat.gov.in; Joshi, M. P.

    2016-01-18

    Dopant-profile independent electron transport has been observed through a combined study of temperature dependent electrical resistivity and magnetoresistance measurements on a series of Ti incorporated ZnO thin films with varying degree of static-disorder. These films were grown by atomic layer deposition through in-situ vertical stacking of multiple sub-monolayers of TiO{sub x} in ZnO. Upon decreasing ZnO spacer layer thickness, electron transport smoothly evolved from a good metallic to an incipient non-metallic regime due to the intricate interplay of screening of spatial potential fluctuations and strength of static-disorder in the films. Temperature dependent phase-coherence length as extracted from the magnetotransport measurementmore » revealed insignificant role of inter sub-monolayer scattering as an additional channel for electron dephasing, indicating that films were homogeneously disordered three-dimensional electronic systems irrespective of their dopant-profiles. Results of this study are worthy enough for both fundamental physics perspective and efficient applications of multi-stacked ZnO/TiO{sub x} structures in the emerging field of transparent oxide electronics.« less

  3. Strong visible and near infrared photoluminescence from ZnO nanorods/nanowires grown on single layer graphene studied using sub-band gap excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biroju, Ravi K.; Giri, P. K.

    2017-07-01

    Fabrication and optoelectronic applications of graphene based hybrid 2D-1D semiconductor nanostructures have gained tremendous research interest in recent times. Herein, we present a systematic study on the origin and evolution of strong broad band visible and near infrared (NIR) photoluminescence (PL) from vertical ZnO nanorods (NRs) and nanowires (NWs) grown on single layer graphene using both above band gap and sub-band gap optical excitations. High resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction studies are carried out to reveal the morphology and crystalline quality of as-grown and annealed ZnO NRs/NWs on graphene. Room temperature PL studies reveal that besides the UV and visible PL bands, a new near-infrared (NIR) PL emission band appears in the range between 815 nm and 886 nm (1.40-1.52 eV). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies revealed excess oxygen content and unreacted metallic Zn in the as-grown ZnO nanostructures, owing to the low temperature growth by a physical vapor deposition method. Post-growth annealing at 700 °C in the Ar gas ambient results in the enhanced intensity of both visible and NIR PL bands. On the other hand, subsequent high vacuum annealing at 700 °C results in a drastic reduction in the visible PL band and complete suppression of the NIR PL band. PL decay dynamics of green emission in Ar annealed samples show tri-exponential decay on the nanosecond timescale including a very slow decay component (time constant ˜604.5 ns). Based on these results, the NIR PL band comprising two peaks centered at ˜820 nm and ˜860 nm is tentatively assigned to neutral and negatively charged oxygen interstitial (Oi) defects in ZnO, detected experimentally for the first time. The evidence for oxygen induced trap states on the ZnO NW surface is further substantiated by the slow photocurrent response of graphene-ZnO NRs/NWs. These results are important for tunable light emission, photodetection, and other cutting edge

  4. Hybrid Organic/ZnO p-n Junctions with n-Type ZnO Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łuka, G.; Krajewski, T.; Szczerbakow, A.; Łusakowska, E.; Kopalko, K.; Guziewicz, E.; Wachnicki, Ł.; Szczepanik, A.; Godlewski, M.; Fidelus, J. D.

    2008-11-01

    We report on fabrication of hybrid inorganic-on-organic thin film structures with polycrystalline zinc oxide films grown by atomic layer deposition technique. ZnO films were deposited on two kinds of thin organic films, i.e. pentacene and poly(dimethylosiloxane) elastomer with a carbon nanotube content (PDMS:CNT). Surface morphology as well as electrical measurements of the films and devices were analyzed. The current density versus voltage (I-V) characteristics of ITO/pentacene/ZnO/Au structure show a low-voltage switching phenomenon typical of organic memory elements. The I-V studies of ITO/PDMS:CNT/ZnO/Au structure indicate some charging effects in the system under applied voltages.

  5. Non-polar a-plane ZnO films grown on r-Al2O3 substrates using GaN buffer layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C. X.; Chen, W.; Pan, X. H.; Chen, S. S.; Ye, Z. Z.; Huang, J. Y.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, GaN buffer layer has been used to grow non-polar a-plane ZnO films by laser-assisted and plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The thickness of GaN buffer layer ranges from ∼3 to 12 nm. The GaN buffer thickness effect on the properties of a-plane ZnO thin films is carefully investigated. The results show that the surface morphology, crystal quality and optical properties of a-plane ZnO films are strongly correlated with the thickness of GaN buffer layer. It was found that with 6 nm GaN buffer layer, a-plane ZnO films display the best crystal quality with X-ray diffraction rocking curve full-width at half-maximum of only 161 arcsec for the (101) reflection.

  6. Studies of surface morphology and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures grown on different molarities of TiO{sub 2} seed layer

    SciT

    Asib, N. A. M., E-mail: amierahasib@yahoo.com; Afaah, A. N.; Aadila, A.

    Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) seed layer was prepared by using sol-gel spin-coating technique, followed by growth of 0.01 M of Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures by solution-immersion. The molarities of TiO{sub 2} seed layer were varied from 1.1 M to 0.100 M on glass substrates. The nanostructures thin films were characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electrons Microscope (FESEM), Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. FESEM images demonstrate that needle-like ZnO nanostructures are formed on all TiO{sub 2} seed layer. The smallest diameter of needle-like ZnO nanostructures (90.3 nm) were deposited on TiO{sub 2} seed layer of 0.100 M. PL spectramore » of the TiO{sub 2}: ZnO nanostructures thin films show the blue shifted emissions in the UV regions compared to the ZnO thin film. Meanwhile, UV-vis spectra of films display high absorption in the UV region and high trasparency in the visible region. The highest absorbance at UV region was recorded for sample which has 0.100 M of TiO{sub 2} seed layer.« less

  7. Transparent ALD-grown Ta2O5 protective layer for highly stable ZnO photoelectrode in solar water splitting.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengcheng; Wang, Tuo; Luo, Zhibin; Zhang, Dong; Gong, Jinlong

    2015-04-30

    This communication describes a highly stable ZnO/Ta2O5 photoanode with Ta2O5 deposited by atomic layer deposition. The ultrathin Ta2O5 protective layer prevents corrosion of ZnO and reduces surface carrier recombination, leading to a nearly two-fold increase of photo-conversion efficiency. The transparency of Ta2O5 to sunlight is identified as the main reason for the excellent stability of the photoelectrode for 5 hours.

  8. Toward DNA electrochemical sensing by free-standing ZnO nanosheets grown on 2D thin-layered MoS2.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Chen, Meijing; Kong, Qianqian; Luo, Xiliang; Jiao, Kui

    2017-03-15

    Very recently, the 2-dimensional MoS 2 layer as base substrate integrated with other materials has caused people's emerging attention. In this paper, a thin-layered MoS 2 was prepared through an ultrasonic exfoliation method from bulk MoS 2 and then the free-standing ZnO nanosheet was electrodeposited on the MoS 2 scaffold for DNA sensing. The ZnO/MoS 2 nanocomposite revealed smooth and vertical nanosheets morphology by scanning electron microscopy, compared with the sole MoS 2 and sole ZnO. Importantly, the partially negative charged MoS 2 layer is beneficial to the nucleation and growth of ZnO nanosheets under the effect of electrostatic interactions. Classic methylene blue, which possesses different affinities to dsDNA and ssDNA, was adopted as the measure signal to confirm the immobilization and hybridization of DNA on ZnO nanosheets and pursue the optimal synthetic conditions. And the results demonstrated that the free-standing ZnO/MoS 2 nanosheets had low detection limit (6.6×10 -16 M) and has a positive influence on DNA immobilization and hybridization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of a NiO intermediate layer on the properties of ZnO grown on Si by chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djiokap, S. R. Tankio; Urgessa, Z. N.; Mbulanga, C. M.; Boumenou, C. Kameni; Venter, A.; Botha, J. R.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the growth of ZnO nanorods on bare and NiO-coated p-Si substrates is reported. A two-step chemical bath deposition process has been used to grow the nanorods. X-ray diffraction and scanning probe microscopy confirmed that the NiO films were polycrystalline, and that the average grain size correlated with the NiO layer thickness. The ZnO nanorod morphology, orientation and optical properties seemed to be unaffected by the intermediate NiO layer thickness. Current-voltage measurements confirmed the rectifying behavior of all the ZnO/NiO/Si heterostructures. The inclusion of a NiO layer between the substrate and the ZnO nanorods are shown to cause a reduction in both the forward and reverse bias currents. This is in qualitative agreement with the band diagram of these heterostructures, which suggests that the intermediate NiO layer should act as an electron blocking layer.

  10. Relationship between dislocation and the visible luminescence band observed in ZnO epitaxial layers grown on c-plane p-GaN templates by chemical vapor deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saroj, Rajendra K.; Dhar, S.

    2016-08-01

    ZnO epitaxial layers are grown on c-plane GaN (p-type)/sapphire substrates using a chemical vapor deposition technique. Structural and luminescence properties of these layers have been studied systematically as a function of various growth parameters. It has been found that high quality ZnO epitaxial layers can indeed be grown on GaN films at certain optimum conditions. It has also been observed that the growth temperature and growth time have distinctly different influences on the screw and edge dislocation densities. While the growth temperature affects the density of edge dislocations more strongly than that of screw dislocations, an increase of growth duration leads to a rapid drop in the density of screw dislocation, whereas the density of edge dislocation hardly changes. Densities of both edge and screw dislocations are found to be minimum at a growth temperature of 500 °C. Interestingly, the defect related visible luminescence intensity also shows a minimum at the same temperature. Our study indeed suggests that the luminescence feature is related to threading edge dislocation. A continuum percolation model, where the defects responsible for visible luminescence are considered to be formed under the influence of the strain field surrounding the threading edge dislocations, is proposed. The theory explains the observed variation of the visible luminescence intensity as a function of the concentration of the dislocations.

  11. Room temperature photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanorods grown by hydrothermal reaction

    SciT

    Iwan, S., E-mail: iwan-sugihartono@unj.ac.id; Prodi Ilmu Material, Departemen Fisika, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok; Fauzia, Vivi

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were fabricated by a hydrothermal reaction on silicon (Si) substrate at 95 °C for 6 hours. The ZnO seed layer was fabricated by depositing ZnO thin films on Si substrates by ultrasonic spray pyrolisis (USP). The annealing effects on crystal structure and optical properties of ZnO nanorods were investigated. The post-annealing treatment was performed at 800 °C with different environments. The annealed of ZnO nanorods were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) in order to analyze crystal structure and optical properties, respectively. The results show the orientations of [002], [101], [102], and [103] diffractionmore » peaks were observed and hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO nanorods were vertically grown on Si substrates. The room temperature PL spectra show ultra-violet (UV) and visible emissions. The annealed of ZnO nanorods in vacuum condition (3.8 × 10{sup −3} Torr) has dominant UV emission. Meanwhile, non-annealed of ZnO nanorods has dominant visible emission. It was expected that the annealed of ZnO in vacuum condition suppresses the existence of native defects in ZnO nanorods.« less

  12. Studies on morphology, electrical and optical characteristics of Al-doped ZnO thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li; Chen, Xinliang; Zhou, Zhongxin; Guo, Sheng; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Xiaodan

    2018-03-01

    Al doped ZnO (AZO) films deposited on glass substrates through the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique are investigated with various temperatures from 100 to 250 °C and different Zn : Al cycle ratios from 20 : 0 to 20 : 3. Surface morphology, structure, optical and electrical properties of obtained AZO films are studied in detail. The Al composition of the AZO films is varied by controlling the ratio of Zn : Al. We achieve an excellent AZO thin film with a resistivity of 2.14 × 10‑3 Ω·cm and high optical transmittance deposited at 150 °C with 20 : 2 Zn : Al cycle ratio. This kind of AZO thin films exhibit great potential for optoelectronics device application. Project supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Nos. 2011CBA00706, 2011CBA00707) and the Tianjin Applied Basic Research Project and Cutting-Edge Technology Research Plan (No. 13JCZDJC26900).

  13. Hydrothermal Growth of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanorods Using a Biocomposite Seed Layer of ZnO Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Khun, Kimleang; Eriksson, Martin; AlSalhi, Mohammad; Atif, Muhammad; Ansari, Anees; Willander, Magnus

    2013-08-19

    Well aligned ZnO nanorods have been prepared by a low temperature aqueous chemical growth method, using a biocomposite seed layer of ZnO nanoparticles prepared in starch and cellulose bio polymers. The effect of different concentrations of biocomposite seed layer on the alignment of ZnO nanorods has been investigated. ZnO nanorods grown on a gold-coated glass substrate have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) techniques. These techniques have shown that the ZnO nanorods are well aligned and perpendicular to the substrate, and grown with a high density and uniformity on the substrate. Moreover, ZnO nanorods can be grown with an orientation along the c -axis of the substrate and exhibit a wurtzite crystal structure with a dominant (002) peak in an XRD spectrum and possessed a high crystal quality. A photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy study of the ZnO nanorods has revealed a conventional near band edge ultraviolet emission, along with emission in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum due to defect emission. This study provides an alternative method for the fabrication of well aligned ZnO nanorods. This method can be helpful in improving the performance of devices where alignment plays a significant role.

  14. Hydrothermal Growth of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanorods Using a Biocomposite Seed Layer of ZnO Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Khun, Kimleang; Eriksson, Martin; AlSalhi, Mohammad; Atif, Muhammad; Ansari, Anees; Willander, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Well aligned ZnO nanorods have been prepared by a low temperature aqueous chemical growth method, using a biocomposite seed layer of ZnO nanoparticles prepared in starch and cellulose bio polymers. The effect of different concentrations of biocomposite seed layer on the alignment of ZnO nanorods has been investigated. ZnO nanorods grown on a gold-coated glass substrate have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) techniques. These techniques have shown that the ZnO nanorods are well aligned and perpendicular to the substrate, and grown with a high density and uniformity on the substrate. Moreover, ZnO nanorods can be grown with an orientation along the c-axis of the substrate and exhibit a wurtzite crystal structure with a dominant (002) peak in an XRD spectrum and possessed a high crystal quality. A photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy study of the ZnO nanorods has revealed a conventional near band edge ultraviolet emission, along with emission in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum due to defect emission. This study provides an alternative method for the fabrication of well aligned ZnO nanorods. This method can be helpful in improving the performance of devices where alignment plays a significant role. PMID:28811454

  15. Effects of Rapid Thermal Annealing on the Structural, Electrical, and Optical Properties of Zr-Doped ZnO Thin Films Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jingjin; Zhao, Yinchao; Zhao, Ce Zhou; Yang, Li; Lu, Qifeng; Zhang, Qian; Smith, Jeremy; Zhao, Yongming

    2016-08-13

    The 4 at. % zirconium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Zr) films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) were annealed at various temperatures ranging from 350 to 950 °C. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) treated ZnO:Zr films have been evaluated to find out the stability limit. It was found that the grain size increased at 350 °C and decreased between 350 and 850 °C, while creeping up again at 850 °C. UV-vis characterization shows that the optical band gap shifts towards larger wavelengths. The Hall measurement shows that the resistivity almost keeps constant at low annealing temperatures, and increases rapidly after treatment at 750 °C due to the effect of both the carrier concentration and the Hall mobility. The best annealing temperature is found in the range of 350-550 °C. The ZnO:Zr film-coated glass substrates show good optical and electrical performance up to 550 °C during superstrate thin film solar cell deposition.

  16. Effects of Rapid Thermal Annealing on the Structural, Electrical, and Optical Properties of Zr-Doped ZnO Thin Films Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jingjin; Zhao, Yinchao; Zhao, Ce Zhou; Yang, Li; Lu, Qifeng; Zhang, Qian; Smith, Jeremy; Zhao, Yongming

    2016-01-01

    The 4 at. % zirconium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Zr) films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) were annealed at various temperatures ranging from 350 to 950 °C. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) treated ZnO:Zr films have been evaluated to find out the stability limit. It was found that the grain size increased at 350 °C and decreased between 350 and 850 °C, while creeping up again at 850 °C. UV–vis characterization shows that the optical band gap shifts towards larger wavelengths. The Hall measurement shows that the resistivity almost keeps constant at low annealing temperatures, and increases rapidly after treatment at 750 °C due to the effect of both the carrier concentration and the Hall mobility. The best annealing temperature is found in the range of 350–550 °C. The ZnO:Zr film-coated glass substrates show good optical and electrical performance up to 550 °C during superstrate thin film solar cell deposition. PMID:28773816

  17. Al-doped ZnO seed layer-dependent crystallographic control of ZnO nanorods by using electrochemical deposition

    SciT

    Son, Hyo-Soo; Choi, Nak-Jung; Kim, Kyoung-Bo

    Highlights: • Polar and semipolar ZnO NRs were successfully achieved by hydrothermal synthesis. • Semipolar and polar ZnO NRs were grown on ZnO and AZO/m-sapphire, respectively. • Al % of AZO/m-sapphire enhanced the lateral growth rate of polar ZnO NRs. - Abstract: We investigated the effect of an Al-doped ZnO film on the crystallographic direction of ZnO nanorods (NRs) using electrochemical deposition. From high-solution X-ray diffraction measurements, the crystallographic plane of ZnO NRs grown on (1 0 0) ZnO/m-plane sapphire was (1 0 1). The surface grain size of the (100) Al-doped ZnO (AZO) film decreased with increasing Al contentmore » in the ZnO seed layer, implying that the Al dopant accelerated the three-dimensional (3D) growth of the AZO film. In addition, it was found that with increasing Al doping concentration of the AZO seed layer, the crystal orientation of the ZnO NRs grown on the AZO seed layer changed from [1 0 1] to [0 0 1]. With increasing Al content of the nonpolar (1 0 0) AZO seed layer, the small surface grains with a few crystallographic planes of the AZO film changed from semipolar (1 0 1) ZnO NRs to polar (0 0 1) ZnO NRs due to the increase of the vertical [0 0 1] growth rate of the ZnO NRs owing to excellent electrical properties.« less

  18. The low coherence Fabry-Pérot interferometer with diamond and ZnO layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majchrowicz, D.; Den, W.; Hirsch, M.

    2016-09-01

    The authors present a fiber-optic Fabry-Pérot interferometer built with the application of diamond and zinc oxide (ZnO) thin layers. Thin ZnO films were deposited on the tip of a standard telecommunication single-mode optical fiber (SMF- 28) while the diamond layer was grown on the plate of silicon substrate. Investigated ZnO layers were fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and the diamond films were deposited using Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (μPE CVD) system. Different thickness of layers was examined. The measurements were performed for the fiber-optic Fabry-Pérot interferometer working in the reflective mode. Spectra were registered for various thicknesses of ZnO layer and various length of the air cavity. As a light source, two superluminescent diodes (SLD) with central wavelength of 1300 nm and 1550 nm were used in measurement set-up.

  19. Seedless-grown of ZnO thin films for photoelectrochemical water splitting application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Aidahani; Hamid, Muhammad Azmi Abdul; Chiu, W. S.

    2018-04-01

    We developed a seedless hydrothermal method to grow a flower like ZnO nanorods. Prior to the growth, a layer of Au thin film is sputtered onto the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate. The morphological, structural and optical properties of the ZnO nanostructures were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and diffuse reflection measurement to understand the growth process of the working thin film. The photoelectrochemical (PEC) results suggest that the deposition of ZnO nanorods on Au nanoparticles plays an important role in enhancing the photoelectrode activity. H2 evolution from photo-splitting of water over Au-incorporated ZnO in the 0.1M NaOH liquid system was enhanced, compared to that over bare ZnO; particularly, the production of 15.5 µL of H2 gas after twenty five minutes exposure of ZnO grown on Au-coated thin film.

  20. High-performance InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs with Al-doped ZnO transparent conductive layers grown by MOCVD using H2O as an oxidizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jia-Yong; Pei, Yan-Li; Zhuo, Yi; Chen, Zi-Min; Hu, Rui-Qin; Cai, Guang-Shuo; Wang, Gang

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the high performance of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with Al-doped ZnO (AZO) transparent conductive layers (TCLs) has been demonstrated. The AZO-TCLs were fabricated on the n+-InGaN contact layer by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using H2O as an oxidizer at temperatures as low as 400 °C without any post-deposition annealing. It shows a high transparency (98%), low resistivity (510-4 Ω·cm), and an epitaxial-like excellent interface on p-GaN with an n+-InGaN contact layer. A forward voltage of 2.82 V @ 20 mA was obtained. Most importantly, the power efficiencies can be markedly improved by 53.8%@20 mA current injection and 39.6%@350 mA current injection compared with conventional LEDs with indium tin oxide TCL (LED-III), and by 28.8%@20 mA current injection and 4.92%@350 mA current injection compared with LEDs with AZO-TCL prepared by MOCVD using O2 as an oxidizer (LED-II), respectively. The results indicate that the AZO-TCL grown by MOCVD using H2O as an oxidizer is a promising TCL for a low-cost and high-efficiency GaN-based LED application. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61204091, 61404177, 51402366, and U1201254) and the Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2015B010132006).

  1. Study of annealing effect on the growth of ZnO nanorods on ZnO seed layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sannakashappanavar, Basavaraj S.; Pattanashetti, Nandini A.; Byrareddy, C. R.; Yadav, Aniruddh Bahadur

    2018-04-01

    A zinc oxide (ZnO) seed layer was deposited on the SiO2/Si substrate by RF sputtering. To study the effect of annealing, the seed layers were classified into annealed and unannealed thin films. Annealing of the seed layers was carried at 450°C. Surface morphology of the seed layers were studied by Atomic force microscopy. ZnO nanorods were then grown on both the types of seed layer by hydrothermal method. The morphology and the structural properties of the nanorods were characterized by X-ray diffraction and Scanning electron microscopy. The effect of seed layer annealing on the growth and orientation of the ZnO nanorods were clearly examined on comparing with the nanorods grown on unannealed seed layer. The nanorods grown on annealed seed layers were found to be well aligned and oriented. Further, the I-V characteristic study was carried out on these aligned nanorods. The results supports positively for the future work to further enhance the properties of developed nanorods for their wide applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  2. Effects of surface morphology of ZnO seed layers on growth of ZnO nanostructures prepared by hydrothermal method and annealing.

    PubMed

    Yim, Kwang Gug; Kim, Min Su; Leem, Jae-Young

    2013-05-01

    ZnO nanostructures were grown on Si (111) substrates by a hydrothermal method. Prior to growing the ZnO nanostructures, ZnO seed layers with different post-heat temperatures were prepared by a spin-coating process. Then, the ZnO nanostructures were annealed at 500 degrees C for 20 min under an Ar atmosphere. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and photoluminescence (PL) were carried out at room temperature (RT) to investigate the structural and optical properties of the as-grown and annealed ZnO nanostructures. The surface morphologies of the seed layers changed from a smooth surface to a mountain chain-like structure as the post-heating temperatures increased. The as-grown and annealed ZnO nanostructures exhibited a strong (002) diffraction peak. Compared to the as-grown ZnO nanostructures, the annealed ZnO nanostructures exhibited significantly strong enhancement in the PL intensity ratio by almost a factor of 2.

  3. Effect of Mg doping in ZnO buffer layer on ZnO thin film devices for electronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, Pushpa; Chakrabarti, P.

    2016-05-01

    Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films have been grown on p-silicon (Si) substrate using magnesium doped ZnO (Mg: ZnO) buffer layer by radio-frequency (RF) sputtering method. In this paper, we have optimized the concentration of Mg (0-5 atomic percent (at. %)) ZnO buffer layer to examine its effect on ZnO thin film based devices for electronic and optoelectronic applications. The crystalline nature, morphology and topography of the surface of the thin film have been characterized. The optical as well as electrical properties of the active ZnO film can be tailored by varying the concentration of Mg in the buffer layer. The crystallite size in the active ZnO thin film was found to increase with the Mg concentration in the buffer layer in the range of 0-3 at. % and subsequently decrease with increasing Mg atom concentration in the ZnO. The same was verified by the surface morphology and topography studies carried out with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic electron microscopy (AFM) respectively. The reflectance in the visible region was measured to be less than 80% and found to decrease with increase in Mg concentration from 0 to 3 at. % in the buffer region. The optical bandgap was initially found to increase from 3.02 eV to 3.74 eV by increasing the Mg content from 0 to 3 at. % but subsequently decreases and drops down to 3.43 eV for a concentration of 5 at. %. The study of an Au:Pd/ZnO Schottky diode reveals that for optimum doping of the buffer layer the device exhibits superior rectifying behavior. The barrier height, ideality factor, rectification ratio, reverse saturation current and series resistance of the Schottky diode were extracted from the measured current voltage (I-V) characteristics.

  4. Crystallographic tilt and in-plane anisotropies of an a-plane InGaN/GaN layered structure grown by MOCVD on r-plane sapphire using a ZnO buffer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. F.; Liu, W.; Guo, S.; Chi, D. Z.

    2016-03-01

    High-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) was used to investigate the crystallographic tilts and structural anisotropies in epitaxial nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on r-plane sapphire using a ZnO buffer. The substrate had an unintentional miscut of 0.14° towards its [-4 2 2 3] axis. However, HRXRD revealed a tilt of 0.26° (0.20°) between the ZnO (GaN) (11-20) and the Al2O3 (1-102) atomic planes, with the (11-20) axis of ZnO (GaN) tilted towards its c-axis, which has a difference of 163° in azimuth from that of the substrate’s miscut. Excess broadenings in the GaN/ZnO (11-20) rocking curves (RCs) were observed along its c-axis. Specific analyses revealed that partial dislocations and anisotropic in-plane strains, rather than surface-related effects, wafer curvature or stacking faults, are the dominant factors for the structural anisotropy. The orientation of the partial dislocations is most likely affected by the miscut of the substrate, e.g. via tilting of the misfit dislocation gliding planes created during island coalescences. Their Burgers vector components in the growth direction, in turn, gave rise to crystallographic tilts in the same direction as that of the excess RC-broadenings.

  5. Structural and interfacial defects in c-axis oriented LiNbO3 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition on Si using Al : ZnO conducting layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shandilya, Swati; Tomar, Monika; Sreenivas, K.; Gupta, Vinay

    2009-05-01

    Highly c-axis oriented LiNbO3 films are deposited using pulsed laser deposition on a silicon substrate using a transparent conducting Al doped ZnO layer. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic analysis show the fabrication of single phase and oriented LiNbO3 films under the optimized deposition condition. An extra peak at 905 cm-1 was observed in the Raman spectra of LiNbO3 film deposited at higher substrate temperature and higher oxygen pressure, and attributed to the presence of niobium antisite defects in the lattice. Dielectric constant and ac conductivity of oriented LiNbO3 films deposited under the static and rotating substrate modes have been studied. Films deposited under the rotating substrate mode exhibit dielectric properties close to the LiNbO3 single crystal. The cause of deviation in the dielectric properties of the film deposited under the static substrate mode, in comparison with the bulk, are discussed in the light of the possible formation of an interdiffusion layer at the interface of the LiNbO3 film and the Al : ZnO layer.

  6. A study of H and D doped ZnO epitaxial films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. J.; Kaspar, T. C.; Droubay, T. C.; Joly, A. G.; Nachimuthu, P.; Zhu, Z.; Shutthanandan, V.; Chambers, S. A.

    2008-09-01

    We examine the crystal structure and electrical and optical properties of ZnO epitaxial films grown by pulsed laser deposition in a H2 or D2 ambient. n-type electrical conductivity is enhanced by three orders of magnitude as a result of growing in H2 (D2) compared to ZnO films grown in O2. Hall effect measurements reveal very small carrier activation energies and carrier concentrations in the mid-1018 cm-3 range. Optical absorption measurements show that the enhanced conductivity is not a result of ZnO reduction and interstitial Zn formation. Photoluminescence spectra suggest excitonic emission associated with exciton-hydrogen donor complex formation and show no evidence for midgap emission resulting from defects. We have modeled the transport properties of H (D) doped ZnO films using variable range hopping and surface layer conductivity models, but our data do not fit well with these models. Rather, it appears that growth in H2 (D2) promotes the formation of an exceedingly shallow donor state not seen in ZnO crystals annealed in H2 after growth. This new state may be associated with H (D) substitution at O sites in the lattice.

  7. A comparative study of physico-chemical properties of CBD and SILAR grown ZnO thin films

    SciT

    Jambure, S.B.; Patil, S.J.; Deshpande, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic model indicating ZnO nanorods by CBD (Z{sub 1}) and nanograins by SILAR (Z{sub 2}). - Highlights: • Simple methods for the synthesis of ZnO thin films. • Comparative study of physico-chemical properties of ZnO thin films prepared by CBD and SILAR methods. • CBD outperforms SILAR method. - Abstract: In the present work, nanocrystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been successfully deposited onto glass substrates by simple and economical chemical bath deposition (CBD) and successive ionic layer adsorption reaction (SILAR) methods. These films were further characterized for their structural, optical, surface morphological and wettability properties. Themore » X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns for both CBD and SILAR deposited ZnO thin films reveal the highly crystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure. From optical studies, band gaps obtained are 2.9 and 3.0 eV for CBD and SILAR deposited thin films, respectively. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) patterns show growth of well defined randomly oriented nanorods and nanograins on the CBD and SILAR deposited samples, respectively. The resistivity of CBD deposited films (10{sup 2} Ω cm) is lower than that of SILAR deposited films (10{sup 5} Ω cm). Surface wettability studies show hydrophobic nature for both films. From the above results it can be concluded that CBD grown ZnO thin films show better properties as compared to SILAR method.« less

  8. Structural characteristics of a non-polar ZnS layer on a ZnO buffer layer formed on a sapphire substrate by mist chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okita, Koshi; Inaba, Katsuhiko; Yatabe, Zenji; Nakamura, Yusui

    2018-06-01

    ZnS is attractive as a material for low-cost light-emitting diodes. In this study, a non-polar ZnS layer was epitaxially grown on a sapphire substrate by inserting a ZnO buffer layer between ZnS and sapphire. The ZnS and ZnO layers were grown by a mist chemical vapor deposition system with a simple setup operated under atmospheric pressure. The sample was characterized by high-resolution X-ray diffraction measurements including 2θ/ω scans, rocking curves, and reciprocal space mapping. The results showed that an m-plane wurtzite ZnS layer grew epitaxially on an m-plane wurtzite ZnO buffer layer formed on the m-plane sapphire substrate to provide a ZnS/ZnO/sapphire structure.

  9. Implementation of ZnO/ZnMgO strained-layer superlattice for ZnO heteroepitaxial growth on sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petukhov, Vladimir; Bakin, Andrey; Tsiaoussis, Ioannis; Rothman, Johan; Ivanov, Sergey; Stoemenos, John; Waag, Andreas

    2011-05-01

    The main challenge in fabrication of ZnO-based devices is the absence of reliable p-type material. This is mostly caused by insufficient crystalline quality of the material and not well-enough-developed native point defect control of ZnO. At present high-quality ZnO wafers are still expensive and ZnO heteroepitaxial layers on sapphire are the most reasonable alternative to homoepitaxial layers. But it is still necessary to improve the crystalline quality of the heteroepitaxial layers. One of the approaches to reduce defect density in heteroepitaxial layers is to introduce a strained-layer superlattice (SL) that could stop dislocation propagation from the substrate-layer interface. In the present paper we have employed fifteen periods of a highly strained SL structure. The structure was grown on a conventional double buffer layer comprising of high-temperature MgO/low-temperature ZnO on sapphire. The influence of the SLs on the properties of the heteroepitaxial ZnO layers is investigated. Electrical measurements of the structure with SL revealed very high values of the carrier mobility up to 210 cm2/Vs at room temperature. Structural characterization of the obtained samples showed that the dislocation density in the following ZnO layer was not reduced. The high mobility signal appears to come from the SL structure or the SL/ZnO interface.

  10. Electronic and Optical Properties of Atomic Layer-Deposited ZnO and TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ates, H.; Bolat, S.; Oruc, F.; Okyay, A. K.

    2018-05-01

    Metal oxides are attractive for thin film optoelectronic applications. Due to their wide energy bandgaps, ZnO and TiO2 are being investigated by many researchers. Here, we have studied the electrical and optical properties of ZnO and TiO2 as a function of deposition and post-annealing conditions. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a novel thin film deposition technique where the growth conditions can be controlled down to atomic precision. ALD-grown ZnO films are shown to exhibit tunable optical absorption properties in the visible and infrared region. Furthermore, the growth temperature and post-annealing conditions of ZnO and TiO2 affect the electrical properties which are investigated using ALD-grown metal oxide as the electron transport channel on thin film field-effect devices.

  11. Impurity distribution and microstructure of Ga-doped ZnO films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvit, A. V.; Yankovich, A. B.; Avrutin, V.; Liu, H.; Izyumskaya, N.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H.; Voyles, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    We report microstructural characterization of heavily Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) thin films on GaN and sapphire by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. Growth under oxygen-rich and metal-rich growth conditions leads to changes in the GZO polarity and different extended defects. For GZO layers on sapphire, the primary extended defects are voids, inversion domain boundaries, and low-angle grain boundaries. Ga doping of ZnO grown under metal-rich conditions causes a switch from pure oxygen polarity to mixed oxygen and zinc polarity in small domains. Electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy spectrum imaging show that Ga is homogeneous, but other residual impurities tend to accumulate at the GZO surface and at extended defects. GZO grown on GaN on c-plane sapphire has Zn polarity and no voids. There are misfit dislocations at the interfaces between GZO and an undoped ZnO buffer layer and at the buffer/GaN interface. Low-angle grain boundaries are the only threading microstructural defects. The potential effects of different extended defects and impurity distributions on free carrier scattering are discussed.

  12. Photoelectrocatalytic activity of a hydrothermally grown branched Zno nanorod-array electrode for paracetamol degradation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin Jung; Liao, Shu-Jun; Kao, Li-Cheng; Liou, Sofia Ya Hsuan

    2015-06-30

    Hierarchical branched ZnO nanorod (B-ZnR) arrays as an electrode for efficient photoelectrocatalytic degradation of paracetamol were grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates using a solution route. The morphologic and structural studies show the ZnO trunks are single-crystalline hexagonal wurtzite ZnO with a [0001] growth direction and are densely covered by c-axis-oriented ZnO branches. The obvious enhancement in photocurrent response of the B-ZnR electrode was obtained than that in the ZnO nanoparticle (ZnO NP) electrode. For the photoelectrocatalytic degradation of paracetamol in 20 h, the conversion fraction of the drug increased from 32% over ZnO NP electrode to 62% over B-ZnR arrays with about 3-fold increase in initial reaction rate. The light intensity-dependent photoelectrocatalytic experiment indicated that the superior performance over the B-ZnR electrode was mainly ascribed to the increased specific surface area without significantly sacrificing the charge transport and pollutant diffusion efficiencies. Two aromatic intermediate compounds were observed and eventually converted into harmless carboxylic acids and ammonia. Hierarchical tree-like ZnO arrays can be considered effective alternatives to improve photoelectro degradation rates without the need for expensive additives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhanced electrical properties of dual-layer channel ZnO thin film transistors prepared by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huijin; Han, Dedong; Dong, Junchen; Yu, Wen; Liang, Yi; Luo, Zhen; Zhang, Shengdong; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Yi

    2018-05-01

    The thin film transistors (TFTs) with a dual-layer channel structure combing ZnO thin layer grown at 200 °C and ZnO film grown at 120 °C by atomic layer deposition are fabricated. The dual-layer channel TFT exhibits a low leakage current of 2.8 × 10-13 A, Ion/Ioff ratio of 3.4 × 109, saturation mobility μsat of 12 cm2 V-1 s-1, subthreshold swing (SS) of 0.25 V/decade. The SS value decreases to 0.18 V/decade after the annealing treatment in O2 due to the reduction of the trap states at the channel/dielectric interface and in the bulk channel layer. The enhanced performance obtained from the dual-layer channel TFTs is due to the ability of maintaining high mobility and suppressing the increase in the off-current at the same time.

  14. Characterization of Non-Polar ZnO Layers with Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubiaga, A.; Tuomisto, F.; Zúñiga-Pérez, J.; Muñoz-San José, V.

    2008-11-01

    We applied positron annihilation spectroscopy to study the effect of growth polarity on the vacancy defects in ZnO grown by metal-organic vapor phase deposition on sapphire. Both c-plane and a-plane ZnO layers were measured, and Zn vacancies were identified as the dominant defects detected by positrons. The results are qualitatively similar to those of earlier experiments in GaN. The Zn vacancy concentration decreases in c-plane ZnO by almost one order of magnitude (from high 1017 cm-3 to low 1017 cm-3) when the layer thickness is increased from 0.5 to 2 μm. Interestingly, in a-plane ZnO the Zn vacancy concentration is constant at a level of about 2×1017 cm-3 in all the samples with thicknesses varying from 0.6 to 2.4 μm. The anisotropy of the Doppler broadening of the annihilation radiation parallel and perpendicular to the hexagonal c-axis was also measured.

  15. Simulation, fabrication and characterization of ZnO based thin film transistors grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shaivalini; Chakrabarti, P

    2012-03-01

    We report the performance of the thin film transistors (TFTs) using ZnO as an active channel layer grown by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique. The bottom gate type TFT, consists of a conventional thermally grown SiO2 as gate insulator onto p-type Si substrates. The X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that the ZnO films are preferentially orientated in the (002) plane, with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. A typical ZnO TFT fabricated by this method exhibits saturation field effect mobility of about 0.6134 cm2/V s, an on to off ratio of 102, an off current of 2.0 x 10(-7) A, and a threshold voltage of 3.1 V at room temperature. Simulation of this TFT is also carried out by using the commercial software modeling tool ATLAS from Silvaco-International. The simulated global characteristics of the device were compared and contrasted with those measured experimentally. The experimental results are in fairly good agreement with those obtained from simulation.

  16. Growth of ZnO(0001) on GaN(0001)/4H-SiC buffer layers by plasma-assisted hybrid molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adolph, David; Tingberg, Tobias; Ive, Tommy

    2015-09-01

    Plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy was used to grow ZnO(0001) layers on GaN(0001)/4H-SiC buffer layers deposited in the same growth chamber equipped with both N- and O-plasma sources. The GaN buffer layers were grown immediately before initiating the growth of ZnO. Using a substrate temperature of 445 °C and an O2 flow rate of 2.5 standard cubic centimeters per minute, we obtained ZnO layers with statistically smooth surfaces having a root-mean-square roughness of 0.3 nm and a peak-to-valley distance of 3 nm as revealed by atomic force microscopy. The full-width-at-half-maximum for x-ray rocking curves obtained across the ZnO(0002) and ZnO(10 1 bar 5) reflections was 198 and 948 arcsec, respectively. These values indicated that the mosaicity of the ZnO layer was comparable to the corresponding values of the underlying GaN buffer layer. Reciprocal space maps showed that the in-plane relaxation of the GaN and ZnO layers was 82% and 73%, respectively, and that the relaxation occurred abruptly during the growth. Room-temperature Hall-effect measurements revealed that the layers were inherently n-type and had an electron concentration of 1×1019 cm-3 and a Hall mobility of 51 cm2/V s.

  17. Chemical lift-off and direct wafer bonding of GaN/InGaN P-I-N structures grown on ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantzas, K.; Rogers, D. J.; Bove, P.; Sandana, V. E.; Teherani, F. H.; El Gmili, Y.; Molinari, M.; Patriarche, G.; Largeau, L.; Mauguin, O.; Suresh, S.; Voss, P. L.; Razeghi, M.; Ougazzaden, A.

    2016-02-01

    p-GaN/i-InGaN/n-GaN (PIN) structures were grown epitaxially on ZnO-buffered c-sapphire substrates by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy using the industry standard ammonia precursor for nitrogen. Scanning electron microscopy revealed continuous layers with a smooth interface between GaN and ZnO and no evidence of ZnO back-etching. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy revealed a peak indium content of just under 5 at% in the active layers. The PIN structure was lifted off the sapphire by selectively etching away the ZnO buffer in an acid and then direct bonded onto a glass substrate. Detailed high resolution transmission electron microscoy and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the structural quality of the PIN structures was preserved during the transfer process.

  18. Acceptor Type Vacancy Complexes In As-Grown ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubiaga, A.; Tuomisto, F.; Zuñiga-Pérez, J.

    2010-11-01

    One of the many technological areas that ZnO is interesting for is the construction of opto-electronic devices working in the blue-UV range as its large band gap (˜3.4 eV at 10 K) makes them suitable for that purpose. As-grown ZnO shows generally n-type conductivity partially due to the large concentration of unintentional shallow donors, like H, but impurities can also form complexes with acceptor type defects (Zn vacancy) leading to the creation of compensating defects. Recently, LiZn and NaZn acceptors have been measured and H could form similar type of defects. Doppler Broadening Positron Annihilation spectroscopy experimental results on the observation of Zn related vacancy complexes in ZnO thin films, as-grown, O implanted and Al doped will be presented. Results show that as-grown ZnO film show small Zn vacancy related complexed that could be related to presence of H as a unintentional doping element.

  19. Bi-layer channel structure-based oxide thin-film transistors consisting of ZnO and Al-doped ZnO with different Al compositions and stacking sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sung Woon; Yun, Myeong Gu; Ahn, Cheol Hyoun; Kim, So Hee; Cho, Hyung Koun

    2015-03-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO)-based bi-layers, consisting of ZnO and Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layers grown by atomic layer deposition, were utilized as the channels of oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs). Thin AZO layers (5 nm) with different Al compositions (5 and 14 at. %) were deposited on top of and beneath the ZnO layers in a bi-layer channel structure. All of the bi-layer channel TFTs that included the AZO layers showed enhanced stability (Δ V Th ≤ 3.2 V) under a positive bias stress compared to the ZnO single-layer channel TFT (Δ V Th = 4.0 V). However, the AZO/ZnO bi-layer channel TFTs with an AZO interlayer between the gate dielectric and the ZnO showed a degraded field effect mobility (0.3 cm2/V·s for 5 at. % and 1.8 cm2/V·s for 14 at. %) compared to the ZnO single-layer channel TFT (5.5 cm2/V·s) due to increased scattering caused by Al-related impurities near the gate dielectric/channel interface. In contrast, the ZnO/AZO bi-layer channel TFTs with an AZO layer on top of the ZnO layer exhibited an improved field effect mobility (7.8 cm2/V·s for 14 at. %) and better stability. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Alignment nature of ZnO nanowires grown on polished and nanoscale etched lithium niobate surface through self-seeding thermal evaporation method

    SciT

    Mohanan, Ajay Achath; Parthiban, R.; Ramakrishnan, N., E-mail: ramakrishnan@monash.edu

    Highlights: • ZnO nanowires were grown directly on LiNbO{sub 3} surface for the first time by thermal evaporation. • Self-alignment of the nanowires due to step bunching of LiNbO{sub 3} surface is observed. • Increased roughness in surface defects promoted well-aligned growth of nanowires. • Well-aligned growth was then replicated in 50 nm deep trenches on the surface. • Study opens novel pathway for patterned growth of ZnO nanowires on LiNbO{sub 3} surface. - Abstract: High aspect ratio catalyst-free ZnO nanowires were directly synthesized on lithium niobate substrate for the first time through thermal evaporation method without the use ofmore » a buffer layer or the conventional pre-deposited ZnO seed layer. As-grown ZnO nanowires exhibited a crisscross aligned growth pattern due to step bunching of the polished lithium niobate surface during the nanowire growth process. On the contrary, scratches on the surface and edges of the substrate produced well-aligned ZnO nanowires in these defect regions due to high surface roughness. Thus, the crisscross aligned nature of high aspect ratio nanowire growth on the lithium niobate surface can be changed to well-aligned growth through controlled etching of the surface, which is further verified through reactive-ion etching of lithium niobate. The investigations and discussion in the present work will provide novel pathway for self-seeded patterned growth of well-aligned ZnO nanowires on lithium niobate based micro devices.« less

  1. Investigations into the impact of various substrates and ZnO ultra thin seed layers prepared by atomic layer deposition on growth of ZnO nanowire array

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The impact of various substrates and zinc oxide (ZnO) ultra thin seed layers prepared by atomic layer deposition on the geometric morphology of subsequent ZnO nanowire arrays (NWs) fabricated by the hydrothermal method was investigated. The investigated substrates included B-doped ZnO films, indium tin oxide films, single crystal silicon (111), and glass sheets. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the geometry and aligment of the NWs were controlled by surface topography of the substrates and thickness of the ZnO seed layers, respectively. According to atomic force microscopy data, we suggest that the substrate, fluctuate amplitude and fluctuate frequency of roughness on ZnO seed layers have a great impact on the alignment of the resulting NWs, whereas the influence of the seed layers' texture was negligible. PMID:22759838

  2. On Controlling the Hydrophobicity of Nanostructured Zinc-Oxide Layers Grown by Pulsed Electrodeposition

    SciT

    Klochko, N. P., E-mail: klochko-np@mail.ru; Klepikova, K. S.; Kopach, V. R.

    The possibility of fabricating highly hydrophobic nanostructured zinc-oxide layers by the inexpensive method of pulsed electrodeposition from aqueous solutions without water-repellent coatings, adapted for large-scale production, is shown. The conditions of the deposition of highly hydrophobic nanostructured zinc-oxide layers exhibiting the “rose-petal” effect with specific morphology, optical properties, crystal structure and texture are determined. The grown ZnO nanostructures are promising for micro- and nanoelectronics as an adaptive material able to reversibly transform to the hydrophilic state upon exposure to ultraviolet radiation.

  3. Luminescence studies of laser MBE grown GaN on ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewan, Sheetal; Tomar, Monika; Kapoor, Ashok K.; Tandon, R. P.; Gupta, Vinay

    2017-08-01

    GaN films have been successfully fabricated using Laser Molecular Beam Epitaxy (LMBE) technique on bare c-plane sapphire substrate and ZnO nanostructures (NS) decorated Si (100) substrates. The ZnO nanostructures were grown on Si (100) substrate using high pressure assisted Pulsed laser deposition technique in inert gas ambience. Discrete nanostructured morphology of ZnO was obtained using the PLD growth on Si substrates. Photoluminescence studies performed on the prepared GaN/Sapphire and GaN/ZnO-NS/Si systems, revealed a significant PL enhancement in case of GaN/ZnO-NS/Si system compared to the former. The hexagonal nucleation sites provided by the ZnO nanostructures strategically enhanced the emission of GaN film grown by Laser MBE Technique at relatively lower temperature of 700°C. The obtained results are attractive for the realization of highly luminescent GaN films on Si substrate for photonic devices.

  4. Characterization of ZnO nanoparticles grown in presence of Folic acid template

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background ZnO nanoparticles (grown in the template of folic acid) are biologically useful, luminescent material. It can be used for multifunctional purposes, e.g., as biosensor, bioimaging, targeted drug delivery and as growth promoting medicine. Methods Sol–gel chemical method was used to develop the uniform ZnO nanoparticles, in a folic acid template at room temperature and pH ~ 7.5. Agglomeration of the particles was prevented due to surface charge density of folic acid in the medium. ZnO nanoparticle was further characterized by different physical methods. Results Nanocrystalline, wurtzite ZnO particles thus prepared show interesting structural as well as band gap properties due to capping with folic acid. Conclusions A rapid, easy and chemical preparative method for the growth of ZnO nanoparticles with important surface physical properties is discussed. Emphatically, after capping with folic acid, its photoluminescence properties are in the visible region. Therefore, the same can be used for monitoring local environmental properties of biosystems. PMID:22788841

  5. ZnO layers prepared by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messaoudi, C.; Abd-Lefdil, S.; Sayah, D.; Cadene, M.

    1998-02-01

    Highly transparent undoped and indium doped ZnO thin films have been grown on glass substrates by using the spray pyrolysis process. Conditions of preparation have been optimized to get good quality and reproducible films with required properties. Polycrystalline films with an hexagonal Wurtzite-type structure were easily obtained under the optimum spraying conditions. Both of samples have shown high transmission coefficient in the visible and infrared wavelength range with sharp absorption edge around 380 nm which closely corresponds to the intrinsic band-gap of ZnO (3.2 eV). Orientation and crystallites size were remarkably modified by deposition temperature and indium doping. Des couches minces de ZnO, hautement transparentes, non dopées et dopées à l'indium ont été élaborées sur un substrat en verre par le procédé de pulvérisation chimique réactive spray. Les conditions de préparation ont été optimisées pour l'obtention de couches reproductibles, de bonne qualité et ayant les propriétés requises. Des films polycristallins, présentant une structure hexagonale de type Wurtzite, ont été aisément obtenus dans les conditions optimales de pulvérisation. Tous les échantillons ont présenté un coefficient de transmission élevé dans le domaine du visible et du proche infrarouge, avec une absorption brutale au voisinage de 380 nm, correspondant au gap optique du ZnO (3,2 eV). L'orientation et la taille des cristallites ont été remarquablement modifiées par la température du dépôt et par le dopage à l'indium.

  6. Origin of green luminescence in hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals

    SciT

    Čížek, J., E-mail: jakub.cizek@mff.cuni.cz; Hruška, P.; Melikhova, O.

    2015-06-22

    Combining photoluminescence and positron annihilation studies of hydrothermally grown ZnO crystals with stoichiometry varied by controlled annealing enabled us to clarify the origin of green luminescence. It was found that green luminescence in ZnO has multiple origins and consists of a band at 2.3(1) eV due to recombination of electrons of the conduction band by zinc vacancy acceptors coupled with hydrogen and a band at 2.47(2) eV related to oxygen vacancies. The as-grown ZnO crystals contain zinc vacancies associated with hydrogen and exhibit a green luminescence at 2.3(1) eV. Annealing in Zn vapor removed zinc vacancies and introduced oxygen vacancies.more » This led to disappearance of the green luminescence band at 2.3(1) eV and appearance of a green emission at higher energy of 2.47(2) eV. Moreover, the color of the crystal was changed from colorless to dark red. In contrast, annealing of the as-grown crystal in Cd vapor did not remove zinc vacancies and did not cause any significant change of green luminescence nor change in coloration.« less

  7. Origin of green luminescence in hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čížek, J.; Valenta, J.; Hruška, P.; Melikhova, O.; Procházka, I.; Novotný, M.; Bulíř, J.

    2015-06-01

    Combining photoluminescence and positron annihilation studies of hydrothermally grown ZnO crystals with stoichiometry varied by controlled annealing enabled us to clarify the origin of green luminescence. It was found that green luminescence in ZnO has multiple origins and consists of a band at 2.3(1) eV due to recombination of electrons of the conduction band by zinc vacancy acceptors coupled with hydrogen and a band at 2.47(2) eV related to oxygen vacancies. The as-grown ZnO crystals contain zinc vacancies associated with hydrogen and exhibit a green luminescence at 2.3(1) eV. Annealing in Zn vapor removed zinc vacancies and introduced oxygen vacancies. This led to disappearance of the green luminescence band at 2.3(1) eV and appearance of a green emission at higher energy of 2.47(2) eV. Moreover, the color of the crystal was changed from colorless to dark red. In contrast, annealing of the as-grown crystal in Cd vapor did not remove zinc vacancies and did not cause any significant change of green luminescence nor change in coloration.

  8. Structural characterization of ZnO thin films grown on various substrates by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotný, M.; Čížek, J.; Kužel, R.; Bulíř, J.; Lančok, J.; Connolly, J.; McCarthy, E.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Mosnier, J.-P.; Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.

    2012-06-01

    ZnO thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on three different substrates: sapphire (0 0 0 1), MgO (1 0 0) and fused silica (FS). The structure and morphology of the films were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and defect studies were carried out using slow positron implantation spectroscopy (SPIS). Films deposited on all substrates studied in this work exhibit the wurtzite ZnO structure and are characterized by an average crystallite size of 20-100 nm. However, strong differences in the microstructure of films deposited on various substrates were found. The ZnO films deposited on MgO and sapphire single-crystalline substrates exhibit local epitaxy, i.e. a well-defined relation between film crystallites and the substrate. Domains with different orientation relationships with the substrate were found in both films. On the other hand, the film deposited on the FS substrate exhibits fibre texture with random lateral orientation of crystallites. Extremely high compressive in-plane stress of σ ˜ 14 GPa was determined in the film deposited on the MgO substrate, while the film deposited on sapphire is virtually stress-free, and the film deposited on the FS substrate exhibits a tensile in-plane stress of σ ˜ 0.9 GPa. SPIS investigations revealed that the concentration of open-volume defects in the ZnO films is substantially higher than that in a bulk ZnO single crystal. Moreover, the ZnO films deposited on MgO and sapphire single-crystalline substrates exhibit a significantly higher density of defects than the film deposited on the amorphous FS substrate.

  9. Structural, optical and electrical properties of well-ordered ZnO nanowires grown on (1 1 1) oriented Si, GaAs and InP substrates by electrochemical deposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Huyen T.; Nguyen, Tam D.; Tran, Dat Q.; Akabori, Masashi

    2017-05-01

    ZnO semiconductors, especially in form of nanomaterials, possess many excellent properties and have been employed in many applications. In this article, we reported the selective area growth of ZnO nanowires on different (1 1 1) oriented Si, GaAs, and first time on InP substrates by electrochemical deposition method without any seed layers, using zinc nitrate hexahydrate precursor in the presence of hexamethylenetetramine. The position, density and orientation of such ZnO nanowires were controlled by the substrate patterning technique using electron-beam lithography. As-synthesized ZnO nanowires grown on patterned substrates show smaller diameter, higher density and better orientation, compared to the one grown on unpatterned substrates. In particular, the ZnO nanowires grown on GaAs patterned substrate indicate the best morphological property, with the average diameter, length and density of about 100 nm, 2.4 µm and 35 µm-2, respectively. The x-ray diffraction and Raman scattering also demonstrate high crystalline quality of our ZnO nanowires. Moreover, as-reported ZnO nanowires are also conductive, which would allow their use in field-effect transistor and other potential nanoscale device applications.

  10. The roles of buffer layer thickness on the properties of the ZnO epitaxial films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Kun; Huang, Shimin; Gu, Shulin; Zhu, Shunming; Ye, Jiandong; Xu, Zhonghua; Zheng, Youdou

    2016-12-01

    In this article, the authors have investigated the optimization of the buffer thickness for obtaining high-quality ZnO epi-films on sapphire substrates. The growth mechanism of the buffers with different thickness has been clearly revealed, including the initial nucleation and vertical growth, the subsequent lateral growth with small grain coalescence, and the final vertical growth along the existing larger grains. Overall, the quality of the buffer improves with increasing thickness except the deformed surface morphology. However, by a full-scale evaluation of the properties for the epi-layers, the quality of the epi-film is briefly determined by the surface morphology of the buffer, rather than the structural, optical, or electrical properties of it. The best quality epi-layer has been grown on the buffer with a smooth surface and well-coalescent grains. Meanwhile, due to the huge lattice mismatch between sapphire and ZnO, dislocations are inevitably formed during the growth of buffers. More importantly, as the film grows thicker, the dislocations may attracting other smaller dislocations and defects to reduce the total line energy and thus result in the formation of V-shape defects, which are connected with the bottom of the threading dislocations in the buffers. The V-defects appear as deep and large hexagonal pits from top view and they may act as electron traps which would affect the free carrier concentration of the epi-layers.

  11. Epitaxial ZnO/LiNbO{sub 3}/ZnO stacked layer waveguide for application to thin-film Pockels sensors

    SciT

    Akazawa, Housei, E-mail: akazawa.housei@lab.ntt.co.jp; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    We produced slab waveguides consisting of a LiNbO{sub 3} (LN) core layer that was sandwiched with Al-doped ZnO cladding layers. The ZnO/LN/ZnO stacked layers were grown on sapphire C-planes by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma sputtering and were subjected to structural, electrical, and optical characterizations. X-ray diffraction confirmed that the ZnO and LN layers were epitaxial without containing misoriented crystallites. The presence of 60°-rotational variants of ZnO and LN crystalline domains were identified from X-ray pole figures. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy images revealed a c-axis orientated columnar texture for LN crystals, which ensured operation as electro-optic sensors based on opticalmore » anisotropy along longitudinal and transversal directions. The interfacial roughness between the LN core and ZnO bottom layers as well as that between the ZnO top and the LN core layers was less than 20 nm, which agreed with surface images observed with atomic force microscopy. Outgrowth of triangular LN crystalline domains produced large roughness at the LN film surface. The RMS roughness of the LN film surface was twice that of the same structure grown on sapphire A-planes. Vertical optical transmittance of the stacked films was higher than 85% within the visible and infrared wavelength range. Following the approach adopted by Teng and Man [Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1734 (1990)], ac Pockels coefficients of r{sub 33} = 24-28 pm/V were derived for c-axis oriented LN films grown on low-resistive Si substrates. Light propagation within a ZnO/LN/ZnO slab waveguide as well as within a ZnO single layer waveguide was confirmed. The birefringence of these waveguides was 0.11 for the former and 0.05 for the latter.« less

  12. Zn-vacancy related defects in ZnO grown by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, F. C. C.; Luo, C. Q.; Wang, Z. L.; Anwand, W.; Wagner, A.

    2017-02-01

    Undoped and Ga-doped ZnO (002) films were grown c-sapphire using the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. Znvacancy related defects in the films were studied by different positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). These included Doppler broadening spectroscopy (DBS) employing a continuous monenergetic positron beam, and positron lifetime spectroscopy using a pulsed monoenergetic positron beam attached to an electron linear accelerator. Two kinds of Znvacancy related defects namely a monovacancy and a divacancy were identified in the films. In as-grown undoped samples grown with relatively low oxygen pressure P(O2)≤1.3 Pa, monovacancy is the dominant Zn-vacancy related defect. Annealing these samples at 900 oC induced Zn out-diffusion into the substrate and converted the monovacancy to divacancy. For the undoped samples grown with high P(O2)=5 Pa irrespective of the annealing temperature and the as-grown degenerate Ga-doped sample (n=1020 cm-3), divacancy is the dominant Zn-vacancy related defect. The clustering of vacancy will be discussed.

  13. Influence of solution viscosity on hydrothermally grown ZnO thin films for DSSC applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marimuthu, T.; Anandhan, N.; Thangamuthu, R.; Surya, S.

    2016-10-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire arrays (NWAs) were grown onto zinc oxide-titanium dioxide (ZnO-TiO2) seeded fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) conductive substrate by hydrothermal technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns depict that ZnO thin films are preferentially oriented along the (002) plane with hexagonal wurtzite structure. Viscosity measurements reveal that viscosity of the solutions linearly increases as the concentrations of the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) increase in the growth solution. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) images show that the NWAs are vertically grown to seeded FTO substrate with hexagonal structure, and the growth of NWAs decreases as the concentration of the PVA increases. Stylus profilometer and atomic force microscopic (AFM) studies predict that the thickness and roughness of the films decrease with increasing the PVA concentrations. The NWAs prepared at 0.1% of PVA exhibits a lower transmittance and higher absorbance than that of the other films. The band gap of the optimized films prepared at 0.0 and 0.1% of PVA is found to be 3.270 and 3.268 eV, respectively. The photo to current conversion efficiency of the DSSC based on photoanodes prepared at 0.0 and 0.1% of PVA exhibits about 0.64 and 0.82%, respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectra reveal that the DSSC based on photoanode prepared at 0.1% of PVA has the highest charge transfer recombination resistance.

  14. Effect of ZnO buffer layer on phase transition properties of vanadium dioxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Huiqun; Li, Lekang; Li, Chunbo

    2016-03-01

    VO2 thin films were prepared on ZnO buffer layers by DC magnetron sputtering at room temperature using vanadium target and post annealing at 400 °C. The ZnO buffer layers with different thickness deposited on glass substrates by magnetron sputtering have a high visible and near infrared optical transmittance. The electrical resistivity and the phase transition properties of the VO2/ZnO composite thin films in terms of temperature were investigated. The results showed that the resistivity variation of VO2 thin film with ZnO buffer layer deposited for 35 min was 16 KΩ-cm. The VO2/ZnO composite thin films exhibit a reversible semiconductor-metal phase transition at 48 °C.

  15. Evolution of Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO Nanorods Grown on Vacuum Annealed Seed Crystallites

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Fasihullah; Ajmal, Hafiz Muhammad Salman; Huda, Noor Ul; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Sam-Dong

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the ambient condition for the as-coated seed layer (SL) annealing at 350 °C is varied from air or nitrogen to vacuum to examine the evolution of structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorods (NRs). The NR crystals of high surface density (~240 rods/μm2) and aspect ratio (~20.3) show greatly enhanced (002) degree of orientation and crystalline quality, when grown on the SLs annealed in vacuum, compared to those annealed in air or nitrogen ambient. This is due to the vacuum-annealed SL crystals of a highly preferred orientation toward (002) and large grain sizes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy also reveals that the highest O/Zn atomic ratio of 0.89 is obtained in the case of vacuum-annealed SL crystals, which is due to the effective desorption of hydroxyl groups and other contaminants adsorbed on the surface formed during aqueous solution-based growth process. Near band edge emission (ultra violet range of 360–400 nm) of the vacuum-annealed SLs is also enhanced by 44% and 33% as compared to those annealed in air and nitrogen ambient, respectively, in photoluminescence with significant suppression of visible light emission associated with deep level transition. Due to this improvement of SL optical crystalline quality, the NR crystals grown on the vacuum-annealed SLs produce ~3 times higher ultra violet emission intensity than the other samples. In summary, it is shown that the ZnO NRs preferentially grow along the wurtzite c-axis direction, thereby producing the high crystalline quality of nanostructures when they grow on the vacuum-annealed SLs of high crystalline quality with minimized impurities and excellent preferred orientation. The ZnO nanostructures of high crystalline quality achieved in this study can be utilized for a wide range of potential device applications such as laser diodes, light-emitting diodes, piezoelectric transducers and generators, gas sensors, and ultraviolet detectors. PMID:29373523

  16. Growth process optimization of ZnO thin film using atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Binbin; Wang, Jingyu; Larson, Preston; Liu, Yingtao

    2016-12-01

    The work reports experimental studies of ZnO thin films grown on Si(100) wafers using a customized thermal atomic layer deposition. The impact of growth parameters including H2O/DiethylZinc (DEZn) dose ratio, background pressure, and temperature are investigated. The imaging results of scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy reveal that the dose ratio is critical to the surface morphology. To achieve high uniformity, the H2O dose amount needs to be at least twice that of DEZn per each cycle. If the background pressure drops below 400 mTorr, a large amount of nanoflower-like ZnO grains would emerge and increase surface roughness significantly. In addition, the growth temperature range between 200 °C and 250 °C is found to be the optimal growth window. And the crystal structures and orientations are also strongly correlated to the temperature as proved by electron back-scattering diffraction and x-ray diffraction results.

  17. Large-area, laterally-grown epitaxial semiconductor layers

    DOEpatents

    Han, Jung; Song, Jie; Chen, Danti

    2017-07-18

    Structures and methods for confined lateral-guided growth of a large-area semiconductor layer on an insulating layer are described. The semiconductor layer may be formed by heteroepitaxial growth from a selective growth area in a vertically-confined, lateral-growth guiding structure. Lateral-growth guiding structures may be formed in arrays over a region of a substrate, so as to cover a majority of the substrate region with laterally-grown epitaxial semiconductor tiles. Quality regions of low-defect, stress-free GaN may be grown on silicon.

  18. Single-walled carbon nanotubes coated with ZnO by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Partha P.; Gilshteyn, Evgenia; Jiang, Hua; Timmermans, Marina; Kaskela, Antti; Tolochko, Oleg V.; Kurochkin, Alexey V.; Karppinen, Maarit; Nisula, Mikko; Kauppinen, Esko I.; Nasibulin, Albert G.

    2016-12-01

    The possibility of ZnO deposition on the surface of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with the help of an atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique was successfully demonstrated. The utilization of pristine SWCNTs as a support resulted in a non-uniform deposition of ZnO in the form of nanoparticles. To achieve uniform ZnO coating, the SWCNTs first needed to be functionalized by treating the samples in a controlled ozone atmosphere. The uniformly ZnO coated SWCNTs were used to fabricate UV sensing devices. An UV irradiation of the ZnO coated samples turned them from hydrophobic to hydrophilic behaviour. Furthermore, thin films of the ZnO coated SWCNTs allowed us switch p-type field effect transistors made of pristine SWCNTs to have ambipolar characteristics.

  19. Single-walled carbon nanotubes coated with ZnO by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Pal, Partha P; Gilshteyn, Evgenia; Jiang, Hua; Timmermans, Marina; Kaskela, Antti; Tolochko, Oleg V; Karppinen, Maarit; Nisula, Mikko; Kauppinen, Esko I; Nasibulin, Albert G

    2016-12-02

    The possibility of ZnO deposition on the surface of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with the help of an atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique was successfully demonstrated. The utilization of pristine SWCNTs as a support resulted in a non-uniform deposition of ZnO in the form of nanoparticles. To achieve uniform ZnO coating, the SWCNTs first needed to be functionalized by treating the samples in a controlled ozone atmosphere. The uniformly ZnO coated SWCNTs were used to fabricate UV sensing devices. An UV irradiation of the ZnO coated samples turned them from hydrophobic to hydrophilic behaviour. Furthermore, thin films of the ZnO coated SWCNTs allowed us switch p-type field effect transistors made of pristine SWCNTs to have ambipolar characteristics.

  20. Effect of in situ Al doping on structure and optical properties of ZnO nanowires grown by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souissi, H.; Jabri, S.; Souissi, A.; Lusson, A.; Galtier, P.; Meftah, A.; Sallet, V.; Oueslati, M.

    2018-01-01

    Al-doped ZnO nanowires (NWs) were grown on C-axis oriented sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition using dimethylzinc-triethylamine (DMZn-TEN), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and TMAl as zinc, oxygen and aluminum doping sources respectively. The NWs morphology has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra exhibit a strong excitonic transition bond that confirms the Al incorporation in the ZnO NWs. Raman results support PL conclusion by showing additional modes in Al-doped ZnO NWs at nearly 270, 510, 579 and 641 cm-1. The micro-Raman scattering analysis along a single Al-doped ZnO needle-like NW shows an increase of the Al concentration from the basis to the tip of the wire.

  1. Fabrication of Well-Aligned ZnO Nanorods Using a Composite Seed Layer of ZnO Nanoparticles and Chitosan Polymer.

    PubMed

    Khun, Kimleang; Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; AlSalhi, Mohamad S; Atif, Muhammad; Ansari, Anees A; Willander, Magnus

    2013-09-30

    In this study, by taking the advantage of both inorganic ZnO nanoparticles and the organic material chitosan as a composite seed layer, we have fabricated well-aligned ZnO nanorods on a gold-coated glass substrate using the hydrothermal growth method. The ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by the Raman spectroscopic techniques, which showed the nanocrystalline phase of the ZnO nanoparticles. Different composites of ZnO nanoparticles and chitosan were prepared and used as a seed layer for the fabrication of well-aligned ZnO nanorods. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopic techniques were utilized for the structural characterization of the ZnO nanoparticles/chitosan seed layer-coated ZnO nanorods on a gold-coated glass substrate. This study has shown that the ZnO nanorods are well-aligned, uniform, and dense, exhibit the wurtzite hexagonal structure, and are perpendicularly oriented to the substrate. Moreover, the ZnO nanorods are only composed of Zn and O atoms. An optical study was also carried out for the ZnO nanoparticles/chitosan seed layer-coated ZnO nanorods, and the obtained results have shown that the fabricated ZnO nanorods exhibit good crystal quality. This study has provided a cheap fabrication method for the controlled morphology and good alignment of ZnO nanorods, which is of high demand for enhancing the working performance of optoelectronic devices.

  2. Fabrication of Well-Aligned ZnO Nanorods Using a Composite Seed Layer of ZnO Nanoparticles and Chitosan Polymer

    PubMed Central

    Khun, Kimleang; Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; AlSalhi, Mohamad S.; Atif, Muhammad; Ansari, Anees A.; Willander, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    In this study, by taking the advantage of both inorganic ZnO nanoparticles and the organic material chitosan as a composite seed layer, we have fabricated well-aligned ZnO nanorods on a gold-coated glass substrate using the hydrothermal growth method. The ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by the Raman spectroscopic techniques, which showed the nanocrystalline phase of the ZnO nanoparticles. Different composites of ZnO nanoparticles and chitosan were prepared and used as a seed layer for the fabrication of well-aligned ZnO nanorods. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopic techniques were utilized for the structural characterization of the ZnO nanoparticles/chitosan seed layer-coated ZnO nanorods on a gold-coated glass substrate. This study has shown that the ZnO nanorods are well-aligned, uniform, and dense, exhibit the wurtzite hexagonal structure, and are perpendicularly oriented to the substrate. Moreover, the ZnO nanorods are only composed of Zn and O atoms. An optical study was also carried out for the ZnO nanoparticles/chitosan seed layer-coated ZnO nanorods, and the obtained results have shown that the fabricated ZnO nanorods exhibit good crystal quality. This study has provided a cheap fabrication method for the controlled morphology and good alignment of ZnO nanorods, which is of high demand for enhancing the working performance of optoelectronic devices. PMID:28788336

  3. Effect of growth parameters on crystallinity and properties of ZnO films grown by plasma assisted MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losurdo, M.; Giangregorio, M. M.; Sacchetti, A.; Capezzuto, P.; Bruno, G.; Malandrino, G.; Fragalà, I. L.

    2007-07-01

    Thin films of ZnO have been grown by plasma assisted metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (PA-MOCVD) using a 13.56 MHz O 2 plasma and the Zn(TTA)•tmed (HTTA=2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone, TMED=N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylendiamine) precursor. The effects of growth parameters such as the plasma activation, the substrate, the surface temperature, and the ratio of fluxes of precursors on the structure, morphology, and optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films have been studied. Under a very low plasma power of 20 W, c-axis oriented hexagonal ZnO thin films are grown on hexagonal sapphire (0001), cubic Si(001) and amorphous quartz substrates. The substrate temperature mainly controls grain size.

  4. An efficient BTX sensor based on ZnO nanoflowers grown by CBD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharyya, D.; Bhattacharyya, P.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, sensing performance of ZnO nanoflower like structures derived by chemical bath deposition method (CBD), towards Benzene Toluene and Xylene (BTX) vapors is reported. Relatively higher bath temperature (110 °C) and high pH value (pH: 11) of solution escort to higher growth rate along [0 0 0 1] plane of ZnO, which eventually resulted in pointed edge nanorod based flower like structures after 3 h. After detailed structural characterizations (field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD)), existence of different defect states (viz. oxygen vacancy (Vo), Zinc vacancy (VZn) and Zinc interstitials (Zni)) were authenticated by Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. BTX sensing performance, employing the nanoflowers as the sensing layer, was carried out in resistive mode with two Pd lateral electrodes. The sensor study was performed at different temperatures (150-350 °C) in the concentration range of 0.5-700 ppm of the respective vapors. The highest normalized resistance response (NRR%) was achieved at 200 °C. At this optimum temperature, normalized resistance responses (39.3/92.6%, 45.8/96.9%, and 47.8/99% respectively) were found to be promising towards 0.5/700 ppm of benzene, toluene and xylene. The response time of the sensor towards the target species were also found to be appreciably fast (15 s, 6 s, and 5 s) towards 700 ppm of benzene, toluene and xylene respectively. Detailed sensing mechanism for BTX with such flower like ZnO structures was explained with the help of interaction of band structures (of ZnO) with the corresponding highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the target species.

  5. Structural and optical characterization of ZnO nanowires grown on alumina by thermal evaporation method.

    PubMed

    Mute, A; Peres, M; Peiris, T C; Lourenço, A C; Jensen, Lars R; Monteiro, T

    2010-04-01

    Zinc oxide nanowires have been grown on alumina substrate by thermal evaporation of zinc nanopowder in the presence of oxygen flow. The growth was performed under ambient pressure and without the use of foreign catalyst. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation showed that the as-grown sample consists of bulk ZnO crystal on the substrate surface with nanowires growing from this base. Growth mechanism of the observed morphology is suggested to be governed by the change of zinc vapour supersaturation during the growth process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement was used to identify the crystalline phase of the nanowires. Optical properties of the nanowires were investigated using Raman scattering and photoluminescence (PL). The appearance of dominant, Raman active E2 (high) phonon mode in the Raman spectrum has confirmed the wurtzite hexagonal phase of the nanowires. With above bandgap excitation the low temperature PL recombination is dominated by donor bound exciton luminescence at -3.37 eV with a narrow full width at half maximum. Free exciton emission is also seen at low temperature and can be observed up to room temperature. The optical data indicates that the grown nanowires have high optical quality.

  6. Fabrication and electrical properties of low temperature-processed thin-film-transistors with chemical-bath deposited ZnO layer.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Joo-Seob; Kwon, Ji-Hye; Yang, Heesun

    2013-06-01

    ZnO film was grown on ZnO quantum dot seed layer-coated substrate by a low-temperature chemical bath deposition, where sodium citrate serves as a complexing agent for Zn2+ ion. The ZnO film deposited under the optimal condition exhibited a highly uniform surface morphology with a thickness of approimately 30 nm. For the fabrication of thin-film-transistor with a bottom-gate structure, ZnO film was chemically deposited on the transparent substrate of a seed layer-coated SiN(x)/ITO (indium tin oxide)/glass. As-deposited ZnO channel was baked at low temperatures of 60-200 degrees C to investigate the effect of baking temperature on electrical performances. Compared to the device with 60 degrees C-baked ZnO channel, the TFT performances of one with 200 degrees C-baked channel were substantially improved, exhibiting an on-off current ratio of 3.6 x 10(6) and a saturated field-effect mobility of 0.27 cm2/V x s.

  7. Ultrathin ZnS and ZnO Interfacial Passivation Layers for Atomic-Layer-Deposited HfO2 Films on InP Substrates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Joo, So Yeong; Jin, Hyun Soo; Kim, Woo-Byoung; Park, Tae Joo

    2016-08-17

    Ultrathin ZnS and ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) were employed as interfacial passivation layers (IPLs) for HfO2 films on InP substrates. The interfacial layer growth during the ALD of the HfO2 film was effectively suppressed by the IPLs, resulting in the decrease of electrical thickness, hysteresis, and interface state density. Compared with the ZnO IPL, the ZnS IPL was more effective in reducing the interface state density near the valence band edge. The leakage current density through the film was considerably lowered by the IPLs because the film crystallization was suppressed. Especially for the film with the ZnS IPL, the leakage current density in the low-voltage region was significantly lower than that observed for the film with the ZnO IPL, because the direct tunneling current was suppressed by the higher conduction band offset of ZnS with the InP substrate.

  8. Photoluminescence transient study of surface defects in ZnO nanorods grown by chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbagiovanni, E. G.; Strano, V.; Franzò, G.; Crupi, I.; Mirabella, S.

    2015-03-01

    Two deep level defects (2.25 and 2.03 eV) associated with oxygen vacancies (Vo) were identified in ZnO nanorods (NRs) grown by low cost chemical bath deposition. A transient behaviour in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of the two Vo states was found to be sensitive to the ambient environment and to NR post-growth treatment. The largest transient was found in samples dried on a hot plate with a PL intensity decay time, in air only, of 23 and 80 s for the 2.25 and 2.03 eV peaks, respectively. Resistance measurements under UV exposure exhibited a transient behaviour in full agreement with the PL transient, indicating a clear role of atmospheric O2 on the surface defect states. A model for surface defect transient behaviour due to band bending with respect to the Fermi level is proposed. The results have implications for a variety of sensing and photovoltaic applications of ZnO NRs.

  9. Microstructure study of ZnO thin films on Si substrate grown by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jingyun; Ye, Zhizhen; Lu, Huanming; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Binghui; Li, Xianhang

    2007-08-01

    The microstructure of zinc oxide thin films on silicon substrates grown by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) was characterized. The cross-sectional bright-field transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image showed that small ZnO columnar grains were embedded into large columnar grains, and the selected-area electron diffraction pattern showed that the ZnO/Si thin films were nearly c-axis oriented. The deviation angle along the ZnO (0 0 0 1) direction with respect to the growth direction of Si (1 0 0) was no more than 5°. The [0 0 0 1]-tilt grain boundaries in ZnO/Si thin films were investigated symmetrically by plan-view high resolution TEM. The boundaries can be classified into three types: low-angle boundaries described as an irregular array of edge dislocations, boundaries of near 30° angle with (1\\,0\\,\\bar{1}\\,0) facet structures and large-angle boundaries with symmetric structure which could be explained by a low Σ coincident site lattice structure mode. The research was useful to us for finding optimized growth conditions to improve ZnO/Si thin film quality.

  10. Fabrication of needle-like ZnO nanorods arrays by a low-temperature seed-layer growth approach in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haimin; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo; Zhao, Huimin

    2007-11-01

    Uniform, large-scale, and well-aligned needle-like ZnO nanorods with good photoluminescence and photocatalysis properties on Zn substrates, have been successfully fabricated using a simple low-temperature seed-layer growth approach in solution (50 °C). The formation of ZnO seed-layer by the anodic oxidation technique (AOT) plays an important role in the subsequent growth of highly oriented ZnO nanorods arrays. Temperature also proved to be a significant factor in the growth of ZnO nanorods and had a great effect on their optical properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) indicated that the needle-like ZnO nanorods were single crystal in nature and that they had grown up preferentially along the [0001] direction. The well-aligned ZnO nanorods arrays on Zn substrates exhibited strong UV emission at around 380 nm at room temperature. To investigate their potential as photocatalysts, degradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in aqueous solution was carried out using photocatalytic processes, with comparison to direct photolysis. After 1 h, the degradation efficiencies of PCP by direct photolysis and photocatalytic processes achieved 57% and 76% under given experimental conditions, respectively. This improved degradation efficiency of PCP illustrates that ZnO nanorods arrays on Zn substrates have good photocatalytic activity. This simple low-temperature seed-layer growth approach in solution resulted in the development of an effective and low-cost fabrication process for high-quality ZnO nanorods arrays with good optical and photocatalytic properties that can be applicable in many fields such as photocatalysis, photovoltaic cells, luminescent sensors, and photoconductive sensors.

  11. Microwave Synthesized ZnO Nanorod Arrays for UV Sensors: A Seed Layer Annealing Temperature Study.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Ana; Ferreira, Sofia Henriques; Nunes, Daniela; Calmeiro, Tomas; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira

    2016-04-20

    The present work reports the influence of zinc oxide (ZnO) seed layer annealing temperature on structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanorod arrays, synthesized by hydrothermal method assisted by microwave radiation, to be used as UV sensors. The ZnO seed layer was produced using the spin-coating method and several annealing temperatures, ranging from 100 to 500 °C, have been tested. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectrophotometry measurements have been used to investigate the structure, morphology, and optical properties variations of the produced ZnO nanorod arrays regarding the seed layer annealing temperatures employed. After the growth of ZnO nanorod arrays, the whole structure was tested as UV sensors, showing an increase in the sensitivity with the increase of seed layer annealing temperature. The UV sensor response of ZnO nanorod arrays produced with the seed layer annealed temperature of 500 °C was 50 times superior to the ones produced with a seed layer annealed at 100 °C.

  12. Microwave Synthesized ZnO Nanorod Arrays for UV Sensors: A Seed Layer Annealing Temperature Study

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel, Ana; Ferreira, Sofia Henriques; Nunes, Daniela; Calmeiro, Tomas; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    The present work reports the influence of zinc oxide (ZnO) seed layer annealing temperature on structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanorod arrays, synthesized by hydrothermal method assisted by microwave radiation, to be used as UV sensors. The ZnO seed layer was produced using the spin-coating method and several annealing temperatures, ranging from 100 to 500 °C, have been tested. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectrophotometry measurements have been used to investigate the structure, morphology, and optical properties variations of the produced ZnO nanorod arrays regarding the seed layer annealing temperatures employed. After the growth of ZnO nanorod arrays, the whole structure was tested as UV sensors, showing an increase in the sensitivity with the increase of seed layer annealing temperature. The UV sensor response of ZnO nanorod arrays produced with the seed layer annealed temperature of 500 °C was 50 times superior to the ones produced with a seed layer annealed at 100 °C. PMID:28773423

  13. Low-Temperature Synthesis of Vertically Align ZnO Layer on ITO Glass: The Role of Seed Layer and Hydrothermal Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sholehah, Amalia; Achmad, NurSumiati; Dimyati, Arbi; Dwiyanti, Yanyan; Partuti, Tri

    2017-05-01

    ZnO thin layer has a broad potential application in optoelectronic devices. In the present study, vertically align ZnO layers on ITO glass were synthesized using wet chemical method. The seed layers were prepared using electrodeposition method at 3°C. After that, the growing process was carried out using chemical bath deposition (CBD) at 90°C. To improve the structural property of the ZnO layers, hydrothermal technique was used subsequently. Results showed that seeding layer has a great influence on the physical properties of the ZnO layers. Moreover, hydrothermal process conducted after the ZnO growth can enhance the morphological property of the layers. From the experiments, it is found that the ZnO layers has diameter of ∼60 nm with increasing thickness from ∼0.8 to 1.2 μm and band-gap energies of ∼3.2 eV.

  14. Effects of substrate on the structure and orientation of ZnO thin film grown by rf-magnetron sputtering

    SciT

    Liu, H. F.; Chua, S. J.; Hu, G. X.

    2007-10-15

    X-ray diffractions, Nomarski microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and photoluminescence have been used to study the effects of substrate on the structure and orientation of ZnO thin films grown by rf-magnetron sputtering. GaAs(001), GaAs(111), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0002) (c-plane), and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(1102) (r-plane) wafers have been selected as substrates in this study. X-ray diffractions reveal that the ZnO film grown on GaAs(001) substrate is purely textured with a high c-axis orientation while that grown on GaAs(111) substrate is a single ZnO(0002) crystal; a polycrystalline structure with a large-single-crystal area of ZnO(0002) is obtained on a c-plane Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate whilemore » a ZnO(1120) single crystal is formed on an r-plane Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate. There is absence of significant difference between the photoluminescence spectra collected from ZnO/GaAs(001), ZnO/GaAs(111), and ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0002), while the photoluminescence from ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(1102) shows a reduced intensity together with an increased linewidth, which is, likely, due to the increased incorporation of native defects during the growth of ZnO(1120)« less

  15. Influence of C or In buffer layer on photoluminescence behaviour of ultrathin ZnO film

    SciT

    Saravanan, K., E-mail: saravanan@igcar.gov.in; Jayalakshmi, G.; Krishnan, R.

    We study the effect of the indium or carbon buffer layer on the photoluminescence (PL) property of ZnO ultrathin films deposited on a Si(100) substrate. The surface morphology of the films obtained using scanning tunnelling microscopy shows spherical shaped ZnO nanoparticles of size ∼8 nm in ZnO/C/Si and ∼22 nm in ZnO/Si samples, while the ZnO/In/Si sample shows elliptical shaped ZnO particles. Further, the ZnO/C/Si sample shows densely packed ZnO nanoparticles in comparison with other samples. Strong band edge emission has been observed in the presence of In or C buffer layer, whereas the ZnO/Si sample exhibits poor PL emission. The influencemore » of C and In buffer layers on the PL behaviour of ZnO films is studied in detail using temperature dependent PL measurements in the range of 4 K–300 K. The ZnO/C/Si sample exhibits a multi-fold enhancement in the PL emission intensity with well-resolved free and bound exciton emission lines. Our experimental results imply that the ZnO films deposited on the C buffer layer showed higher particle density and better exciton emission desired for optoelectronic applications.« less

  16. High performance thin film transistor with ZnO channel layer deposited by DC magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Moon, Yeon-Keon; Moon, Dae-Yong; Lee, Sang-Ho; Jeong, Chang-Oh; Park, Jong-Wan

    2008-09-01

    Research in large area electronics, especially for low-temperature plastic substrates, focuses commonly on limitations of the semiconductor in thin film transistors (TFTs), in particular its low mobility. ZnO is an emerging example of a semiconductor material for TFTs that can have high mobility, while a-Si and organic semiconductors have low mobility (<1 cm2/Vs). ZnO-based TFTs have achieved high mobility, along with low-voltage operation low off-state current, and low gate leakage current. In general, ZnO thin films for the channel layer of TFTs are deposited with RF magnetron sputtering methods. On the other hand, we studied ZnO thin films deposited with DC magnetron sputtering for the channel layer of TFTs. After analyzing the basic physical and chemical properties of ZnO thin films, we fabricated a TFT-unit cell using ZnO thin films for the channel layer. The field effect mobility (micro(sat)) of 1.8 cm2/Vs and threshold voltage (Vth) of -0.7 V were obtained.

  17. Characterization of spatial manipulation on ZnO nanocomposites consisting of Au nanoparticles, a graphene layer, and ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shen-Che; Lu, Chien-Cheng; Su, Wei-Ming; Weng, Chen-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Cian; Wang, Shing-Chung; Lu, Tien-Chang; Chen, Ching-Pang; Chen, Hsiang

    2018-01-01

    Three types of ZnO-based nanocomposites were fabricated consisting of 80-nm Au nanoparticles (NPs), a graphene layer, and ZnO nanorods (NRs). To investigate interactions between the ZnO NRs and Au nanoparticle, multiple material analysis techniques including field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), surface contact angle measurements, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopic characterizations were performed. Results indicate that incorporating a graphene layer could block the interaction between the ZnO NRs and the Au NPs. Furthermore, the Raman signal of the Au NPs could be enhanced by inserting a graphene layer on top of the ZnO NRs. Investigation of these graphene-incorporated nanocomposites would be helpful to future studies of the physical properties and Raman analysis of the ZnO-based nanostructure design.

  18. Dimensional crossover of electron weak localization in ZnO/TiO{sub x} stacked layers grown by atomic layer deposition

    SciT

    Saha, D., E-mail: sahaphys@gmail.com, E-mail: pmisra@rrcat.gov.in; Misra, P., E-mail: sahaphys@gmail.com, E-mail: pmisra@rrcat.gov.in; Joshi, M. P.

    2016-01-25

    We report on the dimensional crossover of electron weak localization in ZnO/TiO{sub x} stacked layers having well-defined and spatially-localized Ti dopant profiles along film thickness. These films were grown by in situ incorporation of sub-monolayer TiO{sub x} on the growing ZnO film surface and subsequent overgrowth of thin conducting ZnO spacer layer using atomic layer deposition. Film thickness was varied in the range of ∼6–65 nm by vertically stacking different numbers (n = 1–7) of ZnO/TiO{sub x} layers of nearly identical dopant-profiles. The evolution of zero-field sheet resistance (R{sub ◻}) versus temperature with decreasing film thickness showed a metal to insulator transition. Onmore » the metallic side of the metal-insulator transition, R{sub ◻}(T) and magnetoresistance data were found to be well corroborated with the theoretical framework of electron weak localization in the diffusive transport regime. The temperature dependence of both R{sub ◻} and inelastic scattering length provided strong evidence for a smooth crossover from 2D to 3D weak localization behaviour. Results of this study provide deeper insight into the electron transport in low-dimensional n-type ZnO/TiO{sub x} stacked layers which have potential applications in the field of transparent oxide electronics.« less

  19. Structural and optical properties of indium-doped highly conductive ZnO bulk crystals grown by the hydrothermal technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Buguo; Claflin, Bruce; Look, David; Jiménez, Juan

    2018-02-01

    Indium-doped ZnO bulk crystals grown by the hydrothermal method are highly-conductive, with resistivity at 0.01 Ωcm at room temperature as revealed by Hall-effect measurement. In this paper we report on structural and optical properties of these crystals. The grown In:ZnO crystals have been studied by high resolution X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman scattering and low-temperature photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence. It was found that the c lattice parameter of the grown In:ZnO crystal expanded 0.06% with respect to the lithium-doped ZnO crystal seed, and the In-doped ZnO overgrew the seed crystal pseudomorphically but with high quality crystallinity; the X-ray rocking curves show the FWHM of the Zn face and O faces are only 0.05° and 0.1° ; and the indium concentration in the crystal reaches the solubility limit. Raman spectra show strain relaxation gradually from the regrowth interface as well as a weak spectral feature at 723 cm-1. The peak at 312 cm-1 noticed in hydrothermally grown In:ZnO nanostructures does not appear in our In-doped crystals, indicating that this peak may be associated with specific defects (e.g. surface related) of the nanostructures. Photoluminescence measurements show that an indium donor bound exciton peak I9 (In0X) is the dominant peak in the PL spectrum, located at 3.3586 eV on the zinc face and 3.3577 eV on the oxygen face. Both of them deviated from the consensus literature value of 3.3567 eV, probably due to strain in the crystal induced by impurities.

  20. Adsorbed Molecules and Surface Treatment Effect on Optical Properties of ZnO Nanowires Grown by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabri, S.; Souissi, H.; Sallet, V.; Lusson, A.; Meftah, A.; Galtier, P.; Oueslati, M.

    2017-07-01

    We have investigated the optical properties of ZnO nanowires grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with nitrous oxide (N2O) as oxygen precursor. Photoluminescence (PL) and Raman measurements showed the influence of adsorbed molecules on the optical properties. Low-temperature (4 K) PL studies on the surface exciton (SX) at 3.3660 eV elucidated the nature and origin of this emission. In particular, surface treatment by annealing at high temperature under inert gas reduced the emission intensity of SX. Raman vibrational spectra proved that presence of a considerable amount of adsorbed molecules on the surface of ZnO nanowires plays a key role in the occurrence of surface excitons.

  1. Suppression of Mg propagation into subsequent layers grown by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Anchal; Tahhan, Maher; Mates, Tom; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh

    2017-01-01

    Low temperature (LT) flow modulation epitaxy (FME) or "pulsed" growth was successfully used to prevent magnesium from Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) grown p-GaN:Mg layers riding into subsequently deposited n-type layers. Mg concentration in the subsequent layers was lowered from ˜1 × 1018 cm-3 for a medium temperature growth at 950 °C to ˜1 × 1016 cm-3 for a low temperature growth at 700 °C via FME. The slope of the Mg concentration drop in the 700 °C FME sample was 20 nm/dec—the lowest ever demonstrated by MOCVD. For growth on Mg implanted GaN layers, the drop for a medium temperature regrowth at 950 °C was ˜10 nm/dec compared to >120 nm/dec for a high temperature regrowth at 1150 °C. This drop-rate obtained at 950 °C or lower was maintained even when the growth temperature in the following layers was raised to 1150 °C. A controlled silicon doping series using LT FME was also demonstrated with the lowest and highest achieved doping levels being 5 × 1016 cm-3 and 6 × 1019 cm-3, respectively.

  2. Optical transparency of graphene layers grown on metal surfaces

    SciT

    Rut’kov, E. V.; Lavrovskaya, N. P.; Sheshenya, E. S., E-mail: sheshenayket@gmail.ru

    It is shown that, in contradiction with the fundamental results obtained for free graphene, graphene films grown on the Rh(111) surface to thicknesses from one to ~(12–15) single layers do not absorb visible electromagnetic radiation emitted from the surface and influence neither the brightness nor true temperature of the sample. At larger thicknesses, such absorption occurs. This effect is observed for the surfaces of other metals, specifically, Pt(111), Re(1010), and Ni(111) and, thus, can be considered as being universal. It is thought that the effect is due to changes in the electronic properties of thin graphene layers because of electronmore » transfer between graphene and the metal substrate.« less

  3. Evolution of crystal structure during the initial stages of ZnO atomic layer deposition

    DOE PAGES

    Boichot, R.; Tian, L.; Richard, M. -I.; ...

    2016-01-05

    In this study, a complementary suite of in situ synchrotron X-ray techniques is used to investigate both structural and chemical evolution during ZnO growth by atomic layer deposition. Focusing on the first 10 cycles of growth, we observe that the structure formed during the coalescence stage largely determines the overall microstructure of the film. Furthermore, by comparing ZnO growth on silicon with a native oxide with that on Al 2O 3(001), we find that even with lattice-mismatched substrates and low deposition temperatures, the crystalline texture of the films depend strongly on the nature of the interfacial bonds.

  4. Hybrid ZnO/phthalocyanine photovoltaic device with highly resistive ZnO intermediate layer.

    PubMed

    Izaki, Masanobu; Chizaki, Ryo; Saito, Takamasa; Murata, Kazufumi; Sasano, Junji; Shinagawa, Tsutomu

    2013-10-09

    We report a hybrid photovoltaic device composed of a 3.3 eV bandgap zinc oxide (ZnO) semiconductor and metal-free phthalocyanine layers and the effects of the insertion of the highly resistive ZnO buffer layer on the electrical characteristics of the rectification feature and photovoltaic performance. The hybrid photovoltaic devices have been constructed by electrodeposition of the 300 nm thick ZnO layer in a simple zinc nitrate aqueous solution followed by vacuum evaporation of 50-400 nm thick-phthalocyanine layers. The ZnO layers with the resistivity of 1.8 × 10(3) and 1 × 10(8) Ω cm were prepared by adjusting the cathodic current density and were installed into the hybrid photovoltaic devices as the n-type and buffer layer, respectively. The phthalocyanine layers with the characteristic monoclinic lattice showed a characteristic optical absorption feature regardless of the thickness, but the preferred orientation changed depending on the thickness. The ZnO buffer-free hybrid 50 nm thick phthalocyanine/n-ZnO photovoltaic device showed a rectification feature but possessed a poor photovoltaic performance with a conversion efficiency of 7.5 × 10(-7) %, open circuit voltage of 0.041 V, and short circuit current density of 8.0 × 10(-5) mA cm(-2). The insertion of the ZnO buffer layer between the n-ZnO and phthalocyanine layers induced improvements in both the rectification feature and photovoltaic performance. The excellent rectification feature with a rectification ratio of 3188 and ideally factor of 1.29 was obtained for the hybrid 200 nm thick phthalocyanine/ZnO buffer/n-ZnO photovoltaic device, and the hybrid photovoltaic device possessed an improved photovoltaic performance with the conversion efficiency of 0.0016%, open circuit voltage of 0.31 V, and short circuit current density of 0.015 mA cm(-2).

  5. Photocatalytic activity and reusability of ZnO layer synthesised by electrolysis, hydrogen peroxide and heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Akhmal Saadon, Syaiful; Sathishkumar, Palanivel; Mohd Yusoff, Abdull Rahim; Hakim Wirzal, Mohd Dzul; Rahmalan, Muhammad Taufiq; Nur, Hadi

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the zinc oxide (ZnO) layer was synthesised on the surface of Zn plates by three different techniques, i.e. electrolysis, hydrogen peroxide and heat treatment. The synthesised ZnO layers were characterised using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-visible diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the ZnO layer was further assessed against methylene blue (MB) degradation under UV irradiation. The photocatalytic degradation of MB was achieved up to 84%, 79% and 65% within 1 h for ZnO layers synthesised by electrolysis, heat and hydrogen peroxide treatment, respectively. The reusability results show that electrolysis and heat-treated ZnO layers have considerable photocatalytic stability. Furthermore, the results confirmed that the photocatalytic efficiency of ZnO was directly associated with the thickness and enlarged surface area of the layer. Finally, this study proved that the ZnO layers synthesised by electrolysis and heat treatment had shown better operational stability and reusability.

  6. Atomic Layer Deposition of Nickel on ZnO Nanowire Arrays for High-Performance Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Ren, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Yan; Lu, Hong-Liang; Wang, Yong-Ping; Liu, Wen-Jun; Ji, Xin-Ming; Devi, Anjana; Jiang, An-Quan; Zhang, David Wei

    2018-01-10

    A novel hybrid core-shell structure of ZnO nanowires (NWs)/Ni as a pseudocapacitor electrode was successfully fabricated by atomic layer deposition of a nickel shell, and its capacitive performance was systemically investigated. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that the NiO was formed at the interface between ZnO and Ni where the Ni was oxidized by ZnO during the ALD of the Ni layer. Electrochemical measurement results revealed that the Ti/ZnO NWs/Ni (1500 cycles) electrode with a 30 nm thick Ni-NiO shell layer had the best supercapacitor properties including ultrahigh specific capacitance (∼2440 F g -1 ), good rate capability (80.5%) under high current charge-discharge conditions, and a relatively better cycling stability (86.7% of the initial value remained after 750 cycles at 10 A g -1 ). These attractive capacitive behaviors are mainly attributed to the unique core-shell structure and the combined effect of ZnO NW arrays as short charge transfer pathways for ion diffusion and electron transfer as well as conductive Ni serving as channel for the fast electron transport to Ti substrate. This high-performance Ti/ZnO NWs/Ni hybrid structure is expected to be one of a promising electrodes for high-performance supercapacitor applications.

  7. Variation of microstructural and optical properties in SILAR grown ZnO thin films by thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Valanarasu, S; Dhanasekaran, V; Chandramohan, R; Kulandaisamy, I; Sakthivelu, A; Mahalingam, T

    2013-08-01

    The influence of thermal treatment on the structural and morphological properties of the ZnO films deposited by double dip Successive ionic layer by adsorption reaction is presented. The effect of annealing temperature and time in air ambient is presented in detail. The deposited films were annealed from 200 to 400 degrees C in air and the structural properties were determined as a function of annealing temperature by XRD. The studies revealed that films were exhibiting preferential orientation along (002) plane. The other structural parameters like the crystallite size (D), micro strain (epsilon), dislocation density (delta) and stacking fault (alpha) of as-deposited and annealed ZnO films were evaluated and reported. The optical properties were also studied and the band gap of the ZnO thins films varied from 3.27 to 3.04 eV with the annealing temperature. SEM studies revealed that the hexagonal shaped grains with uniformly distributed morphology in annealed ZnO thin films. It has been envisaged using EDX analysis that the near stoichiometric composition of the film can be attained by thermal treatment during which microstructural changes do occur.

  8. ZnO buffer layer for metal films on silicon substrates

    DOEpatents

    Ihlefeld, Jon

    2014-09-16

    Dramatic improvements in metallization integrity and electroceramic thin film performance can be achieved by the use of the ZnO buffer layer to minimize interfacial energy between metallization and adhesion layers. In particular, the invention provides a substrate metallization method utilizing a ZnO adhesion layer that has a high work of adhesion, which in turn enables processing under thermal budgets typically reserved for more exotic ceramic, single-crystal, or metal foil substrates. Embodiments of the present invention can be used in a broad range of applications beyond ferroelectric capacitors, including microelectromechanical systems, micro-printed heaters and sensors, and electrochemical energy storage, where integrity of metallized silicon to high temperatures is necessary.

  9. Blue emitting ZnO nanostructures grown through cellulose bio-templates.

    PubMed

    Oudhia, Anjali; Sharma, Savita; Kulkarni, Pragya; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a green and cost-effective recipe for the synthesis of blue-emitting ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) using cellulose bio-templates. Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf extract prepared in different solvents were used as biological templates to produce nanostructures of wurtzite ZnO with a particle size ~12-36 nm. A cellulose-driven capping mechanism is used to describe the morphology of ZnO NPs. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) and photoluminescence (PL) studies showed that solvents affect the growth process and the capping mechanism of bio-template severely. Structural changes in ZnO NPs were evident with variation in pH, dielectric constants (DC) and boiling points (BP) of solvents. Furthermore, an energy band model is proposed to explain the origin of the blue emission in the as-obtained ZnO NPs. PL excitation studies and the theoretical enthalpy values of individual defects were used to establish the association between the interstitial-zinc-related defect levels and the blue emission. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Single and multi-layered core-shell structures based on ZnO nanorods obtained by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition

    SciT

    Sáenz-Trevizo, A.; Amézaga-Madrid, P.; Pizá-Ruiz, P.

    2015-07-15

    Core–shell nanorod structures were prepared by a sequential synthesis using an aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition technique. Several samples consisting of ZnO nanorods were initially grown over TiO{sub 2} film-coated borosilicate glass substrates, following the synthesis conditions reported elsewhere. Later on, a uniform layer consisting of individual Al, Ni, Ti or Fe oxides was grown onto ZnO nanorod samples forming the so-called single MO{sub x}/ZnO nanorod core–shell structures, where MO{sub x} was the metal oxide shell. Additionally, a three-layer core–shell sample was developed by growing Fe, Ti and Fe oxides alternately, onto the ZnO nanorods. The microstructure of the core–shellmore » materials was characterized by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was employed to corroborate the formation of different metal oxides. X-ray diffraction outcomes for single core–shell structures showed solely the presence of ZnO as wurtzite and TiO{sub 2} as anatase. For the multi-layered shell sample, the existence of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} as hematite was also detected. Morphological observations suggested the existence of an outer material grown onto the nanorods and further microstructural analysis by HR-STEM confirmed the development of core–shell structures in all cases. These studies also showed that the individual Al, Fe, Ni and Ti oxide layers are amorphous; an observation that matched with X-ray diffraction analysis where no apparent extra oxides were detected. For the multi-layered sample, the development of a shell consisting of three different oxide layers onto the nanorods was found. Overall results showed that no alteration in the primary ZnO core was produced during the growth of the shells, indicating that the deposition technique used herein was and it is suitable for the synthesis of homogeneous and complex nanomaterials high in quality and purity. In

  11. High Performance and Highly Reliable ZnO Thin Film Transistor Fabricated by Atomic Layer Deposition for Next Generation Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-19

    zinc oxide ( ZnO ) thin film as an active channel layer in TFT has become of great interest owing to their specific...630-0192 Japan Phone: +81-743-72-6060 Fax: +81-743-72-6069 E-mail: uraoka@ms.naist.jp Keywords: zinc oxide , thin film transistors , atomic layer...deposition Symposium topic: Transparent Semiconductors Oxides [Abstract] In this study, we fabricated TFTs using ZnO thin film as the

  12. Solution processed ZnO hybrid nanocomposite with tailored work function for improved electron transport layer in organic photovoltaic devices.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Ju; Wang, Jian; Cheng, Samuel R; Hsu, Julia W P

    2013-09-25

    We demonstrate improved organic photovoltaic device performance using solution processed electron transport layers of ZnO nanoparticle (NP) films containing organic additives, poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP), or diethanolamine (DEA), that do not require post processing after film deposition. Inclusion of PVP or DEA decreased the ZnO work function by 0.4 eV through interfacial dipole formation. While PVP did not change the ZnO NP shape or size, DEA modified the ZnO shape from 5 nm × 15 nm nanorods to 5 nm nanoparticles. At an optimized PVP concentration of 0.7 wt %, ZnO NP:PVP electron transport layers (ETLs) improved the efficiency of inverted P3HT:PCBM devices by 37%, primarily through higher fill factor. ZnO NP:PVP and ZnO NP:DEA ETLs increased the open circuit voltage of inverted P3HT:ICBA devices by 0.07 V due to decreasing ETL work function, leading to enhanced built-in field. The relationship between ZnO nanocomposite ETL work function, donor-acceptor energy offset, and device performance is discussed. The effects of the two additives are compared.

  13. The properties of plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) ZnO thin films and comparison with thermal ALD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Doyoung; Kang, Hyemin; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Hyungjun

    2011-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were prepared by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) using oxygen plasma as a reactant and the properties were compared with those of thermal atomic layer deposition (TH-ALD) ZnO thin films. While hexagonal wurzite phase with preferential (0 0 2) orientation was obtained for both cases, significant differences were observed in various aspects of film properties including resistivity values between these two techniques. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements have shown that high resistivity of PE-ALD ZnO thin films is due to the oxygen interstitials at low growth temperature of 200 °C, whose amount decreases with increasing growth temperature. Thin film transistors (TFT) using TH- and PE-ALD ZnO as an active layer were also fabricated and the device properties were evaluated comparatively.

  14. A boron and gallium co-doped ZnO intermediate layer for ZnO/Si heterojunction diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yuanxi; Huang, Jian; Li, Bing; Tang, Ke; Ma, Yuncheng; Cao, Meng; Wang, Lin; Wang, Linjun

    2018-01-01

    ZnO (Zinc oxide)/Si (Silicon) heterojunctions were prepared by depositing n-type ZnO films on p-type single crystal Si substrates using magnetron sputtering. A boron and gallium co-doped ZnO (BGZO) high conductivity intermediate layer was deposited between aurum (Au) electrodes and ZnO films. The influence of the BGZO layer on the properties of Au/ZnO contacts and the performance of ZnO/Si heterojunctions was investigated. The results show an improvement in contact resistance by introducing the BGZO layer. Compared with the ZnO/Si heterojunction, the BGZO/ZnO/Si heterojunction exhibits a larger forward current, a smaller turn-on voltage and higher ratio of ultraviolet (UV) photo current/dark current.

  15. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Films Grown Using Molecular Layer Deposition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    shown that zincone films based on DEZ and hydroquinone (HQ) have displayed some conductivity when alloyed with ZnO ALD films [35]. The schematic...11 Schematic showing the two-step reaction sequence for AB zincone MLD growth using diethylzinc (DEZ) and hydroquinone (HQ). The hybrid organic

  16. Sb-related defects in Sb-doped ZnO thin film grown by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Caiqin; Ho, Lok-Ping; Azad, Fahad; Anwand, Wolfgang; Butterling, Maik; Wagner, Andreas; Kuznetsov, Andrej; Zhu, Hai; Su, Shichen; Ling, Francis Chi-Chung

    2018-04-01

    Sb-doped ZnO films were fabricated on c-plane sapphire using the pulsed laser deposition method and characterized by Hall effect measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, and positron annihilation spectroscopy. Systematic studies on the growth conditions with different Sb composition, oxygen pressure, and post-growth annealing were conducted. If the Sb doping concentration is lower than the threshold ˜8 × 1020 cm-3, the as-grown films grown with an appropriate oxygen pressure could be n˜4 × 1020 cm-3. The shallow donor was attributed to the SbZn related defect. Annealing these samples led to the formation of the SbZn-2VZn shallow acceptor which subsequently compensated for the free carrier. For samples with Sb concentration exceeding the threshold, the yielded as-grown samples were highly resistive. X-ray diffraction results showed that the Sb dopant occupied the O site rather than the Zn site as the Sb doping exceeded the threshold, whereas the SbO related deep acceptor was responsible for the high resistivity of the samples.

  17. Layer-by-layer-assembled quantum dot multilayer sensitizers: how the number of layers affects the photovoltaic properties of one-dimensional ZnO nanowire electrodes.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ho; Choi, Sukyung; Lim, Sang-Hoon; Rhee, Shi-Woo; Lee, Hyo Joong; Kim, Sungjee

    2014-01-13

    Layer cake: Multilayered CdSe quantum dot (QD) sensitizers are layer-by-layer assembled onto ZnO nanowires by making use of electrostatic interactions to study the effect of the layer number on the photovoltaic properties. The photovoltaic performance of QD-sensitized solar cells critically depends on this number as a result of the balance between light-harvesting efficiency and carrier-recombination probability. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Influence of aspect ratio and surface defect density on hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods towards amperometric glucose biosensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Mayoorika; Pramila; Dixit, Tejendra; Prakash, Rajiv; Palani, I. A.; Singh, Vipul

    2017-11-01

    In this work, hydrothermally grown ZnO Nanorods Array (ZNA) has been synthesized over Platinum (Pt) coated glass substrate, for biosensing applications. In-situ addition of strong oxidizing agent viz KMnO4 during hydrothermal growth was found to have profound effect on the physical properties of ZNA. Glucose oxidase (GOx) was later immobilized over ZNA by means of physical adsorption process. Further influence of varying aspect ratio, enzyme loading and surface defects on amperometric glucose biosensor has been analyzed. Significant variation in biosensor performance was observed by varying the amount of KMnO4 addition during the growth. Moreover, investigations revealed that the suppression of surface defects and aspect ratio variation of the ZNA played key role towards the observed improvement in the biosensor performance, thereby significantly affecting the sensitivity and response time of the fabricated biosensor. Among different biosensors fabricated having varied aspect ratio and surface defect density of ZNA, the best electrode resulted into sensitivity and response time to be 18.7 mA cm-2 M-1 and <5 s respectively. The observed results revealed that apart from high aspect ratio nanostructures and the extent of enzyme loading, surface defect density also hold a key towards ZnO nanostructures based bio-sensing applications.

  19. Growth and Properties of Cl- Incorporated ZnO Nanofilms Grown by Ultrasonic Spray-Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tingfang; Wang, Aiji; Kong, Lingrui; Li, Yongliang; Wang, Yinshu

    2016-04-01

    Pure and Cl- incorporated ZnO nanofilms were grown by the ultrasonic spray-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The properties of the nanofilms were investigated. The effects of growth temperature and Cl- concentration on the crystal structure, morphology, and optical properties of the nanofilms were studied. Temperature plays an important role in the growth mode and morphology of the pure nanofilms. Preferential growth along the c-axis occurs only at modulating temperature. Lower temperature suppresses the preferential growth, and higher temperature suppresses the growth of the nanofilms. The morphologies of the nanofilms change from lamellar and spherical structures into hexagonal platelets, then into separated nanoparticles with an increase in the temperature. Incorporating Cl- results in the lattice contracting gradually along with c-axis. Grains composing the nanofilms refine, and the optical gap broadens with increasing of Cl- concentration in growth precursor. Incorporating Cl- could reduce oxygen vacancies and passivate the non-irradiated centers, thus enhancing the UV emission and suppressing the visible emission of ZnO nanofilms.

  20. Transparent and conducting ZnO films grown by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjeris, Lazhar; Herissi, Labidi; Badreddine Assouar, M.; Easwarakhanthan, Thomas; Bougdira, Jamal; Attaf, Nadhir; Salah Aida, M.

    2009-03-01

    ZnO films were prepared using the simple, flexible and cost-effective spray pyrolysis technique at different substrate temperatures and precursor molarity values. The films' structural, optical and electrical properties were investigated by x-ray diffraction, UV-VIS transmittance spectroscopy, profilometry and voltage-current-temperature (VIT) measurements. The films prepared at substrate temperatures above 400 °C appear better crystallized with (0 0 2) preferred orientation and exhibit higher visible transmittance (65-80%), higher electrical n-type semiconductor conductivity (10-50 (Ω cm)-1), lower activation energy (<0.35 eV) and smaller Urbach energy (80 meV). These results indicate that such sprayed ZnO films are chemically purer and have many fewer defects and less disorder owing to an almost complete chemical decomposition of the precursor droplets. ZnO films having desired optical and electrical properties for cheaper large-area solar cells may thus be tailored through the substrate temperature and the precursor molarity.

  1. Solution-Grown ZnO Films toward Transparent and Smart Dual-Color Light-Emitting Diode.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaohu; Zhang, Li; Wang, Shijie; Chi, Dongzhi; Chua, Soo Jin

    2016-06-22

    An individual light-emitting diode (LED) capable of emitting different colors of light under different bias conditions not only allows for compact device integration but also extends the functionality of the LED beyond traditional illumination and display. Herein, we report a color-switchable LED based on solution-grown n-type ZnO on p-GaN/n-GaN heterojunction. The LED emits red light with a peak centered at ∼692 nm and a full width at half-maximum of ∼90 nm under forward bias, while it emits green light under reverse bias. These two lighting colors can be switched repeatedly by reversing the bias polarity. The bias-polarity-switched dual-color LED enables independent control over the lighting color and brightness of each emission with two-terminal operation. The results offer a promising strategy toward transparent, miniaturized, and smart LEDs, which hold great potential in optoelectronics and optical communication.

  2. The effect of induced strains on photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanostructures grown by thermal evaporation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjmand, Yaser; Eshghi, Hosein

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, ZnO nanostructures have been synthesized by thermal evaporation process using metallic zinc powder in the presence of oxygen on p-Si (100) at different distances from the boat. The structural and optical characterizations have been carried out. The morphological study shows various shape nanostructures. XRD data indicate that all samples have a polycrystalline wurtzite hexagonal structure in such a way that the closer sample has a preferred orientation along (101) while the ones farther are grown along (002) direction. From the structural and optical data analysis, we found that the induced strains are the main parameter controlling the UV/green peaks ratios in the PL spectra of the studied samples.

  3. Three-dimensional mesoscale heterostructures of ZnO nanowire arrays epitaxially grown on CuGaO2 nanoplates as individual diodes.

    PubMed

    Forticaux, Audrey; Hacialioglu, Salih; DeGrave, John P; Dziedzic, Rafal; Jin, Song

    2013-09-24

    We report a three-dimensional (3D) mesoscale heterostructure composed of one-dimensional (1D) nanowire (NW) arrays epitaxially grown on two-dimensional (2D) nanoplates. Specifically, three facile syntheses are developed to assemble vertical ZnO NWs on CuGaO2 (CGO) nanoplates in mild aqueous solution conditions. The key to the successful 3D mesoscale integration is the preferential nucleation and heteroepitaxial growth of ZnO NWs on the CGO nanoplates. Using transmission electron microscopy, heteroepitaxy was found between the basal planes of CGO nanoplates and ZnO NWs, which are their respective (001) crystallographic planes, by the observation of a hexagonal Moiré fringes pattern resulting from the slight mismatch between the c planes of ZnO and CGO. Careful analysis shows that this pattern can be described by a hexagonal supercell with a lattice parameter of almost exactly 11 and 12 times the a lattice constants for ZnO and CGO, respectively. The electrical properties of the individual CGO-ZnO mesoscale heterostructures were measured using a current-sensing atomic force microscopy setup to confirm the rectifying p-n diode behavior expected from the band alignment of p-type CGO and n-type ZnO wide band gap semiconductors. These 3D mesoscale heterostructures represent a new motif in nanoassembly for the integration of nanomaterials into functional devices with potential applications in electronics, photonics, and energy.

  4. ZnO nanostructures as electron extraction layers for hybrid perovskite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaidou, Katerina; Sarang, Som; Tung, Vincent; Lu, Jennifer; Ghosh, Sayantani

    Optimum interaction between light harvesting media and electron transport layers is critical for the efficient operation of photovoltaic devices. In this work, ZnO layers of different morphologies are implemented as electron extraction and transport layers for hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 thin films. These include nanowires, nanoparticles, and single crystalline film. Charge transfer at the ZnO/perovskite interface is investigated and compared through ultra-fast characterization techniques, including temperature and power dependent spectroscopy, and time-resolved photoluminescence. The nanowires cause an enhancement in perovskite emission, which may be attributed to increased scattering and grain boundary formation. However, the ZnO layers with decreasing surface roughness exhibit better electron extraction, as inferred from photoluminescence quenching, reduction in the number of bound excitons, and reduced exciton lifetime in CH3NH3PbI3 samples. This systematic study is expected to provide an understanding of the fundamental processes occurring at the ZnO-CH3NH3PbI3 interface and ultimately, provide guidelines for the ideal configuration of ZnO-based hybrid Perovskite devices. This research was supported by National Aeronautics and Space administration (NASA) Grant No: NNX15AQ01A.

  5. Multi-angle ZnO microstructures grown on Ag nanorods array for plasmon-enhanced near-UV-blue light emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Anil Kumar; Bharathi Mohan, D.

    2017-10-01

    Metal enhanced ultraviolet light emission has been explored in ZnO/Ag hybrid structures prepared by hydrothermal growth of multi-angled ZnO nanorods on slanted Ag nanorods array fabricated by the thermal evaporation technique. Slanted Ag nanorods are realized to be the stacking of non-spherical Ag nanoparticles, resulting in asymmetric surface plasmon resonance spectra. The surface roughness of Ag nanorod array films significantly influences the growth mechanism of ZnO nanorods, leading to the formation of multi-angled ZnO microflowers. ZnO/Ag hybrid structures facilitate the interfacial charge transfer from Ag to ZnO with the realization of negative shift in binding energy of Ag 3d orbitals by ˜0.8 eV. These high quality ZnO nanorods in ZnO/Ag hybrid nanostructures exhibit strong ultraviolet emission in the 383-396 nm region without broad deep level emission, which can be explained by a suitable band diagram. The metal enhanced photoluminescence is witnessed mainly due to interfacial charge transfer with its dependence on surface roughness of bottom layer Ag nanorods, number density of ZnO nanorods and diversity in the interfacial area between Ag and ZnO nanorods. The existence of strong ultraviolet light with minor blue light emission and appearance of CIE shade in strong violet-blue region by ZnO/Ag hybrid structures depict exciting possibilities towards near UV-blue light emitting devices.

  6. Multi-angle ZnO microstructures grown on Ag nanorods array for plasmon-enhanced near-UV-blue light emitter.

    PubMed

    Pal, Anil Kumar; Mohan, D Bharathi

    2017-10-13

    Metal enhanced ultraviolet light emission has been explored in ZnO/Ag hybrid structures prepared by hydrothermal growth of multi-angled ZnO nanorods on slanted Ag nanorods array fabricated by the thermal evaporation technique. Slanted Ag nanorods are realized to be the stacking of non-spherical Ag nanoparticles, resulting in asymmetric surface plasmon resonance spectra. The surface roughness of Ag nanorod array films significantly influences the growth mechanism of ZnO nanorods, leading to the formation of multi-angled ZnO microflowers. ZnO/Ag hybrid structures facilitate the interfacial charge transfer from Ag to ZnO with the realization of negative shift in binding energy of Ag 3d orbitals by ∼0.8 eV. These high quality ZnO nanorods in ZnO/Ag hybrid nanostructures exhibit strong ultraviolet emission in the 383-396 nm region without broad deep level emission, which can be explained by a suitable band diagram. The metal enhanced photoluminescence is witnessed mainly due to interfacial charge transfer with its dependence on surface roughness of bottom layer Ag nanorods, number density of ZnO nanorods and diversity in the interfacial area between Ag and ZnO nanorods. The existence of strong ultraviolet light with minor blue light emission and appearance of CIE shade in strong violet-blue region by ZnO/Ag hybrid structures depict exciting possibilities towards near UV-blue light emitting devices.

  7. Effects of Substrate and Post-Growth Treatments on the Microstructure and Properties of ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haseman, Micah; Saadatkia, P.; Winarski, D. J.; Selim, F. A.; Leedy, K. D.; Tetlak, S.; Look, D. C.; Anwand, W.; Wagner, A.

    2016-12-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) thin films were synthesized by atomic layer deposition on silicon, quartz and sapphire substrates and characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, optical spectroscopy, conductivity mapping, Hall effect measurements and positron annihilation spectroscopy. XRD showed that the as-grown films are of single-phase ZnO wurtzite structure and do not contain any secondary or impurity phases. The type of substrate was found to affect the orientation and degree of crystallinity of the films but had no effect on the defect structure or the transport properties of the films. High conductivity of 10-3 Ω cm, electron mobility of 20 cm2/Vs and carrier density of 1020 cm-3 were measured in most films. Thermal treatments in various atmospheres induced a large effect on the thickness, structure and electrical properties of the films. Annealing in a Zn and nitrogen environment at 400°C for 1 h led to a 16% increase in the thickness of the film; this indicates that Zn extracts oxygen atoms from the matrix and forms new layers of ZnO. On the other hand, annealing in a hydrogen atmosphere led to the emergence of an Al2O3 peak in the XRD pattern, which implies that hydrogen and Al atoms compete to occupy Zn sites in the ZnO lattice. Only ambient air annealing had an effect on film defect density and electrical properties, generating reductions in conductivity and electron mobility. Depth-resolved measurements of positron annihilation spectroscopy revealed short positron diffusion lengths and high concentrations of defects in all as-grown films. However, these defects did not diminish the electrical conductivity in the films.

  8. Sub-micron Polymer–Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework Layered Hybrids via Controlled Chemical Transformation of Naked ZnO Nanocrystal Films

    SciT

    Meckler, Stephen M.; Li, Changyi; Queen, Wendy L.

    Here we show that sub-micron coatings of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) and even ZIF–ZIF bilayers can be grown directly on polymers of intrinsic microporosity from zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystal precursor films, yielding a new class of all-microporous layered hybrids. The ZnO-to-ZIF chemical transformation proceeded in less than 30 min under microwave conditions using a solution of the imidazole ligand in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), water, or mixtures thereof. By varying the ratio of DMF to water, it was possible to control the morphology of the ZIF-on-polymer from isolated crystallites to continuous films. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction was used to confirm the presencemore » of crystalline ZIF in the thin films, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to quantify film purity, revealing films with little to no residual ZnO. The role solvent plays in the transformation mechanism is discussed in light of these findings, which suggest the ZnO nanocrystals may be necessary to localize heterogeneous nucleation of the ZIF to the polymer surface.« less

  9. Sub-micron Polymer–Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework Layered Hybrids via Controlled Chemical Transformation of Naked ZnO Nanocrystal Films

    SciT

    Meckler, Stephen M.; Li, Changyi; Queen, Wendy L.

    2015-11-02

    Here we show that sub-micron coatings of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) and even ZIF–ZIF bilayers can be grown directly on polymers of intrinsic microporosity from zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystal precursor films, yielding a new class of all-microporous layered hybrids. The ZnO-to-ZIF chemical transformation proceeded in less than 30 min under microwave conditions using a solution of the imidazole ligand in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), water, or mixtures thereof. By varying the ratio of DMF to water, it was possible to control the morphology of the ZIF-on-polymer from isolated crystallites to continuous films. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction was used to confirm the presencemore » of crystalline ZIF in the thin films, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to quantify film purity, revealing films with little to no residual ZnO. The role solvent plays in the transformation mechanism is discussed in light of these findings, which suggest the ZnO nanocrystals may be necessary to localize heterogeneous nucleation of the ZIF to the polymer surface.« less

  10. Enhanced resolution imaging of ultrathin ZnO layers on Ag(111) by multiple hydrogen molecules in a scanning tunneling microscope junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuyi; Shiotari, Akitoshi; Baugh, Delroy; Wolf, Martin; Kumagai, Takashi

    2018-05-01

    Molecular hydrogen in a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) junction has been found to enhance the lateral spatial resolution of the STM imaging, referred to as scanning tunneling hydrogen microscopy (STHM). Here we report atomic resolution imaging of 2- and 3-monolayer (ML) thick ZnO layers epitaxially grown on Ag(111) using STHM. The enhanced resolution can be obtained at a relatively large tip to surface distance and resolves a more defective structure exhibiting dislocation defects for 3-ML-thick ZnO than for 2 ML. In order to elucidate the enhanced imaging mechanism, the electric and mechanical properties of the hydrogen molecular junction (HMJ) are investigated by a combination of STM and atomic force microscopy. It is found that the HMJ shows multiple kinklike features in the tip to surface distance dependence of the conductance and frequency shift curves, which are absent in a hydrogen-free junction. Based on a simple modeling, we propose that the junction contains several hydrogen molecules and sequential squeezing of the molecules out of the junction results in the kinklike features in the conductance and frequency shift curves. The model also qualitatively reproduces the enhanced resolution image of the ZnO films.

  11. Structural, Electrical and Optical Properties of Sputtered-Grown InN Films on ZnO Buffered Silicon, Bulk GaN, Quartz and Sapphire Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, Umar; Hassan, Zainuriah; Ahmed, Naser M.; Afzal, Naveed

    2018-05-01

    Indium nitride (InN) films were grown on Si (111), bulk GaN, quartz and sapphire substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Prior to the film deposition, a zinc oxide (ZnO) buffer layer was deposited on all the substrates. The x-ray diffraction patterns of InN films on ZnO-buffered substrates indicated c-plane-oriented films whereas the Raman spectroscopy results indicated A1 (LO) and E2 (high) modes of InN on all the substrates. The crystalline quality of InN was found to be better on sapphire and quartz than on the other substrates. The surface roughness of InN was studied using an atomic force microscope. The results indicated higher surface roughness of the film on sapphire as compared to the others; however, roughness of the film was lower than 8 nm on all the substrates. The electrical properties indicated higher electron mobility of InN (20.20 cm2/Vs) on bulk GaN than on the other substrates. The optical band gap of InN film was more than 2 eV in all the cases and was attributed to high carrier concentration in the film.

  12. Photocatalytic hollow TiO2 and ZnO nanospheres prepared by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Justh, Nóra; Bakos, László Péter; Hernádi, Klára; Kiss, Gabriella; Réti, Balázs; Erdélyi, Zoltán; Parditka, Bence; Szilágyi, Imre Miklós

    2017-06-28

    Carbon nanospheres (CNSs) were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis, and coated with TiO 2 and ZnO nanofilms by atomic layer deposition. Subsequently, through burning out the carbon core templates hollow metal oxide nanospheres were obtained. The substrates, the carbon-metal oxide composites and the hollow nanospheres were characterized with TG/DTA-MS, FTIR, Raman, XRD, SEM-EDX, TEM-SAED and their photocatalytic activity was also investigated. The results indicate that CNSs are not beneficial for photocatalysis, but the crystalline hollow metal oxide nanospheres have considerable photocatalytic activity.

  13. Catalyst-free growth of ZnO nanowires on ITO seed/glass by thermal evaporation method: Effects of ITO seed layer thickness

    SciT

    Alsultany, Forat H., E-mail: foratusm@gmail.com; Ahmed, Naser M.; Hassan, Z.

    A seed/catalyst-free growth of ZnO nanowires (ZnO-NWs) on a glass substrate were successfully fabricated using thermal evaporation technique. These nanowires were grown on ITO seed layers of different thicknesses of 25 and 75 nm, which were deposited on glass substrates by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. Prior to synthesized ITO nanowires, the sputtered ITO seeds were annealed using the continuous wave (CW) CO2 laser at 450 °C in air for 15 min. The effect of seed layer thickness on the morphological, structural, and optical properties of ZnO-NWs were systematically investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM),more » and UV-Vis spectrophotometer.« less

  14. Effects of Chromium Dopant on Ultraviolet Photoresponsivity of ZnO Nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtari, S.; Safa, S.; Khayatian, A.; Azimirad, R.

    2017-07-01

    Structural and optical properties of bare ZnO nanorods, ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods, and Cr-doped ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods have been investigated. Encapsulated ZnO nanorods were grown using a simple two-stage method in which ZnO nanorods were first grown on a glass substrate directly from a hydrothermal bath, then encapsulated with a thin layer of Cr-doped ZnO by dip coating. Comparative study of x-ray diffraction patterns showed that Cr was successfully incorporated into the shell layer of ZnO nanorods. Moreover, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy confirmed presence of Cr in this sample. It was observed that the thickness of the shell layer around the core of the ZnO nanorods was at least about 20 nm. Transmission electron microscopy of bare ZnO nanorods revealed single-crystalline structure. Based on optical results, both the encapsulation process and addition of Cr dopant decreased the optical bandgap of the samples. Indeed, the optical bandgap values of Cr-doped ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods, ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods, and bare ZnO nanorods were 2.89 eV, 3.15 eV, and 3.34 eV, respectively. The ultraviolet (UV) parameters demonstrated that incorporation of Cr dopant into the shell layer of ZnO nanorods considerably facilitated formation and transportation of photogenerated carriers, optimizing their performance as a practical UV detector. As a result, the photocurrent of the Cr-doped ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods was the highest (0.6 mA), compared with ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods and bare ZnO nanorods (0.21 mA and 0.06 mA, respectively).

  15. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: A Ga-doped ZnO transparent conduct layer for GaN-based LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, Liu; Xiaofeng, Wang; Hua, Yang; Yao, Duan; Yiping, Zeng

    2010-09-01

    An 8 μm thick Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) film grown by metal-source vapor phase epitaxy was deposited on a GaN-based light-emitting diode (LED) to substitute for the conventional ITO as a transparent conduct layer (TCL). Electroluminescence spectra exhibited that the intensity value of LED emission with a GZO TCL is markedly improved by 23.6% as compared to an LED with an ITO TCL at 20 mA. In addition, the forward voltage of the LED with a GZO TCL at 20 mA is higher than that of the conventional LED. To investigate the reason for the increase of the forward voltage, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was performed to analyze the interface properties of the GZO/p-GaN heterojunction. The large valence band offset (2:24 ± 0:21 eV) resulting from the formation of Ga2O3 in the GZO/p-GaN interface was attributed to the increase of the forward voltage.

  16. UV light induced insulator-metal transition in ultra-thin ZnO/TiOx stacked layer grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, D.; Misra, P.; Joshi, M. P.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, atomic layer deposition has been used to grow a series of Ti incorporated ZnO thin films by vertically stacking different numbers (n = 1-7) of ZnO/TiOx layers on (0001) sapphire substrates. The effects of defect states mediated chemisorption of O2 and/OH groups on the electrical properties of these films have been investigated by illuminating the samples under UV light inside a high vacuum optical cryostat. The ultra-thin film having one stacked layer (n = 1) did not show any change in its electrical resistance upon UV light exposure. On the contrary, marginal drop in the electrical resistivity was measured for the samples with n ≥ 3. Most surprisingly, the sample with n = 2 (thickness ˜ 12 nm) showed an insulator to metal transition upon UV light exposure. The temperature dependent electrical resistivity measurement on the as grown film (n = 2) showed insulating behaviour, i.e., diverging resistivity on extrapolation to T→ 0 K. However, upon UV light exposure, it transformed to a metallic state, i.e., finite resistivity at T → 0 K. Such an insulator-metal transition plausibly arises due to the de-trapping of conduction electrons from the surface defect sites which resulted in an upward shift of the Fermi level above the mobility edge. The low-temperature electron transport properties on the insulating film (n = 2) were investigated by a combined study of zero field electrical resistivity ρ(T) and magnetoresistance (MR) measurements. The observed negative MR was found to be in good agreement with the magnetic field induced suppression of quantum interference between forward-going paths of tunnelling electrons. Both ρ(T) and MR measurements provided strong evidence for the Efros-Shklovskii type variable range hopping conduction in the low-temperature (≤40 K) regime. Such studies on electron transport in ultra-thin n-type doped ZnO films are crucial to achieve optimum functionality with long term reliability of ZnO based transparent

  17. Role of low O 2 pressure and growth temperature on electrical transport of PLD grown ZnO thin films on Si substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandis, Ch.; Brilis, N.; Tsamakis, D.; Ali, H. A.; Krishnamoorthy, S.; Iliadis, A. A.

    2006-06-01

    Undoped ZnO thin films have been grown on (100) Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The effect of growth parameters such as temperature, O 2 partial pressure and laser fluence on the structural and electrical properties of the films has been investigated. It is shown that the well-known native n-type conductivity, attributed to the activation of hydrogenic donor states, exhibits a conversion from n-type to p-type when the O 2 partial pressure is reduced from 10 -4 to 10 -7 Torr at growth temperatures lower than 400 °C. The p-type conductivity could be attributed to the dominant role of the acceptor Zn vacancies for ZnO films grown at very low O 2 pressures.

  18. Linear facing target sputtering of the epitaxial Ga-doped ZnO transparent contact layer on GaN-based light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hyun-Su; Lee, Ju-Hyun; Kwak, Joon-Seop; Lee, Hyun Hwi; Kim, Han-Ki

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we reported on the plasma damage-free sputtering of epitaxial Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films on the p-GaN layer for use as a transparent contact layer (TCL) for GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using linear facing target sputtering (LFTS). Effective confinement of high-density plasma between faced GZO targets and the substrate position located outside of the plasma region led to the deposition of the epitaxial GZO TCL with a low sheet resistance of 25.7 Ω/s and a high transmittance of 84.6% on a p-GaN layer without severe plasma damage, which was found using the conventional dc sputtering process. The low turn-on voltage of the GaN-based LEDs with an LFTS-grown GZO TCL layer that was grown at a longer target-to-substrate distance (TSD) indicates that the plasma damage of the GaN-LED could be effectively reduced by adjusting the TSD during the LFTS process.

  19. Cu-Doped ZnO Thin Films Grown by Co-deposition Using Pulsed Laser Deposition for ZnO and Radio Frequency Sputtering for Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hyun Wook; Son, Jong Yeog

    2018-05-01

    Cu-doped ZnO (CZO) thin films were fabricated on single-crystalline (0001) Al2O3 substrates by co-deposition using pulsed laser deposition for ZnO and radio frequency sputtering for Cu. CZO thin films with 0-20% molar concentrations are obtained by adjusting the deposition rates of ZnO and Cu. The CZO thin films exhibit room temperature ferromagnetism, and CZO with 5% Cu molar concentration has maximum remanent magnetization, which is consistent with theoretical results.

  20. Application of electrochemically deposited nanostructured ZnO layers on quartz crystal microbalance for NO2 detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgieva, B.; Petrov, M.; Lovchinov, K.; Ganchev, M.; Georgieva, V.; Dimova-Malinovska, D.

    2014-11-01

    The research was fixed on sensing behavior of ZnO nanostructured (NS) films to NO2 concentrations in the environment. The ZnO NS layers are deposited by electrochemical method on quartz resonators with Au electrodes. The sorption properties of ZnO layers were defined by measuring the resonant frequency shift (Δf) of the QCM-ZnO structure for different NO2 concentrations. The measurements were based on the correlation between the frequency shift of the QCM and additional mass loading (Δm) on the resonator calculated using Sauerbrey equation for the AT-cut quartz plate. Frequency - Time Characteristics (FTCs) of the samples were measured as a function of different NO2 concentrations in order to define the sorption abilities of ZnO layers. The experiments were carried out on a special set up in a dynamical regime. From FTCs the response and the recovery times of the QCM-ZnO structure were measured with varying NO2. Frequency shift changed from 23 Hz to 58Hz when NO2 was varied in the range of 250ppm - 5000ppm. The process of sorption was estimated as reversible and the sorption as physical. The obtained results demonstrated that QCM covered with the electrochemically deposited nanostructured ZnO films can be used as application in NO2 sensors.

  1. Growing vertical ZnO nanorod arrays within graphite: efficient isolation of large size and high quality single-layer graphene.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ling; E, Yifeng; Fan, Louzhen; Yang, Shihe

    2013-07-18

    We report a unique strategy for efficiently exfoliating large size and high quality single-layer graphene directly from graphite into DMF dispersions by growing ZnO nanorod arrays between the graphene layers in graphite.

  2. Electrochemical synthesis of one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures on ZnO seed layer for DSSC applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marimuthu, T.; Anandhan, N.; Thangamuthu, R.

    2018-01-01

    Electrochemical deposition of vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were prepared on ZnO seeded fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate in the solutions consisting of different concentrations of hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA). The electrochemical, structural, morphological, vibrational and optical properties were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, respectively. CV curves confirm that metallic zinc phase is not deposited as the HMTA concentration is about 9 mM in a deposition solution. XRD patterns of the as-prepared films show that the increasing HMTA concentrations from 0 mM to 9 mM not only increase the formation of zinc hydrate chloride (Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O) but also decrease and finally disappear the metallic Zn deposition. After the as-prepared films annealed at 450 ° C, the crystalline phases of Zn and Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O are completely converted to ZnO hexagonal wurtzite phase with high intense growth (002) plane orientation. SEM images support that the vertical growth of ZnO nanostructures (nanorods and petals) with a few flowers is found to be in the cordillera structure as the films are deposited in the solutions consisting of 3 mM, 6 mM and 9 mM HMTA respectively. Raman and PL spectra confirm that the ZnO film deposited in the solution consisting of 9 mM HMTA has a higher crystalline nature with lesser atomic defects and is also higher c-axis growth than that of other films deposited in the solutions consisting of 0 mM, 3 mM and 6 mM, respectively. UV-vis absorbance spectra corroborate that the ZnO film deposited in the solution consisting of 9 mM HMTA shows a high dye absorbance as compared with other films. The efficiency of DSSCs based on ZnO photoanodes deposited in the solutions consisting of 0 mM and 9 mM HMTA was 1.79 and 3.75%, respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectra revealed that DSSC based on ZnO photoanode

  3. Fabrication of nanostructured ZnO film as a hole-conducting layer of organic photovoltaic cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyomin; Kwon, Yiseul; Choe, Youngson

    2013-05-01

    We have investigated the effect of fibrous nanostructured ZnO film as a hole-conducting layer on the performance of polymer photovoltaic cells. By increasing the concentration of zinc acetate dihydrate, the changes of performance characteristics were evaluated. Fibrous nanostructured ZnO film was prepared by sol-gel process and annealed on a hot plate. As the concentration of zinc acetate dihydrate increased, ZnO fibrous nanostructure grew from 300 to 600 nm. The obtained ZnO nanostructured fibrous films have taken the shape of a maze-like structure and were characterized by UV-visible absorption, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. The intensity of absorption bands in the ultraviolet region was increased with increasing precursor concentration. The X-ray diffraction studies show that the ZnO fibrous nanostructures became strongly (002)-oriented with increasing concentration of precursor. The bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells were fabricated using poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) and indene-C60 bisadduct as active layer, and their electrical properties were investigated. The external quantum efficiency of the fabricated device increased with increasing precursor concentration.

  4. Fabrication of nanostructured ZnO film as a hole-conducting layer of organic photovoltaic cell

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of fibrous nanostructured ZnO film as a hole-conducting layer on the performance of polymer photovoltaic cells. By increasing the concentration of zinc acetate dihydrate, the changes of performance characteristics were evaluated. Fibrous nanostructured ZnO film was prepared by sol-gel process and annealed on a hot plate. As the concentration of zinc acetate dihydrate increased, ZnO fibrous nanostructure grew from 300 to 600 nm. The obtained ZnO nanostructured fibrous films have taken the shape of a maze-like structure and were characterized by UV-visible absorption, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. The intensity of absorption bands in the ultraviolet region was increased with increasing precursor concentration. The X-ray diffraction studies show that the ZnO fibrous nanostructures became strongly (002)-oriented with increasing concentration of precursor. The bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells were fabricated using poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) and indene-C60 bisadduct as active layer, and their electrical properties were investigated. The external quantum efficiency of the fabricated device increased with increasing precursor concentration. PMID:23680100

  5. EXAFS and XANES investigation of (Li, Ni) codoped ZnO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition.

    PubMed

    Mino, Lorenzo; Gianolio, Diego; Bardelli, Fabrizio; Prestipino, Carmelo; Senthil Kumar, E; Bellarmine, F; Ramanjaneyulu, M; Lamberti, Carlo; Ramachandra Rao, M S

    2013-09-25

    Ni doped, Li doped and (Li, Ni) codoped ZnO thin films were successfully grown using a pulsed laser deposition technique. Undoped and doped ZnO thin films were investigated using extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES). Preliminary investigations on the Zn K-edge of the undoped and doped ZnO thin films revealed that doping has not influenced the average Zn-Zn bond length and Debye-Waller factor. This shows that both Ni and Li doping do not appreciably affect the average local environment of Zn. All the doped ZnO thin films exhibited more than 50% of substitutional Ni, with a maximum of 77% for 2% Ni and 2% Li doped ZnO thin film. The contribution of Ni metal to the EXAFS signal clearly reveals the presence of Ni clusters. The Ni-Ni distance in the Ni(0) nanoclusters, which are formed in the film, is shorter with respect to the reference Ni metal foil and the Debye-Waller factor is higher. Both facts perfectly reflect what is expected for metal nanoparticles. At the highest doping concentration (5%), the presence of Li favors the growth of a secondary NiO phase. Indeed, 2% Ni and 5% Li doped ZnO thin film shows %Nisub = 75 ± 11, %Nimet = 10 ± 8, %NiO = 15 ± 8. XANES studies further confirm that the substitutional Ni is more than 50% in all the samples. These results explain the observed magnetic properties.

  6. Atomic Layer Deposition of Electron Selective SnOx and ZnO Films on Mixed Halide Perovskite: Compatibility and Performance.

    PubMed

    Hultqvist, Adam; Aitola, Kerttu; Sveinbjörnsson, Kári; Saki, Zahra; Larsson, Fredrik; Törndahl, Tobias; Johansson, Erik; Boschloo, Gerrit; Edoff, Marika

    2017-09-06

    The compatibility of atomic layer deposition directly onto the mixed halide perovskite formamidinium lead iodide:methylammonium lead bromide (CH(NH 2 ) 2 , CH 3 NH 3 )Pb(I,Br) 3 (FAPbI 3 :MAPbBr 3 ) perovskite films is investigated by exposing the perovskite films to the full or partial atomic layer deposition processes for the electron selective layer candidates ZnO and SnO x . Exposing the samples to the heat, the vacuum, and even the counter reactant of H 2 O of the atomic layer deposition processes does not appear to alter the perovskite films in terms of crystallinity, but the choice of metal precursor is found to be critical. The Zn precursor Zn(C 2 H 5 ) 2 either by itself or in combination with H 2 O during the ZnO atomic layer deposition (ALD) process is found to enhance the decomposition of the bulk of the perovskite film into PbI 2 without even forming ZnO. In contrast, the Sn precursor Sn(N(CH 3 ) 2 ) 4 does not seem to degrade the bulk of the perovskite film, and conformal SnO x films can successfully be grown on top of it using atomic layer deposition. Using this SnO x film as the electron selective layer in inverted perovskite solar cells results in a lower power conversion efficiency of 3.4% than the 8.4% for the reference devices using phenyl-C 70 -butyric acid methyl ester. However, the devices with SnO x show strong hysteresis and can be pushed to an efficiency of 7.8% after biasing treatments. Still, these cells lacks both open circuit voltage and fill factor compared to the references, especially when thicker SnO x films are used. Upon further investigation, a possible cause of these losses could be that the perovskite/SnO x interface is not ideal and more specifically found to be rich in Sn, O, and halides, which is probably a result of the nucleation during the SnO x growth and which might introduce barriers or alter the band alignment for the transport of charge carriers.

  7. Photoluminescence of phosphorus atomic layer doped Ge grown on Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yuji; Nien, Li-Wei; Capellini, Giovanni; Virgilio, Michele; Costina, Ioan; Schubert, Markus Andreas; Seifert, Winfried; Srinivasan, Ashwyn; Loo, Roger; Scappucci, Giordano; Sabbagh, Diego; Hesse, Anne; Murota, Junichi; Schroeder, Thomas; Tillack, Bernd

    2017-10-01

    Improvement of the photoluminescence (PL) of Phosphorus (P) doped Ge by P atomic layer doping (ALD) is investigated. Fifty P delta layers of 8 × 1013 cm-2 separated by 4 nm Ge spacer are selectively deposited at 300 °C on a 700 nm thick P-doped Ge buffer layer of 1.4 × 1019 cm-3 on SiO2 structured Si (100) substrate. A high P concentration region of 1.6 × 1020 cm-3 with abrupt P delta profiles is formed by the P-ALD process. Compared to the P-doped Ge buffer layer, a reduced PL intensity is observed, which might be caused by a higher density of point defects in the P delta doped Ge layer. The peak position is shifted by ˜0.1 eV towards lower energy, indicating an increased active carrier concentration in the P-delta doped Ge layer. By introducing annealing at 400 °C to 500 °C after each Ge spacer deposition, P desorption and diffusion is observed resulting in relatively uniform P profiles of ˜2 × 1019 cm-3. Increased PL intensity and red shift of the PL peak are observed due to improved crystallinity and higher active P concentration.

  8. High-quality ZnO inverse opals and related heterostructures as photocatalysts produced by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Jie; Fu, Ming; Li, Caixia; Sun, Cuifeng; He, Dawei; Wang, Yongsheng

    2018-10-01

    ZnO with various nanostructures is widely investigated for high photoelectrochemical (PEC) catalysis performances due to its abundant and inert semiconducting properties with elevated electronic mobility and variable morphologies. Because the solar energy conversion efficiencies could possibly be further enhanced by the introduction of nanophotonic structures with larger surface ratios, high-quality ZnO inverse opals (IOs) were achieved by ALD method using O3 as the oxidant. The intrinsic UV emission peaks and PEC currents of ZnO IOs produced by O3 atomic layer deposition (ALD) method were much improved when compared to those made by H2O ALD and electrodeposition. ALD at higher temperatures (240 °C) can further enhance the crystalline quality and PEC performances. The optimal ALD thickness and filling fraction obtained by controlling ALD cycles, as well as the optimal photonic stop band position obtained by colloidal crystals with different sphere diameters were also discussed. It was found that conformally coated samples with TiO2 protection layers by ALD method using titanium tetrachloride as a precursor enhanced the photochemical stability of ZnO IOs. The photocorrosion was further reduced by inserting ALD Al2O3 inside the TiO2 protection layers. Heterostructured photonic crystals with double-layer IO structures with different pore periodicities were also developed for enhancing the PEC performances.

  9. Using Synchrotron-Based Approaches To Examine the Foliar Application of ZnSO4 and ZnO Nanoparticles for Field-Grown Winter Wheat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Teng; Sun, Hongda; Lv, Zhiyuan; Cui, Lili; Mao, Hui; Kopittke, Peter M

    2018-03-21

    The effects of foliar-applied ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and ZnSO 4 on the winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) grain yield and grain quality were studied under field conditions, with the distribution and speciation of Zn within the grain examined using synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Although neither of the two Zn compounds improved the grain yield or quality, both increased the grain Zn concentration (average increments were 5 and 10 mg/kg for ZnSO 4 and ZnO NP treatments, respectively). Across all treatments, this Zn was mainly located within the aleurone layer and crease of the grain, although the application of ZnO NPs also slightly increased Zn within the endosperm. This Zn within the grain was found to be present as Zn phosphate, regardless of the form in which Zn was applied. These results indicate that the foliar application of ZnO NPs appears to be a promising approach for Zn biofortification, as required to improve human health.

  10. Effect of precursor on epitaxially grown of ZnO thin film on p-GaN/sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrate by hydrothermal technique

    SciT

    Sahoo, Trilochan; Ju, Jin-Woo; Kannan, V.

    2008-03-04

    Single crystalline ZnO thin film on p-GaN/sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrate, using two different precursors by hydrothermal route at a temperature of 90 deg. C were successfully grown. The effect of starting precursor on crystalline nature, surface morphology and optical emission of the films were studied. ZnO thin films were grown in aqueous solution of zinc acetate and zinc nitrate. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that all the thin films were single crystalline in nature and exhibited wurtzite symmetry and c-axis orientation. The thin films obtained with zinc nitrate had a more pitted rough surface morphology compared to the filmmore » grown in zinc acetate. However the thickness of the films remained unaffected by the nature of the starting precursor. Sharp luminescence peaks were observed from the thin films almost at identical energies but deep level emission was slightly prominent for the thin film grown in zinc nitrate.« less

  11. Domain matched epitaxial growth of (111) Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} thin films on (0001) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with ZnO buffer layer

    SciT

    Krishnaprasad, P. S., E-mail: pskrishnaprasu@gmail.com, E-mail: mkj@cusat.ac.in; Jayaraj, M. K., E-mail: pskrishnaprasu@gmail.com, E-mail: mkj@cusat.ac.in; Antony, Aldrin

    2015-03-28

    Epitaxial (111) Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} (BST) thin films have been grown by pulsed laser deposition on (0001) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate with ZnO as buffer layer. The x-ray ω-2θ, Φ-scan and reciprocal space mapping indicate epitaxial nature of BST thin films. The domain matched epitaxial growth of BST thin films over ZnO buffer layer was confirmed using Fourier filtered high resolution transmission electron microscope images of the film-buffer interface. The incorporation of ZnO buffer layer effectively suppressed the lattice mismatch and promoted domain matched epitaxial growth of BST thin films. Coplanar inter digital capacitors fabricated on epitaxial (111) BSTmore » thin films show significantly improved tunable performance over polycrystalline thin films.« less

  12. MBE grown III-V strain relaxed buffer layers and superlattices characterized by atomic force microscopy

    SciT

    Howard, A.J.; Fritz, I.J.; Drummond, T.J.

    1993-11-01

    Using atomic force microscopy (AFM), the authors have investigated the effects of growth temperature and dopant incorporation on the surface morphology of MBE grown graded buffer layers and strained layer superlattices (SLSs) in the InGaAlAs/GaAs and InAsSb/InSb material systems. The AFM results show quantitatively that over the temperature range from 380 to 545 C, graded in{sub x}Al{sub 1{minus}x}As(x = 0.05 {minus} 0.32) buffer layers grown at high temperatures ({approximately}520 C), and graded In{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}As (x = 0.05 {minus} 0.33) buffer layers and In{sub 0.4}Ga{sub 0.6}As/In{sub 0.26}Al{sub 0.35}Ga{sub 0.39}As SLSs grown at low temperatures ({approximately}400 C) have the lowest RMSmore » roughness. Also, for SLSs InAs{sub 0.21}Sb{sub 0.79}/InSb, undoped layers grown at 470 C were smoother than undoped layers grown at 420 C and Be-doped layers grown at 470 C. These results illustrate the role of surface tension in the growth of strained layer materials near the melting temperature of the InAs{sub x}Sb{sub {minus}x}/InSb superlattice. Nomarski interference and transmission electron microscopies, IR photoluminescence, x-ray diffraction, and photocurrent spectroscopy were also used to evaluate the relative quality of the material but usually, the results were not conclusive.« less

  13. Stable and High-Performance Flexible ZnO Thin-Film Transistors by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan-Yu; Hsu, Che-Chen; Tseng, Ming-Hung; Shyue, Jing-Jong; Tsai, Feng-Yu

    2015-10-14

    Passivation is a challenging issue for the oxide thin-film transistor (TFT) technologies because it requires prolonged high-temperature annealing treatments to remedy defects produced in the process, which greatly limits its manufacturability as well as its compatibility with temperature-sensitive materials such as flexible plastic substrates. This study investigates the defect-formation mechanisms incurred by atomic layer deposition (ALD) passivation processes on ZnO TFTs, based on which we demonstrate for the first time degradation-free passivation of ZnO TFTs by a TiO2/Al2O3 nanolaminated (TAO) film deposited by a low-temperature (110 °C) ALD process. By combining the TAO passivation film with ALD dielectric and channel layers into an integrated low-temperature ALD process, we successfully fabricate flexible ZnO TFTs on plastics. Thanks to the exceptional gas-barrier property of the TAO film (water vapor transmission rate (WVTR)<10(-6) g m(-2) day(-1)) as well as the defect-free nature of the ALD dielectric and ZnO channel layers, the TFTs exhibit excellent device performance with high stability and flexibility: field-effect mobility>20 cm2 V(-1) s(-1), subthreshold swing<0.4 V decade(-1) after extended bias-stressing (>10,000 s), air-storage (>1200 h), and bending (1.3 cm radius for 1000 times).

  14. Growth and interface properties of Au Schottky contact on ZnO grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asghar, M.; Mahmood, K.; Malik, Faisal; Hasan, M. A.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we have discussed the growth of ZnO by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and interface properties of Au Schottky contacts on grown sample. After the verification of structure and surface properties by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), respectively, Au metal contact was fabricated by e-beam evaporation to study contact properties. The high value of ideality factor (2.15) and barrier height (0.61 eV) at room temperature obtained by current-voltage (I-V) characteristics suggested the presence of interface states between metal and semiconductor. To confirm this observation we carried out frequency dependent capacitance-voltage (C-V) and conductance-voltage (G-V) demonstrated that the capacitance of diode decreased with increasing frequency. The reason of this behavior is related with density of interface states, series resistance and image force lowering. The C-2-V plot drawn to calculate the carrier concentration and barrier height with values 1.4×1016 cm-3 and 0.92 eV respectively. Again, high value of barrier height obtained from C-V as compared to the value obtained from I-V measurements revealed the presence of interface states. The density of these interface states (Dit) was calculated by well known Hill-Coleman method. The calculated value of Dit at 1 MHz frequency was 2×1012 eV-1 cm-2. The plot between interface states and frequency was also drawn which demonstrated that density of interface states had inverse proportion with measuring frequency.

  15. Characterization of few-layered graphene grown by carbon implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kin Kiong; McCallum, Jeffrey C.; Jamieson, David N.

    2014-02-01

    Graphene is considered to be a very promising material for applications in nanotechnology. The properties of graphene are strongly dependent on defects that occur during growth and processing. These defects can be either detrimental or beneficial to device performance depending on defect type, location and device application. Here we present experimental results on formation of few-layered graphene by carbon ion implantation into nickel films and characteristics of graphene devices formed by graphene transfer and lithographic patterning. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to determine the number of graphene layers formed and identify defects arising from the device processing. The graphene films were cleaned by annealing in vacuum. Transport properties of cleaned graphene films were investigated by fabrication of back-gated field-effect transistors, which exhibited high hole and electron mobility of 1935 and 1905 cm2/Vs, respectively.

  16. Evaluation of Alternative Atomistic Models for the Incipient Growth of ZnO by Atomic Layer Deposition

    SciT

    Chu, Manh-Hung; Tian, Liang; Chaker, Ahmad

    ZnO thin films are interesting for applications in several technological fields, including optoelectronics and renewable energies. Nanodevice applications require controlled synthesis of ZnO structures at nanometer scale, which can be achieved via atomic layer deposition (ALD). However, the mechanisms governing the initial stages of ALD had not been addressed until very recently. Investigations into the initial nucleation and growth as well as the atomic structure of the heterointerface are crucial to optimize the ALD process and understand the structure-property relationships for ZnO. We have used a complementary suite of in situ synchrotron x-ray techniques to investigate both the structural andmore » chemical evolution during ZnO growth by ALD on two different substrates, i.e., SiO2 and Al2O3, which led us to formulate an atomistic model of the incipient growth of ZnO. The model relies on the formation of nanoscale islands of different size and aspect ratio and consequent disorder induced in the Zn neighbors' distribution. However, endorsement of our model requires testing and discussion of possible alternative models which could account for the experimental results. In this work, we review, test, and rule out several alternative models; the results confirm our view of the atomistic mechanisms at play, which influence the overall microstructure and resulting properties of the final thin film.« less

  17. Analysis of ultraviolet photo-response of ZnO nanostructures prepared by electrodeposition and atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhlouf, Houssin; Karam, Chantal; Lamouchi, Amina; Tingry, Sophie; Miele, Philippe; Habchi, Roland; Chtourou, Radhouane; Bechelany, Mikhael

    2018-06-01

    In this work, ZnO nanowires (ZnO NWs) and urchin-like ZnO nanowires (U-ZnO NWs) based on self-assembled ordered polystyrene sphere (PS) were successfully prepared by combining atomic layer deposition (ALD) and electrochemical deposition (ECD) processes to build UV photosensors. The photo-response of the prepared samples was investigated and compared. The growth of the nanowires on self-assembled, ordered PS introduces a significant modification on the morphology, crystal orientation and grain size of U-ZnO NWs compared to randomly, vertically aligned ZnO NWs, and therefore improves the photo-response of U-ZnO NWs. The photocurrent may be produced by either a surface or bulk-related process. For ZnO NW-based photosensors, the photocurrent was monitored by a surface related process, whereas, it was mainly governed by a bulk related process for U-ZnO NWs, resulting in a higher and faster photo-response. The study of the rise and decay time constants for both materials showed that these parameters were strikingly sensitive to the optical properties.

  18. Two-dimensional ZnO nanosheets grown on flexible ITO-PET substrate for self-powered energy-harvesting nanodevices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qingyi; Yang, Dechao; Qiu, Yu; Zhang, Xiaotong; Song, Wenbin; Hu, Lizhong

    2018-02-01

    Here, we report the two-step growth method of two-dimensional (2-D) ZnO nanosheets (NSs) and explore their formation mechanism. Additionally, we illustrate their application for high-performance piezoelectric nanogenerators (NGs) by using grown products from various reaction times. The result shows that NGs based on 2-D NSs demonstrated better output performance than those based on 1-D NWs, which surprisingly increased from ˜40 nA to ˜0.15 μA under the same compressive force of ˜1 kgf. It can also be observed that the output current is slightly elevated as the 2-D nanostructures become thinner. Our results offer a unique way to improve the output performance of NGs by means of controlling the synthesis period of ZnO nanostructures, which have important applications in flexible electronics and wearable devices.

  19. Comparison of the structural properties of Zn-face and O-face single crystal homoepitaxial ZnO epilayers grown by RF-magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schifano, R.; Riise, H. N.; Domagala, J. Z.; Azarov, A. Yu.; Ratajczak, R.; Monakhov, E. V.; Venkatachalapathy, V.; Vines, L.; Chan, K. S.; Wong-Leung, J.; Svensson, B. G.

    2017-01-01

    Homoepitaxial ZnO growth is demonstrated from conventional RF-sputtering at 400 °C on both Zn and O polar faces of hydrothermally grown ZnO substrates. A minimum yield for the Rutherford backscattering and channeling spectrum, χmin, equal to ˜3% and ˜12% and a full width at half maximum of the 00.2 diffraction peak rocking curve of (70 ± 10) arc sec and (1400 ± 100) arc sec have been found for samples grown on the Zn and O face, respectively. The structural characteristics of the film deposited on the Zn face are comparable with those of epilayers grown by more complex techniques like molecular beam epitaxy. In contrast, the film simultaneously deposited on the O-face exhibits an inferior crystalline structure ˜0.7% strained in the c-direction and a higher atomic number contrast compared with the substrate, as revealed by high angle annular dark field imaging measurements. These differences between the Zn- and O-face films are discussed in detail and associated with the different growth mechanisms prevailing on the two surfaces.

  20. Tunable, flexible antireflection layer of ZnO nanowires embedded in PDMS.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Kyu; Yi, Dong Kee; Paik, Ungyu

    2010-05-18

    In this article, we report the fabrication of ordered hybrid structures composed of ZnO nanowires and a polymeric matrix with a polymer precursor infiltrating the nanowire arrays. The antireflective properties of the resulting ZnO nanowire-embedded polydimethylsiloxane composite (ZPC) were investigated at various ZnO nanowire lengths and ZPC bending angles. Interestingly, we found that whereas the antireflective properties showed a strong dependence on the length of the embedded ZnO nanowires in PDMS, the bending of ZPC has little effect on the antireflective properties.

  1. Improving the Performance of PbS Quantum Dot Solar Cells by Optimizing ZnO Window Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaokun; Hu, Long; Deng, Hui; Qiao, Keke; Hu, Chao; Liu, Zhiyong; Yuan, Shengjie; Khan, Jahangeer; Li, Dengbing; Tang, Jiang; Song, Haisheng; Cheng, Chun

    2017-04-01

    Comparing with hot researches in absorber layer, window layer has attracted less attention in PbS quantum dot solar cells (QD SCs). Actually, the window layer plays a key role in exciton separation, charge drifting, and so on. Herein, ZnO window layer was systematically investigated for its roles in QD SCs performance. The physical mechanism of improved performance was also explored. It was found that the optimized ZnO films with appropriate thickness and doping concentration can balance the optical and electrical properties, and its energy band align well with the absorber layer for efficient charge extraction. Further characterizations demonstrated that the window layer optimization can help to reduce the surface defects, improve the heterojunction quality, as well as extend the depletion width. Compared with the control devices, the optimized devices have obtained an efficiency of 6.7% with an enhanced V oc of 18%, J sc of 21%, FF of 10%, and power conversion efficiency of 58%. The present work suggests a useful strategy to improve the device performance by optimizing the window layer besides the absorber layer.

  2. The Antibacterial Polyamide 6-ZnO Hierarchical Nanofibers Fabricated by Atomic Layer Deposition and Hydrothermal Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhengduo; Zhang, Li; Liu, Zhongwei; Sang, Lijun; Yang, Lizhen; Chen, Qiang

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we report the combination of atomic layer deposition (ALD) with hydrothermal techniques to deposit ZnO on electrospun polyamide 6 (PA 6) nanofiber (NF) surface in the purpose of antibacterial application. The micro- and nanostructures of the hierarchical fibers are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). We find that NFs can grow into "water lily"- and "caterpillar"-like shapes, which depend on the number of ALD cycles and the hydrothermal reaction period. It is believed that the thickness of ZnO seed layer by ALD process and the period in hydrothermal reaction have the same importance in crystalline growth and hierarchical fiber formation. The tests of antibacterial activity demonstrate that the ZnO/PA 6 core-shell composite fabricated by the combination of ALD with hydrothermal are markedly efficient in suppressing bacteria survivorship.

  3. Improvement of inverted organic solar cells using acetic acid as an additive for ZnO layer processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Liu, Yawen; Liu, Zhihai; Xie, Xiaoyin; Lee, Eun-Cheol

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we used acetic acid as an additive for the preparation of ZnO layers and improved the performance of poly{4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)-oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b'] dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophene- 4,6-diyl} (PTB7)-based inverted organic solar cells. The addition of acetic acid to the ZnO precursor solution improved the transparency and conductivity of the sol-gel-synthesized ZnO film, by increasing the grain size of the film. Accordingly, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the organic solar cells was improved from 6.42% to 7.55%, which was mainly caused by the enhanced current density and fill factor. The best sample demonstrated a high PCE of 7.85% with negligible hysteresis and good stability. Our results indicate that using acetic acid as an additive for the preparation of ZnO is a simple and effective way of fabricating high-performance inverted organic solar cells.

  4. Hexagonal ZnO porous plates prepared from microwave synthesized layered zinc hydroxide sulphate via thermal decomposition

    SciT

    Machovsky, Michal, E-mail: machovsky@ft.utb.cz; Polymer Centre, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nam. T.G. Masaryka 275, 762 72 Zlin; Kuritka, Ivo, E-mail: ivo@kuritka.net

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Zinc hydroxy sulphate was synthesized in 3 min via microwave hydrothermal route. • Zinc hydroxy sulphate was converted into mesh like porous ZnO by calcining at 900°. • The process of transformation is topotactic. - Abstract: Layered zinc hydroxide sulphate (ZHS) was prepared by microwave-assisted hydrothermal precipitation of zinc sulphate monohydrate with hexamethylenetetramine. Under ambient conditions, the structure of ZHS determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) was found to be a mixture of zinc hydroxide sulphate pentahydrate Zn{sub 4}SO{sub 4}(OH){sub 6}·5H{sub 2}O and tetrahydrate Zn{sub 4}SO{sub 4}(OH){sub 6}·4H{sub 2}O. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was usedmore » for characterization of the prepared materials. Based on the interpretation of ZHS's thermal decomposition profile obtained by thermogravimetric analysis, ZnO of high purity was prepared by calcination at 900 °C for 2 h. The structure of the resulting ZnO was confirmed by the XRD. The morphology examination by scanning electron microscopy revealed a porous mesh-like ZnO structure developed from the ZHS precursor at the expense of mass removal due to the release of water and sulphate during the calcination.« less

  5. Effect of atomic layer deposition temperature on the performance of top-down ZnO nanowire transistors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of atomic layer deposition (ALD) temperature on the performance of top-down ZnO nanowire transistors. Electrical characteristics are presented for 10-μm ZnO nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs) and for deposition temperatures in the range 120°C to 210°C. Well-behaved transistor output characteristics are obtained for all deposition temperatures. It is shown that the maximum field-effect mobility occurs for an ALD temperature of 190°C. This maximum field-effect mobility corresponds with a maximum Hall effect bulk mobility and with a ZnO film that is stoichiometric. The optimized transistors have a field-effect mobility of 10 cm2/V.s, which is approximately ten times higher than can typically be achieved in thin-film amorphous silicon transistors. Furthermore, simulations indicate that the drain current and field-effect mobility extraction are limited by the contact resistance. When the effects of contact resistance are de-embedded, a field-effect mobility of 129 cm2/V.s is obtained. This excellent result demonstrates the promise of top-down ZnO nanowire technology for a wide variety of applications such as high-performance thin-film electronics, flexible electronics, and biosensing. PMID:25276107

  6. Room-temperature sensitivity to NO2 exposure of electrochemically-deposited nanostructured ZnO layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovchinov, K.; Petrov, M.; Ganchev, M.; Georgieva, V.; Nichev, H.; Georgieva, B.; Dimova-Malinovska, D.

    2014-05-01

    This paper reports studies on the sensitivity of ZnO layers to NO2 exposure. ZnO layers were fabricated by electrochemical deposition on the surface of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) with Au electrodes. The sensitivity was estimated using the frequency-time characteristics of the QCM. For this purpose, the resonance frequency shift was measured. The sorption process was investigated in a NO2 gas flow. The change in the resonance frequency, f of the QCM as a function of the loaded mass of NO2 was followed for a NO2 concentration of 500 ppm. Under gas exposure, the frequency decreased and reached saturation in five min. A frequency shift of 38 Hz was measured and a mass loading of 8.39 ng was calculated. The resonance frequency showed a very good recovery within two minutes after the NO2 flow was switched off. The results demonstrate that the electrodeposited nanostructured ZnO layers have a potential for application as NO2 gas sensors.

  7. Density-controlled, solution-based growth of ZnO nanorod arrays via layer-by-layer polymer thin films for enhanced field emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weintraub, Benjamin; Chang, Sehoon; Singamaneni, Srikanth; Han, Won Hee; Choi, Young Jin; Bae, Joonho; Kirkham, Melanie; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.; Deng, Yulin

    2008-10-01

    A simple, scalable, and cost-effective technique for controlling the growth density of ZnO nanorod arrays based on a layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte polymer film is demonstrated. The ZnO nanorods were synthesized using a low temperature (T = 90 °C), solution-based method. The density-control technique utilizes a polymer thin film pre-coated on the substrate to control the mass transport of the reactant to the substrate. The density-controlled arrays were investigated as potential field emission candidates. The field emission results revealed that an emitter density of 7 nanorods µm-2 and a tapered nanorod morphology generated a high field enhancement factor of 5884. This novel technique shows promise for applications in flat panel display technology.

  8. Annealing Temperature Dependence of ZnO Nanostructures Grown by Facile Chemical Bath Deposition for EGFET pH Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazilah Rosli, Aimi; Awang, Zaiki; Sobihana Shariffudin, Shafinaz; Herman, Sukreen Hana

    2018-03-01

    Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were deposited using chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique in water bath at 95 °C for 4 h. Post-deposition heat treatment in air ambient at various temperature ranging from 200-600 °C for 30 min was applied in order to enhance the electrical properties of ZnO nanostructures as the sensing membrane of extended-gate field effect transistor (EGFET) pH sensor. The as-deposited sample was prepared for comparison. The samples were characterized in terms of physical and sensing properties. FESEM images showed that scattered ZnO nanorods were formed for the as-deposited sample, and the morphology of the ZnO nanorods changed to ZnO nanoflowers when the heat treatment was applied from 200-600 °C. For sensing properties, the samples heated at 300 °C showed the higher sensitivity which was 39.9 mV/pH with the linearity of 0.9792. The sensing properties was increased with the increasing annealing treatment temperature up to 300 °C before decreased drastically.

  9. Anomalous luminescence phenomena of indium-doped ZnO nanostructures grown on Si substrates by the hydrothermal method

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, zinc oxide (ZnO) has become one of the most popular research materials due to its unique properties and various applications. ZnO is an intrinsic semiconductor, with a wide bandgap (3.37 eV) and large exciton binding energy (60 meV) making it suitable for many optical applications. In this experiment, the simple hydrothermal method is used to grow indium-doped ZnO nanostructures on a silicon wafer, which are then annealed at different temperatures (400°C to 1,000°C) in an abundant oxygen atmosphere. This study discusses the surface structure and optical characteristic of ZnO nanomaterials. The structure of the ZnO nanostructures is analyzed by X-ray diffraction, the superficial state by scanning electron microscopy, and the optical measurements which are carried out using the temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectra. In this study, we discuss the broad peak energy of the yellow-orange emission which shows tendency towards a blueshift with the temperature increase in the PL spectra. This differs from other common semiconductors which have an increase in their peak energy of deep-level emission along with measurement temperature. PMID:22647253

  10. Carrier transport in flexible organic bistable devices of ZnO nanoparticles embedded in an insulating poly(methyl methacrylate) polymer layer.

    PubMed

    Son, Dong-Ick; Park, Dong-Hee; Choi, Won Kook; Cho, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Won-Tae; Kim, Tae Whan

    2009-05-13

    The bistable effects of ZnO nanoparticles embedded in an insulating poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) polymer single layer by using flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates were investigated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed that ZnO nanoparticles were formed inside the PMMA polymer layer. Current-voltage (I-V) measurement on the Al/ZnO nanoparticles embedded in an insulating PMMA polymer layer/ITO/PET structures at 300 K showed a nonvolatile electrical bistability behavior with a flat-band voltage shift due to the existence of the ZnO nanoparticles, indicative of trapping, storing, and emission of charges in the electronic states of the ZnO nanoparticles. The carrier transport mechanism of the bistable behavior for the fabricated organic bistable device (OBD) structures is described on the basis of the I-V results by analyzing the effect of space charge.

  11. Time-resolved photon echoes from donor-bound excitons in ZnO epitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poltavtsev, S. V.; Kosarev, A. N.; Akimov, I. A.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Sadofev, S.; Puls, J.; Hoffmann, S. P.; Albert, M.; Meier, C.; Meier, T.; Bayer, M.

    2017-07-01

    The coherent optical response from 140 nm and 65 nm thick ZnO epitaxial layers is studied using four-wave-mixing spectroscopy with picosecond temporal resolution. Resonant excitation of neutral donor-bound excitons results in two-pulse and three-pulse photon echoes. For the donor-bound A exciton (D0XA ) at temperature of 1.8 K we evaluate optical coherence times T2=33 -50 ps corresponding to homogeneous line widths of 13 -19 μ eV , about two orders of magnitude smaller as compared with the inhomogeneous broadening of the optical transitions. The coherent dynamics is determined mainly by the population decay with time T1=30 -40 ps, while pure dephasing is negligible. Temperature increase leads to a significant shortening of T2 due to interaction with acoustic phonons. In contrast, the loss of coherence of the donor-bound B exciton (D0XB ) is significantly faster (T2=3.6 ps ) and governed by pure dephasing processes.

  12. Atomic layer deposition of Nb-doped ZnO for thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, A.; Wrench, J. S.; Jin, J. D.; Whittles, T. J.; Mitrovic, I. Z.; Raja, M.; Dhanak, V. R.; Chalker, P. R.; Hall, S.

    2016-11-01

    We present physical and electrical characterization of niobium-doped zinc oxide (NbZnO) for thin film transistor (TFT) applications. The NbZnO films were deposited using atomic layer deposition. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that the crystallinity of the NbZnO films reduces with an increase in the Nb content and lower deposition temperature. It was confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy that Nb5+ is present within the NbZnO matrix. Furthermore, photoluminescence indicates that the band gap of the ZnO increases with a higher Nb content, which is explained by the Burstein-Moss effect. For TFT applications, a growth temperature of 175 °C for 3.8% NbZnO provided the best TFT characteristics with a saturation mobility of 7.9 cm2/Vs, the current On/Off ratio of 1 × 108, and the subthreshold swing of 0.34 V/decade. The transport is seen to follow a multiple-trap and release mechanism at lower gate voltages and percolation thereafter.

  13. Standing and sitting adlayers in atomic layer deposition of ZnO

    SciT

    Gao, Zhengning; Banerjee, Parag, E-mail: parag.banerjee@wustl.edu; Wu, Fei

    The extent of reactivity of diethyl zinc (DEZ) with a hydroxylated surface during atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ZnO using DEZ and water is measured. Two adlayer configurations of DEZ are possible. The “standing” adlayer releases one ethyl group from DEZ. The “sitting” adlayer releases both ethyl groups, thus forming a Zn bridge between two O anions. Density functional theory calculations suggest the sitting configuration is more stable than the standing configuration by 790 meV. In situ quadrupole mass spectroscopy of by-product ethane generated in ALD half cycles indicate that ∼1.56 OH sites react with a DEZ molecule resulting in 71.6%more » of sitting sites. A simple simulation of a “ball-and-stick” DEZ molecule randomly collapsing on a neighboring site remarkably captures this adlayer behavior. It is concluded that DEZ fraction sitting is a competitive process of a standing DEZ molecule collapsing onto an available neighboring hydroxyl site, as sites vie for occupancy via adsorption and surface diffusion.« less

  14. Co-functionalized organic/inorganic hybrid ZnO nanorods as electron transporting layers for inverted organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambade, Swapnil B.; Ambade, Rohan B.; Eom, Seung Hun; Baek, Myung-Jin; Bagde, Sushil S.; Mane, Rajaram S.; Lee, Soo-Hyoung

    2016-02-01

    In an unprecedented attempt, we present an interesting approach of coupling solution processed ZnO planar nanorods (NRs) by an organic small molecule (SM) with a strong electron withdrawing cyano moiety and the carboxylic group as binding sites by a facile co-functionalization approach. Direct functionalization by SMs (SM-ZnO NRs) leads to higher aggregation owing to the weaker solubility of SMs in solutions of ZnO NRs dispersed in chlorobenzene (CB). A prior addition of organic 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)acetic acid (MEA) over ZnO NRs not only inhibits aggregation of SMs over ZnO NRs, but also provides enough sites for the SM to strongly couple with the ZnO NRs to yield transparent SM-MEA-ZnO NRs hybrids that exhibited excellent capability as electron transporting layers (ETLs) in inverted organic solar cells (iOSCs) of P3HT:PC60BM bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) photoactive layers. A strongly coupled SM-MEA-ZnO NR hybrid reduces the series resistance by enhancing the interfacial area and tunes the energy level alignment at the interface between the (indium-doped tin oxide, ITO) cathode and BHJ photoactive layers. A significant enhancement in power conversion efficiency (PCE) was achieved for iOSCs comprising ETLs of SM-MEA-ZnO NRs (3.64%) advancing from 0.9% for pristine ZnO NRs, while the iOSCs of aggregated SM-ZnO NRs ETL exhibited a much lower PCE of 2.6%, thus demonstrating the potential of the co-functionalization approach. The superiority of the co-functionalized SM-MEA-ZnO NRs ETL is also evident from the highest PCE of 7.38% obtained for the iOSCs comprising BHJ of PTB7-Th:PC60BM compared with extremely poor 0.05% for non-functionalized ZnO NRs.In an unprecedented attempt, we present an interesting approach of coupling solution processed ZnO planar nanorods (NRs) by an organic small molecule (SM) with a strong electron withdrawing cyano moiety and the carboxylic group as binding sites by a facile co-functionalization approach. Direct functionalization by SMs (SM

  15. Accumulation of Background Impurities in Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy Grown GaN Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usikov, Alexander; Soukhoveev, Vitali; Kovalenkov, Oleg; Syrkin, Alexander; Shapovalov, Liza; Volkova, Anna; Ivantsov, Vladimir

    2013-08-01

    We report on accumulation of background Si and O impurities measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) at the sub-interfaces in undoped, Zn- and Mg-doped multi-layer GaN structures grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) on sapphire substrates with growth interruptions. The impurities accumulation is attributed to reaction of ammonia with the rector quartz ware during the growth interruptions. Because of this effect, HVPE-grown GaN layers had excessive Si and O concentration on the surface that may hamper forming of ohmic contacts especially in the case of p-type layers and may complicate homo-epitaxial growth of a device structure.

  16. Electrical characterization of FIB processed metal layers for reliable conductive-AFM on ZnO microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pea, M.; Maiolo, L.; Giovine, E.; Rinaldi, A.; Araneo, R.; Notargiacomo, A.

    2016-05-01

    We report on the conductive-atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) study of metallic layers in order to find the most suitable configuration for electrical characterization of individual ZnO micro-pillars fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB). The electrical resistance between the probe tip and both as deposited and FIB processed metal layers (namely, Cr, Ti, Au and Al) has been investigated. Both chromium and titanium evidenced a non homogenous and non ohmic behaviour, non negligible scanning probe induced anodic oxidation associated to electrical measurements, and after FIB milling they exhibited significantly higher tip-sample resistance. Aluminium had generally a more apparent non conductive behaviour. Conversely, gold films showed very good tip-sample conduction properties being less sensitive to FIB processing than the other investigated metals. We found that a reliable C-AFM electrical characterization of ZnO microstructures obtained by FIB machining is feasible by using a combination of metal films as top contact layer. An Au/Ti bilayer on top of ZnO was capable to sustain the FIB fabrication process and to form a suitable ohmic contact to the semiconductor, allowing for reliable C-AFM measurement. To validate the consistency of this approach, we measured the resistance of ZnO micropillars finding a linear dependence on the pillar height, as expected for an ohmic conductor, and evaluated the resistivity of the material. This procedure has the potential to be downscaled to nanometer size structures by a proper choice of metal films type and thickness.

  17. Effect of growth parameters on the optical properties of ZnO nanostructures grown by simple solution methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothari, Anjana

    2017-05-01

    ZnO, a wide band gap semiconductor is of significant interest for a range of practical applications. One of the highly attractive features of ZnO is to grow variety of nanostructures by using low-cost techniques. In this paper, we report deposition of ZnO nanostructure rod-arrays (NRA) via low-temperature, solution-based deposition techniques such as chemical bath deposition (CBD) and microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition (MACBD). A detailed study of film deposition parameters such as variation in concentration of precursors and deposition temperature has been carried out. Compositional and structural study of the films has been done by X-ray Diffractometer to know the phase and purity of the final product. Morphological study of these structures has been carried out by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Optical study such as transmittance and diffuse reflectance of the films has been carried out as a function of growth parameters.

  18. Defect free C-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) films grown at room temperature using RF magnetron sputtering

    SciT

    Kunj, Saurabh, E-mail: saurabhkunj22@gmail.com; Sreenivas, K.

    2016-05-23

    Radio frequency Magnetron sputtering technique was employed to fabricate ZnO thin films on quartz substrate at room temperature. The effect of varying oxygen to argon (O{sub 2}/Ar) gas ratio on the structural and photoluminescence properties of the film is analyzed.X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra reveals the formation of hexagonal wurtzite structured ZnO thin films with preferred orientation along (002) plane. Photoluminescence (PL) characterization reveals the preparation of highly crystalline films exhibiting intense Ultraviolet (UV) emission with negligible amount of defects as indicated by the absence of Deep Level Emission (DLE) in the PL spectra.

  19. Defect free C-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) films grown at room temperature using RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunj, Saurabh; Sreenivas, K.

    2016-05-01

    Radio frequency Magnetron sputtering technique was employed to fabricate ZnO thin films on quartz substrate at room temperature. The effect of varying oxygen to argon (O2/Ar) gas ratio on the structural and photoluminescence properties of the film is analyzed.X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra reveals the formation of hexagonal wurtzite structured ZnO thin films with preferred orientation along (002) plane. Photoluminescence (PL) characterization reveals the preparation of highly crystalline films exhibiting intense Ultraviolet (UV) emission with negligible amount of defects as indicated by the absence of Deep Level Emission (DLE) in the PL spectra.

  20. Hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowires on flexible fabric substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Gwang-Wook; Yun, Sang-Ho; Kim, Joo-Hyung

    2016-04-01

    ZnO nanowires (NWs) would provide significant enhancement in sensitivity due to high surface to volume ratio. We investigated the first methodical study on the quantitative relationship between the process parameters of solution concentration ratio, structure, and physical and properties of ZnO NWs grown on different flexible fabric surfaces. To develop a fundamental following concerning various substrates, we controlled the growth speed of ZnO NWs and nanowires on cotton surface with easy and moderate cost fabrication method. Using ammonium hydroxide as the reactant with zinc nitrate hexahydrate, ZnO NWs layer have been grown on metal layers, instead of seed layer. ZnO NWs fabrication was done on different fabric substrates such as wool, nylon and polypropylene (PP). After the ZnO NWs grown to each substrates, we coated insulating layer with polyurethane (PU) and ethyl cellulose for prevent external intervention. Detailed electrical characterization was subsequently performed to reveal the working characteristics of the hybrid fabric. For electrical verification of fabricated ZnO NWs, we implemented measurement impact test and material properties with FFT analyzer and LCR meter.

  1. Electrodeposition of ZnO window layer for an all-atmospheric fabrication process of chalcogenide solar cell

    PubMed Central

    Tsin, Fabien; Venerosy, Amélie; Vidal, Julien; Collin, Stéphane; Clatot, Johnny; Lombez, Laurent; Paire, Myriam; Borensztajn, Stephan; Broussillou, Cédric; Grand, Pierre Philippe; Jaime, Salvador; Lincot, Daniel; Rousset, Jean

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the low cost electrodeposition of a transparent and conductive chlorine doped ZnO layer with performances comparable to that produced by standard vacuum processes. First, an in-depth study of the defect physics by ab-initio calculation shows that chlorine is one of the best candidates to dope the ZnO. This result is experimentally confirmed by a complete optical analysis of the ZnO layer deposited in a chloride rich solution. We demonstrate that high doping levels (>1020 cm−3) and mobilities (up to 20 cm2 V−1 s−1) can be reached by insertion of chlorine in the lattice. The process developed in this study has been applied on a CdS/Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 p-n junction produced in a pilot line by a non vacuum process, to be tested as solar cell front contact deposition method. As a result efficiency of 14.3% has been reached opening the way of atmospheric production of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 solar cell. PMID:25753657

  2. Electrodeposition of ZnO window layer for an all-atmospheric fabrication process of chalcogenide solar cell.

    PubMed

    Tsin, Fabien; Venerosy, Amélie; Vidal, Julien; Collin, Stéphane; Clatot, Johnny; Lombez, Laurent; Paire, Myriam; Borensztajn, Stephan; Broussillou, Cédric; Grand, Pierre Philippe; Jaime, Salvador; Lincot, Daniel; Rousset, Jean

    2015-03-10

    This paper presents the low cost electrodeposition of a transparent and conductive chlorine doped ZnO layer with performances comparable to that produced by standard vacuum processes. First, an in-depth study of the defect physics by ab-initio calculation shows that chlorine is one of the best candidates to dope the ZnO. This result is experimentally confirmed by a complete optical analysis of the ZnO layer deposited in a chloride rich solution. We demonstrate that high doping levels (>10(20) cm(-3)) and mobilities (up to 20 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) can be reached by insertion of chlorine in the lattice. The process developed in this study has been applied on a CdS/Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 p-n junction produced in a pilot line by a non vacuum process, to be tested as solar cell front contact deposition method. As a result efficiency of 14.3% has been reached opening the way of atmospheric production of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 solar cell.

  3. Growth of thin film containing high density ZnO nanorods with low temperature calcinated seed layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Rudrashish; Samal, Rudranarayan; Khatua, Lizina; Das, Susanta Kumar

    2018-05-01

    In this work we demonstrate the growth of thin film containing high density ZnO nanorods by using drop casting of the seed layer calcinated at a low temperature of 132 °C. Chemical bath deposition (CBD) method is used to grow the nanorods. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) are performed for the structural and morphological characterizations of the nanorods. The average diameter and length of nanorods are found to be 33 nm and 270 nm respectively. The bandgap of the material is estimated to be 3.2 eV from the UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy. The reported method is much more cost-effective and can be used for growth of ZnO nanorods for various applications.

  4. Sol-gel derived ZnO as an electron transport layer (ETL) for inverted organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, D. C.; Dwivedi, Shailendra Kumar; Dipak, Phukhrambam; Chandel, Tarun; Sharma, Rishi

    2017-05-01

    In this work, we present the study of the fabrication process of the sol-gel derived zinc oxide (ZnO) as an electron transport layer (ETL.). The solution processed inverted bulk heterojunction organic solar cells based on a thin film blend of poly (3-hexylthiophene 2, 5-diyl) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester is prepared. ZnO thin films are annealed at different temperature to optimize the solar cell performance and their characterization for their structural and optical properties are carried out. We have observed Voc=70mV, Jsc=1.33 µA/cm2 and FF=26% from the inverted heterojunction solar cell.

  5. Influence of growth temperature on properties of zirconium dioxide films grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukli, Kaupo; Ritala, Mikko; Aarik, Jaan; Uustare, Teet; Leskela, Markku

    2002-08-01

    ZrO2 films were grown by atomic layer deposition from ZrCl4 and H2O or a mixture of H2O and H2O2 on Si(100) substrates in the temperature range of 180-600 degC. The films were evaluated in the as-deposited state, in order to follow the effect of deposition temperature on the film quality. The rate of crystal growth increased and the content of residual impurities decreased with increasing temperature. The zirconium-to-oxygen atomic ratio, determined by ion-beam analysis, corresponded to the stoichiometric dioxide regardless of the growth temperature. The effective permittivity of ZrO2 in Al/ZrO2/Si capacitor structures increased from 13-15 in the films grown at 180 degC to 19 in the films grown at 300-600 degC, measured at 100 kHz. The permittivity was relatively high in the crystallized films, compared to the amorphous ones, but rather insensitive to the crystal structure. The permittivity was higher in the films grown using water. The leakage current density tended to be lower and the breakdown field higher in the films grown using hydrogen peroxide.

  6. The Effects of Zr Doping on the Optical, Electrical and Microstructural Properties of Thin ZnO Films Deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Herodotou, Stephania; Treharne, Robert E.; Durose, Ken; Tatlock, Gordon J.; Potter, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs), with high optical transparency (≥85%) and low electrical resistivity (10−4 Ω·cm) are used in a wide variety of commercial devices. There is growing interest in replacing conventional TCOs such as indium tin oxide with lower cost, earth abundant materials. In the current study, we dope Zr into thin ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) to target properties of an efficient TCO. The effects of doping (0–10 at.% Zr) were investigated for ~100 nm thick films and the effect of thickness on the properties was investigated for 50–250 nm thick films. The addition of Zr4+ ions acting as electron donors showed reduced resistivity (1.44 × 10−3 Ω·cm), increased carrier density (3.81 × 1020 cm−3), and increased optical gap (3.5 eV) with 4.8 at.% doping. The increase of film thickness to 250 nm reduced the electron carrier/photon scattering leading to a further reduction of resistivity to 7.5 × 10−4 Ω·cm and an average optical transparency in the visible/near infrared (IR) range up to 91%. The improved n-type properties of ZnO: Zr films are promising for TCO applications after reaching the targets for high carrier density (>1020 cm−3), low resistivity in the order of 10−4 Ω·cm and high optical transparency (≥85%). PMID:28793633

  7. SIMS depth profiling of rubber-tyre cord bonding layers prepared using 64Zn depleted ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulton, W. S.; Sykes, D. E.; Smith, G. C.

    2006-07-01

    Zinc oxide and copper/zinc sulphide layers are formed during vulcanisation and moulding of rubber to brass-coated steel tyre reinforcing cords. Previous studies have described how zinc diffuses through the rubber-brass interface to form zinc sulphide, and combines with oxygen to create zinc oxide during dezincification. The zinc is usually assumed to originate in the brass of the tyre cord, however, zinc oxide is also present in the rubber formulation. We reveal how zinc from these sources is distributed within the interfacial bonding layers, before and after heat and humidity ageing. Zinc oxide produced using 64Zn-isotope depleted zinc was mixed in the rubber formulation in place of the natural ZnO and the zinc isotope ratios within the interfacial layers were followed by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) depth profiling. Variations in the relative ratios of the zinc isotopes during depth profiling were measured for unaged, heat-aged and humidity-aged wire samples and in each case a relatively large proportion of the zinc incorporated into the interfacial layer as zinc sulphide was shown to have originated from ZnO in the rubber compound.

  8. Effect of atomic layer deposited Al2O3:ZnO alloys on thin-film silicon photovoltaic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul Hadi, Sabina; Dushaq, Ghada; Nayfeh, Ammar

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we present the effects of the Al2O3:ZnO ratio on the optical and electrical properties of aluminum doped ZnO (AZO) layers deposited by atomic layer deposition, along with AZO application as the anti-reflective coating (ARC) layer and in heterojunction configurations. Here, we report complex refractive indices for AZO layers with different numbers of aluminum atomic cycles (ZnO:Al2O3 = 1:0, 39:1, 19:1, and 9:1) and we confirm their validity by fitting models to experimental data. Furthermore, the most conductive layer (ZnO:Al2O3 = 19:1, conductivity ˜4.6 mΩ cm) is used to fabricate AZO/n+/p-Si thin film solar cells and AZO/p-Si heterojunction devices. The impact of the AZO layer on the photovoltaic properties of these devices is studied by different characterization techniques, resulting in the extraction of recombination and energy band parameters related to the AZO layer. Our results confirm that AZO 19:1 can be used as a low cost and effective conductive ARC layer for solar cells. However, AZO/p-Si heterojunctions suffer from an insufficient depletion region width (˜100 nm) and recombination at the interface states, with an estimated potential barrier of ˜0.6-0.62 eV. The work function of AZO (ZnO:Al2O3 = 19:1) is estimated to be in the range between 4.36 and 4.57 eV. These material properties limit the use of AZO as an emitter in Si solar cells. However, the results imply that AZO based heterojunctions could have applications as low-cost photodetectors or photodiodes, operating under relatively low reverse bias.

  9. New PLAD apparatus and fabrication of epitaxial films and junctions of functional materials: SiC, GaN, ZnO, diamond and GMR layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muto, Hachizo; Kusumori, Takeshi; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Asano, Takashi; Hori, Takahiro

    2006-04-01

    We have developed a new pulsed laser ablation-deposition (PLAD) apparatus and techniques for fabricating films of high-temperature or functional materials, including two short-wavelength lasers: (a) a YAG 5th harmonic (213 nm) and (b) Raman-shifted lasers containing vacuum ultraviolet light; also involved are (c) a high-temperature heater with a maximum temperature of 1350 °C, (d) dual-target simultaneous ablation mechanics, and (e) hybrid PLAD using a pico-second YAG laser combined with (c) and/or (d). Using the high-T heater, hetero-epitaxial films of 3C-, 2H- and 4H-SiC have been prepared on sapphire-c. In situ p-doping for GaN epitaxial films is achieved by simultaneous ablation of GaN and Mg targets by (d) during film growth. Junctions such as pGaN (Mg-doped)-film/n-SiC(0 0 0 1) substrate and pGaN/n-Si(1 1 1) show good diode characteristics. Epitaxial films with a diamond lattice can be grown on the sapphire-c plane by hybrid PLAD (e) with a high-T heater using a 6H-SiC target. High quality epitaxial films of ZnO are grown by PLAD by introducing a low-temperature self-buffer layer; magnetization of ferromagnetic materials is enforced by overlaying on a ferromagnetic lattice plane of an anti-ferromagnetic material, showing the value of the layer-overlaying method in improving quality. The short-wavelength lasers are useful in reducing surface particles on functional films, including superconductors.

  10. Self-assembled Ag nanoparticle network passivated by a nano-sized ZnO layer for transparent and flexible film heaters

    SciT

    Seo, Ki-Won; Kim, Han-Ki, E-mail: imdlhkkim@khu.ac.kr; Kim, Min-Yi

    2015-12-15

    We investigated a self-assembled Ag nanoparticle network electrode passivated by a nano-sized ZnO layer for use in high-performance transparent and flexible film heaters (TFFHs). The low temperature atomic layer deposition of a nano-sized ZnO layer effectively filled the uncovered area of Ag network and improved the current spreading in the self-assembled Ag network without a change in the sheet resistance and optical transmittance as well as mechanical flexibility. The time-temperature profiles and heat distribution analysis demonstrate that the performance of the TFTH with the ZnO/Ag network is superior to that of a TFFH with Ag nanowire electrodes. In addition, themore » TFTHs with ZnO/Ag network exhibited better stability than the TFFH with a bare Ag network due to the effective current spreading through the nano-sized ZnO layer.« less

  11. CuO and ZnO nanoparticles: phytotoxicity, metal speciation, and induction of oxidative stress in sand-grown wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimkpa, Christian O.; McLean, Joan E.; Latta, Drew E.; Manangón, Eliana; Britt, David W.; Johnson, William P.; Boyanov, Maxim I.; Anderson, Anne J.

    2012-09-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are reported to impact plant growth in hydroponic systems. This study describes the impact of commercial CuO (<50 nm) and ZnO (<100 nm) NPs on wheat ( Triticum aestivum) grown in a solid matrix, sand. The NPs contained both metallic and non-metallic impurities to different extents. Dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy (AFM) assessments confirmed aggregation of the NPs to submicron sizes. AFM showed transformation of ZnO NPs from initial rhomboid shapes in water to elongated rods in the aqueous phase of the sand matrix. Solubilization of metals occurred in the sand at similar rates from CuO or ZnO NPs as their bulk equivalents. Amendment of the sand with 500 mg Cu and Zn/kg sand from the NPs significantly ( p = 0.05) reduced root growth, but only CuO NPs impaired shoot growth; growth reductions were less with the bulk amendments. Dissolved Cu from CuO NPs contributed to their phytotoxicity but Zn release did not account for the changes in plant growth. Bioaccumulation of Cu, mainly as CuO and Cu(I)-sulfur complexes, and Zn as Zn-phosphate was detected in the shoots of NP-challenged plants. Total Cu and Zn levels in shoot were similar whether NP or bulk materials were used. Oxidative stress in the NP-treated plants was evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation and oxidized glutathione in roots and decreased chlorophyll content in shoots; higher peroxidase and catalase activities were present in roots. These findings correlate with the NPs causing increased production of reactive oxygen species. The accumulation of Cu and Zn from NPs into edible plants has relevance to the food chain.

  12. Plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition of ZnO with diethyl zinc and oxygen plasma: Effect of precursor decomposition

    SciT

    Muneshwar, Triratna, E-mail: muneshwa@ualberta.ca; Cadien, Ken; Shoute, Gem

    2016-09-15

    Although atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ZnO using diethyl zinc (DEZ) precursor has been extensively reported, variation in growth-per-cycle (GPC) values and the range of substrate temperature (T{sub sub}) for ALD growth between related studies remain unexplained. For identical processes, GPC for the characteristic self-limiting ALD growth is expected to be comparable. Hence, a significant variation in GPC among published ZnO ALD studies strongly suggests a concealed non-ALD growth component. To investigate this, the authors report plasma-enhanced ALD growth of ZnO using DEZ precursor and O{sub 2} inductively coupled plasma. The effect of T{sub sub} on ZnO GPC was studiedmore » with deposition cycles (1) 0.02 s–15 s–6 s–15 s, (2) 0.10 s–15 s–15 s–15 s, and (3) 0.20 s–15 s–30 s–15 s, where the cycle parameters t{sub 1}–t{sub 2}–t{sub 3}–t{sub 4} denote duration of DEZ pulse, post-DEZ purge, plasma exposure, and postplasma purge, respectively. The non-ALD growth characteristics observed at T{sub sub} ≥ 60 °C are discussed and attributed to DEZ precursor decomposition. The authors demonstrate ZnO growth at T{sub sub} = 50 °C to be self-limiting with respect to both t{sub 1} and t{sub 3} giving GPC of 0.101 ± 0.001 nm/cycle. The effect of precursor decomposition related (non-ALD) growth at T{sub sub} ≥ 60 °C is illustrated from comparison of optical dielectric function, electrical resistivity, and surface roughness of ZnO films deposited at T{sub sub} = 50, 125, and 200 °C.« less

  13. The initial stages of ZnO atomic layer deposition on atomically flat In0.53Ga0.47As substrates.

    PubMed

    Skopin, Evgeniy V; Rapenne, Laetitia; Roussel, Hervé; Deschanvres, Jean-Luc; Blanquet, Elisabeth; Ciatto, Gianluca; Fong, Dillon D; Richard, Marie-Ingrid; Renevier, Hubert

    2018-06-21

    InGaAs is one of the III-V active semiconductors used in modern high-electron-mobility transistors or high-speed electronics. ZnO is a good candidate material to be inserted as a tunneling insulator layer at the metal-semiconductor junction. A key consideration in many modern devices is the atomic structure of the hetero-interface, which often ultimately governs the electronic or chemical process of interest. Here, a complementary suite of in situ synchrotron X-ray techniques (fluorescence, reflectivity and absorption) as well as modeling is used to investigate both structural and chemical evolution during the initial growth of ZnO by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on In0.53Ga0.47As substrates. Prior to steady-state growth behavior, we discover a transient regime characterized by two stages. First, substrate-inhibited ZnO growth takes place on InGaAs terraces. This leads eventually to the formation of a 1 nm-thick, two-dimensional (2D) amorphous layer. Second, the growth behavior and its modeling suggest the occurrence of dense island formation, with an aspect ratio and surface roughness that depends sensitively on the growth condition. Finally, ZnO ALD on In0.53Ga0.47As is characterized by 2D steady-state growth with a linear growth rate of 0.21 nm cy-1, as expected for layer-by-layer ZnO ALD.

  14. Effect of growth temperature on the epitaxial growth of ZnO on GaN by ALD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Särkijärvi, Suvi; Sintonen, Sakari; Tuomisto, Filip; Bosund, Markus; Suihkonen, Sami; Lipsanen, Harri

    2014-07-01

    We report on the epitaxial growth of ZnO on GaN template by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Diethylzinc (DEZn) and water vapour (H2O) were used as precursors. The structure and the quality of the grown ZnO layers were studied with scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) measurements and positron annihilation spectroscopy. The ZnO films were confirmed epitaxial, and the film quality was found to improve with increasing deposition temperature in the vicinity of the threshold temperature of two dimensional growth. We conclude that high quality ZnO thin films can be grown by ALD. Interestingly only separate Zn-vacancies were observed in the films, although ZnO thin films typically contain fairly high density of surface pits and vacancy clusters.

  15. Intensity dependence and transient dynamics of donor-acceptor pair recombination in ZnO thin films grown on (001) silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bing; Qiu, Z. R.; Wong, K. S.

    2003-04-01

    We report room-temperature time-integrated and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) measurements on a nominally undoped wurtzite ZnO thin film grown on (001) silicon. A linear and sublinear excitation intensity Iex dependence of the PL intensity were observed for the 379.48-nm exciton line and the weak broad green band (˜510 nm), respectively. The green luminescence was found to decay as hyperbolic t-1, and its peak energy was observed to increase nearly logarithmically with increased Iex. These results are in an excellent agreement with the tunnel-assisted donor-deep-acceptor pair (DAP) model so that its large blueshifts of about 25 meV per decade increase in Iex can be accounted for by the screening of the fluctuating impurity potential. Also, the 30-ps fast decay of the exciton emission was attributed to the rapid trapping of carriers at luminescent impurities, while the short lifetime of τ1/e=200 ps for the green luminescence may be due to an alternative trapping by deeper centers in the ZnO. Finally, singly ionized oxygen and zinc vacancies have been tentatively invoked to act as donor-deep-acceptor candidates for the DAP luminescence, respectively.

  16. Effect of temperature on NH3 sensing by ZnO: Mg thin film grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinoth, E.; Gopalakrishnan, N.

    2018-04-01

    Undoped and Mg doped (at l0 mol %) ZnO thin films have been grown on glass substrates by using the RF magnetron sputtering. The structural properties of the fabricated thin films were studied by X-ray diffraction analysis and it was found hexagonal wurtzite phase and preferential orientation along (002) of both films. Green Band Emission peaks in the Photoluminescence spectra confirm the structural defects such as oxygen vacancies (Vo) in the films. Uniform distribution of spherical shape morphology of grains observed in the both films by FESEM. However, the growth of grains was found in the Mg doped thin film. The temperature dependent ammonia sensing is done by the indigenously made gas sensing setup. The gas response of the both films was increased as the temperature increases, attains maximum at 75° C and then decreases. Response and recovery time measurementswere donefor boththe films and it shows the fast response time and quick recovery for doped thin film compared to the pure ZnO thin film.

  17. Stability Enhancement of Silver Nanowire Networks with Conformal ZnO Coatings Deposited by Atmospheric Pressure Spatial Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Khan, Afzal; Nguyen, Viet Huong; Muñoz-Rojas, David; Aghazadehchors, Sara; Jiménez, Carmen; Nguyen, Ngoc Duy; Bellet, Daniel

    2018-06-06

    Silver nanowire (AgNW) networks offer excellent electrical and optical properties and have emerged as one of the most attractive alternatives to transparent conductive oxides to be used in flexible optoelectronic applications. However, AgNW networks still suffer from chemical, thermal, and electrical instabilities, which in some cases can hinder their efficient integration as transparent electrodes in devices such as solar cells, transparent heaters, touch screens, and organic light emitting diodes. We have used atmospheric pressure spatial atomic layer deposition (AP-SALD) to fabricate hybrid transparent electrode materials in which the AgNW network is protected by a conformal thin layer of zinc oxide. The choice of AP-SALD allows us to maintain the low-cost and scalable processing of AgNW-based transparent electrodes. The effects of the ZnO coating thickness on the physical properties of AgNW networks are presented. The composite electrodes show a drastic enhancement of both thermal and electrical stabilities. We found that bare AgNWs were stable only up to 300 °C when subjected to thermal ramps, whereas the ZnO coating improved the stability up to 500 °C. Similarly, ZnO-coated AgNWs exhibited an increase of 100% in electrical stability with respect to bare networks, withstanding up to 18 V. A simple physical model shows that the origin of the stability improvement is the result of hindered silver atomic diffusion thanks to the presence of the thin oxide layer and the quality of the interfaces of hybrid electrodes. The effects of ZnO coating on both the network adhesion and optical transparency are also discussed. Finally, we show that the AP-SALD ZnO-coated AgNW networks can be effectively used as very stable transparent heaters.

  18. Heavily boron-doped Si layers grown below 700 C by molecular beam epitaxy using a HBO2 source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. L.; Fathauer, R. W.; Grunthaner, P. J.

    1989-01-01

    Boron doping in Si layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) at 500-700 C using an HBO2 source has been studied. The maximum boron concentration without detectable oxygen incorporation for a given substrate temperature and Si growth rate has been determined using secondary-ion mass spectrometry analysis. Boron present in the Si MBE layers grown at 550-700 C was found to be electrically active, independent of the amount of oxygen incorporation. By reducing the Si growth rate, highly boron-doped layers have been grown at 600 C without detectable oxygen incorporation.

  19. Intersubband spectroscopy of ZnO/ZnMgO quantum wells grown on m-plane ZnO substrates for quantum cascade device applications (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quach, Patrick; Jollivet, Arnaud; Isac, Nathalie; Bousseksou, Adel; Ariel, Frédéric; Tchernycheva, Maria; Julien, François H.; Montes Bajo, Miguel; Tamayo-Arriola, Julen; Hierro, Adrián.; Le Biavan, Nolwenn; Hugues, Maxime; Chauveau, Jean-Michel

    2017-03-01

    Quantum cascade (QC) lasers opens new prospects for powerful sources operating at THz frequencies. Up to now the best THz QC lasers are based on intersubband emission in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well (QW) heterostructures. The maximum operating temperature is 200 K, which is too low for wide-spread applications. This is due to the rather low LO-phonon energy (36 meV) of GaAs-based materials. Indeed, thermal activation allows non-radiative path through electron-phonon interaction which destroys the population inversion. Wide band gap materials such as ZnO have been predicted to provide much higher operating temperatures because of the high value of their LO-phonon energy. However, despite some observations of intersubband absorption in c-plane ZnO/ZnMgO quantum wells, little is known on the fundamental parameters such as the conduction band offset in such heterostructures. In addition the internal field inherent to c-plane grown heterostuctures is an handicap for the design of QC lasers and detectors. In this talk, we will review a systematic investigation of ZnO/ZnMgO QW heterostructures with various Mg content and QW thicknesses grown by plasma molecular beam epitaxy on low-defect m-plane ZnO substrates. We will show that most samples exhibit TM-polarized intersubband absorption at room temperature linked either to bound-to-quasi bound inter-miniband absorption or to bound-to bound intersubband absorption depending on the Mg content of the barrier material. This systematic study allows for the first time to estimate the conduction band offset of ZnO/ZnMgO heterostructures, opening prospects for the design of QC devices operating at THz frequencies. This was supported by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement #665107.

  20. Fabrication and characterization of hexagonally patterned quasi-1D ZnO nanowire arrays

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) ZnO nanowire arrays with hexagonal pattern have been successfully synthesized via the vapor transport process without any metal catalyst. By utilizing polystyrene microsphere self-assembled monolayer, sol–gel-derived ZnO thin films were used as the periodic nucleation sites for the growth of ZnO nanowires. High-quality quasi-1D ZnO nanowires were grown from nucleation sites, and the original hexagonal periodicity is well-preserved. According to the experimental results, the vapor transport solid condensation mechanism was proposed, in which the sol–gel-derived ZnO film acting as a seed layer for nucleation. This simple method provides a favorable way to form quasi-1D ZnO nanostructures applicable to diverse fields such as two-dimensional photonic crystal, nanolaser, sensor arrays, and other optoelectronic devices. PMID:24521308

  1. Au/n-InP Schottky diodes using an Al2O3 interfacial layer grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hogyoung; Kim, Min Soo; Yoon, Seung Yu; Choi, Byung Joon

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the effect of an Al2O3 interfacial layer grown by atomic layer deposition on the electrical properties of Au Schottky contacts to n-type InP. Considering barrier inhomogeneity, modified Richardson plots yielded a Richardson constant of 8.4 and 7.5 Acm-2K-2, respectively, for the sample with and without the Al2O3 interlayer (theoretical value of 9.4 Acm-2K-2 for n-type InP). The dominant reverse current flow for the sample with an Al2O3 interlayer was found to be Poole-Frenkel emission. From capacitance-voltage measurements, it was observed that the capacitance for the sample without the Al2O3 interlayer was frequency dependent. Sputter-induced defects as well as structural defects were passivated effectively with an Al2O3 interlayer.

  2. Coherently coupled ZnO and VO2 interface studied by photoluminescence and electrical transport across a phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Amar; Herng, T. S.; Saha, Surajit; Nina, Bao; Annadi, A.; Naomi, N.; Liu, Z. Q.; Dhar, S.; Ariando; Ding, J.; Venkatesan, T.

    2012-06-01

    We have investigated the photoluminescence and electrical properties of a coherently coupled interface consisting of a ZnO layer grown on top of an oriented VO2 layer on sapphire across the phase transition of VO2. The band edge and defect luminescence of the ZnO overlayer exhibit hysteresis in opposite directions induced by the phase transition of VO2. Concomitantly the phase transition of VO2 was seen to induce defects in the ZnO layer. Such coherently coupled interfaces could be of use in characterizing the stability of a variety of interfaces in situ and also for novel device application.

  3. Ultrathin platinum nanowires grown on single-layered nickel hydroxide with high hydrogen evolution activity.

    PubMed

    Yin, Huajie; Zhao, Shenlong; Zhao, Kun; Muqsit, Abdul; Tang, Hongjie; Chang, Lin; Zhao, Huijun; Gao, Yan; Tang, Zhiyong

    2015-03-02

    Design and synthesis of effective electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction in alkaline environments is critical to reduce energy losses in alkaline water electrolysis. Here we report a hybrid nanomaterial comprising of one-dimensional ultrathin platinum nanowires grown on two-dimensional single-layered nickel hydroxide. Judicious surface chemistry to generate the fully exfoliated nickel hydroxide single layers is explored to be the key for controllable growth of ultrathin platinum nanowires with diameters of about 1.8 nm. Impressively, this hybrid nanomaterial exhibits superior electrocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution reaction in alkaline solution, which outperforms currently reported catalysts, and the obviously improved catalytic stability. We believe that this work may lead towards the development of single-layered metal hydroxide-based hybrid materials for applications in catalysis and energy conversion.

  4. Decreased Charge Transport Barrier and Recombination of Organic Solar Cells by Constructing Interfacial Nanojunction with Annealing-Free ZnO and Al Layers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunyu; Zhang, Dezhong; Li, Zhiqi; Zhang, Xinyuan; Guo, Wenbin; Zhang, Liu; Ruan, Shengping; Long, Yongbing

    2017-07-05

    To overcome drawbacks of the electron transport layer, such as complex surface defects and unmatched energy levels, we successfully employed a smart semiconductor-metal interfacial nanojunciton in organic solar cells by evaporating an ultrathin Al interlayer onto annealing-free ZnO electron transport layer, resulting in a high fill factor of 73.68% and power conversion efficiency of 9.81%. The construction of ZnO-Al nanojunction could effectively fill the surface defects of ZnO and reduce its work function because of the electron transfer from Al to ZnO by Fermi level equilibrium. The filling of surface defects decreased the interfacial carrier recombination in midgap trap states. The reduced surface work function of ZnO-Al remodulated the interfacial characteristics between ZnO and [6,6]-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC 71 BM), decreasing or even eliminating the interfacial barrier against the electron transport, which is beneficial to improve the electron extraction capacity. The filled surface defects and reduced interfacial barrier were realistically observed by photoluminescence measurements of ZnO film and the performance of electron injection devices, respectively. This work provides a simple and effective method to simultaneously solve the problems of surface defects and unmatched energy level for the annealing-free ZnO or other metal oxide semiconductors, paving a way for the future popularization in photovoltaic devices.

  5. Nanocrystalline-to-amorphous transition in nanolaminates grown by low temperature atomic layer deposition and related mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, R.; Bechelany, M.; Parlinska, M.; Frey, D.; Mook, W. M.; Beyer, A.; Michler, J.; Utke, I.

    2012-05-01

    We report on a comprehensive structural and nanoindentation study of nanolaminates of Al2O3 and ZnO synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD). By reducing the bilayer thickness from 50 nm to below 1 nm, the nanocrystal size could be controlled in the nanolaminate structure. The softer and more compliant response of the multilayers as compared to the single layers of Al2O3 and ZnO is attributed to the structural change from nanocrystalline to amorphous at smaller bilayer thicknesses. It is also shown that ALD is a unique technique for studying the inverse Hall-Petch softening mechanism (E. Voce and D. Tabor, J. Inst. Metals 79(12), 465 (1951)) related to grain size effects in nanomaterials.

  6. Influence of ZnO seed layer precursor molar ratio on the density of interface defects in low temperature aqueous chemically synthesized ZnO nanorods/GaN light-emitting diodes

    SciT

    Alnoor, Hatim, E-mail: hatim.alnoor@liu.se; Iandolo, Donata; Willander, Magnus

    Low temperature aqueous chemical synthesis (LT-ACS) of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) has been attracting considerable research interest due to its great potential in the development of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The influence of the molar ratio of the zinc acetate (ZnAc): KOH as a ZnO seed layer precursor on the density of interface defects and hence the presence of non-radiative recombination centers in LT-ACS of ZnO NRs/GaN LEDs has been systematically investigated. The material quality of the as-prepared seed layer as quantitatively deduced by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is found to be influenced by the molar ratio. It is revealedmore » by spatially resolved cathodoluminescence that the seed layer molar ratio plays a significant role in the formation and the density of defects at the n-ZnO NRs/p-GaN heterostructure interface. Consequently, LED devices processed using ZnO NRs synthesized with molar ratio of 1:5 M exhibit stronger yellow emission (∼575 nm) compared to those based on 1:1 and 1:3 M ratios as measured by the electroluminescence. Furthermore, seed layer molar ratio shows a quantitative dependence of the non-radiative defect densities as deduced from light-output current characteristics analysis. These results have implications on the development of high-efficiency ZnO-based LEDs and may also be helpful in understanding the effects of the ZnO seed layer on defect-related non-radiative recombination.« less

  7. Influence of ZnO seed layer precursor molar ratio on the density of interface defects in low temperature aqueous chemically synthesized ZnO nanorods/GaN light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alnoor, Hatim; Pozina, Galia; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr; Liu, Xianjie; Iandolo, Donata; Willander, Magnus; Nur, Omer

    2016-04-01

    Low temperature aqueous chemical synthesis (LT-ACS) of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) has been attracting considerable research interest due to its great potential in the development of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The influence of the molar ratio of the zinc acetate (ZnAc): KOH as a ZnO seed layer precursor on the density of interface defects and hence the presence of non-radiative recombination centers in LT-ACS of ZnO NRs/GaN LEDs has been systematically investigated. The material quality of the as-prepared seed layer as quantitatively deduced by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is found to be influenced by the molar ratio. It is revealed by spatially resolved cathodoluminescence that the seed layer molar ratio plays a significant role in the formation and the density of defects at the n-ZnO NRs/p-GaN heterostructure interface. Consequently, LED devices processed using ZnO NRs synthesized with molar ratio of 1:5 M exhibit stronger yellow emission (˜575 nm) compared to those based on 1:1 and 1:3 M ratios as measured by the electroluminescence. Furthermore, seed layer molar ratio shows a quantitative dependence of the non-radiative defect densities as deduced from light-output current characteristics analysis. These results have implications on the development of high-efficiency ZnO-based LEDs and may also be helpful in understanding the effects of the ZnO seed layer on defect-related non-radiative recombination.

  8. Graphene oxide-zinc oxide nanocomposite as channel layer for field effect transistors: effect of ZnO loading on field effect transport.

    PubMed

    Jilani, S Mahaboob; Banerji, Pallab

    2014-10-08

    The effects of ZnO on graphene oxide (GO)-ZnO nanocomposites are investigated to tune the conductivity in GO under field effect regime. Zinc oxides with different concentrations from 5 wt % to 25 wt % are used in a GO matrix to increase the conductivity in the composite. Six sets of field effect transistors with pristine GO and GO-ZnO as the channel layer at varying ZnO concentrations were fabricated. From the transfer characteristics, it is observed that GO exhibited an insulating behavior and the transistors with low ZnO (5 wt %) concentration initially showed p-type conductivity that changes to n-type with increases in ZnO loading. This n-type dominance in conductivity is a consequence of the transfer of electrons from ZnO to the GO matrix. From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic measurements, it is observed that the progressive reduction in the C-OH oxygen group took place with increases in ZnO loading. Thus, from insulating GO to p- and then n-type, conductivity in GO could be achieved with reduction in the C-OH oxygen group by photocatalytic reduction of GO with varying degrees of ZnO. The restoration of sp(2) electron network in the GO matrix with the anchoring of ZnO nanostructures was observed from Raman spectra. From UV-visible spectra, the band gap in pristine GO was found to be 3.98 eV and reduced to 2.8 eV with increase in ZnO attachment.

  9. Carbon-coated ZnO mat passivation by atomic-layer-deposited HfO2 as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Jung, Mi-Hee

    2017-11-01

    ZnO has had little consideration as an anode material in lithium-ion batteries compared with other transition-metal oxides due to its inherent poor electrical conductivity and large volume expansion upon cycling and pulverization of ZnO-based electrodes. A logical design and facile synthesis of ZnO with well-controlled particle sizes and a specific morphology is essential to improving the performance of ZnO in lithium-ion batteries. In this paper, a simple approach is reported that uses a cation surfactant and a chelating agent to synthesize three-dimensional hierarchical nanostructured carbon-coated ZnO mats, in which the ZnO mats are composed of stacked individual ZnO nanowires and form well-defined nanoporous structures with high surface areas. In order to improve the performance of lithium-ion batteries, HfO 2 is deposited on the carbon-coated ZnO mat electrode via atomic layer deposition. Lithium-ion battery devices based on the carbon-coated ZnO mat passivation by atomic layer deposited HfO 2 exhibit an excellent initial discharge and charge capacities of 2684.01 and 963.21mAhg -1 , respectively, at a current density of 100mAg -1 in the voltage range of 0.01-3V. They also exhibit cycle stability after 125 cycles with a capacity of 740mAhg -1 and a remarkable rate capability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficient Color-Stable Inverted White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Outcoupling-Enhanced ZnO Layer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin-Dong; Li, Yan-Qing; Xiang, Heng-Yang; Zhang, Yi-Bo; Chen, Jing-De; Xu, Lu-Hai; Tang, Jian-Xin

    2017-01-25

    Inverted organic light-emitting diode (OLED) has attracted extensive attention due to the demand in active-matrix OLED display panels as its geometry enables the direct connection with n-channel transistor backplane on the substrate. One key challenge of high-performance inverted OLED is an efficient electron-injection layer with superior electrical and optical properties to match the indium tin oxide cathode on substrate. We here propose a synergistic electron-injection architecture using surface modification of ZnO layer to simultaneously promote electron injection into organic emitter and enhance out-coupling of waveguided light. An efficient inverted white OLED is realized by introducing the nanoimprinted aperiodic nanostructure of ZnO for broadband and angle-independent light out-coupling and inserting an n-type doped interlayer for energy level tuning and injection barrier lowering. As a result, the optimized inverted white OLEDs have an external quantum efficiency of 42.4% and a power efficiency of 85.4 lm W 1- , which are accompanied by the superiority of angular color stability over the visible wavelength range. Our results may inspire a promising approach to fabricate high-efficiency inverted OLEDs for large-scale display panels.

  11. Interaction of bimetallic PtCo layers with bare and graphene-covered ZnO(0001) supports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wen; Mélart, Christophe; Rach, Alain; Sutter, Christophe; Zafeiratos, Spyridon

    2018-03-01

    PtCo bimetallic overlayers supported on bare and graphene covered ZnO(0001) substrates have been successfully prepared and used to investigate the effect of graphene interlayer on the arrangement and the redox behaviour of PtCo. We found that Co is readily oxidized at the PtCo/ZnO interface during annealing in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) and low pressure O2 atmosphere, while after inserting a layer of graphene in-between, the oxidation of Co is restricted. In addition, the reduction of Co oxides by H2 is more pronounced when PtCo is supported on graphene covered ZnO. Apart from the cobalt oxidation state, graphene insertion at the interface also influences the PtCo arrangement by favouring their intermixing. Raman spectra show that low intensity defects are introduced into graphene layer after the deposition of PtCo and are enhanced by high temperature annealing. This study highlights the prospect of using graphene to tune the interaction between alloys and oxide supports which finds potential applications in catalysis.

  12. Photophysical study of the interaction between ZnO nanoparticles and globular protein bovine serum albumin in solution and in a layer-by-layer self-assembled film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansda, Chaitali; Maiti, Pradip; Singha, Tanmoy; Pal, Manisha; Hussain, Syed Arshad; Paul, Sharmistha; Paul, Pabitra Kumar

    2018-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the spectroscopic properties of the water-soluble globular protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) while interacting with zinc oxide (ZnO) semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) in aqueous medium and in a ZnO/BSA layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembled film fabricated on poly (acrylic acid) (PAA)-coated quartz or a Si substrate via electrostatic interactions. BSA formed a ground state complex due to its interaction with ZnO NPs, which was confirmed by ultraviolet-visible absorption, and steady state and time-resolved fluorescence emission spectroscopic techniques. However, due to its interaction with ZnO, the photophysical properties of BSA depend significantly on the concentration of ZnO NPs in the mixed solution. The quenching of the fluorescence intensity of BSA in the presence of ZnO NPs was due to the interaction between ZnO and BSA, and the formation of their stable ground state complex, as well as energy transfer from the excited BSA to ZnO NPs in the complex nano-bioconjugated species. Multilayer growth of the ZnO/BSA LbL self-assembled film on the quartz substrate was confirmed by monitoring the characteristic absorption band of BSA (280 nm), where the nature of the film growth depends on the number of bilayers deposited on the quartz substrate. BSA formed a well-ordered molecular network-type morphology due to its adsorption onto the surface of the ZnO nanostructure in the backbone of the PAA-coated Si substrate in the LbL film according to atomic force microscopic study. The as-synthesized ZnO NPs were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and dynamic light scattering techniques.

  13. Improved electron injection in all-solution-processed n-type organic field-effect transistors with an inkjet-printed ZnO electron injection layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Jeongkyun; Kim, Hyeok; Park, Myeongjin; Kwak, Jeonghun; Lee, Changhee

    2017-10-01

    Interface engineering for the improved injection properties of all-solution-processed n-type organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) arising from the use of an inkjet-printed ZnO electron injection layer were demonstrated. The characteristics of ZnO in terms of electron injection and transport were investigated, and then we employed ZnO as the electron injection layer via inkjet-printing during the fabrication of all-solution-processed, n-type OFETs. With the inkjet-printed ZnO electron injection layer, the devices exhibited approximately five-fold increased mobility (0.0058 cm2/V s to 0.030 cm2/V s), more than two-fold increased charge concentration (2.76 × 1011 cm-2 to 6.86 × 1011 cm-2), and two orders of magnitude reduced device resistance (120 MΩ cm to 3 MΩ cm). Moreover, n-type polymer form smoother film with ZnO implying denser packing of polymer, which results in higher mobility.

  14. Inverted polymer solar cell based on MEH-PPV/PC61BM coupled with ZnO nanoparticles as electron transport layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, A. M. S.; El-Sheikh, S. M.; Harraz, Farid A.; Ebrahim, S.; Soliman, M.; Hafez, H. S.; Ibrahim, I. A.; Abdel-Mottaleb, M. S. A.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the use of annealed sol-gel derived ZnO nanoparticles acting as electron transport layer (ETL) in inverted bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs). We have examined the photovoltaic performance of devices based on poly(2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV):(6,6)-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) blend system employing the ZnO nanoparticles as an ETL with CuI as hole transport layer (HTL) in comparison to the case of using the conventional HTL of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrene sulfonate) sulfonic acid (PEDOT:PSS). The effect of the presence of another layer of ZnO macrospheres attached to the ZnO nanoparticles is also investigated. The highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) value of 1.35% was achieved for device: ITO/ZnO nanoparticles/MEH-PPV:PC61BM/CuI/Ag, which is 275% more the value obtained when CuI was replaced by PEDOT:PSS. The comprehensive analyses on structural and optical characteristics including SEM, XRD, FTIR, PL and UV-vis spectroscopy indicated that the use of the ZnO nanoparticles alone as ETL, together with the CuI as HTL could effectively reduce trap-assisted recombination and charge accumulation at the interface, which is beneficial for the enhanced device performance.

  15. STM studies of GeSi thin layers epitaxially grown on Si(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta, N.; Sgarlata, A.; De Crescenzi, M.; Derrien, J.

    1996-08-01

    Ge/Si alloys were prepared in UHV by solid phase epitaxy on Si(111) substrates. The alloy formation, as a function of the evaporation rate and the Ge layer thickness has been followed in situ by RHEED and scanning tunneling microscopy. The 5 × 5 surface reconstruction appeared after annealing at 450°C Ge layers (up to 10 Å thick), obtained from a low rate Knudsen cell evaporator. In this case a nearly flat and uniform layer of reconstructed alloy was observed. When using an e-gun high rate evaporator we needed to anneal the Ge layer up to 780°C to obtain a 5 × 5 reconstruction. The grown layer was not flat, with many steps and Ge clusters; at high coverages (10 Å and more) large Ge islands appeared. Moreover, we then succeeded in visualizing at atomic resolution the top of some of these Ge islands which displayed a 2 × 1 reconstruction, probably induced from the high compressive strain due to the lattice mismatch with the substrate. We suggest that this unusual behavior could be connected to the high evaporation rate, which helped the direct formation of Ge microcrystals on the Si substrate during the deposition process.

  16. Effects of Complex Structured Anodic Oxide Dielectric Layer Grown in Pore Matrix for Aluminum Capacitor.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jin-Ha; Yun, Sook Young; Lee, Chang Hyoung; Park, Hwa-Sun; Suh, Su-Jeong

    2015-11-01

    Anodization of aluminum is generally divided up into two types of anodic aluminum oxide structures depending on electrolyte type. In this study, an anodization process was carried out in two steps to obtain high dielectric strength and break down voltage. In the first step, evaporated high purity Al on Si wafer was anodized in oxalic acidic aqueous solution at various times at a constant temperature of 5 degrees C. In the second step, citric acidic aqueous solution was used to obtain a thickly grown sub-barrier layer. During the second anodization process, the anodizing potential of various ranges was applied at room temperature. An increased thickness of the sub-barrier layer in the porous matrix was obtained according to the increment of the applied anodizing potential. The microstructures and the growth of the sub-barrier layer were then observed with an increasing anodizing potential of 40 to 300 V by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). An impedance analyzer was used to observe the change of electrical properties, including the capacitance, dissipation factor, impedance, and equivalent series resistance (ESR) depending on the thickness increase of the sub-barrier layer. In addition, the breakdown voltage was measured. The results revealed that dielectric strength was improved with the increase of sub-barrier layer thickness.

  17. α-Ga2O3 grown by low temperature atomic layer deposition on sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, J. W.; Jarman, J. C.; Johnstone, D. N.; Midgley, P. A.; Chalker, P. R.; Oliver, R. A.; Massabuau, F. C.-P.

    2018-04-01

    α-Ga2O3 is a metastable phase of Ga2O3 of interest for wide bandgap engineering since it is isostructural with α-In2O3 and α-Al2O3. α-Ga2O3 is generally synthesised under high pressure (several GPa) or relatively high temperature (∼500 °C). In this study, we report the growth of α-Ga2O3 by low temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) on sapphire substrate. The film was grown at a rate of 0.48 Å/cycle, and predominantly consists of α-Ga2O3 in the form of (0001) -oriented columns originating from the interface with the substrate. Some inclusions were also present, typically at the tips of the α phase columns and most likely comprising ε-Ga2O3. The remainder of the Ga2O3 film - i.e. nearer the surface and between the α-Ga2O3 columns, was amorphous. The film was found to be highly resistive, as is expected for undoped material. This study demonstrates that α-Ga2O3 films can be grown by low temperature ALD and suggests the possibility of a new range of ultraviolet optoelectronic and power devices grown by ALD. The study also shows that scanning electron diffraction is a powerful technique to identify the different polymorphs of Ga2O3 present in multiphase samples.

  18. Diffusion of cations in chromia layers grown on iron-base alloys

    SciT

    Lobnig, R.E.; Hennesen, K.; Grabke, H.J.

    Diffusion of the cations Cr, Fe, Mn, and Ni in Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been investigated at 1,173 K. The diffusion measurements were performed on chromia layers grown on the model alloys Fe-20Cr and Fe-20Cr-12Ni in order to consider effects of small amounts of dissolved alien cations in Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The samples were diffusion annealed in H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O at an oxygen partial pressure close to the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cr equilibrium. For all tracers the lattice-diffusion coefficients are 3-5 orders of magnitude smaller than the grain-boundary diffusion coefficients. The lattice diffusivity of Mn is about two orders of magnitudemore » greater than the other lattice-diffusion coefficients, especially in Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} grown on Fe-20Cr-12Ni. The values of the diffusion coefficients for Cr, Fe, and Ni are in the same range. Diffusion of the tracers in Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} grown on different alloys did not show significant differences with the exception of Mn.« less

  19. Fabrication of a Combustion-Reacted High-Performance ZnO Electron Transport Layer with Silver Nanowire Electrodes for Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Minkyu; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Donghyuk; Kang, Juhoon; Lee, Jung-Yong; Han, Seung Min

    2018-02-28

    Herein, a new methodology for solution-processed ZnO fabrication on Ag nanowire network electrode via combustion reaction is reported, where the amount of heat emitted during combustion was minimized by controlling the reaction temperature to avoid damaging the underlying Ag nanowires. The degree of participation of acetylacetones, which are volatile fuels in the combustion reaction, was found to vary with the reaction temperature, as revealed by thermogravimetric and compositional analyses. An optimized processing temperature of 180 °C was chosen to successfully fabricate a combustion-reacted ZnO and Ag nanowire hybrid electrode with a sheet resistance of 30 Ω/sq and transmittance of 87%. A combustion-reacted ZnO on Ag nanowire hybrid structure was demonstrated as an efficient transparent electrode and electron transport layer for the PTB7-Th-based polymer solar cells. The superior electrical conductivity of combustion-reacted ZnO, compared to that of conventional sol-gel ZnO, increased the external quantum efficiency over the entire absorption range, whereas a unique light scattering effect due to the presence of nanopores in the combustion-derived ZnO further enhanced the external quantum efficiency in the 450-550 nm wavelength range. A power conversion efficiency of 8.48% was demonstrated for the PTB7-Th-based polymer solar cell with the use of a combustion-reacted ZnO/Ag NW hybrid transparent electrode.

  20. Electroluminescence of ordered ZnO nanorod array/p-GaN light-emitting diodes with graphene current spreading layer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Ordered ZnO nanorod array/p-GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been fabricated by introducing graphene as the current spreading layer, which exhibit improved electroluminescence performance by comparison to the LED using a conventional structure (indium-tin-oxide as the current spreading layer). In addition, by adjusting the diameter of ZnO nanorod array in use, the light emission of the ZnO nanorod array/p-GaN heterojunction LEDs was enhanced further. This work has great potential applications in solid-state lighting, high performance optoelectronic devices, and so on. PACS 78.60.Fi; 85.60.Jb; 78.67.Lt; 81.10.Dn PMID:25489284

  1. Electroluminescence of ordered ZnO nanorod array/p-GaN light-emitting diodes with graphene current spreading layer.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jing-Jing; Hao, Hui-Ying; Xing, Jie; Fan, Zhen-Jun; Zhang, Zi-Li

    2014-01-01

    Ordered ZnO nanorod array/p-GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been fabricated by introducing graphene as the current spreading layer, which exhibit improved electroluminescence performance by comparison to the LED using a conventional structure (indium-tin-oxide as the current spreading layer). In addition, by adjusting the diameter of ZnO nanorod array in use, the light emission of the ZnO nanorod array/p-GaN heterojunction LEDs was enhanced further. This work has great potential applications in solid-state lighting, high performance optoelectronic devices, and so on. 78.60.Fi; 85.60.Jb; 78.67.Lt; 81.10.Dn.

  2. Hybrid nanostructure heterojunction solar cells fabricated using vertically aligned ZnO nanotubes grown on reduced graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kaikun; Xu, Congkang; Huang, Liwei; Zou, Lianfeng; Wang, Howard

    2011-10-07

    Using reduced graphene oxide (rGO) films as the transparent conductive coating, inorganic/organic hybrid nanostructure heterojunction photovoltaic devices have been fabricated through hydrothermal synthesis of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (ZnO-NRs) and nanotubes (ZnO-NTs) on rGO films followed by the spin casting of a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) film. The data show that larger interfacial area in ZnO-NT/P3HT composites improves the exciton dissociation and the higher electrode conductance of rGO films helps the power output. This study offers an alternative to manufacturing nanostructure heterojunction solar cells at low temperatures using potentially low cost materials.

  3. Critical island size for Ag thin film growth on ZnO (0 0 0 1 bar)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Adam L.; Smith, Roger; Kenny, Steven D.

    2017-02-01

    Island growth of Ag on ZnO is investigated with the development of a new technique to approximate critical island sizes. Ag is shown to attach in one of three highly symmetric sites on the ZnO surface or initial monolayers of grown Ag. Due to this, a lattice based adaptive kinetic Monte Carlo (LatAKMC) method is used to investigate initial growth phases. As island formation is commonly reported in the literature, the critical island sizes of Ag islands on a perfect polar ZnO surface and a first monolayer of grown Ag on the ZnO surface are considered. A mean rate approach is used to calculate the average time for an Ag ad-atom to drop off an island and this is then compared to deposition rates on the same island. Results suggest that Ag on ZnO (0 0 0 1 bar) will exhibit Stranski-Krastanov (layer plus island) growth.

  4. Electrical characterization of thin nanoscale SiOx layers grown on plasma hydrogenated silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halova, E.; Kojuharova, N.; Alexandrova, S.; Szekeres, A.

    2018-03-01

    We analyzed the electrical characteristics of MOS structures with a SiOx layer grown on Si treated in plasma without heating. The hysteresis effect observed indicates the presence of traps spatially distributed into the oxide near the interface. The shift and the shape of the curves reveal a small oxide charge and low leakage currents, i.e. a high-quality dielectric layer. The generalized C-V curve was generated by applying the two-frequency methods on the C-V and G-V characteristics at frequencies in the range from 1 kHz to 300 kHz and by accounting for the series resistance and the leakage through the oxide layer. The energy spectra of the interface traps were calculated by comparing the experimental and the ideal theoretical C-V curves. The spectra showed the presence of interface traps with localized energy levels in the Si bandgap. These conclusions correlate well with the results on this oxide’s mechanical stress level, composition and Si-O ring structure, as well as on the interfacial region composition, obtained by our previous detailed multi-angle spectral ellipsometric studies. The ellipsometric data and the capacitance in strong accumulation of the C-V curves were used to calculate the thickness and the dielectric constants of the oxide layers.

  5. Infrared Reflectance Analysis of Epitaxial n-Type Doped GaN Layers Grown on Sapphire.

    PubMed

    Tsykaniuk, Bogdan I; Nikolenko, Andrii S; Strelchuk, Viktor V; Naseka, Viktor M; Mazur, Yuriy I; Ware, Morgan E; DeCuir, Eric A; Sadovyi, Bogdan; Weyher, Jan L; Jakiela, Rafal; Salamo, Gregory J; Belyaev, Alexander E

    2017-12-01

    Infrared (IR) reflectance spectroscopy is applied to study Si-doped multilayer n + /n 0 /n + -GaN structure grown on GaN buffer with GaN-template/sapphire substrate. Analysis of the investigated structure by photo-etching, SEM, and SIMS methods showed the existence of the additional layer with the drastic difference in Si and O doping levels and located between the epitaxial GaN buffer and template. Simulation of the experimental reflectivity spectra was performed in a wide frequency range. It is shown that the modeling of IR reflectance spectrum using 2 × 2 transfer matrix method and including into analysis the additional layer make it possible to obtain the best fitting of the experimental spectrum, which follows in the evaluation of GaN layer thicknesses which are in good agreement with the SEM and SIMS data. Spectral dependence of plasmon-LO-phonon coupled modes for each GaN layer is obtained from the spectral dependence of dielectric of Si doping impurity, which is attributed to compensation effects by the acceptor states.

  6. Electrical characteristics and density of states of thin-film transistors based on sol-gel derived ZnO channel layers with different annealing temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Mirkhani, V.; Yapabandara, K.; Cheng, R.; Hernandez, G.; Khanal, M. P.; Sultan, M. S.; Uprety, S.; Shen, L.; Zou, S.; Xu, P.; Ellis, C. D.; Sellers, J. A.; Hamilton, M. C.; Niu, G.; Sk, M. H.; Park, M.

    2018-04-01

    We report on the fabrication and electrical characterization of bottom gate thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on a sol-gel derived ZnO channel layer. The effect of annealing of ZnO active channel layers on the electrical characteristics of the ZnO TFTs was systematically investigated. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicate that the crystal quality of the ZnO improves with increasing annealing temperature. Both the device turn-on voltage (Von) and threshold voltage (VT) shift to a positive voltage with increasing annealing temperature. As the annealing temperature is increased, both the subthreshold slope and the interfacial defect density (Dit) decrease. The field effect mobility (μFET) increases with annealing temperature, peaking at 800 °C and decreases upon further temperature increase. An improvement in transfer and output characteristics was observed with increasing annealing temperature. However, when the annealing temperature reaches 900 °C, the TFTs demonstrate a large degradation in both transfer and output characteristics, which is possibly produced by non-continuous coverage of the film. By using the temperature-dependent field effect measurements, the localized sub-gap density of states (DOSs) for ZnO TFTs with different annealing temperatures were determined. The DOSs for the subthreshold regime decrease with increasing annealing temperature from 600 °C to 800 °C and no substantial change was observed with further temperature increase to 900 °C.

  7. ZnO and related materials: Plasma-Assisted molecular beam epitaxial growth, characterization and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, S. K.; Chen, Y.; Ko, H. J.; Wenisch, H.; Hanada, T.; Yao, T.

    2001-06-01

    This paper will address features of plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxial growth of ZnO and related materials and their characteristics. Two-dimensional, layer-by-layer growth is achieved both on c-plane sampphire by employing MgO buffer layer growth and on (0001) GaN/Al2O3 template by predepositing a low-temperature buffer layer followed by high-temperature annealing. Such two-dimensional growth results in the growth of high-quality heteroepitaxial ZnO epilayers. Biexciton emission is obtained from such high quality epilayers The polarity of heteroepitaxial ZnO epilayers is controlled by engineering the heterointerfaces. We achieved selective growth of Zn-polar and O-polar ZnO heteroepitaxial layers. The origin of different polarities can be successfully explained by an interface bonding sequence model. N-type conductivity in Gadoped ZnO epilayers is successfully controlled. High conductivity, enough to be applicable to devices, is achieved. MgxZn1-xO/ZnO heterostructures are grown and emission from a ZnO quantum well is observed. Mg incorporation in a MgZnO alloy is determined by in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction intensity oscillations, which enables precise control of the composition. Homoepitaxy on commericial ZnO substrates has been examined. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction intensity oscillations during homoepitaxy growth are observed.

  8. Characteristics of one-port surface acoustic wave resonator fabricated on ZnO/6H-SiC layered structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Qian, Lirong; Fu, Sulei; Song, Cheng; Zeng, Fei; Pan, Feng

    2018-04-01

    Characteristics of one-port surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators fabricated on ZnO/6H-SiC layered structure were investigated experimentally and theoretically. Phase velocities (V p), electromechanical coupling coefficients (K 2), quality factors (Q), and temperature coefficients of frequency (TCF) of Rayleigh wave (0th mode) and first- and second-order Sezawa wave (1st and 2nd modes, respectively) for different piezoelectric film thickness-to-wavelength (h ZnO /λ) ratios were systematically studied. Results demonstrated that one-port SAW resonators fabricated on the ZnO/6H-SiC layered structure were promising for high-frequency SAW applications with moderate K 2 and TCF values. A high K 2 of 2.44% associated with a V p of 5182 m s‑1 and a TCF of  ‑41.8 ppm/°C was achieved at h ZnO /λ  =  0.41 in the 1st mode, while a large V p of 7210 m s‑1 with a K 2 of 0.19% and a TCF of  ‑36.4 ppm/°C was obtained for h ZnO /λ  =  0.31 in the 2nd mode. Besides, most of the parameters were reported for the first time and will be helpful for the future design and optimization of SAW devices fabricated on ZnO/6H-SiC layered structures.

  9. Control of ZnO Nanorod Defects to Enhance Carrier Transportation in p-Cu₂O/i-ZnO Nanorods/n-IGZO Heterojunction.

    PubMed

    Ke, Nguyen Huu; Trinh, Le Thi Tuyet; Mung, Nguyen Thi; Loan, Phan Thi Kieu; Tuan, Dao Anh; Truong, Nguyen Huu; Tran, Cao Vinh; Hung, Le Vu Tuan

    2017-01-01

    The p-Cu₂O/i-ZnO nanorods/n-IGZO heterojunctions were fabricated by electrochemical and sputtering method. ZnO nanorods were grown on conductive indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin film and then p-Cu₂O layer was deposited on ZnO nanorods to form the heterojunction. ZnO nanorods play an important role in carrier transport mechanisms and performance of the junction. The changing of defects in ZnO nanorods by annealing samples in air and vacuum have studied. The XRD, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and FTIR were used to study about structure, and defects in ZnO nanorods. The SEM, i–V characteristics methods were also used to define structure, electrical properties of the heterojunctions layers. The results show that the defects in ZnO nanorods affected remarkably on performance of heterojunctions of solar cells.

  10. Layered zinc hydroxide salts: delamination, preferred orientation of hydroxide lamellae, and formation of ZnO nanodiscs.

    PubMed

    Demel, Jan; Pleštil, Josef; Bezdička, Petr; Janda, Pavel; Klementová, Mariana; Lang, Kamil

    2011-08-15

    Delamination of layered zinc hydroxide salts (LZH) into hydroxide layers provides nanobuilding blocs of a two-dimensional anisotropy. The methodology, extent of delamination, the size and stability of hydroxide lamellae are described in detail. The ability of lamellae to restack to form oriented hydroxide films depends on the solvent, original LZH salt, and conditions used for delamination. The most interesting results were obtained using LZH intercalated with dodecyl sulfate anions and LZH nitrate delaminated in butanol at 60 °C and in formamide at room temperature, respectively. The former method produces hydroxide lamellae of a lateral size of ca. 10-20 nm. The inner structure of the hydroxide layers is conserved and separated lamellae restack to the original layered structure of LZH dodecyl sulfate. The latter method yields lamellae with a size decreasing from 73.3 nm to 10 nm after a 2-week aging, while their thickness is nearly constant (2.6-3.8 nm). However, the use of formamide is complicated by the formation of Zn(II) formate. The major part of LZH intercalated with dodecyl sulfate anions is transformed during the delamination procedure to anisotropic ZnO nanoparticles, either needle-like particles prolonged in the [0 0 1] direction or disc-like particles flattened along the (0 0 1) plane. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Stress engineering in GaN structures grown on Si(111) substrates by SiN masking layer application

    SciT

    Szymański, Tomasz, E-mail: tomasz.szymanski@pwr.edu.pl; Wośko, Mateusz; Paszkiewicz, Bogdan

    2015-07-15

    GaN layers without and with an in-situ SiN mask were grown by using metal organic vapor phase epitaxy for three different approaches used in GaN on silicon(111) growth, and the physical and optical properties of the GaN layers were studied. For each approach applied, GaN layers of 1.4 μm total thickness were grown, using silan SiH{sub 4} as Si source in order to grow Si{sub x}N{sub x} masking layer. The optical micrographs, scanning electron microscope images, and atomic force microscope images of the grown samples revealed cracks for samples without SiN mask, and micropits, which were characteristic for the samples grownmore » with SiN mask. In situ reflectance signal traces were studied showing a decrease of layer coalescence time and higher degree of 3D growth mode for samples with SiN masking layer. Stress measurements were conducted by two methods—by recording micro-Raman spectra and ex-situ curvature radius measurement—additionally PLs spectra were obtained revealing blueshift of PL peak positions with increasing stress. The authors have shown that a SiN mask significantly improves physical and optical properties of GaN multilayer systems reducing stress in comparison to samples grown applying the same approaches but without SiN masking layer.« less

  12. Characterizations of low-temperature electroluminescence from ZnO nanowire light-emitting arrays on the p-GaN layer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tzu-Chun; Ke, Min-Yung; Yang, Sheng-Chieh; Cheng, Yun-Wei; Chen, Liang-Yi; Lin, Guan-Jhong; Lu, Yu-Hsin; He, Jr-Hau; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Huang, JianJang

    2010-12-15

    Low-temperature electroluminescence from ZnO nanowire light-emitting arrays is reported. By inserting a thin MgO current blocking layer in between ZnO nanowire and p-GaN, high-purity UV light emission at wavelength 398 nm was obtained. As the temperature is decreased, contrary to the typical GaN-based light emitting diodes, our device shows a decrease of optical output intensity. The results are associated with various carrier tunneling processes and frozen MgO defects.

  13. Superheating Suppresses Structural Disorder in Layered BiI3 Semiconductors Grown by the Bridgman Method

    SciT

    Johns, Paul M.; Sulekar, Soumitra; Yeo, Shinyoung

    2016-01-01

    The susceptibility of layered structures to stacking faults is a problem in some of the more attractive semiconductor materials for ambient-temperature radiation detectors. In the work presented here, Bridgman-grown BiI3 layered single crystals are investigated to understand and eliminate this structural disorder, which reduces radiation detector performance. The use of superheating gradients has been shown to improve crystal quality in non-layered semiconductor crystals; thus the technique was here explored to improve the growth of BiI3. When investigating the homogeneity of non-superheated crystals, highly geometric void defects were found to populate the bulk of the crystals. Applying a superheating gradient tomore » the melt prior to crystal growth improved structural quality and decreased defect density from the order of 4600 voids per cm3 to 300 voids per cm3. Corresponding moderate improvements to electronic properties also resulted from the superheat gradient method of crystal growth. Comparative measurements through infrared microscopy, etch-pit density, x-ray rocking curves, and sheet resistivity readings show that superheat gradients in BiI3 growth led to higher quality crystals.« less

  14. Epitaxial pentacene films grown on the surface of ion-beam-processed gate dielectric layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, W. Y.; Kuo, C. W.; Cheng, H. L.; Mai, Y. S.; Tang, F. C.; Lin, S. T.; Yeh, C. Y.; Horng, J. B.; Chia, C. T.; Liao, C. C.; Shu, D. Y.

    2006-06-01

    The following research describes the process of fabrication of pentacene films with submicron thickness, deposited by thermal evaporation in high vacuum. The films were fabricated with the aforementioned conditions and their characteristics were analyzed using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, polarized Raman spectroscopy, and photoluminescence. Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) were fabricated on an indium tin oxide coated glass substrate, using an active layer of ordered pentacene molecules, which were grown at room temperature. Pentacene film was aligned using the ion-beam aligned method, which is typically employed to align liquid crystals. Electrical measurements taken on a thin-film transistor indicated an increase in the saturation current by a factor of 15. Pentacene-based OTFTs with argon ion-beam-processed gate dielectric layers of silicon dioxide, in which the direction of the ion beam was perpendicular to the current flow, exhibited a mobility that was up to an order of magnitude greater than that of the controlled device without ion-beam process; current on/off ratios of approximately 106 were obtained. Polarized Raman spectroscopy investigation indicated that the surface of the gate dielectric layer, treated with argon ion beam, enhanced the intermolecular coupling of pentacene molecules. The study also proposes the explanation for the mechanism of carrier transportation in pentacene films.

  15. Spin-hall-active platinum thin films grown via atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlitz, Richard; Amusan, Akinwumi Abimbola; Lammel, Michaela; Schlicht, Stefanie; Tynell, Tommi; Bachmann, Julien; Woltersdorf, Georg; Nielsch, Kornelius; Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B.; Thomas, Andy

    2018-06-01

    We study the magnetoresistance of yttrium iron garnet/Pt heterostructures in which the Pt layer was grown via atomic layer deposition (ALD). Magnetotransport experiments in three orthogonal rotation planes reveal the hallmark features of spin Hall magnetoresistance. To estimate the spin transport parameters, we compare the magnitude of the magnetoresistance in samples with different Pt thicknesses. We check the spin Hall angle and the spin diffusion length of the ALD Pt layers against the values reported for high-quality sputter-deposited Pt films. The spin diffusion length of 1.5 nm agrees well with that of platinum thin films reported in the literature, whereas the spin Hall magnetoresistance Δ ρ / ρ = 2.2 × 10 - 5 is approximately a factor of 20 smaller compared to that of our sputter-deposited films. Our results demonstrate that ALD allows fabricating spin-Hall-active Pt films of suitable quality for use in spin transport structures. This work provides the basis to establish conformal ALD coatings for arbitrary surface geometries with spin-Hall-active metals and could lead to 3D spintronic devices in the future.

  16. Post-growth annealing induced change of conductivity in As-doped ZnO grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    To, C. K.; Yang, B.; Su, S. C.; Ling, C. C.; Beling, C. D.; Fung, S.

    2011-12-01

    Arsenic-doped ZnO films were fabricated by radio frequency magnetron sputtering method at a relatively low substrate temperature of 200 °C. Post-growth annealing in air was carried out up to a temperature of 1000 °C. The samples were characterized by Hall measurement, positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), and cathodoluminescence (CL). The as-grown sample was of n-type and it converted to p-type material after the 400 °C annealing. The resulting hole concentration was found to increase with annealing temperature and reached a maximum of 6 × 1017 cm-3 at the annealing temperature of 600 °C. The origin of the p-type conductivity was consistent with the AsZn(VZn)2 shallow acceptor model. Further increasing the annealing temperature would decrease the hole concentration of the samples finally converted the sample back to n-type. With evidence, it was suggested that the removal of the p-type conductivity was due to the dissociation of the AsZn(VZn)2 acceptor and the creation of the deep level defect giving rise to the green luminescence.

  17. Superconducting Ga/GaSe layers grown by van der Waals epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desrat, W.; Moret, M.; Briot, O.; Ngo, T.-H.; Piot, B. A.; Jabakhanji, B.; Gil, B.

    2018-04-01

    We report on the growth of GaSe films by molecular beam epitaxy on both (111)B GaAs and sapphire substrates. X-ray diffraction reveals the perfect crystallinity of GaSe with the c-axis normal to the substrate surface. The samples grown under Ga rich conditions possess an additional gallium film on top of the monochalcogenide layer. This metallic film shows two normal-to-superconducting transitions which are detected at T c ≈ 1.1 K and 6.0 K. They correspond likely to the β and α-phases of gallium in the form of bulk and droplets respectively. Our results demonstrate that van der Waals epitaxy can lead to future high quality hybrid superconductor/monochalcogenide heterostructures.

  18. Separating light absorption layer from channel in ZnO vertical nanorod arrays based photodetectors for high-performance image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yang; Wu, Congjun; Xu, Zhihao; Wang, Fei; Wang, Min

    2018-05-01

    Photoconductor arrays with both high responsivity and large ON/OFF ratios are of great importance for the application of image sensors. Herein, a ZnO vertical nanorod array based photoconductor with a light absorption layer separated from the device channel has been designed, in which the photo-generated carriers along the axial ZnO nanorods drive to the external electrodes through nanorod-nanorod junctions in the dense layer at the bottom. This design allows us to enhance the photocurrent with unchanged dark current by increasing the ratio between the ZnO nanorod length and the thickness of the dense layer to achieve both high responsivity and large ON/OFF ratios. As a result, the as-fabricated devices possess a high responsivity of 1.3 × 105 A/W, a high ON/OFF ratio of 790, a high detectivity of 1.3 × 1013 Jones, and a low detectable light intensity of 1 μW/cm2. More importantly, the developed approach enables the integration of ZnO vertical nanorod array based photodetectors as image sensors with uniform device-to-device performance.

  19. Improved efficiency of ZnO hierarchical particle based dye sensitized solar cell by incorporating thin passivation layer in photo-anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Priyanka; Mondal, Biswanath; Mukherjee, Kalisadhan

    2018-01-01

    Present article describes the DSSC performances of photo-anodes prepared using hydrothermal route derived ZnO particles having dissimilar morphologies i.e. simple micro-rod and nano-tips decorated micro-rod. The surface of nano-tips decorated micro-rod is uneven and patterned which facilitate more dye adsorption and better scattering of the incident light resulting superior photo-conversion efficiency (PCE) ( η 1.09%) than micro-rod ZnO ( η 0.86%). To further improve the efficiency of nano-tips decorated micro-rod ZnO based DSSC, thin passivation layer of ZnO is introduced in the corresponding photo-anode and a higher PCE ( η 1.29%) is achieved. The compact thin passivation layer here expedites the transportation of photo-excited electrons, restricts the undesired recombination reactions and prevents the direct contact of electrolyte with conducting substrates. Attempt is made to understand the effect of passivation layer on the transportation kinetics of photo-excited electrons by analyzing the electrochemical impedance spectra of the developed cells.

  20. A Low Temperature, Solution-Processed Poly(4-vinylphenol), YO(x) Nanoparticle Composite/Polysilazane Bi-Layer Gate Insulator for ZnO Thin Film Transistor.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyeonwoo; Kang, Chan-Mo; Chae, Hyunsik; Kim, Hyun-Gwan; Baek, Kyu-Ha; Choi, Hyoung Jin; Park, Man-Young; Do, Lee-Mi; Lee, Changhee

    2016-03-01

    Low temperature, solution-processed metal oxide thin film transistors (MEOTFTs) have been widely investigated for application in low-cost, transparent, and flexible electronics. To enlarge the application area, solution-processed gate insulators (GI) have been investigated in recent years. We investigated the effects of the organic/inorganic bi-layer GI to ZnO thin film transistors (TFTs). PVP, YO(x) nanoparticle composite, and polysilazane bi-layer showed low leakage current (-10(-8) A/cm2 in 2 MV), which are applicable in low temperature processed MEOTFTs. Polysilazane was used as an interlayer between ZnO and PVP, YO(x) nanoparticle composite as a good charge transport interface with ZnO. By applying the PVP, YO(x), nanoparticle composite/polysilazane bi-layer structure to ZnO TFTs, we successfully suppressed the off current (I(off)) to -10(-11) and fabricated good MEOTFTs in 180 degrees C.

  1. Thickness optimization of the ZnO based TCO layer in a CZTSSe solar cell. Evolution of its performance with thickness when external temperature changes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadel, Meriem; Moustafa Bouzaki, Mohammed; Chadel, Asma; Aillerie, Michel; Benyoucef, Boumediene

    2017-07-01

    The influence of the thickness of a Zinc Oxide (ZnO) transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer on the performance of the CZTSSe solar cell is shown in detail. In a photovoltaic cell, the thickness of each layer largely influence the performance of the solar cell and optimization of each layer constitutes a complete work. Here, using the Solar Cell Capacitance Simulation (SCAPS) software, we present simulation results obtained in the analyze of the influence of the TCO layer thickness on the performance of a CZTSSe solar cell, starting from performance of a CZTSSe solar cell commercialized in 2014 with an initial efficiency equal to 12.6%. In simulation, the temperature was considered as a functioning parameter and the evolution of tthe performance of the cell for various thickness of the TCO layer when the external temperature changes is simulated and discussed. The best efficiency of the solar cell based in CZTSSe is obtained with a ZnO thickness equal to 50 nm and low temperature. Based on the considered marketed cell, we show a technological possible increase of the global efficiency achieving 13% by optimization of ZnO based TCO layer.

  2. Modification of opto-electronic properties of ZnO by incorporating metallic tin for buffer layer in thin film solar cells

    SciT

    Deepu, D. R.; Jubimol, J.; Kartha, C. Sudha

    2015-06-24

    In this report, the effect of incorporation of metallic tin (Sn) on opto-electronic properties of ZnO thin films is presented. ZnO thin films were deposited through ‘automated chemical spray pyrolysis’ (CSP) technique; later different quantities of ‘Sn’ were evaporated on it and subsequently annealed. Vacuum annealing showed a positive effect on crystallinity of films. Creation of sub band gap levels due to ‘Sn’ diffusion was evident from the absorption and PL spectra. The tin incorporated films showed good photo response in visible region. Tin incorporated ZnO thin films seem to satisfy the desirable criteria for buffer layer in thin filmmore » solar cells.« less

  3. Enhanced super-hydrophobic and switching behavior of ZnO nanostructured surfaces prepared by simple solution--immersion successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction process.

    PubMed

    Suresh Kumar, P; Sundaramurthy, J; Mangalaraj, D; Nataraj, D; Rajarathnam, D; Srinivasan, M P

    2011-11-01

    A simple and cost-effective successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method was adopted to fabricate hydrophobic ZnO nanostructured surfaces on transparent indium-tin oxide (ITO), glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. ZnO films deposited on different substrates show hierarchical structures like spindle, flower and spherical shape with diameters ranging from 30 to 300 nm. The photo-induced switching behaviors of ZnO film surfaces between hydrophobic and hydrophilic states were examined by water contact angle and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. ZnO nanostructured films had contact angles of ~140° and 160°±2 on glass and PET substrates, respectively, exhibiting hydrophobic behavior without any surface modification or treatment. Upon exposure to ultraviolet (UV) illumination, the films showed hydrophilic behavior (contact angle: 15°±2), which upon low thermal stimuli revert back to its original hydrophobic nature. Such reversible and repeatable switching behaviors were observed upon cyclical exposure to ultraviolet radiation. These biomimetic ZnO surfaces exhibit good anti-reflective properties with lower reflectance of 9% for PET substrates. Thus, the present work is significant in terms of its potential application in switching devices, solar coatings and self-cleaning smart windows. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Ternary Oxides in the TiO2-ZnO System as Efficient Electron-Transport Layers for Perovskite Solar Cells with Efficiency over 15.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiong; Xu, Zhongzhong; Guo, Yanjun; Xu, Peng; He, Meng

    2016-11-02

    Perovskite solar cells, which utilize organometal-halide perovskites as light-harvesting materials, have attracted great attention due to their high power conversion efficiency (PCE) and potentially low cost in fabrication. A compact layer of TiO 2 or ZnO is generally applied as electron-transport layer (ETL) in a typical perovskite solar cell. In this study, we explored ternary oxides in the TiO 2 -ZnO system to find new materials for the ETL. Compact layers of titanium zinc oxides were readily prepared on the conducting substrate via spray pyrolysis method. The optical band gap, valence band maximum and conduction band minimum of the ternary oxides varied significantly with the ratio of Ti to Zn, surprisingly, in a nonmonotonic way. When a zinc-rich ternary oxide was applied as ETL for the device, a PCE of 15.10% was achieved, comparable to that of the device using conventional TiO 2 ETL. Interestingly, the perovskite layer deposited on the zinc-rich ternary oxide is stable, in sharp contrast with that fabricated on a ZnO layer, which will turn into PbI 2 readily when heated. These results indicate that potentially new materials with better performance can be found for ETL of perovskite solar cells in ternary oxides, which deserve more exploration.

  5. Ultrathin, transferred layers of thermally grown silicon dioxide as biofluid barriers for biointegrated flexible electronic systems.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hui; Zhao, Jianing; Yu, Ki Jun; Song, Enming; Farimani, Amir Barati; Chiang, Chia-Han; Jin, Xin; Xue, Yeguang; Xu, Dong; Du, Wenbo; Seo, Kyung Jin; Zhong, Yiding; Yang, Zijian; Won, Sang Min; Fang, Guanhua; Choi, Seo Woo; Chaudhuri, Santanu; Huang, Yonggang; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful; Viventi, Jonathan; Aluru, N R; Rogers, John A

    2016-10-18

    Materials that can serve as long-lived barriers to biofluids are essential to the development of any type of chronic electronic implant. Devices such as cardiac pacemakers and cochlear implants use bulk metal or ceramic packages as hermetic enclosures for the electronics. Emerging classes of flexible, biointegrated electronic systems demand similar levels of isolation from biofluids but with thin, compliant films that can simultaneously serve as biointerfaces for sensing and/or actuation while in contact with the soft, curved, and moving surfaces of target organs. This paper introduces a solution to this materials challenge that combines (i) ultrathin, pristine layers of silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) thermally grown on device-grade silicon wafers, and (ii) processing schemes that allow integration of these materials onto flexible electronic platforms. Accelerated lifetime tests suggest robust barrier characteristics on timescales that approach 70 y, in layers that are sufficiently thin (less than 1 μm) to avoid significant compromises in mechanical flexibility or in electrical interface fidelity. Detailed studies of temperature- and thickness-dependent electrical and physical properties reveal the key characteristics. Molecular simulations highlight essential aspects of the chemistry that governs interactions between the SiO 2 and surrounding water. Examples of use with passive and active components in high-performance flexible electronic devices suggest broad utility in advanced chronic implants.

  6. Ultrathin, transferred layers of thermally grown silicon dioxide as biofluid barriers for biointegrated flexible electronic systems

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Hui; Yu, Ki Jun; Song, Enming; Farimani, Amir Barati; Chiang, Chia-Han; Jin, Xin; Xu, Dong; Du, Wenbo; Seo, Kyung Jin; Zhong, Yiding; Yang, Zijian; Won, Sang Min; Fang, Guanhua; Choi, Seo Woo; Chaudhuri, Santanu; Huang, Yonggang; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful; Viventi, Jonathan; Aluru, N. R.; Rogers, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Materials that can serve as long-lived barriers to biofluids are essential to the development of any type of chronic electronic implant. Devices such as cardiac pacemakers and cochlear implants use bulk metal or ceramic packages as hermetic enclosures for the electronics. Emerging classes of flexible, biointegrated electronic systems demand similar levels of isolation from biofluids but with thin, compliant films that can simultaneously serve as biointerfaces for sensing and/or actuation while in contact with the soft, curved, and moving surfaces of target organs. This paper introduces a solution to this materials challenge that combines (i) ultrathin, pristine layers of silicon dioxide (SiO2) thermally grown on device-grade silicon wafers, and (ii) processing schemes that allow integration of these materials onto flexible electronic platforms. Accelerated lifetime tests suggest robust barrier characteristics on timescales that approach 70 y, in layers that are sufficiently thin (less than 1 μm) to avoid significant compromises in mechanical flexibility or in electrical interface fidelity. Detailed studies of temperature- and thickness-dependent electrical and physical properties reveal the key characteristics. Molecular simulations highlight essential aspects of the chemistry that governs interactions between the SiO2 and surrounding water. Examples of use with passive and active components in high-performance flexible electronic devices suggest broad utility in advanced chronic implants. PMID:27791052

  7. Shallow doping effect of ZnO treatment using atomic layer deposition process on p-type In0.53Ga0.47As

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Changmin; An, Youngseo; Choi, Sungho; Kim, Hyoungsub

    2018-06-01

    The number of atomic layer deposition (ALD) cycles for ZnO treatment was changed to study its merits and demerits as a passivation layer prior to the deposition of a HfO2 film on a p-type In0.53Ga0.47As substrate. Even a few cycles of ZnO ALD treatment was effective in improving the capacitance–voltage (C–V) characteristics by suppressing strong Fermi-level pinning, which occurred because of a high interface state density near the lower half of the In0.53Ga0.47As band gap. Increases in the number of ZnO ALD cycles induced an increase in the minimum capacitance and response of minority carriers at higher frequencies in the inversion region of the C–V characteristics. According to various temperature- and frequency-dependent C–V analyses, these changes were explained by the shallow p-type doping effect of Zn atoms in the In0.53Ga0.47As substrate. As a disadvantage, ZnO ALD treatment caused a slight increase in the dielectric leakage current.

  8. Carbon Doping of Compound Semiconductor Epitaxial Layers Grown by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition Using Carbon Tetrachloride.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Brian Thomas

    1990-01-01

    A dilute mixture of CCl_4 in high purity H_2 has been used as a carbon dopant source for rm Al_ {x}Ga_{1-x}As grown by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). To understand the mechanism for carbon incorporation from CCl_4 doping and to provide experimental parameters for the growth of carbon doped device structures, the effects of various crystal growth parameters on CCl _4 doping have been studied, including growth temperature, growth rate, V/III ratio, Al composition, and CCl_4 flow rate. Although CCl _4 is an effective p-type dopant for MOCVD rm Al_{x}Ga_ {1-x}As, injection of CCl_4 into the reactor during growth of InP resulted in no change in the carrier concentration or carbon concentration. Abrupt, heavy carbon doping spikes in GaAs have been obtained using CCl_4 without a dopant memory effect. By annealing samples with carbon doping spikes grown within undoped, n-type, and p-type GaAs, the carbon diffusion coefficient in GaAs at 825 ^circC has been estimated and has been found to depend strongly on the GaAs background doping. Heavily carbon doped rm Al_{x}Ga _{1-x}As/GaAs superlattices have been found to be more stable against impurity induced layer disordering (IILD) than Mg or Zn doped superlattices, indicating that the low carbon diffusion coefficient limits the IILD process. Carbon doping has been used in the base region on an Npn AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT). Transistors with 3 x 10 μm self-aligned emitter fingers have been fabricated which exhibit a current gain cutoff frequency of f_ {rm t} = 26 GHz.

  9. High-Brightness Blue Light-Emitting Diodes Enabled by a Directly Grown Graphene Buffer Layer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhaolong; Zhang, Xiang; Dou, Zhipeng; Wei, Tongbo; Liu, Zhiqiang; Qi, Yue; Ci, Haina; Wang, Yunyu; Li, Yang; Chang, Hongliang; Yan, Jianchang; Yang, Shenyuan; Zhang, Yanfeng; Wang, Junxi; Gao, Peng; Li, Jinmin; Liu, Zhongfan

    2018-06-08

    Single-crystalline GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with high efficiency and long lifetime are the most promising solid-state lighting source compared with conventional incandescent and fluorescent lamps. However, the lattice and thermal mismatch between GaN and sapphire substrate always induces high stress and high density of dislocations and thus degrades the performance of LEDs. Here, the growth of high-quality GaN with low stress and a low density of dislocations on graphene (Gr) buffered sapphire substrate is reported for high-brightness blue LEDs. Gr films are directly grown on sapphire substrate to avoid the tedious transfer process and GaN is grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The introduced Gr buffer layer greatly releases biaxial stress and reduces the density of dislocations in GaN film and In x Ga 1- x N/GaN multiple quantum well structures. The as-fabricated LED devices therefore deliver much higher light output power compared to that on a bare sapphire substrate, which even outperforms the mature process derived counterpart. The GaN growth on Gr buffered sapphire only requires one-step growth, which largely shortens the MOCVD growth time. This facile strategy may pave a new way for applications of Gr films and bring several disruptive technologies for epitaxial growth of GaN film and its applications in high-brightness LEDs. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Flexible Al-doped ZnO films grown on PET substrates using linear facing target sputtering for flexible OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jin-A.; Shin, Hyun-Su; Choi, Kwang-Hyuk; Kim, Han-Ki

    2010-11-01

    We report the characteristics of flexible Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films prepared by a plasma damage-free linear facing target sputtering (LFTS) system on PET substrates for use as a flexible transparent conducting electrode in flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The electrical, optical and structural properties of LFTS-grown flexible AZO electrodes were investigated as a function of dc power. We obtained a flexible AZO film with a sheet resistance of 39 Ω/squ and an average transmittance of 84.86% in the visible range although it was sputtered at room temperature without activation of the Al dopant. Due to the effective confinement of the high-density plasma between the facing AZO targets, the AZO film was deposited on the PET substrate without plasma damage and substrate heating caused by bombardment of energy particles. Moreover, the flexible OLED fabricated on the AZO/PET substrate showed performance similar to the OLED fabricated on a ITO/PET substrate in spite of a lower work function. This indicates that LFTS is a promising plasma damage-free and low-temperature sputtering technique for deposition of flexible and indium-free AZO electrodes for use in cost-efficient flexible OLEDs.

  11. The influence of anatase-rutile mixed phase and ZnO blocking layer on dye-sensitized solar cells based on TiO2nanofiberphotoanodes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    High performance is expected in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) that utilize one-dimensional (1-D) TiO2 nanostructures owing to the effective electron transport. However, due to the low dye adsorption, mainly because of their smooth surfaces, 1-D TiO2 DSSCs show relatively lower efficiencies than nanoparticle-based ones. Herein, we demonstrate a very simple approach using thick TiO2 electrospun nanofiber films as photoanodes to obtain high conversion efficiency. To improve the performance of the DSCCs, anatase-rutile mixed-phase TiO2 nanofibers are achieved by increasing sintering temperature above 500°C, and very thin ZnO films are deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) method as blocking layers. With approximately 40-μm-thick mixed-phase (approximately 15.6 wt.% rutile) TiO2 nanofiber as photoanode and 15-nm-thick compact ZnO film as a blocking layer in DSSC, the photoelectric conversion efficiency and short-circuit current are measured as 8.01% and 17.3 mA cm−2, respectively. Intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy and intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy measurements reveal that extremely large electron diffusion length is the key point to support the usage of thick TiO2 nanofibers as photoanodes with very thin ZnO blocking layers to obtain high photocurrents and high conversion efficiencies. PMID:23286741

  12. Quantum-interference transport through surface layers of indium-doped ZnO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Shao-Pin; Lu, Jia Grace; Lin, Juhn-Jong

    2013-06-01

    We have fabricated indium-doped ZnO (IZO) nanowires (NWs) and carried out four-probe electrical-transport measurements on two individual NWs with geometric diameters of ≈70 and ≈90 nm in a wide temperature T interval of 1-70 K. The NWs reveal overall charge conduction behavior characteristic of disordered metals. In addition to the T dependence of resistance R, we have measured the magnetoresistance (MR) in magnetic fields applied either perpendicular or parallel to the NW axis. Our R(T) and MR data in different T intervals are consistent with the theoretical predictions of the one- (1D), two- (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) weak-localization (WL) and the electron-electron interaction (EEI) effects. In particular, a few dimensionality crossovers in the two effects are observed. These crossover phenomena are consistent with the model of a ‘core-shell-like structure’ in individual IZO NWs, where an outer shell of thickness t (≃15-17 nm) is responsible for the quantum-interference transport. In the WL effect, as the electron dephasing length Lφ gradually decreases with increasing T from the lowest measurement temperatures, a 1D-to-2D dimensionality crossover takes place around a characteristic temperature where Lφ approximately equals d, an effective NW diameter which is slightly smaller than the geometric diameter. As T further increases, a 2D-to-3D dimensionality crossover occurs around another characteristic temperature where Lφ approximately equals t (ZnO NWs. This work also strongly

  13. Quantum-interference transport through surface layers of indium-doped ZnO nanowires.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Shao-Pin; Lu, Jia Grace; Lin, Juhn-Jong

    2013-06-21

    We have fabricated indium-doped ZnO (IZO) nanowires (NWs) and carried out four-probe electrical-transport measurements on two individual NWs with geometric diameters of ≈70 and ≈90 nm in a wide temperature T interval of 1-70 K. The NWs reveal overall charge conduction behavior characteristic of disordered metals. In addition to the T dependence of resistance R, we have measured the magnetoresistance (MR) in magnetic fields applied either perpendicular or parallel to the NW axis. Our R(T) and MR data in different T intervals are consistent with the theoretical predictions of the one- (1D), two- (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) weak-localization (WL) and the electron-electron interaction (EEI) effects. In particular, a few dimensionality crossovers in the two effects are observed. These crossover phenomena are consistent with the model of a 'core-shell-like structure' in individual IZO NWs, where an outer shell of thickness t (~15-17 nm) is responsible for the quantum-interference transport. In the WL effect, as the electron dephasing length Lφ gradually decreases with increasing T from the lowest measurement temperatures, a 1D-to-2D dimensionality crossover takes place around a characteristic temperature where Lφ approximately equals d, an effective NW diameter which is slightly smaller than the geometric diameter. As T further increases, a 2D-to-3D dimensionality crossover occurs around another characteristic temperature where Lφ approximately equals t (ZnO NWs. This work also strongly

  14. Zno Micro/Nanostructures Grown on Sapphire Substrates Using Low-Temperature Vapor-Trapped Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition: Structural and Optical Properties.

    PubMed

    Hu, Po-Sheng; Wu, Cheng-En; Chen, Guan-Lin

    2017-12-21

    In this research, the Zn(C₅H₇O₂)₂·xH₂O-based growth of ZnO micro/nanostructures in a low temperature, vapor-trapped chemical vapor deposition system was attempted to optimize structural and optical properties for potential biomedical applications. By trapping in-flow gas molecules and Zinc vapor inside a chamber tube by partially obstructing a chamber outlet, a high pressure condition can be achieved, and this experimental setup has the advantages of ease of synthesis, being a low temperature process, and cost effectiveness. Empirically, the growth process proceeded under a chamber condition of an atmospheric pressure of 730 torr, a controlled volume flow rate of input gas, N₂/O₂, of 500/500 Standard Cubic Centimeters per Minute (SCCM), and a designated oven temperature of 500 °C. Specifically, the dependence of structural and optical properties of the structures on growth duration and spatially dependent temperature were investigated utilizing scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL), and ultraviolet-visible transmission spectroscopy. The experimental results indicate that the grown thin film observed with hexagonal structures and higher structural uniformity enables more prominent structural and optical signatures. XRD spectra present the dominant peaks along crystal planes of (002) and (101) as the main direction of crystallization. In addition, while the structures excited with laser wavelength of 325 nm emit a signature radiation around 380 nm, an ultraviolet lamp with a wavelength of 254 nm revealed distinctive photoluminescence peaks at 363.96 nm and 403.52 nm, elucidating different degrees of structural correlation as functions of growth duration and the spatial gradient of temperature. Transmittance spectra of the structures illustrate typical variation in the wavelength range of 200 nm to 400 nm, and its structural correlation is less significant when compared with PL.

  15. Zno Micro/Nanostructures Grown on Sapphire Substrates Using Low-Temperature Vapor-Trapped Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition: Structural and Optical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Po-Sheng; Wu, Cheng-En; Chen, Guan-Lin

    2017-01-01

    In this research, the Zn(C5H7O2)2·xH2O-based growth of ZnO micro/nanostructures in a low temperature, vapor-trapped chemical vapor deposition system was attempted to optimize structural and optical properties for potential biomedical applications. By trapping in-flow gas molecules and Zinc vapor inside a chamber tube by partially obstructing a chamber outlet, a high pressure condition can be achieved, and this experimental setup has the advantages of ease of synthesis, being a low temperature process, and cost effectiveness. Empirically, the growth process proceeded under a chamber condition of an atmospheric pressure of 730 torr, a controlled volume flow rate of input gas, N2/O2, of 500/500 Standard Cubic Centimeters per Minute (SCCM), and a designated oven temperature of 500 °C. Specifically, the dependence of structural and optical properties of the structures on growth duration and spatially dependent temperature were investigated utilizing scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL), and ultraviolet-visible transmission spectroscopy. The experimental results indicate that the grown thin film observed with hexagonal structures and higher structural uniformity enables more prominent structural and optical signatures. XRD spectra present the dominant peaks along crystal planes of (002) and (101) as the main direction of crystallization. In addition, while the structures excited with laser wavelength of 325 nm emit a signature radiation around 380 nm, an ultraviolet lamp with a wavelength of 254 nm revealed distinctive photoluminescence peaks at 363.96 nm and 403.52 nm, elucidating different degrees of structural correlation as functions of growth duration and the spatial gradient of temperature. Transmittance spectra of the structures illustrate typical variation in the wavelength range of 200 nm to 400 nm, and its structural correlation is less significant when compared with PL. PMID:29267196

  16. Surface properties of sprayed and electrodeposited ZnO rod layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromyko, I.; Krunks, M.; Dedova, T.; Katerski, A.; Klauson, D.; Oja Acik, I.

    2017-05-01

    Herein we present a comparative study on as-deposited, two-month-stored, and heat-treated ZnO rods obtained by spray pyrolysis (SP) at 550 °C, and electrodeposition (ED) at 80 °C. The aim of the study is to establish the reason for different behaviour of wettability and photocatalytic activity (PA) of SP and ED rods. Samples were studied using XPS, SEM, XRD, Raman, contact angle (CA) measurements and photocatalytic oxidation of doxycycline. Wettability and PA are mainly controlled by surface composition rather than by morphology. The relative amount of hydroxyl groups on the surface of as-deposited ED rods is four times higher compared to as-deposited SP rods. Opposite to SP rods, ED rods contain oxygen vacancy defects (Vo). Therefore, as-deposited ED rods are superhydrophilic (CA ∼ 3°) and show highest PA among studied samples, being three times higher compared to SP rods (removing of 75% of doxycycline after 30 min). It was revealed that as-deposited ED rods are inclined to faster contamination. The amount of Cdbnd C groups on the surface of aged ED rods is six times higher compared to aged SP rods. Stored ED samples become hydrophobic (CA ∼ 120°) and PA decreases sharply while SP rods remain hydrophilic (CA ∼ 50°), being more resistive to the contamination.

  17. Doping effect on SILAR synthesized crystalline nanostructured Cu-doped ZnO thin films grown on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates and its characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhaygude, H. D.; Shinde, S. K.; Velhal, Ninad B.; Takale, M. V.; Fulari, V. J.

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, a novel chemical route is used to synthesize the undoped and Cu-doped ZnO thin films in aqueous solution by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The synthesized thin films are characterized by x-ray diffractometer (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDAX), contact angle goniometer and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. XRD study shows that the prepared films are polycrystalline in nature with hexagonal crystal structure. The change in morphology for different doping is observed in the studies of FE-SEM. EDAX spectrum shows that the thin films consist of zinc, copper and oxygen elements. Contact angle goniometer is used to measure the contact angle between a liquid and a solid interface and after detection, the nature of the films is initiated from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. The optical band gap energy for direct allowed transition ranging between 1.60-2.91 eV is observed.

  18. Productivity correlated to photobiochemical performance of Chlorella mass cultures grown outdoors in thin-layer cascades.

    PubMed

    Masojídek, Jiří; Kopecký, Jiří; Giannelli, Luca; Torzillo, Giuseppe

    2011-02-01

    This work aims to: (1) correlate photochemical activity and productivity, (2) characterize the flow pattern of culture layers and (3) determine a range of biomass densities for high productivity of the freshwater microalga Chlorella spp., grown outdoors in thin-layer cascade units. Biomass density, irradiance inside culture, pigment content and productivity were measured in the microalgae cultures. Chlorophyll-fluorescence quenching was monitored in situ (using saturation-pulse method) to estimate photochemical activities. Photobiochemical activities and growth parameters were studied in cultures of biomass density between 1 and 47 g L(-1). Fluorescence measurements showed that diluted cultures (1-2 g DW L(-1)) experienced significant photostress due to inhibition of electron transport in the PSII complex. The highest photochemical activities were achieved in cultures of 6.5-12.5 g DW L(-1), which gave a maximum daylight productivity of up to 55 g dry biomass m(-2) day(-1). A midday depression of maximum PSII photochemical yield (F (v)/F (m)) of 20-30% compared with morning values in these cultures proved to be compatible with well-performing cultures. Lower or higher depression of F (v)/F (m) indicated low-light acclimated or photo-inhibited cultures, respectively. A hydrodynamic model of the culture demonstrated highly turbulent flow allowing rapid light/dark cycles (with frequency of 0.5 s(-1)) which possibly match the turnover of the photosynthetic apparatus. These results are important from a biotechnological point of view for optimisation of growth of outdoor microalgae mass cultures under various climatic conditions.

  19. Dependence of seed layer thickness on sensitivity of nano-ZnO cholesterol biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yang-Ming; Wang, Po-Chin; Tang, Jian-Fu; Chu, Sheng-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    The anemone-like ZnO nanostructures have been synthesized by hydrothermal method and were further adsorbed immobilized cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) as a nano-biosensor. In this study, the sensitivity of biosensor were improved by varying the thickness of the ZnO seed layer. The SEM analysis showed changes in thickness of seed layer will not affect the morphologies of anemone-like ZnO nanostructures. The X-ray Diffraction patterns showed that the (002) plane of anemone-like ZnO grown on various thickness of the seed layer was more prouded than other crystal plane. Abioelectrode (ChOx/ZnO/ITO/glass) grown on the 30nm of ZnO seed layer with high sensitivity of 57.533μAmM-1cm-2 (1.488 μA (mg/dl) -1cm-2), a wide sensitive range from 25 to 500 mg/dl. It is concluded that the thinner sputtered ZnO seed layer for growing anemone-like ZnO nanostructure can effectively improve the sensitivity of the ZnO biosensor.

  20. Influence of substrates and rutile seed layers on the assembly of hydrothermally grown rutile TiO2 nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalb, Julian; Dorman, James A.; Folger, Alena; Gerigk, Melanie; Knittel, Vanessa; Plüisch, Claudia S.; Trepka, Bastian; Lehr, Daniela; Chua, Emily; Goodge, Berit H.; Wittemann, Alexander; Scheu, Christina; Polarz, Sebastian; Schmidt-Mende, Lukas

    2018-07-01

    Rutile TiO2 nanorod arrays (NRAs) are applicable in various prospective technologies. Hydrothermal methods present a simple technique to fabricate such NRAs. In this report, we present the fabrication of seed layers for the hydrothermal growth of rutile TiO2 nanorods via sputter deposition, electron-beam evaporation, and sol-gel method and study the influence of each on the growth behavior. To satisfy the requirements of numerous applications, p-type silicon, platinum, levitating carbon membranes, a template made of polystyrene spheres, and commercial fluorine tin oxide (FTO) were employed as substrates. We document the structural properties of the TiO2 seed layers and describe the relationship between the characteristics of the seed crystals, the growth evolution, and the appearance of as-grown nanorods. Various growth stages of rutile TiO2 nanorods are compared depending on whether they are grown on polycrystalline TiO2 or FTO seed layers. In both cases, a homogenous TiO2 bottom layer is formed at the seed layer/substrate interface, which is essential for electronic applications such as hybrid solar cells. Detached NRAs illustrate the effect of rutile FTO and TiO2 on the porosity of this bottom layer. Further details about the formation process of this layer are obtained from the growth on confined seed layers fabricated by electron-beam lithography.

  1. Effect of gamma radiation on the optical and structural properties of ZnO nanowires with various diameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyhani, A.; Gholizadeh, A.; vahedi, V.; Khanlary, M. R.

    2018-01-01

    The effects of gamma-irradiation are studied on the morphology and structural properties of ZnO nanowire with various diameters. The ZnO nanowires are grown using Zn thin films at various initial thicknesses including 125, 250 and 500 nm in air ambient. The results illustrate dramatic effects of Gamma-irradiation on the deformation of ZnO nanowires. Thus, radiation induce ripple ZnO surfaces instead ZnO nanowires. Gamma-irradiation has also been effective on the optical and crystalline properties of the nanowires. X-ray diffraction attests that size of the ZnO nano-structures has changed and (l00) crystalline direction related to Zn metal has been created after irradiation. UV-Visible spectra display two areas for transmittance of irradiated ZnO nanowires, one in the Visible-light and the other in IR sub-region. In the Visible-light area, the layer gets thicker from 125 to 500 nm; the difference between the layer transmittance spectra is reduced before and after gamma irradiation. In the IR-light region, with increasing of ZnO initial thickness, the difference between the layer transmittance spectra is increased before and after gamma irradiation. The photoluminescence spectroscopy displays that intensity of green-yellow band improves in compared to near-band-edge emission due to formation of Zn metal and oxygen vacancies after gamma irradiation.

  2. Study of recombination characteristics in MOCVD grown GaN epi-layers on Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaubas, E.; Ceponis, T.; Dobrovolskas, D.; Malinauskas, T.; Meskauskaite, D.; Miasojedovas, S.; Mickevicius, J.; Pavlov, J.; Rumbauskas, V.; Simoen, E.; Zhao, M.

    2017-12-01

    The radiative and non-radiative recombination carrier decay lifetimes in GaN epi-layers grown by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition technology on Si substrates were measured by contactless techniques of time-resolved photoluminescence and microwave-probed transients of photoconductivity. The lifetime variations were obtained to be dependent on growth regimes. These variations have been related to varied densities of edge dislocations associated with growth temperature. It has been also revealed that the lateral carrier lifetime and photoluminescence intensity distribution is determined by the formation of dislocation clusters dependent on the growth conditions. For low excitation level, the asymptotic component within the excess carrier decay transients is attributed to carrier trapping and anomalous diffusion through random-walk processes within dislocation cluster regions and barriers at dislocation cores. The two-componential decay process at high excitation conditions, where excess carriers may suppress barriers, proceeds through a nonlinear recombination, where band-to-band transitions determine the nonlinearity of the process, while the asymptotic component is ascribed to the impact of D-A pair PL within the long-wavelength wing of the UV-PL band.

  3. Surface acceptor states in MBE-grown CdTe layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichrowska, Karolina; Wosinski, Tadeusz; Tkaczyk, Zbigniew; Kolkovsky, Valery; Karczewski, Grzegorz

    2018-04-01

    A deep-level hole trap associated with surface defect states has been revealed with deep-level transient spectroscopy investigations of metal-semiconductor junctions fabricated on nitrogen doped p-type CdTe layers grown by the molecular-beam epitaxy technique. The trap displayed the hole-emission activation energy of 0.33 eV and the logarithmic capture kinetics indicating its relation to extended defect states at the metal-semiconductor interface. Strong electric-field-induced enhancement of the thermal emission rate of holes from the trap has been attributed to the phonon-assisted tunneling effect from defect states involving very large lattice relaxation around the defect and metastability of its occupied state. Passivation with ammonium sulfide of the CdTe surface, prior to metallization, results in a significant decrease in the trap density. It also results in a distinct reduction in the width of the surface-acceptor-state-induced hysteresis loops in the capacitance vs. voltage characteristics of the metal-semiconductor junctions.

  4. Proton trapping in SiO 2 layers thermally grown on Si and SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanas'ev, V. V.; Ciobanu, F.; Pensl, G.; Stesmans, A.

    2002-11-01

    Positive charging of thermal SiO 2 layers on (1 0 0)Si and (0 0 0 1)6H-, 4H-SiC related to trapping of protons is studied using low-energy proton implantation into the oxide, and compared to the trapping of holes generated by 10-eV photons. Proton trapping has an initial probability close to 100% and shows little sensitivity to the annealing-induced oxygen deficiency of SiO 2. In contrast to protons, hole trapping in as-grown SiO 2 shows a much lower efficiency which increases upon oxide annealing, in qualitative correlation with the higher density of O 3Si• defects (E' centers) detected by electron spin resonance after hole injection. Despite these differences, the neutralization of positive charges induced by holes and protons has the same cross-section, and in both cases is accompanied by liberation of atomic H suggesting that protons account for positive charge in both cases. The rupture of Si-O bonds in the oxide observed upon proton injection suggests, as a first basic step, the bonding of a proton to a bridging oxygen atom in SiO 2 network.

  5. Hydrothermal Growth of ZnO Nanowires on UV-Nanoimprinted Polymer Structures.

    PubMed

    Park, Sooyeon; Moore, Sean A; Lee, Jaejong; Song, In-Hyouk; Farshchian, Bahador; Kim, Namwon

    2018-05-01

    Integration of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires on miniaturized polymer structures can broaden its application in multi-functional polymer devices by taking advantages of unique physical properties of ZnO nanowires and recent development of polymer microstructures in analytical systems. In this paper, we demonstrate the hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowires on polymer microstructures fabricated by UV nanoimprinting lithography (NIL) using a polyurethane acrylate (PUA). Since PUA is a siloxane-urethane-acrylate compound containing the alpha-hydroxyl ketone, UV-cured PUA include carboxyl groups, which inhibit and suppress the nucleation and growth of ZnO nanowires on polymer structures. The presence of carboxyl groups in UV-cured PUA was substantiated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and a Ag thin film was deposited on the nanoimprinted polymer structures to limit their inhibitive influence on the growth of ZnO nanowires. Furthermore, the naturally oxidized Ag layer (Ag2O) reduced crystalline lattice mismatches at the interface between ZnO-Ag during the seed annealing process. The ZnO nanowires grown on the Ag-deposited PUA microstructures were found to have comparable morphological characteristics with ZnO nanowires grown on a Si wafer.

  6. Effect of Mo-doping concentration on the physical behaviour of sprayed ZnO layers

    SciT

    Reddy, T. Sreenivasulu; Reddy, M. Vasudeva; Reddy, K. T. Ramakrishna, E-mail: ktrkreddy@gmail.com

    2015-06-24

    Mo-doped zinc oxide layers (MZO) have been prepared on cleaned glass substrates by chemical spray pyrolysis technique by varying Mo-doping concentration in the range, 0 – 5 at. %. The X-ray diffraction studies revealed that all the as prepared layers were polycrystalline in nature and exhibited wurtzite structure. The layers prepared with lower Mo-doping concentration (<2 at. %) were preferably oriented along the (100) plane, whereas in the case of higher Mo-doping concentration (>2 at. %), the films showed the (002) plane as the dominant peak. The optical analysis indicated that all the layers had an average optical transmittance ofmore » 80% in the visible region and the evaluated band gap varied in the range, 3.28 - 3.50 eV.« less

  7. Effect of different coating layer on the topography and optical properties of ZnO nanostructured

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, R.; Mamat, M. H.; Malek, M. F.; Ismail, A. S.; Yusoff, M. M.; Asiah, M. N.; Khusaimi, Z.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and aluminum (Al) co-doped zinc oxide (MAZO) thin films were synthesized on glass substrate by sol-gel spin coating method. MAZO thin films were prepared at different coating layers range from 1 to 9. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to investigate the topography of the thin films. According to the AFM results, Root Means Square (RMS) of MAZO thin films was increased from 0.747 to 6.545 nm, with increase of number coating layer from 1 to 9, respectively. The results shown the variation on structural and topography properties of MAZO seed film when it's deposited at different coating layers on glass substrate. The optical properties was analyzed using UV-Vis spectroscopy. The obtained results show that the transmittance spectra was increased as thin films coating layer increases.

  8. Enhanced Performance in Al-Doped ZnO Based Transparent Flexible Transparent Thin-Film Transistors Due to Oxygen Vacancy in ZnO Film with Zn-Al-O Interfaces Fabricated by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Yao, Rui; Wang, Huanhuan; Wu, Xiaoming; Wu, Jinzhu; Wu, Xiaohong; Qin, Wei

    2017-04-05

    Highly conductive and optical transparent Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin film composed of ZnO with a Zn-Al-O interface was fabricated by thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) method. The as-prepared AZO thin film exhibits excellent electrical and optical properties with high stability and compatibility with temperature-sensitive flexible photoelectronic devices; film resistivity is as low as 5.7 × 10 -4 Ω·cm, the carrier concentration is high up to 2.2 × 10 21 cm -3 . optical transparency is greater than 80% in a visible range, and the growth temperature is below 150 °C on the PEN substrate. Compared with the conventional AZO film containing by a ZnO-Al 2 O 3 interface, we propose that the underlying mechanism of the enhanced electrical conductivity for the current AZO thin film is attributed to the oxygen vacancies deficiency derived from the free competitive growth mode of Zn-O and Al-O bonds in the Zn-Al-O interface. The flexible transparent transistor based on this AZO electrode exhibits a favorable threshold voltage and I on /I off ratio, showing promising for use in high-resolution, fully transparent, and flexible display applications.

  9. Hydrothermal synthesis of highly crystalline ZnO nanorod arrays: Dependence of morphology and alignment on growth conditions

    SciT

    Azzez, Shrook A., E-mail: shurouq44@yahoo.com; Hassan, Z.; Alimanesh, M.

    Highly oriented zinc oxide nanorod were successfully grown on seeded p-type silicon substrate by hydrothermal methode. The morphology and the crystallinty of ZnO c-axis (002) arrays were systematically studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. The effect of seed layer pre-annealing on nanorods properties was explained according to the nucleation site of ZnO nanoparticles on silicon substrate. In addition, the variation of the equal molarity of zinc nitrate hexahydrate and hexamine concentrations in the reaction vessel play a crucial role related to the ZnO nanorods.

  10. ZnO nanorods/graphene/Ni/Au hybrid structures as transparent conductive layer in GaN LED for low work voltage and high light extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kun; Xie, Yiyang; Ma, Huali; Du, Yinxiao; Zeng, Fanguang; Ding, Pei; Gao, Zhiyuan; Xu, Chen; Sun, Jie

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, by virtue of one-dimensional ZnO nanorods and two-dimensional graphene film hybrid structures, both the enhanced current spreading and enhanced light extraction were realized at the same time. A 1 nm/1 nm Ni/Au layer was used as an interlayer between graphene and pGaN to form ohmic contact, which makes the device have a good forward conduction properties. Through the comparison of the two groups of making ZnO nanorods or not, it was found that the 30% light extraction efficiency of the device was improved by using the ZnO nanorods. By analysis key parameters of two groups such as the turn-on voltage, work voltage and reverse leakage current, it was proved that the method for preparing surface nano structure by hydrothermal method self-organization growth ZnO nanorods applied in GaN LEDs has no influence to device's electrical properties. The hybrid structure application in GaN LED, make an achievement of a good ohmic contact, no use of ITO and enhancement of light extraction at the same time, meanwhile it does not change the device structure, introduce additional process, worsen the electrical properties.

  11. Atomic force microscopy studies of homoepitaxial GaN layers grown on GaN template by laser MBE

    SciT

    Choudhary, B. S.; Rajasthan Technical University, Rawatbhata Road, Kota 324010; Singh, A.

    We have grown homoepitaxial GaN films on metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) grown 3.5 µm thick GaN on sapphire (0001) substrate (GaN template) using an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) laser assisted molecular beam epitaxy (LMBE) system. The GaN films were grown by laser ablating a polycrystalline solid GaN target in the presence of active r.f. nitrogen plasma. The influence of laser repetition rates (10-30 Hz) on the surface morphology of homoepitaxial GaN layers have been studied using atomic force microscopy. It was found that GaN layer grown at 10 Hz shows a smooth surface with uniform grain size compared to the rough surfacemore » with irregular shape grains obtained at 30 Hz. The variation of surface roughness of the homoepitaxial GaN layer with and without wet chemical etching has been also studied and it was observed that the roughness of the film decreased after wet etching due to the curved structure/rough surface.« less

  12. Effect of substrate nitridation temperature on the persistent photoconductivity of unintentionally-doped GaN layer grown by PAMBE

    SciT

    Prakash, Nisha, E-mail: prakasnisha@gmail.com; Barvat, Arun; Anand, Kritika

    2016-05-23

    The surface roughness and defect density of GaN epitaxial layers grown on c-plane sapphire substrate are investigated and found to be dependent on nitridation temperature. GaN epitaxial layers grown after nitridation of sapphire at 200°C have a higher defect density and higher surface roughness compared to the GaN layers grown at 646°C nitridation as confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The persistent photoconductivity (PPC) was observed in both samples and it was found to be decreasing with decreasing temperature in the range 150-300°C due to long carrier lifetime and high electron mobility at low temperature. The photoresponse of the GaNmore » films grown in this study exhibit improved PPC due to their better surface morphology at 646°C nitrided sample. The point defects or extended microstructure defects limits the photocarrier lifetime and electron mobility at 200°C nitrided sample.« less

  13. High indium content homogenous InAlN layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyle, Erin C. H.; Kaun, Stephen W.; Wu, Feng; Bonef, Bastien; Speck, James S.

    2016-11-01

    InAlN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy often contains a honeycomb microstructure. The honeycomb microstructure consists of 5-10 nm diameter aluminum-rich regions which are surrounded by indium-rich regions. Layers without this microstructure were previously developed for nominally lattice-matched InAlN and have been developed here for higher indium content InAlN. In this study, InAlN was grown in a nitrogen-rich environment with high indium to aluminum flux ratios at low growth temperatures. Samples were characterized by high-resolution x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy, and atom probe tomography. Atomic force microscopy showed InAlN layers grown at temperatures below 450 °C under nitrogen-rich conditions were free of droplets. InAlN films with indium contents up to 81% were grown at temperatures between 410 and 440 °C. High-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography showed no evidence of honeycomb microstructure for samples with indium contents of 34% and 62%. These layers are homogeneous and follow a random alloy distribution. A growth diagram for InAlN of all indium contents is reported.

  14. High performance of Ga-doped ZnO transparent conductive layers using MOCVD for GaN LED applications.

    PubMed

    Horng, Ray-Hua; Shen, Kun-Ching; Yin, Chen-Yang; Huang, Chiung-Yi; Wuu, Dong-Sing

    2013-06-17

    High performance of Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) prepared using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) was employed in GaN blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as transparent conductive layers (TCL). By the post-annealing process, the annealed 800°C GZO films exhibited a high transparency above 97% at wavelength of 450 nm. The contact resistance of GZO decreased with the annealing temperature increasing. It was attributed to the improvement of the GZO crystal quality, leading to an increase in electron concentration. It was also found that some Zn atom caused from the decomposition process diffused into the p-GaN surface of LED, which generated a stronger tunneling effect at the GZO/p-GaN interface and promoted the formation of ohmic contact. Moreover, contrast to the ITO-LED, a high light extraction efficiency of 77% was achieved in the GZO-LED at injection current of 20 mA. At 350 mA injection current, the output power of 256.51 mW of GZO-LEDs, corresponding to a 21.5% enhancement as compared to ITO-LEDs was obtained; results are promising for the development of GZO using the MOCVD technique for GaN LED applications.

  15. Stabilizing Ir(001) Epitaxy on Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Using a Thin Ir Seed Layer Grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    SciT

    Fan, Lisha; Jacobs, Christopher B.; Rouleau, Christopher M.

    In this paper, we demonstrate the reproducible epitaxial growth of 100 nm thick Ir(001) films on a heteroepitaxial stack consisting of 5 nm Ir and 100 nm yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) grown on Si(001) substrates. It is shown that a 5 nm thick Ir layer grown by pulsed laser deposition in the same chamber as the YSZ film without breaking the vacuum is the key to stabilizing Ir(001) epitaxial growth. Growth of the Ir seed layer with pure (001) orientation occurs only in a narrow growth temperature window from 550 to 750 °C, and the fraction of Ir(111) increases at substratemore » temperatures outside of this window. The Ir seed layer prevents exposure of the YSZ film to air during sample transfer and enables highly reproducible Ir(001) heteroepitaxy on YSZ buffered Si(001). In contrast, if Ir is grown directly on a bare YSZ layer that was exposed to ambient conditions, the films are prone to change orientation to (111). These results reveal that preserving the chemical and structural purity of the YSZ surface is imperative for achieving Ir(001) epitaxy. The narrow range of the mosaic spread values from eight experiments demonstrates the high yield and high reproducibility of Ir(001) heteroepitaxy by this approach. Lastly, the improved Ir(001) epitaxial growth method is of great significance for integrating a variety of technologically important materials such as diamond, graphene, and functional oxides on a Si platform.« less

  16. Stabilizing Ir(001) Epitaxy on Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Using a Thin Ir Seed Layer Grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    DOE PAGES

    Fan, Lisha; Jacobs, Christopher B.; Rouleau, Christopher M.; ...

    2016-11-18

    In this paper, we demonstrate the reproducible epitaxial growth of 100 nm thick Ir(001) films on a heteroepitaxial stack consisting of 5 nm Ir and 100 nm yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) grown on Si(001) substrates. It is shown that a 5 nm thick Ir layer grown by pulsed laser deposition in the same chamber as the YSZ film without breaking the vacuum is the key to stabilizing Ir(001) epitaxial growth. Growth of the Ir seed layer with pure (001) orientation occurs only in a narrow growth temperature window from 550 to 750 °C, and the fraction of Ir(111) increases at substratemore » temperatures outside of this window. The Ir seed layer prevents exposure of the YSZ film to air during sample transfer and enables highly reproducible Ir(001) heteroepitaxy on YSZ buffered Si(001). In contrast, if Ir is grown directly on a bare YSZ layer that was exposed to ambient conditions, the films are prone to change orientation to (111). These results reveal that preserving the chemical and structural purity of the YSZ surface is imperative for achieving Ir(001) epitaxy. The narrow range of the mosaic spread values from eight experiments demonstrates the high yield and high reproducibility of Ir(001) heteroepitaxy by this approach. Lastly, the improved Ir(001) epitaxial growth method is of great significance for integrating a variety of technologically important materials such as diamond, graphene, and functional oxides on a Si platform.« less

  17. Photoelectrochemical water splitting strongly enhanced in fast-grown ZnO nanotree and nanocluster structures† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6ta02788a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Sangle, Abhijeet; Zhang, Siyuan; Yuan, Shuai; Zhao, Yin; Shi, Liyi; Hoye, Robert L. Z.; Cho, Seungho; Li, Dongdong

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate selective growth of ZnO branched nanostructures: from nanorod clusters (with branches parallel to parent rods) to nanotrees (with branches perpendicular to parent rods). The growth of these structures was realized using a three-step approach: electrodeposition of nanorods (NRs), followed by the sputtering of ZnO seed layers, followed by the growth of branched arms using hydrothermal growth. The density, size and direction of the branches were tailored by tuning the deposition parameters. To our knowledge, this is the first report of control of branch direction. The photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of the ZnO nanostructures follows the order: nanotrees (NTs) > nanorod clusters (NCs) > parent NRs. The NT structure with the best PEC performance also possesses the shortest fabrication period which had never been reported before. The photocurrent of the NT and NC photoelectrodes is 0.67 and 0.56 mA cm–2 at 1 V vs. Ag/AgCl, respectively, an enhancement of 139% and 100% when compared to the ZnO NR structures. The key reason for the improved performance is shown to be the very large surface-to-volume ratios in the branched nanostructures, which gives rise to enhanced light absorption, improved charge transfer across the nanostructure/electrolyte interfaces to the electrolyte and efficient charge transport within the material. PMID:27774147

  18. Effect of Ag doping on the structural, electrical and optical properties of ZnO grown by MOCVD at different substrate temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ievtushenko, A.; Karpyna, V.; Eriksson, J.; Tsiaoussis, I.; Shtepliuk, I.; Lashkarev, G.; Yakimova, R.; Khranovskyy, V.

    2018-05-01

    ZnO films and nanostructures were deposited on Si substrates by MOCVD using single source solid state zinc acetylacetonate (Zn(AA)) precursor. Doping by silver was realized in-situ via adding 1 and 10 wt. % of Ag acetylacetonate (Ag(AA)) to zinc precursor. Influence of Ag on the microstructure, electrical and optical properties of ZnO at temperature range 220-550 °C was studied by scanning, transmission electron and Kelvin probe force microscopy, photoluminescence and four-point probe electrical measurements. Ag doping affects the ZnO microstructure via changing the nucleation mode into heterogeneous and thus transforming the polycrystalline films into a matrix of highly c-axis textured hexagonally faceted nanorods. Increase of the work function value from 4.45 to 4.75 eV was observed with Ag content increase, which is attributed to Ag behaviour as a donor impurity. It was observed, that near-band edge emission of ZnO NS was enhanced with Ag doping as a result of quenching deep-level emission. Upon high doping of ZnO by Ag it tends to promote the formation of basal plane stacking faults defect, as it was observed by HR TEM and PL study in the case of 10 wt.% of Ag. Based on the results obtained, it is suggested that NS deposition at lower temperatures (220-300 °C) is more favorable for p-type doping of ZnO.

  19. Reducing the layer number of AB stacked multilayer graphene grown on nickel by annealing at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Velasco, J Marquez; Giamini, S A; Kelaidis, N; Tsipas, P; Tsoutsou, D; Kordas, G; Raptis, Y S; Boukos, N; Dimoulas, A

    2015-10-09

    Controlling the number of layers of graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition is crucial for large scale graphene application. We propose here an etching process of graphene which can be applied immediately after growth to control the number of layers. We use nickel (Ni) foil at high temperature (T = 900 °C) to produce multilayer-AB-stacked-graphene (MLG). The etching process is based on annealing the samples in a hydrogen/argon atmosphere at a relatively low temperature (T = 450 °C) inside the growth chamber. The extent of etching is mainly controlled by the annealing process duration. Using Raman spectroscopy we demonstrate that the number of layers was reduced, changing from MLG to few-layer-AB-stacked-graphene and in some cases to randomly oriented few layer graphene near the substrate. Furthermore, our method offers the significant advantage that it does not introduce defects in the samples, maintaining their original high quality. This fact and the low temperature our method uses make it a good candidate for controlling the layer number of already grown graphene in processes with a low thermal budget.

  20. Effects of O2 plasma post-treatment on ZnO: Ga thin films grown by H2O-thermal ALD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yueh-Lin; Chuang, Jia-Hao; Huang, Tzu-Hsuan; Ho, Chong-Long; Wu, Meng-Chyi

    2013-03-01

    Transparent conducting oxides have been widely employed in optoelectronic devices using the various deposition methods such as sputtering, thermal evaporator, and e-gun evaporator technologies.1-3 In this work, gallium doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Ga) thin films were grown on glass substrates via H2O-thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) at different deposition temperatures. ALD-GZO thin films were constituted as a layer-by-layer structure by stacking zinc oxides and gallium oxides. Diethylzinc (DEZ), triethylgallium (TEG) and H2O were used as zinc, gallium precursors and oxygen source, respectively. Furthermore, we investigated the influences of O2 plasma post-treatment power on the surface morphology, electrical and optical property of ZnO:Ga films. As the result of O2 plasma post-treatment, the characteristics of ZnO:Ga films exhibit a smooth surface, low resistivity, high carrier concentration, and high optical transmittance in the visible spectrum. However, the transmittance decreases with O2 plasma power in the near- and mid-infrared regions.

  1. Insitu grown superhydrophobic Zn-Al layered double hydroxides films on magnesium alloy to improve corrosion properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Meng; Pang, Xiaolu; Wei, Liang; Gao, Kewei

    2015-05-01

    A hierarchical superhydrophobic zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (Zn-Al LDHs) film has been fabricated on a magnesium alloy substrate via a facile hydrothermal crystallization method following chemical modification. The characteristics of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscope (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). XRD patterns and SEM images showed that the micro/nanoscale hierarchical LDHs film surfaces composed of ZnO nanorods and Zn-Al LDHs nanowalls structures. The static contact angle (CA) for the prepared surfaces was observed at around 165.6°. The corrosion resistance of the superhydrophobic films was estimated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiondynamic polarization measurement. EIS and polarization measurements revealed that the superhydrophobic Zn-Al LDHs coated magnesium alloy had better corrosion resistance in neutral 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution.

  2. Full coverage of perovskite layer onto ZnO nanorods via a modified sequential two-step deposition method for efficiency enhancement in perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruankham, Pipat; Wongratanaphisan, Duangmanee; Gardchareon, Atcharawon; Phadungdhitidhada, Surachet; Choopun, Supab; Sagawa, Takashi

    2017-07-01

    Full coverage of perovskite layer onto ZnO nanorod substrates with less pinholes is crucial for achieving high-efficiency perovskite solar cells. In this work, a two-step sequential deposition method is modified to achieve an appropriate property of perovskite (MAPbI3) film. Surface treatment of perovskite layer and its precursor have been systematically performed and their morphologies have been investigated. By pre-wetting of lead iodide (PbI2) and letting it dry before reacting with methylammonium iodide (MAI) provide better coverage of perovskite film onto ZnO nanorod substrate than one without any treatment. An additional MAI deposition followed with toluene drop-casting technique on the perovskite film is also found to increase the coverage and enhance the transformation of PbI2 to MAPbI3. These lead to longer charge carrier lifetime, resulting in an enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 1.21% to 3.05%. The modified method could been applied to a complex ZnO nanorods/TiO2 nanoparticles substrate. The enhancement in PCE to 3.41% is observed. These imply that our introduced method provides a simple way to obtain the full coverage and better transformation to MAPbI3 phase for enhancement in performances of perovskite solar cells.

  3. MOF-Derived ZnO Nanoparticles Covered by N-Doped Carbon Layers and Hybridized on Carbon Nanotubes for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Yunsong; Zhao, Wenqi; Zou, Mingchu; Chen, Yijun; Yang, Liusi; Xu, Lu; Wu, Huaisheng; Cao, Anyuan

    2017-11-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have many promising applications in energy and environmental areas such as gas separation, catalysis, supercapacitors, and batteries; the key toward those applications is controlled pyrolysis which can tailor the porous structure, improve electrical conductivity, and expose metal ions in MOFs. Here, we present a systematic study on the structural evolution of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks hybridized on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) during the carbonization process. We show that a number of typical products can be obtained, depending on the annealing time, including (1) CNTs wrapped by relatively thick carbon layers, (2) CNTs grafted by ZnO nanoparticles which are covered by thin nitrogen-doped carbon layers, and (3) CNTs grafted by aggregated ZnO nanoparticles. We also investigated the electrochemical properties of those hybrid structures as freestanding membrane electrodes for lithium ion batteries, and the second one (CNT-supported ZnO covered by N-doped carbon) shows the best performance with a high specific capacity (850 mA h/g at a current density of 100 mA/g) and excellent cycling stability. Our results indicate that tailoring and optimizing the MOF-CNT hybrid structure is essential for developing high-performance energy storage systems.

  4. Hydrogen-Induced Plastic Deformation in ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukáč, F.; Čížek, J.; Vlček, M.; Procházka, I.; Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.; Traeger, F.; Rogalla, D.; Becker, H.-W.

    In the present work hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals covered with Pd over-layer were electrochemically loaded with hydrogen and the influence of hydrogen on ZnO micro structure was investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) was employed for determination of depth profile of hydrogen concentration in the sample. NRA measurements confirmed that a substantial amount of hydrogen was introduced into ZnO by electrochemical charging. The bulk hydrogen concentration in ZnO determined by NRA agrees well with the concentration estimated from the transported charge using the Faraday's law. Moreover, a subsurface region with enhanced hydrogen concentration was found in the loaded crystals. Slow positron implantation spectroscopy (SPIS) investigations of hydrogen-loaded crystal revealed enhanced concentration of defects in the subsurface region. This testifies hydrogen-induced plastic deformation of the loaded crystal. Absorbed hydrogen causes a significant lattice expansion. At low hydrogen concentrations this expansion is accommodated by elastic straining, but at higher concentrations hydrogen-induced stress exceeds the yield stress in ZnO and plastic deformation of the loaded crystal takes place. Enhanced hydrogen concentration detected in the subsurface region by NRA is, therefore, due to excess hydrogen trapped at open volume defects introduced by plastic deformation. Moreover, it was found that hydrogen-induced plastic deformation in the subsurface layer leads to typical surface modification: formation of hexagonal shape pyramids on the surface due to hydrogen-induced slip in the [0001] direction.

  5. Hydrogen-related defects in Al2O3 layers grown on n-type Si by the atomic layer deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolkovsky, Vl.; Stübner, R.

    2018-04-01

    The electrical properties of alumina films with thicknesses varying from 15 nm to 150 nm, grown by the atomic layer deposition technique on n-type Si, were investigated. We demonstrated that the annealing of the alumina layers in argon (Ar) or hydrogen (H) atmosphere at about 700 K resulted in the introduction of negatively charged defects irrespective of the type of the substrate. These defects were also observed in samples subjected to a dc H plasma treatment at temperatures below 400 K, whereas they were not detected in as-grown samples and in samples annealed in Ar atmosphere at temperatures below 400 K. The concentration of these defects increased with a higher H content in the alumina films. In good agreement with theory we assigned these defects to interstitial H-related defects.

  6. Growth and characterization of textured well-faceted ZnO on planar Si(100), planar Si(111), and textured Si(100) substrates for solar cell applications.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chin-Yi; Lai, Jyong-Di; Feng, Shih-Wei; Huang, Chien-Jung; Chen, Chien-Hsun; Yang, Fann-Wei; Wang, Hsiang-Chen; Tu, Li-Wei

    2017-01-01

    In this work, textured, well-faceted ZnO materials grown on planar Si(100), planar Si(111), and textured Si(100) substrates by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and cathode luminescence (CL) measurements. The results show that ZnO grown on planar Si(100), planar Si(111), and textured Si(100) substrates favor the growth of ZnO(110) ridge-like, ZnO(002) pyramid-like, and ZnO(101) pyramidal-tip structures, respectively. This could be attributed to the constraints of the lattice mismatch between the ZnO and Si unit cells. The average grain size of ZnO on the planar Si(100) substrate is slightly larger than that on the planar Si(111) substrate, while both of them are much larger than that on the textured Si(100) substrate. The average grain sizes (about 10-50 nm) of the ZnO grown on the different silicon substrates decreases with the increase of their strains. These results are shown to strongly correlate with the results from the SEM, AFM, and CL as well. The reflectance spectra of these three samples show that the antireflection function provided by theses samples mostly results from the nanometer-scaled texture of the ZnO films, while the micrometer-scaled texture of the Si substrate has a limited contribution. The results of this work provide important information for optimized growth of textured and well-faceted ZnO grown on wafer-based silicon solar cells and can be utilized for efficiency enhancement and optimization of device materials and structures, such as heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT) solar cells.

  7. Quality improvements of ZnxCdyMg1-x-ySe layers grown on InP substrates by a thin ZnCdSe interfacial layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, L.; Yang, B. X.; Tamargo, M. C.; Snoeks, E.; Zhao, L.

    1998-03-01

    The quality of lattice-matched ZnxCdyMg1-x-ySe epitaxial layers grown on (001) InP substrates with a III-V buffer layer has been improved by initially growing a ZnCdSe interfacial layer (50 Å) at low temperature. The widths of double crystal x-ray rocking curves for ZnxCdyMg1-x-ySe epilayers with band gaps as high as 3.05 eV were reduced to about 70 arcsec. The defect density evaluated from etch pit density and plan-view transmission electron microscopy measurements was reduced by two orders of magnitude, to 106-107cm-2. The photoluminescence band edge emission became more symmetric and slightly narrower. It is proposed that an initial two-dimensional growth mode has been achieved by incorporating such a lattice-matched ZnCdSe layer.

  8. Electrical properties of surface and interface layers of the N- and In-polar undoped and Mg-doped InN layers grown by PA MBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komissarova, T. A.; Kampert, E.; Law, J.; Jmerik, V. N.; Paturi, P.; Wang, X.; Yoshikawa, A.; Ivanov, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    Electrical properties of N-polar undoped and Mg-doped InN layers and In-polar undoped InN layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA MBE) were studied. Transport parameters of the surface and interface layers were determined from the measurements of the Hall coefficient and resistivity as well as the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations at magnetic fields up to 60 T. Contributions of the 2D surface, 3D near-interface, and 2D interface layers to the total conductivity of the InN films were defined and discussed to be dependent on InN surface polarity, Mg doping, and PA MBE growth conditions.

  9. Enhanced B doping in CVD-grown GeSn:B using B δ-doping layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohen, David; Vohra, Anurag; Loo, Roger; Vandervorst, Wilfried; Bhargava, Nupur; Margetis, Joe; Tolle, John

    2018-02-01

    Highly doped GeSn material is interesting for both electronic and optical applications. GeSn:B is a candidate for source-drain material in future Ge pMOS device because Sn adds compressive strain with respect to pure Ge, and therefore can boost the Ge channel performances. A high B concentration is required to obtain low contact resistivity between the source-drain material and the metal contact. To achieve high performance, it is therefore highly desirable to maximize both the Sn content and the B concentration. However, it has been shown than CVD-grown GeSn:B shows a trade-off between the Sn incorporation and the B concentration (increasing B doping reduces Sn incorporation). Furthermore, the highest B concentration of CVD-grown GeSn:B process reported in the literature has been limited to below 1 × 1020 cm-3. Here, we demonstrate a CVD process where B δ-doping layers are inserted in the GeSn layer. We studied the influence of the thickness between each δ-doping layers and the δ-doping layers process conditions on the crystalline quality and the doping density of the GeSn:B layers. For the same Sn content, the δ-doping process results in a 4-times higher B doping than the co-flow process. In addition, a B doping concentration of 2 × 1021 cm-3 with an active concentration of 5 × 1020 cm-3 is achieved.

  10. Effect of Sb in thick InGaAsSbN layers grown by liquid phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donchev, V.; Milanova, M.; Asenova, I.; Shtinkov, N.; Alonso-Álvarez, D.; Mellor, A.; Karmakov, Y.; Georgiev, S.; Ekins-Daukes, N.

    2018-02-01

    Dilute nitride InGaAsSbN layers grown by low-temperature liquid phase epitaxy are studied in comparison with quaternary InGaAsN layers grown at the same growth conditions to understand the effect of Sb in the alloy. The lattice mismatch to the GaAs substrate is found to be slightly larger for the InGaAsSbN layers, which is explained by the large atomic radius of Sb. A reduction of the band gap energy with respect to InGaAsN is demonstrated by means of photoluminescence (PL), surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy and tight-binding calculations. The band-gap energies determined from PL and ellipsometry measurements are in good agreement, while the SPV spectroscopy and the tight-binding calculations provide lower values. Possible reasons for these discrepancies are discussed. The PL spectra reveal localized electronic states in the band gap near the conduction band edge, which is confirmed by SPV spectroscopy. The analysis of the power dependence of the integrated PL has allowed determining the dominant radiative recombination mechanisms in the layers. The values of the refraction index in a wide spectral region are found to be higher for the Sb containing layers.

  11. Growth of well-aligned ZnO nanorods using auge catalyst by vapor phase transportation.

    PubMed

    Ha, S Y; Jung, M N; Park, S H; Ko, H J; Ko, H; Oh, D C; Yao, T; Chang, J H

    2006-11-01

    Well-aligned ZnO nanorods have been achieved using new alloy (AuGe) catalyst. Zn powder was used as a source material and it was transported in a horizontal tube furnace onto an AuGe deposited Si substrates. The structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorods were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, high resolution X-ray diffraction, and photoluminescence. ZnO nanorods grown at 650 degrees C on 53 nm thick AuGe layer show uniform shape with the length of 8 +/- 0.5 microm and the diameter of 150 +/- 5 nm. Also, the tilting angle of ZnO nanorods (+/- 5.5 degrees) is confirmed by HRXRD. High structural quality of the nanorods is conformed by the photoluminescence measurement. All samples show strong UV emission without considerable deep level emission. However, weak deep level emission appears at high (700 degrees C) temperature due to the increase of oxygen desertion.

  12. Enhanced ZnO Thin-Film Transistor Performance Using Bilayer Gate Dielectrics.

    PubMed

    Alshammari, Fwzah H; Nayak, Pradipta K; Wang, Zhenwei; Alshareef, Husam N

    2016-09-07

    We report ZnO TFTs using Al2O3/Ta2O5 bilayer gate dielectrics grown by atomic layer deposition. The saturation mobility of single layer Ta2O5 dielectric TFT was 0.1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), but increased to 13.3 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) using Al2O3/Ta2O5 bilayer dielectric with significantly lower leakage current and hysteresis. We show that point defects present in ZnO film, particularly VZn, are the main reason for the poor TFT performance with single layer dielectric, although interfacial roughness scattering effects cannot be ruled out. Our approach combines the high dielectric constant of Ta2O5 and the excellent Al2O3/ZnO interface quality, resulting in improved device performance.

  13. The role of annealing temperature variation on ZnO nanorods array deposited on TiO2 seed layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asib, N. A. M.; Aadila, A.; Afaah, A. N.; Rusop, M.; Khusaimi, Z.

    2018-05-01

    Seed layer of Titanium dioxide (TiO2) by sol-gel spin coating technique were coated on glass substrate to grow Zinc oxide nanorods (ZNR) by solution-immersion method. The fabricated ZNR were annealed at various temperatures ranged from 400 to 600° C. FESEM images revealed that smaller ZNR were densely grown at optimum temperature of 450 and 500°C. Meanwhile, for all samples a dominant (0 0 2) diffraction peak of ZNR recorded by XRD patterns was at 34.4° which corresponding to hexagonal ZNR with a wurtzite structure. UV-Vis absorbance spectra showed the maximum absorption properties at UV region were detected at 450 and 500°C. The samples also showed high absorbance values at visible region.

  14. Highly Repeatable and Recoverable Phototransistors Based on Multifunctional Channels of Photoactive CdS, Fast Charge Transporting ZnO, and Chemically Durable Al2O3 Layers.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Cheol Hyoun; Kang, Won Jun; Kim, Ye Kyun; Yun, Myeong Gu; Cho, Hyung Koun

    2016-06-22

    Highly repeatable and recoverable phototransistors were explored using a "multifunctional channels" structure with multistacked chalcogenide and oxide semiconductors. These devices were made of (i) photoactive CdS (with a visible band gap), (ii) fast charge transporting ZnO (with a high field-effect mobility), and (iii) a protection layer of Al2O3 (with high chemical durability). The CdS TFT without the Al2O3 protection layer did not show a transfer curve due to the chemical damage that occurred on the ZnO layer during the chemical bath deposition (CBD) process used for CdS deposition. Alternatively, compared to CdS phototransistors with long recovery time and high hysteresis (ΔVth = 19.5 V), our "multi-functional channels" phototransistors showed an extremely low hysteresis loop (ΔVth = 0.5V) and superior photosensitivity with repeatable high photoresponsivity (52.9 A/W at 400 nm). These improvements are likely caused by the physical isolation of the sensing region and charge transport region by the insertion of the ultrathin Al2O3 layer. This approach successfully addresses some of the existing problems in CdS phototransistors, such as the high gate-interface trap site density and high absorption of molecular oxygen, which originate from the polycrystalline CdS.

  15. Flexible metal-semiconductor-metal device prototype on wafer-scale thick boron nitride layers grown by MOVPE.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Jordan, Matthew B; Ayari, Taha; Sundaram, Suresh; El Gmili, Youssef; Alam, Saiful; Alam, Muhbub; Patriarche, Gilles; Voss, Paul L; Paul Salvestrini, Jean; Ougazzaden, Abdallah

    2017-04-11

    Practical boron nitride (BN) detector applications will require uniform materials over large surface area and thick BN layers. To report important progress toward these technological requirements, 1~2.5 µm-thick BN layers were grown on 2-inch sapphire substrates by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The structural and optical properties were carefully characterized and discussed. The thick layers exhibited strong band-edge absorption near 215 nm. A highly oriented two-dimensional h-BN structure was formed at the film/sapphire interface, which permitted an effective exfoliation of the thick BN film onto other adhesive supports. And this structure resulted in a metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) device prototype fabricated on BN membrane delaminating from the substrate. MSM photodiode prototype showed low dark current of 2 nA under 100 V, and 100 ± 20% photoconductivity yield for deep UV light illumination. These wafer-scale MOVPE-grown thick BN layers present great potential for the development of deep UV photodetection applications, and even for flexible (opto-) electronics in the future.

  16. Structure and morphology of magnetron sputter deposited ultrathin ZnO films on confined polymeric template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ajaib; Schipmann, Susanne; Mathur, Aakash; Pal, Dipayan; Sengupta, Amartya; Klemradt, Uwe; Chattopadhyay, Sudeshna

    2017-08-01

    The structure and morphology of ultra-thin zinc oxide (ZnO) films with different film thicknesses on confined polymer template were studied through X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). Using magnetron sputter deposition technique ZnO thin films with different film thicknesses (<10 nm) were grown on confined polystyrene with ∼2Rg film thickness, where Rg ∼ 20 nm (Rg is the unperturbed radius of gyration of polystyrene, defined by Rg = 0.272 √M0, and M0 is the molecular weight of polystyrene). The detailed internal structure, along the surface/interfaces and the growth direction of the system were explored in this study, which provides insight into the growth procedure of ZnO on confined polymer and reveals that a thin layer of ZnO, with very low surface and interface roughness, can be grown by DC magnetron sputtering technique, with approximately full coverage (with bulk like electron density) even in nm order of thickness, in 2-7 nm range on confined polymer template, without disturbing the structure of the underneath template. The resulting ZnO-polystyrene hybrid systems show strong ZnO near band edge (NBE) and deep-level (DLE) emissions in their room temperature photoluminescence spectra, where the contribution of DLE gets relatively stronger with decreasing ZnO film thickness, indicating a significant enhancement of surface defects because of the greater surface to volume ratio in thinner films.

  17. Ultra-Fast Microwave Synthesis of ZnO Nanorods on Cellulose Substrates for UV Sensor Applications

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel, Ana; Samouco, Ana; Araújo, Andreia; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, tracing and Whatman papers were used as substrates to grow zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures. Cellulose-based substrates are cost-efficient, highly sensitive and environmentally friendly. ZnO nanostructures with hexagonal structure were synthesized by hydrothermal under microwave irradiation using an ultrafast approach, that is, a fixed synthesis time of 10 min. The effect of synthesis temperature on ZnO nanostructures was investigated from 70 to 130 °C. An Ultra Violet (UV)/Ozone treatment directly to the ZnO seed layer prior to microwave assisted synthesis revealed expressive differences regarding formation of the ZnO nanostructures. Structural characterization of the microwave synthesized materials was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The optical characterization has also been performed. The time resolved photocurrent of the devices in response to the UV turn on/off was investigated and it has been observed that the ZnO nanorod arrays grown on Whatman paper substrate present a responsivity 3 times superior than the ones grown on tracing paper. By using ZnO nanorods, the surface area-to-volume ratio will increase and will improve the sensor sensibility, making these types of materials good candidates for low cost and disposable UV sensors. The sensors were exposed to bending tests, proving their high stability, flexibility and adaptability to different surfaces. PMID:29140304

  18. UiO-66-NH2 Metal-Organic Framework (MOF) Nucleation on TiO2, ZnO, and Al2O3 Atomic Layer Deposition-Treated Polymer Fibers: Role of Metal Oxide on MOF Growth and Catalytic Hydrolysis of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dennis T; Zhao, Junjie; Oldham, Christopher J; Peterson, Gregory W; Parsons, Gregory N

    2017-12-27

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) chemically bound to polymeric microfibrous textiles show promising performance for many future applications. In particular, Zr-based UiO-66-family MOF-textiles have been shown to catalytically degrade highly toxic chemical warfare agents (CWAs), where favorable MOF/polymer bonding and adhesion are attained by placing a nanoscale metal-oxide layer on the polymer fiber preceding MOF growth. To date, however, the nucleation mechanism of Zr-based MOFs on different metal oxides and how product performance is affected are not well understood. Herein, we provide new insight into how different inorganic nucleation films (i.e., Al 2 O 3 , ZnO, or TiO 2 ) conformally coated on polypropylene (PP) nonwoven textiles via atomic layer deposition (ALD) influence the quality, overall surface area, and the fractional yield of UiO-66-NH 2 MOF crystals solvothermally grown on fiber substrates. Of the materials explored, we find that TiO 2 ALD layers lead to the most effective overall MOF/fiber adhesion, uniformity, and a rapid catalytic degradation rate for a CWA simulant, dimethyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate (DMNP) with t 1/2 = 15 min, 580-fold faster than the catalytic performance of untreated PP textiles. Interestingly, compared to ALD TiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 , ALD ZnO induces a larger MOF yield in solution and mass loading on PP fibrous mats. However, this larger MOF yield is ascribed to chemical instability of the ZnO layer under MOF formation condition, leading to Zn 2+ ions that promote further homogeneous MOF growth. Insights presented here improve understanding of compatibility between active MOF materials and substrate surfaces, which we believe will help advanced MOF composite materials for a variety of useful functions.

  19. Mesoporous multi-shelled ZnO microspheres for the scattering layer of dye sensitized solar cell with a high efficiency

    SciT

    Xia, Weiwei; Mei, Chao; Zeng, Xianghua, E-mail: xhzeng@yzu.edu.cn

    2016-03-14

    Both light scattering and dye adsorbing are important for the power conversion efficiency PCE performance of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Nanostructured scattering layers with a large specific surface area are regarded as an efficient way to improve the PCE by increasing dye adsorbing, but excess adsorbed dye will hinder light scattering and light penetration. Thus, how to balance the dye adsorbing and light penetration is a key problem to improve the PCE performance. Here, multiple-shelled ZnO microspheres with a mesoporous surface are fabricated by a hydrothermal method and are used as scattering layers on the TiO{sub 2} photoanode ofmore » the DSSC in the presence of N719 dye and iodine–based electrolyte, and the results reveal that the DSSCs based on triple shelled ZnO microsphere with a mesoporous surface exhibit an enhanced PCE of 7.66%, which is 13.0% higher than those without the scattering layers (6.78%), indicating that multiple-shelled microspheres with a mesoporous surface can ensure enough light scattering between the shells, and a favorable concentration of the adsorbed dye can improve the light penetration. These results may provide a promising pathway to obtain the high efficient DSSCs.« less

  20. Growth Method-Dependent and Defect Density-Oriented Structural, Optical, Conductive, and Physical Properties of Solution-Grown ZnO Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Rana, Abu Ul Hassan Sarwar; Lee, Ji Young; Shahid, Areej; Kim, Hyun-Seok

    2017-09-10

    It is time for industry to pay a serious heed to the application and quality-dependent research on the most important solution growth methods for ZnO, namely, aqueous chemical growth (ACG) and microwave-assisted growth (MAG) methods. This study proffers a critical analysis on how the defect density and formation behavior of ZnO nanostructures (ZNSs) are growth method-dependent. Both antithetical and facile methods are exploited to control the ZnO defect density and the growth mechanism. In this context, the growth of ZnO nanorods (ZNRs), nanoflowers, and nanotubes (ZNTs) are considered. The aforementioned growth methods directly stimulate the nanostructure crystal growth and, depending upon the defect density, ZNSs show different trends in structural, optical, etching, and conductive properties. The defect density of MAG ZNRs is the least because of an ample amount of thermal energy catered by high-power microwaves to the atoms to grow on appropriate crystallographic planes, which is not the case in faulty convective ACG ZNSs. Defect-centric etching of ZNRs into ZNTs is also probed and methodological constraints are proposed. ZNS optical properties are different in the visible region, which are quite peculiar, but outstanding for ZNRs. Hall effect measurements illustrate incongruent conductive trends in both samples.

  1. Hydrothermally Grown In-doped ZnO Nanorods on p-GaN Films for Color-tunable Heterojunction Light-emitting-diodes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Geun Chul; Hwang, Soo Min; Lee, Seung Muk; Choi, Jun Hyuk; Song, Keun Man; Kim, Hyun You; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Eum, Sung-Jin; Jung, Seung-Boo; Lim, Jun Hyung; Joo, Jinho

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of doping elements in ZnO nanostructures plays an important role in adjusting the optical and electrical properties in optoelectronic devices. In the present study, we fabricated 1-D ZnO nanorods (NRs) doped with different In contents (0% ~ 5%) on p-GaN films using a facile hydrothermal method, and investigated the effect of the In doping on the morphology and electronic structure of the NRs and the electrical and optical performances of the n-ZnO NRs/p-GaN heterojunction light emitting diodes (LEDs). As the In content increased, the size (diameter and length) of the NRs increased, and the electrical performance of the LEDs improved. From the electroluminescence (EL) spectra, it was found that the broad green-yellow-orange emission band significantly increased with increasing In content due to the increased defect states (oxygen vacancies) in the ZnO NRs, and consequently, the superposition of the emission bands centered at 415 nm and 570 nm led to the generation of white-light. These results suggest that In doping is an effective way to tailor the morphology and the optical, electronic, and electrical properties of ZnO NRs, as well as the EL emission property of heterojunction LEDs. PMID:25988846

  2. Hydrothermally Grown In-doped ZnO Nanorods on p-GaN Films for Color-tunable Heterojunction Light-emitting-diodes.

    PubMed

    Park, Geun Chul; Hwang, Soo Min; Lee, Seung Muk; Choi, Jun Hyuk; Song, Keun Man; Kim, Hyun You; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Eum, Sung-Jin; Jung, Seung-Boo; Lim, Jun Hyung; Joo, Jinho

    2015-05-19

    The incorporation of doping elements in ZnO nanostructures plays an important role in adjusting the optical and electrical properties in optoelectronic devices. In the present study, we fabricated 1-D ZnO nanorods (NRs) doped with different In contents (0% ~ 5%) on p-GaN films using a facile hydrothermal method, and investigated the effect of the In doping on the morphology and electronic structure of the NRs and the electrical and optical performances of the n-ZnO NRs/p-GaN heterojunction light emitting diodes (LEDs). As the In content increased, the size (diameter and length) of the NRs increased, and the electrical performance of the LEDs improved. From the electroluminescence (EL) spectra, it was found that the broad green-yellow-orange emission band significantly increased with increasing In content due to the increased defect states (oxygen vacancies) in the ZnO NRs, and consequently, the superposition of the emission bands centered at 415 nm and 570 nm led to the generation of white-light. These results suggest that In doping is an effective way to tailor the morphology and the optical, electronic, and electrical properties of ZnO NRs, as well as the EL emission property of heterojunction LEDs.

  3. Piezoelectric coupling in a field-effect transistor with a nanohybrid channel of ZnO nanorods grown vertically on graphene.

    PubMed

    Quang Dang, Vinh; Kim, Do-Il; Thai Duy, Le; Kim, Bo-Yeong; Hwang, Byeong-Ung; Jang, Mi; Shin, Kyung-Sik; Kim, Sang-Woo; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2014-12-21

    Piezoelectric coupling phenomena in a graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) with a nano-hybrid channel of chemical-vapor-deposited Gr (CVD Gr) and vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) under mechanical pressurization were investigated. Transfer characteristics of the hybrid channel GFET clearly indicated that the piezoelectric effect of ZnO NRs under static or dynamic pressure modulated the channel conductivity (σ) and caused a positive shift of 0.25% per kPa in the Dirac point. However, the GFET without ZnO NRs showed no change in either σ or the Dirac point. Analysis of the Dirac point shifts indicated transfer of electrons from the CVD Gr to ZnO NRs due to modulation of their interfacial barrier height under pressure. High responsiveness of the hybrid channel device with fast response and recovery times was evident in the time-dependent behavior at a small gate bias. In addition, the hybrid channel FET could be gated by mechanical pressurization only. Therefore, a piezoelectric-coupled hybrid channel GFET can be used as a pressure-sensing device with low power consumption and a fast response time. Hybridization of piezoelectric 1D nanomaterials with a 2D semiconducting channel in FETs enables a new design for future nanodevices.

  4. Al-/Ga-Doped ZnO Window Layers for Highly Efficient Cu₂ZnSn(S,Se)₄ Thin Film Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Seo, Se Won; Seo, Jung Woo; Kim, Donghwan; Cheon, Ki-Beom; Lee, Doh-Kwon; Kim, Jin Young

    2018-09-01

    The successful use of Al-/Ga-doped ZnO (AGZO) thin films as a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layer of a Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) thin film solar cell is demonstrated. The AGZO thin films were prepared by radio frequency (RF) sputtering. The structural, crystallographic, electrical, and optical properties of the AGZO thin films were systematically investigated. The photovoltaic properties of CZTSSe thin film solar cells incorporating the AGZO-based TCO layer were also reported. It has been found that the RF power and substrate temperature of the AGZO thin film are important factors determining the electrical, optical, and structural properties. The optimization process involving the RF power and the substrate temperature leads to good electrical and optical transmittance of the AGZO thin films. Finally, the CZTSSe solar cell with the AGZO TCO layer demonstrated a high conversion efficiency of 9.68%, which is higher than that of the conventional AZO counterpart by 12%.

  5. Identification of acoustic waves in ZnO materials by Brillouin light scattering for SAW device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerdali, M.; Bechiri, F.; Hamzaoui, S.; Teherani, F. H.; Rogers, D. J.; Sandana, V. E.; Bove, P.; Djemia, P.; Roussigné, Y.

    2017-03-01

    Brillouin light scattering (BLS) was conducted on melt-grown ZnO bulk crystals and ZnO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition. The bulk ZnO crystals presented both longitudinal and transverse bulk acoustic waves. Theoretical calculations agreed well with there being one piezoelectric longitudinal branch and two transverse branches. BLS measurements conducted on ZnO thin films also revealed Rayleigh surface acoustic waves (R-SAW) guided by only the surface of the layer and Sezawa modes, guided by the film thickness. Measurements were conducted for three incidence angles in order to investigate different SAW wave numbers. Higher frequency features were identified as being related to a new class of guided longitudinal (LG) SAW modes which are not usually detected for ZnO thin films. The LG-SAW modes were observed for two incidence angles (θ=45° and 55°) corresponding to frequencies of 17.88 and 20.75 GHz, respectively. BLS measurements enable us to estimate the LG-SAW velocity as 6500 m/s. This value is three times higher than that of the currently used R-SAW. Theoretical simulations were coherent with the presence of LG modes in the ZnO layers. Such LG-SAW modes are promising for the development of novel, higher-speed SAW devices operating in the GHz-band and which could be readily incorporated in Si-based integrated circuitry.

  6. Effect of a low-temperature-grown GaAs layer on InAs quantum-dot photoluminescence

    SciT

    Kosarev, A. N.; Chaldyshev, V. V., E-mail: chald.gvg@mail.ioffe.ru; Preobrazhenskii, V. V.

    2016-11-15

    The photoluminescence of InAs semiconductor quantum dots overgrown by GaAs in the low-temperature mode (LT-GaAs) using various spacer layers or without them is studied. Spacer layers are thin GaAs or AlAs layers grown at temperatures normal for molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). Direct overgrowth leads to photoluminescence disappearance. When using a thin GaAs spacer layer, the photoluminescence from InAs quantum dots is partially recovered; however, its intensity appears lower by two orders of magnitude than in the reference sample in which the quantum-dot array is overgrown at normal temperature. The use of wider-gap AlAs as a spacer-layer material leads to the enhancementmore » of photoluminescence from InAs quantum dots, but it is still more than ten times lower than that of reference-sample emission. A model taking into account carrier generation by light, diffusion and tunneling from quantum dots to the LT-GaAs layer is constructed.« less

  7. Electrical and photocatalytic properties of boron-doped ZnO nanostructure grown on PET-ITO flexible substrates by hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Ai, Taotao; Yu, Qi

    2017-02-01

    Boron-doped zinc oxide sheet-spheres were synthesized on PET-ITO flexible substrates using a hydrothermal method at 90 °C for 5 h. The results of X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the B atoms were successfully doped into the ZnO lattice, the incorporation of B led to an increase in the lattice constant of ZnO and a change in its internal stress. The growth mechanism of pure ZnO nanorods and B-doped ZnO sheet-spheres was specifically investigated. The as-prepared BZO/PET-ITO heterojunction possessed obvious rectification properties and its positive turn-on voltage was 0.4 V. The carrier transport mechanisms involved three models such as hot carrier tunneling theory, tunneling recombination, and series-resistance effect were explored. The BZO/PET-ITO nanostructures were more effective than pure ZnO to degrade the RY 15, and the degradation rate reached 41.45%. The decomposition process with BZO nanostructure followed first-order reaction kinetics. The photocurrent and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed that the B-doping could promote the separation of photo-generated electron-hole pairs, which was beneficial to enhance the photocatalytic activity. The photocurrent density of B-doped and pure ZnO/PET-ITO were 0.055 mA/cm2 and 0.016 mA/cm2, respectively. The photocatalytic mechanism of the sample was analyzed by the energy band theory.

  8. Emission intensity of the λ = 1.54 μm line in ZnO films grown by magnetron sputtering, diffusion doped with Ce, Yb, Er

    SciT

    Mezdrogina, M. M., E-mail: margeret.m@mail.ioffe.ru; Eremenko, M. V.; Smirnov, A. N.

    2015-08-15

    The effect of the Er{sup 3+}-ion excitation type on the photoluminescence spectra of crystalline ZnO(ZnO〈Ce, Yb, Er〉) films is determined in the cases of resonant (λ = 532 nm, Er{sup 3+}-ion transition from {sup 4}S{sub 3/2}, {sup 2}H{sub 11/2} levels to {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}) and non-resonant (λ = 325 nm, in the region near the ZnO band-edge emission) excitation. It is shown that resonant excitation gives rise to lines with various emission intensities, characteristic of the Er{sup 3+}-ion intracenter 4f transition with λ = 1535 nm when doping crystalline ZnO films with three rare-earth ions (REIs, Ce, Yb, Er) ormore » with two impurities (Ce, Er) or (Er, Yb), independently of the measurement temperature (T = 83 and 300 K). The doping of crystalline ZnO films with rare-earth impurities (Ce, Yb, Er) leads to the efficient transfer of energy to REIs, a consequence of which is the intense emission of an Er{sup 3+} ion in the IR spectral region at λ{sub max} = 1535 nm. The kick-out diffusion mechanism is used upon the sequential introduction of impurities into semiconductor matrices and during the postgrowth annealing of the ZnO films under study. The crystalline ZnO films doped with Ce, Yb, Er also exhibit intense emission in the visible spectral region at room temperature, which makes them promising materials for optoelectronics.« less

  9. Effects of a GaSb buffer layer on an InGaAs overlayer grown on Ge(111) substrates: Strain, twin generation, and surface roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajikawa, Y.; Nishigaichi, M.; Tenma, S.; Kato, K.; Katsube, S.

    2018-04-01

    InGaAs layers were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on nominal and vicinal Ge(111) substrates with inserting GaSb buffer layers. High-resolution X-ray diffraction using symmetric 333 and asymmetric 224 reflections was employed to analyze the crystallographic properties of the grown layers. By using the two reflections, we determined the lattice constants (the unit cell length a and the angle α between axes) of the grown layers with taking into account the rhombohedral distortion of the lattices of the grown layers. This allowed us the independent determination of the strain components (perpendicular and parallel components to the substrate surface, ε⊥ and ε//) and the composition x of the InxGa1-xAs layers by assuming the distortion coefficient D, which is defined as the ratio of ε⊥ against ε//. Furthermore, the twin ratios were determined for the GaSb and the InGaAs layers by comparing asymmetric 224 reflections from the twin domain with that from the normal domain of the layers. As a result, it has been shown that the twin ratio in the InGaAs layer can be decreased to be less than 0.1% by the use of the vicinal substrate together with annealing the GaSb buffer layer during the growth interruption before the InGaAs overgrowth.

  10. Growth parameter dependent structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures on Si substrate by a two-zone thermal CVD.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Kwan; Yu, Jae Su

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the effect of growth parameters on the structural and optical properties of the ZnO nanostructures (NSs) grown on Au-coated Si substrate by a two-zone thermal chemical vapor deposition. The morphologies of ZnO NSs were controlled by various growth parameters, such as growth temperature, O2 flow rate, and working pressure, for different thicknesses of Au layer. The nanorod-like ZnO NSs were formed at 915 degrees C and the growth of two-dimensional structures, i.e., nanosheets, was enhanced with the increase of growth temperature up to 965 degrees C. It was found that the low working pressure contributed to improvement in vertical alignment and uniformity of ZnO NSs. The Zn/O atomic % ratio, which plays a key role in the growth mechanism of ZnO NSs, was changed by the growth parameters. The Zn/O atomic % ratio was increased with increasing the growth temperature, while it was decreased with increasing the working pressure. Under proper O2 flow rate, the ZnO nanorods with good crystallinity were fabricated with a Zn/O atomic % ratio of -0.9. For various growth parameters, the photoluminescence emission was slightly shifted with the ultraviolet emission related to the near band edge transition.

  11. Low-dislocation-density epitatial layers grown by defect filtering by self-assembled layers of spheres

    DOEpatents

    Wang, George T.; Li, Qiming

    2013-04-23

    A method for growing low-dislocation-density material atop a layer of the material with an initially higher dislocation density using a monolayer of spheroidal particles to bend and redirect or directly block vertically propagating threading dislocations, thereby enabling growth and coalescence to form a very-low-dislocation-density surface of the material, and the structures made by this method.

  12. ZnO nanotube waveguide arrays on graphene films for local optical excitation on biological cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Hyeonjun; Kwak, Hankyul; Song, Minho S.; Ha, Go Eun; Park, Jongwoo; Tchoe, Youngbin; Hyun, Jerome K.; Park, Hye Yoon; Cheong, Eunji; Yi, Gyu-Chul

    2017-04-01

    We report on scalable and position-controlled optical nanoprobe arrays using ZnO nanotube waveguides on graphene films for use in local optical excitation. For the waveguide fabrication, position-controlled and well-ordered ZnO nanotube arrays were grown on chemical vapor deposited graphene films with a submicron patterned mask layer and Au prepared between the interspace of nanotubes. Mammalian cells were cultured on the nanotube waveguide arrays and were locally excited by light illuminated through the nanotubes. Fluorescence and optogenetic signals could be excited through the optical nanoprobes. This method offers the ability to investigate cellular behavior with a high spatial resolution that surpasses the current limitation.

  13. Characterization of nonpolar a-plane GaN epi-layers grown on high-density patterned r-plane sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinno, Daiki; Otsuki, Shunya; Sugimori, Shogo; Daicho, Hisayoshi; Iwaya, Motoaki; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Kamiyama, Satoshi; Akasaki, Isamu

    2018-02-01

    To reduce the number of threading dislocations (TDs) in nonpolar a-plane GaN (a-GaN) epi-layers grown on flat r-plane sapphire substrates (r-FSS), we investigated the effects on the crystalline quality of the a-GaN epi-layers of high-density patterned r-plane sapphire substrates (r-HPSS), the patterns of which were placed at intervals of several hundred nanometers. Two types of r-HPSS, the patterns of which had diameters and heights on the order of several hundred nanometers (r-NHPSS) or several micrometers (r-MHPSS), were prepared with conventional r-FSS. The effect of these r-HPSS on the a-GaN epi-layers was demonstrated by evaluating the surface morphology and the crystalline quality of the epi-layers. The surfaces of the a-GaN epi-layer grown on r-FSS and r-NHPSS were pit-free and mirror-like, whereas the surface of the a-GaN epi-layer grown on r-MHPSS was very rough due to the large, irregular GaN islands that grew on the patterns, mainly at the initial growth stage. The crystalline quality of the a-GaN epi-layer grown on r-NHPSS was better than that of the a-GaN epi-layer grown on r-FSS. We confirmed that there were fewer TDs in the a-GaN epi-layer grown on r-NHPSS than there were in the a-GaN epi-layer grown on r-FSS. The TDs propagating to the surface in a-GaN epi-layer grown on r-NHPSS were mainly generated on the flat sapphire regions between the patterns. Interestingly, it was also found that the TDs that propagated to the surface concentrated with a periodic pitch along the c-axis direction. The TD densities of a-GaN epi-layers grown on r-FSS and r-NHPSS were estimated to be approximately 5.0 × 1010 and 1.5 × 109 cm-2, respectively. This knowledge will contribute to the further development of a-GaN epi-layers for high-performance devices.

  14. Engineering the Mechanical Properties of Ultrabarrier Films Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition for the Encapsulation of Printed Electronics

    DOE PAGES

    Bulusu, Anuradha; Singh, Ankit K.; Wang, Cheng-Yin; ...

    2015-08-28

    Direct deposition of barrier films by atomic layer deposition (ALD) onto printed electronics presents a promising method for packaging devices. Films made by ALD have been shown to possess desired ultrabarrier properties, but face challenges when directly grown onto surfaces with varying composition and topography. Challenges include differing nucleation and growth rates across the surface, stress concentrations from topography and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch, elastic mismatch, and particle contamination that may impact the performance of the ALD barrier. In such cases, a polymer smoothing layer may be needed to coat the surface prior to ALD barrier film deposition.more » We present the impact of architecture on the performance of aluminum oxide (Al2O3)/hafnium oxide (HfO2) ALD nanolaminate barrier films deposited on fluorinated polymer layer using an optical calcium (Ca) test under damp heat. It is found that with increasing polymer thickness, the barrier films with residual tensile stress are prone to cracking resulting in rapid failure of the Ca sensor at 50{degree sign}C/85% RH. Inserting a SiNx layer with residual compressive stress between the polymer and ALD layers is found to prevent cracking over a range of polymer thicknesses with more than 95% of the Ca sensor remaining after 500 h of testing. These results suggest that controlling mechanical properties and film architecture play an important role in the performance of direct deposited ALD barriers.« less

  15. Photoconductivity of ultra-thin Ge(GeSn) layers grown in Si by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy

    SciT

    Talochkin, A. B., E-mail: tal@isp.nsc.ru; Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090; Chistokhin, I. B.

    2016-04-07

    Photoconductivity (PC) spectra of Si/Ge(GeSn)/Si structures with the ultra-thin (1.0–2.3 nm) Ge and GeSn alloy layers grown by the low-temperature (T = 100 °C) molecular beam epitaxy are studied. Photoresponse in the range of 1.2–0.4 eV related to light absorption in the buried Ge(GeSn) layer is observed. It is shown that in case of lateral PC, a simple diffusion model can be used to determine the absorption coefficient of this layer α ∼ 10{sup 5 }cm{sup −1}. This value is 100 times larger than that of a single Ge quantum dot layer and is reached significantly above the band gap of most bulk semiconductors. The observedmore » absorption is caused by optical transitions between electron and hole states localized at the interfaces. The anomalous high value of α can be explained by the unusual state of Ge(GeSn) layer with high concentration of dangling bonds, the optical properties of which have been predicted theoretically by Knief and von Niessen (Phys. Rev. B 59, 12940 (1999)).« less

  16. Cu-doped ZnO nanorod arrays: the effects of copper precursor and concentration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cu-doped ZnO nanorods have been grown at 90°C for 90 min onto a quartz substrate pre-coated with a ZnO seed layer using a hydrothermal method. The influence of copper (Cu) precursor and concentration on the structural, morphological, and optical properties of ZnO nanorods was investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the nanorods grown are highly crystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure grown along the c-axis. The lattice strain is found to be compressive for all samples, where a minimum compressive strain of −0.114% was obtained when 1 at.% Cu was added from Cu(NO3)2. Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate morphologies and the diameters of the grown nanorods. The morphological properties of the Cu-doped ZnO nanorods were influenced significantly by the presence of Cu impurities. Near-band edge (NBE) and a broad blue-green emission bands at around 378 and 545 nm, respectively, were observed in the photoluminescence spectra for all samples. The transmittance characteristics showed a slight increase in the visible range, where the total transmittance increased from approximately 80% for the nanorods doped with Cu(CH3COO)2 to approximately 90% for the nanorods that were doped with Cu(NO3)2. PMID:24855460

  17. Method and apparatus for stable silicon dioxide layers on silicon grown in silicon nitride ambient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, R. A.; Wheeler, R. K. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A method and apparatus for thermally growing stable silicon dioxide layers on silicon is disclosed. A previously etched and baked silicon nitride tube placed in a furnace is used to grow the silicon dioxide. First, pure oxygen is allowed to flow through the tube to initially coat the inside surface of the tube with a thin layer of silicon dioxide. After the tube is coated with the thin layer of silicon dioxide, the silicon is oxidized thermally in a normal fashion. If the tube becomes contaminated, the silicon dioxide is etched off thereby exposing clean silicon nitride and then the inside of the tube is recoated with silicon dioxide. As is disclosed, the silicon nitride tube can also be used as the ambient for the pyrolytic decomposition of silane and ammonia to form thin layers of clean silicon nitride.

  18. Strain and Structure Heterogeneity in MoS2 Atomic Layers Grown by Chemical Vapour Deposition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-18

    substrate and material. To better explain the experimental results and estimate the strain transferred to MoS2 layer under such tensile tests, a 3D... ACS Nano 7, 7126 7131 (2013). 29. He, K., Poole, C., Mak, K. F. & Shan, J. Experimental demonstration of continuous electronic structure tuning via...transition as it is thinned down from multi layer to monolayer, producing a significant enhancement of photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield as a result of the

  19. Ultrathin ZnO interfacial passivation layer for atomic layer deposited ZrO2 dielectric on the p-In0.2Ga0.8As substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chen; Lü, Hongliang; Yang, Tong; Zhang, Yuming; Zhang, Yimen; Liu, Dong; Ma, Zhenqiang; Yu, Weijian; Guo, Lixin

    2018-06-01

    Interfacial and electrical properties were investigated on metal-oxidesemiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) fabricated with bilayer ZnO/ZrO2 films by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on p-In0.2Ga0.8As substrates. The ZnO passivated In0.2Ga0.8As MOSCAPs have exhibited significantly improved capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics with the suppressed "stretched out" effect, increased accumulation capacitance and reduced accumulation frequency dispersion as well as the lower gate leakage current. In addition, the interface trap density (Dit) estimated by the Terman method was decreased dramatically for ZnO passivated p-In0.2Ga0.8As. The inherent mechanism is attributed to the fact that an ultrathin ZnO IPL employed by ALD prior to ZrO2 dielectric deposition can effectively suppress the formation of defect-related low-k oxides and As-As dimers at the interface, thus effectively improving the interface quality by largely removing the border traps aligned near the valence band edge of the p-In0.2Ga0.8As substrate.

  20. Direct selective growth of ZnO nanowire arrays from inkjet-printed zinc acetate precursor on a heated substrate

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Inkjet printing of functional materials has drawn tremendous interest as an alternative to the conventional photolithography-based microelectronics fabrication process development. We introduce direct selective nanowire array growth by inkjet printing of Zn acetate precursor ink patterning and subsequent hydrothermal ZnO local growth without nozzle clogging problem which frequently happens in nanoparticle inkjet printing. The proposed process can directly grow ZnO nanowires in any arbitrary patterned shape, and it is basically very fast, low cost, environmentally benign, and low temperature. Therefore, Zn acetate precursor inkjet printing-based direct nanowire local growth is expected to give extremely high flexibility in nanomaterial patterning for high-performance electronics fabrication especially at the development stage. As a proof of concept of the proposed method, ZnO nanowire network-based field effect transistors and ultraviolet photo-detectors were demonstrated by direct patterned grown ZnO nanowires as active layer. PMID:24252130

  1. On the formation of well-aligned ZnO nanowall networks by catalyst-free thermal evaporation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Zhigang; Chen, Nuofu; Dai, Ruixuan; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xingwang; Wang, Xiaohui; Wu, Jinliang; Chai, Chunlin

    2007-07-01

    Two-dimensional ZnO nanowall networks were grown on ZnO-coated silicon by thermal evaporation at low temperature without catalysts or additives. All of the results from scanning electronic spectroscope, X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering confirmed that the ZnO nanowalls were vertically aligned and c-axis oriented. The room-temperature photoluminescence spectra showed a dominated UV peak at 378 nm, and a much suppressed orange emission centered at ˜590 nm. This demonstrates fairly good crystal quality and optical properties of the product. A possible three-step, zinc vapor-controlled process was proposed to explain the growth of well-aligned ZnO nanowall networks. The pre-coated ZnO template layer plays a key role during the synthesis process, which guides the growth direction of the synthesized products.

  2. Strain relaxation induced surface morphology of heterogeneous GaInNAs layers grown on GaAs substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelczuk, Ł.; Jóźwiak, G.; Moczała, M.; Dłużewski, P.; Dąbrowska-Szata, M.; Gotszalk, T. P.

    2017-07-01

    The partially-relaxed heterogeneous GaInNAs layers grown on GaAs substrate by atmospheric pressure vapor phase epitaxy (AP-MOVPE) were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The planar-view TEM image shows a regular 2D network of misfit dislocations oriented in two orthogonal 〈1 1 0〉 crystallographic directions at the (0 0 1) layer interface. Moreover, the cross-sectional view TEM image reveals InAs-rich and V-shaped precipitates in the near surface region of the GaInNAs epitaxial layer. The resultant undulating surface morphology, known as a cross-hatch pattern, is formed as observed by AFM. The numerical analysis of the AFM image of the GaInNAs layer surface with the well-defined cross-hatch morphology enabled us to determine a lower bound of actual density of misfit dislocations. However, a close correspondence between the asymmetric distribution of interfacial misfit dislocations and undulating surface morphology is observed.

  3. Analyzing the Boundary Thermal Resistance of Epitaxially Grown Fe2VAl/W Layers by Picosecond Time-Domain Thermoreflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiroi, Satoshi; Choi, Seongho; Nishino, Shunsuke; Seo, Okkyun; Chen, Yanna; Sakata, Osami; Takeuchi, Tsunehiro

    2018-06-01

    To gain deep insight into the mechanism of phonon scattering at grain boundaries, we investigated the boundary thermal resistance by using picosecond pulsed-laser time-domain thermoreflectance for epitaxially grown W/Fe2VAl/W films. By using radio-frequency magnetron sputtering, we prepared a series of the three-layer films whose Fe2VAl thickness ranged from 1 nm to 37 nm. The fine oscillation of reflectivity associated with the top W layer clearly appeared in synchrotron x-ray reflectivity measurements, indicating a less obvious mixture of elements at the boundary. The areal heat diffusion time, obtained from the time-domain thermoreflectance signal in the rear-heating front-detection configuration, reduced rapidly in samples whose Fe2VAl layer was thinner than 15 nm. The ˜ 10% mismatch in lattice constant between Fe2VAl and W naturally produced the randomly distributed lattice stress near the boundary, causing an effective increase of boundary thermal resistance in the thick samples, but the stress became homogeneous in the thinner layers, which reduced the scattering probability of phonons.

  4. Effect of Sn Composition in Ge1- x Sn x Layers Grown by Using Rapid Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kil, Yeon-Ho; Kang, Sukill; Jeong, Tae Soo; Shim, Kyu-Hwan; Kim, Dae-Jung; Choi, Yong-Dae; Kim, Mi Joung; Kim, Taek Sung

    2018-05-01

    The Ge1- x Sn x layers were grown by using rapid thermal chemical-vapor deposition (RTCVD) on boron-doped p-type Si (100) substrates with Sn compositions up to x = 0.83%. In order to obtain effect of the Sn composition on the structural and the optical characteristics, we utilized highresolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD), etch pit density (EPD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy, and photocurrent (PC) spectra. The Sn compositions in the Ge1- x Sn x layers were found to be of x = 0.00%, 0.51%, 0.65%, and 0.83%. The root-mean-square (RMS) of the surface roughness of the Ge1- x Sn x layer increased from 2.02 nm to 3.40 nm as the Sn composition was increased from 0.51% to 0.83%, and EPD was on the order of 108 cm-2. The Raman spectra consist of only one strong peak near 300 cm-1, which is assigned to the Ge-Ge LO peaks and the Raman peaks shift to the wave number with increasing Sn composition. Photocurrent spectra show near energy band gap peaks and their peak energies decrease with increasing Sn composition due to band-gap bowing in the Ge1- x Sn x layer. An increase in the band gap bowing parameter was observed with increasing Sn composition.

  5. Realizing a facile and environmental-friendly fabrication of high-performance multi-crystalline silicon solar cells by employing ZnO nanostructures and an Al2O3 passivation layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hong-Yan; Lu, Hong-Liang; Sun, Long; Ren, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Hao; Ji, Xin-Ming; Liu, Wen-Jun; Ding, Shi-Jin; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, David Wei

    2016-12-01

    Nowadays, the multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si) solar cells dominate the photovoltaic industry. However, the current acid etching method on mc-Si surface used by firms can hardly suppress the average reflectance value below 25% in the visible light spectrum. Meanwhile, the nitric acid and the hydrofluoric contained in the etching solution is both environmental unfriendly and highly toxic to human. Here, a mc-Si solar cell based on ZnO nanostructures and an Al2O3 spacer layer is demonstrated. The eco-friendly fabrication is realized by low temperature atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 layer as well as ZnO seed layer. Moreover, the ZnO nanostructures are prepared by nontoxic and low cost hydro-thermal growth process. Results show that the best passivation quality of the n+ -type mc-Si surface can be achieved by balancing the Si dangling bond saturation level and the negative charge concentration in the Al2O3 film. Moreover, the average reflectance on cell surface can be suppressed to 8.2% in 400-900 nm range by controlling the thickness of ZnO seed layer. With these two combined refinements, a maximum solar cell efficiency of 15.8% is obtained eventually. This work offer a facile way to realize the environmental friendly fabrication of high performance mc-Si solar cells.

  6. Realizing a facile and environmental-friendly fabrication of high-performance multi-crystalline silicon solar cells by employing ZnO nanostructures and an Al2O3 passivation layer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong-Yan; Lu, Hong-Liang; Sun, Long; Ren, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Hao; Ji, Xin-Ming; Liu, Wen-Jun; Ding, Shi-Jin; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, David Wei

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si) solar cells dominate the photovoltaic industry. However, the current acid etching method on mc-Si surface used by firms can hardly suppress the average reflectance value below 25% in the visible light spectrum. Meanwhile, the nitric acid and the hydrofluoric contained in the etching solution is both environmental unfriendly and highly toxic to human. Here, a mc-Si solar cell based on ZnO nanostructures and an Al2O3 spacer layer is demonstrated. The eco-friendly fabrication is realized by low temperature atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 layer as well as ZnO seed layer. Moreover, the ZnO nanostructures are prepared by nontoxic and low cost hydro-thermal growth process. Results show that the best passivation quality of the n+ -type mc-Si surface can be achieved by balancing the Si dangling bond saturation level and the negative charge concentration in the Al2O3 film. Moreover, the average reflectance on cell surface can be suppressed to 8.2% in 400–900 nm range by controlling the thickness of ZnO seed layer. With these two combined refinements, a maximum solar cell efficiency of 15.8% is obtained eventually. This work offer a facile way to realize the environmental friendly fabrication of high performance mc-Si solar cells. PMID:27924911

  7. Layer-dependent supercapacitance of graphene films grown by chemical vapor deposition on nickel foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Fan, Zhongli; Zeng, Gaofeng; Lai, Zhiping

    2013-03-01

    High-quality, large-area graphene films with few layers are synthesized on commercial nickel foams under optimal chemical vapor deposition conditions. The number of graphene layers is adjusted by varying the rate of the cooling process. It is found that the capacitive properties of graphene films are related to the number of graphene layers. Owing to the close attachment of graphene films on the nickel substrate and the low charge-transfer resistance, the specific capacitance of thinner graphene films is almost twice that of the thicker ones and remains stable up to 1000 cycles. These results illustrate the potential for developing high-performance graphene-based electrical energy storage devices.

  8. Aqueous chemical growth of free standing vertical ZnO nanoprisms, nanorods and nanodiskettes with improved texture co-efficient and tunable size uniformity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, S. D. Gopal; Ravi, G.; Athimoolam, A.; Mahalingam, T.; Kulandainathan, M. Anbu

    2011-12-01

    Tuning the morphology, size and aspect ratio of free standing ZnO nanostructured arrays by a simple hydrothermal method is reported. Pre-coated ZnO seed layers of two different thicknesses (≈350 nm or 550 nm) were used as substrates to grow ZnO nanostructures for the study. Various parameters such as chemical ambience, pH of the solution, strength of the Zn2+ atoms and thickness of seed bed are varied to analyze their effects on the resultant ZnO nanostructures. Vertically oriented hexagonal nanorods, multi-angular nanorods, hexagonal diskette and popcorn-like nanostructures are obtained by altering the experimental parameters. All the produced nanostructures were analysed by X-ray powder diffraction analysis and found to be grown in the (002) orientation of wurtzite ZnO. The texture co-efficient of ZnO layer was improved by combining a thick seed layer with higher cationic strength. Surface morphological studies reveal various nanostructures such as nanorods, diskettes and popcorn-like structures based on various preparation conditions. The optical property of the closest packed nanorods array was recorded by UV-VIS spectrometry, and the band gap value simulated from the results reflect the near characteristic band gap of ZnO. The surface roughness profile taken from the Atomic Force Microscopy reveals a roughness of less than 320 nm.

  9. Catalytically enhanced thermal decomposition of chemically grown silicon oxide layers on Si(001)

    SciT

    Leroy, F., E-mail: leroy@cinam.univ-mrs.fr; Passanante, T.; Cheynis, F.

    2016-03-14

    The thermal decomposition of Si dioxide layers formed by wet chemical treatment on Si(001) has been studied by low-energy electron microscopy. Independent nucleations of voids occur into the Si oxide layers that open by reaction at the void periphery. Depending on the voids, the reaction rates exhibit large differences via the occurrence of a nonlinear growth of the void radius. This non-steady state regime is attributed to the accumulation of defects and silicon hydroxyl species at the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface that enhances the silicon oxide decomposition at the void periphery.

  10. Germanium layers grown by zone thermal crystallization from a discrete liquid source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsenko, A. N.; Chebotarev, S. N.; Lozovskii, V. N.; Mohamed, A. A. A.; Erimeev, G. A.; Goncharova, L. M.; Varnavskaya, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    It is proposed and investigated a method for growing thin uniform germanium layers onto large silicon substrates. The technique uses the hexagonally arranged local sources filled with liquid germanium. Germanium evaporates on very close substrate and in these conditions the residual gases vapor pressure highly reduces. It is shown that to achieve uniformity of the deposited layer better than 97% the critical thickness of the vacuum zone must be equal to l cr = 1.2 mm for a hexagonal arranged system of round local sources with the radius of r = 0.75 mm and the distance between the sources of h = 0.5 mm.

  11. Hexagonal AlN Layers Grown on Sulfided Si(100) Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessolov, V. N.; Gushchina, E. V.; Konenkova, E. V.; L'vova, T. V.; Panteleev, V. N.; Shcheglov, M. P.

    2018-01-01

    We have studied the influence of sulfide passivation on the initial stages of aluminum nitride (AlN)-layer nucleation and growth by hydride vapor-phase epitaxy (HVPE) on (100)-oriented single-crystalline silicon substrates. It is established that the substrate pretreatment in (NH4)2S aqueous solution leads to the columnar nucleation of hexagonal AlN crystals of two modifications rotated by 30° relative to each other. Based on the sulfide treatment, a simple method of oxide removal from and preparation of Si(100) substrate surface is developed that can be used for the epitaxial growth of group-III nitride layers.

  12. Enhancement of Si solar cell efficiency using ZnO nanowires with various diameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholizadeh, A.; Reyhani, A.; Parvin, P.; Mortazavi, S. Z.; Mehrabi, M.

    2018-01-01

    Here, Zinc Oxide nanowires are synthesized using thermal chemical vapor deposition of a Zn granulate source and used to enhance a significant Si-solar cell efficiency with simple and low cost method. The nanowires are grown in various O2 flow rates. Those affect the shape, yield, structure and the quality of ZnO nanowires according to scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analyses. This delineates that the ZnO nanostructure is dependent on the synthesis conditions. The photoluminescence spectroscopy of ZnO indicates optical emission at the Ultra-Violet and blue-green regions whose intensity varies as a function of diameter of ZnO nano-wires. The optical property of ZnO layer is measured by UV-visible and diffuse reflection spectroscopy that demonstrate high absorbance at 280-550 nm. Furthermore, the photovoltaic characterization of ZnO nanowires is investigated based on the drop casting on Si-solar cell. The ZnO nanowires with various diameters demonstrate different effects on the efficiency of Si-solar cells. We have shown that the reduction of the spectral reflectance and down-shifting process as well as the reduction of photon trapping are essential parameters on the efficiency of Si-solar cells. However, the latter is dominated here. In fact, the trapped photons during the electron-hole generation are dominant due to lessening the absorption rate in ZnO nano-wires. The results indicate that the mean diameters reduction of ZnO nanowires is also essential to improve the fill factor. The external and internal quantum efficiency analyses attest the efficiency improvement over the blue region which is related to the key parameters above.

  13. Improved ohmic contact of Ga-Doped ZnO to p-GaN by using copper sulfide intermediate layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Wen; Xu, Tao; Zhang, Jianhua

    2013-11-01

    Copper sulfide (CuS) was used as the intermediate layer to build ohmic contact of Ga-Doped ZnO (GZO) transparent conduction layer (TCL) to p-GaN. The CuS and GZO layers were prepared by thermal evaporation and RF magnetron sputtering, respectively. Although the GZO-only contacts to p-GaN exhibit nonlinear behavior, ohmic contact with a specific contact resistance of 1.6 × 10-2 Ω cm2 has been realized by inserting 3 nm CuS layer between GZO and p-GaN. The optical transmittance of CuS/GZO film was measured to be higher than 80% in the range of 450-600 nm wavelength. The possible mechanism for the ohmic contact behavior can be attributed to the increased hole concentration of p-GaN surface induced by CuS films after annealing. The forward voltage of LEDs with CuS/GZO TCL has been reduced by 1.7 V at 20 mA and the output power has been increased by 29.6% at 100 mA compared with LEDs without CuS interlayer. These results indicated that using CuS intermediate layer could be a potential ohmic contact method to realize high-efficiency LEDs.

  14. Nano-scale zirconia and hafnia dielectrics grown by atomic layer deposition: Crystallinity, interface structures and electrical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyoungsub

    With the continued scaling of transistors, leakage current densities across the SiO2 gate dielectric have increased enormously through direct tunneling. Presently, metal oxides having higher dielectric constants than SiO2 are being investigated to reduce the leakage current by increasing the physical thickness of the dielectric. Many possible techniques exist for depositing high-kappa gate dielectrics. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has drawn attention as a method for preparing ultrathin metal oxide layers with excellent electrical characteristics and near-perfect film conformality due to the layer-by-layer nature of the deposition mechanism. For this research, an ALD system using ZrCl4/HfCl4 and H2O was built and optimized. The microstructural and electrical properties of ALD-ZrO2 and HfO2 grown on SiO2/Si substrates were investigated and compared using various characterization tools. In particular, the crystallization kinetics of amorphous ALD-HfO2 films were studied using in-situ annealing experiments in a TEM. The effect of crystallization on the electrical properties of ALD-HfO 2 was also investigated using various in-situ and ex-situ post-deposition anneals. Our results revealed that crystallization had little effect on the magnitude of the gate leakage current or on the conduction mechanisms. Building upon the results for each metal oxide separately, more advanced investigations were made. Several nanolaminate structures using ZrO2 and HfO2 with different sequences and layer thicknesses were characterized. The effects of the starting microstructure on the microstructural evolution of nanolaminate stacks were studied. Additionally, a promising new approach for engineering the thickness of the SiO2-based interface layer between the metal oxide and silicon substrate after deposition of the metal oxide layer was suggested. Through experimental measurements and thermodynamic analysis, it is shown that a Ti overlayer, which exhibits a high oxygen solubility, can

  15. Engineered ZnO nanowire arrays using different nanopatterning techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, János; Szabó, Zoltán; Erdélyi, Róbert; Khánh, Nguyen Q.

    2012-02-01

    The impact of various masking patterns and template layers on the wet chemically grown vertical ZnO nanowire arrays was investigated. The nanowires/nanorods were seeded at nucleation windows which were patterned in a mask layer using various techniques such as electron beam lithography, nanosphere photolithography, and atomic force microscope type nanolithography. The compared ZnO templates included single crystals, epitaxial layer, and textured polycrystalline films. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the alignment and crystal orientation of the nanowires were dictated by the underlying seed layer, while their geometry can be tuned by the parameters of the certain nanopatterning technique and of the wet chemical process. The comparison of the alternative nanolithography techniques showed that using direct writing methods the diameter of the ordered ZnO nanowires can be as low as 30-40 nm at a density of 100- 1000 NW/μm2 in a very limited area (10 μm2-1 mm2). Nanosphere photolithography assisted growth, on the other hand, favors thicker nanopillars (~400 nm) and enables large-area, low-cost patterning (1-100 cm2). These alternative lowtemperature fabrication routes can be used for different novel optoelectronic devices, such as nanorod based ultraviolet photodiode, light emitting device, and waveguide laser.

  16. Low resistivity and low compensation ratio Ga-doped ZnO films grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng-Yu; Hsiao, Li-Han; Chyi, Jen-Inn

    2015-09-01

    In this study, Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) thin films were deposited on GaN templates by using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. To obtain low resistivity GZO films, in-situ post-annealing under Zn overpressure was carried out to avoid the generation of acceptor-liked Zn vacancies. The resultant films showed optical transparency over 95% in the visible spectral range. By reducing the acceptor-like defects, GZO films with compensation ratio near 0.4 and resistivity simultaneously lower than 1×10-4 Ω cm have been successfully demonstrated.

  17. Comprehensive Study of Sol-Gel versus Hydrolysis-Condensation Methods To Prepare ZnO Films: Electron Transport Layers in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu-Han; Zhang, Kai-Cheng; Wang, Zhao-Wei; Huang, Peng; Zhu, Kai; Li, Zhen-Dong; Li, Da-Hua; Yuan, Li-Gang; Zhou, Yi; Song, Bo

    2017-08-09

    Owing to the high charge mobility and low processing temperature, ZnO is regarded as an ideal candidate for electron transport layer (ETL) material in thin-film solar cells. For the film preparation, the presently dominated sol-gel (SG) and hydrolysis-condensation (HC) methods show great potential; however, the effect of these two methods on the performance of the resulting devices has not been investigated in the same frame. In this study, the ZnO films made through SG and HC methods were applied in perovskite solar cells (Pero-SCs), and the performances of corresponding devices were compared under parallel conditions. We found that the surface morphologies and the conductivities of the films prepared by SG and HC methods showed great differences. The HC-ZnO films with higher conductivity led to relatively higher device performance, and the best power conversion efficiencie (PCE) of 12.9% was obtained; meanwhile, for Pero-SCs based on SG-ZnO, the best PCE achieved was 10.9%. The better device performance of Pero-SCs based on HC-ZnO should be attributed to the better charge extraction and transportation ability of HC-ZnO film. Moreover, to further enhance the performance of Pero-SCs, a thin layer of pristine C 60 was introduced between HC-ZnO and perovskite layers. By doing so, the quality of perovskite films was improved, and the PCE was elevated to 14.1%. The preparation of HC-ZnO film involves relatively lower-temperature (maximum 100 °C) processing; the films showed better charge extraction and transportation properties and can be a more promising ETL material in Pero-SCs.

  18. Uniform Fe3O4 coating on flower-like ZnO nanostructures by atomic layer deposition for electromagnetic wave absorption.

    PubMed

    Wan, Gengping; Wang, Guizhen; Huang, Xianqin; Zhao, Haonan; Li, Xinyue; Wang, Kan; Yu, Lei; Peng, Xiange; Qin, Yong

    2015-11-21

    An elegant atomic layer deposition (ALD) method has been employed for controllable preparation of a uniform Fe3O4-coated ZnO (ZnO@Fe3O4) core-shell flower-like nanostructure. The Fe3O4 coating thickness of the ZnO@Fe3O4 nanostructure can be tuned by varying the cycle number of ALD Fe2O3. When serving as additives for microwave absorption, the ZnO@Fe3O4-paraffin composites exhibit a higher absorption capacity than the ZnO-paraffin composites. For ZnO@500-Fe3O4, the effective absorption bandwidth below -10 dB can reach 5.2 GHz and the RL values below -20 dB also cover a wide frequency range of 11.6-14.2 GHz when the coating thickness is 2.3 mm, suggesting its potential application in the treatment of the electromagnetic pollution problem. On the basis of experimental observations, a mechanism has been proposed to understand the enhanced microwave absorption properties of the ZnO@Fe3O4 composites.

  19. GaN epitaxial layers grown on multilayer graphene by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tianbao; Liu, Chenyang; Zhang, Zhe; Yu, Bin; Dong, Hailiang; Jia, Wei; Jia, Zhigang; Yu, Chunyan; Gan, Lin; Xu, Bingshe

    2018-04-01

    In this study, GaN epitaxial layers were successfully deposited on a multilayer graphene (MLG) by using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Highly crystalline orientations of the GaN films were confirmed through electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). An epitaxial relationship between GaN films and MLG is unambiguously established by transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. The Raman spectra was used to analyze the internal stress of GaN films, and the spectrum shows residual tensile stress in the GaN films. Moreover, the results of the TEM analysis and Raman spectra indicate that the high quality of the MLG substrate is maintained even after the growth of the GaN film. This high-quality MLG makes it possible to easily remove epitaxial layers from the supporting substrate by micro-mechanical exfoliation technology. This work can aid in the development of transferable devices using GaN films.

  20. Metallic atomically-thin layered silicon epitaxially grown on silicene/ZrB 2

    DOE PAGES

    Gill, Tobias G.; Fleurence, Antoine; Warner, Ben; ...

    2017-02-17

    We observe a new two-dimensional (2D) silicon crystal, using low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and it's formed by depositing additional Si atoms onto spontaneously-formed epitaxial silicene on a ZrB 2 thin film. From scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (STS) studies, we find that this atomically-thin layered silicon has distinctly different electronic properties. Angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) reveals that, in sharp contrast to epitaxial silicene, the layered silicon exhibits significantly enhanced density of states at the Fermi level resulting from newly formed metallic bands. Furthermore, the 2D growth of this material could allow for direct contacting tomore » the silicene surface and demonstrates the dramatic changes in electronic structure that can occur by the addition of even a single monolayer amount of material in 2D systems.« less

  1. Heavily doped GaAs:Te layers grown by MOVPE using diisopropyl telluride as a source

    SciT

    Daniltsev, V. M.; Demidov, E. V.; Drozdov, M. N.

    2016-11-15

    The capabilities of GaAs epitaxial layers extremely heavily doped with tellurium by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy using diisopropyl telluride as a source are studied. It is shown that tellurium incorporation into GaAs occurs to an atomic concentration of 10{sup 21} cm{sup –3} without appreciable diffusion and segregation effects. Good carrier concentrations (2 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup –3}) and specific contact resistances of non-alloyed ohmic contacts (1.7 × 10{sup –6} Ω cm{sup 2}) give grounds to use such layers to create non-alloyed ohmic contacts in electronic devices. A sharp decrease in the electrical activity of Te atoms, a decrease in the electronmore » mobility, and an increase in the contact resistance at atomic concentrations above 2 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup –3} are detected.« less

  2. The Assembling of Poly (3-Octyl-Thiophene) on CVD Grown Single Layer Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yanqiu; Yang, Ling; Guo, Zongxia; Lei, Shengbin

    2015-12-01

    The interface between organic semiconductor and graphene electrode, especially the structure of the first few molecular layers at the interface, is crucial for the device properties such as the charge transport in organic field effect transistors. In this work, we have used scanning tunneling microscopy to investigate the poly (3-octyl-thiophene) (P3OT)-graphene interface. Our results reveal the dynamic assembling of P3OT on single layer graphene. As on other substrates the epitaxial effect plays a role in determining the orientation of the P3OT assembling, however, the inter-thiophene distance along the backbone is consistent with that optimized in vaccum, no compression was observed. Adsorption of P3OT on ripples is weaker due to local curvature, which has been verified both by scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory simulation. Scanning tunneling microscopy also reveals that P3OT tends to form hairpin folds when meets a ripple.

  3. Kinetic limitation of chemical ordering in Bi2Te3-x Se x layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreyeck, S.; Brunner, K.; Kirchner, A.; Bass, U.; Grauer, S.; Schumacher, C.; Gould, C.; Karczewski, G.; Geurts, J.; Molenkamp, L. W.

    2016-04-01

    We study the chemical ordering in Bi2Te3-x Se x grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si substrates. We produce films in the full composition range from x  =  0 to 3, and determine their material properties using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. By fitting the parameters of a kinetic growth model to these results, we obtain a consistent description of growth at a microscopic level. Our main finding is that despite the incorporation of Se in the central layer being much more probable than that of Te, the formation of a fully ordered Te-Bi-Se-Bi-Te layer is prevented by kinetic of the growth process. Indeed, the Se concentration in the central layer of Bi2Te2Se1 reaches a maximum of only  ≈75% even under ideal growth conditions. A second finding of our work is that the intensity ratio of the 0 0 12 and 0 0 6 x-ray reflections serves as an experimentally accessible quantitative measure of the degree of ordering in these films.

  4. Structural and optical properties of GaxIn1-xP layers grown by chemical beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seong, Tae-Yeon; Yang, Jung-Ja; Ryu, Mee Yi; Song, Jong-In; Yu, Phil W.

    1998-05-01

    Chemical beam epitaxial (CBE) GaxIn1-xP layers (x≈0.5) grown on (001) GaAs substrates at temperatures ranging from 490 to 580°C have been investigated using transmission electron diffraction (TED), transmission electron microscopy, and photoluminescence (PL). TED examination revealed the presence of diffuse scattering 1/2{111}B positions, indicating the occurrence of typical CuPt-type ordering in the GaInP CBE layers. As the growth temperature decreased from 580 to 490°C, maxima in the intensity of the diffuse scattering moved from ½{111}B to ½{-1+δ,1-δ,0} positions, where δ is a positive value. As the growth temperature increased from 490 to 550°C, the maxima in the diffuse scattering intensity progressively approached positions of 1/2\\{bar 110\\} , i.e., the value of δ decreased from 0.25 to 0.17. Bandgap reduction (˜45 meV) was observed in the CBE GaInP layers and was attributed to the presence of ordered structures.

  5. Hydrogen Sorption Kinetics on Bare and Platinum-Modified Palladium Nanofilms, Grown by Electrochemical Atomic Layer Deposition (E-ALD)

    DOE PAGES

    Jagannathan, Kaushik; Benson, David M.; Robinson, David B.; ...

    2016-01-01

    Nanofilms of Pd were grown using an electrochemical form of atomic layer deposition (E-ALD) on 100 nm evaporated Au films on glass. Multiple cycles of surface-limited redox replacement (SLRR) were used to grow deposits. Each SLRR involved the underpotential deposition (UPD) of a Cu atomic layer, followed by open circuit replacement via redox exchange with tetrachloropalladate, forming a Pd atomic layer: one E-ALD deposition cycle. That cycle was repeated in order to grow deposits of a desired thickness. 5 cycles of Pd deposition were performed on the Au on glass substrates, resulting in the formation of 2.5 monolayers of Pd.more » Those Pd films were then modified with varying coverages of Pt, also formed using SLRR. The amount of Pt was controlled by changing the potential for Cu UPD, and by increasing the number of Pt deposition cycles. Hydrogen absorption was studied using coulometry and cyclic voltammetry in 0.1 M H 2SO 4 as a function of Pt coverage. The presence of even a small fraction of a Pt monolayer dramatically increased the rate of hydrogen desorption. However, this did not reduce the films’ hydrogen storage capacity. The increase in desorption rate in the presence of Pt was over an order of magnitude.« less

  6. Synergistic effect of Indium and Gallium co-doping on growth behavior and physical properties of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jun Hyung; Lee, Seung Muk; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Hyun You; Park, Jozeph; Jung, Seung-Boo; Park, Geun Chul; Kim, Jungho; Joo, Jinho

    2017-02-01

    We synthesized ZnO nanorods (NRs) using simple hydrothermal method, with the simultaneous incorporation of gallium (Ga) and indium (In), in addition, investigated the co-doping effect on the morphology, microstructure, electronic structure, and electrical/optical properties. The growth behavior of the doped NRs was affected by the nuclei density and polarity of the (001) plane. The c-axis parameter of the co-doped NRs was similar to that of undoped NRs due to the compensated lattice distortion caused by the presence of dopants that are both larger (In3+) and smaller (Ga3+) than the host Zn2+ cations. Red shifts in the ultraviolet emission peaks were observed in all doped NRs, owing to the combined effects of NR size, band gap renormalization, and the presence of stacking faults created by the dopant-induced lattice distortions. In addition, the NR/p-GaN diodes using co-doped NRs exhibited superior electrical conductivity compared to the other specimens due to the increase in the charge carrier density of NRs and the relatively large effective contact area of (001) planes. The simultaneous doping of In and Ga is therefore anticipated to provide a broader range of optical, physical, and electrical properties of ZnO NRs for a variety of opto-electronic applications.

  7. Synergistic effect of Indium and Gallium co-doping on growth behavior and physical properties of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jun Hyung; Lee, Seung Muk; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Hyun You; Park, Jozeph; Jung, Seung-Boo; Park, Geun Chul; Kim, Jungho; Joo, Jinho

    2017-02-03

    We synthesized ZnO nanorods (NRs) using simple hydrothermal method, with the simultaneous incorporation of gallium (Ga) and indium (In), in addition, investigated the co-doping effect on the morphology, microstructure, electronic structure, and electrical/optical properties. The growth behavior of the doped NRs was affected by the nuclei density and polarity of the (001) plane. The c-axis parameter of the co-doped NRs was similar to that of undoped NRs due to the compensated lattice distortion caused by the presence of dopants that are both larger (In 3+ ) and smaller (Ga 3+ ) than the host Zn 2+ cations. Red shifts in the ultraviolet emission peaks were observed in all doped NRs, owing to the combined effects of NR size, band gap renormalization, and the presence of stacking faults created by the dopant-induced lattice distortions. In addition, the NR/p-GaN diodes using co-doped NRs exhibited superior electrical conductivity compared to the other specimens due to the increase in the charge carrier density of NRs and the relatively large effective contact area of (001) planes. The simultaneous doping of In and Ga is therefore anticipated to provide a broader range of optical, physical, and electrical properties of ZnO NRs for a variety of opto-electronic applications.

  8. Synergistic effect of Indium and Gallium co-doping on growth behavior and physical properties of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jun Hyung; Lee, Seung Muk; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Hyun You; Park, Jozeph; Jung, Seung-Boo; Park, Geun Chul; Kim, Jungho; Joo, Jinho

    2017-01-01

    We synthesized ZnO nanorods (NRs) using simple hydrothermal method, with the simultaneous incorporation of gallium (Ga) and indium (In), in addition, investigated the co-doping effect on the morphology, microstructure, electronic structure, and electrical/optical properties. The growth behavior of the doped NRs was affected by the nuclei density and polarity of the (001) plane. The c-axis parameter of the co-doped NRs was similar to that of undoped NRs due to the compensated lattice distortion caused by the presence of dopants that are both larger (In3+) and smaller (Ga3+) than the host Zn2+ cations. Red shifts in the ultraviolet emission peaks were observed in all doped NRs, owing to the combined effects of NR size, band gap renormalization, and the presence of stacking faults created by the dopant-induced lattice distortions. In addition, the NR/p-GaN diodes using co-doped NRs exhibited superior electrical conductivity compared to the other specimens due to the increase in the charge carrier density of NRs and the relatively large effective contact area of (001) planes. The simultaneous doping of In and Ga is therefore anticipated to provide a broader range of optical, physical, and electrical properties of ZnO NRs for a variety of opto-electronic applications. PMID:28155879

  9. Tunneling Spectroscopy of Superconducting MoN and NbTiN Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    DOE PAGES

    Groll, Nickolas; Klug, Jeffrey A.; Cao, Chaoyue; ...

    2014-03-03

    A tunneling spectroscopy study is presented of superconducting MoN and Nbo.8Tio.2N thin films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The films exhibited a superconducting gap of 2meV and 2.4meV, respectively, with a corresponding critical temperature of 11.5K and 13.4 K, among the highest reported Tc values achieved by the ALD technique.Tunnel junctions were obtained using a mechanical contact method with a Au tip. While the native oxides of these films provided poor tunnel barriers, high quality tunnel junctions with low zero bias conductance (below rvl0%) were obtained using an artificial tunnel barrier of Ah03 on the film's surface grown exmore » situ by ALD. We find a large critical current density on the order of 4 x 106Ncm2 at T =0.8Tc for a 60 run MoN film and demonstrate conformal coating capabilities of ALD onto high aspect ratio geometries. These results suggest that the ALD technique offers significant promise for thin film superconducting device applications.« less

  10. Tunneling spectroscopy of superconducting MoN and NbTiN grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groll, Nickolas R.; Klug, Jeffrey A.; Cao, Chaoyue; Altin, Serdar; Claus, Helmut; Becker, Nicholas G.; Zasadzinski, John F.; Pellin, Michael J.; Proslier, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    A tunneling spectroscopy study is presented of superconducting MoN and Nb0.8Ti0.2N thin films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The films exhibited a superconducting gap of 2 meV and 2.4 meV, respectively, with a corresponding critical temperature of 11.5 K and 13.4 K, among the highest reported Tc values achieved by the ALD technique. Tunnel junctions were obtained using a mechanical contact method with a Au tip. While the native oxides of these films provided poor tunnel barriers, high quality tunnel junctions with low zero bias conductance (below ˜10%) were obtained using an artificial tunnel barrier of Al2O3 on the film's surface grown ex situ by ALD. We find a large critical current density on the order of 4 × 106 A/cm2 at T = 0.8Tc for a 60 nm MoN film and demonstrate conformal coating capabilities of ALD onto high aspect ratio geometries. These results suggest that the ALD technique offers significant promise for thin film superconducting device applications.

  11. Strain and structure heterogeneity in MoS 2 atomic layers grown by chemical vapour deposition

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Zheng; Amani, Matin; Najmaei, Sina; ...

    2014-11-18

    Monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2) has attracted tremendous attention due to its promising applications in high-performance field-effect transistors, phototransistors, spintronic devices, and nonlinear optics. The enhanced photoluminescence effect in monolayer MoS 2 was discovered and, as a strong tool, was employed for strain and defect analysis in MoS 2. Recently, large-size monolayer MoS 2 has been produced by chemical vapor deposition but has not yet been fully explored. Here we systematically characterize chemical vapor deposition grown MoS 2 by PL spectroscopy and mapping, and demonstrate non-uniform strain in single-crystalline monolayer MoS 2 and strain-induced band gap engineering. We also evaluatemore » the effective strain transferred from polymer substrates to MoS 2 by three-dimensional finite element analysis. In addition, our work demonstrates that PL mapping can be used as a non-contact approach for quick identification of grain boundaries in MoS 2.« less

  12. Observation of spin-glass behavior in homogeneous (Ga,Mn)N layers grown by reactive molecular-beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, S.; Brandt, O.; Trampert, A.; Friedland, K. J.; Sun, Y. J.; Ploog, K. H.

    2003-04-01

    We present a detailed study of the magnetic properties of (Ga,Mn)N layers grown directly on 4H-SiC substrates by reactive molecular-beam epitaxy. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that homogeneous (Ga,Mn)N alloys of high crystal quality can be synthesized by this growth method up to a Mn-content of 10 12 %. Using a variety of magnetization experiments (temperature-dependent dc magnetization, isothermal remanent magnetization, frequency and field dependent ac susceptibility), we demonstrate that insulating (Ga,Mn)N alloys represent a Heisenberg spin-glass with a spin-freezing temperature around 4.5 K. We discuss the origins of this spin-glass characteristics in terms of the deep-acceptor nature of Mn in GaN and the resulting insulating character of this compound.

  13. Cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy of antiphase boundaries in epitaxially grown GaP layers on Si(001)

    SciT

    Prohl, Christopher; Lenz, Andrea, E-mail: alenz@physik.tu-berlin.de; Döscher, Henning

    2016-05-15

    In a fundamental cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy investigation on epitaxially grown GaP layers on a Si(001) substrate, differently oriented antiphase boundaries are studied. They can be identified by a specific contrast and by surface step edges starting/ending at the position of an antiphase boundary. Moreover, a change in the atomic position of P and Ga atoms along the direction of growth is observed in agreement with the structure model of antiphase boundaries in the GaP lattice. This investigation opens the perspective to reveal the orientation and position of the antiphase boundaries at the atomic scale due to the excellent surfacemore » sensitivity of this method.« less

  14. Doping of free-standing zinc-blende GaN layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, S. V.; Powell, R. E. L.; Staddon, C. R.; Kent, A. J.; Foxon, C. T.

    2014-10-01

    Currently there is high level of interest in developing of vertical device structures based on the group III nitrides. We have studied n- and p-doping of free-standing zinc-blende GaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE). Si was used as the n-dopant and Mg as the p-dopant for zinc-blende GaN. Controllable levels of doping with Si and Mg in free-standing zinc-blende GaN have been achieved by PA-MBE. The Si and Mg doping depth uniformity through the zinc-blende GaN layers have been confirmed by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Controllable Si and Mg doping makes PA-MBE a promising method for the growth of conducting group III-nitrides bulk crystals.

  15. ZnO nanorods/AZO photoanode for perovskite solar cells fabricated in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Ferrara, Vera; De Maria, Antonella; Rametta, Gabriella; Della Noce, Marco; Vittoria Mercaldo, Lucia; Borriello, Carmela; Bruno, Annalisa; Delli Veneri, Paola

    2017-08-01

    ZnO nanorods are a good candidate for replacing standard photoanodes, such as TiO2, in perovskite solar cells and in principle superseding the high performances already obtained. This is possible because ZnO nanorods have a fast electron transport rate due to their large surface area. An array of ZnO nanorods is grown by chemical bath deposition starting from Al-doped ZnO (AZO) used both as a seed layer and as an efficient transparent anode in the visible spectral range. In particular, in this work we fabricate methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) perovskite solar cells using glass/AZO/ZnO nanorods/perovskite/Spiro-OMeTAD/Au as the architecture. The growth of ZnO nanorods has been optimized by varying the precursor concentrations, growth time and solution temperature. All the fabrication process and photovoltaic characterizations have been carried out in ambient air and the devices have not been encapsulated. Power conversion efficiency as high as 7.0% has been obtained with a good stability over 20 d. This is the highest reported value to the best of our knowledge and it is a promising result for the development of perovskite solar cells based on ZnO nanorods and AZO.

  16. Effects of growth temperature on the properties of atomic layer deposition grown ZrO2 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarel, G.; Ferrari, S.; Spiga, S.; Wiemer, C.; Tallarida, G.; Fanciulli, M.

    2003-07-01

    Zirconium dioxide films are grown in 200 atomic layer deposition cycles. Zirconium tetrachloride (ZrCl4) and water (H2O) are used as precursors. A relatively high dielectric constant (κ=22), wide band gap, and conduction band offset (5.8 and 1.4 eV, respectively) indicate that zirconium dioxide is a most promising substitute for silicon dioxide as a dielectric gate in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor devices. However, crystallization and chlorine ions in the films might affect their electrical properties. These ions are produced during atomic layer deposition in which the ZrCl4 precursor reacts with the growth surface. It is desirable to tune the composition, morphology, and structural properties in order to improve their benefit on the electrical ones. To address this issue it is necessary to properly choose the growth parameters. This work focuses on the effects of the growth temperature Tg. ZrO2 films are grown at different substrate temperatures: 160, 200, 250, and 350 °C. Relevant modification of the film structure with a change in substrate temperature during growth is expected because the density of reactive sites [mainly Si+1-(OH)-1 bonds] decreases with an increase in temperature [Y. B. Kim et al., Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 3, 346 (2000)]. The amorphous film component, for example, that develops at Si+1-(OH)-1 sites on the starting growth surface, is expected to decrease with an increase in growth temperature. The size and consequences of film property modifications with the growth temperature are investigated in this work using x-ray diffraction and reflectivity, and atomic force microscopy. Time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry is used to study contaminant species in the films. From capacitance-voltage (CV) and current-voltage (IV) measurements, respectively, the dielectric constant κZrO2 and the leakage current are studied as a function of the film growth temperature.

  17. Elimination of macrostep-induced current flow nonuniformity in vertical GaN PN diode using carbon-free drift layer grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujikura, Hajime; Hayashi, Kentaro; Horikiri, Fumimasa; Narita, Yoshinobu; Konno, Taichiro; Yoshida, Takehiro; Ohta, Hiroshi; Mishima, Tomoyoshi

    2018-04-01

    In vertical GaN PN diodes (PNDs) grown entirely by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), large current nonuniformity was observed. This nonuniformity was induced by macrosteps on the GaN surface through modulation of carbon incorporation into the n-GaN crystal. It was eliminated in a hybrid PND consisting of a carbon-free n-GaN layer grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) and an MOCVD-regrown p-GaN layer. The hybrid PND showed a fairly low on-resistance (2 mΩ cm2) and high breakdown voltage (2 kV) even without a field plate electrode. These results clearly indicated the strong advantages of the HVPE-grown drift layer for improving power device performance, uniformity, and yield.

  18. Bias-polarity-dependent UV/visible transferable electroluminescence from ZnO nanorod array LED with graphene oxide electrode supporting layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weizhen; Wang, Wei; Xu, Haiyang; Li, Xinghua; Yang, Liu; Ma, Jiangang; Liu, Yichun

    2015-09-01

    A simple top electrode preparation process, employing continuous graphene oxide films as electrode supporting layers, was adopted to fabricate a ZnO nanorod array/p-GaN heterojunction LED. The achieved LED demonstrated different electroluminescence behaviors under forward and reverse biases: a yellow-red emission band was observed under forward bias, whereas a blue-UV emission peak was obtained under reverse bias. Electroluminescence spectra under different currents and temperatures, as well as heterojunction energy-band alignments, reveal that the yellow-red emission under forward bias originates from recombinations related to heterointerface defects, whereas the blue-UV electroluminescence under reverse bias is ascribed to transitions from near-band-edge and Mg-acceptor levels in p-GaN.

  19. An optimal thermal evaporation synthesis of c-axis oriented ZnO nanowires with excellent UV sensing and emission characteristics

    SciT

    Saha, Tridib, E-mail: tridib.saha@monash.edu; Achath Mohanan, Ajay, E-mail: ajay.mohanan@monash.edu; Swamy, Varghese, E-mail: varghese.swamy@monash.edu

    Highlights: • c-Axis alignment of ZnO nanowires was optimized using self-seeding thermal evaporation method. • Influence of purified air on the morphology and optoelectronic properties were studied. • Nanowires grown under optimal conditions exhibit strong UV emission peak in PL spectrum. • Optimized growth condition establish nanowires of excellent UV sensing characteristics - Abstract: Well-aligned (c-axis oriented) ZnO nanowire arrays were successfully synthesized on Si (1 0 0) substrates through an optimized self-seeding thermal evaporation method. An open-ended chemical vapor deposition (CVD) setup was used in the experiment, with argon and purified air as reaction gases. Epitaxial growth of c-axismore » oriented ZnO nanowires was observed for 5 sccm flow rate of purified air, whereas Zn/Zn suboxide layers and multiple polycrystalline layers of ZnO were obtained for absence and excess of purified air, respectively. Ultraviolet (UV) sensing and emission properties of the as-grown ZnO nanostructures were investigated through the current–voltage (I–V) characteristics of the nanowires under UV (λ = 365 nm) illumination of 8 mW/cm{sup 2} and using photoluminescence spectra. Nanowires grown under optimum flow of air emitted four times higher intensity of 380 nm UV light as well as exhibited 34 times higher UV radiation sensitivity compared to that of other nanostructures synthesized in this study.« less

  20. High sensitive formaldehyde graphene gas sensor modified by atomic layer deposition zinc oxide films

    SciT

    Mu, Haichuan; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Keke

    2014-07-21

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films with various thicknesses were fabricated by Atomic Layer Deposition on Chemical Vapor Deposition grown graphene films and their response to formaldehyde has been investigated. It was found that 0.5 nm ZnO films modified graphene sensors showed high response to formaldehyde with the resistance change up to 52% at the concentration of 9 parts-per-million (ppm) at room temperature. Meanwhile, the detection limit could reach 180 parts-per-billion (ppb) and fast response of 36 s was also obtained. The high sensitivity could be attributed to the combining effect from the highly reactive, top mounted ZnO thin films, and high conductivemore » graphene base network. The dependence of ZnO films surface morphology and its sensitivity on the ZnO films thickness was also investigated.« less

  1. High-Fidelity PIV of a Naturally Grown High Reynolds Number Turbulent Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biles, Drummond; White, Chris; Klewicki, Joeseph

    2017-11-01

    High-fidelity particle image velocimetry data acquired in the Flow Physics Facility (FPF) at the University of New Hampshire is presented. Having a test section length of 72m, the FPF employs the ``big and slow'' approach to obtain well-resolved turbulent boundary layer measurements at high Reynolds number. We report on PIV measurements acquired in the streamwise-wall-normal plane at a downstream position 59m from the test-section inlet over the friction Reynolds number range 7000 < Reτ < 15000 . Local flow tracer seeding is employed through a wall-mounted slot fed by a large volume plenum located 13.4m upstream of the PIV measurement station. Both time-independent and time-dependent turbulent flow statistics are presented and compared to existing data.

  2. Role of vacancy defects in Al doped ZnO thin films for optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotella, H.; Mazel, Y.; Brochen, S.; Valla, A.; Pautrat, A.; Licitra, C.; Rochat, N.; Sabbione, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Nolot, E.

    2017-12-01

    We report on the electrical, optical and photoluminescence properties of industry-ready Al doped ZnO thin films grown by physical vapor deposition, and their evolution after annealing under vacuum. Doping ZnO with Al atoms increases the carrier density but also favors the formation of Zn vacancies, thereby inducing a saturation of the conductivity mechanism at high aluminum content. The electrical and optical properties of these thin layered materials are both improved by annealing process which creates oxygen vacancies that releases charge carriers thus improving the conductivity. This study underlines the effect of the formation of extrinsic and intrinsic defects in Al doped ZnO compound during the fabrication process. The quality and the optoelectronic response of the produced films are increased (up to 1.52 mΩ \\cdotcm and 3.73 eV) and consistent with the industrial device requirements.

  3. Soft-solution route to ZnO nanowall array with low threshold power density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Eue-Soon; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Won, Jung-Hee; Chung, Jae-Hun; Jang, Du-Jeon; Kim, Young-Woon; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2010-07-01

    ZnO nanowall array (ZNWA) has been directionally grown on the buffer layer of ZnO nanoparticles dip-coated on Si-wafer under a soft solution process. Nanowalls on substrate are in most suitable shape and orientation not only as an optical trap but also as an optical waveguide due to their unique growth habit, V[011¯0]≫V[0001]≈V[0001¯]. Consequently, the stimulated emission at 384 nm through nanowalls is generated by the threshold power density of only 25 kW/cm2. Such UV lasing properties are superior to those of previously reported ZnO nanorod arrays. Moreover, there is no green (defect) emission due to the mild procedure to synthesize ZNWA.

  4. Defect properties of InGaAsN layers grown as sub-monolayer digital alloys by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, Artem I.; Gudovskikh, Alexander S.; Kudryashov, Dmitry A.; Lazarenko, Alexandra A.; Morozov, Ivan A.; Mozharov, Alexey M.; Nikitina, Ekaterina V.; Pirogov, Evgeny V.; Sobolev, Maxim S.; Zelentsov, Kirill S.; Egorov, Anton Yu.; Darga, Arouna; Le Gall, Sylvain; Kleider, Jean-Paul

    2018-04-01

    The defect properties of InGaAsN dilute nitrides grown as sub-monolayer digital alloys (SDAs) by molecular beam epitaxy for photovoltaic application were studied by space charge capacitance spectroscopy. Alloys of i-InGaAsN (Eg = 1.03 eV) were lattice-matched grown on GaAs wafers as a superlattice of InAs/GaAsN with one monolayer of InAs (<0.5 nm) between wide GaAsN (7-12 nm) layers as active layers in single-junction solar cells. Low p-type background doping was demonstrated at room temperature in samples with InGaAsN layers 900 nm and 1200 nm thick (less 1 × 1015 cm-3). According to admittance spectroscopy and deep-level transient spectroscopy measurements, the SDA approach leads to defect-free growth up to a thickness of 900 nm. An increase in thickness to 1200 nm leads to the formation of non-radiative recombination centers with an activation energy of 0.5 eV (NT = 8.4 × 1014 cm-3) and a shallow defect level at 0.20 eV. The last one leads to the appearance of additional doping, but its concentration is low (NT = 5 × 1014 cm-3) so it does not affect the photoelectric properties. However, further increase in thickness to 1600 nm, leads to significant growth of its concentration to (3-5) × 1015 cm-3, while the concentration of deep levels becomes 1.3 × 1015 cm-3. Therefore, additional free charge carriers appearing due to ionization of the shallow level change the band diagram from p-i-n to p-n junction at room temperature. It leads to a drop of the external quantum efficiency due to the effect of pulling electric field decrease in the p-n junction and an increased number of non-radiative recombination centers that negatively impact lifetimes in InGaAsN.

  5. Calculation of DSSC parameters based on ZnO nanorod/TiO2 mesoporous photoanode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safriani, L.; Nurrida, A.; Mulyana, C.; Susilawati, T.; Bahtiar, A.; Aprilia, A.

    2017-07-01

    Photoanode of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) plays an important role as electron transport media to accept photogenerated electron from excited state of dye. There are several physical properties that are required from photoanode of DSSC. It should be highly transparent, have large surface area, has a conduction band lower than LUMO of dye molecule, has high charge carrier mobility and finally has a good stability in redox electrolyte process. In this work, DSSC with structure FTO/ZnO nanorod/TiO2 mesoporous/Ru-dye/gel electrolyte/ Pt/FTO has been fabricated. In order to modified the structures of photoanode, ZnO nanorod was grown on aluminium doped ZnO seed layer by variation concentration of Al (0 wt%, 0.5 wt% and 1.0 wt%). Zinc nitrate hexahydrate and hexamethylenetetramine used as raw materials for ZnO nanorod growth solution and deposited by self-assembly methods on FTO/Al doped ZnO seed layer. It is then followed by deposition of titania (TiO2) paste by screen printing methods. DSSC parameters i.e. ideally factor (n), series resistance (RS ), and shunt resistance (RSH ) was derived from current density-voltage (I-V) curve using the simplify equation of ideal diode model. The influences of ZnO photoanode structures to the solar cell performance will be completely discussed.

  6. Growth of CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite on Stainless Steel Substrate Layered by ZnO Nanoparticles Using One-Step Spin Coating Route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuad, A.; Fibriyanti, A. A.; Mufti, N.; Taufiq, A.; Maryam, S.; Hidayat, N.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we report the preparation of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite using one-step spin coating route for solar cell application. CH3NH3I• PbI2•DMF•DMSO complexes were coated on stainless steel as a subtrate layered by ZnO nanoparticles as an electron transport layer. To obtain samples with a special performance, we annealed the samples at a temperature of 100, 120, and 140°C for 10 minutes. The samples were then characterized by means of XRD, SEM/EDX, and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry. The analysis of XRD data presented that the CH3NH3PbI3 perovskites were successfully prepared and crystallized in tetragonal structure confirming from crystalline planes (110) and (220). Meanwhile, the particle size of the samples prepared at a temperature of 100, 120, and 140°C presented 42.96, 54.73, and 55.19 nm, respectively with coincide with the SEM images. The results indicated that the increase in temperature during synthesis influenced the particle growth. Furthermore, the characterization using Spectroscopic Ellipsometry exhibited that the CH3NH3PbI3 successfully layered on the substrate sizing nano metric scale that open high opportunity to be applied to solar cells with high performance.

  7. Influence of growth temperature on laser molecular beam epitaxy and properties of GaN layers grown on c-plane sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Ripudaman; Tyagi, Prashant; Kushvaha, Sunil Singh; Chockalingam, Sreekumar; Yadav, Brajesh Singh; Sharma, Nita Dilawar; Kumar, M. Senthil

    2017-04-01

    We have investigated the influence of growth temperature on the in-plane strain, structural, optical and mechanical properties of heteroepitaxially grown GaN layers on sapphire (0001) substrate by laser molecular beam epitaxy (LMBE) technique in the temperature range 500-700 °C. The GaN epitaxial layers are found to have a large in-plane compressive stress of about 1 GPa for low growth temperatures but the strain drastically reduced in the layer grown at 700 °C. The nature of the in-plane strain has been analyzed using high resolution x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. From AFM, a change in GaN growth mode from grain to island is observed at the high growth temperature above 600 °C. A blue shift of 20-30 meV in near band edge PL emission line has been noticed for the GaN layers containing the large in-plane strain. These observations indicate that the in-plane strain in the GaN layers is dominated by a biaxial strain. Using nanoindentation, it is found that the indentation hardness and Young's modulus of the GaN layers increases with increasing growth temperature. The results disclose the critical role of growth mode in determining the in-plane strain and mechanical properties of the GaN layers grown by LMBE technique.

  8. Well-aligned Vertically Oriented ZnO Nanorod Arrays and their Application in Inverted Small Molecule Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ming-Yi; Wu, Shang-Hsuan; Hsiao, Li-Jen; Budiawan, Widhya; Chen, Shih-Lun; Tu, Wei-Chen; Lee, Chia-Yen; Chang, Yia-Chung; Chu, Chih-Wei

    2018-04-25

    This manuscript describes how to design and fabricate efficient inverted solar cells, which are based on a two-dimensional conjugated small molecule (SMPV1) and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM), by utilizing ZnO nanorods (NRs) grown on a high quality Al-doped ZnO (AZO) seed layer. The inverted SMPV1:PC71BM solar cells with ZnO NRs that grew on both a sputtered and sol-gel processed AZO seed layer are fabricated. Compared with the AZO thin film prepared by the sol-gel method, the sputtered AZO thin film exhibits better crystallization and lower surface roughness, according to X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscope (AFM) measurements. The orientation of the ZnO NRs grown on a sputtered AZO seed layer shows better vertical alignment, which is beneficial for the deposition of the subsequent active layer, forming better surface morphologies. Generally, the surface morphology of the active layer mainly dominates the fill factor (FF) of the devices. Consequently, the well-aligned ZnO NRs can be used to improve the carrier collection of the active layer and to increase the FF of the solar cells. Moreover, as an anti-reflection structure, it can also be utilized to enhance the light harvesting of the absorption layer, with the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of solar cells reaching 6.01%, higher than the sol-gel based solar cells with an efficiency of 4.74%.

  9. GaN and ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fündling, Sönke; Sökmen, Ünsal; Behrends, Arne; Al-Suleiman, Mohamed Aid Mansur; Merzsch, Stephan; Li, Shunfeng; Bakin, Andrey; Wehmann, Hergo-Heinrich; Waag, Andreas; Lähnemann, Jonas; Jahn, Uwe; Trampert, Achim; Riechert, Henning

    2010-07-01

    GaN and ZnO are both wide band gap semiconductors with interesting properties concerning optoelectronic and sensor device applications. Due to the lack or the high costs of native substrates, alternatives like sapphire, silicon, or silicon carbide are taken, but the resulting lattice and thermal mismatches lead to increased defect densities which reduce the material quality. In contrast, nanostructures with high aspect ratio have lower defect densities as compared to layers. In this work, we give an overview on our results achieved on both ZnO as well as GaN based nanorods. ZnO nanostructures were grown by a wet chemical approach as well as by VPT on different substrates - even on flexible polymers. To compare the growth results we analyzed the structures by XRD and PL and show possible device applications. The GaN nano- and microstructures were grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy either in a self- organized process or by selective area growth for a better control of shape and material composition. Finally we take a look onto possible device applications, presenting our attempts, e.g., to build LEDs based on GaN nanostructures.

  10. Investigation of the Photocurrent in Hot-Wall-Epitaxy-Grown BaIn2S4 Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, S. H.; Hong, K. J.; Jeong, T. S.; Youn, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    The photocurrent (PC) of hot-wall-epitaxy-grown BaIn2S4 layers was studied at different temperatures and for different photoresponse intensities. With increasing temperature, the position of the PC spectra tended to shift toward longer wavelength. These PC peaks corresponded to band-to-band transitions caused by intrinsic transitions from the valence band states to the conduction band states. Also, the bandgap variations were well matched by the equation E g( T) = E g(0) - 3.79 × 10-3 T 2/( T + 499), where E g(0) was estimated to be 3.0597 eV, 3.2301 eV, and 3.2606 eV for transitions corresponding to the valence band states Γ 4(z), Γ 5(x), and Γ 5(y), respectively. By use of the selection rule and results from the PC spectroscopy, the crystal field and the spin-orbit splitting were found to be 0.1703 and 0.0306 eV, respectively. Thus, the PC intensity gradually decreased with decreasing temperature. The decrease of PC intensity was caused by the presence of trapping centers associated with native defects in the BaIn2S4 layers. The trap level was found to be a shallow donor-level type of 20.4 meV, 1.6 meV below the conduction band. Consequently, these trap levels, which are related to native defects in BaIn2S4 layers, are believed to limit PC intensity with decreasing temperature.

  11. Separation of effects of InGaN/GaN superlattice on performance of light-emitting diodes using mid-temperature-grown GaN layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Kohei; Okada, Narihito; Kurai, Satoshi; Yamada, Yoichi; Tadatomo, Kazuyuki

    2018-06-01

    We evaluated the electrical properties of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with a superlattice (SL) layer or a mid-temperature-grown GaN (MT-GaN) layer just beneath the multiple quantum wells (MQWs). Both the SL layer and the MT-GaN layer were effective in improving the electroluminescence (EL) intensity. However, the SL layer had a more pronounced effect on the EL intensity than did the MT-GaN layer. Based on a comparison with devices with an MT-GaN layer, the overall effects of the SL could be separated into the effect of the V-pits and the structural or compositional effect of the SL. It was observed that the V-pits formed account for 30% of the improvement in the LED performance while the remaining 70% can be attributed to the structural or compositional effect of the SL.

  12. The Effect of Buffer Types on the In0.82Ga0.18As Epitaxial Layer Grown on an InP (100) Substrate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Guo, Zuoxing; Zhao, Liang; Yang, Shen; Zhao, Lei

    2018-06-08

    In 0.82 Ga 0.18 As epitaxial layers were grown on InP (100) substrates at 530 °C by a low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD) technique. The effects of different buffer structures, such as a single buffer layer, compositionally graded buffer layers, and superlattice buffer layers, on the crystalline quality and property were investigated. Double-crystal X-ray diffraction (DC-XRD) measurement, Raman scattering spectrum, and Hall measurements were used to evaluate the crystalline quality and electrical property. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used to characterize the surface morphology and microstructure, respectively. Compared with the In 0.82 Ga 0.18 As epitaxial layer directly grown on an InP substrate, the quality of the sample is not obviously improved by using a single In 0.82 Ga 0.18 As buffer layer. By introducing the graded In x Ga 1−x As buffer layers, it was found that the dislocation density in the epitaxial layer significantly decreased and the surface quality improved remarkably. In addition, the number of dislocations in the epitaxial layer greatly decreased under the combined action of multi-potential wells and potential barriers by the introduction of a In 0.82 Ga 0.18 As/In 0.82 Al 0.18 As superlattice buffer. However, the surface subsequently roughened, which may be explained by surface undulation.

  13. Preparation and characterization of nanorod-like TiO2 and ZnO films used for charge-transport buffer layers in P3HT based organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thao, Tran Thi; Long, Dang Dinh; Truong, Vo-Van; Dinh, Nguyen Nang

    2016-08-01

    With the aim of findingout the appropriate buffer layers for organic solar cells (OSC), TiO2 and ZnO on ITO/glass were prepared as nanorod-like thin films. The TiO2 films were crystallyzed in the anatase phase and the ZnO films, in the wurtzite structure. The nanorods in both the fims have a similar size of 15 to 20 nm in diameter and 30 to 50 nm in length. The nanorods have an orientation nearly perpendicular to the ITO-substrate surface. From UV-Vis data the bandgap of the TiO2 and ZnO films were determined tobe 3.26 eV and 3.42 eV, respectively. The laminar organic solar cells with added TiO2 and ZnO, namely ITO/TiO2/P3HT:PCBM/LiF/Al (TBD) and ITO/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/LiF/Al (ZBD)were made for characterization of the energy conversion performance. As a result, comparing to TiO2,the nanorod-likeZnO filmwas found to be a much better buffer layer that made the fill factor improve from a value of 0.60 for TBD to 0.82 for ZBD, and consequently thePCE was enhanced from 0.84 for TBD to 1.17% for ZBD.

  14. TiO2/ZnO and ZnO/TiO2 core/shell nanofibers prepared by electrospinning and atomic layer deposition for photocatalysis and gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyadjiev, Stefan I.; Kéri, Orsolya; Bárdos, Péter; Firkala, Tamás; Gáber, Fanni; Nagy, Zsombor K.; Baji, Zsófia; Takács, Máté; Szilágyi, Imre M.

    2017-12-01

    In the present work, core TiO2 and ZnO oxide nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning, then shell oxide (ZnO, TiO2) layers were deposited on them by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The aim of preparing ZnO and TiO2 nanofibers, as well as ZnO/TiO2 and TiO2/ZnO nanocomposites is to study the interaction between the oxide materials when a pure oxide fiber is covered with thin film of the other oxide, and explore the influence of exchanging the core and shell materials on their photocatalytic and gas sensing properties. The composition, structure and morphology of the pure and composite nanofibers were studied by SEM-EDX, TEM, XRD, FTIR, UV-vis and Raman. The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared materials was analyzed by UV-vis spectroscopy through decomposing aqueous methyl orange under UV irradiation. The gas sensing of the nanofibers was investigated by detecting 100 ppm NH3 at 150 and 220 °C using interdigital electrode based sensors.

  15. Highly transparent and lower resistivity of yttrium doped ZnO thin films grown on quartz glass by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Narinder; Sharma, Sanjeev K.; Kim, Deuk Young; Singh, Narinder

    2016-11-01

    We prepared highly transparent yttrium-doped ZnO (YZO) thin films on quartz glass by a sol-gel method, and then annealed them at 600 °C in vacuum. All samples showed hexagonal wurtzite structure with a preferential orientation along the (002) direction. We observed the average grain size of Y: 2 at% thin film to be in the range of 15-20 nm. We observed blue shift in the optical bandgap (3.29 eV→3.32 eV) by increasing the Y concentration (0-2 at%), due to increasing the number of electrons, and replacing the di-valent (Zn2+) with tri-valent (Y3+) dopants. Replacing the higher ionic radii (Y3+) with smaller ionic radii (Zn2+) expanded the local volume of the lattice, which reduced the lattice defects, and increased the intensity ratio of NBE/DLE emission (INBE/IDLE). We also observed the lowest (172 meV) Urbach energy of Y: 2 at% thin film, and confirmed the high structural quality. Incorporation of the appropriate Y concentration (2 at%) improved the crystallinity of YZO thin films, which led to less carrier scattering and lower resistivity.

  16. Piezoelectric-Induced Triboelectric Hybrid Nanogenerators Based on the ZnO Nanowire Layer Decorated on the Au/polydimethylsiloxane-Al Structure for Enhanced Triboelectric Performance.

    PubMed

    Jirayupat, Chaiyanut; Wongwiriyapan, Winadda; Kasamechonchung, Panita; Wutikhun, Tuksadon; Tantisantisom, Kittipong; Rayanasukha, Yossawat; Jiemsakul, Thanakorn; Tansarawiput, Chookiat; Liangruksa, Monrudee; Khanchaitit, Paisan; Horprathum, Mati; Porntheeraphat, Supanit; Klamchuen, Annop

    2018-02-21

    Here, we demonstrate a novel device structure design to enhance the electrical conversion output of a triboelectric device through the piezoelectric effect called as the piezo-induced triboelectric (PIT) device. By utilizing the piezopotential of ZnO nanowires embedded into the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer attached on the top electrode of the conventional triboelectric device (Au/PDMS-Al), the PIT device exhibits an output power density of 50 μW/cm 2 , which is larger than that of the conventional triboelectric device by up to 100 folds under the external applied force of 8.5 N. We found that the effect of the external piezopotential on the top Au electrode of the triboelectric device not only enhances the electron transfer from the Al electrode to PDMS but also boosts the internal built-in potential of the triboelectric device through an external electric field of the piezoelectric layer. Furthermore, 100 light-emitting diodes (LEDs) could be lighted up via the PIT device, whereas the conventional device could illuminate less than 20 LED bulbs. Thus, our results highlight that the enhancement of the triboelectric output can be achieved by using a PIT device structure, which enables us to develop hybrid nanogenerators for various self-power electronics such as wearable and mobile devices.

  17. Influence of loading QCMs with electrochemically-deposited ZnO on their NO2-sensing properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgieva, B.; Nichev, H.; Petrov, M.; Koutzarova, T.; Georgieva, V.; Dimova-Malinovska, D.

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports on ZnO layers’ sensitivity to NO2 exposure. ZnO layers were grown by electrochemical deposition on the surface of quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) with Au electrodes; the sensitivity was estimated by the frequency-time characteristics (FTCs) of the QCM, namely, its resonance-frequency-shift response. The sorption process was investigated in NO2 test gas. The behavior was studied of three different sensors with ZnO layers deposited for different times – 30, 35 and 60 min. The change in the frequency, ΔF, of the QCM as a function of the loaded mass of NO2 was detected in different NO2 concentrations in the range of 250 – 5000 ppm and the value of the sorbed mass was calculated, together with the rate of the NO2 sorption and desorption. As the time of ZnO layers deposition was increased, the sorbed NO2 mass increased for all concentrations used in the experiment. This can be explained by changes in the ZnO layers’ structure with the time of deposition.

  18. Hierarchical ZnO Nanowires-loaded Sb-doped SnO2-ZnO Micrograting Pattern via Direct Imprinting-assisted Hydrothermal Growth and Its Selective Detection of Acetone Molecules.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hak-Jong; Choi, Seon-Jin; Choo, Soyoung; Kim, Il-Doo; Lee, Heon

    2016-01-08

    We propose a novel synthetic route by combining imprinting transfer of a Sb-doped SnO2 (ATO)-ZnO composite micrograting pattern (MP), i.e., microstrip lines, on a sensor substrate and subsequent hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowires (NWs) for producing a hierarchical ZnO NW-loaded ATO-ZnO MP as an improved chemo-resistive sensing layer. Here, ATO-ZnO MP structure with 3-μm line width, 9-μm pitch, and 6-μm height was fabricated by direct transfer of mixed ATO and ZnO nanoparticle (NP)-dispersed resists, which are pre-patterned on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold. ZnO NWs with an average diameter of less than 50 nm and a height of 250 nm were quasi-vertically grown on the ATO-ZnO MP, leading to markedly enhanced surface area and heterojunction composites between each ATO NP, ZnO NP, and ZnO NW. A ZnO NW-loaded MP sensor with a relative ratio of 1:9 between ATO and ZnO (1:9 ATO-ZnO), exhibited highly sensitive and selective acetone sensing performance with 2.84-fold higher response (R air/R gas = 12.8) compared to that (R air/R gas = 4.5) of pristine 1:9 ATO-ZnO MP sensor at 5 ppm. Our results demonstrate the processing advantages of direct imprinting-assisted hydrothermal growth for large-scale homogeneous coating of hierarchical oxide layers, particularly for applications in highly sensitive and selective chemical sensors.

  19. Hierarchical ZnO Nanowires-loaded Sb-doped SnO2-ZnO Micrograting Pattern via Direct Imprinting-assisted Hydrothermal Growth and Its Selective Detection of Acetone Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hak-Jong; Choi, Seon-Jin; Choo, Soyoung; Kim, Il-Doo; Lee, Heon

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel synthetic route by combining imprinting transfer of a Sb-doped SnO2 (ATO)-ZnO composite micrograting pattern (MP), i.e., microstrip lines, on a sensor substrate and subsequent hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowires (NWs) for producing a hierarchical ZnO NW-loaded ATO-ZnO MP as an improved chemo-resistive sensing layer. Here, ATO-ZnO MP structure with 3-μm line width, 9-μm pitch, and 6-μm height was fabricated by direct transfer of mixed ATO and ZnO nanoparticle (NP)-dispersed resists, which are pre-patterned on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold. ZnO NWs with an average diameter of less than 50 nm and a height of 250 nm were quasi-vertically grown on the ATO-ZnO MP, leading to markedly enhanced surface area and heterojunction composites between each ATO NP, ZnO NP, and ZnO NW. A ZnO NW-loaded MP sensor with a relative ratio of 1:9 between ATO and ZnO (1:9 ATO-ZnO), exhibited highly sensitive and selective acetone sensing performance with 2.84-fold higher response (Rair/Rgas = 12.8) compared to that (Rair/Rgas = 4.5) of pristine 1:9 ATO-ZnO MP sensor at 5 ppm. Our results demonstrate the processing advantages of direct imprinting-assisted hydrothermal growth for large-scale homogeneous coating of hierarchical oxide layers, particularly for applications in highly sensitive and selective chemical sensors. PMID:26743814

  20. Hierarchical ZnO Nanowires-loaded Sb-doped SnO2-ZnO Micrograting Pattern via Direct Imprinting-assisted Hydrothermal Growth and Its Selective Detection of Acetone Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hak-Jong; Choi, Seon-Jin; Choo, Soyoung; Kim, Il-Doo; Lee, Heon

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel synthetic route by combining imprinting transfer of a Sb-doped SnO2 (ATO)-ZnO composite micrograting pattern (MP), i.e., microstrip lines, on a sensor substrate and subsequent hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowires (NWs) for producing a hierarchical ZnO NW-loaded ATO-ZnO MP as an improved chemo-resistive sensing layer. Here, ATO-ZnO MP structure with 3-μm line width, 9-μm pitch, and 6-μm height was fabricated by direct transfer of mixed ATO and ZnO nanoparticle (NP)-dispersed resists, which are pre-patterned on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold. ZnO NWs with an average diameter of less than 50 nm and a height of 250 nm were quasi-vertically grown on the ATO-ZnO MP, leading to markedly enhanced surface area and heterojunction composites between each ATO NP, ZnO NP, and ZnO NW. A ZnO NW-loaded MP sensor with a relative ratio of 1:9 between ATO and ZnO (1:9 ATO-ZnO), exhibited highly sensitive and selective acetone sensing performance with 2.84-fold higher response (Rair/Rgas = 12.8) compared to that (Rair/Rgas = 4.5) of pristine 1:9 ATO-ZnO MP sensor at 5 ppm. Our results demonstrate the processing advantages of direct imprinting-assisted hydrothermal growth for large-scale homogeneous coating of hierarchical oxide layers, particularly for applications in highly sensitive and selective chemical sensors.

  1. Nanoporous Aluminum Oxide Membranes Coated with Atomic Layer Deposition-Grown Titanium Dioxide for Biomedical Applications: An In Vitro Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Petrochenko, Peter E; Kumar, Girish; Fu, Wujun; Zhang, Qin; Zheng, Jiwen; Liang, Chengdu; Goering, Peter L; Narayan, Roger J

    2015-12-01

    The surface topographies of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) membranes have been shown to modulate cell response in orthopedic and skin wound repair applications. In this study, we: (1) demonstrate an improved atomic layer deposition (ALD) method for coating the porous structures of 20, 100, and 200 nm pore diameter AAO with nanometer-thick layers of TiO2 and (2) evaluate the effects of uncoated AAO and TiO2-coated AAO on cellular responses. The TiO2 coatings were deposited on the AAO membranes without compromising the openings of the nanoscale pores. The 20 nm TiO2-coated membranes showed the highest amount of initial protein adsorption via the micro bicinchoninic acid (micro-BCA) assay; all of the TiO2-coated membranes showed slightly higher protein adsorption than the uncoated control materials. Cell viability, proliferation, and inflammatory responses on the TiO2-coated AAO membranes showed no adverse outcomes. For all of the tested surfaces, normal increases in proliferation (DNA content) of L929 fibroblasts were observed over from 4 hours to 72 hours. No increases in TNF-alpha production were seen in RAW 264.7 macrophages grown on TiO2-coated AAO membranes compared to uncoated AAO membranes and tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) surfaces. Both uncoated AAO membranes and TiO2-coated AAO membranes showed no significant effects on cell growth and inflammatory responses. The results suggest that TiO2-coated AAO may serve as a reasonable prototype material for the development of nanostructured wound repair devices and orthopedic implants.

  2. Temperature dependence of the crystalline quality of AlN layer grown on sapphire substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Hang; Wei, Yong O.; Wang, Shuo; Xie, Hongen; Kao, Tsung-Ting; Satter, Md. Mahbub; Shen, Shyh-Chiang; Douglas Yoder, P.; Detchprohm, Theeradetch; Dupuis, Russell D.; Fischer, Alec M.; Ponce, Fernando A.

    2015-03-01

    We studied temperature dependence of crystalline quality of AlN layers at 1050-1250 °C with a fine increment step of around 18 °C. The AlN layers were grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) ω-scans and atomic force microscopy (AFM). At 1050-1068 °C, the templates exhibited poor quality with surface pits and higher XRD (002) and (102) full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) because of insufficient Al atom mobility. At 1086 °C, the surface became smooth suggesting sufficient Al atom mobility. Above 1086 °C, the (102) FWHM and thus edge dislocation density increased with temperatures which may be attributed to the shorter growth mode transition from three-dimension (3D) to two-dimension (2D). Above 1212 °C, surface macro-steps were formed due to the longer diffusion length of Al atoms than the expected step terrace width. The edge dislocation density increased rapidly above 1212 °C, indicating this temperature may be a threshold above which the impact of the transition from 3D to 2D is more significant. The (002) FWHM and thus screw dislocation density were insensitive to the temperature change. This study suggests that high-quality AlN/sapphire templates may be potentially achieved at temperatures as low as 1086 °C which is accessible by most of the III-nitride MOCVD systems.

  3. Oxide-based materials by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godlewski, Marek; Pietruszka, Rafał; Kaszewski, Jarosław; Witkowski, Bartłomiej S.; Gierałtowska, Sylwia; Wachnicki, Łukasz; Godlewski, Michał M.; Slonska, Anna; Gajewski, Zdzisław

    2017-02-01

    Thin films of wide band-gap oxides grown by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) are suitable for a range of applications. Some of these applications will be presented. First of all, ALD-grown high-k HfO2 is used as a gate oxide in the electronic devices. Moreover, ALD-grown oxides can be used in memory devices, in transparent transistors, or as elements of solar cells. Regarding photovoltaics (PV), ALD-grown thin films of Al2O3 are already used as anti-reflection layers. In addition, thin films of ZnO are tested as replacement of ITO in PV devices. New applications in organic photovoltaics, electronics and optoelectronics are also demonstrated Considering new applications, the same layers, as used in electronics, can also find applications in biology, medicine and in a food industry. This is because layers of high-k oxides show antibacterial activity, as discussed in this work.

  4. Coffee-Ring-Free Quantum Dot Thin Film Using Inkjet Printing from a Mixed-Solvent System on Modified ZnO Transport Layer for Light-Emitting Devices.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Congbiao; Zhong, Zhiming; Liu, Baiquan; He, Zhiwei; Zou, Jianhua; Wang, Lei; Wang, Jian; Peng, JunBiao; Cao, Yong

    2016-10-05

    Inkjet printing has been considered an available way to achieve large size full-color RGB quantum dots LED display, and the key point is to obtain printed film with uniform and flat surface profile. In this work, mixed solvent of 20 vol % 1,2-dichlorobenzene (oDCB) with cyclohexylbenzene (CHB) was used to dissolve green quantum dots (QDs) with CdSe@ZnS/ZnS core/shell structure. Then, by inkjet printing, a flat dotlike QDs film without the coffee ring was successfully obtained on polyetherimide (PEI)-modified ZnO layer, and the printed dots array exhibited great stability and repeatability. Here, adding oDCB into CHB solutions was used to reduce surface tension, and employing ZnO nanoparticle layer with PEI-modified was used to increase the surface free energy. As a result, a small contact angle is formed, which leads to the enhancement of evaporation rate, and then the coffee ring effect was suppressed. The printed dots with flat surface profile were eventually realized. Moreover, inverted green QD-LEDs with PEI-modified ZnO film as electron transport layer (ETL) and printed green QDs film as emission layer were successfully fabricated. The QD-LEDs exhibited the maximum luminance of 12 000 cd/m 2 and the peak current efficiency of 4.5 cd/A at luminance of 1500 cd/m 2 .

  5. Influences of ultrathin amorphous buffer layers on GaAs/Si grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Haiyang; Wang, Jun; Cheng, Zhuo; Yang, Zeyuan; Yin, Haiying; Fan, Yibing; Ma, Xing; Huang, Yongqing; Ren, Xiaomin

    2018-04-01

    In this work, a technique for the growth of GaAs epilayers on Si, combining an ultrathin amorphous Si buffer layer and a three-step growth method, has been developed to achieve high crystalline quality for monolithic integration. The influences of the combined technique for the crystalline quality of GaAs on Si are researched in this article. The crystalline quality of GaAs epilayer on Si with the combined technique is investigated by scanning electron microscopy, double crystal X-ray diffraction (DCXRD), photoluminescence, and transmission electron microscopy measurements. By means of this technique, a 1.8-µm-thick high-quality GaAs/Si epilayer was grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The full-width at half-maximum of the DCXRD rocking curve in the (400) reflection obtained from the GaAs/Si epilayers is about 163 arcsec. Compared with only using three-step growth method, the current technique reduces etch pit density from 3 × 106 cm-2 to 1.5 × 105 cm-2. The results demonstrate that the combined technique is an effective approach for reducing dislocation density in GaAs epilayers on Si.

  6. Electronic structure, optical and magnetic studies of PLD-grown (Mn, P)-doped ZnO nanocolumns at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, The-Long; Ho, T. A.; Dang, N. T.; Nguyen, Manh Cuong; Dao, Van-Duong

    2017-07-01

    We prepared well-aligned Zn1-x Mn x O:yP nanocolumns (x  =  0-0.02, and y  =  0 and 1 mol%) on SiO2/Si(0 0 1) substrates by using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and then investigated their electronic structure and optical and magnetic properties at room temperature. The analyses of x-ray photoelectron and x-ray absorption fine structure spectra revealed Mn2+ and/or P ions existing in nanocolumns, where Mn2+ ions are situated in the Zn2+ site of the ZnO-wurtzite structure. Although the incorporation of Mn2+ and/or P ions did not form secondary phases, as confirmed by x-ray and electron diffraction patterns, more lattice defects were created, and consequently changed the band-gap energy as well as the electron-phonon interactions in the nanocolumns. Magnetization versus magnetic-field measurements revealed that all the samples exhibited FM order. In particular, the (Mn, P) co-doping with x  =  0.02 and y  =  1 remarkably enhanced the magnetic moment up to 2.92 µ B/Mn. Based on the results obtained from analyzing the electronic structures, UV-Vis absorption and resonant Raman scattering spectra, and theoretical calculations, we believe that the enhancement of the FM order in (Mn, P)-doped ZnO nanocolumns is due to exchange interactions taking place between vacancy-mediated Mn2+ ions.

  7. Stability domain of alumina thermally grown on Fe-Cr-Al-based model alloys and modified surface layers exposed to oxygen-containing molten Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianu, A.; Fetzer, R.; Weisenburger, A.; Doyle, S.; Bruns, M.; Heinzel, A.; Hosemann, P.; Mueller, G.

    2016-03-01

    The paper gives experimental results concerning the morphology, composition, structure and thickness of the oxide scales grown on Fe-Cr-Al-based bulk alloys during exposure to oxygen-containing molten lead. The results are discussed and compared with former results obtained on Al-containing surface layers, modified by melting with intense pulsed electron beam and exposed to similar conditions. The present and previous results provide the alumina stability domain and also the criterion of the Al/Cr ratio for the formation of a highly protective alumina layer on the surface of Fe-Cr-Al-based alloys and on modified surface layers exposed to molten lead with 10-6 wt.% oxygen at 400-600 °C. The protective oxide scales, grown on alumina-forming Fe-Cr-Al alloys under the given experimental conditions, were transient aluminas, namely, kappa-Al2O3 and theta-Al2O3.

  8. Microstructures of GaN1-xPx layers grown on (0001) GaN substrates by gas source molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seong, Tae-Yeon; Bae, In-Tae; Choi, Chel-Jong; Noh, D. Y.; Zhao, Y.; Tu, C. W.

    1999-03-01

    Transmission electron microscope (TEM), transmission electron diffraction (TED), and synchrotron x-ray diffraction (XRD) studies have been performed to investigate microstructural behavior of gas source molecular beam epitaxial GaN1-xPx layers grown on (0001) GaN/sapphire at temperatures (Tg) in the range 500-760 °C. TEM, TED, and XRD results indicate that the samples grown at Tg⩽600 °C undergo phase separation resulting in a mixture of GaN-rich and GaP-rich GaNP with zinc-blende structure. However, the samples grown at Tg⩾730 °C are found to be binary zinc-blende GaN(P) single crystalline materials. As for the 500 °C layer, the two phases are randomly oriented and distributed, whereas the 600 °C layer consists of phases that are elongated and inclined by 60°-70° clockwise from the [0001]α-GaN direction. The samples grown at Tg⩾730 °C are found to consist of two types of microdomains, namely, GaN(P)I and GaN(P)II; the former having twin relation to the latter.

  9. Advantages of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with two-step grown low temperature GaN cap layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yadan; Lu, Taiping; Zhou, Xiaorun; Zhao, Guangzhou; Dong, Hailiang; Jia, Zhigang; Liu, Xuguang; Xu, Bingshe

    2017-11-01

    Two-step grown low temperature GaN cap layers (LT-cap) are employed to improve the optical and structural properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs). The first LT-cap layer is grown in nitrogen atmosphere, while a small hydrogen flow is added to the carrier gas during the growth of the second LT-cap layer. High-resolution X-ray diffraction results indicate that the two-step growth method can improve the interface quality of MQWs. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) tests show about two-fold enhancement in integrated PL intensity, only 25 meV blue-shift in peak energy and almost unchanged line width. On the basis of temperature-dependent PL characteristics analysis, it is concluded that the first and the second LT-cap layer play a different role during the growth of MQWs. The first LT-cap layer acts as a protective layer, which protects quantum well from serious indium loss and interface roughening resulting from the hydrogen over-etching. The hydrogen gas employed in the second LT-cap layer is in favor of reducing defect density and indium segregation. Consequently, interface/surface and optical properties are improved by adopting the two-step growth method.

  10. A platform for large-scale graphene electronics--CVD growth of single-layer graphene on CVD-grown hexagonal boron nitride.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Jang, Sung Kyu; Jang, Won-Jun; Kim, Minwoo; Park, Seong-Yong; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kahng, Se-Jong; Choi, Jae-Young; Ruoff, Rodney S; Song, Young Jae; Lee, Sungjoo

    2013-05-21

    Direct chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of single-layer graphene on CVD-grown hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) film can suggest a large-scale and high-quality graphene/h-BN film hybrid structure with a defect-free interface. This sequentially grown graphene/h-BN film shows better electronic properties than that of graphene/SiO2 or graphene transferred on h-BN film, and suggests a new promising template for graphene device fabrication. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Structural, optical, and electrical properties of unintentionally doped NiO layers grown on MgO by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budde, Melanie; Tschammer, Carsten; Franz, Philipp; Feldl, Johannes; Ramsteiner, Manfred; Goldhahn, Rüdiger; Feneberg, Martin; Barsan, Nicolae; Oprea, Alexandru; Bierwagen, Oliver

    2018-05-01

    NiO layers were grown on MgO(100), MgO(110), and MgO(111) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy under Ni-flux limited growth conditions. Single crystalline growth with a cube-on-cube epitaxial relationship was confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements for all used growth conditions and substrates except MgO(111). A detailed growth series on MgO(100) was prepared using substrate temperatures ranging from 20 °C to 900 °C to investigate the influence on the layer characteristics. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated close-to-stoichiometric layers with an oxygen content of ≈ 47 at. % and ≈ 50 at. % grown under low and high O-flux, respectively. All NiO layers had a root-mean-square surface roughness below 1 nm, measured by atomic force microscopy, except for rougher layers grown at 900 °C or using molecular oxygen. Growth at 900 °C led to a significant diffusion of Mg from the substrate into the film. The relative intensity of the quasi-forbidden one-phonon Raman peak is introduced as a gauge of the crystal quality, indicating the highest layer quality for growth at low oxygen flux and high growth temperature, likely due to the resulting high adatom diffusion length during growth. The optical and electrical properties were investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry and resistance measurements, respectively. All NiO layers were transparent with an optical bandgap around 3.6 eV and semi-insulating at room temperature. However, changes upon exposure to reducing or oxidizing gases of the resistance of a representative layer at elevated temperature were able to confirm p-type conductivity, highlighting their suitability as a model system for research on oxide-based gas sensing.

  12. Electroluminescence dependence on the organic thickness in ZnO nano rods/Alq3 heterostructure devices.

    PubMed

    Kan, Pengzhi; Wang, Yongsheng; Zhao, Suling; Xu, Zheng; Wang, Dawei

    2011-04-01

    ZnO nanorods are synthesised by a hydrothermal method on ITO glass. Their crystallization and morphology are detected by XRD and SEM, respectively. The results show that the ZnO nanorod array has grown primarily along a direction aligned perpendicular to the ITO substrate. The average height and diameter of the nanorods is about 130 nm and 30 nm, respectively. Then ZnO nano rods/Alq3 heterostructure LEDs are prepared by thermal evaporation of Alq3 molecules. The thicknesses of the Alq3 layers are 130 nm, 150 nm, 170 nm and 190 nm, respectively. The electroluminescence of the devices is detected under different DC bias voltages. The exciton emission of Alq3 is detected in all devices. When the thickness of Alq3 is 130 nm, the UV electroluminescence of ZnO is around 382 nm, and defect emissions around 670 nm and 740 nm are detected. Defect emissions of ZnO nanorods are prominent. When the thickness of Alq3 increases to over 170 nm, it is difficult to observe defect emissions from the ZnO nano rods. In such devices, the exciton emission of Alq3 is more prominent than other emissions under different bias voltage.

  13. The result of synthesis analysis of the powder TiO{sub 2}/ZnO as a layer of electrodes for dye sensitized solar cell applications

    SciT

    Retnaningsih, Lilis, E-mail: lilisretna@gmail.com; Muliani, Lia

    2016-04-19

    This study has been conducted synthesis of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle powders and ZnO nanoparticle powder into a paste to be in this research, dye-sensitive solar cells (DSSC) was produced by TiO{sub 2} nanopowder and ZnO nanopowder synthesis to make paste that is applied as electrode. This electrode works based on photon absorbed by dye and transferred to different composition of TiO{sub 2}/ ZnO particle. Properties of DSSC are affected by fabrication method, parameter and dimension of TiO{sub 2} / ZnO nanoparticles, technique and composition of TiO{sub 2} / ZnO paste preparation is important to get the higher performance of DSSC.more » Doctor blade is a method for electrode coating on glass substrate. The electrode was immersed into dye solution of Z907 and ethanol. From the experiment, the effect of TiO{sub 2} and ZnO nanopowder mixture for electrode was investigated. XRD characterization show anatase and rutile phase, which sintered TiO{sub 2}/ZnO has intensity more than 11,000. SEM characterization shows the composition of 20% TiO{sub 2} / 80% ZnO has better porosity. Higher efficiency that is investigated by I-V measurement using Sun Simulator.« less

  14. Heterojunction oxide thin-film transistors with unprecedented electron mobility grown from solution.

    PubMed

    Faber, Hendrik; Das, Satyajit; Lin, Yen-Hung; Pliatsikas, Nikos; Zhao, Kui; Kehagias, Thomas; Dimitrakopulos, George; Amassian, Aram; Patsalas, Panos A; Anthopoulos, Thomas D

    2017-03-01

    Thin-film transistors made of solution-processed metal oxide semiconductors hold great promise for application in the emerging sector of large-area electronics. However, further advancement of the technology is hindered by limitations associated with the extrinsic electron transport properties of the often defect-prone oxides. We overcome this limitation by replacing the single-layer semiconductor channel with a low-dimensional, solution-grown In 2 O 3 /ZnO heterojunction. We find that In 2 O 3 /ZnO transistors exhibit band-like electron transport, with mobility values significantly higher than single-layer In 2 O 3 and ZnO devices by a factor of 2 to 100. This marked improvement is shown to originate from the presence of free electrons confined on the plane of the atomically sharp heterointerface induced by the large conduction band offset between In 2 O 3 and ZnO. Our finding underscores engineering of solution-grown metal oxide heterointerfaces as an alternative strategy to thin-film transistor development and has the potential for widespread technological applications.

  15. Heterojunction oxide thin-film transistors with unprecedented electron mobility grown from solution

    PubMed Central

    Faber, Hendrik; Das, Satyajit; Lin, Yen-Hung; Pliatsikas, Nikos; Zhao, Kui; Kehagias, Thomas; Dimitrakopulos, George; Amassian, Aram; Patsalas, Panos A.; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2017-01-01

    Thin-film transistors made of solution-processed metal oxide semiconductors hold great promise for application in the emerging sector of large-area electronics. However, further advancement of the technology is hindered by limitations associated with the extrinsic electron transport properties of the often defect-prone oxides. We overcome this limitation by replacing the single-layer semiconductor channel with a low-dimensional, solution-grown In2O3/ZnO heterojunction. We find that In2O3/ZnO transistors exhibit band-like electron transport, with mobility values significantly higher than single-layer In2O3 and ZnO devices by a factor of 2 to 100. This marked improvement is shown to originate from the presence of free electrons confined on the plane of the atomically sharp heterointerface induced by the large conduction band offset between In2O3 and ZnO. Our finding underscores engineering of solution-grown metal oxide heterointerfaces as an alternative strategy to thin-film transistor development and has the potential for widespread technological applications. PMID:28435867

  16. CoFe2O4-TiO2 and CoFe2O4-ZnO thin film nanostructures elaborated from colloidal chemistry and atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Clavel, Guylhaine; Marichy, Catherine; Willinger, Marc-Georg; Ravaine, Serge; Zitoun, David; Pinna, Nicola

    2010-12-07

    CoFe(2)O(4)-TiO(2) and CoFe(2)O(4)-ZnO nanoparticles/film composites were prepared from directed assembly of colloidal CoFe(2)O(4) in a Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer and atomic layer deposition (ALD) of an oxide (TiO(2) or ZnO). The combination of these two methods permits the use of well-defined nanoparticles from colloidal chemistry, their assembly on a large scale, and the control over the interface between a ferrimagnetic material (CoFe(2)O(4)) and a semiconductor (TiO(2) or ZnO). Using this approach, architectures can be assembled with a precise control from the Angstrom scale (ALD) to the micrometer scale (Langmuir-Blodgett film). The resulting heterostructures present well-calibrated thicknesses. Electron microscopy and magnetic measurement studies give evidence that the size of the nanoparticles and their intrinsic magnetic properties are not altered by the various steps involved in the synthesis process. Therefore, the approach is suitable to obtain a layered composite with a quasi-monodisperse layer of ferrimagnetic nanoparticles embedded in an ultrathin film of semiconducting material.

  17. Enhanced optical output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on a silicon (111) substrate with a nanoporous GaN layer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang Jae; Chun, Jaeyi; Kim, Sang-Jo; Oh, Semi; Ha, Chang-Soo; Park, Jung-Won; Lee, Seung-Jae; Song, Jae-Chul; Baek, Jong Hyeob; Park, Seong-Ju

    2016-03-07

    We report the growth of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on a silicon (111) substrate with an embedded nanoporous (NP) GaN layer. The NP GaN layer is fabricated by electrochemical etching of n-type GaN on the silicon substrate. The crystalline quality of crack-free GaN grown on the NP GaN layer is remarkably improved and the residual tensile stress is also decreased. The optical output power is increased by 120% at an injection current of 20 mA compared with that of conventional LEDs without a NP GaN layer. The large enhancement of optical output power is attributed to the reduction of threading dislocation, effective scattering of light in the LED, and the suppression of light propagation into the silicon substrate by the NP GaN layer.

  18. Anisotropic structural and optical properties of semi-polar (11-22) GaN grown on m-plane sapphire using double AlN buffer layers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guijuan; Wang, Lianshan; Yang, Shaoyan; Li, Huijie; Wei, Hongyuan; Han, Dongyue; Wang, Zhanguo

    2016-02-10

    We report the anisotropic structural and optical properties of semi-polar (11-22) GaN grown on m-plane sapphire using a three-step growth method which consisted of a low temperature AlN buffer layer, followed by a high temperature AlN buffer layer and GaN growth. By introducing double AlN buffer layers, we substantially improve the crystal and optical qualities of semi-polar (11-22) GaN, and significantly reduce the density of stacking faults and dislocations. The high resolution x-ray diffraction measurement revealed that the in-plane anisotropic structural characteristics of GaN layer are azimuthal dependent. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that the majority of dislocations in the GaN epitaxial layer grown on m-sapphire are the mixed-type and the orientation of GaN layer was rotated 58.4° against the substrate. The room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra showed the PL intensity and wavelength have polarization dependence along parallel and perpendicular to the [1-100] axis (polarization degrees ~ 0.63). The realization of a high polarization semi-polar GaN would be useful to achieve III-nitride based lighting emission device for displays and backlighting.

  19. Plasmonic materials based on ZnO films and their potential for developing broadband middle-infrared absorbers

    SciT

    Kesim, Yunus E., E-mail: yunus.kesim@bilkent.edu.tr; Battal, Enes; UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara, 06800

    2014-07-15

    Noble metals such as gold and silver have been extensively used for plasmonic applications due to their ability to support plasmons, yet they suffer from high intrinsic losses. Alternative plasmonic materials that offer low loss and tunability are desired for a new generation of efficient and agile devices. In this paper, atomic layer deposition (ALD) grown ZnO is investigated as a candidate material for plasmonic applications. Optical constants of ZnO are investigated along with figures of merit pertaining to plasmonic waveguides. We show that ZnO can alleviate the trade-off between propagation length and mode confinement width owing to tunable dielectricmore » properties. In order to demonstrate plasmonic resonances, we simulate a grating structure and computationally demonstrate an ultra-wide-band (4–15 μm) infrared absorber.« less

  20. Corrosion Protection of Copper Using Al2O3, TiO2, ZnO, HfO2, and ZrO2 Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Daubert, James S; Hill, Grant T; Gotsch, Hannah N; Gremaud, Antoine P; Ovental, Jennifer S; Williams, Philip S; Oldham, Christopher J; Parsons, Gregory N

    2017-02-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a viable means to add corrosion protection to copper metal. Ultrathin films of Al 2 O 3 , TiO 2 , ZnO, HfO 2 , and ZrO 2 were deposited on copper metal using ALD, and their corrosion protection properties were measured using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). Analysis of ∼50 nm thick films of each metal oxide demonstrated low electrochemical porosity and provided enhanced corrosion protection from aqueous NaCl solution. The surface pretreatment and roughness was found to affect the extent of the corrosion protection. Films of Al 2 O 3 or HfO 2 provided the highest level of initial corrosion protection, but films of HfO 2 exhibited the best coating quality after extended exposure. This is the first reported instance of using ultrathin films of HfO 2 or ZrO 2 produced with ALD for corrosion protection, and both are promising materials for corrosion protection.

  1. An Al-doped ZnO electrode grown by highly efficient cylindrical rotating magnetron sputtering for low cost organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jun-Hyuk; Ahn, Kyung-Jun; Park, Kang-Il; Na, Seok-In; Kim, Han-Ki

    2010-03-01

    We report the characteristics of Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films prepared by a highly efficient cylindrical rotating magnetron sputtering (CRMS) system for use as a transparent conducting electrode in cost-efficient bulk hetero-junction organic solar cells (OSCs). Using a rotating cylindrical type cathode with an AZO target, whose usage was above 80%, we were able to obtain a low cost and indium free AZO electrode with a low sheet resistance of ~4.59 Ω/sq, a high transparency of 85% in the visible wavelength region and a work function of 4.9 eV at a substrate temperature of 230 °C. Moreover, the neutral poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) : poly(styrenesulfonate) based OSC fabricated on the CRMS-grown AZO electrode at 230 °C showed an open circuit voltage of 0.5 V, a short circuit current of 8.94 mA cm-2, a fill factor of 45% and power conversion efficiency of 2.01%, indicating that CRMS is a promising cost-efficient AZO deposition technique for low cost OSCs.

  2. Structural enhancement of ZnO on SiO2 for photonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruth, Marcel; Meier, Cedrik

    2013-07-01

    Multi-layer thin films are often the basis of photonic devices. Zinc oxide (ZnO) with its excellent optoelectronic properties can serve as a high quality emitter in structures like microdisks or photonic crystals. Here, we present a detailed study on the enhancement of the structural properties of low-temperature MBE grown ZnO on silica (SiO2). By thermal annealing a grain coalescence of the initially polycrystalline layer leads to an enhancement of the electronic structure, indicated by a blue shift of the photoluminescence (PL) signal maximum. Oxygen atmosphere during the annealing process prevents the creation of intrinsic defects by out-diffusion. Pre-annealing deposited SiO2 capping layers instead obstruct the recrystallization and lead to less intense emission. While thin capping layers partially detach from the ZnO film at high temperatures and cause higher surface roughness and the weakest emission, thicker layers remain smoother and exhibit a significantly stronger photoluminescence.

  3. Coherently Coupled ZnO and VO2 Interface studied by Photoluminescence and electrical transport across a phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Amar; Saha, S.; Annadi, A.; Zhao, Y. L.; Gopinadhan, K.; Wang, X.; Naomi, N.; Liu, Z. Q.; Dhar, S.; Herng, T. S.; Nina, Bao; Ariando, -; Ding, Jun; Venkatesan, T.

    2012-02-01

    In this work we report a study of a coherently coupled interface consisting of a ZnO layer grown on top of an oriented VO2 layer on sapphire by photoluminescence and electrical transport measurements across the VO2 metal insulator phase transition (MIT). The photoluminescence of the ZnO layer showed a broad hysteresis induced by the phase transition of VO2 while the width of the electrical hysteresis was narrow and unaffected by the over layer. The enhanced width of the PL hysteresis was due to the formation of defects during the MIT as evidenced by a broad hysteresis in the opposite direction to that of the band edge PL in the defect luminescense. Unlike VO2 the defects in ZnO did not fully recover across the phase transition. From the defect luminescence data, oxygen interstitials were found to be the predominant defects in ZnO mediated by the strain from the VO2 phase transition. Such coherently coupled interfaces could be of use in characterizing the stability of a variety of interfaces and also for novel device application.

  4. Vertical growth of ZnO nanorods on ZnO seeded FTO substrate for dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marimuthu, T.; Anandhan, N.

    2018-04-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) were electrochemically grown on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) and ZnO seeded FTO substrates. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, Raman spectra and photoluminescence (PL) spectra reveal that the hexagonal wurtzite structured ZnO grown on a seeded FTO substrate has a high crystallinity, crystal quality and less atomic defects. Felid emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) images display a high growth density of NRs grown on seeded FTO substrate compared to NRs grown on FTO substrate. The efficiency of the DSSCs based on NRs grown on FTO and seeded FTO substrates is 0.85 and 1.52 %, respectively. UV-Vis absorption spectra and electrochemical impedance spectra depict that the NRs grown on seeded FTO photoanode have higher dye absorption and charge recombination resistance than that of the NRs grown on FTO substrate.

  5. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Cu doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Nasir; Singh, Budhi; Khan, Zaheer Ahmed; Ghosh, Subhasis

    2018-05-01

    We report the room temperature ferromagnetism in 2% Cu doped ZnO films grown by RF magnetron sputtering in different argon and oxygen partial pressure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to ascertain the oxidation states of Cu in ZnO. The presence of defects within Cu-doped ZnO films can be revealed by electron paramagnetic resonance. It has been observed that saturated magnetic moment increase as we increase the zinc vacancies during deposition.

  6. Superhydrophobic Surface Based on a Coral-Like Hierarchical Structure of ZnO

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jun; Xia, Jun; Lei, Wei; Wang, Baoping

    2010-01-01

    Background Fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces has attracted much interest in the past decade. The fabrication methods that have been studied are chemical vapour deposition, the sol-gel method, etching technique, electrochemical deposition, the layer-by-layer deposition, and so on. Simple and inexpensive methods for manufacturing environmentally stable superhydrophobic surfaces have also been proposed lately. However, work referring to the influence of special structures on the wettability, such as hierarchical ZnO nanostructures, is rare. Methodology This study presents a simple and reproducible method to fabricate a superhydrophobic surface with micro-scale roughness based on zinc oxide (ZnO) hierarchical structure, which is grown by the hydrothermal method with an alkaline aqueous solution. Coral-like structures of ZnO were fabricated on a glass substrate with a micro-scale roughness, while the antennas of the coral formed the nano-scale roughness. The fresh ZnO films exhibited excellent superhydrophilicity (the apparent contact angle for water droplet was about 0°), while the ability to be wet could be changed to superhydrophobicity after spin-coating Teflon (the apparent contact angle greater than 168°). The procedure reported here can be applied to substrates consisting of other materials and having various shapes. Results The new process is convenient and environmentally friendly compared to conventional methods. Furthermore, the hierarchical structure generates the extraordinary solid/gas/liquid three-phase contact interface, which is the essential characteristic for a superhydrophobic surface. PMID:21209931

  7. Flexible, transparent and exceptionally high power output nanogenerators based on ultrathin ZnO nanoflakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ngoc, Huynh; Kang, Dae Joon

    2016-02-01

    devices, implantable telemetric energy receivers, electronic emergency equipment, and other self-powered nano/micro devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: FE-SEM images of ZnO NFs grown on textile and FTO/glass substrates, XRD patterns of synthesized ZnO NFs, nitrogen adsorption isotherms for ZnO NWs and ZnO NFs, effect of different coating layers on ZnO NFNGs, P(VDF-TrFE) coating on ZnO NFs, output open-circuit voltages of a textile electrostatic NG based on P(VDF-TrFE) coated on ZnO NFs and a textile ZnO NFNG without an insulating layer generated by a sonic wave, NG-based triboelectric effects and PDMS-coated ZnO NF-based NGs grown on an ITO/PET substrate. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08324a

  8. Laser MBE-grown CoFeB epitaxial layers on MgO: Surface morphology, crystal structure, and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaveev, Andrey K.; Bursian, Viktor E.; Krichevtsov, Boris B.; Mashkov, Konstantin V.; Suturin, Sergey M.; Volkov, Mikhail P.; Tabuchi, Masao; Sokolov, Nikolai S.

    2018-01-01

    Epitaxial layers of CoFeB were grown on MgO by means of laser molecular beam epitaxy using C o40F e40B20 target. The growth was combined with in situ structural characterization by three-dimensional reciprocal space mapping obtained from reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) data. High-temperature single stage growth regime was adopted to fabricate CoFeB layers. As confirmed by the atomic force microscopy, the surface of CoFeB layers consists of closely spaced nanometer sized islands with dimensions dependent on the growth temperature. As shown by RHEED and XRD analysis, the CoFeB layers grown at high-temperature on MgO(001) possess body centered cubic (bcc) crystal structure with the lattice constant a =2.87 Å close to that of the C o75F e25 alloy. It was further shown that following the same high-temperature growth technique the MgO/CoFeB/MgO(001) heterostructures can be fabricated with top and bottom MgO layers of the same crystallographic orientation. The CoFeB layers were also grown on the GaN(0001) substrates using MgO(111) as a buffer layer. In this case, the CoFeB layers crystallize in bcc crystal structure with the (111) axis perpendicular to the substrate surface. The magnetic properties of the CoFeB/MgO (001) heterostructures have been investigated by measuring magnetization curves with a vibrating sample magnetometer as well as by performing magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) studies. FMR spectra were obtained for the variety of the magnetic field directions and typically consisted of a single relatively narrow resonance line. The magnetization orientations and the resonance conditions were calculated in the framework of a standard magnetic energy minimization procedure involving a single K1 c cubic term for the magnetocrystalline anisotropy. This allows a fairly accurate description of the angular dependences of the resonance fields—both in-plane and out-of-plane. It was shown that CoFeB layers exhibit

  9. Enhancement of UV photodetector properties of ZnO nanorods/PEDOT:PSS Schottky junction by NGQD sensitization along with conductivity improvement of PEDOT:PSS by DMSO additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, Saurab; Majumder, Tanmoy; Chakraborty, Pinak; Mondal, Suvra Prakash

    2018-04-01

    Schottky junction ultraviolet (UV) photodetector was fabricated by spin coating a hole conducting polymer, poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene: polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) on hydrothermally grown zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays. The UV detector performance was significantly improved two step process. Firstly, ZnO nanorods were modified by sensitizing N doped grapheme quantum dots (NGQDs) for better photoresponce behavior. Afterwards, the junction properties as well as photoresponse was enhanced by modifying electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS layer with organic solvent (DMSO). Our NGQD decorated ZnO NRs/DMSO-PEDOT:PSS Schottky junction device demonstrated superior external quantum efficiency (EQE ˜ 90063 %) and responsivity (Rλ˜247 A/W) at 340 nm wavelength and -1V external bias. The response and recovery times of the final photodetector device was very fast compared to GQD as well as NGQD modified and pristine ZnO nanorod based detectors.

  10. Variable range hopping in ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Nasir; Ghosh, Subhasis

    2018-04-01

    We report the variable range hopping in ZnO films grown by RF magnetron sputtering in different argon and oxygen partial pressure. It has been found that Mott variable range hopping dominant over Efros variable range hopping in all ZnO films. It also has been found that hopping distance and energy increases with increasing oxygen partial pressure.

  11. Controlling the defects and transition layer in SiO2 films grown on 4H-SiC via direct plasma-assisted oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae-Kyoung; Jeong, Kwang-Sik; Kang, Yu-Seon; Kang, Hang-Kyu; Cho, Sang W.; Kim, Sang-Ok; Suh, Dongchan; Kim, Sunjung; Cho, Mann-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The structural stability and electrical performance of SiO2 grown on SiC via direct plasma-assisted oxidation were investigated. To investigate the changes in the electronic structure and electrical characteristics caused by the interfacial reaction between the SiO2 film (thickness ~5 nm) and SiC, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and electrical measurements were performed. The SiO2 films grown via direct plasma-assisted oxidation at room temperature for 300s exhibited significantly decreased concentrations of silicon oxycarbides (SiOxCy) in the transition layer compared to that of conventionally grown (i.e., thermally grown) SiO2 films. Moreover, the plasma-assisted SiO2 films exhibited enhanced electrical characteristics, such as reduced frequency dispersion, hysteresis, and interface trap density (Dit ≈ 1011 cm−2 · eV−1). In particular, stress induced leakage current (SILC) characteristics showed that the generation of defect states can be dramatically suppressed in metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) structures with plasma-assisted oxide layer due to the formation of stable Si-O bonds and the reduced concentrations of SiOxCy species defect states in the transition layer. That is, energetically stable interfacial states of high quality SiO2 on SiC can be obtained by the controlling the formation of SiOxCy through the highly reactive direct plasma-assisted oxidation process. PMID:27721493

  12. Thickness dependence of the MoO3 blocking layers on ZnO nanorod-inverted organic photovoltaic devices

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mingjun; Li, Yuan; Huang, Huihui; Peterson, Eric D.; Nie, Wanyi; Zhou, Wei; Zeng, Wei; Huang, Wenxiao; Fang, Guojia; Sun, Nanhai; Zhao, Xingzhong; Carroll, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Organic solar cells based on vertically aligned zinc oxide nanorod arrays (ZNR) in an inverted structure of indium tin oxide (ITO)∕ZNR∕poly(3-hexylthiophene): (6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester(P3HT:PCBM)∕MoO3∕aluminum(Al) were studied. We found that the optimum MoO3 layer thickness condition of 20 nm, the MoO3 can effectively decrease the probability of bimolecular recombination either at the Al interface or within the active layer itself. For this optimum condition we get a power conversion efficiency of 2.15%, a short-circuit current density of 9.02 mA∕cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 0.55V, and a fill factor of 0.44 under 100 mW∕cm2 irradiation. Our investigations also show that the highly crystallized ZNR can create short and continuous pathways for electron transport and increase the contact area between the ZNR and the organic materials. PMID:21464889

  13. Enhanced light extraction of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with periodic textured SiO2 on Al-doped ZnO transparent conductive layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhao; Bingfeng, Fan; Yiting, Chen; Yi, Zhuo; Zhoujun, Pang; Zhen, Liu; Gang, Wang

    2016-07-01

    We report an effective enhancement in light extraction of GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with an Al-doped ZnO (AZO) transparent conductive layer by incorporating a top regular textured SiO2 layer. The 2 inch transparent through-pore anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane was fabricated and used as the etching mask. The periodic pore with a pitch of about 410 nm was successfully transferred to the surface of the SiO2 layer without any etching damages to the AZO layer and the electrodes. The light output power was enhanced by 19% at 20 mA and 56% at 100 mA compared to that of the planar LEDs without a patterned surface. This approach offers a technique to fabricate a low-cost and large-area regular pattern on the LED chip for achieving enhanced light extraction without an obvious increase of the forward voltage. ).

  14. Evaluation of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors grown on ZrTi buffer layers with sapphire substrates

    SciT

    Ren, Fan; Pearton, Stephen J.; Ahn, Shihyun

    Here, AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) have been grown on sapphire substrates, using ZrTi buffer layers to provide in-plane lattice-matching to hexagonal GaN. X-ray diffraction (XRD) as well as cross-section transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to assess the quality of the HEMT structure. The XRD 2θ scans showed full-width-at-half-maximum values of 0.16°, 0.07°, and 0.08° for ZrTi alloy, GaN buffer layer, and the entire HEMT structure, respectively. TEM studies of the GaN buffer layer and the AlN/ZrTi/AlN stack showed the importance of growing thin AlN buffer layers on the ZrTi layer prior to growth of the GaN buffermore » layer. The density of threading dislocations in the GaN channel layer of the HEMT structure was estimated to be in the 10 8 cm –2 range. The HEMT device exhibited a saturation drain current density of 820 mA/mm, and the channel of the fabricated HEMTs could be well modulated. A cutoff frequency (f T) of 8.9 GHz and a maximum frequency of oscillation (f max) of 17.3 GHz were achieved for HEMTs with gate dimensions of 1 × 200 μm.« less

  15. Evaluation of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors grown on ZrTi buffer layers with sapphire substrates

    DOE PAGES

    Ren, Fan; Pearton, Stephen J.; Ahn, Shihyun; ...

    2016-09-21

    Here, AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) have been grown on sapphire substrates, using ZrTi buffer layers to provide in-plane lattice-matching to hexagonal GaN. X-ray diffraction (XRD) as well as cross-section transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to assess the quality of the HEMT structure. The XRD 2θ scans showed full-width-at-half-maximum values of 0.16°, 0.07°, and 0.08° for ZrTi alloy, GaN buffer layer, and the entire HEMT structure, respectively. TEM studies of the GaN buffer layer and the AlN/ZrTi/AlN stack showed the importance of growing thin AlN buffer layers on the ZrTi layer prior to growth of the GaN buffermore » layer. The density of threading dislocations in the GaN channel layer of the HEMT structure was estimated to be in the 10 8 cm –2 range. The HEMT device exhibited a saturation drain current density of 820 mA/mm, and the channel of the fabricated HEMTs could be well modulated. A cutoff frequency (f T) of 8.9 GHz and a maximum frequency of oscillation (f max) of 17.3 GHz were achieved for HEMTs with gate dimensions of 1 × 200 μm.« less

  16. Structural and electrical properties of Ge-on-Si(0 0 1) layers with ultra heavy n-type doping grown by MBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurasov, D. V.; Antonov, A. V.; Drozdov, M. N.; Yunin, P. A.; Andreev, B. A.; Bushuykin, P. A.; Baydakova, N. A.; Novikov, A. V.

    2018-06-01

    In this paper we report about the formation of ultra heavy doped n-Ge layers on Si(0 0 1) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy and their characterization by different independent techniques. Combined study of structural and electrical properties of fabricated layers using secondary ion mass spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Hall effect and reflection measurements was carried out and it has revealed the achievable charge carrier densities exceeding 1020 cm-3 without deterioration of crystalline quality of such doped layers. It was also shown that X-ray analysis can be used as a fast, reliable and non-destructive method for evaluation of the electrically active Sb concentration in heavy doped Ge layers. The appropriate set of doping density allowed to adjust the plasmonic resonance position in Ge:Sb layers in a rather wide range reaching the wavelength of 3.6 μm for the highest doping concentration. Room temperature photoluminescence confirmed the high crystalline quality of such doped layers. Our results indicated the attainability of high electron concentration in Ge:Sb layers grown on Si substrates without crystalline quality deterioration which may find potential applications in the fields of Si-based photonics and mid-IR plasmonics.

  17. Low temperature growth of ZnO nanorods array via solution-immersion on TiO2 seed layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asib, N. A. M.; Aadila, A.; Afaah, A. N.; Rusop, M.; Khusaimi, Z.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, TiO2:ZNR thin films were successfully fabricated on glass substrates at low temperatures of 75 to 90°C. The substrates were coated with titanium dioxide (TiO2) using sol-gel spin coating, which act as seed layer to grow zinc oxide nanorods (ZNR) by solution-immersion method. At 90 and 95° C, ZNR with hexagonal tip are well dispersed without any aggregation and exhibit more uniform nanorods array as observed using FESEM. The diffraction peak intensity of the (0 0 2)-plane increased as the temperature increased, indicating improved orientation in the c-axis direction of the ZNR as detected in XRD patterns. From UV-Vis absorbance spectra, it was found that the samples has higher absorption properties at middle range of immersion temperatures; 80, 85 and 90°C.

  18. Reduction of structural defects in thick 4H-SiC epitaxial layers grown on 4° off-axis substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdanfar, M.; Ivanov, I. G.; Pedersen, H.; Kordina, O.; Janzén, E.

    2013-06-01

    By carefully controlling the surface chemistry of the chemical vapor deposition process for silicon carbide (SiC), 100 μm thick epitaxial layers with excellent morphology were grown on 4° off-axis SiC substrates at growth rates exceeding 100 μm/h. In order to reduce the formation of step bunching and structural defects, mainly triangular defects, the effect of varying parameters such as growth temperature, C/Si ratio, Cl/Si ratio, Si/H2 ratio, and in situ pre-growth surface etching time are studied. It was found that an in-situ pre growth etch at growth temperature and pressure using 0.6% HCl in hydrogen for 12 min reduced the structural defects by etching preferentially on surface damages of the substrate surface. By then applying a slightly lower growth temperature of 1575 °C, a C/Si ratio of 0.8, and a Cl/Si ratio of 5, 100 μm thick, step-bunch free epitaxial layer with a minimum triangular defect density and excellent morphology could be grown, thus enabling SiC power device structures to be grown on 4° off axis SiC substrates.

  19. Post-annealing effect on optical absorbance of hydrothermally grown zinc oxide nanorods

    SciT

    Mohar, Rahmat Setiawan; Djuhana, Dede; Imawan, Cuk

    In this study, the optical absorbance of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods was investigated. The ZnO thin film were deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) layers using ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) method and then grown by hydrothermal method. In order to improve the optical absorbance, the ZnO nanorods were then post-annealed for one hour at three different of temperatures, namely 250, 400, and 500 °C. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra and FESEM images show that the ZnO nanorods have the hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure and the increasing of post-annealing temperature resulted in the increasing of crystallite size from 38.2 nm to 48.4 nm.more » The UV-vis spectra shows that all samples of ZnO nanorods exhibited the identical sharp absorption edge at 390 nm indicating that all samples have the same bandgap. The post-annealing process seemed to decrease the optical absorbance in the region of 300-550 nm and increase the optical absorbance in the region of 550-700 nm..« less

  20. Band Offsets and Interfacial Properties of HfAlO Gate Dielectric Grown on InP by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lifeng; Wang, Tao; Zou, Ying; Lu, Hong-Liang

    2017-12-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy have been used to determine interfacial properties of HfO 2 and HfAlO gate dielectrics grown on InP by atomic layer deposition. An undesirable interfacial InP x O y layer is easily formed at the HfO 2 /InP interface, which can severely degrade the electrical performance. However, an abrupt interface can be achieved when the growth of the HfAlO dielectric on InP starts with an ultrathin Al 2 O 3 layer. The valence and conduction band offsets for HfAlO/InP heterojunctions have been determined to be 1.87 ± 0.1 and 2.83 ± 0.1 eV, respectively. These advantages make HfAlO a potential dielectric for InP MOSFETs.

  1. New CVD-based method for the growth of high-quality crystalline zinc oxide layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Florian; Madel, Manfred; Reiser, Anton; Bauer, Sebastian; Thonke, Klaus

    2016-07-01

    High-quality zinc oxide (ZnO) layers were grown using a new chemical vapour deposition (CVD)-based low-cost growth method. The process is characterized by total simplicity, high growth rates, and cheap, less hazardous precursors. To produce elementary zinc vapour, methane (CH4) is used to reduce a ZnO powder. By re-oxidizing the zinc with pure oxygen, highly crystalline ZnO layers were grown on gallium nitride (GaN) layers and on sapphire substrates with an aluminum nitride (AlN) nucleation layer. Using simple CH4 as precursor has the big advantage of good controllability and the avoidance of highly toxic gases like nitrogen oxides. In photoluminescence (PL) measurements the samples show a strong near-band-edge emission and a sharp line width at 5 K. The good crystal quality has been confirmed in high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) measurements. This new growth method has great potential for industrial large-scale production of high-quality single crystal ZnO layers.

  2. On the growth and photocatalytic activity of the vertically aligned ZnO nanorods grafted by CdS shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirak, M.; Moradlou, O.; Bayati, M. R.; Nien, Y. T.; Moshfegh, A. Z.

    2013-05-01

    We have studied systematically photocatalytic properties of the vertically aligned ZnO@CdS core-shell nanorods where the features were grown through a multistep procedure including sol-gel for the formation of ZnO seed layer, hydrothermal process to grow ZnO nanorods, and successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) process to deposit CdS nanoshells onto the ZnO nanorods. Formation of the ZnO seed layer and vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (d ∼ 40 nm) with a hexagonal cross-section was confirmed by AFM and SEM imaging. Successful capping of ZnO nanorods with homogeneous CdS nanocrystallites (∼5 nm) was ascertained by HRTEM diffraction and imaging. Optical properties of the samples were also studied using UV-vis spectrophotometry. It was found that the absorption edge of the CdS shell has a red shift when its thickness increases. Photocatalytic activity of the samples was examined by photodecomposition of methylene blue under UV and visible lights where the maximum reaction rate constant was found to be 0.012 min-1 under UV illumination and 0.007 min-1 under visible light. The difference in catalytic activities of the ZnO@CdS core-shell nanorods under UV and visible irradiations was explained based upon the electronic structure as well as the arrangement of the energy levels in the ZnO@CdS core-shells. It is shown that the structure and photocatalytic efficiency of the samples can be tuned by manipulating the SILAR variables.

  3. The Phase Relations in the In 2O 3-Al 2ZnO 4-ZnO System at 1350°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Masaki; Kimizuka, Noboru; Mohri, Takahiko; Isobe, Mitsumasa

    1993-08-01

    Phase relations in the In 2O 3-Al 2ZnO 4-ZnO system at 1350°C are determined by a classical quenching method. This system consists of In 2O 3, Al 2ZnO 4, ZnO, and homologous phases InAlO 3(ZnO) m ( m = 2, 3, …) having solid solutions with LuFeO 3(ZnO) m-type crystal structures. These solid solution ranges are as follows: In 1+ x1Al 1- x1O 3(ZnO) 2 ( x1 = 0.70)-In 1+ x2Al 1- x2O 3(ZnO) 2 ( x2 = 0.316-0.320), In 2O 3(ZnO) 3-In 1+ xAl 1- xO 3(ZnO) 3 ( x = 0.230), In 2O 3(ZnO) 4-In 1+ xAl 1- xO 3(ZnO) 4 ( x = 0.15-0.16), In 2O 3(ZnO) 5-In 1+ xAl 1- xO 3(ZnO) 5 ( x = 0.116-0.130), In 2O 3(ZnO) 6-In 1+ xAl 1- xO 3(ZnO) 6 ( x = 0.000-0.111), In 2O 3(ZnO) 7-In 1+ xAl 1- xO 3(ZnO) 7 ( x = 0.08), In 2O 3(ZnO) 8-In 1+ xAl 1- xO 3(ZnO) 8 ( x: undetermined), and In 2O 3(ZnO) m-InAlO 3(ZnO) m ( m = 9, 10, 11, 13, 15, 17, and 19). The space groups of these homologous phases belong to R3¯ m for m = odd or P6 3/ mmc for m = even. Their crystal structures, In 1+ xAl 1- xO 3(ZnO) m (0 < x < 1), consist of three kinds of layers: an InO 1.5 layer, an (In xAl 1- xZn)O 2.5 layer, and ZnO layers. A comparison of the phase relations in the In 2O 3- M2ZnO 4-ZnO systems ( M = Fe, Ga, or Al) is made and their characteristic features are discussed in terms of the ionic radii and site preferences of the M cations.

  4. Enhanced ultraviolet electroluminescence and spectral narrowing from ZnO quantum dots/GaN heterojunction diodes by using high-k HfO{sub 2} electron blocking layer

    SciT

    Mo, Xiaoming; Long, Hao; Wang, Haoning

    2014-08-11

    We demonstrated the capability of realizing enhanced ZnO-related UV emissions by using the low-cost and solution-processable ZnO quantum dots (QDs) with the help of a high-k HfO{sub 2} electron blocking layer (EBL) for the ZnO QDs/p-GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Full-width at half maximum of the LED devices was greatly decreased from ∼110 to ∼54 nm, and recombinations related to nonradiative centers were significantly suppressed with inserting HfO{sub 2} EBL. The electroluminescence of the ZnO QDs/HfO{sub 2}/p-GaN LEDs demonstrated an interesting spectral narrowing effect with increasing HfO{sub 2} thickness. The Gaussian fitting revealed that the great enhancement of the Zn{sub i}-related emissionmore » at ∼414 nm whereas the deep suppression of the interfacial recombination at ∼477 nm should be the main reason for the spectral narrowing effect.« less

  5. Microwave-assisted Facile and Ultrafast Growth of ZnO Nanostructures and Proposition of Alternative Microwave-assisted Methods to Address Growth Stoppage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Abu Ul Hassan Sarwar; Kang, Mingi; Kim, Hyun-Seok

    2016-04-01

    The time constraint in the growth of ZnO nanostructures when using a hydrothermal method is of paramount importance in contemporary research, where a long fabrication time rots the very essence of the research on ZnO nanostructures. In this study, we present the facile and ultrafast growth of ZnO nanostructures in a domestic microwave oven within a pressurized environment in just a few minutes. This method is preferred for the conventional solution-based method because of the ultrafast supersaturation of zinc salts and the fabrication of high-quality nanostructures. The study of the effect of seed layer density, growth time, and the solution’s molar concentration on the morphology, alignment, density, and aspect ratio of ZnO nanorods (ZNRs) is explored. It is found in a microwave-assisted direct growth method that ~5 mins is the optimum time beyond which homogeneous nucleation supersedes heterogeneous nucleation, which results in the growth stoppage of ZNRs. To deal with this issue, we propound different methods such as microwave-assisted solution-replacement, preheating, and PEI-based growth methods, where growth stoppage is addressed and ZNRs with a high aspect ratio can be grown. Furthermore, high-quality ZnO nanoflowers and ZnO nanowalls are fabricated via ammonium hydroxide treatment in a very short time.

  6. AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor Grown and Fabricated on ZrTi Metallic Alloy Buffer Layers

    DOE PAGES

    Ren, Fan; Pearton, Stephen J.; Ahn, Shihyun; ...

    2017-09-26

    AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were demonstrated for structures grown on ZrTi metallic alloy buffer layers, which provided lattice matching of the in-plane lattice parameter (“a-parameter”) to hexagonal GaN. The quality of the GaN buffer layer and HEMT structure were confirmed with X-ray 2θ and rocking scans as well as cross-section transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. The X-ray 2θ scans showed full widths at half maximum (FWHM) of 0.06°, 0.05° and 0.08° for ZrTi alloy, GaN buffer layer, and the entire HEMT structure, respectively. TEM of the lower section of the HEMT structure containing the GaN buffer layer andmore » the AlN/ZrTi/AlN stack on the Si substrate showed that it was important to grow AlN on the top of ZrTi prior to growing the GaN buffer layer. Finally, the estimated threading dislocation (TD) density in the GaN channel layer of the HEMT structure was in the 10 8 cm -2 range.« less

  7. Comparative study of GaN-based ultraviolet LEDs grown on different-sized patterned sapphire substrates with sputtered AlN nucleation layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shengjun; Hu, Hongpo; Liu, Xingtong; Liu, Mengling; Ding, Xinghuo; Gui, Chengqun; Liu, Sheng; Guo, L. Jay

    2017-11-01

    GaN-based ultraviolet-light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs) with 375 nm emission were grown on different-sized patterned sapphire substrates (PSSs) with ex situ 15-nm-thick sputtered AlN nucleation layers by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). It was observed through in situ optical reflectance monitoring that the transition time from a three-dimensional (3D) island to a two-dimensional (2D) coalescence was prolonged when GaN was grown on a larger PSS, owing to a much longer lateral growth time of GaN. The full widths at half-maximum (FWHMs) of symmetric GaN(002) and asymmetric GaN(102) X-ray diffraction (XRD) rocking curves decreased as the PSS size increased. By cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, it was found that the threading dislocation (TD) density in UV LEDs decreased with increasing pattern size and fill factor of the PSS, thereby resulting in a marked improvement in internal quantum efficiency (IQE). Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations quantitatively demonstrated a progressive decrease in light extraction efficiency (LEE) as the PSS size increased. However, owing to the significantly reduced TD density in InGaN/AlInGaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) and thus improved IQE, the light output power of the UV LED grown on a large PSS with a fill factor of 0.71 was 131.8% higher than that of the UV LED grown on a small PSS with a fill factor of 0.4, albeit the UV LED grown on a large PSS exhibited a much lower LEE.

  8. High-Performance Schottky Diode Gas Sensor Based on the Heterojunction of Three-Dimensional Nanohybrids of Reduced Graphene Oxide-Vertical ZnO Nanorods on an AlGaN/GaN Layer.

    PubMed

    Minh Triet, Nguyen; Thai Duy, Le; Hwang, Byeong-Ung; Hanif, Adeela; Siddiqui, Saqib; Park, Kyung-Ho; Cho, Chu-Young; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2017-09-13

    A Schottky diode based on a heterojunction of three-dimensional (3D) nanohybrid materials, formed by hybridizing reduced graphene oxide (RGO) with epitaxial vertical zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) and Al 0.27 GaN 0.73 (∼25 nm)/GaN is presented as a new class of high-performance chemical sensors. The RGO nanosheet layer coated on the ZnO NRs enables the formation of a direct Schottky contact with the AlGaN layer. The sensing results of the Schottky diode with respect to NO 2 , SO 2 , and HCHO gases exhibit high sensitivity (0.88-1.88 ppm -1 ), fast response (∼2 min), and good reproducibility down to 120 ppb concentration levels at room temperature. The sensing mechanism of the Schottky diode can be explained by the effective modulation of the reverse saturation current due to the change in thermionic emission carrier transport caused by ultrasensitive changes in the Schottky barrier of a van der Waals heterostructure between RGO and AlGaN layers upon interaction with gas molecules. Advances in the design of a Schottky diode gas sensor based on the heterojunction of high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas channel and highly responsive 3D-engineered sensing nanomaterials have potential not only for the enhancement of sensitivity and selectivity but also for improving operation capability at room temperature.

  9. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Electronic structure of a graphene/hexagonal-BN heterostructure grown on Ru(0001) by chemical vapor deposition and atomic layer deposition: extrinsically doped graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjelkevig, Cameron; Mi, Zhou; Xiao, Jie; Dowben, P. A.; Wang, Lu; Mei, Wai-Ning; Kelber, Jeffry A.

    2010-08-01

    A significant BN-to-graphene charge donation is evident in the electronic structure of a graphene/h-BN(0001) heterojunction grown by chemical vapor deposition and atomic layer deposition directly on Ru(0001), consistent with density functional theory. This filling of the lowest unoccupied state near the Brillouin zone center has been characterized by combined photoemission/k vector resolved inverse photoemission spectroscopies, and Raman and scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy. The unoccupied σ*(Γ1 +) band dispersion yields an effective mass of 0.05 me for graphene in the graphene/h-BN(0001) heterostructure, in spite of strong perturbations to the graphene conduction band edge placement.

  10. ZnO nanowires: Synthesis and charge transfer mechanism in the detection of ammonia vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nancy Anna Anasthasiya, A.; Ramya, S.; Rai, P. K.; Jeyaprakash, B. G.

    2018-01-01

    ZnO nanowires with hexagonal wurtzite structure were grown on the glass substrate using Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method. Both experimental and theoretical studies demonstrated that NH3 chemisorbed and transferred the charge to the surface of the nanowire via its nitrogen site to the zinc site of ZnO nanowires, leading to the detection of NH3 vapour. The adsorbed ammonia dissociated into NH2 and H due to steric repulsion, and then into N2 and H2 gas. The formation of the N2 gas during the desorption process confirmed by observing peak at 14 and 28 m/z in the GC-MS spectrum.

  11. Non-enzymatic Fluorescent Biosensor for Glucose Sensing Based on ZnO Nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Hong Hanh; Pham, Van Thanh; Nguyen, Viet Tuyen; Sai, Cong Doanh; Hoang, Chi Hieu; Nguyen, The Binh

    2017-06-01

    We have developed a non-enzymatic fluorescent biosensor for glucose sensing based on ZnO nanorods. ZnO nanorods of high density, high crystallinity, and good alignment were grown on low-cost industrial copper substrates at low temperature. To grow them directly on the substrates without using a seed layer, we utilized a simple one-step seedless hydrothermal method, which is based on galvanic cell structure. Herein, the glucose-treated ZnO nanorods together with the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of the sample during the photoluminescent measurement played the role of a catalyst. They decomposed glucose into hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and gluconic acid, which is similar to the glucose oxidase enzyme (GOx) used in enzymatic sensors. Due to the formation of H2O2, the photoluminescence intensity of the UV emission peak of ZnO nanorods decreased as the glucose concentration increased from 1 mM to 100 mM. In comparison with glucose concentration of a normal human serum, which is in the range of 4.4-6.6 mM, the obtained results show potential of non-enzymatic fluorescent biosensors in medical applications.

  12. Significant mobility enhancement in extremely thin highly doped ZnO films

    SciT

    Look, David C., E-mail: david.look@wright.edu; Wyle Laboratories, Inc., 2601 Mission Point Blvd., Dayton, Ohio 45431; Air Force Research Laboratory Sensors Directorate, 2241 Avionics Circle, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433

    2015-04-13

    Highly Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films of thicknesses d = 5, 25, 50, and 300 nm, grown on 160-nm ZnO buffer layers by molecular beam epitaxy, had 294-K Hall-effect mobilities μ{sub H} of 64.1, 43.4, 37.0, and 34.2 cm{sup 2}/V-s, respectively. This extremely unusual ordering of μ{sub H} vs d is explained by the existence of a very high-mobility Debye tail in the ZnO, arising from the large Fermi-level mismatch between the GZO and the ZnO. Scattering theory in conjunction with Poisson analysis predicts a Debye-tail mobility of 206 cm{sup 2}/V-s at the interface (z = d), falling to 58 cm{sup 2}/V-s at z = d + 2 nm. Excellent fits to μ{sub H}more » vs d and sheet concentration n{sub s} vs d are obtained with no adjustable parameters.« less

  13. Core-shell TiO2@ZnO nanorods for efficient ultraviolet photodetection.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Shrabani; Basak, Durga

    2011-05-01

    Core-shell TiO(2)@ZnO nanorods (NRs) have been fabricated by a simple two step method: growth of ZnO NRs' array by an aqueous chemical technique and then coating of the NRs with a solution of titanium isopropoxide [Ti(OC(3)H(7))(4)] followed by a heating step to form the shell. The core-shell nanocomposites are composed of single-crystalline ZnO NRs, coated with a thin TiO(2) shell layer obtained by varying the number of coatings (one, three and five times). The ultraviolet (UV) emission intensity of the nanocomposite is largely quenched due to an efficient electron-hole separation reducing the band-to-band recombinations. The UV photoconductivity of the core-shell structure with three times TiO(2) coating has been largely enhanced due to photoelectron transfer between the core and the shell. The UV photosensitivity of the nanocomposite becomes four times larger while the photocurrent decay during steady UV illumination has been decreased almost by 7 times compared to the as-grown ZnO NRs indicating high efficiency of these core-shell structures as UV sensors. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  14. Core-shell TiO2@ZnO nanorods for efficient ultraviolet photodetection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panigrahi, Shrabani; Basak, Durga

    2011-05-01

    Core-shell TiO2@ZnO nanorods (NRs) have been fabricated by a simple two step method: growth of ZnO NRs' array by an aqueous chemical technique and then coating of the NRs with a solution of titanium isopropoxide [Ti(OC3H7)4] followed by a heating step to form the shell. The core-shell nanocomposites are composed of single-crystalline ZnO NRs, coated with a thin TiO2 shell layer obtained by varying the number of coatings (one, three and five times). The ultraviolet (UV) emission intensity of the nanocomposite is largely quenched due to an efficient electron-hole separation reducing the band-to-band recombinations. The UV photoconductivity of the core-shell structure with three times TiO2 coating has been largely enhanced due to photoelectron transfer between the core and the shell. The UV photosensitivity of the nanocomposite becomes four times larger while the photocurrent decay during steady UV illumination has been decreased almost by 7 times compared to the as-grown ZnO NRs indicating high efficiency of these core-shell structures as UV sensors.

  15. Nanoscale calibration of n-type ZnO staircase structures by scanning capacitance microscopy

    SciT

    Wang, L., E-mail: lin.wang@insa-lyon.fr; Laurent, J.; Brémond, G.

    2015-11-09

    Cross-sectional scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) was performed on n-type ZnO multi-layer structures homoepitaxially grown by molecular beam epitaxy method. Highly contrasted SCM signals were obtained between the ZnO layers with different Ga densities. Through comparison with dopant depth profiles from secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurement, it is demonstrated that SCM is able to distinguish carrier concentrations at all levels of the samples (from 2 × 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3} to 3 × 10{sup 20 }cm{sup −3}). The good agreement of the results from the two techniques indicates that SCM can be a useful tool for two dimensional carrier profiling at nanoscale for ZnO nanostructure development. Asmore » an example, residual carrier concentration inside the non-intentionally doped buffer layer was estimated to be around 2 × 10{sup 16 }cm{sup −3} through calibration analysis.« less

  16. Correlated effects of preparation parameters and thickness on morphology and optical properties of ZnO very thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliot, Mickaël; Hadjadj, Aomar

    2015-08-01

    Nano-granular ZnO layers have been grown using a sol-gel synthesis and spin-coating deposition process. Thin films with thicknesses ranging from 15 to 150 nm have been obtained by varying the number of deposition cycles and prepared with different synthesis conditions. Morphologies and optical properties have been carefully investigated by joint spectroscopic ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy. A correlation between the evolution of optical properties and grains morphology has been observed. It is shown that both synthesis temperature and concentration similarly allow us to change the correlated growth and properties evolution rate. Thickness variation associated to choice of synthesis parameters could be a useful way to tune morphology and optical properties of the nanostructured ZnO layers.

  17. Mapping of Low-Frequency Raman Modes in CVD-Grown Transition Metal Dichalcogenides: Layer Number, Stacking Orientation and Resonant Effects

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Maria; McEvoy, Niall; Hanlon, Damien; Hallam, Toby; Coleman, Jonathan N.; Duesberg, Georg S.

    2016-01-01

    Layered inorganic materials, such as the transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), have attracted much attention due to their exceptional electronic and optical properties. Reliable synthesis and characterization of these materials must be developed if these properties are to be exploited. Herein, we present low-frequency Raman analysis of MoS2, MoSe2, WSe2 and WS2 grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Raman spectra are acquired over large areas allowing changes in the position and intensity of the shear and layer-breathing modes to be visualized in maps. This allows detailed characterization of mono- and few-layered TMDs which is complementary to well-established (high-frequency) Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy. This study presents a major stepping stone in fundamental understanding of layered materials as mapping the low-frequency modes allows the quality, symmetry, stacking configuration and layer number of 2D materials to be probed over large areas. In addition, we report on anomalous resonance effects in the low-frequency region of the WS2 Raman spectrum. PMID:26766208

  18. Stable p-i-n FAPbBr 3 devices with improved efficiency using sputtered ZnO as electron transport layer [Stable p-i-n FAPbBr 3 devices with improved efficiency using sputtered inorganic electron transport layer

    DOE PAGES

    Subbiah, Anand S.; Agarwal, Sumanshu; Mahuli, Neha; ...

    2017-02-10

    Here, radio-frequency magnetron sputtering is demonstrated as an effective tool to deposit highly crystalline thin zinc oxide (ZnO) layer directly on perovskite absorber as an electron transport layer (ETL). As an absorber, formamidinium lead tribromide (FAPbBr 3) is fabricated through a modified single-step solution process using hydrogen bromide (HBr) as an additive resulting in complete surface coverage and highly crystalline material. A planar p-i-n device architecture with spin-coated poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly-styrenesulfonic acid (PEDOT:PSS) as hole transport material (HTM) and sputtered ZnO as ETL results in a short circuit current density of 9.5 mA cm -2 and an open circuit potential of 1.19more » V. Numerical simulations are performed to validate the underlying loss mechanisms. The use of phenyl C 60 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) interface layer between FAPbBr 3 and sputter-coated ZnO offers shielding from potential plasma-related interface damage. The modified interface results in a better device efficiency of 8.3% with an open circuit potential of 1.35 V. Such devices offer better stability under continuous illumination under ambient conditions in comparison with the conventional organic ETL (PCBM)-based devices.« less

  19. Stable p-i-n FAPbBr 3 devices with improved efficiency using sputtered ZnO as electron transport layer [Stable p-i-n FAPbBr 3 devices with improved efficiency using sputtered inorganic electron transport layer

    SciT

    Subbiah, Anand S.; Agarwal, Sumanshu; Mahuli, Neha

    Here, radio-frequency magnetron sputtering is demonstrated as an effective tool to deposit highly crystalline thin zinc oxide (ZnO) layer directly on perovskite absorber as an electron transport layer (ETL). As an absorber, formamidinium lead tribromide (FAPbBr 3) is fabricated through a modified single-step solution process using hydrogen bromide (HBr) as an additive resulting in complete surface coverage and highly crystalline material. A planar p-i-n device architecture with spin-coated poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly-styrenesulfonic acid (PEDOT:PSS) as hole transport material (HTM) and sputtered ZnO as ETL results in a short circuit current density of 9.5 mA cm -2 and an open circuit potential of 1.19more » V. Numerical simulations are performed to validate the underlying loss mechanisms. The use of phenyl C 60 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) interface layer between FAPbBr 3 and sputter-coated ZnO offers shielding from potential plasma-related interface damage. The modified interface results in a better device efficiency of 8.3% with an open circuit potential of 1.35 V. Such devices offer better stability under continuous illumination under ambient conditions in comparison with the conventional organic ETL (PCBM)-based devices.« less

  20. LPE growth of crack-free PbSe layers on Si(100) using MBE-Grown PbSe/BaF2CaF2 buffer layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strecker, B. N.; McCann, P. J.; Fang, X. M.; Hauenstein, R. J.; O'Steen, M.; Johnson, M. B.

    1997-05-01

    Crack-free PbSe on (100)-oriented Si has been obtained by a combination of liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) techniques. MBE is employed first to grow a PbSe/BaF2/CaF2 buffer structure on the (100)-oriented Si. A 2.5 μm thick PbSe layer is then grown by LPE. The LPE-grown PbSe displays excellent surface morphology and is continuous over the entire 8×8 mm2 area of growth. This result is surprising because of the large mismatch in thermal expansion coefficients between PbSe and Si. Previous attempts to grow crack-free PbSe by MBE alone using similar buffer structures on (100)-oriented Si have been unsuccessful. It is speculated that the large concentration of Se vacancies in the LPE-grown PbSe layer may allow dislocation climb along higher order slip planes, providing strain relaxation.

  1. Tunneling Spectroscopy of MoN and NbxTi1-xN Thin Films Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Chaoyue; Groll, Nickolas; Klug, Jeffrey; Becker, Nicholas; Altin, Serdar; Proslier, Thomas; Zasadzinski, John

    2014-03-01

    Tunneling I(V) and dI/dV vs. V are reported on superconducting thin films of MoN and NbxTi1-xN using a point contact method with a Au tip. The films are grown by the chemical process of atomic layer deposition (ALD) onto various substrates (Si, quartz, sapphire) held at 450 C. Resistively measured superconducting Tc values up to 12K and 13K are found for the MoN and NbxTi1-xN respectively. Artificial tunnel barriers (1-3 nm thick) of Al2O3, also grown by ALD, are shown to provide much improved tunneling characteristics compared to the native oxides. Relatively high quality gap features are observed with zero-bias conductance values as low as ~ 10% of the high bias values. Gap parameters Δ ~ 2.0meV are found for the MoN and Δ ~ 2.0-2.4 meV for the NbxTi1-xN which follow the BCS temperature dependence and close near the measured film Tc indicating bulk superconductivity at the surface. The suitability of such conformal ALD grown films for potential superconducting devices is discussed. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science under contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  2. Near-infrared emitting In-rich InGaN layers grown directly on Si: Towards the whole composition range

    SciT

    Aseev, Pavel, E-mail: pavel.aseev@upm.es; Rodriguez, Paul E. D. Soto; Gómez, Víctor J.

    The authors report compact and chemically homogeneous In-rich InGaN layers directly grown on Si (111) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. High structural and optical quality is evidenced by transmission electron microscopy, near-field scanning optical microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Photoluminescence emission in the near-infrared is observed up to room temperature covering the important 1.3 and 1.55 μm telecom wavelength bands. The n-InGaN/p-Si interface is ohmic due to the absence of any insulating buffer layers. This qualitatively extends the application fields of III-nitrides and allows their integration with established Si technology.

  3. Electrical properties of pseudo-single-crystalline Ge films grown by Au-induced layer exchange crystallization at 250 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashi, H.; Kudo, K.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamada, S.; Kanashima, T.; Tsunoda, I.; Nakashima, H.; Hamaya, K.

    2018-06-01

    We study the electrical properties of pseudo-single-crystalline Ge (PSC-Ge) films grown by a Au-induced layer exchange crystallization method at 250 °C. By inserting the SiNx layer between PSC-Ge and SiO2, we initiatively suppress the influence of the Ge/SiO2 interfacial defective layers, which have been reported in our previous works, on the electrical properties of the PSC-Ge layers. As a result, we can detect the influence of the ionized Au+ donors on the temperature-dependent hole concentration and Hall mobility. To further examine their electrical properties in detail, we also fabricate p-thin-film transistors (TFTs) with the PSC-Ge layer. Although the off-state leakage currents are suppressed by inserting the SiNx layer, the value of on/off ratio remains poor (<102). Even after the post-annealing at 400 °C for the TFTs, the on/off ratio is still poor (˜102) because of the gate-induced drain leakage current although a nominal field effect mobility is enhanced up to ˜25 cm2/V s. Considering these features, we conclude that the Au contaminations into the PSC-Ge layer can affect the electrical properties and device performances despite a low-growth temperature of 250 °C. To achieve further high-performance p-TFTs, we have to suppress the Au contaminations into PSC-Ge during the Au-induced crystallization growth.

  4. High Luminescence Efficiency from GaAsN Layers Grown by MBE with RF Nitrogen Plasma Source

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    is the goal for applications in fiber optic communication systems. 1.3 micron edge- emitting lasers and VCSELs have been recently demonstrated by...GaAsN layers. CONCLUSIONS Molecular beam epitaxial growth of GaAsj_,N, layers has been studied as a function of nitrogen content and growth regimes. We...obtained are important for further improving the characteristics of InGaAsN lasers emitting at 1.3 micron. INTRODUCTION Group-Ill nitride semiconductors

  5. n-VO2/p-GaN based nitride-oxide heterostructure with various thickness of VO2 layer grown by MBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Minhuan; Bian, Jiming; Sun, Hongjun; Liu, Weifeng; Zhang, Yuzhi; Luo, Yingmin

    2016-12-01

    High quality VO2 films with precisely controlled thickness were grown on p-GaN/sapphire substrates by oxide molecular beam epitaxy (O-MBE). Results indicated that a distinct reversible semiconductor-to-metal (SMT) phase transition was observed for all the samples in the temperature dependent electrical resistance measurement, and the influence of VO2 layer thickness on the SMT properties of the as-grown n-VO2/p-GaN based nitride-oxide heterostructure was investigated. Meanwhile, the clear rectifying transport characteristics originated from the n-VO2/p-GaN interface were demonstrated before and after SMT of the VO2 over layer, which were attributed to the p-n junction behavior and Schottky contact character, respectively. Moreover, the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses confirmed the valence state of vanadium (V) in VO2 films was principally composed of V4+ with trace amount of V5+. The design and modulation of the n-VO2/p-GaN based heterostructure devices will benefit significantly from these achievements.

  6. IR-LTS a powerful non-invasive tool to observe crystal defects in as-grown silicon, after device processing, and in heteroepitaxial layers

    SciT

    Kissinger, G.; Richter, H.; Vanhellemont, J.

    1996-12-01

    One of the main advantages of infrared light scattering tomography (IR-LST) is the wide range of defect densities that can be studied using this technique. As-grown defects of low density and very small size as well as oxygen precipitation related defects that appear in densities up to some 1010 cm{sup -3} can be observed. As-grown wafers with a {open_quotes}stacking fault ring{close_quotes} were investigated in order to correlate the defects observed by IR-LST with the results of Secco etching and alcaline cleaning solution (SC1) treatment revealing flow pattern defects (FPDs) and crystal originated particles (COPs), respectively. These wafers were studied aftermore » a wet oxidation at 1100{degrees}C for 100 min. In processed CZ silicon wafers it was possible to identify stacking faults and prismatic punching systems directly from the IR-LST image. Brewster angle illumination is a special mode to reveal defects in epitaxial layers in a non-destructive way. Misfit dislocations in the interface between a Ge{sub 0.92}Si{sub 0.08} layer and a silicon substrate were studied using this mode that allows to observe very low dislocation densities.« less

  7. Atomic Structures of Silicene Layers Grown on Ag(111): Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Noncontact Atomic Force Microscopy Observations

    PubMed Central

    Resta, Andrea; Leoni, Thomas; Barth, Clemens; Ranguis, Alain; Becker, Conrad; Bruhn, Thomas; Vogt, Patrick; Le Lay, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Silicene, the considered equivalent of graphene for silicon, has been recently synthesized on Ag(111) surfaces. Following the tremendous success of graphene, silicene might further widen the horizon of two-dimensional materials with new allotropes artificially created. Due to stronger spin-orbit coupling, lower group symmetry and different chemistry compared to graphene, silicene presents many new interesting features. Here, we focus on very important aspects of silicene layers on Ag(111): First, we present scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy (nc-AFM) observations of the major structures of single layer and bi-layer silicene in epitaxy with Ag(111). For the (3 × 3) reconstructed first silicene layer nc-AFM represents the same lateral arrangement of silicene atoms as STM and therefore provides a timely experimental confirmation of the current picture of the atomic silicene structure. Furthermore, both nc-AFM and STM give a unifying interpretation of the second layer (√3 × √3)R ± 30° structure. Finally, we give support to the conjectured possible existence of less stable, ~2% stressed, (√7 × √7)R ± 19.1° rotated silicene domains in the first layer. PMID:23928998

  8. Miniaturized accelerometer made with ZnO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sangho; Kim, Jeong Woong; Kim, Hyun Chan; Yun, Youngmin; Kim, Jaehwan

    2017-04-01

    Miniaturized accelerometer is required in many applications, such as, robotics, haptic devices, gyroscopes, simulators and mobile devices. ZnO is an essential semiconductor material with wide direct band gap, thermal stability and piezoelectricity. Especially, well aligned ZnO nanowire is appropriate for piezoelectric applications since it can produce high electrical signal under mechanical load. To miniaturize accelerometer, an aligned ZnO nanowire is adopted to implement active piezoelectric layer of the accelerometer and copper is chosen for the head mass. To grow ZnO nanowire on the copper head mass, hydrothermal synthesis is conducted and the effect of ZnO nanowire length on the accelerometer performance is investigated. Refresh hydrothermal synthesis can increase the length of ZnO nanowire. The performance of the fabricated ZnO accelerometers is compared with a commercial accelerometer. Sensitivity and linearity of the fabricated accelerometers are investigated.

  9. Structural, electrical and optical properties of Al-Sn codoped ZnO transparent conducting layer deposited by spray pyrolysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedia, A.; Bedia, F. Z.; Aillerie, M.; Maloufi, N.

    2017-11-01

    Low cost Al-Sn codoped ZnO (ATZO) Transparent Conductive Oxide films were deposited by spray pyrolysis on glass substrate. The influence of Al-Sn codoping on the structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films was studied by comparing the same properties obtained in undoped ZnO, Al doped ZnO (AZO) and Sn doped ZnO (TZO) thin films. The so-obtained films crystallized in hexagonal wurtzite structure. The morphology and structural defects have been investigated by both High resolution Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Raman spectroscopy at 532 nm excitation source. In the visible region, the undoped and doped films show an average transmittance of the order of 85%, while for ATZO thin film, it is of the order of 72%, which points out a degradation of the optical properties due to the co-doping. The optical band gap of ATZO thin film achieves 3.31eV and this shift, compared to the referred samples is attributed to the Burstein-Moss (BM) and band gap narrowing (BGN) opposite effects which is due to the increase of the carrier concentration in degenerate semiconductors. Within all the samples, the ATZO thin film exhibits the lowest electrical resistivity of 4.56 × 10-3 Ωcm with a Hall mobility equal to 2.13 cm2 V-1s-1, and the highest carrier concentration of 6.41 × 1020 cm-3. The performance of ATZO transparent conductive oxide film are determined by its figure of merit (φTC), found equal to 1.69 10-4 Ω-1, which is a suitable value for potentially high-performance solar cell applications.

  10. Effects of the ZnO layer on the structure and white light emission properties of a ZnS:Mn/GaN nanocomposite system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cai-Feng; Hu, Bo

    2017-10-01

    ZnO films were inserted between the ZnS:Mn films and GaN substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The structure, morphology, and optical properties of the ZnS:Mn/ZnO/GaN nanocomposite systems have been investigated. X-ray diffraction results show that there are three diffraction peaks located at 28.4°, 34.4°, and 34.1°, which correspond to the β-ZnS(111), ZnO(002), and GaN(002) planes, respectively. Due to the insertion of ZnO films, the diffraction peak intensity of ZnS:Mn in ZnS:Mn/ZnO/GaN is stronger than that of ZnS:Mn in ZnS:Mn/GaN, and the full width at half-maximum is smaller. Though the transmittance of ZnS:Mn/ZnO films is slightly lower than that of ZnS:Mn films, the transmittance is still higher than 80%. Compared with ZnS:Mn/GaN, an ultraviolet (UV) emission at 387 nm (originated from the near-band emission of ZnO) and a green light emission at about 520 nm appeared in the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of ZnS:Mn/ZnO/GaN, in addition to the blue emission at 435 nm and the orange-red emission at 580 nm. The emission at 520 nm may be related to the deep-level emission from ZnO and the interface of ZnS:Mn/ZnO. The PL spectrum of ZnS:Mn/ZnO/GaN covers the visible region from the blue light to the red light (400-700 nm), and its color coordinate and color temperature are (0.3103,0.3063) and 6869 K, respectively, presenting strong white light emission.

  11. Layer-by-layer grown scalable redox-active ruthenium-based molecular multilayer thin films for electrochemical applications and beyond.

    PubMed

    Kaliginedi, Veerabhadrarao; Ozawa, Hiroaki; Kuzume, Akiyoshi; Maharajan, Sivarajakumar; Pobelov, Ilya V; Kwon, Nam Hee; Mohos, Miklos; Broekmann, Peter; Fromm, Katharina M; Haga, Masa-aki; Wandlowski, Thomas

    2015-11-14

    Here we report the first study on the electrochemical energy storage application of a surface-immobilized ruthenium complex multilayer thin film with anion storage capability. We employed a novel dinuclear ruthenium complex with tetrapodal anchoring groups to build well-ordered redox-active multilayer coatings on an indium tin oxide (ITO) surface using a layer-by-layer self-assembly process. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), UV-Visible (UV-Vis) and Raman spectroscopy showed a linear increase of peak current, absorbance and Raman intensities, respectively with the number of layers. These results indicate the formation of well-ordered multilayers of the ruthenium complex on ITO, which is further supported by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The thickness of the layers can be controlled with nanometer precision. In particular, the thickest layer studied (65 molecular layers and approx. 120 nm thick) demonstrated fast electrochemical oxidation/reduction, indicating a very low attenuation of the charge transfer within the multilayer. In situ-UV-Vis and resonance Raman spectroscopy results demonstrated the reversible electrochromic/redox behavior of the ruthenium complex multilayered films on ITO with respect to the electrode potential, which is an ideal prerequisite for e.g. smart electrochemical energy storage applications. Galvanostatic charge-discharge experiments demonstrated a pseudocapacitor behavior of the multilayer film with a good specific capacitance of 92.2 F g(-1) at a current density of 10 μA cm(-2) and an excellent cycling stability. As demonstrated in our prototypical experiments, the fine control of physicochemical properties at nanometer scale, relatively good stability of layers under ambient conditions makes the multilayer coatings of this type an excellent material for e.g. electrochemical energy storage, as interlayers in inverted bulk heterojunction solar cell applications and as functional components in molecular electronics applications.

  12. The improvement of GaN-based LED grown on concave nano-pattern sapphire substrate with SiO2 blocking layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jyun-Hao; Huang, Shyh-Jer; Su, Yan-Kuin; Huang, Kai-Wen

    2015-11-01

    In contrast to convex nano-pattern sapphire substrates (NPSS), which are frequently used to fabricate high-quality nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs), concave NPSS have been paid relatively less attention. In this study, a concave NPSS was fabricated, and its nitride epitaxial growth process was evaluated in a step by step manner. A SiO2 layer was used to avoid nucleation over the sidewall and bottom of the nano-patterns to reduce dislocation reformation. Traditional LED structures were grown on the NPSS layer to determine its influence on device performance. X-ray diffraction, etched pit density, inverse leakage current, and internal quantum efficiency (IQE) results showed that dislocations and non-radiative recombination centers are reduced by the NPSS constructed with a SiO2 blocking layer. An IQE twice that on a planar substrate was also achieved; such a high IQE significantly enhanced the external quantum efficiency of the resultant device. Taken together, the results demonstrate that the SiO2 blocking layer proposed in this work can enhance the performance of LEDs.

  13. Effect of CoSi2 buffer layer on structure and magnetic properties of Co films grown on Si (001) substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bo; He, Wei; Ye, Jun; Tang, Jin; Syed Sheraz, Ahmad; Zhang, Xiang-Qun; Cheng, Zhao-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Buffer layer provides an opportunity to enhance the quality of ultrathin magnetic films. In this paper, Co films with different thickness of CoSi2 buffer layers were grown on Si (001) substrates. In order to investigate morphology, structure, and magnetic properties of films, scanning tunneling microscope (STM), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and surface magneto-optical Kerr effect (SMOKE) were used. The results show that the crystal quality and magnetic anisotropies of the Co films are strongly affected by the thickness of CoSi2 buffer layers. Few CoSi2 monolayers can prevent the interdiffusion of Si substrate and Co film and enhance the Co film quality. Furthermore, the in-plane magnetic anisotropy of Co film with optimal buffer layer shows four-fold symmetry and exhibits the two-jumps of magnetization reversal process, which is the typical phenomenon in cubic (001) films. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2011CB921801 and 2012CB933102), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374350, 11034004, 11274361, and 11274033), and the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20131102130005).

  14. Resistance Switching Memory Characteristics of Si/CaF2/CdF2 Quantum-Well Structures Grown on Metal (CoSi2) Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denda, Junya; Uryu, Kazuya; Watanabe, Masahiro

    2013-04-01

    A novel scheme of resistance switching random access memory (ReRAM) devices fabricated using Si/CaF2/CdF2/CaF2/Si quantum-well structures grown on metal CoSi2 layer formed on a Si substrate has been proposed, and embryonic write/erase memory operation has been demonstrated at room temperature. It has been found that the oxide-mediated epitaxy (OME) technique for forming the CoSi2 layer on Si dramatically improves the stability and reproducibility of the current-voltage (I-V) curve. This technology involves 10-nm-thick Co layer deposition on a protective oxide prepared by boiling in a peroxide-based solution followed by annealing at 550 °C for 30 min for silicidation in ultrahigh vacuum. A switching voltage of lower than 1 V, a peak current density of 32 kA/cm2, and an ON/OFF ratio of 10 have been observed for the sample with the thickness sequence of 0.9/0.9/2.5/0.9/5.0 nm for the respective layers in the Si/CaF2/CdF2/CaF2/Si structure. Results of surface morphology analysis suggest that the grain size of crystal islands with flat surfaces strongly affects the quality of device characteristics.

  15. High-performance ultraviolet photodetectors based on solution-grown ZnS nanobelts sandwiched between graphene layers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeonho; Kim, Sang Jin; Cho, Sung-Pyo; Hong, Byung Hee; Jang, Du-Jeon

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light photodetectors constructed from solely inorganic semiconductors still remain unsatisfactory because of their low electrical performances. To overcome this limitation, the hybridization is one of the key approaches that have been recently adopted to enhance the photocurrent. High-performance UV photodetectors showing stable on-off switching and excellent spectral selectivity have been fabricated based on the hybrid structure of solution-grown ZnS nanobelts and CVD-grown graphene. Sandwiched structures and multilayer stacking strategies have been applied to expand effective junction between graphene and photoactive ZnS nanobelts. A multiply sandwich-structured photodetector of graphene/ZnS has shown a photocurrent of 0.115 mA under illumination of 1.2 mWcm−2 in air at a bias of 1.0 V, which is higher 107 times than literature values. The multiple-sandwich structure of UV-light sensors with graphene having high conductivity, flexibility, and impermeability is suggested to be beneficial for the facile fabrication of UV photodetectors with extremely efficient performances. PMID:26197784

  16. Elemental boron-doped p(+)-SiGe layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy for infrared detector applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. L.; George, T.; Jones, E. W.; Ksendzov, A.; Huberman, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    SiGe/Si heterojunction internal photoemission (HIP) detectors have been fabricated utilizing molecular beam epitaxy of p(+)-SiGe layers on p(-)-Si substrates. Elemental boron from a high-temperature effusion cell was used as the dopant source during MBE growth, and high doping concentrations have been achieved. Strong infrared absorption, mainly by free-carrier absorption, was observed for the degenerately doped SiGe layers. The use of elemental boron as the dopant source allows a low MBE growth temperature, resulting in improved crystalline quality and smooth surface morphology of the Si(0.7)Ge(0.3) layers. Nearly ideal thermionic emission dark current characteristics have been obtained. Photoresponse of the HIP detectors in the long-wavelength infrared regime has been demonstrated.

  17. Single Junction InGaP/GaAs Solar Cells Grown on Si Substrates using SiGe Buffer Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringel, S. A.; Carlin, J. A.; Andre, C. L.; Hudait, M. K.; Gonzalez, M.; Wilt, D. M.; Clark, E. B.; Jenkins, P.; Scheiman, D.; Allerman, A.

    2002-01-01

    Single junction InGaP/GaAs solar cells displaying high efficiency and record high open circuit voltage values have been grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on Ge/graded SiGe/Si substrates. Open circuit voltages as high as 980 mV under AM0 conditions have been verified to result from a single GaAs junction, with no evidence of Ge-related sub-cell photoresponse. Current AM0 efficiencies of close to 16% have been measured for a large number of small area cells, whose performance is limited by non-fundamental current losses due to significant surface reflection resulting from greater than 10% front surface metal coverage and wafer handling during the growth sequence for these prototype cells. It is shown that at the material quality currently achieved for GaAs grown on Ge/SiGe/Si substrates, namely a 10 nanosecond minority carrier lifetime that results from complete elimination of anti-phase domains and maintaining a threading dislocation density of approximately 8 x 10(exp 5) per square centimeter, 19-20% AM0 single junction GaAs cells are imminent. Experiments show that the high performance is not degraded for larger area cells, with identical open circuit voltages and higher short circuit current (due to reduced front metal coverage) values being demonstrated, indicating that large area scaling is possible in the near term. Comparison to a simple model indicates that the voltage output of these GaAs on Si cells follows ideal behavior expected for lattice mismatched devices, demonstrating that unaccounted for defects and issues that have plagued other methods to epitaxially integrate III-V cells with Si are resolved using SiGe buffers and proper GaAs nucleation methods. These early results already show the enormous and realistic potential of the virtual SiGe substrate approach for generating high efficiency, lightweight and strong III-V solar cells.

  18. Defect evolution in ZnO and its effect on radiation tolerance.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jinpeng; Li, Xingji

    2018-05-03

    The origin of ZnO radiation resistance is fascinating but still unclear. Herein, we found that radiation tolerance of ZnO can be tuned by engineering intrinsic defects into the ZnO. The role played by native defects in the radiation tolerance of ZnO was systematically explored by carrying out N+ implantation on a set of home-grown ZnO nanocrystals with various lattice defect types and concentrations. Interestingly, decreasing the VO and Zni concentration significantly aggravated N+ radiation damage, indicating the presence of O-deficient defects to be the potential cause of the radiation hardness of ZnO. A similar phenomenon was also observed for H+-implanted ZnO. This work offers a new way to manipulate ZnO and endow it with desired physicochemical properties, and is expected to pave the way for its application in radiative environments.

  19. Defect-induced magnetic order in pure ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, M.; Ziese, M.; Setzer, A.; Esquinazi, P.; Lorenz, M.; Hochmuth, H.; Grundmann, M.; Spemann, D.; Butz, T.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Fischer, G.; Adeagbo, W. A.; Hergert, W.; Ernst, A.

    2009-07-01

    We have investigated the magnetic properties of pure ZnO thin films grown under N2 pressure on a -, c -, and r -plane Al2O3 substrates by pulsed-laser deposition. The substrate temperature and the N2 pressure were varied from room temperature to 570°C and from 0.007 to 1.0 mbar, respectively. The magnetic properties of bare substrates and ZnO films were investigated by SQUID magnetometry. ZnO films grown on c - and a -plane Al2O3 substrates did not show significant ferromagnetism. However, ZnO films grown on r -plane Al2O3 showed reproducible ferromagnetism at 300 K when grown at 300-400°C and 0.1-1.0 mbar N2 pressure. Positron annihilation spectroscopy measurements as well as density-functional theory calculations suggest that the ferromagnetism in ZnO films is related to Zn vacancies.

  20. In situ reduced graphene oxide interlayer for improving electrode performance in ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesan, A.; Ramesha, C. K.; Kannan, E. S.

    2016-06-01

    The effect of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) thin film on the transport characteristics of vertically aligned zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) grown on ITO substrate was studied. GO was uniformly drop casted on ZnO NRs as a passivation layer and then converted into RGO by heating it at 60 °C prior to metal electrode deposition. This low temperature reduction is facilitated by the thermally excited electrons from ZnI interstitial sites (~30 meV). Successful reduction of GO was ascertained from the increased disorder band (D) intensity in the Raman spectra. Temperature (298 K-10 K) dependent transport measurements of RGO-ZnO NRs indicate that the RGO layer not only acts as a short circuiting inhibitor but also reduces the height of the potential barrier for electron tunneling. This is confirmed from the temperature dependent electrical characteristics which revealed a transition of carrier transport from thermionic emission at high temperature (T  >  100 K) to tunneling at low temperature (T  <  100 K) across the interface. Our technique is the most promising approach for making reliable electrical contacts on vertically aligned ZnO NRs and improving the reproducibility of device characteristics.

  1. Selective isolation of the electron or hole in photocatalysis: ZnO-TiO2 and TiO2-ZnO core-shell structured heterojunction nanofibers via electrospinning and atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Kayaci, Fatma; Vempati, Sesha; Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Donmez, Inci; Biyikli, Necmi; Uyar, Tamer

    2014-06-07

    Heterojunctions are a well-studied material combination in photocatalysis studies, the majority of which aim to improve the efficacy of the catalysts. Developing novel catalysts begs the question of which photo-generated charge carrier is more efficient in the process of catalysis and the associated mechanism. To address this issue we have fabricated core-shell heterojunction (CSHJ) nanofibers from ZnO and TiO2 in two combinations where only the 'shell' part of the heterojunction is exposed to the environment to participate in the photocatalysis. Core and shell structures were fabricated via electrospinning and atomic layer deposition, respectively which were then subjected to calcination. These CSHJs were characterized and studied for photocatalytic activity (PCA). These two combinations expose electrons or holes selectively to the environment. Under suitable illumination of the ZnO-TiO2 CSHJ, e/h pairs are created mainly in TiO2 and the electrons take part in catalysis (i.e. reduce the organic dye) at the conduction band or oxygen vacancy sites of the 'shell', while holes migrate to the core of the structure. Conversely, holes take part in catalysis and electrons diffuse to the core in the case of a TiO2-ZnO CSHJ. The results further revealed that the TiO2-ZnO CSHJ shows ∼1.6 times faster PCA when compared to the ZnO-TiO2 CSHJ because of efficient hole capture by oxygen vacancies, and the lower mobility of holes.

  2. Optimalization activity of ZnO NR/TiO2 NR-P3HT as an active layer based on hybrid bulk heterojunction on dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC)

    SciT

    Saputri, Liya Nikmatul Maula Zulfa; Ramelan, Ari Handono; Hanif, Qonita Awliya

    2016-04-19

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with metal inorganic and conjugated organic polymer mixture, ZnO NR/TiO{sub 2} NR-P3HT as an active layer based on hybrid bulk heterojunction has been studied. The hybrid material was used to optimize DSSC performs for better efficiency than only TiO{sub 2} as an electrode. Synthesis of TiO{sub 2} nanorods (NR) was conducted by ball milling 1000 rpm for 4 hours and strong base reaction by hydrothermal process at 120 °C overnight. And the ZnO NR was synthesized from Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O precusor by hydrotermal process at 90 °C for 5 hours and calcined on various temperaturemore » s of 400, 600, and 800 °C. ZnO NR was coated into an Tndium Tin Oxide (TTO) glass to collecting electron s effectively, where TiO{sup 2} NR were incorporated with poly(3 -hexylthiophene) (P3HT) on various concentration s of 5, 10, 15 mg/mL to obtain a larger surface area. Material characterization were performed by X -Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Uv-Vis spectrophotometer. For an application of DSSC were measured by T-V Keithley Multimeter and the efficiency of DSSC at various P3HT’s concentrations of 5, 10, 15 mg/mL were 7.44 × 10{sup −3}, 0.0114, 0.0104, respectively. The maximum efficiency of DSSC was showed when TiO{sup 2} NR-P3HT’s concentration was 10 mg/mL.« less

  3. Highly stable precursor solution containing ZnO nanoparticles for the preparation of ZnO thin film transistors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Heh-Chang; Hsieh, Tsung-Eong

    2010-07-23

    ZnO particles with an average size of about 5 nm were prepared via a sol-gel chemical route and the silane coupling agent, (3-glycidyloxypropyl)-trimethoxysilane (GPTS), was adopted to enhance the dispersion of the ZnO nanoparticles in ethyl glycol (EG) solution. A ZnO surface potential as high as 66 mV was observed and a sedimentation test showed that the ZnO precursor solution remains transparent for six months of storage, elucidating the success of surface modification on ZnO nanoparticles. The ZnO thin films were then prepared by spin coating the precursor solution on a Si wafer and annealing treatments at temperatures up to 500 degrees C were performed for subsequent preparation of ZnO thin film transistors (TFTs). Microstructure characterization revealed that the coalescence of ZnO nanoparticles occurs at temperatures as low as 200 degrees C to result in a highly uniform, nearly pore-free layer. However, annealing at higher temperatures was required to remove organic residues in the ZnO layer for satisfactory device performance. The 500 degrees C-annealed ZnO TFT sample exhibited the best electrical properties with on/off ratio = 10(5), threshold voltage = 17.1 V and mobility (micro) = 0.104 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1).

  4. Strain effect in epitaxial VO2 thin films grown on sapphire substrates using SnO2 buffer layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Heungsoo; Bingham, Nicholas S.; Charipar, Nicholas A.; Piqué, Alberto

    2017-10-01

    Epitaxial VO2/SnO2 thin film heterostructures were deposited on m-cut sapphire substrates via pulsed laser deposition. By adjusting SnO2 (150 nm) growth conditions, we are able to control the interfacial strain between the VO2 film and SnO2 buffer layer such that the semiconductor-to-metal transition temperature (TC) of VO2 films can be tuned without diminishing the magnitude of the transition. It is shown that in-plane tensile strain and out-of-plane compressive strain of the VO2 film leads to a decrease of Tc. Interestingly, VO2 films on SnO2 buffer layers exhibit a structural phase transition from tetragonal-like VO2 to tetragonal-VO2 during the semiconductor-to-metal transition. These results suggest that the strain generated by SnO2 buffer provides an effective way for tuning the TC of VO2 films.

  5. Comparison of tungsten films grown by CVD and hot-wire assisted atomic layer deposition in a cold-wall reactor

    SciT

    Yang, Mengdi, E-mail: M.Yang@utwente.nl; Aarnink, Antonius A. I.; Kovalgin, Alexey Y.

    2016-01-15

    In this work, the authors developed hot-wire assisted atomic layer deposition (HWALD) to deposit tungsten (W) with a tungsten filament heated up to 1700–2000 °C. Atomic hydrogen (at-H) was generated by dissociation of molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}), which reacted with WF{sub 6} at the substrate to deposit W. The growth behavior was monitored in real time by an in situ spectroscopic ellipsometer. In this work, the authors compare samples with tungsten grown by either HWALD or chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in terms of growth kinetics and properties. For CVD, the samples were made in a mixture of WF{sub 6} and molecularmore » or atomic hydrogen. Resistivity of the WF{sub 6}-H{sub 2} CVD layers was 20 μΩ·cm, whereas for the WF{sub 6}-at-H-CVD layers, it was 28 μΩ·cm. Interestingly, the resistivity was as high as 100 μΩ·cm for the HWALD films, although the tungsten films were 99% pure according to x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction reveals that the HWALD W was crystallized as β-W, whereas both CVD films were in the α-W phase.« less

  6. HfO2 Gate Dielectric on (NH4)2S Passivated (100) GaAs Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition

    SciT

    Chen, P.T.; /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept.; Sun, Y.

    2007-09-28

    The interface between hafnium oxide grown by atomic layer deposition and (100) GaAs treated with HCl cleaning and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S passivation has been characterized. Synchrotron radiation photoemission core level spectra indicated successful removal of the native oxides and formation of passivating sulfides on the GaAs surface. Layer-by-layer removal of the hafnia film revealed a small amount of As{sub 2}O{sub 3} formed at the interface during the dielectric deposition. Traces of arsenic and sulfur out-diffusion into the hafnia film were observed after a 450 C post-deposition anneal, and may be the origins for the electrically active defects. Transmission electron microscopymore » cross section images showed thicker HfO{sub 2} films for a given precursor exposure on S-treated GaAs versus the non-treated sample. In addition, the valence-band and the conduction-band offsets at the HfO{sub 2}/GaAs interface were deduced to be 3.18 eV and a range of 0.87-0.97 eV, respectively. It appears that HCl+(NH{sub 4})2{sub S} treatments provide a superior chemical passivation for GaAs and initial surface for ALD deposition.« less

  7. Studying physical properties of CuInS2 absorber layers grown by spin coating method on different kinds of substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amerioun, M. H.; Ghazi, M. E.; Izadifard, M.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, first the CuInS2 (CIS2) layers are deposited on Aluminum and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) as flexible substrates, and on glass and soda lime glass (SLG) as rigid substrates by the sol-gel method. Then the samples are analyzed by x-ray diffractomery (XRD) and atomic force microscope (AFM) to investigate the crystal structures and surface roughness of the samples. The I-V curve measurements and Seebeck effect setup are used to measure the electrical properties of the samples. The XRD data obtained for the CIS2 layers show that all the prepared samples have a single phase with a preferred orientation that is substrate-dependent. The samples grown on the rigid substrates had higher crystallite sizes. The results obtained for the optical measurements indicate the dependence of the band gap energy on the substrate type. The measured Seebeck coefficient showed that the carriers were of p-type in all the samples. According to the AFM images, the surface roughness also varied in the CIS2 layers with different substrates. In this regard, the type of substrate could be an important parameter for the final performance of the fabricated CIS2 cells.

  8. Effect of 3C-SiC intermediate layer in GaN—based light emitting diodes grown on Si(111) substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Youhua; Wang, Meiyu; Li, Yi; Tan, Shuxin; Deng, Honghai; Guo, Xinglong; Yin, Haihong; Egawa, Takashi

    2017-03-01

    GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on Si(111) substrate with and without 3C-SiC intermediate layer (IL). Structural property has been characterized by means of atomic force microscope, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscope measurements. It has been revealed that a significant improvement in crystalline quality of GaN and superlattice epitaxial layers can be achieved by using 3C-SiC as IL. Regarding of electrical and optical characteristics, it is clearly observed that the LEDs with its IL have a smaller leakage current and higher light output power comparing with the LEDs without IL. The better performance of LEDs using 3C-SiC IL can be contributed to both of the improvements in epitaxial layers quality and light extraction efficiency. As a consequence, in terms of optical property, a double enhancement of the light output power and external quantum efficiency has been realized.

  9. Efficacies of designer biochars in improving biomass and nutrient uptake of winter wheat grown in a hard setting subsoil layer.

    PubMed

    Sigua, G C; Novak, J M; Watts, D W; Johnson, M G; Spokas, K

    2016-01-01

    In the Coastal Plains region of the United States, the hard setting subsoil layer of Norfolk soils results in low water holding capacity and nutrient retention, which often limits root development. In this region, the Norfolk soils are under intensive crop production that further depletes nutrients and reduces organic carbon (C). Incorporation of pyrolyzed organic residues or "biochars" can provide an alternative recalcitrant C source. However, biochar quality and effect can be inconsistent and different biochars react differently in soils. We hypothesized that addition of different designer biochars will have variable effects on biomass and nutrient uptake of winter wheat. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of designer biochars on biomass productivity and nutrient uptake of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a Norfolk's hard setting subsoil layer. Biochars were added to Norfolk's hard setting subsoil layer at the rate of 40 Mg ha(-1). The different sources of biochars were: plant-based (pine chips, PC); animal-based (poultry litter, PL); 50:50 blend (50% PC:50% PL); 80:20 blend (80% PC:20% PL); and hardwood (HW). Aboveground and belowground biomass and nutrient uptake of winter wheat varied significantly (p⩽0.0001) with the different designer biochar applications. The greatest increase in the belowground biomass of winter wheat over the control was from 80:20 blend of PC:PL (81%) followed by HW (76%), PC (59%) and 50:50 blend of PC:PL (9%). However, application of PL resulted in significant reduction of belowground biomass by about 82% when compared to the control plants. The average uptake of P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Al, Fe, Cu and Zn in both the aboveground and belowground biomass of winter wheat varied remarkably with biochar treatments. Overall, our results showed promising significance for the treatment of a Norfolk's hard setting subsoil layer since designer biochars did improve both aboveground/belowground biomass and nutrient uptake

  10. Effects of anodizing conditions and annealing temperature on the morphology and crystalline structure of anodic oxide layers grown on iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlik, Anna; Hnida, Katarzyna; Socha, Robert P.; Wiercigroch, Ewelina; Małek, Kamilla; Sulka, Grzegorz D.

    2017-12-01

    Anodic iron oxide layers were formed by anodization of the iron foil in an ethylene glycol-based electrolyte containing 0.2 M NH4F and 0.5 M H2O at 40 V for 1 h. The anodizing conditions such as electrolyte composition and applied potential were optimized. In order to examine the influence of electrolyte stirring and applied magnetic field, the anodic samples were prepared under the dynamic and static conditions in the presence or absence of magnetic field. It was shown that ordered iron oxide nanopore arrays could be obtained at lower anodizing temperatures (10 and 20 °C) at the static conditions without the magnetic field or at the dynamic conditions with the applied magnetic field. Since the as-prepared anodic layers are amorphous in nature, the samples were annealed in air at different temperatures (200-500 °C) for a fixed duration of time (1 h). The morphology and crystal phases developed after anodization and subsequent annealing were characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy. The results proved that the annealing process transforms the amorphous layer into magnetite and hematite phases. In addition, the heat treatment results in a substantial decrease in the fluorine content and increase in the oxygen content.

  11. Growth and optical characteristics of Tm-doped AlGaN layer grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takatsu, J.; Fuji, R.; Tatebayashi, J.; Timmerman, D.; Lesage, A.; Gregorkiewicz, T.; Fujiwara, Y.

    2018-04-01

    We report on the growth and optical properties of Tm-doped AlGaN layers by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE). The morphological and optical properties of Tm-doped GaN (GaN:Tm) and Tm-doped AlGaN (AlGaN:Tm) were investigated by Nomarski differential interference contrast microscopy and photoluminescence (PL) characterization. Nomarski images reveal an increase of surface roughness upon doping Tm into both GaN and AlGaN layers. The PL characterization of GaN:Tm shows emission in the near-infrared range originating from intra-4f shell transitions of Tm3+ ions. In contrast, AlGaN:Tm also exhibits blue light emission from Tm3+ ions. In that case, the wider band gap of the AlGaN host allows energy transfer to higher states of the Tm3+ ions. With time-resolved PL measurements, we could distinguish three types of luminescent sites of Tm3+ in the AlGaN:Tm layer, having different decay times. Our results confirm that Tm ions can be doped into GaN and AlGaN by OMVPE, and show potential for the fabrication of novel high-color-purity blue light emitting diodes.

  12. Structural and electrical properties of AlN layers grown on silicon by reactive RF magnetron sputtering

    SciT

    Bazlov, N., E-mail: n.bazlov@spbu.ru; Pilipenko, N., E-mail: nelly.pilipenko@gmail.com; Vyvenko, O.

    2016-06-17

    AlN films of different thicknesses were deposited on n-Si (100) substrates by reactive radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering. Dependences of structure and electrical properties on thickness of deposited films were researched. The structures of the films were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and with transmitting electron microscopy (TEM). Electrical properties of the films were investigated on Au-AlN-(n-Si) structures by means of current-voltage (I-V), capacitance-voltage (C-V) and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) techniques. Electron microscopy investigations had shown that structure and chemical composition of the films were thickness stratified. Near silicon surface layer was amorphous aluminum oxide one contained trapsmore » of positive charges with concentration of about 4 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3}. Upper layers were nanocrystalline ones consisted of both wurzite AlN and cubic AlON nanocrystals. They contained traps both positive and negative charges which were situated within 30 nm distance from silicon surface. Surface densities of these traps were about 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}. Electron traps with activation energies of (0.2 ÷ 0.4) eV and densities of about 10{sup 10} cm{sup −2} were revealed on interface between aluminum oxide layer and silicon substrate. Their densities varied weakly with the film thickness.« less

  13. Deep level defects in Ge-doped (010) β-Ga2O3 layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farzana, Esmat; Ahmadi, Elaheh; Speck, James S.; Arehart, Aaron R.; Ringel, Steven A.

    2018-04-01

    Deep level defects were characterized in Ge-doped (010) β-Ga2O3 layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) using deep level optical spectroscopy (DLOS) and deep level transient (thermal) spectroscopy (DLTS) applied to Ni/β-Ga2O3:Ge (010) Schottky diodes that displayed Schottky barrier heights of 1.50 eV. DLOS revealed states at EC - 2.00 eV, EC - 3.25 eV, and EC - 4.37 eV with concentrations on the order of 1016 cm-3, and a lower concentration level at EC - 1.27 eV. In contrast to these states within the middle and lower parts of the bandgap probed by DLOS, DLTS measurements revealed much lower concentrations of states within the upper bandgap region at EC - 0.1 - 0.2 eV and EC - 0.98 eV. There was no evidence of the commonly observed trap state at ˜EC - 0.82 eV that has been reported to dominate the DLTS spectrum in substrate materials synthesized by melt-based growth methods such as edge defined film fed growth (EFG) and Czochralski methods [Zhang et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 052105 (2016) and Irmscher et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 063720 (2011)]. This strong sensitivity of defect incorporation on crystal growth method and conditions is unsurprising, which for PAMBE-grown β-Ga2O3:Ge manifests as a relatively "clean" upper part of the bandgap. However, the states at ˜EC - 0.98 eV, EC - 2.00 eV, and EC - 4.37 eV are reminiscent of similar findings from these earlier results on EFG-grown materials, suggesting that possible common sources might also be present irrespective of growth method.

  14. Observation of biexcitonic emission at extremely low power density in tungsten disulfide atomic layers grown on hexagonal boron nitride.

    PubMed

    Okada, Mitsuhiro; Miyauchi, Yuhei; Matsuda, Kazunari; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Shinohara, Hisanori; Kitaura, Ryo

    2017-03-23

    Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) including WS 2 , MoS 2 , WSe 2 and WS 2 , are two-dimensional semiconductors with direct bandgap, providing an excellent field for exploration of many-body effects in 2-dimensions (2D) through optical measurements. To fully explore the physics of TMDCs, the prerequisite is preparation of high-quality samples to observe their intrinsic properties. For this purpose, we have focused on high-quality samples, WS 2 grown by chemical vapor deposition method with hexagonal boron nitride as substrates. We observed sharp exciton emissions, whose linewidth is typically 22~23 meV, in photoluminescence spectra at room temperature, which result clearly demonstrates the high-quality of the current samples. We found that biexcitons formed with extremely low-excitation power (240 W/cm 2 ) at 80 K, and this should originate from the minimal amount of localization centers in the present high-quality samples. The results clearly demonstrate that the present samples can provide an excellent field, where one can observe various excitonic states, offering possibility of exploring optical physics in 2D and finding new condensates.

  15. Transfer of Graphene Layers Grown on SiC Wafers to Other Substrates and Their Integration into Field Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unarunotai, Sakulsuk; Murata, Yuya; Chialvo, Cesar; Kim, Hoon-Sik; MacLaren, Scott; Mason, Nadya; Petrov, Ivan; Rogers, John

    2010-03-01

    An approach to produce graphene films by epitaxial growth on silicon carbide substrate is promising, but its current implementation requires the use of SiC as the device substrate. We present a simple method for transferring epitaxial sheets of graphene on SiC to other substrates. The graphene was grown on the (0001) face of 6H-SiC by thermal annealing in a hydrogen atmosphere. Transfer was accomplished using a peeling process with a bilayer film of Gold/polyimide, to yield graphene with square millimeters of coverage on the target substrate. Back gated field-effect transistors fabricated on oxidized silicon substrates with Cr/Au as source-drain electrodes exhibited ambipolar characteristics with hole mobilities of ˜100 cm^2/V-s, and negligible influence of resistance at the contacts. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE, under Award No. DE-FG02-07ER46471, through the Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

  16. Structural Properties Characterized by the Film Thickness and Annealing Temperature for La2O3 Films Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing; Liu, Hongxia; Zhao, Lu; Fei, Chenxi; Feng, Xingyao; Chen, Shupeng; Wang, Yongte

    2017-12-01

    La 2 O 3 films were grown on Si substrates by atomic layer deposition technique with different thickness. Crystallization characteristics of the La 2 O 3 films were analyzed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction after post-deposition rapid thermal annealing treatments at several annealing temperatures. It was found that the crystallization behaviors of the La 2 O 3 films are affected by the film thickness and annealing temperatures as a relationship with the diffusion of Si substrate. Compared with the amorphous La 2 O 3 films, the crystallized films were observed to be more unstable due to the hygroscopicity of La 2 O 3 . Besides, the impacts of crystallization characteristics on the bandgap and refractive index of the La 2 O 3 films were also investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry, respectively.

  17. Chlorine mobility during annealing in N2 in ZrO2 and HfO2 films grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, S.; Scarel, G.; Wiemer, C.; Fanciulli, M.

    2002-12-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) growth of high-κ dielectric films (ZrO2 and HfO2) was performed using ZrCl4, HfCl4, and H2O as precursors. In this work, we use time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry to investigate the chlorine distribution in ALD grown ZrO2 and HfO2 films, and its evolution during rapid thermal processes in nitrogen atmosphere. Chlorine outdiffusion is found to depend strongly upon annealing temperature and weakly upon the annealing time. While in ZrO2 chlorine concentration is significantly decreased already at 900 °C, in HfO2 it is extremely stable, even at temperatures as high as 1050 °C.

  18. Optical, Electrical, and Crystal Properties of TiO2 Thin Films Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition on Silicon and Glass Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupa, I.; Unal, Y.; Cetin, S. S.; Durna, L.; Topalli, K.; Okyay, A. K.; Ates, H.

    2018-05-01

    TiO2 thin films have been deposited on glass and Si(100) by atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique using tetrakis(diethylamido)titanium(IV) and water vapor as reactants. Thorough investigation of the properties of the TiO2/glass and TiO2/Si thin films was carried out, varying the deposition temperature in the range from 100°C to 250°C while keeping the number of reaction cycles fixed at 1000. Physical and material property analyses were performed to investigate optical and electrical properties, composition, structure, and morphology. TiO2 films grown by ALD may represent promising materials for future applications in optoelectronic devices.

  19. Substrate temperature influence on the properties of GaN thin films grown by hollow-cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition

    SciT

    Alevli, Mustafa, E-mail: mustafaalevli@marmara.edu.tr; Gungor, Neşe; Haider, Ali

    2016-01-15

    Gallium nitride films were grown by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition using triethylgallium and N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} plasma. An optimized recipe for GaN film was developed, and the effect of substrate temperature was studied in both self-limiting growth window and thermal decomposition-limited growth region. With increased substrate temperature, film crystallinity improved, and the optical band edge decreased from 3.60 to 3.52 eV. The refractive index and reflectivity in Reststrahlen band increased with the substrate temperature. Compressive strain is observed for both samples, and the surface roughness is observed to increase with the substrate temperature. Despite these temperature dependent material properties,more » the chemical composition, E{sub 1}(TO), phonon position, and crystalline phases present in the GaN film were relatively independent from growth temperature.« less

  20. Negative charge trapping effects in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films grown by atomic layer deposition onto thermally oxidized 4H-SiC

    SciT

    Schilirò, Emanuela, E-mail: emanuela.schiliro@imm.cnr.it; Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università degli Studi di Catania, and INSTM udr Catania, viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125, Catania; Lo Nigro, Raffaella

    This letter reports on the negative charge trapping in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films grown by atomic layer deposition onto oxidized silicon carbide (4H-SiC). The films exhibited a permittivity of 8.4, a breakdown field of 9.2 MV/cm and small hysteresis under moderate bias cycles. However, severe electron trapping inside the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film (1 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}) occurs upon high positive bias stress (>10 V). Capacitance-voltage measurements at different temperatures and stress conditions have been used to determine an activation energy of 0.1 eV. The results provide indications on the possible nature of the trapping defects and,more » hence, on the strategies to improve this technology for 4H-SiC devices.« less

  1. ZnO thin films and nanostructures for emerging optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, D. J.; Teherani, F. H.; Sandana, V. E.; Razeghi, M.

    2010-02-01

    ZnO-based thin films and nanostructures grown by PLD for various emerging optoelectronic applications. AZO thin films are currently displacing ITO for many TCO applications due to recent improvements in attainable AZO conductivity combined with processing, cost and toxicity advantages. Advances in the channel mobilities and Id on/off ratios in ZnO-based TTFTs have opened up the potential for use as a replacement for a-Si in AM-OLED and AM-LCD screens. Angular-dependent specular reflection measurements of self-forming, moth-eye-like, nanostructure arrays grown by PLD were seen to have <0.5% reflectivity over the whole visible spectrum for angles of incidence between 10 and 60 degrees. Such nanostructures may be useful for applications such as AR coatings on solar cells. Compliant ZnO layers on mismatched/amorphous substrates were shown to have potential for MOVPE regrowth of GaN. This approach could be used as a means to facilitate lift-off of GaN-based LEDs from insulating sapphire substrates and could allow the growth of InGaN-based solar cells on cheap substrates. The green gap in InGaN-based LEDs was combated by substituting low Ts PLD n-ZnO for MOCVD n-GaN in inverted hybrid heterojunctions. This approach maintained the integrity of the InGaN MQWs and gave LEDs with green emission at just over 510 nm. Hybrid n-ZnO/p-GaN heterojunctions were also seen to have the potential for UV (375 nm) EL, characteristic of ZnO NBE emission. This suggests that there was significant hole injection into the ZnO and that such LEDs could profit from the relatively high exciton binding energy of ZnO.

  2. Performance and Stability Enhancement of In-Sn-Zn-O TFTs Using SiO2 Gate Dielectrics Grown by Low Temperature Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Jiazhen; Han, Ju-Hwan; Choi, Wan-Ho; Park, Jozeph; Park, Jin-Seong

    2017-12-13

    Silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) films were synthesized by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) using BTBAS [bis(tertiarybutylamino) silane] as the precursor and O 2 plasma as the reactant, at a temperature range from 50 to 200 °C. While dielectric constant values larger than 3.7 are obtained at all deposition temperatures, the leakage current levels are drastically reduced to below 10 -12 A at temperatures above 150 °C, which are similar to those obtained in thermally oxidized and PECVD grown SiO 2 . Thin film transistors (TFTs) based on In-Sn-Zn-O (ITZO) semiconductors were fabricated using thermal SiO 2 , PECVD SiO 2 , and PEALD SiO 2 grown at 150 °C as the gate dielectrics, and superior device performance and stability are observed in the last case. A linear field effect mobility of 68.5 cm 2 /(V s) and a net threshold voltage shift (ΔV th ) of approximately 1.2 V under positive bias stress (PBS) are obtained using the PEALD SiO 2 as the gate insulator. The relatively high concentration of hydrogen in the PEALD SiO 2 is suggested to induce a high carrier density in the ITZO layer deposited onto it, which results in enhanced charge transport properties. Also, it is most likely that the hydrogen atoms have passivated the electron traps related to interstitial oxygen defects, thus resulting in improved stability under PBS. Although the PECVD SiO 2 contains a hydrogen concentration similar to that of PEALD SiO 2 , its relatively large surface roughness appears to induce scattering effects and the generation of electron traps, which result in inferior device performance and stability.

  3. Design and characterization of thick InxGa1-xAs metamorphic buffer layers grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, K. L.; Zutter, B. T.; Wood, A. W.; Babcock, S. E.; Kuech, T. F.

    2014-03-01

    Thick InxGa1-xAs metamorphic buffer layers (MBLs) grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) were studied. Relationships between MBL properties and growth parameters such as grading rate, cap layer thickness, final xInAs, and deposition temperature (TD) were explored. The MBLs were characterized by measurement of in-plane residual strain (ɛ¦¦), surface etch pit density (EPD), and surface roughness. Capping layer thickness had a strong effect on strain relaxation, with thickly capped samples exhibiting the lowest ɛ¦¦. EPD was higher in samples with thicker caps, reflecting their increased relaxation through dislocation generation. ɛ¦¦ and EPD were weakly affected by the grading rate, making capping layer thickness the primary structural parameter which controls these properties. MBLs graded in discrete steps had similar properties to MBLs with continuous grading. In samples with identical thickness and 10-step grading style, ɛ¦¦ increased almost linearly with final xInAs, while total relaxation stayed relatively constant. Relaxation as a function of xInAs could be described by an equilibrium model in which dislocation nucleation is impeded by the energy of the existing dislocation array. EPD was constant from xInAs = 0 to 0.24 then increased exponentially, which is related to the increased dislocation interaction and blocking seen at higher dislocation densities. RMS roughness increased with xInAs above a certain strain rate (0.15%/µm) samples grown below this level possessed large surface hillocks and high roughness values. The elimination of hillocks at higher values of xInAs is attributed to increased density of surface steps and is related to the out-of-plane component of the burgers vector of the dominant type of 60° dislocation. TD did not affect ɛ¦¦ for samples with a given xInAs. EPD tended to increase with TD, indicating dislocation glide likely is impeded at higher temperatures.

  4. Earth-Abundant Oxygen Evolution Catalysts Coupled onto ZnO Nanowire Arrays for Efficient Photoelectrochemical Water Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chaoran; Moniz, Savio J A; Khraisheh, Majeda; Tang, Junwang

    2014-01-01

    ZnO has long been considered as a model UV-driven photoanode for photoelectrochemical water splitting, but its performance has been limited by fast charge-carrier recombination, extremely poor stability in aqueous solution, and slow kinetics of water oxidation. These issues were addressed by applying a strategy of optimization and passivation of hydrothermally grown 1D ZnO nanowire arrays. The length and diameter of bare ZnO nanowires were optimized by varying the growth time and precursor concentration to achieve optimal photoelectrochemical performance. The addition of earth-abundant cobalt phosphate (Co-Pi) and nickel borate (Ni-B) oxygen evolution catalysts onto ZnO nanowires resulted in substantial cathodic shifts in onset potential to as low as about 0.3 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) for Ni-B/ZnO, for which a maximum photocurrent density of 1.1 mA cm−2 at 0.9 V (vs. RHE) with applied bias photon-to-current efficiency of 0.4 % and an unprecedented near-unity incident photon-to-current efficiency at 370 nm. In addition the potential required for saturated photocurrent was dramatically reduced from 1.6 to 0.9 V versus RHE. Furthermore, the stability of these ZnO nanowires was significantly enhanced by using Ni-B compared to Co-Pi due to its superior chemical robustness, and it thus has additional functionality as a stable protecting layer on the ZnO surface. These remarkable enhancements in both photocatalytic activity and stability directly address the current severe limitations in the use of ZnO-based photoelectrodes for water-splitting applications, and can be applied to other photoanodes for efficient solar-driven fuel synthesis. PMID:25156820

  5. Structural and dielectric properties of thin ZrO2 films on silicon grown by atomic layer deposition from cyclopentadienyl precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niinistö, J.; Putkonen, M.; Niinistö, L.; Kukli, K.; Ritala, M.; Leskelä, M.

    2004-01-01

    ZrO2 thin films with thicknesses below 20 nm were deposited by the atomic layer deposition process on Si(100) substrates at 350 °C. An organometallic precursor, Cp2Zr(CH3)2 (Cp=cyclopentadienyl, C5H5) was used as the zirconium source and water or ozone as oxygen source. The influence of oxygen source and substrate pretreatment on the dielectric properties of ZrO2 films was investigated. Structural characterization with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy was performed to films grown onto HF-etched or native oxide covered silicon. Strong inhibition of ZrO2 film growth was observed with the water process on HF-etched Si. Ozone process on HF-etched Si resulted in interfacial SiO2 formation between the dense and uniform film and the substrate while water process produced interfacial layer with intermixing of SiO2 and ZrO2. The effective permittivity of ZrO2 in Al/ZrO2/Si/Al capacitor structures was dependent on the ZrO2 layer thickness and oxygen source used. The interfacial layer formation increased the capacitance equivalent oxide thickness (CET). CET of 2.0 nm was achieved with 5.9 nm ZrO2 film deposited with the H2O process on HF-stripped Si. The ozone-processed films showed good dielectric properties such as low hysteresis and nearly ideal flatband voltage. The leakage current density was lower and breakdown field higher for the ozone-processed ZrO2 films.

  6. Fabrication and characterization of multi-layer InAs/InGaAs quantum dot p-i-n GaAs solar cells grown on silicon substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omri, M.; Sayari, A.; Sfaxi, L.

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports on InAs/InGaAs quantum dot solar cells (QDSCs) deposited by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on (001) n-type silicon ( n-Si) substrates. In-situ RHEED measurements show that InAs/InGaAs QDs SC has a high crystalline structure. The dislocation density in the active layer of the InAs/InGaAs QDSC and the lattice mismatch in the GaAs layer can be reduced by using an Si rough surface buffer layer (RSi). To show the effect of the QD layers, a reference SC with the same p-i-n structure as the InAs/InGaAs QDSC, but without InAs QDs, is also grown. The two SCs were studied by sepectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), in the 1-6 eV photon energy range, photoluminescence and photocurrent measurements. The optical constants of the two devices are determined in the photon energy range 1-6 eV from the SE data. The dominant features in the dielectric function spectra at 3 and 4.5 eV are attributed, respectively, to the E 1 and E 2 critical point structures of GaAs and InAs. The low-temperature photoluminescence spectrum of the InAs/InGaAs QDSC shows ground-state emissions, respectively, from the relatively small QDs near 1081 nm and from the large QDs near 1126 nm. Photocurrent measurements confirm the improved absorption performance (up to 1200 nm) of the InAs QDs SC which is ascribed to the optical absorption from the InAs/InGaAs QDs and the Si substrate as demonstrated by SE and photoluminescence measurements.

  7. ZnO nanosheet arrays constructed on weaved titanium wire for CdS-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Ordered ZnO nanosheet arrays were grown on weaved titanium wires by a low-temperature hydrothermal method. CdS nanoparticles were deposited onto the ZnO nanosheet arrays using the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method to make a photoanode. Nanoparticle-sensitized solar cells were assembled using these CdS/ZnO nanostructured photoanodes, and their photovoltaic performance was studied systematically. The best light-to-electricity conversion efficiency was obtained to be 2.17% under 100 mW/cm2 illumination, and a remarkable short-circuit photocurrent density of approximately 20.1 mA/cm2 was recorded, which could attribute to the relatively direct pathways for transportation of electrons provided by ZnO nanosheet arrays as well as the direct contact between ZnO and weaved titanium wires. These results indicate that CdS/ZnO nanostructures on weaved titanium wires would open a novel possibility for applications of low-cost solar cells. PMID:24618047

  8. Effect of Rapid Thermal Annealing on the Electrical Characteristics of ZnO Thin-Film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remashan, Kariyadan; Hwang, Dae-Kue; Park, Seong-Ju; Jang, Jae-Hyung

    2008-04-01

    Thin-film transistors (TFTs) with a bottom-gate configuration were fabricated with an RF magnetron sputtered undoped zinc oxide (ZnO) channel layer and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) grown silicon nitride as a gate dielectric. Postfabrication rapid thermal annealing (RTA) and subsequent nitrous oxide (N2O) plasma treatment were employed to improve the performance of ZnO TFTs in terms of on-current and on/off current ratio. The RTA treatment increases the on-current of the TFT significantly, but it also increases its off-current. The off-current of 2×10-8 A and on/off current ratio of 3×103 obtained after the RTA treatment were improved to 10-10 A and 105, respectively, by the subsequent N2O plasma treatment. The better device performance can be attributed to the reduction of oxygen vacancies at the top region of the channel due to oxygen incorporation from the N2O plasma. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of the TFT samples showed that the RTA-treated ZnO surface has more oxygen vacancies than as-deposited samples, which results in the increased drain current. The XPS study also showed that the subsequent N2O plasma treatment reduces oxygen vacancies only at the surface of ZnO so that the better off-current and on/off current ratio can be obtained.

  9. Toward blue emission in ZnO based LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viana, Bruno; Pauporté, Thierry; Lupan, Oleg; Le Bahers, Tangui; Ciofini, Ilaria

    2012-03-01

    The bandgap engineering of ZnO nanowires by doping is of great importance for tunable light emitting diode (LED) applications. We present a combined experimental and computational study of ZnO doping with Cd or Cu atoms in the nanomaterial. Zn1-xTMxO (TM=Cu, Cd) nanowires have been epitaxially grown on magnesium-doped p-GaN by electrochemical deposition. The Zn1-xTMxO/p-GaN heterojunction was integrated in a LED structure. Nanowires act as the light emitters and waveguides. At room temperature, TM-doped ZnO based LEDs exhibit low-threshold emission voltage and electroluminescence emission shifted from ultraviolet to violet-blue spectral region compared to pure ZnO LEDs. The emission wavelength can be tuned by changing the transition metal (TM) content in the ZnO nanomaterial and the shift is discussed, including insights from DFT computational investigations.

  10. Alternative Dielectric Films for rf MEMS C